WorldWideScience

Sample records for acceptance beam

  1. A transverse emittance and acceptance measurement system in a low-energy beam transport line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, H; Miyawaki, N; Kurashima, S; Okumura, S

    2014-02-01

    A transverse beam emittance and acceptance measurement system has been developed to visualize the relationship between the injected beam emittance and the acceptance of a cyclotron. The system is composed of a steering magnet, two pairs of slits to limit the horizontal and vertical phase-space, a beam intensity detector just behind the slits for the emittance measurement, and a beam intensity detector in the cyclotron for the acceptance measurement. The emittance is obtained by scanning the slits and measuring the beam intensity distribution. The acceptance is obtained by measuring the distribution of relative beam transmission by injecting small emittance beams at various positions in a transverse phase-space using the slits. In the acceptance measurement, the beam from an ion source is deflected to the defined region by the slits using the steering magnet so that measurable acceptance area covers a region outside the injection beam emittance. Measurement tests were carried out under the condition of accelerating a beam of (16)O(6+) from 50.2 keV to 160 MeV. The emittance of the injected beam and the acceptance for accelerating and transporting the beam to the entrance of the extraction deflector were successfully measured. The relationship between the emittance and acceptance is visualized by displaying the results in the same phase-plane.

  2. VAMOS: A variable mode high acceptance spectrometer for identifying reaction products induced by SPIRAL beams

    CERN Document Server

    Savajols, H

    2003-01-01

    The study of reactions induced by the SPIRAL beams at GANIL requires new techniques: the low intensity of secondary beams implies the need of a very high efficiency detection system; the study of nearly or completely unknown nuclei, over a wide range of masses and energies, needs a very efficient method for attributing a reaction product to a nucleus. The variable mode high acceptance spectrometer VAMOS is being designed and built especially for this purpose.

  3. Complete model description of an electron beam using ACCEPT Monte Carlo simulation code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, D.E. [Corporate Research Process Technologies Lab., St. Paul, MN (United States); Kensek, R.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-12-31

    A 3D model of a low voltage electron beam has been constructed using the ITS/ACCEPT Monte Carlo code in order to validate the code for this application and improve upon 1D slab geometry simulations. A line source description update to the code allows complete simulation of a low voltage electron beam with any filament length. Faithful reproduction of the geometric elements involved, especially the window support structure, can account for 90--95% of the dose received by routine dosimetry. With a 3D model, dose distributions in non-web articles can be determined and the effects of equipment modifications can be anticipated in advance.

  4. Design of a large acceptance, high efficiency energy selection system for the ELIMAIA beam-line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, F.; Maggiore, M.; Andó, L.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Romano, F.; Scuderi, V.; Allegra, L.; Amato, A.; Gallo, G.; Korn, G.; Leanza, R.; Margarone, D.; Milluzzo, G.; Petringa, G.

    2016-08-01

    A magnetic chicane based on four electromagnetic dipoles is going to be realized by INFN-LNS to be used as an Energy Selection System (ESS) for laser driven proton beams up to 300 MeV and C6+ up to 70 MeV/u. The system will provide, as output, ion beams with a contrallable energy spread varying from 5% up to 20% according to the aperture slit size. Moreover, it has a very wide acceptance in order to ensure a very high transmission efficiency and, in principle, it has been designed to be used also as an active energy modulator. This system is the core element of the ELIMED (ELI-Beamlines MEDical and Multidisciplinary applications) beam transport, dosimetry and irradiation line that will be developed by INFN-LNS (It) and installed at the ELI-Beamlines facility in Prague (Cz). ELIMED will be the first user's open transport beam-line where a controlled laser-driven ion beam will be used for multidisciplinary research. The definition of well specified characteristics, both in terms of performance and field quality, of the magnetic chicane is crucial for the system realization, for the accurate study of the beam dynamics and for the proper matching with the Permanent Magnet Quadrupoles (PMQs) used as a collection system already designed. Here, the design of the magnetic chicane is described in details together with the adopted solutions in order to realize a robust system form the magnetic point of view. Moreover, the first preliminary transport simulations are also described showing the good performance of the whole beam line (PMQs+ESS).

  5. Large acceptance magnetic focussing horns for production of a high intensity narrow band neutrino beam at the AGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, A.; Chimienti, L.; Leonhardt, W.; Monaghan, R.; Ryan, G.; Sandberg, J.; Sims, W.; Smith, G.; Stillman, P.; Thorwarth, H.

    1985-01-01

    A set of two large acceptance (20 to 140 mrad) horns have been designed and built to form a parallel beam of 3 GeV/c pions and kaons for the production of an intense, dichromatic neutrino beam. A set of beam plugs and collimators determined the momentum of the particles which pass through the horns. The cooling and maintenance of the horns and target was a particular concern since they were operated with an incident intensity of over 10/sup 13/ proton/sec. These systems were designed for simplicity, reliability, and easy replacement.

  6. External beam radiotherapy and intracavitary brachytherapy is an acceptable treatment for locally advanced carcinoma of the uterine cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zillur Rahman Bhuiyan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical carcinoma is the second most common neoplasm in women worldwide and is the most frequent cancer among women in Bangladesh. In recent years, High Dose Rate (HDR brachytherapy in combination with External Beam Radiotherapy (EBRT has been popular in the management of cancers of uterine cervix.Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness and acute toxicity of four fractions high dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy following pelvic external beam radiotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced cervical carcinoma. Methods: Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medi­cal University & NICRH chosen as a research place for EBRT and HOR brachytherapy. A typical radiotherapy treatment involves daily inadiation for several weeks. Whole pelvis was treated with total dose of SO Gy in 5 weeks. Patients were treated once a day, 5 days a week with a daily fraction size of 2.0 Gy. EBRT: Pelvic radiotherapy dose is 50 Gy in 25 fractions (2.0 Gy per fraction over 5 weeks. HDR brachytberapy dose is 7 Gy per fraction, total 4 fractions, each in a week over 4 weeks. Results: Ninety-eight patients were entered in the study. Three patients were excluded due to active non-malignant diseases. One patient had active tuberculosis, two patients had severe skin reactions and two patients withdrew following the first HDR application. The remaining Ninety patients were analyzed. Ninety patients completed the prescribed treatment and were evaluated. Eighty had complete response with relief of symptoms, negative Pap-smear and no clinical signs of persistence disease at 3 months. Ten patients had a positive Pap-smear with clinical signs of persis­tence disease. Patients were evaluated before statting treatment with EBRT and before starting treatment with HDR ICBT. Conclusion: It can be easily concluded that 4 fractions of HDR ICBT, 7 Gy each weekly and pelvic EBRT can effectively and safely control locally advanced carcinoma of the uterine cervix. So that EBRT and HDR ICBT

  7. High-efficiency resonant rf spin rotator with broad phase space acceptance for pulsed polarized cold neutron beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-N. Seo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available High precision fundamental neutron physics experiments have been proposed for the intense pulsed spallation neutron beams at JSNS, LANSCE, and SNS to test the standard model and search for new physics. Certain systematic effects in some of these experiments have to be controlled at the few ppb level. The NPDGamma experiment, a search for the small parity-violating γ-ray asymmetry A_{γ} in polarized cold neutron capture on parahydrogen, is one example. For the NPDGamma experiment we developed a radio-frequency resonant spin rotator to reverse the neutron polarization in a 9.5  cm×9.5  cm pulsed cold neutron beam with high efficiency over a broad cold neutron energy range. The effect of the spin reversal by the rotator on the neutron beam phase space is compared qualitatively to rf neutron spin flippers based on adiabatic fast passage. We discuss the design of the spin rotator and describe two types of transmission-based neutron spin-flip efficiency measurements where the neutron beam was both polarized and analyzed by optically polarized ^{3}He neutron spin filters. The efficiency of the spin rotator was measured at LANSCE to be 98.8±0.5% for neutron energies from 3 to 20 meV over the full phase space of the beam. Systematic effects that the rf spin rotator introduces to the NPDGamma experiment are considered.

  8. High-efficiency Resonant rf Spin Rotator with Broad Phase Space Acceptance for Pulsed Polarized Cold Neutron Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, P. -N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Barron-Palos, L. [Arizona State University; Bowman, J. D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Chupp, T. E. [University of Michigan; Crawford, C. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Dabaghyan, M. [University of New Hampshire; Dawkins, M. [Indiana University; Freedman, S. J. [University of California; Gentile, T. R. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Gericke, M. T. [University of Manitoba, Canada; Gillis, R. C. [University of Manitoba, Canada; Greene, G. L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Hersman, F. W. [University of New Hampshire; Jones, G. L. [Hamilton College, New York; Kandes, M. [University of Michigan; Lamoreaux, S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lauss, B. [University of California, Berkeley; Leuschner, M. B. [Indiana University; Mahurin, R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Mason, M. [University of New Hampshire; Mei, J. [Indiana University; Mitchell, G. S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Nann, H. [Indiana University; Page, S. A. [University of Manitoba, Canada; Penttila, S. I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Ramsay, W. D. [University of Manitoba & TRIUMF, Canada; Salas Bacci, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Santra, S. [Indiana University; Sharma, M. [University of Michigan; Smith, T. B. [University of Dayton, Ohio; Snow, W. [Indiana University; Wilburn, W. S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Zhu, H. [University of New Hampshire

    2008-01-01

    High precision fundamental neutron physics experiments have been proposed for the intense pulsed spallation neutron beams at JSNS, LANSCE, and SNS to test the standard model and search for new physics. Certain systematic effects in some of these experiments have to be controlled at the few ppb level. The NPD Gamma experiment, a search for the small parity-violating {gamma}-ray asymmetry A{sub Y} in polarized cold neutron capture on parahydrogen, is one example. For the NPD Gamma experiment we developed a radio-frequency resonant spin rotator to reverse the neutron polarization in a 9.5 cm x 9.5 cm pulsed cold neutron beam with high efficiency over a broad cold neutron energy range. The effect of the spin reversal by the rotator on the neutron beam phase space is compared qualitatively to rf neutron spin flippers based on adiabatic fast passage. We discuss the design of the spin rotator and describe two types of transmission-based neutron spin-flip efficiency measurements where the neutron beam was both polarized and analyzed by optically polarized {sup 3}He neutron spin filters. The efficiency of the spin rotator was measured at LANSCE to be 98.8 {+-} 0.5% for neutron energies from 3 to 20 meV over the full phase space of the beam. Systematic effects that the rf spin rotator introduces to the NPD Gamma experiment are considered.

  9. Beam-beam instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, A.W.

    1983-08-01

    The subject of beam-beam instability has been studied since the invention of the colliding beam storage rings. Today, with several colliding beam storage rings in operation, it is not yet fully understood and remains an outstanding problem for the storage ring designers. No doubt that good progress has been made over the years, but what we have at present is still rather primitive. It is perhaps possible to divide the beam-beam subject into two areas: one on luminosity optimization and another on the dynamics of the beam-beam interaction. The former area concerns mostly the design and operational features of a colliding beam storage ring, while the later concentrates on the experimental and theoretical aspects of the beam-beam interaction. Although both areas are of interest, our emphasis is on the second area only. In particular, we are most interested in the various possible mechanisms that cause the beam-beam instability.

  10. beam-beam interaction

    CERN Multimedia

    2017-01-01

    The Beam 1 (represented in blue) and the Beam 2 (represented in red) are colliding with an angle at the Interaction Point (IP). The angle is needed to avoid unwanted multiple collisions along the interaction region. Despite of the separation introduced by the angle, the two beams interact via their electromagnetic field, the so called "beam-beam" interaction.

  11. Study of Beam-Beam Effects at PEP-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narsky, I

    2004-06-29

    Using a self-consistent three-dimensional simulation running on parallel supercomputers, we have modeled the beam-beam interaction at the PEP-II asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -}collider. To provide guidance for luminosity improvement, we scanned the tunes and currents in both rings and computed their impact on the luminosity and transverse beam sizes. We also studied the effects of colliding the beams with a small crossing angle. Where possible, the code was benchmarked against experimental measurements of luminosity and beam sizes, yielding an acceptable agreement.

  12. VAMOS: a VAriable MOde high acceptance Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Savajols, H

    1999-01-01

    The study of reactions induced by the future SPIRAL beams at GANIL requires new techniques: the low intensity of secondary beams implies the need of a very high efficiency detection system ; the study of nearly or completely unknown nuclei, over a wide range of masses and energies, needs a very efficient method for attributing a reaction product to a nucleus. The VAriable MOde high acceptance Spectrometer VAMOS is being designed and built especially for this purpose.

  13. Detection of Equipment Faults Before Beam Loss

    CERN Document Server

    Galambos, J.

    2016-01-01

    High-power hadron accelerators have strict limits on fractional beam loss. In principle, once a high-quality beam is set up in an acceptable state, beam loss should remain steady. However, in practice, there are many trips in operational machines, owing to excessive beam loss. This paper deals with monitoring equipment health to identify precursor signals that indicate an issue with equipment that will lead to unacceptable beam loss. To this end, a variety of equipment and beam signal measurements are described. In particular, several operational examples from the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) of deteriorating equipment functionality leading to beam loss are reported.

  14. Measurement of inclusive muon pair production by 225-GeV/c. pi. /sup +/,. pi. /sup -/, and proton beams with a large acceptance spectrometers. [Cross sections, 225 GeV/c, tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brason, J G

    1977-05-01

    Inclusive muon pair production by 225 GeV/c ..pi../sup +/, ..pi../sup -/ and proton beams incident upon carbon and tin targets was measured over a large range of kinematic variables (2m/sub ..mu../ < m/sub ..mu mu.. < 1 GeV/c/sup 2/, 0 < x/sub F/ < 1, P/sub perpendicular to/ < 4 GeV/c and vertical bar cos theta* vertical bar < .3). The value of the invariant cross section E d/sup 4/sigma/dmdx/sub f/dp/sup 2//sub perpendicular to/ is presented as a function of these variables. The vector mesons rho, ..omega.., phi, J and psi' appear in the data along with apparently nonresonant ..mu..-pairs. By looking for additional muons accompanying J ..-->.. ..mu../sup +/..mu../sup -/ events, a 1.0% upper limit on production of pairs of charmed particles in association with the J is obtained. Aspects of the continuum muon pair data are compared to Drell-Yan model calculations. The ratio of ..mu..-pairs produced by ..pi../sup +/ beam particles to ..mu..-pairs produced by ..pi../sup -/ beam particles supports electromagnetic production at high mass.

  15. Recent radioactive ion beam program at RIKEN and related topics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recent experimental programs at RIKEN concerning RI beams are reviewed. RIKEN has the ring cyclotron (RRC) with high intense heavy-ion beams and large acceptance fragment separator, RIPS. The complex can provide high intense RI-beams. By using the high intense RI-beams, a variety of experiments have been ...

  16. Beam Diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Raich, U

    2013-01-01

    As soon as the first particles emerge from an ion source, the source characteristics need to be determined. The total beam intensity, the transverse particle distributions, the beam divergence and emittance as well as the longitudinal parameters of the beam must be measured. This chapter provides an overview of typical measurement methods and the instruments used, and shows the results obtained.

  17. Responsible technology acceptance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Madeleine Broman; Schuitema, Geertje; Thøgersen, John

    2014-01-01

    in terms of a positive impact for society and the environment. Therefore, we expect that Smart Grid technology acceptance can be better explained when the well-known technology acceptance parameters included in the Technology Acceptance Model are supplemented by moral norms as suggested by the Norm...... on private consumers’ acceptance of having Smart Grid technology installed in their home. We analyse acceptance in a combined framework of the Technology Acceptance Model and the Norm Activation Model. We propose that individuals are only likely to accept Smart Grid technology if they assess usefulness...... Activation Model. We tested this proposition by means of an online survey of Danish (N=323), Norwegian (N=303) and Swiss (N=324) private consumers. The study confirms that adding personal norms to the independent variables of the Technology Acceptance Model leads to a significant increase in the explained...

  18. Tuning the beam: a physics perspective on beam diagnostic instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulley, Mark S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    In a nutshell, the role of a beam diagnostic measurement is to provide information needed to get a particle beam from Point A (injection point) to Point B (a target) in a useable condition, with 'useable' meaning the right energy and size and with acceptable losses. Specifications and performance requirements of diagnostics are based on the physics of the particle beam to be measured, with typical customers of beam parameter measurements being the accelerator operators and accelerator physicists. This tutorial will be a physics-oriented discussion of the interplay between tuning evolutions and the beam diagnostics systems that support the machine tune. This will include the differences between developing a tune and maintaining a tune, among other things. Practical longitudinal and transverse tuning issues and techniques from a variety of proton and electron machines will also be discussed.

  19. Beam Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, E

    2013-01-01

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Accelerators and Colliders' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Chapter '2 Beam Dynamics' with the content: 2 Beam Dynamics 2.1 Linear Transverse Beam Dynamics 2.2 Coupling 2.3 Liouville's Theorem 2.4 Momentum Dependent Transverse Motion 2.5 Longitudinal Motion

  20. ARC Code TI: ACCEPT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ACCEPT consists of an overall software infrastructure framework and two main software components. The software infrastructure framework consists of code written to...

  1. Beam diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Raich, U

    2006-01-01

    The instrumentation measuring beam parameters constitutes an important part of any particle accelerator. These lectures aim at giving an overview of detection and measurement techniques without going too much into details of implementation. Instruments for linear accelerators, transfer lines, and small synchrotrons are described with an emphasis on opportunities and problems specific to low-energy particle beams.

  2. Beam diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Raich, U

    2008-01-01

    Most beam measurements are based on the electro-magnetic interaction of fields induced by the beam with their environment. Beam current transformers as well as beam position monitors are based on this principle. The signals induced in the sensors must be amplified and shaped before they are converted into numerical values. These values are further treated numerically in order to extract meaningful machine parameter measurements. The lecture introduces the architecture of an instrument and shows where in the treatment chain digital signal analysis can be introduced. Then the use of digital signal processing is presented using tune measurements, orbit and trajectory measurements as well as beam loss detection and longitudinal phase space tomography as examples. The hardware as well as the treatment algorithms and their implementation on Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) or in Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are presented.

  3. Acceptable noise level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Nielsen, Lars Holme; Lantz, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) is used to quantify the amount of background noise that subjects can accept while listening to speech, and is suggested for prediction of individual hearing-aid use. The aim of this study was to assess the repeatability of the ANL measured in normal-hearing subjec...

  4. Beam collimator

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    A four-block collimator installed on a control table for positioning the alignment reference marks. Designed for use with SPS secondary beams, the collimator operates under vacuum conditions. See Annual Report 1976 p. 121 and photo 7701014.

  5. Analysis of Scrum acceptance

    OpenAIRE

    Vončina, Bojan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis was to analyse the acceptance of Scrum methodology, which has become one of the leading agile methodologies, and to find out which were the key factors that influenced the acceptance. The analysis was conducted in Comtrade, which is one of the largest Slovenian software development companies. The First part (theoretical part) contains an introduction chapter, a detailed presentation of Scrum methodology and the presentation of theoretical models, on which practical ...

  6. Acceptable noise level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Nielsen, Lars Holme; Lantz, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) is used to quantify the amount of background noise that subjects can accept while listening to speech, and is suggested for prediction of individual hearing-aid use. The aim of this study was to assess the repeatability of the ANL measured in normal-hearing subjects...... using running Danish and non-semantic speech materials as stimuli and modulated speech-spectrum and multi-talker babble noises as competing stimuli....

  7. Fatigue behavior of RC T-beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A. Farghal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to study the fatigue performance of reinforced concrete (RC T-beams strengthened in shear with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP composite. Experiments were conducted on RC beams with and without CFRP sheets bonded on their web surfaces and subjected to static and cycling loading. The obtained results showed that the strengthened beams could survive one million cycles of cyclic loading (=50% of maximum static load with no apparent signs of damage (premature failure demonstrating the effectiveness of CFRP strengthening system on extending the fatigue life of structures. Also, for beams having the same geometry, the applied strengthening technique can significantly enhance the cycling load particularly, in case of beams provided with U-jacket sheets. Moreover, although the failure mode for the different beams was a brittle one, the strengthened beams provided with U-jacket sheets approved an acceptable enhancement in the structural ductility.

  8. R & D of a Gas-Filled RF Beam Profile Monitor for Intense Neutrino Beam Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonehara, K. [Fermilab; Backfish, M. [Fermilab; Moretti, A. [Fermilab; Tollestrup, A. V. [Fermilab; Watts, A. [Fermilab; Zwaska, R. M. [Fermilab; Abrams, R. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Cummings, M. A.; Dudas, A. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Johnson, R. P. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Kazakevich, G. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Neubauer, M. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Liu, Q. [Case Western Reserve U.

    2017-05-01

    We report the R&D of a novel radiation-robust hadron beam profile monitor based on a gas-filled RF cavity for intense neutrino beam experiments. An equivalent RF circuit model was made and simulated to optimize the RF parameter in a wide beam intensity range. As a result, the maximum acceptable beam intensity in the monitor is significantly increased by using a low-quality factor RF cavity. The plan for the demonstration test is set up to prepare for future neutrino beam experiments.

  9. Robustness - acceptance criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzuto, Enrico; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kroon, Inger B.

    2010-01-01

    This factsheet describes the general framework on the bases of which acceptance criteria for requirements on the robustness of structures can be set. Such framework is based on the more general concept of risk-based assessment of engineering systems. The present factsheet is to be seen in conjunc......This factsheet describes the general framework on the bases of which acceptance criteria for requirements on the robustness of structures can be set. Such framework is based on the more general concept of risk-based assessment of engineering systems. The present factsheet is to be seen...

  10. Application of channeling in bent crystals to charged particle beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrigan, Jr., Richard A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    1986-03-01

    The process of channeling of charged particle beams in bent crystals is described, including the effects of angular acceptance, spatial acceptance, normal dechanneling, bending dechanneling, and surface acceptance. Some bending applications that have been tried and future possibilities are reviewed. 29 refs., 30 figs. (LEW)

  11. Superresolution beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngcobo, S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Ngcobo2_2012.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 3697 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Ngcobo2_2012.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 SUPERRESOLUTION BEAMS S... University of Johannesburg, PO Box 524, Auckland Park, 2006, South Africa Slide 2 ? CSIR 2011 www.csir.co.za Outline ? Introduction ? Concept of superresolution beams ? Transformation of TEM00 to TEM10 ? Resonator...

  12. Superresolution beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngcobo, S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Ngcobo3_2012.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 4467 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Ngcobo3_2012.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 SUPERRESOLUTION BEAMS S... 2011 www.csir.co.za Outline ? Introduction ? Concept of superresolution beams ? Transformation of TEM00 to TEM10 ? Resonator design and experimental setup ? Results ? Conclusions ? Future work Slide 3 ? CSIR 2011...

  13. From motivation to acceptability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordfalk, Francisca; Olejaz, Maria; Jensen, Anja M. B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Over the past three decades, public attitudes to organ donation have been a subject of numerous studies focusing on donor motivation. Here, we present a fresh approach. We suggest focusing on public acceptability instead of motivation. The point is to understand public attitudes well...

  14. Why was Relativity Accepted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brush, S. G.

    Historians of science have published many studies of the reception of Einstein's special and general theories of relativity. Based on a review of these studies, and my own research on the role of the light-bending prediction in the reception of general relativity, I discuss the role of three kinds of reasons for accepting relativity (1) empirical predictions and explanations; (2) social-psychological factors; and (3) aesthetic-mathematical factors. According to the historical studies, acceptance was a three-stage process. First, a few leading scientists adopted the special theory for aesthetic-mathematical reasons. In the second stage, their enthusiastic advocacy persuaded other scientists to work on the theory and apply it to problems currently of interest in atomic physics. The special theory was accepted by many German physicists by 1910 and had begun to attract some interest in other countries. In the third stage, the confirmation of Einstein's light-bending prediction attracted much public attention and forced all physicists to take the general theory of relativity seriously. In addition to light-bending, the explanation of the advance of Mercury's perihelion was considered strong evidence by theoretical physicists. The American astronomers who conducted successful tests of general relativity became defenders of the theory. There is little evidence that relativity was `socially constructed' but its initial acceptance was facilitated by the prestige and resources of its advocates.

  15. Displacement compressors - acceptance tests

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    1996-01-01

    ISO 1217:2009 specifies methods for acceptance tests regarding volume rate of flow and power requirements of displacement compressors. It also specifies methods for testing liquid-ring type compressors and the operating and testing conditions which apply when a full performance test is specified.

  16. Approaches to acceptable risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whipple, C.

    1997-04-30

    Several alternative approaches to address the question {open_quotes}How safe is safe enough?{close_quotes} are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made.

  17. Characterization of E158 Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, Joe

    2003-09-05

    Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) parity violation experiment E-158 uses a high intensity electron beam accelerated to either 45GeV or 48GeV in the SLAC Linac and requires a small energy spread, small off axis position motion, and low jitter. The purpose of our research was to better quantify the current values of energy, intensity, and position jitter as well as the relations between them and to further the understanding of the beam dynamics involved. Specifically, our method was to take data on a series of pulse lengths shorter than the experimental beam to gain information about the length dependence of the different beam parameters, effectively enabling us to create jitter, position, and energy profiles of the beam. Position was measured by beam position monitors (BPMs), intensity was measured by toroids, and energy was measured by a Synchrotron Light Monitor (SLM) as well as several energy BPMs. Data was collected using the SLAC Control Program (SCP) and analyzed using Matlab. Position jitter was found to, in general, increase linearly (10microns per 50ns) with pulse length. The peak to peak energy difference across each pulse is currently about 0.4% of the total energy, with the RMS energy jitter usually ranging from 0.013% to 0.10% for the different pulse lengths. Intensity jitter had no discernable correlation with pulse length. The slope of the linear relation between energy and intensity (beam loading relation) varied significantly with pulse length as well as with the method used to extract energy data. The position, intensity and energy profile data agree qualitatively with accepted theories and provide a more encompassing picture of the beam dynamics for E-158. The same is true, to a lesser extent, for the energy jitter and beam loading data, although some results here were unexpected.

  18. Production of an {sup 15}O beam using a stable oxygen ion beam for in-beam PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, Akram, E-mail: mohammadi.akram@qst.go.jp; Yoshida, Eiji; Tashima, Hideaki; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Inaniwa, Taku; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Yamaya, Taiga

    2017-03-21

    In advanced ion therapy, the {sup 15}O ion beam is a promising candidate to treat hypoxic tumors and simultaneously monitor the delivered dose to a patient using PET imaging. This study aimed at production of an {sup 15}O beam by projectile fragmentation of a stable {sup 16}O beam in an optimal material, followed by in-beam PET imaging using a prototype OpenPET system, which was developed in the authors’ group. The study was carried out in three steps: selection of the optimal target based on the highest production rate of {sup 15}O fragments; experimental production of the beam using the optimal target in the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator Chiba (HIMAC) secondary beam course; and realization of in-beam PET imaging for the produced beam. The optimal target evaluations were done using the Monte Carlo simulation code PHITS. The fluence and mean energy of the secondary particles were simulated and the optimal target was selected based on the production rate of {sup 15}O fragments. The highest production rate of {sup 15}O was observed for a liquid hydrogen target, 3.27% for a 53 cm thick target from the {sup 16}O beam of 430 MeV/u. Since liquid hydrogen is not practically applicable in the HIMAC secondary beam course a hydrogen-rich polyethylene material, which was the second optimal target from the simulation results, was selected as the experimental target. Three polyethylene targets with thicknesses of 5, 11 or 14 cm were used to produce the {sup 15}O beam without any degrader in the beam course. The highest production rate was measured as around 0.87% for the 11 cm thick polyethylene target from the {sup 16}O beam of 430 MeV/u when the angular acceptance and momentum acceptance were set at ±13 mrad and ±2.5%, respectively. The purity of the produced beam for the three targets were around 75%, insufficient for clinical application, but it was increased to 97% by inserting a wedge shape aluminum degrader with a thickness of 1.76 cm into the beam course and that is

  19. Production of an 15O beam using a stable oxygen ion beam for in-beam PET imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Akram; Yoshida, Eiji; Tashima, Hideaki; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Inaniwa, Taku; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Yamaya, Taiga

    2017-03-01

    In advanced ion therapy, the 15O ion beam is a promising candidate to treat hypoxic tumors and simultaneously monitor the delivered dose to a patient using PET imaging. This study aimed at production of an 15O beam by projectile fragmentation of a stable 16O beam in an optimal material, followed by in-beam PET imaging using a prototype OpenPET system, which was developed in the authors' group. The study was carried out in three steps: selection of the optimal target based on the highest production rate of 15O fragments; experimental production of the beam using the optimal target in the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator Chiba (HIMAC) secondary beam course; and realization of in-beam PET imaging for the produced beam. The optimal target evaluations were done using the Monte Carlo simulation code PHITS. The fluence and mean energy of the secondary particles were simulated and the optimal target was selected based on the production rate of 15O fragments. The highest production rate of 15O was observed for a liquid hydrogen target, 3.27% for a 53 cm thick target from the 16O beam of 430 MeV/u. Since liquid hydrogen is not practically applicable in the HIMAC secondary beam course a hydrogen-rich polyethylene material, which was the second optimal target from the simulation results, was selected as the experimental target. Three polyethylene targets with thicknesses of 5, 11 or 14 cm were used to produce the 15O beam without any degrader in the beam course. The highest production rate was measured as around 0.87% for the 11 cm thick polyethylene target from the 16O beam of 430 MeV/u when the angular acceptance and momentum acceptance were set at ±13 mrad and ±2.5%, respectively. The purity of the produced beam for the three targets were around 75%, insufficient for clinical application, but it was increased to 97% by inserting a wedge shape aluminum degrader with a thickness of 1.76 cm into the beam course and that is sufficiently high. In-beam PET imaging was also

  20. Influence of injection beam emittance on beam transmission efficiency in a cyclotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurashima, Satoshi; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Miyawaki, Nobumasa; Yoshida, Ken-Ichi; Okumura, Susumu

    2014-02-01

    The JAEA AVF cyclotron accelerates various kinds of high-energy ion beams for research in biotechnology and materials science. Beam intensities of an ion species of the order of 10(-9)-10(-6) ampere are often required for various experiments performed sequentially over a day. To provide ion beams with sufficient intensity and stability, an operator has to retune an ion source in a short time. However, the beam intensity downstream of the cyclotron rarely increases in proportion to the intensity at the ion source. To understand the cause of this beam behavior, transmission efficiencies of a (12)C(5+) beam from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source to the cyclotron were measured for various conditions of the ion source. Moreover, a feasible region for acceleration in the emittance of the injection beam was clarified using a transverse-acceptance measuring system. We confirmed that the beam emittance and profile were changed depending on the condition of the ion source and that matching between the beam emittance and the acceptance of the cyclotron was degraded. However, after fine-tuning to improve the matching, beam intensity downstream of the cyclotron increased.

  1. Marketing for Acceptance

    OpenAIRE

    Tina L. Johnston, Ph.D.

    2009-01-01

    Becoming a researcher comes with the credentializing pressure to publish articles in peer-reviewed journals (Glaser, 1992; Glaser, 2007; Glaser, 2008). The work intensive process is exacerbated when the author’s research method is grounded theory. This study investigated the concerns of early and experienced grounded theorists to discover how they worked towards publishing research projects that applied grounded theory as a methodology. The result was a grounded theory of marketing for accept...

  2. Order acceptance with reinforcement learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mainegra Hing, M.; van Harten, Aart; Schuur, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Order Acceptance (OA) is one of the main functions in a business control framework. Basically, OA involves for each order a 0/1 (i.e., reject/accept) decision. Always accepting an order when capacity is available could unable the system to accept more convenient orders in the future. Another

  3. Age and Acceptance of Euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Russell A.

    1980-01-01

    Study explores relationship between age (and sex and race) and acceptance of euthanasia. Women and non-Whites were less accepting because of religiosity. Among older people less acceptance was attributable to their lesser education and greater religiosity. Results suggest that quality of life in old age affects acceptability of euthanasia. (Author)

  4. [Acceptance and commitment therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducasse, D; Fond, G

    2015-02-01

    Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is a third generation of cognitive-behavioral therapies. The point is to help patients to improve their psychological flexibility in order to accept unavoidable private events. Thus, they have the opportunity to invest energy in committed actions rather than struggle against their psychological events. (i) To present the ACT basic concepts and (ii) to propose a systematic review of the literature about effectiveness of this kind of psychotherapy. (i) The core concepts of ACT come from Monestès (2011), Schoendorff (2011), and Harris (2012); (ii) we conducted a systematic review of the literature using the PRISMA's criteria. The research paradigm was « acceptance and commitment therapy AND randomized controlled trial ». The bases of the MEDLINE, Cochrane and Web of science have been checked. Overall, 61 articles have been found, of which, after reading the abstracts, 40 corresponded to the subject of our study. (I) Psychological flexibility is established through six core ACT processes (cognitive defusion, acceptance, being present, values, committed action, self as context), while the therapist emphasizes on experiential approach. (II) Emerging research shows that ACT is efficacious in the psychological treatment of a wide range of psychiatric problems, including psychosis, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, trichotillomania, generalized anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, borderline personality disorder, eating disorders. ACT has also shown a utility in other areas of medicine: the management chronic pain, drug-dependence, smoking cessation, the management of epilepsy, diabetic self-management, the management of work stress, the management of tinnitus, and the management of multiple sclerosis. Meta-analysis of controlled outcome studies reported an average effect size (Cohen's d) of 0.66 at post-treatment (n=704) and 0.65 (n=580) at follow-up (on average 19.2 weeks later). In studies involving

  5. Low voltage electron beam accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochi, Masafumi [Iwasaki Electric Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    Widely used electron accelerators in industries are the electron beams with acceleration voltage at 300 kV or less. The typical examples are shown on manufactures in Japan, equipment configuration, operation, determination of process parameters, and basic maintenance requirement of the electron beam processors. New electron beam processors with acceleration voltage around 100 kV were introduced maintaining the relatively high dose speed capability of around 10,000 kGy x mpm at production by ESI (Energy Science Inc. USA, Iwasaki Electric Group). The application field like printing and coating for packaging requires treating thickness of 30 micron or less. It does not require high voltage over 110 kV. Also recently developed is a miniature bulb type electron beam tube with energy less than 60 kV. The new application area for this new electron beam tube is being searched. The drive force of this technology to spread in the industries would be further development of new application, process and market as well as the price reduction of the equipment, upon which further acknowledgement and acceptance of the technology to societies and industries would entirely depend. (Y. Tanaka)

  6. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  7. Modeling of beam customization devices in the pencil beam splitting algorithm for heavy charged particle radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Kanematsu, Nobuyuki

    2010-01-01

    Broad-beam-delivery methods use multiple devices to form a conformal field of heavy charged particles. To overcome an intrinsic difficulty of pencil-beam algorithms in dealing with fine lateral structure, we applied the pencil-beam-splitting algorithm to a beam-customization system conprised of multiple collimators and a range compensating filter. The pencil beams were initially defined at the range compensating filter with angular acceptance correction for the upstream collimators followed by the range compensation effects. They were individually transported with possible splitting near the downstream collimator edges. The dose distribution was calculated and compared with existing experimental data. The penumbra sizes for various collimator edges agreed between them to a submillimeter level. This beam-customization model will complete an accurate and efficient dose-calculation algorithm for treatment planning.

  8. Studies of beam dynamics in relativistic klystron two- beam accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidia, Steven Michael

    , and output rf cavities over a 10 m distance. The simulations show that beam current losses are acceptable, and that longitudinal and transverse focusing techniques are sufficiently capable of maintaining a high degree of beam quality along the entire beamline. Additional experimental efforts are described. The first is the commissioning of the RTA injector. This electron gun produces a 1 MV, 600 A beam over a 250 ns pulse length. The post-injector beamline is described, and the battery of diagnostics is presented, with initial results reported. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  9. Deceleration and cooling of heavy ion beams: The COLETTE project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sewtz, M. [CSNSM-IN2P3/CNRS, Universite de Paris Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France)]. E-mail: sewtz@csnsm.in2p3.fr; Bachelet, C. [CSNSM-IN2P3/CNRS, Universite de Paris Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Chauvin, N. [CSNSM-IN2P3/CNRS, Universite de Paris Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Guenaut, C. [CSNSM-IN2P3/CNRS, Universite de Paris Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Leccia, E. [CSNSM-IN2P3/CNRS, Universite de Paris Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Le Du, D. [CSNSM-IN2P3/CNRS, Universite de Paris Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Lunney, D. [CSNSM-IN2P3/CNRS, Universite de Paris Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France)

    2005-10-15

    An ion beam cooler has been constructed to adapt the ISOLDE rare isotope beam emittance to the acceptance of the mass spectrometer MISTRAL, CERN. In a test experiment a Na{sup +}-beam was extracted out of the gas filled, linear Paul Trap with an emittance of 8{pi} mm mrad at 6 keV. Near 100% transmission through a new electrostatic deceleration system was measured for a 30 keV He{sup +}-beam which was decelerated to a final energy of 10 eV. A method to determine the longitudinal energy spread of the decelerated beam as function of its initial emittance is discussed.

  10. Deceleration and cooling of heavy ion beams The COLETTE project

    CERN Document Server

    Sewtz, M; Chauvin, N; Guénaut, C; Le Du, D; Leccia, E; Lunney, M D

    2005-01-01

    An ion beam cooler has been constructed to adapt the ISOLDE rare isotope beam emittance to the acceptance of the mass spectrometer MISTRAL, CERN. In a test experiment a Na+-beam was extracted out of the gas filled, linear Paul Trap with an emittance of 8π mm mrad at 6 keV. Near 100% transmission through a new electrostatic deceleration system was measured for a 30 keV He+-beam which was decelerated to a final energy of 10 eV. A method to determine the longitudinal energy spread of the decelerated beam as function of its initial emittance is discussed.

  11. Public acceptance of biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savvanidou, Electra; Zervas, Efthimios; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Vas. Sofias 12, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2010-07-15

    The public acceptance of biofuels in Greece is examined in this work. The analysis of 571 face to face interviews shows that 90.7% of the respondents believe that climatic changes are related to fossil fuel consumption, while only 23.8% know the difference between biodiesel and bioethanol. 76.1% believe that energy saving should precede the use of an alternative source of energy. Only 27.3% believe that priority must be given to biofuels over other renewable energy sources. Only 49.9% think that the use of biofuels can be an effective solution against climatic changes and 53.9% believe that the use of biofuels can be an effective solution for the energy problem. Finally, 80.9% of the car owners are willing to use biofuels, 44.8% are willing to pay the supplementary amount of 0.06 EUR/L of the fuel market price, while the average amount reported as willing to pay was 0.079 EUR/L on top of the fuel market price. Furthermore, eight models correlating the eight main responses with several socioeconomic variables are developed and analyzed. Those findings heave important policy implications related to the use and promotion of biofuels. (author)

  12. Propagation-invariant beams with quantum pendulum spectra: from Bessel beams to Gaussian beam-beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Mark R; Ring, James D

    2013-09-01

    We describe a new class of propagation-invariant light beams with Fourier transform given by an eigenfunction of the quantum mechanical pendulum. These beams, whose spectra (restricted to a circle) are doubly periodic Mathieu functions in azimuth, depend on a field strength parameter. When the parameter is zero, pendulum beams are Bessel beams, and as the parameter approaches infinity, they resemble transversely propagating one-dimensional Gaussian wave packets (Gaussian beam-beams). Pendulum beams are the eigenfunctions of an operator that interpolates between the squared angular momentum operator and the linear momentum operator. The analysis reveals connections with Mathieu beams, and insight into the paraxial approximation.

  13. The NA49 large acceptance hadron detector

    CERN Document Server

    Afanasiev, S V; Appelshäuser, H; Bächler, J; Barna, D; Barnby, L S; Bartke, Jerzy; Barton, R A; Betev, L; Bialkowska, H; Bieser, F; Billmeier, A; Blyth, C O; Böck, R K; Bormann, C; Bracinik, J; Brady, F P; Brockmann, R; Brun, R; Buncic, P; Caines, H L; Cebra, D; Cooper, G E; Cramer, J G; Csató, P; Cyprian, M; Dunn, J; Eckardt, V; Eckhardt, F; Empl, T; Eschke, J; Ferguson, M I; Fessler, H; Fischer, H G; Flierl, D; Fodor, Z; Frankenfeld, Ulrich; Foka, P Y; Freund, P; Friese, V; Ftácnik, J; Fuchs, M; Gabler, F; Gál, J; Ganz, R E; Gazdzicki, M; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Grebieszkow, J; Günther, J; Harris, J W; Hegyi, S; Henkel, T; Hill, L A; Hlinka, V; Huang, I; Hümmler, H; Igo, G; Irmscher, D; Ivanov, M; Janik, R; Jacobs, P; Jones, P G; Kadija, K; Kolesnikov, V I; Kowalski, M; Lasiuk, B; Lévai, Peter; Liebicher, K; Lynen, U; Malakhov, A I; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Marks, C; Mayes, B W; Melkumov, G L; Mock, A; Molnár, J; Nelson, J M; Oldenburg, M; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Pestov, Yu N; Petridis, A; Pikna, M; Pimpl, W; Pinsky, L; Piper, A; Porter, R J; Poskanzer, A M; Poziombka, S; Prindle, D J; Pühlhofer, F; Rauch, W; Reid, J G; Renfordt, R E; Retyk, W; Ritter, H G; Röhrich, D; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, H; Rybicki, A; Sammer, T; Sandoval, A; Sann, H; Schäfer, E; Schmidt, R; Schmischke, D; Schmitz, N; Schönfelder, S; Semenov, A Yu; Seyboth, J; Seyboth, P; Seyerlein, J; Siklér, F; Sitár, B; Skrzypczak, E; Squier, G T A; Stelzer, H; Stock, Reinhard; Strmen, P; Ströbele, H; Struck, C; Susa, T; Szarka, I; Szentpétery, I; Szymanski, P; Sziklai, J; Toy, M; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Ullrich, T S; Vassiliou, Maria; Veres, G I; Vesztergombi, G; Vranic, D; Wang, F; Weerasundara, D D; Wenig, S; Whitten, C; Wieman, H H; Wienold, T; Wood, L; Yates, T A; Zimányi, J; Zhu, X Z; Zybert, R

    1999-01-01

    The NA49 detector is a wide acceptance spectrometer for the study of hadron production in p+p, p+A, and A+A collisions at the CERN SPS. The main components are 4 large volume TPCs for tracking and particle identification via $dE/dx$. TOF scintillator arrays complement particle identification. Calorimeters for transverse energy determination and triggering, a detector for centrality selection in p+A collisions, and beam definition detectors complete the set-up. A description of all detector components is given with emphasis on new technical realizations. Performance and operational experience are discussed in particular with respect to the high track density environment of central Pb+Pb collisions.

  14. American acceptance of nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, W.

    The characteristic adventurous spirit that built American technology will eventually lead to American acceptance of nuclear power unless an overpowering loss of nerve causes us to reject both nuclear technology and world leadership. The acceptance of new technology by society has always been accompanied by activist opposition to industralization. To resolve the debate between environmental and exploitive extremists, we must accept with humility the basic premise that human accomplishment is a finite part of nature. (DCK)

  15. LGBT Youth and Family Acceptance

    OpenAIRE

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L.; Rosario, Margaret; Tsappis, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we address theories of attachment and parental acceptance and rejection, and their implications for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youths’ identity and health. We also provide two clinical cases to illustrate the process of family acceptance of a transgender youth and a gender nonconforming youth who was neither a sexual minority nor transgender. Clinical implications of family acceptance and rejection of LGBT youth are discussed.

  16. LGBT Youth and Family Acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L.; Rosario, Margaret; Tsappis, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Summary In this article, we address theories of attachment and parental acceptance and rejection, and their implications for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youths’ identity and health. We also provide two clinical cases to illustrate the process of family acceptance of a transgender youth and a gender nonconforming youth who was neither a sexual minority nor transgender. Clinical implications of family acceptance and rejection of LGBT youth are discussed. PMID:27865331

  17. Literature in Focus Beta Beams: Neutrino Beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    By Mats Lindroos (CERN) and Mauro Mezzetto (INFN Padova, Italy) Imperial Press, 2009 The beta-beam concept for the generation of electron neutrino beams was first proposed by Piero Zucchelli in 2002. The idea created quite a stir, challenging the idea that intense neutrino beams only could be produced from the decay of pions or muons in classical neutrino beams facilities or in future neutrino factories. The concept initially struggled to make an impact but the hard work by many machine physicists, phenomenologists and theoreticians over the last five years has won the beta-beam a well-earned position as one of the frontrunners for a possible future world laboratory for high intensity neutrino oscillation physics. This is the first complete monograph on the beta-beam concept. The book describes both technical aspects and experimental aspects of the beta-beam, providing students and scientists with an insight into the possibilities o...

  18. Beam Techniques - Beam Control and Manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minty, Michiko G

    2003-04-24

    We describe commonly used strategies for the control of charged particle beams and the manipulation of their properties. Emphasis is placed on relativistic beams in linear accelerators and storage rings. After a brief review of linear optics, we discuss basic and advanced beam control techniques, such as transverse and longitudinal lattice diagnostics, matching, orbit correction and steering, beam-based alignment, and linac emittance preservation. A variety of methods for the manipulation of particle beam properties are also presented, for instance, bunch length and energy compression, bunch rotation, changes to the damping partition number, and beam collimation. The different procedures are illustrated by examples from various accelerators. Special topics include injection and extraction methods, beam cooling, spin transport and polarization.

  19. Electron beam control for barely separated beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, David R.; Ament, Lucas J. P.

    2017-04-18

    A method for achieving independent control of multiple beams in close proximity to one another, such as in a multi-pass accelerator where coaxial beams are at different energies, but moving on a common axis, and need to be split into spatially separated beams for efficient recirculation transport. The method for independent control includes placing a magnet arrangement in the path of the barely separated beams with the magnet arrangement including at least two multipole magnets spaced closely together and having a multipole distribution including at least one odd multipole and one even multipole. The magnetic fields are then tuned to cancel out for a first of the barely separated beams to allow independent control of the second beam with common magnets. The magnetic fields may be tuned to cancel out either the dipole component or tuned to cancel out the quadrupole component in order to independently control the separate beams.

  20. Multi-Beam Radio Frequency (RF) Aperture Arrays Using Multiplierless Approximate Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    DFT (a-DFT) transforms are derived to have acceptable performance in terms of achieving spatial multi-beams. 15. SUBJECT TERMS aperture arrays, fast...derived to have acceptable performance in terms of achieving spatial multi-beams. It has been found that a-DFTs achieve almost DFT performance albeit at...arrays. Such multi-beam antennas are extremely important for RF sensing , communications, and radar systems, such as active electronically scanned array

  1. Beam screen cryogenic control improvements for the LHC run 2

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2068353; Rogez, Edouard; Blanco Vinuela, Enrique; Ferlin, Gerard; Tovar-Gonzalez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the improvements made on the cryogenic control system for the LHC beam screens. The regulation objective is to maintain an acceptable temperature range around 20 K which simultaneously ensures a good LHC beam vacuum and limits cryogenic heat loads. In total, through the 27 km of the LHC machine, there are 485 regulation loops affected by beam disturbances. Due to the increase of the LHC performance during Run 2, standard PID controllers cannot keeps the temperature transients of the beam screens within desired limits. Several alternative control techniques have been studied and validated using dynamic simulation and then deployed on the LHC cryogenic control system in 2015. The main contribution is the addition of a feed-forward control in order to compensate the beam effects on the beam screen temperature based on the main beam parameters of the machine in real time.

  2. Beam screen cryogenic control improvements for the LHC run 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradu, B.; Rogez, E.; Blanco-Viñuela, E.; Ferlin, G.; Tovar-Gonzalez, A.

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents the improvements made on the cryogenic control system for the LHC beam screens. The regulation objective is to maintain an acceptable temperature range around 20 K which simultaneously ensures a good LHC beam vacuum and limits cryogenic heat loads. In total, through the 27 km of the LHC machine, there are 485 regulation loops affected by beam disturbances. Due to the increase of the LHC performance during Run 2, standard PID controllers cannot keeps the temperature transients of the beam screens within desired limits. Several alternative control techniques have been studied and validated using dynamic simulation and then deployed on the LHC cryogenic control system in 2015. The main contribution is the addition of a feed-forward control in order to compensate the beam effects on the beam screen temperature based on the main beam parameters of the machine in real time.

  3. TRANSIENT BEAM LOADING EFFECTS IN RF SYSTEMS IN JLEIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haipeng [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Guo, Jiquan [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Rimmer, Robert A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Wang, Shaoheng [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The pulsed electron bunch trains generated from the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) linac to inject into the proposed Jefferson Lab Electron Ion Collider (JLEIC) e-ring will produce transient beam loading effects in the Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) systems that, if not mitigated, could cause unacceptably large beam energy deviation in the injection capture, or exceed the energy acceptance of CEBAF’s recirculating arcs. In the electron storage ring, the beam abort or ion clearing gaps or uneven bucket filling can cause large beam phase transients in the (S)RF cavity control systems and even beam loss due to Robinson instability. We have first analysed the beam stability criteria in steady state and estimated the transient effect in Feedforward and Feedback RF controls. Initial analytical models for these effects are shown for the design of the JLEIC e-ring from 3GeV to 12GeV.

  4. Telecommunication using muon beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Richard C.

    1976-01-01

    Telecommunication is effected by generating a beam of mu mesons or muons, varying a property of the beam at a modulating rate to generate a modulated beam of muons, and detecting the information in the modulated beam at a remote location.

  5. Nonparaxial abruptly autofocusing beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penciu, Raluca-Sorina; Makris, Konstantinos G.; Efremidis, Nikolaos K.

    2016-03-01

    We study nonparaxial autofocusing beams with pre-engineered trajectories. We consider the case of linearly polarized electric optical beams and examine their focusing properties such as contrast, beam width, and numerical aperture. Such beams are associated with larger intensity contrasts, can focus at smaller distances, and have smaller spot sizes as compared to the paraxial regime.

  6. ISR beam scrapers

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1972-01-01

    Beam scrapers seen in the direction of the beam. The two horizontal scraper foils are near the centre of the beam pipe andthe two scrapers for protection of the vacuum chamber are further outside. In the lower part of the beam pipe is the vertical halo scraping blade.

  7. BTF measurements with beam-beam interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Gorgen, P.; Fischer, W.

    2014-07-17

    We present considerations about the transverse beam transfer function (BTF) of beams under the influence of two effects: The strong-strong beam-beam effect and the influence of a Gaussian electron lens. The BTF are investigated using two methods: BTF excitation is simulated in a particle-in-cell (PIC) code. The BTF model is verified using a known analytic expectation. Analytic expectations for BTF of beams under a stationary electron lens are derived by extending BTF from the formalism of Berg and Ruggiero. Finally we compare the analytic BTF results for a stationary Gaussian lens to both the PIC simulation for split tune conditions and to PIC simulations for a beam influenced by an electron lens. We conclude that the formalism represents the electron lens well and can be applied to a limited extend to the beam-beam effect under split tune conditions. The analytic formalism allows us to recover the strength of an electron lens by means of fitting and can give clues regarding the strength of the beam-beam effe...

  8. Consumer Acceptance of Novel Foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.; Reinders, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    The success of novel foods depends to a considerable extent on whether consumers accept those innovations. This chapter provides an overview of current knowledge relevant to consumer acceptance of innovations in food. A broad range of theories and approaches to assess consumer response to

  9. The beam dump tunnels

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    In these images workers are digging the tunnels that will be used to dump the counter-circulating beams. Travelling just a fraction under the speed of light, the beams at the LHC will each carry the energy of an aircraft carrier travelling at 12 knots. In order to dispose of these beams safely, a beam dump is used to extract the beam and diffuse it before it collides with a radiation shielded graphite target.

  10. Preliminary design of the CLIC drive-beam transfer line

    CERN Document Server

    D'Amico, T E

    1999-01-01

    In the drive-beam generation complex of CLIC there is an important beam transfer line between the drive-beam accelerator and the drive- beam decelerators, where the 30 GHz RF power is generated in the decelerator structures In the drive-beam generation complex of CLIC there is an important beam transfer line between the drive-beam accelerator and the drive-beam decelerators, where the 30 GHz RF power is generated in the decelerator structures. The design proposed for this transport system is based on building blocks or beam optics subsystems, which have been individually studied in detail and can be combined in order to cover specific functions. One function consists of bending the beams wherever required by the geometrical layout, so as to preserve the bunch length and keep the bending arc compact and compatible with acceptable synchrotron radiation. Other functions are to adjust the path length of each drive beam for synchronism with the main-linac beam and to compress or stretch the bunch according to the ...

  11. Acceptability Engineering: the Study of user Acceptance of Innovative Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Cheol Kim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The discipline of human-computer interaction (HCI has been vital in developing understandings of users, usability, and the design of user-centered computer systems. However, it does not provide a satisfactory explanation of user perspectives on the specialized but important domain of innovative technologies, instead focusing more on mature technologies. In particular, the success of innovative technologies requires attention to be focused on early adopters of the technology and enthusiasts, rather than general end-users. Therefore, user acceptance should be considered more important than usability and convenience. At present, little is known about the ways in which innovative technologies are evaluated from the point of view of user acceptance. In this paper, we propose Acceptability Engineering as an academic discipline through which theories and methods for the design of acceptable innovative technologies can be discussed.

  12. Beam diagnostics for low energy beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Harasimowicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Low-energetic ion and antimatter beams are very attractive for a number of fundamental studies. The diagnostics of such beams, however, is a challenge due to low currents down to only a few thousands of particles per second and significant fraction of energy loss in matter at keV beam energies. A modular set of particle detectors has been developed to suit the particular beam diagnostic needs of the ultralow-energy storage ring (USR at the future facility for low-energy antiproton and ion research, accommodating very low beam intensities at energies down to 20 keV. The detectors include beam-profile monitors based on scintillating screens and secondary electron emission, sensitive Faraday cups for absolute intensity measurements, and capacitive pickups for beam position monitoring. In this paper, the design of all detectors is presented in detail and results from beam measurements are shown. The resolution limits of all detectors are described and options for further improvement summarized. Whilst initially developed for the USR, the instrumentation described in this paper is also well suited for use in other low-intensity, low-energy accelerators, storage rings, and beam lines.

  13. Electron Beam Welding of Gear Wheels by Splitted Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dřímal, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    This contribution deals with the issue of electron beam welding of high-accurate gear wheels composed of a spur gearing and fluted shaft joined with a face weld for automotive industry. Both parts made of the high-strength low-alloy steel are welded in the condition after final machining and heat treatment, performed by case hardening, whereas it is required that the run-out in the critical point of weldment after welding, i. e. after the final operation, would be 0.04 mm max.. In case of common welding procedure, cracks were formed in the weld, initiated by spiking in the weld root. Crack formation was prevented by the use of an interlocking joint with a rounded recess and suitable welding parameters, eliminating crack initiation by spiking in the weld root. Minimisation of the welding distortions was achieved by the application of tack welding with simultaneous splitting of one beam into two parts in the opposite sections of circumferential face weld attained on the principle of a new system of controlled deflection with digital scanning of the beam. This welding procedure assured that the weldment temperature after welding would not be higher than 400 °C. Thus, this procedure allowed achieving the final run-outs in the critical point of gearwheels within the maximum range up to 0.04 mm, which is acceptable for the given application. Accurate optical measurements did not reveal any changes in the teeth dimensions.

  14. Electron beam energy QA - a note on measurement tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Juergen; Nyflot, Matthew J; Smith, Wade P; Wottoon, Landon S; Young, Lori; Yang, Fei; Kim, Minsun; Hendrickson, Kristi R G; Ford, Eric; Kalet, Alan M; Cao, Ning; Dempsey, Claire; Sandison, George A

    2016-03-08

    Monthly QA is recommended to verify the constancy of high-energy electron beams generated for clinical use by linear accelerators. The tolerances are defined as 2%/2 mm in beam penetration according to AAPM task group report 142. The practical implementation is typically achieved by measuring the ratio of readings at two different depths, preferably near the depth of maximum dose and at the depth corresponding to half the dose maximum. Based on beam commissioning data, we show that the relationship between the ranges of energy ratios for different electron energies is highly nonlinear. We provide a formalism that translates measurement deviations in the reference ratios into change in beam penetration for electron energies for six Elekta (6-18 MeV) and eight Varian (6-22 MeV) electron beams. Experimental checks were conducted for each Elekta energy to compare calculated values with measurements, and it was shown that they are in agreement. For example, for a 6 MeV beam a deviation in the measured ionization ratio of ± 15% might still be acceptable (i.e., be within ± 2 mm), whereas for an 18 MeV beam the corresponding tolerance might be ± 6%. These values strongly depend on the initial ratio chosen. In summary, the relationship between differences of the ionization ratio and the corresponding beam energy are derived. The findings can be translated into acceptable tolerance values for monthly QA of electron beam energies.

  15. Low current beam techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint, A.; Laird, J.S.; Bardos, R.A.; Legge, G.J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Nishijima, T.; Sekiguchi, H. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan).

    1993-12-31

    Since the development of Scanning Transmission Microscopy (STIM) imaging in 1983 many low current beam techniques have been developed for the scanning (ion) microprobe. These include STIM tomography, Ion Beam Induced Current, Ion Beam Micromachining and Microlithography and Ionoluminense. Most of these techniques utilise beam currents of 10{sup -15} A down to single ions controlled by beam switching techniques This paper will discuss some of the low beam current techniques mentioned above, and indicate, some of their recent applications at MARC. A new STIM technique will be introduced that can be used to obtain Z-contrast with STIM resolution. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Market Acceptance of Smart Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report finds that smart growth developments enjoy market acceptance because of stability in prices over time. Housing resales in smart growth developments often have greater appreciation than their conventional suburban counterparts.

  17. Electron beam welding and beam positioning

    OpenAIRE

    MOROZOV M.Y.; BRAVERMAN V.Y.; MEDNIKOV D.M.

    2015-01-01

    Programs for control of mutual movements of the welded parts and EB gun are written in the unified language ISO-7bit. Beam settings control uses electronic charts or optional languages, sometimes self-designed. Operator coordinates movements and beam settings manually.

  18. T10 Beam Studies & Beam Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Bergmann, Michael Georges; Van Dijk, Maarten; CERN. Geneva. EN Department

    2017-01-01

    In order to test detector components before their installation in actual experiments, one uses test beams in which one can control particle typ, momentum and size to high degree. For this project the focus of a secondary beam at T10 in the East Area at CERN was analysed using an AZALEA telescope from DESY.

  19. Beam Dynamics and Beam Losses - Circular Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V

    2016-01-01

    A basic introduction to transverse and longitudinal beam dynamics as well as the most relevant beam loss mechanisms in circular machines will be presented in this lecture. This lecture is intended for physicists and engineers with little or no knowledge of this subject.

  20. Successful Beam-Beam Tuneshift Compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishofberger, Kip Aaron [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The performance of synchrotron colliders has been limited by the beam-beam limit, a maximum tuneshift that colliding bunches could sustain. Due to bunch-to-bunch tune variation and intra-bunch tune spread, larger tuneshifts produce severe emittance growth. Breaking through this constraint has been viewed as impossible for several decades. This dissertation introduces the physics of ultra-relativistic synchrotrons and low-energy electron beams, with emphasis placed on the limits of the Tevatron and the needs of a tuneshift-compensation device. A detailed analysis of the Tevatron Electron Lens (TEL) is given, comparing theoretical models to experimental data whenever possible. Finally, results of Tevatron operations with inclusion of the TEL are presented and analyzed. It is shown that the TEL provides a way to shatter the previously inescapable beam-beam limit.

  1. Accelerated iterative beam angle selection in IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bangert, Mark, E-mail: m.bangert@dkfz.de [Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center—DKFZ, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg D-69120 (Germany); Unkelbach, Jan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    show that optimized beam ensembles using only a few noncoplanar beam orientations often approach the plan quality of fully noncoplanar ensembles. Conclusions: We conclude that iterative BAS in combination with objective function surrogates can be a viable option to implement automated BAS at clinically acceptable computation times.

  2. Beam Loss in Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Plum, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Beam loss is a critical issue in high-intensity accelerators, and much effort is expended during both the design and operation phases to minimize the loss and to keep it to manageable levels. As new accelerators become ever more powerful, beam loss becomes even more critical. Linacs for H- ion beams, such as the one at the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source, have many more loss mechanisms compared to H+ (proton) linacs, such as the one being designed for the European Spallation Neutron Source. Interesting H- beam loss mechanisms include residual gas stripping, H+ capture and acceleration, field stripping, black-body radiation and the recently discovered intra-beam stripping mechanism. Beam halo formation, and ion source or RF turn on/off transients, are examples of beam loss mechanisms that are common for both H+ and H- accelerators. Machine protection systems play an important role in limiting the beam loss.

  3. Beam Dynamics for ARIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, Carl August Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-10-14

    Beam dynamics issues are assessed for a new linear induction electron accelerator being designed for flash radiography of large explosively driven hydrodynamic experiments. Special attention is paid to equilibrium beam transport, possible emittance growth, and beam stability. It is concluded that a radiographic quality beam will be produced possible if engineering standards and construction details are equivalent to those on the present radiography accelerators at Los Alamos.

  4. An Electromagnetic Beam Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to an electromagnetic beam converter and a method for conversion of an input beam of electromagnetic radiation having a bell shaped intensity profile a(x,y) into an output beam having a prescribed target intensity profile l(x',y') based on a further development...

  5. Halo formation from mismatched beam-beam interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Ji

    2003-05-23

    In this paper, we report on the halo formation and emittance growth driven by a parametric resonance during mismatched beam-beam collisions. In the regime of the weak-strong beam-beam interaction, if two beams have the same machine tunes, on-axis head-on collisions between a mismatched strong beam and a weak beam will not cause the formation of halo. However, if the two beams collide with an initial offset, the beam-beam force from the mismatched strong beam can cause halo formation and emittance growth in the weak beam. Meanwhile, if two beams have different machine tunes, for opposite charged colliding beams, when the machine tune of the weak beam is smaller than that of strong beam, there is emittance growth in the weak beam. When the machine tune of the weak beam is larger than that of the strong beam, there is little emittance growth. In the regime of strong-strong beam-beam interaction, halo is formed in both beams even when the two beams collide head-on on the axis with equal machine tunes. This puts a strong requirement for a good beam match during the injection to colliders in order to avoid the emittance growth.

  6. Exponential beams of electromagnetic radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo; Bialynicka-Birula, Zofia

    2006-01-01

    We show that in addition to well known Bessel, Hermite-Gauss, and Laguerre-Gauss beams of electromagnetic radiation, one may also construct exponential beams. These beams are characterized by a fall-off in the transverse direction described by an exponential function of rho. Exponential beams, like Bessel beams, carry definite angular momentum and are periodic along the direction of propagation, but unlike Bessel beams they have a finite energy per unit beam length. The analysis of these beam...

  7. A simple electron-beam lithography system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Kristian; Madsen, Dorte Nørgaard; Bøggild, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A large number of applications of electron-beam lithography (EBL) systems in nanotechnology have been demonstrated in recent years. In this paper we present a simple and general-purpose EBL system constructed by insertion of an electrostatic deflector plate system at the electron-beam exit...... of the column of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The system can easily be mounted on most standard SEM systems. The tested setup allows an area of up to about 50 x 50 pm to be scanned, if the upper limit for acceptable reduction of the SEM resolution is set to 10 run. We demonstrate how the EBL system can...... be used to write three-dimensional nanostructures by electron-beam deposition. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  8. Vaccine acceptance: the UK perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, John A; Mahgoub, Hamid; Shankar, Ananda Giri

    2013-12-01

    The United Kingdom has had a long history with vaccine acceptability dating back to Edward Jenner's theory of small pox vaccination. More recently, the discredited, Wakefield study published in 1998 continues to cause MMR skepticism. In pregnant women pertussis vaccination has been considerably more successful than influenza vaccination. Influenza vaccine uptake in healthcare workers remains poor. The media, politicians, and health reforms have contributed to the mixed coverage for these vaccines. In this article we examine vaccine acceptability from a UK perspective, and consider the future impact this is likely to have on the introduction of rotavirus and shingles vaccine in the UK in 2013.

  9. Commissioning measurements for photon beam data on three TrueBeam linear accelerators, and comparison with Trilogy and Clinac 2100 linear accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Gloria P

    2013-01-07

    This study presents the beam data measurement results from the commissioning of three TrueBeam linear accelerators. An additional evaluation of the measured beam data within the TrueBeam linear accelerators contrasted with two other linear accelerators from the same manufacturer (i.e., Clinac and Trilogy) was performed to identify and evaluate any differences in the beam characteristics between the machines and to evaluate the possibility of beam matching for standard photon energies. We performed a comparison of commissioned photon beam data for two standard photon energies (6 MV and 15 MV) and one flattening filter-free ("FFF") photon energy (10 FFF) between three different TrueBeam linear accelerators. An analysis of the beam data was then performed to evaluate the reproducibility of the results and the possibility of "beam matching" between the TrueBeam linear accelerators. Additionally, the data from the TrueBeam linear accelerator was compared with comparable data obtained from one Clinac and one Trilogy linear accelerator models produced by the same manufacturer to evaluate the possibility of "beam matching" between the TrueBeam linear accelerators and the previous models. The energies evaluated between the linear accelerator models are the 6 MV for low energy and the 15 MV for high energy. PDD and output factor data showed less than 1% variation and profile data showed variations within 1% or 2 mm between the three TrueBeam linear accelerators. PDD and profile data between the TrueBeam, the Clinac, and Trilogy linear accelerators were almost identical (less than 1% variation). Small variations were observed in the shape of the profile for 15 MV at shallow depths (Photon beam data were found to be reproducible between different TrueBeam linear accelerators well within the accepted clinical tolerance of ± 2%. The results indicate reproducibility in the TrueBeam machine head construction and a potential for beam matching between these types of linear

  10. L-286 Acceptance Test Record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HARMON, B.C.

    2000-01-14

    This document provides a detailed account of how the acceptance testing was conducted for Project L-286, ''200E Area Sanitary Water Plant Effluent Stream Reduction''. The testing of the L-286 instrumentation system was conducted under the direct supervision

  11. Nitrogen trailer acceptance test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostelnik, A.J.

    1996-02-12

    This Acceptance Test Report documents compliance with the requirements of specification WHC-S-0249. The equipment was tested according to WHC-SD-WM-ATP-108 Rev.0. The equipment being tested is a portable contained nitrogen supply. The test was conducted at Norco`s facility.

  12. Euthanasia Acceptance: An Attitudinal Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopfer, Fredrick J.; Price, William F.

    The study presented was conducted to examine potential relationships between attitudes regarding the dying process, including acceptance of euthanasia, and other attitudinal or demographic attributes. The data of the survey was comprised of responses given by 331 respondents to a door-to-door interview. Results are discussed in terms of preferred…

  13. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohig, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    This is the introductory article to a special series in Cognitive and Behavioral Practice on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). Instead of each article herein reviewing the basics of ACT, this article contains that review. This article provides a description of where ACT fits within the larger category of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT):…

  14. Energy justice: Participation promotes acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Jamie

    2017-08-01

    Wind turbines have been a go-to technology for addressing climate change, but they are increasingly a source of frustration for all stakeholders. While community ownership is often lauded as a panacea for maximizing turbine acceptance, a new study suggests that decision-making involvement — procedural fairness — matters most.

  15. Consumer acceptance of functional foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, Lynn J.; Scholderer, Joachim; Lambert, Nigel

    2003-01-01

    to which they are likely to buy products with particular functional properties. Various cross-cultural and demographic differences in acceptance found in the literature are reviewed, as well as barriers to dietary change. In conclusion, it is argued that understanding consumer's risk perceptions...

  16. Optimal design of beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samala, Shivakumar

    Beams are basic structural components that are capable of withstanding load primarily by resisting bending. Unlike Euler-Bernoulli beams, Timoshenko beams undergo both shear deformation and rotational effects, making it suitable for analyzing the behavior of thick or short beams, composite beams and beams that are subjected to high frequency excitation when their wave length becomes shorter. This thesis work focuses on optimal design of straight and tapered Timoshenko beams under static and dynamic constraints for rectangular and circular cross sections. In this work Timoshenko beam static and dynamic equations were studied. The finite element method was used for static and dynamic analysis of the beam. In finite element method to overcome the numerical problem in shear locking, cubic interpolation of displacement and an interdependent quadratic approximation of rotation has been considered. In order to optimize the weight of the beam with static and dynamic constraints three sets of optimizations were done. The design variables are length, cross sectional width and height, with objective function as mass, static deflection constraints were used. The second optimization set was using dynamic constraints and the last set was using both static and dynamic constraints.

  17. Resistance of steel beams with web openings and castellated beams

    OpenAIRE

    Kovačič, Darko

    2010-01-01

    In Diploma demonstration of bending and shear resistance of steel beams with openings in web and for castellated beams is being presented. Dimensioning of such beams is performed in compliance with general rules by Eurocode for dimensioning of beams by considering speciality of beams with openings or by non-linear analysis with consideration of imperfections. For delimit of beams with openings from castellated beams, geometric criteria are being used. Further approach to the dimensioning of t...

  18. Beam-Based Alignment in CTF3 Test Beam Line

    OpenAIRE

    Sterbini, G; Dӧbert, S; Marín, E.; Lillestol, RL; Schulte, D.; Adli, E.

    2012-01-01

    The CLIC linear collider is based on the two beams acceleration scheme. During acceleration of the colliding beams, the drive beam suffers a large build up on its energy spread. In order to efficiently transport such a beam, beam-based alignment techniques together with tight prealignment tolerances are crucial. To evaluate the performance of these steering algorithms, a beam-based steering campaign has been conducted at the Test Beam Line of the CLIC Test Facility. In the following we presen...

  19. Beam Loss Monitors at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Dehning, B.

    2016-01-01

    One of the main functions of the LHC beam loss measurement system is the protection of equipment against damage caused by impacting particles creating secondary showers and their energy dissipation in the matter. Reliability requirements are scaled according to the acceptable consequences and the frequency of particle impact events on equipment. Increasing reliability often leads to more complex systems. The downside of complexity is a reduction of availability; therefore, an optimum has to be found for these conflicting requirements. A detailed review of selected concepts and solutions for the LHC system will be given to show approaches used in various parts of the system from the sensors, signal processing, and software implementations to the requirements for operation and documentation.

  20. Beam induced RF heating

    CERN Document Server

    Salvant, B; Arduini, G; Assmann, R; Baglin, V; Barnes, M J; Bartmann, W; Baudrenghien, P; Berrig, O; Bracco, C; Bravin, E; Bregliozzi, G; Bruce, R; Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Cattenoz, G; Caspers, F; Claudet, S; Day, H; Garlasche, M; Gentini, L; Goddard, B; Grudiev, A; Henrist, B; Jones, R; Kononenko, O; Lanza, G; Lari, L; Mastoridis, T; Mertens, V; Métral, E; Mounet, N; Muller, J E; Nosych, A A; Nougaret, J L; Persichelli, S; Piguiet, A M; Redaelli, S; Roncarolo, F; Rumolo, G; Salvachua, B; Sapinski, M; Schmidt, R; Shaposhnikova, E; Tavian, L; Timmins, M; Uythoven, J; Vidal, A; Wenninger, J; Wollmann, D; Zerlauth, M

    2012-01-01

    After the 2011 run, actions were put in place during the 2011/2012 winter stop to limit beam induced radio frequency (RF) heating of LHC components. However, some components could not be changed during this short stop and continued to represent a limitation throughout 2012. In addition, the stored beam intensity increased in 2012 and the temperature of certain components became critical. In this contribution, the beam induced heating limitations for 2012 and the expected beam induced heating limitations for the restart after the Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) will be compiled. The expected consequences of running with 25 ns or 50 ns bunch spacing will be detailed, as well as the consequences of running with shorter bunch length. Finally, actions on hardware or beam parameters to monitor and mitigate the impact of beam induced heating to LHC operation after LS1 will be discussed.

  1. Laser beam shaping techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DICKEY,FRED M.; WEICHMAN,LOUIS S.; SHAGAM,RICHARD N.

    2000-03-16

    Industrial, military, medical, and research and development applications of lasers frequently require a beam with a specified irradiance distribution in some plane. A common requirement is a laser profile that is uniform over some cross-section. Such applications include laser/material processing, laser material interaction studies, fiber injection systems, optical data image processing, lithography, medical applications, and military applications. Laser beam shaping techniques can be divided into three areas: apertured beams, field mappers, and multi-aperture beam integrators. An uncertainty relation exists for laser beam shaping that puts constraints on system design. In this paper the authors review the basics of laser beam shaping and present applications and limitations of various techniques.

  2. Laser Beam Focus Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Carøe; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2007-01-01

    The quantitative and qualitative description of laser beam characteristics is important for process implementation and optimisation. In particular, a need for quantitative characterisation of beam diameter was identified when using fibre lasers for micro manufacturing. Here the beam diameter limits...... the obtainable features in direct laser machining as well as heat affected zones in welding processes. This paper describes the development of a measuring unit capable of analysing beam shape and diameter of lasers to be used in manufacturing processes. The analyser is based on the principle of a rotating...... mechanical wire being swept through the laser beam at varying Z-heights. The reflected signal is analysed and the resulting beam profile determined. The development comprised the design of a flexible fixture capable of providing both rotation and Z-axis movement, control software including data capture...

  3. Chilled beam application guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, David; Gräslund, Jonas; Hogeling, Jaap; Lund Kristiansen, Erik; Reinikanen, Mika; Svensson, Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    Chilled beam systems are primarily used for cooling and ventilation in spaces, which appreciate good indoor environmental quality and individual space control. Active chilled beams are connected to the ventilation ductwork, high temperature cold water, and when desired, low temperature hot water system. Primary air supply induces room air to be recirculated through the heat exchanger of the chilled beam. In order to cool or heat the room either cold or warm water is cycled through the heat exchanger.

  4. ALFA beam halo

    CERN Document Server

    Komarek, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    This note serves as a final report about CERN Summer Student Programme 2014 project. The beam halo is an undesired phenomenon for physics analyses on particle accelerators. It surrounds the beam core and constitutes an important part of background for signal measurements on some detectors, eg. in the forward region. In this study, the data from the ALFA detector were used, specifically from the run 191373 ($\\beta^*=90\\unit{m}$) and the run 213268 ($\\beta^*=1\\unit{km}$). Using the ROOT framework, a software for beam halo events selection was created and beam halo properties were examined. In the run 213268, excessive beam halo is suspected to be the reason for multiple beam scrapings that occurred. A kinematic reconstruction of beam halo particles is attempted in order to understand beam halo properties in the interaction point. Some further simulations are employed to find constraints for beam halo particles in order to survive in the accelerator for a longer time/many revolutions. This work represents a st...

  5. Beam cavity interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Gamp, A

    2011-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the rf generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, rf feedback, and feed-forward are described. Examples of digital rf phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed.

  6. Simulation of Beam-Beam Background at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Sailer, A

    2010-01-01

    The dense beams used at CLIC to achieve a high luminosity will cause a large amount of background particles through beam-beam interactions. Generator level studies with GUINEAPIG and full detector simulation studies with an ILD based CLIC detector have been performed to evaluate the amount of beam-beam back- ground hitting the vertex detector.

  7. Consumer acceptance of irradiated food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, P. [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/ IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    There was a widely held opinion during the 1970`s and 1980`s that consumers would be reluctant to purchase irradiated food, as it was perceived that consumers would confuse irradiated food with food contaminated by radionuclides. Indeed, a number of consumer attitude surveys conducted in several western countries during these two decades demonstrated that the concerns of consumers on irradiated food varied from very concerned to seriously concerned.This paper attempts to review parameters conducting in measuring consumer acceptance of irradiated food during the past three decades and to project the trends on this subject. It is believed that important lessons learned from past studies will guide further efforts to market irradiated food with wide consumer acceptance in the future. (Author)

  8. Blues fans and suicide acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, S

    2000-01-01

    Research has neglected the possible impact of the blues music subculture on suicide acceptability (SA). The sad themes in the blues may attract suicidal persons and reinforce their suicidal moods and attitudes. The present study performs the first test of the thesis that associates SA with being a blues fan. It uses data on a national sample of 961 adults drawn from the General Social Survey of 1993. The results of a multivariate logistic regression analysis found that blues fans were no more accepting of suicide than nonfans. However, blues fanship was found to have substantial indirect effects on SA through its influence on such factors as lowered religiosity levels, the most important predictor of SA. Race-specific analyses found more support for the model for whites than for African Americans.

  9. Accepting the T3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, D.O.; Pope, S.C.; DeLapp, J.G.

    1994-10-01

    In April, a 128 PE Cray T3D was installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Advanced Computing Laboratory as part of the DOE`s High-Performance Parallel Processor Program (H4P). In conjunction with CRI, the authors implemented a 30 day acceptance test. The test was constructed in part to help them understand the strengths and weaknesses of the T3D. In this paper, they briefly describe the H4P and its goals. They discuss the design and implementation of the T3D acceptance test and detail issues that arose during the test. They conclude with a set of system requirements that must be addressed as the T3D system evolves.

  10. Acceptability of reactors in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buden, D.

    1981-04-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it dies not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  11. Wind power: basic challenge concerning social acceptance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolsink, M.; Meyers, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    This reference article gives an overview of social acceptance (acceptance by all relevant actors in society) of all relevant aspects of implementation and diffusion of wind power. In social acceptance three dimensions of acceptance are distinguished (socio-political -; community -; market

  12. Automated beam model optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Létourneau, Daniel; Sharpe, Michael B; Owrangi, Amir; Jaffray, David A

    2010-05-01

    The beam model in a three dimensional treatment planning system (TPS) defines virtually the mechanical and dosimetric characteristics of a treatment unit. The manual optimization of a beam model during commissioning can be a time consuming task due to its iterative nature. Furthermore, the quality of the beam model commissioning depends on the user's ability to manage multiple parameters and assess their impact on the agreement between measured and calculated dose. The objective of this work is to develop and validate the performance of an automated beam model optimization system (ABMOS) based on intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) beam measurements to improve beam model accuracy while streamlining the commissioning process. The ABMOS was developed to adjust selected TPS beam model parameters iteratively to maximize the agreement between measured and calculated 2D dose maps obtained for an IMRT beam pattern. A 2D diode array with high spatial resolution detectors was used to sample the entire IMRT beam pattern in a single dose measurement. The use of an IMRT beam pattern with large number of monitor units was selected to highlight the difference between planned and delivered dose and improve the signal to noise ratio in the low dose regions. ABMOS was applied to the optimization of a beam model for an Elekta Synergy S treatment unit. The optimized beam model was validated for two anatomical sites (25 paraspinal and 25 prostate cases) using two independent patient-specific IMRT quality control (QC) methods based on ion chamber and 2D diode array measurements, respectively. The conventional approach of comparing calculated and measured beam profiles and percent-depth dose curves was also used to assess improvement in beam model after ABMOS optimization. Elements of statistical process control were applied to the process of patient-specific QC performed with the ion chamber and the 2D array to complement the model comparison. After beam model optimization with

  13. Beam Injection into RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; Mackay, W. W.; Tsoupas, N.

    1997-05-01

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. We describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks, the application program to steer the beam and the injection kickers. We report on the commissioning of the injection systems and on measurements of the kickers.

  14. Durnin-Whitney beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesús Cabrera-Rosas, Omar; Espíndola-Ramos, Ernesto; Alejandro Juárez-Reyes, Salvador; Julián-Macías, Israel; Ortega-Vidals, Paula; Rickenstorff-Parrao, Carolina; Silva-Ortigoza, Gilberto; Silva-Ortigoza, Ramón; Sosa-Sánchez, Citlalli Teresa

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the present work is to define a Durnin-Whitney beam as a nondiffracting beam such that its associated caustic locally only has singularities of the fold and cusp types. Since the caustic is structurally stable then the intensity pattern of this beam is also stable and this property is what makes its definition and its theoretical and experimental study worthwhile. These properties are important in applications such as uniform optical drilling in waveguides and communications through weak turbulent atmosphere. We find that in accordance with Whitney's theorem on the stability of maps from a two-dimensional manifold to a two-dimensional manifold the phase g({{Φ }}), of the complex function A({{Φ }}) characterizing the beam, locally is given by g({{Φ }})=a{{Φ }} for a fold and g({{Φ }})=b{{{Φ }}}2 for a cusp. This result implies that the Bessel beam of order zero is not stable and that any other Bessel beam is stable because locally it has a caustic of fold type. Finally, we present an example of a Durnin-Whitney beam given by g({{Φ }})=m{{Φ }}+b{{{Φ }}}2, which is a natural generalization of the Bessel beam of order m with a singularity of cusp ridge type.

  15. Beam Diagnostics for Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Koziol, Heribert

    2005-01-01

    This introductory course aims at a reasonably complete coverage of beam diagnostic devices used in linear and circular accelerators and in primary beam lines. The weight is on the concepts and the indication of variants, while for technical details the reader is referred to the literature. The present updated version replaces those from previous General Accelerator Physics Courses.

  16. Detecting Bessel beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichili, Abderrahmen; Mhlanga, Thandeka; Ismail, Yaseera; Roux, Filippus S.; McLaren, Melanie; Zghal, Mourad; Forbes, Andrew

    2014-09-01

    We propose a 2-dimensional method for Bessel Gaussian beam azimuthal and radial decomposition using digital holograms. We illustrate the reconstruction of a Bessel Gaussian beam after encountering an obstruction. From the measured decomposition we show the reconstruction of the amplitude, phase and azimuthal index of the field with high degree of accuracy.

  17. Laser Beam Scanning Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    metal mirror. Multiple thermocouple wires attached to the rear of the mirror provide temperature (and hence beam power) information at various points...on the mirror. Scanning is achieved by means of a selector switch which sequentially samples the thermocouple outputs. The thermocouple output voltages are measured and recorded as a function of laser beam power.

  18. Wind energy and social acceptability; Energie eolienne et acceptability sociale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurtey, E. (ed.)

    2008-07-01

    This document was prepared as part of a decentralized collaboration between Quebec and France to share knowledge regarding strategies and best practices in wind power development. It reviewed the social acceptance of Quebec's wind power industry, particularly at the municipal level. The wind industry is growing rapidly in Quebec, and this growth has generated many reactions ranging from positive to negative. The purpose of this joint effort was to describe decision making steps to developing a wind turbine array. The history of wind development in Quebec was discussed along with the various hardware components required in a wind turbine and different types of installations. The key element in implementing wind turbine arrays is to establish public acceptance of the project, followed by a good regulatory framework to define the roles and responsibilities of participants. The production of electricity from wind turbines constitutes a clean and renewable source of energy. Although it is associated with a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, this form of energy can also have negative environmental impacts, including noise. The revenues generated by wind parks are important factors in the decision making process. Two case studies in Quebec were presented. refs., tabs., figs.

  19. Basic design of the beam diagnostic device and proposal of a new electrostatic optical element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanashima, Susumu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-02-01

    The basic design completed of a beam diagnostic device, which indicates, among others, the phase space regions acceptable by the beams, and density distributions in the phase space as well. The measurement is made using two deflectors and two apertures. (M. Tanaka)

  20. Sheet electron beam tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Alexander Grenbeaux

    The DARPA HiFIVE project uses a pulsed electron sheet beam gun to power a traveling wave tube amplifier operating at 220 GHz. Presented is a method for characterizing the high current density 0.1 mm by 1 mm sheet electron beam. A tungsten tipped probe was scanned through the cross section of the sheet electron beam inside of a vacuum vessel. The probe was controlled with sub-micron precision using stepper motors and LabView computer control while boxcar averaging hardware sampled the pulsed beam. Matlab algorithms were used to interpret the data, calculate beam dimensions and current density, and create 2-dimensional cross section images. Full characterization of two separate HiFIVE sheet electron guns was accomplished and is also presented.

  1. Mechanically reinforced glass beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Henrik; Olesen, John Forbes

    2007-01-01

    The use of glass as a load carrying material in structural elements is rarely seen even though glass is a popular material for many architects. This is owed to the unreliable and low tensile strength, which is due to surface flaws and high brittleness of the material. These properties lead...... to breakage without any warning or ductility, which can be catastrophic if no precautions are taken. One aspect of this issue is treated here by looking at the possibility of mechanically reinforcing glass beams in order to obtain ductile failure for such a structural component. A mechanically reinforced...... laminated float glass beam is constructed and tested in four-point bending. The beam consist of 4 layers of glass laminated together with a slack steel band glued onto the bottom face of the beam. The glass parts of the tested beams are \\SI{1700}{mm} long and \\SI{100}{mm} high, and the total width of one...

  2. Beam director design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younger, F.C.

    1986-08-01

    A design and fabrication effort for a beam director is documented. The conceptual design provides for the beam to pass first through a bending and focusing system (or ''achromat''), through a second achromat, through an air-to-vacuum interface (the ''beam window''), and finally through the vernier steering system. Following an initial concept study for a beam director, a prototype permanent magnet 30/sup 0/ beam-bending achromat and prototype vernier steering magnet were designed and built. In volume II, copies are included of the funding instruments, requests for quotations, purchase orders, a complete set of as-built drawings, magnetic measurement reports, the concept design report, and the final report on the design and fabrication project. (LEW)

  3. Optical Device for Converting a Laser Beam into Two Co-aligned but Oppositely Directed Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Optical systems consisting of a series of optical elements require alignment from the input end to the output end. The optical elements can be mirrors, lenses, sources, detectors, or other devices. Complex optical systems are often difficult to align from end-to-end because the alignment beam must be inserted at one end in order for the beam to traverse the entire optical path to the other end. The ends of the optical train may not be easily accessible to the alignment beam. Typically, when a series of optical elements is to be aligned, an alignment laser beam is inserted into the optical path with a pick-off mirror at one end of the series of elements. But it may be impossible to insert the beam at an end-point. It can be difficult to locate the pick-off mirror at the desired position because there is not enough space, there is no mounting surface, or the location is occupied by a source, detector, or other component. Alternatively, the laser beam might be inserted at an intermediate location (not at an end-point) and sent, first in one direction and then the other, to the opposite ends of the optical system for alignment. However, in this case, alignment must be performed in two directions and extra effort is required to co-align the two beams to make them parallel and coincident, i.e., to follow the same path as an end-to-end beam. An optical device has been developed that accepts a laser beam as input and produces two co-aligned, but counter-propagating beams. In contrast to a conventional alignment laser placed at one end of the optical path, this invention can be placed at a convenient position within the optical train and aligned to send its two beams simultaneously along precisely opposite paths that, taken together, trace out exactly the same path as the conventional alignment laser. This invention allows the user the freedom to choose locations within the optical train for placement of the alignment beam. It is also self-aligned by design and requires

  4. Fast Acceptance by Common Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Berg

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Schelling (1969, 1971a,b, 1978 observed that macro-level patterns do not necessarily reflect micro-level intentions, desires or goals. In his classic model on neighborhood segregation which initiated a large and influential literature, individuals with no desire to be segregated from those who belong to other social groups nevertheless wind up clustering with their own type. Most extensions of Schelling's model have replicated this result. There is an important mismatch, however, between theory and observation, which has received relatively little attention. Whereas Schelling-inspired models typically predict large degrees of segregation starting from virtually any initial condition, the empirical literature documents considerable heterogeneity in measured levels of segregation. This paper introduces a mechanism that can produce significantly higher levels of integration and, therefore, brings predicted distributions of segregation more in line with real-world observation. As in the classic Schelling model, agents in a simulated world want to stay or move to a new location depending on the proportion of neighbors they judge to be acceptable. In contrast to the classic model, agents' classifications of their neighbors as acceptable or not depend lexicographically on recognition first and group type (e.g., ethnic stereotyping second. The FACE-recognition model nests classic Schelling: When agents have no recognition memory, judgments about the acceptability of a prospective neighbor rely solely on his or her group type (as in the Schelling model. A very small amount of recognition memory, however, eventually leads to different classifications that, in turn, produce dramatic macro-level effects resulting in significantly higher levels of integration. A novel implication of the FACE-recognition model concerns the large potential impact of policy interventions that generate modest numbers of face-to-face encounters with members of other social groups.

  5. Beam monitoring at NA2

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    Claus Goessling working on the beam Cerenkov counter of NA2. The muon beam enters from left the hall EHN2 and the last element of the beam transport. On background is the access door on the Jura side.

  6. Application of electron beam technology in improving sewage water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2Radiation Technology Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai-400085, India. Accepted 30 May, 2011. The use of electron beam to disinfect sewage water is gaining importance. The current problem on environmental health in relation to water pollution insists for the safe disposal of ...

  7. Beam Imaging and Luminosity Calibration

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081126; Klute, Markus; Medlock, Catherine Aiko

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a method to reconstruct two-dimensional proton bunch densities using vertex distributions accumulated during LHC beam-beam scans. The x-y correlations in the beam shapes are studied and an alternative luminosity calibration technique is introduced. We demonstrate the method on simulated beam-beam scans and estimate the uncertainty on the luminosity calibration associated to the beam-shape reconstruction to be below 1%.

  8. Flexural Test of Fly Ash based Geopolimer Concrete Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nindyawati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash is a by-product from the coal industry, which is widely available in Indonesia. Fly ash contains quite high silicate and alumina. Silica and alumina reacts with alkaline solution to produce alumina silicate gel which binds the aggregate to produce geopolymer concrete. Geopolymer concrete is introduced as an environmental concrete with high compressive strength. The use of geopolymer concrete beams is a solution to reduce the effects of greenhouse gases. This research uses experimental designs. The data are obtained from the testing of 4 pieces of reinforced geopolymer concrete beams and reinforced ordinary concrete beams with a / d of 1.11 and 2.24. The results are obtained from the maximum load that can be accepted by the beam. The results of this study are: (1 Geopolymer concrete cylinder has 26.78% higher compressive strength than ordinary concrete cylinders (2 Ordinary concrete beams can withstand 34.8% load higher compared to the geopolymer concrete beam (3 Reinforced ordinary concrete beams experience bending shear collapse while reinforced geopolymer concrete beam experience pure bending collapse.

  9. Simulations of beam-beam and beam-wire interactions in RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung J.; Sen, Tanaji; /Fermilab; Abreu, Natalia P.; Fischer, Wolfram; /Brookhaven

    2009-02-01

    The beam-beam interaction is one of the dominant sources of emittance growth and luminosity lifetime deterioration. A current carrying wire has been proposed to compensate long-range beam-beam effects in the LHC and strong localized long-range beam-beam effects are experimentally investigated in the RHIC collider. Tune shift, beam transfer function, and beam loss rate are measured in dedicated experiments. In this paper, they report on simulations to study the effect of beam-wire interactions based on diffusive apertures, beam loss rates, and beam transfer function using a parallelized weak-strong beam simulation code (BBSIMC). The simulation results are compared with measurements performed in RHIC during 2007 and 2008.

  10. ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pikin, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-11-21

    Electron beam ion sources technology made significant progress since 1968 when this method of producing highly charged ions in a potential trap within electron beam was proposed by E. Donets. Better understanding of physical processes in EBIS, technological advances and better simulation tools determined significant progress in key EBIS parameters: electron beam current and current density, ion trap capacity, attainable charge states. Greatly increased the scope of EBIS and EBIT applications. An attempt is made to compile some of EBIS engineering problems and solutions and to demonstrate a present stage of understanding the processes and approaches to build a better EBIS.

  11. Beam instrumentation performance overview

    CERN Document Server

    Sapinski, M

    2012-01-01

    The 2011 run has proven that LHC can operate safely and stably with higher bunch intensity and smaller transverse emittance than foreseen in the Technical Design Report. In this presentation the performance of the Beam Position Monitoring (BPM) system is discussed. The improvements to the system, those made during the last year and those expected to be done for 2012 run are presented. The status of the three types of devices measuring the transverse beam emittance, wire scanners (BWS), synchrotron radiation monitors (BSRT) and beam gas ionization monitors (BGI), are shown. The control room applications are reviewed and a set of improvements proposed by the operation team is presented.

  12. Luminescent beam stop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, Diane; Morton, Simon A.

    2017-10-25

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to beam stops. In one aspect, a device comprises a luminescent material, a beam stop plate, and an optical fiber. The luminescent material is a parallelepiped having a first side and a second side that are squares and having a third side that is a rectangle or a square. The first side and the second side are perpendicular to the third side. The beam stop plate is attached to the first side of the luminescent material. The optical fiber has a first end and a second end, with the first end of the optical fiber attached to the third side of the luminescent material.

  13. Acceptance of Others, Feeling of Being Accepted and Striving for Being Accepted Among the Representatives of Different Kinds of Occupations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergana Stanoeva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an important issue related to the human attitudes and needs in interpersonal and professional aspects. The theoretical part deals with several psychological components of the self-esteem and esteem of the others – acceptance of the others, feeling of being accepted, need for approval. Some gender differences in manifestations of acceptance and feeling of being accepted at the workplace are discussed. This article presents some empirical data for the degree of acceptance of others, feeling of being accepted and the strive for being accepted among the representatives of helping, pedagogical, administrative and economic occupations, as well as non-qualified workers. The goals of the study were to reveal the interdependency between these constructs and to be found some significant differences between the representatives of the four groups of occupations. The methods of the first study were W. Fey’s scales “Acceptance of others”, and “How do I feel accepted by others”. The method of the second study was Crown and Marlowe Scale for Social Desirability. The results indicated some significant differences in acceptance of others and feeling of being accepted between the non-qualified workers and the representatives of helping, administrative and economic occupations. There were not any significant difference in strive for being accepted between the fouroccupational groups.

  14. Modeling of beam customization devices in the pencil-beam splitting algorithm for heavy charged particle radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanematsu, Nobuyuki

    2011-03-07

    A broad-beam-delivery system for radiotherapy with protons or ions often employs multiple collimators and a range-compensating filter, which offer complex and potentially useful beam customization. It is however difficult for conventional pencil-beam algorithms to deal with fine structures of these devices due to beam-size growth during transport. This study aims to avoid the difficulty with a novel computational model. The pencil beams are initially defined at the range-compensating filter with angular-acceptance correction for upstream collimation followed by stopping and scattering. They are individually transported with possible splitting near the aperture edge of a downstream collimator to form a sharp field edge. The dose distribution for a carbon-ion beam was calculated and compared with existing experimental data. The penumbra sizes of various collimator edges agreed between them to a submillimeter level. This beam-customization model will be used in the greater framework of the pencil-beam splitting algorithm for accurate and efficient patient dose calculation.

  15. Automatic learning-based beam angle selection for thoracic IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amit, Guy; Marshall, Andrea [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Purdie, Thomas G., E-mail: tom.purdie@rmp.uhn.ca; Jaffray, David A. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E2 (Canada); Techna Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5 (Canada); Levinshtein, Alex [Department of Computer Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4 (Canada); Hope, Andrew J.; Lindsay, Patricia [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9, Canada and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E2 (Canada); Pekar, Vladimir [Philips Healthcare, Markham, Ontario L6C 2S3 (Canada)

    2015-04-15

    coverage and organ at risk sparing and were superior over plans produced with fixed sets of common beam angles. The great majority of the automatic plans (93%) were approved as clinically acceptable by three radiation therapy specialists. Conclusions: The results demonstrated the feasibility of utilizing a learning-based approach for automatic selection of beam angles in thoracic IMRT planning. The proposed method may assist in reducing the manual planning workload, while sustaining plan quality.

  16. Leda Beam Diagnostics Instrumentation Beam Position Monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, D

    2000-01-01

    The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) facility located at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) accelerates protons to an energy of 6.7-MeV and current of 100-mA operating in either a pulsed or cw mode. Of key importance to the commissioning and operations effort is the Beam Position Monitor system (BPM). The LEDA BPM system uses five micro-stripline beam position monitors processed by log ratio processing electronics with data acquisition via a series of custom TMS32OC40 Digital Signal Processing (DSP) boards. Of special interest to this paper is the operation of the system, the log ratio processing, and the system calibration technique. This paper will also cover the DSP system operations and their interaction with the main accelerator control system.

  17. User acceptance of mobile notifications

    CERN Document Server

    Westermann, Tilo

    2017-01-01

    This book presents an alternative approach to studying smartphone-app user notifications. It starts with insights into user acceptance of mobile notifications in order to provide tools to support users in managing these. It extends previous research by investigating factors that influence users’ perception of notifications and proposes tools addressing the shortcomings of current systems. It presents a technical framework and testbed as an approach for evaluating the usage of mobile applications and notifications, and then discusses a series of studies based on this framework that investigate factors influencing users’ perceptions of mobile notifications. Lastly, a set of design guidelines for the usage of mobile notifications is derived that can be employed to support users in handling notifications on smartphones.

  18. Generalized beam quality factor of aberrated truncated Gaussian laser beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mafusire, C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The authors outline a theory for the calculation of the beam quality factor of an aberrated laser beam. They provide closed form equations that show that the beam quality factor of an aberrated Gaussian beam depends on all primary aberrations except...

  19. Single kick approximations for beam-beam deflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiko Koyama

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available A six-dimensional symplectic beam-beam interaction map using finite discrete slices of a strong beam is extended to infinitesimal slices. The new map is calculated under the assumption of a longitudinal Gaussian distribution with approximations. A round Gaussian beam is simulated to demonstrate accuracies of the approximations.

  20. Final focus test beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-03-01

    This report discusses the following: the Final Focus Test Beam Project; optical design; magnets; instrumentation; magnetic measurement and BPM calibration; mechanical alignment and stabilization; vacuum system; power supplies; control system; radiation shielding and personnel protection; infrastructure; and administration.

  1. Longitudinal beam dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Tecker, F.

    2014-01-01

    The course gives a summary of longitudinal beam dynamics for both linear and circular accelerators. After discussing different types of acceleration methods and synchronism conditions, it focuses on the particle motion in synchrotrons.

  2. HIRENASD Beam FEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This contains attempts to create BEAM FEM model. I have started a Blog to discuss this... please put your comments there and I will attempt to keep everything...

  3. SPIDER beam dump as diagnostic of the particle beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaupa, M., E-mail: matteo.zaupa@igi.cnr.it; Sartori, E. [Università degli Studi di Padova, Via 8 Febbraio 2, Padova 35122 (Italy); Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy); Dalla Palma, M.; Brombin, M.; Pasqualotto, R. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    The beam power produced by the negative ion source for the production of ion of deuterium extracted from RF plasma is mainly absorbed by the beam dump component which has been designed also for measuring the temperatures on the dumping panels for beam diagnostics. A finite element code has been developed to characterize, by thermo-hydraulic analysis, the sensitivity of the beam dump to the different beam parameters. The results prove the capability of diagnosing the beam divergence and the horizontal misalignment, while the entity of the halo fraction appears hardly detectable without considering the other foreseen diagnostics like tomography and beam emission spectroscopy.

  4. Test Beams and Polarized Fixed Target Beams at the NLC

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Lewis; Pitthan, Rainer; Rokni, Sayed; Thompson, Kathleen; Kolomenski, Yury

    2001-01-01

    A conceptual program to use NLC beams for test beams and fixed target physics is described. Primary undisrupted polarized beams would be the most simple to use, but for NLC, the disrupted beams are of good enough quality that they could also be used, after collimation of the low energy tails, for test beams and fixed target physics. Pertinent issues are: what is the compelling physics, what are the requirements on beams and running time, and what is the impact on colliding beam physics runni...

  5. Beam-beam diagnostics from closed-orbit distortion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furman, M.; Chin, Y.H.; Eden, J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Kozanecki, W. [DAPNIA/SPP, CEN Saclay Gif-sur-Yvette, (FR)]|[Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tennyson, J.; Ziemann, V. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1992-07-01

    We study the applicability of beam-beam deflection techniques as a tuning tool for asymmetric B factories, focusing on PEP-II as an example. Assuming that the closed orbits of the two beams are separated vertically at the interaction point by a local orbit bump that is nominally closed, we calculate the residual beam orbit distortions due to the beam-beam interaction. Difference orbit measurements, performed at points conveniently distant from the interaction point (IP), provide distinct signatures that can be used to maintain the beams in collision and perform detailed optical diagnostics at the IP. A proposal to test this method experimentally at the TRISTAN ring is briefly discussed.

  6. Beam-beam effects at the Fermilab Tevatron: Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sen

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The Tevatron in Run II is operating with three trains of 12 bunches each. Long-range beam-beam interactions have been significant sources of beam loss and lifetime limitations of antiprotons. The dynamics due to the long-range beam-beam interactions depends on several beam parameters such as tunes, coupling, chromaticities, beam separations, intensities, and emittances. We have developed analytical tools to calculate, for example, amplitude dependent tune shifts and chromaticities, beam-beam induced coupling, and resonance driving terms. We report on these calculations and estimates of dynamic aperture and diffusion coefficients with long-term tracking. These theoretical results are compared with observations and used to predict performance at design values of beam parameters.

  7. Is LEP beam-beam limited at its highest energy?

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, D; Meddahi, Malika; Verdier, A

    1999-01-01

    The operation of LEP at 45.6 GeV was limited by beam-beam effects and the vertical beam-beam parameter xy never exceeded 0.045. At the highest energy of 94.5 GeV, the increased damping allows higher beam-beam parameters xy . Values above 0.07 in the vertical plane averaged over four experiments have been obtained frequently with peak values up to 0.075 in a single experiment. Although the maximum intensity in LEP is presently limited by technical considerations, some observations indicate that the beam-beam limit is close and the question of the maximum possible values can be raised. These observations are shown in this paper and possible consequences are presented. The optimum operation of LEP in the neighbourhood of the beam-beam limit is discussed.

  8. Beam Propagation Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    Kiuttu C. A. Ekdahl N. F. Roderick F49620-81-C-0016 B. A. Sabol L. A. Wright D. J. Sullivan______________ 3 P;ERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS...pulse * transmission through the atmosphere remain unresolved. The complexity of beam propagation physics and air chemistry makes the prediction of beam...higher front velocities than predicted by Eq. (27). Fessenden et al. 1 6 measured vf - 0.77 v in a detailed series of experiments utilizing the FX-25

  9. Electron Beam Materials Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Donald E.

    2012-06-01

    In electron beam processing, a well-defined beam of relatively energetic electrons produced by a high voltage acceleration gap is used to transmit thermal energy into a material in a precise manner. This controlled deposition of heat is employed in a wide variety of industrial applications for precision cutting, drilling, and welding of materials as well as annealing, glazing, and surface hardening. This chapter will describe the equipment used and the most prominent industrial applications for this process.

  10. LHC First Beam 2008

    CERN Multimedia

    Tuura, L

    2008-01-01

    The CMS Centre played a major part in the LHC First Beam Event on September 10th 2008: it was a central point for CMS, hosting journalists from all over the world and providing live link-ups to collaborating institutes as well as, of course, monitoring events as they happened at Point 5. It was also a venue for celebration as the beam completed circuits of the LHC in both directions, passing successfully through the detector (Courtesy of Lassi Tuura)

  11. Credit in Acceptance Sampling on Attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, Chris A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Credit is introduced in acceptance sampling on attributes and a Credit Based Acceptance sampling system is developed that is very easy to apply in practice.The credit of a producer is defined as the total number of items accepted since the last rejection.In our sampling system the sample size for a

  12. Older Adults' Acceptance of Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick; Salvendy, Gavriel

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated variables contributing to older adults' information technology acceptance through a survey, which was used to find factors explaining and predicting older adults' information technology acceptance behaviors. Four factors, including needs satisfaction, perceived usability, support availability, and public acceptance, were…

  13. The ideal neutrino beams

    CERN Document Server

    Lindroos, Mats

    2009-01-01

    The advance in neutrino oscillation physics is driven by the availability of well characterized and high flux neutrino beams. The three present options for the next generation neutrino oscillation facility are super beams, neutrino factories and beta-beams. A super-beam is a very high intensity classical neutrino beam generated by protons impinging on a target where the neutrinos are generated by the secondary particles decaying in a tunnel down streams of the target. In a neutrino factory the neutrinos are generated from muons decaying in a storage ring with long straight sections pointing towards the detectors. In a beta-beam the neutrinos are also originating from decay in a storage ring but the decaying particles are radioactive ions rather than muons. I will in this presentation review the three options and discuss the pros and cons of each. The present joint design effort for a future high intensity neutrino oscillation in Europe within a common EU supported design study, EURONU, will also be presented....

  14. Fractional Airy beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khonina, S N; Ustinov, A V

    2017-11-01

    Airy beams possess a number of properties that ensure their multifunction and high relevance in many applications. This fact stimulates scientists to search for new modifications and generalizations of classical Airy beams. Several generalizations of the Airy functions are known, on the basis of both the modification of the differential equation and the variations in the integral representation. In this paper we propose and investigate a new type of Airy beams-fractional Airy beams (FrAiB). They are based on the generalization of the integral representation and are close to the Olver functions, but we are considering a wider range of the power-law dependence of the argument, including non-integer (fractional) values of the power. A theoretical and numerical analysis of the FrAiBs, as well as their symmetrized variants, was performed. The properties of FrAiBs, such as being non-diffracting and autofocusing, were numerically investigated by means of the fractional Fourier transform, describing the beam transformations by paraxial optical systems. We believe that new beams can be useful for laser manipulation techniques and lensless laser patterning.

  15. IBC - ION BEAM CENTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes von Borany

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Ion Beam Center (IBC, various set-ups – electrostatic accelerators, ion implanters, plasma-based ion implantation equipment, low-energy ion tools, an ion microscope etc. – are combined into a unique facility for research and applications using ion beams. Almost all ions from stable chemical nuclides are available in the ion energy range from 10 eV to about 60 MeV. In addition to broad beams, also focused (down to 1 nm and highly-charged (charge state up to 45+ ion beams, or ions extracted from a plasma can be provided. In total, the IBC operates more than 30 dedicated tools or beamline end-stations. The specific expertise of IBC is the modification and analysis of solids by energetic ions aimed to develop novel materials for information technology, electronics or energy systems. In addition, ion beam analysis techniques became of increasing importance for interdisciplinary fields like geochemistry, climate or environmental research and resources technology. Special add-on services offered ensure a successful realization of user experiments. Based on a long-term expertise, specific equipment and common commercial procedures, the IBC is strongly active in the use of ion beam techniques for industrial applications aimed to initiate valuable product innovation.

  16. Studies of beam dynamics in relativistic klystron two-beam accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidia, Steven M.

    1999-11-01

    Two-beam accelerators (TBAs) based upon free-electron lasers (FELs) or relativistic klystrons (RK-TBAs) have been proposed as efficient power sources for next generation high-energy linear colliders. Studies have demonstrated the possibility of building TBAs from X-band (~8-12 GHz) through Ka band (~ 30-35 GHz) frequency regions. Provided that further prototyping shows stable beam propagation with minimal current loss and production of good quality, high-power rf fields, this technology is compatible with current schemes for electron-positron colliders in the multi-TeV center-of-mass scale. A new method of simulating the beam dynamics in accelerators of this type has been developed in this dissertation. There are three main components to this simulation. The first is a tracking algorithm to generate nonlinear transfer maps for pushing noninteracting particles through the external fields. The second component is a 3D Particle-In-Cell (PIC) algorithm that solves a set of Helmholtz equations for the self-fields, including the conducting boundary condition, and generates impulses that are interleaved with the nonlinear maps by means of a split-operation algorithm. The Helmholtz equations are solved by a multi-grid algorithm. The third component is an equivalent circuit equation solver that advances the modal rf cavity fields in time due to excitation by the modulated beam. The RTA project is described, and the simulation code is used to design the latter portions of the experiment. Detailed calculations of the beam dynamics and of the rf cavity output are presented and discussed. A beamline design is presented that will generate nearly 1.2 GW of power from 40 input, gain, and output rv cavities over a 10 m distance. The simulations show that beam current losses are acceptable, and that longitudinal and transverse focusing techniques are sufficient capable of maintaining a high degree of beam quality along the entire beamline. Additional experimental efforts are also

  17. Weld formation control at electron beam welding with beam oscillations

    OpenAIRE

    Trushnikov, Dmitriy; Koleva, Elena; Mladenov, Georgy; A. Shcherbakov

    2014-01-01

    Electron beam welding is used extensively to produce essential machine parts. The control of the basic beam parameters beam power or beam current at constant accelerating voltage, welding speed, current of focusing lens and distance between electron gun and welded sample surface is not enough to obtain at most of the regimes sound welds. Control of the focus position using analysis of the high frequency component of the current, collected by plasma, at periodic interactions on the beam (the o...

  18. Electron beam welding of iridium heat source capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustaleski, Thomas M.; Yearwood, J. Cecil; Burgan, Clyde E.; Green, L. A.

    1991-01-01

    The development of the welding procedures for the production of DOP-26 iridium alloy cups for heat source encapsulation is described. All the final assembly welds were made using the electron beam welding process. The welding of the 0.13-mm weld shield required the use of computer controlled X-Y table and a run-off tab. Welding of the frit vent to the cup required that a laser weld be made to hold the frit assembly edges together for the final electron beam weld. Great care is required in tooling design and beam placement to achieve acceptable results. Unsuccessful attempts to use laser beam welding for heat shield butt weld are discussed.

  19. Ion Accelerator Merges Several Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, G.

    1984-01-01

    Intense ion beam formed by merging multiple ion beamlets into one concentrated beam. Beamlet holes in graphite screen and focusing grids arranged in hexagonal pattern. Merged beam passes through single hole in each of aluminum accelerator and decelerator grids. Ion extraction efficiency, beam intensity, and focusing improved.

  20. Beam Trail Tracking at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicklaus, Dennis J. [Fermilab; Carmichael, Linden Ralph [Fermilab; Neswold, Richard [Fermilab; Yuan, Zongwei [Fermilab

    2015-01-01

    We present a system for acquiring and sorting data from select devices depending on the destination of each particular beam pulse in the Fermilab accelerator chain. The 15 Hz beam that begins in the Fermilab ion source can be directed to a variety of additional accelerators, beam lines, beam dumps, and experiments. We have implemented a data acquisition system that senses the destination of each pulse and reads the appropriate beam intensity devices so that profiles of the beam can be stored and analysed for each type of beam trail. We envision utilizing this data long term to identify trends in the performance of the accelerators

  1. Finite element modeling of steel concrete beam considering double composite action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Mohamed Mahmoud

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Steel concrete composite construction has gained wide acceptance as an alternative to pure steel or concrete construction. Ansys 11 computer program has been used to develop a three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model in order to investigate the fracture behaviors of continuous double steel-concrete composite beams, with emphasis on the beam slab interface. Three beam models with varying number of the head studs have been addressed. The associated constitutive results such as the ultimate loads, the maximum deflections, the interface slip and slip strain values are presented. A parametric study has been carried out in order to investigate the effect of some parameters on their fracture capabilities, such as steel beam height, lower slab thickness and length, studs diameter and arrangement method. By comparing these results with the available experimental data, the proposed model is found to be capable of analyzing steel-concrete composite beams to an acceptable accuracy.

  2. Societal acceptance of unnecessary evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughey, Jamie W.; Mundzir, Ibnu; Patt, Anthony; Rosemary, Rizanna; Safrina, Lely; Mahdi, Saiful; Daly, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Uncertainties in forecasting extreme events force an unavoidable tradeoff between false alarms and misses. The appropriate balance depends on the level of societal acceptance of unnecessary evacuations, but there has been little empirical research on this. Intuitively it may seem that an unnecessary evacuation would make people less likely to evacuate again in the future, but our study finds no support for this intuition. Using new quantitative (n=800) and qualitative evidence, we examine individual- and household-level evacuation decisions in response to the strong 11-Apr-2012 earthquake in Aceh, Indonesia. This earthquake did not produce a tsunami, but the population had previously experienced the devastating 2004 tsunami. In our sample, the vast majority of people (86%) evacuated in the 2012 earthquake, and nearly all (94%) say they would evacuate again if a similar earthquake happened in the future. Self-reported level of fear at the moment of the 2012 earthquake explains more of the variance in evacuation decisions and intentions than does a combination of perceived tsunami risk and perceived efficacy of evacuation modeled on protection motivation theory. These findings suggest that the appropriate balance between false alarms and misses may be highly context-specific. Investigating this in each context would make an important contribution to the effectiveness of early-warning systems.

  3. Acceptability of GM foods among Pakistani consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Akhter; Rahut, Dil Bahadur; Imtiaz, Muhammad

    2016-04-02

    In Pakistan majority of the consumers do not have information about genetically modified (GM) foods. In developing countries particularly in Pakistan few studies have focused on consumers' acceptability about GM foods. Using comprehensive primary dataset collected from 320 consumers in 2013 from Pakistan, this study analyzes the determinants of consumers' acceptability of GM foods. The data was analyzed by employing the bivariate probit model and censored least absolute deviation (CLAD) models. The empirical results indicated that urban consumers are more aware of GM foods compared to rural consumers. The acceptance of GM foods was more among females' consumers as compared to male consumers. In addition, the older consumers were more willing to accept GM food compared to young consumers. The acceptability of GM foods was also higher among wealthier households. Low price is the key factor leading to the acceptability of GM foods. The acceptability of the GM foods also reduces the risks among Pakistani consumers.

  4. Beam-beam observations in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); White, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-06-24

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory has been operating since 2000. Over the past decade, thanks to the continuously increased bunch intensity and reduced β*s at the interaction points, the maximum peak luminosity in the polarized proton operation has been increased by more than two orders of magnitude. In this article, we first present the beam-beam observations in the previous RHIC polarized proton runs. Then we analyze the mechanisms for the beam loss and emittance growth in the presence of beam-beam interaction. The operational challenges and limitations imposed by beam-beam interaction and their remedies are also presented. In the end, we briefly introduce head-on beam-beam compensation with electron lenses in RHIC.

  5. Linac design for intense hadron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chuan

    2009-12-14

    , no beam losses were observed and all emittance growths were well under control. To solve the well-known transition problems between two kinds of different accelerating structures, some matching techniques have been developed and applied for the RFQ accelerator and the KONUS-based H-type DTL with the following idea: to perform the RFQ-DTL matching inside the RFQ, and not in the MEBT, because the continuous, velocity-independent electric focusing is very efficient for a low-{beta} beam. For the FRANZ project, the output longitudinal particle distribution has been rotated by the so-called Longitudinal-Rotation Technique, which can narrow the phase spread of the beam to fit into the acceptance of a KONUS structure. For the EUROTRANS injector, the matching has been done in the transverse planes: two additional transition cells at the end of the RFQ were introduced to turn both output transverse emittance ellipses axial-symmetric and into the same orientation, which helped leading to similar transverse beam developments in the DTL part. In addition, the error study is another important topic of this dissertation. In the design study, usually only ideal operation conditions and perfect accelerator components have been taken into account. According to the capabilities of the simulation codes, seven kinds of RFQ errors and four kinds of DTL errors have been applied to the designed FRANZ RFQ and IFMIF DTL machines, respectively. For the EUROTRANS injector, combined RFQ and DTL errors were used. (orig.)

  6. Lightweight HPC beam OMEGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sýkora, Michal; Jedlinský, Petr; Komanec, Jan

    2017-09-01

    In the design and construction of precast bridge structures, a general goal is to achieve the maximum possible span length. Often, the weight of individual beams makes them difficult to handle, which may be a limiting factor in achieving the desired span. The design of the OMEGA beam aims to solve a part of these problems. It is a thin-walled shell made of prestressed high-performance concrete (HPC) in the shape of inverted Ω character. The concrete shell with prestressed strands is fitted with a non-stressed tendon already in the casting yard and is more easily transported and installed on the site. The shells are subsequently completed with mild steel reinforcement and cores are cast in situ together with the deck. The OMEGA beams can also be used as an alternative to steel - concrete composite bridges. Due to the higher production complexity, OMEGA beam can hardly substitute conventional prestressed beams like T or PETRA completely, but it can be a useful alternative for specific construction needs.

  7. ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Zvi I.; Kuczewski A.; Altinbas, Z.; Beavis, D.; Belomestnykh,; Dai, J. et al

    2012-07-01

    The Collider-Accelerator Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory is building a high-brightness 500 mA capable Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) as one of its main R&D thrusts towards eRHIC, the polarized electron - hadron collider as an upgrade of the operating RHIC facility. The ERL is in final assembly stages, with injection commisioning starting in October 2012. The objective of this ERL is to serve as a platform for R&D into high current ERL, in particular issues of halo generation and control, Higher-Order Mode (HOM) issues, coherent emissions for the beam and high-brightness, high-power beam generation and preservation. The R&D ERL features a superconducting laser-photocathode RF gun with a high quantum efficiency photoccathode served with a load-lock cathode delivery system, a highly damped 5-cell accelerating cavity, a highly flexible single-pass loop and a comprehensive system of beam instrumentation. In this ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter article we will describe the ERL in a degree of detail that is not usually found in regular publications. We will discuss the various systems of the ERL, following the electrons from the photocathode to the beam dump, cover the control system, machine protection etc and summarize with the status of the ERL systems.

  8. Paul Collier : Balancing beams

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    As former head of AB Operations, Paul Collier and his group were in the ‘cockpit’ for the LHC’s maiden voyage - piloting the first beam around the ring. But now, as Head of the Beams Department, he will need his feet firmly on the ground in order to balance all the beam activities at CERN. "As Department Head, I’ll have less direct contact with the machines," Collier says with a hint of regret. "I’ll still obviously be very involved, but they won’t actually let me loose in front of the keyboard anymore!" As the new Head of the BE Department, Collier will be in charge of nearly 400 people, and will oversee all the beam activities, including the preparations for the longest period of beam operation in the history of CERN. In the new organization, the BE, TE and EN Departments have been grouped together in the Accelerator and Technology Sector. "‘Partnership’ is a key word for the three departments," says Collier. "The n...

  9. Lecture on beam instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, A.

    1999-12-21

    These lectures treat some of the common collective beam instability effects encountered in accelerators. In choosing the material for these lectures, it is attempted to introduce this subject with a more practical approach, instead of a more theoretical approach starting with first principles. After introducing the terminologies, emphasis will be placed on how to apply the lecture material to perform calculations and to make estimates of various instability effects. In the first half of the lectures, after briefly introducing the concepts of impedance and wake field, the authors will discuss a selected list of formulas for the impedances of various accelerator components. Detailed derivations are omitted, allowing time for the students to think through the process of how to apply the knowledge learned. The list of impedances to be covered include: space charge, resistive wall, resonator, wall roughness, and small perturbation on the vacuum chamber wall. Assuming impedances are known, the second half of the lectures addresses the question of how to calculate the power of beam heating, the growth rates, and the thresholds for a list of selected beam instability effects. Again with minimal detailed derivations, the aim is to introduce a collection of formulas, and apply them to linear as well as circular accelerators. The list of beam instability effects to be covered include: loss factor, beam break-up, BNS damping, bunch lengthening, resistive wall instability, head-tail instability, longitudinal head-tail instability, Landau damping, microwave instability, and mode coupling instability.

  10. Beam Time Accounting

    CERN Document Server

    Seitova, Diana

    2016-01-01

    ISOLDE is one of the leading research facilities in the field of nuclear physics. A proton beam with an energy 1.4 GeV coming from the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB) hits one of the targets at ISOLDE and produces Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs). Then, the RIBs of interest is selected and delivered to the different experimental stations. In order to deliver the beam to the certain experimental station, the positions of the devices along the beamline should satisfy certain conditions. The purpose of this project is to define the conditions for the beam to pass through the different beamlines and to store the data about device’s status for later analysis and statistics, so it would be possible to know when the beam was used for different experiments. The data with the settings of the different devices is saved in the Timber database and the first steps for making virtual devices to compile the status of the beamlines were completed.

  11. Bringing up beams

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Last month, commissioning began on CERN’s newest linear accelerator: Linac4. As the replacement machine for Linac2, Linac4 will take a negative hydrogen ion beam to a staggering 160 MeV. We check in to see how the Linac4 team is preparing its machine for its new role as the first link in the accelerator chain.   The Linac4 3 MeV beam line, with the ion source in the back, the RFQ in the middle and the chopping line in the front. On 14 November, members of the Linac4 collaboration and the CERN Operations Group were brought together for their first “real day” in the Linac4 Control Room. Together, they successfully accelerated their first hydrogen ion beam to 3 MeV. It was an exciting moment for everyone involved and marked the start of one of the most critical commissioning phases for the new accelerator. At the start of the Linac4 beam line sits the CERN-made Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ). This vital piece of machinery takes the beam from 45 keV to 3 MeV in ju...

  12. A better beam quality

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Progress has been made on two fronts, providing physics data and preparing for higher intensities. Over the Whitsun weekend of May 22 to 24, 5 fills for physics provided almost 30 hours of stable colliding beams, all with bunch intensities around 2x1010 protons and at a β* of 2m. The first three of these fills were with 6 bunches per beam, giving 3 pairs of collisions in all experiments. For the other two fills, the number of bunches per beam was increased to 13, giving 8 pairs of colliding bunches, and for the first time luminosities were pushed above 1029 cm-2s-1, 2 orders of magnitude higher than first collisions in March. In between and after these physics fills, nominal bunches of 1011 protons were successfully ramped and brought into collision in ATLAS and CMS for the first time (not in stable beam conditions and without squeeze). Event rates seen by the experiments were in the expected range for these conditions. In the middle of this work, a short fill with beams of 7 nominal bunches was ...

  13. 2013 SYR Accepted Poster Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    SYR 2013 Accepted Poster abstracts: 1. Benefits of Yoga as a Wellness Practice in a Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care Setting: If You Build It, Will They Come? 2. Yoga-based Psychotherapy Group With Urban Youth Exposed to Trauma. 3. Embodied Health: The Effects of a Mind�Body Course for Medical Students. 4. Interoceptive Awareness and Vegetable Intake After a Yoga and Stress Management Intervention. 5. Yoga Reduces Performance Anxiety in Adolescent Musicians. 6. Designing and Implementing a Therapeutic Yoga Program for Older Women With Knee Osteoarthritis. 7. Yoga and Life Skills Eating Disorder Prevention Among 5th Grade Females: A Controlled Trial. 8. A Randomized, Controlled Trial Comparing the Impact of Yoga and Physical Education on the Emotional and Behavioral Functioning of Middle School Children. 9. Feasibility of a Multisite, Community based Randomized Study of Yoga and Wellness Education for Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy. 10. A Delphi Study for the Development of Protocol Guidelines for Yoga Interventions in Mental Health. 11. Impact Investigation of Breathwalk Daily Practice: Canada�India Collaborative Study. 12. Yoga Improves Distress, Fatigue, and Insomnia in Older Veteran Cancer Survivors: Results of a Pilot Study. 13. Assessment of Kundalini Mantra and Meditation as an Adjunctive Treatment With Mental Health Consumers. 14. Kundalini Yoga Therapy Versus Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Co-Occurring Mood Disorder. 15. Baseline Differences in Women Versus Men Initiating Yoga Programs to Aid Smoking Cessation: Quitting in Balance Versus QuitStrong. 16. Pranayam Practice: Impact on Focus and Everyday Life of Work and Relationships. 17. Participation in a Tailored Yoga Program is Associated With Improved Physical Health in Persons With Arthritis. 18. Effects of Yoga on Blood Pressure: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. 19. A Quasi-experimental Trial of a Yoga based Intervention to Reduce Stress and

  14. Beam-beam studies for FCC-hh

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2068329; Pieloni, Tatiana; Buffat, Xavier; Furuseth, Sondre Vik

    2017-01-01

    The Future Circular Collider hadron-hadron (FCC-hh) design study is currently exploring different IR design possibilities including round and flat optics or different crossing schemes. The present study intends to evaluate each scenario from the beam-beam effects point of view. In particular the single particle long term stability to maximize beam lifetimes and luminosity reach is used to quantify the differences. The impact of strong head on interactions on the beam quality and lifetime is addressed by means of GPU accelerated simulations code featuring a weak-strong 6-dimensional beam-beam interaction.

  15. Beam characteristics of energy-matched flattening filter free beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paynter, D; Weston, S J; Cosgrove, V P; Evans, J A; Thwaites, D I

    2014-05-01

    Flattening filter free (FFF) linear accelerators can increase treatment efficiency and plan quality. There are multiple methods of defining a FFF beam. The Elekta control system supports tuning of the delivered FFF beam energy to enable matching of the percentage depth-dose (PDD) of the flattened beam at 10 cm depth. This is compared to FFF beams where the linac control parameters are identical to those for the flattened beam. All beams were delivered on an Elekta Synergy accelerator with an Agility multi-leaf collimator installed and compared to the standard, flattened beam. The aim of this study is to compare "matched" FFF beams to both "unmatched" FFF beams and flattened beams to determine the benefits of matching beams. For the three modes of operation 6 MV flattened, 6 MV matched FFF, 6 MV unmatched FFF, 10 MV flattened, 10 MV matched FFF, and 10 MV unmatched FFF beam profiles were obtained using a plotting tank and were measured in steps of 0.1 mm in the penumbral region. Beam penumbra was defined as the distance between the 80% and 20% of the normalized dose when the inflection points of the unflattened and flattened profiles were normalized with the central axis dose of the flattened field set as 100%. PDD data was obtained at field sizes ranging from 3 cm × 3 cm to 40 cm × 40 cm. Radiation protection measurements were additionally performed to determine the head leakage and environmental monitoring through the maze and primary barriers. No significant change is made to the beam penumbra for FFF beams with and without PDD matching, the maximum change in penumbra for a 10 cm × 10 cm field was within the experimental error of the study. The changes in the profile shape with increasing field size are most significant for the matched FFF beam, and both FFF beams showed less profile shape variation with increasing depth when compared to flattened beams, due to consistency in beam energy spectra across the radiation field. The PDDs of the FFF beams showed

  16. Grazing incidence beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  17. GTK beam test 2017

    CERN Document Server

    Vostinic, Snezana

    2017-01-01

    The GTK is in operation at NA62 since 2014 and is among the few silicon pixel detectors performing 4D tracking. This summer, a beam test was conducted to study the phenomena determining the detector time resolution. The project described here contributed to the beam test preparation, data taking and data analyses. One of the main goals of the test was to understand the weight field contribution to the detector time resolution. This field is distorting the signal pulse shape at the edge of the pixel. Hence, to study this effect, the position of the hits inside the pixel has to be determined. An external telescope was therefore used for this purpose.

  18. Euroschool on Exotic Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Pfützner, Marek; The Euroschool on Exotic Beams, vol. IV

    2014-01-01

    This is the forth volume in a series of Lecture Notes based on the highly successful Euro Summer School on Exotic Beams. The aim of these notes is to provide a thorough introduction to radioactive ion-beam physics at the level of graduate students and young postdocs starting out in the field. Each volume covers a range of topics from nuclear theory to experiment and applications. Vol I has been published as LNP 651, Vol II has been published as LNP 700, and Vol. III has been published as LNP 764.

  19. Molecular beam epitaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Pamplin, Brian R

    1980-01-01

    Molecular Beam Epitaxy introduces the reader to the use of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) in the generation of III-V and IV-VI compounds and alloys and describes the semiconductor and integrated optics reasons for using the technique. Topics covered include semiconductor superlattices by MBE; design considerations for MBE systems; periodic doping structure in gallium arsenide (GaAs); nonstoichiometry and carrier concentration control in MBE of compound semiconductors; and MBE techniques for IV-VI optoelectronic devices. The use of MBE to fabricate integrated optical devices and to study semicond

  20. Beam Physics at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Lyndon R

    2003-01-01

    The design of the Large Hadron Collider incorporates the accumulated knowledge obtained from previous generations of hadron colliders. Among the well known effects limiting machine performance are intrabeam scattering, the beam-beam interaction and stability against collective motion. Simulations and recent experiments in the SPS have shown that the electron cloud effect observed in the B-factories will be present both in the LHC and in its injector. All of these phenomena are discussed together with the measure taken in the machine design to overcome them.

  1. Coherent laser beam combining

    CERN Document Server

    Brignon, Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the improvement of diode pumping in solid state lasers and the development of double clad fiber lasers have allowed to maintain excellent laser beam quality with single mode fibers. However, the fiber output power if often limited below a power damage threshold. Coherent laser beam combining (CLBC) brings a solution to these limitations by identifying the most efficient architectures and allowing for excellent spectral and spatial quality. This knowledge will become critical for the design of the next generation high-power lasers and is of major interest to many industrial, environme

  2. Pinched propagation of high-power, pulsed electron beams for welding and materials processing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernsler, Richard F.; Hubbard, Richard F.; Lampe, Martin

    1994-01-01

    Electron beams are used commercially as intense heating sources for welding and related materials processing applications. The beams used for welding operate continuously with energy up to 200 keV and current approximately 1 A. Because these beams are severely degraded by propagation in air over any substantial range, most present-day electron-beam welders require vacuum pumping and precision focusing, which has severely restricted utilization of the technology. Over the past few decades, a different class of electron-beam generators has been developed that produces pulsed beams with energies of several MeV, currents of 1 kA or more, radii as small as 1 mm, pulse lengths of tens of ns, and pulse repetition rates up to several kHz. We show here that beams of this type can propagate in ambient air, in a tightly pinched mode and with acceptable stability, over distances of a few tens of cm. We determine the constraints on the choice of beam parameters, due mainly to the effects of gas scattering and the resistive instability. We show that stability can be enhanced, and the acceptable parameter range extended considerably, by using a narrow conducting pipe filled with air or another gas to guide the beam to the workpiece.

  3. RC T-Beams Externally Prestressed with Unbonded CFRP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Bennitz, Anders; Nilimaa, Jonny

    2010-01-01

    An experimental test series with seven beams externally prestressed with unbonded CFRP 7 (Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer) tendons has been performed. Presence of deviator, initial 8 tendon depth and prestressing force are varied. Results and behaviors are compared to 9 common beam theory, matching...... behavior’s in similar patterns. The 13 small discrepancies is merely referred to different modulus of elasticity in the CFRP and steel 14 used in the tests. Predictions of load-deflection behaviour corresponded acceptable to 15 measured values while the stress experienced by the tendons...

  4. Observation of Coherent Beam-beam Effects in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Buffat, X; Giachino, R; Herr, W; Papotti, G; Pieloni, T; Calaga, R; White, S M

    2011-01-01

    Early collisions in the LHC with a very limited number of bunches with high intensities indicated the presence of coherent beam-beam driven oscillations. Here we discuss the experimental results and compare with the expectations.

  5. The beta-beam decay ring design

    CERN Document Server

    Chancé, Antoine

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the beta-beams is to produce highly energetic beams of pure electron neutrino and antineutrino, coming from β-decays of the 18Ne10+ and 6He2+, both at gamma = 100, directed towards experimental halls situated in the Fréjus tunnel. The high intensity ion beams are stored in a ring until the ions decay. Consequently, all the injected ions will be lost anywhere in the ring, generating a high level of irradiation. Since they come from the SPS, the ring circumference has to be a multiple of the SPS one. The straight sections must be as long as possible in order to maximize the useful neutrino flux. The straight section length is chosen to be about 36% of the circumference length, which imposes 1-km-long arcs. The bend field in the arcs is then achievable. The arc has been chosen as a2Pi phase advance insertion, which improves the optical properties (dynamic aperture and momentum acceptance) and allows the easy determination of the working point bythe optics of the straight sections.

  6. Symmetric form-invariant dual Pearcey beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhijun; Fan, Changjiang; Shi, Yile; Chen, Bo

    2016-08-01

    We introduce another type of Pearcey beam, namely, dual Pearcey (DP) beams, based on the Pearcey function of catastrophe theory. DP beams are experimentally generated by applying Fresnel diffraction of bright elliptic rings. Form-invariant Bessel distribution beams can be regarded as a special case of DP beams. Subsequently, the basic propagation characteristics of DP beams are identified. DP beams are the result of the interference of two half DP beams instead of two classical Pearcey beams. Moreover, we also verified that half DP beams (including special-case parabolic-like beams) generated by half elliptical rings (circular rings) are a new member of the family of form-invariant beams.

  7. Noncoaxial Bessel-Gauss beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chaohong; Zheng, Yishu; Li, Hanqing

    2016-04-01

    We proposed a new family of noncoaxial Gauss-truncated Bessel beams through multiplying conventional symmetrical Bessel beams by a noncoaxial Gauss function. These beams can also be regarded as the exponential-truncated version of Bessel-Gauss beams since they can be transformed into the product of Bessel-Gauss beams and an exponential window function along a certain Cartesian axis. The closed-form solutions of the angular spectra and paraxial propagation of these beams were derived. These beams have asymmetrical intensity distributions and carry the same orbit angular momentum per photon as the corresponding Bessel-Gauss beams. While propagating along the z axis, the mth (m≠0) noncoaxial Bessel-Gauss beams rotate their intensity distributions and the mth-order vortex at the beam center has a transverse shift along the direction perpendicular to the offset axis. Depending on the product of the transverse scalar factor of the Bessel beams and the offset between the Gaussian window function and the center of the Bessel beams, the noncoaxial Bessel-Gauss beams can produce unit vortices with opposite signs in pairs during propagation.

  8. Ion-beam technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenske, G.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This compilation of figures and diagrams reviews processes for depositing diamond/diamond-like carbon films. Processes addressed are chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD, PACVD, etc.), plasma vapor deposition (plasma sputtering, ion beam sputtering, evaporation, etc.), low-energy ion implantation, and hybrid processes (biased sputtering, IBAD, biased HFCVD, etc.). The tribological performance of coatings produced by different means is discussed.

  9. Convergent beam neutron crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Walter M.; Schultz, Arthur J.; Richardson, James W.; Carpenter, John M.; Mildner, David F. R.; Chen-Mayer, Heather H.; Miller, M. E.; Maxey, E.; Prask, Henry J.; Gnaeupel-Herold, Thomas H.; Youngman, Russell

    2004-01-01

    Applications of neutron diffraction for small samples (small fiducial areas are limited by the available neutron flux density. Recent demonstrations of convergent beam electron and x-ray diffraction and focusing of cold (λ>1 Å) neutrons suggest the possibility to use convergent beam neutron diffraction for small sample crystallography. We have carried out a systematic study of diffraction of both monoenergetic and broad bandwidth neutrons at the NIST Research Reactor and at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) at Argonne National Laboratory. Combining convergent beams with time-of-flight Laue diffraction is particularly attractive for high efficiency small sample diffraction studies. We have studied single crystal and powder diffraction of neutrons with convergence angles as large as 15° and have observed diffracted peak intensity gains greater than 20. The convergent beam method (CBM) shows promise for crystallography on small samples of small to medium size molecules (potentially even for proteins), ultra-high pressure samples, and for mapping of strain and texture distributions in larger samples.

  10. Vortices in Gaussian beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available distributions at locations on trajectory CSIR National Laser Centre – p.27/30 Morphology evolusion example 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 Orientation [pi radians] A n i s o t r o p y [ pi r a d i a n s ] A B' B H C C' D... . Gaussian beams with vortex dipoles CSIR National Laser Centre – p.2/30 Gaussian beam notation Gaussian beam in normalised coordinates: g(u, v, t) = exp ( −u 2 + v2 1− it ) u = xω0 v = yω0 t = zρ ρ = piω20 λ ω0 — 1/e2 beam waist radius; ρ— Rayleigh range ω ω...

  11. Nonlinear beam mechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, H.J.R.

    2012-01-01

    In this Thesis, nonlinear dynamics and nonlinear interactions are studied from a micromechanical point of view. Single and doubly clamped beams are used as model systems where nonlinearity plays an important role. The nonlinearity also gives rise to rich dynamic behavior with phenomena like

  12. Mode Gaussian beam tracing

    CERN Document Server

    Trofimov, M Yu; Kozitskiy, S B

    2015-01-01

    An adiabatic mode Helmholtz equation for 3D underwater sound propagation is developed. The Gaussian beam tracing in this case is constructed. The test calculations are carried out for the crosswedge benchmark and proved an excellent agreement with the source images method.

  13. Neutrino beam plasma instability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We derive relativistic fluid set of equations for neutrinos and electrons from relativistic. Vlasov equations with Fermi weak interaction force. Using these fluid equations, we obtain a dis- persion relation describing neutrino beam plasma instability, which is little different from normal dispersion relation of streaming ...

  14. Neutrino beam plasma instability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We derive relativistic fluid set of equations for neutrinos and electrons from relativistic Vlasov equations with Fermi weak interaction force. Using these fluid equations, we obtain a dispersion relation describing neutrino beam plasma instability, which is little different from normal dispersion relation of streaming instability.

  15. Beam transport elements

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1965-01-01

    Two of the beam transport elements for the slow ejection system. On the left, a quadrupole 1.2 m long with a 5 cm aperture, capable of producing a gradient of 5000 gauss. On the right, a 1 m bending magnet with a 4 cm gap; its field is 20 000 gauss.

  16. Continuous Reinforced Concrete Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1996-01-01

    This report deals with stress and stiffness estimates of continuous reinforced concrete beams with different stiffnesses for negative and positive moments e.g. corresponding to different reinforcement areas in top and bottom. Such conditions are often met in practice.The moment distribution...

  17. Gaussian Beam Intensity Flattener

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, DeVon W.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to use commercial elements and extend the correction to a 1/e(sup 2) diameter of 3 mm over long propagation distances. Shafer discussed the use of spherical elements to generate a uniform beam to the 1/e diameter.

  18. LHC Report: Beam on

    CERN Multimedia

    Rossano Giachino for the LHC Team

    2012-01-01

    The powering tests described in the last edition of the Bulletin were successfully finished at the end of the first week of March opening the way for 4 TeV operations this year. The beam was back in the machine on Wednesday 14 March. The first collisions at 4 TeV are scheduled for the first week of April.   The first beam of 2012 is dumped after making a few rounds in the LHC. The magnet powering tests were followed by the machine checkout phase. Here the operations team in collaboration with the equipment groups performs a sequence of tests to ensure the readiness of the LHC for beam. The tests include driving all the LHC systems – beam dump, injection, collimation, RF, power converters, magnet circuits, vacuum, interlocks, controls, timing and synchronization – through the operational cycle. The “checkout phase” is really a massive de-bugging exercise, which is performed with the objective of ensuring the proper functioning of the whole machine and t...

  19. Charged particle beams

    CERN Document Server

    Humphries, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    Detailed enough for a text and sufficiently comprehensive for a reference, this volume addresses topics vital to understanding high-power accelerators and high-brightness-charged particle beams. Subjects include stochastic cooling, high-brightness injectors, and the free electron laser. Humphries provides students with the critical skills necessary for the problem-solving insights unique to collective physics problems. 1990 edition.

  20. BATMAN beam properties characterization by the beam emission spectroscopy diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomo, F.; Ruf, B.; Barbisan, M.; Cristofaro, S.; Schiesko, L.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Pasqualotto, R.; Riedl, R.; Serianni, G.; Wünderlich, D.

    2015-04-01

    The ITER neutral beam heating systems are based on the production and acceleration of negative ions (H/D) up to 1 MV. The requirements for the beam properties are strict: a low core beam divergence (BATMAN (BAvarian Test MAchine for Negative ions) allows for deepening the knowledge of the determination of the beam properties. One of the diagnostics routinely used to this purpose is the Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES): the Hα light emitted in the beam is detected and the corresponding spectra are evaluated to estimate the beam divergence and the stripping losses. The BES number of lines of sight in BATMAN has been recently increased: five horizontal lines of sight providing a vertical profile of the beam permit to characterize the negative ion beam properties in relation to the source parameters. Different methods of Hα spectra analysis are here taken into account and compared for the estimation of the beam divergence and the amount of stripping. In particular, to thoroughly study the effect of the space charge compensation on the beam divergence, an additional hydrogen injection line has been added in the tank, which allows for setting different background pressure values (one order of magnitude, from about 0.04 Pa up to the source pressure) in the beam drift region.

  1. Single Gradientless Light Beam Drags Particles as Tractor Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Wang, Haifeng

    2011-01-01

    is the strong nonparaxiality of the light beam, which contributes to the pulling force owing to momentum conservation. The nonparaxiality of the Bessel beam can be manipulated to possess a dragging force along both the radial longitudinal directions, i.e., a "tractor beam" with stable trajectories is achieved...

  2. Beam-target interaction and intrabeam scattering in the HESR ring. Emittance, momentum resolution and luminosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinterberger, F. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik

    2006-02-15

    The beam-target interaction is studied with respect to the transverse and longitudinal emittance growth of the HESR antiproton beam. The transverse emittance growth caused by the small angle Coulomb scattering can be described analytically using the differential cross section of the Coulomb interaction. Similarly, the longitudinal emittance growth caused by the energy loss of the beam can be calculated using the differential cross section of the energy-loss distribution. It is shown that particles with energy losses near the maximum energy loss in a head-on collision with a target electron are lost due to momentum acceptance of the HESR ring. Taking a relative momentum acceptance of about 1 x 10{sup -3} into account yields an order of magnitude smaller growth rate of the mean square momentum deviation. The necessary cooling rates for the High Resolution mode and the High Luminosity mode are deduced assuming that the beam-target interaction is the dominant beam heating process. For comparison the effects of intrabeam scattering are estimated. For electron and stochastic cooling, analytic expressions are quoted in order to evaluate the momentum resolution and cooling rate. The potentialities of electron and stochastic cooling are discussed with respect to the achievable momentum resolution and beam-target overlap. Beam loss rates and average luminosities are evaluated taking the total hadronic cross section, the restricted momentum acceptance of the HESR ring, the large angle Coulomb scattering and the Touschek effect into account. (orig.)

  3. Mitigation of Numerical Noise for Beam Loss Simulations Proc. HB2016 Malmo, Sweden

    CERN Document Server

    Kesting, Frederik

    2017-01-01

    Numerical noise emerges in self-consistent simulations of charged particles, and its mitigation is investigated since the first numerical studies in plasma physics. In accelerator physics, recent studies find an artificial diffusion of the particle beam due to numerical noise in particle-in-cell tracking, which is of particular importance for high intensity machines with a long storage time, as the SIS100 at FAIR or in context of the LIU upgrade at CERN. In beam loss simulations for these projects artificial effects must be distinguished from physical beam loss. Therefore, it is important to relate artificial diffusion to artificial beam loss, and to choose simulation parameters such that physical beam loss is well resolved. As a practical tool, we therefore suggest a scaling law to find optimal simulation parameters for a given maximum percentage of acceptable artificial beam loss.

  4. Compact commercial 9 MeV Deuteron cyclotron with pulsed beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, K.; Johnson, D.; Papash, A.; Dehnel, M.; Gyles, B.; Kovac, B.; Medianu, S.; Popa, I.; Sabaiduc, V.; Watt, R.

    2001-12-01

    A Compact commercial Cyclotron to accelerate negative Deutron ionsup to an energy of 9 MeV was built by EBCO Technologies Inc. The Injection line, Central region and Inflector have been designed to accept beam of 15 keV/A injection energy. A short pulse Buncher was provided to ensure acceleration of single beam bursts. Extensive computer simulations of beam injection and beam acceleration were made to find possible solutions for single turn extraction of high intensity beam. Special attention was paid to center accelerated beam to better than 0.8 mm, to minimize dispersion and to keep the radial emittance to less than 0.5 PI mm*mrad.

  5. Beam Injection in Recirculator SALO

    CERN Document Server

    Guk, Ivan S; Dovbnya, Anatoly N; Kononenko, Stanislav; Peev, Fedor; Tarasenko, Alexander; Van der Wiel, Marnix

    2005-01-01

    Possible antetypes of injectors for electron recirculator SALO,* intended for nuclear-physical research, are analyzed. The plan injection of beams in recirculator is offered. Expected parameters of beams are designed.

  6. Depth-controlled Bessel beams

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Angelina; Wallrabe, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    We present a ring aperture with independently switchable segments for the three-dimensional control of quasi propagation invariant beams. We demonstrate that our liquid crystal design concept preserves coherence and generates the Bessel beam structure.

  7. Splash events First Beams 2008

    CERN Multimedia

    Collaboration, CMS

    2008-01-01

    First beam through the detector: images showing the debris, or "splash", of particles picked up in the detector's calorimeters and muon chambers after the beam was steered into the collimator (tungsten blocks) at Point 5.

  8. Acceptance tests for radiological equipment; Testes de aceitacao em equipamentos de radiologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhr, A.P.; Mazzola, A.A.; Bacelar, A. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Sanvitto, P.C.; Thiesen, V.L.P. [Hospital Moinhos de Vento, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro de Imagem

    1996-12-31

    Acceptance tests for radiological equipment are performed. Technical patterns are established for 10 new equipment from 2 different institutions. Several aspects are considered such as effective electric potential, exposure time, X-ray beams alignment. Considering the difference between the equipment (model, manufacturer, etc) some specific charts to check all the items are used. The study will permit further analytical evaluation during the useful life of the equipment 3 refs., 4 tabs.

  9. Computer simulation of electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabchevski, S.P.; Mladenov, G.M. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. po Elektronika)

    1994-04-14

    Self-fields and forces as well as the local degree of space-charge neutralization in overcompensated electron beams are considered. The radial variation of the local degree of space-charge neutralization is analysed. A novel model which describes the equilibrium potential distribution in overcompensated beams is proposed and a method for computer simulation of the beam propagation is described. Results from numerical experiments which illustrate the propagation of finite emittance overneutralized beams are presented. (Author).

  10. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project

    2008-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC). The NTSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and LLW Mixed Waste (MW) for disposal.

  11. Mindfulness, Acceptance and Catastrophizing in Chronic Pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Maaike J.; Steinhagen, Hannemike E.; Versteegen, Gerbrig J.; Struys, Michel M. R. F.; Sanderman, Robbert

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Catastrophizing is often the primary target of the cognitive-behavioral treatment of chronic pain. Recent literature on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) suggests an important role in the pain experience for the concepts mindfulness and acceptance. The aim of this study is to

  12. Client acceptance decisions of Dutch auditing partners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittek, Rafael; Zee, Theo van der; Mühlau, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A vignette study of 567 client acceptance decisions by 67 Dutch auditors showed that the prospect of acquiring additional assignments significantly increases the likelihood that auditing partners accept an audit assignment from a new client, thereby violating a rule of the auditing profession. Audit

  13. Perceptions of acceptable conducts by university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Nazaré Marques

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: Academic misconducts were mainly considered more acceptable than professional misconducts. Our results show that perceptions of acceptable conducts amongst optometry students are not very different from other students, and, against our initial prediction, do not show a general change in misconduct perception when students become more mature. Universities should pay more attention to this problem and take action.

  14. Genres Across Cultures: Types of Acceptability Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Philip; Gillaerts, Paul; Jacobs, Everett; Palermo, Ofelia; Shinohara, Midori; Verckens, J. Piet

    2004-01-01

    One can ask four questions about genre validity across cultures. Does a certain form or configuration occur in the culture in question? Is it acceptable? If acceptable, is it in practice preferred? Is it recommended by prescriptive authorities? This paper reports the results of an attempt to answer these questions empirically by testing the…

  15. Accept & Reject Statement-Based Uncertainty Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Quaeghebeur (Erik); G. de Cooman; F. Hermans (Felienne)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWe develop a framework for modelling and reasoning with uncertainty based on accept and reject statements about gambles. It generalises the frameworks found in the literature based on statements of acceptability, desirability, or favourability and clarifies their relative position. Next

  16. Mindfulness, acceptance and catastrophizing in chronic pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaike J de Boer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Catastrophizing is often the primary target of the cognitive-behavioral treatment of chronic pain. Recent literature on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT suggests an important role in the pain experience for the concepts mindfulness and acceptance. The aim of this study is to examine the influence of mindfulness and general psychological acceptance on pain-related catastrophizing in patients with chronic pain. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted, including 87 chronic pain patients from an academic outpatient pain center. RESULTS: The results show that general psychological acceptance (measured with the AAQ-II is a strong predictor of pain-related catastrophizing, independent of gender, age and pain intensity. Mindfulness (measured with the MAAS did not predict levels of pain-related catastrophizing. DISCUSSION: Acceptance of psychological experiences outside of pain itself is related to catastrophizing. Thus, acceptance seems to play a role in the pain experience and should be part of the treatment of chronic pain. The focus of the ACT treatment of chronic pain does not necessarily have to be on acceptance of pain per se, but may be aimed at acceptance of unwanted experiences in general. Mindfulness in the sense of "acting with awareness" is however not related to catastrophizing. Based on our research findings in comparisons with those of other authors, we recommend a broader conceptualization of mindfulness and the use of a multifaceted questionnaire for mindfulness instead of the unidimensional MAAS.

  17. Mindfulness, acceptance and catastrophizing in chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Maaike J; Steinhagen, Hannemike E; Versteegen, Gerbrig J; Struys, Michel M R F; Sanderman, Robbert

    2014-01-01

    Catastrophizing is often the primary target of the cognitive-behavioral treatment of chronic pain. Recent literature on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) suggests an important role in the pain experience for the concepts mindfulness and acceptance. The aim of this study is to examine the influence of mindfulness and general psychological acceptance on pain-related catastrophizing in patients with chronic pain. A cross-sectional survey was conducted, including 87 chronic pain patients from an academic outpatient pain center. The results show that general psychological acceptance (measured with the AAQ-II) is a strong predictor of pain-related catastrophizing, independent of gender, age and pain intensity. Mindfulness (measured with the MAAS) did not predict levels of pain-related catastrophizing. Acceptance of psychological experiences outside of pain itself is related to catastrophizing. Thus, acceptance seems to play a role in the pain experience and should be part of the treatment of chronic pain. The focus of the ACT treatment of chronic pain does not necessarily have to be on acceptance of pain per se, but may be aimed at acceptance of unwanted experiences in general. Mindfulness in the sense of "acting with awareness" is however not related to catastrophizing. Based on our research findings in comparisons with those of other authors, we recommend a broader conceptualization of mindfulness and the use of a multifaceted questionnaire for mindfulness instead of the unidimensional MAAS.

  18. Characterization of a nondestructive beam profile monitor using luminescent emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Variola

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The LHC (large hadron collider [LHC study group: LHC. The large hadron collider conceptual design; CERN/AC/95-05] is the future p-p collider under construction at CERN, Geneva. Over a circumference of 26.7 km a set of cryogenic dipoles and rf cavities will store and accelerate proton and ion beams up to energies of the order of 7 TeV. Injection in LHC will be performed by the CERN complex of accelerators, starting from the source and passing through the linac, the four booster rings, the proton synchrotron (PS, and super proton synchrotron (SPS accelerators. One of the main constraints on LHC performance is emittance preservation along the whole chain of CERN accelerators. The accepted relative normalized emittance blowup after filamentation is ±7%. To monitor the beam and the emittance blowup process, a study of different prototypes of nonintercepting beam profile monitors has been performed. In this context a monitor using the luminescent emission of gases excited by ultrarelativistic protons (450 GeV was developed and tested in the SPS ring. The results of beam size measurements and their evolution as a function of the machine parameters are presented. The image quality and resolution attainable in the LHC case have been assessed. A first full characterization of the luminescence cross section, spectrum, decay time, and afterglow effect for an ultrarelativistic proton beam is provided. Some significant results are also provided for lead ion beams.

  19. Ion beam focusing with cone optics for WDM experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Jun, E-mail: jun.hasegawa@es.titech.ac.jp [Department of Energy Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Kondo, Kotaro; Oguri, Yoshiyuki [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Horioka, Kazuhiko [Department of Energy Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)

    2014-01-01

    Beam focusing properties of cone optics were systematically investigated by Monte Carlo simulations under various combinations of beam and cone parameters. To optimize the cone optic design for accelerator-driven WDM experiments, the beam intensity gains after cone focusing were evaluated from the simulation results as functions of cone wall material and shape parameters such as taper angle and wall curvature. The uniformity of the cone-focused beam was also examined by considering not only various cone parameters but also the cases involving the misalignment of the cone optic. From the results, a parabolic gold cone was found to be the best choice at least for relatively light ions such as lithium having MeV energies. It is also found that although smaller taper angle improves the total beam transport efficiency in the optic, it brings more difficulties in the alignment of the optic because the alignment accuracy should be less than a half of the taper angle to obtain acceptable uniformity in the beam energy deposition on the target.

  20. Study of beam-beam long range compensation with octupoles

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2068329; Pieloni, Tatiana; Buffat, Xavier; Tambasco, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Long range beam-beam effects are responsible for particle losses and define fundamental operational parameters of colliders (i.e. crossing angles, intensities, emittances, ${\\beta}$${^∗}$). In this study we propose octuple magnets as a possible scheme to efficiently compensate long-range beam-beam interactions with a global correction scheme. The impact and improvements on the dynamic aperture of colliding beams together with estimates of the luminosity potentials are dis- cussed for the HL-LHC upgrade and extrapolations made for the FCC project.

  1. Use of Movable Beam Position Monitors for Beam Size Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, R W; Matheson, J

    2000-01-01

    The use of beam position monitors (BPMs) as non-intercepting emittance monitors has been proposed in 1983 by Miller et al. The emittance measurement relies on the beam size dependency of the BPM signals. It is shown that the original proposal can be improved by using movable BPMs. Changing the BPM position with a stepping motor allows accurately calibrating the beam size measurement. The absolute scale on the beam size measurement is given by the scale of the stepping motor and can be determined in the laboratory and measured in situ. Uncontrolled changes of the beam position can be monitored through the use of a BPM triplet.

  2. Characterization of colloid thruster beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamero-Castano, M.; Ziemer, J.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we use retarding potential, time of flight, and a Faraday cup, to measure the energy and specific charge distributions of the electrospray particles as a function of the position within the beam, as well as beam profiles. This information is then used, together with a model of the beam, to calculate its spreading.

  3. A compact molecular beam machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P.; Chandler, D.W.; Strecker, K.E.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a compact, low cost, modular, crossed molecular beam machine. The new apparatus utilizes several technological advancements in molecular beams valves, ion detection, and vacuum pumping to reduce the size, cost, and complexity of a molecular beam apparatus. We apply these

  4. Flat profile laser beam shaper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Todd R.

    2017-09-12

    A system for shaping a beam comprises an emitter for emitting coherent electromagnetic radiation. Birefringent displacers are configured between the emitter and a target wherein the at least two birefringent displacers split the coherent electromagnetic radiation into a plurality of coherent parallel beams of electromagnetic radiation thereby producing a shaped wave front of the coherent parallel beams of electromagnetic radiation.

  5. Accelerator-Based Neutrino Beams

    OpenAIRE

    Hübner, K

    2003-01-01

    The design principles of accelerator-based neutrino beams are outlined and the beams currently in operation or under construction are briefly described. The concepts and basic features of the different types of advanced neutrino beams which are under study are summarized.

  6. 3D terahertz beam profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Strikwerda, Andrew; Wang, Tianwu

    2013-01-01

    We present a characterization of THz beams generated in both a two-color air plasma and in a LiNbO3 crystal. Using a commercial THz camera, we record intensity images as a function of distance through the beam waist, from which we extract 2D beam profiles and visualize our measurements into 3D be...

  7. Illuminating e-beam processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    This month's Processing column will explore electronic beam (e-beam) processing. E-beam processing uses a low energy form of irradiation and has emerged as a highly promising treatment for both food safety and quarantine purposes. It is also used to extend food shelf life. This column will review...

  8. Spatial superpositions of Gaussian beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, Darryl

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available . At the plane of the lens we obtain a multi-ringed beam with a central intensity maximum which develops into a multi-ringed beam with a central null at the focal plane of the lens. The interesting feature of this beam is that it possesses two focal spots...

  9. A Study of Using Technology Acceptance Model and Its Effect on Improving Road Pavement Smoothness in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Long-Sheng; Huang, Chung-Fah

    2017-01-01

    Using the technology acceptance model (TAM) as its theoretical foundation, this study intends to explore the use of Travelling Beam devices in road engineerings in Taiwan and offer suggestions based on its findings to encourage industry willingness for device deployment resulting in improving road pavement smoothness in Taiwan. The study subjects…

  10. Definition of Beam Diameter for Electron Beam Welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgardt, Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pierce, Stanley W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dvornak, Matthew John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-11

    It is useful to characterize the dimensions of the electron beam during process development for electron beam welding applications. Analysis of the behavior of electron beam welds is simplest when a single number can be assigned to the beam properties that describes the size of the beam spot; this value we generically call the “beam diameter”. This approach has worked well for most applications and electron beam welding machines with the weld dimensions (width and depth) correlating well with the beam diameter. However, in recent weld development for a refractory alloy, Ta-10W, welded with a low voltage electron beam machine (LVEB), it was found that the weld dimensions (weld penetration and weld width) did not correlate well with the beam diameter and especially with the experimentally determined sharp focus point. These data suggest that the presently used definition of beam diameter may not be optimal for all applications. The possible reasons for this discrepancy and a suggested possible alternative diameter definition is the subject of this paper.

  11. Experimental Evidence for Beam-Beam Disruption at the SLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phinney, Nan

    1999-05-21

    A significant enhancement from beam-beam disruption was observed for the first time during the 1997-98 run of the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC). Disruption, or pinch effect, is due to the decrease in effective beam size during collisions as each beam is focused by the field of the other beam. With beam intensities of 4.0 10{sup 10} per bunch, bunch lengths of 1.1 mm, and horizontal and vertical beam sizes of {sigma}{sub x} = 1.5 {micro}m and {sigma}{sub y} = 0.65 {micro}m, the luminosity increase from disruption was more than 100%. Measured data rates as recorded by the SLD detector were in agreement with the theoretically calculated disruption enhancement.

  12. Thermal analysis of injection beam dump of high-intensity rapid-cycling synchrotron in J-PARC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, J.; Saha, P. K.; Yamamoto, K.; Kinsho, M.; Nihei, T.

    2017-10-01

    The beam dump at the beam injection area in the J-PARC 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) accepts beams that pass through the charge exchange foil without ideal electron stripping during the multi-turn beam injection. The injection beam dump consists of the beam pipe, beam stopper, radiation shield, and cooling mechanism. The ideal beam power into the injection beam dump is 400 W in the case of design RCS extraction beam power of 1 MW with a healthy foil, which has 99.7 % charge stripping efficiency. On the other hand, as a radiation generator, the RCS is permitted to be operated with maximum average beam power of 4 kW into the injection beam dump based on the radiation shielding calculation, in consideration of lower charge stripping efficiency due to the foil deterioration. In this research, to evaluate the health of the RCS injection beam dump system from the perspective of the heat generation, a thermal analysis was performed based on the actual configuration with sufficiently large region, including the surrounding concrete and soil. The calculated temperature and heat flux density distribution showed the validity of the mesh spacing and model range. The calculation result showed that the dumped 4 kW beam causes the temperature to increase up to 330, 400, and 140 °C at the beam pipe, beam stopper, and radiation shield, respectively. Although these high temperatures induce stress in the constituent materials, the calculated stress values were lower than the ultimate tensile strength of each material. Transient temperature analysis of the beam stopper, which simulated the sudden break of the charge stripper foil, demonstrated that one bunched beam pulse with the maximum beam power does not lead to a serious rise in the temperature of the beam stopper. Furthermore, from the measured outgassing rate of stainless steel at high temperature, the rise in beam line pressure due to additive outgassing from the heated beam pipe was estimated to have a negligible

  13. Efficient Beam-Type Structural Modeling of Rotor Blades

    OpenAIRE

    Couturier, Philippe; Krenk, Steen

    2015-01-01

    The present paper presents two recently developed numerical formulations which enable accurate representation of the static and dynamic behaviour of wind turbine rotor blades using little modeling and computational effort. The first development consists of an intuitive method to extract fully coupled six by six cross-section stiffness matrices with limited meshing effort. Secondly, an equilibrium based beam element accepting directly the stiffness matrices and accounting for large variations ...

  14. Beam distribution reconstruction simulation for electron beam probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yong-Chun; Mao, Rui-Shi; Li, Peng; Kang, Xin-Cai; Yin, Yan; Liu, Tong; You, Yao-Yao; Chen, Yu-Cong; Zhao, Tie-Cheng; Xu, Zhi-Guo; Wang, Yan-Yu; Yuan, You-Jin

    2017-07-01

    An electron beam probe (EBP) is a detector which makes use of a low-intensity and low-energy electron beam to measure the transverse profile, bunch shape, beam neutralization and beam wake field of an intense beam with small dimensions. While it can be applied to many aspects, we limit our analysis to beam distribution reconstruction. This kind of detector is almost non-interceptive for all of the beam and does not disturb the machine environment. In this paper, we present the theoretical aspects behind this technique for beam distribution measurement and some simulation results of the detector involved. First, a method to obtain a parallel electron beam is introduced and a simulation code is developed. An EBP as a profile monitor for dense beams is then simulated using the fast scan method for various target beam profiles, including KV distribution, waterbag distribution, parabolic distribution, Gaussian distribution and halo distribution. Profile reconstruction from the deflected electron beam trajectory is implemented and compared with the actual profile, and the expected agreement is achieved. Furthermore, as well as fast scan, a slow scan, i.e. step-by-step scan, is considered, which lowers the requirement for hardware, i.e. Radio Frequency deflector. We calculate the three-dimensional electric field of a Gaussian distribution and simulate the electron motion in this field. In addition, a fast scan along the target beam direction and slow scan across the beam are also presented, and can provide a measurement of longitudinal distribution as well as transverse profile simultaneously. As an example, simulation results for the China Accelerator Driven Sub-critical System (CADS) and High Intensity Heavy Ion Accelerator Facility (HIAF) are given. Finally, a potential system design for an EBP is described.

  15. Square shaped flat-top beam in refractive beam shapers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Vadim; Ostrun, Aleksei

    2015-08-01

    Lossless transformation of round Gaussian to square shaped flat-top collimated beam is important in building highpower solid state laser systems to improve optical pumping or amplification. There are industrial micromachining applications like scribing, display repair, which performance is improved when a square shaped spot with uniform intensity is created. Proved beam shaping solutions to these techniques are refractive field mapping beam shapers having some important features: flatness of output phase front, small output divergence, high transmittance, extended depth of field, operation with TEM00 and multimode lasers. Usual approach to design refractive beam shapers implies that input and output beams have round cross-section, therefore the only way to create a square shaped output beam is using a square mask, which leads to essential losses. When an input laser beam is linearly polarized it is suggested to generate square shaped flat-top output by applying beam shaper lenses from birefringent materials or by using additional birefringent components. Due to birefringence there is introduced phase retardation in beam parts and is realized a square shaped interference pattern at the beam shaper output. Realization of this approach requires small phase retardation, therefore weak birefringence effect is enough and birefringent optical components, operating in convergent or divergent beams, can be made from refractive materials, which crystal optical axis is parallel to optical axis of entire beam shaper optical system. There will be considered design features of beam shapers creating square shaped flat-top beams. Examples of real implementations and experimental results will be presented as well.

  16. Cultural Technology Acceptance Model for Consumers’ Acceptance of Arabic E-Commerce Websites

    OpenAIRE

    Omar (Mohammad Ali) Al-Qudah; Kamsuriah Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the factors affecting consumer’s acceptance of Arabic e-commerce websites and to propose a cultural technology acceptance model for consumer’s acceptance of Arabic e-commerce websites. The proposed model was built based on, technology acceptance model, trust, perceived risk and Hofstede’s cultural values as moderators between trust and perceived risk and purchase intention. In addition, Arabic language from literature review was added. Based on these theor...

  17. Silicon microfabricated beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, A., E-mail: aliman@ppinang.uitm.edu.my; Ibrahim, M. N.; Hamzah, I. H.; Sulaiman, A. A. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Ain, M. F. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300,Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-03-30

    The feasibility design and development methods of silicon microfabricated beam expander are described. Silicon bulk micromachining fabrication technology is used in producing features of the structure. A high-precision complex 3-D shape of the expander can be formed by exploiting the predictable anisotropic wet etching characteristics of single-crystal silicon in aqueous Potassium-Hydroxide (KOH) solution. The beam-expander consist of two elements, a micromachined silicon reflector chamber and micro-Fresnel zone plate. The micro-Fresnel element is patterned using lithographic methods. The reflector chamber element has a depth of 40 µm, a diameter of 15 mm and gold-coated surfaces. The impact on the depth, diameter of the chamber and absorption for improved performance are discussed.

  18. Light Beam Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a method and a system for synthesizing a set of controllable light beams by provision of a system for synthesizing a set of light beams, comprising a spatially modulated light source for generation of electromagnetic radiation with a set of replicas of a predetermined...... symbol, s, positioned at respective desired positions (xs, ys) in an object plane o(x, y) intersecting, preferably perpendicular to, the direction of propagation of the electromagnetic radiation, and having spatial amplitudes a(x-xs, y-ys), spatial phases f(x-xs, y-ys)> and spatial polarisation vectors p......(x-xs, y-ys), a Fourier transforming lens for Fourier transforming the electromagnetic radiation, a first spatial light modulator for phase shifting the Fourier transformed electromagnetic radiation with the phase -F(u, v) of S*, S* is the complex conjugate of the Fourier transformed symbol s, a Fourier...

  19. The nonequilibrium beam plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skvortsov, V. A.

    1996-10-01

    The kinetics and the heating of nonequilibrium plasma, formed as a result of injection of intensive relativistic (or subrelativistic) electron or proton beams in the atomic-molecular gas (nitrogen or air with water vapor) at different pressures (from 0.1-10 atm) have been investigated numerically by using the mathematical model “SKIF” which was developed by the author 15 years ago. More than 200 plasma-chemical reactions and elementary processes are taken into consideration, including the action of “non-Maxwell” electrons of the cascade, formed in the ionization of the molecules by the beam particles. For the description of the deviation of energy distribution of such electrons from the equilibrium distribution, a simplified analytical model was used, with the help of which one can calculate the energy spectrum of the cascade electrons with satisfactory precision. This essentially reduces the calculating expenditure.

  20. Targets and Secondary Beam Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noah, Etam

    2014-02-01

    Several applications make use of secondary beams of particles generated by the interaction of a primary beam of particles with a target. Spallation neutrons, bremsstrahlung photon-produced neutrons, radioactive ions and neutrinos are available to users at state-of-the-art facilities worldwide. Plans for even higher secondary beam intensities place severe constraints on the design of targets. This article reports on the main targetry challenges and highlights a variety of solutions for targetry and secondary beam extraction. Issues related to target station layout, instrumentation at the beam-target interface, safety and radioprotection are also discussed.

  1. PLASMA EMISSION BY COUNTER-STREAMING ELECTRON BEAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziebell, L. F.; Petruzzellis, L. T.; Gaelzer, R. [Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Yoon, P. H. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Pavan, J., E-mail: luiz.ziebell@ufrgs.br, E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu, E-mail: joel.pavan@ufpel.edu.br [Instituto de Física e Matemática, UFPel, Pelotas, RS (Brazil)

    2016-02-10

    The radiation emission mechanism responsible for both type-II and type-III solar radio bursts is commonly accepted as plasma emission. Recently Ganse et al. suggested that type-II radio bursts may be enhanced when the electron foreshock geometry of a coronal mass ejection contains a double hump structure. They reasoned that the counter-streaming electron beams that exist between the double shocks may enhance the nonlinear coalescence interaction, thereby giving rise to more efficient generation of radiation. Ganse et al. employed a particle-in-cell simulation to study such a scenario. The present paper revisits the same problem with EM weak turbulence theory, and show that the fundamental (F) emission is not greatly affected by the presence of counter-streaming beams, but the harmonic (H) emission becomes somewhat more effective when the two beams are present. The present finding is thus complementary to the work by Ganse et al.

  2. Controls and Beam Diagnostics for Therapy-Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Eickhoff, H

    2000-01-01

    During the last four years GSI has developed a new procedure for cancer treatment by means of the intensity controlled rasterscan-method. This method includes active variations of beam parameters during the treatment session and the integration of 'on-line' PET monitoring. Starting in 1997 several patients have been successfully treated within this GSI experimental cancer treatment program; within this program about 350 patients shall be treated in the next 5 years. The developments and experiences of this program accompanied by intensive discussions with the medical community led to a proposal for a hospital based light ion accelerator facility for the clinic in Heidelberg. An essential part for patients treatments is the measurement of the beam properties within acceptance and constancy tests and especially for the rasterscan method during the treatment sessions. The presented description of the accelerator controls and beam diagnostic devices mainly covers the requests for the active scanning method, which...

  3. The COMPASS Setup for Physics with Hadron Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Abbon, Ph.; Akhunzyanov, R.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, M.G.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anosov, V.; Austregesilo, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Berlin, A.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E.R.; Bieling, J.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bodlak, M.; Boer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bressan, A.; Buchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Ciliberti, P.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Colantoni, M.; Cotte, D.; Crespo, M.L.; Curiel, Q.; Dafni, T.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Desforge, D.; Dinkelbach, A.M.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dunnweber, W.; Durand, D.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; M. Finger jr; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; von Hohenesche, N. du Fresne; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Gatignon, L.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giganon, A.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmuller, S.; Grasso, A.; Gregori, M.; Grube, B.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Hahne, D.; Hashimoto, R.; Heinsius, F.H.; Herrmann, F.; Hinterberger, F.; Hoppner, Ch.; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jasinski, P.; Jorg, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kramer, M.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kuchinski, N.; Kuhn, R.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R.P.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levillain, M.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.K.; Marchand, C.; Marroncle, J.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matousek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Menon, G.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Miyachi, Y.; Moinester, M.A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Novy, J.; Nowak, W.D.; Nunes, Ana Sofia; Olshevsky, A.G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Pesaro, G.; Pesaro, V.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Pires, C.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Reymond, J-M.; Rocco, E.; Rossiyskaya, N.S.; Rousse, J.Y.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Rychter, A.; Samartsev, A.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schluter, T.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schonning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Schott, M.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Steiger, L.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Wolbeek, J. ter; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Tskhay, V.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Virius, M.; Wang, L.; Weisrock, T.; Weitzel, Q.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zink, A.

    2015-01-01

    The main characteristics of the COMPASS experimental setup for physics with hadron beams are described. This setup was designed to perform exclusive measurements of processes with several charged and/or neutral particles in the final state. Making use of a large part of the apparatus that was previously built for spin structure studies with a muon beam, it also features a new target system as well as new or upgraded detectors. The hadron setup is able to operate at the high incident hadron flux available at CERN. It is characterised by large angular and momentum coverages, large and nearly flat acceptances, and good two and three-particle mass resolutions. In 2008 and 2009 it was successfully used with positive and negative hadron beams and with liquid hydrogen and solid nuclear targets. This article describes the new and upgraded detectors and auxiliary equipment, outlines the reconstruction procedures used, and summarises the general performance of the setup.

  4. Scaled beam merging experiment for heavy ion inertial fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Seidl

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Transverse beam combining is a cost-saving option employed in many designs for heavy ion fusion drivers. However, the resultant transverse phase space dilution must be minimized so as not to sacrifice focusability at the target. A prototype combining experiment has been completed employing four 3-mA Cs^{+} beams injected at 160 keV. The focusing elements upstream of the merge consist of four quadrupoles and a final combined-function element (quadrupole and dipole. Following the merge, the resultant single beam is transported in a single alternating gradient channel where the subsequent evolution of the distribution function is diagnosed. The results are in fair agreement with particle-in-cell simulations. They indicate that for some heavy ion fusion driver designs, the phase space dilution from merging is acceptable.

  5. Beam-Material Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Mokhov, N.V.

    2016-01-01

    Th is paper is motivated by the growing importance of better understanding of the phenomena and consequences of high- intensity energetic particle beam interactions with accelerator, generic target , and detector components. It reviews the principal physical processes of fast-particle interactions with matter, effects in materials under irradiation, materials response, related to component lifetime and performance, simulation techniques, and methods of mitigating the impact of radiation on the components and envir onment in challenging current and future application

  6. Mode Gaussian beam tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, M. Yu.; Zakharenko, A. D.; Kozitskiy, S. B.

    2016-10-01

    A mode parabolic equation in the ray centered coordinates for 3D underwater sound propagation is developed. The Gaussian beam tracing in this case is constructed. The test calculations are carried out for the ASA wedge benchmark and proved an excellent agreement with the source images method in the case of cross-slope propagation. But in the cases of wave propagation at some angles to the cross-slope direction an account of mode interaction becomes necessary.

  7. Accelerating regular polygon beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwick, Shane

    2010-12-15

    Beams that possess high-intensity peaks that follow curved paths of propagation under linear diffraction have recently been shown to have a multitude of interesting uses. In this Letter, a family of phase-only masks is derived, and each mask gives rise to multiple accelerating intensity maxima. The curved paths of the peaks can be described by the vertices of a regular polygon that is centered on the optic axis and expands with propagation.

  8. Beam-Material Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhov, N. V. [Fermilab; Cerutti, F. [CERN

    2016-01-01

    Th is paper is motivated by the growing importance of better understanding of the phenomena and consequences of high-intensity energetic particle beam interactions with accelerator, generic target, and detector components. It reviews the principal physical processes of fast-particle interactions with matter, effects in materials under irradiation, materials response, related to component lifetime and performance, simulation techniques, and methods of mitigating the impact of radiation on the components and environment in challenging current and future applications.

  9. Beam Shear Design According to Eurocode 2 - Limitations for the Concrete Strut Inclinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagsten, Lars German; Hestbech, Lars; Fisker, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The beam shear design method adopted in Eurocode 2 is based on a lower bound plastic solution. This method is combined with limitations on the concrete strut inclination, θ. These limitations are introduced to ensure acceptable crack width in the SLS. 7 full scale beams have been tested...... and are presented. These beams are all designed to fail in shear and the shear reinforcement is designed for different values of the concrete strut inclinations (cot θ varies from 1.5 to 3.4). These tests indicate a clear connection between the values of the concrete strut inclinations and crack width in the SLS....... In cases where larger crack widths (w > 0.4 mm) can be accepted, larger values of the concrete strut inclinations can be chosen. This will lead to less shear reinforcements. The results are also compared with analytical analysis based on energy methods. At the SLS the beams are expected to be cracked...

  10. Performance of the ATLAS liquid argon forward calorimeter in beam tests

    CERN Document Server

    Archambault, J P; Cadabeschi, M; Epshteyn, V; Galt, C; Gillberg, D; Gorbounov, P; Heelan, L; Khakzad, M; Khovanskiy, V; Krieger, P; Loch, P; McCarthy, T G; Oakham, F G; Orr, R S; Rutherfoord, J; Savine, A; Schram, M; Shatalov, P; Shaver, L; Shupe, M; Strickland, V; Thompson, P; Tsukerman, I

    2013-01-01

    One of two ATLAS Forward Calorimeters, consisting of threemodules, one behind the other, was exposed to particle beams ofknown energies in order to study the detector performance with andwithout the presence of upstream material in the beam, and at theinner edge of the acceptance where shower energy containment isincomplete. Data were taken in the H6 beamline at CERN usingelectron and hadron beams with energies from 10 to 200 GeV.Results related to the intrinsic detector calibration, based on datataken with a minimal amount of material in front of the detector,have been previously published, but are updated here. This paperfocuses on studies of data taken with additional upstream materialin place. The effects of this additional material on the linearityand resolution of the response are presented. The response at theinner edge of the acceptance is also investigated. For all analyses,results based on a GEANT4 simulation of the beam-test setup anddetector response are also presented.

  11. Hyperon Beam Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The experiment WA89 uses the upgraded Omega facility together with a hyperon beam installed at the end of the H1 beamline. The beam can deliver 2~10$ ^{5} \\% Sigma ^- $ per machine burst at 330 GeV/c with a background of 5 10$ ^{5} \\% \\pi ^- $. \\\\ \\\\ The goals of the experiment are: observation of charmed particles, mainly the charmed-strange baryons and measurements of their production in the kinematical range x$ _{F} $~$>$~0.2, and their decay properties, a search for exotic states such as U(3100) observed in the previous CERN hyperon beam experiment WA62, measurements of hyperon polarization and production properties. \\\\ \\\\ A vertex detector consisting of 24 silicon microstrip planes with 25~$\\mu$m pitch and 6~planes with 50~$\\mu$m pitch provides track measurements of sufficient accuracy to identify the decays of short living charmed particles and measure their lifetimes. A RICH detector provides good $\\pi$/K separation for momenta up to 100~GeV/c and $\\pi$/p separation up to 150~GeV/c. Photons are detecte...

  12. Fixed target beams

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V; Cettour-Cave, S; Cornelis, K; Fraser, M A; Gatignon, L; Goddard, B; Velotti, F

    2017-01-01

    The CERN SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) serves asLHC injector and provides beam for the North Area fixedtarget experiments. At low energy, the vertical acceptancebecomes critical with high intensity large emittance fixed tar-get beams. Optimizing the vertical available aperture is a keyingredient to optimize transmission and reduce activationaround the ring. During the 2016 run a tool was developed toprovide an automated local aperture scan around the entirering.The flux of particles slow extracted with the1/3inte-ger resonance from the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERNshould ideally be constant over the length of the extractionplateau, for optimum use of the beam by the fixed target ex-periments in the North Area. The extracted intensity is con-trolled in feed-forward correction of the horizontal tune viathe main SPS quadrupoles. The Mains power supply noiseat 50 Hz and harmonics is also corrected in feed-forwardby small amplitude tune modulation at the respective fre-quencies with a dedicated additional quad...

  13. Beam screen issues

    CERN Document Server

    Métral, E

    2011-01-01

    In the High Energy LHC (HE-LHC), a beam energy of about 16.5 TeV is currently contemplated. The beam screen issues linked to the use of 20 T dipole magnets instead of 8.33 T are discussed, with a particular emphasis on two mechanisms, the magneto-resistance and the anomalous skin effect, assuming the nominal machine and beam parameters. The magneto-resistance effect always leads to an increase of the material resistivity (as the mean free path in the presence of a transverse magnetic field becomes smaller). As concerns the anomalous skin effect, the anomalous increase of surface resistance of metals at low temperatures and high frequencies is attributed to the long mean free path of the conduction electrons: when the skin depth becomes much smaller than the mean free path, only a fraction of the conduction electrons moving almost parallel to the metal surface is effective in carrying the current and the classical theory breaks down.

  14. Development of a new RFQ beam cooler and buncher for the CANREB project at TRIUMF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barquest, B.R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); Bale, J.C.; Dilling, J. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); UBC Department of Physics and Astronomy, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Gwinner, G. [University of Manitoba, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Allen Building, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); Kanungo, R. [Saint Mary’s University, Astronomy and Physics Department, 923 Robie Street, Halifax, NS B3H 3C3 (Canada); Krücken, R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); UBC Department of Physics and Astronomy, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Pearson, M.R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada)

    2016-06-01

    A new radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) based ion beam cooler and buncher is under development for the CANadian Rare-isotope facility with Electron Beam ion source (CANREB) project at TRIUMF. The CANREB project requires an RFQ buncher that will efficiently accept continuous beams of rare isotopes from either the Advanced Rare IsotopE Laboratory (ARIEL) or Isotope Separator and ACcelerator (ISAC) target by way of a high resolution magnetic spectrometer, with energies up to 60 keV and deliver bunched beams to an electron beam ion source (EBIS) for charge breeding. The energy of the bunched beam delivered to the EBIS will be adjustable to match the requirements of the existing post acceleration infrastructure. The CANREB RFQ incorporates design considerations to facilitate ease of use over a wide range of ion masses, and is intended to accommodate incident beam rates as high as 10{sup 8} pps, delivering beam bunches at 100 Hz. An overview of the CANREB RFQ design concept will be presented, informed by results from both ion optical simulations as well as commissioning efforts with other beam cooler and buncher devices. Simulation results indicate that the design is well suited to deliver high quality bunched beams with high efficiency with as many as 10{sup 6} ions per bunch.

  15. Premature beam dumps in 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, Markus

    2012-01-01

    The statistical analysis of all non-programmed beam dumps during the 2011 proton run is presented. The selection criteria of fills that got considered were that the beam intensity of each of the two beams exceeded at least 1e12 particles per beam in order to exclude all probe beam dumps and most of the MPS test dumps. A distribution of beam dump causes by system is shown, as well as the time it took to re-establish injection after a non-programmed dump for fills which made it into STABLE BEAMS. This was done in an attempt to evaluate the cost of those non-programmed dumps in terms of time.

  16. A compact molecular beam machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Paul; Chandler, David W; Strecker, Kevin E

    2009-08-01

    We have developed a compact, low cost, modular, crossed molecular beam machine. The new apparatus utilizes several technological advancements in molecular beams valves, ion detection, and vacuum pumping to reduce the size, cost, and complexity of a molecular beam apparatus. We apply these simplifications to construct a linear molecular beam machine as well as a crossed-atomic and molecular beam machine. The new apparatus measures almost 50 cm in length, with a total laboratory footprint less than 0.25 m(2) for the crossed-atomic and molecular beam machine. We demonstrate the performance of the apparatus by measuring the rotational temperature of nitric oxide from three common molecular beam valves and by observing collisional energy transfer in nitric oxide from a collision with argon.

  17. CLIC Drive Beam Phase Stabilisation

    CERN Document Server

    Gerbershagen, Alexander; Schulte, Daniel

    The thesis presents phase stability studies for the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) and focuses in particular on CLIC Drive Beam longitudinal phase stabilisation. This topic constitutes one of the main feasibility challenges for CLIC construction and is an essential component of the current CLIC stabilisation campaign. The studies are divided into two large interrelated sections: the simulation studies for the CLIC Drive Beam stability, and measurements, data analysis and simulations of the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) Drive Beam phase errors. A dedicated software tool has been developed for a step-by-step analysis of the error propagation through the CLIC Drive Beam. It uses realistic RF potential and beam loading amplitude functions for the Drive and Main Beam accelerating structures, complete models of the recombination scheme and compressor chicane as well as of further CLIC Drive Beam modules. The tool has been tested extensively and its functionality has been verified. The phase error propagation at CLIC h...

  18. Relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Füellekrug, M.; Roussel-Dupre, R.; Symbalisty, E. M. D.

    2011-01-01

    Non-luminous relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds have been detected by the radio signals of low frequency similar to 40-400 kHz which they radiate. The electron beams occur similar to 2-9 ms after positive cloud-to-ground lightning discharges at heights between similar to 22-72 km above...... thunderclouds. Intense positive lightning discharges can also cause sprites which occur either above or prior to the electron beam. One electron beam was detected without any luminous sprite which suggests that electron beams may also occur independently of sprites. Numerical simulations show that beams...... of electrons partially discharge the lightning electric field above thunderclouds and thereby gain a mean energy of similar to 7MeV to transport a total charge of similar to-10mC upwards. The impulsive current similar to 3 x 10(-3) Am-2 associated with relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds...

  19. Improvement of Galilean refractive beam shaping system for accurately generating near-diffraction-limited flattop beam with arbitrary beam size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Haotong; Liu, Zejin; Jiang, Pengzhi; Xu, Xiaojun; Du, Shaojun

    2011-07-04

    We propose and demonstrate the improvement of conventional Galilean refractive beam shaping system for accurately generating near-diffraction-limited flattop beam with arbitrary beam size. Based on the detailed study of the refractive beam shaping system, we found that the conventional Galilean beam shaper can only work well for the magnifying beam shaping. Taking the transformation of input beam with Gaussian irradiance distribution into target beam with high order Fermi-Dirac flattop profile as an example, the shaper can only work well at the condition that the size of input and target beam meets R(0) ≥ 1.3 w(0). For the improvement, the shaper is regarded as the combination of magnifying and demagnifying beam shaping system. The surface and phase distributions of the improved Galilean beam shaping system are derived based on Geometric and Fourier Optics. By using the improved Galilean beam shaper, the accurate transformation of input beam with Gaussian irradiance distribution into target beam with flattop irradiance distribution is realized. The irradiance distribution of the output beam is coincident with that of the target beam and the corresponding phase distribution is maintained. The propagation performance of the output beam is greatly improved. Studies of the influences of beam size and beam order on the improved Galilean beam shaping system show that restriction of beam size has been greatly reduced. This improvement can also be used to redistribute the input beam with complicated irradiance distribution into output beam with complicated irradiance distribution.

  20. Interference-aware random beam selection for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.

    2012-09-01

    Spectrum sharing systems have been introduced to alleviate the problem of spectrum scarcity by allowing secondary unlicensed networks to share the spectrum with primary licensed networks under acceptable interference levels to the primary users. In this paper, we develop interference-aware random beam selection schemes that provide enhanced throughput for the secondary link under the condition that the interference observed at the primary link is within a predetermined acceptable value. For a secondary transmitter equipped with multiple antennas, our schemes select a random beam, among a set of power- optimized orthogonal random beams, that maximizes the capacity of the secondary link while satisfying the interference constraint at the primary receiver for different levels of feedback information describing the interference level at the primary receiver. For the proposed schemes, we develop a statistical analysis for the signal-to-noise and interference ratio (SINR) statistics as well as the capacity of the secondary link. Finally, we present numerical results that study the effect of system parameters including number of beams and the maximum transmission power on the capacity of the secondary link attained using the proposed schemes. © 2012 IEEE.

  1. USING FFAGs IN THE CREATION OF NEUTRINO BEAMS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERG,J.S.

    2007-08-06

    A number of accelerator-based facilities have been proposed for the creation of neutrino beams: superbeams, neutrino factories, and beta beams. Fixed field alternating gradient accelerators (FFAGs) have potential uses in all of these facilities. Superbeams and neutrino factories require high power proton drivers for the production of pions; FFAGs can beneficial for accelerating protons for those machines. FFAGs can reduce the cost of accelerating muons in a neutrino factory because they enable the muons to make many passes through the RF cavities and still accelerate rapidly. FFAGs have potential uses in production of radioactive ions for a beta beam facility, since radioactive ions that decay into high energy neutrinos in their rest frame may potentially be produced in a ring, and the large energy acceptance of an FFAG may be useful for maximizing beam lifetime in such a ring. Finally, FFAGs have been contemplated for use in ionization cooling rings for neutrino factories, since the equilibrium distribution in ionization cooling has a large energy spread for which an FFAG's large energy acceptance is needed, and FFAGs may make it feasible to inject and extract from such a ring.

  2. Approaches to acceptable risk: a critical guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischhoff, B.; Lichtenstein, S.; Slovic, P.; Keeney, R.; Derby, S.

    1980-12-01

    Acceptable-risk decisions are an essential step in the management of technological hazards. In many situations, they constitute the weak (or missing) link in the management process. The absence of an adequate decision-making methodology often produces indecision, inconsistency, and dissatisfaction. The result is neither good for hazard management nor good for society. This report offers a critical analysis of the viability of various approaches as guides to acceptable-risk decisions. This report seeks to define acceptable-risk decisions and to examine some frequently proposed, but inappropriate, solutions. 255 refs., 22 figs., 25 tabs.

  3. NEVADA TEST SITE WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2005-07-01

    This document establishes the U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal. Mixed waste generated within the State of Nevada by NNSA/NSO activities is accepted for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the Nevada Test Site Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site for storage or disposal.

  4. Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-17

    This manual defines the Hanford Site radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste acceptance criteria. Criteria in the manual represent a guide for meeting state and federal regulations; DOE Orders; Hanford Site requirements; and other rules, regulations, guidelines, and standards as they apply to acceptance of radioactive and hazardous solid waste at the Hanford Site. It is not the intent of this manual to be all inclusive of the regulations; rather, it is intended that the manual provide the waste generator with only the requirements that waste must meet in order to be accepted at Hanford Site TSD facilities.

  5. Energy transparency and symmetries in the beam-beam interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krishnagopal

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available We have modified the beam-beam simulation code CBI to handle asymmetric beams and used it to look at energy transparency and symmetries in the beam-beam interaction. We find that even a small violation of energy transparency, or of the symmetry between the two beams, changes the character of the collective (coherent motion; in particular, period-n oscillations are no longer seen. We speculate that the one-time observation of these oscillations at LEP, and the more ubiquitous observation of the flip-flop instability in colliders around the world, may be a consequence of breaking the symmetry between the electron and positron beams. We also apply this code to the asymmetric collider PEP-II, and find that for the nominal parameters of PEP-II, in particular, the nominal tune-shift parameter of ξ_{0}=0.03, there are no collective beam-beam issues. Collective quadrupole motion sets in only at ξ_{0}=0.06 and above, consistent with earlier observations for symmetric beams.

  6. Coherent Beam-Beam Oscillations at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Zorzano-Mier, M P

    1999-01-01

    The transverse coherent motion of the two colliding LHC beams is studied by multi-particle tracking, where the beam-beam force is calculated assuming a Gaussian beam distribution with variable barycentres and rms beam sizes. The simulation yields the coherent and incoherent oscillation frequencies, the emittance growth of either beam, and evidence for the existence or lack of Landau damping. The transverse beam sizes change with the fractional part of the tune as expected from the dynamic beta effect. For head-on collisions, we find that the pi-mode frequency lies outside of the continuum frequency spread if the ratio of the beam-beam parameters exceeds 0.6, in accordance with predictions [1]. For smaller ratios, the pi-mode is Landau damped. When long range interactions are also included, undamped coherent modes do still exist outside the continuum, both with and without alternating crossing planes at two interaction points. However, the simulation shows that separating the tunes of the two beams can restore...

  7. BATMAN beam properties characterization by the beam emission spectroscopy diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonomo, F., E-mail: federica.bonomo@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Istituto Gas Ionizzati - CNR, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Ruf, B.; Schiesko, L.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Riedl, R.; Wünderlich, D. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Barbisan, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Serianni, G. [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Cristofaro, S. [Universitá degli Studi di Padova, Via 8 Febbraio 2, 35122 Padova (Italy)

    2015-04-08

    The ITER neutral beam heating systems are based on the production and acceleration of negative ions (H/D) up to 1 MV. The requirements for the beam properties are strict: a low core beam divergence (< 0.4 °) together with a low source pressure (≤ 0.3 Pa) would permit to reduce the ion losses along the beamline, keeping the stripping particle losses below 30%. However, the attainment of such beam properties is not straightforward. At IPP, the negative ion source testbed BATMAN (BAvarian Test MAchine for Negative ions) allows for deepening the knowledge of the determination of the beam properties. One of the diagnostics routinely used to this purpose is the Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES): the H{sub α} light emitted in the beam is detected and the corresponding spectra are evaluated to estimate the beam divergence and the stripping losses. The BES number of lines of sight in BATMAN has been recently increased: five horizontal lines of sight providing a vertical profile of the beam permit to characterize the negative ion beam properties in relation to the source parameters. Different methods of H{sub α} spectra analysis are here taken into account and compared for the estimation of the beam divergence and the amount of stripping. In particular, to thoroughly study the effect of the space charge compensation on the beam divergence, an additional hydrogen injection line has been added in the tank, which allows for setting different background pressure values (one order of magnitude, from about 0.04 Pa up to the source pressure) in the beam drift region.

  8. EDITORIAL: Negative ion based neutral beam injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsworth, R. S.

    2006-06-01

    It is widely recognized that neutral beam injection (NBI), i.e. the injection of high energy, high power, beams of H or D atoms, is a flexible and reliable system that has been the main heating system on a large variety of fusion devices, and NBI has been chosen as one of the three heating schemes of the International Tokomak Reactor (ITER). To date, all the NBI systems but two have been based on the neutralization (in a simple gas target) of positive hydrogen or deuterium ions accelerated to 1 MeV/nucleon. Unfortunately H- and D- are difficult to create, and the very characteristic that makes them attractive, the ease with which the electron is detached from the ion, means that it is difficult to create high concentrations or fluxes of them, and it is difficult to avoid substantial, collisional, losses in the extraction and acceleration processes. However, there has been impressive progress in negative ion sources and accelerators over the past decade, as demonstrated by the two pioneering, operational, multi-megawatt, negative ion based, NBI systems at LHD (180 keV, H0) and JT-60U (500 keV, D0), both in Japan. Nevertheless, the system proposed for ITER represents a substantial technological challenge as an increase is required in beam energy, to 1 MeV, D0, accelerated ion (D-) current, to 40 A, accelerated current density, 200 A m-2 of D-, and pulse length, to 1 h. At the Fourth IAEA Technical Meeting on Negative Ion Based Neutral Beam Injectors, hosted by the Consorzio RFX, Padova, Italy, 9-11 May 2005, the status of the R&D aimed at the realization of the injectors for ITER was presented. Because of the importance of this development to the success of the ITER project, participants at that meeting were asked if they were interested in rewriting and extending their contributions as a submission to Nuclear Fusion. Technology papers were accepted because of the very nature of the subject. The submissions underwent the regular double-referee peer-review process

  9. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, Waste Acceptance Criteria

    1999-05-01

    This document provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal; and transuranic and transuranic mixed waste for interim storage at the Nevada Test Site.

  10. Integrated Model for E-Learning Acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadiani; Rodziah, A.; Hasan, S. M.; Rusli, A.; Noraini, C.

    2016-01-01

    E-learning is not going to work if the system is not used in accordance with user needs. User Interface is very important to encourage using the application. Many theories had discuss about user interface usability evaluation and technology acceptance separately, actually why we do not make it correlation between interface usability evaluation and user acceptance to enhance e-learning process. Therefore, the evaluation model for e-learning interface acceptance is considered important to investigate. The aim of this study is to propose the integrated e-learning user interface acceptance evaluation model. This model was combined some theories of e-learning interface measurement such as, user learning style, usability evaluation, and the user benefit. We formulated in constructive questionnaires which were shared at 125 English Language School (ELS) students. This research statistics used Structural Equation Model using LISREL v8.80 and MANOVA analysis.

  11. 24 CFR 7.34 - Acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Color Religion, Sex, National Origin, Age, Disability or Reprisal Complaints § 7.34 Acceptability. (a... complaint system. (d) Where the Director of EEO believes that some, but not all, of the claims in a...

  12. ADHD knowledge, misconceptions, and treatment acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciutto, Mark J

    2015-02-01

    Despite the availability of several effective treatments, many children with ADHD do not receive adequate services. A variety of factors may influence help-seeking behavior among families of children with ADHD. This study explores two factors that may influence help-seeking decisions: knowledge and misconceptions of ADHD and treatment acceptability. A total of 196 participants completed measures of ADHD knowledge and use of information sources prior to rating the acceptability of two interventions: stimulant medication and sugar elimination diets. Higher levels of ADHD misconceptions were associated with lower acceptance of medication and higher acceptance of dietary interventions. However, analysis of individual misconceptions suggests that specific misconceptions are differentially related to perceptions of individual treatments. It may be important for clinicians to assess and deliberately target specific misconceptions as part of treatment for ADHD. © 2013 SAGE Publications.

  13. Detection of coherent beam-beam modes with digitized beam position monitor signals

    CERN Document Server

    Stancari, G.; White, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    A system for bunch-by-bunch detection of transverse proton and antiproton coherent oscillations in the Fermilab Tevatron collider is described. It is based on the signal from a single beam-position monitor located in a region of the ring with large amplitude functions. The signal is digitized over a large number of turns and Fourier-analyzed offline with a dedicated algorithm. To enhance the signal, band-limited noise is applied to the beam for about 1 s. This excitation does not adversely affect the circulating beams even at high luminosities. The device has a response time of a few seconds, a frequency resolution of $1.6\\times 10^{-5}$ in fractional tune, and it is sensitive to oscillation amplitudes of 60 nm. It complements Schottky detectors as a diagnostic tool for tunes, tune spreads, and beam-beam effects. Measurements of coherent mode spectra are presented and compared with models of beam-beam oscillations.

  14. Perceptions of acceptable conducts by university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Dora Nazaré; Macedo, António Filipe

    2016-01-01

    To determine perceptions of acceptable conducts amongst under and postgraduate optometry students and to compare them with students from other disciplines. Students (under/postgraduate) of optometry (n=156) and other courses (n=54) from University of Minho participated in a voluntary online questionnaire about perception of conducts, classifying as acceptable or unacceptable 15 academic or professional scenarios. 210 questionnaires were analyzed. Differences in perceptions were found between optometry under and postgraduates in scenario 5, Chi-square(2,156)=4.3, p=0.038, and scenario 7, Chi-square(2,156)=7.0, p=0.008 (both with cheating more acceptable for postgrads). Differences between under and postgraduates from other courses were found in scenario 9 (taking supplies from classroom more acceptable for undergrads), Chi-square(1,54)=5.0, p=0.025, and scenario 14 (forging a signature more acceptable for postgrads), Chi-square(1,54)=3.9, p=0.046. Differences between optometry and other courses undergraduates were observed in scenario 2 (plagiarism more acceptable for optometry undergrads), Chi-square(1,154)=8.3, p=0.004 and scenario 9 (taking supplies from classroom more acceptable for other undergrads), chi-square(1,54)=7.8, p=0.005. Differences between optometry and other courses postgraduates were observed in scenario 7, Chi-square(1,56)=5.8, p=0.016, scenario 10 (both with cheating more acceptable for optometry postgrads), chi-square(1,54)=8.1, p=0.004 and scenario 14 (forging a signature more acceptable for other postgrads), Chi-square(1,54)=6.1, p=0.026. Academic misconducts were mainly considered more acceptable than professional misconducts. Our results show that perceptions of acceptable conducts amongst optometry students are not very different from other students, and, against our initial prediction, do not show a general change in misconduct perception when students become more mature. Universities should pay more attention to this problem and take

  15. LHC Beam Instrumentation: Beam Profile Measurements (2/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The LHC is equipped with a full suite of sophisticated beam instrumentation which has been essential for rapid commissioning, the safe increase in total stored beam power and the understanding of machine optics and accelerator physics phenomena. These lectures will introduce these systems and comment on their contributions to the various stages of beam operation. They will include details on: the beam position system and its use for real-time global orbit feedback; the beam loss system and its role in machine protection; total and bunch by bunch intensity measurements; tune measurement and feedback; diagnostics for transverse beam size measurements, abort gap monitoring and longitudinal density measurements. Issues and problems encountered along the way will also be discussed together with the prospect for future upgrades.

  16. 6D beam-beam interaction step-by-step

    CERN Document Server

    Iadarola, Giovanni; Papaphilippou, Yannis; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    This document describes in detail the numerical method used in different simulation codes for the simulation of beam-beam interactions using the “Synchro Beam Mapping” approach, in order to correctly model the coupling introduced by beam-beam between the longitudinal and the transverse plane. The goal is to provide in a compact, complete and self-consistent manner the set of equations needed for the implementation in a numerical code. The effect of a “crossing angle” in an arbitrary “crossing plane” with respect to the assigned reference frame is taken into account with a suitable coordinate transformation. The employed description of the strong beam allows correctly accounting for the hour-glass effect as well as for linear coupling at the interaction point.

  17. Beam line design using G4BeamLine

    CERN Document Server

    Dogan, Arda

    2014-01-01

    In Turkey in Ankara TAEK SANAEM Proton Accelerator Facility (PAF), there is a cyclotron which produces a focused intense 30 MeV proton beam and sends this beam to four different arms, three of which uses this beam to produce pharmaceutical medicine. The remaining one is spared for R&D purposes and the idea was to use these protons coming out from the fourth arm to use space radiation tests, which cannot be done in Turkey at the moment. However, according to SCC 25100 standards which is for 30 MeV protons, the beam coming out of cyclotron is too intense and focused to use for space radiation tests. Therefore, the main aim of my project is to design a beam line which will defocus the beam and reduce the flux so that the space radiation tests can be done according to the standards of SCC 25100.

  18. Consumer acceptance of ginseng food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hee Sook; Lee, Young-Chul; Rhee, Young Kyung; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2011-01-01

    Ginseng has been utilized less in food products than in dietary supplements in the United States. Sensory acceptance of ginseng food products by U.S. consumers has not been reported. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the sensory acceptance of commercial ginseng food products and (2) assess influence of the addition of sweeteners to ginseng tea and ginseng extract to chocolate on consumer acceptance. Total of 126 consumers participated in 3 sessions for (1) 7 commercial red ginseng food products, (2) 10 ginseng teas varying in levels of sugar or honey, and (3) 10 ginseng milk or dark chocolates varying in levels of ginseng extract. Ginseng candy with vitamin C and ginseng crunchy white chocolate were the most highly accepted, while sliced ginseng root product was the least accepted among the seven commercial products. Sensory acceptance increased in proportion to the content of sugar and honey in ginseng tea, whereas acceptance decreased with increasing content of ginseng extract in milk and dark chocolates. Findings demonstrate that ginseng food product types with which consumers have been already familiar, such as candy and chocolate, will have potential for success in the U.S. market. Chocolate could be suggested as a food matrix into which ginseng can be incorporated, as containing more bioactive compounds than ginseng tea at a similar acceptance level. Future research may include a descriptive analysis with ginseng-based products to identify the key drivers of liking and disliking for successful new product development. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Key factors of teenagers' mobile advertising acceptance

    OpenAIRE

    Martí Parreño, José; Sanz Blas, Silvia; Ruiz Mafé, Carla; Aldás Manzano, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse key drivers of teenagers’ attitude toward mobile advertising and its effects on teenagers’ mobile advertising acceptance. Design/methodology/approach – A proposed model of affective (irritation and entertainment) and cognitive (perceived usefulness) antecedents of attitude toward mobile advertising and its effects on mobile advertising acceptance is analysed. The sample consisted of 355 Spanish teenagers. The model was tested us...

  20. The Drive Beam Generation for Two Beam Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Corsini, R

    1996-01-01

    In this paper a review is made of the schemes of two beam accelerator proposed for electron-positron colliders in the TeV energy range. The attention is given to the different methods of generating and handling the high-charge drive beam. Different options are described, and in particular three different possibility for the generation of the drive beam for the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) project are described.

  1. Single Shot Measurements of the 4-Dimensional Transverse Phase Space Distribution of Intense Ion Beams at the UNILAC at GSI

    CERN Document Server

    Groening, L

    2003-01-01

    The UNILAC is used as an injector for the synchrotron SIS. It is designed to fill the synchrotron up to its space charge limit. The upper limit for the useful beam emittance of the UNILAC is given by the finite acceptance of the SIS during the injection process. In order to remain within this acceptance the emittance growth during beam acceleration and transportation due to space charge effects must be minimized by applying an appropriate beam focusing. Therefore, the influence of the magnetic focusing strength on the beam emittance growth was investigated experimentally for different beam currents. Measurements of transverse phase space distributions were performed before and after the Alvarez accelerator with a periodic focusing channel, respectively. In order to perform such a wide parameter scan within a reasonable time with respect to machine stability, the pepper pot technique was applied. The pepper pot method allows for single-pulse measurements. For comparison several measurements using the slit-grid...

  2. Magnetically operated beam dump for dumping high power beams in a neutral beamline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagenhart, W.K.

    1984-01-27

    It is an object of this invention to provide a beam dump system for a neutral beam generator which lowers the time-averaged power density of the beam dump impingement surface. Another object of this invention is to provide a beam dump system for a neutral particle beam based on reionization and subsequent magnetic beam position modulation of the beam onto a beam dump surface to lower the time-averaged power density of the beam dump ion impingement surface.

  3. Beam position monitor for energy recovered linac beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Thomas; Evtushenko, Pavel

    2017-06-06

    A method of determining the beam position in an energy recovered linac (ERL). The method makes use of in phase and quadrature (I/Q) demodulation techniques to separate the pickup signal generated by the electromagnetic fields generated by the first and second pass beam in the energy recovered linac. The method includes using analog or digital based I/Q demodulation techniques in order to measure the relative amplitude of the signals from a position sensitive beam pickup such as a button, strip line or microstripline beam position monitor.

  4. On the role of CFRP reinforcement for wood beams stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianasi, A. C.

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, carbon fiber composites have been increasingly used in different ways in reinforcing structural elements. Specifically, the use of composite materials as a reinforcement for wood beams under bending loads requires paying attention to several aspects of the problem such as the number of the composite layers applied on the wood beams. Study consolidation of composites revealed that they are made by bonding fibrous material impregnated with resin on the surface of various elements, to restore or increase the load carrying capacity (bending, cutting, compression or torque) without significant damage of their rigidity. Fibers used in building applications can be fiberglass, aramid or carbon. Items that can be strengthened are concrete, brick, wood, steel and stone, and in terms of structural beams, walls, columns and floors. This paper describes an experimental study which was designed to evaluate the effect of composite material on the stiffness of the wood beams. It proposes a summary of the fundamental principles of analysis of composite materials and the design and use. The type of reinforcement used on the beams is the carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheet and plates and also an epoxy resin for bonding all the elements. Structural epoxy resins remain the primary choice of adhesive to form the bond to fiber-reinforced plastics and are the generally accepted adhesives in bonded CFRP-wood connections. The advantages of using epoxy resin in comparison to common wood-laminating adhesives are their gap-filling qualities and the low clamping pressures that are required to form the bond between carbon fiber plates or sheets and the wood beams. Mechanical tests performed on the reinforced wood beams showed that CFRP materials may produce flexural displacement and lifting increases of the beams. Observations of the experimental load-displacement relationships showed that bending strength increased for wood beams reinforced with CFRP composite plates

  5. Multiple Beam Optical Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    212 APPENDIX C: Conclusions from the 1988 PhD dissertation of George Gigioli. Jr.. entitled "Optimization and Tolerancing of...produces a modulation in the region 0 <! z !T. given by 106 A A x Or 0, A P a R S z=O z=T -K a = p-K Figure 10.5 Geometric structure of a thick hologram...defined as -= nT (10.26) x’cOSer~b -(A/)-An( geometrical optical path length experienced by the beam transversing hologram) . For the non-Bragg-angle

  6. Beam transport line with scaling fixed field alternating gradient type magnets

    OpenAIRE

    Shinji Machida; Richard Fenning

    2010-01-01

    A scaling fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator provides large momentum acceptance despite the fact that magnetic guiding fields are constant in time. Optical functions are identical over the large momentum range as well. We have designed a straight beam transport line (BTL) using a scaling FFAG type magnet which has a field profile of y^{k}, where y is the horizontal coordinate and k is the magnetic field index. This FFAG-BTL has very large momentum acceptance and optical funct...

  7. eRHIC Beam Scrubbing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S. Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-06-22

    We propose using beam scrubbing to mitigate the electron cloud e ect in the eRHIC. The bunch number is adjusted below the heat load limit, then it increases with the reduced secondary electron yield resulted from the beam scrubbing, up to the design bunch number. Since the electron density threshold of beam instability is lower at the injection, a preliminary injection scrubbing should go rst, where large chromaticity can be used to keep the beam in the ring for scrubbing. After that, the beam can be ramped to full energy, allowing physics scrubbing. Simulations demonstrated that with beam scrubbing in a reasonable period of time, the eRHIC baseline design is feasible.

  8. System Architecture for measuring and monitoring Beam Losses in the Injector Complex at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Zamantzas, C; Dehning, B; Jackson, S; Kwiatkowski, M; Vigano, W

    2012-01-01

    The strategy for beam setup and machine protection of the accelerators at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) is mainly based on its Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) systems. For their upgrade to higher beam energies and intensities, a new BLM system is under development with the aim of providing faster measurement updates with higher dynamic range and the ability to accept more types of detectors as input compared to its predecessors. In this paper, the architecture of the complete system is explored giving an insight to the design choices made to provide a highly reconfigurable system that is able to fulfil the different requirements of each accelerator using reprogrammable devices.

  9. Simulation of beam-induced plasma for the mitigation of beam-beam effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, J.; Wang, G.; Samulyak, R.; Yu, K.; Litvinenko, V.

    2015-05-03

    One of the main challenges in the increase of luminosity of circular colliders is the control of the beam-beam effect. In the process of exploring beam-beam mitigation methods using plasma, we evaluated the possibility of plasma generation via ionization of neutral gas by proton beams, and performed highly resolved simulations of the beam-plasma interaction using SPACE, a 3D electromagnetic particle-in-cell code. The process of plasma generation is modelled using experimentally measured cross-section coefficients and a plasma recombination model that takes into account the presence of neutral gas and beam-induced electromagnetic fields. Numerically simulated plasma oscillations are consistent with theoretical analysis. In the beam-plasma interaction process, high-density neutral gas reduces the mean free path of plasma electrons and their acceleration. A numerical model for the drift speed as a limit of plasma electron velocity was developed. Simulations demonstrate a significant reduction of the beam electric field in the presence of plasma. Preliminary simulations using fully-ionized plasma have also been performed and compared with the case of beam-induced plasma.

  10. Beam simulation studies of ECR beam extraction and low energy beam transport for FRIB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Haitao; Pozdeyev, Eduard; Lund, Steven M; Machicoane, Guillaume; Wu, Xiaoyu; Morgan, Glenn

    2016-02-01

    To meet the beam power requirements of 400 kW at the fragmentation target for facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), simultaneous acceleration of two-charge states should be used for heavier ions. These intense multi-charged ion beams will be produced by a 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source at a high voltage of 35 kV. After extraction, the ion beam will be pre-accelerated to 12 keV/u with a 50 kV platform, transported down to an achromatic charge state selection (CSS) system followed by a vertical transport line, and then injected into a radio frequency quadrupole accelerator. The TRACK code developed at ANL is used to perform the simulations of the ECR beam extraction and low energy beam transport for FRIB. In this study, we include the magnetic field of ECR ion source into simulations. Different initial beam conditions as well as different space charge neutralization levels are tested for the ECR beamline. The beam loss in CSS system and the corresponding protective measures are discussed. The detailed results about the beam dynamic simulation and beam loss in CSS system will be presented in this paper.

  11. Pulsed beam tests at the SANAEM RFQ beamline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turemen, G.; Akgun, Y.; Alacakir, A.; Kilic, I.; Yasatekin, B.; Ergenlik, E.; Ogur, S.; Sunar, E.; Yildiz, V.; Ahiska, F.; Cicek, E.; Unel, G.

    2017-07-01

    A proton beamline consisting of an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source, two solenoid magnets, two steerer magnets and a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) is developed at the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority’s (TAEA) Saraykoy Nuclear Research and Training Center (SNRTC-SANAEM) in Ankara. In Q4 of 2016, the RFQ was installed in the beamline. The high power tests of the RF power supply and the RF transmission line were done successfully. The high power RF conditioning of the RFQ was performed recently. The 13.56 MHz ICP source was tested in two different conditions, CW and pulsed. The characterization of the proton beam was done with ACCTs, Faraday cups and a pepper-pot emittance meter. Beam transverse emittance was measured in between the two solenoids of the LEBT. The measured beam is then reconstructed at the entrance of the RFQ by using computer simulations to determine the optimum solenoid currents for acceptance matching of the beam. This paper will introduce the pulsed beam test results at the SANAEM RFQ beamline. In addition, the high power RF conditioning of the RFQ will be discussed.

  12. Information technology acceptance in health information management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdekhoda, M; Ahmadi, M; Dehnad, A; Hosseini, A F

    2014-01-01

    User acceptance of information technology has been a significant area of research for more than two decades in the field of information technology. This study assessed the acceptance of information technology in the context of Health Information Management (HIM) by utilizing Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) which was modified and applied to assess user acceptance of health information technology as well as viability of TAM as a research construct in the context of HIM. This was a descriptive- analytical study in which a sample of 187 personnel from a population of 363 personnel, working in medical records departments of hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences, was selected. Users' perception of applying information technology was studied by a researcher-developed questionnaire. Collected data were analyzed by SPSS software (version16) using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. The results suggest that TAM is a useful construct to assess user acceptance of information technology in the context of HIM. The findings also evidenced the perceived ease of use (PEOU) and perceived usefulness (PE) were positively associated with favorable users' attitudes towards HIM. PU was relatively more associated (r= 0.22, p = 0.05) than PEOU (r = 0.014, p = 0.05) with favorable user attitudes towards HIM. Users' perception of usefulness and ease of use are important determinants providing the incentive for users to accept information technologies when the application of a successful HIM system is attempted. The findings of the present study suggest that user acceptance is a key element and should subsequently be the major concern of health organizations and health policy makers.

  13. Harmonic vibrations of multispan beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrbye, Claes

    1996-01-01

    Free and forced harmonic vibrations of multispan beams are determined by a method which implies 1 equation regardless of the configuration. The necessary formulas are given in the paper. For beams with simple supports and the same length of all (n) spans, there is a rather big difference between...... the n´th and the (n+1)´th eigenfrequency. The reason for this phenomenon is explained.Keywords: Vibrations, Eigenfrequencies, Beams....

  14. Beta Beams: an accelerator based facility to explore Neutrino oscillation physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wildner, E; Hansen, C; De Melo Mendonca, T; Stora, T; Payet, J; Chance, A; Zorin, V; Izotov, I; Rasin, S; Sidorov, A; Skalyga, V; De Angelis, G; Prete, G; Cinausero, M; Kravchuk, VL; Gramegna, F; Marchi, T; Collazuol, G; De Rosa, G; Delbar, T; Loiselet, M; Keutgen, T; Mitrofanov, S; Lamy, T; Latrasse, L; Marie-Jeanne, M; Sortais, P; Thuillier, T; Debray, F; Trophime, C; Hass, M; Hirsh, T; Berkovits, D; Stahl, A

    2011-01-01

    The discovery that the neutrino changes flavor as it travels through space has implications for the Standard Model of particle physics (SM)[1]. To know the contribution of neutrinos to the SM, needs precise measurements of the parameters governing the neutrino oscillations. This will require a high intensity beam-based neutrino oscillation facility. The EURONu Design Study will review three currently accepted methods of realizing this facility (the so-called Super-Beams, Beta Beams and Neutrino Factories) and perform a cost assessment that, coupled with the physics performance, will give means to the European research authorities to make a decision on the layout and construction of the future European neutrino oscillation facility. ”Beta Beams” produce collimated pure electron neutrino and antineutrino beams by accelerating beta active ions to high energies and letting them decay in a race-track shaped storage ring. EURONu Beta Beams are based on CERNs infrastructure and the fact that some of the already ...

  15. Toroidal runaway beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussmann, G

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of a special group of runaway electrons which possibly play an important role in toroidal fusion devices. Starting from the torus center they are accelerated by a toroidal electric field and are hence forced to move across the toroidal magnetic field into regions with rising poloidal field in order to compensate for the centrifugal forces. Can such particles finally form a tight beam of relativistic runaways in the outboard region or is this prevented due to the perpendicular momentum they gain by passing the toroidal field? Since neither the energy nor the magnetic momentum of the particles is conserved this question has been treated by invoking the relativistic equations of motion. It turns out, however, that the problem can be essentially simplified since, apart from the centrifugal forces associated with the toroidal motion, the inertia forces are negligible. The resulting first order equation can be solved analytically. From the solution it is concluded that the formation of narrow runaway beams with diameters in the range of micrometers and very small pitch angles (v(perpendicular)/v(||)<10(-6)) appears feasible. Such electrons would perform low-frequency oscillations about three to four orders of magnitude lower than the gyrofrequency in the toroidal field. When passing the maximum poloidal magnetic field strength they are suddenly lost from the plasma region.

  16. In-flight RI beam separator BigRIPS at RIKEN and elsewhere in Japan

    CERN Document Server

    Kubo, T

    2003-01-01

    Presented are features of the in-flight radioactive isotope (RI) beam separators in Japan as well as of a next-generation separator BigRIPS being built at RIKEN for the RI-beam factory project. Characteristic features and present status of the existing separators are reviewed for the RIPS at RIKEN, the Secondary Beam Line at RCNP, the Secondary Beam Course at NIRS, the CRIB at CNS and the RMS at JAERI. Design features are outlined for the BigRIPS, which is characterized by two major features: large acceptances and a tandem (or two-stage) separator scheme. The large acceptances allow one to produce RI beams efficiently by using in-flight fission of uranium ions, being achieved by using superconducting quadrupoles with a large aperture. The tandem separator scheme allows one to deliver tagged RI beam. The integrated capability of the BigRIPS and the accelerators of the project can significantly enlarge the scope of future RI-beam experiments. A low-energy course following the BigRIPS can provide energy-degraded...

  17. Ion beam assisted film growth

    CERN Document Server

    Itoh, T

    2012-01-01

    This volume provides up to date information on the experimental, theoretical and technological aspects of film growth assisted by ion beams.Ion beam assisted film growth is one of the most effective techniques in aiding the growth of high-quality thin solid films in a controlled way. Moreover, ion beams play a dominant role in the reduction of the growth temperature of thin films of high melting point materials. In this way, ion beams make a considerable and complex contribution to film growth. The volume will be essential reading for scientists, engineers and students working in thi

  18. Portable electron beam weld chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J. R.; Dimino, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    Development and characteristics of portable vacuum chamber for skate type electron beam welding are discussed. Construction and operational details of equipment are presented. Illustrations of equipment are provided.

  19. Beam based alignment at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Dehning, Bernd; Mugnai, G; Reichel, I; Schmidt, R; Sonnemann, F; Tecker, F A

    2004-01-01

    We describe a beam-based method for finding the relative offset between beam position monitors (BPMs) and the magnetic centres of the adjacent quadrupole magnets. The strength of a given quadrupole is modulated and the induced closed orbit oscillation measured for different beam positions, reaching a minimum when the beam is centred in the quadrupole. The BPM reading at this point is a measure of its offset, which may be determined at LEP with an accuracy of ~40x10-6 m.

  20. Terahertz circular Airy vortex beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changming; Liu, Jinsong; Niu, Liting; Wei, Xuli; Wang, Kejia; Yang, Zhengang

    2017-06-20

    Vortex beams have received considerable research interests both in optical and millimeter-wave domain since its potential to be utilized in the wireless communications and novel imaging systems. Many well-known optical beams have been demonstrated to carry orbital angular momentum (OAM), such as Laguerre-Gaussian beams and high-order Bessel beams. Recently, the radially symmetric Airy beams that exhibit an abruptly autofocusing feature are also demonstrated to be capable of carrying OAM in the optical domain. However, due to the lack of efficient devices to manipulate terahertz (THz) beams, it could be a challenge to demonstrate the radially symmetric Airy beams in the THz domain. Here we demonstrate the THz circular Airy vortex beams (CAVBs) with a 0.3-THz continuous wave through 3D printing technology. Assisted by the rapidly 3D-printed phase plates, individual OAM states with topological charge l ranging from l = 0 to l = 3 and a multiplexed OAM state are successfully imposed into the radially symmetric Airy beams. We both numerically and experimentally investigate the propagation dynamics of the generated THz CAVBs, and the simulations agree well with the observations.

  1. Video Game Acceptance: A Meta-Analysis of the Extended Technology Acceptance Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohui; Goh, Dion Hoe-Lian

    2017-11-01

    The current study systematically reviews and summarizes the existing literature of game acceptance, identifies the core determinants, and evaluates the strength of the relationships in the extended technology acceptance model. Moreover, this study segments video games into two categories: hedonic and utilitarian and examines player acceptance of these two types separately. Through a meta-analysis of 50 articles, we find that perceived ease of use (PEOU), perceived usefulness (PU), and perceived enjoyment (PE) significantly associate with attitude and behavioral intention. PE is the dominant predictor of hedonic game acceptance, while PEOU and PU are the main determinants of utilitarian game acceptance. Furthermore, we find that respondent type and game platform are significant moderators. Findings of this study provide critical insights into the phenomenon of game acceptance and suggest directions for future research.

  2. Electron beams in research and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehnert, R.

    1995-11-01

    Fast electrons lose their energy by inelastic collisions with electrons of target molecules forming secondary electrons and excited molecules. Coulomb interaction of secondary electrons with valence electrons of neighboring molecules leads to the formation of radical cations, thermalized electrons, excited molecular states and radicals. The primary reactive species initiate chemical reactions in the materials irradiated. Polymer modifications using accelerated electrons such as cross-linking of cable insulation, tubes, pipes and moldings, vulcanization of elastomers, grafting of polymer surfaces, processing of foamed plastics and heat shrinkable materials have gained wide industrial acceptance. A steadily growing electron beam technology is curing of paints, lacquers, printing inks and functional coatings. Electron beam processing offers high productivity, the possibility to treat the materials at normal temperature and pressure, excellent process control and clean production conditions. On an industrial scale the most important application of fast electrons is curing of 100% reactive monomer/prepolymer systems. Mainly acrylates and epoxides are used to formulate functional coatings on substrates such as paper, foil, wood, fibre board and high pressure laminates. A survey is given about the reaction mechanism of curing, the characterization of cured coatings, and of some industrial application.

  3. Multiple beam x-ray diffraction tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kewish, C.M.; Davis, J.R.; Coyle, R.A. [Monash University, Clayton, VIC (Australia). Department of Physics

    1999-12-01

    Full text: X-ray diffraction computed tomography (XDT) is an imaging modality that utilises scattered x-rays to reconstruct an image. Since its inception in 1985, various detection scenarios and imaging techniques have been developed to demonstrate the accuracy and applicability of XDT. Many of the previous methods for measuring the scattered x-rays from an object utilise detectors that accept x-rays scattered from the entire length of the raypath through the object. The detector apertures must therefore have dimensions similar to the largest width of the scanned object. This creates a situation where the detected x-rays are not derived from a single scattering angle. A new method of scanning the x-rays scattered from an object is presented which allows quantitative determination of the spatial distribution of differential scattering cross section within a cross-sectional plane of the object. The new method incorporates a position sensitive detector and an arrangement of Soller slits. The acquired data represents both spatial and angular information. For each raypath through the object, a partial diffraction projection is measured at the off-axis detector and a set of diffraction projections is assembled by combining the diffracted signal from all rays through the object. A reconstruction strategy that accounts for attenuation of the primary beam and the scattered beam allows us to reconstruct a map of the differential scattering cross section in the sample for a given angle. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc. 3 refs.

  4. Risk Acceptance in the Furniture Sector: Analysis of Acceptance Level and Relevant Influence Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Matilde A.; P. M. Arezes; Leão, C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Risk acceptance has been broadly discussed in relation to hazardous risk activities and/or technologies. A better understanding of risk acceptance in occupational settings is also important; however, studies on this topic are scarce. It seems important to understand the level of risk that stakeholders consider sufficiently low, how stakeholders form their opinion about risk, and why they adopt a certain attitude toward risk. Accordingly, the aim of this study is to examine risk acceptance in ...

  5. Risk Acceptance and Expectations of Scalp Allotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun Ho; Kim, Kwang Seog; Shin, Jun Ho; Hwang, Jae Ha; Lee, Sam Yong

    2016-06-01

    In scalp allotransplantation, the scalp from a brain-dead donor, including hair, is transferred to a recipient with scalp defects. Opinions differ on the appropriateness of scalp allotransplantation. In order to maintain graft function and cosmetic outcomes, scalp transplantation recipients would need to receive lifelong immunosuppression treatments. The risks of this immunosuppression have to be balanced against the fact that receiving a scalp allotransplant does not extend lifespan or restore a physical function. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate risk acceptance and expectations regarding scalp allotransplantation in different populations. A questionnaire survey study was conducted. A total of 300 subjects participated; survey was conducted amongst the general public (n=100), kidney transplantation recipients (n=50), a group of patient who required scalp reconstruction due to tumor or trauma (n=50), and physicians (n=100). The survey was modified by using the Korean version of the Louisville instrument for transplantation questionnaire. Risk acceptance and expectations for scalp transplantation varied widely across the groups. Kidney transplantation recipients revealed the highest risk acceptance and expectations, whereas the physicians were most resistant to the risks of scalp transplantation. Our study demonstrates that, in specific groups, scalp allotransplantation and the need for immunosuppression carries an acceptable risk despite the lack of lifeextending benefits. Our results suggest that scalp allotransplantation can be an acceptable alternative to existing scalp reconstruction surgeries in patients with pre-existing need for immunosuppression.

  6. Children acceptance of laser dental treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazea, Andreea; Todea, Carmen

    2016-03-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the dental anxiety level and the degree of acceptance of laser assisted pedodontic treatments from the children part. Also, we want to underline the advantages of laser use in pediatric dentistry, to make this technology widely used in treating dental problems of our children patients. Methods: Thirty pediatric dental patients presented in the Department of Pedodontics, University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Victor Babeş", Timişoara were evaluated using the Wong-Baker pain rating scale, wich was administered postoperatory to all patients, to assess their level of laser therapy acceptance. Results: Wong-Baker faces pain rating scale (WBFPS) has good validity and high specificity; generally it's easy for children to use, easy to compare and has good feasibility. Laser treatment has been accepted and tolerated by pediatric patients for its ability to reduce or eliminate pain. Around 70% of the total sample showed an excellent acceptance of laser dental treatment. Conclusions: Laser technology is useful and effective in many clinical situations encountered in pediatric dentistry and a good level of pacient acceptance is reported during all laser procedures on hard and soft tissues.

  7. Acceptance of Swedish e-health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Louise Jung

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Mary-Louise Jung1, Karla Loria11Division of Industrial Marketing, e-Commerce and Logistics, Lulea University of Technology, SwedenObjective: To investigate older people’s acceptance of e-health services, in order to identify determinants of, and barriers to, their intention to use e-health.Method: Based on one of the best-established models of technology acceptance, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM, in-depth exploratory interviews with twelve individuals over 45 years of age and of varying backgrounds are conducted.Results: This investigation could find support for the importance of usefulness and perceived ease of use of the e-health service offered as the main determinants of people’s intention to use the service. Additional factors critical to the acceptance of e-health are identified, such as the importance of the compatibility of the services with citizens’ needs and trust in the service provider. Most interviewees expressed positive attitudes towards using e-health and find these services useful, convenient, and easy to use.Conclusion: E-health services are perceived as a good complement to traditional health care service delivery, even among older people. These people, however, need to become aware of the e-health alternatives that are offered to them and the benefits they provide.Keywords: health services, elderly, technology, Internet, TAM, patient acceptance, health-seeking behavior

  8. Factors Influencing Acceptance Of Contraceptive Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Gupta

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Research Problem: What are the factors influencing acceptance of contraceptive methods.Objective: To study the determinants influencing contra­ceptive acceptance.Study design: Population based cross - sectional study.Setting: Rural area of East DelhiParticipants: Married women in the reproductive age group.Sample:Stratified sampling technique was used to draw the sample.Sample Size: 328 married women of reproductive age group.Study Variables: Socio-economic status, Type of contraceptive, Family size, Male child.Outcome Variables: Acceptance of contraceptivesStatistical Analysis: By proportions.Result: Prevalence of use of contraception at the time of data collection was 40.5%. Tubectomy and vasectomy were most commonly used methods. (59.4%, n - 133. Educational status of the women positively influenced the contraceptive acceptance but income did not. Desire for more children was single most important deterrent for accepting contraception.Recommendations:(i             Traditional method of contraception should be given more attention.(ii            Couplesshould be brought in the contraceptive use net at the early stage of marriage.

  9. Who accepts responsibility for their transgressions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Karina; Dweck, Carol S

    2014-12-01

    After committing an offense, transgressors can optimize their chances of reconciling with the victim by accepting responsibility. However, transgressors may be motivated to avoid admitting fault because it can feel threatening to accept blame for harmful behavior. Who, then, is likely to accept responsibility for a transgression? We examined how implicit theories of personality--whether people see personality as malleable (incremental theory) or fixed (entity theory)--influence transgressors' likelihood of accepting responsibility. We argue that incremental theorists may feel less threatened by accepting responsibility because they are more likely to view the situation as an opportunity for them to grow as a person and develop their relationship with the victim. We found support for our predictions across four studies using a combination of real-world and hypothetical offenses, and correlational and experimental methods. These studies therefore identify an important individual difference factor that can lead to more effective responses from transgressors. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  10. Simulation of the beam halo from the beam-beam interaction in LEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T.; Irwin, J.; Siemann, R.

    1994-02-01

    The luminosity lifetimes of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} colliders are often dominated by the halo produced by the beam-beam interaction. They have developed a simulation technique to model this halo using the flux across boundaries in amplitude space to decrease the CPU time by a factor of one-hundred or more over `brute force` tracking. It allows simulation of density distributions and halos corresponding to realistic lifetimes. Reference 1 shows the agreement with brute force tracking in a number of cases and the importance of beam-beam resonances in determining the density distribution of large amplitudes. this research is now directed towards comparisons with operating colliders and studies of the combined effects of lattice and beam-beam nonlinearities. LEP offers an ideal opportunity for both, and in this paper they are presenting the first results of LEP simulations.

  11. Shear deformable finite beam elements for composite box beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam-Il; Choi, Dong-Ho

    2014-04-01

    The shear deformable thin-walled composite beams with closed cross-sections have been developed for coupled flexural, torsional, and buckling analyses. A theoretical model applicable to the thin-walled laminated composite box beams is presented by taking into account all the structural couplings coming from the material anisotropy and the shear deformation effects. The current composite beam includes the transverse shear and the restrained warping induced shear deformation by using the first-order shear deformation beam theory. Seven governing equations are derived for the coupled axial-flexural-torsional-shearing buckling based on the principle of minimum total potential energy. Based on the present analytical model, three different types of finite composite beam elements, namely, linear, quadratic and cubic elements are developed to analyze the flexural, torsional, and buckling problems. In order to demonstrate the accuracy and superiority of the beam theory and the finite beam elements developed by this study, numerical solutions are presented and compared with the results obtained by other researchers and the detailed three-dimensional analysis results using the shell elements of ABAQUS. Especially, the influences of the modulus ratio and the simplified assumptions in stress-strain relations on the deflection, twisting angle, and critical buckling loads of composite box beams are investigated. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. Transmission gratings for beam sampling and beam splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, E K; Loewen, E G; Neviére, M

    1996-06-01

    Transmission gratings have rarely been used for beam sampling because they require special properties from dielectric overcoatings, which, to the best of our knowledge, are described here for the first time. Although such gratings are often used as beam splitters, their nature can be modified along the same principles with thin metal coatings, which are described.

  13. A summary of some beam-beam models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    Two categories of theoretical models for the beam-beam interaction are reviewed: the linear-lens models and the single-resonance models. In a linear-lens model, the beam-beam force is linearized and represented by a localized linear lens. Analyses of incoherent single particle effects can be performed exactly in these models by using matrix techniques. Although the results do not agree with the experimental observations in many respects, the linear-lens models constitute a starting point of our understanding of the beam-beam interaction. In the single-resonance models, one is concerned with the possible incoherent instabilities as the betatron tune of some of the particles is close to a certain rational number. It is assumed in these models that one and only one such rational number dominates the single-particle beam-beam effects. It is found that static single resonances cannot explain many of the experimental results. Some attempts have been made to modify the static single-resonance theory by including some mechanisms for diffusive tune fluctuations or periodic tune modulations. These modified single-resonance models have met only with some limited qualitative success. 21 refs., 13 figs.

  14. In acceptance we trust? Conceptualising acceptance as a viable approach to NGO security management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Larissa A; Freeman, C Faith; O'Neill, Michael; Rowley, Elizabeth

    2013-04-01

    This paper documents current understanding of acceptance as a security management approach and explores issues and challenges non-governmental organisations (NGOs) confront when implementing an acceptance approach to security management. It argues that the failure of organisations to systematise and clearly articulate acceptance as a distinct security management approach and a lack of organisational policies and procedures concerning acceptance hinder its efficacy as a security management approach. The paper identifies key and cross-cutting components of acceptance that are critical to its effective implementation in order to advance a comprehensive and systematic concept of acceptance. The key components of acceptance illustrate how organisational and staff functions affect positively or negatively an organisation's acceptance, and include: an organisation's principles and mission, communications, negotiation, programming, relationships and networks, stakeholder and context analysis, staffing, and image. The paper contends that acceptance is linked not only to good programming, but also to overall organisational management and structures. © 2013 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.

  15. Measuring Acceptance of Sleep Difficulties: The Development of the Sleep Problem Acceptance Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothelius, Kristoffer; Jernelöv, Susanna; Fredrikson, Mats; McCracken, Lance M; Kaldo, Viktor

    2015-11-01

    Acceptance may be an important therapeutic process in sleep medicine, but valid psychometric instruments measuring acceptance related to sleep difficulties are lacking. The purpose of this study was to develop a measure of acceptance in insomnia, and to examine its factor structure as well as construct validity. In a cross-sectional design, a principal component analysis for item reduction was conducted on a first sample (A) and a confirmatory factor analysis on a second sample (B). Construct validity was tested on a combined sample (C). Questionnaire items were derived from a measure of acceptance in chronic pain, and data were gathered through screening or available from pretreatment assessments in four insomnia treatment trials, administered online, via bibliotherapy and in primary care. Adults with insomnia: 372 in sample A and 215 in sample B. Sample C (n = 820) included sample A and B with another 233 participants added. Construct validity was assessed through relations with established acceptance and sleep scales. The principal component analysis presented a two-factor solution with eight items, explaining 65.9% of the total variance. The confirmatory factor analysis supported the solution. Acceptance of sleep problems was more closely related to subjective symptoms and consequences of insomnia than to diary description of sleep, or to acceptance of general private events. The Sleep Problem Acceptance Questionnaire (SPAQ), containing the subscales "Activity Engagement" and "Willingness", is a valid tool to assess acceptance of insomnia. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  16. Beam-beam synchrobetatron resonance at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    OHMI, K

    2012-01-01

    Some beam-beam simulations are presented for the LHC beam parameters of late 2012, with collisions at nonzero crossing angle in IPs 1 and 5. Long-range encounters and other IPs are not included. Strong emittance growth is observed above 3the -rd order resonance. Synchrotron motion and z dependent beam-beam force, in particular the nonzero crossing angle, are essential ingredients for this growth. Bunch shortening is observed simultaenously with the strong transverse emittance growth, which is consistent with LHC observations in November 2012. The simulations do not show any significant growth close to the 7-th order resonance ~0.29. The simulated bunch shortening at 3Qy~1is sensitive to Qx. Open questions are if the tune of some bunches may exceed 0.33 in LHC, and/or whether electron cloud also contributes to the phenomenon. This presentation was given at CERN on 4 December 2012.

  17. Overview of Beam-Beam Effects in the Tevatron

    CERN Document Server

    Shiltsev, V.

    2014-01-01

    For almost a quarter of a century the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider was the centrepiece of the world's high-energy physics program, from the start of operation in December 1985 until it was overtaken by the LHC in 2011. The initial design luminosity of the Tevatron was 1030 cm-2 s-1; however, as a result of two decades of upgrades, the accelerator has been able to deliver 430-times higher luminosities to each of two high-luminosity experiments, Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) and D0. On the way to record high luminosities, many issues related to the electromagnetic beam-beam interaction of colliding beams have been addressed. Below we present a short overview of the beam-beam effects in the Tevatron.

  18. Food allergy: Stakeholder perspectives on acceptable risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Crevel, René; Chan, Chun-Han

    2010-01-01

    We have reached a point where it is difficult to improve food allergy risk management without an agreement on levels of acceptable risk. This paper presents and discusses the perspectives of the different stakeholders (allergic consumers, health professionals, public authorities and the food...... industry) on acceptable risk in food allergy. Understanding where these perspectives diverge and even conflict may help develop an approach to define what is acceptable. Uncertainty about food allergy, its consequences and how to manage them is the common denominator of the stakeholders’ views. In patients...... to all patients despite the fact that the risk to each is not identical. Regulators and the food industry struggle with the fact that the lack of management thresholds forces them to make case-by-case decisions in an area of uncertainty with penalties for under- or over-prediction. As zero risk...

  19. Improving acceptance in wind power planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammarlund, K. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Social and Economic Geography

    1996-12-01

    This paper presents important factors and planning procedures for public acceptance of wind power. Opinion surveys in Sweden show that acceptance is connected to the concept of utility rather than the aesthetic values. If wind turbines are confined by the authorities to marginal areas, they will not earn their rightful place in the landscape by being of use. A positive attitude in general promotes a positive experience of the effects of wind turbines. It is therefore essential to establish a sense of cooperation between the project management and the public. An open dialogue and continuous information will increase the possibilities for acceptance of future development. We must establish new codes of practice in permit processing because policies today contains ideological and practical contradictions between development and preservation of landscapes. 16 refs, 2 tabs

  20. Functional food acceptance in the food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa

    This thesis analyses consumer acceptance of functional foods and food manufacturers' decision to develop functional foods. The thesis sets up four key research questions: (1) How consumers accept functional foods enriched with omega-3? (2) How the intention of purchasing carrier ingredient...... combinations is explained by general attitudes to functional foods, consumers' health concerns, and the perceived fit of a particular carrier ingredient combination? (3) How food manufacturers decide to develop functional foods? (4) What are the determinants and drivers of food manufacturers' decision...... to develop functional foods? Research question 1 The health benefit of a functional food product is in fact limited if it is not eaten regularly and thus is not part of the healthy diet. For that reason it is highly relevant to look at the dietary change research when studying functional food acceptance...

  1. Asymmetric Bessel-Gauss beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlyar, V V; Kovalev, A A; Skidanov, R V; Soifer, V A

    2014-09-01

    We propose a three-parameter family of asymmetric Bessel-Gauss (aBG) beams with integer and fractional orbital angular momentum (OAM). The aBG beams are described by the product of a Gaussian function by the nth-order Bessel function of the first kind of complex argument, having finite energy. The aBG beam's asymmetry degree depends on a real parameter c≥0: at c=0, the aBG beam is coincident with a conventional radially symmetric Bessel-Gauss (BG) beam; with increasing c, the aBG beam acquires a semicrescent shape, then becoming elongated along the y axis and shifting along the x axis for c≫1. In the initial plane, the intensity distribution of the aBG beams has a countable number of isolated optical nulls on the x axis, which result in optical vortices with unit topological charge and opposite signs on the different sides of the origin. As the aBG beam propagates, the vortex centers undergo a nonuniform rotation with the entire beam about the optical axis (c≫1), making a π/4 turn at the Rayleigh range and another π/4 turn after traveling the remaining distance. At different values of the c parameter, the optical nulls of the transverse intensity distribution change their position, thus changing the OAM that the beam carries. An isolated optical null on the optical axis generates an optical vortex with topological charge n. A vortex laser beam shaped as a rotating semicrescent has been generated using a spatial light modulator.

  2. GAUSSIAN BEAM LASER RESONATOR PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, P. L.

    1994-01-01

    In designing a laser cavity, the laser engineer is frequently concerned with more than the stability of the resonator. Other considerations include the size of the beam at various optical surfaces within the resonator or the performance of intracavity line-narrowing or other optical elements. Laser resonators obey the laws of Gaussian beam propagation, not geometric optics. The Gaussian Beam Laser Resonator Program models laser resonators using Gaussian ray trace techniques. It can be used to determine the propagation of radiation through laser resonators. The algorithm used in the Gaussian Beam Resonator program has three major components. First, the ray transfer matrix for the laser resonator must be calculated. Next calculations of the initial beam parameters, specifically, the beam stability, the beam waist size and location for the resonator input element, and the wavefront curvature and beam radius at the input surface to the first resonator element are performed. Finally the propagation of the beam through the optical elements is computed. The optical elements can be modeled as parallel plates, lenses, mirrors, dummy surfaces, or Gradient Index (GRIN) lenses. A Gradient Index lens is a good approximation of a laser rod operating under a thermal load. The optical system may contain up to 50 elements. In addition to the internal beam elements the optical system may contain elements external to the resonator. The Gaussian Beam Resonator program was written in Microsoft FORTRAN (Version 4.01). It was developed for the IBM PS/2 80-071 microcomputer and has been implemented on an IBM PC compatible under MS DOS 3.21. The program was developed in 1988 and requires approximately 95K bytes to operate.

  3. Beam Loss and Residual Activation Trending

    CERN Document Server

    Dodson, George W; Ruffin, Ariel T; Williams, Theodore L

    2005-01-01

    The SNS Front End, Drift Tube Linac and most of the Coupled Cavity Linac have been operated during commissioning. Beam loss data were taken with differential Beam Current Monitors, and Beam loss Monitors during commissioning. Residual activation data were taken at various times during and after the run. An analysis of beam loss trending, beam loss monitor data and residual activation will be shown.

  4. Design and Analysis Methodologies for Inflated Beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, S.L.

    2005-01-01

    The central theme of the thesis is bending behaviour of inflated beams. Three different types of beams have been analysed for the bending load case: a straight cylindrical beam made of anisotropic foil material, a conical beam made of an isotropic foil material, and a carbon fibre braided beam. The

  5. RISK ANALYSES USED IN ACCEPTANCE TESTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxana STOROJ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is talking about risk based testing approach in user acceptance testing UAT (User Acceptance Testing. There are presented definitions of risk and risk based testing. In addition, we are talking about risks that can appear during UAT and we are describing the process of testing based on risks. We propose some techniques and methods of identifying risks such as using Brainstorming, Delphi method,probability analysis method and others. Also, risk traceability matrix is presented as a method of prioritizing risks.

  6. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2005-10-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and mixed waste (MW) for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NTS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) for storage or disposal.

  7. European consumers' acceptance of functional foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    2010-01-01

    Consumer acceptance of functional foods is analyzed from the perspective of consumer quality perception of food products. Four major dimensions of food quality are identified: taste and other sensory characteristics, healthiness, convenience, and naturalness. Functional foods provide, from...... the consumer perspective, synergies between healthiness and convenience, but may, in the consumer mind, lead to trade-offs between healthiness on the one side and taste and naturalness on the other side. This may explain the reluctance of European consumers to accept functional food products....

  8. [Could infant euthanasia be ever acceptable?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beca, J P; Leiva, A

    2014-10-01

    The recent enactment of a law that allows infant euthanasia in Belgium raises questions with varied answers. To contribute to a better understanding of the topic, euthanasia and legislation concepts are described. After a bioethical analysis, we propose as conclusion that children euthanasia could only be acceptable in very exceptional situations in which palliative measures have failed. The answer should be that it is not acceptable in our setting, not until we have public policies, protocols and palliative care services for terminally ill children.

  9. Acceptable Channel Switching Delays for Mobile TV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleury, Alexandre; Pedersen, Jakob Schou; Larsen, Lars Bo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a user study investigating the acceptability of channel switching delays on mobile television systems. The authors first review the previous work in the area, then propose a study design and present results from its implementation, focusing on the overall acceptability threshold...... as well as three potential effect factors: the transition type, the test environment and the audiovisual content. The results show that delays longer than 5.7 seconds annoyed test participants, and that the transition type had a significant impact on the rating of channel switching delays. However...

  10. Measuring Acceptance of Sleep Difficulties: The Development of the Sleep Problem Acceptance Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothelius, Kristoffer; Jernelöv, Susanna; Fredrikson, Mats; McCracken, Lance M.; Kaldo, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Acceptance may be an important therapeutic process in sleep medicine, but valid psychometric instruments measuring acceptance related to sleep difficulties are lacking. The purpose of this study was to develop a measure of acceptance in insomnia, and to examine its factor structure as well as construct validity. Design: In a cross-sectional design, a principal component analysis for item reduction was conducted on a first sample (A) and a confirmatory factor analysis on a second sample (B). Construct validity was tested on a combined sample (C). Setting: Questionnaire items were derived from a measure of acceptance in chronic pain, and data were gathered through screening or available from pretreatment assessments in four insomnia treatment trials, administered online, via bibliotherapy and in primary care. Participants: Adults with insomnia: 372 in sample A and 215 in sample B. Sample C (n = 820) included sample A and B with another 233 participants added. Measures: Construct validity was assessed through relations with established acceptance and sleep scales. Results: The principal component analysis presented a two-factor solution with eight items, explaining 65.9% of the total variance. The confirmatory factor analysis supported the solution. Acceptance of sleep problems was more closely related to subjective symptoms and consequences of insomnia than to diary description of sleep, or to acceptance of general private events. Conclusions: The Sleep Problem Acceptance Questionnaire (SPAQ), containing the subscales “Activity Engagement” and “Willingness”, is a valid tool to assess acceptance of insomnia. Citation: Bothelius K, Jernelöv S, Fredrikson M, McCracken LM, Kaldo V. Measuring acceptance of sleep difficulties: the development of the sleep problem acceptance questionnaire. SLEEP 2015;38(11):1815–1822. PMID:26085302

  11. Neutron beam measurement dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaro, C.R. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This report describes animal dosimetry studies and phantom measurements. During 1994, 12 dogs were irradiated at BMRR as part of a 4 fraction dose tolerance study. The animals were first infused with BSH and irradiated daily for 4 consecutive days. BNL irradiated 2 beagles as part of their dose tolerance study using BPA fructose. In addition, a dog at WSU was irradiated at BMRR after an infusion of BPA fructose. During 1994, the INEL BNCT dosimetry team measured neutron flux and gamma dose profiles in two phantoms exposed to the epithermal neutron beam at the BMRR. These measurements were performed as a preparatory step to the commencement of human clinical trials in progress at the BMRR.

  12. Electron beam silicon purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravtsov, Anatoly [SIA ' ' KEPP EU' ' , Riga (Latvia); Kravtsov, Alexey [' ' KEPP-service' ' Ltd., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-15

    Purification of heavily doped electronic grade silicon by evaporation of N-type impurities with electron beam heating was investigated in process with a batch weight up to 50 kilos. Effective temperature of the melt, an indicative parameter suitable for purification process characterization was calculated and appeared to be stable for different load weight processes. Purified material was successfully approbated in standard CZ processes of three different companies. Each company used its standard process and obtained CZ monocrystals applicable for photovoltaic application. These facts enable process to be successfully scaled up to commercial volumes (150-300 kg) and yield solar grade silicon. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. CLIC Drive Beam Accelerating Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Wegner, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Travelling structures for accelerating the high-current (4.2 A) CLIC Drive Beam to an energy of 2.37 GeV are presented. The structures are optimised for efficiency (full beam loading operation) and a desired filling time. Higher order modes are studied and are reduced by detuning along the structure and by damping with silicon carbide loads.

  14. Beam splitting on weak illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, A W; Buryak, A V; Mitchell, D J

    1998-01-01

    We demonstrate, in both two and three dimensions, how a self-guided beam in a non-Kerr medium is split into two beams on weak illumination. We also provide an elegant physical explanation that predicts the universal character of the observed phenomenon. Possible applications of our findings to guiding light with light are also discussed.

  15. Hybrid beams in the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    The first proton-ion beams were successfully circulated in the LHC a couple of weeks ago. Everything went so smoothly that the LHC teams had planned the first p-Pb collisions for Wednesday, 16 November. Unfortunately, a last-minute problem with a component of the PS required for proton acceleration prevented the LHC teams from making these new collisions. However, the way is open for a possible physics run with proton-lead collisions in 2012.   Members of the LHC team photographed when the first hybrid beams got to full energy. The proton and lead beams are visible on the leftmost screen up on the wall (click to enlarge the photo). The technical challenge of making different beams circulate in the LHC is by no means trivial. Even if the machine is the same, there are a number of differences when it is operated with beams of protons, beams of lead or beams of proton and lead. Provided that the beams are equal, irrespective of whether they consist of protons or lead nuclei, they revolve at the...

  16. Portal dosimetry in wedged beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreeuw, H.; Rozendaal, R.; Camargo, P.; Mans, A.; Wendling, M.; Olaciregui-Ruiz, I.; Sonke, J.J.; Herk, M. van; Mijnheer, B.

    2015-01-01

    Portal dosimetry using electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) is often applied to verify high-energy photon beam treatments. Due to the change in photon energy spectrum, the resulting dose values are, however, not very accurate in the case of wedged beams if the pixel-to-dose conversion for the

  17. NETWORK CODING BY BEAM FORMING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Network coding by beam forming in networks, for example, in single frequency networks, can provide aid in increasing spectral efficiency. When network coding by beam forming and user cooperation are combined, spectral efficiency gains may be achieved. According to certain embodiments, a method...

  18. First LHC beam in 2017

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Impressions from the ATLAS control room while waiting for the very first 2017 LHC beams, from the traditional croissants in the morning to the "beam splashes" in the evening. The shift crew, online experts, run coordinators and management are looking forward the next steps of the LHC restart.

  19. Particle Beam Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Ken; Ekdahl, Carl

    2014-02-01

    Particle beam radiography, which uses a variety of particle probes (neutrons, protons, electrons, gammas and potentially other particles) to study the structure of materials and objects noninvasively, is reviewed, largely from an accelerator perspective, although the use of cosmic rays (mainly muons but potentially also high-energy neutrinos) is briefly reviewed. Tomography is a form of radiography which uses multiple views to reconstruct a three-dimensional density map of an object. There is a very wide range of applications of radiography and tomography, from medicine to engineering and security, and advances in instrumentation, specifically the development of electronic detectors, allow rapid analysis of the resultant radiographs. Flash radiography is a diagnostic technique for large high-explosive-driven hydrodynamic experiments that is used at many laboratories. The bremsstrahlung radiation pulse from an intense relativistic electron beam incident onto a high-Z target is the source of these radiographs. The challenge is to provide radiation sources intense enough to penetrate hundreds of g/cm2 of material, in pulses short enough to stop the motion of high-speed hydrodynamic shocks, and with source spots small enough to resolve fine details. The challenge has been met with a wide variety of accelerator technologies, including pulsed-power-driven diodes, air-core pulsed betatrons and high-current linear induction accelerators. Accelerator technology has also evolved to accommodate the experimenters' continuing quest for multiple images in time and space. Linear induction accelerators have had a major role in these advances, especially in providing multiple-time radiographs of the largest hydrodynamic experiments.

  20. Molecular-beam scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernon, M.F.

    1983-07-01

    The molecular-beam technique has been used in three different experimental arrangements to study a wide range of inter-atomic and molecular forces. Chapter 1 reports results of a low-energy (0.2 kcal/mole) elastic-scattering study of the He-Ar pair potential. The purpose of the study was to accurately characterize the shape of the potential in the well region, by scattering slow He atoms produced by expanding a mixture of He in N/sub 2/ from a cooled nozzle. Chapter 2 contains measurements of the vibrational predissociation spectra and product translational energy for clusters of water, benzene, and ammonia. The experiments show that most of the product energy remains in the internal molecular motions. Chapter 3 presents measurements of the reaction Na + HCl ..-->.. NaCl + H at collision energies of 5.38 and 19.4 kcal/mole. This is the first study to resolve both scattering angle and velocity for the reaction of a short lived (16 nsec) electronic excited state. Descriptions are given of computer programs written to analyze molecular-beam expansions to extract information characterizing their velocity distributions, and to calculate accurate laboratory elastic-scattering differential cross sections accounting for the finite apparatus resolution. Experimental results which attempted to determine the efficiency of optically pumping the Li(2/sup 2/P/sub 3/2/) and Na(3/sup 2/P/sub 3/2/) excited states are given. A simple three-level model for predicting the steady-state fraction of atoms in the excited state is included.

  1. Search for H-dibaryon at J-PARC with a Large Acceptance TPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sako H.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available H-dibaryon has been predicted as a stable 6-quark color-singlet state. It has been searched for by many experiments but has never been discovered. Recent lattice QCD calculations predict H-dibaryon as a weakly bound or a resonant state close to the LL threshold. E224 and E522 experiments at KEK observed peaks in LL invariant mass spectra near the threshold in (K-, K+ reactions, which were statistically not significant. Therefore, we proposed a new experiment E42 at J-PARC. It will measure decay products of ΛΛ and Λπ-p in a (K-, K+ reaction. We design a large acceptance spectrometer based on a Time Projection Chamber (TPC immersed in a dipole magnetic field. The TPC surrounds a target to cover nearly 4π acceptance, and accepts K- beams up to 106 counts per second. To suppress drift field distortion at high beam rates, we adopt Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs for electron amplification and a gating grid. We show an overview of the experiment, the design of the spectrometer, and the R&D status of the TPC prototype.

  2. Unraveling beam self-healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Andrea; Agarwal, Girish S; Paúr, Martin; Stoklasa, Bohumil; Hradil, Zdeněk; Řeháček, Jaroslav; de la Hoz, Pablo; Leuchs, Gerd; Sánchez-Soto, Luis L

    2017-08-07

    We show that, contrary to popular belief, diffraction-free beams may not only reconstruct themselves after hitting an opaque obstacle but also, for example, Gaussian beams. We unravel the mathematics and the physics underlying the self-reconstruction mechanism and we provide for a novel definition for the minimum reconstruction distance beyond geometric optics, which is in principle applicable to any optical beam that admits an angular spectrum representation. Moreover, we propose to quantify the self-reconstruction ability of a beam via a newly established degree of self-healing. This is defined via a comparison between the amplitudes, as opposite to intensities, of the original beam and the obstructed one. Such comparison is experimentally accomplished by tailoring an innovative experimental technique based upon Shack-Hartmann wave front reconstruction. We believe that these results can open new avenues in this field.

  3. Beta Beams Implementation at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Beta Beam,the concept of generating a pure and intense (anti) neutrino beam by letting accelerated radioactive ions beta decay in a storage ring, called Decay Ring (DR), is the base of one of the proposed next generation neutrino oscillation facilities, necessary for a complete study of the neutrino oscillation parameter space. Sensitivities of the unknown neutrino oscillation parameters depend on the Decay Ring's ion intensity and of it's duty factor (the filled ratio of the ring). Therefore efficient ion production, stripping, bunching, acceleration and storing are crucial sub-projects under study and development within the Beta Beam collaboration. Specifically the feasibility of these tasks as parts of a Beta Beam implementation at CERN will be discussed in this report. The positive impact of the large {\\theta}13 indications from T2K on the Beta Beam performance will also be discussed.

  4. Monitoring device acceptance in implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients using the Florida Patient Acceptance Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteeg, Henneke; Starrenburg, Annemieke; Denollet, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Patient device acceptance might be essential in identifying patients at risk for adverse patient-reported outcomes following implantation of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). We examined the validity and reliability of the Florida Patient Acceptance Scale (FPAS) and identified corr...

  5. Measuring Technology Acceptance Level of Turkish Pre-Service English Teachers by Using Technology Acceptance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmizi, Özkan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate technology acceptance of prospective English teachers by using Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in Turkish context. The study is based on Structural Equation Model (SEM). The participants of the study from English Language Teaching Departments of Hacettepe, Gazi and Baskent Universities. The participants…

  6. Gay, Lesbian, and Heterosexual Teachers: Acceptance of Self, Acceptance of Others, Affectional and Lifestyle Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Martin

    This study was conducted to examine the employment of gay teachers. Two aspects of personality that are important characteristics for teacher effectiveness, acceptance of self and acceptance of others, are compared; and differences in identity formation and identity management in relation to these characteristics are explored. Two questionnaires…

  7. Differentiated influences of risk perceptions on nuclear power acceptance according to acceptance targets: Evidence from Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Seung Kook [Policy Research Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Won [School of Management, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China)

    2017-08-15

    The determinants of the public's nuclear power acceptance have received considerable attention as decisive factors regarding nuclear power policy. However, the contingency of the relative importance of different determinants has been less explored. Building on the literature of psychological distance between the individual and the object, the present study demonstrates that the relative effects of different types of perceived risks regarding nuclear power generation differ across acceptance targets. Using a sample of Korea, our results show that, regarding national acceptance of nuclear power generation, perceived risk from nuclear power plants exerts a stronger negative effect than that from radioactive waste management; however, the latter exerts a stronger negative effect than the former on local acceptance of a nuclear power plant. This finding provides implications for efficient public communication strategy to raise nuclear power acceptance.

  8. Differentiated influences of risk perceptions on nuclear power acceptance according to acceptance targets: Evidence from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungkook Roh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The determinants of the public's nuclear power acceptance have received considerable attention as decisive factors regarding nuclear power policy. However, the contingency of the relative importance of different determinants has been less explored. Building on the literature of psychological distance between the individual and the object, the present study demonstrates that the relative effects of different types of perceived risks regarding nuclear power generation differ across acceptance targets. Using a sample of Korea, our results show that, regarding national acceptance of nuclear power generation, perceived risk from nuclear power plants exerts a stronger negative effect than that from radioactive waste management; however, the latter exerts a stronger negative effect than the former on local acceptance of a nuclear power plant. This finding provides implications for efficient public communication strategy to raise nuclear power acceptance.

  9. Parental acceptance of Human Papillomavirus vaccines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenselink, C.H.; Gerrits, M.M.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Hamont, D. van; Bekkers, R.L.M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether parents would accept Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for their children and which variables may influence their decision, including knowledge about cervical cancer and HPV. STUDY DESIGN: Three hundred and fifty-six parents of children aged 10-12 years were

  10. Sweet Potato Ketchup: Feasibility, Acceptability, and Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ketchup sauce is increasingly a popular condiment used as a flavouring ingredient in fast-food businesses in East African urban areas. It is one of a myriad of products that can be made using sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) roots. We assessed the feasibility, consumer acceptability, and cost of production for a ketchup ...

  11. International Emissions Trading : Design and Political Acceptability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, Jan Tjeerd

    2006-01-01

    This thesis discusses the design and political acceptability of international emissions trading. It is shown that there are several designs options for emissions trading at the national level that have a different impact on output and thereby related factors such as employment and consumer prices.

  12. TOWARDS A BETTER UNDERSTANDING ORDER ACCEPTANCE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TENKATE, HA

    1994-01-01

    This article concerns a comparison of two coordination mechanisms between production and sales activities. It focusses on the interaction of order acceptance and production scheduling at the operational level. The research is motivated by some major changes which have overcome the process industries

  13. The Accept-Pluralism tolerance indicators toolkit

    OpenAIRE

    Triandafyllidou, Anna; ACCEPT-PLURALISM

    2013-01-01

    Work Package 5: New Knowledge on Tolerance and Cultural Diversity in Europe The ACCEPT PLURALISM project (2010-2013) is funded by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme, Socio-economic Sciences and Humanities. (Call FP7-SSH-2009-A, Grant Agreement no: 243837). Coordinator: Prof. Anna Triandafyllidou, Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, European University Institute.

  14. Educational Data Mining Acceptance among Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wook, Muslihah; Yusof, Zawiyah M.; Nazri, Mohd Zakree Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    The acceptance of Educational Data Mining (EDM) technology is on the rise due to, its ability to extract new knowledge from large amounts of students' data. This knowledge is important for educational stakeholders, such as policy makers, educators, and students themselves to enhance efficiency and achievements. However, previous studies on EDM…

  15. W-087 Acceptance test procedure. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, A.W.

    1997-06-10

    This Acceptance Test Procedure/Operational Test Procedure (ATP/OTP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the Electrical/Instrumentation and Mechanical systems function as required by project criteria and to verify proper operation of the integrated system including the interlocks.

  16. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO), Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept the following: • DOE hazardous and non-hazardous non-radioactive classified waste • DOE low-level radioactive waste (LLW) • DOE mixed low-level waste (MLLW) • U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) classified waste The LLW and MLLW listed above may also be classified waste. Classified waste is the only waste accepted for disposal that may be non-radioactive and shall be required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for radioactive waste as specified in this document. Classified waste may be sent to the NNSS as classified matter. Section 3.1.18 provides the requirements that must be met for permanent burial of classified matter. The NNSA/NFO and support contractors are available to assist the generator in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NFO Environmental Management Operations (EMO) at (702) 295-7063, and the call will be directed to the appropriate contact.

  17. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2012-02-28

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept DOE non-radioactive classified waste, DOE non-radioactive hazardous classified waste, DOE low-level radioactive waste (LLW), DOE mixed low-level waste (MLLW), and U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) classified waste for permanent disposal. Classified waste is the only waste accepted for disposal that may be non-radioactive and will be required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for radioactive waste as specified in this document. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project (WMP) at (702) 295-7063, and your call will be directed to the appropriate contact.

  18. Community Acceptance of Collaboration Between Ophthalmologists ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a cross sectional community-based study that determined acceptability of collaboration between ophthalmologists and traditional eye care providers in Afon a rural community in Kwara state, Nigeria. The views of traditional healers and ophthalmologists were also sought. This study was conducted between March ...

  19. 7 CFR 915.25 - Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 915.25 Section 915.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Order...

  20. Is Coersive Treatment of Offenders Morally Acceptable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Is it morally acceptable to instigate criminal offenders to participate in rehabilitative treatment by offering treatment in return for early release from prison? Some theorists have supported such treatment schemes by pointing to the beneficial consequences that follow from the treatment. Others...... as a penal theoretical problem, the arguments—both by proponents and critics of coercive treatment—become premature....

  1. 75 FR 44046 - Noise Exposure Map Acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Acceptance ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the noise exposure maps submitted by the... on the noise exposure maps is June 1, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Edward S. Gabsewics, CEP...

  2. Acceptance of Swedish e-health services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mary-Louise; Loria, Karla

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate older people’s acceptance of e-health services, in order to identify determinants of, and barriers to, their intention to use e-health. Method: Based on one of the best-established models of technology acceptance, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), in-depth exploratory interviews with twelve individuals over 45 years of age and of varying backgrounds are conducted. Results: This investigation could find support for the importance of usefulness and perceived ease of use of the e-health service offered as the main determinants of people’s intention to use the service. Additional factors critical to the acceptance of e-health are identified, such as the importance of the compatibility of the services with citizens’ needs and trust in the service provider. Most interviewees expressed positive attitudes towards using e-health and find these services useful, convenient, and easy to use. Conclusion: E-health services are perceived as a good complement to traditional health care service delivery, even among older people. These people, however, need to become aware of the e-health alternatives that are offered to them and the benefits they provide. PMID:21289860

  3. Acceptance of Agri-Food Nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Frewer, Lynn; Fischer, Arnout

    2017-01-01

    Food technology has evolved from being focused on the issues associated with food availability to include, more latterly, additional foci on food safety, sustainability and functionality. Despite the intuitive appeal of these beneficial factors in providing the basis for consumer acceptance of

  4. Generator acceptance test and inspection report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johns, B.R.

    1997-07-24

    This Acceptance Test Report(ATR) is the completed testing and inspection of the new portable generator. The testing and inspection is to verify that the generator provided by the vendor meets the requirements of specification WHC-S-0252, Revision 2. Attached is various other documentation to support the inspection and testing.

  5. Monitoring Acceptance of homosexuality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saskia Keuzenkamp

    2010-01-01

    Promoting acceptance of homosexuality is the main objective of current Dutch policy on the emancipation of gays and lesbians. At the request of Ronald Plasterk, the former Dutch government minister with responsibility for this policy, the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP is

  6. Patients’ acceptance of corticotomy-assisted orthodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawawi, Khalid H

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study patients’ acceptance of corticotomy-assisted orthodontics as a treatment option. Methods Adult patients seeking orthodontic treatment were asked to complete two sets of questionnaires; the first set included questions about age, sex, and level of education and general questions about orthodontic treatment; and the second set was related to the corticotomy-assisted orthodontics. Before answering the corticotomy questions, a brief description of the clinical procedure was explained and photographs of an actual procedure were shown. Results A total of 150 subjects were approached and 129 (86%) agreed to answer the questionnaires (72 male and 57 female patients). Of these, only 3.1% did hear about corticotomy and 7.8% selected corticotomy instead of extraction. Fear from the surgery (53.2%) was the most frequent reason for not selecting corticotomy followed by fear from pain (36.9%). The acceptance of corticotomy between males and females was similar. No relationship was found between the level of education and prior knowledge of the procedure, P=0.857. Prior knowledge about corticotomy was not a factor in selecting it as a treatment option (P=0.556) to reduce the treatment time (P=0.427). Conclusion The acceptance of corticotomy-assisted orthodontics as a treatment option was low. Fear from the surgery was the main reason for not selecting it. The acceptance of corticotomy-assisted orthodontics was not related to patient’s level of education or sex. PMID:26316719

  7. The Acceptability of Speech with Radio Interference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baykaner, K.; Hummersone, H.; Mason, R.

    2014-01-01

    A listening test was conducted to investigate the acceptability of audio-on-audio interference for radio programs featuring speech as the target. Twenty-one subjects, including naïve and expert listeners, were presented with 200 randomly assigned pairs of stimuli and asked to report, for each tri...

  8. Parents' Acceptability and Health Workers' Perspectives of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    About three-fifth (59.2%) of parents had good knowledge about RTIs though majority (79.00%) were unaware of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV). most parents (93.5%) were willing to accept PCV for their children but only 43.5% of them could afford to pay for the cost of the vaccine at the prevailing market price.

  9. Food allergy : Stakeholder perspectives on acceptable risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madsen, Charlotte B.; Crevel, Rene; Chan, Chun-Han; Dubois, Anthony E. J.; DunnGalvin, Audrey; Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine M. J.; Gowland, M. Hazel; Hattersley, Sue; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B; Norhede, Pia; Pfaff, Sylvia; Rowe, Gene; Schnadt, Sabine; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber J.

    2010-01-01

    We have reached a point where it is difficult to improve food allergy risk management without an agreement on levels of acceptable risk. This paper presents and discusses the perspectives of the different stakeholders (allergic consumers, health professionals, public authorities and the food

  10. Examining Information Technology Acceptance by Individual Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licen Indahwati Darsono

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The mixed results of information technology (IT investment have made the investigation of user acceptance of IT increasingly challenging. A growing body of research in user acceptance of IT literature has limited focus on individual professionals as target users. Therefore, this research investigates how external variables, namely individual differences and system characteristics influence lecturers as individual professionals to accept the internet technology. Technology Acceptance Model (TAM and Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB are used as the main reference in this research. Findings of this research indicate that individual differences (computer self-efficacy, knowledge of search domain and system characteristics (terminology, screen design, relevance have indirect impact through perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and attitude on lecturers’ intention to use the internet. Specifically, computer self-efficacy and screen design have direct and indirect impact on intention. One issue concerning with the explanatory power of the proposed research model, which is based on TAM and TPB, compared to the rival model, which is called extended TAM, is also analyzed.

  11. Vaccine preferences and acceptance of older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilers, R.; de Melker, H. E.; Veldwijk, J.; Krabbe, P. F. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Expanding vaccination programs for the older population might be important as older adults are becoming a larger proportion of the general population. The aim of this study is to determine the relative importance of vaccine and disease specific characteristics and acceptance for Dutch

  12. Accepting the truth: A step toward reconciliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Zoran

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The truth is not only about accepting the facts. The truth includes emotional components - longing for acknowledgment of mistakes and validation of painful losses and experiences. While one side in the conflict considers itself as the only victim and experiences determination and acknowledgment of the truth as a possibility for healing its own trauma through satisfaction of justice and compensation, the other side is not accepting the truth. For this other side, confrontation with the facts is a painful trauma, which endangers individual moral norms, threatens the national identity and requires, on individual level, plugging in the defense mechanism, in order to prevent penetration of painful emotions into the consciousness. Primitive psychological mechanisms of defense, focused around splitting (projection, denial, are the main obstacles in accepting the truth both on individual and group level. There is also another extreme form of reaction manifested through "hypertrophy" of the truth and one-sided self-accusation. In this paper the author presents psychological explanation of the process of accepting the truth as the prerequisite for reconciliation and transformation of the conflict.

  13. 12 CFR 250.164 - Bankers' acceptances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... The legislative history of the BESA indicates no intent to change this domestic acceptance limitation... financial statements prepared in accordance with local accounting practices and an explanation of the accounting terminology and the major features of the accounting standards used in the preparation of the...

  14. Estimating Acceptability of Financial Health Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigsby, Elisabeth; Seitz, Holli H.; Halpern, Scott D.; Volpp, Kevin; Cappella, Joseph N.

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that financial incentives can influence health behavior change, but research on the public acceptability of these programs and factors that predict public support have been limited. A representative sample of U.S. adults (N = 526) were randomly assigned to receive an incentive program description in which the…

  15. Retained gas sampler system acceptance test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, N.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-18

    Acceptance test results for the Retained Gas Sampler System (RGSS) obtained in the 306E laboratory are reported. The RGSS will be utilized to retrieve and analyze samples from the Hanford flammable gas watch-list tanks to determine the quantity and chemistry of gases confined within the waste.

  16. Influence Processes for Information Technology Acceptance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattacherjee, Anol; Sanford, Clive Carlton

    2006-01-01

    This study examines how processes of external influence shape information technology acceptance among potential users, how such influence effects vary across a user population, and whether these effects are persistent over time. Drawing on the elaboration-likelihood model (ELM), we compared two...

  17. Perception, acceptance and uptake of Human papillomavirus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infection with Human papillomavirus (HPV) contributes to malignant changes in the cervix leading to cancer mortality among women. HPV vaccine is now available for its prevention, yet the level of uptake is low. The study aimed at determining Perception, Acceptance and Uptake of Human papillomavirus Vaccine among ...

  18. Acceptance of sugar reduction in flavored yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, M; Gille, D; Schmid, A; Walther, B; Piccinali, P

    2013-09-01

    To investigate what level of sugar reduction is accepted in flavored yogurt, we conducted a hedonic test focusing on the degree of liking of the products and on optimal sweetness and aroma levels. For both flavorings (strawberry and coffee), consumers preferred yogurt containing 10% added sugar. However, yogurt containing 7% added sugar was also acceptable. On the just-about-right scale, yogurt containing 10% sugar was more often described as too sweet compared with yogurt containing 7% sugar. On the other hand, the sweetness and aroma intensity for yogurt containing 5% sugar was judged as too low. A second test was conducted to determine the effect of flavoring concentration on the acceptance of yogurt containing 7% sugar. Yogurts containing the highest concentrations of flavoring (11% strawberry, 0.75% coffee) were less appreciated. Additionally, the largest percentage of consumers perceived these yogurts as "not sweet enough." These results indicate that consumers would accept flavored yogurts with 7% added sugar instead of 10%, but 5% sugar would be too low. Additionally, an increase in flavor concentration is undesirable for yogurt containing 7% added sugar. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 7 CFR 1207.323 - Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 1207.323 Section 1207.323 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN...

  20. Acceptance of homosexuality in the Netherlands 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saskia Keuzenkamp

    2011-01-01

    The Dutch government wishes to promote the social acceptance of homosexuality. To gain an impression of the current status and the progress in achieving this objective, the government asked the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP to carry out a study of the current statistics and

  1. Overview of LINAC4 Beam Instrumentation Software

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, L K; Guerrero, A; Kolad, B; Ludwig, M; Raich, U; Roncarolo, F

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of results from the recent Linac4 commissioning with H- beam at CERN. It covers beam instrumentation systems acquiring beam intensity, position, transverse and longitudinal profile and transverse emittance

  2. A Refined Zigzag Beam Theory for Composite and Sandwich Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessler, Alexander; Sciuva, Marco Di; Gherlone, Marco

    2009-01-01

    A new refined theory for laminated composite and sandwich beams that contains the kinematics of the Timoshenko Beam Theory as a proper baseline subset is presented. This variationally consistent theory is derived from the virtual work principle and employs a novel piecewise linear zigzag function that provides a more realistic representation of the deformation states of transverse-shear flexible beams than other similar theories. This new zigzag function is unique in that it vanishes at the top and bottom bounding surfaces of a beam. The formulation does not enforce continuity of the transverse shear stress across the beam s cross-section, yet is robust. Two major shortcomings that are inherent in the previous zigzag theories, shear-force inconsistency and difficulties in simulating clamped boundary conditions, and that have greatly limited the utility of these previous theories are discussed in detail. An approach that has successfully resolved these shortcomings is presented herein. Exact solutions for simply supported and cantilevered beams subjected to static loads are derived and the improved modelling capability of the new zigzag beam theory is demonstrated. In particular, extensive results for thick beams with highly heterogeneous material lay-ups are discussed and compared with corresponding results obtained from elasticity solutions, two other zigzag theories, and high-fidelity finite element analyses. Comparisons with the baseline Timoshenko Beam Theory are also presented. The comparisons clearly show the improved accuracy of the new, refined zigzag theory presented herein over similar existing theories. This new theory can be readily extended to plate and shell structures, and should be useful for obtaining relatively low-cost, accurate estimates of structural response needed to design an important class of high-performance aerospace structures.

  3. Keyhole depth instability in case of CW CO2 laser beam welding of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MS received 5 August 2009; revised 27 November 2009; accepted 30 November. 2009. Abstract. The study of keyhole (KH) instability in deep penetration laser beam welding (LBW) is essential to understand welding process and appearance of weld seam defects. The main cause of keyhole collapse is the instability in KH.

  4. Staff Acceptance of Tele-ICU Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Paul S.; Cram, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background: Remote coverage of ICUs is increasing, but staff acceptance of this new technology is incompletely characterized. We conducted a systematic review to summarize existing research on acceptance of tele-ICU coverage among ICU staff. Methods: We searched for published articles pertaining to critical care telemedicine systems (aka, tele-ICU) between January 1950 and March 2010 using PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Global Health, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library and abstracts and presentations delivered at national conferences. Studies were included if they provided original qualitative or quantitative data on staff perceptions of tele-ICU coverage. Studies were imported into content analysis software and coded by tele-ICU configuration, methodology, participants, and findings (eg, positive and negative staff evaluations). Results: Review of 3,086 citations yielded 23 eligible studies. Findings were grouped into four categories of staff evaluation: overall acceptance level of tele-ICU coverage (measured in 70% of studies), impact on patient care (measured in 96%), impact on staff (measured in 100%), and organizational impact (measured in 48%). Overall acceptance was high, despite initial ambivalence. Favorable impact on patient care was perceived by > 82% of participants. Staff impact referenced enhanced collaboration, autonomy, and training, although scrutiny, malfunctions, and contradictory advice were cited as potential barriers. Staff perceived the organizational impact to vary. An important limitation of available studies was a lack of rigorous methodology and validated survey instruments in many studies. Conclusions: Initial reports suggest high levels of staff acceptance of tele-ICU coverage, but more rigorous methodologic study is required. PMID:21051386

  5. Predicting the Operational Acceptability of Route Advisories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Antony; Lee, Paul

    2017-01-01

    NASA envisions a future Air Traffic Management system that allows safe, efficient growth in global operations, enabled by increasing levels of automation and autonomy. In a safety-critical system, the introduction of increasing automation and autonomy has to be done in stages, making human-system integrated concepts critical in the foreseeable future. One example where this is relevant is for tools that generate more efficient flight routings or reroute advisories. If these routes are not operationally acceptable, they will be rejected by human operators, and the associated benefits will not be realized. Operational acceptance is therefore required to enable the increased efficiency and reduced workload benefits associated with these tools. In this paper, the authors develop a predictor of operational acceptability for reroute advisories. Such a capability has applications in tools that identify more efficient routings around weather and congestion and that better meet airline preferences. The capability is based on applying data mining techniques to flight plan amendment data reported by the Federal Aviation Administration and data on requested reroutes collected from a field trial of the NASA developed Dynamic Weather Routes tool, which advised efficient route changes to American Airlines dispatchers in 2014. 10-Fold cross validation was used for feature, model and parameter selection, while nested cross validation was used to validate the model. The model performed well in predicting controller acceptance or rejection of a route change as indicated by chosen performance metrics. Features identified as relevant to controller acceptance included the historical usage of the advised route, the location of the maneuver start point relative to the boundaries of the airspace sector containing the maneuver start (the maneuver start sector), the reroute deviation from the original flight plan, and the demand level in the maneuver start sector. A random forest with forty

  6. Continuous axial scanning of a Gaussian beam via beam steering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Pauline; Barré, Nicolas; Pinel, Olivier; Labroille, Guillaume; Treps, Nicolas

    2017-09-18

    We propose and demonstrate experimentally the transfer of one spatial degree of freedom of a laser beam onto another one. Using a multi-plane light conversion device (MPLC) and a modal analysis, we designed a passive setup with immediate response which couples a displacement and tilt in the transverse plane to a longitudinal shift of the focus point of a beam. With this design, we demonstrated a shift of the focal point of the output beam by 4 zR along the propagation axis.

  7. Gaussian-Beam/Physical-Optics Design Of Beam Waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veruttipong, Watt; Chen, Jacqueline C.; Bathker, Dan A.

    1993-01-01

    In iterative method of designing wideband beam-waveguide feed for paraboloidal-reflector antenna, Gaussian-beam approximation alternated with more nearly exact physical-optics analysis of diffraction. Includes curved and straight reflectors guiding radiation from feed horn to subreflector. For iterative design calculations, curved mirrors mathematically modeled as thin lenses. Each distance Li is combined length of two straight-line segments intersecting at one of flat mirrors. Method useful for designing beam-waveguide reflectors or mirrors required to have diameters approximately less than 30 wavelengths at one or more intended operating frequencies.

  8. Coherent instabilities of a relativistic bunched beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, A.W.

    1982-06-01

    A charge-particle beam contained in an accelerator vacuum chamber interacts electromagnetically with its environment to create a wake field. This field than acts back on the beam, perturbing the particle motion. If the beam intensity is high enough, this beam-environment interaction may lead to an instability and to subsequent beam loss. The beam and its environment form a dynamical system, and it is this system that will be studied. 84 references.

  9. Dosimetric study of RapidArc plans with flattened beam (FB and flattening filter-free (FFF beam for localized prostate cancer based on physical indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birendra Kumar Rout

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To identify the continual diversity between flattening photon beam (FB and Flattening Filter Free (FFF photon beams for localized prostate cancer; and to determine potential benefits and drawbacks of using unflattened beam for this type of treatment.Methods: Eight prostate cases including seminal vesicles selected for this study. The primary planning target volume (PTVP and boost planning target volume (PTVB were contoured. The total prescription dose was 78 Gy (56 Gy to PTVP and an additional 22 Gy to PTVB. For all cases, treatment plans using 6MV with FB and FFF beams with identical dose-volume constraints, arc angles and number of arcs were developed. The dose volume histograms for both techniques were compared for primary target volume and critical structures.Results: A low Sigma index (FFF: 1.65 + 0.361; FB: 1.725 + 0.39 indicating improved dose homogeneity in FFF beam. Conformity index (FFF: 0.994 + 0.01; FB: 0.993 + 0.01 is comparable for both techniques. Minimal difference of Organ at risk mean dose was observed. Normal tissue integral dose in FB plan resulted 1.5% lower than FFF plan. All the plans displayed significant increase (1.18 times for PTVP and 1.11 for PTBB in the average number of necessary MU with FFF beam.Conclusion: Diversity between FB and FFF beam plans were found. FFF beam accelerator has been utilized to develop clinically acceptable Rapid Arc treatment plans for prostate cancer with 6 MV.---------------------------------Cite this article as: Rout BK, Muralidhar KR, Ali M, Shekar MC, Kumar A. Dosimetric study of RapidArc plans with flattened beam (FB and flattening filter-free (FFF beam for localized prostate cancer based on physical indices. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2014; 2(4:02046.  DOI: 10.14319/ijcto.0204.6

  10. Influence of longitudinally tapered collimators on a high brightness electron beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Di Mitri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the design and operation of a longitudinally tapered collimator in a single-pass S-band linac driving a high brightness electron beam. Measurements were done for the transverse emittance growth induced by the collimator wakefield as a function of the lateral displacement of the beam inside the collimator and the energy acceptance provided by an identical collimator installed in a dispersive region. The measurements demonstrate that: (i the proposed design allows very precise and reproducible motion down to the micron level of the compact, four-hole collimator; (ii the collimator does not degrade the beam emittance in the presence of standard trajectory control; (iii the measured kick factor and energy acceptance are in agreement with the theoretical expectations. These measurements were made using 500 pC, 2.4 ps long bunches at the FERMI@Elettra free electron laser facility.

  11. $\\pi^0$ Production with $K^-$ and $\\pi^+$ Beams at 530 GeV/c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanaro, Armando [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1990-01-01

    In thia theaia we report on measurements of inclusive neutral pion production at large transverse momenta ($P_T$) in collision of 530 GeV/c ($\\sqrt{s}$ = 31.5 GeV) $K^-$ and $\\pi^+$ beams with a copper and beryllium combined target. The $\\pi^0$ acceptance in center-of-mass rapidity is $\\mid y \\mid$ < 0.7, for $P_T$ values greater than 3.5 GeV/c (negative beam) and 4.25 GeV/c (positive beam). The data were taken using the large acceptance liquid argon calorimeter of the E706 spectrometer at Fermilab, and analyzed using the standard E706 reconstruction package. Ratios on $\\pi^0$ yields using $\\pi^+, \\pi^-, K^-$ and $p$ are presented. The results are used to examine issues of scaling in point-like hadronic collisions at high energies and large transverse momenta.

  12. Numerical Simulation of GFRP Reinforced Concrete Beams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xia Zhao; Xiong-Jun He; Yong-Chao Yang

    2017-01-01

    .... The finite element numerical simulation of GFRP fiber reinforced concrete beam was carried out, and the load deflection nephogram of fiber reinforced concrete beam, strain nephogram, crack nephogram...

  13. Asymmetric Laguerre-Gaussian beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, A. A.; Kotlyar, V. V.; Porfirev, A. P.

    2016-06-01

    We introduce a family of asymmetric Laguerre-Gaussian (aLG) laser beams. The beams have been derived via a complex-valued shift of conventional LG beams in the Cartesian plane. While propagating in a uniform medium, the first bright ring of the aLG beam becomes less asymmetric and the energy is redistributed toward peripheral diffraction rings. The projection of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) onto the optical axis is calculated. The OAM is shown to grow quadratically with increasing asymmetry parameter of the aLG beam, which equals the ratio of the shift to the waist radius. Conditions for the OAM becoming equal to the topological charge have been derived. For aLG beams with zero radial index, we have deduced an expression to define the intensity maximum coordinates and shown the crescent-shaped intensity pattern to rotate during propagation. Results of the experimental generation and rotation of aLG beams agree well with theoretical predictions.

  14. Numerical simulation of electron beam welding with beam oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushnikov, D. N.; Permyakov, G. L.

    2017-02-01

    This research examines the process of electron-beam welding in a keyhole mode with the use of beam oscillations. We study the impact of various beam oscillations and their parameters on the shape of the keyhole, the flow of heat and mass transfer processes and weld parameters to develop methodological recommendations. A numerical three-dimensional mathematical model of electron beam welding is presented. The model was developed on the basis of a heat conduction equation and a Navier-Stokes equation taking into account phase transitions at the interface of a solid and liquid phase and thermocapillary convection (Marangoni effect). The shape of the keyhole is determined based on experimental data on the parameters of the secondary signal by using the method of a synchronous accumulation. Calculations of thermal and hydrodynamic processes were carried out based on a computer cluster, using a simulation package COMSOL Multiphysics.

  15. Simulating Transient Effects of Pulsed Beams on Beam Intercepting Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, Herta; Noah Messomo, Etam

    2011-01-01

    The development in the physics community towards higher beam power through the possibilities of particle accelerators lead to challenges for the developers of elements which are exposed to effect of particle beams (beam intercepting devices = BIDs). For the design of BIDs, the increasing heat load onto these devices due to energetic and focused beams and - in most cases - their highly pulsed nature has to be taken into account. The physics requirements are sometimes opposed to the current state of the art. As one possibility of many in combining the different aspects for these ambitious demands, two highly developed computer programs, namely FLUKA and ANSYS AUTODYN, were joined for this dissertation. The former is a widely enhanced Monte-Carlo-code which specializes on the interaction of particles with static matter, while the latter is a versatile explicit code for the simulation of highly dynamic processes. Both computer programs were developed intensively over years and are still continuously enhanced in o...

  16. Electron beam machining using rotating and shaped beam power distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, J.W.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1996-07-09

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for electron beam (EB) machining (drilling, cutting and welding) that uses conventional EB guns, power supplies, and welding machine technology without the need for fast bias pulsing technology. The invention involves a magnetic lensing (EB optics) system and electronic controls to: (1) concurrently bend, focus, shape, scan, and rotate the beam to protect the EB gun and to create a desired effective power-density distribution, and (2) rotate or scan this shaped beam in a controlled way. The shaped beam power-density distribution can be measured using a tomographic imaging system. For example, the EB apparatus of this invention has the ability to drill holes in metal having a diameter up to 1,000 {micro}m (1 mm or larger), compared to the 250 {micro}m diameter of laser drilling. 5 figs.

  17. Electron beam machining using rotating and shaped beam power distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, John W.; O'Brien, Dennis W.

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus and method for electron beam (EB) machining (drilling, cutting and welding) that uses conventional EB guns, power supplies, and welding machine technology without the need for fast bias pulsing technology. The invention involves a magnetic lensing (EB optics) system and electronic controls to: 1) concurrently bend, focus, shape, scan, and rotate the beam to protect the EB gun and to create a desired effective power-density distribution, and 2) rotate or scan this shaped beam in a controlled way. The shaped beam power-density distribution can be measured using a tomographic imaging system. For example, the EB apparatus of this invention has the ability to drill holes in metal having a diameter up to 1000 .mu.m (1 mm or larger), compared to the 250 .mu.m diameter of laser drilling.

  18. Beam Instrumentation for the Single Electron DAFNE Beam Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzitelli, G; Valente, P; Vescovi, M

    2003-01-01

    The DAΦNE Beam Test Facility (BTF) has been successfully commissioned in February 2002, and started operation in November of the same year. Although the BTF is a beam transfer line optimized for single particle production, mainly for high energy detectors calibration, it can provide electrons and positrons in a wide range of multiplicity: between 1-1010, with energies from a few tens of MeV up to 800 MeV. The large multiplicity range requires many different diagnostic devices, from high-energy calorimeters and ionization/fluorescence chambers in the few particles range, to standard beam diagnostics systems. The schemes of operation, the commissioning results, as well as the beam diagnostics are presented.

  19. Experimental validation of beam quality correction factors for proton beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomà, Carles; Hofstetter-Boillat, Bénédicte; Safai, Sairos; Vörös, Sándor

    2015-04-21

    This paper presents a method to experimentally validate the beam quality correction factors (kQ) tabulated in IAEA TRS-398 for proton beams and to determine the kQ of non-tabulated ionization chambers (based on the already tabulated values). The method is based exclusively on ionometry and it consists in comparing the reading of two ionization chambers under the same reference conditions in a proton beam quality Q and a reference beam quality (60)Co. This allows one to experimentally determine the ratio between the kQ of the two ionization chambers. In this work, 7 different ionization chamber models were irradiated under the IAEA TRS-398 reference conditions for (60)Co beams and proton beams. For the latter, the reference conditions for both modulated beams (spread-out Bragg peak field) and monoenergetic beams (pseudo-monoenergetic field) were studied. For monoenergetic beams, it was found that the experimental kQ values obtained for plane-parallel chambers are consistent with the values tabulated in IAEA TRS-398; whereas the kQ values obtained for cylindrical chambers are not consistent--being higher than the tabulated values. These results support the suggestion (of previous publications) that the IAEA TRS-398 reference conditions for monoenergetic proton beams should be revised so that the effective point of measurement of cylindrical ionization chambers is taken into account when positioning the reference point of the chamber at the reference depth. For modulated proton beams, the tabulated kQ values of all the ionization chambers studied in this work were found to be consistent with each other--except for the IBA FC65-G, whose experimental kQ value was found to be 0.6% lower than the tabulated one. The kQ of the PTW Advanced Markus chamber, which is not tabulated in IAEA TRS-398, was found to be 0.997 ± 0.042 (k = 2), based on the tabulated value of the PTW Markus chamber.

  20. Beam stability at CTF3

    CERN Document Server

    Persson, T

    2012-01-01

    The two-beam acceleration tested at CTF3 imposes very tight tolerances on the drive beam stability. A description of the specialized monitoring tool developed to identify the drifts and jitter in the machine is presented. It compares all the relevant signals in an on-line manner to help the operator to identify drifts and to log data for off-line analysis. The main sources for the drifts of the drive beam have been identified and their causes are described. A feedback applied to the RF was implemented to reduce the effects. It works by changing the waveform for the pulse compression to compensate for the drifts.

  1. The ATLAS Diamond Beam Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Cerv, M

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Diamond Beam Monitor is a novel charged-particle detector. It will be used in the ATLAS experiment to measure luminosity and beam backgrounds. The monitor’s pCVD diamond sensors are instrumented with pixellated FE-I4 front-end chips. The CVD diamond sensor material was chosen to ensure long-term durability of the sensors in a radiation-hard environment. This document describes the principles of luminosity measurements. It is then explained how the Diamond Beam Monitor will carry out this task.

  2. Beam based systems and controls

    CERN Document Server

    Jacquet, D

    2012-01-01

    This presentation will give a review from the operations team of the performance and issues of the beam based systems, namely RF, ADT, beam instrumentation, controls and injection systems. For each of these systems, statistics on performance and availability will be presented with the main issues encountered in 2012. The possible improvements for operational efficiency and safety will be discussed, with an attempt to answer the question "Are we ready for the new challenges brought by the 25ns beam and increased energy after LSI? ".

  3. Beam-Beam Simulations with GUINEA-PIG

    CERN Document Server

    Schulte, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    While the bunches in a linear collider cross only once, due to their small size they experience a strong beam-beam effect. GUINEA-PIG is a code to simulate the impact of this effect on luminosity and back ground. A short overview of the program is given with examples of its application to the back ground strudies for TESLA, the top quark threshold scan and a possible luminosity monitor, as well as some results for CLIC.

  4. Electron beam, laser beam and plasma arc welding studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banas, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    This program was undertaken as an initial step in establishing an evaluation framework which would permit a priori selection of advanced welding processes for specific applications. To this end, a direct comparison of laser beam, electron beam and arc welding of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was undertaken. Ti-6Al-4V was selected for use in view of its established welding characteristics and its importance in aerospace applications.

  5. Beam dynamics of alternating-phase-focused linac

    CERN Document Server

    Iwata, Y; Kapin, V

    2004-01-01

    A simple method to find an array of synchronous phases for alternating-phase-focused (APF) linacs is presented. The phase array is described with a smooth function having free parameters. With a set of the parameters, a simulation on the beam dynamics was made and distributions of the six-dimensional phase spaces were calculated for each set of the parameters. The parameters were varied, and numbers of the simulations have been performed. An optimum set of the parameters were determined so that the simulations of the beam dynamics yield large acceptances and small emittances of the extracted beams. Since the APF linac can provide both axial and radial stability of beams just with the rf acceleration-field, no additional focusing element inside of drift tubes are necessary. Comparing with conventional linacs having focusing elements, it has advantage in construction and operation costs as well as its acceleration rate. Therefore, the APF linacs would be suited for an injector of medical synchrotrons. A practic...

  6. Test Beam Coordination: 2003 ATLAS Combined Test Beam

    CERN Multimedia

    Di Girolamo, B.

    The 2003 Test Beam Period The 2003 Test Beam period has been very fruitful for ATLAS. In spite of several days lost because of the accelerator problems, ATLAS has been able to achieve many results: FCAL has completed the calibration program in H6 Tilecal has completed the calibration program in H8 Pixel has performed extensive studies with normal and high intensity beams (up to 1.4*108 hadrons/spill) SCT has completed a variety of studies with quite a high number of modules operated concurrently TRT has performed several studies at high, low and very low energy (first use of the new H8 beam in the range 1 to 9 GeV) Muons (MDT,RPC and TGC) have been operating a large setup for about 5 months. The almost final MDT ROD (MROD) has been integrated in the readout and the final trigger electronics for TGC and RPC has been tested and certified with normal beam and during dedicated 40 MHz beam periods. The TDAQ has exploited a new generation prototype successfully and the new Event Filter infrastructure f...

  7. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-01-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste for disposal. The NNSSWAC includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NNSS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex for disposal. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project at (702) 295-7063 or fax to (702) 295-1153.

  8. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-09-03

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste for disposal. The NNSSWAC includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NNSS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex for disposal. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project at (702) 295-7063 or fax to (702) 295-1153.

  9. Social acceptance of comparative optimism and realism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhabet, I; Verlhiac, J F

    2011-10-01

    Studies of optimism and realism (the accuracy of people's outlook on the future) seek to understand the respective effects of these elements on social approbation. Two experiments examined how comparative optimism (vs. pessimism) and realism (vs. unrealism) interacted to influence the targets' social acceptance based on their perceptions about the future. The results showed that realism, or accuracy of prediction, increased the positive social effects of a comparatively optimistic outlook on the future. In contrast, targets who exhibited comparative pessimism were more socially acceptable when their predictions were unrealistic rather than realistic. This phenomenon was examined by also considering the polarity of the events about which judgments were expressed. These results contribute to the body of research about the relationship between optimism and pessimism and the relationship between optimism and realism.

  10. Radioactive waste disposal and public acceptance aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulhoa, Barbara M.A.; Aleixo, Bruna L.; Mourao, Rogerio P.; Ferreira, Vinicius V.M., E-mail: mouraor@cdtn.b, E-mail: vvmf@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Part of the public opinion around the world considers the wastes generated due to nuclear applications as the biggest environmental problem of the present time. The development of a solution that satisfies everybody is a great challenge, in that obtaining public acceptance for nuclear enterprises is much more challenging than solving the technical issues involved. Considering that the offering of a final solution that closes the radioactive waste cycle has a potentially positive impact on public opinion, the objective of this work is to evaluate the amount of the radioactive waste volume disposed in a five-year period in several countries and gauge the public opinion regarding nuclear energy. The results show that the volume of disposed radioactive waste increased, a fact that stresses the importance of promoting discussions about repositories and public acceptance. (author)

  11. Ion optics of RHIC electron beam ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikin, A; Alessi, J; Beebe, E; Kponou, A; Okamura, M; Raparia, D; Ritter, J; Tan, Y; Kuznetsov, G

    2012-02-01

    RHIC electron beam ion source has been commissioned to operate as a versatile ion source on RHIC injection facility supplying ion species from He to Au for Booster. Except for light gaseous elements RHIC EBIS employs ion injection from several external primary ion sources. With electrostatic optics fast switching from one ion species to another can be done on a pulse to pulse mode. The design of an ion optical structure and the results of simulations for different ion species are presented. In the choice of optical elements special attention was paid to spherical aberrations for high-current space charge dominated ion beams. The combination of a gridded lens and a magnet lens in LEBT provides flexibility of optical control for a wide range of ion species to satisfy acceptance parameters of RFQ. The results of ion transmission measurements are presented.

  12. Issues for Bringing Electron Beam Irradiators On-Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, R.J.; Turman, B.N.

    1999-04-20

    Irradiation of red meat and poultry has been approved by the U.S. FDA, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's rule for processing red meat is out for comment. Looking beyond the current issues of packaging materials, labeling, and consumer acceptance, this paper reviews the next step of implementation and how to remove, or at least reduce, the barriers to utilization. Polls of the user community identified their requirements for electron beam or x-ray processing of meat or poultry and their concerns about implementation for on-line processing. These needs and issues are compared to the capabilities of the accelerator industry. The critical issues of beam utilization and dose uniformity, factors affecting floor space requirements, and treatment costs are examined.

  13. Electron lenses for head-on beam-beam compensation in RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, X.; Fischer, W.; Altinbas, Z.; Anerella, M.; Bajon, E.; Bannon, M.; Bruno, D.; Costanzo, M.; Drees, A.; Gassner, D. M.; Gupta, R. C.; Hock, J.; Harvey, M.; Jain, A. K.; Jamilkowski, J. P.; Kankiya, P.; Lambiase, R.; Liu, C.; Luo, Y.; Mapes, M.; Marusic, A.; Mi, C.; Michnoff, R.; Miller, T. A.; Minty, M.; Nemesure, S.; Ng, W.; Phillips, D.; Pikin, A. I.; Rosas, P. J.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Samms, T.; Sandberg, J.; Schoefer, V.; Shrey, T. C.; Tan, Y.; Than, R.; Theisen, C.; Thieberger, P.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wanderer, P.; Zhang, W.; White, S. M.

    2017-02-01

    Two electron lenses (e -lenses) have been in operation during the 2015 RHIC physics run as part of a head-on beam-beam compensation scheme. While the RHIC lattice was chosen to reduce the beam-beam-induced resonance-driving terms, the electron lenses reduced the beam-beam-induced tune spread. This has been demonstrated for the first time. The beam-beam compensation scheme allows for higher beam-beam parameters and therefore higher intensities and luminosity. In this paper, we detail the design considerations and verification of the electron beam parameters of the RHIC e -lenses. Longitudinal and transverse alignments with ion beams and the transverse beam transfer function measurement with head-on electron-proton beam are presented.

  14. Intrinsic work motivation and pension reform acceptance

    OpenAIRE

    Heinemann, Friedrich; Hennighausen, Tanja; Moessinger, Marc-Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Although demographic change leaves pay-as-you-go pension systems unsustainable, reforms, such as a higher pension age, are highly unpopular. This contribution looks into the role of intrinsic motivation as a driver for pension reform acceptance. Theoretical reasoning suggests that this driver should be relevant: The choice among different pension reform options (increasing pension age, increasing contributions, cutting pensions) can be analyzed within the framework of an optimal job separatio...

  15. Acceptance Versus Distraction for Unwanted Sexual Thoughts

    OpenAIRE

    Sherwood, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    This on-line study examined 67 participants who rated their sexual thought distress level as moderately distressing or greater, on the successfulness of an acceptance-based strategy and a distraction-based strategy for dealing with unwanted sexual thoughts. The study began with the completion of an assessment battery, which measured attitudes about sexual thoughts. During a pre-intervention three minute time period, participants were asked to record/report occurrences a previously identified ...

  16. Perceived acceptability of female smoking in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Natalie; Yong, Hua-Hie; Li, Lin; Jiang, Yuan; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2015-11-01

    Female smoking prevalence in China is very low but may rise with increased tobacco marketing towards women and changing norms. However, little is known about current perceptions of women smoking in China. This study sought to examine smokers' and non-smokers' perceived acceptability of female smoking and how it changed over time in China. Data come from Waves 1 to 3 (2006-2009) of the International Tobacco Control China Survey, a face-to-face cohort survey of approximately 800 adult smokers and 200 non-smokers in each of seven cities in mainland China. At Wave 3 (2009), about 38% of smokers and 9% of non-smokers agreed that female smoking is acceptable with women being almost twice as likely to do so as men (67% vs 36% and 11% vs 6%, respectively). In addition to women, smokers who were younger and had more positive perceptions of smoking in general were more likely to say that female smoking is acceptable. This perception significantly increased from Wave 1 (2006) to Wave 3 (2009), as did the perception that smoking is a sign of sophistication, but other general perceptions of smoking did not significantly change between 2006 and 2009. Norms against female smoking appear to remain strong in China, but female smoking may be becoming more acceptable. It is important to monitor these perceptions to prevent a rise in female smoking prevalence along with an increase in tobacco-related death and disease among women in China. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Measuring social risk and determining its acceptability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lathrop, J.W.

    1978-07-14

    The implementation of a nuclear waste management technology raises several issues concerning the regulation of social risk. This paper presents a decision analytic approach to resolving some of those issues. A methodology for developing a radiological risk measure is presented, and several approaches to defining acceptable levels of that risk measure are considered. The methodology presented is oriented toward the development of radiological performance objectives for use as guidance in the drafting of regulations.

  18. Monitoring Acceptance of homosexuality in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Saskia Keuzenkamp

    2010-01-01

    Promoting acceptance of homosexuality is the main objective of current Dutch policy on the emancipation of gays and lesbians. At the request of Ronald Plasterk, the former Dutch government minister with responsibility for this policy, the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP is monitoring developments in society in this regard. This preliminary publication, which precedes a report to be published in June 2010, contains data from population surveys. What are the attitudes of the Dutch...

  19. Accepted Common Interest Community (CIC) Proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    These are the 18 accepted proposals for the three Common Interest Community (CIC) sessions at IAYT's Symposium on Yoga Therapy and Research (SYTAR), June 5-8, 2014, in Austin, Texas and published in the Final Program Guide and CIC Works for SYTAR 2014. The sessions were CIC#1 Rehab Professionals: Bridging the Past with the Future and CIC#2a & CIC#2b Mental, Emotional and Spiritual Health.

  20. The sociologically acceptable definition of religion

    OpenAIRE

    Blagojević Mirko

    2004-01-01

    In this article the author has presented several important issues regarding the sociology of religion, but primarily the issue of the sociologically acceptable definition of religion both in theoretical and empirical research. Bearing in mind the sociology of religion in former Yugoslavia the author has first discussed the possibility of a general definition of the sociology of religion, but has stated the opposite view as well. Then he has dealt with the two basic approaches towards religion...

  1. Acceptance of homosexuality in the Netherlands 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Saskia Keuzenkamp

    2011-01-01

    The Dutch government wishes to promote the social acceptance of homosexuality. To gain an impression of the current status and the progress in achieving this objective, the government asked the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP to carry out a study of the current statistics and trends in this regard. This report shows that the Netherlands is still the most gay-tolerant country in Europe. Nonetheless, there are limits to that tolerance and there are some groups in Dutch society whi...

  2. Acceptance of homosexuality in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Lisette Kuyper; Floor Bakker

    2006-01-01

    Original title: De houding ten opzichte van homoseksualiteit. To date, relatively little systematic research has been carried out on public attitudes to homosexual men and women in the Netherlands - far less than in the United States, for example. SCP has recently carried out a large-scale survey of the attitudes of the Dutch public to homosexuality; this was published earlier this year under the title Just doing what comes naturally. Acceptance of homosexuality in the Netherlands (Gewoon doe...

  3. G+ COMMUNITY: MEASURING TEACHERS’ READINESS AND ACCEPTANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Faisal Farish Ishak; Rashidah Rahamat; Muhammad Hazrul Haris Fadzilah; Abdul Ghani Abu

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore teachers’ acceptance and readiness in using the cloud-based community as a platform for professional collaboration related to their teaching and learning. Familiarity with certain social networking platforms has made the preferable collaboration among teachers only limited to using Facebook, WhatsApp or Telegram. However, with time and space constraints in schools, some of the sharing sessions could not be done effectively most of the time. The study fo...

  4. Peer acceptance/rejection and academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasenović Vera Z.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerations of the nature and role of peer relations in child development indicate that peer interaction is an important factor in developing social and cognitive competences. Peer relations not only influence current but also subsequent academic, behavioral and emotional development. Accepted students more often display better academic achievement, whereas the status of rejection is coupled with academic difficulties and lower academic achievement. Peer rejection is a relatively stable characteristic that can be used to predict difficulties in the years to come, such as repeat of a grade, early drop out, unjustified absences, adaptability problems etc. It is considered that correlation between academic achievement and peer group status is mediated by student social behavior at school. The quality of peer relations and academic achievement are mutually influential i.e. peer acceptance serves as a social resource that facilitates academic achievement, but academic achievement has effects on student acceptance. To help students who display difficulties in social relations, various intervention programs have been well thought of so as to contribute to interpersonal efficiency promotion. Concerning interdependence of social behavior, peer status and academic achievement, it is reasonable to expect that positive changes in behavior, frequently leading to the change of rejection status, will produce, directly or indirectly, positive effects on academic achievement too.

  5. A structural model of technology acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Erasmus

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Enterprise resource systems have not always led to significant organisational enhancement and many projects in which these systems have been implemented turn out to be over budget, not on time and unsuccessful.Research purpose: The aim of this study was to test the technology acceptance model within a South African SAP® Enterprise Resource Planning user environment.Motivation for the study: No study could be traced in which the technology acceptance model has been evaluated in the South African context.Research approach, design and method: A cross-sectional survey design was used. The 23-item Technology Acceptance Model Questionnaire was deployed amongst SAP® Enterprise Resource Planning users (N = 241. Main findings: The results confirmed significant paths from perceived usefulness of the information system to attitudes towards and behavioural intentions to use it. Furthermore, behavioural intention to use the system predicted actual use thereof. Perceived ease of use indirectly affected attitudes towards and behavioural intentions to use via perceived usefulness of the information system.Practical/managerial implications: Practitioners should build user confidence by ensuring the ease of use of a new system, providing relevant education, training and guidance and reiterating its usefulness and future added value to the user’s job and career.Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to scientific knowledge regarding the influence of individuals’ perceptions of information system usage on their attitudes, behavioural intentions and actual use of such a system.

  6. Acceptability of contraception for men: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasier, Anna

    2010-11-01

    Methods of contraception for use by men include condoms, withdrawal and vasectomy. Prevalence of use of a method and continuation rates are indirect measures of acceptability. Worldwide, none of these "male methods" accounts for more than 7% of contraceptive use although uptake varies considerably between countries. Acceptability can be assessed directly by asking about intended (hypothetical) use and assessing satisfaction during/after use. Since they have been around for a very long time, there are very few data of this nature on condoms (as contraceptives rather than for prevention of infection), withdrawal or vasectomy. There are direct data on the acceptability of hormonal methods for men but from relatively small clinical trials which undoubtedly do not represent the real world. Surveys undertaken among the male general public demonstrate that, whatever the setting, at least 25% of men - and in most countries substantially more - would consider using hormonal contraception. Although probably an overestimate of the number of potential users when such a method becomes available, it would appear that hormonal contraceptives for men may have an important place on the contraceptive menu. Despite commonly expressed views to the contrary, most women would trust their male partner to use a hormonal method. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Considerations for acceptability in Bible translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diphus C. Chemorion

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The ministry of Bible translation is an important component of the Great Commission (Matthew 28:18�20 and its mandate is to reach everyone with the word of God. One of the main goals of a Bible translation project is to produce a translation that will be used by the church in a given language group. Bible translation teams believe that the lives of the intended recipients will be changed positively when they gain access to Scripture in their own language. However, recent developments regarding Scripture use have shown that the success of any Bible translation project depends on whether or not its products are acceptable. If a translation is not acceptable to the intended audience, it may not be used, and as a result, it may fail to bring about the desired impact. This article explores the concept of �acceptability� as used in Bible translation and highlights important considerations that translators need to keep in mind in order to enhance the acceptability of their translation products.

  8. Acceptability of male condom: An Indian scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaiah Donta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The National Family Planning Programme of India had introduced condom as one of the family planning methods in the late1960s. Condom was promoted as a family planning method through social marketing since its inception. With the increasing prevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs including HIV/AIDS, condom was also promoted as a dual method for protection against both unintended pregnancies as well as sexually transmitted infections. Despite efforts at various levels, the overall use of condom among couples in India is low. Here we present literature review of studies to understand the condom acceptability among couples in India. Specifically, the paper assesses research and programmes that have been carried out to increase the use of condom among couples; determinants of condom use; reason for not using condom; and perception versus experience of condom failure. The reported problems related to condom use included non acceptance by partner, perceived ineffectiveness, less comfort, lack of sexual satisfaction, husband′s alcohol use, depression, and anxiety, and not available at that instant. The role of media in the promotion of condom use was indicated as an important way to increase awareness and use. Multiple strategies would help in acceptance of male condom.

  9. Acceptance Priority Ranking & Annual Capacity Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-07-31

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended (the Act), assigns the Federal Government the responsibility for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. Section 302(a) of the Act authorizes the Secretary to enter into contracts with the owners and generators of commercial spent nuclear fuel and/or high-level waste. The Standard Contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and/or High-Level Radioactive Waste (Standard Contract) established the contractual mechanism for the Department's acceptance and disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. It includes the requirements and operational responsibilities of the parties to the Standard Contract in the areas of administrative matters, fees, terms of payment, waste acceptance criteria, and waste acceptance procedures. The Standard Contract provides for the acquisition of title to the spent nuclear fuel and/or high-level waste by the Department, its transportation to Federal facilities, and its subsequent disposal.

  10. G+ COMMUNITY: MEASURING TEACHERS’ READINESS AND ACCEPTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Faisal Farish Ishak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore teachers’ acceptance and readiness in using the cloud-based community as a platform for professional collaboration related to their teaching and learning. Familiarity with certain social networking platforms has made the preferable collaboration among teachers only limited to using Facebook, WhatsApp or Telegram. However, with time and space constraints in schools, some of the sharing sessions could not be done effectively most of the time. The study focuses on teachers’ acceptance and readiness of having their community in the cloud when they were introduced to the platform during a Continuous Professional Development (CPD course. A total number of 61 teachers used Google Community named as ‘Contemporary Children’s Literature (CCL 2016’ as a platform for their Professional Learning Community (PLC during the course. Descriptive analysis was done using Google Sheets and the findings show that these teachers are receptive towards Google Community in terms of its engagement level, usefulness as well as ease of use. The introduction to Google Community has created a new pathway for their collaboration especially for teaching and learning purposes. In a nutshell, their acceptance towards the cloud-based community indicates that, given the right training channel, teachers are positive and opened to utilising and integrating the cloud-based technology in their current teaching practice.

  11. SU-E-T-50: Automatic Validation of Megavoltage Beams Modeled for Clinical Use in Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melchior, M [Terapia Radiante S.A., La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Salinas Aranda, F [Vidt Centro Medico, Ciudad Autonoma De Buenos Aires (Argentina); 21st Century Oncology, Ft. Myers, FL (United States); Sciutto, S [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Dodat, D [Centro Medico Privado Dean Funes, La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Larragueta, N [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Centro Medico Privado Dean Funes, La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To automatically validate megavoltage beams modeled in XiO™ 4.50 (Elekta, Stockholm, Sweden) and Varian Eclipse™ Treatment Planning Systems (TPS) (Varian Associates, Palo Alto, CA, USA), reducing validation time before beam-on for clinical use. Methods: A software application that can automatically read and analyze DICOM RT Dose and W2CAD files was developed using MatLab integrated development environment.TPS calculated dose distributions, in DICOM RT Dose format, and dose values measured in different Varian Clinac beams, in W2CAD format, were compared. Experimental beam data used were those acquired for beam commissioning, collected on a water phantom with a 2D automatic beam scanning system.Two methods were chosen to evaluate dose distributions fitting: gamma analysis and point tests described in Appendix E of IAEA TECDOC-1583. Depth dose curves and beam profiles were evaluated for both open and wedged beams. Tolerance parameters chosen for gamma analysis are 3% and 3 mm dose and distance, respectively.Absolute dose was measured independently at points proposed in Appendix E of TECDOC-1583 to validate software results. Results: TPS calculated depth dose distributions agree with measured beam data under fixed precision values at all depths analyzed. Measured beam dose profiles match TPS calculated doses with high accuracy in both open and wedged beams. Depth and profile dose distributions fitting analysis show gamma values < 1. Relative errors at points proposed in Appendix E of TECDOC-1583 meet therein recommended tolerances.Independent absolute dose measurements at points proposed in Appendix E of TECDOC-1583 confirm software results. Conclusion: Automatic validation of megavoltage beams modeled for their use in the clinic was accomplished. The software tool developed proved efficient, giving users a convenient and reliable environment to decide whether to accept or not a beam model for clinical use. Validation time before beam-on for clinical use

  12. Evaluation of the Acceptance of Audience Response System by Corporations Using the Technology Acceptance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hsing-Hui; Lu, Ta-Jung; Wann, Jong-Wen

    The purpose of this research is to explore enterprises' acceptance of Audience Response System (ARS) using Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The findings show that (1) IT characteristics and facilitating conditions could be external variables of TAM. (2) The degree of E-business has positive significant correlation with behavioral intention of employees. (3) TAM is a good model to predict and explain IT acceptance. (4) Demographic variables, industry and firm characteristics have no significant correlation with ARS acceptance. The results provide useful information to managers and ARS providers that (1) ARS providers should focus more on creating different usages to enhance interactivity and employees' using intention. (2) Managers should pay attention to build sound internal facilitating conditions for introducing IT. (3) According to the degree of E-business, managers should set up strategic stages of introducing IT. (4) Providers should increase product promotion and also leverage academic and government to promote ARS.

  13. Gerontechnology acceptance by elderly Hong Kong Chinese: a senior technology acceptance model (STAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Chan, Alan Hoi Shou

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a senior technology acceptance model (STAM) aimed at understanding the acceptance of gerontechnology by older Hong Kong Chinese people. The proposed STAM extended previous technology acceptance models and theories by adding age-related health and ability characteristics of older people. The proposed STAM was empirically tested using a cross-sectional questionnaire survey with a sample of 1012 seniors aged 55 and over in Hong Kong. The result showed that STAM was strongly supported and could explain 68% of the variance in the use of gerontechnology. For older Hong Kong Chinese, individual attributes, which include age, gender, education, gerontechnology self-efficacy and anxiety, and health and ability characteristics, as well as facilitating conditions explicitly and directly affected technology acceptance. These were better predictors of gerontechnology usage behaviour (UB) than the conventionally used attitudinal factors (usefulness and ease of use).

  14. Monitor of SC beam profiles

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    A high-resolution secondary emission grid for the measurement of SC beam profiles. Modern techniques of metal-ceramic bonding, developed for micro-electronics, have been used in its construction. (See Annual Report 1977 p. 105 Fig. 12.)

  15. Applications of ion beam technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelerinter, E.; Spielberg, N.

    1980-01-01

    Wire adhesion in steel belted radial tires; carbon fibers and composite; cold welding, brazing, and fabrication; hydrogen production, separation, and storage; membrane use; catalysis; sputtering and texture; and ion beam implantation are discussed.

  16. RIKEN RI Beam Factory project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Yasushige; Goto, Akira; Katayama, Takeshi [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    The RARF proposes `RIKEN RI Beam Factory` as a next facility-expanding project. The factory makes it the primary aim to provide RI (Radioactive Isotope) beams covering over the whole atomic-mass range with the world-highest intensity in a wide energy range up to several hundreds MeV/nucleon. These RI beams are generated by the fragmentation of high-intensity heavy-ion beams. For the efficient production heavy-ion energies will be boosted up to over 100 MeV/nucleon even for very heavy ions by a K2500-MeV superconducting ring cyclotron serving as a post accelerator of the existing K540-MeV ring cyclotron. A new type of experimental installation called `MUSES` (Multi-USe Experimental Storage rings) will be constructed as well. With MUSES, various types of unique colliding experiments will become possible. (author)

  17. Quantum fluctuations in beam dynamics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.-J.

    1998-06-04

    Quantum effects could become important for particle and photon beams used in high-luminosity and high brightness applications in the current and next generation accelerators and radiation sources. This paper is a review of some of these effects.

  18. Electrostatic beam-position monitor

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1969-01-01

    Electrostatic beam-position monitor installed in its final location (bake-out cover removed). The ISR will contain about 110 of these monitors. Their accuracy is better than 1 mm, their band width about 1 MHz.

  19. Matter-Wave Tractor Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorlach, Alexey A.; Gorlach, Maxim A.; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2017-01-01

    Optical and acoustic tractor beams are currently the focus of intense research due to their counterintuitive property of exerting a pulling force on small scattering objects. In this Letter we propose a matter-wave tractor beam and utilize the de Broglie waves of nonrelativistic matter particles...... in analogy to "classical" tractor beams. We reveal the presence of the quantum-mechanical pulling force for the variety of quantum mechanical potentials observing the resonant enhancement of the pulling effect under the conditions of the suppressed scattering known as the Ramsauer-Townsend effect. We also...... are compared, and the matter-wave pulling force is found to have exclusive properties of dragging slow particles in short-range potentials. We envisage that the use of tractor beams could lead to the unprecedented precision in manipulation with atomic-scale quantum objects....

  20. Center for Beam Physics, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report contains the following information on the center for beam physics: Facilities; Organizational Chart; Roster; Profiles of Staff; Affiliates; Center Publications (1991--1993); and 1992 Summary of Activities.

  1. METHOD OF ELECTRON BEAM PROCESSING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    As a rule, electron beam welding takes place in a vacuum. However, this means that the workpieces in question have to be placed in a vacuum chamber and have to be removed therefrom after welding. This is time−consuming and a serious limitation of a process the greatest advantage of which is the o......As a rule, electron beam welding takes place in a vacuum. However, this means that the workpieces in question have to be placed in a vacuum chamber and have to be removed therefrom after welding. This is time−consuming and a serious limitation of a process the greatest advantage of which...... exploiting the potential of electron beam processing to a greater degree than previously possible, for example by means of electron beam welding...

  2. Beam instability Workshop - plenary sessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this workshop was to provide a review of the mechanisms of limiting beam instabilities, their cures, including feedback, and beam measurement for synchrotron radiation light sources. 12 plenary sessions took place whose titles are: 1) challenging brilliance and lifetime issues with increasing currents; 2) limiting instabilities in multibunch; 3) experience from high currents in B factories; 4) longitudinal dynamics in high intensity/bunch; 5) Transverse instabilities for high intensity/bunch; 6) working group introduction from ESRF experience; 7) impedance modelling: simulations, minimization; 8) report on the broadband impedance measurements and modelling workshop; 9) feedback systems for synchrotron light sources; 10) beam instabilities diagnostics; 11) harmonic cavities: the pros and cons; and 12) experimental study of fast beam-ion instabilities at PLS. This document gathers the 12 articles that were presented during these sessions.

  3. Reinforcement learning for Order Acceptance on a shared resource

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mainegra Hing, M.; van Harten, Aart; Schuur, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Order acceptance (OA) is one of the main functions in business control. Basically, OA involves for each order a reject/accept decision. Always accepting an order when capacity is available could disable the system to accept more convenient orders in the future with opportunity losses as a

  4. Acceptance of counseling, voluntary HIV testing and use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overall acceptance of pre-test counseling in labour among women with unknown sero-status was 71.7% while acceptance of counseling and voluntary HIV testing was 56.6%. Among those who accepted pre-test counseling in labour, 78.9% accepted HIV testing and 8.6% of these were found to be HIV infected.

  5. 48 CFR 552.270-29 - Acceptance of Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance of Space. 552... Acceptance of Space. As prescribed in 570.603, insert the following clause: Acceptance of Space (SEP 1999) (a... designated representative shall promptly inspect the space. (b) The Government will accept the space and the...

  6. Combined phenomena of beam-beam and beam-electron cloud interactionsin circular e^{+}e^{-} colliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhito Ohmi

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available An electron cloud causes various effects in high intensity positron storage rings. The positron beam and the electron cloud can be considered a typical two-stream system with a certain plasma frequency. Beam-beam interaction is another important effect for high luminosity circular colliders. Colliding two beams can be considered as a two-stream system with another plasma frequency. We study the combined phenomena of the beam-electron cloud and beam-beam interactions from a viewpoint of two complex two-stream effects with two plasma frequencies.

  7. How is Acceptable Public Risk Determined?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treichel, Judy [Nevada Nuclear Waste Task Force, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Acceptance of risk is a value-based decision, that is, the acceptance of risk by a person or group of persons depends on the values of the person or the shared values of the group. In the case of nuclear waste management, the nuclear industry, the regulators, and the general public approach risk from entirely different perspectives, dictated by the separate value systems held by each. The utilities producing radioactive waste view risk assessment as a part of a business decision that involves costs and benefits. The values that drive public acceptance of a national nuclear waste management policy are very different. As stated by Peter Montague of the Environmental Research Foundation: 'The only people I know who are enthusiastic about quantitative risk assessment are people who want to gain permission to expose other humans to dangerous chemicals so someone can make money. Risk assessment has proven to be an effective way to gain the necessary permissions'. Between the industry and the public are the regulators. Most national governments require regulatory agencies to establish rules that provide adequate public safety while allowing industries, whether nuclear or other producers of public commodities, to profitably do business. The general population has always had a fragile relationship with nuclear proponents. There is an atmosphere of mistrust based on the understanding that the values that matter to the general public differ tremendously from those purported by the industry and regulators. The general public is more interested in worst case scenarios; that is, what is the most severe negative consequence to their safety and the safety of their children that could result from nuclear projects. There is no cost or benefit more important to the general public than the health and safety of their families. The rift in values creates a great disparity in proposed solutions to the nuclear waste question. Regulators regard public acceptance of a risk

  8. HPV vaccination acceptability in young boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Tisi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the comprehension and acceptance of HPV vaccination in parents of adolescent boys aged 11 to 15 years. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted by means of questionnaires sent directly to the homes of all families with young males aged between 11 and 15, residents of three municipalities of the Province of Brescia, Italy. The documentation also contained an informative leaflet summarizing the HPV-related disease characteristics, the burden of disease and the available strategies for prevention and treatment, illustrating the rationale of vaccination and describing the project and its phases. The questionnaire included questions on demographic data, acceptance and motivations for HPV vaccination. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. At the end of the study, parents who received the questionnaires were also offered the possibility of vaccinating their male sons for free. RESULTS: From a total of 1072 questionnaires sent, 161 where returned from the three selected municipalities (average response rate 15%; 97% of adolescent males involved in the study were Italian and 91% Catholic; 97% of parents declared themselves to be willing to vaccinate their sons: the principal motivation given (92% was prevention of the disease, cancerous or not, related to viral infection. Among the respondents not willing to vaccinate their sons, the motivation was lack of information about the vaccine and the disease. At the end of the study, around 71 boys were vaccinated. DISCUSSION: To our knowledge, this is the first survey in Italy exclusively conducted on parents of adolescent males about the acceptability and feasibility of vaccination against HPV: a very high percentage of respondents was favorable to accept the vaccination for their sons, the main motivation being the fact that parents considered protecting their sons from HPV-related diseases highly important. Of the 161 boys

  9. Beam Instabilities in Hadron Synchrotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Métral, E; Bartosik, H; Biancacci, N; Buffat, X; Esteban Muller, J F; Herr, W; Iadarola, G; Lasheen, A; Li, K; Oeftiger, A; Pieloni, T; Quartullo, D; Rumolo, G; Salvant, B; Schenk, M; Shaposhnikova, E; Tambasco, C; Timko, H; Zannini, C; Burov, A; Banfi, D; Barranco, J; Mounet, N; Boine-Frankenheim, O; Niedermayer, U; Kornilov, V; White, S

    2016-01-01

    Beam instabilities cover a wide range of effects in particle accelerators and they have been the subjects of intense research for several decades. As the machines performance was pushed new mechanisms were revealed and nowadays the challenge consists in studying the interplays between all these intricate phenomena, as it is very often not possible to treat the different effects separately. The aim of this paper is to review the main mechanisms, discussing in particular the recent developments of beam instability theories and simulations.

  10. Intense Relativistic Electron Beam Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    dif- fusion pump furnished with the electron beam machine was sized to hold vacuum rathcr thani to ,achieve rapid pump down, we were limited to 2 or...camera and lasers as well as providing an advance synchronized trigger pulse to the oscilloscopes. Since this water filled spark gap switch initiates...Equipment Source NRL 0.5 XeV 7 ohm relativistic "electron beam machine Government furnished Capacitor bank and magnetic field solenoid 4’ long with

  11. Single lens laser beam shaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chuyu [Newport News, VA; Zhang, Shukui [Yorktown, VA

    2011-10-04

    A single lens bullet-shaped laser beam shaper capable of redistributing an arbitrary beam profile into any desired output profile comprising a unitary lens comprising: a convex front input surface defining a focal point and a flat output portion at the focal point; and b) a cylindrical core portion having a flat input surface coincident with the flat output portion of the first input portion at the focal point and a convex rear output surface remote from the convex front input surface.

  12. Beam Trajectory Correction for SNS

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Chungming

    2005-01-01

    Automated beam trajectory correction with dipole correctors is developed and tested during the Spallation Neutron Source warm linac commissioning periods. The application is based on the XAL Java framework with newly developed optimization tools. Also, dipole corrector polarities and strengths, and beam position monitor (BPM) polarities were checked by an orbit difference program. The on-line model is used in both the trajectory correction and the orbit difference applications. Experimental data for both applications will be presented.

  13. Measuring Technology Acceptance Level of Teachers by Using Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eylem KORAL GÜMÜŞOĞLU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Technology has undergone a lot of radical changes in the last years which has caused the implemention of new paradigms in different sectors. It is almost impossible for education not to be affected from this change in technology. It has shifted from the traditional applications to the technology use in the classrooms. In this case, teachers’ role in the application of technology into education has become an essential part of the research in the field. Also, in higher education, teachers become the key factors to the effective use of technology in the teaching and learning processes. Thus, teachers’ technology acceptance level remains an important issue. The term, technology acceptance refers to the adoption and use of technologies in the way they were designed for. The purpose of this study is to examine the technology acceptance level of teachers at Anadolu University School of Foreign Languages to test the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT that determines the variables influencing individuals’ technology acceptance. Firstly, a Likert scale type of scale was administered to measure UTAUT and the attitudes of teachers towards technology. The participants are the 44 lecturers who have started using technology recently at Anadolu University School of Foreign Languages. The findings reveal that the overall technology acceptance level of participants is average.

  14. RIKEN RI Beam Factory Project

    CERN Document Server

    Yano, Yasushige

    2005-01-01

    The world-top-class radioactive-isotope-beam (RIB) facility, which is called ?RI beam factory (RIBF)?, is under construction at RIKEN. This facility is based on the so-called ?in-flight RI beam separation? scheme. Late in 2006, a new high-power heavy-ion accelerator system consisting of a cascade of three ring cyclotrons with K=570 MeV (fixed frequency, fRC), 980 MeV (Intermediate stage, IRC) and 2500 MeV (superconducting, SRC), respectively, will be commissioned. This new accelerator system will boost energies of the output beams from the existing K540-MeV ring cyclotron up to 440 MeV/nucleon for light ions and 350 MeV/nucleon for very heavy ions. These energetic heavy-ion beams are converted into intense RI beams via the projectile fragmentation or in-flight fission of uranium ions by the superconducting isotope separator, BigRIPS, under construction. The combination of the SRC and BigRIPS will expand our nuclear world into presently unreachable region. Major experimental installations are under priority di...

  15. Efficient Beam-Type Structural Modeling of Rotor Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couturier, Philippe; Krenk, Steen

    2015-01-01

    The present paper presents two recently developed numerical formulations which enable accurate representation of the static and dynamic behaviour of wind turbine rotor blades using little modeling and computational effort. The first development consists of an intuitive method to extract fully...... coupled six by six cross-section stiffness matrices with limited meshing effort. Secondly, an equilibrium based beam element accepting directly the stiffness matrices and accounting for large variations in geometry and material along the blade is presented. The novel design tools are illustrated...

  16. Benchmarking the minimum Electron Beam (eBeam) dose required for the sterilization of space foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Sohini S.; Wall, Kayley R.; Kerth, Chris R.; Pillai, Suresh D.

    2018-02-01

    As manned space missions extend in length, the safety, nutrition, acceptability, and shelf life of space foods are of paramount importance to NASA. Since food and mealtimes play a key role in reducing stress and boredom of prolonged missions, the quality of food in terms of appearance, flavor, texture, and aroma can have significant psychological ramifications on astronaut performance. The FDA, which oversees space foods, currently requires a minimum dose of 44 kGy for irradiated space foods. The underlying hypothesis was that commercial sterility of space foods could be achieved at a significantly lower dose, and this lowered dose would positively affect the shelf life of the product. Electron beam processed beef fajitas were used as an example NASA space food to benchmark the minimum eBeam dose required for sterility. A 15 kGy dose was able to achieve an approximately 10 log reduction in Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli bacteria, and a 5 log reduction in Clostridium sporogenes spores. Furthermore, accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT) to determine sensory and quality characteristics under various conditions was conducted. Using Multidimensional gas-chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (MDGC-O-MS), numerous volatiles were shown to be dependent on the dose applied to the product. Furthermore, concentrations of off -flavor aroma compounds such as dimethyl sulfide were decreased at the reduced 15 kGy dose. The results suggest that the combination of conventional cooking combined with eBeam processing (15 kGy) can achieve the safety and shelf-life objectives needed for long duration space-foods.

  17. Electron beam diagnostic for profiling high power beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, John W [Danville, CA; Palmer, Todd A [Livermore, CA; Teruya, Alan T [Livermore, CA

    2008-03-25

    A system for characterizing high power electron beams at power levels of 10 kW and above is described. This system is comprised of a slit disk assembly having a multitude of radial slits, a conducting disk with the same number of radial slits located below the slit disk assembly, a Faraday cup assembly located below the conducting disk, and a start-stop target located proximate the slit disk assembly. In order to keep the system from over-heating during use, a heat sink is placed in close proximity to the components discussed above, and an active cooling system, using water, for example, can be integrated into the heat sink. During use, the high power beam is initially directed onto a start-stop target and after reaching its full power is translated around the slit disk assembly, wherein the beam enters the radial slits and the conducting disk radial slits and is detected at the Faraday cup assembly. A trigger probe assembly can also be integrated into the system in order to aid in the determination of the proper orientation of the beam during reconstruction. After passing over each of the slits, the beam is then rapidly translated back to the start-stop target to minimize the amount of time that the high power beam comes in contact with the slit disk assembly. The data obtained by the system is then transferred into a computer system, where a computer tomography algorithm is used to reconstruct the power density distribution of the beam.

  18. Revealing the radial modes in vortex beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sephton, Bereneice C

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Light beams that carry orbital angular momentum are often approximated by modulating an initial beam, usually Gaussian, with an azimuthal phase variation to create a vortex beam. Such vortex beams are well defined azimuthally, but the radial profile...

  19. KTeV beam systems design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocean, V.; Childress, S.; Coleman, R. [and others

    1997-09-01

    The primary and secondary beams for the KTeV experiments E799-II and E832 are discussed. The specifications are presented and justified. The technical details of the implementation of the primary beam transport and stability are detailed. The target, beam dump, and radiation safety issues are discussed. The details of the collimation system for the pair of secondary beams are presented.

  20. Beam instrumentation in a multidisciplinary accelerator facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, J.M.; Boon, S.N.; Dermois, O.C.; Kiewiet, H.H.

    Some recently developed beam diagnostic devices for the beam lines of the AGOR cyclotron are reviewed. The range of applications is from low background nuclear physics experiments at "zero degree" to radiation therapy with proton beams. In particular a method to improve beam quality and the

  1. Design and development of a new micro-beam treatment planning system: effectiveness of algorithms of optimization and dose calculations and potential of micro-beam treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Hidenobu; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Yusa, Noritaka; Miyajima, Satoshi; Tsuda, Akihisa; Yamashita, Takashi

    2012-07-01

    A new treatment planning system (TPS) was designed and developed for a new treatment system, which consisted of a micro-beam-enabled linac with robotics and a real-time tracking system. We also evaluated the effectiveness of the implemented algorithms of optimization and dose calculations in the TPS for the new treatment system. In the TPS, the optimization procedure consisted of the pseudo Beam's-Eye-View method for finding the optimized beam directions and the steepest-descent method for determination of beam intensities. We used the superposition-/convolution-based (SC-based) algorithm and Monte Carlo-based (MC-based) algorithm to calculate dose distributions using CT image data sets. In the SC-based algorithm, dose density scaling was applied for the calculation of inhomogeneous corrections. The MC-based algorithm was implemented with Geant4 toolkit and a phase-based approach using a network-parallel computing. From the evaluation of the TPS, the system can optimize the direction and intensity of individual beams. The accuracy of the dose calculated by the SC-based algorithm was less than 1% on average with the calculation time of 15 s for one beam. However, the MC-based algorithm needed 72 min for one beam using the phase-based approach, even though the MC-based algorithm with the parallel computing could decrease multiple beam calculations and had 18.4 times faster calculation speed using the parallel computing. The SC-based algorithm could be practically acceptable for the dose calculation in terms of the accuracy and computation time. Additionally, we have found a dosimetric advantage of proton Bragg peak-like dose distribution in micro-beam treatment.

  2. Luminosity Loss due to Beam Distortion and the Beam-Beam Instability

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Juhao; Raubenheimer, Tor O; Seryi, Andrei; Sramek, Christopher K

    2005-01-01

    In a linear collider, sources of emittance dilution such as transverse wakefields or dispersive errors will couple the vertical phase space to the longitudinal position within the beam (the so-called ‘banana effect'). When the Intersection Point (IP) disruption parameter is large, these beam distortions will be amplified by a single bunch kink instability which will lead to luminosity loss. We study this phenomena both analytically using linear theory and via numerical simulation. In particular, we examine the dependence of the luminosity loss on the wavelength of the beam distortions and the disruption parameter. This analysis may prove useful when optimizing the vertical disruption parameter for luminosity operation with given beam distortions.

  3. Beam Dynamics Studies for CLIC Drive Beams and for Focusing Highly Chromatic Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Riche, A J

    1997-01-01

    The main linac 30 GHz RF source called drive beam consists in a succession of structures resonating at this frequency, loaded by convenient trains of high charge bunches for transfer of the energy (group velocity # 0) to the structures of the main linac. Maximum efficiency is obtained if one can focus the drive beam up to the point where particles with minimum energy reach energy zero. At this point, some particles still have their initial energy, then all the spectrum is represented. The challenge is to keep the beam envelope within the iris, with this chromaticity, with the misalignments of beam at entry, misalignments of structures and quadrupoles, and also with the transverse wake they create. Parameters, lay-out and results correspond to October 97 state of studies.

  4. Accelerator Technology: Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, R; Schmickler, H

    2013-01-01

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Accelerators and Colliders' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the the Section '8.6 Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics' of the Chapter '8 Accelerator Technology' with the content: 8.6 Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics 8.6.1 Beam Position Measurement 8.6.2 Beam Current and Intensity Measurement 8.6.3 Diagnostics of Transverse Beam Motion 8.6.4 Beam Profile Measurements 8.6.5 Beam Loss Monitoring 8.6.6 Short Bunch Length Diagnostics

  5. Beam Development_V6MP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilpatrick, John D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-03-24

    This presentation includes slides on Conditions; Sternglass states; H+ beam interacts with a W sense wire – Sternglass theory for SE current; Observed H+ beam at 03WS001 location; Jan 23 data; H- beam at 03WS001 location, Jan 23 data, Sternglass theory for SE current; H- beam at 03WS001 location; Jan 23 data; H+ beam at 04WS001 location, Jan 23 data, Sternglass theory for SE current; H+ beam at 04WS001 location; Jan 23 data; H- beam at 10WS001 location, Nov 17, 2013 data, Sternglass theory for SE current; H- beam at 10WS001 location; Nov 17, 2013 data; H- beam at 11WS001 location, Nov 17, 2013 data, Sternglass theory for SE current; and lastly H- beam at 11WS001 location; Nov 17, 2013 data.

  6. Acceptance as a Mediator for Change in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Persons with Chronic Pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederberg, Jenny Thorsell; Cernvall, Martin; Dahl, JoAnne; von Essen, Louise; Ljungman, Gustaf

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is considered effective for chronic pain, but little is known about active treatment components. Although acceptance correlates with better health outcomes in chronic pain patients, no study has examined its mediating effect in an experimental design. The aim of the present study is to investigate acceptance as a mediator in acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), a third wave CBT intervention, for chronic pain. A bootstrapped cross product of coefficients approach was used on data from a previously published RCT evaluating ACT for chronic pain. To address the specificity of acceptance as a mediator, anxiety and depression were also tested as mediators. Outcome variables were satisfaction with life and physical functioning. Two change scores, pre-assessment to 6-month follow-up (n = 53) and pre-assessment to 12-month follow-up (n = 32), were used. Acceptance was found to mediate the effect of treatment on change in physical functioning from pre-assessment to follow-up at 6 months. Further, a trend was shown from pre-assessment to follow-up at 12 months. No indirect effect of treatment via acceptance was found for change in satisfaction with life. This study adds to a small but growing body of research using mediation analysis to investigate mediating factors in the treatment of chronic pain. In summary, the results suggest that acceptance may have a mediating effect on change in physical functioning in ACT for persons with chronic pain. However, given the small sample size of the study, these findings need to be replicated.

  7. MTN magnet for the SPS extracted beam.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    This type of dipole magnet was used in the extracted beam lines of the North Area. It shows an opening for three different proton beam lines: a primary extracted proton beam, split by an upstream magnetic beam splitter (see photo 7612017) into three separated beams passes through different parts of its aperture: right, left up, left down. These magnets were designed to be concrete-insulated for radiation resistance. F. Streun stands on the right.

  8. Revised data taking schedule with ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Gazdzicki, Marek; Aduszkiewicz, A; Andrieu, B; Anticic, T; Antoniou, N; Argyriades, J; Asryan, A G; Baatar, B; Blondel, A; Blumer, J; Boldizsar, L; Bravar, A; Brzychczyk, J; Bubak, A; Bunyatov, S A; Choi, K U; Christakoglou, P; Chung, P; Cleymans, J; Derkach, D A; Diakonos, F; Dominik, W; Dumarchez, J; Engel, R; Ereditato, A; Feofilov, G A; Fodor, Z; Ferrero, A; Gazdzicki, M; Golubeva, M; Grebieszkow, K; Grzeszczuk, A; Guber, F; Hasegawa, T; Haungs, A; Igolkin, S; Ivanov, A S; Ivashkin, A; Kadija, K; Katrynska, N; Kielczewska, D; Kikola, D; Kisiel, J; Kobayashi, T; Kolesnikov, V I; Kolev, D; Kolevatov, R S; Kondratiev, V P; Kowalski, S; Kurepin, A; Lacey, R; Laszlo, A; Lyubushkin, V V; Majka, Z; I Malakhov, A; Marchionni, A; Marcinek, A; Maris, I; Matveev, V; Melkumov, G L; Meregaglia, A; Messina, M; Mijakowski, P; Mitrovski, M; Montaruli, T; Mrówczynski, St; Murphy, S; Nakadaira, T; Naumenko, P A; Nikolic, V; Nishikawa, K; Palczewski, T; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Peryt, W; Planeta, R; Pluta, J; Popov, B A; Posiadala, M; Przewlocki, P; Rauch, W; Ravonel, M; Renfordt, R; Röhrich, D; Rondio, E; Rossi, B; Roth, M; Rubbia, A; Rybczynski, M; Sadovskii, A; Sakashita, K; Schuster, T; Sekiguchi, T; Seyboth, P; Shibata, M; Sissakian, A N; Skrzypczak, E; Slodkowski, M; Sorin, A S; Staszel, P; Stefanek, G; Stepaniak, J; Strabel, C; Ströbele, H; Susa, T; Szentpétery, I; Szuba, M; Tada, M; Taranenko, A; Tsenov, R; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Vassiliou, M; Vechernin, V V; Vesztergombi, G; Wlodarczyk, Z; Wojtaszek, A; Zipper, W; CERN. Geneva. SPS and PS Experiments Committee; SPSC

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the revised data taking schedule of NA61 with ion beams. The revision takes into account limitations due to the new LHC schedule as well as final results concerning the physics performance with secondary ion beams. It is proposed to take data with primary Ar and Xe beams in 2012 and 2014, respectively, and to test and use for physics a secondary B beam from primary Pb beam fragmentation in 2010, 2011 and 2013.

  9. Hierarchical analysis of acceptable use policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Laughton

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Acceptable use policies (AUPs are vital tools for organizations to protect themselves and their employees from misuse of computer facilities provided. A well structured, thorough AUP is essential for any organization. It is impossible for an effective AUP to deal with every clause and remain readable. For this reason, some sections of an AUP carry more weight than others, denoting importance. The methodology used to develop the hierarchical analysis is a literature review, where various sources were consulted. This hierarchical approach to AUP analysis attempts to highlight important sections and clauses dealt with in an AUP. The emphasis of the hierarchal analysis is to prioritize the objectives of an AUP.

  10. Development of quantitative risk acceptance criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griesmeyer, J. M.; Okrent, D.

    1981-01-01

    Some of the major considerations for effective management of risk are discussed, with particular emphasis on risks due to nuclear power plant operations. Although there are impacts associated with the rest of the fuel cycle, they are not addressed here. Several previously published proposals for quantitative risk criteria are reviewed. They range from a simple acceptance criterion on individual risk of death to a quantitative risk management framework. The final section discussed some of the problems in the establishment of a framework for the quantitative management of risk.

  11. Legal nature of acceptance and rejection wand

    OpenAIRE

    DEHGHANI, Asieh; KHOEINI, Ghafoor

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. We must conclude from existing legal articles and research that bequest ownership is not resulting of inherit will (or determination) and ownership does not take place by his satisfaction. The ownership of bequest is enforcement and that is, take place by the law verdict, and inherit determination don’t have interference in it and death die is initialized of it. The major effect of bequest accepts and reject is, in charge of that debts are on the hereditary obligation and remained f...

  12. Acceptability judgments still matter: Deafness and documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew L; Mayberry, Rachel I; Ferreira, Victor S

    2017-01-01

    The target article's call to end reliance on acceptability judgments is premature. First, it restricts syntactic inquiry to cases were a semantically equivalent alternative is available. Second, priming studies require groups of participants who are linguistically homogenous and whose grammar is known to the researcher. These requirements would eliminate two major research areas: syntactic competence in d/Deaf individuals, and language documentation. (We follow the convention of using deaf to describe hearing levels, Deaf to describe cultural identity, and d/Deaf to include both. Our own work has focused on Deaf signers, but the same concerns could apply to other deaf populations.).

  13. Investigation of ion capture in an electron beam ion trap charge-breeder for rare isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittimanapun, Kritsada

    Charge breeding of rare isotope ions has become an important ingredient for providing reaccelerated rare isotope beams for science. At the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), a reaccelerator, ReA, has been built that employs an advanced Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) as a charge breeder. ReA will provide rare-isotope beams with energies of a few hundred keV/u up to tens of MeV/u to enable the study of properties of rare isotopes via low energy Coulomb excitation and transfer reactions, and to investigate nuclear reactions important for nuclear astrophysics. ReA consists of an EBIT charge breeder, a charge-over-mass selector, a room temperature radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator, and a superconducting radio-frequency linear accelerator. The EBIT charge breeder features a high-current electron gun, a long trap structure, and a hybrid superconducting magnet to reach both high acceptance for injected low-charge ions as well as high-electron beam current densities for fast charge breeding. In this work, continuous ion injection and capture in the EBIT have been investigated with a dedicated Monte-Carlo simulation code and in experimental studies. The Monte-Carlo code NEBIT considers the electron-impact ionization cross sections, space charge due to the electron beam current, ion dynamics, electric field from electrodes, and magnetic field from the superconducting magnet. Experiments were performed to study the capture efficiency as a function of injected ion beam current, electron beam current, trap size, and trap potential depth. The charge state evolution of trapped ions was studied, providing information about the effective current density of the electron beam inside the EBIT. An attempt was made to measure the effective space-charge potential of the electron beam by studying the dynamics of a beam injected and reflected inside the trap.

  14. Finite element modelling of composite castellated beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Richard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, castellated beam becomes popular in building structural as beam members. This is due to several advantages of castellated beam such as increased depth without any additional mass, passing the underfloor service ducts without changing of story elevation. However, the presence of holes can develop various local effects such as local buckling, lateral torsional buckling caused by compression force at the flange section of the steel beam. Many studies have investigated the failure mechanism of castellated beam and one technique which can prevent the beam fall into local failure is the use of reinforced concrete slab as lateral support on castellated beam, so called composite castellated beam. Besides of preventing the local failure of castellated beam, the concrete slab can increase the plasticity moment of the composite castellated beam section which can deliver into increasing the ultimate load of the beam. The aim of this numerical studies of composite castellated beam on certain loading condition (monotonic quasi-static loading. ABAQUS was used for finite element modelling purpose and compared with the experimental test for checking the reliability of the model. The result shows that the ultimate load of the composite castellated beam reached 6.24 times than the ultimate load of the solid I beam and 1.2 times compared the composite beam.

  15. Transverse mode coupling instability of colliding beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. White

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In high brightness circular colliders, coherent and incoherent beam dynamics are dominated by beam-beam interactions. It is generally assumed that the incoherent tune spread introduced by the beam-beam interactions is sufficiently large to cure any instabilities originating from impedance. However, as the two counterrotating beams interact they can give rise to coherent dipole modes and therefore modify the coherent beam dynamics and stability conditions. In this case, coherent beam-beam effects and impedance cannot be treated independently and their interplay should be taken into account in any realistic attempt to study the beam stability of colliding beams. Due to the complexity of these physics processes, numerical simulations become an important tool for the analysis of this system. Two approaches are proposed in this paper: a fully self-consistent multiparticle tracking including particle-in-cell Poisson solver for the beam-beam interactions and a linearized model taking into account finite bunch length effects. To ensure the validity of the results a detailed benchmarking of these models was performed. It will be shown that under certain conditions coherent beam-beam dipole modes can couple with higher order headtail modes and lead to strong instabilities with characteristics similar to the classical transverse mode coupling instability originating from impedance alone. Possible cures for this instability are explored both for single bunch and multibunch interactions. Simulation results and experimental evidences of the existence of this instability at the LHC will be presented for the specific case of offset collisions.

  16. Laguerre-Gauss beams versus Bessel beams showdown: peer comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Hernández, Job; Arroyo-Carrasco, Maximino Luis; Iturbe-Castillo, Marcelo David; Chávez-Cerda, Sabino

    2015-08-15

    We present for the first time a comparison under similar circumstances between Laguerre-Gauss beams (LGBs) and Bessel beams (BB), and show that the former can be a better option for many applications in which BBs are currently used. By solving the Laguerre-Gauss differential equation in the asymptotic limit of a large radial index, we find the parameters to perform a peer comparison, showing that LGBs can propagate quasi-nondiffracting beams within the same region of space where the corresponding BBs do. We also demonstrate that LGBs, which have the property of self-healing, are more robust in the sense that they can propagate further than BBs under similar initial conditions.

  17. Beam based measurement of beam position monitor electrode gains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Rubin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Low emittance tuning at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR test accelerator depends on precision measurement of vertical dispersion and transverse coupling. The CESR beam position monitors (BPMs consist of four button electrodes, instrumented with electronics that allow acquisition of turn-by-turn data. The response to the beam will vary among the four electrodes due to differences in electronic gain and/or misalignment. This variation in the response of the BPM electrodes will couple real horizontal offset to apparent vertical position, and introduce spurious measurements of coupling and vertical dispersion. To alleviate this systematic effect, a beam based technique to measure the relative response of the four electrodes has been developed. With typical CESR parameters, simulations show that turn-by-turn BPM data can be used to determine electrode gains to within ∼0.1%.

  18. Expanded studies of linear collider final focus systems at the Final Focus Test Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenenbaum, Peter Gregory [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    In order to meet their luminosity goals, linear colliders operating in the center-of-mass energy range from 3,50 to 1,500 GeV will need to deliver beams which are as small as a few Manometers tall, with x:y aspect ratios as large as 100. The Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) is a prototype for the final focus demanded by these colliders: its purpose is to provide demagnification equivalent to those in the future linear collider, which corresponds to a focused spot size in the FFTB of 1.7 microns (horizontal) by 60 manometers (vertical). In order to achieve the desired spot sizes, the FFTB beam optics must be tuned to eliminate aberrations and other errors, and to ensure that the optics conform to the desired final conditions and the measured initial conditions of the beam. Using a combination of incoming-beam diagnostics. beam-based local diagnostics, and global tuning algorithms, the FFTB beam size has been reduced to a stable final size of 1.7 microns by 70 manometers. In addition, the chromatic properties of the FFTB have been studied using two techniques and found to be acceptable. Descriptions of the hardware and techniques used in these studies are presented, along with results and suggestions for future research.

  19. A surrogate-based metaheuristic global search method for beam angle selection in radiation treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H H; Gao, S; Chen, W; Shi, L; D'Souza, W D; Meyer, R R

    2013-03-21

    An important element of radiation treatment planning for cancer therapy is the selection of beam angles (out of all possible coplanar and non-coplanar angles in relation to the patient) in order to maximize the delivery of radiation to the tumor site and minimize radiation damage to nearby organs-at-risk. This category of combinatorial optimization problem is particularly difficult because direct evaluation of the quality of treatment corresponding to any proposed selection of beams requires the solution of a large-scale dose optimization problem involving many thousands of variables that represent doses delivered to volume elements (voxels) in the patient. However, if the quality of angle sets can be accurately estimated without expensive computation, a large number of angle sets can be considered, increasing the likelihood of identifying a very high quality set. Using a computationally efficient surrogate beam set evaluation procedure based on single-beam data extracted from plans employing equallyspaced beams (eplans), we have developed a global search metaheuristic process based on the nested partitions framework for this combinatorial optimization problem. The surrogate scoring mechanism allows us to assess thousands of beam set samples within a clinically acceptable time frame. Tests on difficult clinical cases demonstrate that the beam sets obtained via our method are of superior quality.

  20. Outgassing rate of the copper-plated beam tube for ISABELLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hseuh, H.C.; Gaudet, E.F.

    1981-01-01

    The ultrahigh vacuum system of the intersecting storage accelerator, ISABELLE, will consist of two interlaced rings of stainless steel beam tubes with a circumference 2-1/2 miles each. To obtain a good heat conduction during bakeout and to reduce the resistive wall instability during beam operation, a lmm thick copper coating will be electroplated to the outer surface of this 1.5 mm thick beam tube. To minimize the beam loss due to beam-gas collision, the pressure inside the beam tube is required to be 1 x 10/sup -11/ Torr (N/sub 2/ equivalent) or less. To achieve this ultrahigh vacuum, the outgassing rate of the 304 LN stainless steel tubes has been reduced to approx. 1 x 10/sup -13/ Torr. l/cm/sup 2/. sec by vacuum firing at 950/sup 0/C for one hour. However, during acid-bath electroplating of copper, significant amount of hydrogen will be reintroduced and trapped in stainless steel which will substantially increase the outgassing rate (to approx. 2 x 10/sup -12/ Torr . l/cm/sup 2/ sec). The outgassing characteristics of these copper-plated beam tubes are studied and discussed within the scope of diffusion and energy of activation. Methods to reduce the outgassing rate to an acceptable level (approx. 1 x 10/sup -13/ Torr . l/cm/sup 2/ . sec) are also given.

  1. Beam emittance measurements and simulations of injector line for radio frequency quadrupole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Jose V; Rao, S V L S; Pande, Rajni; Singh, P

    2015-07-01

    A 400 keV deuteron (D(+)) radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator has been designed, built, and commissioned at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India. A beam line has been developed for injecting deuterons into the 400 keV RFQ. This comprises of a RF plasma ion source and a low energy beam transport (LEBT) system, consisting of two solenoid magnets and two steerer magnets. The ion source is characterized in terms of transverse beam emittance. A slit-wire scanner based emittance measurement setup has been developed for the transverse emittance measurements of H(+) and D(+) beams. The measured emittance values are found to be well within the acceptance value for the RFQ. These measured emittance parameters are used to optimize the solenoid fields in LEBT to match the beam from the ion source to RFQ. TRACEWIN simulation code is used for the beam transport simulations. The simulations show 99% transmission of D(+) beam through the RFQ, while 95% transmission has been measured experimentally.

  2. Heuristic optimization of the scanning path of particle therapy beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo, J.; Donetti, M.; Bourhaleb, F.; Ansarinejad, A.; Attili, A.; Cirio, R.; Garella, M. A.; Giordanengo, S.; Givehchi, N.; La Rosa, A.; Marchetto, F.; Monaco, V.; Pecka, A.; Peroni, C.; Russo, G.; Sacchi, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy) and Fondazione CNAO, Via Caminadella 16, I-20123, Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy) and Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy) and Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy) and Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy) and Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy)

    2009-06-15

    Quasidiscrete scanning is a delivery strategy for proton and ion beam therapy in which the beam is turned off when a slice is finished and a new energy must be set but not during the scanning between consecutive spots. Different scanning paths lead to different dose distributions due to the contribution of the unintended transit dose between spots. In this work an algorithm to optimize the scanning path for quasidiscrete scanned beams is presented. The classical simulated annealing algorithm is used. It is a heuristic algorithm frequently used in combinatorial optimization problems, which allows us to obtain nearly optimal solutions in acceptable running times. A study focused on the best choice of operational parameters on which the algorithm performance depends is presented. The convergence properties of the algorithm have been further improved by using the next-neighbor algorithm to generate the starting paths. Scanning paths for two clinical treatments have been optimized. The optimized paths are found to be shorter than the back-and-forth, top-to-bottom (zigzag) paths generally provided by the treatment planning systems. The gamma method has been applied to quantify the improvement achieved on the dose distribution. Results show a reduction of the transit dose when the optimized paths are used. The benefit is clear especially when the fluence per spot is low, as in the case of repainting. The minimization of the transit dose can potentially allow the use of higher beam intensities, thus decreasing the treatment time. The algorithm implemented for this work can optimize efficiently the scanning path of quasidiscrete scanned particle beams. Optimized scanning paths decrease the transit dose and lead to better dose distributions.

  3. Site acceptance test, W-030 MICON system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, L.F., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-10

    Monitoring and control of the W-030 ventilation upgrade is provided by a distributed control system (DCS) furnished by MICON Corporation. After shipment to the Hanford Site, the site acceptance test (SAT) for this system was conducted in a laboratory environment over a six month period, involving four distinct phases and numerous hardware and software modifications required to correct test exceptions. The final results is a system which is not fully compliant with procurement specifications but is determined to meet minimum Project W-030 safety and functional requirements. A negotiated settlement was reached with the supplier to establish a `path forward` for system implementation. This report documents the `as-run` status of the SAT. The SAT was completed in August of 1995. It was later followed by comprehensive acceptance testing of the W-030 control-logic configuration software; results are documented in WHC-SD-W030-ATR-011. Further testing is reported as part of process system startup operational testing, performed after the MICON installation.

  4. Sexual education in malaysia: accepted or rejected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Mutalip, Siti Syairah; Mohamed, Ruzianisra

    2012-01-01

    Introduction to sexual education in schools was suggested by the Malaysian government as one of the effort taken in the aim to reduce the sexual-related social problems among Malaysian teenagers nowadays. This study was proposed in the aim to determine the rate of acceptance among adolescents on the implementation of sexual education in schools. This study was conducted using questionnaires distributed to 152 pre-degree students in Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Kampus Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia. Obtained data were statistically analyzed. Almost half (49.3%) of the respondents agreed that sexual education might help to overcome the social illness among school teenagers. Besides, a large number (77.6%) of respondents also agreed that this module should be incorporated with other core subjects compare to the feedback received on the implementation of this module on its own (28.9%). These results have provided some insight towards the perception of sexual education among the teenagers. Since most of the respondents agreed with this idea, so it might be a sign that the implementation of sexual education is almost accepted by the adolescents.

  5. Medical Students’ Acceptance of Online Assessment Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrisor Marius

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The increased use of computers in education lead to computerized assessments, especially web-based assessment systems The aim of this study is to evaluate students’ acceptance of being evaluated using an online web-based assessment system. Methods: A transversal study was performed where a sample of students that used and were accustomed to an online assessment system were asked to fill in a short questionnaire and evaluate its use. Results: The questionnaire items responses show students’ preference for online assessment, as opposed to other assessment forms, like oral examination or classical pen and paper examination. Also it is noticeable the increase in the student number that prefer the online assessment as we move up through one year of study to the next. Conclusions: The study revealed a high level of acceptance for the online multiple choice questions test as an assessment method. Students’ opinion is that online tests are better suited for knowledge assessment and are more objective.

  6. Steam generator tube integrity flaw acceptance criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochet, B. [FRAMATOME, Paris la Defense (France)

    1997-02-01

    The author discusses the establishment of a flaw acceptance criteria with respect to flaws in steam generator tubing. The problem is complicated because different countries take different approaches to the problem. The objectives in general are grouped in three broad areas: to avoid the unscheduled shutdown of the reactor during normal operation; to avoid tube bursts; to avoid excessive leak rates in the event of an accidental overpressure event. For each degradation mechanism in the tubes it is necessary to know answers to an array of questions, including: how well does NDT testing perform against this problem; how rapidly does such degradation develop; how well is this degradation mechanism understood. Based on the above information it is then possible to come up with a policy to look at flaw acceptance. Part of this criteria is a schedule for the frequency of in-service inspection and also a policy for when to plug flawed tubes. The author goes into a broad discussion of each of these points in his paper.

  7. Acceptability of identification bracelets for hospital inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleopas, A; Kolly, V; Bovier, P A; Garnerin, P; Perneger, T V

    2004-10-01

    To evaluate whether hospitalised patients would agree to wear an identification bracelet and whether patient acceptability is improved by more detailed explanations or by using a code instead of a name on the bracelet. Patient survey that tested two variables in a randomised factorial design. Explanations about identification bracelets were given (a) with or without examples of situations where patient identification may be important, and (b) with the patient name or an anonymous code appearing on the bracelet. Swiss teaching hospital where wearing of identification bracelets was not systematic. Adult patients discharged from hospital (n = 1411). Patients' responses to the questions: (a) should the hospital introduce a compulsory identification bracelet? and (b) would the patient agree to wear such a bracelet? Globally, 83.9% of patients thought that the hospital should introduce bracelets and 90.2% stated that they would agree to wear one. Providing examples increased support for both the hospital policy (87.9% v 79.2%, p<0.001) and personal acceptance (92.2% v 88.1%, p = 0.015). Whether or not the bracelet carried the patient's name or an anonymous code did not influence patient choice. The majority of patients were in favour of wearing an identification bracelet during their hospital stay. This proportion increased significantly when an explanation based on examples of the consequences of incorrect patient identification had been provided.

  8. Assesing the acceptance of the project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Fernández-Shaw Toda

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the acceptability of the project "Adding colour to your unit dose." MATERIAL AND METHODS: It sets in motion a project to reduce errors in the administration of pasting labels with different shapes and colours on blister medicines. It includes the name of the product, the active ingredient, dosage, lot and expiration date. Also included for internal quality control are the initials of the person who made the label and the date and time at which it was made. The nurse monitors the consistency between the data and the label of the drug. After 4 years the external acceptance of the project is analyzed through a satisfaction survey administered to the professionals involved in prescribing and dispensing medicines. RESULTS: 100% of the physicians believed that the project is adequate. Assistants and nurses expressed a dissatisfaction of 58.3% and 26.66% respectively due to the difficulty of extracting the specialty. CONCLUSIONS: - There is agreement on the need to clearly differentiate drugs, which traditional packaging does not resolve while “Adding colour to your unit dose" does. - The pharmacy prepared labels with a flap to facilitate their opening, thereby improving the current system.

  9. Triple ion beam irradiation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, M.B.; Allen, W.R.; Buhl, R.A.; Packan, N.H.; Cook, S.W.; Mansur, L.K.

    1988-12-01

    A unique ion irradiation facility consisting of three accelerators is described. The accelerators can be operated simultaneously to deliver three ion beams on one target sample. The energy ranges of the ions are 50 to 400 keV, 200 keV to 2.5 MeV, and 1.0 to 5.0 MeV. Three different ions in the appropriate mass range can be simultaneously implanted to the same depth in a target specimen as large as 100 mm/sup 2/ in area. Typical depth ranges are 0.1 to 1.0 ..mu..m. The X-Y profiles of all three ion beams are measured by a system of miniature Faraday cups. The low-voltage accelerator can periodically ramp the ion beam energy during the implantation. Three different types of target chambers are in use at this facility. The triple-beam high-vacuum chamber can hold nine transmission electron microscopy specimens at elevated temperature during a irradiation by the three simultaneous beams. A second high-vacuum chamber on the medium-voltage accelerator beamline houses a low- and high-temperature translator and a two-axis goniometer for ion channeling measurements. The third chamber on the high-energy beamline can be gas-filled for special stressed specimen irradiations. Special applications for the surface modification of materials with this facility are described. Appendixes containing operating procedures are also included. 18 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Wide spectral band beam analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharon, Oren

    2015-03-01

    The reality in laser beam profiling is that measurements are performed over a wide spectrum of wavelengths and power ranges. Many applications use multiple laser wavelengths with very different power levels, a fact which dictates a need for a better measuring tool. Rapid progress in the fiber laser area has increased the demand for lasers in the wavelength range of 900 - 1030 nm, while the telecommunication market has increased the demand for wavelength range of 1300nm - 1600 nm, on the other hand the silicone chip manufacturing and mass production requirements tend to lower the laser wavelength towards the 190nm region. In many cases there is a need to combine several lasers together in order to perform a specific task. A typical application is to combine one visible laser for pointing, with a different laser for material processing with a very different wavelength and power level. The visible laser enables accurate pointing before the second laser is operated. The beam profile of the intensity distribution is an important parameter that indicates how a laser beam will behave in an application. Currently a lab, where many different lasers are used, will find itself using various laser beam profilers from several vendors with different specifications and accuracies. It is the propose of this article to present a technological breakthrough in the area of detectors, electronics and optics allowing intricate measurements of lasers with different wavelength and with power levels that vary many orders of magnitude by a single beam profiler.

  11. Spot-to-Beam Procedure

    CERN Document Server

    Seidov, Zakir F; Yahalom, Asher

    2004-01-01

    We describe the interactive "STB" (spot_to_beam) MATHEMATICA procedure for a) approximating the spot image at the screen as ellipse, b) getting five parameters of the elliptic beam (two diameters, center coordinates, and orientation angle). The basic idea is to "map" the reference holes at screen onto the X-Y plane normal to the beam direction (Z-axis). All distortions of the image, e.g., due to camera-screen disposition can be, in principle, taken into account,assuming that the hole positions at screen and the orientation of the screen are known. With the non-linear LMS fitting, the "curved-coordinate-system" of the holes at image is transferred to the Cartesian coordinate system at XY-plane. Then the fitting ellipse is found in this latter system, by solving the system of N linear equations for 5 unknown parameters of beam ellipse, where N>5 is a number of reference points on edge of spot image. The examples of the real measurements at various screens will be demonstrated. The accuracy of beam diameters is ...

  12. Acceptance Of Internet Banking In Iran: Extension of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Bagheri

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In the past several decades, perception of usefulness and ease of use had been the most important factors in recognition of new technologies in the field of information systems. Nevertheless, by themselves, these two factors could not describe user behavior within emerging environments such as the internet banking. From the standpoint of technology acceptance at an individual level, the present paper has expanded the technology acceptance model (TAM by introducing the characteristics of the internet banking environment. In this study, the most important models offered within individual technology acceptance were reviewed and two constructs, perceived self efficacy and confidence in TAM, have been added. A survey method was employed using a questionnaire as a data collection instrument. The sample surveyed was 310 bank customers.

  13. When is a lie acceptable? Work and private life lying acceptance depends on its beneficiary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero, Katarzyna; Szarota, Piotr; Stamkou, Eftychia; Navas, Marisol; Dominguez Espinosa, Alejandra Del Carmen

    2017-08-14

    In this article we show that when analyzing attitude towards lying in a cross-cultural setting, both the beneficiary of the lie (self vs other) and the context (private life vs. professional domain) should be considered. In a study conducted in Estonia, Ireland, Mexico, The Netherlands, Poland, Spain, and Sweden (N = 1345), in which participants evaluated stories presenting various types of lies, we found usefulness of relying on the dimensions. Results showed that in the joint sample the most acceptable were other-oriented lies concerning private life, then other-oriented lies in the professional domain, followed by egoistic lies in the professional domain; and the least acceptance was shown for egoistic lies regarding one's private life. We found a negative correlation between acceptance of a behavior and the evaluation of its deceitfulness.

  14. Design for a 1.3 MW, 13 MeV Beam Dump for an Energy Recovery Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Sinclair, Charles K; Smith, Colin H

    2005-01-01

    The electron beam exiting an Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is dumped close to the injection energy. This energy is chosen as low as possible while allowing the beam quality specifications to be met. As ERLs are designed for high average beam current, beam dumps are required to handle high beam power at low energy. Low energy electrons have a short range in practical dump materials, requiring the beam size at the dump face be enlarged to give acceptable power densities and heat fluxes. Cornell University is developing a 100 mA average current ERL as a synchrotron radiation source. The 13 MeV optimum injection energy requires a 1.3 MW beam dump. We present a mature design for this dump, using an array of water-cooled extruded copper tubes. This array is mounted in the accelerator vacuum normal to the beam. Fatigue failure resulting from abrupt thermal cycles associated with beam trips is a potential failure mechanism. We report on designs for a 75 kW, 750 keV tube-cooled beryllium plate dump for electron gun test...

  15. The radioactive beam facility ALTO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essabaa, Saïd, E-mail: essabaa@ipno.in2p3.fr; Barré-Boscher, Nicole; Cheikh Mhamed, Maher; Cottereau, Evelyne; Franchoo, Serge; Ibrahim, Fadi; Lau, Christophe; Roussière, Brigitte; Saïd, Abdelhakim; Tusseau-Nenez, Sandrine; Verney, David

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Research at the ALTO TNA-facility. • R and D on radioactive ion sources. • R and D on the lanthanide beam production by fluorination. • Recent developments on uranium carbide targets. -- Abstract: The Transnational Access facility ALTO (TNA07-ENSAR/FP7) has been commissioned and received from the French safety authorities, the operation license. It is allowed to run at nominal intensity to produce 10{sup 11} fissions/s in a thick uranium carbide target by photo-fission using a 10 μA, 50 MeV electron beam. In addition the recent success in operating the selective laser ion source broadens the physics program with neutron-rich nuclear beams possible at this facility installed at IPN Orsay. The facility also aims at being a test bench for the SPIRAL2 project. In that framework an ambitious R and D program on the target ion source system is being developed.

  16. Edge imaging in intense beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bernal

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of rings of charge observed near the edge of beams from high-perveance guns is described with a simple ray tracing technique inspired by the particle-core model. We illustrate the technique, which has no analog in light optics, with examples from experiments employing solenoid focusing of an electron beam. The rings of charge result from the combined effects of external focusing and space-charge forces acting on paraxial fringe particles with relatively large initial transverse velocities. The model is independent of the physical mechanisms responsible for the fringe particles. Furthermore, the focal length for edge imaging in a uniform focusing channel is derived using a linearized trajectory equation for the motion of fringe particles. Counterintuitively, the focal length decreases as the beam current increases.

  17. Beam Cleaning and Collimation Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Redaelli, S

    2016-01-01

    Collimation systems in particle accelerators are designed to dispose of unavoidable losses safely and efficiently during beam operation. Different roles are required for different types of accelerator. The present state of the art in beam collimation is exemplified in high-intensity, high-energy superconducting hadron colliders, like the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where stored beam energies reach levels up to several orders of magnitude higher than the tiny energies required to quench cold magnets. Collimation systems are essential systems for the daily operation of these modern machines. In this document, the design of a multistage collimation system is reviewed, taking the LHC as an example case study. In this case, unprecedented cleaning performance has been achieved, together with a system complexity comparable to no other accelerator. Aspects related to collimator design and operational challenges of large collimation systems are also addressed.

  18. Status and Challenges in Beam Crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Jie; Yu, Peicheng; Okamoto, Hiromi; Yuri, Yosuke; Li, Xiao-Ping; Sessler, Andrew M.

    2009-05-04

    During the past several decades, beam crystallization has been studied both theoretically and experimentally. Theoretical investigations have been numerical, mainly using computer modeling based on the method of molecular dynamics (MD), and analytical, based on phonon theory. Experimental investigations involve both ion storage rings and ion traps using both electron and laser beam cooling. Topics of interests include crystal stability in various accelerator lattices and under different beam conditions, colliding crystalline beams, crystalline beam formation in shear-free ring lattices with both magnets and electrodes, experimental simulation of alternating-gradient conditions with an ion trap, tapered cooling and coupled cooling, and beam dynamics at different temperature regime as the beam is cooled from high to low temperature. In this paper, we first review theoretical approaches and major conclusions pertaining to beam crystallization. Then, we analyze conditions and methods of the various major experiments. Finally, we discuss, both theoretically and experimentally, some improvements, open questions, and challenges in beam crystallization.

  19. Free Vibration Analysis for Cracked FGM Beams by Means of a Continuous Beam Model

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, E Chuan; Zhao, Xiang; Li, Ying Hui

    2015-01-01

    Based on Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and a continuous stiffness beam model, the free vibration of rectangular-section beams made of functionally graded materials (FGMs) containing open edge cracks is studied. Assuming the material gradients follow exponential distribution along beam thickness direction, the conversion relation between the vibration governing equations of a FGM beam and that of an isotropic homogenous beam is deduced. A continuous function is used to characterize the bending s...

  20. Limitations due to strong head-on beam-beam interactions (MD 1434)

    CERN Document Server

    Buffat, Xavier; Iadarola, Giovanni; Papadopoulou, Parthena Stefania; Papaphilippou, Yannis; Pellegrini, Dario; Pojer, Mirko; Crockford, Guy; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen Maria; Trad, Georges; Barranco Garcia, Javier; Pieloni, Tatiana; Tambasco, Claudia; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    The results of an experiment aiming at probing the limitations due to strong head on beam-beam interactions are reported. It is shown that the loss rates significantly increase when moving the working point up and down the diagonal, possibly due to effects of the 10th and/or 14th order resonances. Those limitations are tighter for bunches with larger beam-beam parameters, a maximum total beam-beam tune shift just below 0.02 could be reached.