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Sample records for accelerator-based plutonium conversion

  1. Accelerator-based conversion (ABC) of weapons plutonium: Plant layout study and related design issues

    Cowell, B.S.; Fontana, M.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Krakowski, R.A.; Beard, C.A.; Buksa, J.J.; Davidson, J.W.; Sailor, W.C.; Williamson, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-04-01

    In preparation for and in support of a detailed R and D Plan for the Accelerator-Based Conversion (ABC) of weapons plutonium, an ABC Plant Layout Study was conducted at the level of a pre-conceptual engineering design. The plant layout is based on an adaptation of the Molten-Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR) detailed conceptual design that was completed in the early 1070s. Although the ABC Plant Layout Study included the Accelerator Equipment as an essential element, the engineering assessment focused primarily on the Target; Primary System (blanket and all systems containing plutonium-bearing fuel salt); the Heat-Removal System (secondary-coolant-salt and supercritical-steam systems); Chemical Processing; Operation and Maintenance; Containment and Safety; and Instrumentation and Control systems. Although constrained primarily to a reflection of an accelerator-driven (subcritical) variant of MSBR system, unique features and added flexibilities of the ABC suggest improved or alternative approaches to each of the above-listed subsystems; these, along with the key technical issues in need of resolution through a detailed R&D plan for ABC are described on the bases of the ``strawman`` or ``point-of-departure`` plant layout that resulted from this study.

  2. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Uranium Conversion Plant Equipment and Plutonium Conversion Plant Equipment...

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Illustrative List of Uranium Conversion Plant Equipment and Plutonium Conversion Plant Equipment Under NRC Export Licensing Authority J Appendix J to Part 110.... 110, App. J Appendix J to Part 110—Illustrative List of Uranium Conversion Plant Equipment...

  3. Wastes from plutonium conversion and scrap recovery operations

    Christensen, D.C.; Bowersox, D.F.; McKerley, B.J.; Nance, R.L.

    1988-03-01

    This report deals with the handling of defense-related wastes associated with plutonium processing. It first defines the different waste categories along with the techniques used to assess waste content. It then discusses the various treatment approaches used in recovering plutonium from scrap. Next, it addresses the various waste management approaches necessary to handle all wastes. Finally, there is a discussion of some future areas for processing with emphasis on waste reduction. 91 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Plutonium

    Miner, William N

    1964-01-01

    This pamphlet discusses plutonium from discovery to its production, separation, properties, fabrication, handling, and uses, including use as a reactor fuel and use in isotope power generators and neutron sources.

  5. Plutonium

    Clark, David L.; Hecker, Siegfried S.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Neu, Mary P.

    The element plutonium occupies a unique place in the history of chemistry, physics, technology, and international relations. After the initial discovery based on submicrogram amounts, it is now generated by transmutation of uranium in nuclear reactors on a large scale, and has been separated in ton quantities in large industrial facilities. The intense interest in plutonium resulted fromthe dual-use scenario of domestic power production and nuclear weapons - drawing energy from an atomic nucleus that can produce a factor of millions in energy output relative to chemical energy sources. Indeed, within 5 years of its original synthesis, the primary use of plutonium was for the release of nuclear energy in weapons of unprecedented power, and it seemed that the new element might lead the human race to the brink of self-annihilation. Instead, it has forced the human race to govern itself without resorting to nuclear war over the past 60 years. Plutonium evokes the entire gamut of human emotions, from good to evil, from hope to despair, from the salvation of humanity to its utter destruction. There is no other element in the periodic table that has had such a profound impact on the consciousness of mankind.

  6. Conversion of Russian weapon-grade plutonium into oxide for mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication

    Glagovski, E.; Zakharkin, B. [A.A. Bochvar All-Russian Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, Russian Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kolotilov, Y. [Specialized State Design Institute, GSPI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Glagolenko, Y.; Skobtsov, A. [Mayak Production Association, Ozyorsk (Russian Federation); Zygmunt, S.; Mason, C.; Hahn, W.; Durrer, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., Nuclear Materials and Technology Div. NMT, Los Alamos, N.M. (United States); Thomas, S. [National Nuclear Security Administration, Washington DC (United States); Sicard, B.; Brossard, P.; Herlet, N. [CEA Marcoule 30 (France); Fraize, G.; Villa, A. [Cogema, 78 - Saint Quentin en Yvelines (France)

    2001-07-01

    Progress has been made in the Russian Federation towards the conversion of Russian weapons-grade plutonium (W-Pu) into plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) suitable for further manufacture into mixed oxide (MOX) fuels. This program is funded both by French Commissariat at the Atomic Energy (CEA) and the US National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The French program was started in the frame of the two cooperation agreements signed between Russian Federation and France in November 1992 concerning dismantling of nuclear weapons and the use of their nuclear materials for civilian purposes. The US program was started in 1998 in response to US proliferation concerns and the acknowledged international need to decrease available W-Pu. Russia has selected both the conversion process and the manufacturing site. This paper discusses the present state of development towards fulfilling this mission: the demonstration plant designed to process small amounts of Pu and validate all process stages and the industrial plant that will process up to 5 metric tons of Pu per year. (author)

  7. Materials measurement and accounting in an operating plutonium conversion and purification process. Phase I. Process modeling and simulation. [PUCSF code

    Thomas, C.C. Jr.; Ostenak, C.A.; Gutmacher, R.G.; Dayem, H.A.; Kern, E.A.

    1981-04-01

    A model of an operating conversion and purification process for the production of reactor-grade plutonium dioxide was developed as the first component in the design and evaluation of a nuclear materials measurement and accountability system. The model accurately simulates process operation and can be used to identify process problems and to predict the effect of process modifications.

  8. Immobilization of AM-241, Formed Under Plutonium Metal Conversion into Monazite-Type Ceramics

    Aloy, A S; Kovarskaya, E N; Koltsova, T I; Samoylov, S E; Rovnyi, S I; Medvedev, G M; Jardine, L J

    2001-06-06

    Lanthanum orthophosphate with the monazite structure was proposed on examinations as a suitable matrix for immobilization of future americium-containing liquid wastes, which could be formed in conversion of metallic plutonium into oxide at PA ''Mayak.'' Specimens of monazite non-active ceramics were fabricated from LaPOA powders obtained using a thin-film evaporator by either hot-pressing or cold-pressing and sintering at 900-1300 C. According to electron microprobe analysis (EMPA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), which were used for characterization of produced samples, all specimens did not contain any phase other than the monoclinic monazite phase. Ceramics having the specific activity of Am-241 2.13 {center_dot}10{sup 7} Bq/g were prepared by only cold-pressing with subsequent sintering at 1300 C during 1 hour. The normalized leach rates of lanthanum and americium in distilled water at 90 C were less than 1.2. 10{sup 4} and 2.3 10{sup -4} g/m{sup 2} {center_dot} day, respectively.

  9. Stop plutonium; Stop plutonium

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    This press document aims to inform the public on the hazards bound to the plutonium exploitation in France and especially the plutonium transport. The first part is a technical presentation of the plutonium and the MOX (Mixed Oxide Fuel). The second part presents the installation of the plutonium industry in France. The third part is devoted to the plutonium convoys safety. The highlight is done on the problem of the leak of ''secret'' of such transports. (A.L.B.)

  10. Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan describes the Department of Energy`s response to the vulnerabilities identified in the Plutonium Working Group Report which are a result of the cessation of nuclear weapons production. The responses contained in this document are only part of an overall, coordinated approach designed to enable the Department to accelerate conversion of all nuclear materials, including plutonium, to forms suitable for safe, interim storage. The overall actions being taken are discussed in detail in the Department`s Implementation Plan in response to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-1. This is included as Attachment B.

  11. Plutonium controversy

    Richmond, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    The toxicity of plutonium is discussed, particularly in relation to controversies surrounding the setting of radiation protection standards. The sources, amounts of, and exposure pathways of plutonium are given and the public risk estimated. (ACR)

  12. Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 2: Comparison of plutonium disposition options

    Brownson, D.A.; Hanson, D.J.; Blackman, H.S. [and others

    1993-06-01

    The Secretary of Energy requested the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control to evaluate disposition options for weapons-grade plutonium. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) offered to assist the NAS in this evaluation by investigating the technical aspects of the disposition options and their capability for achieving plutonium annihilation levels greater than 90%. This report was prepared for the NAS to document the gathered information and results from the requested option evaluations. Evaluations were performed for 12 plutonium disposition options involving five reactor and one accelerator-based systems. Each option was evaluated in four technical areas: (1) fuel status, (2) reactor or accelerator-based system status, (3) waste-processing status, and (4) waste disposal status. Based on these evaluations, each concept was rated on its operational capability and time to deployment. A third rating category of option costs could not be performed because of the unavailability of adequate information from the concept sponsors. The four options achieving the highest rating, in alphabetical order, are the Advanced Light Water Reactor with plutonium-based ternary fuel, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor with plutonium-based fuel, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor with uranium-plutonium-based fuel, and the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor with plutonium-based fuel. Of these four options, the Advanced Light Water Reactor and the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor do not propose reprocessing of their irradiated fuel. Time constraints and lack of detailed information did not allow for any further ratings among these four options. The INEL recommends these four options be investigated further to determine the optimum reactor design for plutonium disposition.

  13. PLUTONIUM METAL: OXIDATION CONSIDERATIONS AND APPROACH

    Estochen, E.

    2013-03-20

    Plutonium is arguably the most unique of all metals when considered in the combined context of metallurgical, chemical, and nuclear behavior. Much of the research in understanding behavior and characteristics of plutonium materials has its genesis in work associated with nuclear weapons systems. However, with the advent of applications in fuel materials, the focus in plutonium science has been more towards nuclear fuel applications, as well as long term storage and disposition. The focus of discussion included herein is related to preparing plutonium materials to meet goals consistent with non-proliferation. More specifically, the emphasis is on the treatment of legacy plutonium, in primarily metallic form, and safe handling, packaging, and transport to meet non-proliferation goals of safe/secure storage. Elevated temperature oxidation of plutonium metal is the treatment of choice, due to extensive experiential data related to the method, as the oxide form of plutonium is one of only a few compounds that is relatively simple to produce, and stable over a large temperature range. Despite the simplicity of the steps required to oxidize plutonium metal, it is important to understand the behavior of plutonium to ensure that oxidation is conducted in a safe and effective manner. It is important to understand the effect of changes in environmental variables on the oxidation characteristics of plutonium. The primary purpose of this report is to present a brief summary of information related to plutonium metal attributes, behavior, methods for conversion to oxide, and the ancillary considerations related to processing and facility safety. The information provided is based on data available in the public domain and from experience in oxidation of such materials at various facilities in the United States. The report is provided as a general reference for implementation of a simple and safe plutonium metal oxidation technique.

  14. Plutonium Story

    Seaborg, G. T.

    1981-09-01

    The first nuclear synthesis and identification (i.e., the discovery) of the synthetic transuranium element plutonium (isotope /sup 238/Pu) and the demonstration of its fissionability with slow neutrons (isotope /sup 239/Pu) took place at the University of California, Berkeley, through the use of the 60-inch and 37-inch cyclotrons, in late 1940 and early 1941. This led to the development of industrial scale methods in secret work centered at the University of Chicago's Metallurgical Laboratory and the application of these methods to industrial scale production, at manufacturing plants in Tennessee and Washington, during the World War II years 1942 to 1945. The chemical properties of plutonium, needed to devise the procedures for its industrial scale production, were studied by tracer and ultramicrochemical methods during this period on an extraordinarily urgent basis. This work, and subsequent investigations on a worldwide basis, have made the properties of plutonium very well known. Its well studied electronic structure and chemical properties give it a very interesting position in the actinide series of inner transition elements.

  15. Plutonium immobilization plant using glass in existing facilities at the Savannah River Site

    DiSabatino, A., LLNL

    1998-06-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a glass immobilization process, converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors.

  16. Conversion of an Alpha CAM Monitor of Victoreen calibrated of factory for plutonium in a measurement monitor of radon in the atmosphere; Conversion de un monitor Alpha CAM de la Victoreen calibrado de fabrica para plutonio en un monitor para medicion de radon en la atmosfera

    Moreno y Moreno, A. [Departamento de Apoyo en Ciencias Aplicadas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    It is presented in this work the conversion of a monitor ALPHA CAM of the monitor Victoreen gauged of it manufactures for plutonium in a monitor for radon mensuration in the atmosphere. Those units in that the radon measures are expressed are: peak curies/unit of volume of air to sampling. This way one has to gauge and to supplement the software and the parts that the old one monitor for plutonium. It requires. This task implies: a) To calibrate and to determine the efficiency of the detector of accustomed to state of 1700 mm{sup 2} for alpha particles coming from the radioactive series of the radon. b) to connect in series and to calibrate a flow measurer of air in it lines with the detector. Measures are presented of the ambient air and other places of the the historical area of the city of Puebla obtained with the team Converted ALPHA-CAM. (Author)

  17. Seaborg's Plutonium ?

    Norman, Eric B; Telhami, Kristina E

    2014-01-01

    Passive x-ray and gamma-ray analysis was performed on UC Berkeley's EH&S Sample S338. The object was found to contain Pu-239 and no other radioactive isotopes. The mass of Pu-239 contained in this object was determined to be 2.0 +- 0.3 micrograms. These observations are consistent with the identification of this object being the 2.77-microgram plutonium oxide sample described by Glenn Seaborg and his collaborators as the first sample of Pu-239 that was large enough to be weighed.

  18. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM

    Maddock, A.G.; Smith, F.

    1959-08-25

    A method is described for separating plutonium from uranium and fission products by treating a nitrate solution of fission products, uranium, and hexavalent plutonium with a relatively water-insoluble fluoride to adsorb fission products on the fluoride, treating the residual solution with a reducing agent for plutonium to reduce its valence to four and less, treating the reduced plutonium solution with a relatively insoluble fluoride to adsorb the plutonium on the fluoride, removing the solution, and subsequently treating the fluoride with its adsorbed plutonium with a concentrated aqueous solution of at least one of a group consisting of aluminum nitrate, ferric nitrate, and manganous nitrate to remove the plutonium from the fluoride.

  19. Dynamical analysis of an accelerator-based fluid-fueled subcritical radioactive waste burning system

    Woosley, Michael Louis, Jr.

    The recent revival of interest in accelerator-driven subcritical fluid-fueled systems is documented. Several important applications of these systems are mentioned. In particular, new applications have focused on the destruction of high-level radioactive waste. Systems can be designed to quickly destroy the actinides and long-lived fission products from light water reactor fuel, weapons plutonium, and other high-level defense wastes. The proposed development of these systems is used to motivate the need for the development of dynamic analysis methods for their nuclear kinetics. A physical description of the Los Alamos Accelerator-Based Conversion (ABC) concept is provided. This system is used as the basis for the kinetics study in this research. The current approach to the dynamic simulation of an accelerator-driven subcritical fluid-fueled system includes three elements: A discrete ordinates model is used to calculate the flux distribution for the source-driven system; A nodal convection model is used to calculate time-dependent isotope and temperature distributions which impact reactivity; A nodal importance weighting model is used to calculate the reactivity impact of temperature and isotope distributions and to feed this information back to the time-dependent nodal convection model. Specific transients which have been analyzed with the current modeling system are discussed. These transients include loss-of-flow and loss-of-cooling accidents, xenon and samarium transients, and cold-plug and overfueling events. The results of various transients have uncovered unpredictable behavior, unresolved design issues, and the need for active control. Modest initiating events can cause significant swings in system temperature and power. The circulation of the fluid fuel can lead to oscillations on the relatively short scale of the loop circulation time. The system responds quickly to reactivity changes because the large neutron source overwhelms the damping effect of delayed

  20. Plutonium Training Opportunities

    Balatsky, Galya Ivanovna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wolkov, Benjamin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-26

    This report was created to examine the current state of plutonium training in the United States and to discover ways in which to ensure that the next generation of plutonium workers are fully qualified.

  1. Plutonium Finishing Plant

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Plutonium Finishing Plant, also known as PFP, represented the end of the line (the final procedure) associated with plutonium production at Hanford.PFP was also...

  2. PLUTONIUM-THORIUM ALLOYS

    Schonfeld, F.W.

    1959-09-15

    New plutonium-base binary alloys useful as liquid reactor fuel are described. The alloys consist of 50 to 98 at.% thorium with the remainder plutonium. The stated advantages of these alloys over unalloyed plutonium for reactor fuel use are easy fabrication, phase stability, and the accompanying advantuge of providing a means for converting Th/sup 232/ into U/sup 233/.

  3. PLUTONIUM CLEANING PROCESS

    Kolodney, M.

    1959-12-01

    A method is described for rapidly removing iron, nickel, and zinc coatings from plutonium objects while simultaneously rendering the plutonium object passive. The method consists of immersing the coated plutonium object in an aqueous acid solution containing a substantial concentration of nitrate ions, such as fuming nitric acid.

  4. Design-Only Conceptual Design Report: Plutonium Immobilization Plant

    DiSabatino, A.; Loftus, D.

    1999-01-01

    This design-only conceptual design report was prepared to support a funding request by the Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition for engineering and design of the Plutonium Immobilization Plant, which will be used to immobilize up to 50 tonnes of surplus plutonium. The siting for the Plutonium Immobilization Plant will be determined pursuant to the site-specific Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement in a Plutonium Deposition Record of Decision in early 1999. This document reflects a new facility using the preferred technology (ceramic immobilization using the can-in-canister approach) and the preferred site (at Savannah River). The Plutonium Immobilization Plant accepts plutonium from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a ceramic immobilization process, converts the plutonium into mineral-like forms that are subsequently encapsulated within a large canister of high-level waste glass. The final immobilized product must make the plutonium as inherently unattractive and inaccessible for use in nuclear weapons as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors and must be suitable for geologic disposal. Plutonium immobilization at the Savannah River Site uses: (1) A new building, the Plutonium Immobilization Plant, which will convert non-pit surplus plutonium to an oxide form suitable for the immobilization process, immobilize plutonium in a titanate-based ceramic form, place cans of the plutonium-ceramic forms into magazines, and load the magazines into a canister; (2) The existing Defense Waste Processing Facility for the pouring of high-level waste glass into the canisters; and (3) The Actinide Packaging and Storage Facility to receive and store feed materials. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant uses existing Savannah River Site infra-structure for analytical laboratory services, waste handling, fire protection, training, and other support utilities and services. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant

  5. Properties of plutonium

    Ahn, Jin Su; Yoon, Hwan Ki; Min, Kyung Sik; Kim, Hyun Tae; Ahn, Jong Sung; Kwag, Eon Ho; Ryu, Keon Joong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daeduk (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-03-01

    Plutonium has unique chemical and physical properties. Its uniqueness in use has led to rare publications, in Korea. This report covers physical aspects of phase change of metal plutonium, mechanical properties, thermal conductivity, etc, chemical aspects of corrosion, oxidation, how to produce plutonium from spent fuels by describing various chemical treatment methods, which are currently used and were used in the past. It also contains characteristics of the purex reprocessing process which is the most widely used nowadays. And show processes to purify and metalize from recovered plutonium solution. Detection and analysis methods are introduced with key pints for handling, critical safety, toxicity, and effects on peoples. This report gives not only a general idea on what plutonium is, rather than deep technical description, but also basic knowledge on plutonium production and safeguards diversion from the view point of nonproliferation. 18 refs. (Author) .new.

  6. PLUTONIUM-ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS

    Schonfeld, F.W.; Waber, J.T.

    1960-08-30

    A series of nuclear reactor fuel alloys consisting of from about 5 to about 50 at.% zirconium (or higher zirconium alloys such as Zircaloy), balance plutonium, and having the structural composition of a plutonium are described. Zirconium is a satisfactory diluent because it alloys readily with plutonium and has desirable nuclear properties. Additional advantages are corrosion resistance, excellent fabrication propenties, an isotropie structure, and initial softness.

  7. Accelerator Based Tools of Stockpile Stewardship

    Seestrom, Susan

    2017-01-01

    The Manhattan Project had to solve difficult challenges in physics and materials science. During the cold war a large nuclear stockpile was developed. In both cases, the approach was largely empirical. Today that stockpile must be certified without nuclear testing, a task that becomes more difficult as the stockpile ages. I will discuss the role of modern accelerator based experiments, such as x-ray radiography, proton radiography, neutron and nuclear physics experiments, in stockpile stewardship. These new tools provide data of exceptional sensitivity and are answering questions about the stockpile, improving our scientific understanding, and providing validation for the computer simulations that are relied upon to certify todays' stockpile.

  8. Plutonium immobilization plant using glass in new facilities at the Savannah River Site

    DiSabatino, A.

    1998-06-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a glass immobilization process, converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. This immobilization process is shown conceptually in Figure 1-1. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors.

  9. Accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments

    Harris, Deborah A.; /Fermilab

    2007-12-01

    Neutrino oscillations were first discovered by experiments looking at neutrinos coming from extra-terrestrial sources, namely the sun and the atmosphere, but we will be depending on earth-based sources to take many of the next steps in this field. This article describes what has been learned so far from accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments, and then describe very generally what the next accelerator-based steps are. In section 2 the article discusses how one uses an accelerator to make a neutrino beam, in particular, one made from decays in flight of charged pions. There are several different neutrino detection methods currently in use, or under development. In section 3 these are presented, with a description of the general concept, an example of such a detector, and then a brief discussion of the outstanding issues associated with this detection technique. Finally, section 4 describes how the measurements of oscillation probabilities are made. This includes a description of the near detector technique and how it can be used to make the most precise measurements of neutrino oscillations.

  10. Plutonium storage criteria

    Chung, D. [Scientech, Inc., Germantown, MD (United States); Ascanio, X. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy has issued a technical standard for long-term (>50 years) storage and will soon issue a criteria document for interim (<20 years) storage of plutonium materials. The long-term technical standard, {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides,{close_quotes} addresses the requirements for storing metals and oxides with greater than 50 wt % plutonium. It calls for a standardized package that meets both off-site transportation requirements, as well as remote handling requirements from future storage facilities. The interim criteria document, {open_quotes}Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Solid Materials{close_quotes}, addresses requirements for storing materials with less than 50 wt% plutonium. The interim criteria document assumes the materials will be stored on existing sites, and existing facilities and equipment will be used for repackaging to improve the margin of safety.

  11. Plutonium bioaccumulation in seabirds.

    Strumińska-Parulska, Dagmara I; Skwarzec, Bogdan; Fabisiak, Jacek

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the paper was plutonium (²³⁸Pu and ²³⁹⁺²⁴⁰Pu) determination in seabirds, permanently or temporarily living in northern Poland at the Baltic Sea coast. Together 11 marine birds species were examined: 3 species permanently residing in the southern Baltic, 4 species of wintering birds and 3 species of migrating birds. The obtained results indicated plutonium is non-uniformly distributed in organs and tissues of analyzed seabirds. The highest plutonium content was found in the digestion organs and feathers, the smallest in skin and muscles. The plutonium concentration was lower in analyzed species which feed on fish and much higher in herbivorous species. The main source of plutonium in analyzed marine birds was global atmospheric fallout.

  12. PLUTONIUM-CERIUM-COBALT AND PLUTONIUM-CERIUM-NICKEL ALLOYS

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-08-25

    >New plutonium-base teroary alloys useful as liquid reactor fuels are described. The alloys consist of 10 to 20 atomic percent cobalt with the remainder plutonium and cerium in any desired proportion, with the plutonium not in excess of 88 atomic percent; or, of from 10 to 25 atomic percent nickel (or mixture of nickel and cobalt) with the remainder plutonium and cerium in any desired proportion, with the plutonium not in excess of 86 atomic percent. The stated advantages of these alloys over unalloyed plutonium for reactor fuel use are a lower melting point and a wide range of permissible plutonium dilution.

  13. Plutonium radiation surrogate

    Frank, Michael I.

    2010-02-02

    A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

  14. Progress on plutonium stabilization

    Hurt, D. [Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has safety oversight responsibility for most of the facilities where unstable forms of plutonium are being processed and packaged for interim storage. The Board has issued recommendations on plutonium stabilization and has has a considerable influence on DOE`s stabilization schedules and priorities. The Board has not made any recommendations on long-term plutonium disposition, although it may get more involved in the future if DOE develops plans to use defense nuclear facilities for disposition activities.

  15. PLUTONIUM SEPARATION METHOD

    Beaufait, L.J. Jr.; Stevenson, F.R.; Rollefson, G.K.

    1958-11-18

    The recovery of plutonium ions from neutron irradiated uranium can be accomplished by bufferlng an aqueous solutlon of the irradiated materials containing tetravalent plutonium to a pH of 4 to 7, adding sufficient acetate to the solution to complex the uranyl present, adding ferric nitrate to form a colloid of ferric hydroxide, plutonlum, and associated fission products, removing and dissolving the colloid in aqueous nitric acid, oxldizlng the plutonium to the hexavalent state by adding permanganate or dichromate, treating the resultant solution with ferric nitrate to form a colloid of ferric hydroxide and associated fission products, and separating the colloid from the plutonlum left in solution.

  16. PLUTONIUM ELECTROREFINING CELLS

    Mullins, L.J. Jr.; Leary, J.A.; Bjorklund, C.W.; Maraman, W.J.

    1963-07-16

    Electrorefining cells for obtaining 99.98% plutonium are described. The cells consist of an impure liquid plutonium anode, a molten PuCl/sub 3/-- alkali or alkaline earth metal chloanode, a molten PuCl/sub 3/-alkali or alkaline earth metal chloride electrolyte, and a nonreactive cathode, all being contained in nonreactive ceramic containers which separate anode from cathode by a short distance and define a gap for the collection of the purified liquid plutonium deposited on the cathode. Important features of these cells are the addition of stirrer blades on the anode lead and a large cathode surface to insure a low current density. (AEC)

  17. First accelerator-based physics of 2014

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Experiments in the East Area received their first beams from the PS this week. Theirs is CERN's first accelerator-based physics since LS1 began last year.   For the East Area, the PS performs a so-called slow extraction, where beam is extracted during many revolution periods (the time it take for particles to go around the PS, ~2.1 μs). The yellow line shows the circulating beam current in the PS, decreasing slowly during the slow extraction, which lasts 350 ms. The green line is the measured proton intensity in the transfer line toward the East Area target. Although LHC physics is still far away, we can now confirm that the injectors are producing physics! In the East Area - the experimental area behind the PS - the T9 and T10 beam lines are providing beams for physics. These beam lines serve experiments such as AIDA - which looks at new detector solutions for future accelerators - and the ALICE Inner Tracking System - which tests components for the ALICE experiment. &qu...

  18. Plutonium dissolution process

    Vest, Michael A.; Fink, Samuel D.; Karraker, David G.; Moore, Edwin N.; Holcomb, H. Perry

    1996-01-01

    A two-step process for dissolving plutonium metal, which two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously. Plutonium metal is exposed to a first mixture containing approximately 1.0M-1.67M sulfamic acid and 0.0025M-0.1M fluoride, the mixture having been heated to a temperature between 45.degree. C. and 70.degree. C. The mixture will dissolve a first portion of the plutonium metal but leave a portion of the plutonium in an oxide residue. Then, a mineral acid and additional fluoride are added to dissolve the residue. Alteratively, nitric acid in a concentration between approximately 0.05M and 0.067M is added to the first mixture to dissolve the residue as it is produced. Hydrogen released during the dissolution process is diluted with nitrogen.

  19. Accelerator-based neutrino oscillation searches

    Whitehouse, D. A.; Rameika, R.; Stanton, N.

    This paper attempts to summarize the neutrino oscillation section of the Workshop on Future Directions in Particle and Nuclear Physics at Multi-GeV Hadron Beam Facilities. There were very lively discussions about the merits of the different oscillation channels, experiments, and facilities, but we believe a substantial consensus emerged. First, the next decade is one of great potential for discovery in neutrino physics, but it is also one of great peril. The possibility that neutrino oscillations explain the solar neutrino and atmospheric neutrino experiments, and the indirect evidence that Hot Dark Matter (HDM) in the form of light neutrinos might make up 30% of the mass of the universe, point to areas where accelerator-based experiments could play a crucial role in piecing together the puzzle. At the same time, the field faces a very uncertain future. The LSND experiment at LAMPF is the only funded neutrino oscillation experiment in the United States and it is threatened by the abrupt shutdown of LAMPF proposed for fiscal 1994. The future of neutrino physics at the Brookhaven National Laboratory AGS depends on the continuation of High Energy Physics (HEP) funding after the RHIC startup. Most proposed neutrino oscillation searches at Fermilab depend on the completion of the Main Injector project and on the construction of a new neutrino beamline, which is uncertain at this point. The proposed KAON facility at TRIUMF would provide a neutrino beam similar to that at the AGS but with a much increased intensity. The future of KAON is also uncertain. Despite the difficult obstacles present, there is a real possibility that we are on the verge of understanding the masses and mixings of the neutrinos. The physics importance of such a discovery cannot be overstated. The current experimental status and future possibilities are discussed.

  20. METHOD OF PRODUCING PLUTONIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    Tolley, W.B.; Smith, R.C.

    1959-12-15

    A process is presented for preparing plutonium tetrafluoride from plutonium(IV) oxalate. The oxalate is dried and decomposed at about 300 deg C to the dioxide, mixed with ammonium bifluoride, and the mixture is heated to between 50 and 150 deg C whereby ammonium plutonium fluoride is formed. The ammonium plutonium fluoride is then heated to about 300 deg C for volatilization of ammonium fluoride. Both heating steps are preferably carried out in an inert atmosphere.

  1. Conceptual Design for the Pilot-Scale Plutonium Oxide Processing Unit in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Meier, David E.; Tingey, Joel M.; Casella, Amanda J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jones, Susan A.; Rapko, Brian M.

    2014-08-05

    This report describes a conceptual design for a pilot-scale capability to produce plutonium oxide for use as exercise and reference materials, and for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. This capability is referred to as the Pilot-scale Plutonium oxide Processing Unit (P3U), and it will be located in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The key unit operations are described, including plutonium dioxide (PuO2) dissolution, purification of the Pu by ion exchange, precipitation, and conversion to oxide by calcination.

  2. Plutonium immobilization plant using ceramic in existing facilities at the Savannah River site

    DiSabatino, A., LLNL

    1998-06-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources, and through a ceramic immobilization process converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. This immobilization process is shown conceptually in Figure 1-1. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors. The ceramic immobilization alternative presented in this report consists of first converting the surplus material to an oxide, followed by incorporating the plutonium oxide into a titanate-based ceramic material that is placed in metal cans.

  3. Plutonium Finishing Plant. Interim plutonium stabilization engineering study

    Sevigny, G.J.; Gallucci, R.H.; Garrett, S.M.K.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Goheen, R.S.; Molton, P.M.; Templeton, K.J.; Villegas, A.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Nass, R. [Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This report provides the results of an engineering study that evaluated the available technologies for stabilizing the plutonium stored at the Plutonium Finishing Plant located at the hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Further processing of the plutonium may be required to prepare the plutonium for interim (<50 years) storage. Specifically this document provides the current plutonium inventory and characterization, the initial screening process, and the process descriptions and flowsheets of the technologies that passed the initial screening. The conclusions and recommendations also are provided. The information contained in this report will be used to assist in the preparation of the environmental impact statement and to help decision makers determine which is the preferred technology to process the plutonium for interim storage.

  4. Manufacturing of Plutonium Tensile Specimens

    Knapp, Cameron M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-01

    Details workflow conducted to manufacture high density alpha Plutonium tensile specimens to support Los Alamos National Laboratory's science campaigns. Introduces topics including the metallurgical challenge of Plutonium and the use of high performance super-computing to drive design. Addresses the utilization of Abaqus finite element analysis, programmable computer numerical controlled (CNC) machining, as well as glove box ergonomics and safety in order to design a process that will yield high quality Plutonium tensile specimens.

  5. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) [SEC 1 THRU 11

    ULLAH, M K

    2001-02-26

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) is located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in south central Washington State. The DOE Richland Operations (DOE-RL) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) is with Fluor Hanford Inc. (FH). Westinghouse Safety Management Systems (WSMS) provides management support to the PFP facility. Since 1991, the mission of the PFP has changed from plutonium material processing to preparation for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). The PFP is in transition between its previous mission and the proposed D and D mission. The objective of the transition is to place the facility into a stable state for long-term storage of plutonium materials before final disposition of the facility. Accordingly, this update of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) reflects the current status of the buildings, equipment, and operations during this transition. The primary product of the PFP was plutonium metal in the form of 2.2-kg, cylindrical ingots called buttoms. Plutonium nitrate was one of several chemical compounds containing plutonium that were produced as an intermediate processing product. Plutonium recovery was performed at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) and plutonium conversion (from a nitrate form to a metal form) was performed at the Remote Mechanical C (RMC) Line as the primary processes. Plutonium oxide was also produced at the Remote Mechanical A (RMA) Line. Plutonium processed at the PFP contained both weapons-grade and fuels-grade plutonium materials. The capability existed to process both weapons-grade and fuels-grade material through the PRF and only weapons-grade material through the RMC Line although fuels-grade material was processed through the line before 1984. Amounts of these materials exist in storage throughout the facility in various residual forms left from previous years of operations.

  6. Plutonium worker dosimetry.

    Birchall, Alan; Puncher, M; Harrison, J; Riddell, A; Bailey, M R; Khokryakov, V; Romanov, S

    2010-05-01

    Epidemiological studies of the relationship between risk and internal exposure to plutonium are clearly reliant on the dose estimates used. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is currently reviewing the latest scientific information available on biokinetic models and dosimetry, and it is likely that a number of changes to the existing models will be recommended. The effect of certain changes, particularly to the ICRP model of the respiratory tract, has been investigated for inhaled forms of (239)Pu and uncertainties have also been assessed. Notable effects of possible changes to respiratory tract model assumptions are (1) a reduction in the absorbed dose to target cells in the airways, if changes under consideration are made to the slow clearing fraction and (2) a doubling of absorbed dose to the alveolar region for insoluble forms, if evidence of longer retention times is taken into account. An important factor influencing doses for moderately soluble forms of (239)Pu is the extent of binding of dissolved plutonium to lung tissues and assumptions regarding the extent of binding in the airways. Uncertainty analyses have been performed with prior distributions chosen for application in epidemiological studies. The resulting distributions for dose per unit intake were lognormal with geometric standard deviations of 2.3 and 2.6 for nitrates and oxides, respectively. The wide ranges were due largely to consideration of results for a range of experimental data for the solubility of different forms of nitrate and oxides. The medians of these distributions were a factor of three times higher than calculated using current default ICRP parameter values. For nitrates, this was due to the assumption of a bound fraction, and for oxides due mainly to the assumption of slower alveolar clearance. This study highlights areas where more research is needed to reduce biokinetic uncertainties, including more accurate determination of particle transport rates

  7. An accelerator-based epithermal photoneutron source for BNCT

    Nigg, D.W.; Mitchell, H.E.; Harker, Y.D.; Yoon, W.Y. [and others

    1995-11-01

    Therapeutically-useful epithermal-neutron beams for BNCT are currently generated by nuclear reactors. Various accelerator-based neutron sources for BNCT have been proposed and some low intensity prototypes of such sources, generally featuring the use of proton beams and beryllium or lithium targets have been constructed. This paper describes an alternate approach to the realization of a clinically useful accelerator-based source of epithermal neutrons for BNCT that reconciles the often conflicting objectives of target cooling, neutron beam intensity, and neutron beam spectral purity via a two stage photoneutron production process.

  8. Probing Phonons in Plutonium

    Wong, Joe

    2004-03-01

    The phonon spectra of plutonium and its alloys have been sought after in the past few decades following the discovery of this actinide element in 1941, but with no success. This was due to a combination of the high neutron absorption cross section of 239Pu, the common isotope, and non-availability of large single crystals of any Pu-bearing materials. We have recent designed a high resolution inelastic x-ray scattering experiment using a bright synchrotron x-ray beam at the European Sychrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), Grenoble and mapped the full phonon dispersion curves of an fcc delta-phase polycrystalline Pu-Ga alloy (1). Several unusual features including, a large elastic anisotropy, a small shear elastic modulus C', a Kohn-like anomaly in the T1[011] branch, and a pronounced softening of the [111] transverse modes are found. These features can be related to the phase transitions of plutonium and to strong coupling between the lattice structure and the 5f valence instabilities. Our results also provide a critical test for theoretical treatments of highly correlated 5f electron systems as exemplified by recent dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) calculations for d-plutonium.(2) This work was performed in collaboration with Dr. M. Krisch (ESRF)) and Prof. T.-C. Chiang (UIU), and under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48. 1. Joe Wong et al. Science, vol.301, 1078 (2003) 2. X. Dai et al. Science, vol.300, 953 (2003)

  9. EIS Data Call Report: Plutonium immobilization plant using ceramic in new facilities at the Savannah River Site

    DiSabatino, A.

    1998-06-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a ceramic immobilization process, converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. This immobilization process is shown conceptually in Figure 1-1. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors. The ceramic immobilization alternative presented in this report consists of first converting the surplus material to an oxide, followed by incorporating the plutonium oxide into a titanate-based ceramic material that is placed in metal cans.

  10. Technical report for the generic site add-on facility for plutonium polishing

    Collins, E. D.

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide environmental data and reference process information associated with incorporating plutonium polishing steps (dissolution, impurity removal, and conversion to oxide powder) into the genetic-site Mixed-Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MOXFF). The incorporation of the plutonium polishing steps will enable the removal of undesirable impurities, such as gallium and americium, known to be associated with the plutonium. Moreover, unanticipated impurities can be removed, including those that may be contained in (1) poorly characterized feed materials, (2) corrosion products added from processing equipment, and (3) miscellaneous materials contained in scrap recycle streams. These impurities will be removed to the extent necessary to meet plutonium product purity specifications for MOX fuels. Incorporation of the plutonium polishing steps will mean that the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) will need to produce a plutonium product that can b e dissolved at the MOXFF in nitric acid at a suitable rate (sufficient to meet overall production requirements) with the minimal usage of hydrofluoric acid, and its complexing agent, aluminum nitrate. This function will require that if the PDCF product is plutonium oxide powder, that powder must be produced, stored, and shipped without exceeding a temperature of 600 C.

  11. Study of plutonium disposition using existing GE advanced Boiling Water Reactors

    1994-06-01

    The end of the cold war and the resulting dismantlement of nuclear weapons has resulted in the need for the US to dispose of 50 to 100 metric tons of excess of plutonium in a safe and proliferation resistant manner. A number of studies, including the recently released National Academy of Sciences (NAS) study, have recommended conversion of plutonium into spent nuclear fuel with its high radiation barrier as the best means of providing permanent conversion and long-term diversion resistance to this material. The NAS study ``Management and Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutonium identified Light Water Reactor spent fuel as the most readily achievable and proven form for the disposition of excess weapons plutonium. The study also stressed the need for a US disposition program which would enhance the prospects for a timely reciprocal program agreement with Russia. This summary provides the key findings of a GE study where plutonium is converted into Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel and a typical 1155 MWe GE Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) is utilized to convert the plutonium to spent fuel. A companion study of the Advanced BWR has recently been submitted. The MOX core design work that was conducted for the ABWR enabled GE to apply comparable fuel design concepts and consequently achieve full MOX core loading which optimize plutonium throughput for existing BWRs.

  12. Learning more about plutonium; En savoir plus sur le plutonium

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This digest brochure explains what plutonium is, where it comes from, how it is used, its recycling into Mox fuel, its half life, historical discovery, its presence in the environment, toxicity and radioactivity. (J.S.)

  13. LLNL Site plan for a MOX fuel lead assembly mission in support of surplus plutonium disposition

    Bronson, M.C.

    1997-10-01

    The principal facilities that LLNL would use to support a MOX Fuel Lead Assembly Mission are Building 332 and Building 334. Both of these buildings are within the security boundary known as the LLNL Superblock. Building 332 is the LLNL Plutonium Facility. As an operational plutonium facility, it has all the infrastructure and support services required for plutonium operations. The LLNL Plutonium Facility routinely handles kilogram quantities of plutonium and uranium. Currently, the building is limited to a plutonium inventory of 700 kilograms and a uranium inventory of 300 kilograms. Process rooms (excluding the vaults) are limited to an inventory of 20 kilograms per room. Ongoing operations include: receiving SSTS, material receipt, storage, metal machining and casting, welding, metal-to-oxide conversion, purification, molten salt operations, chlorination, oxide calcination, cold pressing and sintering, vitrification, encapsulation, chemical analysis, metallography and microprobe analysis, waste material processing, material accountability measurements, packaging, and material shipping. Building 334 is the Hardened Engineering Test Building. This building supports environmental and radiation measurements on encapsulated plutonium and uranium components. Other existing facilities that would be used to support a MOX Fuel Lead Assembly Mission include Building 335 for hardware receiving and storage and TRU and LLW waste storage and shipping facilities, and Building 331 or Building 241 for storage of depleted uranium.

  14. Utilization of plutonium in reduced-moderation water reactors

    Iwamura, Takamichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-09-01

    Japan's nuclear policy decides not to have excess plutonium. Upon assuming the future situation of the delay of FBR introduction, the JAERI performs the feasibility study of several types of the reduced-moderation water reactors (RMWRs). As the RMWRs have higher conversion ratio than LWRs, they are expected to enable multi-cycle utilization of plutonium, high burnup and long cycle operation, and enhancement of uranium resource utilization. While the full MOX LWRs are being developed, from viewpoint of suppressing the accumulation of plutonium, the RMWRs are thought to be more suitable. As plutonium inventory is larger in the RMWRs than in the full MOX LWRs, also from viewpoint of non-proliferation of nuclear materials, the RMWRs are thought to be more suitable. The current feasibility study will be performed until 2010 to confirm the position, to construct the reactor concept, and to demonstrate the feasibility on reactor physics and on thermal hydraulics. The present candidate reactor types of the study are three BWR types, heavy water cooled PWR type and light water cooled PWR type. Hereafter comprehensive evaluation from viewpoint of problems on fuel cycle, economy, continuity with conventional LWR technologies will be performed to extract the most suitable concept to satisfy the social needs and to construct the fundamental reactor concept to concentrate R and D effort. (K. Tsuchihashi)

  15. Crystalline matrices for the immobilization of plutonium and actinides

    Anderson, E.B.; Burakov, E.E.; Galkin, Ya.B.; Starchenko, V.A.; Vasiliev, V.G. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1996-05-01

    The management of weapon plutonium, disengaged as a result of conversion, is considered together with the problem of the actinide fraction of long-lived high level radioactive wastes. It is proposed to use polymineral ceramics based on crystalline host-phases: zircon ZrSiO{sub 4} and zirconium dioxide ZrO{sub 2}, for various variants of the management of plutonium and actinides (including the purposes of long-term safe storage or final disposal from the human activity sphere). It is shown that plutonium and actinides are able to form with these phases on ZrSiO{sub 4} and ZrO{sub 2} was done on laboratory level by the hot pressing method, using the plasmochemical calcination technology. To incorporate simulators of plutonium into the structure of ZrSiO{sub 4} and ZrO{sub 2} in the course of synthesis, an original method developed by the authors as a result of studying the high-uranium zircon (Zr,U) SiO{sub 4} form Chernobyl {open_quotes}lavas{close_quotes} was used.

  16. Recovery studies for plutonium machining oil coolant

    Navratil, J. D.; Baldwin, C. E.

    1977-04-27

    Lathe coolant oil, contaminated with plutonium and having a carbon tetrachloride diluent, is generated in plutonium machining areas at Rocky Flats. A research program was initiated to determine the nature of plutonium in this mixture of oil and carbon tetrachloride. Appropriate methods then could be developed to remove the plutonium and to recycle the oil and carbon tetrachloride. Studies showed that the mixtures of spent oil and carbon tetrachloride contained particulate plutonium and plutonium species that are soluble in water or in oil and carbon tetrachloride. The particulate plutonium was removed by filtration; the nonfilterable plutonium was removed by adsorption on various materials. Laboratory-scale tests indicated the lathe-coolant oil mixture could be separated by distilling the carbon tetrachloride to yield recyclable products.

  17. Development of Remote Plutonium Valence State Analyzer

    2008-01-01

    <正>In the Purex process of spent fuel reprocessing, the separation of uranium and plutonium depends on the capability extracting state plutonium ions with various valence by TBP. The separate degree of

  18. Plutonium focus area

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  19. A mechanism for plutonium pyrophoricity

    Martz, Joseph C.; Haschke, John M.; Stakebake, Jerry L.

    1994-06-01

    A proposed mechanism for plutonium pyrophoricity quantitatively predicts the ignition temperature of plutonium as a function of surface : mass ratio and particle size. Plutonium must exceed 475°C before self-ignition occurs. External heating of massive samples is necessary to achieve this condition, while finely divided materials can reach the ignition point by an alternative, two-step mechanism. First, the thin layer of surface PuO 2 on the metal undergoes kinetically controlled reduction to Pu 2O 3 near 150°C. Second, the trivalent Pu 2O 3 reacts with gas-phase oxygen to reform PuO 2. Heat generated from the second reaction is sufficient to raise the temperature of small particles or thin foils above the 475°C ignition point. Details of this mechanism are given, including a discussion of plutonium oxidation and a calculation of adiabatic temperature increase due to oxidation of the Pu 2O 3 surface layer. Plutonium pyrophoricity data are summarized and compared to model results.

  20. Selecting a plutonium vitrification process

    Jouan, A. [Centre d`Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, Bagnols sur Ceze (France)

    1996-05-01

    Vitrification of plutonium is one means of mitigating its potential danger. This option is technically feasible, even if it is not the solution advocated in France. Two situations are possible, depending on whether or not the glass matrix also contains fission products; concentrations of up to 15% should be achievable for plutonium alone, whereas the upper limit is 3% in the presence of fission products. The French continuous vitrification process appears to be particularly suitable for plutonium vitrification: its capacity is compatible with the required throughout, and the compact dimensions of the process equipment prevent a criticality hazard. Preprocessing of plutonium metal, to convert it to PuO{sub 2} or to a nitric acid solution, may prove advantageous or even necessary depending on whether a dry or wet process is adopted. The process may involve a single step (vitrification of Pu or PuO{sub 2} mixed with glass frit) or may include a prior calcination step - notably if the plutonium is to be incorporated into a fission product glass. It is important to weigh the advantages and drawbacks of all the possible options in terms of feasibility, safety and cost-effectiveness.

  1. Zone refining of plutonium metal

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate zone refining techniques for the purification of plutonium metal. The redistribution of 10 impurity elements from zone melting was examined. Four tantalum boats were loaded with plutonium impurity alloy, placed in a vacuum furnace, heated to 700{degrees}C, and held at temperature for one hour. Ten passes were made with each boat. Metallographic and chemical analyses performed on the plutonium rods showed that, after 10 passes, moderate movement of certain elements were achieved. Molten zone speeds of 1 or 2 inches per hour had no effect on impurity element movement. Likewise, the application of constant or variable power had no effect on impurity movement. The study implies that development of a zone refining process to purify plutonium is feasible. Development of a process will be hampered by two factors: (1) the effect on impurity element redistribution of the oxide layer formed on the exposed surface of the material is not understood, and (2) the tantalum container material is not inert in the presence of plutonium. Cold boat studies are planned, with higher temperature and vacuum levels, to determine the effect on these factors. 5 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  2. Plutonium Proliferation: The Achilles Heel of Disarmament

    Leventhal, Paul (President, Nuclear Control Institute, Washington D.C.)

    2001-02-07

    Plutonium is a byproduct of nuclear fission, and it is produced at the rate of about 70 metric tons a year in the world's nuclear power reactors. Concerns about civilian plutonium ran high in the 1970s and prompted enactment of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 to give the United States a veto over separating plutonium from U.S.-supplied uranium fuel. Over the years, however, so-called reactor-grade plutonium has become the orphan issue of nuclear non-proliferation, largely as a consequence of pressures from plutonium-separating countries. The demise of the fast breeder reactor and the reluctance of utilities to introduce plutonium fuel in light-water reactors have resulted in large surpluses of civilian, weapons-usable plutonium, which now approach in size the 250 tons of military plutonium in the world. Yet reprocessing of spent fuel for recovery and use of plutonium proceeds apace outside the United States and threatens to overwhelm safeguards and security measures for keeping this material out of the hands of nations and terrorists for weapons. A number of historical and current developments are reviewed to demonstrate that plutonium commerce is undercutting efforts both to stop the spread of nuclear weapons and to work toward eliminating existing nuclear arsenals. These developments include the breakdown of U.S. anti-plutonium policy, the production of nuclear weapons by India with Atoms-for-Peace plutonium, the U.S.-Russian plan to introduce excess military plutonium as fuel in civilian power reactors, the failure to include civilian plutonium and bomb-grade uranium in the proposed Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty, and the perception of emerging proliferation threats as the rationale for development of a ballistic missile defense system. Finally, immobilization of separated plutonium in high-level waste is explored as a proliferation-resistant and disarmament-friendly solution for eliminating excess stocks of civilian and military plutonium.

  3. Treatment Planning for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Herrera, María S.; González, Sara J.; Minsky, Daniel M.; Kreiner, Andrés J.

    2010-08-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme and metastatic melanoma are frequent brain tumors in adults and presently still incurable diseases. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a promising alternative for this kind of pathologies. Accelerators have been proposed for BNCT as a way to circumvent the problem of siting reactors in hospitals and for their relative simplicity and lower cost among other advantages. Considerable effort is going into the development of accelerator-based BNCT neutron sources in Argentina. Epithermal neutron beams will be produced through appropriate proton-induced nuclear reactions and optimized beam shaping assemblies. Using these sources, computational dose distributions were evaluated in a real patient with diagnosed glioblastoma treated with BNCT. The simulated irradiation was delivered in order to optimize dose to the tumors within the normal tissue constraints. Using Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations, dose distributions were generated for brain, skin and tumor. Also, the dosimetry was studied by computing cumulative dose-volume histograms for volumes of interest. The results suggest acceptable skin average dose and a significant dose delivered to tumor with low average whole brain dose for irradiation times less than 60 minutes, indicating a good performance of an accelerator-based BNCT treatment.

  4. Plutonium Oxide Process Capability Work Plan

    Meier, David E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tingey, Joel M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-02-28

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked to develop a Pilot-scale Plutonium-oxide Processing Unit (P3U) providing a flexible capability to produce 200g (Pu basis) samples of plutonium oxide using different chemical processes for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. Materials produced can also be used as exercise and reference materials.

  5. 49 CFR 175.704 - Plutonium shipments.

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.704 Plutonium shipments. Shipments of plutonium which are subject to 10 CFR 71.88(a)(4) must comply with the following: (a) Each package... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plutonium shipments. 175.704 Section...

  6. LITERATURE REVIEW FOR OXALATE OXIDATION PROCESSES AND PLUTONIUM OXALATE SOLUBILITY

    Nash, C.

    2012-02-03

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign. H Canyon plans to commence conversion of plutonium metal to low-fired plutonium oxide in 2012 for eventual use in the Mixed Oxide Fuel (MOX) Facility. The flowsheet includes sequential operations of metal dissolution, ion exchange, elution, oxalate precipitation, filtration, and calcination. All processes beyond dissolution will occur in HB-Line. The filtration step produces an aqueous filtrate that may have as much as 4 M nitric acid and 0.15 M oxalate. The oxalate needs to be removed from the stream to prevent possible downstream precipitation of residual plutonium when the solution is processed in H Canyon. In addition, sending the oxalate to the waste tank farm is undesirable. This report addresses the processing options for destroying the oxalate in existing H Canyon equipment.

  7. Plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material.

  8. Method of separating thorium from plutonium

    Clifton, D.G.; Blum, T.W.

    A method of chemically separating plutonium from thorium is claimed. Plutonium and thorium to be separated are dissolved in an aqueous feed solution, preferably as the nitrate salts. The feed solution is acidified and sodium nitrite is added to the solution to adjust the valence of the plutonium to the +4 state. A chloride salt, preferably sodium chloride, is then added to the solution to induce formation of an anionic plutonium chloride complex. The anionic plutonium chloride complex and the thorium in solution are then separated by ion exchange on a strong base anion exchange column.

  9. Plutonium inventories for stabilization and stabilized materials

    Williams, A.K.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of the breakout session was to identify characteristics of materials containing plutonium, the need to stabilize these materials for storage, and plans to accomplish the stabilization activities. All current stabilization activities are driven by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 94-1 (May 26, 1994) and by the recently completed Plutonium ES&H Vulnerability Assessment (DOE-EH-0415). The Implementation Plan for accomplishing stabilization of plutonium-bearing residues in response to the Recommendation and the Assessment was published by DOE on February 28, 1995. This Implementation Plan (IP) commits to stabilizing problem materials within 3 years, and stabilizing all other materials within 8 years. The IP identifies approximately 20 metric tons of plutonium requiring stabilization and/or repackaging. A further breakdown shows this material to consist of 8.5 metric tons of plutonium metal and alloys, 5.5 metric tons of plutonium as oxide, and 6 metric tons of plutonium as residues. Stabilization of the metal and oxide categories containing greater than 50 weight percent plutonium is covered by DOE Standard {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides{close_quotes} December, 1994 (DOE-STD-3013-94). This standard establishes criteria for safe storage of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides for up to 50 years. Each of the DOE sites and contractors with large plutonium inventories has either started or is preparing to start stabilization activities to meet these criteria.

  10. The first weighing of plutonium

    NONE

    1967-09-10

    The following text, transcribed from the remarks of those scientists who gathered at the University of Chicago on September 10, 1967, to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the first weighing of plutonium, tells an important part of the story of this fascinating new element that is destined to play an increasingly significant role in the future of man.

  11. Accelerator Based Neutron Beams for Neutron Capture Therapy

    Yanch, Jacquelyn C.

    2003-04-11

    The DOE-funded accelerator BNCT program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has resulted in the only operating accelerator-based epithermal neutron beam facility capable of generating significant dose rates in the world. With five separate beamlines and two different epithermal neutron beam assemblies installed, we are currently capable of treating patients with rheumatoid arthritis in less than 15 minutes (knee joints) or 4 minutes (finger joints) or irradiating patients with shallow brain tumors to a healthy tissue dose of 12.6 Gy in 3.6 hours. The accelerator, designed by Newton scientific Incorporated, is located in dedicated laboratory space that MIT renovated specifically for this project. The Laboratory for Accelerator Beam Applications consists of an accelerator room, a control room, a shielded radiation vault, and additional laboratory space nearby. In addition to the design, construction and characterization of the tandem electrostatic accelerator, this program also resulted in other significant accomplishments. Assemblies for generating epithermal neutron beams were designed, constructed and experimentally evaluated using mixed-field dosimetry techniques. Strategies for target construction and target cooling were implemented and tested. We demonstrated that the method of submerged jet impingement using water as the coolant is capable of handling power densities of up to 6 x 10(sup 7) W/m(sup 2) with heat transfer coefficients of 10(sup 6)W/m(sup 2)-K. Experiments with the liquid metal gallium demonstrated its superiority compared with water with little effect on the neutronic properties of the epithermal beam. Monoenergetic proton beams generated using the accelerator were used to evaluate proton RBE as a function of LET and demonstrated a maximum RBE at approximately 30-40 keV/um, a finding consistent with results published by other researchers. We also developed an experimental approach to biological intercomparison of epithermal beams and

  12. Bibliography on plutonium and its compounds; Bibliographie sur le plutonium et ses composes

    Dirian, J.; Choquet, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Collection of bibliographical references on plutonium and its principal compounds from 1942 to end of 1957. (author) [French] Compilation de references bibliographiques sur le plutonium et ses principaux composes de 1942 a fin 1957. (auteur)

  13. Surprising coordination for plutonium in the first plutonium(III) borate.

    Wang, Shuao; Alekseev, Evgeny V; Depmeier, Wulf; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E

    2011-03-21

    The first plutonium(III) borate, Pu(2)[B(12)O(18)(OH)(4)Br(2)(H(2)O)(3)]·0.5H(2)O, has been prepared by reacting plutonium(III) with molten boric acid under strictly anaerobic conditions. This compound contains a three-dimensional polyborate network with triangular holes that house the plutonium(III) sites. The plutonium sites in this compound are 9- and 10-coordinate and display atypical geometries.

  14. Biokinetics of Plutonium in Nonhuman Primates.

    Poudel, Deepesh; Guilmette, Raymond A; Gesell, Thomas F; Harris, Jason T; Brey, Richard R

    2016-10-01

    A major source of data on metabolism, excretion and retention of plutonium comes from experimental animal studies. Although old world monkeys are one of the closest living relatives to humans, certain physiological differences do exist between these nonhuman primates and humans. The objective of this paper was to describe the metabolism of plutonium in nonhuman primates using the bioassay and retention data obtained from macaque monkeys injected with plutonium citrate. A biokinetic model for nonhuman primates was developed by adapting the basic model structure and adapting the transfer rates described for metabolism of plutonium in adult humans. Significant changes to the parameters were necessary to explain the shorter retention of plutonium in liver and skeleton of the nonhuman primates, differences in liver to bone partitioning ratio, and significantly higher excretion of plutonium in feces compared to that in humans.

  15. Plutonium Immobilization Project Baseline Formulation

    Ebbinghaus, B.

    1999-02-01

    A key milestone for the Immobilization Project (AOP Milestone 3.2a) in Fiscal Year 1998 (FY98) is the definition of the baseline composition or formulation for the plutonium ceramic form. The baseline formulation for the plutonium ceramic product must be finalized before the repository- and plant-related process specifications can be determined. The baseline formulation that is currently specified is given in Table 1.1. In addition to the baseline formulation specification, this report provides specifications for two alternative formulations, related compositional specifications (e.g., precursor compositions and mixing recipes), and other preliminary form and process specifications that are linked to the baseline formulation. The preliminary specifications, when finalized, are not expected to vary tremendously from the preliminary values given.

  16. Zone refining of plutonium metal

    Blau, Michael S. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)

    1994-08-01

    The zone refining process was applied to Pu metal containing known amounts of impurities. Rod specimens of plutonium metal were melted into and contained in tantalum boats, each of which was passed horizontally through a three-turn, high-frequency coil in such a manner as to cause a narrow molten zone to pass through the Pu metal rod 10 times. The impurity elements Co, Cr, Fe, Ni, Np, U were found to move in the same direction as the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. The elements Al, Am, and Ga moved in the opposite direction of the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. As the impurity alloy was zone refined, {delta}-phase plutonium metal crystals were produced. The first few zone refining passes were more effective than each later pass because an oxide layer formed on the rod surface. There was no clear evidence of better impurity movement at the slower zone refining speed. Also, constant or variable coil power appeared to have no effect on impurity movement during a single run (10 passes). This experiment was the first step to developing a zone refining process for plutonium metal.

  17. Design of the Laboratory-Scale Plutonium Oxide Processing Unit in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    Lumetta, Gregg J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Meier, David E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tingey, Joel M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Casella, Amanda J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Delegard, Calvin H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Edwards, Matthew K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Orton, Robert D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rapko, Brian M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smart, John E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report describes a design for a laboratory-scale capability to produce plutonium oxide (PuO2) for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production, as well as for use as exercise and reference materials. This capability will be located in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The key unit operations are described, including PuO2 dissolution, purification of the Pu by ion exchange, precipitation, and re-conversion to PuO2 by calcination.

  18. Study of plutonium disposition using the GE Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR)

    NONE

    1994-04-30

    The end of the cold war and the resulting dismantlement of nuclear weapons has resulted in the need for the U.S. to disposition 50 to 100 metric tons of excess of plutonium in parallel with a similar program in Russia. A number of studies, including the recently released National Academy of Sciences (NAS) study, have recommended conversion of plutonium into spent nuclear fuel with its high radiation barrier as the best means of providing long-term diversion resistance to this material. The NAS study {open_quotes}Management and Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutonium{close_quotes} identified light water reactor spent fuel as the most readily achievable and proven form for the disposition of excess weapons plutonium. The study also stressed the need for a U.S. disposition program which would enhance the prospects for a timely reciprocal program agreement with Russia. This summary provides the key findings of a GE study where plutonium is converted into Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel and a 1350 MWe GE Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) is utilized to convert the plutonium to spent fuel. The ABWR represents the integration of over 30 years of experience gained worldwide in the design, construction and operation of BWRs. It incorporates advanced features to enhance reliability and safety, minimize waste and reduce worker exposure. For example, the core is never uncovered nor is any operator action required for 72 hours after any design basis accident. Phase 1 of this study was documented in a GE report dated May 13, 1993. DOE`s Phase 1 evaluations cited the ABWR as a proven technical approach for the disposition of plutonium. This Phase 2 study addresses specific areas which the DOE authorized as appropriate for more in-depth evaluations. A separate report addresses the findings relative to the use of existing BWRs to achieve the same goal.

  19. REMOVAL OF LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS FROM SWEDEN

    Dunn, Kerry A. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Bellamy, J. Steve [Savannah River National Laboratory; Chandler, Greg T. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Iyer, Natraj C. [U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Office of; Koenig, Rich E.; Leduc, D. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Hackney, B. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Leduc, Dan R. [Savannah River National Laboratory

    2013-08-18

    U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Global Threat Reduction (GTRI) recently removed legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in collaboration with AB SVAFO, Sweden. This paper details the activities undertaken through the U.S. receiving site (Savannah River Site (SRS)) to support the characterization, stabilization, packaging and removal of legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in 2012. This effort was undertaken as part of GTRI’s Gap Materials Program and culminated with the successful removal of plutonium from Sweden as announced at the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit. The removal and shipment of plutonium materials to the United States was the first of its kind under NNSA’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative. The Environmental Assessment for the U.S. receipt of gap plutonium material was approved in May 2010. Since then, the multi-year process yielded many first time accomplishments associated with plutonium packaging and transport activities including the application of the of DOE-STD-3013 stabilization requirements to treat plutonium materials outside the U.S., the development of an acceptance criteria for receipt of plutonium from a foreign country, the development and application of a versatile process flow sheet for the packaging of legacy plutonium materials, the identification of a plutonium container configuration, the first international certificate validation of the 9975 shipping package and the first intercontinental shipment using the 9975 shipping package. This paper will detail the technical considerations in developing the packaging process flow sheet, defining the key elements of the flow sheet and its implementation, determining the criteria used in the selection of the transport package, developing the technical basis for the package certificate amendment and the reviews with multiple licensing authorities and most importantly integrating the technical activities with the Swedish partners.

  20. A review of plutonium oxalate decomposition reactions and effects of decomposition temperature on the surface area of the plutonium dioxide product

    Orr, R. M.; Sims, H. E.; Taylor, R. J.

    2015-10-01

    Plutonium (IV) and (III) ions in nitric acid solution readily form insoluble precipitates with oxalic acid. The plutonium oxalates are then easily thermally decomposed to form plutonium dioxide powder. This simple process forms the basis of current industrial conversion or 'finishing' processes that are used in commercial scale reprocessing plants. It is also widely used in analytical or laboratory scale operations and for waste residues treatment. However, the mechanisms of the thermal decompositions in both air and inert atmospheres have been the subject of various studies over several decades. The nature of intermediate phases is of fundamental interest whilst understanding the evolution of gases at different temperatures is relevant to process control. The thermal decomposition is also used to control a number of powder properties of the PuO2 product that are important to either long term storage or mixed oxide fuel manufacturing. These properties are the surface area, residual carbon impurities and adsorbed volatile species whereas the morphology and particle size distribution are functions of the precipitation process. Available data and experience regarding the thermal and radiation-induced decompositions of plutonium oxalate to oxide are reviewed. The mechanisms of the thermal decompositions are considered with a particular focus on the likely redox chemistry involved. Also, whilst it is well known that the surface area is dependent on calcination temperature, there is a wide variation in the published data and so new correlations have been derived. Better understanding of plutonium (III) and (IV) oxalate decompositions will assist the development of more proliferation resistant actinide co-conversion processes that are needed for advanced reprocessing in future closed nuclear fuel cycles.

  1. Ceramification: A plutonium immobilization process

    Rask, W.C. [Dept. of Energy, Golden, CO (United States); Phillips, A.G. [Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes a low temperature technique for stabilizing and immobilizing actinide compounds using a combination process/storage vessel of stainless steel, in which measured amounts of actinide nitrate solutions and actinide oxides (and/or residues) are systematically treated to yield a solid article. The chemical ceramic process is based on a coating technology that produces rare earth oxide coatings for defense applications involving plutonium. The final product of this application is a solid, coherent actinide oxide with process-generated encapsulation that has long-term environmental stability. Actinide compounds can be stabilized as pure materials for ease of re-use or as intimate mixtures with additives such as rare earth oxides to increase their degree of proliferation resistance. Starting materials for the process can include nitrate solutions, powders, aggregates, sludges, incinerator ashes, and others. Agents such as cerium oxide or zirconium oxide may be added as powders or precursors to enhance the properties of the resulting solid product. Additives may be included to produce a final product suitable for use in nuclear fuel pellet production. The process is simple and reduces the time and expense for stabilizing plutonium compounds. It requires a very low equipment expenditure and can be readily implemented into existing gloveboxes. The process is easily conducted with less associated risk than proposed alternative technologies.

  2. Plutonium focus area. Technology summary

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) in October 1995. The PFA {open_quotes}...provides for peer and technical reviews of research and development in plutonium stabilization activities...{close_quotes} In addition, the PFA identifies and develops relevant research and technology. The purpose of this document is to focus attention on the requirements used to develop research and technology for stabilization, storage, and preparation for disposition of nuclear materials. The PFA Technology Summary presents the approach the PFA uses to identify, recommend, and review research. It lists research requirements, research being conducted, and gaps where research is needed. It also summarizes research performed by the PFA in the traditional research summary format. This document encourages researchers and commercial enterprises to do business with PFA by submitting research proposals or {open_quotes}white papers.{close_quotes} In addition, it suggests ways to increase the likelihood that PFA will recommend proposed research to the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG) of DOE.

  3. 10 CFR 140.107 - Appendix G-Form of indemnity agreement with licensees processing plutonium for use in plutonium...

    2010-01-01

    ... processing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing insurance... § 140.107 Appendix G—Form of indemnity agreement with licensees processing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing insurance policies as proof of...

  4. 10 CFR 140.108 - Appendix H-Form of indemnity agreement with licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium...

    2010-01-01

    ... possessing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of... Appendixes to Part 140 § 140.108 Appendix H—Form of indemnity agreement with licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of...

  5. Excess Weapons Plutonium Immobilization in Russia

    Jardine, L.; Borisov, G.B.

    2000-04-15

    The joint goal of the Russian work is to establish a full-scale plutonium immobilization facility at a Russian industrial site by 2005. To achieve this requires that the necessary engineering and technical basis be developed in these Russian projects and the needed Russian approvals be obtained to conduct industrial-scale immobilization of plutonium-containing materials at a Russian industrial site by the 2005 date. This meeting and future work will provide the basis for joint decisions. Supporting R&D projects are being carried out at Russian Institutes that directly support the technical needs of Russian industrial sites to immobilize plutonium-containing materials. Special R&D on plutonium materials is also being carried out to support excess weapons disposition in Russia and the US, including nonproliferation studies of plutonium recovery from immobilization forms and accelerated radiation damage studies of the US-specified plutonium ceramic for immobilizing plutonium. This intriguing and extraordinary cooperation on certain aspects of the weapons plutonium problem is now progressing well and much work with plutonium has been completed in the past two years. Because much excellent and unique scientific and engineering technical work has now been completed in Russia in many aspects of plutonium immobilization, this meeting in St. Petersburg was both timely and necessary to summarize, review, and discuss these efforts among those who performed the actual work. The results of this meeting will help the US and Russia jointly define the future direction of the Russian plutonium immobilization program, and make it an even stronger and more integrated Russian program. The two objectives for the meeting were to: (1) Bring together the Russian organizations, experts, and managers performing the work into one place for four days to review and discuss their work with each other; and (2) Publish a meeting summary and a proceedings to compile reports of all the excellent

  6. Ultra-Small Plutonium Oxide Nanocrystals: An Innovative Material in Plutonium Science

    HUDRY DAMIEN; Griveau, Jean-Christophe; Apostolidis, Christos; WALTER OLAF; Janssen, Arne; Manara, Dario; Colineau, Eric; VITOVA T.; Wang, Di; KUEBEL Christian; MEYER D.j.m.

    2013-01-01

    Apart from its sensitive technological importance, plutonium (Pu) is also one of the most intriguing elements because of its non-conventional physical properties and fascinating chemistry. Those fundamental aspects are particularly interesting when dealing with the challenging study of plutonium-based nanomaterials. Here we show that ultra-small (3.2  0.9 nm) and highly crystalline plutonium oxide (PuO2) nanocrystals (NCs) can be synthesized by the thermal decomposition of plutonyl nitrate (...

  7. Direct vitrification of plutonium-containing materials (PCM`s) with the glass material oxidation and dissolution system (GMODS)

    Forsberg, C.W. Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.; Rudolph, J.C.; Haas, P.A.; Malling, G.F.; Elam, K.; Ott, L.

    1995-10-30

    The end of the cold war has resulted in excess PCMs from nuclear weapons and associated production facilities. Consequently, the US government has undertaken studies to determine how best to manage and dispose of this excess material. The issues include (a) ensurance of domestic health, environment, and safety in handling, storage, and disposition, (b) international arms control agreements with Russia and other countries, and (c) economics. One major set of options is to convert the PCMs into glass for storage or disposal. The chemically inert characteristics of glasses make them a desirable chemical form for storage or disposal of radioactive materials. A glass may contain only plutonium, or it may contain plutonium along with other radioactive materials and nonradioactive materials. GMODS is a new process for the direct conversion of PCMs (i.e., plutonium metal, scrap, and residues) to glass. The plutonium content of these materials varies from a fraction of a percent to pure plutonium. GMODS has the capability to also convert other metals, ceramics, and amorphous solids to glass, destroy organics, and convert chloride-containing materials into a low-chloride glass and a secondary clean chloride salt strewn. This report is the initial study of GMODS for vitrification of PCMs as input to ongoing studies of plutonium management options. Several tasks were completed: initial analysis of process thermodynamics, initial flowsheet analysis, identification of equipment options, proof-of-principle experiments, and identification of uncertainties.

  8. PLUTONIUM METALLOGRAPHY AT LOS ALAMOS

    PEREYRA, RAMIRO A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; LOVATO, DARRYL [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-08

    From early days of the Manhattan program to today, scientists and engineers have continued to investigate the metallurgical properties of plutonium (Pu). Although issues like aging was not a concern to the early pioneers, today the reliability of our aging stockpile is of major focus. And as the country moves toward a new generation of weapons similar problems that the early pioneers faced such as compatibility, homogeneity and malleability have come to the forefront. And metallography will continue to be a principle tool for the resolution of old and new issues. Standard metallographic techniques are used for the preparation of plutonium samples. The samples are first cut with a slow speed idamond saw. After mounting in Epon 815 epoxy resin, the samples are ground through 600 grit silicon carbide paper. PF 5070 (a Freon substitute) is used as a coolant, lubricant, and solvent for most operations. Rough mechanical polished is done with 9-{mu} diamond using a nap less cloth, for example nylon or cotton. Final polish is done with 1-{mu} diamond on a nappy cloth such as sylvet. Ethyl alcohol is then used ultrasonically to clean the samples before electro polishing. The sample is then electro-polished and etched in an electrolyte containing 10% nitric acid, and 90% dimethyleneformalmide. Ethyl alcohol is used as a final cleaning agent. Although standard metallographic preparation techniques are used, there are several reasons why metallography of Pu is difficult and challenging. Firstly, because of the health hazards associated with its radioactive properties, sample preparation is conducted in glove boxes. Figure 1 shows the metallography line, in an R and D facility. Since they are designed to be negative in pressure to the laboratory, cross-contamination of abrasives is a major problem. In addition, because of safety concerns and waste issues, there is a limit to the amount of solvent that can be used. Secondly, Pu will readily hydride or oxidize when in contact

  9. Plutonium focus area: Technology summary

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to creation of specific focus areas. These organizations were designed to focus scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The focus area approach provides the framework for inter-site cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major focus areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG, EM-66) followed EM-50`s structure and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). NMSTG`s charter to the PFA, described in detail later in this book, plays a major role in meeting the EM-66 commitments to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). The PFA is a new program for FY96 and as such, the primary focus of revision 0 of this Technology Summary is an introduction to the Focus Area; its history, development, and management structure, including summaries of selected technologies being developed. Revision 1 to the Plutonium Focus Area Technology Summary is slated to include details on all technologies being developed, and is currently planned for release in August 1996. The following report outlines the scope and mission of the Office of Environmental Management, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  10. Interaction between stainless steel and plutonium metal

    Dunwoody, John T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mason, Richard E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Freibert, Franz J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Willson, Stephen P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Veirs, Douglas K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Worl, Laura A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Archuleta, Alonso [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Conger, Donald J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Long-term storage of excess plutonium is of great concern in the U.S. as well as abroad. The current accepted configuration involves intimate contact between the stored material and an iron-bearing container such as stainless steel. While many safety scenario studies have been conducted and used in the acceptance of stainless steel containers, little information is available on the physical interaction at elevated temperatures between certain forms of stored material and the container itself. The bulk of the safety studies has focused on the ability of a package to keep the primary stainless steel containment below the plutonium-iron eutectic temperature of approximately 410 C. However, the interactions of plutonium metal with stainless steel have been of continuing interest. This paper reports on a scoping study investigating the interaction between stainless steel and plutonium metal in a pseudo diffusion couple at temperatures above the eutectic melt-point.

  11. Laboratory Building for Accurate Determination of Plutonium

    2008-01-01

    <正>The accurate determination of plutonium is one of the most important assay techniques of nuclear fuel, also the key of the chemical measurement transfer and the base of the nuclear material balance. An

  12. Plutonium: The first 50 years. United States plutonium production, acquisition, and utilization from 1944 through 1994

    None

    1996-02-01

    The report contains important newly declassified information regarding the US production, acquisition, and removals of plutonium. This new information, when combined with previously declassified data, has allowed the DOE to issue, for the first time, a truly comprehensive report on the total DOE plutonium inventory. At the December 7, 1993, Openness Press Conference, the DOE declassified the plutonium inventories at eight locations totaling 33.5 metric tons (MT). This report declassifies the remainder of the DOE plutonium inventory. Newly declassified in this report is the quantity of plutonium at the Pantex Site, near Amarillo, Texas, and in the US nuclear weapons stockpile of 66.1 MT, which, when added to the previously released inventory of 33.5 MT, yields a total plutonium inventory of 99.5 MT. This report will document the sources which built up the plutonium inventory as well as the transactions which have removed plutonium from that inventory. This report identifies four sources that add plutonium to the DOE/DoD inventory, and seven types of transactions which remove plutonium from the DOE/DoD inventory. This report also discusses the nuclear material control and accountability system which records all nuclear material transactions, compares records with inventory and calculates material balances, and analyzes differences to verify that nuclear materials are in quantities as reported. The DOE believes that this report will aid in discussions in plutonium storage, safety, and security with stakeholders as well as encourage other nations to declassify and release similar data. These data will also be available for formulating policies with respect to disposition of excess nuclear materials. The information in this report is based on the evaluation of available records. The information contained in this report may be updated or revised in the future should additional or more detailed data become available.

  13. Plutonium Finishing Plant safety evaluation report

    1995-01-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) previously known as the Plutonium Process and Storage Facility, or Z-Plant, was built and put into operation in 1949. Since 1949 PFP has been used for various processing missions, including plutonium purification, oxide production, metal production, parts fabrication, plutonium recovery, and the recovery of americium (Am-241). The PFP has also been used for receipt and large scale storage of plutonium scrap and product materials. The PFP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) was prepared by WHC to document the hazards associated with the facility, present safety analyses of potential accident scenarios, and demonstrate the adequacy of safety class structures, systems, and components (SSCs) and operational safety requirements (OSRs) necessary to eliminate, control, or mitigate the identified hazards. Documented in this Safety Evaluation Report (SER) is DOE`s independent review and evaluation of the PFP FSAR and the basis for approval of the PFP FSAR. The evaluation is presented in a format that parallels the format of the PFP FSAR. As an aid to the reactor, a list of acronyms has been included at the beginning of this report. The DOE review concluded that the risks associated with conducting plutonium handling, processing, and storage operations within PFP facilities, as described in the PFP FSAR, are acceptable, since the accident safety analyses associated with these activities meet the WHC risk acceptance guidelines and DOE safety goals in SEN-35-91.

  14. A vision for environmentally conscious plutonium processing

    Avens, L.R.; Eller, P.G.; Christensen, D.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Nuclear Materials Technology Div.; Miller, W.L. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Environmental Engineering Sciences

    1998-12-31

    Regardless of individual technical and political opinions about the uses of plutonium, it is virtually certain that plutonium processing will continue on a significant global scale for many decades for the purposes of national defense, nuclear power and remediation. An unavoidable aspect of plutonium processing is that radioactive contaminated gas, liquid, and solid streams are generated. These streams need to be handled in a manner that is not only in full compliance with today`s laws,but also will be considered environmentally and economically responsible now and in the future. In this regard, it is indeed ironic that the multibillion dollar and multidecade radioactive cleanup mortgage that the US Department of Energy (and its Russian counterpart) now owns resulted from waste management practices that were at the time in full legal compliance. The theme of this paper is that recent dramatic advances in actinide science and technology now make it possible to drastically minimize or even eliminate the problematic waste streams of traditional plutonium processing operations. Advanced technology thereby provides the means to avoid passing on to our children and grandchildren significant environmental and economic legacies that traditional processing inevitably produces. This paper will describe such a vision for plutonium processing that could be implemented fully within five years at a facility such as the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility (TA55). As a significant bonus, even on this short time scale, the initial technology investment is handsomely returned in avoided waste management costs.

  15. A DGT technique for plutonium bioavailability measurements.

    Cusnir, Ruslan; Steinmann, Philipp; Bochud, François; Froidevaux, Pascal

    2014-09-16

    The toxicity of heavy metals in natural waters is strongly dependent on the local chemical environment. Assessing the bioavailability of radionuclides predicts the toxic effects to aquatic biota. The technique of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) is largely exploited for bioavailability measurements of trace metals in waters. However, it has not been applied for plutonium speciation measurements yet. This study investigates the use of DGT technique for plutonium bioavailability measurements in chemically different environments. We used a diffusion cell to determine the diffusion coefficients (D) of plutonium in polyacrylamide (PAM) gel and found D in the range of 2.06-2.29 × 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1). It ranged between 1.10 and 2.03 × 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1) in the presence of fulvic acid and in natural waters with low DOM. In the presence of 20 ppm of humic acid of an organic-rich soil, plutonium diffusion was hindered by a factor of 5, with a diffusion coefficient of 0.50 × 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1). We also tested commercially available DGT devices with Chelex resin for plutonium bioavailability measurements in laboratory conditions and the diffusion coefficients agreed with those from the diffusion cell experiments. These findings show that the DGT methodology can be used to investigate the bioaccumulation of the labile plutonium fraction in aquatic biota.

  16. Treatment of plutonium process residues by molten salt oxidation

    Stimmel, J.; Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.; Brock, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Heslop, M. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (United States). Indian Head Div.; Wernly, K. [Molten Salt Oxidation Corp. (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that can remove more than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible {sup 238}Pu material. Plutonium processing residues are injected into a molten salt bed with an excess of air. The salt (sodium carbonate) functions as a catalyst for the conversion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and water. Reactive species such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulfur, phosphorous and arsenic in the organic waste react with the molten salt to form the corresponding neutralized salts, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and NaAsO{sub 2} or Na{sub 3}AsO4. Plutonium and other metals react with the molten salt and air to form metal salts or oxides. Saturated salt will be recycled and aqueous chemical separation will be used to recover the {sup 238}Pu. The Los Alamos National Laboratory system, which is currently in the conceptual design stage, will be scaled down from current systems for use inside a glovebox.

  17. Lithium target for accelerator based BNCT neutron source: Influence by the proton irradiation on lithium

    Fujii, R.; Imahori, Y.; Nakakmura, M.; Takada, M.; Kamada, S.; Hamano, T.; Hoshi, M.; Sato, H.; Itami, J.; Abe, Y.; Fuse, M.

    2012-12-01

    The neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is in the transition stage from nuclear reactor to accelerator based neutron source. Generation of low energy neutron can be achieved by 7Li (p, n) 7Be reaction using accelerator based neutron source. Development of small-scale and safe neutron source is within reach. The melting point of lithium that is used for the target is low, and durability is questioned for an extended use at a high current proton beam. In order to test its durability, we have irradiated lithium with proton beam at the same level as the actual current density, and found no deterioration after 3 hours of continuous irradiation. As a result, it is suggested that lithium target can withstand proton irradiation at high current, confirming suitability as accelerator based neutron source for BNCT.

  18. Effect of compositional variation in plutonium on process shielding design

    Brown, T.H.

    1997-11-01

    Radiation dose rate from plutonium with high {sup 239}Pu content varies with initial nuclidic content, radioactive decay time, and impurity elemental content. The two idealized states of old plutonium and clean plutonium, whose initial compositions are given, provide approximate upper and lower bounds on dose rate variation. Whole-body dose rates were calculated for the two composition states, using unshielded and shielded plutonium spheres of varying density. The dose rates from these variable density spheres are similar to those from expanded plutonium configurations encountered during processing. The dose location of 40 cm from the sphere center is representative of operator standoff for direct handling of plutonium inside a glove box. The results have shielding implications for glove boxes with only structurally inherent shielding, especially for processing of old plutonium in an expanded configuration. Further reduction in total dose rate by using lead to reduce photon dose rate is shown for two density cases representing compact and expanded plutonium configurations.

  19. Treatment of Uranium and Plutonium solutions generated in Atalante by R and D activities

    Lagrave, H.; Beretti, C.; Bros, P. [CEA Rhone Valley Research Center, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    The Atalante complex operated by the 'Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique' (Cea) consolidates research programs on actinide chemistry, processing for recycling spent fuel, and fabrication of actinide targets for innovative concepts in future nuclear systems. In order to produce mixed oxide powder containing uranium, plutonium and minor actinides and to deal with increasing flows in the facility, a new shielded line will be built and is expected to be operational by 2012. Its main functions will be to receive, concentrate and store solutions, purify them, ensure co-conversion of actinides and conversion of excess uranium. (authors)

  20. Assessing the Feasibility of Using Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA) for Assaying Plutonium in Spent Fuel Assemblies

    D. L. Chichester; J. W. Sterbentz

    2012-07-01

    Neutron resonance transmission analysis (NRTA) is an active-interrogation nondestructive assay (NDA) technique capable of assaying spent nuclear fuel to determine plutonium content. Prior experimental work has definitively shown the technique capable of assaying plutonium isotope composition in spent-fuel pins to a precision of approximately 3%, with a spatial resolution of a few millimeters. As a Grand Challenge to investigate NDA options for assaying spent fuel assemblies (SFAs) in the commercial fuel cycle, Idaho National Laboratory has explored the feasibility of using NRTA to assay plutonium in a whole SFA. The goal is to achieve a Pu assay precision of 1%. The NRTA technique uses low-energy neutrons from 0.1-40 eV, at the bottom end of the actinide-resonance range, in a time-of-flight arrangement. Isotopic composition is determined by relating absorption of the incident neutrons to the macroscopic cross-section of the actinides of interest in the material, and then using this information to determine the areal density of the isotopes in the SFA. The neutrons used for NRTA are produced using a pulsed, accelerator-based neutron source. Distinguishable resonances exist for both the plutonium (239,240,241,242Pu) and uranium (235,236,238U) isotopes of interest in spent fuel. Additionally, in this energy range resonances exists for six important fission products (99Tc, 103Rh, 131Xe, 133Cs, 145Nd, and 152Sm) which provide additional information to support spent fuel plutonium assay determinations. Based on extensive modeling of the problem using Monte Carlo-based simulation codes, our preliminary results suggest that by rotating an SFA to acquire four symmetric views, sufficient neutron transmission can be achieved to assay a SFA. In this approach multiple scan information for the same pins may also be unfolded to potentially allow the determination of plutonium for sub-regions of the assembly. For a 17 ? 17 pressurized water reactor SFA, a simplistic preliminary

  1. Plutonium Chemistry in the UREX+ Separation Processes

    ALena Paulenova; George F. Vandegrift, III; Kenneth R. Czerwinski

    2009-10-01

    The project "Plutonium Chemistry in the UREX+ Separation Processes” is led by Dr. Alena Paulenova of Oregon State University under collaboration with Dr. George Vandegrift of ANL and Dr. Ken Czerwinski of the University of Nevada at Las Vegas. The objective of the project is to examine the chemical speciation of plutonium in UREX+ (uranium/tributylphosphate) extraction processes for advanced fuel technology. Researchers will analyze the change in speciation using existing thermodynamics and kinetic computer codes to examine the speciation of plutonium in aqueous and organic phases. They will examine the different oxidation states of plutonium to find the relative distribution between the aqueous and organic phases under various conditions such as different concentrations of nitric acid, total nitrates, or actinide ions. They will also utilize techniques such as X-ray absorbance spectroscopy and small-angle neutron scattering for determining plutonium and uranium speciation in all separation stages. The project started in April 2005 and is scheduled for completion in March 2008.

  2. Speciation and Bioavailability Measurements of Environmental Plutonium Using Diffusion in Thin Films.

    Cusnir, Ruslan; Steinmann, Philipp; Christl, Marcus; Bochud, François; Froidevaux, Pascal

    2015-11-09

    The biological uptake of plutonium (Pu) in aquatic ecosystems is of particular concern since it is an alpha-particle emitter with long half-life which can potentially contribute to the exposure of biota and humans. The diffusive gradients in thin films technique is introduced here for in-situ measurements of Pu bioavailability and speciation. A diffusion cell constructed for laboratory experiments with Pu and the newly developed protocol make it possible to simulate the environmental behavior of Pu in model solutions of various chemical compositions. Adjustment of the oxidation states to Pu(IV) and Pu(V) described in this protocol is essential in order to investigate the complex redox chemistry of plutonium in the environment. The calibration of this technique and the results obtained in the laboratory experiments enable to develop a specific DGT device for in-situ Pu measurements in freshwaters. Accelerator-based mass-spectrometry measurements of Pu accumulated by DGTs in a karst spring allowed determining the bioavailability of Pu in a mineral freshwater environment. Application of this protocol for Pu measurements using DGT devices has a large potential to improve our understanding of the speciation and the biological transfer of Pu in aquatic ecosystems.

  3. Standard test method for plutonium assay by plutonium (III) diode array spectrophotometry

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the determination of total plutonium as plutonium(III) in nitrate and chloride solutions. The technique is applicable to solutions of plutonium dioxide powders and pellets (Test Methods C 697), nuclear grade mixed oxides (Test Methods C 698), plutonium metal (Test Methods C 758), and plutonium nitrate solutions (Test Methods C 759). Solid samples are dissolved using the appropriate dissolution techniques described in Practice C 1168. The use of this technique for other plutonium-bearing materials has been reported (1-5), but final determination of applicability must be made by the user. The applicable concentration range for plutonium sample solutions is 10–200 g Pu/L. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropria...

  4. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-22

    Acqueous Chloride mission is to recover plutonium and americium from pyrochemical residues (undesirable form for utilization and storage) and generate plutonium oxide and americium oxide. Plutonium oxide is recycled into Pu metal production flowsheet. It is suitable for storage. Americium oxide is a valuable product, sold through the DOE-OS isotope sales program.

  5. 10 CFR 71.63 - Special requirement for plutonium shipments.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special requirement for plutonium shipments. 71.63 Section... MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.63 Special requirement for plutonium shipments. Shipments containing plutonium must be made with the contents in solid form, if the contents contain greater than...

  6. The United States Plutonium Balance, 1944 - 2009

    None

    2012-06-01

    This report updates the report -Plutonium: The first 50 years- which was released by the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) in 1996. The topic of both reports is plutonium, sometimes referred to as Pu-239, which is capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction and is used in nuclear weapons and for nuclear power production. This report updates 1994 data through 2009. The four most significant changes since 1994 include: (a) the completion of cleanup activities at the Rocky Flats Plant in 2005; (b) material consolidation and disposition activities, especially shipments from Hanford to the Savannah River Site; (c) the 2007 declaration of an additional 9.0 MT of weapons grade plutonium to be surplus to defense needs in the coming decades; and (d) the opening of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico in 1999.

  7. Use of plutonium in PWR-type reactors; Utilisation du plutonium dans les REP

    Berthet, A. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France). Direction de l' Equipement

    1999-04-01

    The plutonium is used, as fuel, in the pressurized water reactors. It does not exist in nature; butit is fabricated in the reactor by neutrons capture. The MOX (Mixed Oxides) is its usual name. A part is consumed by the fission, the remainder is found in the used fuel released from the reactor. The paper deals with the plutonium specificities, the research and development programs about this fuel. The technical specifications of the PWR recycling the plutonium are also included (radiation protection, reactor fueling). (A.L.B.)

  8. Alternating layers of plutonium and lead or indium as surrogate for plutonium

    Rudin, Sven P, E-mail: srudin@lanl.gov [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Elemental plutonium (Pu) assumes more crystal structures than other elements, plausibly due to bonding f electrons becoming non-bonding. Complex geometries hamper understanding of the transition in Pu, but calculations predict this transition in a system with simpler geometry: alternating layers either of plutonium and lead or of plutonium and indium. Here the transition occurs via a pairing-up of atoms within Pu layers. Calculations stepping through this pairing-up reveal valuable details of the transition, for example that the transition from bonding to non-bonding proceeds smoothly.

  9. Alternating layers of plutonium and lead or indium as surrogate for plutonium

    Rudin, Sven Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Elemental plutonium (Pu) assumes more crystal structures than other elements, plausibly due to bonding f electrons becoming non-bonding. Complex geometries hamper understanding of the transition in Pu, but calculations predict this transition in a system with simpler geometry: alternating layers either of plutonium and lead or of plutonium and indium. Here the transition occurs via a pairing-up of atoms within Pu layers. Calculations stepping through this pairing-up reveal valuable details of the transition, for example that the transition from bonding to non-bonding proceeds smoothly.

  10. Plutonium transport in the environment.

    Kersting, Annie B

    2013-04-01

    The recent estimated global stockpile of separated plutonium (Pu) worldwide is about 500 t, with equal contributions from nuclear weapons and civilian nuclear energy. Independent of the United States' future nuclear energy policy, the current large and increasing stockpile of Pu needs to be safely isolated from the biosphere and stored for thousands of years. Recent laboratory and field studies have demonstrated the ability of colloids (1-1000 nm particles) to facilitate the migration of strongly sorbing contaminants such as Pu. In understanding the dominant processes that may facilitate the transport of Pu, the initial source chemistry and groundwater chemistry are important factors, as no one process can explain all the different field observations of Pu transport. Very little is known about the molecular-scale geochemical and biochemical mechanisms controlling Pu transport, leaving our conceptual model incomplete. Equally uncertain are the conditions that inhibit the cycling and mobility of Pu in the subsurface. Without a better mechanistic understanding for Pu at the molecular level, we cannot advance our ability to model its transport behavior and achieve confidence in predicting long-term transport. Without a conceptual model that can successfully predict long-term Pu behavior and ultimately isolation from the biosphere, the public will remain skeptical that nuclear energy is a viable and an attractive alternative to counter global warming effects of carbon-based energy alternatives. This review summarizes our current understanding of the relevant conditions and processes controlling the behavior of Pu in the environment, gaps in our scientific knowledge, and future research needs.

  11. REVIEW OF PLUTONIUM OXIDATION LITERATURE

    Korinko, P.

    2009-11-12

    A brief review of plutonium oxidation literature was conducted. The purpose of the review was to ascertain the effect of oxidation conditions on oxide morphology to support the design and operation of the PDCF direct metal oxidation (DMO) furnace. The interest in the review was due to a new furnace design that resulted in oxide characteristics that are different than those of the original furnace. Very little of the published literature is directly relevant to the DMO furnace operation, which makes assimilation of the literature data with operating conditions and data a convoluted task. The oxidation behavior can be distilled into three regimes, a low temperature regime (RT to 350 C) with a relatively slow oxidation rate that is influenced by moisture, a moderate temperature regime (350-450 C) that is temperature dependent and relies on more or less conventional oxidation growth of a partially protective oxide scale, and high temperature oxidation (> 500 C) where the metal autocatalytically combusts and oxidizes. The particle sizes obtained from these three regimes vary with the finest being from the lowest temperature. It is surmised that the slow growth rate permits significant stress levels to be achieved that help break up the oxides. The intermediate temperatures result in a fairly compact scale that is partially protective and that grows to critical thickness prior to fracturing. The growth rate in this regime may be parabolic or paralinear, depending on the oxidation time and consequently the oxide thickness. The high temperature oxidation is invariant in quiescent or nearly quiescent conditions due to gas blanketing while it accelerates with temperature under flowing conditions. The oxide morphology will generally consist of fine particles (<15 {micro}m), moderately sized particles (15 < x < 250 {micro}m) and large particles (> 250 {micro}m). The particle size ratio is expected to be < 5%, 25%, and 70% for fine, medium and large particles, respectively, for

  12. Measurement of Plutonium Isotopic Composition - MGA

    Vo, Duc Ta [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-21

    In this module, we will use the Canberra InSpector-2000 Multichannel Analyzer with a high-purity germanium detector (HPGe) and the MGA isotopic anlysis software to assay a variety of plutonium samples. The module provides an understanding of the MGA method, its attributes and limitations. You will assess the system performance by measuring a range of materials similar to those you may assay in your work. During the final verification exercise, the results from MGA will be combined with the 240Pueff results from neutron coincidence or multiplicity counters so that measurements of the plutonium mass can be compared with the operator-declared (certified) values.

  13. Diffusion in the uranium - plutonium system and self-diffusion of plutonium in epsilon phase; Diffusion dans le systeme uranium-plutonium et autodiffusion du plutonium epsilon

    Dupuy, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    A survey of uranium-plutonium phase diagram leads to confirm anglo-saxon results about the plutonium solubility in {alpha} uranium (15 per cent at 565 C) and the uranium one in {zeta} phase (74 per cent at 565 C). Interdiffusion coefficients, for concentration lower than 15 per cent had been determined in a temperature range from 410 C to 640 C. They vary between 0.2 and 6 10{sup 12} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}, and the activation energy between 13 and 20 kcal/mole. Grain boundary, diffusion of plutonium in a uranium had been pointed out by micrography, X-ray microanalysis and {alpha} autoradiography. Self-diffusion of plutonium in {epsilon} phase (bcc) obeys Arrhenius law: D = 2. 10{sup -2} exp -(18500)/RT. But this activation energy does not follow empirical laws generally accepted for other metals. It has analogies with 'anomalous' bcc metals ({beta}Zr, {beta}Ti, {beta}Hf, U{sub {gamma}}). (author) [French] Une etude du diagramme d'equilibre uranium-plutonium conduit a confirmer les resultats anglo-saxons relatifs a la solubilite du plutonium dans l'uranium {alpha} (15 pour cent a 565 C) et de l'uranium dans la phase {zeta} (74 pour cent a 565 C). Les coefficients de diffusion chimique, pour des concentrations inferieures a 15 pour cent ont ete determines a des temperatures comprises entre 410 et 640 C. Ils se situent entre 0.2 et 6. 10{sup 12} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}. L'energie d'activation varie entre 13 et 20 kcal/mole. La diffusion intergranulaire du plutonium dans l'uranium a a ete mise en evidence par micrographie, microanalyse X et autoradiographie {alpha}. L' autodiffusion du plutonium {beta} cubique centree obeit a la loi d'Arrhenius D = 2. 10{sup -2} exp - (18500)/RT. Son energie d'activation n'obeit pas aux lois empiriques generalement admises pour les autres metaux. Elle possede des analogies avec les cubiques centres ''anormaux'' (Zr{beta}, Ti{beta}, Hf{beta}, U{gamma}). (auteur)

  14. Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition: Plutonium Packaging, Storage and Transportation and Waste Treatment, Storage and Disposal Activities

    Jardine, L J; Borisov, G B

    2004-07-21

    A fifth annual Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition meeting organized by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was held February 16-18, 2004, at the State Education Center (SEC), 4 Aerodromnya Drive, St. Petersburg, Russia. The meeting discussed Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition topics for which LLNL has the US Technical Lead Organization responsibilities. The technical areas discussed included Radioactive Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal, Plutonium Oxide and Plutonium Metal Packaging, Storage and Transportation and Spent Fuel Packaging, Storage and Transportation. The meeting was conducted with a conference format using technical presentations of papers with simultaneous translation into English and Russian. There were 46 Russian attendees from 14 different Russian organizations and six non-Russian attendees, four from the US and two from France. Forty technical presentations were made. The meeting agenda is given in Appendix B and the attendance list is in Appendix C.

  15. Using magnetization measurements to detect small amounts of plutonium hydride formation in plutonium metal

    Kim, Jae Wook [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Mielke, Charles H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zapf, Vivien [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Baiardo, Joseph P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mitchell, Jeremy N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Richmond, Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Schwartz, Daniel S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mun, Eun D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Alice Iulia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-10-20

    We report the formation of plutonium hydride in 2 at % Ga-stabilized δ-Pu, with 1 atomic % H charging. We show that magnetization measurements are a sensitive, quantitative measure of ferromagnetic plutonium hydride against the nonmagnetic background of plutonium. It was previously shown that at low hydrogen concentrations, hydrogen forms super-abundant vacancy complexes with plutonium, resulting in a bulk lattice contraction. Here we use magnetization, X-ray and neutron diffraction measurements to show that in addition to forming vacancy complexes, at least 30% of the H atoms bond with Pu to precipitate PuHx, largely on the surface of the sample with x ~ 1.9. We observe magnetic hysteresis loops below 40 K with magnetic remanence, consistent with precipitates of ferromagnetic PuH1.9.

  16. Site Selection for Surplus Plutonium Disposition Facilities at the Savannah River Site

    Wike, L.D.

    2000-08-17

    A site selection study was conducted to evaluate locations for the proposed Surplus Plutonium Disposition Facilities. Facilities to be located include the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility, the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF), and the Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP) facility. Objectives of the study include: (1) Confirm that the Department of Energy (DOE) selected locations for the MOX and PDCF were suitable based on selected siting criteria, (2) Recommend a site in the vicinity of F Area that is suitable for the PIP, and (3) Identify alternative suitable sites for one or more of these facilities in the event that further geotechnical characterization or other considerations result in disqualification of a currently proposed site.

  17. Plutonium 238/239 Decorporation Model

    2014-10-01

    Ionizing Radiation, 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Saunders. Maydew RC, Bush J. 1997. America’s Lost H-Bomb: Palomares, Spain, 1966. Sunflower University Press...3 ∗ The movement of plutonium particulates within the respiratory tract is depicted in Figure 6 and can be represented by the following

  18. Electrochemically Modulated Separation for Plutonium Safeguards

    Pratt, Sandra H.; Breshears, Andrew T.; Arrigo, Leah M.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Duckworth, Douglas C.

    2013-12-31

    Accurate and timely analysis of plutonium in spent nuclear fuel is critical in nuclear safeguards for detection of both protracted and rapid plutonium diversions. Gamma spectroscopy is a viable method for accurate and timely measurements of plutonium provided that the plutonium is well separated from the interfering fission and activation products present in spent nuclear fuel. Electrochemically modulated separation (EMS) is a method that has been used successfully to isolate picogram amounts of Pu from nitric acid matrices. With EMS, Pu adsorption may be turned "on" and "off" depending on the applied voltage, allowing for collection and stripping of Pu without the addition of chemical reagents. In this work, we have scaled up the EMS process to isolate microgram quantities of Pu from matrices encountered in spent nuclear fuel during reprocessing. Several challenges have been addressed including surface area limitations, radiolysis effects, electrochemical cell performance stability, and chemical interferences. After these challenges were resolved, 6 µg Pu was deposited in the electrochemical cell with approximately an 800-fold reduction of fission and activation product levels from a spent nuclear fuel sample. Modeling showed that these levels of Pu collection and interference reduction may not be sufficient for Pu detection by gamma spectroscopy. The main remaining challenges are to achieve a more complete Pu isolation and to deposit larger quantities of Pu for successful gamma analysis of Pu. If gamma analyses of Pu are successful, EMS will allow for accurate and timely on-site analysis for enhanced Pu safeguards.

  19. Plutonium isotope ratio variations in North America

    Steiner, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; La Mont, Stephen P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eisele, William F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fresquez, Philip R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Naughton, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whicker, Jeffrey J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-14

    Historically, approximately 12,000 TBq of plutonium was distributed throughout the global biosphere by thermo nuclear weapons testing. The resultant global plutonium fallout is a complex mixture whose {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio is a function of the design and yield of the devices tested. The average {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio in global fallout is 0.176 + 014. However, the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio at any location may differ significantly from 0.176. Plutonium has also been released by discharges and accidents associated with the commercial and weapons related nuclear industries. At many locations contributions from this plutonium significantly alters the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios from those observed in global fallout. We have measured the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in environmental samples collected from many locations in North America. This presentation will summarize the analytical results from these measurements. Special emphasis will be placed on interpretation of the significance of the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios measured in environmental samples collected in the Arctic and in the western portions of the United States.

  20. Overview of surplus weapons plutonium disposition

    Rudy, G.

    1996-05-01

    The safe disposition of surplus weapons useable plutonium is a very important and urgent task. While the functions of long term storage and disposition directly relate to the Department`s weapons program and the environmental management program, the focus of this effort is particularly national security and nonproliferation.

  1. Electrochemical studies on plutonium in molten salts

    Bourges, G. [CEA-Centre d' etudes de Valduc, 21 120 Is sur Tille (France)], E-mail: gilles.bourges@cea.fr; Lambertin, D.; Rochefort, S. [CEA-Centre d' etudes de Valduc, 21 120 Is sur Tille (France); Delpech, S.; Picard, G. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Chimie Analytique (UMR7575, CNRS), ENSCP, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris (France)

    2007-10-11

    Electrochemical studies on plutonium have been supporting the development of pyrochemical processes involving plutonium at CEA. The electrochemical properties of plutonium have been studied in molten salts - ternary eutectic mixture NaCl-KCl-BaCl{sub 2}, equimolar mixture NaCl-KCl and pure CaCl{sub 2} - and in liquid gallium at 1073 K. The formal, or apparent, standard potential of Pu(III)/Pu redox couple in eutectic mixture of NaCl-KCl-BaCl{sub 2} at 1073 K determined by potentiometry is equal to -2.56 V (versus Cl{sub 2}, 1 atm/Cl{sup -} reference electrode). In NaCl-KCl eutectic mixture and in pure CaCl{sub 2} the formal standard potentials deduced from cyclic voltammetry are respectively -2.54 V and -2.51 V. These potentials led to the calculation of the activity coefficients of Pu(III) in the molten salts. Chronoamperometry on plutonium in liquid gallium using molten chlorides - CaCl{sub 2} and equimolar NaCl/KCl - led to the determination of the activity coefficient of Pu in liquid Ga, log {gamma} = -7.3. This new data is a key parameter to assess the thermodynamic feasibility of a process using gallium as solvent metal. By comparing gallium with other solvent metals - cadmium, bismuth, aluminum - gallium appears to be, with aluminum, more favorable for the selectivity of the separation at 1073 K of plutonium from cerium. In fact, compared with a solid tungsten electrode, none of these solvent liquid metals is a real asset for the selectivity of the separation. The role of a solvent liquid metal is mainly to trap the elements.

  2. Analytic determination of plutonium in the environment; Determination analytique du plutonium dans l'environnement

    Ballada, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The work described in this report was undertaken with a view to determining the plutonium content in the fall-out from nuclear explosions. In the first part are described in turn the importance of the problems due to the plutonium, the physico-chemical properties of the radioelement and the biological dangers which it presents. A detailed and critical analysis is made of the radio-toxicological determination of the plutonium as reported in the literature prior to this report. The second part consists in the presentation of a judicious choice of techniques making it possible to determine plutonium in air, rain-water, soils and ash. After a detailed description of the measurement equipment and the operational techniques which have been developed, a justification of these techniques is given with particular reference to their sensitivity and specificity. After a brief conclusion concerning the preceding chapters, the results are presented. These are then discussed in the ease of each element in which the plutonium has been determined. This discussion is concluded by a consideration of the importance of the occurrence of fall-out plutonium on problems relating to public health. From a consideration of 200 analyses carried out, it is concluded that the contribution of plutonium to the exposure of populations is still very small compared to that of natural radiation and that due to such fission products as strontium 90. The report includes 63 literature references, 26 figures and 11 tables. (author) [French] Les travaux decrits dans ce memoire ont ete entrepris et eflectues dans le but de mettre en evidence le plutonium des retombees radioactives consecutives aux explosions nucleaires. Dans la premiere partie nous etudions successivement l'importance des problemes poses par le plutonium puis les proprietes physicochimiques du radioelement et les dangers qu'il presente du point de vue biologique. Nous effectuons une analyse detaillee et critique des techniques

  3. Specific contributions of the Dutch progamme ``RAS`` towards accelerator-based transmutation

    Abrahams, K.; Franken, W.M.P.; Bultman, J.H.; Heil, J.A.; Koning, A.J.

    1994-09-01

    Accelerator-based transmutation is being studied by ECN within its general nuclear waste transmutation programme RAS. In this paper the following contributions are presented: (1) Evaluation of cross sections at intermediate energies, within an international frame given by NEA, (2) Cell calculations on the equilibration of transuranium actinides in thermal molten-salt transmuters, (3) Irradiation facilities at the European research reactor HFR in Petten, which have been constructed with the purpose to demonstrate and investigate the transmutation of waste in a high neutron flux, (4) Studies of accelerator-based neutron generating systems to transmute neptunium and technetium, (5) Comparison of several systems on the basis of criteria for successful nuclear waste-management. (orig.).

  4. Plutonium, Mineralogy and Radiation Effects

    Ewing, R. C.

    2006-05-01

    During the past fifty years, more than 1,800 metric tonnes of Pu and substantial quantities of other "minor" actinides, such as Np, Am and Cm, have been generated in nuclear reactors. Some of these transuranic elements can be a source of energy in fission reactions (e.g., 239Pu), a source of fissile material for nuclear weapons (e.g., 239Pu and 237Np), or are of environmental concern because of their long half- lives and radiotoxicity (e.g., 239Pu, t1/2 = 24,100 years, and 237Np, t1/2 = 2.1 million years). There are two basic strategies for the disposition of these elements: 1.) to "burn" or transmute the actinides using nuclear reactors or accelerators; 2.) to "sequester" the actinides in chemically durable, radiation-resistant materials that are suitable for geologic disposal. There has been substantial interest in the use of actinide-bearing minerals, such as zircon or isometric pyrochlore, A2B2O7 (A = rare earths; B = Ti, Zr, Sn, Hf; Fd3m; Z=8), for the immobilization of actinides, particularly plutonium. One of the principal concerns has been the accumulation of structural damage caused by alpha-decay events, particularly from the recoil nucleus. Systematic ion beam irradiation studies of rare-earth pyrochlores have led to the discovery that certain compositions (B = Zr, Hf) are stable to very high fluences of alpha-decay event damage. Some compositions, Gd2Ti2O7, are amorphized at relatively low doses (0.2 displacements per atom, dpa, at room temperature), while other compositions, Gd2Zr2O7, do not amorphize (even at doses of > 40 dpa at 25K), but instead disorder to a defect fluorite structure. By changing the composition of the A-site (e.g., substitution of different rare earth elements), the temperature above which the pyrochlore composition can no longer be amorphized, Tc, varies by >600 K (e.g., Lu2Ti2O7: Tc = 480 K; Gd2Ti2O7: Tc = 1120 K). The variation in response to irradiation as a function of composition can be used to model the long

  5. Estimated discard limits for plutonium-238 recovery processing in the plutonium processing building

    Luthy, D.F.; Bond, W.H.

    1975-03-26

    This manual is intended as a basis for plutonium-238 recovery costs and as a guide for removal of plutonium-bearing wastes from the gloveboxes to be safely and economically discarded. Waste materials contaminated with plutonium-238 are generated from in-house production, analytical, process development, recovery and receipts from off-site. The contaminated materials include paper, rags, alpha-box gloves, piping, valves, filters, etc. General categories for all types of plutonium waste have been established by the ERDA and are reflected in this manual. There are numerous processes used in plutonium recovery, such as dissolution, ultrasonic cleaning, ion exchange, etc. One or more of these processes are needed to extract the plutonium-238 from waste materials, purify it and convert it to an oxide acceptable for reuse. This manual is presented in two parts: Part I gives a breakdown and brief explanation of the direct costs for plutonium-238 I recovery, derived from budget data. Direct costs include direct labor (operating personnel), operational materials and supplies, health physics direct labor, calorimetry labor, analytical labor, and engineering direct labor (total costs for Method I). Budgeted costs for labor and material were used in the derivation of discard limits. The data presented is then used to calculate the cost per hour for recovery, as it applies to the three different methods of calculating discard limits referred to, in this manual, as Method I (calculation stated above), Method II and Method III. The cost for Method II is derived by adding to the cost of Method I, payroll related expenses. Method III is then calculated by adding over-head expenses to the total cost of Method II.

  6. Studies of industrial emissions by accelerator-based techniques: A review of applications at CEDAD

    Calcagnile L.; Quarta G.

    2012-01-01

    Different research activities are in progress at the Centre for Dating and Diagnostics (CEDAD), University of Salento, in the field of environmental monitoring by exploiting the potentialities given by the different experimental beam lines implemented on the 3 MV Tande-tron accelerator and dedicated to AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrome-try) radiocarbon dating and IB A (Ion Beam Analysis). An overview of these activities is presented by showing how accelerator-based analytical techniques can be ...

  7. Treatment planning capability assessment of a beam shaping assembly for accelerator-based BNCT

    Herrera, M.S., E-mail: herrera@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin (Argentina)] [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 191, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Universidad Nacional de San Martin, UNSAM, Av. 25 de Mayo y Francia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gonzalez, S.J. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin (Argentina)] [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 191, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Burlon, A.A. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin (Argentina)] [Universidad Nacional de San Martin, UNSAM, Av. 25 de Mayo y Francia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Minsky, D.M.; Kreiner, A.J. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin (Argentina)] [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 191, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Universidad Nacional de San Martin, UNSAM, Av. 25 de Mayo y Francia Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    Within the frame of an ongoing project to develop a folded Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole accelerator facility for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (AB-BNCT) a theoretical study was performed to assess the treatment planning capability of different configurations of an optimized beam shaping assembly for such a facility. In particular this study aims at evaluating treatment plans for a clinical case of Glioblastoma.

  8. Determination of Trace Plutonium in Uranium Product by ID-ICP-MS

    2011-01-01

    Plutonium is strictly limited in the uranium product of spent fuel reprocessing. The analysis of plutonium in uranium product is the key point of product quality control. Plutonium concentration is limited below

  9. Assessment of PWR plutonium burners for nuclear energy centers

    Frankel, A J; Shapiro, N L

    1976-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the performance and safety characteristics of PWR plutonium burners, to identify modifications to current PWR designs to enhance plutonium utilization, to study the problems of deploying plutonium burners at Nuclear Energy Centers, and to assess current industrial capability of the design and licensing of such reactors. A plutonium burner is defined to be a reactor which utilizes plutonium as the sole fissile addition to the natural or depleted uranium which comprises the greater part of the fuel mass. The results of the study and the design analyses performed during the development of C-E's System 80 plant indicate that the use of suitably designed plutonium burners at Nuclear Energy Centers is technically feasible.

  10. Plutonium disposition via immobilization in ceramic or glass

    Gray, L.W.; Kan, T.; Shaw, H.F.; Armantrout, A.

    1997-03-05

    The management of surplus weapons plutonium is an important and urgent task with profound environmental, national, and international security implications. In the aftermath of the Cold War, Presidential Policy Directive 13, and various analyses by renown scientific, technical, and international policy organizations have brought about a focused effort within the Department of Energy to identify and implement paths for the long term disposition of surplus weapons- usable plutonium. The central goal of this effort is to render surplus weapons plutonium as inaccessible and unattractive for reuse in nuclear weapons as the much larger and growing stock of plutonium contained in spent fuel from civilian reactors. One disposition option being considered for surplus plutonium is immobilization, in which the plutonium would be incorporated into a glass or ceramic material that would ultimately be entombed permanently in a geologic repository for high-level waste.

  11. Concentration and purification of plutonium or thorium

    Hayden, John A.; Plock, Carl E.

    1976-01-01

    In this invention a first solution obtained from such as a plutonium/thorium purification process or the like, containing plutonium (Pu) and/or thorium (Th) in such as a low nitric acid (HNO.sub.3) concentration may have the Pu and/or Th separated and concentrated by passing an electrical current from a first solution having disposed therein an anode to a second solution having disposed therein a cathode and separated from the first solution by a cation permeable membrane, the Pu or Th cation permeating the cation membrane and forming an anionic complex within the second solution, and electrical current passage affecting the complex formed to permeate an anion membrane separating the second solution from an adjoining third solution containing disposed therein an anode, thereby effecting separation and concentration of the Pu and/or Th in the third solution.

  12. Plutonium in Southern Hemisphere ocean Waters

    Hirose, K.; Aoyama, M.; Gastaud, J.

    2013-01-01

    Plutonium in seawater collected by the BEAGLE2003 cruise was determined using ICP- SF-MS and alpha spectrometry after Fe co-precipitation and radiochemical purification. Levels and distributions of dissolved plutonium activity concentrations in Southern Hemisphere ocean waters are summarized here......, including historical data. Pu-239 concentrations in surface water----of the central South Pacific (32.5 °S) in 2003 were around 1 mBq/m3. The 239Pu concentrations in the Indian Ocean surface waters (20°S) were similar to that in the South Pacific, whereas the 239Pu concentrations in the South Atlantic...... surface waters (30°S) were markedly lower than those in the South Pacific and Indian Oceans. The 239Pu vertical profile pattern was similar to that in the North Pacific subtropical gyre, although 239Pu concentrations in the deep South Pacific were significantly lower than those in the North Pacific. One...

  13. CRITICALITY CURVES FOR PLUTONIUM HYDRAULIC FLUID MIXTURES

    WITTEKIND WD

    2007-10-03

    This Calculation Note performs and documents MCNP criticality calculations for plutonium (100% {sup 239}Pu) hydraulic fluid mixtures. Spherical geometry was used for these generalized criticality safety calculations and three geometries of neutron reflection are: {sm_bullet}bare, {sm_bullet}1 inch of hydraulic fluid, or {sm_bullet}12 inches of hydraulic fluid. This document shows the critical volume and critical mass for various concentrations of plutonium in hydraulic fluid. Between 1 and 2 gallons of hydraulic fluid were discovered in the bottom of HA-23S. This HA-23S hydraulic fluid was reported by engineering to be Fyrquel 220. The hydraulic fluid in GLovebox HA-23S is Fyrquel 220 which contains phosphorus. Critical spherical geometry in air is calculated with 0 in., 1 in., or 12 inches hydraulic fluid reflection.

  14. Spectrophotometers for plutonium monitoring in HB-line

    Lascola, R. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); O' Rourke, P. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Kyser, E. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Immel, D. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Plummer, J. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Evans, E. V. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-02-12

    This report describes the equipment, control software, calibrations for total plutonium and plutonium oxidation state, and qualification studies for the instrument. It also provides a detailed description of the uncertainty analysis, which includes source terms associated with plutonium calibration standards, instrument drift, and inter-instrument variability. Also included are work instructions for instrument, flow cell, and optical fiber setup, work instructions for routine maintenance, and drawings and schematic diagrams.

  15. Pyrochemical investigations into recovering plutonium from americium extraction salt residues

    Fife, K.W.; West, M.H.

    1987-05-01

    Progress into developing a pyrochemical technique for separating and recovering plutonium from spent americium extraction waste salts has concentrated on selective chemical reduction with lanthanum metal and calcium metal and on the solvent extraction of americium with calcium metal. Both techniques are effective for recovering plutonium from the waste salt, although neither appears suitable as a separation technique for recycling a plutonium stream back to mainline purification processes. 17 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Dresden 1 plutonium recycle program. Final report

    Bresnick, S.D.

    1980-01-01

    This is the final report on the Dresden 1 Plutonium Recycle Demonstration Program. It covers the work performed from July 1, 1978 to completion, which includes in-pool inspection of two fuel assemblies, removal of two fuel rods, and post-irradiation examination (PIE) of six fuel rods. Appendix A describes the inspection and rod removal operations, and Appendix B describes the PIE work.

  17. Geomorphology of plutonium in the Northern Rio Grande

    Graf, W.L. [Arizona Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept., of Geography

    1993-03-01

    Nearly all of the plutonium in the natural environment of the Northern Rio Grande is associated with soils and sediment, and river processes account for most of the mobility of these materials. A composite regional budget for plutonium based on multi-decadal averages for sediment and plutonium movement shows that 90 percent of the plutonium moving into the system is from atmospheric fallout. The remaining 10 percent is from releases at Los Alamos. Annual variation in plutonium flux and storage exceeds 100 percent. The contribution to the plutonium budget from Los Alamos is associated with relatively coarse sediment which often behaves as bedload in the Rio Grande. Infusion of these materials into the main stream were largest in 1951, 1952, 1957, and 1968. Because of the schedule of delivery of plutonium to Los Alamos for experimentation and weapons manufacturing, the latter two years are probably the most important. Although the Los Alamos contribution to the entire plutonium budget was relatively small, in these four critical years it constituted 71--86 percent of the plutonium in bedload immediately downstream from Otowi.

  18. Determination of plutonium temperature using the special trans functions theory

    Perović Slavica M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of estimating plutonium temperature by an iterative procedure based on the special trans functions theory has been studied in some detail. In theory, the differential linear plutonium temperature equation can be effectively reduced to a non-linear functional transcendental equation solvable by special trans functions theory. This approach is practically invariant under the starting plutonium temperature value. This is significant, because the said iterative special trans functions theory does not depend on the password data of the plutonium cargo. Obtained numerical results and graphical simulations confirm the applicability of such approach.

  19. A Plutonium-Contaminated Wound, 1985, USA

    Doran M. Christensen, DO, REAC/TS Associate Director and Staff Physician Eugene H. Carbaugh, CHP, Staff Scientist, Internal Dosimetry Manager, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington

    2012-02-02

    A hand injury occurred at a U.S. facility in 1985 involving a pointed shaft (similar to a meat thermometer) that a worker was using to remove scrap solid plutonium from a plastic bottle. The worker punctured his right index finger on the palm side at the metacarpal-phalangeal joint. The wound was not through-and- through, although it was deep. The puncture wound resulted in deposition of ~48 kBq of alpha activity from the weapons-grade plutonium mixture with a nominal 12 to 1 Pu-alpha to {sup 241}Am-alpha ratio. This case clearly showed that DTPA was very effective for decorporation of plutonium and americium. The case is a model for management of wounds contaminated with transuranics: (1) a team approach for dealing with all of the issues surrounding the incident, including the psychological, (2) early surgical intervention for foreign-body removal, (3) wound irrigation with DTPA solution, and (4) early and prolonged DTPA administration based upon bioassay and in vivo dosimetry.

  20. PLUTONIUM METALLIC FUELS FOR FAST REACTORS

    STAN, MARIUS [Los Alamos National Laboratory; HECKER, SIEGFRIED S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-02-07

    Early interest in metallic plutonium fuels for fast reactors led to much research on plutonium alloy systems including binary solid solutions with the addition of aluminum, gallium, or zirconium and low-melting eutectic alloys with iron and nickel or cobalt. There was also interest in ternaries of these elements with plutonium and cerium. The solid solution and eutectic alloys have most unusual properties, including negative thermal expansion in some solid-solution alloys and the highest viscosity known for liquid metals in the Pu-Fe system. Although metallic fuels have many potential advantages over ceramic fuels, the early attempts were unsuccessful because these fuels suffered from high swelling rates during burn up and high smearing densities. The liquid metal fuels experienced excessive corrosion. Subsequent work on higher-melting U-PuZr metallic fuels was much more promising. In light of the recent rebirth of interest in fast reactors, we review some of the key properties of the early fuels and discuss the challenges presented by the ternary alloys.

  1. Plutonium immobilization in glass and ceramics

    Knecht, D.A. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies, Idaho Falls (United States); Murphy, W.M. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Materials Research Society Nineteenth Annual Symposium on the Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management was held in Boston on November 27 to December 1, 1995. Over 150 papers were presented at the Symposium dealing with all aspects of nuclear waste management and disposal. Fourteen oral sessions and on poster session included a Plenary session on surplus plutonium dispositioning and waste forms. The proceedings, to be published in April, 1996, will provide a highly respected, referred compilation of the state of scientific development in the field of nuclear waste management. This paper provides a brief overview of the selected Symposium papers that are applicable to plutonium immobilization and plutonium waste form performance. Waste forms that were described at the Symposium cover most of the candidate Pu immobilization options under consideration, including borosilicate glass with a melting temperature of 1150 {degrees}C, a higher temperature (1450 {degrees}C) lanthanide glass, single phase ceramics, multi-phase ceramics, and multi-phase crystal-glass composites (glass-ceramics or slags). These Symposium papers selected for this overview provide the current status of the technology in these areas and give references to the relevant literature.

  2. Guide to good practices at plutonium facilities

    Faust, L.G.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Carter, L.A.; Endres, G.W.R.; Glenn, R.D.; Jech, J.J.; Selby, J.M.; Smith, R.C.; Waite, D.A.; Walsh, W.P.

    1977-09-01

    This manual establishes guidelines and principles for use in setting up a sound radiation protection program for work with plutonium. The guidance presented is based on the experiences of Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) contractors and those portions of private industry concerned with the operation of plutonium facilities, specifically with the fabrication of mixed oxide reactor fuel. The manual is directed primarily to those facilities which have as their sole purpose the handling of large quantities of plutonium for military or industrial uses. It is not intended for use by facilities engaged in reactor or chemical separation operations nor for partial or occasional use by analytical laboratories; while these facilities would find the manual beneficial, it would be incomplete for their needs. The manual addresses good practices that should be observed by management, staff and designers, since the benefits of a good radiation protection program are the result of their joint efforts. Methods for the diagnostic evaluation of internally deposited Pu are included.

  3. Real-time monitoring of plutonium content in uranium-plutonium alloys

    Li, Shelly Xiaowei; Westphal, Brian Robert; Herrmann, Steven Douglas

    2015-09-01

    A method and device for the real-time, in-situ monitoring of Plutonium content in U--Pu Alloys comprising providing a crucible. The crucible has an interior non-reactive to a metallic U--Pu alloy within said interior of said crucible. The U--Pu alloy comprises metallic uranium and plutonium. The U--Pu alloy is heated to a liquid in an inert or reducing atmosphere. The heated U--Pu alloy is then cooled to a solid in an inert or reducing atmosphere. As the U--Pu alloy is cooled, the temperature of the U--Pu alloy is monitored. A solidification temperature signature is determined from the monitored temperature of the U--Pu alloy during the step of cooling. The amount of Uranium and the amount of Plutonium in the U--Pu alloy is then determined from the determined solidification temperature signature.

  4. Spectrographic analysis of plutonium (1960); L'analyse spectrographique du plutonium (1960)

    Artaud, J.; Chaput, M.; Robichet, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    Various possibilities for the spectrographic determination of impurities in plutonium are considered. The application of the 'copper spark' method, of sparking on graphite and of fractional distillation in the arc are described and discussed in some detail (apparatus, accessories, results obtained). (author) [French] On examine diverses possibilites pour le dosage spectrographique des impuretes dans le plutonium. On decrit et discute plus particulierement de l'application des methodes 'copper spark', de l'etincelage sur graphite et de la distillation fractionnee dans l'arc (montages, accessoires, resultats obtenus). (auteur)

  5. Characterization of Representative Materials in Support of Safe, Long Term Storage of Surplus Plutonium in DOE-STD-3013 Containers

    Narlesky, Joshua E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stroud, Mary Ann [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Paul Herrick [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wayne, David M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mason, Richard E. [MET-1: ACTINIDE PROCESSING SUPPORT; Worl, Laura A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2013-02-15

    The Surveillance and Monitoring Program is a joint Los Alamos National Laboratory/Savannah River Site effort funded by the Department of Energy-Environmental Management to provide the technical basis for the safe, long-term storage (up to 50 years) of over 6 metric tons of plutonium stored in over 5,000 DOE-STD-3013 containers at various facilities around the DOE complex. The majority of this material is plutonium that is surplus to the nuclear weapons program, and much of it is destined for conversion to mixed oxide fuel for use in US nuclear power plants. The form of the plutonium ranges from relatively pure metal and oxide to very impure oxide. The performance of the 3013 containers has been shown to depend on moisture content and on the levels, types and chemical forms of the impurities. The oxide materials that present the greatest challenge to the storage container are those that contain chloride salts. Other common impurities include oxides and other compounds of calcium, magnesium, iron, and nickel. Over the past 15 years the program has collected a large body of experimental data on 54 samples of plutonium, with 53 chosen to represent the broader population of materials in storage. This paper summarizes the characterization data, moisture analysis, particle size, surface area, density, wattage, actinide composition, trace element impurity analysis, and shelf life surveillance data and includes origin and process history information. Limited characterization data on fourteen nonrepresentative samples is also presented.

  6. Contentious Conversations

    Zuidema, Leah A.

    2011-01-01

    The idea of joining a conversation through reading and writing is not new; in his 1941 book "The Philosophy of Literary Form: Studies in Symbolic Action," Kenneth Burke suggests that the acts of reading and writing are like entering a parlor where others are already conversing. The author explores the place of professional debate within NCTE and…

  7. Conversational Narcissism.

    Vangelisti, Anita L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examines narcissistic communication and the ways it is exhibited in everyday conversation. Identifies the following behavioral referents: boasting, refocusing the topic of conversation on the self, exaggerating hand and body movements, using a loud tone of voice, and "glazing over" when others speak. Suggests that conversational…

  8. Chemical Disposition of Plutonium in Hanford Site Tank Wastes

    Delegard, Calvin H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-07

    This report examines the chemical disposition of plutonium (Pu) in Hanford Site tank wastes, by itself and in its observed and potential interactions with the neutron absorbers aluminum (Al), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and sodium (Na). Consideration also is given to the interactions of plutonium with uranium (U). No consideration of the disposition of uranium itself as an element with fissile isotopes is considered except tangentially with respect to its interaction as an absorber for plutonium. The report begins with a brief review of Hanford Site plutonium processes, examining the various means used to recover plutonium from irradiated fuel and from scrap, and also examines the intermediate processing of plutonium to prepare useful chemical forms. The paper provides an overview of Hanford tank defined-waste–type compositions and some calculations of the ratios of plutonium to absorber elements in these waste types and in individual waste analyses. These assessments are based on Hanford tank waste inventory data derived from separately published, expert assessments of tank disposal records, process flowsheets, and chemical/radiochemical analyses. This work also investigates the distribution and expected speciation of plutonium in tank waste solution and solid phases. For the solid phases, both pure plutonium compounds and plutonium interactions with absorber elements are considered. These assessments of plutonium chemistry are based largely on analyses of idealized or simulated tank waste or strongly alkaline systems. The very limited information available on plutonium behavior, disposition, and speciation in genuine tank waste also is discussed. The assessments show that plutonium coprecipitates strongly with chromium, iron, manganese and uranium absorbers. Plutonium’s chemical interactions with aluminum, nickel, and sodium are minimal to non-existent. Credit for neutronic interaction of plutonium with these absorbers

  9. Chemical species of plutonium in Hanford radioactive tank waste

    Barney, G.S.

    1997-10-22

    Large quantities of radioactive wastes have been generated at the Hanford Site over its operating life. The wastes with the highest activities are stored underground in 177 large (mostly one million gallon volume) concrete tanks with steel liners. The wastes contain processing chemicals, cladding chemicals, fission products, and actinides that were neutralized to a basic pH before addition to the tanks to prevent corrosion of the steel liners. Because the mission of the Hanford Site was to provide plutonium for defense purposes, the amount of plutonium lost to the wastes was relatively small. The best estimate of the amount of plutonium lost to all the waste tanks is about 500 kg. Given uncertainties in the measurements, some estimates are as high as 1,000 kg (Roetman et al. 1994). The wastes generally consist of (1) a sludge layer generated by precipitation of dissolved metals from aqueous wastes solutions during neutralization with sodium hydroxide, (2) a salt cake layer formed by crystallization of salts after evaporation of the supernate solution, and (3) an aqueous supernate solution that exists as a separate layer or as liquid contained in cavities between sludge or salt cake particles. The identity of chemical species of plutonium in these wastes will allow a better understanding of the behavior of the plutonium during storage in tanks, retrieval of the wastes, and processing of the wastes. Plutonium chemistry in the wastes is important to criticality and environmental concerns, and in processing the wastes for final disposal. Plutonium has been found to exist mainly in the sludge layers of the tanks along with other precipitated metal hydrous oxides. This is expected due to its low solubility in basic aqueous solutions. Tank supernate solutions do not contain high concentrations of plutonium even though some tanks contain high concentrations of complexing agents. The solutions also contain significant concentrations of hydroxide which competes with other

  10. Development of a Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole facility for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Kreiner, A.J., E-mail: kreiner@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin (Argentina)] [CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Castell, W. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Di Paolo, H. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin (Argentina); Baldo, M. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bergueiro, J. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    We describe the present status of an ongoing project to develop a Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator facility for Accelerator-Based (AB)-BNCT. The project final goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.4 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction. The machine currently being constructed is a folded TESQ with a high-voltage terminal at 0.6 MV. We report here on the progress achieved in a number of different areas.

  11. Determination of plutonium in nitric acid solutions using energy dispersive L X-ray fluorescence with a low power X-ray generator

    Py, J. [Laboratoire Chrono-Environnement, UMR CNRS 6249, Université de Franche-Comté, 16 route de Gray, F-25030 Besançon (France); Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique, Centre de Valduc, F-21120 Is-sur-Tille (France); Groetz, J.-E., E-mail: jegroetz@univ-fcomte.fr [Laboratoire Chrono-Environnement, UMR CNRS 6249, Université de Franche-Comté, 16 route de Gray, F-25030 Besançon (France); Hubinois, J.-C.; Cardona, D. [Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique, Centre de Valduc, F-21120 Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2015-04-21

    This work presents the development of an in-line energy dispersive L X-ray fluorescence spectrometer set-up, with a low power X-ray generator and a secondary target, for the determination of plutonium concentration in nitric acid solutions. The intensity of the L X-rays from the internal conversion and gamma rays emitted by the daughter nuclei from plutonium is minimized and corrected, in order to eliminate the interferences with the L X-ray fluorescence spectrum. The matrix effects are then corrected by the Compton peak method. A calibration plot for plutonium solutions within the range 0.1–20 g L{sup −1} is given.

  12. Ultra-small plutonium oxide nanocrystals: an innovative material in plutonium science.

    Hudry, Damien; Apostolidis, Christos; Walter, Olaf; Janssen, Arne; Manara, Dario; Griveau, Jean-Christophe; Colineau, Eric; Vitova, Tonya; Prüssmann, Tim; Wang, Di; Kübel, Christian; Meyer, Daniel

    2014-08-11

    Apart from its technological importance, plutonium (Pu) is also one of the most intriguing elements because of its non-conventional physical properties and fascinating chemistry. Those fundamental aspects are particularly interesting when dealing with the challenging study of plutonium-based nanomaterials. Here we show that ultra-small (3.2±0.9 nm) and highly crystalline plutonium oxide (PuO2 ) nanocrystals (NCs) can be synthesized by the thermal decomposition of plutonyl nitrate ([PuO2 (NO3 )2 ]⋅3 H2 O) in a highly coordinating organic medium. This is the first example reporting on the preparation of significant quantities (several tens of milligrams) of PuO2 NCs, in a controllable and reproducible manner. The structure and magnetic properties of PuO2 NCs have been characterized by a wide variety of techniques (powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), TEM, IR, Raman, UV/Vis spectroscopies, and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry). The current PuO2 NCs constitute an innovative material for the study of challenging problems as diverse as the transport behavior of plutonium in the environment or size and shape effects on the physics of transuranium elements.

  13. Fifty years of plutonium exposure to the Mahattan Project plutonium workers: An update

    Voelz, G.L.; Lawrence, J.N.P.; Johnson, E.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Twenty-six white male workers who did the original plutonium research and development work at Los Alamos have been examined periodically over the past 50 y to identify possible health effects from internal plutonium depositions. Their effective doses range from 0.1 to 7.2 Sv with a median value of 1.25 Sv. As of the end of 1994, 7 individuals have died compared with an expected 16 deaths based on mortality rates of U.S. white males in the general population. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) is 0.43. When compared with 876 unexposed Los Alamos workers of the same period, the plutonium worker`s mortality rate was also not elevated (SMR = 0.77). The 19 living persons have diseases and physical changes characteristic of a male population with a median age of 72 y (range = 69 to 86 y). Eight of the twenty-six workers have been diagnosed as having one or more cancers, which is within the expected range. The underlying cause of death in three of the seven deceased persons was from cancer, namely cancer of prostate, lung, and bone. Mortality from all cancers was not statistically elevated. The effective doses from plutonium to these individuals are compared with current radiation protection guidelines. 28 refs., 5 tabs.

  14. Plutonium in the Arctic Marine Environment — A Short Review

    Lindis Skipperud

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic plutonium has been introduced into the environment over the past 50 years as the result of the detonation of nuclear weapons and operational releases from the nuclear industry. In the Arctic environment, the main source of plutonium is from atmospheric weapons testing, which has resulted in a relatively uniform, underlying global distribution of plutonium. Previous studies of plutonium in the Kara Sea have shown that, at certain sites, other releases have given rise to enhanced local concentrations. Since different plutonium sources are characterised by distinctive plutonium-isotope ratios, evidence of a localised influence can be supported by clear perturbations in the plutonium-isotope ratio fingerprints as compared to the known ratio in global fallout. In Kara Sea sites, such perturbations have been observed as a result of underwater weapons tests at Chernaya Bay, dumped radioactive waste in Novaya Zemlya, and terrestrial runoff from the Ob and Yenisey Rivers. Measurement of the plutonium-isotope ratios offers both a means of identifying the origin of radionuclide contamination and the influence of the various nuclear installations on inputs to the Arctic, as well as a potential method for following the movement of water and sediment loads in the rivers.

  15. Recommended plutonium release fractions from postulated fires. Final report

    Kogan, V.; Schumacher, P.M.

    1993-12-01

    This report was written at the request of EG&G Rocky Flats, Inc. in support of joint emergency planning for the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) by EG&G and the State of Colorado. The intent of the report is to provide the State of Colorado with an independent assessment of any respirable plutonium releases that might occur in the event of a severe fire at the plant. Fire releases of plutonium are of interest because they have been used by EG&G to determine the RFP emergency planning zones. These zones are based on the maximum credible accident (MCA) described in the RFP Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) of 1980, that MCA is assumed to be a large airplane crashing into a RFP plutonium building.The objective of this report was first, to perform a worldwide literature review of relevant release experiments from 1960 to the present and to summarize those findings, and second, to provide recommendations for application of the experimental data to fire release analyses at Rocky Flats. The latter step requires translation between experimental and expected RFP accident parameters, or ``scaling.`` The parameters of particular concern are: quantities of material, environmental parameters such as the intensity of a fire, and the physico-chemical forms of the plutonium. The latter include plutonium metal, bulk plutonium oxide powder, combustible and noncombustible wastes contaminated with plutonium oxide powder, and residues from plutonium extraction processes.

  16. Density of Plutonium Turnings Generated from Machining Activities

    Gonzales, John Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vigil, Duane M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jachimowski, Thomas A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Archuleta, Alonso [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Arellano, Gerald Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Melton, Vince Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-20

    The purpose of this project was to determine the density of plutonium (Pu) turnings generated from the range of machining activities, using both surrogate material and machined Pu turnings. Verify that 500 grams (g) of plutonium will fit in a one quart container using a surrogate equivalent volume and that 100 grams of Pu will fit in a one quart Savy container.

  17. 10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.

    2010-01-01

    ... citation of 49 CFR chapter I, as may be applicable, the licensee shall assure that plutonium in any form... carrier, require compliance with 49 CFR 175.704, U.S. Department of Transportation regulations applicable... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air transport of plutonium. 71.88 Section 71.88...

  18. Pedestrian movement analysis in transfer station corridor: Velocity-based and acceleration-based

    Ji, Xiangfeng; Zhang, Jian; Hu, Yongkai; Ran, Bin

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, pedestrians are classified into aggressive and conservative ones by their temper. Aggressive pedestrians' walking through crowd in transfer station corridor is analyzed. Treating pedestrians as particles, this paper uses the modified social force model (MSFM) as the building block, where forces involve self-driving force, repulsive force and friction force. The proposed model in this paper is a discrete model combining the MSFM and cellular automata (CA) model, where the updating rules of the CA are redefined with MSFM. Due to the continuity of values generated by the MSFM, we use the fuzzy logic to discretize the continuous values into cells pedestrians can move in one step. With the observation that stimulus around pedestrians influences their acceleration directly, an acceleration-based movement model is presented, compared to the generally reviewed velocity-based movement model. In the acceleration-based model, a discretized version of kinematic equation is presented based on the acceleration discretized with fuzzy logic. In real life, some pedestrians would rather keep their desired speed and this is also mimicked in this paper, which is called inertia. Compared to the simple triangular membership function, a trapezoidal membership function and a piecewise linear membership function are used to capture pedestrians' inertia. With the trapezoidal and the piecewise linear membership function, many overlapping scenarios should be carefully handled and Dubois and Prade's four-index method is used to completely describe the relative relationship of fuzzy quantities. Finally, a simulation is constructed to demonstrate the effect of our model.

  19. Conversation Analysis.

    Schiffrin, Deborah

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes the current state of research in conversation analysis, referring primarily to six different perspectives that have developed from the philosophy, sociology, anthropology, and linguistics disciplines. These include pragmatics; speech act theory; interactional sociolinguistics; ethnomethodology; ethnography of communication; and…

  20. Conversion Disorder

    ... Recent significant stress or emotional trauma Being female — women are much more likely to develop conversion disorder Having a mental health condition, such as mood or anxiety disorders, dissociative disorder or certain personality disorders Having ...

  1. Development of advanced mixed oxide fuels for plutonium management

    Eaton, S.; Beard, C.; Buksa, J.; Butt, D.; Chidester, K.; Havrilla, G.; Ramsey, K.

    1997-06-01

    A number of advanced Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel forms are currently being investigated at Los Alamos National Laboratory that have the potential to be effective plutonium management tools. Evolutionary Mixed Oxide (EMOX) fuel is a slight perturbation on standard MOX fuel, but achieves greater plutonium destruction rates by employing a fractional nonfertile component. A pure nonfertile fuel is also being studied. Initial calculations show that the fuel can be utilized in existing light water reactors and tailored to address different plutonium management goals (i.e., stabilization or reduction of plutonium inventories residing in spent nuclear fuel). In parallel, experiments are being performed to determine the feasibility of fabrication of such fuels. Initial EMOX pellets have successfully been fabricated using weapons-grade plutonium.

  2. Pyrochemical recovery of plutonium from calcium fluoride reduction slag

    Christensen, D.C.

    A pyrochemical method of recovering finely dispersed plutonium metal from calcium fluoride reduction slag is claimed. The plutonium-bearing slag is crushed and melted in the presence of at least an equimolar amount of calcium chloride and a few percent metallic calcium. The calcium chloride reduces the melting point and thereby decreases the viscosity of the molten mixture. The calcium reduces any oxidized plutonium in the mixture and also causes the dispersed plutonium metal to coalesce and settle out as a separate metallic phase at the bottom of the reaction vessel. Upon cooling the mixture to room temperature, the solid plutonium can be cleanly separated from the overlying solid slag, with an average recovery yield on the order of 96 percent.

  3. Uncertainties on lung doses from inhaled plutonium.

    Puncher, Matthew; Birchall, Alan; Bull, Richard K

    2011-10-01

    In a recent epidemiological study, Bayesian uncertainties on lung doses have been calculated to determine lung cancer risk from occupational exposures to plutonium. These calculations used a revised version of the Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM) published by the ICRP. In addition to the Bayesian analyses, which give probability distributions of doses, point estimates of doses (single estimates without uncertainty) were also provided for that study using the existing HRTM as it is described in ICRP Publication 66; these are to be used in a preliminary analysis of risk. To infer the differences between the point estimates and Bayesian uncertainty analyses, this paper applies the methodology to former workers of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA), who constituted a subset of the study cohort. The resulting probability distributions of lung doses are compared with the point estimates obtained for each worker. It is shown that mean posterior lung doses are around two- to fourfold higher than point estimates and that uncertainties on doses vary over a wide range, greater than two orders of magnitude for some lung tissues. In addition, we demonstrate that uncertainties on the parameter values, rather than the model structure, are largely responsible for these effects. Of these it appears to be the parameters describing absorption from the lungs to blood that have the greatest impact on estimates of lung doses from urine bioassay. Therefore, accurate determination of the chemical form of inhaled plutonium and the absorption parameter values for these materials is important for obtaining reliable estimates of lung doses and hence risk from occupational exposures to plutonium.

  4. Strategic conversation

    Nicholas Asher

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Models of conversation that rely on a strong notion of cooperation don’t apply to strategic conversation — that is, to conversation where the agents’ motives don’t align, such as courtroom cross examination and political debate. We provide a game-theoretic framework that provides an analysis of both cooperative and strategic conversation. Our analysis features a new notion of safety that applies to implicatures: an implicature is safe when it can be reliably treated as a matter of public record. We explore the safety of implicatures within cooperative and non cooperative settings. We then provide a symbolic model enabling us (i to prove a correspondence result between a characterisation of conversation in terms of an alignment of players’ preferences and one where Gricean principles of cooperative conversation like Sincerity hold, and (ii to show when an implicature is safe and when it is not. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.6.2 BibTeX info

  5. Thermal Stability Studies of Candidate Decontamination Agents for Hanford’s Plutonium Finishing Plant Plutonium-Contaminated Gloveboxes

    Scheele, Randall D.; Cooper, Thurman D.; Jones, Susan A.; Ewalt, John R.; Compton, James A.; Trent, Donald S.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Scott, Paul A.; Minette, Michael J.

    2005-09-29

    This report provides the results of PNNL's and Fluor's studies of the thermal stabilities of potential wastes arising from decontamination of Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant's plutonium contaminated gloveboxes. The candidate wastes arising from the decontamination technologies ceric nitrate/nitric acid, RadPro, Glygel, and Aspigel.

  6. Supplement to the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    N/A

    1999-05-14

    On May 22, 1997, DOE published a Notice of Intent in the Federal Register (62 Federal Register 28009) announcing its decision to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) that would tier from the analysis and decisions reached in connection with the ''Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials Final Programmatic EIS (Storage and Disposition PEIS)''. ''The Surplus Plutonium Disposition Draft Environmental Impact Statement'' (SPD Draft EIS) (DOWEIS-0283-D) was prepared in accordance with NEPA and issued in July 1998. It identified the potential environmental impacts of reasonable alternatives for the proposed siting, construction, and operation of three facilities for plutonium disposition. These three facilities would accomplish pit disassembly and conversion, immobilization, and MOX fuel fabrication. For the alternatives that included MOX fuel fabrication, the draft also described the potential environmental impacts of using from three to eight commercial nuclear reactors to irradiate MOX fuel. The potential impacts were based on a generic reactor analysis that used actual reactor data and a range of potential site conditions. In May 1998, DCE initiated a procurement process to obtain MOX fuel fabrication and reactor irradiation services. The request for proposals defined limited activities that may be performed prior to issuance of the SPD EIS Record of Decision (ROD) including non-site-specific work associated with the development of the initial design for the MOX fuel fabrication facility, and plans (paper studies) for outreach, long lead-time procurements, regulatory management, facility quality assurance, safeguards, security, fuel qualification, and deactivation. No construction on the proposed MOX facility would begin before an SPD EIS ROD is issued. In March 1999, DOE awarded a contract to Duke Engineering & Services; COGEMA, Inc.; and Stone & Webster (known as DCS) to provide the requested

  7. Direct Conversion of Energy

    Corliss, William R

    1964-01-01

    Topics include: direct versus dynamic energy conversion; laws governing energy conversion; thermoelectricity; thermionic conversion; magnetohydrodynamic conversion; chemical batteries; the fuel cell; solar cells; nuclear batteries; and advanced concepts including ferroelectric conversion and thermomagnetic conversion.

  8. Solvent extraction system for plutonium colloids and other oxide nano-particles

    Soderholm, Lynda; Wilson, Richard E; Chiarizia, Renato; Skanthakumar, Suntharalingam

    2014-06-03

    The invention provides a method for extracting plutonium from spent nuclear fuel, the method comprising supplying plutonium in a first aqueous phase; contacting the plutonium aqueous phase with a mixture of a dielectric and a moiety having a first acidity so as to allow the plutonium to substantially extract into the mixture; and contacting the extracted plutonium with second a aqueous phase, wherein the second aqueous phase has a second acidity higher than the first acidity, so as to allow the extracted plutonium to extract into the second aqueous phase. The invented method facilitates isolation of plutonium polymer without the formation of crud or unwanted emulsions.

  9. AMS of the Minor Plutonium Isotopes.

    Steier, P; Hrnecek, E; Priller, A; Quinto, F; Srncik, M; Wallner, A; Wallner, G; Winkler, S

    2013-01-01

    VERA, the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator, is especially equipped for the measurement of actinides, and performs a growing number of measurements on environmental samples. While AMS is not the optimum method for each particular plutonium isotope, the possibility to measure (239)Pu, (240)Pu, (241)Pu, (242)Pu and (244)Pu on the same AMS sputter target is a great simplification. We have obtained a first result on the global fallout value of (244)Pu/(239)Pu = (5.7 ± 1.0) × 10(-5) based on soil samples from Salzburg prefecture, Austria. Furthermore, we suggest using the (242)Pu/(240)Pu ratio as an estimate of the initial (241)Pu/(239)Pu ratio, which allows dating of the time of irradiation based solely on Pu isotopes. We have checked the validity of this estimate using literature data, simulations, and environmental samples from soil from the Salzburg prefecture (Austria), from the shut down Garigliano Nuclear Power Plant (Sessa Aurunca, Italy) and from the Irish Sea near the Sellafield nuclear facility. The maximum deviation of the estimated dates from the expected ages is 6 years, while relative dating of material from the same source seems to be possible with a precision of less than 2 years. Additional information carried by the minor plutonium isotopes may allow further improvements of the precision of the method.

  10. Expected radiation effects in plutonium immobilization ceramic

    Van Konynenburg, R.A., LLNL

    1997-09-01

    The current formulation of the candidate ceramic for plutonium immobilization consists primarily of pyrochlore, with smaller amounts of hafnium-zirconolite, rutile, and brannerite or perovskite. At a plutonium loading of 10.5 weight %, this ceramic would be made metamict (amorphous) by radiation damage resulting from alpha decay in a time much less than 10,000 years, the actual time depending on the repository temperature as a function of time. Based on previous experimental radiation damage work by others, it seems clear that this process would also result in a bulk volume increase (swelling) of about 6% for ceramic that was mechanically unconfined. For the candidate ceramic, which is made by cold pressing and sintering and has porosity amounting to somewhat more than this amount, it seems likely that this swelling would be accommodated by filling in the porosity, if the material were tightly confined mechanically by the waste package. Some ceramics have been observed to undergo microcracking as a result of radiation-induced anisotropic or differential swelling. It is unlikely that the candidate ceramic will microcrack extensively, for three reasons: (1) its phase composition is dominated by a single matrix mineral phase, pyrochlore, which has a cubic crystal structure and is thus not subject to anisotropic swelling; (2) the proportion of minor phases is small, minimizing potential cracking due to differential swelling; and (3) there is some flexibility in sintering process parameters that will allow limitation of the grain size, which can further limit stresses resulting from either cause.

  11. Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES): The United State's demonstration line for pit disassembly and conversion

    Nelson, Timothy O.

    1998-03-01

    The Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) is a pit disassembly and conversion demonstration line at Los Alamos National Laboratory's plutonium facility. Pits are the core of a nuclear weapon that contains fissile material. With the end of the cold war, the United States began a program to dispose of the fissile material contained in surplus nuclear weapons. In January of 1997, the Department of Energy's Office of Fissile Material Disposition issued a Record of Decision (ROD) on the disposition of surplus plutonium. This decision contained a hybrid option for disposition of the plutonium, immobilization and mixed oxide fuel. ARIES is the cornerstone of the United States plutonium disposition program that supplies the pit demonstration plutonium feed material for either of these disposition pathways. Additionally, information from this demonstration is being used to design the United States Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility. AH of the ARIES technologies were recently developed and incorporate waste minimization. The technologies include pit bisection, hydride/dehydride, metal to oxide conversion process, packaging, and nondestructive assay (NDA). The current schedule for the ARIES integrated Demonstration will begin in the Spring of 1998. The ARIES project involves a number of DOE sites including Los Alamos National Laboratory as the lead laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Sandia National Laboratories. Moreover, the ARIES team is heavily involved in working with Russia in their pit disassembly and conversion activities.

  12. Quantitative elemental analysis of an industrial mineral talc, using accelerator-based analytical technique

    Olabanji, S.O. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy) and Centre for Energy Research and Development, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria)]. E-mail: skayode2002@yahoo.co.uk; Ige, A.O. [Natural History Museum, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Mazzoli, C. [Dipartimento di Mineralogia e Petrologia, Universita di Padova, 35100 Padova (Italy); Ceccato, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35100 Padova (Italy); Ajayi, E.O.B. [Department of Physics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); De Poli, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Moschini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35100 Padova (Italy)

    2005-10-15

    Accelerator-based technique of PIXE was employed for the determination of the elemental concentration of an industrial mineral, talc. Talc is a very versatile mineral in industries with several applications. Due to this, there is a need to know its constituents to ensure that the workers are not exposed to health risks. Besides, microscopic tests on some talc samples in Nigeria confirm that they fall within the BP British Pharmacopoeia standard for tablet formation. However, for these samples to become a local source of raw material for pharmaceutical grade talc, the precise elemental compositions should be established which is the focus of this work. Proton beam produced by the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at INFN, LNL, Legnaro, Padova, Italy was used for the PIXE measurements. The results which show the concentration of different elements in the talc samples, their health implications and metabolic roles are presented and discussed.

  13. Characterisation of an accelerator-based neutron source for BNCT versus beam energy

    Agosteo, S; D'Errico, F; Nath, R; Tinti, R

    2002-01-01

    Neutron capture in sup 1 sup 0 B produces energetic alpha particles that have a high linear energy transfer in tissue. This results in higher cell killing and a higher relative biological effectiveness compared to photons. Using suitably designed boron compounds which preferentially localize in cancerous cells instead of healthy tissues, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has the potential of providing a higher tumor cure rate within minimal toxicity to normal tissues. This clinical approach requires a thermal neutron source, generally a nuclear reactor, with a fluence rate sufficient to deliver tumorcidal doses within a reasonable treatment time (minutes). Thermal neutrons do not penetrate deeply in tissue, therefore BNCT is limited to lesions which are either superficial or otherwise accessible. In this work, we investigate the feasibility of an accelerator-based thermal neutron source for the BNCT of skin melanomas. The source was designed via MCNP Monte Carlo simulations of the thermalization of a fast ...

  14. Conceptual design of an RFQ accelerator-based neutron source for boron neutron-capture therapy

    Wangler, T.P.; Stovall, J.E.; Bhatia, T.S.; Wang, C.K.; Blue, T.E.; Gahbauer, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    We present a conceptual design of a low-energy neutron generator for treatment of brain tumors by boron neutron capture theory (BNCT). The concept is based on a 2.5-MeV proton beam from a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac, and the neutrons are produced by the /sup 7/Li(p,n)/sup 7/Be reaction. A liquid lithium target and modulator assembly are designed to provide a high flux of epithermal neutrons. The patient is administered a tumor-specific /sup 10/Be-enriched compound and is irradiated by the neutrons to create a highly localized dose from the reaction /sup 10/B(n,..cap alpha..)/sup 7/Li. An RFQ accelerator-based neutron source for BNCT is compact, which makes it practical to site the facility within a hospital. 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Design for an accelerator-based orthogonal epithermal neutron beam for boron neutron capture therapy.

    Allen, D A; Beynon, T D; Green, S

    1999-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the proposed Birmingham accelerator-based epithermal neutron beam for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). In particular, the option of producing a therapy beam at an orthogonal direction to the incoming protons is considered. Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations, both with and without a head phantom, have shown that an orthogonal beam geometry is not only acceptable but is indeed beneficial, in terms of a lower mean neutron energy and an enhanced therapeutic ratio for the same useful neutron fluence in the therapy beam. Typical treatment times for various beam options have been calculated, and range from 20 to 48 min with a 5 mA beam of 2.8 MeV protons, if the maximum photon-equivalent dose delivered to healthy tissue is to be 12.6 Gy Eq. The effects of proton beam diameter upon the therapy beam parameters have also been considered.

  16. Multipurpose applications of the accelerator-based neutron source[1pt] GENEPI2

    Villa, F.; Baylac, M.; Billebaud, A.; Boge, P.; Cabanel, T.; Labussière, E.; Méplan, O.; Rey, S.

    2016-11-01

    GENEPI2 (GEnérateur de NEutrons Pulsé Intense) is an accelerator-based neutron source operating at LPSC laboratory in Grenoble (France). The neutrons are produced at 2.5MeV or 14.2MeV trough fusion reactions. GENEPI2 specifications allow performing efficiently accelerated irradiation tests of integrated circuits. This facility can also be operated to test and calibrate different types of detectors. This paper will describe the facility and its performances. Then, measurements of the neutron production will be presented as well as different types of experiments and irradiations. Finally, we describe upgrades undertaken to increase the neutron flux and optimize the facility for multiple applications.

  17. 350 keV accelerator based PGNAA setup to detect nitrogen in bulk samples

    Naqvi, A.A., E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.sa [Department of Physics and King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Al-Matouq, Faris A.; Khiari, F.Z.; Gondal, M.A.; Rehman, Khateeb-ur [Department of Physics and King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Isab, A.A. [Department of Chemistry, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Raashid, M.; Dastageer, M.A. [Department of Physics and King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-11-21

    Nitrogen concentration was measured in explosive and narcotics proxy material, e.g. anthranilic acid, caffeine, melamine, and urea samples, bulk samples through thermal neutron capture reaction using 350 keV accelerator based prompt gamma ray neutron activation (PGNAA) setup. Intensity of 2.52, 3.53–3.68, 4.51, 5.27–5.30 and 10.38 MeV prompt gamma rays of nitrogen from the bulk samples was measured using a cylindrical 100 mm×100 mm (diameter×height ) BGO detector. Inspite of interference of nitrogen gamma rays from bulk samples with capture prompt gamma rays from BGO detector material, an excellent agreement between the experimental and calculated yields of nitrogen gamma rays has been obtained. This is an indication of the excellent performance of the PGNAA setup for detection of nitrogen in bulk samples.

  18. 350 keV accelerator based PGNAA setup to detect nitrogen in bulk samples

    Naqvi, A. A.; Al-Matouq, Faris A.; Khiari, F. Z.; Gondal, M. A.; Rehman, Khateeb-ur; Isab, A. A.; Raashid, M.; Dastageer, M. A.

    2013-11-01

    Nitrogen concentration was measured in explosive and narcotics proxy material, e.g. anthranilic acid, caffeine, melamine, and urea samples, bulk samples through thermal neutron capture reaction using 350 keV accelerator based prompt gamma ray neutron activation (PGNAA) setup. Intensity of 2.52, 3.53-3.68, 4.51, 5.27-5.30 and 10.38 MeV prompt gamma rays of nitrogen from the bulk samples was measured using a cylindrical 100 mm×100 mm (diameter×height ) BGO detector. Inspite of interference of nitrogen gamma rays from bulk samples with capture prompt gamma rays from BGO detector material, an excellent agreement between the experimental and calculated yields of nitrogen gamma rays has been obtained. This is an indication of the excellent performance of the PGNAA setup for detection of nitrogen in bulk samples.

  19. Imitators of plutonium and americium in a mixed uranium- plutonium nitride fuel

    Nikitin, S. N.; Shornikov, D. P.; Tarasov, B. A.; Baranov, V. G.; Burlakova, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    Uranium nitride and mix uranium nitride (U-Pu)N is most popular nuclear fuel for Russian Fast Breeder Reactor. The works in hot cells associated with the radiation exposure of personnel and methodological difficulties. To know the main physical-chemical properties of uranium-plutonium nitride it necessary research to hot cells. In this paper, based on an assessment of physicochemical and thermodynamic properties of selected simulators Pu and Am. Analogues of Pu is are Ce and Y, and analogues Am - Dy. The technique of obtaining a model nitride fuel based on lanthanides nitrides and UN. Hydrogenation-dehydrogenation- nitration method of derived powders nitrides uranium, cerium, yttrium and dysprosium, held their mixing, pressing and sintering, the samples obtained model nitride fuel with plutonium and americium imitation. According to the results of structural studies have shown that all the samples are solid solution nitrides rare earth (REE) elements in UN.

  20. Fluorine and chlorine determination in mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuel and plutonium dioxide

    Elinson, S.V.; Zemlyanukhina, N.A.; Pavlova, I.V.; Filatkina, V.P.; Tsvetkova, V.T.

    1981-01-01

    A technique of fluorine and chlorine determination in the mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuel and plutonium dioxide, based on their simultaneous separation by means of pyrohydrolysis, is developed. Subsequently, fluorine is determined by photometry with alizarincomplexonate of lanthanum or according to the weakening of zirconium colouring with zylenol orange. Chlorine is determined using the photonephelometric method according to the reaction of chloride-ion interaction with silver nitrate or by spectrophotometric method according to the reaction with mercury rhodanide. The lower limit of fluorine determination is -6x10/sup -5/ %, of chlorine- 1x10/sup -4/% in the sample of 1g. The relative mean quadratic deviation of the determination result (Ssub(r)), depends on the character of the material analyzed and at the content of nx10/sup -4/ - nx10/sup -3/ mass % is equal to from 0.05 to 0.32 for fluorine and from 0.11 to 0.35 for chlorine.

  1. Strategies for denaturing the weapons-grade plutonium stockpile

    Buckner, M.R.; Parks, P.B.

    1992-10-01

    In the next few years, approximately 50 metric tons of weapons-grade plutonium and 150 metric tons of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) may be removed from nuclear weapons in the US and declared excess. These materials represent a significant energy resource that could substantially contribute to our national energy requirements. HEU can be used as fuel in naval reactors, or diluted with depleted uranium for use as fuel in commercial reactors. This paper proposes to use the weapons-grade plutonium as fuel in light water reactors. The first such reactor would demonstrate the dual objectives of producing electrical power and denaturing the plutonium to prevent use in nuclear weapons.

  2. Development of first ever scanning probe microscopy capabilities for plutonium

    Beaux, Miles F.; Cordoba, Miguel Santiago; Zocco, Adam T.; Vodnik, Douglas R.; Ramos, Michael; Richmond, Scott; Moore, David P.; Venhaus, Thomas J.; Joyce, Stephen A.; Usov, Igor O.

    2017-04-01

    Scanning probe microscopy capabilities have been developed for plutonium and its derivative compounds. Specifically, a scanning tunneling microscope and an atomic force microscope housed in an ultra-high vacuum system and an inert atmosphere glove box, respectively, were prepared for the introduction of small non-dispersible δ-Pu coupons. Experimental details, procedures, and preliminary imaging of δ-Pu coupons are presented to demonstrate the functionality of these new capabilities. These first of a kind capabilities for plutonium represent a significant step forward in the ability to characterize and understand plutonium surfaces with high spatial resolution.

  3. Decision model for evaluating reactor disposition of excess plutonium

    Edmunds, T.

    1995-02-01

    The US Department of Energy is currently considering a range of technologies for disposition of excess weapon plutonium. Use of plutonium fuel in fission reactors to generate spent fuel is one class of technology options. This report describes the inputs and results of decision analyses conducted to evaluate four evolutionary/advanced and three existing fission reactor designs for plutonium disposition. The evaluation incorporates multiple objectives or decision criteria, and accounts for uncertainty. The purpose of the study is to identify important and discriminating decision criteria, and to identify combinations of value judgments and assumptions that tend to favor one reactor design over another.

  4. Theory of Antineutrino Monitoring of Burning MOX Plutonium Fuels

    Hayes, A C; Nieto, Michael Martin; WIlson, W B

    2011-01-01

    This letter presents the physics and feasibility of reactor antineutrino monitoring to verify the burnup of plutonium loaded in the reactor as a Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel. It examines the magnitude and temporal variation in the antineutrino signals expected for different MOX fuels, for the purposes of nuclear accountability and safeguards. The antineutrino signals from reactor-grade and weapons-grade MOX are shown to be distinct from those from burning low enriched uranium. Thus, antineutrino monitoring could be used to verify the destruction of plutonium in reactors, though verifying the grade of the plutonium being burned is found to be more challenging.

  5. The disposition of civil plutonium in the UK

    Sadnicki, M.J. [Independent Operational Research Consultant (United Kingdom); Barker, F. [Independent Nuclear Policy Analyst, West Yorkshire (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    This paper quantifies the likely future stockpile of UK separated plutonium, and reviews current UK policy. The current strategy of storing plutonium oxide powder is shown to be inconsistent with passivity and disposability objectives. Analysis also shows that there is little potential for use on a commercial basis of Mixed-Oxide (MOX) fuel to reduce the stockpile. Four plutonium immobilisation options are defined, with particular reference to non-proliferation goals. The resource costs of implementing these options are quantified, together with the resource costs of a programme of Government-subsidized MOX use. Immobilisation may offer a more cost-effective solution than a MOX fuel route. (author)

  6. Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium 1999 plan

    NONE

    1999-01-30

    The purpose of the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium is to serve the Texas Panhandle, the State of Texas and the US Department of Energy by: conducting scientific and technical research; advising decision makers; and providing information on nuclear weapons materials and related environment, safety, health, and nonproliferation issues while building academic excellence in science and technology. This paper describes the electronic resource library which provides the national archives of technical, policy, historical, and educational information on plutonium. Research projects related to the following topics are described: Environmental restoration and protection; Safety and health; Waste management; Education; Training; Instrumentation development; Materials science; Plutonium processing and handling; and Storage.

  7. Conversational Telugu.

    Beinstein, Judith; And Others

    The purpose of this text is to develop elementary conversational skills in Telugu. The language materials consist of four types of language learning activities. The first, and most predominant, is the unit microwave cycle. These cycles divide the learning process into two basic phases, the first of which involves mimicry, memorization, and…

  8. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in plutonium analysis.

    Strumińska-Parulska, Dagmara I

    The paper summarizes the results of the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atomic ratio studies in atmospheric fallout samples collected in 1986 over Gdynia (Poland) as well as three Baltic fish species collected in 1997 using the accelerator mass spectrometry. A new generation of AMS has been developed during last years and this method is an efficient and good technique to measure long-lived radioisotopes in the environment and provides the most accurate determination of the atomic ratios between (240)Pu and (239)Pu. The nuclide compositions of plutonium in filter samples correspond to their means of production. AMS measurements of atmospheric fallout collected in April showed sufficient increase of the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atomic ratio from 0.28 from March to 0.47. Also such high increase of (240)Pu/(239)Pu atomic ratio, close to reactor core (240)Pu/(239)Pu atomic ratio, was observed in September and equaled 0.47.

  9. CORROSION MONITORING OF PLUTONIUM OXIDE AND SNF

    Douglas, D.G.; Haas, C.M.; Smith, C.M.; Ohl, P.C.

    2003-02-27

    While developing a method to measure pressure in totally sealed stainless steel containers holding spent nuclear fuel at the U.S. DOE Hanford Site, Vista Engineering Technologies, LLC (Vista Engineering) personnel adapted the central concept to corrosion monitoring techniques for the same containers. The ability to monitor corrosion within vessels containing spent nuclear fuel, plutonium and other hazardous materials is imperative for safe storage. Vista Engineering personnel have devised a way to monitor corrosion in a totally sealed stainless steel container using a Magnetically Coupled Corrosion Gauge (MCCG) Patent Pending. The MCCG can be used to detect corrosion as well as measure corrosion rate and does not require any penetration of the containment vessel, which minimizes pressure boundary surface area and sensitive weld materials in the vessels.

  10. Critical mass studies of plutonium solutions

    Kruesi, F.E.; Erkman, J.O.; Lanning, D.D.

    1952-05-19

    The chain reacting conditions for plutonium nitrate in water solution have been examined experimentally for a variety of sizes of spheres and cylinders. The effects on the critical mass of the displacement of hydrogen and the addition of poisons to the fuel were measured in water tamped and bare reactors. In this report the data obtained in the investigation is presented graphically and in tables. Some preliminary analysis has been made yielding the results: (i) the absorption cross-section of Pu{sup 240} is 925 {plus_minus} 200 barns and (ii) the minimum critical mass of Pu{sup 239} in water is 510 grams at concentration of about 33 grams per liter.

  11. Peculiar dynamical properties of plutonium hydrides

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, the structure and spectra of PuH and PuH2 are defined by B3LYP/SDD method, from which the analytic potential energy function of PuH2 is derived. The analysis of quasi-classical molecular reaction dynamics is performed to study the state-state process of pu(7Fg) + H2(X1∑+g ). It is found that the reaction pu(7Fg) + H2(X1∑+g )→PuH2(X7B1) has no threshold. The simultaneous hydrogenation process of plutonium with the main product of PuH2 is theoretically proved for the first time.

  12. ARRAYS OF BOTTLES OF PLUTONIUM NITRATE SOLUTION

    Margaret A. Marshall

    2012-09-01

    In October and November of 1981 thirteen approaches-to-critical were performed on a remote split table machine (RSTM) in the Critical Mass Laboratory of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in Richland, Washington using planar arrays of polyethylene bottles filled with plutonium (Pu) nitrate solution. Arrays of up to sixteen bottles were used to measure the critical number of bottles and critical array spacing with a tight fitting Plexiglas® reflector on all sides of the arrays except the top. Some experiments used Plexiglas shells fitted around each bottles to determine the effect of moderation on criticality. Each bottle contained approximately 2.4 L of Pu(NO3)4 solution with a Pu content of 105 g Pu/L and a free acid molarity H+ of 5.1. The plutonium was of low 240Pu (2.9 wt.%) content. These experiments were sponsored by Rockwell Hanford Operations because of the lack of experimental data on the criticality of arrays of bottles of Pu solution such as might be found in storage and handling at the Purex Facility at Hanford. The results of these experiments were used “to provide benchmark data to validate calculational codes used in criticality safety assessments of [the] plant configurations” (Ref. 1). Data for this evaluation were collected from the published report (Ref. 1), the approach to critical logbook, the experimenter’s logbook, and communication with the primary experimenter, B. Michael Durst. Of the 13 experiments preformed 10 were evaluated. One of the experiments was not evaluated because it had been thrown out by the experimenter, one was not evaluated because it was a repeat of another experiment and the third was not evaluated because it reported the critical number of bottles as being greater than 25. Seven of the thirteen evaluated experiments were determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments. A similar experiment using uranyl nitrate was benchmarked as U233-SOL-THERM-014.

  13. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Dangerous Waste Training Plan

    ENTROP, G.E.

    1999-12-03

    This training plan describes general requirements, worker categories, and provides course descriptions for operation of the plutonium finishing plant (PFP) waste generation facilities, permitted treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) units, and the 90-Day Accumulation Areas.

  14. Plutonium and Americium Geochemistry at Hanford: A Site Wide Review

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2012-08-23

    This report was produced to provide a systematic review of the state-of-knowledge of plutonium and americium geochemistry at the Hanford Site. The report integrates existing knowledge of the subsurface migration behavior of plutonium and americium at the Hanford Site with available information in the scientific literature regarding the geochemistry of plutonium and americium in systems that are environmentally relevant to the Hanford Site. As a part of the report, key research needs are identified and prioritized, with the ultimate goal of developing a science-based capability to quantitatively assess risk at sites contaminated with plutonium and americium at the Hanford Site and the impact of remediation technologies and closure strategies.

  15. High-Temperature Oxidation of Plutonium Surrogate Metals and Alloys

    Sparks, Joshua C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Krantz, Kelsie E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Christian, Jonathan H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, II, Aaron L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-07-27

    The Plutonium Management and Disposition Agreement (PMDA) is a nuclear non-proliferation agreement designed to remove 34 tons of weapons-grade plutonium from Russia and the United States. While several removal options have been proposed since the agreement was first signed in 2000, processing the weapons-grade plutonium to mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel has remained the leading candidate for achieving the goals of the PMDA. However, the MOX program has received its share of criticisms, which causes its future to be uncertain. One alternative pathway for plutonium disposition would involve oxidizing the metal followed by impurity down blending and burial in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. This pathway was investigated by use of a hybrid microwave and a muffle furnace with Fe and Al as surrogate materials. Oxidation occurred similarly in the microwave and muffle furnace; however, the microwave process time was significantly faster.

  16. Development of the Direct Fabrication Process for Plutonium Immobilization

    Congdon, J.W.

    2001-07-10

    The current baseline process for fabricating pucks for the Plutonium Immobilization Program includes granulation of the milled feed prior to compaction. A direct fabrication process was demonstrated that eliminates the need for granulation.

  17. Detecting low concentrations of plutonium hydride with magnetization measurements

    Kim, Jae Wook; Mun, E. D.; Baiardo, J. P.; Zapf, V. S.; Mielke, C. H. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, MPA-CMMS, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Smith, A. I.; Richmond, S.; Mitchell, J.; Schwartz, D. [Nuclear Material Science Group, MST-16, LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2015-02-07

    We report the formation of plutonium hydride in 2 at. % Ga-stabilized δ-Pu, with 1 at. % H charging. We show that magnetization measurements are a sensitive, quantitative measure of ferromagnetic plutonium hydride against the nonmagnetic background of plutonium. It was previously shown that at low hydrogen concentrations, hydrogen forms super-abundant vacancy complexes with plutonium, resulting in a bulk lattice contraction. Here, we use magnetization, X-ray, and neutron diffraction measurements to show that in addition to forming vacancy complexes, at least 30% of the H atoms bond with Pu to precipitate PuH{sub x} on the surface of the sample with x ∼ 1.9. We observe magnetic hysteresis loops below 40 K with magnetic remanence, consistent with ferromagnetic PuH{sub 1.9}.

  18. Standard specification for sintered (Uranium-Plutonium) dioxide pellets

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers finished sintered and ground (uranium-plutonium) dioxide pellets for use in thermal reactors. It applies to uranium-plutonium dioxide pellets containing plutonium additions up to 15 % weight. This specification may not completely cover the requirements for pellets fabricated from weapons-derived plutonium. 1.2 This specification does not include (1) provisions for preventing criticality accidents or (2) requirements for health and safety. Observance of this specification does not relieve the user of the obligation to be aware of and conform to all applicable international, federal, state, and local regulations pertaining to possessing, processing, shipping, or using source or special nuclear material. Examples of U.S. government documents are Code of Federal Regulations Title 10, Part 50Domestic Licensing of Production and Utilization Facilities; Code of Federal Regulations Title 10, Part 71Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material; and Code of Federal Regulations Tit...

  19. Crystalline ceramics: Waste forms for the disposal of weapons plutonium

    Ewing, R.C.; Lutze, W. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weber, W.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    At present, there are three seriously considered options for the disposition of excess weapons plutonium: (i) incorporation, partial burn-up and direct disposal of MOX-fuel; (ii) vitrification with defense waste and disposal as glass ``logs``; (iii) deep borehole disposal (National Academy of Sciences Report, 1994). The first two options provide a safeguard due to the high activity of fission products in the irradiated fuel and the defense waste. The latter option has only been examined in a preliminary manner, and the exact form of the plutonium has not been identified. In this paper, we review the potential for the immobilization of plutonium in highly durable crystalline ceramics apatite, pyrochlore, monazite and zircon. Based on available data, we propose zircon as the preferred crystalline ceramic for the permanent disposition of excess weapons plutonium.

  20. Ultra-sensitive detection of plutonium by accelerator mass spectrometry

    Fifield, L.K.; Cresswell, R.G.; Ophel, T.R.; Ditada, M. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Dept. of Nuclear Physics; Day, J.P.; Clacher, A. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry; Priest, N.D. [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    On the bases of the measurements performed to date, a sensitivity of 10{sup 6} atoms is achievable with accelerator mass spectroscopy (AMS) for each of the plutonium isotopes. Not only does this open the way to the sort of study outlined, but it also makes possible other novel applications, of which two examples are given: (i)the ration of {sup 240}Pu to {sup 239}Pu as a sensitive indicator of the source of the plutonium; (ii) the biochemistry of plutonium in humans. The ultra-sensitive atom counting capability of AMS will make it possible to use the very long-lived {sup 244}Pu (8x10{sup 7}a) in human volunteer studies without any significant increase in radiation body burden. This paper will describe the AMS technique as applied to plutonium using the ANU`s 14UD accelerator, will present the results obtained to date, and will discuss the prospects for the future.

  1. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Gardner, Kyle Shelton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-28

    These are a set of slides intended for an information session as part of recruiting activities at Brigham Young University. It gives an overview of aqueous chloride operations, specifically on plutonium and americium purification/recovery. This presentation details the steps taken perform these processes, from plutonium size reduction, dissolution, solvent extraction, oxalate precipitation, to calcination. For americium recovery, it details the CLEAR (chloride extraction and actinide recovery) Line, oxalate precipitation and calcination.

  2. Occurrence of plutonium in the terrestrial environment at Thule, Greenland

    Roos, Per; Jernström, Jussi; Nielsen, Sven Poul

    2011-01-01

    to several hundred kBq per m2 of Pu. Although concentrations in surface soil can be very high the concentration in analysed air filter samples and passive aerosol collectors are very low. Exposure to plutonium due to inhalation of airborne plutonium particles in the area is of little importance according...... to this study. To further assess the risk of inhaling resuspended material particles isolated from the different hot areas have been subject to investigation on stability and leaching behaviour....

  3. Plutonium Immobilization Project System Design Description for Can Loading System

    Kriikku, E.

    2001-02-15

    The purpose of this System Design Description (SDD) is to specify the system and component functions and requirements for the Can Loading System and provide a complete description of the system (design features, boundaries, and interfaces), principles of operation (including upsets and recovery), and the system maintenance approach. The Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP) will immobilize up to 13 metric tons (MT) of U.S. surplus weapons usable plutonium materials.

  4. Preparation of Plutonium Counting Source Using Solid Phase Extraction Disk

    SUN; Hong-qing; YANG; Su-liang; DING; You-qian; YANG; Jin-ling; MAO; Guo-shu

    2013-01-01

    For the determination of trace amount of plutonium,Pu(Ⅳ)may be extracted from dilute nitric acid by TTA-xylene,and stripped by concentrated nitric acid.But the small volume of strip solution used in traditional counting source preparation by direct evaporation could lead to a rather high detection limit.Plutonium in strip solution may all be absorbed on the surface of an anion exchange resin disk.And

  5. Environmental Behaviour of Plutonium Accidentally Released at Thule, Greenland

    Aarkrog, Asker

    1977-01-01

    . Plutonium concentrations down through the sediment layers decayed exponentially with a half-depth of 1-2 cm. The horizontal distribution of the plutonium may be described by an exponential expression: mCi 239,240Pn km-2 = 460e-0.28R or by a power function: mCl 239,240Pu km-2 = 370 R-1.2, where R...

  6. Conversational sensing

    Preece, Alun; Gwilliams, Chris; Parizas, Christos; Pizzocaro, Diego; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Braines, Dave

    2014-05-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies, mobile devices and context-aware user interfaces have made it pos- sible to represent information fusion and situational awareness for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) activities as a conversational process among actors at or near the tactical edges of a network. Motivated by use cases in the domain of Company Intelligence Support Team (CoIST) tasks, this paper presents an approach to information collection, fusion and sense-making based on the use of natural language (NL) and controlled nat- ural language (CNL) to support richer forms of human-machine interaction. The approach uses a conversational protocol to facilitate a ow of collaborative messages from NL to CNL and back again in support of interactions such as: turning eyewitness reports from human observers into actionable information (from both soldier and civilian sources); fusing information from humans and physical sensors (with associated quality metadata); and assisting human analysts to make the best use of available sensing assets in an area of interest (governed by man- agement and security policies). CNL is used as a common formal knowledge representation for both machine and human agents to support reasoning, semantic information fusion and generation of rationale for inferences, in ways that remain transparent to human users. Examples are provided of various alternative styles for user feedback, including NL, CNL and graphical feedback. A pilot experiment with human subjects shows that a prototype conversational agent is able to gather usable CNL information from untrained human subjects.

  7. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Plutonium and Americium from Soil

    Fox, R.V.; Mincher, B.J.

    2002-05-23

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of plutonium and americium from soil was successfully demonstrated using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide solvent augmented with organophosphorus and beta-diketone complexants. Spiked Idaho soils were chemically and radiologically characterized, then extracted with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide at 2,900 psi and 65 C containing varying concentrations of tributyl phosphate (TBP) and thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA). A single 45 minute SFE with 2.7 mol% TBP and 3.2 mol% TTA provided as much as 88% {+-} 6.0 extraction of americium and 69% {+-} 5.0 extraction of plutonium. Use of 5.3 mol% TBP with 6.8 mol% of the more acidic beta-diketone hexafluoroacetylacetone (HFA) provided 95% {+-} 3.0 extraction of americium and 83% {+-} 5.0 extraction of plutonium in a single 45 minute SFE at 3,750 psi and 95 C. Sequential chemical extraction techniques were used to chemically characterize soil partitioning of plutonium and americium in pre-SFE soil samples. Sequential chemical extraction techniques demonstrated that spiked plutonium resides primarily (76.6%) in the sesquioxide fraction with minor amounts being absorbed by the oxidizable fraction (10.6%) and residual fractions (12.8%). Post-SFE soils subjected to sequential chemical extraction characterization demonstrated that 97% of the oxidizable, 78% of the sesquioxide and 80% of the residual plutonium could be removed using SFE. These preliminary results show that SFE may be an effective solvent extraction technique for removal of actinide contaminants from soil.

  8. Survey of glass plutonium contents and poison selection

    Plodinec, M.J.; Ramsey, W.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Ellison, A.J.G.; Shaw, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    If plutonium and other actinides are to be immobilized in glass, then achieving high concentrations in the glass is desirable. This will lead to reduced costs and more rapid immobilization. However, glasses with high actinide concentrations also bring with them undersirable characteristics, especially a greater concern about nuclear criticality, particularly in a geologic repository. The key to achieving a high concentration of actinide elements in a glass is to formulate the glass so that the solubility of actinides is high. At the same time, the glass must be formulated so that the glass also contains neutron poisons, which will prevent criticality during processing and in a geologic repository. In this paper, the solubility of actinides, particularly plutonium, in three types of glasses are discussed. Plutonium solubilities are in the 2-4 wt% range for borosilicate high-level waste (HLW) glasses of the type which will be produced in the US. This type of glass is generally melted at relatively low temperatures, ca. 1150{degrees}C. For this melting temperature, the glass can be reformulated to achieve plutonium solubilities of at least 7 wt%. This low melting temperature is desirable if one must retain volatile cesium-137 in the glass. If one is not concerned about cesium volatility, then glasses can be formulated which can contain much larger amounts of plutonium and other actinides. Plutonium concentrations of at least 15 wt% have been achieved. Thus, there is confidence that high ({ge}5 wt%) concentrations of actinides can be achieved under a variety of conditions.

  9. The relative physiological and toxicological properties of americium and plutonium

    Carter, R.E.; Busch, E.; Johnson, O. [and others

    1951-11-15

    The relative physiological and toxicological properties of americium and plutonium have been studied following their intravenous administration to rats. The urinary and fecal excretion of americium was similar to that of plutonium administered as Pu(N0{sub 3}){sub 4}. The deposition of americium the tissues and organs of the rat was also similar to that observed for plutonium. The liver and the skeleton were the major sites of deposition. Zirconium citrate administered 15 minutes after injection of americium increased the urinary excretion of americium and decreased the amount found in the liver and the skeleton at 4 and 16 days. LD{sub 30}{sup 50} studies showed americium was slightly less toxic when given in the acute toxic range than was plutonium. The difference was, however, too slight to be important in establishing a larger tolerance does for americium. Survival studies, hematological observations, bone marrow observations, comparison of tumor incidence and the incidence of skeletal abnormalities indicated that americium and plutonium have essentially the same chronic toxicity when given on an equal {mu}c. basis. These studies support the conclusion that the tolerance values for americium should be essentially the same as those for Plutonium.

  10. Absorption Behavior of Anion Exchange Resin to Minimal Plutonium in 3 to 4 mol/L Nitric Acid Medium

    2008-01-01

    <正>The acidity of liquor in the process of plutonium purification using extraction method is 3 to 4 mol/L and liquor contains minimal plutonium of certain concentration, the reclamation of plutonium is usually

  11. Sonochemical Digestion of High-Fired Plutonium Dioxide Samples

    Sinkov, Sergei I.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2006-10-12

    This work was performed as part of a broader effort to automate analytical methods for determining plutonium and other radioisotopes in environmental samples. The work described here represented a screening study to evaluate the effect of applying ultrasonic irradiation to dissolve high-fired plutonium oxide. The major findings of this work can be summarized as follows: (1) High-fired plutonium oxide does not undergo measurable dissolution when sonicated in nitric acid solutions, even at a high concentration range of nitric acid where the calculated thermodynamic solubility of plutonium oxide exceeds the ?g/mL level. (2) Applying organic complexants (nitrilotriacetic acid) and reductants (hydroxyurea) in 1.5 M nitric acid does not significantly increase the dissolution compared with digestion in nitric acid alone. Nearly all (99.5%) of the plutonium oxide remains undissolved under these conditions. (3) The action of a strong inorganic reductant, titanium trichloride in 25 wt% HCl, results in 40% dissolution of the plutonium oxide when the titanium trichloride concentration is ?1 wt% under sonication. (4) Oxidative treatment of plutonium oxide by freshly dissolved AgO ({approx}20 mg/mL) in 1.5 M nitric acid with sonication resulted in 95% plutonium oxide dissolution. However, the same treatment of plutonium oxide mechanically mixed with 50 mg of Columbia River sediment (CRS) results in a significant decrease of dissolution yield of plutonium oxide (<20% dissolved at the same AgO loading) because of parasitic consumption of AG(II) by oxidizable components of the CRS. (5) Digesting plutonium oxide in HF resulted in dissolution yields slightly higher than 80% for HF concentration from 6 M to 14 M. Sonication did not result in any improvement in dissolution efficiency in HF. (6) Mixed nitric acid/HF solutions result in a higher dissolution yield of plutonium oxide compared with digestion in HF alone (at the same HF concentrations). Practically quantitative dissolution

  12. Accelerator-based techniques for the support of senior-level undergraduate physics laboratories

    Williams, J. R.; Clark, J. C.; Isaacs-Smith, T.

    2001-07-01

    Approximately three years ago, Auburn University replaced its aging Dynamitron accelerator with a new 2MV tandem machine (Pelletron) manufactured by the National Electrostatics Corporation (NEC). This new machine is maintained and operated for the University by Physics Department personnel, and the accelerator supports a wide variety of materials modification/analysis studies. Computer software is available that allows the NEC Pelletron to be operated from a remote location, and an Internet link has been established between the Accelerator Laboratory and the Upper-Level Undergraduate Teaching Laboratory in the Physics Department. Additional software supplied by Canberra Industries has also been used to create a second Internet link that allows live-time data acquisition in the Teaching Laboratory. Our senior-level undergraduates and first-year graduate students perform a number of experiments related to radiation detection and measurement as well as several standard accelerator-based experiments that have been added recently. These laboratory exercises will be described, and the procedures used to establish the Internet links between our Teaching Laboratory and the Accelerator Laboratory will be discussed.

  13. High-power liquid-lithium target prototype for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy.

    Halfon, S; Paul, M; Arenshtam, A; Berkovits, D; Bisyakoev, M; Eliyahu, I; Feinberg, G; Hazenshprung, N; Kijel, D; Nagler, A; Silverman, I

    2011-12-01

    A prototype of a compact Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT), which will possibly constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in hospitals, was built. The LiLiT setup is presently being commissioned at Soreq Nuclear Research Center (SNRC). The liquid-lithium target will produce neutrons through the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power generated using a high-intensity proton beam (>10 kW), necessary for sufficient neutron flux. In off-line circulation tests, the liquid-lithium loop generated a stable lithium jet at high velocity, on a concave supporting wall; the concept will first be tested using a high-power electron beam impinging on the lithium jet. High intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91-2.5 MeV, 2-4 mA) will take place at Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF) superconducting linear accelerator currently in construction at SNRC. Radiological risks due to the (7)Be produced in the reaction were studied and will be handled through a proper design, including a cold trap and appropriate shielding. A moderator/reflector assembly is planned according to a Monte Carlo simulation, to create a neutron spectrum and intensity maximally effective to the treatment and to reduce prompt gamma radiation dose risks.

  14. Characterisation of an accelerator-based neutron source for BNCT versus beam energy

    Agosteo, S.; Curzio, G.; d'Errico, F.; Nath, R.; Tinti, R.

    2002-01-01

    Neutron capture in 10B produces energetic alpha particles that have a high linear energy transfer in tissue. This results in higher cell killing and a higher relative biological effectiveness compared to photons. Using suitably designed boron compounds which preferentially localize in cancerous cells instead of healthy tissues, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has the potential of providing a higher tumor cure rate within minimal toxicity to normal tissues. This clinical approach requires a thermal neutron source, generally a nuclear reactor, with a fluence rate sufficient to deliver tumorcidal doses within a reasonable treatment time (minutes). Thermal neutrons do not penetrate deeply in tissue, therefore BNCT is limited to lesions which are either superficial or otherwise accessible. In this work, we investigate the feasibility of an accelerator-based thermal neutron source for the BNCT of skin melanomas. The source was designed via MCNP Monte Carlo simulations of the thermalization of a fast neutron beam, generated by 7 MeV deuterons impinging on a thick target of beryllium. The neutron field was characterized at several deuteron energies (3.0-6.5 MeV) in an experimental structure installed at the Van De Graaff accelerator of the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, in Italy. Thermal and epithermal neutron fluences were measured with activation techniques and fast neutron spectra were determined with superheated drop detectors (SDD). These neutron spectrometry and dosimetry studies indicated that the fast neutron dose is unacceptably high in the current design. Modifications to the current design to overcome this problem are presented.

  15. Designing accelerator-based epithermal neutron beams for boron neutron capture therapy.

    Bleuel, D L; Donahue, R J; Ludewigt, B A; Vujic, J

    1998-09-01

    The 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction has been investigated as an accelerator-driven neutron source for proton energies between 2.1 and 2.6 MeV. Epithermal neutron beams shaped by three moderator materials, Al/AlF3, 7LiF, and D2O, have been analyzed and their usefulness for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) treatments evaluated. Radiation transport through the moderator assembly has been simulated with the Monte Carlo N-particle code (MCNP). Fluence and dose distributions in a head phantom were calculated using BNCT treatment planning software. Depth-dose distributions and treatment times were studied as a function of proton beam energy and moderator thickness. It was found that an accelerator-based neutron source with Al/AlF3 or 7LiF as moderator material can produce depth-dose distributions superior to those calculated for a previously published neutron beam design for the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor, achieving up to approximately 50% higher doses near the midline of the brain. For a single beam treatment, a proton beam current of 20 mA, and a 7LiF moderator, the treatment time was estimated to be about 40 min. The tumor dose deposited at a depth of 8 cm was calculated to be about 21 Gy-Eq.

  16. An accelerator-based epithermal photoneutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    Mitchell, H.E.

    1996-04-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy is an experimental binary cancer radiotherapy modality in which a boronated pharmaceutical that preferentially accumulates in malignant tissue is first administered, followed by exposing the tissue in the treatment volume to a thermal neutron field. Current usable beams are reactor-based but a viable alternative is the production of an epithermal neutron beam from an accelerator. Current literature cites various proposed accelerator-based designs, most of which are based on proton beams with beryllium or lithium targets. This dissertation examines the efficacy of a novel approach to BNCT treatments that incorporates an electron linear accelerator in the production of a photoneutron source. This source may help to resolve some of the present concerns associated with accelerator sources, including that of target cooling. The photoneutron production process is discussed as a possible alternate source of neutrons for eventual BNCT treatments for cancer. A conceptual design to produce epithermal photoneutrons by high photons (due to bremsstrahlung) impinging on deuterium targets is presented along with computational and experimental neutron production data. A clinically acceptable filtered epithermal neutron flux on the order of 10{sup 7} neutrons per second per milliampere of electron current is shown to be obtainable. Additionally, the neutron beam is modified and characterized for BNCT applications by employing two unique moderating materials (an Al/AlF{sub 3} composite and a stacked Al/Teflon design) at various incident electron energies.

  17. Comparison between CARIBIC aerosol samples analysed by accelerator-based methods and optical particle counter measurements

    B. G. Martinsson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Inter-comparison of results from two kinds of aerosol systems in the CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container passenger aircraft based observatory, operating during intercontinental flights at 9–12 km altitude, is presented. Aerosol from the lowermost stratosphere (LMS, the extra-tropical upper troposphere (UT and the tropical mid troposphere (MT were investigated. Aerosol particle volume concentration measured with an optical particle counter (OPC is compared with analytical results of the sum of masses of all major and several minor constituents from aerosol samples collected with an impactor. Analyses were undertaken with accelerator-based methods particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE and particle elastic scattering analysis (PESA. Data from 48 flights during one year are used, leading to a total of 106 individual comparisons. The ratios of the particle volume from the OPC and the total mass from the analyses were in 84% within a relatively narrow interval. Data points outside this interval are connected with inlet-related effects in clouds, large variability in aerosol composition, particle size distribution effects and some cases of non-ideal sampling. Overall, the comparison of these two CARIBIC measurements based on vastly different methods show good agreement, implying that the chemical and size information can be combined in studies of the MT/UT/LMS aerosol.

  18. An optimized neutron-beam shaping assembly for accelerator-based BNCT.

    Burlon, A A; Kreiner, A J; Valda, A A; Minsky, D M

    2004-11-01

    Different materials and proton beam energies have been studied in order to search for an optimized neutron production target and beam shaping assembly for accelerator-based BNCT. The solution proposed in this work consists of successive stacks of Al, polytetrafluoroethylene, commercially known as Teflon, and LiF as moderator and neutron absorber, and Pb as reflector. This assembly is easy to build and its cost is relatively low. An exhaustive Monte Carlo simulation study has been performed evaluating the doses delivered to a Snyder model head phantom by a neutron production Li-metal target based on the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction for proton bombarding energies of 1.92, 2.0, 2.3 and 2.5 MeV. Three moderator thicknesses have been studied and the figures of merit show the advantage of irradiating with near-resonance-energy protons (2.3 MeV) because of the relatively high neutron yield at this energy, which at the same time keeps the fast neutron healthy tissue dose limited and leads to the lowest treatment times. A moderator of 34 cm length has shown the best performance among the studied cases.

  19. An optimized neutron-beam shaping assembly for accelerator-based BNCT

    Burlon, A.A. E-mail: burlon@tandar.cnea.gov.ar; Kreiner, A.J.; Valda, A.A.; Minsky, D.M

    2004-11-01

    Different materials and proton beam energies have been studied in order to search for an optimized neutron production target and beam shaping assembly for accelerator-based BNCT. The solution proposed in this work consists of successive stacks of Al, polytetrafluoroethylene, commercially known as Teflon[reg ], and LiF as moderator and neutron absorber, and Pb as reflector. This assembly is easy to build and its cost is relatively low. An exhaustive Monte Carlo simulation study has been performed evaluating the doses delivered to a Snyder model head phantom by a neutron production Li-metal target based on the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction for proton bombarding energies of 1.92, 2.0, 2.3 and 2.5 MeV. Three moderator thicknesses have been studied and the figures of merit show the advantage of irradiating with near-resonance-energy protons (2.3 MeV) because of the relatively high neutron yield at this energy, which at the same time keeps the fast neutron healthy tissue dose limited and leads to the lowest treatment times. A moderator of 34 cm length has shown the best performance among the studied cases.

  20. Design study of double-layer beam trajectory accelerator based on the Rhodotron structure

    Jabbari, Iraj; Poursaleh, Ali Mohammad; Khalafi, Hossein

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the conceptual design of a new structure of industrial electron accelerator based on the Rhodotron accelerator is presented and its properties are compared with those of Rhodotron-TT200 accelerator. The main goal of this study was to reduce the power of RF system of accelerator at the same output electron beam energy. The main difference between the new accelerator structure with the Rhodotron accelerator is the length of the coaxial cavity that is equal to the wavelength at the resonant frequency. Also two sets of bending magnets were used around the acceleration cavity in two layers. In the new structure, the beam crosses several times in the coaxial cavity by the bending magnets around the cavity at the first layer and then is transferred to the second layer using the central bending magnet. The acceleration process in the second layer is similar to the first layer. Hence, the energy of the electron beam will be doubled. The electrical power consumption of the RF system and magnet system were calculated and simulated for the new accelerator structure and TT200. Comparing the calculated and simulated results of the TT200 with those of experimental results revealed good agreement. The results showed that the overall electrical power consumption of the new accelerator structure was less than that of the TT200 at the same energy and power of the electron beam. As such, the electrical efficiency of the new structure was improved.

  1. Design study of double-layer beam trajectory accelerator based on the Rhodotron structure

    Jabbari, Iraj, E-mail: i_jabbari@ast.ui.ac.ir [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technologies, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 8174673441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Poursaleh, Ali Mohammad [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technologies, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 8174673441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Central Iran Research Complex, NSTRI, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khalafi, Hossein [Central Iran Research Complex, NSTRI, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-08-21

    In this paper, the conceptual design of a new structure of industrial electron accelerator based on the Rhodotron accelerator is presented and its properties are compared with those of Rhodotron-TT200 accelerator. The main goal of this study was to reduce the power of RF system of accelerator at the same output electron beam energy. The main difference between the new accelerator structure with the Rhodotron accelerator is the length of the coaxial cavity that is equal to the wavelength at the resonant frequency. Also two sets of bending magnets were used around the acceleration cavity in two layers. In the new structure, the beam crosses several times in the coaxial cavity by the bending magnets around the cavity at the first layer and then is transferred to the second layer using the central bending magnet. The acceleration process in the second layer is similar to the first layer. Hence, the energy of the electron beam will be doubled. The electrical power consumption of the RF system and magnet system were calculated and simulated for the new accelerator structure and TT200. Comparing the calculated and simulated results of the TT200 with those of experimental results revealed good agreement. The results showed that the overall electrical power consumption of the new accelerator structure was less than that of the TT200 at the same energy and power of the electron beam. As such, the electrical efficiency of the new structure was improved.

  2. Doppler Broadening Analysis of Steel Specimens Using Accelerator Based In Situ Pair Production

    Makarashvili, V.; Wells, D. P.; Roy, A. K.

    2009-03-01

    Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS) techniques can be utilized as a sensitive probe of defects in materials. Studying these microscopic defects is very important for a number of industries in order to predict material failure or structural integrity. We have been developing gamma-induced pair-production techniques to produce positrons in thick samples (˜4-40 g/cm2, or ˜0.5-5 cm in steel). These techniques are called 'Accelerator-based Gamma-induced Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy' (AG-PAS). We have begun testing the capabilities of this technique for imaging of defect densities in thick structural materials. As a first step, a linear accelerator (LINAC) was employed to produce photon beams by stopping 15 MeV electrons in a 1 mm thick tungsten converter. The accelerator is capable of operating with 30-60 ns pulse width, up to 200 mA peak current at 1 kHz repetition rate. The highly collimated bremsstrahlung beam impinged upon our steel tensile specimens, after traveling through a 1.2 m thick concrete wall. Annihilation radiation was detected by a well-shielded and collimated high-purity germanium detector (HPGe). Conventional Doppler broadening spectrometry (DBS) was performed to determine S, W and T parameters for our samples.

  3. An accelerator-based epithermal photoneutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    Mitchell, Hannah E. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy is an experimental binary cancer radiotherapy modality in which a boronated pharmaceutical that preferentially accumulates in malignant tissue is first administered, followed by exposing the tissue in the treatment volume to a thermal neutron field. Current usable beams are reactor-based but a viable alternative is the production of an epithermal neutron beam from an accelerator. Current literature cites various proposed accelerator-based designs, most of which are based on proton beams with beryllium or lithium targets. This dissertation examines the efficacy of a novel approach to BNCT treatments that incorporates an electron linear accelerator in the production of a photoneutron source. This source may help to resolve some of the present concerns associated with accelerator sources, including that of target cooling. The photoneutron production process is discussed as a possible alternate source of neutrons for eventual BNCT treatments for cancer. A conceptual design to produce epithermal photoneutrons by high photons (due to bremsstrahlung) impinging on deuterium targets is presented along with computational and experimental neutron production data. A clinically acceptable filtered epithermal neutron flux on the order of 107 neutrons per second per milliampere of electron current is shown to be obtainable. Additionally, the neutron beam is modified and characterized for BNCT applications by employing two unique moderating materials (an Al/AlF3 composite and a stacked Al/Teflon design) at various incident electron energies.

  4. Plutonium immobilization project development and testing quality assurance program description - February 1999

    MacLean, L M; Ziemba, J

    1999-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Immobilization Development and Testing organization (LLNL ID and T) is a Participant in the Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP). The LLNL D and T has lead responsibilities for form characterization and qualification, ceramic form development, process/equipment development with plutonium, and process systems testing and validation for both conversion and immobilization. This work must be performed in accordance with the graded approach of a Quality Assurance (QA) Program. A QA Program has been developed at LLNL to meet the requirements of the DOE/MD Quality Assurance Requirements. The LLNL QA Program consists of a Quality Assurance Program Description (QAPD) and Quality Implementing Procedures. These documents interface and are a subset of the overall PIP QA Program Documents. The PIP QA Program is described in the PIP ID and T QA Plan, PIP QAPD, and QA Procedures. Other Participant Organizations also must document and describe their PIP compliant QA Programs in a QAPD and implementing procedures. The purpose of this LLNL QAPD is to describe the organization, management processes, QA Controls for Grading, functional responsibilities, levels of authority, and interfaces for those managing, performing, and assessing the adequacy of work.

  5. Examination of the effect of alpha radiolysis on plutonium(V) sorption to quartz using multiple plutonium isotopes.

    Hixon, Amy E; Arai, Yuji; Powell, Brian A

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this research was to determine if radiolysis at the mineral surface was a plausible mechanism for surface-mediated reduction of plutonium. Batch sorption experiments were used to monitor the amount of plutonium sorbed to high-purity quartz as a function of time, pH, and total alpha radioactivity. Three systems were prepared using both (238)Pu and (242)Pu in order to increase the total alpha radioactivity of the mineral suspensions while maintaining a constant plutonium concentration. The fraction of sorbed plutonium increased with increasing time and pH regardless of the total alpha radioactivity of the system. Increasing the total alpha radioactivity of the solution had a negligible effect on the sorption rate. This indicated that surface-mediated reduction of Pu(V) in these systems was not due to radiolysis. Additionally, literature values for the Pu(V) disproportionation rate constant did not describe the experimental results. Therefore, Pu(V) disproportionation was also not a main driver for surface-mediated reduction of plutonium. Batch desorption experiments and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy were used to show that Pu(IV) was the dominant oxidation state of sorbed plutonium. Thus, it appears that the observed surface-mediated reduction of Pu(V) in the presence of high-purity quartz was based on the thermodynamic favorability of a Pu(IV) surface complex.

  6. Prospect for application of compact accelerator-based neutron source to neutron engineering diffraction

    Ikeda, Yoshimasa; Taketani, Atsushi; Takamura, Masato; Sunaga, Hideyuki; Kumagai, Masayoshi; Oba, Yojiro; Otake, Yoshie; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    A compact accelerator-based neutron source has been lately discussed on engineering applications such as transmission imaging and small angle scattering as well as reflectometry. However, nobody considers using it for neutron diffraction experiment because of its low neutron flux. In this study, therefore, the neutron diffraction experiments are carried out using Riken Accelerator-driven Compact Neutron Source (RANS), to clarify the capability of the compact neutron source for neutron engineering diffraction. The diffraction pattern from a ferritic steel was successfully measured by suitable arrangement of the optical system to reduce the background noise, and it was confirmed that the recognizable diffraction pattern can be measured by a large sampling volume with 10 mm in cubic for an acceptable measurement time, i.e. 10 min. The minimum resolution of the 110 reflection for RANS is approximately 2.5% at 8 μs of the proton pulse width, which is insufficient to perform the strain measurement by neutron diffraction. The moderation time width at the wavelength corresponding to the 110 reflection is estimated to be approximately 30 μs, which is the most dominant factor to determine the resolution. Therefore, refinements of the moderator system to decrease the moderation time by decreasing a thickness of the moderator or by applying the decoupler system or application of the angular dispersive neutron diffraction technique are important to improve the resolution of the diffraction experiment using the compact neutron source. In contrast, the texture evolution due to plastic deformation was successfully observed by measuring a change in the diffraction peak intensity by RANS. Furthermore, the volume fraction of the austenitic phase in the dual phase mock specimen was also successfully evaluated by fitting the diffraction pattern using a Rietveld code. Consequently, RANS has been proved to be capable for neutron engineering diffraction aiming for the easy access

  7. Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium. Quarterly technical progress report, May 1, 1997--July 31, 1997

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Progress summaries are provided from the Amarillo National Center for Plutonium. Programs include the plutonium information resource center, environment, public health, and safety, education and training, nuclear and other material studies.

  8. Determination of Uranium and Plutonium Concentration in 1AF by Isotopic Dilution Mass Spectrometry Methods

    2008-01-01

    <正>It is important data to measure uranium and plutonium concentration for the reprocessing plant control analysis. The determination of uranium and plutonium concentration in 1AF by isotopic dilution mass

  9. Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium. Quarterly technical progress report, February 1, 1998--April 30, 1998

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    Activities from the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium are described. Areas of work include materials science of nuclear and explosive materials, plutonium processing and handling, robotics, and storage.

  10. PLUTONIUM LOADING CAPACITY OF REILLEX HPQ ANION EXCHANGE COLUMN - AFS-2 PLUTONIUM FLOWSHEET FOR MOX

    Kyser, E.; King, W.; O' Rourke, P.

    2012-07-26

    Radioactive plutonium (Pu) anion exchange column experiments using scaled HB-Line designs were performed to investigate the dependence of column loading performance on the feed composition in the H-Canyon dissolution process for plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) product shipped to the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). These loading experiments show that a representative feed solution containing {approx}5 g Pu/L can be loaded onto Reillex{trademark} HPQ resin from solutions containing 8 M total nitrate and 0.1 M KF provided that the F is complexed with Al to an [Al]/[F] molar ratio range of 1.5-2.0. Lower concentrations of total nitrate and [Al]/[F] molar ratios may still have acceptable performance but were not tested in this study. Loading and washing Pu losses should be relatively low (<1%) for resin loading of up to 60 g Pu/L. Loading above 60 g Pu/L resin is possible, but Pu wash losses will increase such that 10-20% of the additional Pu fed may not be retained by the resin as the resin loading approaches 80 g Pu/L resin.

  11. Study of allotropic transformations in plutonium; Etude des transformations allotropiques du plutonium

    Spriet, B. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-06-01

    The allotropic transformations in plutonium have been studied by different methods: metallography, dilatometry, thermal analysis, resistivity measurements, examination with a hot stage microscope. In order to study the importance of the purity, purification process such as zone-melting or electro-diffusion have been developed. The characteristics of the {alpha} {r_reversible} {beta} transformation can be explained in terms of the influence of internal stresses on the transition temperature and on the transformation kinetics. Some particular characteristics of {delta} {yields} {gamma}, {gamma} {yields} {alpha}, {delta} {r_reversible} {epsilon}, {beta} {r_reversible} {gamma} and {delta} {yields} {alpha} transformations are also given. (author) [French] Les transformations, allotropiques du plutonium ont ete etudiees a l'aide de differentes methodes: metallographie, dilatometrie, analyse thermique, mesure de resistivite, examen au microscope a platine chauffante. Pour preciser l'influence de la purete, des procedes de purification comme la fusion de zone ou l'electrodiffusion ont ete mis au point. Les caracteres de la transformation {alpha} {r_reversible} {beta} s'expliquent par le role des contraintes internes sur la temperature de transition et la cinetique de transformation. Quelques particularites des transformations {delta} {yields} {gamma}, {gamma} {yields} {alpha}, {delta} {r_reversible} {epsilon}, {beta} {r_reversible} {gamma} et {delta} {yields} {alpha} sont egalement presentees. (auteur)

  12. Neutron monitoring of plutonium at the ZPPR storage vault

    Caldwell, J.T.; Kuckertz, T.H.; Bieri, J.M.; France, S.W.; Goin, R.W.; Hastings, R.D.; Pratt, J.C.; Shunk, E.R.

    1981-12-01

    We investigated a method for monitoring a typical large storage vault for unauthorized removal of plutonium. The method is based on the assumption that the neutron field in a vault produced by a particular geometric configuration of bulk plutonium remains constant in time and space as long as the configuration is undisturbed. To observe such a neutron field, we installed an array of 25 neutron detectors in the ceiling of a plutonium storage vault at Argonne National Laboratory West. Each neutron detector provided an independent spatial measurement of the vault neutron field. Data collected by each detector were processed to determine whether statistically significant changes had occurred in the neutron field. Continuous observation experiments measured the long-term stability of the system. Removal experiments were performed in which known quantities of plutonium were removed from the vault. Both types of experiments demonstrated that the neutron monitoring system can detect removal or addition of bulk plutonium (11% /sup 240/Pu) whose mass is as small as 0.04% of the total inventory.

  13. Plutonium-DTPA Model Application with USTUR Case 0269.

    Konzen, Kevin; Brey, Richard; Miller, Scott

    2016-01-01

    A plutonium-DTPA (Pu-DTPA) biokinetic model was introduced that had originated from the study of a plutonium-contaminated wound. This work evaluated the extension of the Pu-DTPA model to United States Transuranium and Uranium Registry (USTUR) Case 0269 involving an acute inhalation of a plutonium nitrate aerosol. Chelation was administered intermittently for the first 7 mo as Ca-EDTA, mostly through intravenous injection, with Ca-DTPA treatments administered approximately 2.5 y post intake. Urine and fecal bioassays were collected following intake for several years. Tissues were collected and analyzed for plutonium content approximately 38 y post intake. This work employed the Pu-DTPA model for predicting the urine and fecal bioassay and final tissue quantity at autopsy. The Pu-DTPA model was integrated with two separate plutonium systemic models (i.e., ICRP Publication 67 and its proposed modification). This work illustrated that the Pu-DTPA model was useful for predicting urine and fecal bioassay, including final tissue quantity, 38 y post intake.

  14. Design-only conceptual design report for pit disassembly and conversion facility. Rev 0

    Zygmunt, S.; Christensen, L.; Richardson, C.

    1997-12-12

    This design-only conceptual design report (DOCDR) was prepared to support a funding request by the Department of Energy (DOE)-Office of Fissile Material Disposition (OFMD) for engineering design of the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) Project No. 99-D-141. The PDCF will be used to disassemble the nation`s inventory of surplus nuclear weapons pits and convert the plutonium recovered from those pits into a form suitable for storage, international inspection, and final disposition. The PDCF is a complex consisting of a hardened building that will contain the plutonium processes in a safe and secure manner, and conventional buildings and structures that will house support personnel, systems, and equipment. The PDCF uses the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES), a low waste, modular pyroprocessing system to convert pits to plutonium oxide. The PDCF project consists of engineering and design, and construction of the buildings and structures, and engineering and design, procurement, installation, testing and start-up of equipment to disassemble pits and convert plutonium in pits to oxide form. The facility is planned to operate for 10 years, averaging 3.5 metric tons (3.86 tons) of plutonium metal per year. On conclusion of operations, the PDCF will be decontaminated and decommissioned.

  15. Technical progress report on the metabolic studies of plutonium for month of August 1945

    Hamilton, J.G.

    1945-12-31

    This monthly report briefly describes ongoing studies including urinary and fecal excretion of Plutonium 238 by human subjects and by rats, exploring way to facilitate the removal of Plutonium 238 from rat bone, the absorption of Plutonium 238 by barley plants, and use of inert iodine to block absorption of Iodine-131 in the rat.

  16. Standard practice for preparation and dissolution of plutonium materials for analysis

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This practice is a compilation of dissolution techniques for plutonium materials that are applicable to the test methods used for characterizing these materials. Dissolution treatments for the major plutonium materials assayed for plutonium or analyzed for other components are listed. Aliquants of the dissolved samples are dispensed on a weight basis when one of the analyses must be highly reliable, such as plutonium assay; otherwise they are dispensed on a volume basis. 1.2 The treatments, in order of presentation, are as follows: Procedure Title Section Dissolution of Plutonium Metal with Hydrochloric Acid 9.1 Dissolution of Plutonium Metal with Sulfuric Acid 9.2 Dissolution of Plutonium Oxide and Uranium-Plutonium Mixed Oxide by the Sealed-Reflux Technique 9.3 Dissolution of Plutonium Oxide and Uranium-Plutonium Mixed Oxides by Sodium Bisulfate Fusion 9.4 Dissolution of Uranium-Plutonium Mixed Oxides and Low-Fired Plutonium Oxide in Beakers 9.5 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be re...

  17. 10 CFR 71.64 - Special requirements for plutonium air shipments.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special requirements for plutonium air shipments. 71.64... MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.64 Special requirements for plutonium air shipments. (a) A package for the shipment of plutonium by air subject to § 71.88(a)(4), in addition to satisfying...

  18. Separation Method of Uranium and Plutonium From Large Amount of Neptunium

    SU; Yu-lan; JIN; Hua; YING; Zhe-cong; ZHAO; Sheng-yang

    2013-01-01

    Uranium and plutonium are limited strictly in the neptunium product.To eliminate the influence of neptunium matrix on determination of uranium and plutonium,a new separation method of uranium and plutonium from large amount of neptunium by TEVA column has been developed,which is illustrated in Fig.1.

  19. 10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material... RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL General Licenses § 71.23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. (a... form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be) special form sealed sources, or to deliver Pu-Be sealed sources...

  20. Analysis of accelerator based neutron spectra for BNCT using proton recoil spectroscopy

    Wielopolski, L.; Ludewig, H.; Powell, J.R.; Raparia, D.; Alessi, J.G.; Lowenstein, D.I.

    1999-03-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a promising binary treatment modality for high-grade primary brain tumors (glioblastoma multiforme, GM) and other cancers. BNCT employs a boron-10 containing compound that preferentially accumulates in the cancer cells in the brain. Upon neutron capture by {sup 10}B energetic alpha particles and triton released at the absorption site kill the cancer cell. In order to gain penetration depth in the brain Fairchild proposed, for this purpose, the use of energetic epithermal neutrons at about 10 keV. Phase 1/2 clinical trials of BNCT for GM are underway at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) and at the MIT Reactor, using these nuclear reactors as the source for epithermal neutrons. In light of the limitations of new reactor installations, e.g. cost, safety and licensing, and limited capability for modulating the reactor based neutron beam energy spectra, alternative neutron sources are being contemplated for wider implementation of this modality in a hospital environment. For example, accelerator based neutron sources offer the possibility of tailoring the neutron beams, in terms of improved depth-dose distributions, to the individual and offer, with relative ease, the capability of modifying the neutron beam energy and port size. In previous work new concepts for compact accelerator/target configuration were published. In this work, using the Van de Graaff accelerator the authors have explored different materials for filtering and reflecting neutron beams produced by irradiating a thick Li target with 1.8 to 2.5 MeV proton beams. However, since the yield and the maximum neutron energy emerging from the Li-7(p,n)Be-7 reaction increase with increase in the proton beam energy, there is a need for optimization of the proton energy versus filter and shielding requirements to obtain the desired epithermal neutron beam. The MCNP-4A computer code was used for the initial design studies that were verified with benchmark

  1. ANALYSIS OF ACCELERATOR BASED NEUTRON SPECTRA FOR BNCT USING PROTON RECOIL SPECTROSCOPY

    WIELOPOLSKI,L.; LUDEWIG,H.; POWELL,J.R.; RAPARIA,D.; ALESSI,J.G.; LOWENSTEIN,D.I.

    1998-11-06

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a promising binary treatment modality for high-grade primary brain tumors (glioblastoma multiforme, GM) and other cancers. BNCT employs a boron-10 containing compound that preferentially accumulates in the cancer cells in the brain. Upon neutron capture by {sup 10}B energetic alpha particles and triton released at the absorption site kill the cancer cell. In order to gain penetration depth in the brain Fairchild proposed, for this purpose, the use of energetic epithermal neutrons at about 10 keV. Phase I/II clinical trials of BNCT for GM are underway at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) and at the MIT Reactor, using these nuclear reactors as the source for epithermal neutrons. In light of the limitations of new reactor installations, e.g. cost, safety and licensing, and limited capability for modulating the reactor based neutron beam energy spectra alternative neutron sources are being contemplated for wider implementation of this modality in a hospital environment. For example, accelerator based neutron sources offer the possibility of tailoring the neutron beams, in terms of improved depth-dose distributions, to the individual and offer, with relative ease, the capability of modifying the neutron beam energy and port size. In previous work new concepts for compact accelerator/target configuration were published. In this work, using the Van de Graaff accelerator the authors have explored different materials for filtering and reflecting neutron beams produced by irradiating a thick Li target with 1.8 to 2.5 MeV proton beams. However, since the yield and the maximum neutron energy emerging from the Li-7(p,n)Be-7 reaction increase with increase in the proton beam energy, there is a need for optimization of the proton energy versus filter and shielding requirements to obtain the desired epithermal neutron beam. The MCNP-4A computer code was used for the initial design studies that were verified with benchmark

  2. Accelerator-based epithermal neutron sources for boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors.

    Blue, Thomas E; Yanch, Jacquelyn C

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of low-energy light ion accelerator-based neutron sources (ABNSs) for the treatment of brain tumors through an intact scalp and skull using boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). A major advantage of an ABNS for BNCT over reactor-based neutron sources is the potential for siting within a hospital. Consequently, light-ion accelerators that are injectors to larger machines in high-energy physics facilities are not considered. An ABNS for BNCT is composed of: (1) the accelerator hardware for producing a high current charged particle beam, (2) an appropriate neutron-producing target and target heat removal system (HRS), and (3) a moderator/reflector assembly to render the flux energy spectrum of neutrons produced in the target suitable for patient irradiation. As a consequence of the efforts of researchers throughout the world, progress has been made on the design, manufacture, and testing of these three major components. Although an ABNS facility has not yet been built that has optimally assembled these three components, the feasibility of clinically useful ABNSs has been clearly established. Both electrostatic and radio frequency linear accelerators of reasonable cost (approximately 1.5 M dollars) appear to be capable of producing charged particle beams, with combinations of accelerated particle energy (a few MeV) and beam currents (approximately 10 mA) that are suitable for a hospital-based ABNS for BNCT. The specific accelerator performance requirements depend upon the charged particle reaction by which neutrons are produced in the target and the clinical requirements for neutron field quality and intensity. The accelerator performance requirements are more demanding for beryllium than for lithium as a target. However, beryllium targets are more easily cooled. The accelerator performance requirements are also more demanding for greater neutron field quality and intensity. Target HRSs that are based on submerged-jet impingement and

  3. Development and construction of a neutron beam line for accelerator-based boron neutron capture synovectomy.

    Gierga, D P; Yanch, J C; Shefer, R E

    2000-01-01

    A potential application of the 10B(n, alpha)7Li nuclear reaction for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, termed Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS), is under investigation. In an arthritic joint, the synovial lining becomes inflamed and is a source of great pain and discomfort for the afflicted patient. The goal of BNCS is to ablate the synovium, thereby eliminating the symptoms of the arthritis. A BNCS treatment would consist of an intra-articular injection of boron followed by neutron irradiation of the joint. Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations have been used to develop an accelerator-based epithermal neutron beam line for BNCS treatments. The model includes a moderator/reflector assembly, neutron producing target, target cooling system, and arthritic joint phantom. Single and parallel opposed beam irradiations have been modeled for the human knee, human finger, and rabbit knee joints. Additional reflectors, placed to the side and back of the joint, have been added to the model and have been shown to improve treatment times and skin doses by about a factor of 2. Several neutron-producing charged particle reactions have been examined for BNCS, including the 9Be(p,n) reaction at proton energies of 4 and 3.7 MeV, the 9Be(d,n) reaction at deuteron energies of 1.5 and 2.6 MeV, and the 7Li(p,n) reaction at a proton energy of 2.5 MeV. For an accelerator beam current of 1 mA and synovial boron uptake of 1000 ppm, the time to deliver a therapy dose of 10,000 RBEcGy ranges from 3 to 48 min, depending on the treated joint and the neutron producing charged particle reaction. The whole-body effective dose that a human would incur during a knee treatment has been estimated to be 3.6 rem or 0.75 rem, for 1000 ppm or 19,000 ppm synovial boron uptake, respectively, although the shielding configuration has not yet been optimized. The Monte Carlo design process culminated in the construction, installation, and testing of a dedicated BNCS beam line on the high

  4. Plutonium, (137)Cs and uranium isotopes in Mongolian surface soils.

    Hirose, K; Kikawada, Y; Igarashi, Y; Fujiwara, H; Jugder, D; Matsumoto, Y; Oi, T; Nomura, M

    2017-01-01

    Plutonium ((238)Pu and (239,240)Pu), (137)Cs and plutonium activity ratios ((238)Pu/(239,240)Pu) as did uranium isotope ratio ((235)U/(238)U) were measured in surface soil samples collected in southeast Mongolia. The (239,240)Pu and (137)Cs concentrations in Mongolian surface soils (surface soils (0.013-0.06) coincided with that of global fallout. The (235)U/(238)U atom ratios in the surface soil show the natural one. There was a good correlation between the (239,240)Pu and (137)Cs concentrations in the surface soils. We introduce the migration depth to have better understanding of migration behaviors of anthropogenic radionuclides in surface soil. We found a difference of the migration behavior between (239,240)Pu and (137)Cs from (137)Cs/(239,240)Pu - (137)Cs plots for the Mongolian and Tsukuba surface soils; plutonium in surface soil is migrated easier than (137)Cs.

  5. Plutonium Speciation in Support of Oxidative-Leaching Demonstration Test

    Sinkov, Sergey I.

    2007-10-31

    Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) is evaluating the plutonium speciation in caustic solutions that reasonably represent the process streams from the oxidative-leaching demonstration test. Battelle—Pacific Northwest Division (PNWD) was contracted to develop a spectrophotometric method to measure plutonium speciation at submicromolar (< 10-6 M) concentrations in alkaline solutions in the presence of chromate and carbonate. Data obtained from the testing will be used to identify the oxidation state of Pu(IV), Pu(V), and Pu(VI) species, which potentially could exist in caustic leachates. Work was initially conducted under contract number 24590-101-TSA-W000-00004 satisfying the needs defined in Appendix C of the Research and Technology Plan TSS A-219 to evaluate the speciation of chromium, plutonium, and manganese before and after oxidative leaching. In February 2007, the contract mechanism was switched to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Operating Contract MOA: 24590-QL-HC9-WA49-00001.

  6. Recovery of plutonium from electrorefining anode heels at Savannah River

    Gray, J H; Gray, L W; Karraker, D G

    1987-03-01

    In a joint effort, the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL), Savannah River Plant (SRP), and the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) have developed two processes to recover plutonium from electrorefining anode heel residues. Aqueous dissolution of anode heel metal was demonstrated at SRL on a laboratory scale and on a larger pilot scale using either sulfamic acid or nitric acid-hydrazine-fluoride solutions. This direct anode heel metal dissolution requires the use of a geometrically favorable dissolver. The second process developed involves first diluting the plutonium in the anode heel residues by alloying with aluminum. The alloyed anode heel plutonium can then be dissolved using a nitric acid-fluoride-mercury(II) solution in large non-geometrically favorable equipment where nuclear safety is ensured by concentration control.

  7. Analysis on the status of Plutonium utilization in various countries

    Lee, Dong Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-01

    Generally, spent fuel reprocessing/MOX fuel fabricating capacity goes on expanding, and so does the plutonium recycling accordingly. With priority given to LWRs as pivotal reactor type for it. Such countries as France, the U.K., Japan, Germany, Belgium, Switzerland and Russia are taking very positive attitudes towards plutonium recycling, whilst Canada, China, India and the Ukraine are also seeking the possibilities. In order to promote plutonium utilization, necessity of which is recognized in various aspects, it is prerequisite for worldwide nuclear industry to create international-political environment for it. As for Korea, efforts are necessary to secure maximum choice alternatives corresponding to national benefit, by exercising initiative in the new development of surrounding situation these days. 24 refs., 4 tabs. (Author) (Author) .new.

  8. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF PLUTONIUM AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ITS MOBILITY.

    FRANCIS, A.J.

    2000-09-30

    The current state of knowledge of the effect of plutonium on microorganisms and microbial activity is reviewed, and also the microbial processes affecting its mobilization and immobilization. The dissolution of plutonium is predominantly due to their production of extracellular metabolic products, organic acids, such as citric acid, and sequestering agents, such as siderophores. Plutonium may be immobilized by the indirect actions of microorganisms resulting in changes in Eh and its reduction from a higher to lower oxidation state, with the precipitation of Pu, its bioaccumulation by biomass, and bioprecipitation reactions. In addition, the abundance of microorganisms in Pu-contaminated soils, wastes, natural analog sites, and backfill materials that will be used for isolating the waste and role of microbes as biocolloids in the transport of Pu is discussed.

  9. Safeguardability of the vitrification option for disposal of plutonium

    Pillay, K.K.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Safeguardability of the vitrification option for plutonium disposition is rather complex and there is no experience base in either domestic or international safeguards for this approach. In the present treaty regime between the US and the states of the former Soviet Union, bilaterial verifications are considered more likely with potential for a third-party verification of safeguards. There are serious technological limitations to applying conventional bulk handling facility safeguards techniques to achieve independent verification of plutonium in borosilicate glass. If vitrification is the final disposition option chosen, maintaining continuity of knowledge of plutonium in glass matrices, especially those containing boron and those spike with high-level wastes or {sup 137}Cs, is beyond the capability of present-day safeguards technologies and nondestructive assay techniques. The alternative to quantitative measurement of fissile content is to maintain continuity of knowledge through a combination of containment and surveillance, which is not the international norm for bulk handling facilities.

  10. The role of troublesome components in plutonium vitrification

    Li, Hong; Vienna, J.D.; Peeler, D.K.; Hrma, P.; Schweiger, M.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    One option for immobilizing surplus plutonium is vitrification in a borosilicate glass. Two advantages of the glass form are (1) high tolerance to feed variability and, (2) high solubility of some impurity components. The types of plutonium-containing materials in the United States inventory include: pits, metals, oxides, residues, scrap, compounds, and fuel. Many of them also contain high concentrations of carbon, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate, and chromium oxide. To vitrify plutonium-containing scrap and residues, it is critical to understand the impact of each component on glass processing and chemical durability of the final product. This paper addresses glass processing issues associated with these troublesome components. It covers solubility limits of chlorine, fluorine, phosphate, sulfate, and chromium oxide in several borosilicate based glasses, and the effect of each component on vitrification (volatility, phase segregation, crystallization, and melt viscosity). Techniques (formulation, pretreatment, removal, and/or dilution) to mitigate the effect of these troublesome components are suggested.

  11. Preliminary safety evaluation for the plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    Shapley, J.E., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-14

    This Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) describes and analyzes the installation and operation of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (SPS) at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The SPS is a combination of components required to expedite the safe and timely storage of Plutonium (Pu) oxide. The SPS program will receive site Pu packages, process the Pu for storage, package the Pu into metallic containers, and safely store the containers in a specially modified storage vault. The location of the SPS will be in the 2736- ZB building and the storage vaults will be in the 2736-Z building of the PFP, as shown in Figure 1-1. The SPS will produce storage canisters that are larger than those currently used for Pu storage at the PFP. Therefore, the existing storage areas within the PFP secure vaults will require modification. Other modifications will be performed on the 2736-ZB building complex to facilitate the installation and operation of the SPS.

  12. Separation of Plutonium from Irradiated Fuels and Targets

    Gray, Leonard W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Holliday, Kiel S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Murray, Alice [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Thompson, Major [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Thorp, Donald T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Yarbro, Stephen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Venetz, Theodore J. [Hanford Site, Benton County, WA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Spent nuclear fuel from power production reactors contains moderate amounts of transuranium (TRU) actinides and fission products in addition to the still slightly enriched uranium. Originally, nuclear technology was developed to chemically separate and recover fissionable plutonium from irradiated nuclear fuel for military purposes. Military plutonium separations had essentially ceased by the mid-1990s. Reprocessing, however, can serve multiple purposes, and the relative importance has changed over time. In the 1960’s the vision of the introduction of plutonium-fueled fast-neutron breeder reactors drove the civilian separation of plutonium. More recently, reprocessing has been regarded as a means to facilitate the disposal of high-level nuclear waste, and thus requires development of radically different technical approaches. In the last decade or so, the principal reason for reprocessing has shifted to spent power reactor fuel being reprocessed (1) so that unused uranium and plutonium being recycled reduce the volume, gaining some 25% to 30% more energy from the original uranium in the process and thus contributing to energy security and (2) to reduce the volume and radioactivity of the waste by recovering all long-lived actinides and fission products followed by recycling them in fast reactors where they are transmuted to short-lived fission products; this reduces the volume to about 20%, reduces the long-term radioactivity level in the high-level waste, and complicates the possibility of the plutonium being diverted from civil use – thereby increasing the proliferation resistance of the fuel cycle. In general, reprocessing schemes can be divided into two large categories: aqueous/hydrometallurgical systems, and pyrochemical/pyrometallurgical systems. Worldwide processing schemes are dominated by the aqueous (hydrometallurgical) systems. This document provides a historical review of both categories of reprocessing.

  13. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Plutonium and Americium from Soil

    Fox, Robert Vincent; Mincher, Bruce Jay

    2002-08-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of plutonium and americium from soil was successfully demonstrated using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide solvent augmented with organophosphorus and beta-diketone complexants. Spiked Idaho soils were chemically and radiologically characterized, then extracted with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide at 2,900 psi and 65°C containing varying concentrations of tributyl phosphate (TBP) and thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA). A single 45 minute SFE with 2.7 mol% TBP and 3.2 mol% TTA provided as much as 88% ± 6.0 extraction of americium and 69% ± 5.0 extraction of plutonium. Use of 5.3 mol% TBP with 6.8 mol% of the more acidic beta-diketone hexafluoroacetylacetone (HFA) provided 95% ± 3.0 extraction of americium and 83% ± 5.0 extraction of plutonium in a single 45 minute SFE at 3,750 psi and 95°C. Sequential chemical extraction techniques were used to chemically characterize soil partitioning of plutonium and americium in pre-SFE soil samples. Sequential chemical extraction techniques demonstrated that spiked plutonium resides primarily (76.6%) in the sesquioxide fraction with minor amounts being absorbed by the oxidizable fraction (10.6%) and residual fractions (12.8%). Post-SFE soils subjected to sequential chemical extraction characterization demonstrated that 97% of the oxidizable, 78% of the sesquioxide and 80% of the residual plutonium could be removed using SFE. These preliminary results show that SFE may be an effective solvent extraction technique for removal of actinide contaminants from soil.

  14. Biokinetics of plutonium-238 injected in non-human primates

    Chelidze, Nino

    Seventeen intravenously injected monkey data were analyzed using PowerBasic and SAAM II softwares. The study was divided into three parts. In the first part SAAM II predictions were compared with those calculated by Birchall algorithm based on the ICRP 67 systemic model for plutonium. In the second part SAAM II simulations were performed and compared for two representations of systemic model for plutonium: the ICRP 67 model and the Leggett model. In the third part, optimization of transfer rates suggested by ICRP 67 and Leggett models were attempted by solving each monkey case independently. The Birchall algorithm and SAAM II predicted values coincide with each other for all data presented: blood, urine and feces. Unfortunately, these predictions do not coincide with the measurement values. Plutonium activity in liver is about 50% of the injected activity. The uptake of plutonium in liver in primates seems to be close to the assumption of equal distribution of 45% plutonium in liver and skeleton in humans. For longer sacrificed monkeys we have prolonged liver retention compared to plutonium liver retention in humans. Pu retention in urine and blood has been simulated based on the ICRP 67 and Leggett models respectively and plotted against the measured data points to acquire the understanding of the models with respect to reality. Pu activity was also evaluated in liver and skeleton at the time of the sacrifice for both models and compared with the autopsy measurements for individual cases. Optimization of transfer rates suggested in the ICRP 67 and Leggett models was attempted. Default transfer rates were varied to improve the fits to the data and predict activities in the liver and skeleton at the time of death has been carried out in SAAM II. Good fits for the individual cases were obtained successfully, however, consistency among parameters from case to case was not observed.

  15. Plutonium sorption and desorption behavior on bentonite.

    Begg, James D; Zavarin, Mavrik; Tumey, Scott J; Kersting, Annie B

    2015-03-01

    Understanding plutonium (Pu) sorption to, and desorption from, mineral phases is key to understanding its subsurface transport. In this work we study Pu(IV) sorption to industrial grade FEBEX bentonite over the concentration range 10(-7)-10(-16) M to determine if sorption at typical environmental concentrations (≤10(-12) M) is the same as sorption at Pu concentrations used in most laboratory experiments (10(-7)-10(-11) M). Pu(IV) sorption was broadly linear over the 10(-7)-10(-16) M concentration range during the 120 d experimental period; however, it took up to 100 d to reach sorption equilibrium. At concentrations ≥10(-8) M, sorption was likely affected by additional Pu(IV) precipitation/polymerization reactions. The extent of sorption was similar to that previously reported for Pu(IV) sorption to SWy-1 Na-montmorillonite over a narrower range of Pu concentrations (10(-11)-10(-7) M). Sorption experiments with FEBEX bentonite and Pu(V) were also performed across a concentration range of 10(-11)-10(-7) M and over a 10 month period which allowed us to estimate the slow apparent rates of Pu(V) reduction on a smectite-rich clay. Finally, a flow cell experiment with Pu(IV) loaded on FEBEX bentonite demonstrated continued desorption of Pu over a 12 day flow period. Comparison with a desorption experiment performed with SWy-1 montmorillonite showed a strong similarity and suggested the importance of montorillonite phases in controlling Pu sorption/desorption reactions on FEBEX bentonite.

  16. Capability to Recover Plutonium-238 in H-Canyon/HB-Line - 13248

    Fuller, Kenneth S. Jr.; Smith, Robert H. Jr.; Goergen, Charles R. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Plutonium-238 is used in Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) to generate electrical power and in Radioisotope Heater Units (RHUs) to produce heat for electronics and environmental control for deep space missions. The domestic supply of Pu-238 consists of scrap material from previous mission production or material purchased from Russia. Currently, the United States has no significant production scale operational capability to produce and separate new Pu-238 from irradiated neptunium-237 targets. The Department of Energy - Nuclear Energy is currently evaluating and developing plans to reconstitute the United States capability to produce Pu-238 from irradiated Np-237 targets. The Savannah River Site had previously produced and/or processed all the Pu-238 utilized in Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) for deep space missions up to and including the majority of the plutonium for the Cassini Mission. The previous full production cycle capabilities included: Np- 237 target fabrication, target irradiation, target dissolution and Np-237 and Pu-238 separation and purification, conversion of Np-237 and Pu-238 to oxide, scrap recovery, and Pu-238 encapsulation. The capability and equipment still exist and could be revitalized or put back into service to recover and purify Pu-238/Np-237 or broken General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) pellets utilizing existing process equipment in HB-Line Scrap Recovery, and H-Canyon Frame Waste Recovery processes. The conversion of Np-237 and Pu-238 to oxide can be performed in the existing HB-Line Phase-2 and Phase- 3 Processes. Dissolution of irradiated Np-237 target material, and separation and purification of Np-237 and Pu-238 product streams would be possible at production rates of ∼2 kg/month of Pu-238 if the existing H-Canyon Frames Process spare equipment were re-installed. Previously, the primary H-Canyon Frames equipment was removed to be replaced: however, the replacement project was stopped. The spare equipment

  17. CAPABILITY TO RECOVER PLUTONIUM-238 IN H-CANYON/HB-LINE

    Fuller, Kenneth S. Jr.; Smith, Robert H. Jr.; Goergen, Charles R.

    2013-01-09

    Plutonium-238 is used in Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) to generate electrical power and in Radioisotope Heater Units (RHUs) to produce heat for electronics and environmental control for deep space missions. The domestic supply of Pu-238 consists of scrap material from previous mission production or material purchased from Russia. Currently, the United States has no significant production scale operational capability to produce and separate new Pu-238 from irradiated neptunium-237 targets. The Department of Energy - Nuclear Energy is currently evaluating and developing plans to reconstitute the United States capability to produce Pu-238 from irradiated Np-237 targets. The Savannah River Site had previously produced and/or processed all the Pu-238 utilized in Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) for deep space missions up to and including the majority of the plutonium for the Cassini Mission. The previous full production cycle capabilities included: Np-237 target fabrication, target irradiation, target dissolution and Np-237 and Pu-238 separation and purification, conversion of Np-237 and Pu-238 to oxide, scrap recovery, and Pu-238 encapsulation. The capability and equipment still exist and could be revitalized or put back into service to recover and purify Pu-238/Np-237 or broken General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) pellets utilizing existing process equipment in HB-Line Scrap Recovery, and H-anyon Frame Waste Recovery processes. The conversion of Np-237 and Pu-238 to oxide can be performed in the existing HB-Line Phase-2 and Phase-3 Processes. Dissolution of irradiated Np-237 target material, and separation and purification of Np-237 and Pu-238 product streams would be possible at production rates of ~ 2 kg/month of Pu-238 if the existing H-Canyon Frames Process spare equipment were re-installed. Previously, the primary H-Canyon Frames equipment was removed to be replaced: however, the replacement project was stopped. The spare equipment is

  18. HB-Line Plutonium Oxide Data Collection Strategy

    Watkins, R. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions; Varble, J. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions; Jordan, J. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions

    2015-05-26

    HB-Line and H-Canyon will handle and process plutonium material to produce plutonium oxide for feed to the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). However, the plutonium oxide product will not be transferred to the MFFF directly from HB-Line until it is packaged into a qualified DOE-STD-3013-2012 container. In the interim, HB-Line will load plutonium oxide into an inner, filtered can. The inner can will be placed in a filtered bag, which will be loaded into a filtered outer can. The outer can will be loaded into a certified 9975 with getter assembly in compliance with onsite transportation requirement, for subsequent storage and transfer to the K-Area Complex (KAC). After DOE-STD-3013-2012 container packaging capabilities are established, the product will be returned to HB-Line to be packaged into a qualified DOE-STD-3013-2012 container. To support the transfer of plutonium oxide to KAC and then eventually to MFFF, various material and packaging data will have to be collected and retained. In addition, data from initial HB-Line processing operations will be needed to support future DOE-STD-3013-2012 qualification as amended by the HB-Line DOE Standard equivalency. As production increases, the volume of data to collect will increase. The HB-Line data collected will be in the form of paper copies and electronic media. Paper copy data will, at a minimum, consist of facility procedures, nonconformance reports (NCRs), and DCS print outs. Electronic data will be in the form of Adobe portable document formats (PDFs). Collecting all the required data for each plutonium oxide can will be no small effort for HB-Line, and will become more challenging once the maximum annual oxide production throughput is achieved due to the sheer volume of data to be collected. The majority of the data collected will be in the form of facility procedures, DCS print outs, and laboratory results. To facilitate complete collection of this data, a traveler form will be developed which

  19. High-temperature vacuum distillation separation of plutonium waste salts

    Garcia, E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-10-01

    In this task, high-temperature vacuum distillation separation is being developed for residue sodium chloride-potassium chloride salts resulting from past pyrochemical processing of plutonium. This process has the potential of providing clean separation of the salt and the actinides with minimal amounts of secondary waste generation. The process could produce chloride salt that could be discarded as low-level waste (LLW) or low actinide content transuranic (TRU) waste, and a concentrated actinide oxide powder that would meet long-term storage standards (DOE-DTD-3013-94) until a final disposition option for all surplus plutonium is chosen.

  20. Geochemical association of plutonium in marine sediments from Palomares (Spain)

    Anton, M.P. [Dept. de Geoquimica e Impacto Ambiental, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Gasco, C. [Dept. de Geoquimica e Impacto Ambiental, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A. [Dept. de Fisica, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Pujol, L. [Dept. de Fisica, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)

    1994-12-31

    The geochemical association of plutonium in sediments from the marine ecosystem of Palomares has been studied. A sequential leaching technique using selective extractants has been employed to determine the percentages of Pu in the following forms: (a) readily available, (b) exchangeable and adsorbed to specific sites, (c) associated with organic matter, (d) sesquioxides, (e) residual. Plutonium was found to be associated mainly with phases (c), (d) and (e), and therefore, appears to be relatively immobile and not readily available to bottom feeding biota. The effect of different source terms on Pu distribution is also discussed. (orig.)

  1. A study on determination of potentially hazardous plutonium isotopes in environmental samples.

    Strumińska-Parulska, Dagmara I

    2013-01-01

    Due to the lack of stable plutonium isotopes, and the high mobility as well as long half-life, plutonium is considered one of the most important radioelement in safety assessment of environmental radioactivity and nuclear waste management. A number of analytical methods have been developed over the past decades for determination of plutonium in environmental samples. The article discusses different analytical techniques and presents the results of plutonium isotopes determination by alpha spectrometry and accelerator mass spectrometry in environmental samples. The concentrations of plutonium isotopes in analyzed samples indicates its measurement is of great importance for environmental and safety assessment, especially in contaminated areas.

  2. Reactions of plutonium dioxide with water and oxygen-hydrogen mixtures: Mechanisms for corrosion of uranium and plutonium

    Haschke, John M.; Allen, Thomas H.; Morales, Luis A.

    1999-06-18

    Investigation of the interactions of plutonium dioxide with water vapor and with an oxygen-hydrogen mixture show that the oxide is both chemically reactive and catalytically active. Correspondence of the chemical behavior with that for oxidation of uranium in moist air suggests that similar catalytic processes participate in the mechanism of moisture-enhanced corrosion of uranium and plutonium. Evaluation of chemical and kinetic data for corrosion of the metals leads to a comprehensive mechanism for corrosion in dry air, water vapor, and moist air. Results are applied in confirming that the corrosion rate of Pu in water vapor decreases sharply between 100 and 200 degrees C.

  3. Standard test method for plutonium by Iron (II)/Chromium (VI) amperometric titration

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of plutonium in unirradiated nuclear-grade plutonium dioxide, uranium-plutonium mixed oxides with uranium (U)/plutonium (Pu) ratios up to 21, plutonium metal, and plutonium nitrate solutions. Optimum quantities of plutonium to measure are 7 to 15 mg. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  4. Nature of nano-sized plutonium particles in soils at the Hanford site

    Buck, Edgar C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States). Energy and Environment Directorate,; Moore, Dean A.; Felmy, Andrew R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States). Fundamental Science Directorate; Czerwinski, Kenneth R. [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Harry-Reid Center for Environmental Studies; Conradson, Steven D.; Batuk, Olga N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The occurrence of plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) either from direct deposition or from the precipitation of plutonium-bearing solutions in contaminated soils and sediments is well described, particularly for the Hanford site in Washington State. However, past research has suggested that plutonium at the Hanford site may exist in chemical forms in addition to PuO{sub 2}. Although the majority of the plutonium is present as oxide, we present evidence for the formation of nano-sized mixed plutonium- iron phosphate hydroxide structurally related to the rhabdophane group minerals in 216-Z9 crib sediments from Hanford using both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The iron-plutonium phosphate formation may depend on the local microenvironment in the sediments, availability of phosphate, and hence the distribution of these minerals may control long-term migration of plutonium in the soil.

  5. Plutonium emission from the Fukushima accident

    Bossew, P., E-mail: pbossew@bfs.de [German Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    A strong earthquake and subsequent tsunami on 11{sup th} March 2011 initiated a severe accident in units 1 to 4 of Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, resulting in substantial releases of radionuclides. While much has since been published 00 environmental contamination and exposure to radio--iodine and radio-caesium, little is known about releases of plutonium and other non-volatile elements. Although the total activities of released {sup 131}I, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs are of the same order of magnitude as of the Chernobyl accident in 1986, the contribution of little volatile elements, including Pu, is much smaller in Fukushima fallout. The reason is the different physical nature of the accident sequence which led to a release of some 10{sup -}5% of the core inventories only (to be compared with 3.5% from Chernobyl). In this contribution the available data on Pu in Fukushima fallout will be reviewed. Data sources are mainly reports and press releases by Japanese authorities and a few scientific articles. The mean ratio {sup 239+240}Pu: {sup 137}Cs in the near field around the NPP (mainly part of Fukushima prefecture and districts of adjacent prefectures) can be assumed about 3 x 10{sup -}7{sup ,} to be compared to nearly 0.01 in the vicinity of Chernobyl, down to about 3 x 10 {sup -6} in Central Europe. Isotopic ratios {sup 238}Pu: {sup 239+240} Pu are about 2.2 (0.46 and 0.035 in Chemobyl and global fallout, respectively). Activity concentrations of Fukushima- {sup 239+240} Pu in surface soil were found up to above 0.1 Bq/kg d.m. in the immediate vicinity of the Fukushima NPP and about one order of magnitude less in Fukushima city, about 60 km away. The {sup 239+240} Pu activity released into the atmosphere is roughly estimated some 10{sup 9} Bq (Chemobyl : almost 10{sup 14} Bq). (author)

  6. Kr-85 signatures for various plutonium production schemes

    Stanoszek, Paul [Carl Friedrich von Weizsaecker-Centre for Science and Peace Research (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Kr-85 is considered to be the best atmospheric indicator of unreported weapon-grade material production. This fact is based on the half-life of 10.76 years of Kr-85 and its chemical inactivity, which makes it even detectable after extended periods of cooling time. Kr-85 is produced as fission product during nuclear reactor operation and remains in the fuel until reprocessing starts. In order to determine the detectability of plutonium production the Kr-85 source term has to be assessed. The important issue of this presentation is the question on the minimum signal that an inspector can expect under the assumption that a proliferator minimizes his Kr-85 generation in order to circumvent a Kr-85 detection. A further assumption is that for nuclear weapon production a burn-up of typically around 2 MWd/kg is used. In addition, if clandestine plutonium production takes place, the source term might be used to estimate the amount of separated plutonium. The methodology of this study is based on a linkage between MCNPX and MATLAB. All results for actinide concentrations and Kr-85 are evaluated for different enrichments of U-235 and compared to known literature data. The Kr-85 source term per kilogram plutonium depends on the enrichments. As a result the lowest Kr-85 source term is found for depleted uranium.

  7. A perspective on the proliferation risks of plutonium mines

    Lyman, E.S. [Nuclear Control Institute, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The program of geologic disposal of spent fuel and other plutonium-containing materials is increasingly becoming the target of criticism by individuals who argue that in the future, repositories may become low-cost sources of fissile material for nuclear weapons. This paper attempts to outline a consistent framework for analyzing the proliferation risks of these so-called {open_quotes}plutonium mines{close_quotes} and putting them into perspective. First, it is emphasized that the attractiveness of plutonium in a repository as a source of weapons material depends on its accessibility relative to other sources of fissile material. Then, the notion of a {open_quotes}material production standard{close_quotes} (MPS) is proposed: namely, that the proliferation risks posed by geologic disposal will be acceptable if one can demonstrate, under a number of reasonable scenarios, that the recovery of plutonium from a repository is likely to be as difficult as new production of fissile material. A preliminary analysis suggests that the range of circumstances under which current mined repository concepts would fail to meet this standard is fairly narrow. Nevertheless, a broad application of the MPS may impose severe restrictions on repository design. In this context, the relationship of repository design parameters to easy of recovery is discussed.

  8. Plutonium immobilization can loading FY99 component test report

    Kriikku, E.

    2000-06-01

    This report summarizes FY99 Can Loading work completed for the Plutonium Immobilization Project and it includes details about the Helium hood, cold pour cans, Can Loading robot, vision system, magnetically coupled ray cart and lifts, system integration, Can Loading glovebox layout, and an FY99 cost table.

  9. Plutonium Consumption Program, CANDU Reactor Project final report

    1994-07-31

    DOE is investigating methods for long term dispositioning of weapons grade plutonium. One such method would be to utilize the plutonium in Mixed OXide (MOX) fuel assemblies in existing CANDU reactors. CANDU (Canadian Deuterium Uranium) reactors are designed, licensed, built, and supported by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), and currently use natural uranium oxide as fuel. The MOX spent fuel assemblies removed from the reactor would be similar to the spent fuel currently produced using natural uranium fuel, thus rendering the plutonium as unattractive as that in the stockpiles of commercial spent fuel. This report presents the results of a study sponsored by the DOE for dispositioning the plutonium using CANDU technology. Ontario Hydro`s Bruce A was used as reference. The fuel design study defined the optimum parameters to disposition 50 tons of Pu in 25 years (or 100 tons). Two alternate fuel designs were studied. Safeguards, security, environment, safety, health, economics, etc. were considered. Options for complete destruction of the Pu were also studied briefly; CANDU has a superior ability for this. Alternative deployment options were explored and the potential impact on Pu dispositioning in the former Soviet Union was studied. An integrated system can be ready to begin Pu consumption in 4 years, with no changes required to the reactors other than for safe, secure storage of new fuel.

  10. I. The metabolic properties of plutonium and allied materials

    Hamilton, J.G.

    1948-05-24

    This report on the metabolic properties of plutonium and related radioactive materials presents experimental information in the following areas: radioautographic studies; tracer studies (with tables of accumulation in tissues) of actinium, radio-zirconium, technetium, radio-rubidium, radio-germanium, beryllium, and cadmium; decontamination and bone metabolism studies; and radio-chemical isolation.

  11. Separation Method of Neptunium From Large Amount of Plutonium

    JIN; Hua; SU; Yu-lan; YING; Zhe-cong; ZHAO; Sheng-yang

    2013-01-01

    A new separation method of neptunium from large amount of plutonium by TEVA column has been developed.A series of influence factors are studied such as resin’s types,valence adjusting of Np and Pu,extraction and elution behavior of Np on TEVA resin.According to above works,a separation procedure is recommended as follows:1)Adjusting the

  12. A Graphical Examination of Uranium and Plutonium Fissility

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2008-01-01

    The issue of why only particular isotopes of uranium and plutonium are suitable for use in nuclear weapons is analyzed with the aid of graphs and semiquantitative discussions of parameters such as excitation energies, fission barriers, reaction cross-sections, and the role of processes such as [alpha]-decay and spontaneous fission. The goal is to…

  13. John Adams Lecture | Accelerator-Based Neutrino Physics: Past, Present and Future by Kenneth Long | 8 December

    2014-01-01

    John Adams Lecture: Accelerator-Based Neutrino Physics: Past, Present and Future by Dr. Kenneth Long (Imperial College London & STFC).   Monday, 8 December 2014 from 2 p.m. to 4 p.m. at CERN ( 503-1-001 - Council Chamber ) Abstract: The study of the neutrino is the study of physics beyond the Standard Model. We now know that the neutrinos have mass and that neutrino mixing occurs causing neutrino flavour to oscillate as neutrinos propagate through space and time. Further, some measurements can be interpreted as hints for new particles known as sterile neutrinos. The measured values of the mixing parameters make it possible that the matter-antimatter (CP) symmetry may be violated through the mixing process. The consequences of observing CP-invariance violation in neutrinos would be profound. To discover CP-invariance violation will require measurements of exquisite precision. Accelerator-based neutrino sources are central to the future programme and advances in technique are required ...

  14. Design of a beam shaping assembly and preliminary modelling of a treatment room for accelerator-based BNCT at CNEA

    Burlon, A.A.; Girola, S. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Martin (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin, San Martin (Argentina); Valda, A.A., E-mail: valda@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Martin (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin, San Martin (Argentina); Minsky, D.M.; Kreiner, A.J. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Martin (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin, San Martin (Argentina)] [CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Sanchez, G. [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin, San Martin (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    This work reports on the characterisation of a neutron beam shaping assembly (BSA) prototype and on the preliminary modelling of a treatment room for BNCT within the framework of a research programme for the development and construction of an accelerator-based BNCT irradiation facility in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The BSA prototype constructed has been characterised by means of MCNP simulations as well as a set of experimental measurements performed at the Tandar accelerator at the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterisation of a neutron beam shaping assembly for accelerator-based BNCT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Measurements: total and epi-cadmium neutron fluxes and beam homogeneity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calculations: Monte Carlo simulations with the MCNP code. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Measured and calculated figure-of-merit parameters in agreement with those of IAEA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Initial MCNP dose calculations for a treatment room to define future design actions.

  15. Acceleration-based joint stability parameters for total knee arthroplasty that correspond with patient-reported instability.

    Roberts, Dustyn; Khan, Humera; Kim, Joo H; Slover, James; Walker, Peter S

    2013-10-01

    There is no universally accepted definition of human joint stability, particularly in nonperiodic general activities of daily living. Instability has proven to be a difficult parameter to define and quantify, since both spatial and temporal measures need to be considered to fully characterize joint stability. In this preliminary study, acceleration-based parameters were proposed to characterize the joint stability. Several time-statistical parameters of acceleration and jerk were defined as potential stability measures, since anomalous acceleration or jerk could be a symptom of poor control or stability. An inertial measurement unit attached at the level of the tibial tubercle of controls and patients following total knee arthroplasty was used to determine linear acceleration of the knee joint during several activities of daily living. The resulting accelerations and jerks were compared with patient-reported instability as determined through a standard questionnaire. Several parameters based on accelerations and jerks in the anterior/posterior direction during the step-up/step-down activity were significantly different between patients and controls and correlated with patient reports of instability in that activity. The range of the positive to negative peak acceleration and infinity norm of acceleration, in the anterior/posterior direction during the step-up/step-down activity, proved to be the best indicators of instability. As time derivatives of displacement, these acceleration-based parameters represent spatial and temporal information and are an important step forward in developing a definition and objective quantification of human joint stability that can complement the subjective patient report.

  16. Preliminary study of acceleration based sensor to record nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) feeding behavior at water surface

    Subakti, Aji; Khotimah, Zarah F.; Darozat, Fajar M.

    2017-01-01

    In this preliminary study, the acceleration based sensor was developed to monitor the activity of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) feeding behavior at the water surface. This study was conducted for three weeks in a fish pond with 40 m2 in size, stocked with 850 fingerlings of Nile tilapia strain Nirwana-2 (average biomass of 13 g, fed four times a day at 8 am, 12 pm, 4 pm, and 8 pm). The acceleration sensor system was installed floating in the pond and was designed in a way so that the xz plane of the sensor will be parallel with water surface, while the y-axis will be pointing downward. By sensing the acceleration caused by the surface wave, the activities of fish near surface water could be monitored. The result showed that there were three distinctive patterns could be observed which was related to the feeding activity of fish. Generally, it can be concluded that this acceleration based sensor system can be integrated with automatic feeder machine, in particular by analyzing the recorded patter, it is possible to monitor when the fish stop eating, and so the right amount of feed could be given to the fish.

  17. Integrated development and testing plan for the plutonium immobilization project

    Kan, T.

    1998-07-01

    This integrated plan for the DOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD) describes the technology development and major project activities necessary to support the deployment of the immobilization approach for disposition of surplus weapons-usable plutonium. The plan describes details of the development and testing (D&T) tasks needed to provide technical data for design and operation of a plutonium immobilization plant based on the ceramic can-in-canister technology (''Immobilization Fissile Material Disposition Program Final Immobilization Form Assessment and Recommendation'', UCRL-ID-128705, October 3, 1997). The plan also presents tasks for characterization and performance testing of the immobilization form to support a repository licensing application and to develop the basis for repository acceptance of the plutonium form. Essential elements of the plant project (design, construction, facility activation, etc.) are described, but not developed in detail, to indicate how the D&T results tie into the overall plant project. Given the importance of repository acceptance, specific activities to be conducted by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (RW) to incorporate the plutonium form in the repository licensing application are provided in this document, together with a summary of how immobilization D&T activities provide input to the license activity. The ultimate goal of the Immobilization Project is to develop, construct, and operate facilities that will immobilize from about 18 to 50 tonnes (MT) of U.S. surplus weapons usable plutonium materials in a manner that meets the ''spent fuel'' standard (Fissile Materials Storage and Disposition Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, ''Storage and Disposition Final PEIS'', issued January 14, 1997, 62 Federal Register 3014) and is acceptable for disposal in a geologic repository. In the can-in-canister technology

  18. Thermal and Physical Properties of Plutonium Dioxide Produced from the Oxidation of Metal: a Data Summary

    Wayne, David M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-13

    The ARIES Program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory removes plutonium metal from decommissioned nuclear weapons, and converts it to plutonium dioxide in a specially-designed Direct Metal Oxidation furnace. The plutonium dioxide is analyzed for specific surface area, particle size distribution, and moisture content. The purpose of these analyses is to certify that the plutonium dioxide powder meets or exceeds the specifications of the end-user, and the specifications for the packaging and transport of nuclear materials. Analytical results from plutonium dioxide from ARIES development activities, from ARIES production activities, from muffle furnace oxidation of metal, and from metal that was oxidized over a lengthy time interval in air at room temperature, are presented. The processes studied produce plutonium dioxide powder with distinct differences in measured properties, indicating the significant influence of oxidation conditions on physical properties.

  19. Stabilization and immobilization of military plutonium: A non-proliferation perspective

    Leventhal, P. [Nuclear Control Institute, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Nuclear Control Institute welcomes this DOE-sponsored technical workshop on stabilization and immobilization of weapons plutonium (W Pu) because of the significant contribution it can make toward the ultimate non-proliferation objective of eliminating weapons-usable nuclear material, plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU), from world commerce. The risk of theft or diversion of these materials warrants concern, as only a few kilograms in the hands of terrorists or threshold states would give them the capability to build nuclear weapons. Military plutonium disposition questions cannot be addressed in isolation from civilian plutonium issues. The National Academy of Sciences has urged that {open_quotes}further steps should be taken to reduce the proliferation risks posed by all of the world`s plutonium stocks, military and civilian, separated and unseparated...{close_quotes}. This report discusses vitrification and a mixed oxide fuels option, and the effects of disposition choices on civilian plutonium fuel cycles.

  20. Evaluation of the Magnesium Hydroxide Treatment Process for Stabilizing PFP Plutonium/Nitric Acid Solutions

    Gerber, Mark A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Baker, Aaron B.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2000-09-28

    This document summarizes an evaluation of the magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] process to be used at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) for stabilizing plutonium/nitric acid solutions to meet the goal of stabilizing the plutonium in an oxide form suitable for storage under DOE-STD-3013-99. During the treatment process, nitric acid solutions bearing plutonium nitrate are neutralized with Mg(OH)2 in an air sparge reactor. The resulting slurry, containing plutonium hydroxide, is filtered and calcined. The process evaluation included a literature review and extensive laboratory- and bench-scale testing. The testing was conducted using cerium as a surrogate for plutonium to identify and quantify the effects of key processing variables on processing time (primarily neutralization and filtration time) and calcined product properties.

  1. Controllability of plutonium concentration for FBR fuel at a solvent extraction process in the PUREX process

    Enokida, Youichi; Kitano, Motoki; Sawada, Kayo [Nagoya University, 1 Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken, 4630052 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Typical Purex solvent extraction systems for the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel have a feed material containing dilute, 1% in weight, plutonium, along with uranium and fission products. Current reprocessing proposals call for no separation of the pure plutonium. The work described in this paper studied, by computer simulation, the fundamental feasibility of preparing a 20% concentrated plutonium product solution from the 1% feed by adjusting only the feed rates and acid concentrations of the incoming streams and without the addition of redox reagents for the plutonium. A set of process design flowsheets has been developed to realize a concentrated plutonium solution of a 20% stream from the dilute plutonium feed without using redox reagents. (authors)

  2. An MS-DOS-based program for analyzing plutonium gamma-ray spectra

    Ruhter, W.D.; Buckley, W.M.

    1989-09-07

    A plutonium gamma-ray analysis system that operates on MS-DOS-based computers has been developed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to perform in-field analysis of plutonium gamma-ray spectra for plutonium isotopics. The program titled IAEAPU consists of three separate applications: a data-transfer application for transferring spectral data from a CICERO multichannel analyzer to a binary data file, a data-analysis application to analyze plutonium gamma-ray spectra, for plutonium isotopic ratios and weight percents of total plutonium, and a data-quality assurance application to check spectral data for proper data-acquisition setup and performance. Volume 3 contains the software listings for these applications.

  3. SMALL-SCALE TESTING OF PLUTONIUM (IV) OXALATE PRECIPITATION AND CALCINATION TO PLUTONIUM OXIDE TO SUPPORT THE MOX FEED MISSION

    Crowder, M.; Pierce, R.; Scogin, J.; Daniel, G.; King, W.

    2012-06-25

    The H-Canyon facility will be used to dissolve Pu metal for subsequent purification and conversion to plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) using Phase II of HB-Line. To support the new mission, SRNL conducted a series of experiments to produce calcined plutonium (Pu) oxide and measure the physical properties and water adsorption of that material. This data will help define the process operating conditions and material handling steps for HB-Line. An anion exchange column experiment produced 1.4 L of a purified 52.6 g/L Pu solution. Over the next nine weeks, seven Pu(IV) oxalate precipitations were performed using the same stock Pu solution, with precipitator feed acidities ranging from 0.77 M to 3.0 M nitric acid and digestion times ranging from 5 to 30 minutes. Analysis of precipitator filtrate solutions showed Pu losses below 1% for all precipitations. The four larger precipitation batches matched the target oxalic acid addition time of 44 minutes within 4 minutes. The three smaller precipitation batches focused on evaluation of digestion time and the oxalic acid addition step ranged from 25-34 minutes because of pump limitations in the low flow range. Following the precipitations, 22 calcinations were performed in the range of 610-690 C, with the largest number of samples calcined at either 650 or 635 C. Characterization of the resulting PuO{sub 2} batches showed specific surface areas in the range of 5-14 m{sup 2}/g, with 16 of the 22 samples in the range of 5-10 m2/g. For samples analyzed with typical handling (exposed to ambient air for 15-45 minutes with relative humidities of 20-55%), the moisture content as measured by Mass Spectrometry ranged from 0.15 to 0.45 wt % and the total mass loss at 1000 C, as measured by TGA, ranged from 0.21 to 0.58 wt %. For the samples calcined between 635 and 650 C, the moisture content without extended exposure ranged from 0.20 to 0.38 wt %, and the TGA mass loss ranged from 0.26 to 0.46 wt %. Of these latter samples, the samples

  4. SMALL-SCALE TESTING OF PLUTONIUM (IV) OXALATE PRECIPITATION AND CALCINATION TO PLUTONIUM OXIDE TO SUPPORT THE MOX FEED MISSION

    Crowder, M.; Pierce, R.; Scogin, J.; Daniel, G.; King, W.

    2012-06-25

    The H-Canyon facility will be used to dissolve Pu metal for subsequent purification and conversion to plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) using Phase II of HB-Line. To support the new mission, SRNL conducted a series of experiments to produce calcined plutonium (Pu) oxide and measure the physical properties and water adsorption of that material. This data will help define the process operating conditions and material handling steps for HB-Line. An anion exchange column experiment produced 1.4 L of a purified 52.6 g/L Pu solution. Over the next nine weeks, seven Pu(IV) oxalate precipitations were performed using the same stock Pu solution, with precipitator feed acidities ranging from 0.77 M to 3.0 M nitric acid and digestion times ranging from 5 to 30 minutes. Analysis of precipitator filtrate solutions showed Pu losses below 1% for all precipitations. The four larger precipitation batches matched the target oxalic acid addition time of 44 minutes within 4 minutes. The three smaller precipitation batches focused on evaluation of digestion time and the oxalic acid addition step ranged from 25-34 minutes because of pump limitations in the low flow range. Following the precipitations, 22 calcinations were performed in the range of 610-690 C, with the largest number of samples calcined at either 650 or 635 C. Characterization of the resulting PuO{sub 2} batches showed specific surface areas in the range of 5-14 m{sup 2}/g, with 16 of the 22 samples in the range of 5-10 m2/g. For samples analyzed with typical handling (exposed to ambient air for 15-45 minutes with relative humidities of 20-55%), the moisture content as measured by Mass Spectrometry ranged from 0.15 to 0.45 wt % and the total mass loss at 1000 C, as measured by TGA, ranged from 0.21 to 0.58 wt %. For the samples calcined between 635 and 650 C, the moisture content without extended exposure ranged from 0.20 to 0.38 wt %, and the TGA mass loss ranged from 0.26 to 0.46 wt %. Of these latter samples, the samples

  5. Literature review for oxalate oxidation processes and plutonium oxalate solubility

    Nash, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-01

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign.

  6. Complexation of Plutonium (IV) With Sulfate At Variable Temperatures

    Y. Xia; J.I. Friese; D.A> Moore; P.P. Bachelor; L. Rao

    2006-10-05

    The complexation of plutonium(IV) with sulfate at variable temperatures has been investigated by solvent extraction method. A NaBrO{sub 3} solution was used as holding oxidant to maintain the plutonium(IV) oxidation state throughout the experiments. The distribution ratio of Pu(IV) between the organic and aqueous phases was found to decrease as the concentrations of sulfate were increased. Stability constants of the 1:1 and 1:2 Pu(IV)-HSO{sub 4}{sup -} complexes, dominant in the aqueous phase, were calculated from the effect of [HSO{sub 4}{sup -}] on the distribution ratio. The enthalpy and entropy of complexation were calculated from the stability constants at different temperatures using the Van't Hoff equation.

  7. Internal dosimetry of plutonium using the late urinary excretion.

    Sharma, R C; Abani, M C

    2000-10-01

    An attempt has been made to standardize the methodology of internal dose computation from the late urinary excretion data. The methodology was selected keeping in mind the most recent ICRP publications and the results of internal dosimetry intercomparison studies reported in literature. The key element of this methodology is the PC-based computational software LUDEP 2.05, which implements the new model of the human respiratory tract. Late urinary excretion data of three male subjects involved in accidental intakes of plutonium aerosols more than 25 years ago were interpreted in terms of intakes and internal doses with the aid of the standardized methodology. An important implication of this work is that late urinary excretion data of the occupational workers of any plutonium handling facility could be used to show the compliance with the life-time dose limit.

  8. Interaction of Plutonium with Bacteria in the Repository Environment

    Gillow, J. B.; Francis, A. J.; Lucero, D. A.; Papenguth, H. W.

    2000-07-01

    Microorganisms in the nuclear waste repository environment may interact with plutonium through (1) sorption, (2) intracellular accumulation, and (3) transformation speciation. These interactions may retard or enhance the mobility of Pu by precipitation reactions, biocolloid formation, or production of more soluble species. Current and planned radioactive waste repository environments, such as deep subsurface halite and granite formations, are considered extreme relative to life processes in the near-surface terrestrial environment. There is a paucity of information on the biotransformation of radionuclides by microorganisms present in such extreme environments. In order to gain a better understanding of the interaction of plutonium with microorganisms present in the waste repository sites we investigated a pure culture (Halomonas sp.) and a mixed culture of bacteria (Haloarcula sinaiiensis, Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus, Altermonas sp., and a {gamma}-proteobacterium) isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site and an Acetobacterium sp. from alkaline groundwater at the Grimsel Test Site in Switzerland.

  9. Fissile materials disposition program plutonium immobilization project baseline formulation

    Ebbinghaus, B B; Armantrout, G A; Gray, L; Herman, C C; Shaw, H F; Van Konynenburg, R A

    2000-09-01

    Since 1994 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), with the help of several other laboratories and university groups, has been the lead laboratory for the Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP). This involves, among other tasks, the development of a formulation and a fabrication process for a ceramic to be used in the immobilization of excess weapons-usable plutonium. This report reviews the history of the project as it relates to the development of the ceramic form. It describes the sample test plan for the pyrochlore-rich ceramic formulation that was selected, and it specifies the baseline formulation that has been adopted. It also presents compositional specifications (e.g. precursor compositions and mixing recipes) and other form and process specifications that are linked or potentially linked to the baseline formulation.

  10. Anticipated Radiological Dose to Worker for Plutonium Stabilization and Handling at PFP - Project W-460

    Weiss, E V

    2000-01-01

    This report provides estimates of the expected whole body and extremity radiological dose, expressed as dose equivalent (DE), to workers conducting planned plutonium (Pu) stabilization processes at the Hanford Site Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The report is based on a time and motion dose study commissioned for Project W-460, Plutonium Stabilization and Handling, to provide personnel exposure estimates for construction work in the PFP storage vault area plus operation of stabilization and packaging equipment at PFP.

  11. Preparation of fused chloride salts for use in pyrochemical plutonium recovery operations at Los Alamos

    Fife, K.W.; Bowersox, D.F.; Christensen, D.C.; Williams, J.D.

    1986-07-01

    The Plutonium Metal Technology Group at Los Alamos routinely uses pyrochemical processes to produce and purify plutonium from impure sources. The basic processes (metal production, metal purification, and residue treatment) involve controlling oxidation and reduction reactions between plutonium and its compounds in molten salts. Current production methods are described, as well as traditional approaches and recent developments in the preparation of solvent salts for electrorefining, molten salt extraction, lean metal (pyroredox) purification, and direct oxide reduction.

  12. Sea shipment of Japanese plutonium under international law

    Van Dyke, J.M. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The Japanese government`s shipment of plutonium from France to Japan raises a number of significant questions under international law. The first shipment, which began in November 1992 on the Akatsuki Maru, violated international law in several respects. This article analyzes the international law that governs these shipments, focusing on the rules that govern navigation on the high seas and exclusive economic zones, territorial seas, and international straits, and also addresses the question of liability for damage. 281 refs.

  13. SEPARATION OF NEPTUNIUM FROM PLUTONIUM BY CHLORINATION AND SUBLIMATION

    Fried, S.M.

    1958-11-18

    A process is described for separating neptunium from plutonium. The method consists in chlorinating a mixture of the oxides of Np and Pu by contacting the mixture with carbon tetrachloride at about 500 icient laborato C. ln this manner the Np is converted to the tetrachlorlde and the Pu converted to the trichloride. Since NpCl/sub 4/ is more latile than PuCl/sub 3/, the separation ls effected by vaporing sad subsequently condenslng the NpCl/sub 4/.

  14. Alternative Evaluation for the REDOX (202-S) Plutonium Loadout Hood

    N. R. Kerr

    1999-09-20

    Located in the 200 Areas is the inactive 202-S Reduction Oxidation (REDOX) Facility, which is managed by the Bechtel Hanford, Inc. Surveillance/Maintenance and Transition project. This facility is contaminated from nuclear material processes related to nuclear material separation from Hanford Site facility operations. This alternative evaluation report describes the alternatives and selection criteria based on the necessary protective requirements to maintain the REDOX Plutonium Loadout Hood in a safe and stable condition awaiting a final waste response action.

  15. Reduction of uranium and plutonium oxides by aluminum. Application to the recycling of plutonium; Reduction des oxydes d'uranium et de plutonium par l'aluminium application au recyclage du plutonium

    Gallay, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Valduc (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1968-07-01

    A process for treating plutonium oxide calcined at high temperatures (1000 to 2000 deg. C) with a view to recovering the metal consists in the reduction of this oxide dissolved in a mixture of aluminium, sodium and calcium fluorides by aluminium at about 1180 deg. C. The first part of the report presents the results of reduction tests carried out on the uranium oxides UO{sub 2} and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}; these are in agreement with the thermodynamic calculations of the exchange reaction at equilibrium. The second part describes the application of this method to plutonium oxides. The Pu-Al alloy obtained (60 per cent Pu) is then recycled in an aqueous medium. (author) [French] Un procede de traitement de l'oxyde de plutonium calcine a haute temperature (1000 deg. C a 2000 deg. C), en vue de la recuperation du metal, consiste a reduire cet oxyde dissous dans un melange de fluorures d'aluminium, de sodium et de calcium, par l'aluminium vers 1180 deg. C. Une premiere partie du rapport presente les resultats des essais de reduction des oxydes d'uranium UO{sub 2} et U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, en accord avec les resultats du calcul thermodynamique de la reaction d'echange a l'equilibre. Une seconde partie rend compte de l'application de cette methode a l'oxyde de plutonium. L'alliage Pu-Al obtenu (60 pour cent Pu) est ensuite recycle par voie aqueuse. (auteur)

  16. Characteriztion of particulate plutonium released in fuel cycle operations

    Seefeldt, W.B.; Mecham, W.J.; Steindler, M.J.

    1976-05-01

    An estimate of the plutonium source terms is made for the fuel cycles of three reactor types on the basis of currently applied, currently available, and estimated future technology. The three reactors are LWR-U, LWR-Pu, and LMFBR. The source terms are characterized as to quantity, form, and particle size distribution. Historical operating data for existing plants and the state of the art of the technology of air cleaning are reviewed.

  17. Chemical form of plutonium in foodstuffs - its influence on gastro-intestinal uptake

    Cooper, J.R. (National Radiological Protection Board, Harwell (UK))

    1984-01-01

    A brief review is given of some studies of the chemical form of plutonium in food eaten by man and how this may influence gastrointestinal uptake. Phytate ligands, present in many foods, bind strongly to plutonium. High levels of enzyme phytase in rat intestines enhance the gastrointestinal uptake of plutonium phytate in rats compared to rabbits. Taking into account 1) the low levels of phytase in human intestine and 2) the possibility of competing precipitation reactions, it would seem unlikely that the phytate-mediated elevation of plutonium uptake seen in rats will apply to humans.

  18. Lung cancer risks from plutonium: an updated analysis of data from the Mayak worker cohort.

    Gilbert, E S; Sokolnikov, M E; Preston, D L; Schonfeld, S J; Schadilov, A E; Vasilenko, E K; Koshurnikova, N A

    2013-03-01

    Workers at the Mayak nuclear facility in the Russian Federation offer a unique opportunity to evaluate health risks from exposure to inhaled plutonium. Risks of mortality from lung cancer, the most serious carcinogenic effect of plutonium, were evaluated in 14,621 Mayak workers who were hired in the period from 1948-1982, followed for at least 5 years, and either monitored for plutonium or never worked with plutonium. Over the follow-up period from 1953-2008, there were 486 deaths from lung cancer, 446 of them in men. In analyses that were adjusted for external radiation dose and smoking, the plutonium excess relative risk (ERR) per Gy declined with attained age and was higher for females than for males. The ERR per Gy for males at age 60 was 7.4 (95% CI: 5.0-11) while that for females was 24 (95% CI: 11-56). When analyses were restricted to plutonium doses plutonium exposure and 29 (6%) to external exposure. Analyses of the 12,708 workers with information on smoking indicated that the relationship of plutonium exposure and smoking was likely sub-multiplicative (P = 0.011) and strongly indicated that it was super-additive (P plutonium dose estimates in this cohort, they are nevertheless subject to large uncertainties. Large bioassay measurement errors alone are likely to have resulted in serious underestimation of risks, whereas other sources of uncertainty may have biased results in ways that are difficult to predict.

  19. Weapons plutonium for electricity: a win-win-win solution

    Goldschmidt, P. [Synatom, Brussels (Belgium)

    1997-12-31

    Incorporating recovered weapons-grade plutonium into mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel to produce electricity in currently operating reactors is presented as the best option for its disposition from a European utilities perspective. It would be a win-win-win solution. Firstly, it would be a win for the US government as the only technology readily available on an industrial scale and therefore the fastest way to convert the surplus plutonium to a highly proliferation resistant spent fuel form, as well as being the most cost-effective option. It would also have the political advantages of proving to the world that the US is dedicated to the elimination of its surplus plutonium without delay, receiving support from the Western allies of the US, and encouraging the Russians to take the same route. Secondly, it would be a win for the US utilities both in economic terms and in improving their public image through their contribution to world disarmament. Finally, it would be a win for the world as the fastest route to making disarmament irreversible and as the only solution that conserves natural resources. (8 figures; 14 references) (UK).

  20. Plutonium in a grassland ecosystem. [Rocky Flats Plant

    Little, C.A.

    1976-08-01

    A study was made of plutonium contamination of grassland at the Rocky Flats plant northwest of Denver, Colorado. Of interest were: the definition of major plutonium-containing ecosystem compartments; the relative amounts in those compartments; how those values related to studies done in other geographical areas; whether or not the predominant isotopes, /sup 238/Pu and /sup 239/Pu, behaved differently; and what mechanisms might have allowed for the observed patterns of contamination. Samples of soil, litter, vegetation, arthropods, and small mammals were collected for Pu analysis and mass determination from each of two macroplots. Small aliquots (5 g or less) were analyzed by a rapid liquid scintillation technique and by alpha spectrometry. Of the compartments sampled, greater than 99 percent of the total plutonium was contained in the soil and the concentrations were significantly inversely correlated with distance from the contamination source, depth of the sample, and particle size of the sieved soil samples. The soil data suggested that the distribution of contamination largely resulted from physical transport processes.

  1. NNSS Soils Monitoring: Plutonium Valley (CAU 366) FY2015

    Nikolich, George [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Mizell, Steve [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Campbell, Scott [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Desert Research Institute (DRI) is conducting a field assessment of the potential for contaminated soil transport from the Plutonium Valley Contamination Area (CA) as a result of wind transport and storm runoff in support of National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) efforts to complete regulatory closure of the contamination areas. The DRI work is intended to confirm the likely mechanism(s) of transport and determine the meteorological conditions that might cause movement of contaminated soils. The emphasis of the work is on collecting sediment transported by channelized storm runoff at the Plutonium Valley investigation sites. These data will inform closure plans that are being developed, which will facilitate the appropriate closure design and post-closure monitoring. In 2011, DRI installed two meteorological monitoring stations south (station #1) and north (station #2) of the Plutonium Valley CA and a runoff sediment sampling station within the CA. Temperature, wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, precipitation, solar radiation, barometric pressure, soil temperature, and airborne particulate concentration are collected at both meteorological stations. The maximum, minimum, and average or total (as appropriate) for each of these parameters are recorded for each 10-minute interval. The sediment sampling station includes an automatically activated ISCO sampling pump with collection bottles for suspended sediment, which is activated when sufficient flow is present in the channel, and passive traps for bedload material that is transported down the channel during runoff events. This report presents data collected from these stations during fiscal year (FY) 2015.

  2. Status of plutonium ceramic immobilization processes and immobilization forms

    Ebbinghaus, B.B.; Van Konynenburg, R.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Vance, E.R.; Jostsons, A. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Menai (Australia)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    Immobilization in a ceramic followed by permanent emplacement in a repository or borehole is one of the alternatives currently being considered by the Fissile Materials Disposition Program for the ultimate disposal of excess weapons-grade plutonium. To make Pu recovery more difficult, radioactive cesium may also be incorporated into the immobilization form. Valuable data are already available for ceramics form R&D efforts to immobilize high-level and mixed wastes. Ceramics have a high capacity for actinides, cesium, and some neutron absorbers. A unique characteristic of ceramics is the existence of mineral analogues found in nature that have demonstrated actinide immobilization over geologic time periods. The ceramic form currently being considered for plutonium disposition is a synthetic rock (SYNROC) material composed primarily of zirconolite (CaZrTi{sub 2}O{sub 7}), the desired actinide host phase, with lesser amounts of hollandite (BaAl{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 16}) and rutile (TiO{sub 2}). Alternative actinide host phases are also being considered. These include pyrochlore (Gd{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}), zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}), and monazite (CePO{sub 4}), to name a few of the most promising. R&D activities to address important technical issues are discussed. Primarily these include moderate scale hot press fabrications with plutonium, direct loading of PuO{sub 2} powder, cold press and sinter fabrication methods, and immobilization form formulation issues.

  3. Self-radiation damage in plutonium and uranium mixed dioxide

    Kato, Masato, E-mail: kato.masato@jaea.go.j [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4-33 Muramatu, Tokai-Mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1194 (Japan); Komeno, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4-33 Muramatu, Tokai-Mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1194 (Japan); Uno, Hiroki; Sugata, Hiromasa [Inspection Development Company, 4-33 Muramatu, Tokai-Mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1194 (Japan); Nakae, Nobuo [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4-33 Muramatu, Tokai-Mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1194 (Japan); Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization, TOKYU REIT Toranomon Bldg, 3-17-1, Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0001 (Japan); Konashi, Kenji [Tohoku University, 2145-2, Narita, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Kashimura, Motoaki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4-33 Muramatu, Tokai-Mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1194 (Japan)

    2009-08-15

    In plutonium compounds, the lattice parameter increases due to self-radiation damage by alpha-decay of plutonium isotopes. The lattice parameter change and its thermal recovery in plutonium and uranium mixed dioxide (MOX) were studied. The lattice parameter for samples of MOX powders and pellets that had been left in the air for up to 32 years was measured. The lattice parameter increased and was saturated at about 0.29%. The change in lattice parameter was formulated as a function of self-radiation dose. Three stages in the thermal recovery of the damage were observed in temperature ranges of below 673 K, 673-1073 K and above 1073 K. The activation energies in each recovery stage were estimated to be 0.12, 0.73 and 1.2 eV, respectively, and the corresponding mechanism for each stage was considered to be the recovery of the anion Frenkel defect, the cation Frenkel defect and a defect connected with helium, respectively.

  4. USING 3-D MODELING TO IMPROVE THE EFFICIENCY FOR REMOVING PLUTONIUM PROCESSING EQUIMENT FROM GLOVEBOXES AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHANG PLANT

    CROW SH; KYLE RN; MINETTE MJ

    2008-07-15

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State began operations in 1949 to process plutonium and plutonium products. Its primary mission was to produce plutonium metal, fabricate weapons parts, and stabilize reactive materials. These operations, and subsequent activities, were performed in production lines, consisting primarily of hundreds of gloveboxes. Over the years, these gloveboxes and attendant processes have been continuously modified. The plant is currently inactive and Fluor Hanford has been tasked with cleaning out contaminated equipment and gloveboxes from the facility so it can be demolished in the near future. Approximately 100 gloveboxes at PFP have been cleaned out in the past four years and about 90 gloveboxes remain to be cleaned out. Because specific commitment dates for this work have been established with the State of Washington and other entities, it is important to adopt work practices that increase the safety and speed of this effort. The most recent work practice to be adopted by Fluor Hanford D and D workers is the use of 3-D models to make the process of cleaning out the radioactive gloveboxes more efficient. The use of 3-D models has significantly improved the work-planning process by giving workers a clear image of glovebox construction and composition, which in turn is used to determine cleanout methods and work sequences. The 3-D visual products also enhance safety by enabling workers to more easily identify hazards and implement controls. Further, the ability to identify and target the removal of radiological material early in the D and D process provides substantial dose reduction for the workers.

  5. Accelerator-based analytical technique in the evaluation of some Nigeria's natural minerals: Fluorite, tourmaline and topaz

    Olabanji, S.O. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy)]. E-mail: skayode2002@yahoo.co.uk; Ige, O.A. [Natural History Museum, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Mazzoli, C. [Dipartimento di Mineralogia e Petrologia, Universita di Padova, 35100 Padova (Italy); Ceccato, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35100 Padova (Italy); Akintunde, J.A. [CERD, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); De Poli, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Moschini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35100 Padova (Italy)

    2005-10-15

    For the first time, the complementary accelerator-based analytical technique of PIXE and electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) were employed for the characterization of some Nigeria's natural minerals namely fluorite, tourmaline and topaz. These minerals occur in different areas in Nigeria. The minerals are mainly used as gemstones and for other scientific and technological applications and therefore are very important. There is need to characterize them to know the quality of these gemstones and update the geochemical data on them geared towards useful applications. PIXE analysis was carried out using the 1.8 MeV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at INFN, LNL, Legnaro, Padova, Italy. The novel results which show many elements at different concentrations in these minerals are presented and discussed.

  6. An accelerator-based epithermal neutron beam design for BNCT and dosimetric evaluation using a voxel head phantom.

    Lee, Deok-jae; Han, Chi Young; Park, Sung Ho; Kim, Jong Kyung

    2004-01-01

    The beam shaping assembly design has been investigated in order to improve the epithermal neutron beam for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy in intensity and quality, and dosimetric evaluation for the beams has been performed using both mathematical and voxel head phantoms with MCNP runs. The neutron source was assumed to be produced from a conventional 2.5 MeV proton accelerator with a thick (7)Li target. The results indicate that it is possible to enhance epithermal neutron flux remarkably as well as to embody a good spectrum shaping to epithermal neutrons only with the proper combination of moderator and reflector. It is also found that a larger number of thermal neutrons can reach deeply into the brain and, therefore, can reduce considerably the treatment time for brain tumours. Consequently, the epithermal neutron beams designed in this study can treat more effectively deep-seated brain tumours.

  7. Advances in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) at kyoto university - From reactor-based BNCT to accelerator-based BNCT

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Takata, Takushi; Fujimoto, Nozomi; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shinichiro; Kinashi, Yuko; Kondo, Natsuko; Narabayashi, Masaru; Nakagawa, Yosuke; Watanabe, Tsubasa; Ono, Koji; Maruhashi, Akira

    2015-07-01

    At the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI), a clinical study of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using a neutron irradiation facility installed at the research nuclear reactor has been regularly performed since February 1990. As of November 2014, 510 clinical irradiations were carried out using the reactor-based system. The world's first accelerator-based neutron irradiation system for BNCT clinical irradiation was completed at this institute in early 2009, and the clinical trial using this system was started in 2012. A shift of BCNT from special particle therapy to a general one is now in progress. To promote and support this shift, improvements to the irradiation system, as well as its preparation, and improvements in the physical engineering and the medical physics processes, such as dosimetry systems and quality assurance programs, must be considered. The recent advances in BNCT at KURRI are reported here with a focus on physical engineering and medical physics topics.

  8. Particle Generation by Laser Ablation in Support of Chemical Analysis of High Level Mixed Waste from Plutonium Production Operations

    J. Thomas Dickinson; Michael L. Alexander

    2001-11-30

    Investigate particles produced by laser irradiation and their analysis by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (LA/ICP-MS), with a view towards optimizing particle production for analysis of high level waste materials and waste glass. LA/ICP-MS has considerable potential to increase the safety and speed of analysis required for the remediation of high level wastes from cold war plutonium production operations. In some sample types, notably the sodium nitrate-based wastes at Hanford and elsewhere, chemical analysis using typical laser conditions depends strongly on the details of sample history composition in a complex fashion, rendering the results of analysis uncertain. Conversely, waste glass materials appear to be better behaved and require different strategies to optimize analysis.

  9. Preparation of plutonium hexafluoride. Recovery of plutonium from waste dross (1962); Preparation de l'hexafluorure de plutonium. Recuperation du plutonium des scories d'elaboration (1962)

    Gendre, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    The object of this work is to study the influence of various physical factors on the rate of fluorination of solid plutonium tetrafluoride by fluorine. In a horizontal oven with a circulation for pure fluorine at atmospheric pressure and 520 deg. C, at a fluorine rate of 9 litres/hour, it is possible to transform 3 g of tetrafluoride to hexafluoride with about 100 per cent transformation and a recovery yield of over 90 per cent, in 4 to 5 hours. The fluorination rate is a function of the temperature, of the fluorine flow-rate, of the crucible surface, of the depth of the tetrafluoride layer and of the reaction time. It does not depend on the diffusion of the fluorine into the solid but is determined by the reaction at the gas-solid interface and obeys the kinetic law (1 - T{sub T}){sup 1/3} = kt + 1. The existence of intermediate fluorides, in particular Pu{sub 4} F{sub 17}, is confirmed by a break in the Arrhenius plot at about 370 deg. C, by differences in the fluorination rates inside the tetrafluoride layer, and by reversible colour changes. The transformation to hexafluoride occurs with a purification with respect of the foreign elements present in the initial plutonium. Recovery of plutonium from waste dross: The study is based on the transformation of occluded plutonium particles to gaseous hexafluoride which is then decomposed thermally to the tetrafluoride which can be reintroduced directly in the production circuit. Under the conditions considered this process is not applicable industrially. After milling, it is possible to separate the dross into enriched (75 per cent Pu in 2.6 per cent by weight of dross) and depleted portions. By prolonged fluorination (16 hours) of the various fractions it is possible to recover about 80 per cent of the plutonium. A treatment plant using fluidization, as described at the end of this study, should make it possible to substantially improve the yield. (author) [French] L'objet de l'etude est l

  10. The transports in the French Plutonium Industry. A high risk activity

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    This study throws light on the scale of transport of plutonium in France nuclear industry, an activity involving quantities of high risk materials often unknown to the public. The study is a significantly extended update of the one carried out by WISE-Paris in 1995 for the Plutonium Forum. It was motivated by important developments in the French plutonium industry and the publication of numerous data concerning transport activities since 1995. The 2003 study presents, in particular, all of the flows of plutonium crossing France every year, as well as analysis of the risks associated with this particular transport activity. Putting these data into perspective in terms of a rapidly and permanently changing political and industrial context, and a description of the regulatory framework within which shipments of plutonium take place, serve as a guide and source of reference to help readers better understand the issues. The importance of transport in the plutonium ''chain'', i.e. the stages corresponding to various industrial processes, is often under-estimated, even by the nuclear industry itself. Transport is, in fact, the activity which involves the greatest quantities of plutonium in the entire nuclear chain. Plutonium, produced during the fission reactions in the cores of nuclear reactors, is transported, contained in the irradiated fuel, to the facilities at La Hague where reprocessing separates it from the other radioactive components of the spent fuel. Part of the plutonium, now isolated in powder form, is then shipped to one of the three plants able to produce the fuel known as MOX. These are located at Cadarache and Marcoule, in France, and at Dessel in Belgium. Once in the MOX form, this plutonium has to be re-transported to reactor sites to be used. Once irradiated, the spent MOX will return to the La Hague installations to be stored for an unknown period; the plutonium contained in the spent MOX is not, at present, destined to be re

  11. Chinese Conversation Structure

    LIU Yan

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the features of Chinese conversation structure. Specifically speaking, the structure will be analyzed from the following four aspects:openings and pre-sequence, adjacency pairs, pre-closing and closing. Generally speak-ing, Chinese conversation structure is similar to English conversation structure. But still a lot of differences are found due to cul-tural factors.

  12. Trend in Plutonium Content of MOX in Thermal Reactor Use and Irradiation Behavior of MOX with High Plutonium Content

    Nakae, N.; Baba, T.; Kamimura, K. [Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization - JNES, TOKYU REIT Toranomon Bldg., 3-17-1, Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-0001 (Japan); Verwerft, M.; Jutier, F. [SCK-CEN (Belgium)

    2009-06-15

    The uranium enrichment of UO{sub 2} fuel for the current power reactors, both PWR and BWR, tends to increase because of increasing burn-up target. The plutonium content of MOX fuel used in thermal reactors shall be determined in order to have reactivity worth equivalent to enriched UO{sub 2} fuel based on physical accounting method for adjusting fissile enrichment, thus the plutonium content tends to increase according to the increment of the uranium enrichment of UO{sub 2} fuel and this trend shall further be accentuated due to the fact that Pu recovered from reprocessing of the spent high burnup UO{sub 2} fuel contains less fissile isotopes. The plutonium content is calculated by use of the physical accounting method with the plutonium having several kinds of isotope ratios and the calculation results indicate that the plutonium content in MOX will evolve to ratios in excess of 10%. It shall be, therefore, important to know the irradiation behavior of MOX with high plutonium content of more than 10 wt%. MOX fuel rods having a plutonium content of about 14 wt% and fabricated by use of MIMAS process have been irradiated under PWR conditions in the Belgian test reactors BR-3 and BR-2. The peak fuel rod burn-up of the fuel rods studied in this paper ranges from 31 to 37 GWd/t-HM, and their average burnup is about 22-26 GWd/t-HM with the rod averaged linear heat generation rate of about 15-21 kW/m. The MOX rods are investigated by destructive and non-destructive post irradiation examinations and some of them are now continued to be irradiated in BR-2. Mixed Oxide (U,Pu)O{sub 2} fuel produced by the MIMAS process results in a fine dispersion of Pu enriched particles in a UO{sub 2} matrix and effectively gives three enrichment classes: low, medium and high enriched. The high enriched particles (often called 'Pu spots'), have an enrichment of around 25 wt% Pu, the low enriched phase is the UO{sub 2} matrix and contains only trace amounts of Pu. An

  13. 10 CFR 140.13a - Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of financial protection required for plutonium... of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants. (a) Each holder of a license issued pursuant to part 70 of this chapter to possess and use plutonium at...

  14. Study Progress of On-line Monitoring Device for Uranium and Plutonium by XRF

    2011-01-01

    An X-ray fluorescence spectrometer was designed and set up, which was used to determine uranium and plutonium on-line in reprocessing process stream. Uranium in aqueous and organic phase, plutonium in aqueous were measured by using the device,

  15. The generation of denatured reactor plutonium by different options of the fuel cycle

    Broeders, C.H.M.; Kessler, G. [Inst. for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Research Center Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2006-11-15

    Denatured (proliferation resistant) reactor plutonium can be generated in a number of different fuel cycle options. First denatured reactor plutonium can be obtained if, instead of low enriched U-235 PWR fuel, re-enriched U-235/U-236 from reprocessed uranium is used (fuel type A). Also the envisaged existing 2,500 t of reactor plutonium (being generated world wide up to the year 2010), mostly stored in intermediate fuel storage facilities at present, could be converted during a transition phase into denatured reactor plutonium by the options fuel type B and D. Denatured reactor plutonium could have the same safeguards standard as present low enriched (<20% U-235) LWR fuel. It could be incinerated by recycling once or twice in PWRs and subsequently by multi-recycling in FRs (CAPRA type or IFRs). Once denatured, such reactor plutonium could remain denatured during multiple recycling. In a PWR, e.g., denatured reactor plutonium could be destroyed at a rate of about 250 kg/GWey. While denatured reactor plutonium could be recycled and incinerated under relieved IAEA safeguards, neptunium would still have to be monitored by the IAEA in future for all cases in which considerable amounts of neptunium are produced. (orig.)

  16. Functional Design Criteria plutonium stabilization and handling (PUSH) project W-460

    NELSON, D.W.

    1999-09-02

    This Functional Design Criteria (FDC) contains information to guide the design of the Stabilization and Packaging Equipment necessary to oxidize and package the remaining plutonium-bearing Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) currently in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) inventory. The FDC also guides the design of vault modifications to allow storage of 3013 packages of stabilized SNM for up to 50 years.

  17. Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium quarterly technical progress report, August 1, 1997--October 31, 1997

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This report summarizes activities of the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium during the quarter. The report describes the Electronic Resource Library; DOE support activities; current and future environmental health and safety programs; pollution prevention and pollution avoidance; communication, education, training, and community involvement programs; and nuclear and other material studies, including plutonium storage and disposition studies.

  18. 77 FR 44222 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Surplus Plutonium Disposition Supplemental Environmental...

    2012-07-27

    ... an oxide form of plutonium suitable for disposition, and the use of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabricated... the decision to fabricate 34 metric tons (MT) (37.5 tons) of surplus plutonium into MOX fuel in the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) (65 FR 1608, January 11, 2000 and 68 FR 20134, April 24,...

  19. Criteria for Preparing and Packaging Plutonium Metals and Oxides for Long-Term Storage

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    This Standard provides criteria for packaging of plutonium metals and stabilized oxides for storage periods of at least 50 years. To meet the criteria, plutonium-bearing materials must be in stable forms and be packaged in containers designed to maintain their integrity both under normal storage conditions and during anticipated handling accidents.

  20. History and stabilization of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) complex, Hanford Site

    Gerber, M.S., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-18

    The 231-Z Isolation Building or Plutonium Metallurgy Building is located in the Hanford Site`s 200 West Area, approximately 300 yards north of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) (234-5 Building). When the Hanford Engineer Works (HEW) built it in 1944 to contain the final step for processing plutonium, it was called the Isolation Building. At that time, HEW used a bismuth phosphate radiochemical separations process to make `AT solution,` which was then dried and shipped to Los Alamos, New Mexico. (AT solution is a code name used during World War II for the final HEW product.) The process was carried out first in T Plant and the 224-T Bulk Reduction Building and B Plant and the 224-B Bulk Reduction Building. The 224-T and -B processes produced a concentrated plutonium nitrate stream, which then was sent in 8-gallon batches to the 231-Z Building for final purification. In the 231-Z Building, the plutonium nitrate solution underwent peroxide `strikes` (additions of hydrogen peroxide to further separate the plutonium from its carrier solutions), to form the AT solution. The AT solution was dried and shipped to the Los Alamos Site, where it was made into metallic plutonium and then into weapons hemispheres.` The 231-Z Building began `hot` operations (operations using radioactive materials) with regular runs of plutonium nitrate on January 16, 1945.

  1. Health physics manual of good practices for plutonium facilities. [Contains glossary

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Heid, K.R.; Herrington, W.N.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Munson, L.F.; Munson, L.H.; Selby, J.M.; Soldat, K.L.; Stoetzel, G.A.; Traub, R.J.

    1988-05-01

    This manual consists of six sections: Properties of Plutonium, Siting of Plutonium Facilities, Facility Design, Radiation Protection, Emergency Preparedness, and Decontamination and Decommissioning. While not the final authority, the manual is an assemblage of information, rules of thumb, regulations, and good practices to assist those who are intimately involved in plutonium operations. An in-depth understanding of the nuclear, physical, chemical, and biological properties of plutonium is important in establishing a viable radiation protection and control program at a plutonium facility. These properties of plutonium provide the basis and perspective necessary for appreciating the quality of control needed in handling and processing the material. Guidance in selecting the location of a new plutonium facility may not be directly useful to most readers. However, it provides a perspective for the development and implementation of the environmental surveillance program and the in-plant controls required to ensure that the facility is and remains a good neighbor. The criteria, guidance, and good practices for the design of a plutonium facility are also applicable to the operation and modification of existing facilities. The design activity provides many opportunities for implementation of features to promote more effective protection and control. The application of ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) principles and optimization analyses are generally most cost-effective during the design phase. 335 refs., 8 figs., 20 tabs.

  2. Measurement of plutonium in spent nuclear fuel by self-induced x-ray fluorescence

    Hoover, Andrew S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rudy, Cliff R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Steve J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Charlton, William S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stafford, A [TEXAS A& M; Strohmeyer, D [TEXAS A& M; Saavadra, S [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Direct measurement of the plutonium content in spent nuclear fuel is a challenging problem in non-destructive assay. The very high gamma-ray flux from fission product isotopes overwhelms the weaker gamma-ray emissions from plutonium and uranium, making passive gamma-ray measurements impossible. However, the intense fission product radiation is effective at exciting plutonium and uranium atoms, resulting in subsequent fluorescence X-ray emission. K-shell X-rays in the 100 keV energy range can escape the fuel and cladding, providing a direct signal from uranium and plutonium that can be measured with a standard germanium detector. The measured plutonium to uranium elemental ratio can be used to compute the plutonium content of the fuel. The technique can potentially provide a passive, non-destructive assay tool for determining plutonium content in spent fuel. In this paper, we discuss recent non-destructive measurements of plutonium X-ray fluorescence (XRF) signatures from pressurized water reactor spent fuel rods. We also discuss how emerging new technologies, like very high energy resolution microcalorimeter detectors, might be applied to XRF measurements.

  3. Quantitative plutonium microdistribution in bone tissue of vertebra from a Mayak worker.

    Lyovkina, Yekaterina V; Miller, Scott C; Romanov, Sergey A; Krahenbuhl, Melinda P; Belosokhov, Maxim V

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain quantitative data on plutonium microdistribution in different structural elements of human bone tissue for local dose assessment and dosimetric models validation. A sample of the thoracic vertebra was obtained from a former Mayak worker with a rather high plutonium burden. Additional information was obtained on occupational and exposure history, medical history, and measured plutonium content in organs. Plutonium was detected in bone sections from its fission tracks in polycarbonate film using neutron-induced autoradiography. Quantitative analysis of randomly selected microscopic fields on one of the autoradiographs was performed. Data included fission fragment tracks in different bone tissue and surface areas. Quantitative information on plutonium microdistribution in human bone tissue was obtained for the first time. From these data, the quantitative relationships of plutonium decays in bone volume to decays on bone surface in cortical and trabecular fractions were defined as 2.0 and 0.4, correspondingly. The measured quantitative relationship of decays in bone volume to decays on bone surface does not coincide with recommended models for the cortical bone fraction by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Biokinetic model parameters of extrapulmonary compartments might need to be adjusted after expansion of the data set on quantitative plutonium microdistribution in other bone types in humans as well as other cases with different exposure patterns and types of plutonium.

  4. The structure of plutonium(IV) oxide as hydrolysed clusters in aqueous suspensions.

    Ekberg, Christian; Larsson, Kristian; Skarnemark, Gunnar; Ödegaard-Jensen, Arvid; Persson, Ingmar

    2013-02-14

    The behavior of plutonium still puzzles scientists 70 years after its discovery. There are several factors making the chemistry of plutonium interesting including its ability to keep several oxidation states. Another unique property is that the oxidation states +III, +IV, +V and +VI may exist simultaneously in solution. Another property plutonium shares with some other tetravalent metal ions is the ability to form stable polynuclear complexes or colloids. The structures of freshly prepared and five-year old plutonium(IV) colloids are compared with crystalline plutonium(IV) oxide using Pu L(3)-edge EXAFS. It was shown that as the plutonium colloids age they do in fact shrink in size, contrary to previous expectations. The aged colloidal particles are indeed very small with only 3-4 plutonium atoms, and with a structure very similar to solid plutonium(IV) oxide, but with somewhat shorter mean Pu-O bond and Pu···Pu distances indicating a partial oxidation. The very small size of the colloidal particles is further supported by the fact that they do not sediment on heavy ultra-centrifugation.

  5. Elements of energy conversion

    Russell, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    Elements of Energy Conversion brings together scattered information on the subject of energy conversion and presents it in terms of the fundamental thermodynamics that apply to energy conversion by any process. Emphasis is given to the development of the theory of heat engines because these are and will remain most important power sources. Descriptive material is then presented to provide elementary information on all important energy conversion devices. The book contains 10 chapters and opens with a discussion of forms of energy, energy sources and storage, and energy conversion. This is foll

  6. NGL data conversion system

    Shoji, Masahiro; Horiuchi, Nobuyasu

    2005-06-01

    We are developing a NGL data conversion system for EPL, for LEEPL, and for EBDW, which is based on our established photomask data conversion system, PATACON PC-cluster. For EPL data conversion, it has SF division, Complementary division, Stitching, Proximity effect correction, Alignment mark insertion, EB stepper control data creation, and Mask inspection data creation. For LEEPL data conversion, it has Pattern checking, Complementary division, Stitching, Stress distortion correction, Alignment mark insertion, and Mask inspection data creation. For EB direct-writing data conversion, it has Proximity effect correction and Extraction of aperture pattern for cell projection exposure.

  7. A HOST PHASE FOR THE DISPOSAL OF WEAPONS PLUTONIUM

    WERNER LUTZE; K. B. HELEAN; W. L. GONG - UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO RODNEY C. EWING - UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN

    1999-01-01

    Research was conducted into the possible use of zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}) as a host phase for storage or disposal of excess weapons plutonium. Zircon is one of the most chemically durable minerals. Its structure can accommodate a variety of elements, including plutonium and uranium. Natural zircon contains uranium and thorium together in different quantities, usually in the range of less than one weight percent up to several weight percent. Zircon occurs in nature as a crystalline or a partially to fully metamict mineral, depending on age and actinide element concentration, i.e., on radiation damage. These zircon samples have been studied extensively and the results are documented in the literature in terms of radiation damage to the crystal structure and related property changes, e.g., density, hardness, loss of uranium and lead, etc. Thus, a unique suite of natural analogues are available to describe the effect of decay of {sup 239}Pu on zircon's structure and how zircon's physical and chemical properties will be affected over very long periods of time. Actually, the oldest zircon samples known are over 3 billion years old. This period covers the time for decay of {sup 239}Pu (half-life 24,300 yr.) and most of its daughter {sup 235}U (half-life 700 million yr.). Because of its chemical durability, even under extreme geological conditions, zircon is the most widely used mineral for geochronological dating (7,000 publications). It is the oldest dated mineral on earth and in the universe. Zircon has already been doped with about 10 weight percent of plutonium. Pure PuSiO{sub 4} has also been synthesized and has the same crystal structure as zircon. However, use of zircon as a storage medium or waste form for plutonium requires further materials characterization. Experiments can either be conducted in laboratories where plutonium can be handled or plutonium can be simulated by other elements, and experiments can be done under less restricted conditions. The

  8. Exotic new oxides of plutonium found by using gas thermochromatography

    Domanov, V.P.; Buklanov, G.V.; Lobanov, Yu.V [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Dubna, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2002-11-01

    The volatility of compounds formed during heating of trace quantities of {sup 238}Pu or {sup 239}Pu in a stream of helium and oxygen mixture was studied by gas thermochromatography. Under certain conditions plutonium forms four adsorption zones with the centers at 450{+-}25degC, 250{+-}25degC, 130{+-}50degC and -105{+-}25degC in quartz thermochromatographic(TC) columns. For the interpretation of the results, model experiments with carrier-free radioisotopes of Os, Re, Ru and Tc were performed. It was found that in the stream of He with a small amounts of O{sub 2}, products were adsorbed at 450-500degC and at 250-300degC in the form of dioxides and trioxides. The results of the TC isolation of volatile oxygen-containing compounds of U and {sup 249}Cf are also presented. Based on the data obtained with Pu, we assume that the first adsorption zone (450{+-}25degC) is due to PuO{sub 2} formation, the second one is due to PuO{sub 3} formation and the third may be due to formation of a plutonium acid H{sub 2}PuO{sub 4} (proposed formula). Comparison of the adsorption zone of OsO{sub 4} with the fourth deposition zone for Pu indicates their similarity. We conclude that at -105{+-}25degC, octovalent plutonium deposits in the form of tetraoxide. (author)

  9. Plutonium Isotopes Concentration in Seawater along the Algerian Coast

    M. Benkrid

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Atomic Energy Agency has organised in the framework of the regional project RAF/7/004, in collaboration with “Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique” (COMENA and “Institut des Sciences de la Mer et de l'Aménagement du Littoral” (ISMAL, during August 2001, a scientific campaign along the Algerian coast, on board of the research vessel M.S. Benyahia of ISMAL is. Three stations, at the centre, east and west, were selected to collect five seawater samples for each water column reaching a maximum depth of 2000 m, using a stainless-steel water sampler of a volume of 250 litres. After recording the marine environment parameters (temperature and conductivity, seawater samples were conditioned and preconcentrated to precipitate plutonium isotopes using MnCl2 in the form of MnO2 in order to proceed to plutonium extraction by radiochemical separation and prepare the source by coprecipitation using neodymium fluoride (NdF3 by vacuum filtration and an evaluation of the activity by alpha spectrometry. Concentration results in units of μBq/l of plutonium isotopes were obtained in the range of 6.7±1.00 to 25.5±3.70 for P239+240u and 0.21±0.04 to 0.77±0.15 for P238u. Distribution of Pu through the plot of its profile was studied and the concentration was estimated. The obtained results were compared toC137s and those found by other authors in the same Mediterranean area.

  10. Uncertainty analysis of doses from ingestion of plutonium and americium.

    Puncher, M; Harrison, J D

    2012-02-01

    Uncertainty analyses have been performed on the biokinetic model for americium currently used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and the model for plutonium recently derived by Leggett, considering acute intakes by ingestion by adult members of the public. The analyses calculated distributions of doses per unit intake. Those parameters having the greatest impact on prospective doses were identified by sensitivity analysis; the most important were the fraction absorbed from the alimentary tract, f(1), and rates of uptake from blood to bone surfaces. Probability distributions were selected based on the observed distribution of plutonium and americium in human subjects where possible; the distributions for f(1) reflected uncertainty on the average value of this parameter for non-specified plutonium and americium compounds ingested by adult members of the public. The calculated distributions of effective doses for ingested (239)Pu and (241)Am were well described by log-normal distributions, with doses varying by around a factor of 3 above and below the central values; the distributions contain the current ICRP Publication 67 dose coefficients for ingestion of (239)Pu and (241)Am by adult members of the public. Uncertainty on f(1) values had the greatest impact on doses, particularly effective dose. It is concluded that: (1) more precise data on f(1) values would have a greater effect in reducing uncertainties on doses from ingested (239)Pu and (241)Am, than reducing uncertainty on other model parameter values and (2) the results support the dose coefficients (Sv Bq(-1) intake) derived by ICRP for ingestion of (239)Pu and (241)Am by adult members of the public.

  11. Plutonium in monazite and brabantite: Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy study

    Zhang Yingjie [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)], E-mail: yzx@ansto.gov.au; Vance, Eric R. [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2008-04-30

    The valence states of plutonium (Pu) in monazite and brabantite have been studied by using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. In the absence of charge compensators, Pu exists mainly as trivalent ions in air-fired monazites and only trivalent ions in argon-fired monazites. However, with added Ca{sup 2+}/Pb{sup 2+} as charge compensators Pu can exist as tetravalent ions. Published data on absorption spectra of both trivalent and tetravalent Pu ions in the monazite structure have been extended to the mid near infrared region (4000 cm{sup -1})

  12. On weapons plutonium in the arctic environment (Thule, Greenland)

    Eriksson, M

    2002-04-01

    This thesis concerns a nuclear accident that occurred in the Thule (Pituffik) area, NW Greenland in 1968, called the Thule accident.Results are based on different analytical techniques, i.e. gamma spectrometry, alpha spectrometry, ICP-MS, SEM with EDX and different sediment models, i.e. (CRS, CIC). The scope of the thesis is the study of hot particles. Studies on these have shown several interesting features, e.g. that they carry most of the activity dispersed from the accident, moreover, they have been very useful in the determination of the source term for the Thule accident debris. Paper I, is an overview of the results from the Thule-97 expedition. This paper concerns the marine environment, i.e. water, sediment and benthic animals in the Bylot Sound. The main conclusions are; that plutonium is not transported from the contaminated sediments into the surface water in this shelf sea, the debris has been efficiently buried in the sediment to great depth as a result of biological activity and transfer of plutonium to benthic biota is low. Paper II, concludes that the resuspension of accident debris on land has been limited and indications were, that americium has a faster transport mechanism from the catchment area to lakes than plutonium and radio lead. Paper III, is a method description of inventory calculation techniques in sediment with heterogeneous activity concentration, i.e. hot particles are present in the samples. It is concluded that earlier inventory estimates have been under estimated and that the new inventory is about 3.8 kg (10 TBq) of {sup 239,240}Pu. Paper IV, describes hot particle separation/identification techniques using real-time digital image systems. These techniques are much faster than conventionally used autoradiography and give the results in real time. Paper V, is a study of single isolated hot particles. The most interesting result is that the fission material in the weapons involved in the accident mostly consisted of {sup 235}U

  13. Plutonium ion emission from carburized rhenium mass spectrometer filaments

    Kelley, J.M.; Robertson, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Physicochemical processes important to the application of thermal emission mass spectrometry were identified and clarified. Effects of filament carbon concentration and temperature on plutonium ion emissions from a carburized rhenium filament were determined. Filament carbon concentration profoundly affected the appearance and duration of an ion signal. A useful ion signal was produced only when the carbon saturation temperature of the filament was exceeded, at which point first-order kinetics were either achieved or closely approached. This paper explains observed ion emission behavior in terms of pausible carbothermic reduction reactions and carbon diffusion processes that direct the course of those reactions. 31 references, 5 figures.

  14. Preliminary Materials Transport Plan for the Plutonium Immobilization Plant

    Gilkison, J.M.; Dyches, G.M.; Randall, W.J.; Steed, J.H.

    2000-01-26

    This Materials Transport Plan defines the methodology for moving process and non-process materials within the Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) operations. The scope of the plan includes the movement of materials between plant operational units (gloveboxes or operational areas/rooms within the plant). The movements of materials within the various plant operational units are described in the System Design Description prepared for the individual units. The plan provides a design concept for transporting each type of material including the containerization used during the movements. Further, the plan identifies the high-level functions and requirements for movements of the materials.

  15. Examination of the pathways from soil to man for plutonium

    Healy, J.W.

    1977-04-01

    The data available on resuspension and ingestion as pathways of plutonium from soil to man were reviewed and a recommended limit based upon a conservative interpretation of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) recommendations for limiting values was derived. Wind resuspension appeared to be the least limiting value with mechanical resuspension and pica in children among the more important. Ingestion of foodstuffs could also be an important pathway if it is assumed that all food is produced in the contaminated area.

  16. Disposition of plutonium-239 via production of fission molybdenum-99.

    Mushtaq, A

    2011-04-01

    A heritage of physical consequences of the U.S.-Soviet arms race has accumulated, the weapons-grade plutonium (WPu), which will become excess as a result of the dismantlement of the nuclear weapons under the arms reduction agreements. Disposition of Pu has been proposed by mixing WPu with high-level radioactive waste with subsequent vitrification into large, highly radioactive glass logs or fabrication into mixed oxide fuel with subsequent irradiation in existing light water reactors. A potential option may be the production of medical isotope molybdenum-99 by using Pu-239 targets.

  17. Transmission Electron Microscopy Characterization of Helium Bubbles in Aged Plutonium

    Schwartz, A J; Wall, M A; Zocco, T G; Blobaum, K M

    2004-11-02

    The self-irradiation damage generated by alpha decay of plutonium results in the formation of lattice defects, helium, and uranium atoms. Over time, microstructural evolution resulting from the self-irradiation may influence the physical and mechanical properties of the material. In order to assess microstructural changes, we have developed and applied procedures for the specimen preparation, handling, and transmission electron microscopy characterization of Pu alloys. These transmission electron microscopy investigations of Pu-Ga alloys ranging in age up to 42-years old reveal the presence of nanometer-sized helium bubbles. The number density of bubbles and the average size have been determined for eight different aged materials.

  18. Plutonium microstructures. Part 2. Binary and ternary alloys

    Cramer, E.M.; Bergin, J.B.

    1983-12-01

    This report is the second of three parts that exhibit illustrations of inclusions in plutonium metal from inherent and tramp impurities, of intermetallic and nonmetallic constituents from alloy additions, and of the effects of thermal and mechanical treatments. This part includes illustrations of the microstructures in binary cast alloys and a few selected ternary alloys that result from measured additions of diluent elements, and of the microconstituents that are characteristic of phase fields in extended alloy systems. Microhardness data are given and the etchant used in the preparation of each sample is described.

  19. Photon attenuation properties of some thorium, uranium and plutonium compounds

    Singh, V. P.; Badiger, N. M. [Karnatak University, Department of Physics, Dharwad-580003, Karnataka (India); Vega C, H. R., E-mail: kudphyvps@rediffmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers, effective electron densities for nuclear materials; thorium, uranium and plutonium compounds have been studied. The photon attenuation properties for the compounds have been investigated for partial photon interaction processes by photoelectric effect, Compton scattering and pair production. The values of these parameters have been found to change with photon energy and interaction process. The variations of mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic number and electron density with energy are shown graphically. Moreover, results have shown that these compounds are better shielding and suggesting smaller dimensions. The study would be useful for applications of these materials for gamma ray shielding requirement. (Author)

  20. Magnetism, superconductivity and Fermi surfaces of plutonium compounds

    Haga, Y. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)]. E-mail: haga.yoshinori@jaea.go.jp; Aoki, D. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Yamagami, H. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Matsuda, T.D. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Nakajima, K. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Arai, Y. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Homma, Y. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Shiokawa, Y. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Yamamoto, E. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Nakamura, A. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Onuki, Y. [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2007-03-15

    Single crystals of plutonium compounds PuRhGa{sub 5} and PuIn{sub 3} are successfully grown. For PuRhGa{sub 5}, anisotropy of the superconducting upper critical field was found and analyzed by the anisotropic mass model, consistent with quasi-two-dimensional electronic states predicted by band calculations. On the other hand, the de Haas-van Alphen oscillation was observed in PuIn{sub 3}. By comparing with the band calculations, it is concluded that 5f electrons are itinerant in PuIn{sub 3}.

  1. Equilibrium composition for the reaction of plutonium hydride with air

    2002-01-01

    There are six independent constituents with 4 chemical elements, i.e. PuH2.7(s), PuN(s), Pu2O3(s), N2, O2 and H2, therefore , the system described involves of 2 independent reactions ,both those of the experimental, which indicates that the chemical equilibrium is nearly completely approached. Therefore, it is believed that the reaction rate of plutonium hydride with air is extremely rapid. The present paper has briefly discussed the simultaneous reactions and its thermodynamic coupling effect.

  2. THE DEACTIVATION DECONTAMINATION & DECOMMISSIONING OF THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) A FORMER PLUTONIUM PROCESSING FACILITY AT DOE HANFORD SITE

    CHARBONEAU, S.L.

    2006-02-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) was constructed as part of the Manhattan Project during World War II. The Manhattan Project was developed to usher in the use of nuclear weapons to end the war. The primary mission of the PFP was to provide plutonium used as special nuclear material (SNM) for fabrication of nuclear devices for the war effort. Subsequent to the end of World War II, the PFP's mission expanded to support the Cold War effort through plutonium production during the nuclear arms race and later the processing of fuel grade mixed plutonium-uranium oxide to support DOE's breeder reactor program. In October 1990, at the close of the production mission for PFP, a shutdown order was prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) in Washington, DC and issued to the Richland DOE field office. Subsequent to the shutdown order, a team from the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) analyzed the hazards at PFP associated with the continued storage of certain forms of plutonium solutions and solids. The assessment identified many discrete actions that were required to stabilize the different plutonium forms into stable form and repackage the material in high integrity containers. These actions were technically complicated and completed as part of the PFP nuclear material stabilization project between 1995 and early 2005. The completion of the stabilization project was a necessary first step in deactivating PFP. During stabilization, DOE entered into negotiations with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the State of Washington and established milestones for the Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D) of the PFP. The DOE and its contractor, Fluor Hanford (Fluor), have made great progress in deactivating, decontaminating and decommissioning the PFP at the Hanford Site as detailed in this paper. Background information covering the PFP D&D effort includes descriptions of negotiations with the State of Washington concerning consent

  3. Shielding design of a treatment room for an accelerator-based epithermal neutron irradiation facility for BNCT.

    Evans, J F; Blue, T E

    1996-11-01

    Protecting the facility personnel and the general public from radiation exposure is a primary safety concern of an accelerator-based epithermal neutron irradiation facility. This work makes an attempt at answering the questions "How much?" and "What kind?" of shielding will meet the occupational limits of such a facility. Shielding effectiveness is compared for ordinary and barytes concretes in combination with and without borated polyethylene. A calculational model was developed of a treatment room , patient "scatterer," and the epithermal neutron beam. The Monte Carlo code, MCNP, was used to compute the total effective dose equivalent rates at specific points of interest outside of the treatment room. A conservative occupational effective dose rate limit of 0.01 mSv h-1 was the guideline for this study. Conservative Monte Carlo calculations show that constructing the treatment room walls with 1.5 m of ordinary concrete, 1.2 m of barytes concrete, 1.0 m of ordinary concrete preceded by 10 cm of 5% boron-polyethylene, or 0.8 m of barytes concrete preceded by 10 cm of 5% boron-polyethylene will adequately protect facility personnel.

  4. Accelerator-based analytical technique in the study of some anti-diabetic medicinal plants of Nigeria

    Olabanji, S.O. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy)], E-mail: skayode2002@yahoo.co.uk; Omobuwajo, O.R. [Department of Pharmacognosy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Ceccato, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Dipartmento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy); Adebajo, A.C. [Department of Pharmacognosy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Buoso, M.C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Moschini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Dipartmento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy)

    2008-05-15

    Diabetes mellitus, a clinical syndrome characterized by hyperglycemia due to deficiency of insulin, is a disease involving the endocrine pancreas and causes considerable morbidity and mortality in the world. In Nigeria, many plants, especially those implicated in herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes, have not been screened for their elemental constituents while information on phytochemistry of some of them is not available. There is therefore the need to document these constituents as some of these plants are becoming increasingly important as herbal drugs or food additives. The accelerator-based technique PIXE, using the 1.8 MeV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at INFN, LNL, Legnaro (Padova) Italy, was employed in the determination of the elemental constituents of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants. Leaves of Gardenia ternifolia, Caesalpina pulcherrima, Solemostenon monostachys, whole plant of Momordica charantia and leaf and stem bark of Hunteria umbellata could be taken as vegetables, neutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in the management of diabetes. However, Hexabolus monopetalus root should be used under prescription.

  5. Accelerator-based analytical technique in the study of some anti-diabetic medicinal plants of Nigeria

    Olabanji, S. O.; Omobuwajo, O. R.; Ceccato, D.; Adebajo, A. C.; Buoso, M. C.; Moschini, G.

    2008-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus, a clinical syndrome characterized by hyperglycemia due to deficiency of insulin, is a disease involving the endocrine pancreas and causes considerable morbidity and mortality in the world. In Nigeria, many plants, especially those implicated in herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes, have not been screened for their elemental constituents while information on phytochemistry of some of them is not available. There is therefore the need to document these constituents as some of these plants are becoming increasingly important as herbal drugs or food additives. The accelerator-based technique PIXE, using the 1.8 MeV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at INFN, LNL, Legnaro (Padova) Italy, was employed in the determination of the elemental constituents of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants. Leaves of Gardenia ternifolia, Caesalpina pulcherrima, Solemostenon monostachys, whole plant of Momordica charantia and leaf and stem bark of Hunteria umbellata could be taken as vegetables, neutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in the management of diabetes. However, Hexabolus monopetalus root should be used under prescription.

  6. Electrostatic design and beam transport for a folded tandem electrostatic quadrupole accelerator facility for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy

    Thatar Vento, V., E-mail: Vladimir.ThatarVento@gmail.com [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917 (1033), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bergueiro, J.; Cartelli, D. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917 (1033), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Valda, A.A. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UNSAM, M. Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kreiner, A.J. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917 (1033), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UNSAM, M. Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    Within the frame of an ongoing project to develop a folded Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator facility for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (AB-BNCT), we discuss here the electrostatic design of the machine, including the accelerator tubes with electrostatic quadrupoles and the simulations for the transport and acceleration of a high intensity beam.

  7. MA Doping Analysis on Breeding Capability and Protected Plutonium Production of Large FBR

    Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Kuno, Yusuke

    2010-06-01

    Spent fuel from LWR can be seen as long-live waste if it is not recycled or as a "new fuel" resource if it is recycled into the reactors. Uranium and plutonium have been used for "new fuel" resources from LWR spent fuel as MOX fuel type which is loaded into thermal reactor or fast reactor types. Other actinides from the spent fuel such as neptunium, americium and curium as minor actinide (MA) are considered to be loaded into the reactors for specific purposes, recently. Those purposes such as for increasing protected plutonium production and breeding capability for protected plutonium as well as in the same time those amount of MA can be reduced to a small quantity as a burner or transmutation purpose. Some investigations and scientific approaches are performed in order to increase a material "barrier" in plutonium isotope composition by increasing the even mass number of plutonium isotope such as Pu-238, Pu-240 and Pu-242 as plutonium protected composition. Higher material barrier which related to intrinsic properties of plutonium isotopes with even mass number (Pu-238, Pu-240 and Pu-242), are recognized because of their intense decay heat (DH) and high spontaneous fission neutron (SFN) rates. Those even number mass of plutonium isotope contribute to some criteria of plutonium characterization which will be adopted for present study such as IAEA, Pellaud and Kessler criteria (IAEA, 1972; Pellaud, 2002; and Kessler, 2007). The present paper intends to evaluate the breeding capability as a fuel sustainability index of the reactors and to analyze the composition of protected plutonium production of large power reactor based on the FaCT FBR as reference (Ohki, et al., 2008). Three dimensional FBR core configuration has been adopted which is based on the core optimization calculation of SRAC-CITATION code as reactor core analysis and JENDL-3.3 is adopted for nuclear data library. Some MA doping materials are loaded into the blanket regions which can be considered as

  8. Colloid Facilitated Transport of Plutonium in Fractured Volcanic Tuff

    Kersting, A. B.; Zhao, P.; Walensky, J. R.; Roberts, S. K.; Johnson, M. R.; Zavarin, M.; Ramon, E. C.

    2004-12-01

    The transport of low-solubility radionuclides in a colloidal- or colloidal bound state is frequently suspected or observed. Groundwater contaminated with radionuclides associated with underground nuclear tests was collected from several different well locations at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). In each case, the low-levels of plutonium detected in the groundwater were overwhelmingly (>95percent) associated with the colloidal and not the dissolved fraction of the groundwater. The colloidal fractions consisted of secondary minerals such as clays and zeolites. To better understand the mechanisms controlling the potential colloidal transport of plutonium, colloid-facilitated fracture flow laboratory experiments are being conducted. Pseudocolloids consisting of Pu(IV) sorbed to clinoptilolite were combined with a radionuclide solution cocktail consisting of Np, U, Cs, Sr, Sm and 3H and Re (analog to Tc) tracers in NTS-type synthetic groundwater (4.5mM NaHCO3-). The cocktail was injected into a smooth fracture in a volcanic tuff rock core from the NTS and the effluent analyzed. Autoradiography and secondary ion mass spectrometry will be used to understand the mineral -colloid-radionuclide interactions in the fracture volcanic tuff.

  9. Self-radiation damage in plutonium and uranium mixed dioxide

    Kato, Masato; Endo, Hideo [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai Works, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Sugata, Hiromasa [Inspection Development Company Ltd., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    In plutonium compounds, self-radiation induces expansion of the lattice parameter as a function of time. The expansion of the lattice parameter and thermal recovery of radiation damage in plutonium and uranium mixed dioxide (MOX) were studied in this paper. The MOX powder had been kept in an ambient atmosphere for about two years. The lattice parameter of the powder saturated after an increase of about 0.23%. The change in the lattice parameter was formulated as a function of the self-radiation amount. Three thermal recovery stages of radiation damage were observed in temperature ranges below 400degC, 400-800degC and above 800degC. The recovery rate of the three stages in total lattice expansion was about 25%, 55% and 20%, respectively, and activation energy in each recovery was estimated to be 0.14 eV, 0.54 eV and 1.1 eV. (author)

  10. Experimental critical parameters of plutonium metal cylinders flooded with water

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Forty-nine critical configurations are reported for experiments involving arrays of 3 kg plutonium metal cylinders moderated and reflected by water. Thirty-four of these describe systems assembled in the laboratory, while 15 others are derived critical parameters inferred from 46 subcritical cases. The arrays included 2x2xN, N = 2, 3, 4, and 5, in one program and 3x3x3 configurations in a later study. All were three-dimensional, nearly square arrays with equal horizontal lattice spacings but a different vertical lattice spacing. Horizontal spacings ranged from units in contact to 180 mm center-to-center; and vertical spacings ranged from about 80 mm to almost 400 mm center-to-center. Several nearly-equilateral 3x3x3 arrays exhibit an extremely sensitive dependence upon horizontal separation for identical vertical spacings. A line array of unreflected and essentially unmoderated canned plutonium metal units appeared to be well subcritical based on measurements made to assure safety during the manual assembly operations. All experiments were performed at two widely separated times in the mid-1970s and early 1980s under two programs at the Rocky Flats Plant`s Critical Mass Laboratory.

  11. MOISTURE AND SURFACE AREA MEASUREMENTS OF PLUTONIUM-BEARING OXIDES

    Crowder, M.; Duffey, J.; Livingston, R.; Scogin, J.; Kessinger, G.; Almond, P.

    2009-09-28

    To ensure safe storage, plutonium-bearing oxides are stabilized at 950 C for at least two hours in an oxidizing atmosphere. Stabilization conditions are expected to decompose organic impurities, convert metals to oxides, and result in moisture content below 0.5 wt%. During stabilization, the specific surface area is reduced, which minimizes readsorption of water onto the oxide surface. Plutonium oxides stabilized according to these criteria were sampled and analyzed to determine moisture content and surface area. In addition, samples were leached in water to identify water-soluble chloride impurity content. Results of these analyses for seven samples showed that the stabilization process produced low moisture materials (< 0.2 wt %) with low surface area ({le} 1 m{sup 2}/g). For relatively pure materials, the amount of water per unit surface area corresponded to 1.5 to 3.5 molecular layers of water. For materials with chloride content > 360 ppm, the calculated amount of water per unit surface area increased with chloride content, indicating hydration of hygroscopic salts present in the impure PuO{sub 2}-containing materials. The low moisture, low surface area materials in this study did not generate detectable hydrogen during storage of four or more years.

  12. Optimization of Routine Monitoring of Workers Exposed to Plutonium Aerosols.

    Davesne, Estelle; Quesne, Benoit; De Vita, Antoine; Chojnacki, Eric; Blanchardon, Eric; Franck, Didier

    2016-10-01

    In case of incidental confinement failure, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel preparation may expose workers to plutonium aerosols. Due to its potential toxicity, occupational exposure to plutonium compounds should be kept as low as reasonably achievable. To ensure the absence of significant intake of radionuclides, workers at risk of internal contamination are monitored by periodic bioassay planned in a routine monitoring programme. From bioassay results, internal dose may be estimated. However, accurate dose calculation relies on known exposure conditions, which are rarely available when the exposure is demonstrated by routine monitoring only. Therefore, internal dose calculation is subject to uncertainty from unknown exposure conditions and from activity measurement variability. The present study calculates the minimum detectable dose (MDD) for a routine monitoring programme by considering all plausible conditions of exposure and measurement uncertainty. The MDD evaluates the monitoring quality and can be used for optimization. Here, MDDs were calculated for the monitoring of workers preparing MOX fuel. Uncertain parameters were modelled by probability distributions defined according to information provided by experts of routine monitoring, of workplace radiological protection and of bioassay analysis. Results show that the current monitoring is well adapted to potential exposure. A sensitivity study of MDD highlights high dependence on exposure condition modelling. Integrating all expert knowledge is therefore crucial to obtain reliable MDD estimates, stressing the value of a holistic approach to worker monitoring.

  13. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium dioxide powders and pellets

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium dioxide powders and pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Plutonium Sample Handling 8 to 10 Plutonium by Controlled-Potential Coulometry Plutonium by Ceric Sulfate Titration Plutonium by Amperometric Titration with Iron(II) Plutonium by Diode Array Spectrophotometry Nitrogen by Distillation Spectrophotometry Using Nessler Reagent 11 to 18 Carbon (Total) by Direct Combustion–Thermal Conductivity 19 to 30 Total Chlorine and Fluorine by Pyrohydrolysis 31 to 38 Sulfur by Distillation Spectrophotometry 39 to 47 Plutonium Isotopic Analysis by Mass Spectrometry Rare Earth Elements by Spectroscopy 48 to 55 Trace Elements by Carrier–Distillation Spectroscopy 56 to 63 Impurities by ICP-AES Impurity Elements by Spark-Source Mass Spectrography 64 to 70 Moisture by the Coulomet...

  14. Reducing neutron multiplicity counting bias for plutonium warhead authentication

    Goettsche, Malte

    2015-06-05

    Confidence in future nuclear arms control agreements could be enhanced by direct verification of warheads. It would include warhead authentication. This is the assessment based on measurements whether a declaration that a specific item is a nuclear warhead is true. An information barrier can be used to protect sensitive information during measurements. It could for example show whether attributes such as a fissile mass exceeding a threshold are met without indicating detailed measurement results. Neutron multiplicity measurements would be able to assess a plutonium fissile mass attribute if it were possible to show that their bias is low. Plutonium measurements have been conducted with the He-3 based Passive Scrap Multiplicity Counter. The measurement data has been used as a reference to test the capacity of the Monte Carlo code MCNPX-PoliMi to simulate neutron multiplicity measurements. The simulation results with their uncertainties are in agreement with the experimental results. It is essential to use cross-sections which include neutron scattering with the detector's polyethylene molecular structure. Further MCNPX-PoliMi simulations have been conducted in order to study bias that occurs when measuring samples with large plutonium masses such as warheads. Simulation results of solid and hollow metal spheres up to 6000 g show that the masses are underpredicted by as much as 20%. The main source of this bias has been identified in the false assumption that the neutron multiplication does not depend on the position where a spontaneous fission event occurred. The multiplication refers to the total number of neutrons leaking a sample after a primary spontaneous fission event, taking induced fission into consideration. The correction of the analysis has been derived and implemented in a MATLAB code. It depends on four geometry-dependent correction coefficients. When the sample configuration is fully known, these can be exactly determined and remove this type of

  15. Computers and conversation

    Luff, Paul; Gilbert, Nigel G

    1986-01-01

    In the past few years a branch of sociology, conversation analysis, has begun to have a significant impact on the design of human*b1computer interaction (HCI). The investigation of human*b1human dialogue has emerged as a fruitful foundation for interactive system design.****This book includes eleven original chapters by leading researchers who are applying conversation analysis to HCI. The fundamentals of conversation analysis are outlined, a number of systems are described, and a critical view of their value for HCI is offered.****Computers and Conversation will be of interest to all concerne

  16. Low-Level Plutonium Bioassay Measurements at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Hamilton, T; Brown, T; Hickman, D; Marchetti, A; Williams, R; Kehl, S

    2007-06-18

    Plutonium-239 ({sup 239}Pu) and plutonium-240 ({sup 240}Pu) are important alpha emitting radionuclides contained in radioactive debris from nuclear weapons testing. {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu are long-lived radionuclides with half-lives of 24,400 years and 6580 years, respectively. Concerns over human exposure to plutonium stem from knowledge about the persistence of plutonium isotopes in the environment and the high relative effectiveness of alpha-radiation to cause potential harm to cells once incorporated into the human body. In vitro bioassay tests have been developed to assess uptakes of plutonium based on measured urinary excretion patterns and modeled metabolic behaviors of the absorbed radionuclides. Systemic plutonium absorbed by the deep lung or from the gastrointestinal tract after ingestion is either excreted or distributed to other organs, primarily to the liver and skeleton, where it is retained for biological half-times of around 20 and 50 years, respectively. Dose assessment and atoll rehabilitation programs in the Marshall Islands have historically given special consideration to residual concentrations of plutonium in the environment even though the predicted dose from inhalation and/or ingestion of plutonium accounts for less than 5% of the annual effective dose from exposure to fallout contamination. Scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have developed a state-of-the-art bioassay test to assess urinary excretion rates of plutonium from Marshallese populations. This new heavy-isotope measurement system is based on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). The AMS system at LLNL far exceeds the standard measurement requirements established under the latest United States Department of Energy (DOE) regulation, 10CFR 835, for occupational monitoring of plutonium, and offers several advantages over classical as well as competing new technologies for low-level detection and measurement of plutonium isotopes. The United States

  17. From separations to reconstitution - a short history of Plutonium in the U.S. and Russia

    Gray, L W

    1999-04-15

    During the cold war plutonium was produced in reactors in both the US and Russia. It was then separated from the residual uranium and fission products by a variety of precipitation processes, such as Bismuth Phosphate, Redox, Butex, Purex, etc. in the US and uranium acetate and Purex in Russia. After a period of time in the field, plutonium weapons were recycled and the plutonium re-purified and returned to weapons. purification was accomplished by a variety of aqueous and molten salt processes, such as nitric-hydrofluoric acid dissolution followed by anion exchange, Purex modifications, molten salt extraction, electrorefining, etc. in the US and nitric acid dissolution or sodium hydroxide fusion followed by anion exchange in Russia. At the end of the Cold War, plutonium production of weapons-grade plutonium was cut off in the US and is expected to be cut off in Russia shortly after the turn of the century. Now both countries are looking at methods to reconstitute plutonium with fission products to render it no longer useful for nuclear weapons. These methods include immobilization in a ceramic matrix and then encasement in fission product laden glass, irradiation of MOX fuel, and disposal as waste in WIPP in the US and irradiation of MOX fuel in Russia. This paper details the contrast between the treatment of plutonium during the cold war and after the cold war was over.

  18. Sludge stabilization at the Plutonium Finishing Plant, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    1994-10-01

    This Environmental Assessment evaluates the proposed action to operate two laboratory-size muffle furnaces in glovebox HC-21C, located in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP), Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The muffle furnaces would be used to stabilize chemically reactive sludges that contain approximately 25 kilograms (55 pounds) of plutonium by heating to approximately 500 to 1000{degrees}C (900 to 1800{degrees}F). The resulting stable powder, mostly plutonium oxide with impurities, would be stored in the PFP vaults. The presence of chemically reactive plutonium-bearing sludges in the process gloveboxes poses a risk to workers from radiation exposure and limits the availability of storage space for future plant cleanup. Therefore, there is a need to stabilize the material into a form suitable for long-term storage. This proposed action would be an interim action, which would take place prior to completion of an Environmental Impact Statement for the PFP which would evaluate stabilization of all plutonium-bearing materials and cleanout of the facility. However, only 10 percent of the total quantity of plutonium in reactive materials is in the sludges, so this action will not limit the choice of reasonable alternatives or prejudice the Record of Decision of the Plutonium Finishing Plant Environmental Impact Statement.

  19. Simultaneous measurements of plutonium and uranium in spent-fuel dissolver solutions

    Li, T.K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kuno, T.; Kitagawa, O.; Sato, S.; Kurosawa, A.; Kuno, Y. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    The authors have studied the isotope dilution gamma-ray spectrometry (IDGS) technique for simultaneous measurements of elemental concentrations and isotopic compositions for both plutonium and uranium in input spent-fuel dissolver solutions at a reprocessing plant. The technique under development includes both sample preparation and analysis methods. For simultaneous measurements of both plutonium and uranium, a critical issue is to develop a new method to keep both plutonium and uranium in the sample after they are separated from fission products. Furthermore, it is equally important to improve the analysis method so that the precision and accuracy of the plutonium analysis remain unaffected while uranium is retained in the sample. To keep both plutonium and uranium in the sample for simultaneous measurements, extraction chromatography is being studied and shows promise to achieve the goal of cosegregation of the plutonium and uranium. The technique uses U/TEVA{center_dot}Spec resin to separate fission products and recover both uranium and plutonium in the resin from dissolver solutions for subsequent measuring using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Owing to the fact that the U/Pu ratio is altered during the fission product separation phase, it is necessary to develop a method which could accurately correct for this effect. Such a method was developed using the unique decay properties of {sup 241}Pu to {sup 237}U and shows considerable promise in allowing for accurate determination of the {sup 235}U concentrations before the chemical extraction.

  20. Isotope ratio analysis of individual sub-micrometer plutonium particles with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Esaka, Fumitaka; Magara, Masaaki; Suzuki, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Lee, Chi-Gyu; Kimura, Takaumi

    2010-12-15

    Information on plutonium isotope ratios in individual particles is of great importance for nuclear safeguards, nuclear forensics and so on. Although secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is successfully utilized for the analysis of individual uranium particles, the isobaric interference of americium-241 to plutonium-241 makes difficult to obtain accurate isotope ratios in individual plutonium particles. In the present work, an analytical technique by a combination of chemical separation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is developed and applied to isotope ratio analysis of individual sub-micrometer plutonium particles. The ICP-MS results for individual plutonium particles prepared from a standard reference material (NBL SRM-947) indicate that the use of a desolvation system for sample introduction improves the precision of isotope ratios. In addition, the accuracy of the (241)Pu/(239)Pu isotope ratio is much improved, owing to the chemical separation of plutonium and americium. In conclusion, the performance of the proposed ICP-MS technique is sufficient for the analysis of individual plutonium particles.

  1. Survey of plutonium and uranium atom ratios and activity levels in Mortandad Canyon

    Gallaher, B.M.; Benjamin, T.M.; Rokop, D.J.; Stoker, A.K.

    1997-09-22

    For more than three decades Mortandad Canyon has been the primary release area of treated liquid radioactive waste from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Laboratory). In this survey, six water samples and seven stream sediment samples collected in Mortandad Canyon were analyzed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) to determine the plutonium and uranium activity levels and atom ratios. Be measuring the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios, the Laboratory plutonium component was evaluated relative to that from global fallout. Measurements of the relative abundance of {sup 235}U and {sup 236}U were also used to identify non-natural components. The survey results indicate the Laboratory plutonium and uranium concentrations in waters and sediments decrease relatively rapidly with distance downstream from the major industrial sources. Plutonium concentrations in shallow alluvial groundwater decrease by approximately 1000 fold along a 3000 ft distance. At the Laboratory downstream boundary, total plutonium and uranium concentrations were generally within regional background ranges previously reported. Laboratory derived plutonium is readily distinguished from global fallout in on-site waters and sediments. The isotopic ratio data indicates off-site migration of trace levels of Laboratory plutonium in stream sediments to distances approximately two miles downstream of the Laboratory boundary.

  2. Plutonium in the environment - bibliographic study and quantification; Impacts environnemental et sanitaire des isotopes du plutonium, etude bibliographique et quantification

    Guetat, Ph.; Monfort, M.; Ansoborlo, E. [CEA Marcoule, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire, 30 (France); Bion, L.; Moulin, V.; Reiller, P.; Vercouter, Th. [CEA Saclay, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Boucher, L.; Jourdain, F.; Van Dorpe, F. [CEA Cadarache, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Comte, A.; Flury Heard, A.; Fritsch, P.; Menetrier, F. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, Dir. des Sciences du Vivant, 92 (France)

    2008-07-01

    This document deals with the different isotopes of plutonium. It intends to summarize the main features of plutonium behaviour from sources inside installation to the environment and man, and is expected to report the current knowledge about the different parameters used in the models for environmental and radiological impact assessment. The objective is to gather scientific information useful for deciders in case of accident or for regulation purposes. It gives main information on radiological and chemical characteristics which are necessary to understand transfers between compartments. Then it reports information on normal and accidental historical sources and present releases. The next part deals with transfer parameters in the installations and in environment. Parameters that influence its behaviour are examined, inside installations (physico-chemical forms and events that lead to releases), and outside in the environment for deposition to soils and transfer to plants, and animal products. A full chapter is dedicated to presentation of typical assessments, for each isotope and for mixture, and correspondence between activity, mass and dose reference levels are presented and discussed. Transfer and behaviour in man and effects on health are finally presented. (author)

  3. Criticality experiments with annular cylinders containing plutonium solutions; Experiences de criticite sur des cylindres annulaires contenant des solutions de plutonium

    Molbert, M.; Sauve, A.; Houelle, M.; Deilgat, E. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The criticality station of Dijon involves three cells, shielded by concrete walls of 1.46 meter thickness. Those cells are designed to contain the criticality experiment apparatus. The engineering building is also involving: one chemical laboratory where plutonium solutions are prepared, one analysis laboratory, several activated solutions storages, several control rooms, One cell contains the B system, which is designed to study: annular cylindrical geometries, slab of 10 cm thickness, interaction between annular cylinders. This report includes the first results given by experiments on annular cylinders defined by their own geometry (outer and inner diameter of ring containing plutonium solutions). Those results have been plotted in curves, for several concentrations and for different reflection conditions (outer or inner light water reflector, cadmium screen), H{sub c} and M{sub c} = f (c) (where H{sub c} is the critical height of solution, M{sub c} is the critical mass, c is the plutonium concentration: 42,3 g/lplutonium and give H{sub c} and M{sub c} versus the distance between the two solutions. - an insulated annular cylinder 500 x 200: incomplete results are published the experiments on this cylinder being unfinished to the date of this present report publication. On this miscellaneous results, we have following informations know: - Screen effect of light water in central hole. Strengthened effect by cadmium foil on the inside wall. - Normalized interaction curves ( {alpha}*H{sub c}/H{sub c{infinity}} ) versus the distance between the two vessels, where H{sub c{infinity}} critical height of an insulated cylinder, shows that: 1) In light water, two cylinders set aside from 15 cm, can be considers like separated. 2) For some configurations, {alpha} vary

  4. Criticality experiments with annular cylinders containing plutonium solutions; Experiences de criticite sur des cylindres annulaires contenant des solutions de plutonium

    Molbert, M.; Sauve, A.; Houelle, M.; Deilgat, E. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The criticality station of Dijon involves three cells, shielded by concrete walls of 1.46 meter thickness. Those cells are designed to contain the criticality experiment apparatus. The engineering building is also involving: one chemical laboratory where plutonium solutions are prepared, one analysis laboratory, several activated solutions storages, several control rooms, One cell contains the B system, which is designed to study: annular cylindrical geometries, slab of 10 cm thickness, interaction between annular cylinders. This report includes the first results given by experiments on annular cylinders defined by their own geometry (outer and inner diameter of ring containing plutonium solutions). Those results have been plotted in curves, for several concentrations and for different reflection conditions (outer or inner light water reflector, cadmium screen), H{sub c} and M{sub c} = f (c) (where H{sub c} is the critical height of solution, M{sub c} is the critical mass, c is the plutonium concentration: 42,3 g/lplutonium and give H{sub c} and M{sub c} versus the distance between the two solutions. - an insulated annular cylinder 500 x 200: incomplete results are published the experiments on this cylinder being unfinished to the date of this present report publication. On this miscellaneous results, we have following informations know: - Screen effect of light water in central hole. Strengthened effect by cadmium foil on the inside wall. - Normalized interaction curves ( {alpha}*H{sub c}/H{sub c{infinity}} ) versus the distance between the two vessels, where H{sub c{infinity}} critical height of an insulated cylinder, shows that: 1) In light water, two cylinders set aside from 15 cm, can be considers like separated. 2) For some configurations, {alpha} vary

  5. Long-term logistic analysis of FBR introduction strategy: avoiding both uranium and plutonium shortage

    Suzuki, T. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Center for International Studies

    1995-12-31

    Despite comfortable predictions on short to mid-term uranium resources, there is still a concern about long-term availability of competitive uranium resources. In order to achieve substantial uranium saving, early introduction of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) is desirable. But it is also known that rapid introduction of FBR could result in plutonium storage. Will there be enough plutonium on a global scale to sustain fast FBR growth? is there any other way to save uranium resource? This paper concludes that multi-option strategies to achieve flexible long-term strategy to avoid both uranium and plutonium storage are desirable. (authors) 3 refs.

  6. Plutonium production story at the Hanford site: processes and facilities history

    Gerber, M.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-20

    This document tells the history of the actual plutonium production process at the Hanford Site. It contains five major sections: Fuel Fabrication Processes, Irradiation of Nuclear Fuel, Spent Fuel Handling, Radiochemical Reprocessing of Irradiated Fuel, and Plutonium Finishing Operations. Within each section the story of the earliest operations is told, along with changes over time until the end of operations. Chemical and physical processes are described, along with the facilities where these processes were carried out. This document is a processes and facilities history. It does not deal with the waste products of plutonium production.

  7. Water Solubility of Plutonium and Uranium Compounds and Residues at TA-55

    Reilly, Sean Douglas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; Smith, Paul Herrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; Jarvinen, Gordon D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; Prochnow, David Adrian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; Schulte, Louis D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; DeBurgomaster, Paul Christopher [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; Fife, Keith William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; Rubin, Jim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; Worl, Laura Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States

    2016-06-13

    Understanding the water solubility of plutonium and uranium compounds and residues at TA-55 is necessary to provide a technical basis for appropriate criticality safety, safety basis and accountability controls. Individual compound solubility was determined using published solubility data and solution thermodynamic modeling. Residue solubility was estimated using a combination of published technical reports and process knowledge of constituent compounds. The scope of materials considered includes all compounds and residues at TA-55 as of March 2016 that contain Pu-239 or U-235 where any single item in the facility has more than 500 g of nuclear material. This analysis indicates that the following materials are not appreciably soluble in water: plutonium dioxide (IDC=C21), plutonium phosphate (IDC=C66), plutonium tetrafluoride (IDC=C80), plutonium filter residue (IDC=R26), plutonium hydroxide precipitate (IDC=R41), plutonium DOR salt (IDC=R42), plutonium incinerator ash (IDC=R47), uranium carbide (IDC=C13), uranium dioxide (IDC=C21), U3O8 (IDC=C88), and uranium filter residue (IDC=R26). This analysis also indicates that the following materials are soluble in water: plutonium chloride (IDC=C19) and uranium nitrate (IDC=C52). Equilibrium calculations suggest that PuOCl is water soluble under certain conditions, but some plutonium processing reports indicate that it is insoluble when present in electrorefining residues (R65). Plutonium molten salt extraction residues (IDC=R83) contain significant quantities of PuCl3, and are expected to be soluble in water. The solubility of the following plutonium residues is indeterminate due to conflicting reports, insufficient process knowledge or process-dependent composition: calcium salt (IDC=R09), electrorefining salt (IDC=R65), salt (IDC=R71), silica (IDC=R73) and sweepings/screenings (IDC=R78). Solution thermodynamic modeling also indicates that fire suppression water buffered with a

  8. DOE plutonium disposition study: Pu consumption in ALWRs. Volume 2, Final report

    1993-05-15

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Asea Brown Boveri-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) to provide information on the capability of ABB-CE`s System 80 + Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) to transform, through reactor burnup, 100 metric tonnes (MT) of weapons grade plutonium (Pu) into a form which is not readily useable in weapons. This information is being developed as part of DOE`s Plutonium Disposition Study, initiated by DOE in response to Congressional action. This document Volume 2, provides a discussion of: Plutonium Fuel Cycle; Technology Needs; Regulatory Considerations; Cost and Schedule Estimates; and Deployment Strategy.

  9. Long-term criticality concerns associated with disposition of weapons plutonium

    Choi, J.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-06-01

    This paper presents a very brief description of criticality concerns resulting from dismantlement of nuclear weapons. Two plutonium disposal options, and associated criticality considerations, are described: (1) irradiating it into reactor-grade spent fuel, and (2) immobilization and burial, either in a geologic repository or in deep, sealed boreholes. Mixed oxide spent fuel could contain 3 to 4 wt% of reactor-grade plutonium. For the immobilization and the deep borehole options to be economically viable, a plutonium content of 3 to 7 wt% would be required. A study is proposed to evaluate the long-term criticality safety concerns for disposition of fissionable material in a geologic setting. 2 refs.

  10. Conceptual design report, plutonium stabilization and handling,project W-460

    Weiss, E.V.

    1997-03-06

    Project W-460, Plutonium Stabilization and Handling, encompasses procurement and installation of a Stabilization and Packaging System (SPS) to oxidize and package for long term storage remaining plutonium-bearing special nuclear materials currently in inventory at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP), and modification of vault equipment to allow storage of resulting packages of stabilized SNM for up to fifty years. This Conceptual Design Report (CDR) provides conceptual design details for the vault modification, site preparation and site interface with the purchased SPS. Two concepts are described for vault configuration; acceleration of this phase of the project did not allow completion of analysis which would clearly identify a preferred approach.

  11. Fractionation of plutonium in environmental and bio-shielding concrete samples using dynamic sequential extraction

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin

    2010-01-01

    Fractionation of plutonium isotopes (238Pu, 239,240Pu) in environmental samples (i.e. soil and sediment) and bio-shielding concrete from decommissioning of nuclear reactor were carried out by dynamic sequential extraction using an on-line sequential injection (SI) system combined with a specially...... designed extraction column. Plutonium in the fractions from the sequential extraction was separated by ion exchange chromatography and measured using alpha spectrometry. The analytical results show a higher mobility of plutonium in bio-shielding concrete, which means attention should be paid...

  12. The Conversation Class

    Jackson, Acy L.

    2012-01-01

    The conversation class occupies a unique place in the process of learning English as a second or foreign language. From the author's own experience in conducting special conversation classes with Persian-speaking adults, he has drawn up a number of simple but important guidelines, some of which he hopes may provide helpful suggestions for the…

  13. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass

    Knezevic, Dragan

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents research of hydrothermal conversion of biomass (HTC). In this process, hot compressed water (subcritical water) is used as the reaction medium. Therefore this technique is suitable for conversion of wet biomass/ waste streams. By working at high pressures, the evaporation of wat

  14. Content for Conversation Partners.

    Olson, Kathleen

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that a good strategy for helping English language learners to develop communicative competence in English is by pairing them with native English speakers. In such conversation programs, conversation partners should be provided with topics and activities that incorporate the goals, interests, and experiences of the learners. Recommends…

  15. Canning Canned Conversations.

    Gilmore, Michael P.; Daigaku, Sanyo

    Ways to improve the role-playing conversations found in most second language textbooks are outlined. It is argued that the conversations are often restrictive, dull, and repetitive, and students respond to them in kind. The teacher can make the target language used more interesting by creating new characters, situations, settings, or objectives.…

  16. Predictability of conversation partners

    Takaguchi, Taro; Sato, Nobuo; Yano, Kazuo; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, Song et al. (2010) found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one's conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one's next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between close sensor nodes. We find t...

  17. Political conversations on Facebook

    Sørensen, Mads P.

    2016-01-01

    Political conversations are according to theories on deliberative democracy essential to well-functioning democracies. Traditionally these conversations have taken place in face-to-face settings, in e.g. party meetings and town meetings. However, social media such as Facebook and Twitter offers new...... possibilities for online political conversations between citizens and politicians. This paper examines the presence on Facebook and Twitter of Members of the Danish national Parliament, the Folketing, and focusses on a quantitative mapping of the political conversation activities taking place in the threads...... following Facebook posts from Danish Members of Parliament (MPs). The paper shows that, in comparison with previous findings from other countries, Danish MPs have a relatively high degree of engagement in political conversations with citizens on Facebook – and that a large number of citizens follow MPs...

  18. ``Distribution and behaviour of plutonium in the waters of the channel and of the seine estuary``; ``Distribution et comportement du plutonium dans les eaux de la manche et de l`estuaire de la seine``

    Garcia, K.

    1997-12-31

    Excess dissolved plutonium has been measured in the coastal waters of the Channel, from Granville to Boulogne, probably due to sorption-desorption processus. In the Seine estuary, in situ measurements and experimental studies showed that the plutonium desorbs himself from particles in low salinity waters. The desorbed plutonium originates in marine and/or fluvial dissolved Pu. Marine dissolved Pu(V), originating from La Hague plant discharges and from atlantic waters, is reduced and sorbed when the salinity decreases onto estuarial particles: Isotopic Activity Ration {sup 238}Pu/{sup 239}, Pu(IR) of marine dissolved Pu(V) is about 0.7. Fluvial dissolved plutonium originates from atmospheric fallout and from an internal river source: fallout plutonium (IR=0.05) is unreactive with salinity while 45% of river plutonium (IR>1.7) flocculates at 0.5 g l{sup -1}. Desorbed plutonium may have various origins, depending on the Seine liquid discharges and on the tidal coefficient. When the marine waters do not migrate upstream, the low salinity waters encounters particles marked essentially with marine plutonium and the IR of desorbed Pu is about 0.7. The activities of desorbed plutonium are too low to have any influence on the distribution of plutonium in the coastal waters on the Seine Bay. When the marine waters migrate upstream, the low salinity waters meet particles marked essentially with river plutonium (IR>1.7) and desorbed plutonium has a very high IR. These estuarine conditions are encountered five to seven month a year and implicate an increase of the IR of 0.1 of the plutonium present in the coastal waters of the Seine bay (1.2.-1.3.). (author).

  19. Transuranic (Tru) waste volume reduction operations at a plutonium facility

    Cournoyer, Michael E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nixon, Archie E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dodge, Robert L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fife, Keith W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandoval, Arnold M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garcia, Vincent E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Programmatic operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA 55) involve working with various amounts of plutonium and other highly toxic, alpha-emitting materials. The spread of radiological contamination on surfaces, airborne contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through use of a variety of gloveboxes (the glovebox, coupled with an adequate negative pressure gradient, provides primary confinement). Size-reduction operations on glovebox equipment are a common activity when a process has been discontinued and the room is being modified to support a new customer. The Actin ide Processing Group at TA-55 uses one-meter-long glass columns to process plutonium. Disposal of used columns is a challenge, since they must be size-reduced to get them out of the glovebox. The task is a high-risk operation because the glass shards that are generated can puncture the bag-out bags, leather protectors, glovebox gloves, and the worker's skin when completing the task. One of the Lessons Learned from these operations is that Laboratory management should critically evaluate each hazard and provide more effective measures to prevent personnel injury. A bag made of puncture-resistant material was one of these enhanced controls. We have investigated the effectiveness of these bags and have found that they safely and effectively permit glass objects to be reduced to small pieces with a plastic or rubber mallet; the waste can then be easily poured into a container for removal from the glove box as non-compactable transuranic (TRU) waste. This size-reduction operation reduces solid TRU waste generation by almost 2% times. Replacing one-time-use bag-out bags with multiple-use glass crushing bags also contributes to reducing generated waste. In addition, significant costs from contamination, cleanup, and preparation of incident documentation are avoided. This effort contributes to the Los Alamos

  20. PLUTONIUM SOLUBILITY IN HIGH-LEVEL WASTE ALKALI BOROSILICATE GLASS

    Marra, J.; Crawford, C.; Fox, K.; Bibler, N.

    2011-01-04

    The solubility of plutonium in a Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) reference glass and the effect of incorporation of Pu in the glass on specific glass properties were evaluated. A Pu loading of 1 wt % in glass was studied. Prior to actual plutonium glass testing, surrogate testing (using Hf as a surrogate for Pu) was conducted to evaluate the homogeneity of significant quantities of Hf (Pu) in the glass, determine the most appropriate methods to evaluate homogeneity for Pu glass testing, and to evaluate the impact of Hf loading in the glass on select glass properties. Surrogate testing was conducted using Hf to represent between 0 and 1 wt % Pu in glass on an equivalent molar basis. A Pu loading of 1 wt % in glass translated to {approx}18 kg Pu per Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister, or about 10X the current allowed limit per the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (2500 g/m{sup 3} of glass or about 1700 g/canister) and about 30X the current allowable concentration based on the fissile material concentration limit referenced in the Yucca Mountain Project License Application (897 g/m{sup 3}3 of glass or about 600 g Pu/canister). Based on historical process throughput data, this level was considered to represent a reasonable upper bound for Pu loading based on the ability to provide Pu containing feed to the DWPF. The task elements included evaluating the distribution of Pu in the glass (e.g. homogeneity), evaluating crystallization within the glass, evaluating select glass properties (with surrogates), and evaluating durability using the Product Consistency Test -- Method A (PCT-A). The behavior of Pu in the melter was evaluated using paper studies and corresponding analyses of DWPF melter pour samples.The results of the testing indicated that at 1 wt % Pu in the glass, the Pu was homogeneously distributed and did not result in any formation of plutonium-containing crystalline phases as long as the glass was prepared under 'well-mixed' conditions

  1. NNSS Soils Monitoring: Plutonium Valley (CAU366) FY2012

    Miller, Julianne J.; Mizell, Steve A.; Nikolich, George; McCurdy, Greg; Campbell, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada Site Office (NSO), Environmental Restoration Soils Activity has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential sediment transport of contaminated soil from Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 366, Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites Contamination Area (CA) during precipitation runoff events. Field measurements at the T-4 Atmospheric Test Site (CAU 370) suggest that radionuclide-contaminated soils may have migrated along a shallow ephemeral drainage that traverses the site (NNSA/NSO, 2009). (It is not entirely clear how contaminated soils got into their present location at the T-4 Site, but flow to the channel has been redirected and the contamination does not appear to be migrating at present.) Aerial surveys in selected portions of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) also suggest that radionuclide-contaminated soils may be migrating along ephemeral channels in Areas 3, 8, 11, 18, and 25 (Colton, 1999). In Area 11, several low-level airborne surveys of the Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites (CAU 366) show plumes of Americium 241 (Am-241) extending along ephemeral channels (Figure 1, marker numbers 5 and 6) below Corrective Action Site (CAS) 11-23-03 (marker number 3) and CAS 11 23-04 (marker number 4) (Colton, 1999). Plutonium Valley in Area 11 of the NNSS was selected for the study because of the aerial survey evidence suggesting downstream transport of radionuclide-contaminated soil. The aerial survey (Figure 1) shows a well defined finger of elevated radioactivity (marker number 5) extending to the southwest from the southernmost detonation site (marker number 4). This finger of contamination overlies a drainage channel mapped on the topographic base map used for presentation of the survey data suggesting surface runoff as a likely cause of the contaminated area. Additionally, instrumenting sites strongly suspected of conveying

  2. Enzymatic degradation of plutonium-contaminated cellulose products

    Heintz, C.E.; Rainwater, K.A.; Swift, L.M. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Barnes, D.L. [Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium, TX (United States); Worl, L.; Avens, L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Enzyme solutions produced for commercial purposes unrelated to waste management have the potential for reducing the volume of wastes in streams containing cellulose, lipid and protein materials. For example, the authors have shown that cellulases used in denim production and in detergent formulations are able to digest cellulose-containing sorbents and other cellulose-based wastes contaminated either with crude oil or with radionuclides. This presentation describes the use of one such enzyme preparation (Rapidase{trademark}) for the degradation of cotton sorbents intentionally contaminated with low levels of plutonium. This is part of a feasibility study to determine if such treatments have a role in reducing the volume of low level and transuranic wastes to minimize the amount of radionuclide-contaminated waste that must be disposed of in secured storage areas.

  3. Enzymatic degradation of plutonium-contaminated cellulose products

    Heintz, C.E.; Rainwater, K.A.; Swift, L.M. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Barnes, D.L. [Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium, TX (United States); Worl, L.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1999-06-01

    Enzyme solutions produced for commercial purposes unrelated to waste management have the potential for reducing the volume of wastes in streams containing cellulose, lipid and protein materials. For example, the authors have shown previously that cellulases used in denim production and in detergent formulations are able to digest cellulose-containing sorbents and other cellulose-based wastes contaminated either with crude oil or with uranium. This presentation describes the use of one such enzyme preparation (Rapidase{trademark}, manufactured by Genencor, Rochester, NY) for the degradation of cotton sorbents intentionally contaminated with low levels of plutonium. This is part of a feasibility study to determine if such treatments have a role in reducing the volume of low level and transuranic wastes to minimize the amount of radionuclide-contaminated waste destined for costly disposal options.

  4. Electron backscatter diffraction of a plutonium-gallium alloy

    Boehlert, C. J.; Zocco, T. G.; Schulze, R. K.; Mitchell, J. N.; Pereyra, R. A.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental technique has recently been developed to characterize reactive metals, including plutonium (Pu) and cerium, using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Microstructural characterization of Pu and its alloys by EBSD had been previously elusive primarily because of the extreme toxicity and rapid surface oxidation rate associated with Pu metal. The experimental technique, which included ion-sputtering the metal surface using a scanning Auger microprobe (SAM) followed by vacuum transfer of the sample from the SAM to the scanning electron microscope (SEM), used to obtain electron backscatter diffraction Kikuchi patterns and orientation maps for a Pu-gallium alloy is described and the initial microstructural observations based on the analysis are discussed. The phase transformation behavior between the δ (face-centered cubic) and ɛ (body-centered-cubic) structures is explained by combining the SEM and EBSD observations.

  5. Effect of microorganisms on the plutonium oxidation states

    Luksiene, Benedikta, E-mail: bena@ar.fi.lt [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanoriu ave 231, LT-02300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Druteikiene, Ruta [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanoriu ave 231, LT-02300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Peciulyte, Dalia [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos street 2, LT-08412 Vilnius (Lithuania); Baltrunas, Dalis; Remeikis, Vidmantas [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanoriu ave 231, LT-02300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Paskevicius, Algimantas [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos street 2, LT-08412 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2012-03-15

    Particular microbes from substrates at the low-level radioactive waste repository in the Ignalina NPP territory were exposed to {sup 239}Pu (IV) at low pH under aerobic conditions. Pu(III) and Pu(IV) were separated and quantitatively evaluated using the modified anion exchange method and alpha spectrometry. Tested bacteria Bacillus mycoides and Serratia marcescens were more effective in Pu reduction than Rhodococcus fascians. Fungi Paecillomyces lilacinus and Absidia spinosa var. spinosa as well as bacterium Rhodococcus fascians did not alter the plutonium oxidation state. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Particular microbes from low-level radioactive waste repository were exposed to Pu (IV). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Some tested bacteria induced slight Pu (IV) reduction at low pH under aerobic conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tested fungi did not show peculiarities to alter Pu oxidation state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The modified radiochemical method was applied to differentiate Pu oxidation states.

  6. Determination of thorium in plutonium-thorium oxides and carbides

    Walker, L.F.; Temer, D.J.

    1979-10-01

    Thorium is determined in (PuTh)C and (PuTh)O/sub 2/ by complexometric titration with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) following separation on anion-exchange resin. Carbides are first oxidized by ignition in air at about 800/sup 0/C. Oxide or oxidized carbide samples are dissolved in acids by the sealed-reflux technique or by heating in beakers. The plutonium is selectively sorbed from the 12M hydrochloric acid solution of the fuel on a Bio-Rad AG1-X2 anion-exchange resin column, and the eluted thorium is titrated with EDTA using xylenol orange as the indicator. The average recovery of thorium in 20 samples is 99.98% with a relative standard deviation of 0.07%.

  7. Plutonium Reclamation Facility incident response project progress report

    Austin, B.A.

    1997-11-25

    This report provides status of Hanford activities in response to process deficiencies highlighted during and in response to the May 14, 1997, explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility. This report provides specific response to the August 4, 1997, memorandum from the Secretary which requested a progress report, in 120 days, on activities associated with reassessing the known and evaluating new vulnerabilities (chemical and radiological) at facilities that have been shut down, are in standby, are being deactivated or have otherwise changed their conventional mode of operation in the last several years. In addition, this report is intended to provide status on emergency response corrective activities as requested in the memorandum from the Secretary on August 28, 1997. Status is also included for actions requested in the second August 28, 1997, memorandum from the Secretary, regarding timely notification of emergencies.

  8. Plutonium and americium contamination in Rocky Flats soil, 1973

    Krey, P.; Hardy, E.; Volchok, H.; Toonkel, L.; Knuth, R.; Coppes, M.; Tamura, T.

    1976-03-01

    The plutonium mass isotopic analysis and the Am-241 analysis of soil samples from Rocky Flats identify the contamination as Pu which was processed in 1958. The Am-241 activity in the soil will reach its maximum in 2033 and represent 18 percent of the Pu-239-240 activity. Nuclide ratios indicate that current operations at Rocky Flats contribute little to the airborne Pu concentrations which are due to resuspension of the contaminated soil. Root uptake of Pu or Am by vegetation is slight or shows no discrimination among the isotopes and nuclides studied. The relationship between Pu deposition contour and the area enclosed by that contour has been verified for contour values extending over 7 orders of magnitude. This gives confidence to our calculations of the quantities of Pu released on and off the Rocky Flats plant site. (auth)

  9. Plutonium-244 fission xenon in the most primitive meteorites

    Kuroda, P.K.; Myers, W.A. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Univ. Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States))

    1994-01-01

    The plutonium-244/xenon-136 ages of the Murchison, Murray and Orgueil meteorites have been calculated from the existing xenon isotope data and the uranium contents. The CI carbonaceous chondrite Orgueil, which is considered to be among the most primitive - in the sense of the least altered - sample of the solar system known to man, appears to have started to retain its xenon more than 5,000 million years ago, when the ratio of [sup 244]Pu to [sup 238]U in the solar system was as high as (0.5 [+-] 0.1) (atom/atom) and the CM carbonaceous chondrites Murchison and Murray started to retain their xenon about 4,940 million years ago, when the [sup 244]Pu to [sup 238]U ratio was about 0.17 (atom/atom). (orig.)

  10. Admixtures in Spent Plutonium Sources and Gamma-Radiation

    Inga Pelanytė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The isotopic composition of several spent smoke detectors containing plutonium has been investigated. The article also presents the calculated results of 241Am and 241Pu activities in smoke detectors. The received values vary from (0.934±0.028 MBq to (91.2±4.6 MBq. The eguivalent dose rate of the established gamma radiation vary from 220 nSv/h to 500 nSv/h. A dose caused by artificial radionuclides in spent smoke detectors was evaluated and compared in the article. It has been found out that due to smoke detectors, an annual dose varies from 0.06 mSv to 0.31 mSv. Article in Lithuanian

  11. VALIDATION OF HANFORD PERSONNEL AND EXTREMITY DOSIMETERS IN PLUTONIUM ENVIRONMENTS

    Scherpelz, Robert I.; Fix, John J.; Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2000-02-10

    A study was performed in the Plutonium Finishing Plant to assess the performance of Hanford personnel neutron dosimetry. The study was assessed whole body dosimetry and extremity dosimetry performance. For both parts of the study, the TEPC was used as the principle instrument for characterizing workplace neutron fields. In the whole body study, 12.7-cm-diameter TEPCs were used in ten different locations in the facility. TLD and TED personnel dosimeters were exposed on a water-filled phantom to enable a comparison of TEPC and dosimeter response. In the extremity study, 1.27-cm-diameter TEPCs were exposed inside the fingers of a gloveboxe glove. Extremity dosimeters were wrapped around the TEPCs. The glove was then exposed to six different cans of plutonium, simulating the exposure that a worker's fingers would receive in a glovebox. The comparison of TEPC-measured neutron dose equivalent to TLD-measured gamma dose equivalent provided neutron-to-gamma ratios that can be used to estimate the neutron dose equivalent received by a worker's finger based on the gamma readings of an extremity dosimeter. The study also utilized a Snoopy and detectors based on bubble technology for assessing neutron exposures, providing a comparison of the effectiveness of these instruments for workplace monitoring. The study concludes that the TLD component of the HCND performs adequately overall, with a positive bias of 30%, but exhibits excessive variability in individual results due to instabilities in the algorithm. The TED response was less variable but only 20% of the TEPC reference dose on average because of the low neutron energies involved. The neutron response of the HSD was more variable than the TLD component of the HCND and biased high by a factor of 8 overall due to its calibration to unmoderated 252Cf. The study recommends further work to correct instabilities in the HCND algorithm and to explore the potential shown by the bubble-based dosimeters.

  12. New Gas Gun Helping Scientists Better Understand Plutonium Behavior

    Hazi, A

    2005-09-20

    One of the most daunting scientific and engineering challenges today is ensuring the safety and reliability of the nation's nuclear arsenal. To effectively meet that challenge, scientists need better data showing how plutonium, a key component of nuclear warheads, behaves under extreme pressures and temperatures. On July 8, 2003, Lawrence Livermore researchers performed the inaugural experiment of a 30-meter-long, two-stage gas gun designed to obtain those data. The results from a continuing stream of successful experiments on the gas gun are strengthening scientists' ability to ensure that the nation's nuclear stockpile is safe and reliable. The JASPER (Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research) Facility at the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Nevada Test Site (NTS) is home to the two-stage gas gun. In the gun's first test, an unqualified success, Livermore scientists fired a projectile weighing 28.6 grams and traveling about 5.21 kilometers per second when it impacted an extremely small (about 30-gram) plutonium target. This experiment marked the culmination of years of effort in facility construction, gun installation, system integration, design reviews, and federal authorizations required to bring the experimental facility online. Ongoing experiments have drawn enthusiastic praise from throughout DOE, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), and the scientific community. NNSA Administrator Linton Brooks said, ''Our national laboratories now have at their disposal a valuable asset that enhances our due diligence to certify the nuclear weapons stockpile in the absence of underground nuclear weapons testing.''

  13. Plutonium explosive dispersal modeling using the MACCS2 computer code

    Steele, C.M.; Wald, T.L.; Chanin, D.I.

    1998-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to derive the necessary parameters to be used to establish a defensible methodology to perform explosive dispersal modeling of respirable plutonium using Gaussian methods. A particular code, MACCS2, has been chosen for this modeling effort due to its application of sophisticated meteorological statistical sampling in accordance with the philosophy of Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1.145, ``Atmospheric Dispersion Models for Potential Accident Consequence Assessments at Nuclear Power Plants``. A second advantage supporting the selection of the MACCS2 code for modeling purposes is that meteorological data sets are readily available at most Department of Energy (DOE) and NRC sites. This particular MACCS2 modeling effort focuses on the calculation of respirable doses and not ground deposition. Once the necessary parameters for the MACCS2 modeling are developed and presented, the model is benchmarked against empirical test data from the Double Tracks shot of project Roller Coaster (Shreve 1965) and applied to a hypothetical plutonium explosive dispersal scenario. Further modeling with the MACCS2 code is performed to determine a defensible method of treating the effects of building structure interaction on the respirable fraction distribution as a function of height. These results are related to the Clean Slate 2 and Clean Slate 3 bunkered shots of Project Roller Coaster. Lastly a method is presented to determine the peak 99.5% sector doses on an irregular site boundary in the manner specified in NRC Regulatory Guide 1.145 (1983). Parametric analyses are performed on the major analytic assumptions in the MACCS2 model to define the potential errors that are possible in using this methodology.

  14. Uranium conversion; Urankonvertering

    Oliver, Lena; Peterson, Jenny; Wilhelmsen, Katarina [Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    FOI, has performed a study on uranium conversion processes that are of importance in the production of different uranium compounds in the nuclear industry. The same conversion processes are of interest both when production of nuclear fuel and production of fissile material for nuclear weapons are considered. Countries that have nuclear weapons ambitions, with the intention to produce highly enriched uranium for weapons purposes, need some degree of uranium conversion capability depending on the uranium feed material available. This report describes the processes that are needed from uranium mining and milling to the different conversion processes for converting uranium ore concentrate to uranium hexafluoride. Uranium hexafluoride is the uranium compound used in most enrichment facilities. The processes needed to produce uranium dioxide for use in nuclear fuel and the processes needed to convert different uranium compounds to uranium metal - the form of uranium that is used in a nuclear weapon - are also presented. The production of uranium ore concentrate from uranium ore is included since uranium ore concentrate is the feed material required for a uranium conversion facility. Both the chemistry and principles or the different uranium conversion processes and the equipment needed in the processes are described. Since most of the equipment that is used in a uranium conversion facility is similar to that used in conventional chemical industry, it is difficult to determine if certain equipment is considered for uranium conversion or not. However, the chemical conversion processes where UF{sub 6} and UF{sub 4} are present require equipment that is made of corrosion resistant material.

  15. Determination of trace elements in plutonium by solvent extraction and ICP-atomic emission spectrometry

    Patwardhan, A. B.; Joshi, M. V.; Kulkarni, V. T.; Radhakrishnan; Sumathi, S.; Jacob, Mary

    This report describes the studies carried out for the determination of trace metallic impurities in plutonium solutions. Plutonium is separated from the impurity elements by the selective extraction of plutonium in tri-butyl-phosphate. The aqueous phase containing the impurities is fed to the high temperature source of excitation such as inductively coupled argon plasma and the analysis is carried out employing computer controlled multichannel direct reading spectrometer. Based on the above studies a method has been standardized for the analysis of sixteen elements in plutonium oxide/nitrate samples. The relative standard deviation of the method for various elements is in the range of +/- 1 to 5%. The method offers distinct advantages over the conventional carrier distillation technique in terms of precision, range, and sensitivity.

  16. Separation Techniques for Uranium and Plutonium at Trace Levels for the Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometric Determination

    Suh, M. Y.; Han, S. H.; Kim, J. G.; Park, Y. J.; Kim, W. H

    2005-12-15

    This report describes the state of the art and the progress of the chemical separation and purification techniques required for the thermal ionization mass spectrometric determination of uranium and plutonium in environmental samples at trace or ultratrace levels. Various techniques, such as precipitation, solvent extraction, extraction chromatography, and ion exchange chromatography, for separation of uranium and plutonium were evaluated. Sample preparation methods and dissolution techniques for environmental samples were also discussed. Especially, both extraction chromatographic and anion exchange chromatographic procedures for uranium and plutonium in environmental samples, such as soil, sediment, plant, seawater, urine, and bone ash were reviewed in detail in order to propose some suitable methods for the separation and purification of uranium and plutonium from the safeguards environmental or swipe samples. A survey of the IAEA strengthened safeguards system, the clean room facility of IAEA's NWAL(Network of Analytical Laboratories), and the analytical techniques for safeguards environmental samples was also discussed here.

  17. Preparation of reference material for uranium and plutonium measurements using cellulose compound as a stabilizer

    Surugaya, Naoki; Sato, Soichi; Hina, Tetsuro; Hiyama, Toshiaki [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai Works, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    Isotope dilution mass spectrometry, considered the most reliable analytical technique for input accountancy measurements of uranium and plutonium in spent fuel reprocessing plants, requires a well-characterized uranium/plutonium spike. Solid spikes containing {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu have been successfully utilized in safeguards inspections and in accountability analysis. They contain relatively large amounts of uranium and plutonium isotopically different to the uranium and plutonium of the sample, and are usually in the dried nitrate form. However, it is difficult to maintain and guarantee the integrity of the spike over long periods as they are in the dried nitrate form that can flake off the glass ampoule surface. Organic coatings were investigated using cellulose acetate butyrate as a stabilizer. The cellulose acetate butyrate had good characteristics, maintaining a thin film for a long time. (author)

  18. Age Determination of Trace Plutonium by Using ID-MC-ICP-MS

    2008-01-01

    <正>In the analysis of the origin of plutonium, the isotopic composition and the age of the material are very important. The age is the first parameter necessary to be determined when deducing the history of the

  19. Plutonium in the marine environment at Thule, NW-Greenland after a nuclear weapons accident

    Dahlgaard, H.; Eriksson, M.; Ilus, E.

    2001-01-01

    In January 1968, a B52 plane carrying 4 nuclear weapon!: crashed on the sea ice similar to 12 km from the Thule Air Base, in northwest Greenland. The benthic marine environment in the 180-230 m deep Bylot Sound was then contaminated with similar to1.4 TBq Pu-239,Pu-240 (similar to0.5 kg). The site...... was revisited in August 1997, 29 years after the accident. Water and brown algae data indicate that plutonium is not transported from the contaminated sediments into the surface waters in significant quantities. Sediment core data only indicate minor translocation of plutonium from the accident to the area...... into the contaminated layer. In addition to the classical bioturbation mixing the upper approximate to5 cm, the plutonium data indicate the existence of a deeper bioturbation gradually decreasing with depth. Transfer of plutonium to benthic biota is low leading to 1-2 orders of magnitude lower concentrations in biota...

  20. Electrolytic partitioning of uranium and plutonium based on a new type of electrolytic mixer-settler

    Yuan, Z.; Yan, T.; Zheng, W. [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)] [and others

    2013-11-01

    The design of a new type of electroreduction mixer-settler for the partitioning of uranium and plutonium during the Purex process, which is featured with E-shaped cathodes and U-shaped anodes in settling chamber, is described and the operational results achieved using this equipment are presented. The results show that this new type of mixer-settler has excellent separation performances. The flow rate of organic feed solution is 3 mL/min and the flow ratio of feed solution (1BF) to aqueous back extraction stream (1BX) and to organic wash stream (1BS) is 4/1/1. For an organic feed of 84 g/L uranium and 1.40 {proportional_to} 2.64 g/L plutonium, both the separation factor of plutonium from uranium and that of uranium from plutonium are apparently higher than 10{sup 4}. (orig.)

  1. Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium quarterly technical progress report, August 1--October 31, 1998

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    This paper describes activities of the Center under the following topical sections: Electronic resource library; Environmental restoration and protection; Health and safety; Waste management; Communication program; Education program; Training; Analytical development; Materials science; Plutonium processing and handling; and Storage.

  2. DOE Plutonium Disposition Study: Pu consumption in ALWRs. Volume 1, Final report

    1993-05-15

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Asea Brown Boveri-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) to provide information on the capability of ABB-CE`s System 80 + Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) to transform, through reactor burnup, 100 metric tonnes (MT) of weapons grade plutonium (Pu) into a form which is not readily useable in weapons. This information is being developed as part of DOE`s Plutonium Disposition Study, initiated by DOE in response to Congressional action. This document, Volume 1, presents a technical description of the various elements of the System 80 + Standard Plant Design upon which the Plutonium Disposition Study was based. The System 80 + Standard Design is fully developed and directly suited to meeting the mission objectives for plutonium disposal. The bass U0{sub 2} plant design is discussed here.

  3. Long-term retrievability and safeguards for immobilized weapons plutonium in geologic storage

    Peterson, P.F. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    If plutonium is not ultimately used as an energy source, the quantity of excess weapons plutonium (w-Pu) that would go into a US repository will be small compared to the quantity of plutonium contained in the commercial spent fuel in the repository, and the US repository(ies) will likely be only one (or two) locations out of many around the world where commercial spent fuel will be stored. Therefore excess weapons plutonium creates a small perturbation to the long-term (over 200,000 yr) global safeguard requirements for spent fuel. There are details in the differences between spent fuel and immobilized w-Pu waste forms (i.e. chemical separation methods, utility for weapons, nuclear testing requirements), but these are sufficiently small to be unlikely to play a significant role in any US political decision to rebuild weapons inventories, or to change the long-term risks of theft by subnational groups.

  4. Using an induction melter with a cold crucible for the immobilization of plutonium

    Kushnikov, V.V.; Matiunin, Yu.I.; Smelova, T.V. [A.A. Bochvara All Russian Scientific Research Institute of Non-Organic Materials, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-05-01

    This report evaluates the possibilities for immobilizing weapons-grade plutonium in glass-type materials that satisfy requirements for eventual burial in deep geologic repositories and correspond to the standards set for spent fuel.

  5. The solubility of hydrogen and deuterium in alloyed, unalloyed and impure plutonium metal

    Richmond, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bridgewater, Jon S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ward, John W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Allen, Thomas A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Pressure-Composition-Temperature (PCT) data are presented for the plutonium-hydrogen (Pu-H) and plutonium-deuterium (Pu-D) systems in the solubility region up to terminal solubility (precipitation of PuH{sub 2}). The heats of solution for PuH{sub s} and PuD{sub s} are determined from PCT data in the ranges 350-625 C for gallium alloyed Pu and 400-575 C for unalloyed Pu. The solubility of high purity plutonium alloyed with 2 at.% gallium is compared to high purity unalloyed plutonium. Significant differences are found in hydrogen solubility for unalloyed Pu versus gallium alloyed Pu. Differences in hydrogen solubility due to an apparent phase change are observable in the alloyed and unalloyed solubilities. The effect of iron impurities on Pu-Ga alloyed Pu is shown via hydrogen solubility data as preventing complete homogenization.

  6. Uranium Conversion & Enrichment

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-06

    The isotopes of uranium that are found in nature, and hence in ‘fresh’ Yellowcake’, are not in relative proportions that are suitable for power or weapons applications. The goal of conversion then is to transform the U3O8 yellowcake into UF6. Conversion and enrichment of uranium is usually required to obtain material with enough 235U to be usable as fuel in a reactor or weapon. The cost, size, and complexity of practical conversion and enrichment facilities aid in nonproliferation by design.

  7. A Model for Conversation

    Ayres, Phil

    2012-01-01

    This essay discusses models. It examines what models are, the roles models perform and suggests various intentions that underlie their construction and use. It discusses how models act as a conversational partner, and how they support various forms of conversation within the conversational activity...... of design. Three distinctions are drawn through which to develop this discussion of models in an architectural context. An examination of these distinctions serves to nuance particular characteristics and roles of models, the modelling activity itself and those engaged in it....

  8. Solar energy conversion systems

    Brownson, Jeffrey R S

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy conversion requires a different mind-set from traditional energy engineering in order to assess distribution, scales of use, systems design, predictive economic models for fluctuating solar resources, and planning to address transient cycles and social adoption. Solar Energy Conversion Systems examines solar energy conversion as an integrative design process, applying systems thinking methods to a solid knowledge base for creators of solar energy systems. This approach permits different levels of access for the emerging broad audience of scientists, engineers, architects, planners

  9. Energy conversion statics

    Messerle, H K; Declaris, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Energy Conversion Statics deals with equilibrium situations and processes linking equilibrium states. A development of the basic theory of energy conversion statics and its applications is presented. In the applications the emphasis is on processes involving electrical energy. The text commences by introducing the general concept of energy with a survey of primary and secondary energy forms, their availability, and use. The second chapter presents the basic laws of energy conversion. Four postulates defining the overall range of applicability of the general theory are set out, demonstrating th

  10. Oxidation-state distribution of plutonium in surface and subsurface waters at Thule, northwest Greenland

    McMahon, C.A.; Vintró, L.L.; Mitchell, P.I.

    2000-01-01

    The speciation of plutonium in Arctic waters sampled on the northwest Greenland shelf in August 1997 is discussed in this paper. Specifically, we report the results of analyses carried out on seawater sampled (a) close to the Thule air base where, in 1968, a US military aircraft carrying four...... (approximate to 0.04). Thus, there is little evidence of weapons-grade plutonium in the water column at Thule at the present time. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  11. Plutonium Immobilization Project Binder Burnout and Sintering Studies (Milestone 6.6a)

    Chandler, G.

    1999-10-28

    The Plutonium Immobilization Team has developed an integrated test program to understand and optimize the controlling variables for the sintering step of the plutonium immobilization process. Sintering is the key process step that controls the product minerology. It is expected that the sintering will be the limiting process step that controls the throughput of the production line. The goal of the current sintering test program is to better understand factors that affect the sintering process.

  12. Critical experiments on single-unit spherical plutonium geometries reflected and moderated by oil

    Rothe, R.E.

    1997-05-01

    Experimental critical configurations are reported for several dozen spherical and hemispherical single-unit assemblies of plutonium metal. Most were solid but many were hollow-centered, thick, shell-like geometries. All were constructed of nested plutonium (mostly {sup 2139}Pu) metal hemispherical shells. Three kinds of critical configurations are reported. Two required interpolation and/or extrapolation of data to obtain the critical mass because reflector conditions were essentially infinite. The first finds the plutonium essentially fully reflected by a hydrogen-rich oil; the second is essentially unreflected. The third kind reports the critical oil reflector height above a large plutonium metal assembly of accurately known mass (no interpolation required) when that mass was too great to permit full oil reflection. Some configurations had thicknesses of mild steel just outside the plutonium metal, separating it from the oil. These experiments were performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory in the late 1960s. They have not been published in a form suitable for benchmark-quality comparisons against state-of-the-art computational techniques until this paper. The age of the data and other factors lead to some difficulty in reconstructing aspects of the program and may, in turn, decrease confidence in certain details. Whenever this is true, the point is acknowledged. The plutonium metal was alpha-phase {sup 239}Pu containing 5.9 wt-% {sup 240}Pu. All assemblies were formed by nesting 1.667-mm-thick (nominal) bare plutonium metal hemispherical shells, also called hemishells, until the desired configuration was achieved. Very small tolerance gaps machined into radial dimensions reduced the effective density a small amount in all cases. Steel components were also nested hemispherical shells; but these were nominally 3.333-mm thick. Oil was used as the reflector because of its chemical compatibility with plutonium metal.

  13. Assessment of plutonium in the Savannah River Site environment. Revision 1

    Carlton, W.H.; Evans, A.G.; Geary, L.A.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Pinder, J.E.; Strom, R.N.

    1992-12-31

    Plutonium in the Savannah River Site Environment is published as a part of the Radiological Assessment Program (RAP). It is the fifth in a series of eight documents on individual radioisotopes released to the environment as a result of Savannah River Site (SRS) operations. These are living documents, each to be revised and updated on a two-year schedule. This document describes the sources of plutonium in the environment, its release from SRS, environmental transport and ecological concentration of plutonium, and the radiological impact of SRS releases to the environment. Plutonium exists in the environment as a result of above-ground nuclear weapons tests, the Chernobyl accident, the destruction of satellite SNAP 9-A, plane crashes involving nuclear weapons, and small releases from reactors and reprocessing plants. Plutonium has been produced at SRS during the operation of five production reactors and released in small quantities during the processing of fuel and targets in chemical separations facilities. Approximately 0.6 Ci of plutonium was released into streams and about 12 Ci was released to seepage basins, where it was tightly bound by clay in the soil. A smaller quantity, about 3.8 Ci, was released to the atmosphere. Virtually all releases have occurred in F- and H-Area separation facilities. Plutonium concentration and transport mechanisms for the atmosphere, surface water, and ground water releases have been extensively studied by Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and ecological mechanisms have been studied by Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL). The overall radiological impact of SRS releases to the offsite maximum individual can be characterized by a total dose of 15 mrem (atmospheric) and 0.18 mrem (liquid), compared with the dose of 12,960 mrem from non-SRS sources during the same period of time (1954--1989). Plutonium releases from SRS facilities have resulted in a negligible impact to the environment and the population it supports.

  14. Preconceptual design for separation of plutonium and gallium by ion exchange

    DeMuth, S.F.

    1997-09-30

    The disposition of plutonium from decommissioned nuclear weapons, by incorporation into commercial UO{sub 2}-based nuclear reactor fuel, is a viable means to reduce the potential for theft of excess plutonium. This fuel, which would be a combination of plutonium oxide and uranium oxide, is referred to as a mixed oxide (MOX). Following power generation in commercial reactors with this fuel, the remaining plutonium would become mixed with highly radioactive fission products in a spent fuel assembly. The radioactivity, complex chemical composition, and large size of this spent fuel assembly, would make theft difficult with elaborate chemical processing required for plutonium recovery. In fabricating the MOX fuel, it is important to maintain current commercial fuel purity specifications. While impurities from the weapons plutonium may or may not have a detrimental affect on the fuel fabrication or fuel/cladding performance, certifying the effect as insignificant could be more costly than purification. Two primary concerns have been raised with regard to the gallium impurity: (1) gallium vaporization during fuel sintering may adversely affect the MOX fuel fabrication process, and (2) gallium vaporization during reactor operation may adversely affect the fuel cladding performance. Consequently, processes for the separation of plutonium from gallium are currently being developed and/or designed. In particular, two separation processes are being considered: (1) a developmental, potentially lower cost and lower waste, thermal vaporization process following PuO{sub 2} powder preparation, and (2) an off-the-shelf, potentially higher cost and higher waste, aqueous-based ion exchange (IX) process. While it is planned to use the thermal vaporization process should its development prove successful, IX has been recommended as a backup process. This report presents a preconceptual design with material balances for separation of plutonium from gallium by IX.

  15. Conversion electron spectrometry of Pu isotopes with a silicon drift detector.

    Pommé, S; Paepen, J; Peräjärvi, K; Turunen, J; Pöllänen, R

    2016-03-01

    An electron spectrometry set-up was built at IRMM consisting of a vacuum chamber with a moveable source holder and windowless Peltier-cooled silicon drift detector (SDD). The SDD is well suited for measuring low-energy x rays and electrons emitted from thin radioactive sources with low self-absorption. The attainable energy resolution is better than 0.5keV for electrons of 30keV. It has been used to measure the conversion electron spectra of three plutonium isotopes, i.e. (238)Pu, (239)Pu, (240)Pu, as well as (241)Am (being a decay product of (241)Pu). The obtained mixed x-ray and electron spectra are compared with spectra obtained with a close-geometry set-up using another SDD in STUK and spectra measured with a Si(Li) detector at IRMM. The potential of conversion electron spectrometry for isotopic analysis of mixed plutonium samples is investigated. With respect to the (240)Pu/(239)Pu isotopic ratio, the conversion electron peaks of both isotopes are more clearly separated than their largely overlapping peaks in alpha spectra.

  16. Rapid and automated determination of plutonium and neptunium in environmental samples

    Qiao, J.

    2011-03-15

    This thesis presents improved analytical methods for rapid and automated determination of plutonium and neptunium in environmental samples using sequential injection (SI) based chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The progress of methodology development in this work consists of 5 subjects stated as follows: 1) Development and optimization of an SI-anion exchange chromatographic method for rapid determination of plutonium in environmental samples in combination of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection (Paper II); (2) Methodology development and optimization for rapid determination of plutonium in environmental samples using SI-extraction chromatography prior to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Paper III); (3) Development of an SI-chromatographic method for simultaneous determination of plutonium and neptunium in environmental samples (Paper IV); (4) Investigation of the suitability and applicability of 242Pu as a tracer for rapid neptunium determination using anion exchange chromatography in an SI-network coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Paper V); (5) Exploration of macro-porous anion exchange chromatography for rapid and simultaneous determination of plutonium and neptunium within an SI system (Paper VI). The results demonstrate that the developed methods in this study are reliable and efficient for accurate assays of trace levels of plutonium and neptunium as demanded in different situations including environmental risk monitoring and assessment, emergency preparedness and surveillance of contaminated areas. (Author)

  17. Options for converting excess plutonium to feed for the MOX fuel fabrication facility

    Watts, Joe A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Paul H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Psaras, John D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jarvinen, Gordon D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Costa, David A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Joyce, Jr., Edward L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The storage and safekeeping of excess plutonium in the United States represents a multibillion-dollar lifecycle cost to the taxpayers and poses challenges to National Security and Nuclear Non-Proliferation. Los Alamos National Laboratory is considering options for converting some portion of the 13 metric tons of excess plutonium that was previously destined for long-term waste disposition into feed for the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). This approach could reduce storage costs and security ri sks, and produce fuel for nuclear energy at the same time. Over the course of 30 years of weapons related plutonium production, Los Alamos has developed a number of flow sheets aimed at separation and purification of plutonium. Flow sheets for converting metal to oxide and for removing chloride and fluoride from plutonium residues have been developed and withstood the test oftime. This presentation will address some potential options for utilizing processes and infrastructure developed by Defense Programs to transform a large variety of highly impure plutonium into feedstock for the MFFF.

  18. SUPPORTING SAFE STORAGE OF PLUTONIUM-BEARING MATERIALS THROUGH SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND SURVEILLANCE

    Dunn, K.; Chandler, G.; Gardner, C.; Louthan, M.; Mcclard, J.

    2009-11-10

    Reductions in the size of the U. S. nuclear weapons arsenal resulted in the need to store large quantities of plutonium-bearing metals and oxides for prolonged periods of time. To assure that the excess plutonium from the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites was stored in a safe and environmentally friendly manner the plutonium-bearing materials are stabilized and packaged according to well developed criteria published as a DOE Standard. The packaged materials are stored in secure facilities and regular surveillance activities are conducted to assure continuing package integrity. The stabilization, packaging, storage and surveillance requirements were developed through extensive science and engineering activities including those related to: plutonium-environment interactions and container pressurization, corrosion and stress corrosion cracking, plutonium-container material interactions, loss of sealing capability and changes in heat transfer characteristics. This paper summarizes some of those activities and outlines ongoing science and engineering programs that assure continued safe and secure storage of the plutonium-bearing metals and oxides.

  19. Determination of plutonium resent in highly radioactive irradiated fuel solution by spectrophotometric method

    Dhamodharam, Krishnan [Reprocessing Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Pius, Anitha [The Gandhigram Rural Institute - Deemed University, Gandhigram (India)

    2016-06-15

    A simple and rapid spectrophotometric method has been developed to enable the determination of plutonium concentration in an irradiated fuel solution in the presence of all fission products. An excess of ceric ammonium nitrate solution was employed to oxidize all the valence states of plutonium to +6 oxidation state. Interference due to the presence of fission products such as ruthenium and zirconium, and corrosion products such as iron in the envisaged concentration range, as in the irradiated fuel solution, was studied in the determination of plutonium concentration by the direct spectrophotometric method. The stability of plutonium in +6 oxidation state was monitored under experimental conditions as a function of time. Results obtained are reproducible, and this method is applicable to radioactive samples resulting before the solvent extraction process during the reprocessing of fast reactor spent fuel. An analysis of the concentration of plutonium shows a relative standard deviation of <1.2% in standard as well as in simulated conditions. This reflects the fast reactor fuel composition with respect to uranium, plutonium, fission products such as ruthenium and zirconium, and corrosion products such as iron.

  20. Particulate distribution of plutonium and americium in surface waters from the Spanish Mediterranean coast

    Molero, J.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A.; Merino, J.; Vidal-Quadras, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Vives Batlle, J.; Mitchell, P.I. [University Coll., Dublin (Ireland)

    1995-12-31

    Measurements of the particulate distribution of plutonium and americium in Spanish Mediterranean coastal waters have been carried out. Plutonium-239,340 and {sup 241}Am concentrations have been measured in suspended particulate matter by filtering (< 0.22 {mu}m) large volume (200-300 litres) sea water samples. Results indicate that particulate plutonium constitutes on average 11 {+-} 4% of the total concentration in sea water. In the case of americium this percentage rises to 45 {+-} 14%. From the {sup 241}Am/{sup 239,240}Pu activity ratios it is clear that suspended particulate matter is enriched in {sup 241}Am relative to {sup 239,240}Pu by a factor 8 {+-} 4. Plutonium and americium in surface Mediterranean coastal waters appear to be fractionated as they present a different transfer rate to the particles. Our measurements allowed us to estimate sediment-water distribution coefficients (K{sub d}), which are a key parameter to interpret differences between the behaviour of plutonium and americium in sea water. Distribution coefficients K{sub d} have been estimated to be (1.4 {+-} 0.5) x 10{sup 5} litres kg{sup -1} for plutonium and (0.9 {+-} 0.5) x 10{sup 6} litres kg{sup -1} for americium in surface Mediterranean coastal waters. (author).

  1. A proteomic approach to identification of plutonium-binding proteins in mammalian cells.

    Aryal, Baikuntha P; Paunesku, Tatjana; Woloschak, Gayle E; He, Chuan; Jensen, Mark P

    2012-02-16

    Plutonium can enter the body through different routes and remains there for decades; however its specific biochemical interactions are poorly defined. We, for the first time, have studied plutonium-binding proteins using a metalloproteomic approach with rat PC12 cells. A combination of immobilized metal ion chromatography, 2D gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry was employed to analyze potential plutonium-binding proteins. Our results show that several proteins from PC12 cells show affinity towards Pu(4+)-NTA (plutonium bound to nitrilotriacetic acid). Proteins from seven different spots in the 2D gel were identified. In contrast to the previously known plutonium-binding proteins transferrin and ferritin, which bind ferric ions, most identified proteins in our experiment are known to bind calcium, magnesium, or divalent transition metal ions. The identified plutonium interacting proteins also have functional roles in downregulation of apoptosis and other pro-proliferative processes. MetaCore™ analysis based on this group of proteins produced a pathway with a statistically significant association with development of neoplastic diseases.

  2. Managing social media conversations

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to explore how companies can manage (monitor and control) social media conversations. Regardless of the companies’ presence in social media networks, they or their industry are constantly being discussed in social media. Therefore organisations should be present in social media, monitor and participate in conversations, in order to turn them into their benefit. There are software and services available to help in monitoring. Variety of tools and statistic de...

  3. Plutonium metal vs. oxide determination with the pulse-shape-discrimination-capable plastic scintillator EJ-299-33

    Pozzi, S.A., E-mail: pozzisa@umich.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bourne, M.M.; Dolan, J.L.; Polack, K.; Lawrence, C.; Flaska, M.; Clarke, S.D. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Tomanin, A.; Peerani, P. [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen Via Enrico Fermi, 2749 21027 Ispra VA (Italy)

    2014-12-11

    Neutron measurements can be used to distinguish plutonium in metal or oxide form, a capability that is of great interest in nuclear nonproliferation, treaty verification, and other applications. This paper describes measurements performed on well-characterized samples of plutonium oxide and plutonium metal using the pulse-shape-discrimination-capable plastic scintillator EJ-299-33. Results are compared to those obtained with a same-sized detector cell using the liquid scintillator EJ-309. The same optimized, digital pulse shape discrimination technique is applied to both detectors and the neutron pulse height distributions are compared. Results show that the EJ-299-33 plastics can be successfully used for plutonium measurements, where the gamma ray to neutron detection ratio is much higher than for typical radioactive sources. Results also show that EJ-299-33 detectors can be used to characterize plutonium samples, specifically to discriminate between plutonium metal and oxide.

  4. Conversational flow promotes solidarity.

    Namkje Koudenburg

    Full Text Available Social interaction is fundamental to the development of various aspects of "we-ness". Previous research has focused on the role the content of interaction plays in establishing feelings of unity, belongingness and shared reality (a cluster of variables referred to as solidarity here. The present paper is less concerned with content, but focuses on the form of social interaction. We propose that the degree to which conversations flow smoothly or not is, of itself, a cue to solidarity. We test this hypothesis in samples of unacquainted and acquainted dyads who communicate via headsets. Conversational flow is disrupted by introducing a delay in the auditory feedback (vs. no delay. Results of three studies show that smoothly coordinated conversations (compared with disrupted conversations and a control condition increase feelings of belonging and perceptions of group entitativity, independently of conversation content. These effects are driven by the subjective experience of conversational flow. Our data suggest that this process occurs largely beyond individuals' control. We conclude that the form of social interaction is a powerful cue for inferring group solidarity. Implications for the impact of modern communication technology on developing a shared social identity are discussed.

  5. Conversational flow promotes solidarity.

    Koudenburg, Namkje; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H

    2013-01-01

    Social interaction is fundamental to the development of various aspects of "we-ness". Previous research has focused on the role the content of interaction plays in establishing feelings of unity, belongingness and shared reality (a cluster of variables referred to as solidarity here). The present paper is less concerned with content, but focuses on the form of social interaction. We propose that the degree to which conversations flow smoothly or not is, of itself, a cue to solidarity. We test this hypothesis in samples of unacquainted and acquainted dyads who communicate via headsets. Conversational flow is disrupted by introducing a delay in the auditory feedback (vs. no delay). Results of three studies show that smoothly coordinated conversations (compared with disrupted conversations and a control condition) increase feelings of belonging and perceptions of group entitativity, independently of conversation content. These effects are driven by the subjective experience of conversational flow. Our data suggest that this process occurs largely beyond individuals' control. We conclude that the form of social interaction is a powerful cue for inferring group solidarity. Implications for the impact of modern communication technology on developing a shared social identity are discussed.

  6. FORM AND AGING OF PLUTONIUM IN SAVANNAH RIVER SITE WASTE TANK 18

    Hobbs, D.

    2012-02-24

    This report provides a summary of the effects of aging on and the expected forms of plutonium in Tank 18 waste residues. The findings are based on available information on the operational history of Tank 18, reported analytical results for samples taken from Tank 18, and the available scientific literature for plutonium under alkaline conditions. These findings should apply in general to residues in other waste tanks. However, the operational history of other waste tanks should be evaluated for specific conditions and unique operations (e.g., acid cleaning with oxalic acid) that could alter the form of plutonium in heel residues. Based on the operational history of other tanks, characterization of samples from the heel residues in those tanks would be appropriate to confirm the form of plutonium. During the operational period and continuing with the residual heel removal periods, Pu(IV) is the dominant oxidation state of the plutonium. Small fractions of Pu(V) and Pu(VI) could be present as the result of the presence of water and the result of reactions with oxygen in air and products from the radiolysis of water. However, the presence of Pu(V) would be transitory as it is not stable at the dilute alkaline conditions that currently exists in Tank 18. Most of the plutonium that enters Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste (HLW) tanks is freshly precipitated as amorphous plutonium hydroxide, Pu(OH){sub 4(am)} or hydrous plutonium oxide, PuO{sub 2(am,hyd)} and coprecipitated within a mixture of hydrous metal oxide phases containing metals such as iron, aluminum, manganese and uranium. The coprecipitated plutonium would include Pu{sup 4+} that has been substituted for other metal ions in crystal lattice sites, Pu{sup 4+} occluded within hydrous metal oxide particles and Pu{sup 4+} adsorbed onto the surface of hydrous metal oxide particles. The adsorbed plutonium could include both inner sphere coordination and outer sphere coordination of the plutonium. PuO{sub 2

  7. Fate of the chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX) on soil following accelerant-based fire and liquid decontamination.

    Gravett, M R; Hopkins, F B; Self, A J; Webb, A J; Timperley, C M; Riches, J R

    2014-08-01

    In the event of alleged use of organophosphorus nerve agents, all kinds of environmental samples can be received for analysis. These might include decontaminated and charred matter collected from the site of a suspected chemical attack. In other scenarios, such matter might be sampled to confirm the site of a chemical weapon test or clandestine laboratory decontaminated and burned to prevent discovery. To provide an analytical capability for these contingencies, we present a preliminary investigation of the effect of accelerant-based fire and liquid decontamination on soil contaminated with the nerve agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX). The objectives were (a) to determine if VX or its degradation products were detectable in soil after an accelerant-based fire promoted by aviation fuel, including following decontamination with Decontamination Solution 2 (DS2) or aqueous sodium hypochlorite, (b) to develop analytical methods to support forensic analysis of accelerant-soaked, decontaminated and charred soil and (c) to inform the design of future experiments of this type to improve analytical fidelity. Our results show for the first time that modern analytical techniques can be used to identify residual VX and its degradation products in contaminated soil after an accelerant-based fire and after chemical decontamination and then fire. Comparison of the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) profiles of VX and its impurities/degradation products from contaminated burnt soil, and burnt soil spiked with VX, indicated that the fire resulted in the production of diethyl methylphosphonate and O,S-diethyl methylphosphonothiolate (by an unknown mechanism). Other products identified were indicative of chemical decontamination, and some of these provided evidence of the decontaminant used, for example, ethyl 2-methoxyethyl methylphosphonate and bis(2-methoxyethyl) methylphosphonate following decontamination with DS2. Sample preparation

  8. FORM AND AGING OF PLUTONIUM IN SAVANNAH RIVER SITE WASTE TANK 18

    Hobbs, D.

    2012-02-24

    This report provides a summary of the effects of aging on and the expected forms of plutonium in Tank 18 waste residues. The findings are based on available information on the operational history of Tank 18, reported analytical results for samples taken from Tank 18, and the available scientific literature for plutonium under alkaline conditions. These findings should apply in general to residues in other waste tanks. However, the operational history of other waste tanks should be evaluated for specific conditions and unique operations (e.g., acid cleaning with oxalic acid) that could alter the form of plutonium in heel residues. Based on the operational history of other tanks, characterization of samples from the heel residues in those tanks would be appropriate to confirm the form of plutonium. During the operational period and continuing with the residual heel removal periods, Pu(IV) is the dominant oxidation state of the plutonium. Small fractions of Pu(V) and Pu(VI) could be present as the result of the presence of water and the result of reactions with oxygen in air and products from the radiolysis of water. However, the presence of Pu(V) would be transitory as it is not stable at the dilute alkaline conditions that currently exists in Tank 18. Most of the plutonium that enters Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste (HLW) tanks is freshly precipitated as amorphous plutonium hydroxide, Pu(OH){sub 4(am)} or hydrous plutonium oxide, PuO{sub 2(am,hyd)} and coprecipitated within a mixture of hydrous metal oxide phases containing metals such as iron, aluminum, manganese and uranium. The coprecipitated plutonium would include Pu{sup 4+} that has been substituted for other metal ions in crystal lattice sites, Pu{sup 4+} occluded within hydrous metal oxide particles and Pu{sup 4+} adsorbed onto the surface of hydrous metal oxide particles. The adsorbed plutonium could include both inner sphere coordination and outer sphere coordination of the plutonium. PuO{sub 2

  9. Boiler conversions for biomass

    Kinni, J. [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Boiler conversions from grate- and oil-fired boilers to bubbling fluidized bed combustion have been most common in pulp and paper industry. Water treatment sludge combustion, need for additional capacity and tightened emission limits have been the driving forces for the conversion. To accomplish a boiler conversion for biofuel, the lower part of the boiler is replaced with a fluidized bed bottom and new fuel, ash and air systems are added. The Imatran Voima Rauhalahti pulverized-peat-fired boiler was converted to bubbling fluidized bed firing in 1993. In the conversion the boiler capacity was increased by 10 % to 295 MWth and NO{sub x} emissions dropped. In the Kymmene Kuusankoski boiler, the reason for conversion was the combustion of high chlorine content biosludge. The emissions have been under general European limits. During the next years, the emission limits will tighten and the boilers will be designed for most complete combustion and compounds, which can be removed from flue gases, will be taken care of after the boiler. (orig.) 3 refs.

  10. Reduction of Tetravalent Plutonium in the Presence of Acetohydroxamic Acid

    Tkac, Peter [Radiation Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Precek, Martin [Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Paulenova, Alena [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Health Physics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) has been proposed as a salt-free stripping reagent in the modified PUREX process for the spent nuclear fuel re-processing. AHA is a capable reductant of Np(VI) and Pu(VI) and a strong complexant for tetravalent neptunium and plutonium; hence, its behavior must be studied in detail. For better characterization of the all relevant chemical processes and successful design of the future separation flowsheets it is important to predict the speciation and partitioning of Pu between the organic and aqueous phases in the proposed extraction systems containing acetohydroxamic acid. The hydrolytic instability of hydroxamic group under acidic conditions causes a slow degradation of AHA followed by formation of acetic acid and hydroxylamine which also acts as a reductant of Pu(IV). The complexes of Pu(IV) with AHA are very strong; however, under acidic conditions, the chelate ring prevents the acidic hydrolysis only temporarily. The decomposition of Pu-aceto-hydroxamate complex and reduction of Pu(IV) to Pu(III) observed for these systems was investigated in the present paper. Reduction of Pu(IV) in the presence of AHA was monitored by Vis-NIR spectroscopy in the range of 400-700 nm. All complexes between Pu(IV) and AHA have a very intense absorption in this region; therefore, for a better resolution of spectra, all experiments were performed under low AHA:Pu ratios, where only two species, non-complexed Pu(IV) and Pu(IV)-mono-aceto-hydroxamate complex, are initially present in relevant concentrations. To characterize the rate and the reaction mechanism, spectra were collected as a function of time for different initial concentrations of reactants and analyzed at several wavelengths using the data on extinction coefficients for all absorbing species. The extinction coefficient for Pu(IV)-AHA complex was resolved by fitting the absorption spectra with the chemical equilibrium modeling software FITEQL 4.0. The analysis of the experimental data obtained

  11. Uranium in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Creation of Plutonium (Invited)

    Ewing, R. C.

    2009-12-01

    One of the important properties of uranium is that it can be used to “breed” higher actinides, particularly plutonium. During the past sixty years, more than 1,800 metric tonnes of Pu, and substantial quantities of the “minor” actinides, such as Np, Am and Cm, have been generated in nuclear reactors - a permanent record of nuclear power. Some of these transuranium elements can be a source of energy in fission reactions (e.g., 239Pu), a source of fissile material for nuclear weapons (e.g., 239Pu and 237Np), and of environmental concern because of their long-half lives and radiotoxicity (e.g., 239Pu and 237Np). In fact, the new strategies of the Advance Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) are, in part, motivated by an effort to mitigate some of the challenges of the disposal of these long-lived actinides. There are two basic strategies for the disposition of these heavy elements: 1.) to “burn” or transmute the actinides using nuclear reactors or accelerators; 2.) to “sequester” the actinides in chemically durable, radiation-resistant materials that are suitable for geologic disposal. There has been substantial interest in the use of actinide-bearing minerals, such as zircon or isometric pyrochlore, A2B2O7 (A= rare earths; B = Ti, Zr, Sn, Hf), for the immobilization of actinides, particularly plutonium, both as inert matrix fuels and nuclear waste forms. Systematic studies of rare-earth pyrochlores have led to the discovery that certain compositions (B = Zr, Hf) are stable to very high doses of alpha-decay event damage1. The radiation stability of these compositions is closely related to the structural distortions that can be accommodated for specific pyrochlore compositions and the electronic structure of the B-site cation. Recent developments in the understanding of the properties of heavy element solids have opened up new possibilities for the design of advanced nuclear fuels and waste forms.

  12. Nature of Nano-Sized Plutonium Particles in Soils at the Hanford Site

    Buck, Edgar C.; Moore, Dean A.; Czerwinski, Kenneth R.; Conradson, Steven D.; Batuk, Olga; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2014-08-06

    The occurrence of plutonium dioxide (PuO2) either from direct deposition or from the precipitation of plutonium-bearing solutions in contaminated soils and sediments has been well described, particularly for the Hanford site in Washington State. However, past research has suggested that plutonium may exist in environmental samples at the Hanford site in chemical forms in addition to large size PuO2 particles and that these previously unidentified nano-sized particles maybe more reactive and thus more likely to influence the environmental mobility of Pu. Here we present evidence for the formation of nano-sized plutonium iron phosphate hydroxide structurally related to the rhabdophane group nanoparticles in 216-Z9 crib sediments from Hanford using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The distribution and nature of these nanoparticles varied depending on the adjacent phases present. Fine electron probes were used to obtain electron diffraction and electron energy-loss spectra from specific phase regions of the 216-Z9 cribs specimens from fine-grained plutonium oxide and phosphate phases. Energy-loss spectra were used to evaluate the plutonium N4,5 (4d → 5f ) and iron L2,3 absorption edges. The iron plutonium phosphate formation may depend on the local micro-environment in the sediments, availability of phosphate, and hence the distribution of these minerals may control long-term migration of Pu in the soil. This study also points to the utility of using electron beam methods for determining the identity of actinide phases and their association with other sediment phases.

  13. Transfer of plutonium to rat embryos in vivo and in vitro

    Takahashi, Sentaro; Sato, Hiroshi; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Inaba, Jiro (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1992-12-01

    The [sup 239]Pu distribution in the 12.5-day-old rat conceptus was compared between in vivo and in vitro experimental systems to establish a possible mechanism of cross-palcental transfer of this radionuclide. In the in vivo study, plutonium citrate solution was injected intravenously to pregnant Wistar rats. In the in vitro study, either plutonium citrate or plutonium hydroxide colloid was administered, as a solution of Eagle MEM and FCS containing [sup 239]Pu at the concentration used in the maternal serum in the in vivo experiments, to rat conceptuses maintained by the whole-embryo culture method. The concentration of [sup 239]Pu in the yolk sac ([sup 239]Pu activity per gram wet weight) were much higher than in the embryo in both the in vivo and in vitro experiments, suggesting that the yolk sac may be an effective barrier against the transfer of plutonium to the embryos. The ratios of the [sup 239]Pu concentration in the yolk sac to that in the embryo were relatively constant with time after administration in the in vitro system; 18-27 for plutonium citrate and 67-84 for plutonium hydroxide. In the in vivo experiment, these ratios changed with time after injection; 15 at 5 min and 62 and 60 min after injection. This suggests that in the in vivo system, the chemical form of [sup 239]Pu changed with time after injection, probably to a macromolecular form such as the hydroxide colloid or plutonium-protein complex although [sup 239]Pu was injected to the maternal blood as citrate. (author).

  14. Photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    Bauer, Gottfried H

    2015-01-01

    This concise primer on photovoltaic solar energy conversion invites readers to reflect on the conversion of solar light into energy at the most fundamental level and encourages newcomers to the field to help find meaningful answers on how photovoltaic solar energy conversion can work (better), eventually contributing to its ongoing advancement. The book is based on lectures given to graduate students in the Physics Department at the University of Oldenburg over the last two decades, yet also provides an easy-to-follow introduction for doctoral and postdoctoral students from related disciplines such as the materials sciences and electrical engineering. Inspired by classic textbooks in the field, it reflects the author’s own ideas on how to understand, visualize and eventually teach the microscopic physical mechanisms and effects, while keeping the text as concise as possible so as to introduce interested readers to the field and balancing essential knowledge with open questions.

  15. Direct conversion technology

    Massier, P.F.; Back, L.H.; Ryan, M.A.; Fabris, G.

    1992-01-07

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal MHD Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991. Research on AMTEC and on LMMHD was initiated during October 1987. Reports prepared on previous occasions (Refs. 1--5) contain descriptive and performance discussions of the following direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic, thermophotovoltaic, thermoacoustic, thermomagnetic, thermoelastic (Nitionol heat engine); and also, more complete descriptive discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems.

  16. Freely flowing conversations

    Aakjær, Marie Kirstejn; Andrade, David; Dexters, Peter

    2012-01-01

    on - and support “positive deviants” (Pascal, Sternin and Sternin) – courageous individuals and groups (inmates as well as staff) who transform conversations into new actions and behavioral traits that become beckons of an improved future. In the following we explore concrete examples of efforts at improving......Some would say this article is an impossibility - the authors being a project manager from the Department of Prisons an (ex) inmate and a Designer doing an industrial PhD in the prisons. We hope that others may see this article as an embodiment of how taking part in new conversations...... and in regards to rehabilitation efforts. In the context of prisons UDI is inspired by the complexity approach (Stacey 2005). We seek to facilitate freely flowing conversations between inmates, staff and managers – pushing the boundaries of existing norms, roles and beliefs. In the end however we rely...

  17. Spent fuel, plutonium and nuclear waste: long-term management; Le combustible use et le plutonium en tant que dechets nucleaires: gestion a long terme

    Collard, G

    1998-11-01

    Different options for the management of nuclear waste arising from the nuclear fuel cycle are discussed. Special emphasis is on reprocessing followed by geological disposal, geological disposal of reprocessing waste, direct geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel, long term storage. Particular emphasis is on the management of plutonium including recycling, immobilisation and disposal, partitioning and transmutation.

  18. Plutonium: resuspension of aerosols in nuclear installations: bibliographic survey; Le plutonium: mise en suspension d'aerosols dans les installations nucleaires: synthese bibliographique

    Guetat, Ph.; Monfort, M.; Armand, P. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Dept. Analyse Surveillance Environnement, Service Radioanalyse Chimie Environnement, 91 (France); Alloul-Marmor, L. [Societe APTUS, 78 - Versailles (France)

    2006-07-01

    This document presents an analysis and a bibliographical synthesis of the studies on resuspension factors for plutonium. It aims at helping the engineers of safety to specify the scenarios of accidents which relate to their activities and to bring elements justified for the definition of their term-source 'installation' in the safety reports of the installations. (authors)

  19. Predictability of Conversation Partners

    Takaguchi, Taro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Nobuo; Yano, Kazuo; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-08-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song , ScienceSCIEAS0036-8075 327, 1018 (2010)] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

  20. DISSOLUTION OF PLUTONIUM METAL IN 8-10 M NITRIC ACID

    Rudisill, T.; Pierce, R.

    2012-02-21

    The H-Canyon facility will be used to dissolve Pu metal for subsequent purification and conversion to plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) using Phase II of HB-Line. To support the new mission, the development of a Pu metal dissolution flowsheet which utilizes concentrated (8-10 M) nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) solutions containing potassium fluoride (KF) is required. Dissolution of Pu metal in concentrated HNO{sub 3} is desired to eliminate the need to adjust the solution acidity prior to purification by anion exchange. The preferred flowsheet would use 8-10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.015-0.07 M KF, and 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd to dissolve the Pu up to 6.75 g/L. An alternate flowsheet would use 8-10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.1-0.2 M KF, and 1-2 g/L B to dissolve the Pu. The targeted average Pu metal dissolution rate is 20 mg/min-cm{sup 2}, which is sufficient to dissolve a 'standard' 2250-g Pu metal button in 24 h. Plutonium metal dissolution rate measurements showed that if Gd is used as the nuclear poison, the optimum dissolution conditions occur in 10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.04-0.05 M KF, and 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd at 112 to 116 C (boiling). These conditions will result in an estimated Pu metal dissolution rate of {approx}11-15 mg/min-cm{sup 2} and will result in dissolution times of 36-48 h for standard buttons. The recommended minimum and maximum KF concentrations are 0.03 M and 0.07 M, respectively. The maximum KF concentration is dictated by a potential room-temperature Pu-Gd-F precipitation issue at low Pu concentrations. The purpose of the experimental work described in this report was two-fold. Initially a series of screening experiments was performed to measure the dissolution rate of Pu metal as functions of the HNO{sub 3}, KF, and Gd or B concentrations. The objective of the screening tests was to propose optimized conditions for subsequent flowsheet demonstration tests. Based on the rate measurements, this study found that optimal dissolution conditions in solutions containing 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd

  1. Ocean wave energy conversion

    McCormick, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    This volume will prove of vital interest to those studying the use of renewable resources. Scientists, engineers, and inventors will find it a valuable review of ocean wave mechanics as well as an introduction to wave energy conversion. It presents physical and mathematical descriptions of the nine generic wave energy conversion techniques, along with their uses and performance characteristics.Author Michael E. McCormick is the Corbin A. McNeill Professor of Naval Engineering at the U.S. Naval Academy. In addition to his timely and significant coverage of possible environmental effects associa

  2. Ternary Phase Diagrams that Relate to the Plutonium Immobilization Ceramic

    Ebbinghaus, B b; Krikorian, O H; Vance, E R; Stewart, M W

    2001-01-01

    The plutonium immobilization ceramic consists primarily of a pyrochlore titanate phase of the approximate composition Ca{sub 0.97}Hf{sub 0.17}Pu{sub 0.22}U{sub 0.39}Gd{sub 0.24} Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}. In this study, a series of ternary phase diagrams was constructed to evaluate the relationship of various titanate phases (e.g., brannerite, zirconolite-2M, zirconolite-4M, and perovskite) to pyrochlore titanates, usually in the presence of excess TiO{sub 2} (rutile), and at temperatures in the vicinity of 1350 C. To facilitate the studies, U, Th, and Ce were used as surrogates for Pu in a number of the phase diagrams in addition to the use of Pu itself. The effects of impurity oxides, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MgO, were also studied on pyrochlore (Gd{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}) and zirconolite (CaHfTi{sub 2}O{sub 7}) mixtures. Either electron microprobe (at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) or quantitative SEM-EDS (at Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization) were used to evaluate the compositions of the phases.

  3. Standard guide for design criteria for plutonium gloveboxes

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This guide defines criteria for the design of glovebox systems to be used for the handling of plutonium in any chemical or physical form or isotopic composition or when mixed with other elements or compounds. Not included in the criteria are systems auxiliary to the glovebox systems such as utilities, ventilation, alarm, and waste disposal. Also not addressed are hot cells or open-face hoods. The scope of this guide excludes specific license requirements relating to provisions for criticality prevention, hazards control, safeguards, packaging, and material handling. Observance of this guide does not relieve the user of the obligation to conform to all federal, state, and local regulations for design and construction of glovebox systems. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user...

  4. Rupture of plutonium oxide storage container, March 13, 1979

    1979-05-29

    On March 13, 1979, a plutonium oxide storage can ruptured in the 303-C storage facility, which is in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site, Washington. The facility is operated by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL); three PNL staff members were performing the storage operation. No injuries to these staff members resulted from the occurrence. A Class C Investigation Committee was appointed on March 14, 1979, by the Director, PNL. Subsequently, when the loss estimates became available, the Manager, Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), appointed a Class B Investigation Committee in accordance with DOE Manual Chapter 0502. As requested by DOE-RL, the Committee investigated technical elements of the causal sequence and management systems that should have or could have prevented the occurrence. The investigation included: review of the use of the 303-C facilities and the transfer containers; interviews with the involved personnel and their managers; analysis of technical studies related to involved materials and procedures; review of safe operating procedures, radiation work procedures, and transfer requirements applicable to the occurrence; and use of the Management Oversight and Risk Tree (MORT) and the Events and Causal Factors Charting methods. 15 figs.

  5. Thermodynamic properties of the cubic plutonium hydride solid solution

    Haschke, J M

    1981-12-01

    Pressure, temperature, and composition data for the cubic solid solution plutonium hydride phase, PuH/sub x/, have been measured by microbalance methods. Integral enthalpies and entropies of formation have been evaluated for the composition range 1.90 less than or equal to X less than or equal to 3.00. At 550/sup 0/K, ..delta..H/sup 0/ /sub f/(PuH/sub x/(s)) varies linearly from approximately (-38 +- 1) kcal mol/sup -1/ at PuH/sub 190/ to (-50 +- 1 kcal mol/sup -1/) at PuH/sub 3/ /sub 00/. Thermochemical values obtained by reevaluating tensimetric data from the literature are in excellent agreement with these results. Isotopic effects have been quantified by comparing the results for hydride and deuteride, and equations are presented for predicting ..delta..H/sup 0/ /sub f/ and ..delta..S/sup 0/ /sub f/ values for PuH/sub x/(s) and PuD/sub x/(s).

  6. Density-functional study of plutonium monoxide monohydride

    Qiu, Ruizhi; Lu, Haiyan; Ao, Bingyun; Tang, Tao; Chen, Piheng

    2017-03-01

    The structural, electronic, mechanical, optical, thermodynamic properties of plutonium monoxide monohydride (PuOH) are studied by density-functional calculations within the framework of LDA/GGA and LDA/GGA+U. From the total energy calculation, the lowest-energy crystal structure of PuOH is predicted to have space group F 4 bar 3 m (No. 216). Within the LDA+U framework, the calculated lattice parameter of F 4 bar 3 m -PuOH is in good agreement with the experimental value and the corresponding ground state is predicted to be an antiferromagnetic charge-transfer insulator. Furthermore, we investigate the bonding character of PuOH by analyzing the electron structure and find that there are a stronger Pu-O bond and a weaker Pu-H bond. The mechanical properties including the elastic constants, elastic moduli and Debye's temperature, and the optical properties including the reflectivity and absorption coefficient are also calculated. We then compute the phonon spectrum which verified the dynamical stability of F 4 bar 3 m -PuOH. Some thermodynamic quantities such as the specific heat are evaluated. Finally we calculate the formation energy of PuOH, and the reaction energies for the oxidation of PuOH and PuOH-coated Pu, which are in reasonable agreement with the experimental values.

  7. Fire hazard analysis for Plutonium Finishing Plant complex

    MCKINNIS, D.L.

    1999-02-23

    A fire hazards analysis (FHA) was performed for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Complex at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. The scope of the FHA focuses on the nuclear facilities/structures in the Complex. The analysis was conducted in accordance with RLID 5480.7, [DOE Directive RLID 5480.7, 1/17/94] and DOE Order 5480.7A, ''Fire Protection'' [DOE Order 5480.7A, 2/17/93] and addresses each of the sixteen principle elements outlined in paragraph 9.a(3) of the Order. The elements are addressed in terms of the fire protection objectives stated in paragraph 4 of DOE 5480.7A. In addition, the FHA also complies with WHC-CM-4-41, Fire Protection Program Manual, Section 3.4 [1994] and WHC-SD-GN-FHA-30001, Rev. 0 [WHC, 1994]. Objectives of the FHA are to determine: (1) the fire hazards that expose the PFP facilities, or that are inherent in the building operations, (2) the adequacy of the fire safety features currently located in the PFP Complex, and (3) the degree of compliance of the facility with specific fire safety provisions in DOE orders, related engineering codes, and standards.

  8. Plutonium measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry at LLNL

    McAninch, J E; Hamilton, T F; Broan, T A; Jokela, T A; Knezovich, T J; Ognibene, T J; Proctor, I D; Roberts, M L; Southon, J R; Vogel, J S; Sideras-Haddad, E

    1999-10-26

    Mass spectrometric methods provide sensitive, routine, and cost-effective analyses of long-lived radionuclides. Here the authors report on the status of work at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to develop a capability for actinide measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to take advantage of the high potential of AMS for rejection of interferences. This work demonstrates that the LLNL AMS spectrometer is well-suited for providing high sensitivity, robust, high throughput measurements of plutonium concentrations and isotope ratios. Present backgrounds are {approximately}2 x 10{sup 7}atoms per sample for environmental samples prepared using standard alpha spectrometry protocols. Recent measurements of {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Pu activities and {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu isotope ratios in IAEA reference materials agree well with IAEA reference values and with alpha spectrometry and recently published ICP-MS results. Ongoing upgrades of the AMS spectrometer are expected to reduce backgrounds below 1 x 10{sup 6} atoms per sample while allowing simplifications of the sample preparation chemistry. These simplifications will lead to lower per-sample costs, higher throughput, faster turn around and, ultimately, to larger and more robust data sets.

  9. Study of accurate volume measurement system for plutonium nitrate solution

    Hosoma, T. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works

    1998-12-01

    It is important for effective safeguarding of nuclear materials to establish a technique for accurate volume measurement of plutonium nitrate solution in accountancy tank. The volume of the solution can be estimated by two differential pressures between three dip-tubes, in which the air is purged by an compressor. One of the differential pressure corresponds to the density of the solution, and another corresponds to the surface level of the solution in the tank. The measurement of the differential pressure contains many uncertain errors, such as precision of pressure transducer, fluctuation of back-pressure, generation of bubbles at the front of the dip-tubes, non-uniformity of temperature and density of the solution, pressure drop in the dip-tube, and so on. The various excess pressures at the volume measurement are discussed and corrected by a reasonable method. High precision-differential pressure measurement system is developed with a quartz oscillation type transducer which converts a differential pressure to a digital signal. The developed system is used for inspection by the government and IAEA. (M. Suetake)

  10. Effectiveness of sheltering in buildings and vehicles for plutonium

    Engelmann, R.J.

    1990-07-30

    The purpose of this paper is to collect and present current knowledge relevant to the protection offered by sheltering against exposure to plutonium particles released to the atmosphere during accidents. For those many contaminants for which effects are linear with the airborne concentration, it is convenient to define a Dose Reduction Factor (DRF). In the past, the DRF has been defined as the ratio of the radiological dose that may be incurred within the shelter to that in the outdoors. As such, it includes the dose through shine from plumes aloft and from material deposited on the surface. For this paper, which is concerned only with the inhalation pathway, the DRF is the ratio of the time-integrated concentration inside the shelter to that outdoors. It is important to note that the range over which effects are linear with concentration may be limited for many contaminants. Examples are when concentrations produce effects that are irreversible, or when concentrations are below effects threshold levels. 71 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. LAB-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF PLUTONIUM PURIFICATION BY ANION EXCHANGE, PLUTONIUM (IV) OXALATE PRECIPITATION, AND CALCINATION TO PLUTONIUM OXIDE TO SUPPORT THE MOX FEED MISSION

    Crowder, M.; Pierce, R.

    2012-08-22

    H-Canyon and HB-Line are tasked with the production of PuO{sub 2} from a feed of plutonium metal. The PuO{sub 2} will provide feed material for the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility. After dissolution of the Pu metal in H-Canyon, the solution will be transferred to HB-Line for purification by anion exchange. Subsequent unit operations include Pu(IV) oxalate precipitation, filtration and calcination to form PuO{sub 2}. This report details the results from SRNL anion exchange, precipitation, filtration, calcination, and characterization tests, as requested by HB-Line1 and described in the task plan. This study involved an 80-g batch of Pu and employed test conditions prototypical of HB-Line conditions, wherever feasible. In addition, this study integrated lessons learned from earlier anion exchange and precipitation and calcination studies. H-Area Engineering selected direct strike Pu(IV) oxalate precipitation to produce a more dense PuO{sub 2} product than expected from Pu(III) oxalate precipitation. One benefit of the Pu(IV) approach is that it eliminates the need for reduction by ascorbic acid. The proposed HB-Line precipitation process involves a digestion time of 5 minutes after the time (44 min) required for oxalic acid addition. These were the conditions during HB-line production of neptunium oxide (NpO{sub 2}). In addition, a series of small Pu(IV) oxalate precipitation tests with different digestion times were conducted to better understand the effect of digestion time on particle size, filtration efficiency and other factors. To test the recommended process conditions, researchers performed two nearly-identical larger-scale precipitation and calcination tests. The calcined batches of PuO{sub 2} were characterized for density, specific surface area (SSA), particle size, moisture content, and impurities. Because the 3013 Standard requires that the calcination (or stabilization) process eliminate organics, characterization of PuO{sub 2} batches monitored the

  12. Gender Differences in Conversation

    陈媛媛

    2014-01-01

    Men and women applied language distinct from each other in many ways. The thesis gives an illustration of gender dif-ferences in conversation and different interpretive frames within which the discourse between men and women take place. More profoundly, it tries to explain them from perspective of socialization.

  13. Solar energy conversion

    Crabtree, George W.; Lewis, Nathan S.

    2007-01-01

    If solar energy is to become a practical alternative to fossil fuels, we must have efficient ways to convert photons into electricity, fuel, and heat. The need for better conversion technologies is a driving force behind many recent developments in biology, materials, and especially nanoscience.

  14. Wavelength conversion technology

    Stubkjær, Kristian

    1998-01-01

    Optical wavelength conversion is currently attracting much interest. This is because it enables full flexibility and eases management of WDM fibre networks. The tutorial will review existing and potential application areas. Examples of node architectures and network demonstrators that use wavelen...

  15. Wavelength conversion devices

    Mikkelsen, Benny; Durhuus, Terji; Jørgensen, Carsten

    1996-01-01

    system requirements. The ideal wavelength converter should be transparent to the bit rate and signal format and provide an unchirped output signal with both a high extinction ratio and a large signal-to-noise ratio. It should allow conversion to both shorter and longer wavelengths with equal performance...

  16. Predicting AD conversion

    Liu, Yawu; Mattila, Jussi; Ruiz, Miguel �ngel Mu�oz

    2013-01-01

    To compare the accuracies of predicting AD conversion by using a decision support system (PredictAD tool) and current research criteria of prodromal AD as identified by combinations of episodic memory impairment of hippocampal type and visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) on MRI...

  17. Leadership is a conversation.

    Groysberg, Boris; Slind, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Globalization and new technologies have sharply reduced the efficacy of command-and-control management and its accompanying forms of corporate communication. In the course of a recent research project, the authors concluded that by talking with employees, rather than simply issuing orders, leaders can promote operational flexibility, employee engagement, and tight strategic alignment. Groysberg and Slind have identified four elements of organizational conversation that reflect the essential attributes of interpersonal conversation: intimacy, interactivity, inclusion, and intentionality. Intimacy shifts the focus from a top-down distribution of information to a bottom-up exchange of ideas. Organizational conversation is less corporate in tone and more casual. And it's less about issuing and taking orders than about asking and answering questions. Interactivity entails shunning the simplicity of monologue and embracing the unpredictable vitality of dialogue. Traditional one-way media-print and broadcast, in particular-give way to social media buttressed by social thinking. Inclusion turns employees into full-fledged conversation partners, entitling them to provide their own ideas, often on company channels. They can create content and act as brand ambassadors, thought leaders, and storytellers. Intentionality enables leaders and employees to derive strategically relevant action from the push and pull of discussion and debate.

  18. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorems

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system. Specifically, we prove converse barrier certificate theorems for a class of structurally stable dynamical systems. Other authors have developed a related result by assuming that the dynamical system has neither sing...

  19. An iron-dependent and transferrin-mediated cellular uptake pathway for plutonium.

    Jensen, M. P.; Gorman-Lewis, D.; Aryal, B. P.; Paunesku, T.; Vogt, S.; Rickert, P. G.; Seifert, S.; Lai, B.; Woloschak, G. E.; Soderholm, L. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division); ( XSD); (Univ. of Chicago); (Northwestern Univ.)

    2011-08-01

    Plutonium is a toxic synthetic element with no natural biological function, but it is strongly retained by humans when ingested. Using small-angle X-ray scattering, receptor binding assays and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy, we find that rat adrenal gland (PC12) cells can acquire plutonium in vitro through the major iron acquisition pathway -- receptor-mediated endocytosis of the iron transport protein serum transferrin; however, only one form of the plutonium-transferrin complex is active. Low-resolution solution models of plutonium-loaded transferrins derived from small-angle scattering show that only transferrin with plutonium bound in the protein's C-terminal lobe (C-lobe) and iron bound in the N-terminal lobe (N-lobe) (Pu{sub c}Fe{sub N}Tf) adopts the proper conformation for recognition by the transferrin receptor protein. Although the metal-binding site in each lobe contains the same donors in the same configuration and both lobes are similar, the differences between transferrin's two lobes act to restrict, but not eliminate, cellular Pu uptake.

  20. Calculation of Doses Due to Accidentally Released Plutonium From An LMFBR

    Fish, B.R.

    2001-08-07

    Experimental data and analytical models that should be considered in assessing the transport properties of plutonium aerosols following a hypothetical reactor accident have been examined. Behaviors of released airborne materials within the reactor containment systems, as well as in the atmosphere near the reactor site boundaries, have been semiquantitatively predicted from experimental data and analytical models. The fundamental chemistry of plutonium as it may be applied in biological systems has been used to prepare models related to the intake and metabolism of plutonium dioxide, the fuel material of interest. Attempts have been made to calculate the possible doses from plutonium aerosols for a typical analyzed release in order to evaluate the magnitude of the internal exposure hazards that might exist in the vicinity of the reactor after a hypothetical LMFBR (Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactor) accident. Intake of plutonium (using data for {sup 239}Pu as an example) and its distribution in the body were treated parametrically without regard to the details of transport pathways in the environment. To the extent possible, dose-response data and models have been reviewed, and an assessment of their adequacy has been made so that recommended or preferred practices could be developed.

  1. Three-component U-Pu-Th fuel for plutonium irradiation in heavy water reactors

    Peel Ross

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses concepts for three-component fuel bundles containing plutonium, uranium and thorium for use in pressurised heavy water reactors, and cases for and against implementation of such a nuclear energy system in the United Kingdom. Heavy water reactors are used extensively in Canada, and are deploying within India and China, whilst the UK is considering the use of heavy water reactors to manage its plutonium inventory of 140 tonnes. The UK heavy water reactor proposal uses a mixed oxide (MOX fuel of plutonium in depleted uranium, within the enhanced CANDU-6 (EC-6 reactor. This work proposes an alternative heterogeneous fuel concept based on the same reactor and CANFLEX fuel bundle, with eight large-diameter fuel elements loaded with natural thorium oxide and 35 small-diameter fuel elements loaded with a MOX of plutonium and reprocessed uranium stocks from UK MAGNOX and AGR reactors. Indicative neutronic calculations suggest that such a fuel would be neutronically feasible. A similar MOX may alternatively be fabricated from reprocessed <5% enriched light water reactor fuel, such as the fuel of the AREVA EPR reactor, to consume newly produced plutonium from reprocessing, similar to the DUPIC (direct use of PWR fuel in CANDU process.

  2. Characterization of plutonium-bearing wastes by chemical analysis and analytical electron microscopy

    Behrens, R.G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Buck, E.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Bates, J.K.; Van Deventer, E.; Chaiko, D.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of characterization studies of plutonium-bearing wastes produced at the US Department of Energy weapons production facilities. Several different solid wastes were characterized, including incinerator ash and ash heels from Rocky Flats Plant and Los Alamos National Laboratory; sand, stag, and crucible waste from Hanford; and LECO crucibles from the Savannah River Site. These materials were characterized by chemical analysis and analytical electron microscopy. The results showed the presence of discrete PuO{sub 2}PuO{sub 2{minus}x}, and Pu{sub 4}O{sub 7} phases, of about 1{mu}m or less in size, in all of the samples examined. In addition, a number of amorphous phases were present that contained plutonium. In all the ash and ash heel samples examined, plutonium phases were found that were completely surrounded by silicate matrices. Consequently, to achieve optimum plutonium recovery in any chemical extraction process, extraction would have to be coupled with ultrafine grinding to average particle sizes of less than 1 {mu}m to liberate the plutonium from the surrounding inert matrix.

  3. Survey of Worldwide Light Water Reactor Experience with Mixed Uranium-Plutonium Oxide Fuel

    Cowell, B.S.; Fisher, S.E.

    1999-02-01

    The US and the Former Soviet Union (FSU) have recently declared quantities of weapons materials, including weapons-grade (WG) plutonium, excess to strategic requirements. One of the leading candidates for the disposition of excess WG plutonium is irradiation in light water reactors (LWRs) as mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) fuel. A description of the MOX fuel fabrication techniques in worldwide use is presented. A comprehensive examination of the domestic MOX experience in US reactors obtained during the 1960s, 1970s, and early 1980s is also presented. This experience is described by manufacturer and is also categorized by the reactor facility that irradiated the MOX fuel. A limited summary of the international experience with MOX fuels is also presented. A review of MOX fuel and its performance is conducted in view of the special considerations associated with the disposition of WG plutonium. Based on the available information, it appears that adoption of foreign commercial MOX technology from one of the successful MOX fuel vendors will minimize the technical risks to the overall mission. The conclusion is made that the existing MOX fuel experience base suggests that disposition of excess weapons plutonium through irradiation in LWRs is a technically attractive option.

  4. Plutonium release from Fukushima Daiichi fosters the need for more detailed investigations.

    Schneider, Stephanie; Walther, Clemens; Bister, Stefan; Schauer, Viktoria; Christl, Marcus; Synal, Hans-Arno; Shozugawa, Katsumi; Steinhauser, Georg

    2013-10-18

    The contamination of Japan after the Fukushima accident has been investigated mainly for volatile fission products, but only sparsely for actinides such as plutonium. Only small releases of actinides were estimated in Fukushima. Plutonium is still omnipresent in the environment from previous atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. We investigated soil and plants sampled at different hot spots in Japan, searching for reactor-borne plutonium using its isotopic ratio ²⁴⁰Pu/²³⁹Pu. By using accelerator mass spectrometry, we clearly demonstrated the release of Pu from the Fukushima Daiichi power plant: While most samples contained only the radionuclide signature of fallout plutonium, there is at least one vegetation sample whose isotope ratio (0.381 ± 0.046) evidences that the Pu originates from a nuclear reactor (²³⁹⁺²⁴⁰Pu activity concentration 0.49 Bq/kg). Plutonium content and isotope ratios differ considerably even for very close sampling locations, e.g. the soil and the plants growing on it. This strong localization indicates a particulate Pu release, which is of high radiological risk if incorporated.

  5. 238Pu: accumulation, tissue distribution, and excretion in Mayak workers after exposure to plutonium aerosols.

    Suslova, Klara G; Sokolova, Alexandra B; Khokhryakov, Viktor V; Miller, Scott C

    2012-03-01

    The alpha spectrometry measurements of specific activity of 238Pu and 239Pu in urine from bioassay examinations of 1,013 workers employed at the radiochemical and plutonium production facilities of the Mayak Production Association and in autopsy specimens of lung, liver, and skeleton from 85 former nuclear workers who died between 1974-2009, are summarized.The accumulation fraction of 238Pu in the body and excreta has not changed with time in workers involved in production of weapons-grade plutonium production (e.g., the plutonium production facility and the former radiochemical facility). The accumulation fraction of 238Pu in individuals exposed to plutonium isotopes at the newer Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant ranged from 0.13% up to 27.5% based on the autopsy data. No statistically significant differences between 238Pu and 239Pu in distribution by the main organs of plutonium deposition were found in the Mayak workers. Based on the bioassay data,the fraction of 238Pu activity in urine is on average 38-69% of the total activity of 238Pu and 239Pu, which correlates with the isotopic composition in workplace air sampled at the Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant. In view of the higher specific activity of 238Pu, the contribution of 238Pu to the total internal dose, particularly in the skeleton and liver, might be expected to continue to increase, and continued surveillance is recommended.

  6. Anthropogenic plutonium-244 in the environment: Insights into plutonium’s longest-lived isotope

    Armstrong, Christopher R.; Brant, Heather A.; Nuessle, Patterson R.; Hall, Gregory; Cadieux, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the rich history of heavy element production in the unique high flux reactors that operated at the Savannah River Site, USA (SRS) decades ago, trace quantities of plutonium with highly unique isotopic characteristics still persist today in the SRS terrestrial environment. Development of an effective sampling, processing, and analysis strategy enables detailed monitoring of the SRS environment, revealing plutonium isotopic compositions, e.g., 244Pu, that reflect the unique legacy of plutonium production at SRS. This work describes the first long-term investigation of anthropogenic 244Pu occurrence in the environment. Environmental samples, consisting of collected foot borne debris, were taken at SRS over an eleven year period, from 2003 to 2014. Separation and purification of trace plutonium was carried out followed by three stage thermal ionization mass spectrometry (3STIMS) measurements for plutonium isotopic content and isotopic ratios. Significant 244Pu was measured in all of the years sampled with the highest amount observed in 2003. The 244Pu content, in femtograms (fg = 10−15 g) per gram, ranged from 0.31 fg/g to 44 fg/g in years 2006 and 2003 respectively. In all years, the 244Pu/239Pu atom ratios were significantly higher than global fallout, ranging from 0.003 to 0.698 in years 2014 and 2003 respectively. PMID:26898531

  7. An iron-dependent and transferrin-mediated cellular uptake pathway for plutonium.

    Jensen, Mark P; Gorman-Lewis, Drew; Aryal, Baikuntha; Paunesku, Tatjana; Vogt, Stefan; Rickert, Paul G; Seifert, Soenke; Lai, Barry; Woloschak, Gayle E; Soderholm, L

    2011-06-26

    Plutonium is a toxic synthetic element with no natural biological function, but it is strongly retained by humans when ingested. Using small-angle X-ray scattering, receptor binding assays and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy, we find that rat adrenal gland (PC12) cells can acquire plutonium in vitro through the major iron acquisition pathway--receptor-mediated endocytosis of the iron transport protein serum transferrin; however, only one form of the plutonium-transferrin complex is active. Low-resolution solution models of plutonium-loaded transferrins derived from small-angle scattering show that only transferrin with plutonium bound in the protein's C-terminal lobe (C-lobe) and iron bound in the N-terminal lobe (N-lobe) (Pu(C)Fe(N)Tf) adopts the proper conformation for recognition by the transferrin receptor protein. Although the metal-binding site in each lobe contains the same donors in the same configuration and both lobes are similar, the differences between transferrin's two lobes act to restrict, but not eliminate, cellular Pu uptake.

  8. Development of high intensity ion sources for a Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole facility for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Bergueiro, J. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)] [CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Igarzabal, M.; Suarez Sandin, J.C. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina); Somacal, H.R. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin (Argentina); Thatar Vento, V. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)] [CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Huck, H.; Valda, A.A. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin (Argentina); Repetto, M. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    Several ion sources have been developed and an ion source test stand has been mounted for the first stage of a Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole facility For Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. A first source, designed, fabricated and tested is a dual chamber, filament driven and magnetically compressed volume plasma proton ion source. A 4 mA beam has been accelerated and transported into the suppressed Faraday cup. Extensive simulations of the sources have been performed using both 2D and 3D self-consistent codes.

  9. Cost-benefit analysis of unfired PuO/sub 2/ pellets as an alternative plutonium shipping form

    Mishima, J.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Libby, R.A.; Soldat, K.L.; White, G.D.

    1983-10-01

    A limited cost-benefit evaluation was performed concerning use of unfired plutonium dioxide pellets as a shipping form. Two specific processing operations are required for this use, one to form the pellet (pelletizing) and a second to reconstitute an acceptable powder upon receipt (reconstitution). The direct costs for the pelletizing operation are approximately $208,000 for equipment and its installation and $122 per kg of plutonium processed (based upon a 20-kg plutonium/day facility). The direct costs for reconstitution are approximately $90,000 for equipment and its installation and $81 per kg of plutonium processed. The indirect cost considered was personnel exposure from these operations. Whole body exposures ranged from 0.04 man-rem per 100 kg of low-exposure plutonium reconstituted to 0.9 man-rem per 100 kg of average-exposure plutonium pelletized. Hand exposures were much higher - 17 man-rem power 100 kg of low-exposure plutonium reconstituted to 67 man-rem per 100 kg of average plutonium pelletized. The principal benefit is a potential twentyfold reduction of airborne release in the event of an accident. An experimental plan is outlined to fill the data gaps uncovered during this study in the areas of pelletizing and reconstitution process parameters and pellet response behavior to accident-generated stresses. A study to enhance the containment potential of the inner packaging used during shipment is also outlined.

  10. Determination of origin and intended use of plutonium metal using nuclear forensic techniques.

    Rim, Jung H; Kuhn, Kevin J; Tandon, Lav; Xu, Ning; Porterfield, Donivan R; Worley, Christopher G; Thomas, Mariam R; Spencer, Khalil J; Stanley, Floyd E; Lujan, Elmer J; Garduno, Katherine; Trellue, Holly R

    2017-01-19

    Nuclear forensics techniques, including micro-XRF, gamma spectrometry, trace elemental analysis and isotopic/chronometric characterization were used to interrogate two, potentially related plutonium metal foils. These samples were submitted for analysis with only limited production information, and a comprehensive suite of forensic analyses were performed. Resulting analytical data was paired with available reactor model and historical information to provide insight into the materials' properties, origins, and likely intended uses. Both were super-grade plutonium, containing less than 3% (240)Pu, and age-dating suggested that most recent chemical purification occurred in 1948 and 1955 for the respective metals. Additional consideration of reactor modeling feedback and trace elemental observables indicate plausible U.S. reactor origin associated with the Hanford site production efforts. Based on this investigation, the most likely intended use for these plutonium foils was (239)Pu fission foil targets for physics experiments, such as cross-section measurements, etc.

  11. Radiation damage in gallium-stabilized δ-plutonium with helium bubbles

    Wu, FengChao; Wang, Pei; Liu, XiaoYi; Wu, HengAn

    2017-02-01

    To understand the role of helium on self-irradiation effects in δ-plutonium, microstructure evolutions due to α-decay events near pre-existing helium bubbles in gallium-stabilized δ-plutonium are investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. Bubble promoting effect plays a dominating role in point defects production, resulting in increasing number of point defects. When lightweight helium atoms act as media, energy transfer discrepancy and altered spatial morphology of point defects induced by mass effect are revealed. The evolution of stacking faults surrounding the disordered core is studied and their binding effect on the propagation of point defects are presented. The cascade-induced bubble coalescence, resolution and re-nucleation driven by internal pressure are obtained in the investigation on helium behaviors. The intrinsic tendency in our simulated self-irradiation with helium bubbles is significant for understanding the underlying mechanism of aging in plutonium and its alloys.

  12. Evolving Density and Static Mechanical Properties in Plutonium from Self-Irradiation

    Chung, B W; Thompson, S R; Lema, K E; Hiromoto, D S; Ebbinghaus, B B

    2008-07-31

    Plutonium, because of its self-irradiation by alpha decay, ages by means of lattice damage and helium in-growth. These integrated aging effects result in microstructural and physical property changes. Because these effects would normally require decades to measure, studies are underway to assess the effects of extended aging on the physical properties of plutonium alloys by incorporating roughly 7.5 weight % of highly specific activity isotope {sup 238}Pu into the {sup 239}Pu metal to accelerate the aging process. This paper presents updated results of self-irradiation effects on {sup 238}Pu-enriched alloys measured by immersion density, dilatometry, and tensile tests. After nearly 90 equivalent years of aging, both the immersion density and dilatometry show that the enriched alloys continue to decreased in density by {approx}0.002% per year, without void swelling. Quasi-static tensile measurements show that the aging process increases the strength of plutonium alloys.

  13. Disposition of PUREX facility tanks D5 and E6 uranium and plutonium solutions. Final report

    Harty, D.P.

    1993-12-01

    Approximately 9 kilograms of plutonium and 5 metric tons of uranium in a 1 molar nitric acid solution are being stored in two PUREX facility vessels, tanks D5 and E6. The plutonium was accumulated during cleanup activities of the plutonium product area of the PUREX facility. Personnel at PUREX recently completed a formal presentation to the Surplus Materials Peer Panel (SMPP) regarding disposition of the material currently in these tanks. The peer panel is a group of complex-wide experts who have been chartered by EM-64 (Office of Site and Facility Transfer) to provide a third party independent review of disposition decisions. The information presented to the peer panel is provided in the first section of this report. The panel was generally receptive to the information provided at that time and the recommendations which were identified.

  14. Recovery of uranium and plutonium from Redox off-standard aqueous waste streams

    Holm, C.H.; Matheson, A.R.

    1949-12-31

    In the operation of countercurrent extraction columns as in the Redox process, it is possible, and probable, that from unexpected behaviour of a column, operator error, colloid formation, etc., there will result from time to time excessive losses of uranium and plutonium in the overall process. These losses will naturally accumulate in the waste streams, particularly in the aqueous waste streams. If the loss is excessively high, and such lost material can be recovered by some additional method, then if economical and within reason, the recovered materials ran be returned to a ISF column for further processing. The objective of this work has been to develop such a method to recover uranium and plutonium from such off-standard waste streams in a form whereby the uranium send plutonium can be returned to the process line and subsequently purified and separated.

  15. Rapid and Automated Determination of Plutonium and Neptunium in Environmental Samples

    Qiao, Jixin

    and optimization for rapid determination of plutonium in environmental samples using SIextraction chromatography prior to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Paper III); (3) Development of an SI-chromatographic method for simultaneous determination of plutonium and neptunium in environmental samples...... (Paper IV); (4) Investigation of the suitability and applicability of 242Pu as a tracer for rapid neptunium determination using anion exchange chromatography in an SI-network coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Paper V); (5) Exploration of macro-porous anion exchange chromatography......This thesis presents improved analytical methods for rapid and automated determination of plutonium and neptunium in environmental samples using sequential injection (SI) based chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The progress of methodology development...

  16. Guide of good practices for occupational radiological protection in plutonium facilities

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    This Technical Standard (TS) does not contain any new requirements. Its purpose is to provide guides to good practice, update existing reference material, and discuss practical lessons learned relevant to the safe handling of plutonium. the technical rationale is given to allow US Department of Energy (DOE) health physicists to adapt the recommendations to similar situations throughout the DOE complex. Generally, DOE contractor health physicists will be responsible to implement radiation protection activities at DOE facilities and DOE health physicists will be responsible for oversight of those activities. This guidance is meant to be useful for both efforts. This TS replaces PNL-6534, Health Physics Manual of Good Practices for Plutonium Facilities, by providing more complete and current information and by emphasizing the situations that are typical of DOE`s current plutonium operations; safe storage, decontamination, and decommissioning (environmental restoration); and weapons disassembly.

  17. U.S. weapons-usable plutonium disposition policy: Implementation of the MOX fuel option

    Woods, A.L. [ed.] [Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium, TX (United States); Gonzalez, V.L. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Political Science

    1998-10-01

    A comprehensive case study was conducted on the policy problem of disposing of US weapons-grade plutonium, which has been declared surplus to strategic defense needs. Specifically, implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel disposition option was examined in the context of national and international nonproliferation policy, and in contrast to US plutonium policy. The study reveals numerous difficulties in achieving effective implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel option including unresolved licensing and regulatory issues, technological uncertainties, public opposition, potentially conflicting federal policies, and the need for international assurances of reciprocal plutonium disposition activities. It is believed that these difficulties can be resolved in time so that the implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel option can eventually be effective in accomplishing its policy objective.

  18. Standard practice for The separation of americium from plutonium by ion exchange

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes the use of an ion exchange technique to separate plutonium from solutions containing low concentrations of americium prior to measurement of the 241Am by gamma counting. 1.2 This practice covers the removal of plutonium, but not all the other radioactive isotopes that may interfere in the determination of 241Am. 1.3 This practice can be used when 241Am is to be determined in samples in which the plutonium is in the form of metal, oxide, or other solid provided that the solid is appropriately sampled and dissolved (See Test Methods C758, C759, and C1168). 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  19. A collaborative effort to address the distribution of plutonium-contaminated sludge in Livermore, California.

    Sutton, Patrice; Cabasso, Jacqueline; Barreau, Tracy; Kelley, Marylia

    2012-01-01

    Plutonium releases from the U.S. nuclear weapons laboratory in Livermore, California resulted in the contamination of sewage sludge. Two research models to address the potential public health impacts of plutonium-contaminated sludge distribution were undertaken. One model was a collaborative approach that emphasized incorporating local knowledge into the scientific analysis and fostering the growth of mutually respectful relationships between scientists, governmental, and non-governmental collaborators. The second was a dose-assessment approach that utilized existing data to estimate radiological doses from exposure to plutonium contaminated sewage sludge and compared the estimated doses with those that have caused sickness or death. The two models reached different conclusions; neither addressed issues of intergenerational equity and primary prevention of exposure. Advancing an ethical research agenda will involve looking upstream of the contamination and working toward sustainable solutions to security that do not involve the public health threats embedded in the global embrace of nuclear weapons.

  20. Plutonium-238: an ideal power source for intracorporeal ventricular assist devices?

    Tchantchaleishvili, Vakhtang; Bush, Bryan S; Swartz, Michael F; Day, Steven W; Massey, H Todd

    2012-01-01

    Ventricular assist devices emerged as a widely used modality for treatment of end-stage heart failure; however, despite significant advances, external energy supply remains a problem contributing to significant patient morbidity and potential mortality. One potential solution is using the nuclear radioisotope Plutonium-238 as a power source. Given its very high energy density and long half-life, Plutonium-238 could eventually allow a totally intracorporeal ventricular assist system that lasts for the patient's lifetime. Risks, such as leakage and theft identified decades ago, still remain. However, it is possible that newer technologies could be used to overcome the system complexity and unreliability of the previous generations of nuclear-powered mechanical assist systems. Were it not for the remaining safety risks, Plutonium-238 would be an ideal energy source for this purpose.

  1. Destruction of plutonium using non-uranium fuels in pressurized water reactor peripheral assemblies

    Chodak, III, Paul [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This thesis examines and confirms the feasibility of using non-uranium fuel in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) radial blanket to eliminate plutonium of both weapons and civilian origin. In the equilibrium cycle, the periphery of the PWR is loaded with alternating fresh and once burned non-uranium fuel assemblies, with the interior of the core comprised of conventional three batch UO2 assemblies. Plutonium throughput is such that there is no net plutonium production: production in the interior is offset by destruction in the periphery. Using this approach a 50 MT WGPu inventory could be eliminated in approximately 400 reactor years of operation. Assuming all other existing constraints were removed, the 72 operating US PWRs could disposition 50 MT of WGPu in 5.6 years. Use of a low fissile loading plutonium-erbium inert-oxide-matrix composition in the peripheral assemblies essentially destroys 100% of the 239Pu and ≥90% {sub total}Pu over two 18 month fuel cycles. Core radial power peaking, reactivity vs EFPD profiles and core average reactivity coefficients were found to be comparable to standard PWR values. Hence, minimal impact on reload licensing is anticipated. Examination of potential candidate fuel matrices based on the existing experience base and thermo-physical properties resulted in the recommendation of three inert fuel matrix compositions for further study: zirconia, alumina and TRISO particle fuels. Objective metrics for quantifying the inherent proliferation resistance of plutonium host waste and fuel forms are proposed and were applied to compare the proposed spent WGPu non-uranium fuel to spent WGPu MOX fuels and WGPu borosilicate glass logs. The elimination disposition option spent non-uranium fuel product was found to present significantly greater barriers to proliferation than other plutonium disposal products.

  2. Effects of duration of fast and animal age on the gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Larsen, R.P.; Oldham, R.D.; Moretti, E.S.; Spaletto, M.I.

    1986-07-01

    The fraction of plutonium absorbed after oral administration of Pu(VI) to 24-h-fasted mice was 19 X 10(-4), 13-fold higher than in fed mice, 1.4 X 10(-4). We have investigated the relevance of the high gastrointestinal (GI) absorption value for the 24-h-fasted animals in setting drinking water standards for humans. When fasting was initiated at the beginning of the active phase of the mouse's daily activity cycle (when they would normally eat), plutonium GI absorption rose from 2.8 X 10(-4) at zero-time to a level typical of the 24-h-fasted mouse after only 2 h of fasting. In contrast, in mice allowed to eat for 4 h into their active phase prior to initiation of the fast (meal-fed mice), 8 h of fasting were required before GI absorption rose to a level similar to that of the 24-h-fasted mouse. The fraction of plutonium retained after gavage administration of Pu(VI) to 1-day-old rats was 74 X 10(-4), 70-fold higher than the value for fed adults. Retention after GI absorption in neonates remained 30- to 70-fold higher than in adults until weaning. One week after weaning, the fraction absorbed and retained by fed weanling rats was the same as that for fed adults, 1 X 10(-4). Drinking water standards for plutonium have been set based on GI absorption values for fed adult animals. The 10- to 100-fold increases in plutonium absorption in young and fasted animals reported by ourselves and others, and the rapid rise to fasted levels of absorption at the start of the animal's active phase, indicate that consideration should be given to elevated levels of plutonium absorption in young and fasted individuals.

  3. Micro Ion Source Program NA22 Plutonium Detection Portfolio Final Report

    James E. Delmore

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of the micro ion source program was to enhance the performance of thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) for various actinides and fission products. The proposal hypothesized that when ions are created at the ion optic center of the mass spectrometer, ion transmission is significantly increased and the resulting ion beam is more sharply focused. Computer modeling demonstrated this logic. In order to prove this hypothesis it was first necessary to understand the chemistry and physics governing the particular ion production process that concentrates the emission of ions into a small area. This has been achieved for uranium and technetium, as was shown in the original proposal and the improvement of both the beam transmission and sharpness of focus were proven. Significantly improved analytical methods have been developed for these two elements based upon this research. The iodine portion of the proposal turned out to be impractical due to volatility of iodine and its compounds. We knew this was a possibility prior to research and we proceeded anyway but did not succeed. Plutonium is a potential option, but is not quite up to the performance level of resin beads. Now, we more clearly understand the chemical and physical issues for plutonium, but have not yet translated this knowledge into improved analytical processes. The problems are that plutonium is considerably more difficult to convert to the required intermediate species, plutonium carbide, and the chemical method we developed that works with uranium functions only moderately well with plutonium. We are of the opinion that, with this knowledge, similar progress can be made with plutonium.

  4. The plutonium isotopic composition of marine biota on Enewetak Atoll: a preliminary assessment.

    Hamilton, Terry F; Martinelli, Roger E; Kehl, Steven R; McAninch, Jeffrey E

    2008-10-01

    We have determined the level and distribution of gamma-emitting radionuclides, plutonium activity concentrations, and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in tissue samples of giant clam (Tridacna gigas and Hippopus hippopus), a top snail (Trochus nilaticas) and sea cucumber (Holothuria atra) collected from different locations around Enewetak Atoll. The plutonium isotopic measurements were performed using ultra-high sensitivity accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Elevated levels of plutonium were observed in the stomachs (includes the stomach lining) of Tridacna clam (0.62 to 2.98 Bq kg(-1), wet wt.), in the soft parts (edible portion) of top snails (0.25 to 1.7 Bq kg(-1)), wet wt.) and, to a lesser extent, in sea cucumber (0.015 to 0.22 Bq kg(-1), wet wt.) relative to muscle tissue concentrations in clam (0.006 to 0.021 Bq kg(-1), wet wt.) and in comparison with previous measurements of plutonium in fish. These data and information provide a basis for re-evaluating the relative significance of dietary intakes of plutonium from marine foods on Enewetak Atoll and, perhaps most importantly, demonstrate that discrete 240Pu239Pu isotope signatures might well provide a useful investigative tool to monitor source-term attribution and consequences on Enewetak Atoll. One potential application of immediate interest is to monitor and assess the health and ecological impacts of leakage of plutonium (as well as other radionuclides) from a low-level radioactive waste repository on Runit Island relative to background levels of fallout contamination in Enewetak Atoll lagoon.

  5. Destruction of plutonium using non-uranium fuels in pressurized water reactor peripheral assemblies

    Chodak, P. III

    1996-05-01

    This thesis examines and confirms the feasibility of using non-uranium fuel in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) radial blanket to eliminate plutonium of both weapons and civilian origin. In the equilibrium cycle, the periphery of the PWR is loaded with alternating fresh and once burned non-uranium fuel assemblies, with the interior of the core comprised of conventional three batch UO{sub 2} assemblies. Plutonium throughput is such that there is no net plutonium production: production in the interior is offset by destruction in the periphery. Using this approach a 50 MT WGPu inventory could be eliminated in approximately 400 reactor years of operation. Assuming all other existing constraints were removed, the 72 operating US PWRs could disposition 50 MT of WGPu in 5.6 years. Use of a low fissile loading plutonium-erbium inert-oxide-matrix composition in the peripheral assemblies essentially destroys 100% of the {sup 239}Pu and {ge}90% {sub total}Pu over two 18 month fuel cycles. Core radial power peaking, reactivity vs EFPD profiles and core average reactivity coefficients were found to be comparable to standard PWR values. Hence, minimal impact on reload licensing is anticipated. Examination of potential candidate fuel matrices based on the existing experience base and thermo-physical properties resulted in the recommendation of three inert fuel matrix compositions for further study: zirconia, alumina and TRISO particle fuels. Objective metrics for quantifying the inherent proliferation resistance of plutonium host waste and fuel forms are proposed and were applied to compare the proposed spent WGPu non-uranium fuel to spent WGPu MOX fuels and WGPu borosilicate glass logs. The elimination disposition option spent non-uranium fuel product was found to present significantly greater barriers to proliferation than other plutonium disposal products.

  6. Plutonium behavior after pulmonary administration according to solubility properties, and consequences on alveolar macrophage activation.

    Van der Meeren, Anne; Gremy, Olivier; Renault, Daniel; Miroux, Amandine; Bruel, Sylvie; Griffiths, Nina; Tourdes, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    The physico-chemical form in which plutonium enters the body influences the lung distribution and the transfer rate from lungs to blood. In the present study, we evaluated the early lung damage and macrophage activation after pulmonary contamination of plutonium of various preparation modes which produce different solubility and distribution patterns. Whatever the solubility properties of the contaminant, macrophages represent a major retention compartment in lungs, with 42 to 67% of the activity from broncho-alveolar lavages being associated with macrophages 14 days post-contamination. Lung changes were observed 2 and 6 weeks post-contamination, showing inflammatory lesions and accumulation of activated macrophages (CD68 positive) in plutonium-contaminated rats, although no increased proliferation of pneumocytes II (TTF-1 positive cells) was found. In addition, acid phosphatase activity in macrophages from contaminated rats was enhanced 2 weeks post-contamination as compared to sham groups, as well as inflammatory mediator levels (TNF-α, MCP-1, MIP-2 and CINC-1) in macrophage culture supernatants. Correlating with the decrease in activity remaining in macrophages after plutonium contamination, inflammatory mediator production returned to basal levels 6 weeks post-exposure. The production of chemokines by macrophages was evaluated after contamination with Pu of increasing solubility. No correlation was found between the solubility properties of Pu and the activation level of macrophages. In summary, our data indicate that, despite the higher solubility of plutonium citrate or nitrate as compared to preformed colloids or oxides, macrophages remain the main lung target after plutonium contamination and may participate in the early pulmonary damage.

  7. Conversion electron surface imaging

    Irwin, G M; Wehner, A

    1999-01-01

    A method of imaging the Moessbauer absorption over the surface of a sample based on counting conversion electrons emitted from the surface following resonant absorption of gamma radiation is described. This Conversion Electron Surface Imaging (CESI) method is somewhat analogous to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), particularly chemical shift imaging, and similar tomographic reconstruction techniques are involved in extracting the image. The theory behind the technique and a prototype device is described, as well as the results of proof-of-principle experiments which demonstrate the function of the device. Eventually this same prototype device will be part of a system to determine the spatial variation of the Moessbauer spectrum over the surface of a sample. Applications include imaging of variations of surface properties of steels and other iron containing alloys, as well as other surfaces over which sup 5 sup 7 Fe has been deposited.

  8. Les conversions de cens

    Laurent Feller

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Dans le cadre d’une recherche entamée sur la circulation des richesses au Moyen Âge, la réflexion s’est dirigée vers la question de la conversion, c’est-à-dire du passage d’une forme à une autre dans la mesure des valeurs (argent contre nature, objets dont l’usage se transforme en s’échangeant, conversions monétaires. Un cycle de trois rencontres est prévu afin de débrouiller une question complexe qui devrait permettre au groupe d’éclairer la question de la valeur des choses au Moyen Âge. La...

  9. Demonstration of a high-intensity neutron source based on a liquid-lithium target for Accelerator based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy.

    Halfon, S; Arenshtam, A; Kijel, D; Paul, M; Weissman, L; Berkovits, D; Eliyahu, I; Feinberg, G; Kreisel, A; Mardor, I; Shimel, G; Shor, A; Silverman, I; Tessler, M

    2015-12-01

    A free surface liquid-lithium jet target is operating routinely at Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF), bombarded with a ~1.91 MeV, ~1.2 mA continuous-wave narrow proton beam. The experiments demonstrate the liquid lithium target (LiLiT) capability to constitute an intense source of epithermal neutrons, for Accelerator based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The target dissipates extremely high ion beam power densities (>3 kW/cm(2), >0.5 MW/cm(3)) for long periods of time, while maintaining stable conditions and localized residual activity. LiLiT generates ~3×10(10) n/s, which is more than one order of magnitude larger than conventional (7)Li(p,n)-based near threshold neutron sources. A shield and moderator assembly for BNCT, with LiLiT irradiated with protons at 1.91 MeV, was designed based on Monte Carlo (MCNP) simulations of BNCT-doses produced in a phantom. According to these simulations it was found that a ~15 mA near threshold proton current will apply the therapeutic doses in ~1h treatment duration. According to our present results, such high current beams can be dissipated in a liquid-lithium target, hence the target design is readily applicable for accelerator-based BNCT.

  10. Conversations with Miss Jane

    Geneviève Fabre

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the wide range of conversations in the autobiography, this essay will attempt to appraise the importance of these verbal exchanges in relation to the overall narrative structure of the book and to the prevalent oral tradition in Louisiana culture, as both an individual and communal expression. The variety of circumstances, the setting and staging, the interlocutors , and the complex intersection of time and place, of stories and History, will be examined; in these conversations with Miss Jane many actors participate, from  the interviewer-narrator, to most characters; even the reader becomes involved.Speaking, hearing, listening, keeping silent is an elaborate ritual that performs many functions; besides conveying news or rumors, it imparts information on the times and on the life of a “representative” woman whose existence - spanning a whole century- is both singular and emblematic. Most importantly this essay will analyse the resonance of an eventful and often dramatic era on her sensibility and conversely show how her evolving sensibility informs that history and draws attention to aspects that might have passed unnoticed or be forever silenced. Jane’s desire for liberty and justice is often challenged as she faces the possibilities of life or death.Conversations build up a complex, often contradictory, but compelling portrait: torn between silence and vehemence, between memories and the urge to meet the future, Jane summons body and mind to find her way through the maze of a fast changing world; self-willed and obstinate she claims her right to speak, to express with wit and wisdom her firm belief in the word, in the ability to express deep seated convictions and faith and a whole array of feelings and emotions.

  11. Clinical linguistics: conversational reflections.

    Crystal, David

    2013-04-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference participants during that time.

  12. Natural gas conversion process

    1992-01-01

    The experimental apparatus was dismantled and transferred to a laboratory space provided by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is already equipped with a high-ventilation fume hood. This will enable us to make tests at higher gas flow rates in a safe environment. Three papers presented at the ACS meeting in San Francisco (Symposium on Natural Gas Upgrading II) April 5--10, 1992 show that the goal of direct catalytic conversion of Methane into heavier Hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere is actively pursued in three other different laboratories. There are similarities in their general concept with our own approach, but the temperature range of the experiments reported in these recent papers is much lower and this leads to uneconomic conversion rates. This illustrates the advantages of Methane activation by a Hydrogen plasma to reach commercial conversion rates. A preliminary process flow diagram was established for the Integrated Process, which was outlined in the previous Quarterly Report. The flow diagram also includes all the required auxiliary facilities for product separation and recycle of the unconverted feed as well as for the preparation and compression of the Syngas by-product.

  13. Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium. Quarterly technical progress report, November 1, 1997--January 31, 1998

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report provides information on projects conducted by the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium, a consortium of Texas A&M University, Texas Tech University, and the University of Texas. Progress is reported for four major areas: (1) plutonium information resource; (2) environmental, safety, and health; (3) communication, education, training, and community involvement; and (4) nuclear and other material studies. Environmental, safety, and health projects reported include a number of studies on high explosives. Progress reported for nuclear material studies includes storage and waste disposal investigations.

  14. Standard test method for uranium and plutonium concentrations and isotopic abundances by thermal ionization mass spectrometry

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the concentration and isotopic composition of uranium and plutonium in solutions. The purified uranium or plutonium from samples ranging from nuclear materials to environmental or bioassay matrices is loaded onto a mass spectrometric filament. The isotopic ratio is determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry, the concentration is determined by isotope dilution. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  15. Status of Current Plutonium Evaluations And an Update Plan for ENDL99

    Brown, D A

    2005-04-29

    We review the current state of ENDL99, ENDF/B-VI.r8, JENDL-3.3, JEFF-3.0 and ENDF/B-VII.{beta}0 plutonium evaluations and lay out a tentative plan for updating all of the ENDL99 plutonium evaluations. In some specific cases, an evaluation for a particular isotope is of sufficient quality for us to adopt in ENDL99. More often, the quality of all evaluations for an isotope are low enough that we will need to perform a new evaluation.

  16. Disposition of excess weapon plutonium in deep boreholes - site selection handbook

    Heiken, G.; Woldegabriel, G.; Morley, R.; Plannerer, H.; Rowley, J.

    1996-09-01

    One of the options for disposing of excess weapons plutonium is to place it near the base of deep boreholes in stable crystalline rocks. The technology needed to begin designing this means of disposition already exists, and there are many attractive sites available within the conterminous United States. There are even more potential sites for this option within Russia. The successful design of a borehole system must address two criteria: (1) how to dispose of 50 metric tons of weapons plutonium while making it inaccessible for unauthorized retrieval, and (2) how to prevent contamination of the accessible biosphere, defined here as the Earth`s surface and usable groundwaters.

  17. Neptunium and plutonium complexes with a sterically encumbered triamidoamine (TREN) scaffold.

    Brown, Jessie L; Gaunt, Andrew J; King, David M; Liddle, Stephen T; Reilly, Sean D; Scott, Brian L; Wooles, Ashley J

    2016-04-07

    The syntheses and characterisation of isostructural neptunium(iv) and plutonium(iv) complexes [An(IV)(TREN(TIPS))(Cl)] [An = Np, Pu; TREN(TIPS) = {N(CH2CH2NSiPr(i)3)3}(3-)] are reported, along with the demonstration that they are likely reduced to the corresponding neptunium(iii) and plutonium(iii) products [An(III)(TREN(TIPS))]; this chemistry provides new platforms from which to target a plethora of unprecedented molecular functionalities in transuranic chemistry and the neptunium(iv) molecule is the first structurally characterised neptunium(iv)-amide complex.

  18. Molecular Interactions of Plutonium(VI) with Synthetic Manganese-Substituted Goethite

    Hu, Yung-Jin; Schwaiger, Luna Kestrel; Booth, Corwin H.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Cristiano, Elena; Kaplan, Daniel; Nitsche, Heino

    2010-03-09

    Plutonium(VI) sorption on the surface of well-characterized synthetic manganese-substituted goethite minerals (Fe1-xMnxOOH) was studied using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. We chose to study the influence of manganese as a minor component in goethite, because goethite rarely exists as a pure phase in nature. Manganese X-ray absorption near-edge structure measurements indicated that essentially all the Mn in the goethite existed as Mn(III), even though Mn was added during mineral synthesis as Mn(II). Importantly, energy dispersive X-ray analysis demonstrated that Mn did not exist as discrete phases and that it was homogeneously mixed into the goethite to within the limit of detection of the method. Furthermore, Mössbauer spectra demonstrated that all Fe existed as Fe(III), with no Fe(II) present. Plutonium(VI) sorption experiments were conducted open to air and no attempt was made to exclude carbonate. The use of X-ray absorption spectroscopy allows us to directly and unambiguously measure the oxidation state of plutonium in situ at the mineral surface. Plutonium X-ray absorption near-edge structure measurements carried out on these samples showed that Pu(VI) was reduced to Pu(IV) upon contact with the mineral. This reduction appears to be strongly correlated with mineral solution pH, coinciding with pH transitions across the point of zero charge of the mineral. Furthermore, extended X-ray absorption fine structure measurements show evidence of direct plutonium binding to the metal surface as an inner-sphere complex. This combination of extensive mineral characterization and advanced spectroscopy suggests that sorption of the plutonium onto the surface of the mineral was followed by reduction of the plutonium at the surface of the mineral to form an inner-sphere complex. Because manganese is often found in the environment as a minor component associated with major mineral components, such as goethite, understanding the molecular-level interactions of plutonium with

  19. Fast burner reactor benchmark results from the NEA working party on physics of plutonium recycle

    Hill, R.N.; Wade, D.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Palmiotti, G. [CEA - Cadarache, Saint-Paul-Les-Durance (France)

    1995-12-01

    As part of a program proposed by the OECD/NEA Working Party on Physics of Plutonium Recycling (WPPR) to evaluate different scenarios for the use of plutonium, fast reactor physics benchmarks were developed; fuel cycle scenarios using either PUREX/TRUEX (oxide fuel) or pyrometallurgical (metal fuel) separation technologies were specified. These benchmarks were designed to evaluate the nuclear performance and radiotoxicity impact of a transuranic-burning fast reactor system. International benchmark results are summarized in this paper; and key conclusions are highlighted.

  20. Static, Mixed-Array Total Evaporation for Improved Quantitation of Plutonium Minor Isotopes in Small Samples

    Stanley, F. E.; Byerly, Benjamin L.; Thomas, Mariam R.; Spencer, Khalil J.

    2016-06-01

    Actinide isotope measurements are a critical signature capability in the modern nuclear forensics "toolbox", especially when interrogating anthropogenic constituents in real-world scenarios. Unfortunately, established methodologies, such as traditional total evaporation via thermal ionization mass spectrometry, struggle to confidently measure low abundance isotope ratios (plutonium minor isotope measurements, which have been resistant to enhancement in recent years because of elevated radiologic concerns. Results are presented for small sample (~20 ng) applications involving a well-known plutonium isotope reference material, CRM-126a, and compared with traditional total evaporation methods.