WorldWideScience

Sample records for accelerator based production

  1. INTELLIGENT PRODUCT BASED ON MOBILE AGENT TO ACCELERATE THE NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhak Boulaalam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the ever-increasing demands products that are customized, all business activities performed along the product life cycle must be coordinated and efficiently managed along the extended enterprise. For this, enterprise had wanted to retain control over the whole product lifecycle especially when the product is in use/repair/recycling (End of Life phase. Although there have been many previous research works about product lifecycle management in the Beginning of Life (BOL and Middle of Life (MOL phases, few addressed the End of Life (EOL phase, in particular. In this study, based on Auto-ID combined with mobile multi-agent system technologies, we will try to improve innovation: (a by minimize the lunch phase, (b and the involvement of the customer in product lifecycle (voice of customer."

  2. Doppler Broadening Analysis of Steel Specimens Using Accelerator Based In Situ Pair Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarashvili, V.; Wells, D. P.; Roy, A. K.

    2009-03-01

    Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS) techniques can be utilized as a sensitive probe of defects in materials. Studying these microscopic defects is very important for a number of industries in order to predict material failure or structural integrity. We have been developing gamma-induced pair-production techniques to produce positrons in thick samples (˜4-40 g/cm2, or ˜0.5-5 cm in steel). These techniques are called 'Accelerator-based Gamma-induced Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy' (AG-PAS). We have begun testing the capabilities of this technique for imaging of defect densities in thick structural materials. As a first step, a linear accelerator (LINAC) was employed to produce photon beams by stopping 15 MeV electrons in a 1 mm thick tungsten converter. The accelerator is capable of operating with 30-60 ns pulse width, up to 200 mA peak current at 1 kHz repetition rate. The highly collimated bremsstrahlung beam impinged upon our steel tensile specimens, after traveling through a 1.2 m thick concrete wall. Annihilation radiation was detected by a well-shielded and collimated high-purity germanium detector (HPGe). Conventional Doppler broadening spectrometry (DBS) was performed to determine S, W and T parameters for our samples.

  3. Linear accelerator for radioisotope production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansborough, L.D.; Hamm, R.W.; Stovall, J.E.

    1982-02-01

    A 200- to 500-..mu..A source of 70- to 90-MeV protons would be a valuable asset to the nuclear medicine program. A linear accelerator (linac) can achieve this performance, and it can be extended to even higher energies and currents. Variable energy and current options are available. A 70-MeV linac is described, based on recent innovations in linear accelerator technology; it would be 27.3 m long and cost approx. $6 million. By operating the radio-frequency (rf) power system at a level necessary to produce a 500-..mu..A beam current, the cost of power deposited in the radioisotope-production target is comparable with existing cyclotrons. If the rf-power system is operated at full power, the same accelerator is capable of producing an 1140-..mu..A beam, and the cost per beam watt on the target is less than half that of comparable cyclotrons.

  4. Design and realization of a high productivity cluster-based network application reconfigurable accelerator board

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng Yu; Li Jun; Sun Ninghui; Wang Jie; Liu Zhaohui

    2008-01-01

    Improving processor frequency to strengthen massive data processing capability will lead to incremental server marginal costs and bring about a series of problems such as power consumption, management complexity, etc. Based on the field programmable gate array (FPGA), TCP offload engine (TOE), zero-copy and other key technologies, this paper describes the design and realization of a reconfigurable accelerator board. In this board, TCP/IP protocol will be moved to high-speed reconfigurable accelerator board. The packets will be labeled according to the protocol and submitted to the upper data processing software after IP-quintuple filtering in hardware. Reconfigurable accelerator board obtains higher performance speed-up compared with ordinary NIC card.

  5. Electron accelerator-based production of molybdenum-99: Bremsstrahlung and photoneutron generation from molybdenum vs. tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsechanski, A. [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Bielajew, A.F. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, The University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Archambault, J.P.; Mainegra-Hing, E. [National Research Council of Canada, Ionizing Radiation Standards Laboratory, Ottawa, ON K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2016-01-01

    A new “one-stage” approach for production of {sup 99}Mo and other radioisotopes by means of an electron linear accelerator is described. It is based on using a molybdenum target both as a bremsstrahlung converter and as a radioisotope producing target for the production of {sup 99}Mo via the photoneutron reaction {sup 100}Mo(γ,n){sup 99}Mo. Bremsstrahlung characteristics, such as bremsstrahlung efficiency, angular distribution, and energy deposition for molybdenum targets were obtained by means of the EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulation code system. As a result of our simulations, it is concluded that a 60 MeV electron beam incident on a thick Mo target will have greater bremsstrahlung efficiency than the same thickness (in units of r{sub 0}) W target, for target thickness z > 1.84r{sub 0}, where r{sub 0} is the electron range. A 50 MeV electron beam incident on a Mo target will result in greater bremsstrahlung efficiency than the same thickness W target (in units of r{sub 0}) for target thickness case: z ⩾ 2.0r{sub 0}. It is shown for the one-stage approach with thicknesses of (1.84–2.0)r{sub 0}, that the {sup 99}Mo-production bremsstrahlung efficiency of a molybdenum target is greater by ∼100% at 30 MeV and by ∼70% at 60 MeV compared to the values for tungsten of the same thickness (in units of the appropriate r{sub 0}) in the traditional two-stage approach (W converter and separate {sup 99}Mo producing target). This advantage of the one-stage approach arises from the fact that the bremsstrahlung produced is attenuated only once from attenuation in the molybdenum converter/target. In the traditional, two-stage approach, the bremsstrahlung generated in the W-converter/target is attenuated both in the converter in the {sup 99}Mo-producing molybdenum target. The photoneutron production yield of molybdenum and tantalum (as a substitute for tungsten) target was calculated by means of the MCNP5 transport code. On the basis of these data, the specific activity

  6. Electron accelerator-based production of molybdenum-99: Bremsstrahlung and photoneutron generation from molybdenum vs. tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsechanski, A.; Bielajew, A. F.; Archambault, J. P.; Mainegra-Hing, E.

    2016-01-01

    A new "one-stage" approach for production of 99Mo and other radioisotopes by means of an electron linear accelerator is described. It is based on using a molybdenum target both as a bremsstrahlung converter and as a radioisotope producing target for the production of 99Mo via the photoneutron reaction 100Mo(γ,n)99Mo. Bremsstrahlung characteristics, such as bremsstrahlung efficiency, angular distribution, and energy deposition for molybdenum targets were obtained by means of the EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulation code system. As a result of our simulations, it is concluded that a 60 MeV electron beam incident on a thick Mo target will have greater bremsstrahlung efficiency than the same thickness (in units of r0) W target, for target thickness z > 1.84r0, where r0 is the electron range. A 50 MeV electron beam incident on a Mo target will result in greater bremsstrahlung efficiency than the same thickness W target (in units of r0) for target thickness case: z ⩾ 2.0r0. It is shown for the one-stage approach with thicknesses of (1.84-2.0)r0, that the 99Mo-production bremsstrahlung efficiency of a molybdenum target is greater by ∼100% at 30 MeV and by ∼70% at 60 MeV compared to the values for tungsten of the same thickness (in units of the appropriate r0) in the traditional two-stage approach (W converter and separate 99Mo producing target). This advantage of the one-stage approach arises from the fact that the bremsstrahlung produced is attenuated only once from attenuation in the molybdenum converter/target. In the traditional, two-stage approach, the bremsstrahlung generated in the W-converter/target is attenuated both in the converter in the 99Mo-producing molybdenum target. The photoneutron production yield of molybdenum and tantalum (as a substitute for tungsten) target was calculated by means of the MCNP5 transport code. On the basis of these data, the specific activity for the one-stage approach of three enriched 100Mo-targets of a 2 cm diameter and

  7. The Tasse concept (thorium based accelerator driven system with simplified fuel cycle for long term energy production)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthou, V. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Slessarev, I.; Salvatores, M. [IRI, TU Delft (Netherlands)

    2001-07-01

    Within the framework of the nuclear waste management studies, the ''one-component''. concept has to be considered as an attractive option in the long-term perspective. This paper proposes a new system called TASSE (''Thorium based Accelerator driven System with Simplified fuel cycle for long term Energy production''.), destined to the current French park renewal. The main idea of the TASSE concept is to simplify both the front and the back end of the fuel cycle, and his major goals are to provide electricity with low waste production, and with an economical competitiveness. (author)

  8. Plasma-based accelerator structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Carl B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Plasma-based accelerators have the ability to sustain extremely large accelerating gradients, with possible high-energy physics applications. This dissertation further develops the theory of plasma-based accelerators by addressing three topics: the performance of a hollow plasma channel as an accelerating structure, the generation of ultrashort electron bunches, and the propagation of laser pulses is underdense plasmas.

  9. Production of S-band Accelerating Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Piel, C; Vogel, H; Vom Stein, P

    2004-01-01

    ACCEL currently produces accelerating structures for several scientific laboratories. Multi-cell cavities at S-band frequencies are required for the projects CLIC-driver-linac, DLS and ASP pre-injector linac and the MAMI-C microtron. Based on those projects differences and similarities in design, production technologies and requirements will be addressed.

  10. Accelerator based production of auger-electron-emitting isotopes for radionuclide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thisgaard, H.

    2008-08-15

    In this research project the focus has been on the identification and production of new, unconventional Auger-electron-emitting isotopes for targeted radionuclide therapy of cancer. Based on 1st principles dosimetry calculations on the subcellular level, the Auger-emitter 119Sb has been identified as a potent candidate for therapy. The corresponding imaging analogue 117Sb has been shown from planar scintigraphy and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to be suitable for SPECT-based dosimetry of a future Sb-labeled radiopharmaceutical. The production method of these radioisotopes has been developed using a low-energy cyclotron via the nuclear reactions 119Sn(p,n)119Sb and 117Sn(p,n)117Sb including measurements of the excitation function for the former reaction. Moreover, a new high-yield radiochemical separation method has been developed to allow the subsequent separation of the produced 119Sb from the enriched 119Sn target material with high radionuclidic- and chemical purity. A method that also allows efficient recovery of the 119Sn for recycling. To demonstrate the ability of producing therapeutic quantities of 119Sb and other radioisotopes for therapy with a low-energy cyclotron, two new 'High Power' cyclotron targets were developed in this study. The target development was primarily based on theoretical thermal modeling calculations using finite-element-analysis software. With these targets, I have shown that it will be possible to produce several tens of GBq of therapeutics isotopes (e.g. 119Sb or 64Cu) using the PETtrace cyclotron commonly found at the larger PET-centers in the hospitals. Finally, research in a new method to measure the radiotoxicity of Auger-emitters invitro using cellular microinjection has been carried out. The purpose of this method is to be able to experimentally evaluate and compare the potency of the new and unconventional Auger-emitters (e.g. 119Sb). However, due to experimental complications, the development

  11. Essays on Accelerated Product Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Cancurtaran (Pinar)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The past three decades have seen many companies adopting time-based strategies in an effort to bring their products to market quickly. While this trend in the industry has given rise to extensive scholarly interest in product development speed, extant literature has yet

  12. Production, Characterization, and Acceleration of Optical Microbunches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, Christopher M.S. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2008-06-20

    Optical microbunches with a spacing of 800 nm have been produced for laser acceleration research. The microbunches are produced using a inverse Free-Electron-Laser (IFEL) followed by a dispersive chicane. The microbunched electron beam is characterized by coherent optical transition radiation (COTR) with good agreement to the analytic theory for bunch formation. In a second experiment the bunches are accelerated in a second stage to achieve for the first time direct net acceleration of electrons traveling in a vacuum with visible light. This dissertation presents the theory of microbunch formation and characterization of the microbunches. It also presents the design of the experimental hardware from magnetostatic and particle tracking simulations, to fabrication and measurement of the undulator and chicane magnets. Finally, the dissertation discusses three experiments aimed at demonstrating the IFEL interaction, microbunch production, and the net acceleration of the microbunched beam. At the close of the dissertation, a separate but related research effort on the tight focusing of electrons for coupling into optical scale, Photonic Bandgap, structures is presented. This includes the design and fabrication of a strong focusing permanent magnet quadrupole triplet and an outline of an initial experiment using the triplet to observe wakefields generated by an electron beam passing through an optical scale accelerator.

  13. The production of accelerated radioactive ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.K.

    1993-11-01

    During the last few years, substantial work has been done and interest developed in the scientific opportunities available with accelerated radioactive ion beams (RIBs) for nuclear physics, astrophysics, and applied research. This interest has led to the construction, development, and proposed development of both first- and second-generation RIB facilities in Asia, North America, and Europe; international conferences on RIBs at Berkeley and Louvain-la-Neuve; and many workshops on specific aspects of RIB production and science. This paper provides a discussion of both the projectile fragmentation, PF, and isotope separator on-line, ISOL, approach to RIB production with particular emphasis on the latter approach, which employs a postaccelerator and is most suitable for nuclear structure physics. The existing, under construction, and proposed facilities worldwide are discussed. The paper draws heavily from the CERN ISOLDE work, the North American IsoSpin Laboratory (ISL) study, and the operating first-generation RIB facility at Louvain-la-Neuve, and the first-generation RIB project currently being constructed at ORNL.

  14. Radiative damping in plasma-based accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyukov, I. Yu.; Nerush, E. N.; Litvak, A. G.

    2012-11-01

    The electrons accelerated in a plasma-based accelerator undergo betatron oscillations and emit synchrotron radiation. The energy loss to synchrotron radiation may seriously affect electron acceleration. The electron dynamics under combined influence of the constant accelerating force and the classical radiation reaction force is studied. It is shown that electron acceleration cannot be limited by radiation reaction. If initially the accelerating force was stronger than the radiation reaction force, then the electron acceleration is unlimited. Otherwise the electron is decelerated by radiative damping up to a certain instant of time and then accelerated without limits. It is shown that regardless of the initial conditions the infinite-time asymptotic behavior of an electron is governed by a self-similar solution providing that the radiative damping becomes exactly equal to 2/3 of the accelerating force. The relative energy spread induced by the radiative damping decreases with time in the infinite-time limit. The multistage schemes operating in the asymptotic acceleration regime when electron dynamics is determined by the radiation reaction are discussed.

  15. Electrophysical Systems Based On Charged Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Vorogushin, M F

    2004-01-01

    The advancement of the charged particle accelerator engineering affects appreciably the modern tendencies of the scientific and technological progress in the world. In a number of advanced countries, this trend is one of the most dynamically progressing in the field of applied science and high-technology production. Such internationally known firms as VARIAN, SIEMENS, PHILIPS, ELECTA, IBA, HITACHI, etc., with an annual budget of milliards of dollars and growth rate of tens of percent may serve as an example. Although nowadays the projects of new large-scale accelerators for physical research are not implemented so quickly and frequently as desired, accelerating facilities are finding ever-widening application in various fields of human activities. The contribution made by Russian scientists into high-energy beams physics is generally known. High scientific and technical potential in this field, qualified personnel with a high creative potential, modern production and test facilities and state-of-the-art techn...

  16. PRODUCTION AND APPLICATIONS OF NEUTRONS USING PARTICLE ACCELERATORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David L. Chichester

    2009-11-01

    Advances in neutron science have gone hand in hand with the development and of particle accelerators from the beginning of both fields of study. Early accelerator systems were developed simply to produce neutrons, allowing scientists to study their properties and how neutrons interact in matter, but people quickly realized that more tangible uses existed too. Today the diversity of applications for industrial accelerator-based neutron sources is high and so to is the actual number of instruments in daily use is high, and they serve important roles in the fields where they're used. This chapter presents a technical introduction to the different ways particle accelerators are used to produce neutrons, an historical overview of the early development of neutron-producing particle accelerators, a description of some current industrial accelerator systems, narratives of the fields where neutron-producing particle accelerators are used today, and comments on future trends in the industrial uses of neutron producing particle accelerators.

  17. Production and applications of neutrons using particle accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chichester, David L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Advances in neutron science have gone hand in hand with the development and of particle accelerators from the beginning of both fields of study. Early accelerator systems were developed simply to produce neutrons, allowing scientists to study their properties and how neutrons interact in matter, but people quickly realized that more tangible uses existed too. Today the diversity of applications for industrial accelerator-based neutron sources is high and so to is the actual number of instruments in daily use is high, and they serve important roles in the fields where they're used. This chapter presents a technical introduction to the different ways particle accelerators are used to produce neutrons, an historical overview of the early development of neutron-producing particle accelerators, a description of some current industrial accelerator systems, narratives of the fields where neutron-producing particle accelerators are used today, and comments on future trends in the industrial uses of neutron producing particle accelerators.

  18. Effect of Halide Flux on Physicochemical Properties of MgCl2-Based Molten Salts for Accelerating Zirconium Production: Thermodynamic Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae Hong; Park, Joo Hyun

    2016-09-01

    The effective halide flux additive for increasing the density of MgCl2 mixture and for decreasing the activity of MgCl2 was investigated in order to improve the reaction efficiency between gaseous ZrCl4 and fresh Mg melt to produce zirconium sponge. Thermochemical computation using FactSageTM software was primarily carried out, followed by the experimental confirmation. The addition of CaCl2, BaCl2, MgF2, and CaF2 to the molten MgCl2 increases the density of the melts, indicating that these halide additives can be a candidate to increase the density of the MgCl2-based molten salts. Among them, BaCl2, MgF2, and CaF2 are the useful additives. The activity of MgCl2 can be reduced by the addition of BaCl2, KCl, NaCl, MgF2, and CaF2, among which the CaF2 is the most effective additive to reduce the activity of MgCl2 with the strongest negative deviation from an ideality. Thus, the addition of CaF2 to the MgCl2, forming the MgCl2-CaF2 binary melt, is the most effective way not only to increase the density of the melt but also to decrease the activity of MgCl2, which was experimentally confirmed. Consequently, the production rate of zirconium sponge by magnesiothermic reduction process can be accelerated by the addition of CaF2.

  19. Contribution to a proposition for a long term development of nuclear energy: the TASSE concept (Thorium based Accelerator driven System with Simplified fuel cycle for long term Energy Production); Contribution a une proposition d'un developpement a long terme de l'energie nucleaire: le concept TASSE (Thorium based Accelerator driven System with Simplified fuel cycle for long term Energy Production)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthou, V

    2000-10-30

    Nuclear industry creates waste which are in the middle of the discussion concerning the Nuclear Energy future. At this time, important decisions for the Energy production must be taken, so numerous researches are conducted within the framework of the Bataille law. The goal of these studies is to find a range of solutions concerning the waste management. An innovative system, called TASSE (Thorium based Accelerator driven System with Simplified fuel cycle for long term Energy production), is studied in this thesis. This reactor is included in a long term strategy, and is destined for the renewal of the reactor park. In the first part of this work, the main characteristics of TASSE have been defined. They are commensurate with some specific requirements such as: to insure a large time to the Nuclear Energy, to reduce the waste production in an important way, to eliminate waste already stocked in the present park, to insure the non proliferation, and to be economically competitive. Neutronics studies of TASSE have been done. A calculation procedure has been developed to reach the system equilibrium state. Several types of molten salts as well as a pebble-bed fuel have been studied. Thus, an optimal fuel has been brought out in regard to some parameters such as the burn up level, the spectrum, the waste toxicity, the cycle type. Eventually, various TASSE core layout have been envisaged. (author)

  20. Plasma production for electron acceleration by resonant plasma wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anania, M. P.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Croia, M.; Curcio, A.; Di Giovenale, D.; Di Pirro, G. P.; Filippi, F.; Ghigo, A.; Lollo, V.; Pella, S.; Pompili, R.; Romeo, S.; Ferrario, M.

    2016-09-01

    Plasma wakefield acceleration is the most promising acceleration technique known nowadays, able to provide very high accelerating fields (10-100 GV/m), enabling acceleration of electrons to GeV energy in few centimeter. However, the quality of the electron bunches accelerated with this technique is still not comparable with that of conventional accelerators (large energy spread, low repetition rate, and large emittance); radiofrequency-based accelerators, in fact, are limited in accelerating field (10-100 MV/m) requiring therefore hundred of meters of distances to reach the GeV energies, but can provide very bright electron bunches. To combine high brightness electron bunches from conventional accelerators and high accelerating fields reachable with plasmas could be a good compromise allowing to further accelerate high brightness electron bunches coming from LINAC while preserving electron beam quality. Following the idea of plasma wave resonant excitation driven by a train of short bunches, we have started to study the requirements in terms of plasma for SPARC_LAB (Ferrario et al., 2013 [1]). In particular here we focus on hydrogen plasma discharge, and in particular on the theoretical and numerical estimates of the ionization process which are very useful to design the discharge circuit and to evaluate the current needed to be supplied to the gas in order to have full ionization. Eventually, the current supplied to the gas simulated will be compared to that measured experimentally.

  1. Plasma production for electron acceleration by resonant plasma wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anania, M.P., E-mail: maria.pia.anania@lnf.infn.it [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi, 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi, 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Cianchi, A. [University of Rome Tor Vergata - INFN, via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); INFN, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Croia, M.; Curcio, A. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi, 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); University of Rome La Sapienza, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Di Giovenale, D.; Di Pirro, G.P. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi, 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Filippi, F. [University of Rome La Sapienza, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Ghigo, A.; Lollo, V.; Pella, S.; Pompili, R. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi, 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Romeo, S. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi, 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); University of Rome La Sapienza, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Ferrario, M. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi, 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy)

    2016-09-01

    Plasma wakefield acceleration is the most promising acceleration technique known nowadays, able to provide very high accelerating fields (10–100 GV/m), enabling acceleration of electrons to GeV energy in few centimeter. However, the quality of the electron bunches accelerated with this technique is still not comparable with that of conventional accelerators (large energy spread, low repetition rate, and large emittance); radiofrequency-based accelerators, in fact, are limited in accelerating field (10–100 MV/m) requiring therefore hundred of meters of distances to reach the GeV energies, but can provide very bright electron bunches. To combine high brightness electron bunches from conventional accelerators and high accelerating fields reachable with plasmas could be a good compromise allowing to further accelerate high brightness electron bunches coming from LINAC while preserving electron beam quality. Following the idea of plasma wave resonant excitation driven by a train of short bunches, we have started to study the requirements in terms of plasma for SPARC-LAB (Ferrario et al., 2013 [1]). In particular here we focus on hydrogen plasma discharge, and in particular on the theoretical and numerical estimates of the ionization process which are very useful to design the discharge circuit and to evaluate the current needed to be supplied to the gas in order to have full ionization. Eventually, the current supplied to the gas simulated will be compared to that measured experimentally.

  2. An accelerator-based epithermal photoneutron source for BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigg, D.W.; Mitchell, H.E.; Harker, Y.D.; Yoon, W.Y. [and others

    1995-11-01

    Therapeutically-useful epithermal-neutron beams for BNCT are currently generated by nuclear reactors. Various accelerator-based neutron sources for BNCT have been proposed and some low intensity prototypes of such sources, generally featuring the use of proton beams and beryllium or lithium targets have been constructed. This paper describes an alternate approach to the realization of a clinically useful accelerator-based source of epithermal neutrons for BNCT that reconciles the often conflicting objectives of target cooling, neutron beam intensity, and neutron beam spectral purity via a two stage photoneutron production process.

  3. Production of an accelerated oxygen-14 beam

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, J; Cerny, J

    2003-01-01

    BEARS is an ongoing project to provide a light-ion radioactive-beam capability at the 88-Inch Cyclotron at LBNL. Light radioactive isotopes are produced at a 10 MeV proton medical cyclotron, transported 350 m via a high-speed gas transport capillary, cryogenically separated, and injected into the 88-Inch Cyclotron's ion source. The first radioactive beam successfully accelerated was carbon-11 and beams of intensity more than 10 sup 8 ions/s have been utilized for experiments. Development of oxygen-14 as the second BEARS beam presented considerable technical challenges, both due to its short half-life of 71 s and the radiation chemistry of oxygen in the target. The usual techniques developed for medical uses of oxygen-15 involve the addition of significant amounts of carrier oxygen, something that would overload the ion source. As a solution, oxygen-14 is produced as water in a carrier-free form, and is chemically converted in two steps to carbon dioxide, a form readily usable by the BEARS. This system has bee...

  4. Spectrum shaping of accelerator-based neutron beams for BNCT

    CERN Document Server

    Montagnini, B; Esposito, J; Giusti, V; Mattioda, F; Varone, R

    2002-01-01

    We describe Monte Carlo simulations of three facilities for the production of epithermal neutrons for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) and examine general aspects and problems of designing the spectrum-shaping assemblies to be used with these neutron sources. The first facility is based on an accelerator-driven low-power subcritical reactor, operating as a neutron amplifier. The other two facilities have no amplifier and rely entirely on their primary sources, a D-T fusion reaction device and a conventional 2.5 MeV proton accelerator with a Li target, respectively.

  5. Lifetime prediction based on Gamma processes from accelerated degradation data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Haowei; Xu Tingxue; Mi Qiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Accelerated degradation test is a useful approach to predict the product lifetime at the normal use stress level, especially for highly reliable products. Two kinds of the lifetime prediction based on Gamma processes were studied. One was to predict the lifetime of the population from accelerated degradation data, and the other was to predict the lifetime of an individual by taking the accelerated degradation data as prior information. For an extensive application, the Gamma process with a time transformation and random effects was considered. A novel contribution is that a deducing method for determining the relationships between the shape and scale parameters of Gamma processes and accelerated stresses was presented. When predicting the lifetime of an indi-vidual, Bayesian inference methods were adopted to improve the prediction accuracy, in which the conjugate prior distribution and the non-conjugate prior distribution of random parameters were studied. The conjugate prior distribution only considers the random effect of the scale parameter while the non-conjugate prior distribution considers the random effects of both the scale and shape parameter. The application and usefulness of the proposed method was demonstrated by the accelerated degradation data of carbon-film resistors.

  6. Accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Deborah A.; /Fermilab

    2007-12-01

    Neutrino oscillations were first discovered by experiments looking at neutrinos coming from extra-terrestrial sources, namely the sun and the atmosphere, but we will be depending on earth-based sources to take many of the next steps in this field. This article describes what has been learned so far from accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments, and then describe very generally what the next accelerator-based steps are. In section 2 the article discusses how one uses an accelerator to make a neutrino beam, in particular, one made from decays in flight of charged pions. There are several different neutrino detection methods currently in use, or under development. In section 3 these are presented, with a description of the general concept, an example of such a detector, and then a brief discussion of the outstanding issues associated with this detection technique. Finally, section 4 describes how the measurements of oscillation probabilities are made. This includes a description of the near detector technique and how it can be used to make the most precise measurements of neutrino oscillations.

  7. Design Concepts for Muon-Based Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryne, R. D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Berg, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kirk, H. G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Palmer, R. B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stratkis, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Alexahin, Y. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Bross, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Gollwitzer, K. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Mokhov, N. V. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Neuffer, D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Palmer, M. A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Yonehara, K. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Snopok, P. [IIT, Chicago, IL (United States); Bogacz, A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Roberts, T. J. [Muons Inc., Batavia, IL (United States); Delahaye, J. -P. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Muon-based accelerators have the potential to enable facilities at both the Intensity and the Energy Frontiers. Muon storage rings can serve as high precision neutrino sources, and a muon collider is an ideal technology for a TeV or multi-TeV collider. Progress in muon accelerator designs has advanced steadily in recent years. In regard to 6D muon cooling, detailed and realistic designs now exist that provide more than 5 order-of-magnitude emittance reduction. Furthermore, detector performance studies indicate that with suitable pixelation and timing resolution, backgrounds in the collider detectors can be significantly reduced, thus enabling high-quality physics results. Thanks to these and other advances in design & simulation of muon systems, technology development, and systems demonstrations, muon storage-ring-based neutrino sources and a muon collider appear more feasible than ever before. A muon collider is now arguably among the most compelling approaches to a multi-TeV lepton collider. This paper summarizes the current status of design concepts for muon-based accelerators for neutrino factories and a muon collider.

  8. Highly Productive Application Development with ViennaCL for Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, K.; Weinbub, J.; Rudolf, F.

    2012-12-01

    The use of graphics processing units (GPUs) for the acceleration of general purpose computations has become very attractive over the last years, and accelerators based on many integrated CPU cores are about to hit the market. However, there are discussions about the benefit of GPU computing when comparing the reduction of execution times with the increased development effort [1]. To counter these concerns, our open-source linear algebra library ViennaCL [2,3] uses modern programming techniques such as generic programming in order to provide a convenient access layer for accelerator and GPU computing. Other GPU-accelerated libraries are primarily tuned for performance, but less tailored to productivity and portability: MAGMA [4] provides dense linear algebra operations via a LAPACK-comparable interface, but no dedicated matrix and vector types. Cusp [5] is closest in functionality to ViennaCL for sparse matrices, but is based on CUDA and thus restricted to devices from NVIDIA. However, no convenience layer for dense linear algebra is provided with Cusp. ViennaCL is written in C++ and uses OpenCL to access the resources of accelerators, GPUs and multi-core CPUs in a unified way. On the one hand, the library provides iterative solvers from the family of Krylov methods, including various preconditioners, for the solution of linear systems typically obtained from the discretization of partial differential equations. On the other hand, dense linear algebra operations are supported, including algorithms such as QR factorization and singular value decomposition. The user application interface of ViennaCL is compatible to uBLAS [6], which is part of the peer-reviewed Boost C++ libraries [7]. This allows to port existing applications based on uBLAS with a minimum of effort to ViennaCL. Conversely, the interface compatibility allows to use the iterative solvers from ViennaCL with uBLAS types directly, thus enabling code reuse beyond CPU-GPU boundaries. Out-of-the-box support

  9. An overview of an accelerator-based neutron spallation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lessner, E.S.

    1996-06-01

    An overview of the feasibility study of a 1-MW pulsed spallation source is presented. The machine delivers 1 MW of proton beam power to spallation targets where slow neutrons are produced. The slow neutrons can be used for isotope production, materials irradiation, and neutron scattering research. The neutron source facility is based on a rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) and consists of a 400-MeV linac, a 30-Hz RCS that accelerates the 400-MeV beam to 2 GeV, and two neutron-generating target stations. The RCS accelerates an average proton beam current of 0.5 mA, corresponding to 1.04 x 10{sup 14} protons per pulse. This intensity is about two times higher than that of existing machines. A key feature of this accelerator system design is that beam losses are minimized from injection to extraction, reducing activation to levels consistent with hands-on maintenance.

  10. Generating clock signals for a cycle accurate, cycle reproducible FPGA based hardware accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaad, Sameth W.; Kapur, Mohit

    2016-01-05

    A method, system and computer program product are disclosed for generating clock signals for a cycle accurate FPGA based hardware accelerator used to simulate operations of a device-under-test (DUT). In one embodiment, the DUT includes multiple device clocks generating multiple device clock signals at multiple frequencies and at a defined frequency ratio; and the FPG hardware accelerator includes multiple accelerator clocks generating multiple accelerator clock signals to operate the FPGA hardware accelerator to simulate the operations of the DUT. In one embodiment, operations of the DUT are mapped to the FPGA hardware accelerator, and the accelerator clock signals are generated at multiple frequencies and at the defined frequency ratio of the frequencies of the multiple device clocks, to maintain cycle accuracy between the DUT and the FPGA hardware accelerator. In an embodiment, the FPGA hardware accelerator may be used to control the frequencies of the multiple device clocks.

  11. Accelerator Based Tools of Stockpile Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seestrom, Susan

    2017-01-01

    The Manhattan Project had to solve difficult challenges in physics and materials science. During the cold war a large nuclear stockpile was developed. In both cases, the approach was largely empirical. Today that stockpile must be certified without nuclear testing, a task that becomes more difficult as the stockpile ages. I will discuss the role of modern accelerator based experiments, such as x-ray radiography, proton radiography, neutron and nuclear physics experiments, in stockpile stewardship. These new tools provide data of exceptional sensitivity and are answering questions about the stockpile, improving our scientific understanding, and providing validation for the computer simulations that are relied upon to certify todays' stockpile.

  12. Accelerated GPU based SPECT Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marie-Paule; Bert, Julien; Benoit, Didier; Bardiès, Manuel; Visvikis, Dimitris

    2016-06-07

    Monte Carlo (MC) modelling is widely used in the field of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) as it is a reliable technique to simulate very high quality scans. This technique provides very accurate modelling of the radiation transport and particle interactions in a heterogeneous medium. Various MC codes exist for nuclear medicine imaging simulations. Recently, new strategies exploiting the computing capabilities of graphical processing units (GPU) have been proposed. This work aims at evaluating the accuracy of such GPU implementation strategies in comparison to standard MC codes in the context of SPECT imaging. GATE was considered the reference MC toolkit and used to evaluate the performance of newly developed GPU Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulation (GGEMS) modules for SPECT imaging. Radioisotopes with different photon energies were used with these various CPU and GPU Geant4-based MC codes in order to assess the best strategy for each configuration. Three different isotopes were considered: (99m) Tc, (111)In and (131)I, using a low energy high resolution (LEHR) collimator, a medium energy general purpose (MEGP) collimator and a high energy general purpose (HEGP) collimator respectively. Point source, uniform source, cylindrical phantom and anthropomorphic phantom acquisitions were simulated using a model of the GE infinia II 3/8" gamma camera. Both simulation platforms yielded a similar system sensitivity and image statistical quality for the various combinations. The overall acceleration factor between GATE and GGEMS platform derived from the same cylindrical phantom acquisition was between 18 and 27 for the different radioisotopes. Besides, a full MC simulation using an anthropomorphic phantom showed the full potential of the GGEMS platform, with a resulting acceleration factor up to 71. The good agreement with reference codes and the acceleration factors obtained support the use of GPU implementation strategies for improving computational

  13. Accelerated GPU based SPECT Monte Carlo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marie-Paule; Bert, Julien; Benoit, Didier; Bardiès, Manuel; Visvikis, Dimitris

    2016-06-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) modelling is widely used in the field of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) as it is a reliable technique to simulate very high quality scans. This technique provides very accurate modelling of the radiation transport and particle interactions in a heterogeneous medium. Various MC codes exist for nuclear medicine imaging simulations. Recently, new strategies exploiting the computing capabilities of graphical processing units (GPU) have been proposed. This work aims at evaluating the accuracy of such GPU implementation strategies in comparison to standard MC codes in the context of SPECT imaging. GATE was considered the reference MC toolkit and used to evaluate the performance of newly developed GPU Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulation (GGEMS) modules for SPECT imaging. Radioisotopes with different photon energies were used with these various CPU and GPU Geant4-based MC codes in order to assess the best strategy for each configuration. Three different isotopes were considered: 99m Tc, 111In and 131I, using a low energy high resolution (LEHR) collimator, a medium energy general purpose (MEGP) collimator and a high energy general purpose (HEGP) collimator respectively. Point source, uniform source, cylindrical phantom and anthropomorphic phantom acquisitions were simulated using a model of the GE infinia II 3/8" gamma camera. Both simulation platforms yielded a similar system sensitivity and image statistical quality for the various combinations. The overall acceleration factor between GATE and GGEMS platform derived from the same cylindrical phantom acquisition was between 18 and 27 for the different radioisotopes. Besides, a full MC simulation using an anthropomorphic phantom showed the full potential of the GGEMS platform, with a resulting acceleration factor up to 71. The good agreement with reference codes and the acceleration factors obtained support the use of GPU implementation strategies for improving computational efficiency

  14. Cache-based memory copy hardware accelerator for multicore systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, F.; Wong, S.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new architecture of the cache-based memory copy hardware accelerator in a multicore system supporting message passing. The accelerator is able to accelerate memory data movements, in particular memory copies. We perform an analytical analysis based on open-queuing theory

  15. Radioisotope Productions for Medical Use with Accelerator Neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minato, Futoshi; Nagai, Yasuki; Iwamoto, Nobuyuki; Iwamoto, Osamu

    2014-09-01

    Various kinds of radioactive isotopes (RIs) are widely used in nuclear medicine for diagnostics and therapy. Since the RIs are not usually present in the nature, they must be produced by nuclear reactors and accelerators. For instance, 99mTc, which is the most common RI used in diagnosis, is mainly produced by fission of highly enriched 235U (HEU) in nuclear reactors. However, use of the HEU is unfavorable in terms of nuclear security. Therefore, many methods without 235U have been studied in order to produce RIs for medical use; for example, thermal neutron capture, gamma disintegration, and proton induced reactions. We also have proposed an alternative method using accelerator neutrons besides the above methods. Technique producing high intense accelerator neutron beam as much as 1015 n/s is being developed and RI productions with the accelerator neutron have been done recently. The major advantages of the use of accelerator neutron are followings. 1) A wide variety of carrier-added and carrier-free radioisotopes can be produced using the neutrons, because a charge exchange reaction of a sample nucleus has a sizable cross section of 50 to 500 mb. 2) High transparency of neutron allows us to use a large amount of sample to co-produce other RIs by putting other samples behind the main sample in the beam direction. In this talk, we will show the features of RI productions with accelerator neutron which we have ever investigated and found, along with numerical results of RI yields calculated with Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (JENDL-4.0).

  16. First accelerator-based physics of 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Experiments in the East Area received their first beams from the PS this week. Theirs is CERN's first accelerator-based physics since LS1 began last year.   For the East Area, the PS performs a so-called slow extraction, where beam is extracted during many revolution periods (the time it take for particles to go around the PS, ~2.1 μs). The yellow line shows the circulating beam current in the PS, decreasing slowly during the slow extraction, which lasts 350 ms. The green line is the measured proton intensity in the transfer line toward the East Area target. Although LHC physics is still far away, we can now confirm that the injectors are producing physics! In the East Area - the experimental area behind the PS - the T9 and T10 beam lines are providing beams for physics. These beam lines serve experiments such as AIDA - which looks at new detector solutions for future accelerators - and the ALICE Inner Tracking System - which tests components for the ALICE experiment. &qu...

  17. Influence of Intuition and Capability on Accelerated Product Development in Big-Medium Scaled Food Companies in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pepey Riawati Kurnia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To face the pressure of competition, more and more companies perform accelerated product development by shortening the product development time so that the product will arrive at the market at the shortest time. Food industry has also performed accelerated product development. Using evolution theory, contingency theory, market-based view, and resource-based view a research model has been built. Results of the research’s initial identification show that food industry in Indonesia is in growth level towards maturity level. Meanwhile, competition in the food industry is in moderate level towards hypercompetition level. Tactics of accelerated product development often carried out is by simplifying the product development steps to eliminating the product development steps. The innovation type used is incremental innovation since it is fast and easy. Results of the research give information that intuition and capabilities are the main motivating factors for big-medium scaled food companies in Indonesia to accelerate product development.

  18. Energy spread in plasma-based acceleration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitsma, A.; Trines, R.; Goloviznin, V.

    2000-01-01

    Electron acceleration in a one-dimensional plasma wave has been simulated, with emphasis on minimizing the energy spread of an accelerated electron bunch, while keeping the mean energy gain at a reasonable level. Bunch length, beam loading, and the injection phase are tuned to reach this goal. The s

  19. Advocating for Grade-Based Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbault, Keri M.

    2014-01-01

    Parents often struggle with the decision to accelerate their child and may worry about social and emotional issues, although research indicates positive effects on the social and emotional adjustment of carefully selected accelerants. As children's advocates, parents can work effectively with a school system to secure an appropriate academic…

  20. Production of accelerating quad Airy beams and their optical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhijun; Wu, Qiong; Shi, Yile; Chen, Chen; Wu, Jiangmiao; Wang, Hui

    2014-06-16

    Based on a geometric caustic argument and diffraction catastrophe theory, we generate a novel form of accelerating beams using a symmetric 3/2 phase-only pattern. Such beams can be called accelerating quad Airy beams (AQABs) because they look very much like four face-to-face combined Airy beams. Optical characteristics of AQABs are subsequently investigated. The research results show that the beams have axial-symmetrical and centrosymmetrical transverse intensity patterns and quasi-diffraction-free propagation features for their four main lobes while undergoing transverse shift along parabolic trajectories. Moreover, we also demonstrate that AQABs possess self-construction ability when local areas are blocked. The unique optical properties of these beams will make them useful tools for future scientific applications.

  1. Energy Efficient FPGA based Hardware Accelerators for Financial Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenn Toft, Jakob; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) based accelerators are very suitable to implement application-specific processors using uncommon operations or number systems. In this work, we design FPGA-based accelerators for two financial computations with different characteristics and we compare...

  2. Accelerator-based neutrino oscillation searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, D. A.; Rameika, R.; Stanton, N.

    This paper attempts to summarize the neutrino oscillation section of the Workshop on Future Directions in Particle and Nuclear Physics at Multi-GeV Hadron Beam Facilities. There were very lively discussions about the merits of the different oscillation channels, experiments, and facilities, but we believe a substantial consensus emerged. First, the next decade is one of great potential for discovery in neutrino physics, but it is also one of great peril. The possibility that neutrino oscillations explain the solar neutrino and atmospheric neutrino experiments, and the indirect evidence that Hot Dark Matter (HDM) in the form of light neutrinos might make up 30% of the mass of the universe, point to areas where accelerator-based experiments could play a crucial role in piecing together the puzzle. At the same time, the field faces a very uncertain future. The LSND experiment at LAMPF is the only funded neutrino oscillation experiment in the United States and it is threatened by the abrupt shutdown of LAMPF proposed for fiscal 1994. The future of neutrino physics at the Brookhaven National Laboratory AGS depends on the continuation of High Energy Physics (HEP) funding after the RHIC startup. Most proposed neutrino oscillation searches at Fermilab depend on the completion of the Main Injector project and on the construction of a new neutrino beamline, which is uncertain at this point. The proposed KAON facility at TRIUMF would provide a neutrino beam similar to that at the AGS but with a much increased intensity. The future of KAON is also uncertain. Despite the difficult obstacles present, there is a real possibility that we are on the verge of understanding the masses and mixings of the neutrinos. The physics importance of such a discovery cannot be overstated. The current experimental status and future possibilities are discussed.

  3. Accelerator Production of Tritium Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Input Submittal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, L.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Greene, G.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Boyack, B.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-02-01

    The Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Tritium Supply and Recycling considers several methods for the production of tritium. One of these methods is the Accelerator Production of Tritium. This report summarizes the design characteristics of APT including the accelerator, target/blanket, tritium extraction facility, and the balance of plant. Two spallation targets are considered: (1) a tungsten neutron-source target and (2) a lead neutron-source target. In the tungsten target concept, the neutrons are captured by the circulating He-3, thus producing tritium; in the lead target concept, the tritium is produced by neutron capture by Li-6 in a surrounding lithium-aluminum blanket. This report also provides information to support the PEIS including construction and operational resource needs, waste generation, and potential routine and accidental releases of radioactive material. The focus of the report is on the impacts of a facility that will produce 3/8th of the baseline goal of tritium. However, some information is provided on the impacts of APT facilities that would produce smaller quantities.

  4. Hadron production measurements to constrain accelerator neutrino beams

    CERN Document Server

    Korzenev, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    A precise prediction of expected neutrino fluxes is required for a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment. The flux is used to measure neutrino cross sections at the near detector, while at the far detector it provides an estimate of the expected signal for the study of neutrino oscillations. In the talk several approaches to constrain the neutrino flux are presented. The first is the traditional one when an interaction chain for the neutrino parent hadrons is stored to be weighted later with real measurements. In this approach differential hadron cross sections are used which, in turn, are measured in ancillary hadron production experiments. The approach is certainly model dependent because it requires an extrapolation to different incident nucleon momenta assuming x_F scaling as well as extrapolation between materials having different atomic numbers. In the second approach one uses a hadron production yields off a real target exploited in the neutrino beamline. Yields of neutrino parent hadrons are p...

  5. Streamlining workflow and automation to accelerate laboratory scale protein production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konczal, Jennifer; Gray, Christopher H

    2017-03-19

    Protein production facilities are often required to produce diverse arrays of proteins for demanding methodologies including crystallography, NMR, ITC and other reagent intensive techniques. It is common for these teams to find themselves a bottleneck in the pipeline of ambitious projects. This pressure to deliver has resulted in the evolution of many novel methods to increase capacity and throughput at all stages in the pipeline for generation of recombinant proteins. This review aims to describe current and emerging options to accelerate the success of protein production in Escherichia coli. We emphasize technologies that have been evaluated and implemented in our laboratory, including innovative molecular biology and expression vectors, small-scale expression screening strategies and the automation of parallel and multidimensional chromatography.

  6. Developing an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) based on electron accelerators and heavy water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizi, H.; Ranjbar, A. H.

    2016-02-01

    An ADS based on electron accelerators has been developed specifically for energy generation and medical applications. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed using FLUKA code to design a hybrid electron target and the core components. The composition, geometry of conversion targets and the coolant system have been optimized for electron beam energies of 20 to 100 MeV . Furthermore, the photon and photoneutron energy spectra, distribution and energy deposition for various incoming electron beam powers have been studied. Light-heavy water of various mixtures have been used as heat removal for the targets, as γ-n converters and as neutron moderators. We have shown that an electron LINAC, as a neutron production driver for ADSs, is capable of producing a neutron output of > 3.5 × 1014 (n/s/mA). Accordingly, the feasibility of an electron-based ADS employing the designed features is promising for energy generation and high intense neutron production which have various applications such as medical therapies.

  7. A New Accelerator-Based Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gove, H. E.

    1983-01-01

    Tandem electrostatic accelerators produce beams of positive ions which are used to penetrate atomic nuclei in a target, inducing nuclear reactions whose study elucidates varied properties of the nucleus. Uses of the system, which acts like a mass spectrometer, are discussed. These include radiocarbon dating measurements. (JN)

  8. A Qualitative Acceleration Model Based on Intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester MARTINEZ-MARTIN

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available On the way to autonomous service robots, spatial reasoning plays a main role since it properly deals with problems involving uncertainty. In particular, we are interested in knowing people's pose to avoid collisions. With that aim, in this paper, we present a qualitative acceleration model for robotic applications including representation, reasoning and a practical application.

  9. Acceleration sensing based on piezoresistive effect of carbon nanotube films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Feng-yan; SHEN Hui-juan; CAO Chun-lan; LIAO Ke-jun; HU Chen-guo

    2006-01-01

    Based on piezoresistive effect,the acceleration sensitivity of multi-walled canbon nanotube (MWNT) films was investigated.A three-point bending technique was presented to measure the piezoresistivity,which used a bending stress applied to the samples while making MWNT films wheeling with a rotational machine.The experimental results showed that the fractional increase in resistance increases linearly versus the increase of centripetal acceleration,and there is a linear relationship between the acceleration and the strain.These shed light on using carbon nanotube films as acceleration sensors for many potential applications.

  10. Beam-driven, Plasma-based Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Muggli, P

    2016-01-01

    We briefly give some of the characteristics of the beam-driven, plasma-based particle accelerator known as the plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA). We also mention some of the major results that have been obtained since the birth of the concept. We focus on high-energy particle beams where possible.

  11. Consistency analysis of accelerated degradation mechanism based on gray theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunxia Chen; Hongxia Chen; Zhou Yang; Rui Kang; Yi Yang

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental premise of an accelerated testing is that the failure mechanism under elevated and normal stress levels should remain the same. Thus, verification of the consistency of failure mechanisms is essential during an accelerated testing. A new consistency analysis method based on the gray theory is pro-posed for complex products. First of al , existing consistency ana-lysis methods are reviewed with a focus on the comparison of the differences among them. Then, the proposed consistency ana-lysis method is introduced. Two effective gray prediction models, gray dynamic model and new information and equal dimensional (NIED) model, are adapted in the proposed method. The process to determine the dimension of NIED model is also discussed, and a decision rule is expanded. Based on that, the procedure of ap-plying the new consistent analysis method is developed. Final y, a case study of the consistency analysis of a reliability enhancement testing is conducted to demonstrate and validate the proposed method.

  12. Photon Acceleration Based On Laser-Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    One dimensional electron density perturbation is derived by using the cold fluid equation, Possion's equation and the conti nuity equation. The perturbation is generated by a driving laser pulse propagating through a plasma. The upshifting of the frequency of a trailing pulse induced by density perturbation is studied by using optical metric. The results show that it is possible that the photon will gain energy from the wakefield when assuming photon's number to be conserved, i.e., the photon will be accelerated.

  13. FPGA Based Acceleration of Decimal Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nannarelli, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Field Programmable Gate-Arrays (FPGAs) can efficiently implement application specific processors in nonconventional number systems, such as the decimal (Binary- Coded Decimal, or BCD) number system required for accounting accuracy in financial applications. The main purpose of this work is to show...... that applications requiring several decimal (BCD) operations can be accelerated by a processor implemented on a FPGA board connected to the computer by a standard bus. For the case of a telephone billing application, we demonstrate that even a basic implementation of the decimal processor on the FPGA, without...

  14. BUPT_PRIS at TREC 2014 Knowledge Base Acceleration Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Abstract This paper describes the system in Vital Filtering and Streaming Slot Filling task of TREC 2014 Knowledge Base Acceleration Track. In the Vital ...can help update a knowledge base like Wikipedia. The KBA2014 includes three tasks: Vital Filtering(VF) task ,Streaming Slot Filling task and Accelerate...Create. The third task is new open track which is not evaluated. For the Vital Filtering task, given a fixed list of target entities from

  15. Neural network-based sensor signal accelerator.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, M. C.

    2000-10-16

    A strategy has been developed to computationally accelerate the response time of a generic electronic sensor. The strategy can be deployed as an algorithm in a control system or as a physical interface (on an embedded microcontroller) between a slower responding external sensor and a higher-speed control system. Optional code implementations are available to adjust algorithm performance when computational capability is limited. In one option, the actual sensor signal can be sampled at the slower rate with adaptive linear neural networks predicting the sensor's future output and interpolating intermediate synthetic output values. In another option, a synchronized collection of predictors sequentially controls the corresponding synthetic output voltage. Error is adaptively corrected in both options. The core strategy has been demonstrated with automotive oxygen sensor data. A prototype interface device is under construction. The response speed increase afforded by this strategy could greatly offset the cost of developing a replacement sensor with a faster physical response time.

  16. Laser wakefield accelerator based light sources: potential applications and requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). NIF and Photon Sciences; Thomas, A. G. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences; Mangles, S. P.D. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Blackett Lab.; Banerjee, S. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Corde, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Flacco, A. [ENSTA, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Litos, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Neely, D. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL). Central Laser Facility; Viera, J. [Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal). GoLP-Inst. de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear-Lab. Associado; Najmudin, Z. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Blackett Lab.; Bingham, R. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL). Central Laser Facility; Joshi, C. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Katsouleas, T. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Platt School of Engineering

    2015-01-15

    In this article we review the prospects of laser wakefield accelerators as next generation light sources for applications. This work arose as a result of discussions held at the 2013 Laser Plasma Accelerators Workshop. X-ray phase contrast imaging, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and nuclear resonance fluorescence are highlighted as potential applications for laser-plasma based light sources. We discuss ongoing and future efforts to improve the properties of radiation from plasma betatron emission and Compton scattering using laser wakefield accelerators for these specific applications.

  17. Environmental implications of accelerated gasohol production: preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This report assesses the environmental impacts of increasing US production of fuel ethanol by 330 million gallons per year in the 1980 to 1981 time frame in order to substitute gasohol for 10% of the unleaded gasoline consumed in the United States. Alternate biomass feedstocks are examined and corn is selected as the most logical feedstock, based on its availability and cost. Three corn conversion processes that could be used to attain the desired 1980 to 1981 production are identified; fermentation plants that use a feedstock of starch and wastes from an adjacent corn refining plants are found to have environmental and economic advantages. No insurmountable environmental problems can be achieved using current technology; the capital and operating costs of this control are estimated. If ethanol production is increased substantially after 1981, the environmentally acceptable use or disposal of stillage, a liquid by-product of fermentation, could become a serious problem.

  18. Accelerator-based validation of shielding codes

    OpenAIRE

    Zeitlin, Cary; Heilbronn, Lawrence; Miller, Jack; Wilson, John W.

    2002-01-01

    The space radiation environment poses risks to astronaut health from a diverse set of sources, ranging from low-energy protons and electrons to highly-charged, high-energy atomic nuclei and their associated fragmentation products, including neutrons. The low-energy protons and electrons are the source of most of the radiation dose to Shuttle and ISS crews, while the more energetic particles that comprise the Galactic Cosmic Radiation (protons, He, and heavier nuclei up to Fe) will be th...

  19. Sub-Critical Nuclear Reactor Based on FFAG-Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Seok; Kang, Hung Sik; Lee, Tae Yeon [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    After the East-Japan earthquake and the subsequent nuclear disaster, the anti-nuclear mood has been wide spread. It is very unfortunate both for nuclear science community and for the future of mankind, which is threatened by two serious challenges, the global warming caused by the greenhouse effect and the shortage of energy cause by the petroleum exhaustion. While the nuclear energy seemed to be the only solution to these problems, it is clear that it has its own problems, one of which broke out so strikingly in Japan. There are also other problems such as the radiotoxic nuclear wastes that survive up to even tens of thousands years and the limited reserves of Uranium. To solve these problems of nuclear fission energy, accelerator-based sub-critical nuclear reactor was once proposed. (Its details will be explained below.) First of all, it is safe in a disaster such as an earthquake, because the deriving accelerator stops immediately by the earthquake. It also minimizes the nuclear waste problem by reducing the amount of the toxic waste and shortening their half lifetime to only a few hundred years. Finally, it solves the Uranium reserve problem because it can use Thorium as its fuel. The Thorium reserve is much larger than that of Uranium. Although the idea of the accelerator-driven nuclear reactor was proposed long time ago, it has not been utilized yet first by technical difficulty and economical reasons. The accelerator-based system needs 1 GeV, 10 MW power proton accelerator. A conventional linear accelerator would need several hundred m length, which is highly costly particularly in Korea because of the high land cost. However, recent technologies make it possible to realize that scale accelerator by a reasonable size. That is the fixed-field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator that is described in this article

  20. Accelerator tube construction and characterization for a tandem-electrostatic-quadrupole for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartelli, D.; Thatar Vento, V. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)] [CONICET, Av Rivadavia 1917 (1033), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Castell, W. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina); Di Paolo, H. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin (Argentina); Kesque, J.M. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina); Bergueiro, J. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)] [CONICET, Av Rivadavia 1917 (1033), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Valda, A.A. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    The accelerator tubes are essential components of the accelerator. Their function is to transport and accelerate a very intense proton or deuteron beam through the machine, from the ion source to the neutron production target, without significant losses. In this contribution, we discuss materials selected for the tube construction, the procedures used for their assembly and the testing performed to meet the stringent requirements to which it is subjected.

  1. Robotics development for the accelerator production of tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, C.R.

    2000-01-18

    The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) has been proposed as the source of tritium for the United States in the next century. The APT will accelerate protons that will strike replaceable tungsten target modules. The tungsten target modules generate neutrons that interact with blanket modules and other modules where {sup 3}He gas is turned into tritium. The target and blanket modules are predicted to require replacement every one to ten years, depending on their location. The target modules may weigh as much as 85 tons (77 metric tons) each. All of the modules will be contained in a target/blanket vessel, which is in a shielded facility. The spent modules will be radioactive, so that remote replacement of the modules will be required. The modules will be 27 feet (8.23 m) high and the top of the modules, where most of the remote operations will occur, will be approximately 20 feet (6.1 m) down into the target/blanket vessel. The immense weights of the modules, the long reaches required and the requirement for completely remote operation of at least part of the operation, make this a unique and challenging task. Initially, manual fastening and unfastening of the jumper flanges on the modules as well as manual valve operation was proposed followed by remote replacement of the modules. This manual/remote operation was demonstrated with a computer-generated, dynamic, 3-D simulation. After review of the simulation, this operation was changed to be a complete remote operation. Complete remote operation brought about the concept of a remotely operated bridge crane and a remotely operated, bridge-mounted, manipulator to perform the entire replacement operation. A second simulation showed the intended operation of the remote concept and was instrumental in developing the requirements for the equipment and end effectors for this concept. The concept included development of end effectors for the following tasks: flange nut fastening and unfastening, flange lifting and latch

  2. LU factorization for accelerator-based systems

    KAUST Repository

    Agullo, Emmanuel

    2011-12-01

    Multicore architectures enhanced with multiple GPUs are likely to become mainstream High Performance Computing (HPC) platforms in a near future. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of an LU factorization using tile algorithm that can fully exploit the potential of such platforms in spite of their complexity. We use a methodology derived from previous work on Cholesky and QR factorizations. Our contributions essentially consist of providing new CPU/GPU hybrid LU kernels, studying the impact on performance of the looking variants as well as the storage layout in presence of pivoting, tuning the kernels for two different machines composed of multiple recent NVIDIA Tesla S1070 (four GPUs total) and Fermi-based S2050 GPUs (three GPUs total), respectively. The hybrid tile LU asymptotically achieves 1 Tflop/s in single precision on both hardwares. The performance in double precision arithmetic reaches 500 Gflop/s on the Fermi-based system, twice faster than the old GPU generation of Tesla S1070. We also discuss the impact of the number of tiles on the numerical stability. We show that the numerical results of the tile LU factorization will be accurate enough for most applications as long as the computations are performed in double precision arithmetic. © 2011 IEEE.

  3. FPGA based accelerators for financial applications

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book covers the latest approaches and results from reconfigurable computing architectures employed in the finance domain. So-called field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) have already shown to outperform standard CPU- and GPU-based computing architectures by far, saving up to 99% of energy depending on the compute tasks. Renowned authors from financial mathematics, computer architecture, and finance business introduce the readers into today’s challenges in finance IT, illustrate the most advanced approaches and use cases, and present currently known methodologies for integrating FPGAs in finance systems together with latest results. The complete algorithm-to-hardware flow is covered holistically, so this book serves as a hands-on guide for IT managers, researchers, and quants/programmers who think about integrating FPGAs into their current IT systems.

  4. Development of a Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole facility for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreiner, A.J., E-mail: kreiner@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin (Argentina)] [CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Castell, W. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Di Paolo, H. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin (Argentina); Baldo, M. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bergueiro, J. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    We describe the present status of an ongoing project to develop a Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator facility for Accelerator-Based (AB)-BNCT. The project final goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.4 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction. The machine currently being constructed is a folded TESQ with a high-voltage terminal at 0.6 MV. We report here on the progress achieved in a number of different areas.

  5. An accelerator-based epithermal photoneutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, H.E.

    1996-04-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy is an experimental binary cancer radiotherapy modality in which a boronated pharmaceutical that preferentially accumulates in malignant tissue is first administered, followed by exposing the tissue in the treatment volume to a thermal neutron field. Current usable beams are reactor-based but a viable alternative is the production of an epithermal neutron beam from an accelerator. Current literature cites various proposed accelerator-based designs, most of which are based on proton beams with beryllium or lithium targets. This dissertation examines the efficacy of a novel approach to BNCT treatments that incorporates an electron linear accelerator in the production of a photoneutron source. This source may help to resolve some of the present concerns associated with accelerator sources, including that of target cooling. The photoneutron production process is discussed as a possible alternate source of neutrons for eventual BNCT treatments for cancer. A conceptual design to produce epithermal photoneutrons by high photons (due to bremsstrahlung) impinging on deuterium targets is presented along with computational and experimental neutron production data. A clinically acceptable filtered epithermal neutron flux on the order of 10{sup 7} neutrons per second per milliampere of electron current is shown to be obtainable. Additionally, the neutron beam is modified and characterized for BNCT applications by employing two unique moderating materials (an Al/AlF{sub 3} composite and a stacked Al/Teflon design) at various incident electron energies.

  6. An accelerator-based epithermal photoneutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Hannah E. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy is an experimental binary cancer radiotherapy modality in which a boronated pharmaceutical that preferentially accumulates in malignant tissue is first administered, followed by exposing the tissue in the treatment volume to a thermal neutron field. Current usable beams are reactor-based but a viable alternative is the production of an epithermal neutron beam from an accelerator. Current literature cites various proposed accelerator-based designs, most of which are based on proton beams with beryllium or lithium targets. This dissertation examines the efficacy of a novel approach to BNCT treatments that incorporates an electron linear accelerator in the production of a photoneutron source. This source may help to resolve some of the present concerns associated with accelerator sources, including that of target cooling. The photoneutron production process is discussed as a possible alternate source of neutrons for eventual BNCT treatments for cancer. A conceptual design to produce epithermal photoneutrons by high photons (due to bremsstrahlung) impinging on deuterium targets is presented along with computational and experimental neutron production data. A clinically acceptable filtered epithermal neutron flux on the order of 107 neutrons per second per milliampere of electron current is shown to be obtainable. Additionally, the neutron beam is modified and characterized for BNCT applications by employing two unique moderating materials (an Al/AlF3 composite and a stacked Al/Teflon design) at various incident electron energies.

  7. Progress on Diamond-Based Cylindrical Dielectric Accelerating Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanareykin, A.; Schoessow, P.; Conde, M.; Gai, W.

    2006-11-01

    The development of a high gradient diamond-based cylindrical dielectric loaded accelerator (DLA) is presented. A diamond-loaded DLA can potentially sustain accelerating gradients far in excess of the limits experimentally observed for conventional metallic accelerating structures. The electrical and mechanical properties of diamond make it an ideal candidate material for use in dielectric accelerators: high rf breakdown level, extremely low dielectric losses and the highest available thermoconductive coefficient. We used the hot-filament Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process to produce high quality 5-10 cm long cylindrical diamond layers. Our collaboration has also been developing a new method of CVD diamond surface preparation that reduces the secondary electron emission coefficient below unity. Special attention was paid to the numerical optimization of the waveguide to structure rf coupling section, where the surface magnetic and electric fields were minimized relative to the accelerating gradient and within known metal surface breakdown limits. We conclude with a brief overview of the use of diamond microstructures for use in compact rf sources.

  8. Architecture exploration of FPGA based accelerators for bioinformatics applications

    CERN Document Server

    Varma, B Sharat Chandra; Balakrishnan, M

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an evaluation methodology to design future FPGA fabrics incorporating hard embedded blocks (HEBs) to accelerate applications. This methodology will be useful for selection of blocks to be embedded into the fabric and for evaluating the performance gain that can be achieved by such an embedding. The authors illustrate the use of their methodology by studying the impact of HEBs on two important bioinformatics applications: protein docking and genome assembly. The book also explains how the respective HEBs are designed and how hardware implementation of the application is done using these HEBs. It shows that significant speedups can be achieved over pure software implementations by using such FPGA-based accelerators. The methodology presented in this book may also be used for designing HEBs for accelerating software implementations in other domains besides bioinformatics. This book will prove useful to students, researchers, and practicing engineers alike.

  9. Feature-based Analysis of Plasma-based Particle Acceleration Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruebel, Oliver; Geddes, Cameron G.R.; Chen, Min; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Bethel, E. Wes

    2013-07-05

    Plasma-based particle accelerators can produce and sustain thousands of times stronger acceleration fields than conventional particle accelerators, providing a potential solution to the problem of the growing size and cost of conventional particle accelerators. To facilitate scientific knowledge discovery from the ever growing collections of accelerator simulation data generated by accelerator physicists to investigate next-generation plasma-based particle accelerator designs, we describe a novel approach for automatic detection and classification of particle beams and beam substructures due to temporal differences in the acceleration process, here called acceleration features. The automatic feature detection in combination with a novel visualization tool for fast, intuitive, query-based exploration of acceleration features enables an effective top-down data exploration process, starting from a high-level, feature-based view down to the level of individual particles. We describe the application of our analysis in practice to analyze simulations of single pulse and dual and triple colliding pulse accelerator designs, and to study the formation and evolution of particle beams, to compare substructures of a beam and to investigate transverse particle loss.

  10. Accelerator Based Neutron Beams for Neutron Capture Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanch, Jacquelyn C.

    2003-04-11

    The DOE-funded accelerator BNCT program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has resulted in the only operating accelerator-based epithermal neutron beam facility capable of generating significant dose rates in the world. With five separate beamlines and two different epithermal neutron beam assemblies installed, we are currently capable of treating patients with rheumatoid arthritis in less than 15 minutes (knee joints) or 4 minutes (finger joints) or irradiating patients with shallow brain tumors to a healthy tissue dose of 12.6 Gy in 3.6 hours. The accelerator, designed by Newton scientific Incorporated, is located in dedicated laboratory space that MIT renovated specifically for this project. The Laboratory for Accelerator Beam Applications consists of an accelerator room, a control room, a shielded radiation vault, and additional laboratory space nearby. In addition to the design, construction and characterization of the tandem electrostatic accelerator, this program also resulted in other significant accomplishments. Assemblies for generating epithermal neutron beams were designed, constructed and experimentally evaluated using mixed-field dosimetry techniques. Strategies for target construction and target cooling were implemented and tested. We demonstrated that the method of submerged jet impingement using water as the coolant is capable of handling power densities of up to 6 x 10(sup 7) W/m(sup 2) with heat transfer coefficients of 10(sup 6)W/m(sup 2)-K. Experiments with the liquid metal gallium demonstrated its superiority compared with water with little effect on the neutronic properties of the epithermal beam. Monoenergetic proton beams generated using the accelerator were used to evaluate proton RBE as a function of LET and demonstrated a maximum RBE at approximately 30-40 keV/um, a finding consistent with results published by other researchers. We also developed an experimental approach to biological intercomparison of epithermal beams and

  11. Production Level CFD Code Acceleration for Hybrid Many-Core Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Austen C.; Hammond, Dana P.; Nielsen, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, a novel graphics processing unit (GPU) distributed sharing model for hybrid many-core architectures is introduced and employed in the acceleration of a production-level computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The latest generation graphics hardware allows multiple processor cores to simultaneously share a single GPU through concurrent kernel execution. This feature has allowed the NASA FUN3D code to be accelerated in parallel with up to four processor cores sharing a single GPU. For codes to scale and fully use resources on these and the next generation machines, codes will need to employ some type of GPU sharing model, as presented in this work. Findings include the effects of GPU sharing on overall performance. A discussion of the inherent challenges that parallel unstructured CFD codes face in accelerator-based computing environments is included, with considerations for future generation architectures. This work was completed by the author in August 2010, and reflects the analysis and results of the time.

  12. Connecting inflation with late cosmic acceleration by particle production

    CERN Document Server

    Nunes, Rafael C

    2016-01-01

    A continuous process of creation of particles is investigated as a possible connection between the inflationary stage with late cosmic acceleration. In this model, the inflationary era occurs due to a continuous and fast process of creation of relativistic particles, and the recent accelerating phase is driven by the non-relativistic matter creation from the gravitational field acting on the quantum vacuum, which finally results in an effective equation of state less than $-1$. Thus, explaining recent results in favor of a phantom dynamics without the need of any modifications in the gravity theory has been proposed. Finally, we confront the model with recent observational data of type Ia Supernova, history of the Hubble parameter, baryon acoustic oscillations, and the cosmic microwave background.

  13. Comparing Production Cross Sections for QCD Matter, Higgs Boson, Neutrino with Dark Energy in Accelerating Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Ghaffary, Tooraj

    2016-01-01

    In this research, the production cross sections for QCD matter, neutrino and dark energy due to acceleration of Universe is calculated. To obtain these cross sections, the Universe production cross section is multiplied by the particle or dark energy distribution in accelerating Universe. Also missing cross section for each matter and dark energy due to formation of event horizon, is calculated. It is clear that the cross section of particles produced near event horizon of Universe is much larger for higher acceleration of Universe. This is because as the acceleration of Universe becomes larger, the Unruh temperature becomes larger and the thermal radiations of particles are enhanced. There are different channels for producing Higgs boson in accelerating Universe. Universe maybe decay to quark and gluons, and then these particles interact with each other and Higgs boson is produced. Also, some Higgs boson are emitted directly from event horizon of Universe. Comparing Higgs boson cross sections via different c...

  14. The computer-based control system of the NAC accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdzik, G. F.; Bouckaert, R. F. A.; Cloete, I.; Dutoit, J. S.; Kohler, I. H.; Truter, J. N. J.; Visser, K.; Wikner, V. C. S. J.

    The National Accelerator Center (NAC) of the CSIR is building a two-stage accelerator which will provide charged-particle beams for use in medical and research applications. The control system for this accelerator is based on three mini-computers and a CAMAC interfacing network. Closed-loop control is being relegated to the various subsystems of the accelerators, and the computers and CAMAC network will be used in the first instance for data transfer, monitoring and servicing of the control consoles. The processing power of the computers will be utilized for automating start-up and beam-change procedures, for providing flexible and convenient information at the control consoles, for fault diagnosis and for beam-optimizing procedures. Tasks of a localized or dedicated nature are being off-loaded onto microcomputers, which are being used either in front-end devices or as slaves to the mini-computers. On the control consoles only a few instruments for setting and monitoring variables are being provided, but these instruments are universally-linkable to any appropriate machine variable.

  15. Applications of laser wakefield accelerator-based light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Félicie; Thomas, Alec G. R.

    2016-11-01

    Laser-wakefield accelerators (LWFAs) were proposed more than three decades ago, and while they promise to deliver compact, high energy particle accelerators, they will also provide the scientific community with novel light sources. In a LWFA, where an intense laser pulse focused onto a plasma forms an electromagnetic wave in its wake, electrons can be trapped and are now routinely accelerated to GeV energies. From terahertz radiation to gamma-rays, this article reviews light sources from relativistic electrons produced by LWFAs, and discusses their potential applications. Betatron motion, Compton scattering and undulators respectively produce x-rays or gamma-rays by oscillating relativistic electrons in the wakefield behind the laser pulse, a counter-propagating laser field, or a magnetic undulator. Other LWFA-based light sources include bremsstrahlung and terahertz radiation. We first evaluate the performance of each of these light sources, and compare them with more conventional approaches, including radio frequency accelerators or other laser-driven sources. We have then identified applications, which we discuss in details, in a broad range of fields: medical and biological applications, military, defense and industrial applications, and condensed matter and high energy density science.

  16. Diaphragm Based Fiber Bragg Grating Acceleration Sensor with Temperature Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianliang; Tan, Yuegang; Han, Xue; Zheng, Kai; Zhou, Zude

    2017-01-23

    A novel fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing-based acceleration sensor has been proposed to simultaneously decouple and measure temperature and acceleration in real-time. This design applied a diaphragm structure and utilized the axial property of a tightly suspended optical fiber, enabling improvement in its sensitivity and resonant frequency and achieve a low cross-sensitivity. The theoretical vibrational model of the sensor has been built, and its design parameters and sensing properties have been analyzed through the numerical analysis. A decoupling method has been presented with consideration of the thermal expansion of the sensor structure to realize temperature compensation. Experimental results show that the temperature sensitivity is 8.66 pm/°C within the range of 30-90 °C. The acceleration sensitivity is 20.189 pm/g with a linearity of 0.764% within the range of 5~65 m/s². The corresponding working bandwidth is 10~200 Hz and its resonant frequency is 600 Hz. This sensor possesses an excellent impact resistance for the cross direction, and the cross-axis sensitivity is below 3.31%. This implementation can avoid the FBG-pasting procedure and overcome its associated shortcomings. The performance of the proposed acceleration sensor can be easily adjusted by modifying their corresponding physical parameters to satisfy requirements from different vibration measurements.

  17. Diaphragm Based Fiber Bragg Grating Acceleration Sensor with Temperature Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianliang Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensing-based acceleration sensor has been proposed to simultaneously decouple and measure temperature and acceleration in real-time. This design applied a diaphragm structure and utilized the axial property of a tightly suspended optical fiber, enabling improvement in its sensitivity and resonant frequency and achieve a low cross-sensitivity. The theoretical vibrational model of the sensor has been built, and its design parameters and sensing properties have been analyzed through the numerical analysis. A decoupling method has been presented with consideration of the thermal expansion of the sensor structure to realize temperature compensation. Experimental results show that the temperature sensitivity is 8.66 pm/°C within the range of 30–90 °C. The acceleration sensitivity is 20.189 pm/g with a linearity of 0.764% within the range of 5~65 m/s2. The corresponding working bandwidth is 10~200 Hz and its resonant frequency is 600 Hz. This sensor possesses an excellent impact resistance for the cross direction, and the cross-axis sensitivity is below 3.31%. This implementation can avoid the FBG-pasting procedure and overcome its associated shortcomings. The performance of the proposed acceleration sensor can be easily adjusted by modifying their corresponding physical parameters to satisfy requirements from different vibration measurements.

  18. Accelerator physics in ERL based polarized electron ion collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Yue [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2015-05-03

    This talk will present the current accelerator physics challenges and solutions in designing ERL-based polarized electron-hadron colliders, and illustrate them with examples from eRHIC and LHeC designs. These challenges include multi-pass ERL design, highly HOM-damped SRF linacs, cost effective FFAG arcs, suppression of kink instability due to beam-beam effect, and control of ion accumulation and fast ion instabilities.

  19. Summary report of working group 3: Laser and high-gradient structure-based acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andonian, Gerard; Simakov, Evgenya

    2017-03-01

    High-gradient particle acceleration with reduced power demands is essential for miniaturization and cost reduction of future accelerators. Applications for compact accelerators span collider research for High Energy Physics, light source development for Basic Energy Sciences and National Security, and industrial accelerators for Energy and Environmental Applications. Working Group 3 discussed and surveyed the recent advances in achieving higher gradients and better acceleration efficiency in externally powered, structure-based accelerators. The topics covered in Working Group 3 included dielectric laser acceleration, millimeter-wave accelerators, breakdown phenomena, exotic topologies such as photonic band-gap structures, artificial materials, and nanostructures, and novel rf technology.

  20. Photoneutron production in the primary barriers of medical accelerator rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, P H

    1992-04-01

    Several radiation surveys, at medical linear accelerator facilities where lead or steel had been used with concrete to fabricate the primary barriers, revealed the existence of a sizable neutron field outside the shielding. This neutron field is produced by photoneutrons generated in the metal portion of the shield when the primary x-ray beam is aimed at the barrier. A method was developed to calculate the neutron dose-equivalent rate expected outside a primary shield when it is irradiated by a high-energy x-ray beam. It was found that the minimum photoneutron dose was produced when the metal part of the shield was positioned inside the treatment room in front of the concrete and also by using steel in place of lead. A thickness of less than or equal to 17 cm of metal on the inner surface of the shield produced only a slight increase in the neutron dose equivalent outside the barrier.

  1. Support Vector Machine Based on Adaptive Acceleration Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hasan Abdulameer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing face recognition methods utilize particle swarm optimizer (PSO and opposition based particle swarm optimizer (OPSO to optimize the parameters of SVM. However, the utilization of random values in the velocity calculation decreases the performance of these techniques; that is, during the velocity computation, we normally use random values for the acceleration coefficients and this creates randomness in the solution. To address this problem, an adaptive acceleration particle swarm optimization (AAPSO technique is proposed. To evaluate our proposed method, we employ both face and iris recognition based on AAPSO with SVM (AAPSO-SVM. In the face and iris recognition systems, performance is evaluated using two human face databases, YALE and CASIA, and the UBiris dataset. In this method, we initially perform feature extraction and then recognition on the extracted features. In the recognition process, the extracted features are used for SVM training and testing. During the training and testing, the SVM parameters are optimized with the AAPSO technique, and in AAPSO, the acceleration coefficients are computed using the particle fitness values. The parameters in SVM, which are optimized by AAPSO, perform efficiently for both face and iris recognition. A comparative analysis between our proposed AAPSO-SVM and the PSO-SVM technique is presented.

  2. Treatment Planning for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, María S.; González, Sara J.; Minsky, Daniel M.; Kreiner, Andrés J.

    2010-08-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme and metastatic melanoma are frequent brain tumors in adults and presently still incurable diseases. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a promising alternative for this kind of pathologies. Accelerators have been proposed for BNCT as a way to circumvent the problem of siting reactors in hospitals and for their relative simplicity and lower cost among other advantages. Considerable effort is going into the development of accelerator-based BNCT neutron sources in Argentina. Epithermal neutron beams will be produced through appropriate proton-induced nuclear reactions and optimized beam shaping assemblies. Using these sources, computational dose distributions were evaluated in a real patient with diagnosed glioblastoma treated with BNCT. The simulated irradiation was delivered in order to optimize dose to the tumors within the normal tissue constraints. Using Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations, dose distributions were generated for brain, skin and tumor. Also, the dosimetry was studied by computing cumulative dose-volume histograms for volumes of interest. The results suggest acceptable skin average dose and a significant dose delivered to tumor with low average whole brain dose for irradiation times less than 60 minutes, indicating a good performance of an accelerator-based BNCT treatment.

  3. CCD based beam loss monitor for ion accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousov, A.; Mustafin, E.; Ensinger, W.

    2014-04-01

    Beam loss monitoring is an important aspect of proper accelerator functioning. There is a variety of existing solutions, but each has its own disadvantages, e.g. unsuitable dynamic range or time resolution, high cost, or short lifetime. Therefore, new options are looked for. This paper shows a method of application of a charge-coupled device (CCD) video camera as a beam loss monitor (BLM) for ion beam accelerators. The system was tested with a 500 MeV/u N+7 ion beam interacting with an aluminum target. The algorithms of camera signal processing with LabView based code and beam loss measurement are explained. Limits of applicability of this monitor system are discussed.

  4. Improved Image Fusion Method Based on NSCT and Accelerated NMF

    OpenAIRE

    Mingdong Li; Siyu Lai; Juan Wang

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve algorithm efficiency and performance, a technique for image fusion based on the Non-subsampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT) domain and an Accelerated Non-negative Matrix Factorization (ANMF)-based algorithm is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the registered source images are decomposed in multi-scale and multi-direction using the NSCT method. Then, the ANMF algorithm is executed on low-frequency sub-images to get the low-pass coefficients. The low frequency fused image can ...

  5. Acceleration of association‐rule based markov decision processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. de G. García‐Hernández

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new approach for the estimation of Markov decision processes based on efficient association rulemining techniques such as Apriori. For the fastest solution of the resulting association‐rule based Markov decision process,several accelerating procedures such as asynchronous updates and prioritization using a static ordering have been applied. Anew criterion for state reordering in decreasing order of maximum reward is also compared with a modified topologicalreordering algorithm. Experimental results obtained on a finite state and action‐space stochastic shortest path problemdemonstrate the feasibility of the new approach.

  6. Optimal subsidy policy for accelerating the diffusion of green products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongguang Peng

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We consider a dynamic duopoly market in which two firms respectively produce green products and conventional products. The two types of product can substitute each other in some degree. Their demand rates depend on not only prices but the consumers’ increasing environmental awareness. Too high initial cost relative to conventional products becomes one of the major obstacles that hinder the adoption of green products. The government employs subsidy policy to trigger the adoption of green products. The purpose of the paper is to explore the optimal subsidy strategy to fulfill the government’s objective. Design/methodology/approach: We suppose the players in the game employ open-loop strategies, which make sense since the government generally cannot alter his policy for political and economic purposes. We take a differential game approach and use backward induction to analyze the firms’ pricing strategy under Cournot competition, and then focus upon a Stackelberg equilibrium to find the optimal subsidy strategy of the government. Findings: The results show that the more remarkable the energy or environmental performance, or the bigger the initial cost of green products, the higher the subsidy level should be. Due to the increasing environmental awareness and the learning curve, the optimal subsidy level decreases over time. Research limitations/implications: In our model several simplifying assumptions are made to keep the analysis more tractable. In particular, we have assumed only one type of green product. In reality several types of product with different energy or environmental performances exist. Our research can be extended in future work to take into account product differentiation on energy or environmental performance and devise a discriminatory subsidy policy accordingly. Originality/value: In the paper we set the objective of the government as minimizing the total social cost induced by the energy consumption or

  7. ILU industrial electron accelerators for medical-product sterilization and food treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezuglov, V. V.; Bryazgin, A. A.; Vlasov, A. Yu.; Voronin, L. A.; Panfilov, A. D.; Radchenko, V. M.; Tkachenko, V. O.; Shtarklev, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    Pulse linear electron accelerators of the ILU type have been developed and produced by the Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, for more than 30 years. Their distinctive features are simplicity of design, convenience in operation, and reliability during long work under conditions of industrial production. ILU accelerators have a range of energy of 0.7-10 MeV at a power of accelerated beam of up to 100 kW and they are optimally suitable for use as universal sterilizing complexes. The scientific novelty of these accelerators consists of their capability to work both in the electron-treatment mode of production and in the bremsstrahlung generation mode, which has high penetrating power.

  8. Accelerating Image Based Scientific Applications using Commodity Video Graphics Adapters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy P. Broussard

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The processing power available in current video graphics cards is approaching super computer levels. State-of-the-art graphical processing units (GPU boast of computational performance in the range of 1.0-1.1 trillion floating point operations per second (1.0-1.1 Teraflops. Making this processing power accessible to the scientific community would benefit many fields of research. This research takes a relatively computationally expensive image-based iris segmentation algorithm and hosts it on a GPU using the High Level Shader Language which is part of DirectX 9.0. The selected segmentation algorithm uses basic image processing techniques such as image inversion, value squaring, thresholding, dilation, erosion and a computationally intensive local kurtosis (fourth central moment calculation. Strengths and limitations of the DirectX rendering pipeline are discussed. The primary source of the graphical processing power, the pixel or fragment shader, is discussed in detail. Impressive acceleration results were obtained. The iris segmentation algorithm was accelerated by a factor of 40 over the highly optimized C++ version hosted on the computer's central processing unit. Some parts of the algorithm ran at speeds that were over 100 times faster than their C++ counterpart. GPU programming details and HLSL code samples are presented as part of the acceleration discussion.

  9. Preliminary consideration of a double, 480 GeV, fast cycling proton accelerator for production of neutrino beams at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piekarz, Henryk; Hays, Steven; /Fermilab

    2007-03-01

    We propose to build the DSF-MR (Double Super-Ferric Main Ring), 480 GeV, fast-cycling (2 second repetition rate) two-beam proton accelerator in the Main Ring tunnel of Fermilab. This accelerator design is based on the super-ferric magnet technology developed for the VLHC, and extended recently to the proposed LER injector for the LHC and fast cycling SF-SPS at CERN. The DSF-MR accelerator system will constitute the final stage of the proton source enabling production of two neutrino beams separated by 2 second time period. These beams will be sent alternately to two detectors located at {approx} 3000 km and {approx} 7500 km away from Fermilab. It is expected that combination of the results from these experiments will offer more than 3 order of magnitudes increased sensitivity for detection and measurement of neutrino oscillations with respect to expectations in any current experiment, and thus may truly enable opening the window into the physics beyond the Standard Model. We examine potential sites for the long baseline neutrino detectors accepting beams from Fermilab. The current injection system consisting of 400 MeV Linac, 8 GeV Booster and the Main Injector can be used to accelerate protons to 45 GeV before transferring them to the DSF-MR. The implementation of the DSF-MR will allow for an 8-fold increase in beam power on the neutrino production target. In this note we outline the proposed new arrangement of the Fermilab accelerator complex. We also briefly describe the DSF-MR magnet design and its power supply, and discuss necessary upgrade of the Tevatron RF system for the use with the DSF-MR accelerator. Finally, we outline the required R&D, cost estimate and possible timeline for the implementation of the DSF-MR accelerator.

  10. Design stage confirmation of lifetime improvement for newly modified products through accelerated life testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadian, S. Hossein, E-mail: seyed-h.mohammadian.1@ulaval.c [Centre Interuniversitaire de Recherche sur les Reseaux d' Entreprise, la Logistique et le Transport (CIRRELT), Departement de Genie Mecanique, Pavillon Adrien-Pouliot, Universite Laval, Quebec, G1V 0A6 (Canada) and Centre Interdisciplinaire de Recherche en Readaptation et en Integration Sociale (CIRRIS), Institut de Readaptation en Deficience Physique de Quebec, 525 Boul. Hamel, Quebec, G1M 2S8 (Canada); Ait-Kadi, Daoud, E-mail: Daoud.Aitkadi@gmc.ulaval.c [Centre Interuniversitaire de Recherche sur les Reseaux d' Entreprise, la Logistique et le Transport (CIRRELT), Departement de Genie Mecanique, Pavillon Adrien-Pouliot, Universite Laval, Quebec, G1V 0A6 (Canada); Centre Interdisciplinaire de Recherche en Readaptation et en Integration Sociale (CIRRIS), Institut de Readaptation en Deficience Physique de Quebec, 525 Boul. Hamel, Quebec, G1M 2S8 (Canada)

    2010-08-15

    After a modification to the original version of a product and before mass production, the expected improvement in the product lifetime or reliability needs to be validated. This paper presents three approaches based on accelerated life testing to verify, estimate and confirm the lifetime or reliability of a newly modified product at design stage: ALT comparative approach, reliability estimation approach, and reliability validation test. Test samples of the original and modified versions are expected to fail during the tests in order to obtain their failure time data. In ALT comparative approach, the statistical comparison between failure time data of the original and modified versions is used to verify the required improvement in lifetime. In reliability estimation approach, the relationship made between available lifetime and failure time data of the original version is used to extrapolate lifetime data of the modified version from its failure time data. Since modified versions are usually highly reliable, all test samples might survive the tests (without any failures) that results in the lack of failure time data for statistical analysis. To confirm a level of service reliability with confidence, reliability validation test is presented to make an estimate of the number of samples required to survive the tests. To fulfill the same level of confidence for fewer number of prototypes (as test samples), the test time must be extended. On the other hand, more prototypes are needed to pass a shorter test time if there are any time constraints.

  11. Accelerating convergence of molecular dynamics-based structural relaxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Asbjørn

    2005-01-01

    We describe strategies to accelerate the terminal stage of molecular dynamics (MD)based relaxation algorithms, where a large fraction of the computational resources are used. First, we analyze the qualitative and quantitative behavior of the QuickMin family of MD relaxation algorithms and explore...... the influence of spectral properties and dimensionality of the molecular system on the algorithm efficiency. We test two algorithms, the MinMax and Lanczos, for spectral estimation from an MD trajectory, and use this to derive a practical scheme of time step adaptation in MD relaxation algorithms to improve...

  12. Accelerator Production and Separations for High Specific Activity Rhenium-186

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurisson, Silvia S. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Wilbur, D. Scott [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Tungsten and osmium targets were evaluated for the production of high specific activity rhenium-186. Rhenium-186 has potential applications in radiotherapy for the treatment of a variety of diseases, including targeting with monoclonal antibodies and peptides. Methods were evaluated using tungsten metal, tungsten dioxide, tungsten disulfide and osmium disulfide. Separation of the rhenium-186 produced and recycling of the enriched tungsten-186 and osmium-189 enriched targets were developed.

  13. Electrostatic design and beam transport for a folded tandem electrostatic quadrupole accelerator facility for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thatar Vento, V., E-mail: Vladimir.ThatarVento@gmail.com [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917 (1033), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bergueiro, J.; Cartelli, D. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917 (1033), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Valda, A.A. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UNSAM, M. Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kreiner, A.J. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917 (1033), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UNSAM, M. Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    Within the frame of an ongoing project to develop a folded Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator facility for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (AB-BNCT), we discuss here the electrostatic design of the machine, including the accelerator tubes with electrostatic quadrupoles and the simulations for the transport and acceleration of a high intensity beam.

  14. Uranium target for electron accelerator based neutron source for BNCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonchev, A. P.; Harmon, F.; Collens, T. J.; Kennedy, K.; Sabourov, A.; Harker, Y. D.; Nigg, D. W.; Jones, J. L.

    2001-07-01

    Calculations of the epithermal-neutron yield of photoneutrons from a uranium-beryllium converter using a 27 MeV electron linear accelerator have been investigated. In this concept, relativistic electron beams from a 30 MeV LINAC impinge upon a small uranium sphere surrounded by a cylindrical tank of circulating heavy water (D2O) nested in a beryllium cube. The photo-fission neutron spectrum from the uranium sphere is thermalized in deuterium and beryllium, filtered and moderated in special material (AlF3/Al/LiF), and directed to the patient. The results of these calculations demonstrate that photoneutron devices could offer a promising alternative to nuclear reactors for the production of epithermal neutrons for Neutron Capture Therapy. The predicted parameter for the epithermal flux is more than 108n.cm-2.mA-1.

  15. LLNL review of the 1994 accelerator production of tritium (APT) concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alesso, H.P.; Barnard, J.J.; Booth, R. [and others

    1995-03-08

    LLNL was asked in September 1994 to review the accelerator production of tritium (APT) concept as it had evolved up to the fall of 1994. The purpose was not to compare it to other sources of tritium, but to identify possible technical flaws in the concept and to assess feasibility. The APT concept reviewed was based on a 1.0 GeV normal conducting proton linac operating CW at currents up to 200 mA with a target of tungsten and blanket of {sup 3}He and lead. The LLNL review group concurs with the conclusions of four previous reviews (1989 to 1994) that this concept can meet the tritium requirements of a reduced stockpile of approximately 3,500 {+-} 1,500 warheads. The authors believe that the predicted tritium production rate is based on sound nuclear and transport models and that the schedules for technology demonstrations, design, and construction are realistic. They conclude that the technical risk of the concept is low and can be managed within the risk reduction program. The risk reduction program should focus on risk to the schedule and on cost reduction.

  16. Development of an accelerator driven neutron activator for medical radioisotope production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, K.; Buono, S.; Burgio, N.; Cotogno, G.; Gibson, N.; Maciocco, L.; Mercurio, G.; Santagata, A.; Simonelli, F.; Tagziria, H.

    2009-04-01

    A compact, accelerator driven, neutron activator based on a modified version of the Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (ARC) concept has been developed, with the aim of efficiently utilising ion-beam generated neutrons for the production of radioactive nanoparticles for brachytherapy. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out to optimise the design of the activator, which is based on a hybrid approach, coupling a lead buffer and a graphite reflector. Computational Fluid Dynamic methods have been used for the thermal-hydraulic design of the neutron-generating beryllium target to ensure efficient water cooling under high proton beam currents. The facility has been tested under various experimental configurations, and the activation yields of different materials, measured with γ-spectrometry techniques, have been compared with theoretical predictions. In this paper the main elements of the activator are described, and calculated and measured results for pure Au, Mo, Ho, and Re foils as well as for Re and Ho nanoparticle samples are presented. A satisfactory agreement between experiment and theory was found, confirming that the improved ARC activator developed in this work is suitable for isotope production for certain applications such as brachytherapy.

  17. Luminosity Limitations in Linear Colliders Based on Plasma Acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Lebedev, Valeri; Nagaitsev, Sergei

    2016-01-01

    Particle acceleration in plasma creates a possibility of exceptionally high accelerating gradients and appears as a very attractive option for future linear electron-positron and/or photon-photon colliders. These high accelerating gradients were already demonstrated in a number of experiments. However, a linear collider requires exceptionally high beam brightness which still needs to be demonstrated. In this article we discuss major phenomena which limit the beam brightness of accelerated beam and, consequently, the collider luminosity.

  18. Productive friction: how difficult business partnerships can accelerate innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, John; Brown, John Seely

    2005-02-01

    Companies are becoming more dependent on business partners, but coordinating with outsiders takes its toll. Negotiating terms, monitoring performance, and, if needs are not being met, switching from one partner to another require time and money. Such transaction costs, Ronald Coase explained in his 1937 essay "The Nature of the Firm," drove many organizations to bring their activities in-house. But what if Coase placed too much emphasis on these costs? What if friction between companies can be productive? Indeed, as John Hagel and John Seely Brown point out, interactions between organizations can yield benefits beyond the goods or services contracted for. Companies get better at what they do--and improve faster than their competitors--by working with outsiders whose specialized capabilities complement their own. Different enterprises bring different perspectives and competencies. When these enterprises tackle a problem together, they dramatically increase the chances for innovative solutions. Of course, misunderstandings often arise when people with different backgrounds and skill sets try to collaborate. Opposing sides may focus on the distance that separates them rather than the common challenges they face. How can companies harness friction so that it builds capabilities? Start by articulating performance goals that everyone buys into. Then make sure people are using tangible prototypes to wrangle over. Finally, assemble teams with committed people who bring different perspectives to the table. As individual problems are being addressed, take care that the underpinnings of shared meaning and trust are also being woven between the companies. Neither can be dictated--but they can be cultivated. Without them, the performance fabric quickly unravels, and business partnerships disintegrate into rivalrous competition.

  19. Accelerator development for a radioactive beam facility based on ATLAS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K. W.

    1998-01-08

    The existing superconducting linac ATLAS is in many respects an ideal secondary beam accelerator for an ISOL (Isotope separator on-line) type radioactive beam facility. Such a facility would require the addition of two major accelerator elements: a low charge state injector for the existing heavy ion linac, and a primary beam accelerator providing 220 MV of acceleration for protons and light ions. Development work for both of these elements, including the option of superconducting cavities for the primary beam accelerator is discussed.

  20. A benchmark study on uncertainty of ALICE ASH 1.0, TALYS 1.0 and MCNPX 2.6 codes to estimate production yield of accelerator-based radioisotopes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Seyed Amirhossen Feghi; Zohreh Gholamzadeh; Zahra Alipoor; Akram Zali; Mahdi Joharifard; Morteza Aref; Claudio Tenreiro

    2013-07-01

    Radioisotopes find very important applications in various sectors of economic significance and their production is an important activity of many national programmes. Some deterministic codes such as ALICE ASH 1.0 and TALYS 1.0 are extensively used to calculate the yield of a radioisotope via numerical integral over the calculated cross-sections. MCNPX 2.6 stochastic code is more interesting among the other Monte Carlo-based computational codes for accessibility of different intranuclear cascade physical models to calculate the yield using experiment-based cross-sections. A benchmark study has been proposed to determine the codes' uncertainty in such calculations. 109Cd, 86Y and 85Sr production yields by proton irradiation of silver, rubidium chloride and strontium carbonate targets are studied. 109Cd, 86Y and 85Sr cross-sections are calculated using ALICE ASH 1.0 and TALYS 1.0 codes. The evaluated yields are compared with the experimental yields. The targets are modelled using MCNPX 2.6 code. The production yields are calculated using the available physical models of the code. The study shows acceptable relative discrepancies between theoretical and experimental results. Minimum relative discrepancy between experimental and theoretical yields is achievable using ISABEL intranuclear model in most of the targets simulated by MCNPX 2.6. The stochastic code utilization can be suggested for calculating 109Cd, 86Y and 85Sr production yields. It results in more valid data than TALYS 1.0 and ALICE ASH 1.0 in noticeably less average relative discrepancies.

  1. Improved image fusion method based on NSCT and accelerated NMF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Lai, Siyu; Li, Mingdong

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve algorithm efficiency and performance, a technique for image fusion based on the Non-subsampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT) domain and an Accelerated Non-negative Matrix Factorization (ANMF)-based algorithm is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the registered source images are decomposed in multi-scale and multi-direction using the NSCT method. Then, the ANMF algorithm is executed on low-frequency sub-images to get the low-pass coefficients. The low frequency fused image can be generated faster in that the update rules for W and H are optimized and less iterations are needed. In addition, the Neighborhood Homogeneous Measurement (NHM) rule is performed on the high-frequency part to achieve the band-pass coefficients. Finally, the ultimate fused image is obtained by integrating all sub-images with the inverse NSCT. The simulated experiments prove that our method indeed promotes performance when compared to PCA, NSCT-based, NMF-based and weighted NMF-based algorithms.

  2. Improved Image Fusion Method Based on NSCT and Accelerated NMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingdong Li

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve algorithm efficiency and performance, a technique for image fusion based on the Non-subsampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT domain and an Accelerated Non-negative Matrix Factorization (ANMF-based algorithm is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the registered source images are decomposed in multi-scale and multi-direction using the NSCT method. Then, the ANMF algorithm is executed on low-frequency sub-images to get the low-pass coefficients. The low frequency fused image can be generated faster in that the update rules for W and H are optimized and less iterations are needed. In addition, the Neighborhood Homogeneous Measurement (NHM rule is performed on the high-frequency part to achieve the band-pass coefficients. Finally, the ultimate fused image is obtained by integrating all sub-images with the inverse NSCT. The simulated experiments prove that our method indeed promotes performance when compared to PCA, NSCT-based, NMF-based and weighted NMF-based algorithms.

  3. Permafrost thawing in organic Arctic soils accelerated by ground heat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollesen, Jørgen; Matthiesen, Henning; Moller, Anders Bjorn;

    2015-01-01

    Decomposition of organic carbon from thawing permafrost soils and the resulting release of carbon to the atmosphere are considered to represent a potentially critical global-scale feedback on climate change1, 2. The accompanying heat production from microbial metabolism of organic material has been...... recognized as a potential positive-feedback mechanism that would enhance permafrost thawing and the release of carbon3, 4. This internal heat production is poorly understood, however, and the strength of this effect remains unclear3. Here, we have quantified the variability of heat production in contrasting...... organic permafrost soils across Greenland and tested the hypothesis that these soils produce enough heat to reach a tipping point after which internal heat production can accelerate the decomposition processes. Results show that the impact of climate changes on natural organic soils can be accelerated...

  4. Shielding design and dose assessment for accelerator based neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, W B; Yanch, J C

    1995-05-01

    Preparations are ongoing to test the viability and usefulness of an accelerator source of epithermal neutrons for ultimate use in a clinical environment. This feasibility study is to be conducted in a shielded room located on the Massachusetts Institute of Technology campus and will not involve patient irradiations. The accelerator production of neutrons is based on the 7Li(p, n)7Be reaction, and a maximum proton beam current of 4 mA at an energy of 2.5 MeV is anticipated. The resultant 3.58 x 10(12) neutrons s-1 have a maximum energy of 800 keV and will be substantially moderated. This paper describes the Monte Carlo methods used to estimate the neutron and photon dose rates in a variety of locations in the vicinity of the accelerator, as well as the shielding configuration required when the device is run at maximum current. Results indicate that the highest absorbed dose rate to which any individual will be exposed is 3 microSv h-1 (0.3 mrem h-1). The highest possible yearly dose is 0.2 microSv (2 x 10(-2) mrem) to the general public or 0.9 mSv (90 mrem) to a radiation worker in close proximity to the accelerator facility. The shielding necessary to achieve these dose levels is also discussed.

  5. Acceleration of Directional Medain Filter Based Deinterlacing Algorithm (DMFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addanki Purna Ramesh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel directional median filter based deinterlacing algorithm (DMFD. DMFD is a content adaptive spatial deinterlacing algorithm that finds the direction of the edge and applies the median filtering along the edge to interpolate the odd pixels from the 5 pixels from the upper and 5 pixels from the lower even lines of the field. The proposed algorithm gives a significance improvement of 3db for baboon standard test image that has high textured content compared to CADEM, DOI, and MELA and also gives improved average PSNR compared previous algorithms. The algorithm written and tested in C and ported onto Altera’s NIOS II embedded soft processor and configured in CYCLONE-II FPGA. The ISA of Nios-II processor has extended with two additional instructions for calculation of absolute difference and minimum of four numbers to accelerate the FPGA implementation of the algorithms by 3.2 times

  6. Connectivity-Based Segmentation for GPU-Accelerated Mesh Decompression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie-Yi Zhao; Min Tang; Ruo-Feng Tong

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel algorithm to partition large 3D meshes for GPU-accelerated decompression.Our formulation focuses on minimizing the replicated vertices between patches,and balancing the numbers of faces of patches for efficient parallel computing.First we generate a topology model of the original mesh and remove vertex positions.Then we assign the centers of patches using geodesic farthest point sampling and cluster the faces according to the geodesic distance to the centers.After the segmentation we swap boundary faces to fix jagged boundaries and store the boundary vertices for whole-mesh preservation.The decompression of each patch runs on a thread of GPU,and we evaluate its performance on various large benchmarks.In practice,the GPU-based decompression algorithm runs more than 48x faster on NVIDIA GeForce GTX 580 GPU compared with that on the CPU using single core.

  7. Lithium antineutrino source in the tandem scheme of the accelerator and neutron producting tungsten target

    CERN Document Server

    Lyashuk, V I

    2016-01-01

    The antineutrinos of the neutron rich 8Li isotope is characterized by hard and good defined spectrum - averaged energy is 6.5 MeV and maximal - up to 13 MeV. An intensive antineutrino source with such parameters can be unique instrument for neutrino investigations and especially for search of sterile neutrinos. The 8Li can be produced by (n,gamma)-activation of 7Li isotope. The proposed scheme of the antineutrino source is based on the lithium blanket around the accelerator neutron producting target. We propose to use heavy water solution of the lithium hydroxide instead of lithium in metallic state. Such solution for lithium blanket substance ensure the large perspectives in real steps for creation of this installation. An analyses of neutron fields in the blanket and distribution of 8Li creation allows to propose the next principal steps in the construction of the lithium blanket. We propose to enclose the blanket volume isolating it's central part with more high 8Li production. This solution allows to decr...

  8. Radiation protection system installation for the accelerator production of tritium/low energy demonstration accelerator project (APT/LEDA)

    CERN Document Server

    Wilmarth, J E; Tomei, T L

    2000-01-01

    The APT/LEDA personnel radiation protection system installation was accomplished using a flexible, modular proven system which satisfied regulatory orders, project design criteria, operational modes, and facility requirements. The goal of providing exclusion and safe access of personnel to areas where prompt radiation in the LEDA facility is produced was achieved with the installation of a DOE-approved Personnel Access Control System (PACS). To satisfy the facility configuration design, the PACS, a major component of the overall radiation safety system, conveniently provided five independent areas of personnel access control. Because of its flexibility and adaptability the Los-Alamos Neutron- Science-Center-(LANSCE)-designed Radiation Security System (RSS) was efficiently configured to provide the desired operational modes and satisfy the APT/LEDA project design criteria. The Backbone Beam Enable (BBE) system based on the LANSCE RSS provided the accelerator beam control functions with redundant, hardwired, ta...

  9. Multipurpose applications of the accelerator-based neutron source[1pt] GENEPI2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, F.; Baylac, M.; Billebaud, A.; Boge, P.; Cabanel, T.; Labussière, E.; Méplan, O.; Rey, S.

    2016-11-01

    GENEPI2 (GEnérateur de NEutrons Pulsé Intense) is an accelerator-based neutron source operating at LPSC laboratory in Grenoble (France). The neutrons are produced at 2.5MeV or 14.2MeV trough fusion reactions. GENEPI2 specifications allow performing efficiently accelerated irradiation tests of integrated circuits. This facility can also be operated to test and calibrate different types of detectors. This paper will describe the facility and its performances. Then, measurements of the neutron production will be presented as well as different types of experiments and irradiations. Finally, we describe upgrades undertaken to increase the neutron flux and optimize the facility for multiple applications.

  10. Scenario based product design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tideman, M.

    2008-01-01

    Creating good products is not an easy thing to do. There are usually many different people who have an interest in the product. People such as the user, of course, but also marketing managers, production engineers, maintenance workers, recycling specialists, and government representatives, just to n

  11. FHAST: FPGA-Based Acceleration of Bowtie in Hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Edward B; Villarreal, Jason; Lonardi, Stefano; Najjar, Walid A

    2015-01-01

    While the sequencing capability of modern instruments continues to increase exponentially, the computational problem of mapping short sequenced reads to a reference genome still constitutes a bottleneck in the analysis pipeline. A variety of mapping tools (e.g., Bowtie, BWA) is available for general-purpose computer architectures. These tools can take many hours or even days to deliver mapping results, depending on the number of input reads, the size of the reference genome and the number of allowed mismatches or insertion/deletions, making the mapping problem an ideal candidate for hardware acceleration. In this paper, we present FHAST (FPGA hardware accelerated sequence-matching tool), a drop-in replacement for Bowtie that uses a hardware design based on field programmable gate arrays (FPGA). Our architecture masks memory latency by executing multiple concurrent hardware threads accessing memory simultaneously. FHAST is composed by multiple parallel engines to exploit the parallelism available to us on an FPGA. We have implemented and tested FHAST on the Convey HC-1 and later ported on the Convey HC-2ex, taking advantage of the large memory bandwidth available to these systems and the shared memory image between hardware and software. A preliminary version of FHAST running on the Convey HC-1 achieved up to 70x speedup compared to Bowtie (single-threaded). An improved version of FHAST running on the Convey HC-2ex FPGAs achieved up to 12x fold speed gain compared to Bowtie running eight threads on an eight-core conventional architecture, while maintaining almost identical mapping accuracy. FHAST is a drop-in replacement for Bowtie, so it can be incorporated in any analysis pipeline that uses Bowtie (e.g., TopHat).

  12. Hardware Accelerators Targeting a Novel Group Based Packet Classification Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Packet classification is a ubiquitous and key building block for many critical network devices. However, it remains as one of the main bottlenecks faced when designing fast network devices. In this paper, we propose a novel Group Based Search packet classification Algorithm (GBSA that is scalable, fast, and efficient. GBSA consumes an average of 0.4 megabytes of memory for a 10 k rule set. The worst-case classification time per packet is 2 microseconds, and the preprocessing speed is 3 M rules/second based on an Xeon processor operating at 3.4 GHz. When compared with other state-of-the-art classification techniques, the results showed that GBSA outperforms the competition with respect to speed, memory usage, and processing time. Moreover, GBSA is amenable to implementation in hardware. Three different hardware implementations are also presented in this paper including an Application Specific Instruction Set Processor (ASIP implementation and two pure Register-Transfer Level (RTL implementations based on Impulse-C and Handel-C flows, respectively. Speedups achieved with these hardware accelerators ranged from 9x to 18x compared with a pure software implementation running on an Xeon processor.

  13. Permafrost thawing in organic Arctic soils accelerated by ground heat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollesen, Jørgen; Matthiesen, Henning; Møller, Anders Bjørn;

    2015-01-01

    Decomposition of organic carbon from thawing permafrost soils and the resulting release of carbon to the atmosphere are considered to represent a potentially critical global-scale feedback on climate change1, 2. The accompanying heat production from microbial metabolism of organic material has been...... organic permafrost soils across Greenland and tested the hypothesis that these soils produce enough heat to reach a tipping point after which internal heat production can accelerate the decomposition processes. Results show that the impact of climate changes on natural organic soils can be accelerated...... by microbial heat production with crucial implications for the amounts of carbon being decomposed. The same is shown to be true for organic middens5 with the risk of losing unique evidence of early human presence in the Arctic....

  14. Neutrons production on the IPHI accelerator for the validation of the design of the compact neutron source SONATE

    CERN Document Server

    Menelle, Alain; Prunes, Fabien; Homatter, Benoit; Annighöfer, Burkhard; Porcher, Florence; Chauvin, Nicolas; Schwindling, Jérôme; Letourneau, Alain; Marchix, Anthony; Tran, Ngoc-Hoang

    2016-01-01

    We aim at building an accelerator based compact neutron source which would provide a thermal neutron flux on the order of 4E12 n.s-1.cm-2.sr-1. Such brilliance would put compact neutron sources on par with existing medium flux neutron research reactors. We performed the first neutron production tests on the IPHI proton accelerator at Saclay. The neutron fluxes were measured using gold foil activation and 3He detectors. The measured fluxes were compared with MCNP and GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulations in which the whole experimental setup was modelled. There is a good agreement between the experimental measurements and the Monte-Carlo simulations. The available modelling tools will allow us to optimize the whole Target Moderator Reflector assembly together with the neutron scattering spectrometer geometries.

  15. Observation of Neutron Skyshine from an Accelerator Based Neutron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklyn, C. B. [Radiation Science Department, Necsa, PO Box 582, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

    2011-12-13

    A key feature of neutron based interrogation systems is the need for adequate provision of shielding around the facility. Accelerator facilities adapted for fast neutron generation are not necessarily suitably equipped to ensure complete containment of the vast quantity of neutrons generated, typically >10{sup 11} n{center_dot}s{sup -1}. Simulating the neutron leakage from a facility is not a simple exercise since the energy and directional distribution can only be approximated. Although adequate horizontal, planar shielding provision is made for a neutron generator facility, it is sometimes the case that vertical shielding is minimized, due to structural and economic constraints. It is further justified by assuming the atmosphere above a facility functions as an adequate radiation shield. It has become apparent that multiple neutron scattering within the atmosphere can result in a measurable dose of neutrons reaching ground level some distance from a facility, an effect commonly known as skyshine. This paper describes a neutron detection system developed to monitor neutrons detected several hundred metres from a neutron source due to the effect of skyshine.

  16. Bioreactor Conditioning for Accelerated Remodeling of Fibrin-Based Tissue Engineered Heart Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jillian Beth

    Fibrin is a promising scaffold material for tissue engineered heart valves, as it is completely biological, allows for engineered matrix alignment, and is able to be degraded and replaced with collagen by entrapped cells. However, the initial fibrin matrix is mechanically weak, and extensive in vitro culture is required to create valves with sufficient mechanical strength and stiffness for in vivo function. Culture in bioreactor systems, which provide cyclic stretching and enhance nutrient transport, has been shown to increase collagen production by cells entrapped in a fibrin scaffold, accelerating strengthening of the tissue and reducing the required culture time. In the present work, steps were taken to improve bioreactor culture conditions with the goal of accelerating collagen production in fibrin-based tissue engineered heart valves using two approaches: (i) optimizing the cyclic stretching protocol and (ii) developing a novel bioreactor system that permits transmural and lumenal flow of culture medium for improved nutrient transport. The results indicated that incrementally increasing strain amplitude cyclic stretching with small, frequent increments in strain amplitude was optimal for collagen production in our system. In addition, proof of concept studies were performed in the novel bioreactor system and increased cellularity and collagen deposition near the lumenal surface of the tissue were observed.

  17. Pedestrian movement analysis in transfer station corridor: Velocity-based and acceleration-based

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiangfeng; Zhang, Jian; Hu, Yongkai; Ran, Bin

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, pedestrians are classified into aggressive and conservative ones by their temper. Aggressive pedestrians' walking through crowd in transfer station corridor is analyzed. Treating pedestrians as particles, this paper uses the modified social force model (MSFM) as the building block, where forces involve self-driving force, repulsive force and friction force. The proposed model in this paper is a discrete model combining the MSFM and cellular automata (CA) model, where the updating rules of the CA are redefined with MSFM. Due to the continuity of values generated by the MSFM, we use the fuzzy logic to discretize the continuous values into cells pedestrians can move in one step. With the observation that stimulus around pedestrians influences their acceleration directly, an acceleration-based movement model is presented, compared to the generally reviewed velocity-based movement model. In the acceleration-based model, a discretized version of kinematic equation is presented based on the acceleration discretized with fuzzy logic. In real life, some pedestrians would rather keep their desired speed and this is also mimicked in this paper, which is called inertia. Compared to the simple triangular membership function, a trapezoidal membership function and a piecewise linear membership function are used to capture pedestrians' inertia. With the trapezoidal and the piecewise linear membership function, many overlapping scenarios should be carefully handled and Dubois and Prade's four-index method is used to completely describe the relative relationship of fuzzy quantities. Finally, a simulation is constructed to demonstrate the effect of our model.

  18. Estimation of thermal neutron fluences in the concrete of proton accelerator facilities from 36Cl production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessho, K.; Matsumura, H.; Miura, T.; Wang, Q.; Masumoto, K.; Hagura, H.; Nagashima, Y.; Seki, R.; Takahashi, T.; Sasa, K.; Sueki, K.; Matsuhiro, T.; Tosaki, Y.

    2007-06-01

    The thermal neutron fluence that poured into the shielding concrete of proton accelerator facilities was estimated from the in situ production of 36Cl. The thermal neutron fluences at concrete surfaces during 10-30 years of operation were in the range of 1012-1014 n/cm2. The maxima in thermal neutron fluences were observed at ≈5-15 cm in the depths analyzed for 36Cl/35Cl by AMS. These characteristics imply that thermalization of neutrons occurred inside the concrete. Compared to the several tens of MeV cyclotrons, secondary neutrons penetrate deeper into the concrete at the high-energy accelerators possessing acceleration energies of 400 MeV and 12 GeV. The attenuation length of neutrons reflects the energy spectra of secondary neutrons emitted by the nuclear reaction at the beam-loss points. Increasing the energy of secondary neutrons shifts the maximum in the thermal neutron fluences to deeper positions. The data obtained in this study will be useful for the radioactive waste management at accelerator facilities.

  19. Platform-based production development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Jacob; Brunoe, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    Platforms as a means for applying modular thinking in product development is relatively well studied, but platforms in the production system has until now not been given much attention. With the emerging concept of platform-based co-development the importance of production platforms is though...... indisputable. This paper presents state-of-the-art literature on platform research related to production platforms and investigates gaps in the literature. The paper concludes on findings by proposing future research directions....

  20. Sprint acceleration mechanics: the major role of hamstrings in horizontal force production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Benoit eMORIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent literature supports the importance of horizontal ground reaction force (GRF production for sprint acceleration performance. Modeling and clinical studies have shown that the hip extensors are very likely contributors to sprint acceleration performance. We experimentally tested the role of the hip extensors in horizontal GRF production during short, maximal, treadmill sprint accelerations. Torque capabilities of the knee and hip extensors and flexors were assessed using an isokinetic dynamometer in 14 males familiar with sprint running. Then, during 6-s sprints on an instrumented motorized treadmill, horizontal and vertical GRF were synchronized with electromyographic (EMG activity of the vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris and gluteus maximus averaged over the first half of support, entire support, entire swing and end-of-swing phases. No significant correlations were found between isokinetic or EMG variables and horizontal GRF. Multiple linear regression analysis showed a significant relationship (P = 0.024 between horizontal GRF and the combination of biceps femoris EMG activity during the end of the swing and the knee flexors eccentric peak torque. In conclusion, subjects who produced the greatest amount of horizontal force were both able to highly activate their hamstring muscles just before ground contact and present high eccentric hamstring peak torque capability.

  1. Microbial electrolysis contribution to anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge, leading to accelerated methane production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wenzong; Cai, Weiwei; Guo, Zechong

    2016-01-01

    -AD) wasused to accelerate methane production for energy recovery from WAS. Carbon bioconversion wasaccelerated by ME producing H2 at the cathode. MPR was enhanced to 91.8 gCH4/m3 reactor/d in themicrobial electrolysis ME-AD reactor, thus improving the rate by 3 times compared to control conditions (30.6 gCH4......Methane production rate (MPR) in waste activated sludge (WAS) digestion processes is typically limitedby the initial steps of complex organic matter degradation, leading to a limited MPR due to sludgefermentation speed of solid particles. In this study, a novel microbial electrolysis AD reactor (ME....../m3 reactor/d in AD). The methane production yield reached 116.2 mg/g VSS in the ME-ADreactor. According to balance calculation on electron transfer and methane yield, the increasedmethane production was mostly dependent on electron contribution through the ME system. Thus, theuse of the novel ME...

  2. Studies of industrial emissions by accelerator-based techniques: A review of applications at CEDAD

    OpenAIRE

    Calcagnile L.; Quarta G.

    2012-01-01

    Different research activities are in progress at the Centre for Dating and Diagnostics (CEDAD), University of Salento, in the field of environmental monitoring by exploiting the potentialities given by the different experimental beam lines implemented on the 3 MV Tande-tron accelerator and dedicated to AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrome-try) radiocarbon dating and IB A (Ion Beam Analysis). An overview of these activities is presented by showing how accelerator-based analytical techniques can be ...

  3. OpenARC: Extensible OpenACC Compiler Framework for Directive-Based Accelerator Programming Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seyong [ORNL; Vetter, Jeffrey S [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Directive-based, accelerator programming models such as OpenACC have arisen as an alternative solution to program emerging Scalable Heterogeneous Computing (SHC) platforms. However, the increased complexity in the SHC systems incurs several challenges in terms of portability and productivity. This paper presents an open-sourced OpenACC compiler, called OpenARC, which serves as an extensible research framework to address those issues in the directive-based accelerator programming. This paper explains important design strategies and key compiler transformation techniques needed to implement the reference OpenACC compiler. Moreover, this paper demonstrates the efficacy of OpenARC as a research framework for directive-based programming study, by proposing and implementing OpenACC extensions in the OpenARC framework to 1) support hybrid programming of the unified memory and separate memory and 2) exploit architecture-specific features in an abstract manner. Porting thirteen standard OpenACC programs and three extended OpenACC programs to CUDA GPUs shows that OpenARC performs similarly to a commercial OpenACC compiler, while it serves as a high-level research framework.

  4. Operation and Service Based on 5SDH-2 Accelerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The 5SDH-2 accelerator was imported from National Electrostatics Corporation of USA in 1996, which is mainly used to establish mono-energitic neutron reference field. The pulsed upgrading belonging to Key Laboratory project was finished including computer control system in 2006.

  5. JMS-based SOA monitors CERN particle accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Seeley, Rich

    2007-01-01

    "Service-oriented architecture (SOA) may not exactly be nuclear physics, but at the CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) physics laboratory on the border of France and Switzerland, an SOA system is watching over giant particle accelerators." (1,5 page)

  6. The RF system for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) at Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, M.T.; Rees, D.; Tallerico, P.; Regan, A. [Accelerator Operations & Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1996-09-01

    To develop and demonstrate the crucial front end of the APT accelerator and some of the critical components for APT, Los Alamos is building a CW proton accelerator (LEDA) to provide 100 mA at up to 40 MeV. LEDA will be installed where the SDI-sponsored Ground Test Accelerator was located. The first accelerating structure for LEDA is a 7-MeV RFQ operating at 350 MHz, followed by several stages of a coupled-cavity Drift Tube Linac (CCDTL) operating at 700 MHz. The first stage of LEDA will go to 12 MeV. Higher energies, up to 40 MeV, come later in the program. Three 1.2-MW CW RF systems will be used to power the RFQ. This paper describes the RF systems being assembled for LEDA, including the 350 and 700-MHz klystrons, the High Voltage Power Supplies, transmitters, RF transport, window/coupler assemblies, and controls. Some of the limitations imposed by the schedule and the building itself are addressed.

  7. Design study of double-layer beam trajectory accelerator based on the Rhodotron structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Iraj; Poursaleh, Ali Mohammad; Khalafi, Hossein

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the conceptual design of a new structure of industrial electron accelerator based on the Rhodotron accelerator is presented and its properties are compared with those of Rhodotron-TT200 accelerator. The main goal of this study was to reduce the power of RF system of accelerator at the same output electron beam energy. The main difference between the new accelerator structure with the Rhodotron accelerator is the length of the coaxial cavity that is equal to the wavelength at the resonant frequency. Also two sets of bending magnets were used around the acceleration cavity in two layers. In the new structure, the beam crosses several times in the coaxial cavity by the bending magnets around the cavity at the first layer and then is transferred to the second layer using the central bending magnet. The acceleration process in the second layer is similar to the first layer. Hence, the energy of the electron beam will be doubled. The electrical power consumption of the RF system and magnet system were calculated and simulated for the new accelerator structure and TT200. Comparing the calculated and simulated results of the TT200 with those of experimental results revealed good agreement. The results showed that the overall electrical power consumption of the new accelerator structure was less than that of the TT200 at the same energy and power of the electron beam. As such, the electrical efficiency of the new structure was improved.

  8. Design study of double-layer beam trajectory accelerator based on the Rhodotron structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jabbari, Iraj, E-mail: i_jabbari@ast.ui.ac.ir [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technologies, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 8174673441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Poursaleh, Ali Mohammad [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technologies, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 8174673441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Central Iran Research Complex, NSTRI, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khalafi, Hossein [Central Iran Research Complex, NSTRI, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-08-21

    In this paper, the conceptual design of a new structure of industrial electron accelerator based on the Rhodotron accelerator is presented and its properties are compared with those of Rhodotron-TT200 accelerator. The main goal of this study was to reduce the power of RF system of accelerator at the same output electron beam energy. The main difference between the new accelerator structure with the Rhodotron accelerator is the length of the coaxial cavity that is equal to the wavelength at the resonant frequency. Also two sets of bending magnets were used around the acceleration cavity in two layers. In the new structure, the beam crosses several times in the coaxial cavity by the bending magnets around the cavity at the first layer and then is transferred to the second layer using the central bending magnet. The acceleration process in the second layer is similar to the first layer. Hence, the energy of the electron beam will be doubled. The electrical power consumption of the RF system and magnet system were calculated and simulated for the new accelerator structure and TT200. Comparing the calculated and simulated results of the TT200 with those of experimental results revealed good agreement. The results showed that the overall electrical power consumption of the new accelerator structure was less than that of the TT200 at the same energy and power of the electron beam. As such, the electrical efficiency of the new structure was improved.

  9. Be target development for the accelerator-based SPES-BNCT facility at INFN Legnaro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, J; Colautti, P; Fabritsiev, S; Gervash, A; Giniyatulin, R; Lomasov, V N; Makhankov, A; Mazul, I; Pisent, A; Pokrovsky, A; Rumyantsev, M; Tanchuk, V; Tecchio, L

    2009-07-01

    An accelerator-driven thermal neutron source for BNCT, planned to be installed at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), is in progress in the framework of the SPES (selective production of exotic species) research program. The most critical element of such a facility is the construction of a reliable neutron converter based on the (9)Be(p,xn) nuclear reaction, working at a high power level (150 kW) and 5 MeV beam energy, due to the SPES driver constraints. Two original, beryllium-based, target concepts have been designed for such a purpose. The present status of the neutron converter, as well as the test results performed so far on prototypes constructed, is reported here.

  10. Spectroscopic measurements of plasma emission light for plasma-based acceleration experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, F.; Anania, M. P.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Ferrario, M.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Zigler, A.

    2016-09-01

    Advanced particle accelerators are based on the excitation of large amplitude plasma waves driven by either electron or laser beams. Future experiments scheduled at the SPARC_LAB test facility aim to demonstrate the acceleration of high brightness electron beams through the so-called resonant Plasma Wakefield Acceleration scheme in which a train of electron bunches (drivers) resonantly excites wakefields into a preformed hydrogen plasma; the last bunch (witness) injected at the proper accelerating phase gains energy from the wake. The quality of the accelerated beam depends strongly on plasma density and its distribution along the acceleration length. The measurements of plasma density of the order of 1016-1017 cm-3 can be performed with spectroscopic measurements of the plasma-emitted light. The measured density distribution for hydrogen filled capillary discharge with both Balmer alpha and Balmer beta lines and shot-to-shot variation are here reported.

  11. Consumer-Based Product Profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacalone, Davide; Ribeiro, Leticia Machado; Frøst, Michael Bom

    2013-01-01

    novices. The aim was to explore the usability of the Napping® method by untrained consumers and to analyze differences between beer novices and experts in their ability to discriminate and describe the products. The method succeeded in discriminating between the beers, revealing sensory descriptors...... for sensory characterization, with the advantage of providing a product characterization based on consumer descriptions, thus better reflecting consumers' experience with the product. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC....

  12. A cord blood monocyte–derived cell therapy product accelerates brain remyelination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntz, Susan; Scotland, Paula; Xu, Li; Noeldner, Pamela; Patel, Sachit; Wollish, Amy; Gunaratne, Aruni; Gentry, Tracy; Matsushima, Glenn K.; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Balber, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    Microglia and monocytes play important roles in regulating brain remyelination. We developed DUOC-01, a cell therapy product intended for treatment of demyelinating diseases, from banked human umbilical cord blood (CB) mononuclear cells. Immunodepletion and selection studies demonstrated that DUOC-01 cells are derived from CB CD14+ monocytes. We compared the ability of freshly isolated CB CD14+ monocytes and DUOC-01 cells to accelerate remyelination of the brains of NOD/SCID/IL2Rγnull mice following cuprizone feeding–mediated demyelination. The corpus callosum of mice intracranially injected with DUOC-01 showed enhanced myelination, a higher proportion of fully myelinated axons, decreased gliosis and cellular infiltration, and more proliferating oligodendrocyte lineage cells than those of mice receiving excipient. Uncultured CB CD14+ monocytes also accelerated remyelination, but to a significantly lesser extent than DUOC-01 cells. Microarray analysis, quantitative PCR studies, Western blotting, and flow cytometry demonstrated that expression of factors that promote remyelination including PDGF-AA, stem cell factor, IGF1, MMP9, MMP12, and triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 were upregulated in DUOC-01 compared to CB CD14+ monocytes. Collectively, our results show that DUOC-01 accelerates brain remyelination by multiple mechanisms and could be beneficial in treating demyelinating conditions. PMID:27699230

  13. Static and dynamic characteristics of angular velocity and acceleration transducers based on optical tunneling effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busurin, V. I.; Korobkov, V. V.; Htoo Lwin, Naing; Tuan, Phan Anh

    2016-08-01

    Theoretical and experimental analysis of quasi-linear conversion function of angular velocity and acceleration microoptoelectromechnical (MOEM) transducers based on optical tunneling effect (OTE) are conducted. Equivalent oscillating circuit is developed and dynamic characteristics of angular velocity and acceleration MOEM-transducers are investigated.

  14. A Los Alamos concept for accelerator transmutation of waste and energy production (ATW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This document contains the diagrams presented at the ATW (Accelerator Transmutation of Waste and Energy Production) External Review, December 10-12, 1990, held at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Included are the charge to the committee and the presentations for the committee`s review. Topics of the presentations included an overview of the concept, LINAC technology, near-term application -- high-level defense wastes (intense thermal neutron source, chemistry and materials), advanced application of the ATW concept -- fission energy without a high-level waste stream (overview, advanced technology, and advanced chemistry), and a summary of the research issues.

  15. Beam line shielding calculations for an Electron Accelerator Mo-99 production facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocko, Michal [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-03

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the photon and neutron fields in and around the latest beam line design for the Mo-99 production facility. The radiation dose to the beam line components (quadrupoles, dipoles, beam stops and the linear accelerator) are calculated in the present report. The beam line design assumes placement of two cameras: infra red (IR) and optical transition radiation (OTR) for continuous monitoring of the beam spot on target during irradiation. The cameras will be placed off the beam axis offset in vertical direction. We explored typical shielding arrangements for the cameras and report the resulting neutron and photon dose fields.

  16. Pulsed neutron source based on accelerator-subcritical-assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Makoto; Noda, Akira; Iwashita, Yoshihisa; Okamoto, Hiromi; Shirai, Toshiyuki [Kyoto Univ., Uji (Japan). Inst. for Chemical Research

    1997-03-01

    A new pulsed neutron source which consists of a 300MeV proton linac and a nuclear fuel subcritical assembly is proposed. The proton linac produces pulsed spallation neutrons, which are multipied by the subcritical assembly. A prototype proton linac that accelerates protons up to 7MeV has been developed and a high energy section of a DAW structure is studied with a power model. Halo formations in high intensity beam are also being studied. (author)

  17. Programming Heterogeneous Clusters with Accelerators Using Object-Based Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Kunzman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous clusters that include accelerators have become more common in the realm of high performance computing because of the high GFlop/s rates such clusters are capable of achieving. However, heterogeneous clusters are typically considered hard to program as they usually require programmers to interleave architecture-specific code within application code. We have extended the Charm++ programming model and runtime system to support heterogeneous clusters (with host cores that differ in their architecture that include accelerators. We are currently focusing on clusters that include commodity processors, Cell processors, and Larrabee devices. When our extensions are used to develop code, the resulting code is portable between various homogeneous and heterogeneous clusters that may or may not include accelerators. Using a simple example molecular dynamics (MD code, we demonstrate our programming model extensions and runtime system modifications on a heterogeneous cluster comprised of Xeon and Cell processors. Even though there is no architecture-specific code in the example MD program, it is able to successfully make use of three core types, each with a different ISA (Xeon, PPE, SPE, three SIMD instruction extensions (SSE, AltiVec/VMX and the SPE's SIMD instructions, and two memory models (cache hierarchies and scratchpad memories in a single execution. Our programming model extensions abstract away hardware complexities while our runtime system modifications automatically adjust application data to account for architectural differences between the various cores.

  18. Microbial electrolysis contribution to anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge, leading to accelerated methane production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wenzong; Cai, Weiwei; Guo, Zechong;

    2016-01-01

    Methane production rate (MPR) in waste activated sludge (WAS) digestion processes is typically limitedby the initial steps of complex organic matter degradation, leading to a limited MPR due to sludgefermentation speed of solid particles. In this study, a novel microbial electrolysis AD reactor (ME......-AD) wasused to accelerate methane production for energy recovery from WAS. Carbon bioconversion wasaccelerated by ME producing H2 at the cathode. MPR was enhanced to 91.8 gCH4/m3 reactor/d in themicrobial electrolysis ME-AD reactor, thus improving the rate by 3 times compared to control conditions (30.6 gCH4......-AD reactor allowed to significantly enhance carbon degradation and methaneproduction from WAS....

  19. High brightness gamma-ray production at Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalcea, D.; Jacobson, B.; Murokh, A.; Piot, P.; Ruan, J.

    2017-03-01

    Electron beams with energies of the order of a few 100's of MeV and low transverse emittance, in combination with powerful infrared lasers, allow for the production of high quality gamma rays through Inverse Compton Scattering (ICS). At Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility, a 300 MeV beam will be used to generate gamma rays with maximum photon energies of up to ˜1.5 MeV and brightness of the order of 1021 photons/[s-(mm-mrad)2- 0.1%BW]. Due to the low electron-beam transverse emittance, the relative bandwidth of the scattered radiation is expected to be ≤ 1%. A key challenge toward the production of high radiation dose and brightness is to enhance the energy of the infrared 3 ps laser pulses to the joule level. In this contribution, we present the plans for the experimental setup, along with comprehensive numerical simulations of the ICS process.

  20. Acceleration of cell factories engineering using CRISPR-based technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronda, Carlotta

    potentially be standardized in an automatable platform and, in the future be integrated with metabolic modeling tools. In particularly it describes the technologies developed in the three widely used organisms: E. coli, S. cerevisiae and CHO mammalian cells using the recent breakthrough CRISPR/ Cas9 system....... These include CRMAGE, a MAGE improved recombineering platform using CRISPR negative selection, CrEdit, a system for multi-loci marker-free simultaneous gene and pathway integrations and CRISPy a platform to accelerate genome editing in CHO cells....

  1. Electromagnetic Simulations of Helical-Based Ion Acceleration Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Scott D; Caporaso, George; Friedman, Alex; Poole, Brian R; Waldron, William

    2005-01-01

    Helix structures have been proposed* for accelerating low energy ion beams using MV/m fields in order to increase the coupling effeciency of the pulsed power system and to tailor the electromagnetic wave propagation speed with the particle beam speed as the beam gains energy. Calculations presented here show the electromagnetic field as it propagates along the helix structure, field stresses around the helix structure (for voltage breakdown determination), optimizations to the helix and driving pulsed power waveform, and simulations showing test particles interacting with the simulated time varying fields.

  2. Effects of TEA·HCl hardening accelerator on the workability of cement-based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wenhao; Ding, Zhaoyang; Chen, Yanwen

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the test is to research the influence rules of TEA·HCl on the workability of cement paste and concrete. Based on the features of the new hardening accelerator, an experimental analysis system were established through different dosages of hardening accelerator, and the feasibility of such accelerator to satisfy the need of practical engineering was verified. The results show that adding of the hardening accelerator can accelerate the cement hydration, and what’s more, when the dosage was 0.04%, the setting time was the shortest while the initial setting time and final setting time were 130 min and 180 min, respectively. The initial fluidity of cement paste of adding accelerator was roughly equivalent compared with that of blank. After 30 min, fluidity loss would decrease with the dosage increasing, but fluidity may increase. The application of the hardening accelerator can make the early workability of concrete enhance, especially the slump loss of 30 min can improve more significantly. The bleeding rate of concrete significantly decreases after adding TEA·HCl. The conclusion is that the new hardening accelerator can meet the need of the workability of cement-based materials in the optimum dosage range.

  3. Flexusi Interface Builder For Computer Based Accelerator Monitoring And Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Kurakin, V G; Kurakin, P V

    2004-01-01

    We have developed computer code for any desired graphics user interface designing for monitoring and control system at the executable level. This means that operator can build up measurement console consisting of virtual devices before or even during real experiment without recompiling source file. Such functionality results in number of advantages comparing with traditional programming. First of all any risk disappears to introduce bug into source code. Another important thing is the fact the both program developers and operator staff do not interface in developing ultimate product (measurement console). Thus, small team without detailed project can design even very complicated monitoring and control system. For the reason mentioned below, approach suggested is especially helpful for large complexes to be monitored and control, accelerator being among them. The program code consists of several modules, responsible for data acquisition, control and representation. Borland C++ Builder technologies based on VCL...

  4. Accelerator-based epithermal neutron beam design for neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanch, J C; Zhou, X L; Shefer, R E; Klinkowstein, R E

    1992-01-01

    Recent interest in the production of epithermal neutrons for use in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has promoted an investigation into the feasibility of generating such neutrons with a high current proton accelerator. Energetic protons (2.5 MeV) on a 7Li target produce a spectrum of neutrons with maximum energy of roughly 800 keV. A number of combinations of D2O moderator, lead reflector, 6Li thermal neutron filtration, and D2O/6Li shielding will result in a useful epithermal flux of 1.6 x 10(8) n/s at the patient position. The neutron beam is capable of delivering 3000 RBE-cGy to a tumor at a depth of 7.5 cm in a total treatment time of 60-93 min (depending on RBE values used and based on a 24-cm diameter x 19-cm length D2O moderator). Treatment of deeper tumors with therapeutic advantage would also be possible. Maximum advantage depths (RBE weighted) of 8.2-9.2 (again depending on RBE values and precise moderator configuration) are obtained in a right-circular cylindrical phantom composed of brain-equivalent material with an advantage ratio of 4.7-6.3. A tandem cascade accelerator (TCA), designed and constructed at Science Research Laboratory (SRL) in Somerville MA, can provide the required proton beam parameters for BNCT of deep-seated tumors. An optimized configuration of materials required to shift the accelerator neutron spectrum down to therapeutically useful energies has been designed using Monte Carlo simulation in the Whitaker College Biomedical Imaging and Computation Laboratory at MIT. Actual construction of the moderator/reflector assembly is currently underway.

  5. Dynamical analysis of an accelerator-based fluid-fueled subcritical radioactive waste burning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woosley, Michael Louis, Jr.

    The recent revival of interest in accelerator-driven subcritical fluid-fueled systems is documented. Several important applications of these systems are mentioned. In particular, new applications have focused on the destruction of high-level radioactive waste. Systems can be designed to quickly destroy the actinides and long-lived fission products from light water reactor fuel, weapons plutonium, and other high-level defense wastes. The proposed development of these systems is used to motivate the need for the development of dynamic analysis methods for their nuclear kinetics. A physical description of the Los Alamos Accelerator-Based Conversion (ABC) concept is provided. This system is used as the basis for the kinetics study in this research. The current approach to the dynamic simulation of an accelerator-driven subcritical fluid-fueled system includes three elements: A discrete ordinates model is used to calculate the flux distribution for the source-driven system; A nodal convection model is used to calculate time-dependent isotope and temperature distributions which impact reactivity; A nodal importance weighting model is used to calculate the reactivity impact of temperature and isotope distributions and to feed this information back to the time-dependent nodal convection model. Specific transients which have been analyzed with the current modeling system are discussed. These transients include loss-of-flow and loss-of-cooling accidents, xenon and samarium transients, and cold-plug and overfueling events. The results of various transients have uncovered unpredictable behavior, unresolved design issues, and the need for active control. Modest initiating events can cause significant swings in system temperature and power. The circulation of the fluid fuel can lead to oscillations on the relatively short scale of the loop circulation time. The system responds quickly to reactivity changes because the large neutron source overwhelms the damping effect of delayed

  6. Generation of Accelerated Stability Experiment Profile of Inertial Platform Based on Finite Element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yunxia; HUANG Xiaokai; KANG Rui

    2012-01-01

    The residual stress generated in the manufacturing process of inertial platform causes the drift of inertial platform parameters in long-term storage condition.However,the existing temperature cycling experiment could not meet the increased repeatability technical requirements of inertial platform parameters.In order to solve this problem,in this paper,firstly the Unigraphics (UG) software and the interface compatibility of ANSYS software are used to establish the inertial platform finite element model.Secondly,the residual stress is loaded into finite element model by ANSYS function editor in the form of surface loads to analyze the efficiency.And then,the generation based on ANSYS simulation inertial platform to accelerate the stability of experiment profile is achieved by the application of the analysis method of orthogonal experimental design and ANSYS thermal-structural coupling.The optimum accelerated stability experiment profile is determined finally,which realizes the rapid,effective release of inertial platform residual stress.The research methodology and conclusion of this paper have great theoretical and practical significance to the production technology of inertial platform.

  7. Consortia based production of biochemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann Jensen, Sheila; Sukumara, Sumesh; Özdemir, Emre;

    -based modelling, and state-of-the art metabolic engineering tools to develop a consortium of cells capable of efficient valorization of synthetic hemicellulosic hydrolysate. Stable co-existence and effective covalorization was achieved through niche-differentiation, auxotrophy, and adaptive evolution. In another...... study, stable consortia based fermentation was achieved through niche partitioning, syntrophy (auxotrophy combined with removal of inhibitory side product), and CRISPRi mediated gene silencing. The achieved results demonstrate that consortium based approaches for valorizing complex biomass and waste...

  8. Improved Accelerated Stress Tests Based on Fuel Cell Vehicle Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Timothy [Research Engineer; Motupally, Sathya [Research Engineer

    2012-06-01

    UTC will led a top-tier team of industry and national laboratory participants to update and improve DOE’s Accelerated Stress Tests (AST’s) for hydrogen fuel cells. This in-depth investigation will focused on critical fuel cell components (e.g. membrane electrode assemblies - MEA) whose durability represented barriers for widespread commercialization of hydrogen fuel cell technology. UTC had access to MEA materials that had accrued significant load time under real-world conditions in PureMotion® 120 power plant used in transit buses. These materials are referred to as end-of-life (EOL) components in the rest of this document. Advanced characterization techniques were used to evaluate degradation mode progress using these critical cell components extracted from both bus power plants and corresponding materials tested using the DOE AST’s. These techniques were applied to samples at beginning-of-life (BOL) to serve as a baseline. These comparisons advised the progress of the various failure modes that these critical components were subjected to, such as membrane degradation, catalyst support corrosion, platinum group metal dissolution, and others. Gaps in the existing ASTs predicted the degradation observed in the field in terms of these modes were outlined. Using the gaps, new AST’s were recommended and tested to better reflect the degradation modes seen in field operation. Also, BOL components were degraded in a test vehicle at UTC designed to accelerate the bus field operation.

  9. Kinematics and Dynamics of Motion Control Based on Acceleration Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohishi, Kiyoshi; Ohba, Yuzuru; Katsura, Seiichiro

    The first IEEE International Workshop on Advanced Motion Control was held in 1990 pointed out the importance of physical interpretation of motion control. The software servoing technology is now common in machine tools, robotics, and mechatronics. It has been intensively developed for the numerical control (NC) machines. Recently, motion control in unknown environment will be more and more important. Conventional motion control is not always suitable due to the lack of adaptive capability to the environment. A more sophisticated ability in motion control is necessary for compliant contact with environment. Acceleration control is the key technology of motion control in unknown environment. The acceleration control can make a motion system to be a zero control stiffness system without losing the robustness. Furthermore, a realization of multi-degree-of-freedom motion is necessary for future human assistance. A human assistant motion will require various control stiffness corresponding to the task. The review paper focuses on the modal coordinate system to integrate the various control stiffness in the virtual axes. A bilateral teleoperation is a good candidate to consider the future human assistant motion and integration of decentralized systems. Thus the paper reviews and discusses the bilateral teleoperation from the control stiffness and the modal control design points of view.

  10. On the production of neutrons in laminated barriers for 10 MV medical accelerator rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facure, A; da Silva, A X; da Rosa, L A R; Cardoso, S C; Rezende, G F S

    2008-07-01

    When space limitations are primary constraints, laminated barriers with metals can be an option to provide sufficient shielding for a radiotherapy treatment room. However, if a photon clinical beam with end point energy of 10 MeV or higher interacts with the metal inside the barriers neutrons are ejected and can result in an exposure problem inside and outside the vault. The empirical formulae existing in the literature to estimate neutron dose equivalents beyond laminated barriers do not take into account neutron production for spectra below 15 MV. In this work, the Monte Carlo code MCNP was used to simulate the production and transport of photoneutrons across primary barriers of 10 MV accelerator treatment rooms containing lead or steel, in order to obtain the ambient dose equivalents produced by these particles outside the room and in the patient plane. It was found that the neutron doses produced are insignificant when steel is present in the primary barriers of 10 MV medical accelerators. On the other hand, the results show that, in all cases where lead sheets are positioned in the primary barriers, the neutron ambient dose equivalents outside the room generally exceed the shielding design goal of 20 microSv/week for uncontrolled areas, even when the lead sheets are positioned inside the treatment room. Moreover, for laminated barriers, the photoneutrons produced in the metals are summed with the particles generated in the accelerator head shielding and can represent a significant component of additional dose to the patients. In this work, it was found that once lead sheets are positioned inside the room, the neutron ambient dose equivalents can reach the value of 75 microSv per Gray of photon absorbed dose at the isocenter. However, for all simulated cases, a tendency in the reduction of neutron doses with increasing lead thickness can be observed. This trend can imply in higher neutron ambient dose equivalents outside the room for thinner lead sheets

  11. Design of Power Efficient FPGA based Hardware Accelerators for Financial Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegner, Jonas Stenbæk; Sindholt, Joakim; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) to accelerate financial derivative calculations is becoming very common. In this work, we implement an FPGA-based specific processor for European option pricing using Monte Carlo simulations, and we compare its performance and power dissipation...... to the execution on a CPU. The experimental results show that impressive results, in terms of speed-up and energy savings, can be obtained by using FPGA-based accelerators at expenses of a longer development time....

  12. Particle Accelerators in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuang; Fang, Shouxian

    As the special machines that can accelerate charged particle beams to high energy by using electromagnetic fields, particle accelerators have been widely applied in scientific research and various areas of society. The development of particle accelerators in China started in the early 1950s. After a brief review of the history of accelerators, this article describes in the following sections: particle colliders, heavy-ion accelerators, high-intensity proton accelerators, accelerator-based light sources, pulsed power accelerators, small scale accelerators, accelerators for applications, accelerator technology development and advanced accelerator concepts. The prospects of particle accelerators in China are also presented.

  13. Measuring test mass acceleration noise in space-based gravitational wave astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Congedo, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The basic constituent of interferometric gravitational wave detectors -- the test mass to test mass interferometric link -- behaves as a differential dynamometer measuring effective differential forces, comprising an integrated measure of gravity curvature, inertial effects, as well as non-gravitational spurious forces. This last contribution is going to be characterised by the LISA Pathfinder mission, a technology precursor of future space-borne detectors like eLISA. Changing the perspective from displacement to acceleration can benefit the data analysis of LISA Pathfinder and future detectors. The response in differential acceleration to gravitational waves is derived for a space-based detector's interferometric link. The acceleration formalism can also be integrated into time delay interferometry by building up the unequal-arm Michelson differential acceleration combination. The differential acceleration is nominally insensitive to the system free evolution dominating the slow displacement dynamics of low-...

  14. Photon Acceleration of Laser-plasma Based on Compton Scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Dong-shan; XIE Hong-jun

    2006-01-01

    The one-dimensional electron density disturbance is studied by using the inelastic collision model of the relativity electron and photon group, the relativity theory, the momentum equation and the continuity equation, which is generated by a driving laser pulse and scattered laser pulse propagating through a tenuous plasma, and the electron density disturbance is closely associated with the incident laser and scattering laser. The electron plasma wave(EPW)is formed by the propagation of the electron density disturbance. Owing to the action of EPW, the increasing of the frequency of the photons in the incident laser pulses that there is a distance with the driving laser pulses is studied by using optical metric. The results show that it is possible that the photon will gain higher energy from the EPW when photon number is decreased and one-photon Compton scattering enters, the photon will be accelerated.

  15. Phase Space Dynamics of Ionization Injection in Plasma Based Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, X L; Li, F; Zhang, C J; Yan, L X; Du, Y C; Huang, W H; Chen, H B; Tang, C X; Lu, W; Yu, P; An, W; Mori, W B; Joshi, C

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of beam phase space in ionization-induced injection into plasma wakefields is studied using theory and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. The injection process causes special longitudinal and transverse phase mixing leading initially to a rapid emittance growth followed by oscillation, decay, and eventual slow growth to saturation. An analytic theory for this evolution is presented that includes the effects of injection distance (time), acceleration distance, wakefield structure, and nonlinear space charge forces. Formulas for the emittance in the low and high space charge regimes are presented. The theory is verified through PIC simulations and a good agreement is obtained. This work shows how ultra-low emittance beams can be produced using ionization-induced injection.

  16. Characterization methods for an accelerator based fast-neutron facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklyn, C.; Daniels, G. C.

    2012-02-01

    A fast neutron facility provides a number of complexities in both detection and shielding, the latter arising not only due to uncertainty in the behaviour of the scattered radiation (neutron and gamma-rays) from a fast neutron source, but also on shielding requirements that have to take into account internal and external factors, such as dose limitations, space availability for implementing bulky shielding and secondary interactions of the radiation with materials. This has possible influence on experimental measurements with a low signal to noise ratio. This paper reports on some of the investigations performed at a RFQ accelerator facility generating > 1011 neutrons per second with energies up to 14 MeV, which are used to perform fast neutron radiography studies. Areas highlighted are the neutron cross section libraries, where important data needs to be reviewed or updated.

  17. Repair mortars based on lime. Accelerated aging tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Ramírez, S.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour under different accelerated aging tests (freeze/thaw and crystallization cycles of a new lime mortar with biocide properties destinated to monumental repair has been studied. New mortars (which have the biocide impregnated in a clay called sepiolite have a similar behaviour to lime mortars used as a reference. After the aging tests, the biocide properties of the mortars have been tried.

    Se ha estudiado el comportamiento frente a distintos ensayos de envejecimiento acelerado (ciclos de hielo/deshielo y cristalización de sales de un nuevo mortero de cal con propiedades biocidas, destinado a la reparación monumental. Se ha comprobado que los nuevos morteros (que llevan incorporado el biocida impregnado en una arcilla denominada sepiolita tienen un comportamiento muy similar a los morteros de cal utilizados como referencia. Tras los ensayos de envejecimiento se ha visto que las propiedades biocidas de los morteros se mantienen.

  18. Simulations of slow positron production using a low energy electron accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    O'Rourke, B E; Kinomura, A; Kuroda, R; Minehara, E; Ohdaira, T; Oshima, N; Suzuki, R

    2011-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of slow positron production via energetic electron interaction with a solid target have been performed. The aim of the simulations was to determine the expected slow positron beam intensity from a low energy, high current electron accelerator. By simulating (a) the fast positron production from a tantalum electron-positron converter and (b) the positron depth deposition profile in a tungsten moderator, the slow positron production probability per incident electron was estimated. Normalizing the calculated result to the measured slow positron yield at the present AIST LINAC the expected slow positron yield as a function of energy was determined. For an electron beam energy of 5 MeV (10 MeV) and current 240 $\\mu$A (30 $\\mu$A) production of a slow positron beam of intensity 5 $\\times$ 10$^{6}$ s$^{-1}$ is predicted. The simulation also calculates the average energy deposited in the converter per electron, allowing an estimate of the beam heating at a given electron energy and current. For...

  19. Acceleration of adenovirus replication and increased virion production by treatment with the steroid hormone 17 beta-estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, C B; Vanderpool, E A; Roane, P

    1992-01-01

    We report here that concentration of an estrogen known to promote enhanced transformation and to increase oncogenicity of rat embryo cells, accelerate the production and increase the yield of progeny virions in adenovirus type 12 (Ad 12)-infected HEp-2 cells. Further, measurement of the incorporation of radioactive RNA and DNA precursors indicated that macromolecular synthesis in the estrogen-treated, infected cells was accelerated. Possible explanations for this observation are discussed.

  20. Assessment of candidates for target window material in accelerator-driven molybdenum-99 production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strons, Philip [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bailey, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Makarashvili, Vakhtang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chemerisov, Sergey [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gromov, Roman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-01

    NorthStar Medical Technologies is pursuing production of an important medical isotope, Mo-99, through a photo-nuclear reaction of a Mo-100 target using a high-power electron accelerator. The current target utilizes an Inconel 718 window. The purpose of this study was to evaluate other candidate materials for the target window, which separates the high-pressure helium gas inside the target from the vacuum inside the accelerator beamline and is subjected to significant stress. Our initial analysis assessed the properties (density, thermal conductivity, maximum stress, minimum window thickness, maximum temperature, and figure of merit) for a range of materials, from which the three most promising were chosen: Inconel 718, 250 maraging steel, and standard-grade beryllium. These materials were subjected to further analysis to determine the effects of thermal and mechanical strain versus beam power at varying thicknesses. Both beryllium and the maraging steel were calculated to withstand more than twice as high beam power than Inconel 718.

  1. Characterization of solvents containing CyMe4-BTPhen in selected cyclohexanone-based diluents after irradiation by accelerated electrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Distler Petr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiation stability of CyMe4-BTPhen was examined in systems with three selected cyclohexanone-based diluents. Accelerated electrons were used as a source of ionizing radiation. The CyMe4-BTPhen radiation degradation identification and characterization of the degradation products were performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and mass spectrometry (MS analyses. Residual concentrations of tested ligand were determined. Moreover, extraction properties of the solvents irradiated at two different doses were compared with the extraction properties of non-irradiated solvents to estimate the influence of the presence of degradation products in the organic phase.

  2. An optimized neutron-beam shaping assembly for accelerator-based BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlon, A A; Kreiner, A J; Valda, A A; Minsky, D M

    2004-11-01

    Different materials and proton beam energies have been studied in order to search for an optimized neutron production target and beam shaping assembly for accelerator-based BNCT. The solution proposed in this work consists of successive stacks of Al, polytetrafluoroethylene, commercially known as Teflon, and LiF as moderator and neutron absorber, and Pb as reflector. This assembly is easy to build and its cost is relatively low. An exhaustive Monte Carlo simulation study has been performed evaluating the doses delivered to a Snyder model head phantom by a neutron production Li-metal target based on the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction for proton bombarding energies of 1.92, 2.0, 2.3 and 2.5 MeV. Three moderator thicknesses have been studied and the figures of merit show the advantage of irradiating with near-resonance-energy protons (2.3 MeV) because of the relatively high neutron yield at this energy, which at the same time keeps the fast neutron healthy tissue dose limited and leads to the lowest treatment times. A moderator of 34 cm length has shown the best performance among the studied cases.

  3. An optimized neutron-beam shaping assembly for accelerator-based BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burlon, A.A. E-mail: burlon@tandar.cnea.gov.ar; Kreiner, A.J.; Valda, A.A.; Minsky, D.M

    2004-11-01

    Different materials and proton beam energies have been studied in order to search for an optimized neutron production target and beam shaping assembly for accelerator-based BNCT. The solution proposed in this work consists of successive stacks of Al, polytetrafluoroethylene, commercially known as Teflon[reg ], and LiF as moderator and neutron absorber, and Pb as reflector. This assembly is easy to build and its cost is relatively low. An exhaustive Monte Carlo simulation study has been performed evaluating the doses delivered to a Snyder model head phantom by a neutron production Li-metal target based on the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction for proton bombarding energies of 1.92, 2.0, 2.3 and 2.5 MeV. Three moderator thicknesses have been studied and the figures of merit show the advantage of irradiating with near-resonance-energy protons (2.3 MeV) because of the relatively high neutron yield at this energy, which at the same time keeps the fast neutron healthy tissue dose limited and leads to the lowest treatment times. A moderator of 34 cm length has shown the best performance among the studied cases.

  4. Design of Accelerated Reliability Test for CNC Motorized Spindle Based on Vibration Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Motorized spindle is the key functional component of CNC machining centers which is a mechatronics system with long life and high reliability. The reliability test cycle of motorized spindle is too long and infeasible. This paper proposes a new accelerated test for reliability evaluation of motorized spindle. By field reliability test, authors collect and calculate the load data including rotational speed, cutting force and torque. Load spectrum distribution law is analyzed. And authors design a test platform to apply the load spectrum. A new method to define the fuzzy acceleration factor based on the vibration signal is proposed. Then the whole test plan of accelerated reliability test is done.

  5. Collider design issues based on proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, G; Aimidula, A; Welsch, C; Chattopadhyay, S; Mandry, S; Wing, M

    2014-01-01

    Recent simulations have shown that a high-energy proton bunch can excite strong plasma wakefields and accelerate a bunch of electrons to the energy frontier in a single stage of acceleration. It therefore paves the way towards a compact future collider design using the proton beams from existing high-energy proton machines, e.g. Tevatron or the LHC. This paper addresses some key issues in designing a compact electron-positron linear collider and an electron-proton collider based on existing CERN accelerator infrastructure.

  6. Near-threshold pion production with radioactive beams at the Rare Isotope Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Li, B A; Zuo, W; Li, Bao-An; Yong, Gao-Chan; Zuo, Wei

    2005-01-01

    Using an isospin- and momentum-dependent transport model we study near-threshold pion production in heavy-ion collisions induced by radioactive beams at the planned Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA). We revisit the question of probing the high density behavior of nuclear symmetry energy $E_{sym}(\\rho)$ using the $\\pi^-/\\pi^+$ ratio. It is found that both the total and differential $\\pi^-/\\pi^+$ ratios remain sensitive to the $E_{sym}(\\rho)$ when the momentum-dependence of both the isoscalar and isovector potentials are consistently taken into account. Moreover, the multiplicity and spectrum of $\\pi^-$ mesons are found more sensitive to the $E_{sym}(\\rho)$ than those of $\\pi^+$ mesons. Finally, effects of the Coulomb potential on the pion spectra and $\\pi^-/\\pi^+$ ratio are also discussed.

  7. Haste makes waste: accelerated molt adversely affects the expression of melanin-based and depigmented plumage ornaments in house sparrows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csongor I Vágási

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many animals display colorful signals in their integument which convey information about the quality of their bearer. Theoretically, these ornaments incur differential production and/or maintenance costs that enforce their honesty. However, the proximate mechanisms of production costs are poorly understood and contentious in cases of non-carotenoid-based plumage ornaments like the melanin-based badge and depigmented white wing-bar in house sparrows Passer domesticus. Costly life-history events are adaptively separated in time, thus, when reproduction is extended, the time available for molt is curtailed and, in turn, molt rate is accelerated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We experimentally accelerated the molt rate by shortening the photoperiod in order to test whether this environmental constraint is mirrored in the expression of plumage ornaments. Sparrows which had undergone an accelerated molt developed smaller badges and less bright wing-bars compared to conspecifics that molted at a natural rate being held at natural-like photoperiod. There was no difference in the brightness of the badge or the size of the wing-bar. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that the time available for molt and thus the rate at which molt occurs may constrain the expression of melanin-based and depigmented plumage advertisements. This mechanism may lead to the evolution of honest signaling if the onset of molt is condition-dependent through the timing of and/or trade-off between breeding and molt.

  8. Gel nanostructure in alkali-activated binders based on slag and fly ash, and effects of accelerated carbonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal, Susan A., E-mail: s.bernal@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Provis, John L., E-mail: j.provis@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Walkley, Brant; San Nicolas, Rackel [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Gehman, John D. [School of Chemistry and Bio21 Institute, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Brice, David G.; Kilcullen, Adam R. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Zeobond Pty Ltd, P.O. Box 23450, Docklands, Victoria 8012 (Australia); Duxson, Peter [Zeobond Pty Ltd, P.O. Box 23450, Docklands, Victoria 8012 (Australia); Deventer, Jannie S.J. van [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Zeobond Pty Ltd, P.O. Box 23450, Docklands, Victoria 8012 (Australia)

    2013-11-15

    Binders formed through alkali-activation of slags and fly ashes, including ‘fly ash geopolymers’, provide appealing properties as binders for low-emissions concrete production. However, the changes in pH and pore solution chemistry induced during accelerated carbonation testing provide unrealistically low predictions of in-service carbonation resistance. The aluminosilicate gel remaining in an alkali-activated slag system after accelerated carbonation is highly polymerised, consistent with a decalcification mechanism, while fly ash-based binders mainly carbonate through precipitation of alkali salts (bicarbonates at elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations, or carbonates under natural exposure) from the pore solution, with little change in the binder gel identifiable by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In activated fly ash/slag blends, two distinct gels (C–A–S–H and N–A–S–H) are formed; under accelerated carbonation, the N–A–S–H gel behaves comparably to fly ash-based systems, while the C–A–S–H gel is decalcified similarly to alkali-activated slag. This provides new scope for durability optimisation, and for developing appropriate testing methodologies. -- Highlights: •C-A-S-H gel in alkali-activated slag decalcifies during accelerated carbonation. •Alkali-activated fly ash gel changes much less under CO{sub 2} exposure. •Blended slag-fly ash binder contains two coexisting gel types. •These two gels respond differently to carbonation. •Understanding of carbonation mechanisms is essential in developing test methods.

  9. Accelerating patch-based directional wavelets with multicore parallel computing in compressed sensing MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiyue; Qu, Xiaobo; Liu, Yunsong; Guo, Di; Lai, Zongying; Ye, Jing; Chen, Zhong

    2015-06-01

    Compressed sensing MRI (CS-MRI) is a promising technology to accelerate magnetic resonance imaging. Both improving the image quality and reducing the computation time are important for this technology. Recently, a patch-based directional wavelet (PBDW) has been applied in CS-MRI to improve edge reconstruction. However, this method is time consuming since it involves extensive computations, including geometric direction estimation and numerous iterations of wavelet transform. To accelerate computations of PBDW, we propose a general parallelization of patch-based processing by taking the advantage of multicore processors. Additionally, two pertinent optimizations, excluding smooth patches and pre-arranged insertion sort, that make use of sparsity in MR images are also proposed. Simulation results demonstrate that the acceleration factor with the parallel architecture of PBDW approaches the number of central processing unit cores, and that pertinent optimizations are also effective to make further accelerations. The proposed approaches allow compressed sensing MRI reconstruction to be accomplished within several seconds.

  10. Particle-In-Cell Modeling of Plasma-Based Accelerators in Two and Three Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Hemker, Roy G

    2015-01-01

    In this dissertation, a fully object-oriented, fully relativistic, multi-dimensional Particle-In-Cell code was developed and applied to answer key questions in plasma-based accelerator research. The simulations increase the understanding of the processes in laser plasma and beam-plasma interaction, allow for comparison with experiments, and motivate the development of theoretical models. The simulations support the idea that the injection of electrons in a plasma wave by using a transversely propagating laser pulse is possible. The beam parameters of the injected electrons found in the simulations compare reasonably with beams produced by conventional methods and therefore laser injection is an interesting concept for future plasma-based accelerators. Simulations of the optical guiding of a laser wakefield driver in a parabolic plasma channel support the idea that electrons can be accelerated over distances much longer than the Rayleigh length in a channel. Simulations of plasma wakefield acceleration in the ...

  11. Accelerator-based fusion with a low temperature target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R. E.; Ordonez, C. A.

    2013-04-01

    Neutron generators are in use in a number of scientific and commercial endeavors. They function by triggering fusion reactions between accelerated ions (usually deuterons) and a stationary cold target (e.g., containing tritium). This setup has the potential to generate energy. It has been shown that if the energy transfer between injected ions and target electrons is sufficiently small, net energy gain can be achieved. Three possible avenues are: (a) a hot target with high electron temperature, (b) a cold non-neutral target with an electron deficiency, or (c) a cold target with a high Fermi energy. A study of the third possibility is reported in light of recent research that points to a new phase of hydrogen, which is hypothesized to be related to metallic hydrogen. As such, the target is considered to be composed of nuclei and delocalized electrons. The electrons are treated as conduction electrons, with the average minimum excitation energy being approximately equal to 40% of the Fermi energy. The Fermi energy is directly related to the electron density. Preliminary results indicate that if the claimed electron densities in the new phase of hydrogen were achieved in a target, the energy transfer to electrons would be small enough to allow net energy gain.

  12. Solar based hydrogen production systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dincer, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive analysis of various solar based hydrogen production systems. The book covers first-law (energy based) and second-law (exergy based) efficiencies and provides a comprehensive understanding of their implications. It will help minimize the widespread misuse of efficiencies among students and researchers in energy field by using an intuitive and unified approach for defining efficiencies. The book gives a clear understanding of the sustainability and environmental impact analysis of the above systems. The book will be particularly useful for a clear understanding

  13. Treatment planning capability assessment of a beam shaping assembly for accelerator-based BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, M.S., E-mail: herrera@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin (Argentina)] [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 191, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Universidad Nacional de San Martin, UNSAM, Av. 25 de Mayo y Francia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gonzalez, S.J. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin (Argentina)] [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 191, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Burlon, A.A. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin (Argentina)] [Universidad Nacional de San Martin, UNSAM, Av. 25 de Mayo y Francia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Minsky, D.M.; Kreiner, A.J. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin (Argentina)] [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 191, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Universidad Nacional de San Martin, UNSAM, Av. 25 de Mayo y Francia Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    Within the frame of an ongoing project to develop a folded Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole accelerator facility for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (AB-BNCT) a theoretical study was performed to assess the treatment planning capability of different configurations of an optimized beam shaping assembly for such a facility. In particular this study aims at evaluating treatment plans for a clinical case of Glioblastoma.

  14. Experimental, Theoretical and Computational Studies of Plasma-Based Concepts for Future High Energy Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Chan [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Mori, W. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2013-10-21

    This is the final report on the DOE grant number DE-FG02-92ER40727 titled, “Experimental, Theoretical and Computational Studies of Plasma-Based Concepts for Future High Energy Accelerators.” During this grant period the UCLA program on Advanced Plasma Based Accelerators, headed by Professor C. Joshi has made many key scientific advances and trained a generation of students, many of whom have stayed in this research field and even started research programs of their own. In this final report however, we will focus on the last three years of the grant and report on the scientific progress made in each of the four tasks listed under this grant. Four tasks are focused on: Plasma Wakefield Accelerator Research at FACET, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, In House Research at UCLA’s Neptune and 20 TW Laser Laboratories, Laser-Wakefield Acceleration (LWFA) in Self Guided Regime: Experiments at the Callisto Laser at LLNL, and Theory and Simulations. Major scientific results have been obtained in each of the four tasks described in this report. These have led to publications in the prestigious scientific journals, graduation and continued training of high quality Ph.D. level students and have kept the U.S. at the forefront of plasma-based accelerators research field.

  15. Accelerated Degradation Process Analysis Based on the Nonlinear Wiener Process with Covariates and Random Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is assumed that the drift parameter is dependent on the acceleration variables and the diffusion coefficient remains the same across the whole accelerated degradation test (ADT in most of the literature based on Wiener process. However, the diffusion coefficient variation would also become obvious in some applications with the stress increasing. Aiming at the phenomenon, the paper concludes that both the drift parameter and the diffusion parameter depend on stress variables based on the invariance principle of failure mechanism and Nelson assumption. Accordingly, constant stress accelerated degradation process (CSADP and step stress accelerated degradation process (SSADP with random effects are modeled. The unknown parameters in the established model are estimated based on the property of degradation and degradation increment, separately for CASDT and SSADT, by the maximum likelihood estimation approach with measurement error. In addition, the simulation steps of accelerated degradation data are provided and simulated step stress accelerated degradation data is designed to validate the proposed model compared to other models. Finally, a case study of CSADT is conducted to demonstrate the benefits of our model in the practical engineering.

  16. Hardware acceleration of Monte Carlo-based simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Echeverría Aramendi, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    During the last years there has been an enormous advance in FPGAs. Traditionally, FPGAs have been used mainly for prototyping as they offer significant advantages at a suitable low cost: flexibility and verification easiness. Their flexibility allows the implementation of different generations of a given application and provides space to designers to modify implementations until the very last moment, or even correct mistakes once the product has been released. Second, the verification of a de...

  17. Effect of weaning age on hair sheep lamb and ewe production traits in an accelerated lambing system in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, R W; Weis, A J

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the impact of weaning age on lamb and ewe productivity in an accelerated lambing system. St. Croix White (STX) and Dorper × St. Croix White (DRPX) lambs were assigned at birth based on breed, gender, and litter size to be weaned at 63 (Early-1; 106 lambs and 68 ewes) or 90 d of age (Late-1; 99 lambs and 60 ewes) in Exp.1 or at 63 (Early-2; 77 lambs and 57 ewes) or 120 d of age (Late-2; 75 lambs and 56 ewes) in Exp. 2. After weaning, lambs were weighed weekly and fed a concentrate ration (2% BW·lamb·d) while grazing guinea grass pastures. In Exp. 1, weaning weight was greater ( 0.06) between Early-2 and Late-2 lambs (5.1 ± 0.2 vs. 5.6 ± 0.3 kg, respectively). In Exp. 1 and 2, ewe BW at breeding and lambing and weaning and lambing rate were not different among weaning ages of lambs ( > 0.17). The Early-1 ewes exhibited estrus earlier than Late-1 ewes (10.9 ± 0.9 vs. 13.9 ± 1.0 d, respectively) but there was no difference ( > 0.63) between Early-2 and Late-2 ewes. Weaning hair lambs at 90 or 120 d of age can be done in an accelerated lambing system with no detrimental effect on lamb or ewe productivity. Late weaning resulted in a decreased number of days that lambs received high-cost, imported feed without a reduction in growth, resulting in savings of US$6 to $15 per lamb.

  18. Temperature-Insensitive Fibre-Optic Acceleration Sensor Based on Intensity-Referenced Fibre Bragg Gratings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Li-Qun; DONG Bo; WANG Yong-Xin; Evan LALLY; WANG An-Bo

    2008-01-01

    A temperature-insensitive acceleration sensor using two fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs), based on reflection spectrum intensity modulation and optical power detection, is proposed and demonstrated. A cantilever beam is used to generate acceleration-induced axial strain along two sensing gratings, which are glued on the two opposite surfaces of the beam. Because the two gratings operate within the linear spectral range of a light source, formed by a thermally-tunable extrinsic Fabry-Perot optical filter, the intensity difference of the two reflections from the gratings is proportional to the acceleration applied. This eliminates the need for sophisticated wavelength interrogation of the gratings, and it also endows the sensor with immunity to temperature variation. Compared with a commercial micromachined accelerometer, the sensor is proven to be capable of accurately detecting acceleration.

  19. Draft safety review plan for accelerator production of tritium (APT) project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this ``living`` Safety Review Plan (SRP) is to describe the products and processes that will be followed to conduct a systematic review of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Facility Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR), and subsequently to prepare a draft Safety Evaluation Report (SER) on the PSAR. This plan is prepared for and will be implemented by the APT Independent Safety Review Committee (ISRC) over the period July 1, 1997 through September 30, 1998, in accordance with provisions established in DOE-STD-1104-96. A core team of DOE, INEEL, and AMPARO Corporation engineers and scientists will prepare the initial draft SER with assistance from other ISRC team members on an as needed basis. Guidelines for preparing the draft SER are presented in Section 7 of this SRP. The PSAR reviews will focus exclusively on safety. The ever-present two-part question will be: Does the subject matter have safety significance? If so, does the APT structural, system, component, and/or process engineering design ensure an acceptable margin of safety? The APT mission, efficiency, and cost are not considerations of this plan. A more detailed discussion of the review philosophy is presented in Section 5 of this SRP.

  20. High Brightness Gamma-Ray Production at Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihalcea, Daniel [Northern Illinois U.; Jacobson, B. [RadiaBeam Tech.; Murokh, A. [RadiaBeam Tech.; Piiot, P. [Northern Illinois U.; Ruan, J. [Fermilab

    2016-10-10

    Electron beams with energies of the order of a few 100’s of MeV and low transverse emittance, in combination with powerful infrared lasers, allow for the production of high quality gamma rays through Inverse Compton Scattering (ICS). At Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility, a 300 MeV beam will be used to generate gamma rays with maximum photon energies of up to ∼ 1.5 MeV and brightness of the order of 1021 photons/[s-(mm-mrad)2- 0.1%BW]. Due to the low electron-beam transverse emittance, the relative bandwidth of the scattered radiation is expected to be ≤ 1%. A key challenge toward the production of high radiation dose and brightness is to enhance the energy of the infrared 3 ps laser pulses to the joule level. In this contribution, we present the plans for the experimental setup, along with comprehensive numerical simulations of the ICS process.

  1. Acceleration of Topographic Map Production Using Semi-Automatic DTM from Dsm Radar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizaldy, Aldino; Mayasari, Ratna

    2016-06-01

    Badan Informasi Geospasial (BIG) is government institution in Indonesia which is responsible to provide Topographic Map at several map scale. For medium map scale, e.g. 1:25.000 or 1:50.000, DSM from Radar data is very good solution since Radar is able to penetrate cloud that usually covering tropical area in Indonesia. DSM Radar is produced using Radargrammetry and Interferrometry technique. The conventional method of DTM production is using "stereo-mate", the stereo image created from DSM Radar and ORRI (Ortho Rectified Radar Image), and human operator will digitizing masspoint and breakline manually using digital stereoplotter workstation. This technique is accurate but very costly and time consuming, also needs large resource of human operator. Since DSMs are already generated, it is possible to filter DSM to DTM using several techniques. This paper will study the possibility of DSM to DTM filtering using technique that usually used in point cloud LIDAR filtering. Accuracy of this method will also be calculated using enough numbers of check points. If the accuracy meets the requirement, this method is very potential to accelerate the production of Topographic Map in Indonesia.

  2. Nuclear Data Requirements for the Production of Medical Isotopes in Fission Reactors and Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Garland, M A; Talbert, R J; Mashnik, S G; Wilson, W B

    1999-01-01

    Through decades of effort in nuclear data development and simulations of reactor neutronics and accelerator transmutation, a collection of reaction data is continuing to evolve with the potential of direct applications to the production of medical isotopes. At Los Alamos the CINDER'90 code and library have been developed for nuclide inventory calculations using neutron-reaction (En < 20 MeV) and/or decay data for 3400 nuclides; coupled with the LAHET Code System (LCS), irradiations in neutron and proton environments below a few GeV are tractable; additional work with the European Activation File, the HMS-ALICE code and the reaction models of MCNPX (CEM95, BERTINI, or ISABEL with or without preequilibrium, evaporation and fission) have been used to produce evaluated reaction data for neutrons and protons to 1.7 GeV. At the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, efforts have focused on production of medical isotopes and the identification of available neutron reaction data from results of integral measuremen...

  3. Cycle-Based Algorithm Used to Accelerate VHDL Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨勋; 刘明业

    2000-01-01

    Cycle-based algorithm has very high performance for the simula-tion of synchronous design, but it is confined to synchronous design and it is not as accurate as event-driven algorithm. In this paper, a revised cycle-based algorithm is proposed and implemented in VHDL simulator. Event-driven simulation engine and cycle-based simulation engine have been imbedded in the same simulation environ-ment and can be used to asynchronous design and synchronous design respectively. Thus the simulation performance is improved without losing the flexibility and ac-curacy of event-driven algorithm.

  4. Accelerating Value Creation with Accelerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Eythor Ivar

    2015-01-01

    accelerator programs. Microsoft runs accelerators in seven different countries. Accelerators have grown out of the infancy stage and are now an accepted approach to develop new ventures based on cutting-edge technology like the internet of things, mobile technology, big data and virtual reality. It is also...... with the traditional audit and legal universes and industries are examples of emerging potentials both from a research and business point of view to exploit and explore further. The accelerator approach may therefore be an Idea Watch to consider, no matter which industry you are in, because in essence accelerators...

  5. Accelerated helium and hydrogen production in {sup 54}Fe doped alloys - measurements and calculations for the FIST experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, L.R. E-mail: larry.greenwood@pnl.gov; Oliver, B.M.; Ohnuki, S.; Shiba, K.; Kohno, Y.; Kohyama, A.; Robertson, J.P.; Meadows, J.W.; Gelles, D.S

    2000-12-01

    F-82H alloys isotopically enriched in {sup 54}Fe up to 86% were irradiated in the high flux isotope reactor (HFIR) to determine the accelerated production of helium and hydrogen due to isotopic effects. Results are compared to calculations using isotopic helium production cross-sections from ENDF/B-VI or GNASH and measured neutron spectra. Helium measurements demonstrated an accelerated helium (appm)/dpa ratio of 2.3 after a 1.25-year irradiation, an increase of a factor of 4.3 over natural iron. The accelerated helium production is due to higher helium production cross-sections for {sup 54}Fe and {sup 55}Fe. Alloys doped with {sup 55}Fe could achieve helium/dpa ratios up to about 20, well above the fusion reactor ratio of 10. Hydrogen measurements were performed using a newly developed quadrupole mass spectrometer system at PNNL. Calculations predict that hydrogen production will be accelerated by about a factor of 13 over natural iron. However, measurements show that most of this hydrogen is not retained in the samples.

  6. Lithium target for accelerator based BNCT neutron source: Influence by the proton irradiation on lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, R.; Imahori, Y.; Nakakmura, M.; Takada, M.; Kamada, S.; Hamano, T.; Hoshi, M.; Sato, H.; Itami, J.; Abe, Y.; Fuse, M.

    2012-12-01

    The neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is in the transition stage from nuclear reactor to accelerator based neutron source. Generation of low energy neutron can be achieved by 7Li (p, n) 7Be reaction using accelerator based neutron source. Development of small-scale and safe neutron source is within reach. The melting point of lithium that is used for the target is low, and durability is questioned for an extended use at a high current proton beam. In order to test its durability, we have irradiated lithium with proton beam at the same level as the actual current density, and found no deterioration after 3 hours of continuous irradiation. As a result, it is suggested that lithium target can withstand proton irradiation at high current, confirming suitability as accelerator based neutron source for BNCT.

  7. Cherenkov radiation and dielectric based accelerating structures: Wakefield generation, power extraction and energy transfer efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanareykin, Alexei

    2010-06-01

    We present here our recent results of the Euclid Techlabs LLC/Argonne National Laboratory/St.Petersburg Electrotechnical University "LETI" collaboration on wakefield high energy acceleration of electron bunches in dielectric based accelerating structures. This program concentrates primarily on Cherenkov radiation studies providing efficient high energy generation aimed at a future 1 TeV collider. We report here on recent experiments in high power Cherenkov radiation and corresponding dielectric material developments and characterizations. Progress in diamond, quartz and microwave low-loss ceramic structure development in GHz and THz frequency ranges is presented. Beam Breakup effects and transverse bunch stability are discussed as well. We e report on recent progress on tunable dielectric based structure development. A special subject of our paper is transformer ratio enhancement schemes providing energy transfer efficiency for the dielectric based wakefield acceleration.

  8. GPU accelerated likelihoods for stereo-based articulated tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Rune Møllegaard; Hauberg, Søren; Erleben, Kenny

    2010-01-01

    For many years articulated tracking has been an active research topic in the computer vision community. While working solutions have been suggested, computational time is still problematic. We present a GPU implementation of a ray-casting based likelihood model that is orders of magnitude faster...

  9. GPU Accelerated Likelihoods for Stereo-Based Articulated Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Rune Møllegaard; Hauberg, Søren; Erleben, Kenny

    For many years articulated tracking has been an active research topic in the computer vision community. While working solutions have been suggested, computational time is still problematic. We present a GPU implementation of a ray-casting based likelihood model that is orders of magnitude faster...

  10. Generation of electron beams from a laser-based advanced accelerator at Shanghai Jiao Tong University

    CERN Document Server

    Elsied, Ahmed M M; Li, Song; Mirzaie, Mohammad; Sokollik, Thomas; Zhang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    At Shanghai Jiao Tong University, we have established a research laboratory for advanced acceleration research based on high-power lasers and plasma technologies. In a primary experiment based on the laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) scheme, multi-hundred MeV electron beams having a reasonable quality are generated using 20-40 TW, 30 femtosecond laser pulses interacting independently with helium, neon, nitrogen and argon gas jet targets. The laser-plasma interaction conditions are optimized for stabilizing the electron beam generation from each type of gas. The electron beam pointing angle stability and divergence angle as well as the energy spectra from each gas jet are measured and compared.

  11. Computational Materials Science and Chemistry: Accelerating Discovery and Innovation through Simulation-Based Engineering and Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crabtree, George [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Glotzer, Sharon [University of Michigan; McCurdy, Bill [University of California Davis; Roberto, Jim [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2010-07-26

    This report is based on a SC Workshop on Computational Materials Science and Chemistry for Innovation on July 26-27, 2010, to assess the potential of state-of-the-art computer simulations to accelerate understanding and discovery in materials science and chemistry, with a focus on potential impacts in energy technologies and innovation. The urgent demand for new energy technologies has greatly exceeded the capabilities of today's materials and chemical processes. To convert sunlight to fuel, efficiently store energy, or enable a new generation of energy production and utilization technologies requires the development of new materials and processes of unprecedented functionality and performance. New materials and processes are critical pacing elements for progress in advanced energy systems and virtually all industrial technologies. Over the past two decades, the United States has developed and deployed the world's most powerful collection of tools for the synthesis, processing, characterization, and simulation and modeling of materials and chemical systems at the nanoscale, dimensions of a few atoms to a few hundred atoms across. These tools, which include world-leading x-ray and neutron sources, nanoscale science facilities, and high-performance computers, provide an unprecedented view of the atomic-scale structure and dynamics of materials and the molecular-scale basis of chemical processes. For the first time in history, we are able to synthesize, characterize, and model materials and chemical behavior at the length scale where this behavior is controlled. This ability is transformational for the discovery process and, as a result, confers a significant competitive advantage. Perhaps the most spectacular increase in capability has been demonstrated in high performance computing. Over the past decade, computational power has increased by a factor of a million due to advances in hardware and software. This rate of improvement, which shows no sign of

  12. Proton-beam writing channel based on an electrostatic accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapin, A. S.; Rebrov, V. A.; Kolin'ko, S. V.; Salivon, V. F.; Ponomarev, A. G.

    2016-09-01

    We have described the structure of the proton-beam writing channel as a continuation of a nuclear scanning microprobe channel. The problem of the accuracy of positioning a probe by constructing a new high-frequency electrostatic scanning system has been solved. Special attention has been paid to designing the probe-forming system and its various configurations have been considered. The probe-forming system that best corresponds to the conditions of the lithographic process has been found based on solving the problem of optimizing proton beam formation. A system for controlling beam scanning using multifunctional module of integrated programmable logic systems has been developed.

  13. XML-based product information processing method for product design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen Yu

    2012-01-01

    Design knowledge of modern mechatronics product is based on information processing as the center of the knowledge-intensive engineering, thus product design innovation is essentially the knowledge and information processing innovation. Analysis of the role of mechatronics product design knowledge and information management features, a unified model of XML-based product information processing method is proposed. Information processing model of product design includes functional knowledge, structural knowledge and their relationships. For the expression of product function element, product structure element, product mapping relationship between function and structure based on the XML model are proposed. The information processing of a parallel friction roller is given as an example, which demonstrates that this method is obviously helpful for knowledge-based design system and product innovation.

  14. Production Of Intense, Tunable, Quasi-monochromatic X- Rays Using The Rpi Linear Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Sones, B A

    2004-01-01

    This research investigated the production of parametric X-rays (PXR) using the 60-MeV electron linear accelerator at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. PXR is an intense, energy tunable, and polarized X-ray source derived from the interaction of relativistic electrons and the periodic structure of crystal materials. In this work, PXR photon yields and the associated bremsstrahlung background were characterized for graphite, LiF, Si, Ge, Cu, and W target crystals. A model that considers the experimental geometry and crystal mosaicity was employed to predict PXR energy broadening. Measured energy linewidths consistently agreed with predicted values except in cases using poor quality graphite in which the mosaicity was greater than the PXR characteristic angle, 8.5 mrad for 60 MeV electrons. When the predicted energy linewidth was more narrow than our Si X-ray detector resolution, a near-absorption edge transmission technique was used to measure the PXR energy linewidth for Si(400) FWHM of 134 eV at 9.0 keV (2%) ...

  15. FPGA-based Accelerators for Parallel Data Sort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sklyarov Valery

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to parallel data sort based on sorting networks. The proposed methods and circuits have the following characteristics: 1 using two-level parallel comparators in even-odd transition networks with feedback to a register keeping input/intermediate data; 2 parallel merging of many sorted sequences; 3 using even-odd transition networks built from other sorting networks; 4 rational reuse of comparators in different types of networks, namely even-odd transition and for discovering maximum/minimum values. The experiments in FPGA, which were done for up to 16×220 32-bit data items, demonstrate very good results (as fast as 3-5 ns per data item.

  16. Euphorbia hirta accelerates fibroblast proliferation and Smad-mediated collagen production in rat excision wound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aadesh Upadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Euphorbia hirta L. (Euphorbiaceae is a traditional herbal medicine used for treatment of various diseases. Objective: E. hirta was investigated for in vitro/in vivo wound healing activity using human dermal fibroblast cell line and Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water successive extracts of E. hirta leaves were evaluated for antioxidant, antimicrobial and fibroblast proliferation activities. Among different extracts, the promising methanol extract was screened for wound healing activity in Wistar rats, using gentamicin sulfate (0.01% w/w as a reference. Wound contraction, hydroxyproline content and the protein expression of COL3A1, bFGF, Smad-2,-3,-4 and -7 were measured. Results: The E. hirta methanol extract showed a potent antimicrobial (MIC 0.250 mg/ml against Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, both, antioxidant activities (IC 50 = 10.57 μg/ml , 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl; 850.23 μg/ml , superoxide-anion radical scavenging activity and 23.63 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram extract with significant fibroblast proliferating activity (112% at 12.5 μg/ml as compared to other extracts. In vivo study also supported the wound healing potential of methanol extract, as evidenced by faster wound contraction, higher hydroxyproline (4.240 mg/100 mg tissue and improved histopathology of granulation tissue as compared to control groups and gentamicin sulfate-treated ones. Western blot also revealed a significantly altered expression of Smad-mediated proteins resulting in collagen production. Conclusion: The study suggested that E. hirta accelerates the wound healing by augmenting the fibroblast proliferation and Smad-mediated collagen production in wound tissue.

  17. Wide-bandwidth Tm-based amplifier for laser acceleration driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Drew A.; Vetrovec, John; Litt, Amardeep S.

    2016-03-01

    We report on an investigation of novel 2 μm thulium (Tm)-based laser accelerator driver (LAD) offering efficient generation of high-energy pulses with high-peak power at high pulse repetition rate (PRF), high efficiency, and with near-diffraction-limited beam quality (BQ). Laser acceleration of electrons by ultrashortpulse laser-generated plasmas offers accelerators of much reduced size and cost compared to conventional accelerators of the same energy, thus replacing the traditional mammoth-size and costly accelerator research facilities with room-size systems1. A LAD operating at 2 μm wavelength offers ponderomotive forces four times that of 1 μm wavelength and six times that of a traditional 0.8 μm wavelength LAD. In addition, the Tm bandwidth of nearly 400 nm offers > 15% tunability and generation of ultrashort pulses down to 20% wall-plug efficiency. This work presents a preliminary analysis of Tm-based LAD configurations.

  18. Computational Materials Science and Chemistry: Accelerating Discovery and Innovation through Simulation-Based Engineering and Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crabtree, George [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Glotzer, Sharon [University of Michigan; McCurdy, Bill [University of California Davis; Roberto, Jim [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2010-07-26

    This report is based on a SC Workshop on Computational Materials Science and Chemistry for Innovation on July 26-27, 2010, to assess the potential of state-of-the-art computer simulations to accelerate understanding and discovery in materials science and chemistry, with a focus on potential impacts in energy technologies and innovation. The urgent demand for new energy technologies has greatly exceeded the capabilities of today's materials and chemical processes. To convert sunlight to fuel, efficiently store energy, or enable a new generation of energy production and utilization technologies requires the development of new materials and processes of unprecedented functionality and performance. New materials and processes are critical pacing elements for progress in advanced energy systems and virtually all industrial technologies. Over the past two decades, the United States has developed and deployed the world's most powerful collection of tools for the synthesis, processing, characterization, and simulation and modeling of materials and chemical systems at the nanoscale, dimensions of a few atoms to a few hundred atoms across. These tools, which include world-leading x-ray and neutron sources, nanoscale science facilities, and high-performance computers, provide an unprecedented view of the atomic-scale structure and dynamics of materials and the molecular-scale basis of chemical processes. For the first time in history, we are able to synthesize, characterize, and model materials and chemical behavior at the length scale where this behavior is controlled. This ability is transformational for the discovery process and, as a result, confers a significant competitive advantage. Perhaps the most spectacular increase in capability has been demonstrated in high performance computing. Over the past decade, computational power has increased by a factor of a million due to advances in hardware and software. This rate of improvement, which shows no sign of

  19. Accelerator-based epithermal neutron sources for boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Thomas E; Yanch, Jacquelyn C

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of low-energy light ion accelerator-based neutron sources (ABNSs) for the treatment of brain tumors through an intact scalp and skull using boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). A major advantage of an ABNS for BNCT over reactor-based neutron sources is the potential for siting within a hospital. Consequently, light-ion accelerators that are injectors to larger machines in high-energy physics facilities are not considered. An ABNS for BNCT is composed of: (1) the accelerator hardware for producing a high current charged particle beam, (2) an appropriate neutron-producing target and target heat removal system (HRS), and (3) a moderator/reflector assembly to render the flux energy spectrum of neutrons produced in the target suitable for patient irradiation. As a consequence of the efforts of researchers throughout the world, progress has been made on the design, manufacture, and testing of these three major components. Although an ABNS facility has not yet been built that has optimally assembled these three components, the feasibility of clinically useful ABNSs has been clearly established. Both electrostatic and radio frequency linear accelerators of reasonable cost (approximately 1.5 M dollars) appear to be capable of producing charged particle beams, with combinations of accelerated particle energy (a few MeV) and beam currents (approximately 10 mA) that are suitable for a hospital-based ABNS for BNCT. The specific accelerator performance requirements depend upon the charged particle reaction by which neutrons are produced in the target and the clinical requirements for neutron field quality and intensity. The accelerator performance requirements are more demanding for beryllium than for lithium as a target. However, beryllium targets are more easily cooled. The accelerator performance requirements are also more demanding for greater neutron field quality and intensity. Target HRSs that are based on submerged-jet impingement and

  20. [A new approach to accelerate DR image enhancement based on CUDA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiangbin, He; Heqin, Zhou; Fangyong, Li

    2010-01-01

    Multiscale pyramid image enhancement algorithm is an usual way to enhance the Digital Radiography (DR) images. However, the process of enhancement takes much of time because of the fine resolution of DR images. A new method of accelerating DR image enhancement based on Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) is presented in this paper. This method completes a large amount of convolution operations in spatial domain involved in the multiscale pyramid image enhancement algorithm by using the Graphic Processing Unit (GPU). The experimental results show that the proposed method is very efficient for accelerating DR image enhancement.

  1. A Study on the Storage Reliability of LSINS Based on Step-stress Accelerated Life Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Fei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the step-stress accelerated life test and the laser strap-down inertial navigation system, this paper studies the accelerated life model and the test method, provides the likelihood function, the likelihood equation and the two-order derivative when the stress level is k, evaluates the effectiveness of the method with the simulation test model established by MATLAB, applies the research findings in the storage reliability study of the XX laser strap-down inertial navigation system, and puts forward an effective evaluation method of the storage life of the inertial navigation system.

  2. Fate of the chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX) on soil following accelerant-based fire and liquid decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravett, M R; Hopkins, F B; Self, A J; Webb, A J; Timperley, C M; Riches, J R

    2014-08-01

    In the event of alleged use of organophosphorus nerve agents, all kinds of environmental samples can be received for analysis. These might include decontaminated and charred matter collected from the site of a suspected chemical attack. In other scenarios, such matter might be sampled to confirm the site of a chemical weapon test or clandestine laboratory decontaminated and burned to prevent discovery. To provide an analytical capability for these contingencies, we present a preliminary investigation of the effect of accelerant-based fire and liquid decontamination on soil contaminated with the nerve agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX). The objectives were (a) to determine if VX or its degradation products were detectable in soil after an accelerant-based fire promoted by aviation fuel, including following decontamination with Decontamination Solution 2 (DS2) or aqueous sodium hypochlorite, (b) to develop analytical methods to support forensic analysis of accelerant-soaked, decontaminated and charred soil and (c) to inform the design of future experiments of this type to improve analytical fidelity. Our results show for the first time that modern analytical techniques can be used to identify residual VX and its degradation products in contaminated soil after an accelerant-based fire and after chemical decontamination and then fire. Comparison of the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) profiles of VX and its impurities/degradation products from contaminated burnt soil, and burnt soil spiked with VX, indicated that the fire resulted in the production of diethyl methylphosphonate and O,S-diethyl methylphosphonothiolate (by an unknown mechanism). Other products identified were indicative of chemical decontamination, and some of these provided evidence of the decontaminant used, for example, ethyl 2-methoxyethyl methylphosphonate and bis(2-methoxyethyl) methylphosphonate following decontamination with DS2. Sample preparation

  3. Accelerator-based techniques for the support of senior-level undergraduate physics laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. R.; Clark, J. C.; Isaacs-Smith, T.

    2001-07-01

    Approximately three years ago, Auburn University replaced its aging Dynamitron accelerator with a new 2MV tandem machine (Pelletron) manufactured by the National Electrostatics Corporation (NEC). This new machine is maintained and operated for the University by Physics Department personnel, and the accelerator supports a wide variety of materials modification/analysis studies. Computer software is available that allows the NEC Pelletron to be operated from a remote location, and an Internet link has been established between the Accelerator Laboratory and the Upper-Level Undergraduate Teaching Laboratory in the Physics Department. Additional software supplied by Canberra Industries has also been used to create a second Internet link that allows live-time data acquisition in the Teaching Laboratory. Our senior-level undergraduates and first-year graduate students perform a number of experiments related to radiation detection and measurement as well as several standard accelerator-based experiments that have been added recently. These laboratory exercises will be described, and the procedures used to establish the Internet links between our Teaching Laboratory and the Accelerator Laboratory will be discussed.

  4. Optimal Trajectory Planning for Glass-Handing Robot Based on Execution Time Acceleration and Jerk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honggang Duan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a trajectory planning method based on execution time, acceleration, and jerk to ensure that a glass-handing robot runs smoothly at execution time. The minimised objective function consists of the weighted sum of the square of the integral of the execution time, the integral of the acceleration, and the integral of the jerk, all of which are obtained through the weighted coefficient method. A three-dimensional kinematics model of the glass-handing robot is then established and nonuniform fifth-order B-splines are used to interpolate its path points. The acceleration and jerk are expressed as functions of time through mathematical simulation. Simulation results show that the designed method for robot trajectory planning not only improves the working efficiency of the glass-handing robot but also ensures that it runs smoothly.

  5. Vibration isolation analysis of clutches based on trouble shooting of vehicle accelerating noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue-Lai; Shangguan, Wen-Bin; Jing, Xingjian; Ahmed, Waizuddin

    2016-11-01

    Vehicle accelerating noise is a troublesome issue commonly existing in automobiles, leading to negative passenger experience. Considering real experimental results and practical issues, a nonlinear 3-degree of freedom (DOF) torsional model of the clutch system is developed for reducing abnormal noise during vehicle accelerating. In this model, the nonlinear characteristics of the multi-staged clutch damper and the gear backlash are carefully studied. This greatly facilitates the analysis of the vibration transmission characteristics of the clutch and helps understanding of the influence of each critical physical parameter on noise generation. To reduce the accelerating noise, an optimization method for the clutch dynamics is proposed, based on the parameter analysis results, and the effectiveness is validated both in simulations and experiments.

  6. Particle-in-cell simulations of tunneling ionization effects in plasma-based accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Bruhwiler, D L; Cary, J R; Esarey, E; Leemans, W; Giacone, R E

    2003-01-01

    Plasma-based accelerators can sustain accelerating gradients on the order of 100 GV/m. If the plasma is not fully ionized, fields of this magnitude will ionize neutral atoms via electron tunneling, which can completely change the dynamics of the plasma wake. Particle-in-cell simulations of a high-field plasma wakefield accelerator, using the OOPIC code, which includes field-induced tunneling ionization of neutral Li gas, show that the presence of even moderate neutral gas density significantly degrades the quality of the wakefield. The tunneling ionization model in OOPIC has been validated via a detailed comparison with experimental data from the l'OASIS laboratory. The properties of a wake generated directly from a neutral gas are studied, showing that one can recover the peak fields of the fully ionized plasma simulations, if the density of the electron drive bunch is increased such that the bunch rapidly ionized the gas.

  7. Random and bias errors in simple regression-based calculations of sea-level acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howd, P.; Doran, K. J.; Sallenger, A. H.

    2012-12-01

    We examine the random and bias errors associated with three simple regression-based methods used to calculate the acceleration of sea-level elevation (SL). These methods are: (1) using ordinary least-squares regression (OLSR) to fit a single second-order (in time) equation to an entire elevation time series; (2) using a sliding regression window with OLRS 2nd order fits to provide time and window length dependent estimates; and (3) using a sliding regression window with OLSR 1st order fits to provide time and window length dependent estimates of sea level rate differences (SLRD). A Monte Carlo analysis using synthetic elevation time series with 9 different noise formulations (red, AR(1), and white noise at 3 variance levels) is used to examine the error structure associated with the three analysis methods. We show that, as expected, the single-fit method (1), while providing statistically unbiased estimates of the mean acceleration over an interval, by statistical design does not provide estimates of time-varying acceleration. This technique cannot be expected to detect recent changes in SL acceleration, such as those predicted by some climate models. The two sliding window techniques show similar qualitative results for the test time series, but differ dramatically in their statistical significance. Estimates of acceleration based on the 2nd order fits (2) are numerically smaller than the rate differences (3), and in the presence of near-equal residual noise, are more difficult to detect with statistical significance. We show, using the SLRD estimates from tide gauge data, how statistically significant changes in sea level accelerations can be detected at different temporal and spatial scales.

  8. Head impact accelerations for brain strain-related responses in contact sports: a model-based investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Songbai; Zhao, Wei; Li, Zhigang; McAllister, Thomas W

    2014-10-01

    Both linear [Formula: see text] and rotational [Formula: see text] accelerations contribute to head impacts on the field in contact sports; however, they are often isolated in injury studies. It is critical to evaluate the feasibility of estimating brain responses using isolated instead of full degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) accelerations. In this study, we investigated the sensitivities of regional brain strain-related responses to resultant [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] as well as the relative contributions of these acceleration components to the responses via random sampling and linear regression using parameterized, triangulated head impacts with kinematic variable values based on on-field measurements. Two independently established and validated finite element models of the human head were employed to evaluate model-consistency and dependency in results: the Dartmouth Head Injury Model and Simulated Injury Monitor. For the majority of the brain, volume-weighted regional peak strain, strain rate, and von Mises stress accumulated from the simulation significantly correlated with the product of the magnitude and duration of [Formula: see text], or effectively, the rotational velocity, but not to [Formula: see text]. Responses from [Formula: see text]-only were comparable to the full-DOF counterparts especially when normalized by injury-causing thresholds (e.g., volume fractions of large differences virtually diminished (i.e., [Formula: see text]1 %) at typical difference percentage levels of 1-4 % on average). These model-consistent results support the inclusion of both rotational acceleration magnitude and duration into kinematics-based injury metrics and demonstrate the feasibility of estimating strain-related responses from isolated [Formula: see text] for analyses of strain-induced injury relevant to contact sports without significant loss of accuracy, especially for the cerebrum.

  9. On the production of flat electron bunches for laser wake field acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Kando, M; Kotaki, H; Koga, J; Bulanov, S V; Tajima, T; Chao, A; Pitthan, R; Schüler, K P; Zhidkov, A G; Nemoto, K

    2006-01-01

    We suggest a novel method for injection of electrons into the acceleration phase of particle accelerators, producing low emittance beams appropriate even for the demanding high energy Linear Collider specifications. In this paper we work out the injection into the acceleration phase of the wake field in a plasma behind a high intensity laser pulse, taking advantage of the laser polarization and focusing. With the aid of catastrophe theory we categorize the injection dynamics. The scheme uses the structurally stable regime of transverse wake wave breaking, when electron trajectory self-intersection leads to the formation of a flat electron bunch. As shown in three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of the interaction of a laser pulse in a line-focus with an underdense plasma, the electrons, injected via the transverse wake wave breaking and accelerated by the wake wave, perform betatron oscillations with different amplitudes and frequencies along the two transverse coordinates. The polarization and focus...

  10. Rapid learning-based video stereolization using graphic processing unit acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tian; Jung, Cheolkon; Wang, Lei; Kim, Joongkyu

    2016-09-01

    Video stereolization has received much attention in recent years due to the lack of stereoscopic three-dimensional (3-D) contents. Although video stereolization can enrich stereoscopic 3-D contents, it is hard to achieve automatic two-dimensional-to-3-D conversion with less computational cost. We proposed rapid learning-based video stereolization using a graphic processing unit (GPU) acceleration. We first generated an initial depth map based on learning from examples. Then, we refined the depth map using saliency and cross-bilateral filtering to make object boundaries clear. Finally, we performed depth-image-based-rendering to generate stereoscopic 3-D views. To accelerate the computation of video stereolization, we provided a parallelizable hybrid GPU-central processing unit (CPU) solution to be suitable for running on GPU. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is nearly 180 times faster than CPU-based processing and achieves a good performance comparable to the-state-of-the-art ones.

  11. Accelerated Helium and Hydrogen Production in Fe-54 Doped Alloys - Measurements and Calculations for the FIST Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Oliver, Brian M.; Ohnuki, S.; Shiba, K.; Kohno, Y.; Kohyama, A.; Robertson, J. P.; Meadows, J. W.; Gelles, David S.

    2000-09-01

    Helium and hydrogen measurements for F-82H alloys enriched up to 96% in 54Fe demonstrate accelerated gas production due to differences in the isotopic cross sections. The samples were irradiated in the JP-17 and JP-22 experiments in HFIR. Results are compared to calculations using isotopic helium production cross sections from ENDF/B-VI or the computer code, GNASH, for the radioactive isotope 55Fe. Helium measurements demonstrated an accelerated helium (appm)/dpa ratio of 2.3 after a 1.25-year irradiation, an increase of a factor of 4.3 over natural iron, due to higher helium production cross sections for 54Fe and 55Fe. Alloys doped with 55Fe could achieve helium/dpa ratios up to about 20, well above the fusion reactor ratio of 10. Calculations predict that hydrogen production is accelerated by about a factor of 13 over natural iron. However, measurements show that most of this hydrogen is not retained in the samples.

  12. Impedance Measurements Could Accelerate Phage-Based Identification of Bacillus anthracis and Other Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Impedance Measurements Could Accelerate Phage-Based Identification of Bacillus anthracis And Other Bacteria Thomas Brown, Salwa Shan, Teresa...This is particularly true in the field of biodefense where phage have a long history of being used to identify Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis...based diagnostic assays for this pathogen. After exposing small quantities of Bacillus cultures to ɣ phage, we tracked the cultures for up to 90

  13. Dragee product based on sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajin Biljana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The sunflower kernel is rich in valuable nutritive compounds so it is suitable as a raw material for production of confectionery products. In this paper we evaluated the technological characteristics of the confectionery sunflower kernel with the aim of obtaining dragee products, and determining the final product quality and shelf life. The dragee product was obtained by panning sunflower kernel with savory powder mixture of spices in a dragee pan. The used sunflower seed has an even distribution of linear size and satisfactory dehulling characteristics. The savoury dragee product was in excellent category of sensory quality and showed stable colour and good shelf life in the period of three months.

  14. The CUBLAS and CULA based GPU acceleration of adaptive finite element framework for bioluminescence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Yang, Xiang; Yang, Fei; Yang, Xin; Qin, Chenghu; Han, Dong; Ma, Xibo; Liu, Kai; Tian, Jie

    2010-09-13

    In molecular imaging (MI), especially the optical molecular imaging, bioluminescence tomography (BLT) emerges as an effective imaging modality for small animal imaging. The finite element methods (FEMs), especially the adaptive finite element (AFE) framework, play an important role in BLT. The processing speed of the FEMs and the AFE framework still needs to be improved, although the multi-thread CPU technology and the multi CPU technology have already been applied. In this paper, we for the first time introduce a new kind of acceleration technology to accelerate the AFE framework for BLT, using the graphics processing unit (GPU). Besides the processing speed, the GPU technology can get a balance between the cost and performance. The CUBLAS and CULA are two main important and powerful libraries for programming on NVIDIA GPUs. With the help of CUBLAS and CULA, it is easy to code on NVIDIA GPU and there is no need to worry about the details about the hardware environment of a specific GPU. The numerical experiments are designed to show the necessity, effect and application of the proposed CUBLAS and CULA based GPU acceleration. From the results of the experiments, we can reach the conclusion that the proposed CUBLAS and CULA based GPU acceleration method can improve the processing speed of the AFE framework very much while getting a balance between cost and performance.

  15. Determination of Shelf Life for Butter and Cheese Products in Actual and Accelerated Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Min; Shin, Jin-Ho; Bak, Da-Jeong; Kim, Na-Kyeong; Lim, Kwang-Sei; Yang, Cheul-Young; Kim, Jin-Man

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the shelf life of butter and cheese products, with shelf life being a guide used to determine the storage period of food before deterioration. Butter and cheese samples stored at 10℃ and 15℃ had a shelf life of 221 d, while those stored at 25℃ and 35℃ had a shelf life of 109 d. Quality changes, including total cell count, coliform counts, Listeria monocytogenes counts, acid value, moisture content, pH, acidity and overall sensory evaluation, were monitored. In order to pass the overall sensory evaluation, a quality score of 5 points on a 9-point scale was required. For other quality criteria, legal quality limits were established based on the "Process Criteria and Ingredient Standard of Livestock Products" by the Animal, Plant and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency (Republic of Korea). The nonlegal quality limit was estimated by regression analysis between non-quality criteria (y) and overall sensory evaluation (x). The shelf life was estimated based on the number of days that the product passed the quality limit of the quality criteria. The shelf life of samples stored at 10℃, 15℃, 25℃ and 35℃ was 21.94, 17.18, 6.10 and 0.58 mon, respectively, for butter and 10.81, 9.47, 4.64 and 0.20 mon, respectively, for cheese.

  16. On the Production of Flat Electron Bunches for Laser Wake Field Acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kando, M.; Fukuda, Y.; Kotaki, H.; Koga, J.; Bulanov, S.V.; Tajima, T.; /JAERI, Kyoto; Chao, A.; Pitthan, R.; /SLAC; Schuler, K.-P.; /DESY; Zhidkov, A.G.; /CRIEPI, Tokyo; Nemoto, K.; /CRIEPI, Tokyo

    2006-06-27

    We suggest a novel method for injection of electrons into the acceleration phase of particle accelerators, producing low emittance beams appropriate even for the demanding high energy Linear Collider specifications. In this paper we work out the injection into the acceleration phase of the wake field in a plasma behind a high intensity laser pulse, taking advantage of the laser polarization and focusing. With the aid of catastrophe theory we categorize the injection dynamics. The scheme uses the structurally stable regime of transverse wake wave breaking, when electron trajectory self-intersection leads to the formation of a flat electron bunch. As shown in three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of the interaction of a laser pulse in a line-focus with an underdense plasma, the electrons, injected via the transverse wake wave breaking and accelerated by the wake wave, perform betatron oscillations with different amplitudes and frequencies along the two transverse coordinates. The polarization and focusing geometry lead to a way to produce relativistic electron bunches with asymmetric emittance (flat beam). An approach for generating flat laser accelerated ion beams is briefly discussed.

  17. Earth's gravity field modelling based on satellite accelerations derived from onboard GPS phase measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X.; Ditmar, P.; Zhao, Q.; Klees, R.; Farahani, H. H.

    2017-02-01

    GPS data collected by satellite gravity missions can be used for extracting the long-wavelength part of the Earth's gravity field. We propose a new data processing method which makes use of the `average acceleration' approach to gravity field modelling. In this method, satellite accelerations are directly derived from GPS carrier phase measurements with an epoch-differenced scheme. As a result, no ambiguity solutions are needed and the systematic errors that do not change much from epoch to epoch are largely eliminated. The GPS data collected by the Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) satellite mission are used to demonstrate the added value of the proposed method. An analysis of the residual accelerations shows that accelerations derived in this way are more precise, with noise being reduced by about 20 and 5% at the cross-track component and the other two components, respectively, as compared to those based on kinematic orbits. The accelerations obtained in this way allow the recovery of the gravity field to a slightly higher maximum degree compared to the solution based on kinematic orbits. Furthermore, the gravity field solution has an overall better performance. Errors in spherical harmonic coefficients are smaller, especially at low degrees. The cumulative geoid height error is reduced by about 15 and 5% up to degree 50 and 150, respectively. An analysis in the spatial domain shows that large errors along the geomagnetic equator, which are caused by a high electron density coupled with large short-term variations, are substantially reduced. Finally, the new method allows for a better observation of mass transport signals. In particular, sufficiently realistic signatures of regional mass anomalies in North America and south-west Africa are obtained.

  18. GPU accelerated cell-based adaptive mesh refinement on unstructured quadrilateral grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xisheng; Wang, Luying; Ran, Wei; Qin, Fenghua

    2016-10-01

    A GPU accelerated inviscid flow solver is developed on an unstructured quadrilateral grid in the present work. For the first time, the cell-based adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is fully implemented on GPU for the unstructured quadrilateral grid, which greatly reduces the frequency of data exchange between GPU and CPU. Specifically, the AMR is processed with atomic operations to parallelize list operations, and null memory recycling is realized to improve the efficiency of memory utilization. It is found that results obtained by GPUs agree very well with the exact or experimental results in literature. An acceleration ratio of 4 is obtained between the parallel code running on the old GPU GT9800 and the serial code running on E3-1230 V2. With the optimization of configuring a larger L1 cache and adopting Shared Memory based atomic operations on the newer GPU C2050, an acceleration ratio of 20 is achieved. The parallelized cell-based AMR processes have achieved 2x speedup on GT9800 and 18x on Tesla C2050, which demonstrates that parallel running of the cell-based AMR method on GPU is feasible and efficient. Our results also indicate that the new development of GPU architecture benefits the fluid dynamics computing significantly.

  19. Specific contributions of the Dutch progamme ``RAS`` towards accelerator-based transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahams, K.; Franken, W.M.P.; Bultman, J.H.; Heil, J.A.; Koning, A.J.

    1994-09-01

    Accelerator-based transmutation is being studied by ECN within its general nuclear waste transmutation programme RAS. In this paper the following contributions are presented: (1) Evaluation of cross sections at intermediate energies, within an international frame given by NEA, (2) Cell calculations on the equilibration of transuranium actinides in thermal molten-salt transmuters, (3) Irradiation facilities at the European research reactor HFR in Petten, which have been constructed with the purpose to demonstrate and investigate the transmutation of waste in a high neutron flux, (4) Studies of accelerator-based neutron generating systems to transmute neptunium and technetium, (5) Comparison of several systems on the basis of criteria for successful nuclear waste-management. (orig.).

  20. Beam-Based Error Identification and Correction Methods for Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)692826; Tomas, Rogelio; Nilsson, Thomas

    2014-06-10

    Modern particle accelerators have tight tolerances on the acceptable deviation from their desired machine parameters. The control of the parameters is of crucial importance for safe machine operation and performance. This thesis focuses on beam-based methods and algorithms to identify and correct errors in particle accelerators. The optics measurements and corrections of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which resulted in an unprecedented low β-beat for a hadron collider is described. The transverse coupling is another parameter which is of importance to control. Improvement in the reconstruction of the coupling from turn-by-turn data has resulted in a significant decrease of the measurement uncertainty. An automatic coupling correction method, which is based on the injected beam oscillations, has been successfully used in normal operation of the LHC. Furthermore, a new method to measure and correct chromatic coupling that was applied to the LHC, is described. It resulted in a decrease of the chromatic coupli...

  1. First Steps Toward Incorporating Image Based Diagnostics Into Particle Accelerator Control Systems Using Convolutional Neural Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelen, A. L.; Biedron, S. G.; Milton, S. V.; Edelen, J. P.

    2016-12-16

    At present, a variety of image-based diagnostics are used in particle accelerator systems. Often times, these are viewed by a human operator who then makes appropriate adjustments to the machine. Given recent advances in using convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for image processing, it should be possible to use image diagnostics directly in control routines (NN-based or otherwise). This is especially appealing for non-intercepting diagnostics that could run continuously during beam operation. Here, we show results of a first step toward implementing such a controller: our trained CNN can predict multiple simulated downstream beam parameters at the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility's low energy beamline using simulated virtual cathode laser images, gun phases, and solenoid strengths.

  2. Particle-in-Cell Codes for plasma-based particle acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Pukhov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Basic principles of particle-in-cell (PIC ) codes with the main application for plasma-based acceleration are discussed. The ab initio full electromagnetic relativistic PIC codes provide the most reliable description of plasmas. Their properties are considered in detail. Representing the most fundamental model, the full PIC codes are computationally expensive. The plasma-based acceler- ation is a multi-scale problem with very disparate scales. The smallest scale is the laser or plasma wavelength (from one to hundred microns) and the largest scale is the acceleration distance (from a few centimeters to meters or even kilometers). The Lorentz-boost technique allows to reduce the scale disparity at the costs of complicating the simulations and causing unphysical numerical instabilities in the code. Another possibility is to use the quasi-static approxi- mation where the disparate scales are separated analytically.

  3. Production Planning Based on BOM Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    According to a prototype enterprise, a rulebased Bill of Materials (BOM) structure is designed in order to get optimal design and management of product BOM. The constraint rules and optional objects for product data structure optimization are considered by associating customer demands with product BOM. Furthermore, the functional model of production planning system for assembling enterprise is given based on customization and BOM optimization.

  4. Production yield of produced radioisotopes from 100 MeV proton beam on lead target for shielding analysis of large accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oranj, Leila Mokhtari; Oh, Joo Hee; Jung, Nam Suk; Bae, O Ryun; Lee, Hee Seock [Div. of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    In this work, the production yield of major shielding material, a lead, was investigated using 100 MeV protons of KOMAC accelerator facility. For the analysis of the experimental data, the activity has been calculated using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code and analytical methods. The cross section data and the stopping power in the irradiated assembly were calculated by TALYS and SRIM codes in the analytical method, respectively. Consequently, the experimental production yield of produced radioisotopes was compared with the data that are based on Monte Carlo calculations and analytical studies. In this research, the {sup nat}Pb(p, x) reaction was studied using experimental measurements, Monte Carlo simulations and analytical methods. Rereading to the experimental measurements, we demonstrate that both Monte Carlo simulation and analytical methods could be useful tools for the estimation of production yield of this reaction.

  5. Market-based product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisp, Søren; Harmsen, Hanne

    1997-01-01

    A large body of research results on successful product development exists. The results are full of normative advice on how to conduct prod-uct development. At the same time studies have shown that product development practice has only to a very li extent been influenced by these research results....... Our research focuses on understanding barriers to implementing normative recommendations from research on product development. This paper presents two action research projects. One which has al-ready been carried out and one which is being carried out at the moment. While the first project...

  6. Acceleration-based joint stability parameters for total knee arthroplasty that correspond with patient-reported instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Dustyn; Khan, Humera; Kim, Joo H; Slover, James; Walker, Peter S

    2013-10-01

    There is no universally accepted definition of human joint stability, particularly in nonperiodic general activities of daily living. Instability has proven to be a difficult parameter to define and quantify, since both spatial and temporal measures need to be considered to fully characterize joint stability. In this preliminary study, acceleration-based parameters were proposed to characterize the joint stability. Several time-statistical parameters of acceleration and jerk were defined as potential stability measures, since anomalous acceleration or jerk could be a symptom of poor control or stability. An inertial measurement unit attached at the level of the tibial tubercle of controls and patients following total knee arthroplasty was used to determine linear acceleration of the knee joint during several activities of daily living. The resulting accelerations and jerks were compared with patient-reported instability as determined through a standard questionnaire. Several parameters based on accelerations and jerks in the anterior/posterior direction during the step-up/step-down activity were significantly different between patients and controls and correlated with patient reports of instability in that activity. The range of the positive to negative peak acceleration and infinity norm of acceleration, in the anterior/posterior direction during the step-up/step-down activity, proved to be the best indicators of instability. As time derivatives of displacement, these acceleration-based parameters represent spatial and temporal information and are an important step forward in developing a definition and objective quantification of human joint stability that can complement the subjective patient report.

  7. Position and Velocity Estimation for Two-Inertia System with Nonlinear Stiffness Based on Acceleration Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Kyung-Tae Nam; Seung-Joon Lee; Tae-Yong Kuc; Hyungjong Kim

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the state estimation problem for flexible joint manipulators that involve nonlinear characteristics in their stiffness. The two key ideas of our design are that (a) an accelerometer is used in order that the estimation error dynamics do not depend on nonlinearities at the link part of the manipulators and (b) the model of the nonlinear stiffness is indeed a Lipschitz function. Based on the measured acceleration, we propose a nonlinear observer under the Lipschitz co...

  8. Optimization of an accelerator-based epithermal neutron source for neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kononov, O.E.; Kononov, V.N.; Bokhovko, M.V.; Korobeynikov, V.V.; Soloviev, A.N.; Chu, W.T.

    2004-02-20

    A modeling investigation was performed to choose moderator material and size for creating optimal epithermal neutron beams for BNCT based on a proton accelerator and the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction as a neutrons source. An optimal configuration is suggested for the beam shaping assembly made from polytetrafluoroethylene and magnesium fluorine. Results of calculation were experimentally tested and are in good agreement with measurements.

  9. Prediction of Concrete Strength Using Microwave Based Accelerated Curing Parameters by Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Ramasundaram, S; T.R. Neelakantan; R. Vinoth

    2013-01-01

    Prediction of compressive strength of concrete is very useful for economic constructions. The compressive strength can be estimated after 28 days of casting the specimen cubes or may be predictedbased on the quantum and quality of ingredients used in making the concrete. When the first one requires a 28-day time, the second one does have problem of accuracy. Hence, a hybrid model is proposed in which the concrete cube is cured using the microwave based accelerated curing procedure and the ear...

  10. Simultaneous Estimation of Geophysical Parameters with Microwave Radiometer Data based on Accelerated Simulated Annealing: SA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Method for geophysical parameter estimations with microwave radiometer data based on Simulated Annealing: SA is proposed. Geophysical parameters which are estimated with microwave radiometer data are closely related each other. Therefore simultaneous estimation makes constraints in accordance with the relations. On the other hand, SA requires huge computer resources for convergence. In order to accelerate convergence process, oscillated decreasing function is proposed for cool down function. Experimental results show that remarkable improvements are observed for geophysical parameter estimations.

  11. Optimal Design of Multiple Stresses Accelerated Life Test Plan Based on Transforming the Multiple Stresses to Single Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Liang; CHEN Wenhua; QIAN Ping; PAN Jun; HE Qingchuan

    2014-01-01

    For planning optimum multiple stresses accelerated life test plans, a commonly followed guiding principle is that all parameters of the life-stress relationship should be estimated, and the number of the stress level combinations must be no less than the number of parameters of the life-stress relationship. However, the general objective of an accelerated life test(ALT) is to assess thep-th quantile of the product life distribution under normal stress. For this objective,estimating all model parameters is not necessary, and this will increase the cost of test. Based on the theoretical conclusion that the stress level combinations of the optimum multiple stresses ALT plan locate on a straight line through the origin of coordinate, it is proposed that a design idea of planning the optimum multiple stresses ALT plan through transforming the problem of designing an optimum multiple stresses ALT plan to designing an optimum single stress ALT plan. Moreover, a method of planning the optimum multiple stresses ALT plan which can avoid estimating all model parameters is established. An example shows that, the proposed plan which only has two stress level combinations could achieve an accuracy no less than the traditional plan, and save the test time and cost on one stress level combination at least; when the actual product life is less than the design value, even the deviation of the model initial parameters value is up to 20%, the variance of the estimation of thep-th quantile of the proposed plan is still smaller than the traditional plans approximately 25%. A design method is provided for planning the optimum multiple stresses ALT which uses the statistical optimum degenerate test plan as the optimum multiple stresses accelerated life test plan.

  12. The Acceleration/Deceleration Control Algorithm Based on Trapezoid-Curve Jerk in CNC Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyong Zhao

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose the acceleration/deceleration control algorithm based on trapezoid-curve jerk in CNC machining. In aviation and mould and die industry, it is much significant to achieve high accuracy CNC machining on complex profile parts. The unsmooth Acceleration/Deceleration (ab. Acc/Dec control in feed movement is one of the main reasons to bring about machine tools impact and vibration in practical machining. After analyzing the CNC machine tools dynamic model, an Acc/Dec control algorithm based on trapezoid-curve jerk is put forward in order to avoid step change in jerk curve in the study; Moreover, the motion profile smooth control approach based on continuous jerk is developed in details to decrease machine tools impact according to various kinematics constraint conditions, such as the maximum acceleration, the maximum jerk, the machining program segment displacement, the instruction feedrate and so on; Finally, the developed Acc/Dec approach and the traditional linear Acc/Dec approach are compared in the CNC experimental table. The results reveal that the developed approach can achieve more smooth and flexible motion profile, which is helpful to minish machine tools impact and enhance parts machining surface quality.

  13. Accelerator-based conversion (ABC) of weapons plutonium: Plant layout study and related design issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowell, B.S.; Fontana, M.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Krakowski, R.A.; Beard, C.A.; Buksa, J.J.; Davidson, J.W.; Sailor, W.C.; Williamson, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-04-01

    In preparation for and in support of a detailed R and D Plan for the Accelerator-Based Conversion (ABC) of weapons plutonium, an ABC Plant Layout Study was conducted at the level of a pre-conceptual engineering design. The plant layout is based on an adaptation of the Molten-Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR) detailed conceptual design that was completed in the early 1070s. Although the ABC Plant Layout Study included the Accelerator Equipment as an essential element, the engineering assessment focused primarily on the Target; Primary System (blanket and all systems containing plutonium-bearing fuel salt); the Heat-Removal System (secondary-coolant-salt and supercritical-steam systems); Chemical Processing; Operation and Maintenance; Containment and Safety; and Instrumentation and Control systems. Although constrained primarily to a reflection of an accelerator-driven (subcritical) variant of MSBR system, unique features and added flexibilities of the ABC suggest improved or alternative approaches to each of the above-listed subsystems; these, along with the key technical issues in need of resolution through a detailed R&D plan for ABC are described on the bases of the ``strawman`` or ``point-of-departure`` plant layout that resulted from this study.

  14. An Impulse-C Hardware Accelerator for Packet Classification Based on Fine/Coarse Grain Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Current software-based packet classification algorithms exhibit relatively poor performance, prompting many researchers to concentrate on novel frameworks and architectures that employ both hardware and software components. The Packet Classification with Incremental Update (PCIU algorithm, Ahmed et al. (2010, is a novel and efficient packet classification algorithm with a unique incremental update capability that demonstrated excellent results and was shown to be scalable for many different tasks and clients. While a pure software implementation can generate powerful results on a server machine, an embedded solution may be more desirable for some applications and clients. Embedded, specialized hardware accelerator based solutions are typically much more efficient in speed, cost, and size than solutions that are implemented on general-purpose processor systems. This paper seeks to explore the design space of translating the PCIU algorithm into hardware by utilizing several optimization techniques, ranging from fine grain to coarse grain and parallel coarse grain approaches. The paper presents a detailed implementation of a hardware accelerator of the PCIU based on an Electronic System Level (ESL approach. Results obtained indicate that the hardware accelerator achieves on average 27x speedup over a state-of-the-art Xeon processor.

  15. Petri Net Based Metabolic Network Parameters Fitting with GPU Acceleration%Petri Net Based Metabolic Network Parameters Fitting with GPU Acceleration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao, Jun; Zhu, Ruixin; Liu, Qi; Cao, Zhiwei

    2011-01-01

    Classical Petri net has been applied into biological analysis, especially as a qualitative model for biochemical pathways analysis, but lack of the ability for quantitative kinetic simulations. In our study, we presented an integra- tion work of the qualitative model--Petri nets with the quantitative approach-ordinary differential equations (ODEs) for the modeling and analysis of metabolic networks. As an application of our study, the computational modeling of arachidonic acid (AA) biochemical network was provided. A Petri net was set up to present the constraint-based dynamic simulations on AA metabolic network combined with the validated ODEs model. Furthermore, Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) was adopted to accelerate the calculation of kinetic parameters unavailable from experi- ments. Our results have indicated that the proposed simulation method was practicable and useful with GPU accel- eration, and provides new clues for the large-scale qualitative and quantitative models of biochemical networks.

  16. Detecting Direction of Pepper Stem by Using CUDA-Based Accelerated Hybrid Intuitionistic Fuzzy Edge Detection and ANN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahit Gunes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, computer vision systems have been used in almost every field of industry. In this study, image processing algorithm has been developed by using CUDA (GPU which is 79 times faster than CPU. We had used this accelerated algorithm in destemming process of pepper. 65 percent of total national production of pepper is produced in our cities, Kahramanmaras and Gaziantep in Turkey. Firstly, hybrid intuitionistic fuzzy algorithm edge detection has been used for preprocessing of original image and Otsu method has been used for determining automatic threshold in this algorithm. Then the multilayer perceptron artificial neural network has been used for the classification of patterns in processed images. Result of ANN test for detection direction of pepper has shown high accuracy performance in CPU-based implementation and in GPU-based implementation.

  17. Intense Combined Source of Neutrons and Photons for Interrogation Based on Compact Deuteron RF Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurennoy, S. S.; Garnett, R. W.; Rybarcyk, L. J.

    Interrogation of special nuclear materials can benefit from mobile sources providing significant fluxes of neutrons (108/s at 2.5 MeV, 1010/s at 14.1 MeV) and of photons (>1012/s at 1-3 MeV). We propose a source that satisfies these requirements simultaneously plus also provides, via the reaction 11B(d,n)12C(γ15.1), a significant flux of 15-MeV photons, which are highly penetrating and optimal for inducing photo-fission in actinides. The source is based on a compact (< 5 m) deuteron RF accelerator that delivers an average current of a few mA of deuterons at 3-4 MeV to a boron target. The accelerator consists of a short RFQ followed by efficient inter-digital H-mode structures with permanent-magnet-quadrupole beam focusing [Kurennoy et al. (2012)], which suit perfectly for deuteron acceleration at low energies. Our estimates, based on recent measurements [Taddeucci et al. (2007)], indicate that the required fluxes of both neutrons and photons can be achieved at ∼1 mA of 4-MeV deuterons. The goal of the proposed study is to confirm feasibility of the approach and develop requirements for future full- system implementation.

  18. Three Dimensional Gait Analysis Using Wearable Acceleration and Gyro Sensors Based on Quaternion Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Miyagawa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for three dimensional gait analysis using wearable sensors and quaternion calculations. Seven sensor units consisting of a tri-axial acceleration and gyro sensors, were fixed to the lower limbs. The acceleration and angular velocity data of each sensor unit were measured during level walking. The initial orientations of the sensor units were estimated using acceleration data during upright standing position and the angular displacements were estimated afterwards using angular velocity data during gait. Here, an algorithm based on quaternion calculation was implemented for orientation estimation of the sensor units. The orientations of the sensor units were converted to the orientations of the body segments by a rotation matrix obtained from a calibration trial. Body segment orientations were then used for constructing a three dimensional wire frame animation of the volunteers during the gait. Gait analysis was conducted on five volunteers, and results were compared with those from a camera-based motion analysis system. Comparisons were made for the joint trajectory in the horizontal and sagittal plane. The average RMSE and correlation coefficient (CC were 10.14 deg and 0.98, 7.88 deg and 0.97, 9.75 deg and 0.78 for the hip, knee and ankle flexion angles, respectively.

  19. Accelerating the Adoption of Second-Tier Reach Standards forApplicable Appliance Products in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jiang; Fridley, David

    2007-03-01

    The minimum energy efficiency standards program for household appliances in China was initiated in 1989. Since 1996, CLASP and its implementing partner, LBNL, have assisted China in developing 11 minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for 9 products and endorsement labels for 11 products including: refrigerators; air conditioners; clothes washers; televisions; printers; computers; monitors; fax machines; copiers; DVD/VCD players; external power supplies; and set-top boxes (under development). Before 2003, China's traditional approach to standards development involved small increases in efficiency requirements for implementation within 6 months of a standard's approval. Since 2003, China has adopted a new approach in setting MEPS. This new approach involves the development of two tiers of standards--one for initial implementation and a second tier at a more aggressive level of energy efficiency for implementation three to five years later. The second-tier standard is also referred to as a 'reach standard'. Reach standards have now been developed in China for: color TVs; refrigerators; air conditioners; and external power supplies. This report is presented in five sections. After the introduction in Section 1, Section 2 analyzes the distribution of the efficiency of refrigerators and air-conditioners in China based on data collected by the China Energy Label Center for the mandatory energy information label program. The results provide an assessment of the adoption of reach standards for these two products. Section 3 summarizes on-going collaborations with Shanghai related to early local adoption of reach standards, and presents both the impact and an analysis of barriers to the local adoption of reach standard for air-conditioners. Section 4 offers suggestions for local governments on how to move forward in adopting reach standards in their localities and concludes with a summary of the results and a plan for developing local capacity in

  20. Radiative damping and electron beam dynamics in plasma-based accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, P; Schroeder, C B; Shadwick, B A; Esarey, E; Leemans, W P

    2006-08-01

    The effects of radiation reaction on electron beam dynamics are studied in the context of plasma-based accelerators. Electrons accelerated in a plasma channel undergo transverse betatron oscillations due to strong focusing forces. These oscillations lead to emission by the electrons of synchrotron radiation, with a corresponding energy loss that affects the beam properties. An analytical model for the single particle orbits and beam moments including the classical radiation reaction force is derived and compared to the results of a particle transport code. Since the betatron amplitude depends on the initial transverse position of the electron, the resulting radiation can increase the relative energy spread of the beam to significant levels (e.g., several percent). This effect can be diminished by matching the beam into the channel, which could require micron sized beam radii for typical values of the beam emittance and plasma density.

  1. Radiative damping and electron beam dynamics in plasma-based accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, P.; Schroeder, C. B.; Shadwick, B. A.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2006-08-01

    The effects of radiation reaction on electron beam dynamics are studied in the context of plasma-based accelerators. Electrons accelerated in a plasma channel undergo transverse betatron oscillations due to strong focusing forces. These oscillations lead to emission by the electrons of synchrotron radiation, with a corresponding energy loss that affects the beam properties. An analytical model for the single particle orbits and beam moments including the classical radiation reaction force is derived and compared to the results of a particle transport code. Since the betatron amplitude depends on the initial transverse position of the electron, the resulting radiation can increase the relative energy spread of the beam to significant levels (e.g., several percent). This effect can be diminished by matching the beam into the channel, which could require micron sized beam radii for typical values of the beam emittance and plasma density.

  2. Quantitative elemental analysis of an industrial mineral talc, using accelerator-based analytical technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olabanji, S.O. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy) and Centre for Energy Research and Development, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria)]. E-mail: skayode2002@yahoo.co.uk; Ige, A.O. [Natural History Museum, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Mazzoli, C. [Dipartimento di Mineralogia e Petrologia, Universita di Padova, 35100 Padova (Italy); Ceccato, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35100 Padova (Italy); Ajayi, E.O.B. [Department of Physics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); De Poli, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Moschini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35100 Padova (Italy)

    2005-10-15

    Accelerator-based technique of PIXE was employed for the determination of the elemental concentration of an industrial mineral, talc. Talc is a very versatile mineral in industries with several applications. Due to this, there is a need to know its constituents to ensure that the workers are not exposed to health risks. Besides, microscopic tests on some talc samples in Nigeria confirm that they fall within the BP British Pharmacopoeia standard for tablet formation. However, for these samples to become a local source of raw material for pharmaceutical grade talc, the precise elemental compositions should be established which is the focus of this work. Proton beam produced by the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at INFN, LNL, Legnaro, Padova, Italy was used for the PIXE measurements. The results which show the concentration of different elements in the talc samples, their health implications and metabolic roles are presented and discussed.

  3. A Java-based control system for the Orsay tandem accelerator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dominique Delbourg; Gérard Penillault; Tran Khan Tuong; Martial Decourt; Nicole Borome; Henri Harroch; Bertrand Lessellier; Bernard Waast; Jean Pierre Mouffron

    2002-12-01

    A new control system was designed for the tandem MP-9 at Orsay. Because of the existing devices located on high voltage platforms and the lack of space inside the accelerator, in-house electronic cards based on micro-controllers and an optical fieldbus were developed to collect data. VME processors under VxWorks, a real time operating system, manage the fieldbus, concentrate the accelerator information and transmit it to the supervisory software through the ethernet network. This software consists of a collection of Java virtual machines (JVM) running on several Unix work-stations and PCs under Windows. Some of the Java virtual machines manage apparatus, instruments, local display and connections to an object database and VME concentrators. Others manage general synoptics. JVMs communicate between themselves with RMI protocol and JRPC with VME concentrators. So the supervisory software can be spread over several control stations throughout the network.

  4. Host-based data acquisition system to control pulsed facilities of the accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamriy, V. N.

    2016-09-01

    The report discusses development of the host-based system to carry out timed measurements and data acquisition for the control of pulsed facilities of the accelerator. We consider modes of timing and allocation of operations of channels and the system node. The time of any working cycle of the pulsed facilities, rate of a data flow and an amount of serviced channels are coordinated with operation characteristics of the system node. Estimations of the readout rate of the data and the waiting time demonstrate the system efficiency. The technique has been developed to provide checking of groups of pulse parameters and control the facilities of the linear accelerator of electrons LUE-200 of the neutron source IREN.

  5. Molecular dynamics-based virtual screening: accelerating the drug discovery process by high-performance computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hu; Wang, Yu; Li, Chanjuan; Chen, Nanhao; Xie, Yufang; Xu, Mengyan; He, Yingyan; Gu, Xinchun; Wu, Ruibo; Gu, Qiong; Zeng, Liang; Xu, Jun

    2013-10-28

    High-performance computing (HPC) has become a state strategic technology in a number of countries. One hypothesis is that HPC can accelerate biopharmaceutical innovation. Our experimental data demonstrate that HPC can significantly accelerate biopharmaceutical innovation by employing molecular dynamics-based virtual screening (MDVS). Without using HPC, MDVS for a 10K compound library with tens of nanoseconds of MD simulations requires years of computer time. In contrast, a state of the art HPC can be 600 times faster than an eight-core PC server is in screening a typical drug target (which contains about 40K atoms). Also, careful design of the GPU/CPU architecture can reduce the HPC costs. However, the communication cost of parallel computing is a bottleneck that acts as the main limit of further virtual screening improvements for drug innovations.

  6. Accelerated oral nanomedicine discovery from miniaturized screening to clinical production exemplified by paediatric HIV nanotherapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardiello, Marco; Liptrott, Neill J.; McDonald, Tom O.; Moss, Darren; Siccardi, Marco; Martin, Phil; Smith, Darren; Gurjar, Rohan; Rannard, Steve P.; Owen, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    Considerable scope exists to vary the physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles, with subsequent impact on biological interactions; however, no accelerated process to access large nanoparticle material space is currently available, hampering the development of new nanomedicines. In particular, no clinically available nanotherapies exist for HIV populations and conventional paediatric HIV medicines are poorly available; one current paediatric formulation utilizes high ethanol concentrations to solubilize lopinavir, a poorly soluble antiretroviral. Here we apply accelerated nanomedicine discovery to generate a potential aqueous paediatric HIV nanotherapy, with clinical translation and regulatory approval for human evaluation. Our rapid small-scale screening approach yields large libraries of solid drug nanoparticles (160 individual components) targeting oral dose. Screening uses 1 mg of drug compound per library member and iterative pharmacological and chemical evaluation establishes potential candidates for progression through to clinical manufacture. The wide applicability of our strategy has implications for multiple therapy development programmes.

  7. Accelerated oral nanomedicine discovery from miniaturized screening to clinical production exemplified by paediatric HIV nanotherapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardiello, Marco; Liptrott, Neill J.; McDonald, Tom O.; Moss, Darren; Siccardi, Marco; Martin, Phil; Smith, Darren; Gurjar, Rohan; Rannard, Steve P.; Owen, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Considerable scope exists to vary the physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles, with subsequent impact on biological interactions; however, no accelerated process to access large nanoparticle material space is currently available, hampering the development of new nanomedicines. In particular, no clinically available nanotherapies exist for HIV populations and conventional paediatric HIV medicines are poorly available; one current paediatric formulation utilizes high ethanol concentrations to solubilize lopinavir, a poorly soluble antiretroviral. Here we apply accelerated nanomedicine discovery to generate a potential aqueous paediatric HIV nanotherapy, with clinical translation and regulatory approval for human evaluation. Our rapid small-scale screening approach yields large libraries of solid drug nanoparticles (160 individual components) targeting oral dose. Screening uses 1 mg of drug compound per library member and iterative pharmacological and chemical evaluation establishes potential candidates for progression through to clinical manufacture. The wide applicability of our strategy has implications for multiple therapy development programmes. PMID:27767027

  8. THE EFFECTS OF HEIGHT AND DISTANCE ON THE FORCE PRODUCTION AND ACCELERATION IN MARTIAL ARTS STRIKES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia A. Bir

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Almost all cultures have roots in some sort of self defence system and yet there is relatively little research in this area, outside of a sports related environment. This project investigated different applications of strikes from Kung Fu practitioners that have not been addressed before in the literature. Punch and palm strikes were directly compared from different heights and distances, with the use of a load cell, accelerometers, and high speed video. The data indicated that the arm accelerations of both strikes were similar, although the force and resulting acceleration of the target were significantly greater for the palm strikes. Additionally, the relative height at which the strike was delivered was also investigated. The overall conclusion is that the palm strike is a more effective strike for transferring force to an object. It can also be concluded that an attack to the chest would be ideal for maximizing impact force and moving an opponent off balance

  9. Acceleration of integral imaging based incoherent Fourier hologram capture using graphic processing unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyeong-Min; Kim, Hee-Seung; Hong, Sung-In; Lee, Sung-Keun; Jo, Na-Young; Kim, Yong-Soo; Lim, Hong-Gi; Park, Jae-Hyeung

    2012-10-01

    Speed enhancement of integral imaging based incoherent Fourier hologram capture using a graphic processing unit is reported. Integral imaging based method enables exact hologram capture of real-existing three-dimensional objects under regular incoherent illumination. In our implementation, we apply parallel computation scheme using the graphic processing unit, accelerating the processing speed. Using enhanced speed of hologram capture, we also implement a pseudo real-time hologram capture and optical reconstruction system. The overall operation speed is measured to be 1 frame per second.

  10. An OpenACC-Based Unified Programming Model for Multi-accelerator Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jungwon [ORNL; Lee, Seyong [ORNL; Vetter, Jeffrey S [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel SPMD programming model of OpenACC. Our model integrates the different granularities of parallelism from vector-level parallelism to node-level parallelism into a single, unified model based on OpenACC. It allows programmers to write programs for multiple accelerators using a uniform programming model whether they are in shared or distributed memory systems. We implement a prototype of our model and evaluate its performance with a GPU-based supercomputer using three benchmark applications.

  11. Possible incorporation of petroleum-based carbons in biochemicals produced by bioprocess--biomass carbon ratio measured by accelerator mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunioka, Masao

    2010-06-01

    The biomass carbon ratios of biochemicals related to biomass have been reviewed. Commercial products from biomass were explained. The biomass carbon ratios of biochemical compounds were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) based on the (14)C concentration of carbons in the compounds. This measuring method uses the mechanism that biomass carbons include a very low level of (14)C and petroleum carbons do not include (14)C similar to the carbon dating measuring method. It was confirmed that there were some biochemicals synthesized from petroleum-based carbons. This AMS method has a high accuracy with a small standard deviation and can be applied to plastic products.

  12. Computational investigation of 99Mo, 89Sr, and 131I production rates in a subcritical UO2(NO32 aqueous solution reactor driven by a 30-MeV proton accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Gholamzadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of subcritical aqueous homogenous reactors driven by accelerators presents an attractive alternative for producing 99Mo. In this method, the medical isotope production system itself is used to extract 99Mo or other radioisotopes so that there is no need to irradiate common targets. In addition, it can operate at much lower power compared to a traditional reactor to produce the same amount of 99Mo by irradiating targets. In this study, the neutronic performance and 99Mo, 89Sr, and 131I production capacity of a subcritical aqueous homogenous reactor fueled with low-enriched uranyl nitrate was evaluated using the MCNPX code. A proton accelerator with a maximum 30-MeV accelerating power was used to run the subcritical core. The computational results indicate a good potential for the modeled system to produce the radioisotopes under completely safe conditions because of the high negative reactivity coefficients of the modeled core. The results show that application of an optimized beam window material can increase the fission power of the aqueous nitrate fuel up to 80%. This accelerator-based procedure using low enriched uranium nitrate fuel to produce radioisotopes presents a potentially competitive alternative in comparison with the reactor-based or other accelerator-based methods. This system produces ∼1,500 Ci/wk (∼325 6-day Ci of 99Mo at the end of a cycle.

  13. Breakdown study based on direct in situ observation of inner surfaces of an rf accelerating cavity during a high-gradient test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Tetsuo; Kageyama, Tatsuya; Sakai, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Yasunao; Yoshino, Kazuo

    2016-10-01

    We have developed normal-conducting accelerating single-cell cavities with a complete higher-order-mode (HOM) heavily damped structure, into which we feed a 508.9-MHz continuous wave. During a high-gradient test of the second production version of the cavity, we performed a breakdown study based on direct in situ observation of the inner surfaces of the cavity. This paper presents our experimental findings obtained from this observation.

  14. High-power liquid-lithium target prototype for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, S; Paul, M; Arenshtam, A; Berkovits, D; Bisyakoev, M; Eliyahu, I; Feinberg, G; Hazenshprung, N; Kijel, D; Nagler, A; Silverman, I

    2011-12-01

    A prototype of a compact Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT), which will possibly constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in hospitals, was built. The LiLiT setup is presently being commissioned at Soreq Nuclear Research Center (SNRC). The liquid-lithium target will produce neutrons through the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power generated using a high-intensity proton beam (>10 kW), necessary for sufficient neutron flux. In off-line circulation tests, the liquid-lithium loop generated a stable lithium jet at high velocity, on a concave supporting wall; the concept will first be tested using a high-power electron beam impinging on the lithium jet. High intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91-2.5 MeV, 2-4 mA) will take place at Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF) superconducting linear accelerator currently in construction at SNRC. Radiological risks due to the (7)Be produced in the reaction were studied and will be handled through a proper design, including a cold trap and appropriate shielding. A moderator/reflector assembly is planned according to a Monte Carlo simulation, to create a neutron spectrum and intensity maximally effective to the treatment and to reduce prompt gamma radiation dose risks.

  15. Control of Switching Characteristics of Silicon-based Semiconductor Diode Using High Energy Linear Accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Harihara Krishnan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports control of switching characteristics of silicon-based semiconductor diode using electron beam produced using linear accelerator. Conventionally, p-n junction chips of diode are exposed to gamma rays from a radioactive source or electron beam from a microtron, depending upon the required level of correction. High energy linear accelerators featuring simultaneous exposure of multiple chips are recent advancements in radiation technology. The paper presents the results of the radiation process using a 10 MeV linear accelerator as applied in industrial manufacturing of a high voltage diode (2600 V. The achieved values of reverse recovery time were found to be within the design limits. The suitability of the new process was verified by constructing the trade-off curve between the switching and conduction parameters of the diode for the complete range using large number of experimental samples. The paper summarizes the advantages of the new process over the conventional methods specifically with reference to industrial requirements. The developed process has been successfully implemented in semiconductor manufacturing.

  16. Fine-grained parallelism accelerating for RNA secondary structure prediction with pseudoknots based on FPGA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Fei; Jin, Guoqing

    2014-06-01

    PKNOTS is a most famous benchmark program and has been widely used to predict RNA secondary structure including pseudoknots. It adopts the standard four-dimensional (4D) dynamic programming (DP) method and is the basis of many variants and improved algorithms. Unfortunately, the O(N(6)) computing requirements and complicated data dependency greatly limits the usefulness of PKNOTS package with the explosion in gene database size. In this paper, we present a fine-grained parallel PKNOTS package and prototype system for accelerating RNA folding application based on FPGA chip. We adopted a series of storage optimization strategies to resolve the "Memory Wall" problem. We aggressively exploit parallel computing strategies to improve computational efficiency. We also propose several methods that collectively reduce the storage requirements for FPGA on-chip memory. To the best of our knowledge, our design is the first FPGA implementation for accelerating 4D DP problem for RNA folding application including pseudoknots. The experimental results show a factor of more than 50x average speedup over the PKNOTS-1.08 software running on a PC platform with Intel Core2 Q9400 Quad CPU for input RNA sequences. However, the power consumption of our FPGA accelerator is only about 50% of the general-purpose micro-processors.

  17. GeauxDock: Accelerating Structure-Based Virtual Screening with Heterogeneous Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ye; Ding, Yun; Feinstein, Wei P.; Koppelman, David M.; Moreno, Juana; Jarrell, Mark; Ramanujam, J.; Brylinski, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Computational modeling of drug binding to proteins is an integral component of direct drug design. Particularly, structure-based virtual screening is often used to perform large-scale modeling of putative associations between small organic molecules and their pharmacologically relevant protein targets. Because of a large number of drug candidates to be evaluated, an accurate and fast docking engine is a critical element of virtual screening. Consequently, highly optimized docking codes are of paramount importance for the effectiveness of virtual screening methods. In this communication, we describe the implementation, tuning and performance characteristics of GeauxDock, a recently developed molecular docking program. GeauxDock is built upon the Monte Carlo algorithm and features a novel scoring function combining physics-based energy terms with statistical and knowledge-based potentials. Developed specifically for heterogeneous computing platforms, the current version of GeauxDock can be deployed on modern, multi-core Central Processing Units (CPUs) as well as massively parallel accelerators, Intel Xeon Phi and NVIDIA Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). First, we carried out a thorough performance tuning of the high-level framework and the docking kernel to produce a fast serial code, which was then ported to shared-memory multi-core CPUs yielding a near-ideal scaling. Further, using Xeon Phi gives 1.9× performance improvement over a dual 10-core Xeon CPU, whereas the best GPU accelerator, GeForce GTX 980, achieves a speedup as high as 3.5×. On that account, GeauxDock can take advantage of modern heterogeneous architectures to considerably accelerate structure-based virtual screening applications. GeauxDock is open-sourced and publicly available at www.brylinski.org/geauxdock and https://figshare.com/articles/geauxdock_tar_gz/3205249. PMID:27420300

  18. GeauxDock: Accelerating Structure-Based Virtual Screening with Heterogeneous Computing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Fang

    Full Text Available Computational modeling of drug binding to proteins is an integral component of direct drug design. Particularly, structure-based virtual screening is often used to perform large-scale modeling of putative associations between small organic molecules and their pharmacologically relevant protein targets. Because of a large number of drug candidates to be evaluated, an accurate and fast docking engine is a critical element of virtual screening. Consequently, highly optimized docking codes are of paramount importance for the effectiveness of virtual screening methods. In this communication, we describe the implementation, tuning and performance characteristics of GeauxDock, a recently developed molecular docking program. GeauxDock is built upon the Monte Carlo algorithm and features a novel scoring function combining physics-based energy terms with statistical and knowledge-based potentials. Developed specifically for heterogeneous computing platforms, the current version of GeauxDock can be deployed on modern, multi-core Central Processing Units (CPUs as well as massively parallel accelerators, Intel Xeon Phi and NVIDIA Graphics Processing Unit (GPU. First, we carried out a thorough performance tuning of the high-level framework and the docking kernel to produce a fast serial code, which was then ported to shared-memory multi-core CPUs yielding a near-ideal scaling. Further, using Xeon Phi gives 1.9× performance improvement over a dual 10-core Xeon CPU, whereas the best GPU accelerator, GeForce GTX 980, achieves a speedup as high as 3.5×. On that account, GeauxDock can take advantage of modern heterogeneous architectures to considerably accelerate structure-based virtual screening applications. GeauxDock is open-sourced and publicly available at www.brylinski.org/geauxdock and https://figshare.com/articles/geauxdock_tar_gz/3205249.

  19. GeauxDock: Accelerating Structure-Based Virtual Screening with Heterogeneous Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ye; Ding, Yun; Feinstein, Wei P; Koppelman, David M; Moreno, Juana; Jarrell, Mark; Ramanujam, J; Brylinski, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Computational modeling of drug binding to proteins is an integral component of direct drug design. Particularly, structure-based virtual screening is often used to perform large-scale modeling of putative associations between small organic molecules and their pharmacologically relevant protein targets. Because of a large number of drug candidates to be evaluated, an accurate and fast docking engine is a critical element of virtual screening. Consequently, highly optimized docking codes are of paramount importance for the effectiveness of virtual screening methods. In this communication, we describe the implementation, tuning and performance characteristics of GeauxDock, a recently developed molecular docking program. GeauxDock is built upon the Monte Carlo algorithm and features a novel scoring function combining physics-based energy terms with statistical and knowledge-based potentials. Developed specifically for heterogeneous computing platforms, the current version of GeauxDock can be deployed on modern, multi-core Central Processing Units (CPUs) as well as massively parallel accelerators, Intel Xeon Phi and NVIDIA Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). First, we carried out a thorough performance tuning of the high-level framework and the docking kernel to produce a fast serial code, which was then ported to shared-memory multi-core CPUs yielding a near-ideal scaling. Further, using Xeon Phi gives 1.9× performance improvement over a dual 10-core Xeon CPU, whereas the best GPU accelerator, GeForce GTX 980, achieves a speedup as high as 3.5×. On that account, GeauxDock can take advantage of modern heterogeneous architectures to considerably accelerate structure-based virtual screening applications. GeauxDock is open-sourced and publicly available at www.brylinski.org/geauxdock and https://figshare.com/articles/geauxdock_tar_gz/3205249.

  20. Construction Status of the Beamline for Radio-Isotope Production in the Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, B. H.; Yoon, S. P.; Seol, K. T.; Kim, H. S.; Kwon, H. J.; Cho, Y. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The 100-MeV beamline consist of 5 target room, a TR 103 as one of these is operating beamline, and a TR 101 as the other beamline is under construction as shown in Fig. 1. The TR 101 as beamline target room will be used for the high value-added medical isotope production and increased utilization of the proton accelerator. The optical system of the beamline consisted of dipole and quadrupole, and it included beam position monitor (BPM) and current transformer (CT) for beam diagnostics. The beamline was inserted into the carbon block and the aluminum collimator, the end of pipe as beam window was used for the aluminum to reduce the radioactive of materials. The target transfer equipment is being installed for RI production. The RI Beamline was aligned using the laser tracker, and vacuum leak was not detected by the helium leak detector. This facility is expected to the high value-added medical isotope production and increased utilization of the proton accelerator.

  1. Synchronized ion acceleration by ultraintense slow light and electron source for x-ray production from low-density targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantov, A. V.; Bychenkov, V. Yu

    2017-03-01

    Synchronized proton acceleration by ultraintense slow light in a low-density target Brantov et al (2016 Phys. Rev. Lett. 116 085004) is studied for a circularly polarized laser pulse. This study demonstrates the advantage of circularly polarized light compared with linearly polarized light used for high-energy proton generation. At the same time, high-energy electron production for gamma-ray generation is not sensitive to the polarization of the laser pulse. Both the proton and the electron sources are considered in application to petawatt-class lasers.

  2. Evaluation and redesign of radiation shielding in a radionuclide production facility at a particle accelerator / Onalenna Kegopotsemang

    OpenAIRE

    Kegopotsemang, Onalenna

    2004-01-01

    iThemba LABS is a particle accelerator facility housing a radionuclide production facility that uses a 66 MeV proton beam to produce radionuclides for medical and industrial use. Ionising radiation is produced by a variety of sources at Themba LABS. Ionising is a health hazard. High doses can cause acute radiation syndrome, i.e. "radiation sickness". Lower doses cannot cause acute symptom, but carry a risk of radiation-related cancer. Ionising radiation is also detrimental to materials, and c...

  3. Wall-Current-Monitor based Ghost and Satellite Bunch Detection in the CERN PS and the LHC Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Steinhagen, R J; Belleman, J; Bohl, T; Damerau, H

    2012-01-01

    While most LHC detectors and instrumentation systems are optimised for a nominal bunch spacing of 25 ns, the LHC RF cavities themselves operate at the 10th harmonic of the maximum bunch frequency. Due to the beam production scheme and transfers in the injector chain, part of the nominally ‘empty’ RF buckets may contain particles, referred to as ghost or satellite bunches. These populations must be accurately quantified for high-precision experiments, luminosity calibration and control of parasitic particle encounters at the four LHC interaction points. This contribution summarises the wall-current-monitor based ghost and satellite bunch measurements in CERN’s PS and LHC accelerators. Instrumentation set-up, post-processing and achieved performance are discussed.

  4. Distinguishability of complete and unextendible product bases

    CERN Document Server

    De Rinaldis, S

    2003-01-01

    It is not always possible to distinguish multipartite orthogonal states if only local operation and classical communication (LOCC) are allowed. We prove that we cannot distinguish the states of an unextendible product bases (UPB) by LOCC even when infinite resources (infinite-dimensional ancillas, infinite number of operations). Moreover we give a method to check the LOCC distinguishability of a complete product bases.

  5. Accelerated gradient methods for total-variation-based CT image reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Jørgensen, Jakob Heide; Hansen, Per Christian; Jensen, Søren Holdt; Sidky, Emil Y; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2011-01-01

    Total-variation (TV)-based Computed Tomography (CT) image reconstruction has shown experimentally to be capable of producing accurate reconstructions from sparse-view data. In particular TV-based reconstruction is very well suited for images with piecewise nearly constant regions. Computationally, however, TV-based reconstruction is much more demanding, especially for 3D imaging, and the reconstruction from clinical data sets is far from being close to real-time. This is undesirable from a clinical perspective, and thus there is an incentive to accelerate the solution of the underlying optimization problem. The TV reconstruction can in principle be found by any optimization method, but in practice the large-scale systems arising in CT image reconstruction preclude the use of memory-demanding methods such as Newton's method. The simple gradient method has much lower memory requirements, but exhibits slow convergence. In the present work we consider the use of two accelerated gradient-based methods, GPBB and UP...

  6. A neutron booster for spallation sources--application to accelerator driven systems and isotope production

    CERN Document Server

    Galy, J; Van Dam, H; Valko, J

    2002-01-01

    One can design a critical system with fissile material in the form of a thin layer on the inner surface of a cylindrical neutron moderator such as graphite or beryllium. Recently, we have investigated the properties of critical and near critical systems based on the use of thin actinide layers of uranium, plutonium and americium. The thickness of the required fissile layer depends on the type of fissile material, its concentration in the layer and on the geometrical arrangement, but is typically in the mu m-mm range. The resulting total mass of fissile material can be as low as 100 g. Thin fissile layers have a variety of applications in nuclear technology--for example in the design neutron amplifiers for medical applications and 'fast' islands in thermal reactors for waste incineration. In the present paper, we investigate the properties of a neutron booster unit for spallation sources and isotope production. In those applications a layer of fissile material surrounds the spallation source. Such a module cou...

  7. Photons and Particle Production in Cassiopeia ; A, Predictions from Nonlinear Diffusive Shock Acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Ellison, D C; Baring, M G; Grenier, I A; Lagage, P O; Ellison, Donald C.; Goret, Philippe; Baring, Matthew G.; Grenier, Isabelle A.; Lagage, Pierre-Olivier

    1999-01-01

    We calculate particle spectra and continuum photon emission from the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant (SNR). The particle spectra, ion and electron, result from diffusive shock acceleration at the forward SNR shock and are determined with a nonlinear Monte Carlo calculation. The calculation self-consistently determines the shock structure under the influence of ion pressure, and includes a simple parameterized treatment of electron injection and acceleration. Our results are compared to photon observations, concentrating on the connection between the Radio and GeV-TeV gamma-ray range, and to cosmic ray ion observations. We include new upper limits from the Cherenkov Array at Themis (CAT) imaging Cherenkov telescope and the Whipple 10m gamma-ray telescope at > 400 GeV. These new limits support the suggestion (e.g. Cowsik & Sarkar 1980; Allen et. al. 1997) that energetic electrons are emitting synchrotron radiation in an extremely high magnetic field (~ 1000 microGauss), far greater than values routinely assi...

  8. Dust Production and Particle Acceleration in Supernova 1987A Revealed with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indebetouw, R.; Matsuura, M.; Dwek, E.; Zanardo, G.; Barlow, M. J.; Baes, M.; Bouchet, P.; Burrows, D. N.; Chevalier, R.; Clayton, G. C.; Fransson, C.; Gaensler, B.; Kirshner, R.; Lakicevic, M.; Long, K. S.; Lundqvist, P.; Marti-Vidal, I.; Marcaide, J.; McCray, R.; Meixner, M.; Ng, C.-Y.; Park, S.; Sonneborn, G.; Staveley-Smith, L.; vanLoon, J.

    2014-01-01

    Supernova (SN) explosions are crucial engines driving the evolution of galaxies by shock heating gas, increasing the metallicity, creating dust, and accelerating energetic particles. In 2012 we used the Atacama Large Millimeter/ Submillimeter Array to observe SN1987A, one of the best-observed supernovae since the invention of the telescope. We present spatially resolved images at 450 µm, 870 µm, 1.4 mm, and 2.8 mm, an important transition wavelength range. Longer wavelength emission is dominated by synchrotron radiation from shock-accelerated particles, shorter wavelengths by emission from the largest mass of dust measured in a supernova remnant (>0.2 Solar Mass). For the first time we show unambiguously that this dust has formed in the inner ejecta (the cold remnants of the exploded star's core). The dust emission is concentrated at the center of the remnant, so the dust has not yet been affected by the shocks. If a significant fraction survives, and if SN 1987A is typical, supernovae are important cosmological dust producers.

  9. Compact atomic gravimeter based on a pulsed and accelerated optical lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Andia, Manuel; Nez, François; Biraben, François; Guellati-Khélifa, Saïda; Cladé, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    We present a new scheme of compact atomic gravimeter based on atom interferometry. Atoms are maintained against gravity using a sequence of coherent accelerations performed by the Bloch oscillations technique. We demonstrate a sensitivity of 4.8$\\times 10^{-8}$ with an integration time of 4 min. Combining this method with an atomic elevator allows to measure the local gravity at different positions in the vacuum chamber. This method can be of relevance to improve the measurement of the Newtonian gravitational constant $G$.

  10. Robust Foot Clearance Estimation Based on the Integration of Foot-Mounted IMU Acceleration Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoussaad, Mourad; Sijobert, Benoît; Mombaur, Katja; Coste, Christine Azevedo

    2015-12-23

    This paper introduces a method for the robust estimation of foot clearance during walking, using a single inertial measurement unit (IMU) placed on the subject's foot. The proposed solution is based on double integration and drift cancellation of foot acceleration signals. The method is insensitive to misalignment of IMU axes with respect to foot axes. Details are provided regarding calibration and signal processing procedures. Experimental validation was performed on 10 healthy subjects under three walking conditions: normal, fast and with obstacles. Foot clearance estimation results were compared to measurements from an optical motion capture system. The mean error between them is significantly less than 15 % under the various walking conditions.

  11. Accelerated reconstruction of electrical impedance tomography images via patch based sparse representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Lian, Zhijie; Wang, Jianming; Chen, Qingliang; Sun, Yukuan; Li, Xiuyan; Duan, Xiaojie; Cui, Ziqiang; Wang, Huaxiang

    2016-11-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) reconstruction is a nonlinear and ill-posed problem. Exact reconstruction of an EIT image inverts a high dimensional mathematical model to calculate the conductivity field, which causes significant problems regarding that the computational complexity will reduce the achievable frame rate, which is considered as a major advantage of EIT imaging. The single-step method, state estimation method, and projection method were always used to accelerate reconstruction process. The basic principle of these methods is to reduce computational complexity. However, maintaining high resolution in space together with not much cost is still challenging, especially for complex conductivity distribution. This study proposes an idea to accelerate image reconstruction of EIT based on compressive sensing (CS) theory, namely, CSEIT method. The novel CSEIT method reduces the sampling rate through minimizing redundancy in measurements, so that detailed information of reconstruction is not lost. In order to obtain sparse solution, which is the prior condition of signal recovery required by CS theory, a novel image reconstruction algorithm based on patch-based sparse representation is proposed. By applying the new framework of CSEIT, the data acquisition time, or the sampling rate, is reduced by more than two times, while the accuracy of reconstruction is significantly improved.

  12. A wavelet-based PWTD algorithm-accelerated time domain surface integral equation solver

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yang

    2015-10-26

    © 2015 IEEE. The multilevel plane-wave time-domain (PWTD) algorithm allows for fast and accurate analysis of transient scattering from, and radiation by, electrically large and complex structures. When used in tandem with marching-on-in-time (MOT)-based surface integral equation (SIE) solvers, it reduces the computational and memory costs of transient analysis from equation and equation to equation and equation, respectively, where Nt and Ns denote the number of temporal and spatial unknowns (Ergin et al., IEEE Trans. Antennas Mag., 41, 39-52, 1999). In the past, PWTD-accelerated MOT-SIE solvers have been applied to transient problems involving half million spatial unknowns (Shanker et al., IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., 51, 628-641, 2003). Recently, a scalable parallel PWTD-accelerated MOT-SIE solver that leverages a hiearchical parallelization strategy has been developed and successfully applied to the transient problems involving ten million spatial unknowns (Liu et. al., in URSI Digest, 2013). We further enhanced the capabilities of this solver by implementing a compression scheme based on local cosine wavelet bases (LCBs) that exploits the sparsity in the temporal dimension (Liu et. al., in URSI Digest, 2014). Specifically, the LCB compression scheme was used to reduce the memory requirement of the PWTD ray data and computational cost of operations in the PWTD translation stage.

  13. High-performance modeling of plasma-based acceleration and laser-plasma interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vay, Jean-Luc; Blaclard, Guillaume; Godfrey, Brendan; Kirchen, Manuel; Lee, Patrick; Lehe, Remi; Lobet, Mathieu; Vincenti, Henri

    2016-10-01

    Large-scale numerical simulations are essential to the design of plasma-based accelerators and laser-plasma interations for ultra-high intensity (UHI) physics. The electromagnetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) approach is the method of choice for self-consistent simulations, as it is based on first principles, and captures all kinetic effects, and also scale favorably to many cores on supercomputers. The standard PIC algorithm relies on second-order finite-difference discretization of the Maxwell and Newton-Lorentz equations. We present here novel formulations, based on very high-order pseudo-spectral Maxwell solvers, which enable near-total elimination of the numerical Cherenkov instability and increased accuracy over the standard PIC method for standard laboratory frame and Lorentz boosted frame simulations. We also present the latest implementations in the PIC modules Warp-PICSAR and FBPIC on the Intel Xeon Phi and GPU architectures. Examples of applications will be given on the simulation of laser-plasma accelerators and high-harmonic generation with plasma mirrors. Work supported by US-DOE Contracts DE-AC02-05CH11231 and by the European Commission through the Marie Slowdoska-Curie fellowship PICSSAR Grant Number 624543. Used resources of NERSC.

  14. Fenfluramine treatment in female rats accelerates the weight loss associated with activity-based anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchley, Deann P D; Eckel, Lisa A

    2005-02-01

    Serotonin plays an important role in controlling food intake and regulating body weight. Thus, altered serotonergic function may be involved in the etiology of anorexia nervosa. To investigate this hypothesis, we examined whether activation of the serotonin system increases the severity of activity-based anorexia, an animal model of anorexia nervosa in which food-restricted rats are housed with access to running wheels. This paradigm promotes symptoms of anorexia nervosa, including hypophagia, hyperactivity, and weight loss. Food-restricted rats received injections of a serotonin agonist, fenfluramine, or saline 1.5 h prior to their daily 2-h period of food access. A third saline-injected group was pair-fed to the fenfluramine group. Drug treatment and food restriction were terminated following a 25% weight loss. During food restriction, each group developed symptoms of activity-based anorexia. Although similar reductions in food intake were observed in fenfluramine-treated and pair-fed rats, only fenfluramine-treated rats displayed an accelerated rate of weight loss, relative to saline-treated rats. Thus, some other nonanorexic aspect of fenfluramine, perhaps its influence on metabolism, must underlie the accelerated rate of weight loss in this group. Our results suggest that increased activation of the serotonin system exacerbates the weight loss associated with activity-based anorexia.

  15. GPU-accelerated non-uniform fast Fourier transform-based compressive sensing spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Daguang; Huang, Yong; Kang, Jin U

    2014-06-16

    We implemented the graphics processing unit (GPU) accelerated compressive sensing (CS) non-uniform in k-space spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT). Kaiser-Bessel (KB) function and Gaussian function are used independently as the convolution kernel in the gridding-based non-uniform fast Fourier transform (NUFFT) algorithm with different oversampling ratios and kernel widths. Our implementation is compared with the GPU-accelerated modified non-uniform discrete Fourier transform (MNUDFT) matrix-based CS SD OCT and the GPU-accelerated fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based CS SD OCT. It was found that our implementation has comparable performance to the GPU-accelerated MNUDFT-based CS SD OCT in terms of image quality while providing more than 5 times speed enhancement. When compared to the GPU-accelerated FFT based-CS SD OCT, it shows smaller background noise and less side lobes while eliminating the need for the cumbersome k-space grid filling and the k-linear calibration procedure. Finally, we demonstrated that by using a conventional desktop computer architecture having three GPUs, real-time B-mode imaging can be obtained in excess of 30 fps for the GPU-accelerated NUFFT based CS SD OCT with frame size 2048(axial) × 1,000(lateral).

  16. Computing environmental life of electronic products based on failure physics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongqiang Zhang; Zongchang Xu; Chunyang Hu

    2016-01-01

    In some situations, the accelerated life test on en-vironmental stress for electronic products is not easily imple-mented due to various restrictions, and thus engineers are lacking of data of the product life test. Concerning this prob-lem, environmental life of the printed circuit board (PCB) board is calculated by way of physics of failure. Influences of thermal cycle and vibration on PCB and its components are studied. Based on the analysis of force and stress between components and the PCB board in thermal cycle events and vibration events, four life computing models of pins and sol-dered dots are established. The miler damage ratio is used to calculate the accumulated damage of a pin or a soldered dot, and then the environment life of the PCB board can be de-termined by the first failed one. Finaly, an example is used to ilustrate the models and their calculations.

  17. Accelerator-based research activities at 'Centro Nacional de Aceleradores', Seville (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Respaldiza, M.A. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Departmento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: respaldiza@us.es; Ager, F.J. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Departmento de Fisica Aplicada I, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla (Spain); Carmona, A. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Laboratoire de Chimie Nucleaire Analytique et Bioenvironnementale, Universite de Bordeaux (France); Ferrer, J. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Garcia-Leon, M.; Garcia-Lopez, J. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Departmento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla (Spain); Garcia-Orellana, I. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Gomez-Tubio, B. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Departmento de Fisica Aplicada III, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla (Spain); Morilla, Y. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Ontalba, M.A. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Departmento de Fisica, Universidad de Extremadura, Caceres (Spain); Ortega-Feliu, I. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Departmento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla (Spain)

    2008-05-15

    In February 1998, almost 10 years ago, the set-up of the first IBA (ion beam analysis) facility in Spain took place with the arrival of a 3 MV tandem accelerator [J. Garcia-Lopez, F.J. Ager, M. Barbadillo-Rank, F.J. Madrigal, M.A. Ontalba, M.A. Respaldiza, M.D. Ynsa, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 161-163 (2000) 1137]. Since then, an intensive research program using IBA techniques has been carried out. Subsequently, a cyclotron for 18 MeV protons has been also installed at the 'Centro Nacional de Aceleradores' (CNA), devoted mainly to isotope production for PET (positron emission tomography) techniques, but possibly applied to material analysis and damage studies on a dedicated beam line. Moreover, a 1 MV tandem has been recently installed for AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) {sup 14}C dating and environmental research with other isotopes. In the present paper we describe the new facilities and the developments of the 3 MV tandem beam lines occurred during the past years, as well as some examples of the most recent research activities in our Center in the fields of Material Science, Archaeometry, Biomedicine and Environment.

  18. Environmental remediation and conversion of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) into useful green products by accelerated carbonation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Mihee; Han, Gi-Chun; Ahn, Ji-Whan; You, Kwang-Suk

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the application of carbonation technology to the environmental industry as a way of reducing carbon dioxide (CO(2)), a green house gas, including the presentation of related projects of our research group. An alternative technology to very slow natural carbonation is the co-called 'accelerated carbonation', which completes its fast reaction within few hours by using pure CO(2). Carbonation technology is widely applied to solidify or stabilize solid combustion residues from municipal solid wastes, paper mill wastes, etc. and contaminated soils, and to manufacture precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC). Carbonated products can be utilized as aggregates in the concrete industry and as alkaline fillers in the paper (or recycled paper) making industry. The quantity of captured CO(2) in carbonated products can be evaluated by measuring mass loss of heated samples by thermo-gravimetric (TG) analysis. The industrial carbonation technology could contribute to both reduction of CO(2) emissions and environmental remediation.

  19. The effects of height and distance on the force production and acceleration in martial arts strikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolander, Richard P; Neto, Osmar Pinto; Bir, Cynthia A

    2009-11-01

    Almost all cultures have roots in some sort of self defence system and yet there is relatively little research in this area, outside of a sports related environment. This project investigated different applications of strikes from Kung Fu practitioners that have not been addressed before in the literature. Punch and palm strikes were directly compared from different heights and distances, with the use of a load cell, accelerometers, and high speed video. The data indicated that the arm accelerations of both strikes were similar, although the force and resulting acceleration of the target were significantly greater for the palm strikes. Additionally, the relative height at which the strike was delivered was also investigated. The overall conclusion is that the palm strike is a more effective strike for transferring force to an object. It can also be concluded that an attack to the chest would be ideal for maximizing impact force and moving an opponent off balance. Key PointsIt has been determined that the palm strike is more effective than the punch for developing force and for transferring momentum, most likely the result of a reduced number of rigid links and joints.A strike at head level is less effective than a strike at chest level for developing force and transferring momentum.Distance plays an effect on the overall force and momentum changes, and most likely is dependent on the velocity of the limb and alignment of the bones prior to impact.The teaching of self defence for novices and law enforcement would benefit from including the palm strike as a high priority technique.

  20. A Novel Short-Time Fourier Transform-Based Fall Detection Algorithm Using 3-Axis Accelerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isu Shin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The short-time Fourier transform- (STFT- based algorithm was suggested to distinguish falls from various activities of daily living (ADLs. Forty male subjects volunteered in the experiments including three types of falls and four types of ADLs. An inertia sensor unit attached to the middle of two anterior superior iliac spines was used to measure the 3-axis accelerations at 100 Hz. The measured accelerations were transformed to signal vector magnitude values to be analyzed using STFT. The powers of low frequency components were extracted, and the fall detection was defined as whether the normalized power was less than the threshold (50% of the normal power. Most power was observed at the frequency band lower than 5 Hz in all activities, but the dramatic changes in the power were found only in falls. The specificity of 1–3 Hz frequency components was the best (100%, but the sensitivity was much smaller compared with 4 Hz component. The 4 Hz component showed the best fall detection with 96.9% sensitivity and 97.1% specificity. We believe that the suggested algorithm based on STFT would be useful in the fall detection and the classification from ADLs as well.

  1. SRAM-Based Passive Dosimeter for High-Energy Accelerator Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Makowski, D R; Napieralski, A; Swiercz, B P

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports a novel NVRAM-based neutron dose monitor (REM counter). The principle of this device is based on the radiation effect initiating the Single Event Upset SEU in high density microelectronic memories. Several batches of Non-Volatile memories from different manufactures were examined in various radiation environments, i.e. 241Am-Be (alpha,n) and Linear accelerators produced radiation fields. A suitable moderator was used to enhance the detector sensitivity. Further experiments were carried out in Linear Accelerators: Linac II, TTF2 and Beam Loss Environment of various Experimental Facilities at DESY Research Centre in Hamburg. A separate batch of SRAM was irradiated with 60Co-gamma rays up to a dose of about 60 Gy. No Single Event Upset (SEU) was registered. This validates, that gamma radiation has a negligible effect to trigger SEU in the SRAM. The proposed detector could be ideal for a neutron dose measurement produced by a high-energy electron linac, including synchrotron and Free Electron L...

  2. Accelerated electronic structure-based molecular dynamics simulations of shock-induced chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawkwell, Marc

    2015-06-01

    The initiation and progression of shock-induced chemistry in organic materials at moderate temperatures and pressures are slow on the time scales available to regular molecular dynamics simulations. Accessing the requisite time scales is particularly challenging if the interatomic bonding is modeled using accurate yet expensive methods based explicitly on electronic structure. We have combined fast, energy conserving extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics with the parallel replica accelerated molecular dynamics formalism to study the relatively sluggish shock-induced chemistry of benzene around 13-20 GPa. We model interatomic bonding in hydrocarbons using self-consistent tight binding theory with an accurate and transferable parameterization. Shock compression and its associated transient, non-equilibrium effects are captured explicitly by combining the universal liquid Hugoniot with a simple shrinking-cell boundary condition. A number of novel methods for improving the performance of reactive electronic structure-based molecular dynamics by adapting the self-consistent field procedure on-the-fly will also be discussed. The use of accelerated molecular dynamics has enabled us to follow the initial stages of the nucleation and growth of carbon clusters in benzene under thermodynamic conditions pertinent to experiments.

  3. GPU-accelerated Monte Carlo simulation of particle coagulation based on the inverse method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, J.; Kruis, F. E.

    2013-09-01

    Simulating particle coagulation using Monte Carlo methods is in general a challenging computational task due to its numerical complexity and the computing cost. Currently, the lowest computing costs are obtained when applying a graphic processing unit (GPU) originally developed for speeding up graphic processing in the consumer market. In this article we present an implementation of accelerating a Monte Carlo method based on the Inverse scheme for simulating particle coagulation on the GPU. The abundant data parallelism embedded within the Monte Carlo method is explained as it will allow an efficient parallelization of the MC code on the GPU. Furthermore, the computation accuracy of the MC on GPU was validated with a benchmark, a CPU-based discrete-sectional method. To evaluate the performance gains by using the GPU, the computing time on the GPU against its sequential counterpart on the CPU were compared. The measured speedups show that the GPU can accelerate the execution of the MC code by a factor 10-100, depending on the chosen particle number of simulation particles. The algorithm shows a linear dependence of computing time with the number of simulation particles, which is a remarkable result in view of the n2 dependence of the coagulation.

  4. Design of photon converter and photoneutron target for High power electron accelerator based BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Faezeh; Seifi, Samaneh; Anbaran, Hossein Tavakoli; Ghasemi, Farshad

    2015-12-01

    An electron accelerator, ILU-14, with current of 10 mA and 100 kW in power has been considered as one of the options for neutron source in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The final design of neutron target has been obtained using MCNPX to optimize the neutron production. Tungsten in strip shape and D2O in cylindrical form have been proposed as the photon converter and the photoneutron target, respectively. In addition calculation of heat deposition in the photon target design has been considered to ensure mechanical stability of target. The results show that about 8.37×10(12) photoneutron/s with average energy of 615 keV can be produced by this neutron source design. In addition, using an appropriate beam shaping assembly an epithermal neutron flux of the order of 1.24×10(8) cm(-2) s(-1) can be obtained for BNCT applications.

  5. Analysis of accelerator based neutron spectra for BNCT using proton recoil spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielopolski, L.; Ludewig, H.; Powell, J.R.; Raparia, D.; Alessi, J.G.; Lowenstein, D.I.

    1999-03-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a promising binary treatment modality for high-grade primary brain tumors (glioblastoma multiforme, GM) and other cancers. BNCT employs a boron-10 containing compound that preferentially accumulates in the cancer cells in the brain. Upon neutron capture by {sup 10}B energetic alpha particles and triton released at the absorption site kill the cancer cell. In order to gain penetration depth in the brain Fairchild proposed, for this purpose, the use of energetic epithermal neutrons at about 10 keV. Phase 1/2 clinical trials of BNCT for GM are underway at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) and at the MIT Reactor, using these nuclear reactors as the source for epithermal neutrons. In light of the limitations of new reactor installations, e.g. cost, safety and licensing, and limited capability for modulating the reactor based neutron beam energy spectra, alternative neutron sources are being contemplated for wider implementation of this modality in a hospital environment. For example, accelerator based neutron sources offer the possibility of tailoring the neutron beams, in terms of improved depth-dose distributions, to the individual and offer, with relative ease, the capability of modifying the neutron beam energy and port size. In previous work new concepts for compact accelerator/target configuration were published. In this work, using the Van de Graaff accelerator the authors have explored different materials for filtering and reflecting neutron beams produced by irradiating a thick Li target with 1.8 to 2.5 MeV proton beams. However, since the yield and the maximum neutron energy emerging from the Li-7(p,n)Be-7 reaction increase with increase in the proton beam energy, there is a need for optimization of the proton energy versus filter and shielding requirements to obtain the desired epithermal neutron beam. The MCNP-4A computer code was used for the initial design studies that were verified with benchmark

  6. ANALYSIS OF ACCELERATOR BASED NEUTRON SPECTRA FOR BNCT USING PROTON RECOIL SPECTROSCOPY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WIELOPOLSKI,L.; LUDEWIG,H.; POWELL,J.R.; RAPARIA,D.; ALESSI,J.G.; LOWENSTEIN,D.I.

    1998-11-06

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a promising binary treatment modality for high-grade primary brain tumors (glioblastoma multiforme, GM) and other cancers. BNCT employs a boron-10 containing compound that preferentially accumulates in the cancer cells in the brain. Upon neutron capture by {sup 10}B energetic alpha particles and triton released at the absorption site kill the cancer cell. In order to gain penetration depth in the brain Fairchild proposed, for this purpose, the use of energetic epithermal neutrons at about 10 keV. Phase I/II clinical trials of BNCT for GM are underway at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) and at the MIT Reactor, using these nuclear reactors as the source for epithermal neutrons. In light of the limitations of new reactor installations, e.g. cost, safety and licensing, and limited capability for modulating the reactor based neutron beam energy spectra alternative neutron sources are being contemplated for wider implementation of this modality in a hospital environment. For example, accelerator based neutron sources offer the possibility of tailoring the neutron beams, in terms of improved depth-dose distributions, to the individual and offer, with relative ease, the capability of modifying the neutron beam energy and port size. In previous work new concepts for compact accelerator/target configuration were published. In this work, using the Van de Graaff accelerator the authors have explored different materials for filtering and reflecting neutron beams produced by irradiating a thick Li target with 1.8 to 2.5 MeV proton beams. However, since the yield and the maximum neutron energy emerging from the Li-7(p,n)Be-7 reaction increase with increase in the proton beam energy, there is a need for optimization of the proton energy versus filter and shielding requirements to obtain the desired epithermal neutron beam. The MCNP-4A computer code was used for the initial design studies that were verified with benchmark

  7. Control of Laser Plasma Based Accelerators up to 1 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Kei [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-12-01

    This dissertation documents the development of a broadband electron spectrometer (ESM) for GeV class Laser Wakefield Accelerators (LWFA), the production of high quality GeV electron beams (e-beams) for the first time in a LWFA by using a capillary discharge guide (CDG), and a statistical analysis of CDG-LWFAs. An ESM specialized for CDG-LWFAs with an unprecedented wide momentum acceptance, from 0.01 to 1.1 GeV in a single shot, has been developed. Simultaneous measurement of e-beam spectra and output laser properties as well as a large angular acceptance (> ± 10 mrad) were realized by employing a slitless scheme. A scintillating screen (LANEX Fast back, LANEX-FB)--camera system allowed faster than 1 Hz operation and evaluation of the spatial properties of e-beams. The design provided sufficient resolution for the whole range of the ESM (below 5% for beams with 2 mrad divergence). The calibration between light yield from LANEX-FB and total charge, and a study on the electron energy dependence (0.071 to 1.23 GeV) of LANEX-FB were performed at the Advanced light source (ALS), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Using this calibration data, the developed ESM provided a charge measurement as well. The production of high quality electron beams up to 1 GeV from a centimeter-scale accelerator was demonstrated. The experiment used a 310 μm diameter gas-filled capillary discharge waveguide that channeled relativistically-intense laser pulses (42 TW, 4.5 x 1018 W/cm2) over 3.3 centimeters of sufficiently low density (≃ 4.3 x 1018/cm3) plasma. Also demonstrated was stable self-injection and acceleration at a beam energy of ≃ 0.5 GeV by using a 225 μm diameter capillary. Relativistically-intense laser pulses (12 TW, 1.3 x 1018W/cm2) were guided over 3.3 centimeters of low density (≃ 3.5 x 1018/cm3) plasma in this experiment. A statistical analysis of the CDG

  8. GPU-accelerated 3D neutron diffusion code based on finite difference method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Q.; Yu, G.; Wang, K. [Dept. of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua Univ. (China)

    2012-07-01

    Finite difference method, as a traditional numerical solution to neutron diffusion equation, although considered simpler and more precise than the coarse mesh nodal methods, has a bottle neck to be widely applied caused by the huge memory and unendurable computation time it requires. In recent years, the concept of General-Purpose computation on GPUs has provided us with a powerful computational engine for scientific research. In this study, a GPU-Accelerated multi-group 3D neutron diffusion code based on finite difference method was developed. First, a clean-sheet neutron diffusion code (3DFD-CPU) was written in C++ on the CPU architecture, and later ported to GPUs under NVIDIA's CUDA platform (3DFD-GPU). The IAEA 3D PWR benchmark problem was calculated in the numerical test, where three different codes, including the original CPU-based sequential code, the HYPRE (High Performance Pre-conditioners)-based diffusion code and CITATION, were used as counterpoints to test the efficiency and accuracy of the GPU-based program. The results demonstrate both high efficiency and adequate accuracy of the GPU implementation for neutron diffusion equation. A speedup factor of about 46 times was obtained, using NVIDIA's Geforce GTX470 GPU card against a 2.50 GHz Intel Quad Q9300 CPU processor. Compared with the HYPRE-based code performing in parallel on an 8-core tower server, the speedup of about 2 still could be observed. More encouragingly, without any mathematical acceleration technology, the GPU implementation ran about 5 times faster than CITATION which was speeded up by using the SOR method and Chebyshev extrapolation technique. (authors)

  9. Active control of an innovative seat suspension system with acceleration measurement based friction estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Donghong; Sun, Shuaishuai; Li, Hongyi; Du, Haiping; Li, Weihua

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, an innovative active seat suspension system for vehicles is presented. This seat suspension prototype is built with two low cost actuators each of which has one rotary motor and one gear reducer. A H∞ controller with friction compensation is designed for the seat suspension control system where the friction is estimated and compensated based on the measurement of seat acceleration. This principal aim of this research was to control the low frequency vibration transferred or amplified by the vehicle (chassis) suspension, and to maintain the passivity of the seat suspension at high frequency (isolation vibration) while taking into consideration the trade-off between the active seat suspension cost and its high frequency performance. Sinusoidal excitations of 1-4.5 Hz were applied to test the active seat suspension both when controlled and when uncontrolled and this is compared with a well-tuned passive heavy duty vehicle seat suspension. The results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm within the tested frequencies. Further tests were conducted using the excitations generated from a quarter-car model under bump and random road profiles. The bump road tests indicate the controlled active seat suspension has good transient response performance. The Power Spectral Density (PSD) method and ISO 2631-1 standards were applied to analyse the seat suspension's acceleration under random road conditions. Although some low magnitude and high frequency noise will inevitably be introduced by the active system, the weighted-frequency Root Mean Square (RMS) acceleration shows that this may not have a large effect on ride comfort. In fact, the ride comfort is improved from being an 'a little uncomfortable' to a 'not uncomfortable' level when compared with the well-tuned passive seat suspension. This low cost active seat suspension design and the proposed controller with the easily measured feedback signals are very practical for real

  10. An FPGA-based quench detection and protection system for superconducting accelerator magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carcagno, R.H.; Feher, S.; Lamm, M.; Makulski, A.; Nehring, R.; Orris, D.F.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Tartaglia, M.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    A new quench detection and protection system for superconducting accelerator magnets was developed for the Fermilab's Magnet Test Facility (MTF). This system is based on a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) module, and it is made of mostly commercially available, integrated hardware and software components. It provides all the functions of our existing VME-based quench detection and protection system, but in addition the new system is easily scalable to protect multiple magnets powered independently and a more powerful user interface and analysis tools. The new system has been used successfully for testing LHC Interaction Region Quadrupoles correctors and High Field Magnet HFDM04. In this paper we describe the system and present results.

  11. Conceptual design of an RFQ accelerator-based neutron source for boron neutron-capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangler, T.P.; Stovall, J.E.; Bhatia, T.S.; Wang, C.K.; Blue, T.E.; Gahbauer, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    We present a conceptual design of a low-energy neutron generator for treatment of brain tumors by boron neutron capture theory (BNCT). The concept is based on a 2.5-MeV proton beam from a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac, and the neutrons are produced by the /sup 7/Li(p,n)/sup 7/Be reaction. A liquid lithium target and modulator assembly are designed to provide a high flux of epithermal neutrons. The patient is administered a tumor-specific /sup 10/Be-enriched compound and is irradiated by the neutrons to create a highly localized dose from the reaction /sup 10/B(n,..cap alpha..)/sup 7/Li. An RFQ accelerator-based neutron source for BNCT is compact, which makes it practical to site the facility within a hospital. 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Beta Beams: an accelerator based facility to explore Neutrino oscillation physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wildner, E; Hansen, C; De Melo Mendonca, T; Stora, T; Payet, J; Chance, A; Zorin, V; Izotov, I; Rasin, S; Sidorov, A; Skalyga, V; De Angelis, G; Prete, G; Cinausero, M; Kravchuk, VL; Gramegna, F; Marchi, T; Collazuol, G; De Rosa, G; Delbar, T; Loiselet, M; Keutgen, T; Mitrofanov, S; Lamy, T; Latrasse, L; Marie-Jeanne, M; Sortais, P; Thuillier, T; Debray, F; Trophime, C; Hass, M; Hirsh, T; Berkovits, D; Stahl, A

    2011-01-01

    The discovery that the neutrino changes flavor as it travels through space has implications for the Standard Model of particle physics (SM)[1]. To know the contribution of neutrinos to the SM, needs precise measurements of the parameters governing the neutrino oscillations. This will require a high intensity beam-based neutrino oscillation facility. The EURONu Design Study will review three currently accepted methods of realizing this facility (the so-called Super-Beams, Beta Beams and Neutrino Factories) and perform a cost assessment that, coupled with the physics performance, will give means to the European research authorities to make a decision on the layout and construction of the future European neutrino oscillation facility. ”Beta Beams” produce collimated pure electron neutrino and antineutrino beams by accelerating beta active ions to high energies and letting them decay in a race-track shaped storage ring. EURONu Beta Beams are based on CERNs infrastructure and the fact that some of the already ...

  13. Accelerated Discovery in Photocatalysis using a Mechanism-Based Screening Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkinson, Matthew N; Gómez-Suárez, Adrián; Teders, Michael; Sahoo, Basudev; Glorius, Frank

    2016-03-18

    Herein, we report a conceptually novel mechanism-based screening approach to accelerate discovery in photocatalysis. In contrast to most screening methods, which consider reactions as discrete entities, this approach instead focuses on a single constituent mechanistic step of a catalytic reaction. Using luminescence spectroscopy to investigate the key quenching step in photocatalytic reactions, an initial screen of 100 compounds led to the discovery of two promising substrate classes. Moreover, a second, more focused screen provided mechanistic insights useful in developing proof-of-concept reactions. Overall, this fast and straightforward approach both facilitated the discovery and aided the development of new light-promoted reactions and suggests that mechanism-based screening strategies could become useful tools in the hunt for new reactivity.

  14. Radiation recall secondary to adjuvant docetaxel after balloon-catheter based accelerated partial breast irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Nathan W. [Summer Intern, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Wong, William W., E-mail: wong.william@mayo.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Arizona, 13400 E. Shea Boulevard, Scottsdale, AZ 85259 (United States); Karlin, Nina J. [Division of Oncology, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Gray, Richard J. [Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)

    2010-08-15

    For early stage breast cancer, wide local excision and post-operative whole breast irradiation is a standard treatment. If adjuvant chemotherapy is recommended, radiation is usually given after completion of chemotherapy. In recent years, accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) with balloon-cathetered based brachytherapy has become an option for selected patients. For these patients, adjuvant chemotherapy would have to be administered after radiation. The sequence of treatment with radiation followed by chemotherapy results in increased risk of radiation recall reaction (RRD) in these patients. Docetaxel is becoming a more commonly used drug as adjuvant treatment for breast cancer. Here we report a case of docetaxel induced RRD after APBI with balloon-cathetered based brachytherapy. Such reaction would have an adverse impact on the cosmetic outcome and quality of life of the patient. For patients who develop an intense skin reaction after the administration of docetaxel following APBI, RRD should be considered in the differential diagnosis.

  15. Service Lifetime Estimation of EPDM Rubber Based on Accelerated Aging Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Li, Xiangbo; Xu, Likun; He, Tao

    2017-02-01

    Service lifetime of ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubber at room temperature (25 °C) was estimated based on accelerated aging tests. The study followed sealing stress loss on compressed cylinder samples by compression stress relaxation methods. The results showed that the cylinder samples of EPDM can quickly reach the physical relaxation equilibrium by using the over-compression method. The non-Arrhenius behavior occurred at the lowest aging temperature. A significant linear relationship was observed between compression set values and normalized stress decay results, and the relationship was not related to the ambient temperature of aging. It was estimated that the sealing stress loss in view of practical application would occur after around 86.8 years at 25 °C. The estimations at 25 °C based on the non-Arrhenius behavior were in agreement with compression set data from storage aging tests in natural environment.

  16. A monolithic relativistic electron beam source based on a dielectric laser accelerator structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeur, Josh; Carranza, Nestor; Travish, Gil; Yin Hairong; Yoder, Rodney [UCLA Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); College of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610054 (China); Manhattanville College, Physics Dept., 2900 Purchase St., Purchase, NY 10577 (United States)

    2012-12-21

    Work towards a monolithic device capable of producing relativistic particle beams within a cubic-centimeter is detailed. We will discuss the Micro-Accelerator Platform (MAP), an optical laser powered dielectric accelerator as the main building block of this chip-scale source along with a field enhanced emitter and a region for sub-relativistic acceleration.

  17. Accelerated gradient methods for total-variation-based CT image reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, Jakob H.; Hansen, Per Christian [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Informatics and Mathematical Modeling; Jensen, Tobias L.; Jensen, Soeren H. [Aalborg Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Electronic Systems; Sidky, Emil Y.; Pan, Xiaochuan [Chicago Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    2011-07-01

    Total-variation (TV)-based CT image reconstruction has shown experimentally to be capable of producing accurate reconstructions from sparse-view data. In particular TV-based reconstruction is well suited for images with piecewise nearly constant regions. Computationally, however, TV-based reconstruction is demanding, especially for 3D imaging, and the reconstruction from clinical data sets is far from being close to real-time. This is undesirable from a clinical perspective, and thus there is an incentive to accelerate the solution of the underlying optimization problem. The TV reconstruction can in principle be found by any optimization method, but in practice the large scale of the systems arising in CT image reconstruction preclude the use of memory-intensive methods such as Newton's method. The simple gradient method has much lower memory requirements, but exhibits prohibitively slow convergence. In the present work we address the question of how to reduce the number of gradient method iterations needed to achieve a high-accuracy TV reconstruction. We consider the use of two accelerated gradient-based methods, GPBB and UPN, to solve the 3D-TV minimization problem in CT image reconstruction. The former incorporates several heuristics from the optimization literature such as Barzilai-Borwein (BB) step size selection and nonmonotone line search. The latter uses a cleverly chosen sequence of auxiliary points to achieve a better convergence rate. The methods are memory efficient and equipped with a stopping criterion to ensure that the TV reconstruction has indeed been found. An implementation of the methods (in C with interface to Matlab) is available for download from http://www2.imm.dtu.dk/~pch/TVReg/. We compare the proposed methods with the standard gradient method, applied to a 3D test problem with synthetic few-view data. We find experimentally that for realistic parameters the proposed methods significantly outperform the standard gradient method. (orig.)

  18. Development and construction of a neutron beam line for accelerator-based boron neutron capture synovectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierga, D P; Yanch, J C; Shefer, R E

    2000-01-01

    A potential application of the 10B(n, alpha)7Li nuclear reaction for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, termed Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS), is under investigation. In an arthritic joint, the synovial lining becomes inflamed and is a source of great pain and discomfort for the afflicted patient. The goal of BNCS is to ablate the synovium, thereby eliminating the symptoms of the arthritis. A BNCS treatment would consist of an intra-articular injection of boron followed by neutron irradiation of the joint. Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations have been used to develop an accelerator-based epithermal neutron beam line for BNCS treatments. The model includes a moderator/reflector assembly, neutron producing target, target cooling system, and arthritic joint phantom. Single and parallel opposed beam irradiations have been modeled for the human knee, human finger, and rabbit knee joints. Additional reflectors, placed to the side and back of the joint, have been added to the model and have been shown to improve treatment times and skin doses by about a factor of 2. Several neutron-producing charged particle reactions have been examined for BNCS, including the 9Be(p,n) reaction at proton energies of 4 and 3.7 MeV, the 9Be(d,n) reaction at deuteron energies of 1.5 and 2.6 MeV, and the 7Li(p,n) reaction at a proton energy of 2.5 MeV. For an accelerator beam current of 1 mA and synovial boron uptake of 1000 ppm, the time to deliver a therapy dose of 10,000 RBEcGy ranges from 3 to 48 min, depending on the treated joint and the neutron producing charged particle reaction. The whole-body effective dose that a human would incur during a knee treatment has been estimated to be 3.6 rem or 0.75 rem, for 1000 ppm or 19,000 ppm synovial boron uptake, respectively, although the shielding configuration has not yet been optimized. The Monte Carlo design process culminated in the construction, installation, and testing of a dedicated BNCS beam line on the high

  19. High Modulus Biodegradable Polyurethanes for Vascular Stents: Evaluation of Accelerated in vitro Degradation and Cell Viability of Degradation Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgarioto, Melissa; Adhikari, Raju; Gunatillake, Pathiraja A; Moore, Tim; Patterson, John; Nagel, Marie-Danielle; Malherbe, François

    2015-01-01

    We have recently reported the mechanical properties and hydrolytic degradation behavior of a series of NovoSorb™ biodegradable polyurethanes (PUs) prepared by varying the hard segment (HS) weight percentage from 60 to 100. In this study, the in vitro degradation behavior of these PUs with and without extracellular matrix (ECM) coating was investigated under accelerated hydrolytic degradation (phosphate buffer saline; PBS/70°C) conditions. The mass loss at different time intervals and the effect of aqueous degradation products on the viability and growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were examined. The results showed that PUs with HS 80% and below completely disintegrated leaving no visual polymer residue at 18 weeks and the degradation medium turned acidic due to the accumulation of products from the soft segment (SS) degradation. As expected the PU with the lowest HS was the fastest to degrade. The accumulated degradation products, when tested undiluted, showed viability of about 40% for HUVEC cells. However, the viability was over 80% when the solution was diluted to 50% and below. The growth of HUVEC cells is similar to but not identical to that observed with tissue culture polystyrene standard (TCPS). The results from this in vitro study suggested that the PUs in the series degraded primarily due to the SS degradation and the cell viability of the accumulated acidic degradation products showed poor viability to HUVEC cells when tested undiluted, however particles released to the degradation medium showed cell viability over 80%.

  20. Nanosecond pulse-width electron diode based on dielectric wall accelerator technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Quantang, E-mail: zhaoquantang@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Z.M.; Yuan, P.; Cao, S.C.; Shen, X.K.; Jing, Y. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yu, C.S. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Z.P.; Liu, M.; Xiao, R.Q. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zong, Y.; Wang, Y.R. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhao, H.W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2013-11-21

    An electron diode using a short section of dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) has been under development at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences. Tests have been carried out with spark gap switches triggered by lasers. The stack voltage efficiency of a four-layer of Blumleins reached about 60–70% with gas filled spark gap switching. The generated pulse voltage of peak amplitude of 23 kV and pulse width of 5 ns is used to extract and accelerate an electron beam of 320 mA, measured by a fast current transformer. A nanosecond pulse width electron diode was achieved successfully. Furthermore, the principle of a DWA is well proven and the development details and discussions are presented in this article. -- Highlights: •The key technology of DWA, including switches and pulse forming lines were studied. •The SiC PCSS obtained from Shanghai Institute were tested. •Two layers ZIP lines (new structure) and four layers Blumlein lines were studied with laser triggered spark gap switches. •A nanosecond pulse-width electron diode based on DWA technologies is achieved and studied experimentally. •The principle of DWA is also proved by the diode.

  1. Characterisation of an accelerator-based neutron source for BNCT versus beam energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosteo, S.; Curzio, G.; d'Errico, F.; Nath, R.; Tinti, R.

    2002-01-01

    Neutron capture in 10B produces energetic alpha particles that have a high linear energy transfer in tissue. This results in higher cell killing and a higher relative biological effectiveness compared to photons. Using suitably designed boron compounds which preferentially localize in cancerous cells instead of healthy tissues, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has the potential of providing a higher tumor cure rate within minimal toxicity to normal tissues. This clinical approach requires a thermal neutron source, generally a nuclear reactor, with a fluence rate sufficient to deliver tumorcidal doses within a reasonable treatment time (minutes). Thermal neutrons do not penetrate deeply in tissue, therefore BNCT is limited to lesions which are either superficial or otherwise accessible. In this work, we investigate the feasibility of an accelerator-based thermal neutron source for the BNCT of skin melanomas. The source was designed via MCNP Monte Carlo simulations of the thermalization of a fast neutron beam, generated by 7 MeV deuterons impinging on a thick target of beryllium. The neutron field was characterized at several deuteron energies (3.0-6.5 MeV) in an experimental structure installed at the Van De Graaff accelerator of the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, in Italy. Thermal and epithermal neutron fluences were measured with activation techniques and fast neutron spectra were determined with superheated drop detectors (SDD). These neutron spectrometry and dosimetry studies indicated that the fast neutron dose is unacceptably high in the current design. Modifications to the current design to overcome this problem are presented.

  2. Designing accelerator-based epithermal neutron beams for boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleuel, D L; Donahue, R J; Ludewigt, B A; Vujic, J

    1998-09-01

    The 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction has been investigated as an accelerator-driven neutron source for proton energies between 2.1 and 2.6 MeV. Epithermal neutron beams shaped by three moderator materials, Al/AlF3, 7LiF, and D2O, have been analyzed and their usefulness for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) treatments evaluated. Radiation transport through the moderator assembly has been simulated with the Monte Carlo N-particle code (MCNP). Fluence and dose distributions in a head phantom were calculated using BNCT treatment planning software. Depth-dose distributions and treatment times were studied as a function of proton beam energy and moderator thickness. It was found that an accelerator-based neutron source with Al/AlF3 or 7LiF as moderator material can produce depth-dose distributions superior to those calculated for a previously published neutron beam design for the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor, achieving up to approximately 50% higher doses near the midline of the brain. For a single beam treatment, a proton beam current of 20 mA, and a 7LiF moderator, the treatment time was estimated to be about 40 min. The tumor dose deposited at a depth of 8 cm was calculated to be about 21 Gy-Eq.

  3. Accelerated solution of non-linear flow problems using Chebyshev iteration polynomial based RK recursions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorber, A.A.; Carey, G.F.; Bova, S.W.; Harle, C.H. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The connection between the solution of linear systems of equations by iterative methods and explicit time stepping techniques is used to accelerate to steady state the solution of ODE systems arising from discretized PDEs which may involve either physical or artificial transient terms. Specifically, a class of Runge-Kutta (RK) time integration schemes with extended stability domains has been used to develop recursion formulas which lead to accelerated iterative performance. The coefficients for the RK schemes are chosen based on the theory of Chebyshev iteration polynomials in conjunction with a local linear stability analysis. We refer to these schemes as Chebyshev Parameterized Runge Kutta (CPRK) methods. CPRK methods of one to four stages are derived as functions of the parameters which describe an ellipse {Epsilon} which the stability domain of the methods is known to contain. Of particular interest are two-stage, first-order CPRK and four-stage, first-order methods. It is found that the former method can be identified with any two-stage RK method through the correct choice of parameters. The latter method is found to have a wide range of stability domains, with a maximum extension of 32 along the real axis. Recursion performance results are presented below for a model linear convection-diffusion problem as well as non-linear fluid flow problems discretized by both finite-difference and finite-element methods.

  4. Empirical Validation of Objective Functions in Feature Selection Based on Acceleration Motion Segmentation Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Gwan Lim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent change in evaluation criteria from accuracy alone to trade-off with time delay has inspired multivariate energy-based approaches in motion segmentation using acceleration. The essence of multivariate approaches lies in the construction of highly dimensional energy and requires feature subset selection in machine learning. Due to fast process, filter methods are preferred; however, their poorer estimate is of the main concerns. This paper aims at empirical validation of three objective functions for filter approaches, Fisher discriminant ratio, multiple correlation (MC, and mutual information (MI, through two subsequent experiments. With respect to 63 possible subsets out of 6 variables for acceleration motion segmentation, three functions in addition to a theoretical measure are compared with two wrappers, k-nearest neighbor and Bayes classifiers in general statistics and strongly relevant variable identification by social network analysis. Then four kinds of new proposed multivariate energy are compared with a conventional univariate approach in terms of accuracy and time delay. Finally it appears that MC and MI are acceptable enough to match the estimate of two wrappers, and multivariate approaches are justified with our analytic procedures.

  5. Beam transient analyses of Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactors based on neutron transport method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Mingtao; Wu, Hongchun [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Zheng, Youqi, E-mail: yqzheng@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Wang, Kunpeng [Nuclear and Radiation Safety Center, PO Box 8088, Beijing 100082 (China); Li, Xunzhao; Zhou, Shengcheng [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, Shaanxi (China)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • A transport-based kinetics code for Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactors is developed. • The performance of different kinetics methods adapted to the ADSR is investigated. • The impacts of neutronic parameters deteriorating with fuel depletion are investigated. - Abstract: The Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactor (ADSR) is almost external source dominated since there is no additional reactivity control mechanism in most designs. This paper focuses on beam-induced transients with an in-house developed dynamic analysis code. The performance of different kinetics methods adapted to the ADSR is investigated, including the point kinetics approximation and space–time kinetics methods. Then, the transient responds of beam trip and beam overpower are calculated and analyzed for an ADSR design dedicated for minor actinides transmutation. The impacts of some safety-related neutronics parameters deteriorating with fuel depletion are also investigated. The results show that the power distribution varying with burnup leads to large differences in temperature responds during transients, while the impacts of kinetic parameters and feedback coefficients are not very obvious. Classification: Core physic.

  6. Dynamic Model for the Z Accelerator Vacuum Section Based on Transmission Line Code%Dynamic Model for the Z Accelerator Vacuum Section Based on Transmission Line Code

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    呼义翔; 雷天时; 吴撼宇; 郭宁; 韩娟娟; 邱爱慈; 王亮平; 黄涛; 丛培天; 张信军; 李岩; 曾正中; 孙铁平

    2011-01-01

    The transmission-line-circuit model of the Z accelerator, developed originally by W. A. STYGAR, P. A. CORCORAN, et al., is revised. The revised model uses different calculations for the electron loss and flow impedance in the magnetically insulated transmission line system of the Z accelerator before and after magnetic insulation is established. By including electron pressure and zero electric field at the cathode, a closed set of equations is obtained at each time step, and dynamic shunt resistance (used to represent any electron loss to the anode) and flow impedance are solved, which have been incorporated into the transmission line code for simulations of the vacuum section in the Z accelerator. Finally, the results are discussed in comparison with earlier findings to show the effectiveness and limitations of the model.

  7. The IMPELA TM 10 MeV, 50 kW electron linac: launching an industrial accelerator product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, Andrew J.

    1991-05-01

    In the previous conferences there has been no shortage of ideas, experiments and prototypes for industrial accelerators. Indeed, physicists propose new ideas at a rate faster than industry can get irradiators to the market. Certainly, the basic physics design must be sound, but this is a far from sufficient condition for an accelerator to succeed. Good physics design is needed to provide a good combination of electrical efficiency and useable power within the scan width. It may, however, be counterproductive if high performance compromises inherent reliability. From the engineering discipline is required an engineered control interface, an engineered product control and dosimetry system and traceable quality assurance. Just as important, the industrial client seeks an irradiator that is built quickly, and will be supported over a long service life (10-20 years). It is also necessary to assist the client in facility design, licencing and process verification. Providing these additional functions is a challenge for the business champions which equals what the technical champions face in obtaining full beam power.

  8. Product Information Platform Based on STEP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Taiyong; ZHANG Zhiwei

    2009-01-01

    The intemational standard ISO 10303.called STEP.has been used to deal with problems in the ex change of product models and the associated data between difierent computer-aided systems.A platform based on STEP for managing product information is presented.This platform includes three components:a product geometry information model,a product feature model and a product visualization model.An information extracting pattern,in which information is extracted from low level elements to high level ones,is adopted in establishing the product geometry information model.Relative elements lists are created based on the extracted product information.With the traversing of these lists,feature extraction methods are proposed,which take advantage of boundary information in product model and avoid the determination of concavity and convexity of curves.Information correlating to features iS stored in a structure named as feature block and the product visualization model iS founded from it.The feature block is used in the platform for information communication and synchronous update among the three components.

  9. Can European sustainability and innovation policies accelerate the uptake of product-service systems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, A.R.; Diaz Lopez, F.J.; Mudgal, S.; Tukker, A.

    2013-01-01

    This review paper presents preliminary results from on-going research on PSS policies in Europe. Despite the apparent potential of product-service systems (PSS) as more profitable, resource efficient and socially responsible, there has seemingly been limited uptake of this type of business model. A

  10. Developing product families based on architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harlou, Ulf

    2006-01-01

    The subject of this PhD thesis is development of product families based on architectures. Companies are introducing more and more product variants to fulfil the market demands. These new variants add complexity to many of the processes and systems in the companies. Reuse of standard designs (i.......e. design entities) and re-use of the way new products are developed can simplify the processes and systems. Case studies show that reuse can lead to reduction of cost and time-to-market of new products. One of the means for managing reuse of standard designs within product families are architectures...... of domains. The vocabulary distinguishes between design entities, which are reused (standard designs) and those that are not reused (design units). Also, this research distinguishes between architecture and platform. An architecture is the building principle for product families. A platform is the physical...

  11. Accelerated susceptibility-based positive contrast imaging of MR compatible metallic devices based on modified fast spin echo sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Caiyun; Xie, Guoxi; Zhang, Yongqin; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Chen, Min; Su, Shi; Dong, Ying; Liu, Xin; Ji, Jim

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to develop an accelerated susceptibility-based positive contrast MR imaging method for visualizing MR compatible metallic devices. A modified fast spin echo sequence is used to accelerate data acquisition. Each readout gradient in the modified fast spin echo is slightly shifted by a short distance T shift. Phase changes accumulated within T shift are then used to calculate the susceptibility map by using a kernel deconvolution algorithm with a regularized ℓ1 minimization. To evaluate the proposed fast spin echo method, three phantom experiments were conducted and compared to a spin echo based technique and the gold standard CT for visualizing biopsy needles and brachytherapy seeds. Compared to the spin echo based technique, the data sampling speed of the proposed method was faster by 2–4 times while still being able to accurately visualize and identify the location of the biopsy needle and brachytherapy seeds. These results were confirmed by CT images of the same devices. Results also demonstrated that the proposed fast spin echo method can achieve good visualization of the brachytherapy seeds in positive contrast and in different orientations. It is also capable of correctly differentiating brachytherapy seeds from other similar structures on conventional magnitude images.

  12. Bi-directional Linkability From Wikipedia to Documents and Back Again: UMass at TREC 2012 Knowledge Base Acceleration Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    cutoff (ETR) document set. The PRF query model uses The parameter settings: λT = 0.3, λNV = 0.3, λCW = 0.2, λNER = 0.2. The highest scor - ing 2000...Base Acceleration Track. UMass’ objective is to in- troduce a single model for Knowledge Base Entity Link- ing and Knowledge Base Acceleration stream...from mentions of entities in docu- ments to their KB entries. The entity to document di- rection, is modeled as a retrieval task where the goal is to

  13. RF Surface Impedance Characterization of Potential New Materials for SRF-based Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Binping [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States) and College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Eremeev, Grigory V. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Reece, Charles E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Phillips, H. Lawrence [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Kelley, Michael J. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    In the development of new superconducting materials for possible use in SRF-based accelerators, it is useful to work with small candidate samples rather than complete resonant cavities. The recently commissioned Jefferson Lab RF Surface Impedance Characterization (SIC) system can presently characterize the central region of 50 mm diameter disk samples of various materials from 2 to 40 K exposed to RF magnetic fields up to 14 mT at 7.4 GHz. We report the recent measurement results of bulk Nb, thin film Nb on Cu and sapphire substrates, Nb{sub 3}Sn sample, and thin film MgB{sub 2} on sapphire substrate provided by colleagues at JLab and Temple University.

  14. Characterisation of an accelerator-based neutron source for BNCT versus beam energy

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, S; D'Errico, F; Nath, R; Tinti, R

    2002-01-01

    Neutron capture in sup 1 sup 0 B produces energetic alpha particles that have a high linear energy transfer in tissue. This results in higher cell killing and a higher relative biological effectiveness compared to photons. Using suitably designed boron compounds which preferentially localize in cancerous cells instead of healthy tissues, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has the potential of providing a higher tumor cure rate within minimal toxicity to normal tissues. This clinical approach requires a thermal neutron source, generally a nuclear reactor, with a fluence rate sufficient to deliver tumorcidal doses within a reasonable treatment time (minutes). Thermal neutrons do not penetrate deeply in tissue, therefore BNCT is limited to lesions which are either superficial or otherwise accessible. In this work, we investigate the feasibility of an accelerator-based thermal neutron source for the BNCT of skin melanomas. The source was designed via MCNP Monte Carlo simulations of the thermalization of a fast ...

  15. Design for an accelerator-based orthogonal epithermal neutron beam for boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D A; Beynon, T D; Green, S

    1999-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the proposed Birmingham accelerator-based epithermal neutron beam for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). In particular, the option of producing a therapy beam at an orthogonal direction to the incoming protons is considered. Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations, both with and without a head phantom, have shown that an orthogonal beam geometry is not only acceptable but is indeed beneficial, in terms of a lower mean neutron energy and an enhanced therapeutic ratio for the same useful neutron fluence in the therapy beam. Typical treatment times for various beam options have been calculated, and range from 20 to 48 min with a 5 mA beam of 2.8 MeV protons, if the maximum photon-equivalent dose delivered to healthy tissue is to be 12.6 Gy Eq. The effects of proton beam diameter upon the therapy beam parameters have also been considered.

  16. GPU technology as a platform for accelerating physiological systems modeling based on Laguerre-Volterra networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Agathoklis; Kostoglou, Kyriaki; Mitsis, Georgios D; Theocharides, Theocharis

    2015-01-01

    The use of a GPGPU programming paradigm (running CUDA-enabled algorithms on GPU cards) in biomedical engineering and biology-related applications have shown promising results. GPU acceleration can be used to speedup computation-intensive models, such as the mathematical modeling of biological systems, which often requires the use of nonlinear modeling approaches with a large number of free parameters. In this context, we developed a CUDA-enabled version of a model which implements a nonlinear identification approach that combines basis expansions and polynomial-type networks, termed Laguerre-Volterra networks and can be used in diverse biological applications. The proposed software implementation uses the GPGPU programming paradigm to take advantage of the inherent parallel characteristics of the aforementioned modeling approach to execute the calculations on the GPU card of the host computer system. The initial results of the GPU-based model presented in this work, show performance improvements over the original MATLAB model.

  17. An approach towards bronchoscopic-based gene therapy using electrical field accelerated plasmid droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hradetzky, D; Boehringer, S; Geiser, Th; Gazdhar, A

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating disease affecting the distal lung, due to failure of the alveolar epithelium to heal after micro-injuries, leading to inefficient gas exchange and resulting in death. Therapeutic options are very limited. A new therapeutic approach based on gene therapy restores the self-healing process within the lung in the experimental setup. A basic requirement of this therapy is the successful transduction of genes into the alveolar epithelium in the distal part of the lung, for which a new therapeutic instrument is required. In this paper we present the concept and first experimental results of a device which uses an electrical field to accelerate the charged droplets of plasmid suspension toward the tissue and which overcomes cell membrane with its impact energy. The aim is to develop a therapeutic device capable of being integrated into minimally invasive procedures such as bronchoscopy.

  18. Wet Lab Accelerator: A Web-Based Application Democratizing Laboratory Automation for Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Maxwell; Berliner, Aaron J; Lachoff, Joe; Jaschke, Paul R; Groban, Eli S

    2017-01-20

    Wet Lab Accelerator (WLA) is a cloud-based tool that allows a scientist to conduct biology via robotic control without the need for any programming knowledge. A drag and drop interface provides a convenient and user-friendly method of generating biological protocols. Graphically developed protocols are turned into programmatic instruction lists required to conduct experiments at the cloud laboratory Transcriptic. Prior to the development of WLA, biologists were required to write in a programming language called "Autoprotocol" in order to work with Transcriptic. WLA relies on a new abstraction layer we call "Omniprotocol" to convert the graphical experimental description into lower level Autoprotocol language, which then directs robots at Transcriptic. While WLA has only been tested at Transcriptic, the conversion of graphically laid out experimental steps into Autoprotocol is generic, allowing extension of WLA into other cloud laboratories in the future. WLA hopes to democratize biology by bringing automation to general biologists.

  19. GPU-based acceleration of free energy calculations in solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Januszewski, Michał; Crivelli, Dawid; Gardas, Bartłomiej

    2014-01-01

    Obtaining a thermodynamically accurate phase diagram through numerical calculations is a computationally expensive problem that is crucially important to understanding the complex phenomena of solid state physics, such as superconductivity. In this work we show how this type of analysis can be significantly accelerated through the use of modern GPUs. We illustrate this with a concrete example of free energy calculation in multi-band iron-based superconductors, known to exhibit a superconducting state with oscillating order parameter. Our approach can also be used for classical BCS-type superconductors. With a customized algorithm and compiler tuning we are able to achieve a 19x speedup compared to the CPU (119x compared to a single CPU core), reducing calculation time from minutes to mere seconds, enabling the analysis of larger systems and the elimination of finite size effects.

  20. Position and Velocity Estimation for Two-Inertia System with Nonlinear Stiffness Based on Acceleration Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Tae Nam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the state estimation problem for flexible joint manipulators that involve nonlinear characteristics in their stiffness. The two key ideas of our design are that (a an accelerometer is used in order that the estimation error dynamics do not depend on nonlinearities at the link part of the manipulators and (b the model of the nonlinear stiffness is indeed a Lipschitz function. Based on the measured acceleration, we propose a nonlinear observer under the Lipschitz condition of the nonlinear stiffness. In addition, in order to effectively compensate for the estimation error, the gain of the proposed observer is chosen from the ARE (algebraic Riccati equations which depend on the Lipschitz constant. Comparative experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Robust Foot Clearance Estimation Based on the Integration of Foot-Mounted IMU Acceleration Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad Benoussaad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a method for the robust estimation of foot clearance during walking, using a single inertial measurement unit (IMU placed on the subject’s foot. The proposed solution is based on double integration and drift cancellation of foot acceleration signals. The method is insensitive to misalignment of IMU axes with respect to foot axes. Details are provided regarding calibration and signal processing procedures. Experimental validation was performed on 10 healthy subjects under three walking conditions: normal, fast and with obstacles. Foot clearance estimation results were compared to measurements from an optical motion capture system. The mean error between them is significantly less than 15 % under the various walking conditions.

  2. Prediction of Concrete Strength Using Microwave Based Accelerated Curing Parameters by Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ramasundaram

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of compressive strength of concrete is very useful for economic constructions. The compressive strength can be estimated after 28 days of casting the specimen cubes or may be predictedbased on the quantum and quality of ingredients used in making the concrete. When the first one requires a 28-day time, the second one does have problem of accuracy. Hence, a hybrid model is proposed in which the concrete cube is cured using the microwave based accelerated curing procedure and the early strength is used to predict the 28-day strength. Feed-forward neural network model was used to predict compressive strength of the concrete after the microwave curing to ascertain the predictability of neural network models. The results indicate that the neural network models have a good scope for further study and implementations.

  3. Accelerated gradient methods for total-variation-based CT image reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jakob Heide; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Hansen, Per Christian

    2011-01-01

    -based reconstruction is much more demanding, especially for 3D imaging, and the reconstruction from clinical data sets is far from being close to real-time. This is undesirable from a clinical perspective, and thus there is an incentive to accelerate the solution of the underlying optimization problem. The TV...... criterion to ensure that the TV reconstruction has indeed been found. An implementation of the methods (in C with interface to Matlab) is available for download from http://www2.imm.dtu.dk/pch/TVReg/. We compare the proposed methods with the standard gradient method, applied to a 3D test problem...... with synthetic few-view data. We find experimentally that for realistic parameters the proposed methods significantly outperform the gradient method....

  4. 350 keV accelerator based PGNAA setup to detect nitrogen in bulk samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A., E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.sa [Department of Physics and King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Al-Matouq, Faris A.; Khiari, F.Z.; Gondal, M.A.; Rehman, Khateeb-ur [Department of Physics and King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Isab, A.A. [Department of Chemistry, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Raashid, M.; Dastageer, M.A. [Department of Physics and King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-11-21

    Nitrogen concentration was measured in explosive and narcotics proxy material, e.g. anthranilic acid, caffeine, melamine, and urea samples, bulk samples through thermal neutron capture reaction using 350 keV accelerator based prompt gamma ray neutron activation (PGNAA) setup. Intensity of 2.52, 3.53–3.68, 4.51, 5.27–5.30 and 10.38 MeV prompt gamma rays of nitrogen from the bulk samples was measured using a cylindrical 100 mm×100 mm (diameter×height ) BGO detector. Inspite of interference of nitrogen gamma rays from bulk samples with capture prompt gamma rays from BGO detector material, an excellent agreement between the experimental and calculated yields of nitrogen gamma rays has been obtained. This is an indication of the excellent performance of the PGNAA setup for detection of nitrogen in bulk samples.

  5. 350 keV accelerator based PGNAA setup to detect nitrogen in bulk samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, A. A.; Al-Matouq, Faris A.; Khiari, F. Z.; Gondal, M. A.; Rehman, Khateeb-ur; Isab, A. A.; Raashid, M.; Dastageer, M. A.

    2013-11-01

    Nitrogen concentration was measured in explosive and narcotics proxy material, e.g. anthranilic acid, caffeine, melamine, and urea samples, bulk samples through thermal neutron capture reaction using 350 keV accelerator based prompt gamma ray neutron activation (PGNAA) setup. Intensity of 2.52, 3.53-3.68, 4.51, 5.27-5.30 and 10.38 MeV prompt gamma rays of nitrogen from the bulk samples was measured using a cylindrical 100 mm×100 mm (diameter×height ) BGO detector. Inspite of interference of nitrogen gamma rays from bulk samples with capture prompt gamma rays from BGO detector material, an excellent agreement between the experimental and calculated yields of nitrogen gamma rays has been obtained. This is an indication of the excellent performance of the PGNAA setup for detection of nitrogen in bulk samples.

  6. APT accelerator. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, G.; Rusthoi, D. [comp.] [ed.

    1995-03-01

    The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project, sponsored by Department of Energy Defense Programs (DOE/DP), involves the preconceptual design of an accelerator system to produce tritium for the nation`s stockpile of nuclear weapons. Tritium is an isotope of hydrogen used in nuclear weapons, and must be replenished because of radioactive decay (its half-life is approximately 12 years). Because the annual production requirements for tritium has greatly decreased since the end of the Cold War, an alternative approach to reactors for tritium production, based on a linear accelerator, is now being seriously considered. The annual tritium requirement at the time this study was undertaken (1992-1993) was 3/8 that of the 1988 goal, usually stated as 3/8-Goal. Continued reduction in the number of weapons in the stockpile has led to a revised (lower) production requirement today (March, 1995). The production requirement needed to maintain the reduced stockpile, as stated in the recent Nuclear Posture Review (summer 1994) is approximately 3/16-Goal, half the previous level. The Nuclear Posture Review also requires that the production plant be designed to accomodate a production increase (surge) to 3/8-Goal capability within five years, to allow recovery from a possible extended outage of the tritium plant. A multi-laboratory team, collaborating with several industrial partners, has developed a preconceptual APT design for the 3/8-Goal, operating at 75% capacity. The team has presented APT as a promising alternative to the reactor concepts proposed for Complex-21. Given the requirements of a reduced weapons stockpile, APT offers both significant safety, environmental, and production-fexibility advantages in comparison with reactor systems, and the prospect of successful development in time to meet the US defense requirements of the 21st Century.

  7. Issues for Simulation of Galactic Cosmic Ray Exposures for Radiobiological Research at Ground Based Accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Hee Y Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available For research on the health risks of galactic cosmic rays (GCR ground-based accelerators have been used for radiobiology research with mono-energetic beams of single high charge, Z and energy, E (HZE particles. In this paper we consider the pros and cons of a GCR reference field at a particle accelerator. At the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL we have proposed a GCR simulator, which implements a new rapid switching mode and higher energy beam extraction to 1.5 GeV/u, in order to integrate multiple ions into a single simulation within hours or longer for chronic exposures. After considering the GCR environment and energy limitations of NSRL, we performed extensive simulation studies using the stochastic transport code, GERMcode (GCR Event Risk Model to define a GCR reference field using 9 HZE particle beam-energy combinations each with a unique absorber thickness to provide fragmentation and 10 or more energies of proton and 4He beams. The reference field is shown to well represent the charge dependence of GCR dose in several energy bins behind shielding compared to a simulated GCR environment. However a more significant challenge for space radiobiology research is to consider chronic GCR exposure of up to 3 years in relation to simulations with animal models of human risks. We discuss issues in approaches to map important biological time scales in experimental models using ground-based simulation with extended exposure of up to a few weeks using chronic or fractionation exposures. A kinetics model of HZE particle hit probabilities suggests that experimental simulations of several weeks will be needed to avoid high fluence rate artifacts, which places limitations on the experiments to be performed. Ultimately risk estimates are limited by theoretical understanding, and focus on improving understanding of mechanisms and development of experimental models to improve this understanding should remain the highest priority for space radiobiology

  8. NDSI products system based on Hadoop platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Jiang, He; Yang, Xiaoxia; Geng, Erhui

    2015-12-01

    Snow is solid state of water resources on earth, and plays an important role in human life. Satellite remote sensing is significant in snow extraction with the advantages of cyclical, macro, comprehensiveness, objectivity, timeliness. With the continuous development of remote sensing technology, remote sensing data access to the trend of multiple platforms, multiple sensors and multiple perspectives. At the same time, in view of the remote sensing data of compute-intensive applications demand increase gradually. However, current the producing system of remote sensing products is in a serial mode, and this kind of production system is used for professional remote sensing researchers mostly, and production systems achieving automatic or semi-automatic production are relatively less. Facing massive remote sensing data, the traditional serial mode producing system with its low efficiency has been difficult to meet the requirements of mass data timely and efficient processing. In order to effectively improve the production efficiency of NDSI products, meet the demand of large-scale remote sensing data processed timely and efficiently, this paper build NDSI products production system based on Hadoop platform, and the system mainly includes the remote sensing image management module, NDSI production module, and system service module. Main research contents and results including: (1)The remote sensing image management module: includes image import and image metadata management two parts. Import mass basis IRS images and NDSI product images (the system performing the production task output) into HDFS file system; At the same time, read the corresponding orbit ranks number, maximum/minimum longitude and latitude, product date, HDFS storage path, Hadoop task ID (NDSI products), and other metadata information, and then create thumbnails, and unique ID number for each record distribution, import it into base/product image metadata database. (2)NDSI production module: includes

  9. Comparison between CARIBIC aerosol samples analysed by accelerator-based methods and optical particle counter measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. G. Martinsson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Inter-comparison of results from two kinds of aerosol systems in the CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container passenger aircraft based observatory, operating during intercontinental flights at 9–12 km altitude, is presented. Aerosol from the lowermost stratosphere (LMS, the extra-tropical upper troposphere (UT and the tropical mid troposphere (MT were investigated. Aerosol particle volume concentration measured with an optical particle counter (OPC is compared with analytical results of the sum of masses of all major and several minor constituents from aerosol samples collected with an impactor. Analyses were undertaken with accelerator-based methods particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE and particle elastic scattering analysis (PESA. Data from 48 flights during one year are used, leading to a total of 106 individual comparisons. The ratios of the particle volume from the OPC and the total mass from the analyses were in 84% within a relatively narrow interval. Data points outside this interval are connected with inlet-related effects in clouds, large variability in aerosol composition, particle size distribution effects and some cases of non-ideal sampling. Overall, the comparison of these two CARIBIC measurements based on vastly different methods show good agreement, implying that the chemical and size information can be combined in studies of the MT/UT/LMS aerosol.

  10. A generalized accelerated proximal gradient approach for total-variation-based image restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Wangmeng; Lin, Zhouchen

    2011-10-01

    This paper proposes a generalized accelerated proximal gradient (GAPG) approach for solving total variation (TV)-based image restoration problems. The GAPG algorithm generalizes the original APG algorithm by replacing the Lipschitz constant with an appropriate positive-definite matrix, resulting in faster convergence. For TV-based image restoration problems, we further introduce two auxiliary variables that approximate the partial derivatives. Constraints on the variables can easily be imposed without modifying the algorithm much, and the TV regularization can be either isotropic or anisotropic. As compared with the recently developed APG-based methods for TV-based image restoration, i.e., monotone version of the two-step iterative shrinkage/thresholding algorithm (MTwIST) and monotone version of the fast IST algorithm (MFISTA), our GAPG is much simpler as it does not require to solve an image denoising subproblem. Moreover, the convergence rate of O(k(-2)) is maintained by our GAPG, where k is the number of iterations; the cost of each iteration in GAPG is also lower. As a result, in our experiments, our GAPG approach can be much faster than MTwIST and MFISTA. The experiments also verify that our GAPG converges faster than the original APG and MTwIST when they solve identical problems.

  11. Physics-Based Fragment Acceleration Modeling for Pressurized Tank Burst Risk Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Ted A.; Lawrence, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    As part of comprehensive efforts to develop physics-based risk assessment techniques for space systems at NASA, coupled computational fluid and rigid body dynamic simulations were carried out to investigate the flow mechanisms that accelerate tank fragments in bursting pressurized vessels. Simulations of several configurations were compared to analyses based on the industry-standard Baker explosion model, and were used to formulate an improved version of the model. The standard model, which neglects an external fluid, was found to agree best with simulation results only in configurations where the internal-to-external pressure ratio is very high and fragment curvature is small. The improved model introduces terms that accommodate an external fluid and better account for variations based on circumferential fragment count. Physics-based analysis was critical in increasing the model's range of applicability. The improved tank burst model can be used to produce more accurate risk assessments of space vehicle failure modes that involve high-speed debris, such as exploding propellant tanks and bursting rocket engines.

  12. Modelling third harmonic ion cyclotron acceleration of deuterium beams for JET fusion product studies experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, M.; Johnson, T.; Dumont, R.

    2016-01-01

    Recent JET experiments have been dedicated to the studies of fusion reactions between deuterium (D) and Helium-3 (3He) ions using neutral beam injection (NBI) in synergy with third harmonic ion cyclotron radio-frequency heating (ICRH) of the beam. This scenario generates a fast ion deuterium tail...... enhancing DD and D3He fusion reactions. Modelling and measuring the fast deuterium tail accurately is essential for quantifying the fusion products. This paper presents the modelling of the D distribution function resulting from the NBI+ICRF heating scheme, reinforced by a comparison with dedicated JET fast...

  13. Determination of Shelf Life for Butter and Cheese Products in Actual and Accelerated Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jung-Min; Shin, Jin-Ho; Bak, Da-Jeong; Kim, Na-Kyeong; Lim, Kwang-Sei; Yang, Cheul-Young; Kim, Jin-Man

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the shelf life of butter and cheese products, with shelf life being a guide used to determine the storage period of food before deterioration. Butter and cheese samples stored at 10℃ and 15℃ had a shelf life of 221 d, while those stored at 25℃ and 35℃ had a shelf life of 109 d. Quality changes, including total cell count, coliform counts, Listeria monocytogenes counts, acid value, moisture content, pH, acidity and overall sensory evaluation, were monitore...

  14. Nanoscale-alumina induces oxidative stress and accelerates amyloid beta (Aβ) production in ICR female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shahid Ali; Yoon, Gwang Ho; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ullah, Faheem; Ul Amin, Faiz; Kim, Myeong Ok

    2015-10-01

    The adverse effects of nanoscale-alumina (Al2O3-NPs) have been previously demonstrated in both in vitro and in vivo studies, whereas little is known about their mechanism of neurotoxicity. It is the goal of this research to determine the toxic effects of nano-alumina on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y and mouse hippocampal HT22 cells in vitro and on ICR female mice in vivo. Nano-alumina displayed toxic effects on SH-SY5Y cell lines in three different concentrations also increased aluminium abundance and induced oxidative stress in HT22 cells. Nano-alumina peripherally administered to ICR female mice for three weeks increased brain aluminium and ROS production, disturbing brain energy homeostasis, and led to the impairment of hippocampus-dependent memory. Most importantly, these nano-particles induced Alzheimer disease (AD) neuropathology by enhancing the amyloidogenic pathway of Amyloid Beta (Aβ) production, aggregation and implied the progression of neurodegeneration in the cortex and hippocampus of these mice. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that nano-alumina is toxic to both cells and female mice and that prolonged exposure may heighten the chances of developing a neurodegenerative disease, such as AD.

  15. A new type of accelerator power supply based on voltage-type space vector PWM rectification technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Fengjun, E-mail: wufengjun@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Gao, Daqing; Shi, Chunfeng; Huang, Yuzhen [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Cui, Yuan [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yan, Hongbin [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, Huajian [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Bin [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Xiaohui [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-08-01

    To solve the problems such as low input power factor, a large number of AC current harmonics and instable DC bus voltage due to the diode or thyristor rectifier used in an accelerator power supply, particularly in the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou-Cooler Storage Ring (HIRFL-CSR), we designed and built up a new type of accelerator power supply prototype base on voltage-type space vector PWM (SVPWM) rectification technology. All the control strategies are developed in TMS320C28346, which is a digital signal processor from TI. The experimental results indicate that an accelerator power supply with a SVPWM rectifier can solve the problems above well, and the output performance such as stability, tracking error and ripple current meet the requirements of the design. The achievement of prototype confirms that applying voltage-type SVPWM rectification technology in an accelerator power supply is feasible; and it provides a good reference for design and build of this new type of power supply. - Highlights: • Applying SVPWM rectification technology in an accelerator power supply improves its grid-side performance. • New Topology and its control strategies make an accelerator power supply have bidirectional power flow ability. • Hardware and software of controller provide a good reference for design of this new type of power supply.

  16. Prospect for application of compact accelerator-based neutron source to neutron engineering diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Yoshimasa; Taketani, Atsushi; Takamura, Masato; Sunaga, Hideyuki; Kumagai, Masayoshi; Oba, Yojiro; Otake, Yoshie; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    A compact accelerator-based neutron source has been lately discussed on engineering applications such as transmission imaging and small angle scattering as well as reflectometry. However, nobody considers using it for neutron diffraction experiment because of its low neutron flux. In this study, therefore, the neutron diffraction experiments are carried out using Riken Accelerator-driven Compact Neutron Source (RANS), to clarify the capability of the compact neutron source for neutron engineering diffraction. The diffraction pattern from a ferritic steel was successfully measured by suitable arrangement of the optical system to reduce the background noise, and it was confirmed that the recognizable diffraction pattern can be measured by a large sampling volume with 10 mm in cubic for an acceptable measurement time, i.e. 10 min. The minimum resolution of the 110 reflection for RANS is approximately 2.5% at 8 μs of the proton pulse width, which is insufficient to perform the strain measurement by neutron diffraction. The moderation time width at the wavelength corresponding to the 110 reflection is estimated to be approximately 30 μs, which is the most dominant factor to determine the resolution. Therefore, refinements of the moderator system to decrease the moderation time by decreasing a thickness of the moderator or by applying the decoupler system or application of the angular dispersive neutron diffraction technique are important to improve the resolution of the diffraction experiment using the compact neutron source. In contrast, the texture evolution due to plastic deformation was successfully observed by measuring a change in the diffraction peak intensity by RANS. Furthermore, the volume fraction of the austenitic phase in the dual phase mock specimen was also successfully evaluated by fitting the diffraction pattern using a Rietveld code. Consequently, RANS has been proved to be capable for neutron engineering diffraction aiming for the easy access

  17. Dynamic inversion method based on the time-staggered stereo-modeling scheme and its acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Hao; Yang, Dinghui; Wu, Hao

    2016-12-01

    A set of second-order differential equations describing the space-time behaviour of derivatives of displacement with respect to model parameters (i.e. waveform sensitivities) is obtained via taking the derivative of the original wave equations. The dynamic inversion method obtains sensitivities of the seismic displacement field with respect to earth properties directly by solving differential equations for them instead of constructing sensitivities from the displacement field itself. In this study, we have taken a new perspective on the dynamic inversion method and used acceleration approaches to reduce the computational time and memory usage to improve its ability of performing high-resolution imaging. The dynamic inversion method, which can simultaneously use different waves and multicomponent observation data, is appropriate for directly inverting elastic parameters, medium density or wave velocities. Full wavefield information is utilized as much as possible at the expense of a larger amount of calculations. To mitigate the computational burden, two ways are proposed to accelerate the method from a computer-implementation point of view. One is source encoding which uses a linear combination of all shots, and the other is to reduce the amount of calculations on forward modeling. We applied a new finite-difference (FD) method to the dynamic inversion to improve the computational accuracy and speed up the performance. Numerical experiments indicated that the new FD method can effectively suppress the numerical dispersion caused by the discretization of wave equations, resulting in enhanced computational efficiency with less memory cost for seismic modeling and inversion based on the full wave equations. We present some inversion results to demonstrate the validity of this method through both checkerboard and Marmousi models. It shows that this method is also convergent even with big deviations for the initial model. Besides, parallel calculations can be easily

  18. Vol.27 - MicroTCA based Platform for advanced particle accelerators diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Juszczyk, Bartłomiej

    2014-01-01

    All over the world there are many research centers that are conducting researches with use of particle accelerators. Thanks to various experiments we could better understand surrounding world. But, there are still a lot of unknowns to explore which science needs better instruments. One of these tools are measurement systems. Unfortunately currently used solutions do not provide sufficient performance to satisfy growing needs. This implies the search for new solutions. One of such solution is a modern uTCA architecture. In this document an open source project of a base card (AFC -AMC to FMC carrier board) based on this standard has been described. This card is equipped with two FMC connectors, which allow to connect wide variety of extension cards. In combination with a powerful FPGA device this card is an universal base circuit for variety of projects. Among the others it allows to implement algorithms which are collecting data from fast ADCs and to process these data. Moreover the applied uTCA architecture p...

  19. Accelerating the Next Generation Long Read Mapping with the FPGA-Based System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Wang, Chao; Li, Xi; Zhou, Xuehai

    2014-01-01

    To compare the newly determined sequences against the subject sequences stored in the databases is a critical job in the bioinformatics. Fortunately, recent survey reports that the state-of-the-art aligners are already fast enough to handle the ultra amount of short sequence reads in the reasonable time. However, for aligning the long sequence reads (>400 bp) generated by the next generation sequencing (NGS) technology, it is still quite inefficient with present aligners. Furthermore, the challenge becomes more and more serious as the lengths and the amounts of the sequence reads are both keeping increasing with the improvement of the sequencing technology. Thus, it is extremely urgent for the researchers to enhance the performance of the long read alignment. In this paper, we propose a novel FPGA-based system to improve the efficiency of the long read mapping. Compared to the state-of-the-art long read aligner BWA-SW, our accelerating platform could achieve a high performance with almost the same sensitivity. Experiments demonstrate that, for reads with lengths ranging from 512 up to 4,096 base pairs, the described system obtains a 10x -48x speedup for the bottleneck of the software. As to the whole mapping procedure, the FPGA-based platform could achieve a 1.8x -3:3x speedup versus the BWA-SW aligner, reducing the alignment cycles from weeks to days.

  20. Advances in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) at kyoto university - From reactor-based BNCT to accelerator-based BNCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Takata, Takushi; Fujimoto, Nozomi; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shinichiro; Kinashi, Yuko; Kondo, Natsuko; Narabayashi, Masaru; Nakagawa, Yosuke; Watanabe, Tsubasa; Ono, Koji; Maruhashi, Akira

    2015-07-01

    At the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI), a clinical study of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using a neutron irradiation facility installed at the research nuclear reactor has been regularly performed since February 1990. As of November 2014, 510 clinical irradiations were carried out using the reactor-based system. The world's first accelerator-based neutron irradiation system for BNCT clinical irradiation was completed at this institute in early 2009, and the clinical trial using this system was started in 2012. A shift of BCNT from special particle therapy to a general one is now in progress. To promote and support this shift, improvements to the irradiation system, as well as its preparation, and improvements in the physical engineering and the medical physics processes, such as dosimetry systems and quality assurance programs, must be considered. The recent advances in BNCT at KURRI are reported here with a focus on physical engineering and medical physics topics.

  1. A Model-based Prognostics Methodology for Electrolytic Capacitors Based on Electrical Overstress Accelerated Aging

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A remaining useful life prediction methodology for elec- trolytic capacitors is presented. This methodology is based on the Kalman filter framework and an empirical...

  2. A Model-Based Prognostics Methodology For Electrolytic Capacitors Based On Electrical Overstress Accelerated Aging

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A remaining useful life prediction methodology for electrolytic capacitors is presented. This methodology is based on the Kalman filter framework and an empirical...

  3. Conductive Fe3O4 nanoparticles accelerate syntrophic methane production from butyrate oxidation in two different lake sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianchao Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Syntrophic methanogenesis is an essential link in the global carbon cycle and a key bioprocess for the disposal of organic waste and production of biogas. Recent studies suggest direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET is involved in electron exchange in methanogenesis occurring in paddy soils, anaerobic digesters and specific co-cultures with Geobacter. In this study, we evaluate the possible involvement of DIET in the syntrophic oxidation of butyrate in the enrichments from two lake sediments (an urban lake and a natural lake. The results showed that the production of CH4 was significantly accelerated in the presence of conductive nanoscale Fe3O4 or carbon nanotubes (CNTs in the sediment enrichments. Observations made with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and scanning electron microscope (SEM indicated that microbial aggregates were formed in the enrichments. It appeared that the average cell-to-cell distance in aggregates in nanomaterial-amended enrichments was larger than that in aggregates in the non-amended control. These results suggested that DIET-mediated syntrophic methanogenesis could occur in the lake sediments in the presence of conductive materials. Microbial community analysis of the enrichments revealed that the genera of Syntrophomonas, Sulfurospirillum, Methanosarcina and Methanoregula were responsible for syntrophic oxidation of butyrate in lake sediment samples. The mechanism for the conductive-material-facilitated DIET in butyrate syntrophy deserves further investigation.

  4. Accelerated azo dye degradation and concurrent hydrogen production in the single-chamber photocatalytic microbial electrolysis cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yanping; Zhang, Renduo; Yu, Zebin; Huang, Lirong; Liu, Yuxin; Zhou, Zili

    2017-01-01

    The single-chamber microbial electrolysis cell constructed with a TiO2-coated photocathode, termed photocatalytic microbial electrolysis cell (PMEC), was developed to accelerate methyl orange (MO) degradation and concurrent hydrogen (H2) recovery under UV irradiation. Results showed that faster MO decolorization rates were achieved from the PMEC compared with those without UV irradiation or with open circuit. With increase of MO concentrations (acetate as co-substrate) from 50 to 300mg/L at an applied voltage of 0.8V, decolorization efficiencies decreased from 98% to 76% within 12h, and cyclic H2 production declined from 113 to 68mL. As the possible mechanism of MO degradation, bioelectrochemical reduction, co-metabolism reduction, and photocatalysis were involved; and degradation intermediates (mainly sulfanilic acid and N,N-dimethylaniline) were further degraded by OH generated from photocatalysis. This makes MO mineralization be possible in the single-chamber PMEC. Hence, the PMEC is a promising system for dyeing wastewater treatment and simultaneous H2 production.

  5. Conductive Fe3O4 Nanoparticles Accelerate Syntrophic Methane Production from Butyrate Oxidation in Two Different Lake Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianchao; Lu, Yahai

    2016-01-01

    Syntrophic methanogenesis is an essential link in the global carbon cycle and a key bioprocess for the disposal of organic waste and production of biogas. Recent studies suggest direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) is involved in electron exchange in methanogenesis occurring in paddy soils, anaerobic digesters, and specific co-cultures with Geobacter. In this study, we evaluate the possible involvement of DIET in the syntrophic oxidation of butyrate in the enrichments from two lake sediments (an urban lake and a natural lake). The results showed that the production of CH4 was significantly accelerated in the presence of conductive nanoscale Fe3O4 or carbon nanotubes in the sediment enrichments. Observations made with fluorescence in situ hybridization and scanning electron microscope indicated that microbial aggregates were formed in the enrichments. It appeared that the average cell-to-cell distance in aggregates in nanomaterial-amended enrichments was larger than that in aggregates in the non-amended control. These results suggested that DIET-mediated syntrophic methanogenesis could occur in the lake sediments in the presence of conductive materials. Microbial community analysis of the enrichments revealed that the genera of Syntrophomonas, Sulfurospirillum, Methanosarcina, and Methanoregula were responsible for syntrophic oxidation of butyrate in lake sediment samples. The mechanism for the conductive-material-facilitated DIET in butyrate syntrophy deserves further investigation. PMID:27597850

  6. Accelerating research into bio-based FDCA-polyesters by using small scale parallel film reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruter, Gert-Jan M; Sipos, Laszlo; Adrianus Dam, Matheus

    2012-02-01

    High Throughput experimentation has been well established as a tool in early stage catalyst development and catalyst and process scale-up today. One of the more challenging areas of catalytic research is polymer catalysis. The main difference with most non-polymer catalytic conversions is the fact that the product is not a well defined molecule and the catalytic performance cannot be easily expressed only in terms of catalyst activity and selectivity. In polymerization reactions, polymer chains are formed that can have various lengths (resulting in a molecular weight distribution rather than a defined molecular weight), that can have different compositions (when random or block co-polymers are produced), that can have cross-linking (often significantly affecting physical properties), that can have different endgroups (often affecting subsequent processing steps) and several other variations. In addition, for polyolefins, mass and heat transfer, oxygen and moisture sensitivity, stereoregularity and many other intrinsic features make relevant high throughput screening in this field an incredible challenge. For polycondensation reactions performed in the melt often the viscosity becomes already high at modest molecular weights, which greatly influences mass transfer of the condensation product (often water or methanol). When reactions become mass transfer limited, catalyst performance comparison is often no longer relevant. This however does not mean that relevant experiments for these application areas cannot be performed on small scale. Relevant catalyst screening experiments for polycondensation reactions can be performed in very efficient small scale parallel equipment. Both transesterification and polycondensation as well as post condensation through solid-stating in parallel equipment have been developed. Next to polymer synthesis, polymer characterization also needs to be accelerated without making concessions to quality in order to draw relevant conclusions.

  7. Recent advances in high-performance modeling of plasma-based acceleration using the full PIC method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vay, J.-L., E-mail: jlvay@lbl.gov [LBNL, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lehe, R. [LBNL, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Vincenti, H. [CEA, Saclay (France); Godfrey, B.B. [LBNL, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); U. Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Haber, I. [U. Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Lee, P. [LPGP, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2016-09-01

    Numerical simulations have been critical in the recent rapid developments of plasma-based acceleration concepts. Among the various available numerical techniques, the particle-in-cell (PIC) approach is the method of choice for self-consistent simulations from first principles. The fundamentals of the PIC method were established decades ago, but improvements or variations are continuously being proposed. We report on several recent advances in PIC-related algorithms that are of interest for application to plasma-based accelerators, including (a) detailed analysis of the numerical Cherenkov instability and its remediation for the modeling of plasma accelerators in laboratory and Lorentz boosted frames, (b) analytic pseudo-spectral electromagnetic solvers in Cartesian and cylindrical (with azimuthal modes decomposition) geometries, and (c) novel analysis of Maxwell's solvers' stencil variation and truncation, in application to domain decomposition strategies and implementation of perfectly matched layers in high-order and pseudo-spectral solvers.

  8. Recent advances in high-performance modeling of plasma-based acceleration using the full PIC method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vay, J.-L.; Lehe, R.; Vincenti, H.; Godfrey, B. B.; Haber, I.; Lee, P.

    2016-09-01

    Numerical simulations have been critical in the recent rapid developments of plasma-based acceleration concepts. Among the various available numerical techniques, the particle-in-cell (PIC) approach is the method of choice for self-consistent simulations from first principles. The fundamentals of the PIC method were established decades ago, but improvements or variations are continuously being proposed. We report on several recent advances in PIC-related algorithms that are of interest for application to plasma-based accelerators, including (a) detailed analysis of the numerical Cherenkov instability and its remediation for the modeling of plasma accelerators in laboratory and Lorentz boosted frames, (b) analytic pseudo-spectral electromagnetic solvers in Cartesian and cylindrical (with azimuthal modes decomposition) geometries, and (c) novel analysis of Maxwell's solvers' stencil variation and truncation, in application to domain decomposition strategies and implementation of perfectly matched layers in high-order and pseudo-spectral solvers.

  9. Fast online Monte Carlo-based IMRT planning for the MRI linear accelerator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bol, G.H.; Hissoiny, S.; Lagendijk, J. J. W.; Raaymakers, B. W.

    2012-01-01

    The MRI accelerator, a combination of a 6 MV linear accelerator with a 1.5 T MRI, facilitates continuous patient anatomy updates regarding translations, rotations and deformations of targets and organs at risk. Accounting for these demands high speed, online intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) r

  10. Suitability of tile-based rendering for low-power 3d graphics accelerators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antochi, I.

    2007-01-01

    In this dissertation, we address low-power high performance 3D graphics accelerator architectures. The purpose of these accelerators is to relieve the burden of graphical computations from the main processor and also to achieve a better energy efficiency than can be achieved by executing these compu

  11. Simulation studies of laser wakefield acceleration based on typical 100 TW laser facilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大章; 高杰; 朱雄伟; 何安

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, 2-D Particle-In-Cell simulations are made for Laser Wakefield Accelerations (LWFA). As in a real experiment, we perform plasma density scanning for typical 100 TW laser facilities. Several basic laws for self-injected acceleration in a bubb

  12. Network-based production quality control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yongjin; Tseng, Bill; Chiou, Richard

    2007-09-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of remote quality control using a host of advanced automation equipment with Internet accessibility. Recent emphasis on product quality and reduction of waste stems from the dynamic, globalized and customer-driven market, which brings opportunities and threats to companies, depending on the response speed and production strategies. The current trends in industry also include a wide spread of distributed manufacturing systems, where design, production, and management facilities are geographically dispersed. This situation mandates not only the accessibility to remotely located production equipment for monitoring and control, but efficient means of responding to changing environment to counter process variations and diverse customer demands. To compete under such an environment, companies are striving to achieve 100%, sensor-based, automated inspection for zero-defect manufacturing. In this study, the Internet-based quality control scheme is referred to as "E-Quality for Manufacturing" or "EQM" for short. By its definition, EQM refers to a holistic approach to design and to embed efficient quality control functions in the context of network integrated manufacturing systems. Such system let designers located far away from the production facility to monitor, control and adjust the quality inspection processes as production design evolves.

  13. Replacing fossil based plastic performance products by bio-based plastic products-Technical feasibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oever, van den Martien; Molenveld, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Larger scale market introduction of new bio-based products requires a clear advantage regarding sustainability, as well as an adequate techno-economic positioning relative to fossil based products. In a previous paper [Broeren et al., 2016], LCA results per kg and per functionality equivalent of

  14. Replacing fossil based plastic performance products by bio-based plastic products-Technical feasibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oever, van den Martien; Molenveld, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Larger scale market introduction of new bio-based products requires a clear advantage regarding sustainability, as well as an adequate techno-economic positioning relative to fossil based products. In a previous paper [Broeren et al., 2016], LCA results per kg and per functionality equivalent of bio

  15. Accelerating Multiple Compound Comparison Using LINGO-Based Load-Balancing Strategies on Multi-GPUs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yuan Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Compound comparison is an important task for the computational chemistry. By the comparison results, potential inhibitors can be found and then used for the pharmacy experiments. The time complexity of a pairwise compound comparison is O(n2, where n is the maximal length of compounds. In general, the length of compounds is tens to hundreds, and the computation time is small. However, more and more compounds have been synthesized and extracted now, even more than tens of millions. Therefore, it still will be time-consuming when comparing with a large amount of compounds (seen as a multiple compound comparison problem, abbreviated to MCC. The intrinsic time complexity of MCC problem is O(k2n2 with k compounds of maximal length n. In this paper, we propose a GPU-based algorithm for MCC problem, called CUDA-MCC, on single- and multi-GPUs. Four LINGO-based load-balancing strategies are considered in CUDA-MCC in order to accelerate the computation speed among thread blocks on GPUs. CUDA-MCC was implemented by C+OpenMP+CUDA. CUDA-MCC achieved 45 times and 391 times faster than its CPU version on a single NVIDIA Tesla K20m GPU card and a dual-NVIDIA Tesla K20m GPU card, respectively, under the experimental results.

  16. Accelerating Multiple Compound Comparison Using LINGO-Based Load-Balancing Strategies on Multi-GPUs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Yuan; Wang, Chung-Hung; Hung, Che-Lun; Lin, Yu-Shiang

    2015-01-01

    Compound comparison is an important task for the computational chemistry. By the comparison results, potential inhibitors can be found and then used for the pharmacy experiments. The time complexity of a pairwise compound comparison is O(n (2)), where n is the maximal length of compounds. In general, the length of compounds is tens to hundreds, and the computation time is small. However, more and more compounds have been synthesized and extracted now, even more than tens of millions. Therefore, it still will be time-consuming when comparing with a large amount of compounds (seen as a multiple compound comparison problem, abbreviated to MCC). The intrinsic time complexity of MCC problem is O(k (2) n (2)) with k compounds of maximal length n. In this paper, we propose a GPU-based algorithm for MCC problem, called CUDA-MCC, on single- and multi-GPUs. Four LINGO-based load-balancing strategies are considered in CUDA-MCC in order to accelerate the computation speed among thread blocks on GPUs. CUDA-MCC was implemented by C+OpenMP+CUDA. CUDA-MCC achieved 45 times and 391 times faster than its CPU version on a single NVIDIA Tesla K20m GPU card and a dual-NVIDIA Tesla K20m GPU card, respectively, under the experimental results.

  17. Network Based High Speed Product Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter

    In the first decade of the 21st century, New Product Development has undergone major changes in the way NPD is managed and organised. This is due to changes in technology, market demands, and in the competencies of companies. As a result NPD organised in different forms of networks is predicted...... to be of ever-increasing importance to many different kinds of companies. This happens at the same times as the share of new products of total turnover and earnings is increasing at unprecedented speed in many firms and industries. The latter results in the need for very fast innovation and product development...... - a need that can almost only be resolved by organising NPD in some form of network configuration. The work of Peter Lindgren is on several aspects of network based high speed product innovation and contributes to a descriptive understanding of this phenomenon as well as with normative theory on how NPD...

  18. Development of Cotton-Based Nonwovens Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article briefly describes the planned or projected developments of cotton-based nonwoven products, using state-of-the art technologies and equipment that now, after the devastating hurricane Katrina, have been made available for research at the Southern Regional Reserach Center. Although we sti...

  19. Accelerating groundwater flow simulation in MODFLOW using JASMIN-based parallel computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tangpei; Mo, Zeyao; Shao, Jingli

    2014-01-01

    To accelerate the groundwater flow simulation process, this paper reports our work on developing an efficient parallel simulator through rebuilding the well-known software MODFLOW on JASMIN (J Adaptive Structured Meshes applications Infrastructure). The rebuilding process is achieved by designing patch-based data structure and parallel algorithms as well as adding slight modifications to the compute flow and subroutines in MODFLOW. Both the memory requirements and computing efforts are distributed among all processors; and to reduce communication cost, data transfers are batched and conveniently handled by adding ghost nodes to each patch. To further improve performance, constant-head/inactive cells are tagged and neglected during the linear solving process and an efficient load balancing strategy is presented. The accuracy and efficiency are demonstrated through modeling three scenarios: The first application is a field flow problem located at Yanming Lake in China to help design reasonable quantity of groundwater exploitation. Desirable numerical accuracy and significant performance enhancement are obtained. Typically, the tagged program with load balancing strategy running on 40 cores is six times faster than the fastest MICCG-based MODFLOW program. The second test is simulating flow in a highly heterogeneous aquifer. The AMG-based JASMIN program running on 40 cores is nine times faster than the GMG-based MODFLOW program. The third test is a simplified transient flow problem with the order of tens of millions of cells to examine the scalability. Compared to 32 cores, parallel efficiency of 77 and 68% are obtained on 512 and 1024 cores, respectively, which indicates impressive scalability.

  20. Accelerated formulation development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and mAb-based modalities: review of methods and tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razinkov, Vladimir I; Treuheit, Michael J; Becker, Gerald W

    2015-04-01

    More therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and antibody-based modalities are in development today than ever before, and a faster and more accurate drug discovery process will ensure that the number of candidates coming to the biopharmaceutical pipeline will increase in the future. The process of drug product development and, specifically, formulation development is a critical bottleneck on the way from candidate selection to fully commercialized medicines. This article reviews the latest advances in methods of formulation screening, which allow not only the high-throughput selection of the most suitable formulation but also the prediction of stability properties under manufacturing and long-term storage conditions. We describe how the combination of automation technologies and high-throughput assays creates the opportunity to streamline the formulation development process starting from early preformulation screening through to commercial formulation development. The application of quality by design (QbD) concepts and modern statistical tools are also shown here to be very effective in accelerated formulation development of both typical antibodies and complex modalities derived from them.

  1. An SDR-Based Real-Time Testbed for GNSS Adaptive Array Anti-Jamming Algorithms Accelerated by GPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailong Xu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, software-defined radio (SDR has become a common approach to evaluate new algorithms. However, in the field of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS adaptive array anti-jamming, previous work has been limited due to the high computational power demanded by adaptive algorithms, and often lack flexibility and configurability. In this paper, the design and implementation of an SDR-based real-time testbed for GNSS adaptive array anti-jamming accelerated by a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU are documented. This testbed highlights itself as a feature-rich and extendible platform with great flexibility and configurability, as well as high computational performance. Both Space-Time Adaptive Processing (STAP and Space-Frequency Adaptive Processing (SFAP are implemented with a wide range of parameters. Raw data from as many as eight antenna elements can be processed in real-time in either an adaptive nulling or beamforming mode. To fully take advantage of the parallelism resource provided by the GPU, a batched method in programming is proposed. Tests and experiments are conducted to evaluate both the computational and anti-jamming performance. This platform can be used for research and prototyping, as well as a real product in certain applications.

  2. An SDR-Based Real-Time Testbed for GNSS Adaptive Array Anti-Jamming Algorithms Accelerated by GPU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hailong; Cui, Xiaowei; Lu, Mingquan

    2016-03-11

    Nowadays, software-defined radio (SDR) has become a common approach to evaluate new algorithms. However, in the field of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) adaptive array anti-jamming, previous work has been limited due to the high computational power demanded by adaptive algorithms, and often lack flexibility and configurability. In this paper, the design and implementation of an SDR-based real-time testbed for GNSS adaptive array anti-jamming accelerated by a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) are documented. This testbed highlights itself as a feature-rich and extendible platform with great flexibility and configurability, as well as high computational performance. Both Space-Time Adaptive Processing (STAP) and Space-Frequency Adaptive Processing (SFAP) are implemented with a wide range of parameters. Raw data from as many as eight antenna elements can be processed in real-time in either an adaptive nulling or beamforming mode. To fully take advantage of the parallelism resource provided by the GPU, a batched method in programming is proposed. Tests and experiments are conducted to evaluate both the computational and anti-jamming performance. This platform can be used for research and prototyping, as well as a real product in certain applications.

  3. Validity and reliability of intra-stroke kayak velocity and acceleration using a GPS-based accelerometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ina; Sachlikidis, Alexi

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the velocity and acceleration measured by a kayak-mounted GPS-based accelerometer units compared to the video-derived measurements and the effect of satellite configuration on velocity. Four GPS-based accelerometers units of varied accelerometer ranges (2 g or 6 g) were mounted on a kayak as the paddler performed 12 trials at three different stroke rates for each of three different testing sessions (two in the morning vs. one in the afternoon). The velocity and acceleration derived by the accelerometers was compared with the velocity and acceleration derived from high-speed video footage (100Hz). Validity was measured using Bland and Altman plots, R2, and the root of the mean of the squared difference (RMSe), while reliability was calculated using the coefficient of variation, R2, and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests. The GPS-based accelerometers under-reported kayak velocity by 0.14-0.19 m/s and acceleration by 1.67 m/s2 when compared to the video-derived measurements. The afternoon session reported the least difference, indicating a time of day effect on the velocity measured. This study highlights the need for sports utilising GPS-based accelerometers, such as minimaxX, for intra-stroke measurements to conduct sport-specific validity and reliability studies to ensure the accuracy of their data.

  4. Laser acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, T.; Nakajima, K.; Mourou, G.

    2017-02-01

    The fundamental idea of Laser Wakefield Acceleration (LWFA) is reviewed. An ultrafast intense laser pulse drives coherent wakefield with a relativistic amplitude robustly supported by the plasma. While the large amplitude of wakefields involves collective resonant oscillations of the eigenmode of the entire plasma electrons, the wake phase velocity ˜ c and ultrafastness of the laser pulse introduce the wake stability and rigidity. A large number of worldwide experiments show a rapid progress of this concept realization toward both the high-energy accelerator prospect and broad applications. The strong interest in this has been spurring and stimulating novel laser technologies, including the Chirped Pulse Amplification, the Thin Film Compression, the Coherent Amplification Network, and the Relativistic Mirror Compression. These in turn have created a conglomerate of novel science and technology with LWFA to form a new genre of high field science with many parameters of merit in this field increasing exponentially lately. This science has triggered a number of worldwide research centers and initiatives. Associated physics of ion acceleration, X-ray generation, and astrophysical processes of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are reviewed. Applications such as X-ray free electron laser, cancer therapy, and radioisotope production etc. are considered. A new avenue of LWFA using nanomaterials is also emerging.

  5. Accelerated cerebral white matter development in preterm infants: a voxel-based morphometry study with diffusion tensor MR imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giménez, Mónica; Born, A Peter; Nagy, Zoltan;

    2008-01-01

    stratum. While some earlier findings in preterm infants have suggested developmental delays, the results of this study are more consistent with accelerated white matter development, possibly as a result of increased sensorimotor stimulation in the extrauterine environment. These results are the first......Twenty-seven preterm infants were compared to 10 full-term infants at term equivalent age using a voxel-based analysis of diffusion tensor imaging of the brain. Preterm infants exhibited higher fractional anisotropy values, which may suggest accelerated maturation, in the location of the sagittal...

  6. Time-resolved X-ray diffraction with accelerator- and laser-plasma-based X-ray sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicoul, Matthieu

    2010-09-01

    Femtosecond X-ray pulses are a powerful tool to investigate atomic motions triggered by femtosecond pump pulses. This thesis is dedicated to the production of such pulses and their use in optical pump - X-ray probe measurement. This thesis describes the laser-plasma-based sources available at the University of Duisburg-Essen. Part of it consists of the description of the design, built-up and characterization of a new ''modular'' X-ray source dedicated to optimize the X-ray flux onto the sample under investigation. The acoustic wave generation in femtosecond optically excited semiconductor (gallium arsenide) and metal (gold) was performed using the sources of the University of Duisburg-Essen. The physical answer of the material was modeled by a simple strain model for the semiconductor, pressure model for the metal, in order to gain information on the interplay of the electronic and thermal pressures rising after excitation. Whereas no reliable information could be obtain in gallium arsenide (principally due to the use of a bulk), the model for gold achieved very good agreement, providing useful information. The relaxation time of the electron to lattice energy was found to be (5.0{+-}0.3) ps, and the ratio of the Grueneisen parameters was found to be {gamma}{sub e} / {gamma}{sub i} = (0.5{+-}0.1). This thesis also describes the Sub-Picosecond Pulse Source (SPPS) which existed at the (formally) Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, an accelerator-based X-ray source, and two measurements performed with it. The first one is the detailed investigation of the phonon softening of the A{sub 1g} mode launch in bismuth upon fluence excitation. Detailed information concerning the new equilibrium position and phonon frequency were obtained over extended laser pump fluences. The second measurement concerned the study of the liquid phase dynamics in a newly formed liquid phase following ultrafast melting in indium antimonide. The formation of the liquid phase

  7. Three-dimensional simulation of laser–plasma-based electron acceleration

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Upadhyay; K Patel; B S Rao; P A Naik; P D Gupta

    2012-04-01

    A sequential three-dimensional (3D) particle-in-cell simulation code PICPSI-3D with a user friendly graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed and used to study the interaction of plasma with ultrahigh intensity laser radiation. A case study of laser–plasma-based electron acceleration has been carried out to assess the performance of this code. Simulations have been performed for a Gaussian laser beam of peak intensity 5 × 1019 W/cm2 propagating through an underdense plasma of uniform density 1 × 1019 cm-3, and for a Gaussian laser beam of peak intensity 1.5 × 1019 W/cm2 propagating through an underdense plasma of uniform density 3.5 × 1019 cm-3. The electron energy spectrum has been evaluated at different time-steps during the propagation of the laser beam. When the plasma density is 1 × 1019 cm-3, simulations show that the electron energy spectrum forms a monoenergetic peak at ∼ 14 MeV, with an energy spread of ± 7 MeV. On the other hand, when the plasma density is 3.5 × 1019 cm-3, simulations show that the electron energy spectrum forms a monoenergetic peak at ∼ 23 MeV, with an energy spread of ± 7.5 MeV.

  8. A design study for an accelerator-based epithermal neutron beam for BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D A; Beynon, T D

    1995-05-01

    An achievable design concept for a boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) facility, based on a high-current, low-energy proton accelerator, is described. Neutrons are produced within a thick natural lithium target, under bombardment from protons with an initial energy between 2.5 and 3.0 MeV. The proton current will be up to 10 mA. After gamma-ray filtering, the neutrons are partially moderated to epithermal energies within a heavy-water moderator, poisoned with 6Li to remove thermal neutrons. Monte Carlo modelling has been used to predict system performance in terms of neutron fluence rate and neutron and gamma-ray dose at the patient position. The relationship between the system performance and key parameters, such as proton energy, moderator depth and 6Li concentration, has been investigated. With a proton current of 10 mA, the facility is capable of providing a therapy beam with a useful neutron fluence rate of 10(9) cm-2 s-1 and a neutron dose per unit fluence of less than 6 x 10(-13) Gy cm2, with a gamma-ray contamination of the therapy beam of about 10(-13) Gy cm2.

  9. Venting Design for Di-tert-butyl Peroxide Runaway Reaction Based on Accelerating Rate Calorimeter Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏彤彤; 蒋慧灵

    2012-01-01

    In order to design the relief system size of di-tert-butyl peroxide(DTBP) storage tanks,the runaway re-action of DTBP was simulated by accelerating rate calorimeter(ARC).The results indicated that under adiabatic conditions the initial exothermic temperature was 102.6 ℃,the maximum self-heating rate was 3.095×107 ℃·min-1,the maximum self-heating temperature was 375.9 ℃,and the pressure produced by unit mass was 4.512 MPa·g-1.Judged by ARC test,the emergency relief system for DTBP was a hybrid system.Based on Design Institute for Emergency Relief System(DIERS) method,the releasing mass flow rate W was determined by Leung methods,and the mass velocity G was calculated by two modified Omega methods.The two relief sizes calculated by monograph Omega method and arithmetic Omega method are close,with only 0.63% relative error.The monograph Omega method is more convenient to apply.

  10. CUDA-based acceleration of collateral filtering in brain MR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Yuan; Chang, Herng-Hua

    2017-02-01

    Image denoising is one of the fundamental and essential tasks within image processing. In medical imaging, finding an effective algorithm that can remove random noise in MR images is important. This paper proposes an effective noise reduction method for brain magnetic resonance (MR) images. Our approach is based on the collateral filter which is a more powerful method than the bilateral filter in many cases. However, the computation of the collateral filter algorithm is quite time-consuming. To solve this problem, we improved the collateral filter algorithm with parallel computing using GPU. We adopted CUDA, an application programming interface for GPU by NVIDIA, to accelerate the computation. Our experimental evaluation on an Intel Xeon CPU E5-2620 v3 2.40GHz with a NVIDIA Tesla K40c GPU indicated that the proposed implementation runs dramatically faster than the traditional collateral filter. We believe that the proposed framework has established a general blueprint for achieving fast and robust filtering in a wide variety of medical image denoising applications.

  11. Nested MC-Based Risk Measurement of Complex Portfolios: Acceleration and Energy Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Desmettre

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Risk analysis and management currently have a strong presence in financial institutions, where high performance and energy efficiency are key requirements for acceleration systems, especially when it comes to intraday analysis. In this regard, we approach the estimation of the widely-employed portfolio risk metrics value-at-risk (VaR and conditional value-at-risk (cVaR by means of nested Monte Carlo (MC simulations. We do so by combining theory and software/hardware implementation. This allows us for the first time to investigate their performance on heterogeneous compute systems and across different compute platforms, namely central processing unit (CPU, many integrated core (MIC architecture XeonPhi, graphics processing unit (GPU, and field-programmable gate array (FPGA. To this end, the OpenCL framework is employed to generate portable code, and the size of the simulations is scaled in order to evaluate variations in performance. Furthermore, we assess different parallelization schemes, and the targeted platforms are evaluated and compared in terms of runtime and energy efficiency. Our implementation also allowed us to derive a new algorithmic optimization regarding the generation of the required random number sequences. Moreover, we provide specific guidelines on how to properly handle these sequences in portable code, and on how to efficiently implement nested MC-based VaR and cVaR simulations on heterogeneous compute systems.

  12. Novel lipoproteoplex delivers Keap1 siRNA based gene therapy to accelerate diabetic wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, Piul S; Zhou, Anna; Borab, Zachary M; Frezzo, Joseph A; Srivastava, Nikita; More, Haresh T; Rifkin, William J; David, Joshua A; Berens, Samuel J; Chen, Raymond; Hameedi, Sophia; Junejo, Muhammad H; Kim, Camille; Sartor, Rita A; Liu, Che F; Saadeh, Pierre B; Montclare, Jin K; Ceradini, Daniel J

    2017-04-03

    Therapeutics utilizing siRNA are currently limited by the availability of safe and effective delivery systems. Cutaneous diseases, specifically ones with significant genetic components are ideal candidates for topical siRNA based therapy but the anatomical structure of skin presents a considerable hurdle. Here, we optimized a novel liposome and protein hybrid nanoparticle delivery system for the topical treatment of diabetic wounds with severe oxidative stress. We utilized a cationic lipid nanoparticle (CLN) composed of 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) and the edge activator sodium cholate (NaChol), in a 6:1 ratio of DOTAP:NaChol (DNC). Addition of a cationic engineered supercharged coiled-coil protein (CSP) in a 10:1:1 ratio of DNC:CSP:siRNA produced a stable lipoproteoplex (LPP) nanoparticle, with optimal siRNA complexation, minimal cytotoxicity, and increased transfection efficacy. In a humanized murine diabetic wound healing model, our optimized LPP formulation successfully delivered siRNA targeted against Keap1, key repressor of Nrf2 which is a central regulator of redox mechanisms. Application of LPP complexing siKeap1 restored Nrf2 antioxidant function, accelerated diabetic tissue regeneration, and augmented reduction-oxidation homeostasis in the wound environment. Our topical LPP delivery system can readily be translated into clinical use for the treatment of diabetic wounds and can be extended to other cutaneous diseases with genetic components.

  13. Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors Based Monitoring System for Superconducting Accelerator Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Chiuchiolo, A; Perez, J C; Bajas, H; Consales, M; Giordano, M; Breglio, G; Cusano, A

    2014-01-01

    New generation of accelerator magnets for high energy applications currently designed, manufactured and tested at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) require the implementation of precise cryogenic sensors with long-term robustness and reliability able to withstand cryogenic temperature and to monitor the mechanical stresses affecting the winding during all the stages of his service life, assembly, cool down and powering. Monitoring the mechanical behavior of the magnet from assembly to operation is a critical task which aims to assure the integrity of the magnet and to safely handle the coils made of new brittle material. This contribution deals with the first successful embedding of Fiber Bragg Grating sensors in a subscale Nb3Sn dipole magnet in order to monitor the strain developed in the coil during the cool down to 1.9 K, the powering up to 15.8 kA and the warm up, offering new perspectives for the development of a complementary sensing technology based on fiber optic sensors.

  14. Implementation of Accelerated Beam-Specific Matched-Filter-Based Optical Alignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awwal, A S; Rice, K L; Taha, T M

    2009-01-29

    Accurate automated alignment of laser beams in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is essential for achieving extreme temperature and pressure required for inertial confinement fusion. The alignment achieved by the integrated control systems relies on algorithms processing video images to determine the position of the laser beam images in real-time. Alignment images that exhibit wide variations in beam quality require a matched-filter algorithm for position detection. One challenge in designing a matched-filter based algorithm is to construct a filter template that is resilient to variations in imaging conditions while guaranteeing accurate position determination. A second challenge is to process the image as fast as possible. This paper describes the development of a new analytical template that captures key recurring features present in the beam image to accurately estimate the beam position under good image quality conditions. Depending on the features present in a particular beam, the analytical template allows us to create a highly tailored template containing only those selected features. The second objective is achieved by exploiting the parallelism inherent in the algorithm to accelerate processing using parallel hardware that provides significant performance improvement over conventional processors. In particular, a Xilinx Virtex II Pro FPGA hardware implementation processing 32 templates provided a speed increase of about 253 times over an optimized software implementation running on a 2.0 GHz AMD Opteron core.

  15. Design of Web-Based Experiments on Acceleration and Speed Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Mani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote laboratories are becoming increasingly popular in academic arena due to availability of web-based technologies and infrastructure. Remote Labs are equipped with real instruments, where experiments are performed by controlling the instruments and observing the real data from a distant location through computer networks. They provide for student centric laboratory experience as students can perform experiments at their own convenience and requirements. Further, Remote Labs reduce management of work involved in running conventional laboratories. This paper describes design and implementation of such an experimental setup for performing characterization experiments on Transducers in general and Acceleration and Speed Transducers in particular from a remote location. The experiment can be made accessible to anyone over a TCP/IP network with a standard Web Browser, relevant plugin, and permission. This paper demonstrates that traditional experiments on sensors and transducers can be successfully made available online to both on-campus and off-campus students at their own schedule and convenience.

  16. Evaluation of seismic acceleration responses of base-isolated and nonisolated structures varying with mechanical characteristics of foundations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Bong; Lee, Jae Han; Ku, Kyung Hoi [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daeduk (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-05-01

    The evaluation of acceleration responses of isolated and nonisolated structures according to mechanical features of soils is important. The kinds of soils taken in analyses are soft, medium and hard rocks, and a fixed base condition is also taken for the comparison. The horizontal isolation frequency used is 0.5 Hz. The time history analyses of reference power plant using 1940 El Centro horizontal (NS) and vertical earthquakes are performed to investigate the seismic responses varying with soil characteristics for isolated and nonisolated structures. The horizontal acceleration responses of the horizontal isolated-structures show almost similar values irrespective of the various kinds of soils and are largely decreased in the frequency ranges above 2 hz. The vertical natural frequency, 21Hz of high damping rubber bearing does not affect the vertical acceleration responses in case of soft rock, but largely affects in hard rock condition. For nonisolated structures, the acceleration responses are decreased in both horizontal and vertical directions by taking into account the soils in the analysis model. The extent of reduction of acceleration responses is larger in vertical direction than in horizontal one, as the stiffness of rock becomes softer. 8 tabs., 21 figs., 8 refs. (Author) .new.

  17. LED照明产品加速衰减试验方法研究%Accelerated Luminous Depreciation Testing for LED Lighting Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱诚; 孙博; 曹峻松

    2014-01-01

    With the application of energy-saving, environmental and durable LED lighting products, the reliability testing has become a pivot point for the large scale industrialization and popularization. The paper briefly introduces two methods to be respectively applied in the accelerated depreciation testing for the luminous flex of LED lighting products and the life of outdoor LED-driving power, which can sharply shorten the time for lifetime test, providing references for the LED lighting products’ reliability evaluation.

  18. Laser-plasma accelerator and femtosecond photon sources-based ultrafast radiation chemistry and biophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauduel, Y. A.

    2017-02-01

    The initial distribution of energy deposition triggered by the interaction of ionizing radiations (far UV and X rays, electron, proton and accelerated ions) with molecular targets or integrated biological systems is often decisive for the spatio-temporal behavior of radiation effects that take place on several orders of magnitude. This contribution deals with an interdisciplinary approach that concerns cutting-edge advances on primary radiation events, considering the potentialities of innovating strategies based on ultrafast laser science, from femtosecond photon sources to laser-driven relativistic particles acceleration. Recent advances of powerful TW laser sources (~ 1019 Wcm‑2) and laser-plasma interactions providing ultrashort relativistic particle beams in the energy domain 2.5–150 MeV open exciting opportunities for the development of high-energy radiation femtochemistry (HERF). Early radiation damages being dependent on the survival probability of secondary electrons and radial distribution of short-lived radicals inside ionization clusters, a thorough knowledge of these processes involves the real-time probing of primary events in the temporal range 10‑14–10‑11 s. In the framework of a closed synergy between low-energy radiation femtochemistry (LERF) and the emerging domain of HERF, the paper focuses on early phenomena that occur in the prethermal regime of low-energy secondary electrons, considering very short-lived quantum effects in aqueous environments. A high dose-rate delivered by femtosecond electron beam (~ 1011–1013 Gy s‑1) can be used to investigate early radiation processes in native ionization tracks, down to 10‑12 s and 10‑9 m. We explain how this breakthrough favours the innovating development of real-time nanodosimetry in biologically relevant environments and open new perspectives for spatio-temporal radiation biophysics. The emerging domain of HERF would provide guidance for understanding the specific bioeffects of

  19. The downregulation of thioredoxin accelerated Neuro2a cell apoptosis induced by advanced glycation end product via activating several pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiang; Ma, Haiying; Qiu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Bo; Qi, Hui; Li, Zeyu; Kong, Hui; Kong, Li

    2015-08-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx), a 12 kDa protein, has different functions in different cellular environments, playing important anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic roles and regulating the expression of transcription factors. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a heterogeneous group of irreversible adducts from glucose-protein condensation reactions and are considered crucial to the development of diabetic nephropathy, retinopathy, neurodegeneration and atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to use a Trx inhibitor to investigate the effects and mechanism of Trx down-regulation on AGE-induced Neuro2a cell apoptosis. Neuro2a cells were cultured in vitro and treated with different conditions. The apoptosis and proliferation of Neuro2a cells were detected using flow cytometry, DNA-Ladder and CCK8 assays. Rho 123 was used to detect the mitochondrial membrane potential. ROS generation and caspase3 activity were detected using a DCFH-DA probe and micro-plate reader. Western blotting and real-time PCR were used to detect the expression of proteins and genes. We found that the down-regulation of thioredoxin could accelerate AGE-induced apoptosis in Neuro2a cells. A possible underlying mechanism is that the down-regulation of thioredoxin stimulated the up-regulation of ASK1, p-JNK, PTEN, and Txnip, as well as the down-regulation of p-AKT, ultimately increasing ROS levels and caspase3 activity.

  20. Accelerating genome editing in CHO cells using CRISPR Cas9 and CRISPy, a web-based target finding tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronda, Carlotta; Pedersen, Lasse Ebdrup; Hansen, Henning Gram; Kallehauge, Thomas Beuchert; Betenbaugh, Michael J; Nielsen, Alex Toftgaard; Kildegaard, Helene Faustrup

    2014-08-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are widely used in the biopharmaceutical industry as a host for the production of complex pharmaceutical proteins. Thus genome engineering of CHO cells for improved product quality and yield is of great interest. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the efficacy of the CRISPR Cas9 technology in CHO cells by generating site-specific gene disruptions in COSMC and FUT8, both of which encode proteins involved in glycosylation. The tested single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) created an indel frequency up to 47.3% in COSMC, while an indel frequency up to 99.7% in FUT8 was achieved by applying lectin selection. All eight sgRNAs examined in this study resulted in relatively high indel frequencies, demonstrating that the Cas9 system is a robust and efficient genome-editing methodology in CHO cells. Deep sequencing revealed that 85% of the indels created by Cas9 resulted in frameshift mutations at the target sites, with a strong preference for single base indels. Finally, we have developed a user-friendly bioinformatics tool, named "CRISPy" for rapid identification of sgRNA target sequences in the CHO-K1 genome. The CRISPy tool identified 1,970,449 CRISPR targets divided into 27,553 genes and lists the number of off-target sites in the genome. In conclusion, the proven functionality of Cas9 to edit CHO genomes combined with our CRISPy database have the potential to accelerate genome editing and synthetic biology efforts in CHO cells.

  1. Numerical investigations into a fiber laser based dielectric reverse dual-grating accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aimidula, A., E-mail: aimidula.aimierding@liverpool.ac.uk [Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Sci-Tech, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Physics Department, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Welsch, C.P. [Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Sci-Tech, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Physics Department, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Xia, G. [Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Sci-Tech, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Koyama, K.; Uesaka, M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, The University of Tokyo, Tokai 319-1188 (Japan); Yoshida, M. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Mete, O. [Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Sci-Tech, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Matsumura, Y. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, The University of Tokyo, Tokai 319-1188 (Japan)

    2014-03-11

    Dielectric laser accelerators (DLAs) have great potential for applications, since they can generate acceleration gradients in the range of GeV/m and produce attosecond electron bunches. We described a novel reverse dual-grating dielectric accelerator structure made up of Silicon which is expected to improve beam confinement, and make fabrication easier. Numerical simulation results show that this structure effectively manipulates the laser field and generates a standing wave in the vacuum channel with a phase velocity synchronized to relativistic particles travelling through the structure. Optimum pillar height and channel width have been determined. All required laser parameters and initial particle energy have been analytically estimated and a suitable laser as an energy source is proposed. Finally, the effect of fabrication error on the acceleration gradient is discussed.

  2. Design of a high DC voltage generator and D-T fuser based on particle accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Wagner L.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R., E-mail: wagnerleite@ufmg.b, E-mail: campos@nuclear.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/ UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    This paper approaches a design and simulation of a high voltage Cockcroft Walton multiplier and a compact size deuteron accelerator addressed in neutron generation by d-t fusion. We proposed a circuit arrangement, which was led to simulations. The particle accelerator was computer-generated providing particle transport and electric potential analysis. As results, the simulated voltage multiplier achieved 119 kV, and the accelerator presented a deuteron beam current up to 15 mA, achieving energies in order to 100 keV. In conclusion, the simulation motivates experimental essays in order to investigate the viability of a deuteron accelerator powered by a Cockcroft-Walton source. Such d-t fusor shall produce an interesting ion beam profile, reaching energy values near the d-t fusion cross section peak. (author)

  3. A Heading and Flight-Path Angle Control of Aircraft Based on Required Acceleration Vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitani, Naoharu

    This paper describes a control of heading and flight-path angles of aircraft to time-varying command angles. The controller first calculates an acceleration command vector (acV), which is vertical to the velocity vector. acV consists of two components; the one is feedforward acceleration obtained from the rates of command angles, and the other is feedback acceleration obtained from angle deviations by using PID control law. A bank angle command around the velocity vector and commands of pitch and yaw rates are then obtained to generate the required acceleration. A roll rate command is calculated from bank angle deviation. Roll, pitch and yaw rate commands are put into the attitude controller, which can be composed of any suitable control laws such as PID control. The control requires neither aerodynamic coefficients nor online calculation of the inverse dynamics of the aircraft. A numerical simulation illustrates the effects of the control.

  4. CFD based investigation on the impact acceleration when a gannet impacts with water during plunge diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T M; Yang, X B; Liang, J H; Yao, G C; Zhao, W D

    2013-09-01

    Plunge diving is the most commonly used feeding method of a gannet, which can make the gannet transit from air to water rapidly and successfully. A large impact acceleration can be generated due to the air-to-water transition. However, the impact acceleration experienced by the gannet during plunge diving has not been studied. In this paper, this issue is investigated by using the CFD method. The effect of the dropping height and the water-entry inclination angle on the impact acceleration is considered. The results reveal that the impact acceleration along the longitudinal body axis increases with either of the two parameters. The peak time decreases with the dropping height. A quadratic relation is found between the peak impact acceleration and the initial water-entry velocity. According to the computation, when the dropping height is 30 m (most of gannets plunge from about this height), the peak impact acceleration can reach about 23 times the gravitational acceleration, which will exert a considerable force on the gannet body. Furthermore, the pressure distribution of different water-entry inclination angles indicates that the large pressure asymmetry caused by a small oblique angle may lead to a large impact acceleration in the direction perpendicular to the longitudinal body axis and cause damage to the neck of the gannet, which partly explains the reason why a gannet performing a high plunge diving in nature enters water with a large oblique angle from the perspective of impact mechanics. The investigation on the plunge-diving behavior in this paper will inspire and promote the development of a biomimetic amphibious robot that transits from air to water with the plunge-diving mode.

  5. Summary Report of Working Group 7: Electromagnetic-Structure Based Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colby, E.; /SLAC; Musumeci, P.; /INFN, Rome

    2007-04-02

    We detail the most pressing physics and technical issues confronting short-wavelength acceleration. We review new acceleration concepts that are proposed and under development, and recent progress on technical issues such as structure fabrication and material damage. We outline key areas where work is still needed before a reliable assessment of the value of working at wavelengths below 1 cm can be made. Possible ways to enhance collaboration and progress in this important area are also discussed.

  6. A Reliability Accelerated Test of High-speed Punch Based on Failure Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Lan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By analyzing the maintainability data of a certain high-speed punch, its main fault modes, such as oil/gas parts damage, parts damage and leakages, were identified. According to the fault signal measurability and the accelerated failure mechanism, the content and scheme of a reliability accelerated test (RAT were planned specifically, which was partly verified by some tests on a high-speed punch. This paper provides a basis for the RAT of high-speed punch.

  7. Product State Modelling based on a Meta Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm; Sørensen, Christian; Langer, Gilad

    1999-01-01

    ) is a product model that contains continuously updated data regarding the outcome of the production processes. The main contribution of this paper is a definition and a description of a Production Meta Product State Model (Production Meta PSM), using the Unified Modelling Language (UML). The meta model......As products often deviate from their original design and specifications when being produced, adjustments of the product or process are required in order to meet specifications. A prerequisite for this adjustment, is appropriate and effectively collected shop floor data. The Product State Model (PSM...... incorporates a set of characteristics associated to the (1) scope or application domain of the PSM, (2) the artefact or product, and (3) the events transforming the product and trigging product state changes. Moreover, the paper provides guidelines for a specialisation of the meta model with respect...

  8. Kernel based methods for accelerated failure time model with ultra-high dimensional data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Feng

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most genomic data have ultra-high dimensions with more than 10,000 genes (probes. Regularization methods with L1 and Lp penalty have been extensively studied in survival analysis with high-dimensional genomic data. However, when the sample size n ≪ m (the number of genes, directly identifying a small subset of genes from ultra-high (m > 10, 000 dimensional data is time-consuming and not computationally efficient. In current microarray analysis, what people really do is select a couple of thousands (or hundreds of genes using univariate analysis or statistical tests, and then apply the LASSO-type penalty to further reduce the number of disease associated genes. This two-step procedure may introduce bias and inaccuracy and lead us to miss biologically important genes. Results The accelerated failure time (AFT model is a linear regression model and a useful alternative to the Cox model for survival analysis. In this paper, we propose a nonlinear kernel based AFT model and an efficient variable selection method with adaptive kernel ridge regression. Our proposed variable selection method is based on the kernel matrix and dual problem with a much smaller n × n matrix. It is very efficient when the number of unknown variables (genes is much larger than the number of samples. Moreover, the primal variables are explicitly updated and the sparsity in the solution is exploited. Conclusions Our proposed methods can simultaneously identify survival associated prognostic factors and predict survival outcomes with ultra-high dimensional genomic data. We have demonstrated the performance of our methods with both simulation and real data. The proposed method performs superbly with limited computational studies.

  9. Satellite-based terrestrial production efficiency modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obersteiner Michael

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Production efficiency models (PEMs are based on the theory of light use efficiency (LUE which states that a relatively constant relationship exists between photosynthetic carbon uptake and radiation receipt at the canopy level. Challenges remain however in the application of the PEM methodology to global net primary productivity (NPP monitoring. The objectives of this review are as follows: 1 to describe the general functioning of six PEMs (CASA; GLO-PEM; TURC; C-Fix; MOD17; and BEAMS identified in the literature; 2 to review each model to determine potential improvements to the general PEM methodology; 3 to review the related literature on satellite-based gross primary productivity (GPP and NPP modeling for additional possibilities for improvement; and 4 based on this review, propose items for coordinated research. This review noted a number of possibilities for improvement to the general PEM architecture - ranging from LUE to meteorological and satellite-based inputs. Current PEMs tend to treat the globe similarly in terms of physiological and meteorological factors, often ignoring unique regional aspects. Each of the existing PEMs has developed unique methods to estimate NPP and the combination of the most successful of these could lead to improvements. It may be beneficial to develop regional PEMs that can be combined under a global framework. The results of this review suggest the creation of a hybrid PEM could bring about a significant enhancement to the PEM methodology and thus terrestrial carbon flux modeling. Key items topping the PEM research agenda identified in this review include the following: LUE should not be assumed constant, but should vary by plant functional type (PFT or photosynthetic pathway; evidence is mounting that PEMs should consider incorporating diffuse radiation; continue to pursue relationships between satellite-derived variables and LUE, GPP and autotrophic respiration (Ra; there is an urgent need for

  10. Plant-Based Vaccines: Production and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Laere

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant-based vaccine technologies involve the integration of the desired genes encoding the antigen protein for specific disease into the genome of plant tissues by various methods. Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer and transformation via genetically modified plant virus are the common methods that have been used to produce effective vaccines. Nevertheless, with the advancement of science and technology, new approaches have been developed to increase the efficiency of former methods such as biolistic, electroporation, agroinfiltration, sonication, and polyethylene glycol treatment. Even though plant-based vaccines provide many benefits to the vaccine industry, there are still challenges that limit the rate of successful production of these third-generation vaccines. Even with all the limitations, continuous efforts are still ongoing in order to produce efficient vaccine for many human and animals related diseases owing to its great potentials. This paper reviews the existing conventional methods as well as the development efforts by researchers in order to improve the production of plant-based vaccines. Several challenges encountered during and after the production process were also discussed.

  11. Experimental study of new laser-based alignment system at the KEK B-factory injector linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suwada, T.; Satoh, M.; Kadokura, E. [Accelerator Laboratory, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    A new laser-based alignment system for the precise alignment of accelerator components along an ideal straight line at the KEK B-factory injector linear accelerator (linac) is under development. This system is strongly required in the next generation of B-factories for the stable acceleration of high-brightness electron and positron beams with high bunch charges and also for maintaining the stability of injection beams with high quality. A new laser optics for the generation of a so-called Airy beam has been developed for the laser-based alignment system. The laser propagation characteristics both in vacuum and at atmospheric pressure have been systematically investigated in an 82-m-long straight section of the injector linac. The laser-based alignment measurements based on the new laser optics have been carried out with a measurement resolution of {+-}0.1 mm level by using an existing laser detection electronics. The horizontal and vertical displacements from a reference laser line measured using this system are in good agreement with those measured using a standard telescope-based optical alignment technique. In this report, we describe the experimental study in detail along with the basic designs and the recent developments in the new laser-based alignment system.

  12. Preliminary study of acceleration based sensor to record nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) feeding behavior at water surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subakti, Aji; Khotimah, Zarah F.; Darozat, Fajar M.

    2017-01-01

    In this preliminary study, the acceleration based sensor was developed to monitor the activity of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) feeding behavior at the water surface. This study was conducted for three weeks in a fish pond with 40 m2 in size, stocked with 850 fingerlings of Nile tilapia strain Nirwana-2 (average biomass of 13 g, fed four times a day at 8 am, 12 pm, 4 pm, and 8 pm). The acceleration sensor system was installed floating in the pond and was designed in a way so that the xz plane of the sensor will be parallel with water surface, while the y-axis will be pointing downward. By sensing the acceleration caused by the surface wave, the activities of fish near surface water could be monitored. The result showed that there were three distinctive patterns could be observed which was related to the feeding activity of fish. Generally, it can be concluded that this acceleration based sensor system can be integrated with automatic feeder machine, in particular by analyzing the recorded patter, it is possible to monitor when the fish stop eating, and so the right amount of feed could be given to the fish.

  13. Behavior and Design Intent Based Product Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Horváth

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available A knowledge based modeling of mechanical products is presented for industrial CAD/CAM systems. An active model is proposed that comprise knowledge from modeling procedures, generic part models and engineers. Present day models of mechanical systems do not contain data about the background of human decisions. This situation motivated the authors at their investigations on exchange design intent information between engineers. Their concept was extending of product models to be capable of description of design intent information. Several human-computer and human-human communication issues were considered. The complex communication problem has been divided into four sub-problems, namely communication of human intent source with the computer system, representation of human intent, exchange of intent data between modeling procedures and communication of the represented intent with humans. Paper discusses the scenario of intelligent modeling based engineering. Then key concepts for the application of computational intelligence in computer model based engineering systems are detailed including knowledge driven models as well as areas of their application. Next, behavior based models with intelligent content involving specifications and knowledge for the design processes are emphasized and an active part modeling is proposed and possibilities for its application are outlined. Finally, design intent supported intelligent modeling is discussed.

  14. Acceleration of the OpenFOAM-based MHD solver using graphics processing units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Qingyun; Chen, Hongli, E-mail: hlchen1@ustc.edu.cn; Feng, Jingchao

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • A 3D PISO-MHD was implemented on Kepler-class graphics processing units (GPUs) using CUDA technology. • A consistent and conservative scheme is used in the code which was validated by three basic benchmarks in a rectangular and round ducts. • Parallelized of CPU and GPU acceleration were compared relating to single core CPU in MHD problems and non-MHD problems. • Different preconditions for solving MHD solver were compared and the results showed that AMG method is better for calculations. - Abstract: The pressure-implicit with splitting of operators (PISO) magnetohydrodynamics MHD solver of the couple of Navier–Stokes equations and Maxwell equations was implemented on Kepler-class graphics processing units (GPUs) using the CUDA technology. The solver is developed on open source code OpenFOAM based on consistent and conservative scheme which is suitable for simulating MHD flow under strong magnetic field in fusion liquid metal blanket with structured or unstructured mesh. We verified the validity of the implementation on several standard cases including the benchmark I of Shercliff and Hunt's cases, benchmark II of fully developed circular pipe MHD flow cases and benchmark III of KIT experimental case. Computational performance of the GPU implementation was examined by comparing its double precision run times with those of essentially the same algorithms and meshes. The resulted showed that a GPU (GTX 770) can outperform a server-class 4-core, 8-thread CPU (Intel Core i7-4770k) by a factor of 2 at least.

  15. Linear Accelerator-Based Radiosurgery Alone for Arteriovenous Malformation: More Than 12 Years of Observation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, Takayuki, E-mail: takayuki@nagasaki-u.ac.jp; Kamada, Kensaku; Izumo, Tsuyoshi; Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Nagata, Izumi

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: Although radiosurgery is an accepted treatment method for intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), its long-term therapeutic effects have not been sufficiently evaluated, and many reports of long-term observations are from gamma-knife facilities. Furthermore, there are few reported results of treatment using only linear accelerator (LINAC)-based radiosurgery (LBRS). Methods and Materials: Over a period of more than 12 years, we followed the long-term results of LBRS treatment performed in 51 AVM patients. Results: The actuarial obliteration rates, after a single radiosurgery session, at 3, 5, 10, and 15 years were 46.9%, 54.0%, 64.4%, and 68.0%, respectively; when subsequent radiosurgeries were included, the rates were 46.9%, 61.3%, 74.2%, and 90.3%, respectively. Obliteration rates were significantly related to target volumes ≥4 cm{sup 3}, marginal doses ≥12 Gy, Spetzler-Martin grades (1 vs other), and AVM scores ≥1.5; multivariate analyses revealed a significant difference for target volumes ≥4 cm{sup 3}. The postprocedural actuarial symptomatic radiation injury rates, after a single radiation surgery session, at 5, 10, and 15 years were 12.3%, 16.8%, and 19.1%, respectively. Volumes ≥4 cm{sup 3}, location (lobular or other), AVM scores ≥1.5, and the number of radiosurgery were related to radiation injury incidence; multivariate analyses revealed significant differences associated with volumes ≥4 cm{sup 3} and location (lobular or other). Conclusions: Positive results can be obtained with LBRS when performed with a target volume ≤4 cm{sup 3}, an AVM score ≤1.5, and ≥12 Gy radiation. Bleeding and radiation injuries may appear even 10 years after treatment, necessitating long-term observation.

  16. Simulation studies of the ion beam transport system in a compact electrostatic accelerator-based D-D neutron generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Basanta Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of an ion beam transport mechanism contributes to the production of a good quality ion beam with a higher current and better beam emittance. The simulation of an ion beam provides the basis for optimizing the extraction system and the acceleration gap for the ion source. In order to extract an ion beam from an ion source, a carefully designed electrode system for the required beam energy must be used. In our case, a self-extracted penning ion source is used for ion generation, extraction and acceleration with a single accelerating gap for the production of neutrons. The characteristics of the ion beam extracted from this ion source were investigated using computer code SIMION 8.0. The ion trajectories from different locations of the plasma region were investigated. The simulation process provided a good platform for a study on optimizing the extraction and focusing system of the ion beam transported to the required target position without any losses and provided an estimation of beam emittance.

  17. Ash-Based Building Panels Production and Demonstration of Aerock Decking Building Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan E. Bland; Jesse Newcomer

    2007-06-30

    Western Research Institute (WRI) of Laramie, Wyoming and AeRock, LLC of Eagar, Arizona (formerly of Bellevue, Washington) partnered, under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (U.S. DOE-NETL), to support the development of rapid-setting, ash-based, fiber-incorporated ''green'' building products. Green building materials are a rapidly growing trend in the building and construction industry in the US. A two phase project was implemented wherein Phase I assessed, through chemical and physical testing, ash, ash-based cement and fiber composites exhibiting superior structural performance when applied to the AeRock mixing and extrusion process and involved the conduct of pilot-scale production trials of AeRock products, and wherein Phase II involved the design, construction, and operation of a commercial-scale plant to confirm production issues and to produce panels for performance evaluations. Phase I optimized the composite ingredients including ash-based cement, Class F and Class C DFGD ash, and various fiber reinforcements. Additives, such as retardants and accelerators, were also evaluated as related to extruder performance. The optimized composite from the Phase I effort was characterized by a modulus of rupture (MOR) measured between 1,931 and 2,221 psi flexural strength, comparable to other wood and non-wood building materials. Continuous extrusion of the optimum composite in the AeRock pilot-scale facility produced an excellent product that was assembled into a demonstration for exhibit and durability purposes. Finishes, from plain to marbled, from bright reds to muted earth tones and with various textures, could easily be applied during the mixing and extrusion process. The successful pilot-scale demonstration was in turn used to design the production parameters and extruder dies for a commercial scale demonstration at Ultrapanel Pty, Ltd of Ballarat, Australia under Phase II. The initial

  18. High Accuracy Speed-fed Grating Angular Acceleration Measurement System Based on FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Shaft angular acceleration is one of the most important parameter of rotary machines, the error of angular acceleration increased when the shaft speed up. For this problem, a new high accuracy angular acceleration measurement system is presented, the principle of measurement is self-regulating the period of speed sampling signal according to the proportion of the shaft speed up. This measurement system combined FPGA and SCM, the speed of shaft is received by the timer of SCM responding the interrupts of FPGA, and then set the parameter of frequency divider in FPGA, so as to make the period of speed sampling consistent with the proportion of the speed up. This measurement system could overcome the error when system speed up according to the experiment.

  19. Flour production from shrimp by-products and sensory evaluation of flour-based products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Mendes Fernandes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the production of flour using by-products (cephalothorax obtained from the shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei industry, and to perform a sensory analysis of shrimp flour-based products. Physicochemical and microbiological analyses on fresh cephalothorax and on manufactured flour were performed, as well as the determination of cholesterol content of this flour, and the sensorial evaluation of soup and pastry made with this flour. By the microbiological analyses, no pathogenic microorganism was detected in the samples. Physicochemical analyses of flour showed high levels of protein (50.05% and minerals (20.97%. Shrimp cephalothorax flour showed high levels of cholesterol. The sensory evaluation indicated a good acceptance of the products, with satisfactory acceptability index (81% for soup, and 83% for pastry, which indicates that shrimp cephalothorax in the form of flour has a potential for developing new products.

  20. Evaluation of oxidative behavior of polyolefin geosynthetics utilizing accelerated aging tests based on temperature and pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengjia

    Polyolefin geosynthetics are susceptible to oxidation, which eventually leads to the reduction in their engineering properties. In the application of polyolefin geosynthetics, a major issue is an estimate of the materials durability (i.e. service lifetime) under various aging conditions. Antioxidant packages are added to the polyolefin products to extend the induction time, during which antioxidants are gradually depleted and polymer oxidation reactions are prevented. In this PhD study, an improved laboratory accelerating aging method under elevated and high pressure environments was applied to evaluate the combined effect of temperature and pressure on the depletion of the antioxidants and the oxidation of polymers. Four types of commercial polyolefn geosynthetic materials selected for aging tests included HDPE geogrid, polypropylene woven and nonwoven geotextiles. A total of 33 different temperature/pressure aging conditions were used, with the incubation duration up to 24 months. The applied oven temperature ranged from 35°C to 105°C and the partial oxygen pressure ranged from 0.005 MPa to 6.3 MPa. Using the Oxidative Induction Time (OIT) test, the antioxidant depletion, which is correlated to the decrease of the OIT value, was found to follow apparent first-order decay. The OIT data also showed that, the antioxidant depletion rate increased with temperature according to the Arrhenius equation, while under constant temperatures, the rate increased exponentially with the partial pressure of oxygen. A modified Arrhenius model was developed to fit the antioxidant depletion rate as a function of temperature and pressure and to predict the antioxidant lifetime under various field conditions. This study has developed new temperature/pressure incubation aging test method with lifetime prediction models. Using this new technique, the antioxidant lifetime prediction results are close to regular temperature aging data while the aging duration can be reduced considerably

  1. Low energy emulsion-based fermentation enabling accelerated methane mass transfer and growth of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)-accumulating methanotrophs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Jaewook; Kim, Minkyu; Pan, Ming; Criddle, Craig S; Tang, Sindy K Y

    2016-05-01

    Methane is a low-cost feedstock for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoate biopolymers, but methanotroph fermentations are limited by the low solubility of methane in water. To enhance mass transfer of methane to water, vigorous mixing or agitation is typically used, which inevitably increases power demand and operational costs. This work presents a method for accelerating methane mass transfer without agitation by growing methanotrophs in water-in-oil emulsions, where the oil has a higher solubility for methane than water does. In systems without agitation, the growth rate of methanotrophs in emulsions is five to six times that of methanotrophs in the medium-alone incubations. Within seven days, cells within the emulsions accumulate up to 67 times more P3HB than cells in the medium-alone incubations. This is achieved due to the increased interfacial area of the aqueous phase, and accelerated methane diffusion through the oil phase.

  2. Minimum-acceleration Trajectory Optimization for Humanoid Manipulator Based on Differential Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Ziwu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A humanoid manipulator produces significantly reactive forces against a humanoid body when it operates in a rapid and continuous reaction environment (e.g., playing baseball, ping-pong etc.. This not only disturbs the balance and stability of the humanoid robot, but also influences its operation precision. To solve this problem, a novel approach, which is able to generate a minimum-acceleration and continuous acceleration trajectory for the humanoid manipulator, is presented in this paper. By this method, the whole trajectory of humanoid manipulation is divided into two processes, i.e., the operation process and the return process. Moreover, the target operation point is considered as a particular point that should be passed through. As such, the trajectory of each process is described through a quartic polynomial in the joint space, after which the trajectory planning problem for the humanoid manipulator can be formulated as a global constrained optimization problem. In order to alleviate the reactive force, a fitness function that aims to minimize the maximum acceleration of each joint of the manipulator is defined, while differential evolution is employed to determine the joint accelerations of the target operation point. Thus, a trajectory with a minimum-acceleration and continuous acceleration profile is obtained, which can reduce the effect on the body and be favourable for the balance and stability of the humanoid robot to a certain extent. Finally, a humanoid robot with a 7-DOF manipulator for ping-pong playing is employed as an example. Simulation experiment results show the effectiveness of this method for the trajectory planning problem being studied.

  3. Production of high-energy colliding. gamma gamma. and. gamma. e beams with a high luminosity at VLEPP accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginzburg, I.F.; Kotkin, G.L.; Serbo, V.G.; Tel' nov, V.I.

    1981-11-05

    Colliding ..gamma gamma.. and ..gamma..e beams with an energy and luminosity of the same order of magnitude as for e/sup +/e/sup -/ beams can be produced by scattering a laser light at the accelerators with colliding e/sup +/e/sup -/ beams with an energy > or approx. =100 GeV. Such accelerators are currently in the design stage.

  4. Wavefront-sensor-based electron density measurements for laser-plasma accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plateau, Guillaume; Matlis, Nicholas; Geddes, Cameron; Gonsalves, Anthony; Shiraishi, Satomi; Lin, Chen; van Mourik, Reinier; Leemans, Wim

    2010-02-20

    Characterization of the electron density in laser produced plasmas is presented using direct wavefront analysis of a probe laser beam. The performance of a laser-driven plasma-wakefield accelerator depends on the plasma wavelength, hence on the electron density. Density measurements using a conventional folded-wave interferometer and using a commercial wavefront sensor are compared for different regimes of the laser-plasma accelerator. It is shown that direct wavefront measurements agree with interferometric measurements and, because of the robustness of the compact commercial device, have greater phase sensitivity, straightforward analysis, improving shot-to-shot plasma-density diagnostics.

  5. Simulation studies of laser wakefield acceleration based on typical 100 TW laser facilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Da-Zhang; GAO Jie; ZHU Xiong-Wei; HE An

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,2-D Particle-In-Cell simulations are made for Laser Wakefield Accelerations(LWFA).As in a real experiment,we perform plasma density scanning for typical 100 TW laser facilities.Several basic laws for self-injected acceleration in a bubble regime are presented.According to these laws,we choose a proper plasma density and then obtain a high quality quasi-monoenergetic electron bunch with arms energy of more than 650 MeV and a bunch length of less than 1.5 μn.

  6. A new type of accelerator power supply based on voltage-type space vector PWM rectification technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fengjun; Gao, Daqing; Shi, Chunfeng; Huang, Yuzhen; Cui, Yuan; Yan, Hongbin; Zhang, Huajian; Wang, Bin; Li, Xiaohui

    2016-08-01

    To solve the problems such as low input power factor, a large number of AC current harmonics and instable DC bus voltage due to the diode or thyristor rectifier used in an accelerator power supply, particularly in the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou-Cooler Storage Ring (HIRFL-CSR), we designed and built up a new type of accelerator power supply prototype base on voltage-type space vector PWM (SVPWM) rectification technology. All the control strategies are developed in TMS320C28346, which is a digital signal processor from TI. The experimental results indicate that an accelerator power supply with a SVPWM rectifier can solve the problems above well, and the output performance such as stability, tracking error and ripple current meet the requirements of the design. The achievement of prototype confirms that applying voltage-type SVPWM rectification technology in an accelerator power supply is feasible; and it provides a good reference for design and build of this new type of power supply.

  7. A scintillator-based online detector for the angularly resolved measurement of laser-accelerated proton spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzkes, J.; Kraft, S. D.; Sobiella, M.; Stiller, N.; Zeil, K.; Schramm, U. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstr. 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Karsch, L.; Schuerer, M. [OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, TU Dresden, Fetscherstr. 74, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Pawelke, J.; Richter, C. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstr. 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, TU Dresden, Fetscherstr. 74, 01307 Dresden (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    In recent years, a new generation of high repetition rate ({approx}10 Hz), high power ({approx}100 TW) laser systems has stimulated intense research on laser-driven sources for fast protons. Considering experimental instrumentation, this development requires online diagnostics for protons to be added to the established offline detection tools such as solid state track detectors or radiochromic films. In this article, we present the design and characterization of a scintillator-based online detector that gives access to the angularly resolved proton distribution along one spatial dimension and resolves 10 different proton energy ranges. Conceived as an online detector for key parameters in laser-proton acceleration, such as the maximum proton energy and the angular distribution, the detector features a spatial resolution of {approx}1.3 mm and a spectral resolution better than 1.5 MeV for a maximum proton energy above 12 MeV in the current design. Regarding its areas of application, we consider the detector a useful complement to radiochromic films and Thomson parabola spectrometers, capable to give immediate feedback on the experimental performance. The detector was characterized at an electrostatic Van de Graaff tandetron accelerator and tested in a laser-proton acceleration experiment, proving its suitability as a diagnostic device for laser-accelerated protons.

  8. Free standing diamond-like carbon thin films by PLD for laser based electrons/protons acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thema, F.T.; Beukes, P.; Ngom, B.D. [UNESCO Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West, 7129, PO Box722, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Manikandan, E., E-mail: mani@tlabs.ac.za [UNESCO Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West, 7129, PO Box722, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Central Research Laboratory, Sree Balaji Medical College & Hospital (SBMCH), Chrompet, Bharath University, Chennai, 600044 (India); Maaza, M., E-mail: maaza@tlabs.ac.za [UNESCO Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West, 7129, PO Box722, Western Cape Province (South Africa)

    2015-11-05

    This study we reports for the first time on the synthesis and optical characteristics of free standing diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) onto graphene buffer layers for ultrahigh intensity laser based electron/proton acceleration applications. The fingerprint techniques of micro-Raman, UV–VIS–NIR and the IR spectroscopic investigations indicate that the suitability of such free standing DLC thin-films within the laser window and long wave infrared (LWIR) spectral range and hence their appropriateness for the targeted applications. - Highlights: • We report for the first time synthesis of free standing diamond-like carbon. • Pulsed laser deposition onto graphene buffer layers. • Fingerprint techniques of micro-Raman, UV–VIS–NIR and the IR spectroscopic investigations. • Ultrahigh intensity laser based electron/proton acceleration applications. • This material's suitable for the laser window and long wave infrared (LWIR) spectral range.

  9. Student Teachers' Modeling of Acceleration Using a Video-Based Laboratory in Physics Education: A Multimodal Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Trudel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory study intends to model kinematics learning of a pair of student teachers when exposed to prescribed teaching strategies in a video-based laboratory. Two student teachers were chosen from the Francophone B.Ed. program of the Faculty of Education of a Canadian university. The study method consisted of having the participants interact with a video-based laboratory to complete two activities for learning properties of acceleration in rectilinear motion. Time limits were placed on the learning activities during which the researcher collected detailed multimodal information from the student teachers' answers to questions, the graphs they produced from experimental data, and the videos taken during the learning sessions. As a result, we describe the learning approach each one followed, the evidence of conceptual change and the difficulties they face in tackling various aspects of the accelerated motion. We then specify advantages and limits of our research and propose recommendations for further study.

  10. Challenges for bio-based products in sustainable value chains

    OpenAIRE

    L. Cardon; Lin, J.W.; De Groote, M.; Ragaert, K.; Kopecka, J.A.; Koster, R.P.

    2011-01-01

    This work concerns studies related to strategic development of products in which bio-based plastics are or will be applied, referred to as bio-based products. The studies cover (1) current and potential benefits of bio-based products in extended value chains including activities after end-of-life of products, (2) value communication between stakeholders in extended value chains, and (3) creating an integrated development approach for optimized bio-based products. Most existing models for valu...

  11. Accelerated Life Test Design for Tractor Powertrain Front Axle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Azianti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated Life Test (ALT has been applied in the manufacturing for many years due to rapid changing technologies, more complex products, speedier product development, and more demanding customer requirements. These reasons have pushed the manufacturers to acquire reliability information faster. ALT allows reducing the time needed to show the reliability of the product. The purpose of this study is to design accelerated life testing which involved determination of normal test time, acceleration factor, acceleration test time, and finally experimental setup. This case study provides the basis for ALT designs for the tractor front axle based on customer usage and field failure analysis, which were conducted to estimate the current reliability, especially on the B10 life during the operational stage of the product. The accelerated life test conducted has guaranteed the B10 life of 4,000 hours with 90% confidence level for lesser time needed for testing to show the reliability of the front axle assembly.

  12. Ecological site-based assessments of wind and water erosion: informing accelerated soil erosion management in rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Nicholas P.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Duniway, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Accelerated soil erosion occurs when anthropogenic processes modify soil, vegetation or climatic conditions causing erosion rates at a location to exceed their natural variability. Identifying where and when accelerated erosion occurs is a critical first step toward its effective management. Here we explore how erosion assessments structured in the context of ecological sites (a land classification based on soils, landscape setting and ecological potential) and their vegetation states (plant assemblages that may change due to management) can inform systems for reducing accelerated soil erosion in rangelands. We evaluated aeolian horizontal sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion rates for five ecological sites in southern New Mexico, USA, using monitoring data and rangeland-specific wind and water erosion models. Across the ecological sites, plots in shrub-encroached and shrub-dominated vegetation states were consistently susceptible to aeolian sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion. Both processes were found to be highly variable for grassland and grass-succulent states across the ecological sites at the plot scale (0.25 Ha). We identify vegetation thresholds that define cover levels below which rapid (exponential) increases in aeolian sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion occur across the ecological sites and vegetation states. Aeolian sediment flux and fluvial erosion in the study area can be effectively controlled when bare ground cover is 100 cm in length is less than ~35%. Land use and management activities that alter cover levels such that they cross thresholds, and/or drive vegetation state changes, may increase the susceptibility of areas to erosion. Land use impacts that are constrained within the range of natural variability should not result in accelerated soil erosion. Evaluating land condition against the erosion thresholds identified here will enable identification of areas susceptible to accelerated soil erosion and the development of

  13. The effect of the accelerated aging on the mechanical properties of the PMMA denture base materials modified with itaconates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasojević Pavle M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of accelerated ageing on the tensile strength, elongation at break, hardness and Charpy impact strength in commercial PMMA denture base material modified with di-methyl itaconate (DMI and di-n-butyl itaconate (DBI. The samples were prepared by modifying commercial formulation by addition of itaconates in the amounts of 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% by weight. After polymerization samples were characterized by FT-IR and DSC analysis while residual monomer content was determined by HPLC-UV. Accelerated ageing was performed at 70°C in water for periods of 7, 15 and 30 days. Tensile measurements were performed using Instron testing machine while the hardness of the polymerized samples was measured by Shore D method. The addition of itaconate significantly reduces the residual MMA. Even at the small amounts of added itaconates (2.5% the residual MMA content was reduced by 50%. The increase of itaconate content in the system leads to the decrease of residual MMA. It has been found that the addition of di-n-alkyl itaconates decreases the tensile strength, hardness and Charpy impact strength and increases elongation at break. Samples modified with DMI had higher values of tensile strength, hardness and Charpy impact strength compared to the ones modified with DBI. This is explained by the fact that DBI has longer side chain compared to DMI. After accelerated ageing during a 30 days period the tensile strength decreased for all the investigated samples. The addition of DMI had no effect on the material ageing and the values for the tensile strength of all of the investigated samples decreased around 20%, while for the samples modified with DBI, the increase of the amount of DBI in the polymerized material leads to the higher decrease of the tensile strength after the complete accelerated ageing period od 30 days, aulthough after the first seven days of the accelerated ageing the values of hardness have increased for all of the

  14. Leaky Fermi accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Kushal; Rom-Kedar, Vered; Turaev, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    A Fermi accelerator is a billiard with oscillating walls. A leaky accelerator interacts with an environment of an ideal gas at equilibrium by exchange of particles through a small hole on its boundary. Such interaction may heat the gas: we estimate the net energy flow through the hole under the assumption that the particles inside the billiard do not collide with each other and remain in the accelerator for sufficiently long time. The heat production is found to depend strongly on the type of the Fermi accelerator. An ergodic accelerator, i.e. one which has a single ergodic component, produces a weaker energy flow than a multi-component accelerator. Specifically, in the ergodic case the energy gain is independent of the hole size, whereas in the multi-component case the energy flow may be significantly increased by shrinking the hole size.

  15. A bremsstrahlung gamma-ray source based on stable ionization injection of electrons into a laser wakefield accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Döpp, A., E-mail: andreas.doepp@polytechnique.edu [LOA, ENSTA ParisTech, CNRS, École polytechnique, Université Paris-Saclay, 828 bd des Maréchaux, 91762 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Centro de Laseres Pulsados, Parque Cientfico, 37185 Villamayor, Salamanca (Spain); Guillaume, E.; Thaury, C.; Lifschitz, A. [LOA, ENSTA ParisTech, CNRS, École polytechnique, Université Paris-Saclay, 828 bd des Maréchaux, 91762 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Sylla, F. [SourceLAB SAS, 86 rue de Paris, 91400 Orsay (France); Goddet, J-P.; Tafzi, A.; Iaquanello, G.; Lefrou, T.; Rousseau, P. [LOA, ENSTA ParisTech, CNRS, École polytechnique, Université Paris-Saclay, 828 bd des Maréchaux, 91762 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Conejero, E.; Ruiz, C. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de laMerced s/n, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Ta Phuoc, K.; Malka, V. [LOA, ENSTA ParisTech, CNRS, École polytechnique, Université Paris-Saclay, 828 bd des Maréchaux, 91762 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

    2016-09-11

    Laser wakefield acceleration permits the generation of ultra-short, high-brightness relativistic electron beams on a millimeter scale. While those features are of interest for many applications, the source remains constraint by the poor stability of the electron injection process. Here we present results on injection and acceleration of electrons in pure nitrogen and argon. We observe stable, continuous ionization-induced injection of electrons into the wakefield for laser powers exceeding a threshold of 7 TW. The beam charge scales approximately with the laser energy and is limited by beam loading. For 40 TW laser pulses we measure a maximum charge of almost 1 nC per shot, originating mostly from electrons of less than 10 MeV energy. The relatively low energy, the high charge and its stability make this source well-suited for applications such as non-destructive testing. Hence, we demonstrate the production of energetic radiation via bremsstrahlung conversion at 1 Hz repetition rate. In accordance with GEANT4 Monte-Carlo simulations, we measure a γ-ray source size of less than 100 μm for a 0.5 mm tantalum converter placed at 2 mm from the accelerator exit. Furthermore we present radiographs of image quality indicators.

  16. A bremsstrahlung gamma-ray source based on stable ionization injection of electrons into a laser wakefield accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döpp, A.; Guillaume, E.; Thaury, C.; Lifschitz, A.; Sylla, F.; Goddet, J.-P.; Tafzi, A.; Iaquanello, G.; Lefrou, T.; Rousseau, P.; Conejero, E.; Ruiz, C.; Ta Phuoc, K.; Malka, V.

    2016-09-01

    Laser wakefield acceleration permits the generation of ultra-short, high-brightness relativistic electron beams on a millimeter scale. While those features are of interest for many applications, the source remains constraint by the poor stability of the electron injection process. Here we present results on injection and acceleration of electrons in pure nitrogen and argon. We observe stable, continuous ionization-induced injection of electrons into the wakefield for laser powers exceeding a threshold of 7 TW. The beam charge scales approximately with the laser energy and is limited by beam loading. For 40 TW laser pulses we measure a maximum charge of almost 1 nC per shot, originating mostly from electrons of less than 10 MeV energy. The relatively low energy, the high charge and its stability make this source well-suited for applications such as non-destructive testing. Hence, we demonstrate the production of energetic radiation via bremsstrahlung conversion at 1 Hz repetition rate. In accordance with GEANT4 Monte-Carlo simulations, we measure a γ-ray source size of less than 100 μm for a 0.5 mm tantalum converter placed at 2 mm from the accelerator exit. Furthermore we present radiographs of image quality indicators.

  17. Genetic Algorithm Based Production Planning for Alternative Process Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Fa-ping; SUN Hou-fang; SHAHID I. Butt

    2009-01-01

    Production planning under flexible job shop environment is studied. A mathematic model is formulated to help improve alternative process production. This model, in which genetic algorithm is used, is expected to result in better production planning, hence towards the aim of minimizing production cost under the constraints of delivery time and other scheduling conditions. By means of this algorithm, all planning schemes which could meet all requirements of the constraints within the whole solution space are exhaustively searched so as to find the optimal one. Also, a case study is given in the end to support and validate this model. Our results show that genetic algorithm is capable of locating feasible process routes to reduce production cost for certain tasks.

  18. Study of Mechanical Product Rapid Design Based on Knowledge Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAI Li-gang; ZHONG Ting-xiu

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a mechanical product intelligent rapid design approach based on integrated technologies. Adopting knowledge based engineering to reuse and manage product design knowledge, and combining feature modeling and parametric design based on existing CAD/CAE/CAM system and technology of product family modeling and engineering database, the system establishes a product family knowledge base, which mainly including product family case base and rule base. The system also utilizes WEB technology to let customers to individually customize products remotely through internet. And an applicable example is given in the end.

  19. Material studies in the frame of CLIC Accelerating structures production conducted within the Mechanics program together with Metso Oy

    CERN Document Server

    Nurminen, Janne

    2012-01-01

    MeChanICs (Marie Curie Linking Industry to CERN) is an Industry to Academia Partnership and Pathways (IAPP) platform for precision manufacturing knowledge exchange bringing together five Finnish manufacturing companies with Helsinki Insitute of Physics (HIP) and CERN. The scientific objective of MeChanICs project is to contribute to the manufacturing RTD of CLIC enabling technologies. The focus is on the design, materials, machining, brazing and assembly of A CLIC accelerating structure. This study deals with the materials work package of the program and wants to explore the following items: 1) producing copper accelerating structures for CLIC from raw copper powder by near net shape hot isostatic pressing (HIP). 2) The feasibility to use HIP diffusion bonding of the accelerator structures as a function of surface quality and applied temperature and pressure. 3) Brazing for CLIC AS auxiliary systems, like water cooling or damping manifolds, to the disc stack by coating one of the brazing partners with an enab...

  20. Future accelerators (?)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Womersley

    2003-08-21

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  1. Progress on the accelerator based SPES-BNCT project at INFN Legnaro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, J.; Colautti, P.; Pisent, A.; De Nardo, L.; Conte, V.; Moro, D.; Agosteo, S.; Jori, G.; Tinti, R.; Rosi, G.

    2007-02-01

    In the framework of an advanced Exotic Ion Beam facility, named SPES (Study and Production of Exotic Species), that will allow a frontier program both in nuclear and interdisciplinary physics, an intense thermal neutron beam facility, devoted to perform Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) experimental treatments on skin melanoma tumor, is currently under construction based on the SPES proton driver. A vast radiobiological investigation in vitro and in vivo has started with the new 10B carriers developed. Special microdosimetric detectors have been constructed to properly measure all the BNCT dose components and their qualities. Both microdosimetric and radiobiological measurements are being performed at the new HYTHOR beam shaping assembly at the Enea-Casaccia TAPIRO reactor.

  2. RF linear accelerators for medical and industrial applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hanna, Samy

    2012-01-01

    This unique resource offers you a clear overview of medical and industrial accelerators. Using minimal mathematics, this book focuses on offering thorough explanations of basic concepts surrounding the operation of accelerators. you find well illustrated discussions designed to help you use accelerator-based systems in a safer, more productive, and more reliable manner.This practical book details the manufacturing process for producing accelerators for medical and industrial applications. You become knowledgeable about the commonly encountered real-world manufacturing issues and potential sources of defects which help you avoid costly production problems. From principles of operation and the role of accelerators in cancer radiation therapy, to manufacturing techniques and future trends in accelerator design and applications, this easy-to-comprehend volume quickly brings you up-to-speed with the critical concepts you need to understand for your work in the field.

  3. Design of a beam shaping assembly and preliminary modelling of a treatment room for accelerator-based BNCT at CNEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burlon, A.A.; Girola, S. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Martin (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin, San Martin (Argentina); Valda, A.A., E-mail: valda@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Martin (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin, San Martin (Argentina); Minsky, D.M.; Kreiner, A.J. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Martin (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin, San Martin (Argentina)] [CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Sanchez, G. [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin, San Martin (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    This work reports on the characterisation of a neutron beam shaping assembly (BSA) prototype and on the preliminary modelling of a treatment room for BNCT within the framework of a research programme for the development and construction of an accelerator-based BNCT irradiation facility in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The BSA prototype constructed has been characterised by means of MCNP simulations as well as a set of experimental measurements performed at the Tandar accelerator at the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterisation of a neutron beam shaping assembly for accelerator-based BNCT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Measurements: total and epi-cadmium neutron fluxes and beam homogeneity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calculations: Monte Carlo simulations with the MCNP code. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Measured and calculated figure-of-merit parameters in agreement with those of IAEA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Initial MCNP dose calculations for a treatment room to define future design actions.

  4. Nanosecond pulse-width electron diode based on dielectric wall accelerator technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Quantang; Zhang, Z. M.; Yuan, P.; Cao, S. C.; Shen, X. K.; Jing, Y.; Yu, C. S.; Li, Z. P.; Liu, M.; Xiao, R. Q.; Zong, Y.; Wang, Y. R.; Zhao, H. W.

    2013-11-01

    An electron diode using a short section of dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) has been under development at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences. Tests have been carried out with spark gap switches triggered by lasers. The stack voltage efficiency of a four-layer of Blumleins reached about 60-70% with gas filled spark gap switching. The generated pulse voltage of peak amplitude of 23 kV and pulse width of 5 ns is used to extract and accelerate an electron beam of 320 mA, measured by a fast current transformer. A nanosecond pulse width electron diode was achieved successfully. Furthermore, the principle of a DWA is well proven and the development details and discussions are presented in this article.

  5. Disturbance rejection control based on acceleration projection method for walking robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu-yang WANG; Zhao-hong XU; Tian-sheng LU

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a disturbance rejection scheme for walking robots under unknown external forces and moments.The disturbance rejection strategy,which combines the inverse dynamics control with the acceleration projection onto the ZMP (zero moment point)-plane,can ensure the overall dynamic stability of the robot during tracking the pre-computed trajectories.Under normal conditions,I.e.,the system is dynamically balanced,a primary inverse dynamics control is utilized.In the case that the system becomes unbalanced due to external disturbances,the acceleration projection control(APC)loop,will be activated to keep the dynamic stability of the walking robot through modifying the input torques.The preliminary experimental results on a robot leg demonstrate that the proposed method can actually make the robot keep a stable motion under unknown external per-turbations.

  6. FPGA-based Acceleration of Davidon-Fletcher-Powell Quasi-Newton Optimization Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘强; 桑若愚; 张齐军

    2016-01-01

    Quasi-Newton methods are the most widely used methods to find local maxima and minima of func-tions in various engineering practices. However, they involve a large amount of matrix and vector operations, which are computationally intensive and require a long processing time. Recently, with the increasing density and arithme-tic cores, field programmable gate array (FPGA) has become an attractive alternative to the acceleration of scien-tific computation. This paper aims to accelerate Davidon-Fletcher-Powell quasi-Newton (DFP-QN) method by pro-posing a customized and pipelined hardware implementation on FPGAs. Experimental results demonstrate that compared with a software implementation, a speed-up of up to 17 times can be achieved by the proposed hardware implementation.

  7. Accelerating Relevance-Vector-Machine-Based Classification of Hyperspectral Image with Parallel Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Dong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Benefiting from the kernel skill and the sparse property, the relevance vector machine (RVM could acquire a sparse solution, with an equivalent generalization ability compared with the support vector machine. The sparse property requires much less time in the prediction, making RVM potential in classifying the large-scale hyperspectral image. However, RVM is not widespread influenced by its slow training procedure. To solve the problem, the classification of the hyperspectral image using RVM is accelerated by the parallel computing technique in this paper. The parallelization is revealed from the aspects of the multiclass strategy, the ensemble of multiple weak classifiers, and the matrix operations. The parallel RVMs are implemented using the C language plus the parallel functions of the linear algebra packages and the message passing interface library. The proposed methods are evaluated by the AVIRIS Indian Pines data set on the Beowulf cluster and the multicore platforms. It shows that the parallel RVMs accelerate the training procedure obviously.

  8. Complications following linear accelerator based stereotactic radiation for cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth-Rasmussen, Jane; Roed, Henrik; Ohlhues, Lars;

    2010-01-01

    Primarily, gamma knife centers are predominant in publishing results on arteriovenous malformations (AVM) treatments including reports on risk profile. However, many patients are treated using a linear accelerator-most of these at smaller centers. Because this setting is different from a large...... gamma knife center, the risk profile at Linac departments could be different from the reported experience. Prescribed radiation doses are dependent on AVM volume. This study details results from a medium sized Linac department center focusing on risk profiles....

  9. Accelerator-based analytical technique in the evaluation of some Nigeria's natural minerals: Fluorite, tourmaline and topaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olabanji, S.O. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy)]. E-mail: skayode2002@yahoo.co.uk; Ige, O.A. [Natural History Museum, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Mazzoli, C. [Dipartimento di Mineralogia e Petrologia, Universita di Padova, 35100 Padova (Italy); Ceccato, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35100 Padova (Italy); Akintunde, J.A. [CERD, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); De Poli, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Moschini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35100 Padova (Italy)

    2005-10-15

    For the first time, the complementary accelerator-based analytical technique of PIXE and electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) were employed for the characterization of some Nigeria's natural minerals namely fluorite, tourmaline and topaz. These minerals occur in different areas in Nigeria. The minerals are mainly used as gemstones and for other scientific and technological applications and therefore are very important. There is need to characterize them to know the quality of these gemstones and update the geochemical data on them geared towards useful applications. PIXE analysis was carried out using the 1.8 MeV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at INFN, LNL, Legnaro, Padova, Italy. The novel results which show many elements at different concentrations in these minerals are presented and discussed.

  10. An accelerator-based epithermal neutron beam design for BNCT and dosimetric evaluation using a voxel head phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Deok-jae; Han, Chi Young; Park, Sung Ho; Kim, Jong Kyung

    2004-01-01

    The beam shaping assembly design has been investigated in order to improve the epithermal neutron beam for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy in intensity and quality, and dosimetric evaluation for the beams has been performed using both mathematical and voxel head phantoms with MCNP runs. The neutron source was assumed to be produced from a conventional 2.5 MeV proton accelerator with a thick (7)Li target. The results indicate that it is possible to enhance epithermal neutron flux remarkably as well as to embody a good spectrum shaping to epithermal neutrons only with the proper combination of moderator and reflector. It is also found that a larger number of thermal neutrons can reach deeply into the brain and, therefore, can reduce considerably the treatment time for brain tumours. Consequently, the epithermal neutron beams designed in this study can treat more effectively deep-seated brain tumours.

  11. FDTD Acceleration for Cylindrical Resonator Design Based on the Hybrid of Single and Double Precision Floating-Point Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasitha Muthumala Waidyasooriya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acceleration of FDTD (finite-difference time-domain is very important for the fields such as computational electromagnetic simulation. We consider the FDTD simulation model of cylindrical resonator design that requires double precision floating-point and cannot be done using single precision. Conventional FDTD acceleration methods have a common problem of memory-bandwidth limitation due to the large amount of parallel data access. To overcome this problem, we propose a hybrid of single and double precision floating-point computation method that reduces the data-transfer amount. We analyze the characteristics of the FDTD simulation to find out when we can use single precision instead of double precision. According to the experimental results, we achieved over 15 times of speed-up compared to the CPU single-core implementation and over 1.52 times of speed-up compared to the conventional GPU-based implementation.

  12. Accelerator and radiation physics

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Samita; Nandy, Maitreyee

    2013-01-01

    "Accelerator and radiation physics" encompasses radiation shielding design and strategies for hadron therapy accelerators, neutron facilities and laser based accelerators. A fascinating article describes detailed transport theory and its application to radiation transport. Detailed information on planning and design of a very high energy proton accelerator can be obtained from the article on radiological safety of J-PARC. Besides safety for proton accelerators, the book provides information on radiological safety issues for electron synchrotron and prevention and preparedness for radiological emergencies. Different methods for neutron dosimetry including LET based monitoring, time of flight spectrometry, track detectors are documented alongwith newly measured experimental data on radiation interaction with dyes, polymers, bones and other materials. Design of deuteron accelerator, shielding in beam line hutches in synchrotron and 14 MeV neutron generator, various radiation detection methods, their characteriza...

  13. Cherenkov radiation in a surface wave accelerator based on silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianhong; Khudik, Vladimir; Shvets, Gennady

    2016-10-01

    We report on our theoretical investigations of Cherenkov-type emission of surface phonon polaritons (SPPs) by relativistic electron bunches. The polaritons are confined by a planar waveguide comprised of two SiC slabs separated by an air gap. The SPPs are generated in the spectral range known as the reststrahlen band, where the dielectric permittivity of SiC is negative. Two surface modes of the radiation are analyzed: the longitudinal (accelerating) and the transverse (deflecting) ones. Both form Cherenkov cones that are different in the magnitude of the cone angle and the central frequency. However, both exhibits rapid spatial oscillations and beats behind the moving charge. Moreover, the longitudinal mode forms a reversed Cherenkov radiation cone due the negative group velocity for sufficiently small air gaps, but the transverse mode does not. The wakefield acceleration of electron beam inside the structure is also studied. Transverse instabilities and BBU effects can be suppressed by flat driver beam, meanwhile the longitudinal mode can support accelerating fields >1 GeV.

  14. System Reliability for LED-Based Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J Lynn; Mills, Karmann; Lamvik, Michael; Yaga, Robert; Shepherd, Sarah D; Bittle, James; Baldasaro, Nick; Solano, Eric; Bobashev, Georgiy; Johnson, Cortina; Evans, Amy

    2014-04-07

    Results from accelerated life tests (ALT) on mass-produced commercially available 6” downlights are reported along with results from commercial LEDs. The luminaires capture many of the design features found in modern luminaires. In general, a systems perspective is required to understand the reliability of these devices since LED failure is rare. In contrast, components such as drivers, lenses, and reflector are more likely to impact luminaire reliability than LEDs.

  15. Challenges for bio-based products in sustainable value chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardon, L.; Lin, J.W.; De Groote, M.; Ragaert, K.; Kopecka, J.A.; Koster, R.P.

    2011-01-01

    This work concerns studies related to strategic development of products in which bio-based plastics are or will be applied, referred to as bio-based products. The studies cover (1) current and potential benefits of bio-based products in extended value chains including activities after end-of-life of

  16. Design, construction and operational results of the IGBT controlled solid state modulator high voltage power supply used in the high power RF systems of the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator of the accelerator production of tritium (APT) project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, J.T. III; Rees, D.; Przeklasa, R.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Scott, M.C. [Continental Electronics Corp., Dallas, TX (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The 1700 MeV, 100 mA Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Proton Linac will require 244 1 MW, continuous wave RF systems. 1 MW continuous wave klystrons are used as the RF source and each klystron requires 95 kV, 17 A of beam voltage and current. The cost of the DC power supplies is the single largest percentage of the total RF system cost. Power supply reliability is crucial to overall RF system availability and AC to DC conversion efficiency affects the operating cost. The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) being constructed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) will serve as the prototype and test bed for APT. The design of the RF systems used in LEDA is driven by the need to field test high efficiency systems with extremely high reliability before APT is built. The authors present a detailed description and test results of one type of advanced high voltage power supply system using Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) that has been used with the LEDA High Power RF systems. The authors also present some of the distinctive features offered by this power supply topology, including crowbarless tube protection and modular construction which allows graceful degradation of power supply operation.

  17. Repair of overheating linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkley, Walter; Baldwin, William; Bennett, Gloria; Bitteker, Leo; Borden, Michael; Casados, Jeff; Fitzgerald, Daniel; Gorman, Fred; Johnson, Kenneth; Kurennoy, Sergey; Martinez, Alberto; O’Hara, James; Perez, Edward; Roller, Brandon; Rybarcyk, Lawrence; Stark, Peter; Stockton, Jerry

    2004-01-01

    Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is a proton accelerator that produces high energy particle beams for experiments. These beams include neutrons and protons for diverse uses including radiography, isotope production, small feature study, lattice vibrations and material science. The Drift Tube Linear Accelerator (DTL) is the first portion of a half mile long linear section of accelerator that raises the beam energy from 750 keV to 100 MeV. In its 31st year of operation (2003), the DTL experienced serious issues. The first problem was the inability to maintain resonant frequency at full power. The second problem was increased occurrences of over-temperature failure of cooling hoses. These shortcomings led to an investigation during the 2003 yearly preventative maintenance shutdown that showed evidence of excessive heating: discolored interior tank walls and coper oxide deposition in the cooling circuits. Since overheating was suspected to be caused by compromised heat transfer, improving that was the focus of the repair effort. Investigations revealed copper oxide flow inhibition and iron oxide scale build up. Acid cleaning was implemented with careful attention to protection of the base metal, selection of components to clean and minimization of exposure times. The effort has been very successful in bringing the accelerator through a complete eight month run cycle allowing an incredible array of scientific experiments to be completed this year (2003-2004). This paper will describe the systems, investigation analysis, repair, return to production and conclusion.

  18. Replacing fossil based plastic performance products by bio-based plastic products-Technical feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Oever, Martien; Molenveld, Karin

    2017-07-25

    Larger scale market introduction of new bio-based products requires a clear advantage regarding sustainability, as well as an adequate techno-economic positioning relative to fossil based products. In a previous paper [Broeren et al., 2016], LCA results per kg and per functionality equivalent of bio-based plastics were presented, together with economic considerations. The present paper discusses the mechanical and thermal properties of a range of commercially available bio-based plastics based on polylactic acid (PLA), cellulose esters, starch and polyamides, and the feasibility of replacing fossil-based counterparts based on performance. The evaluation is approached from an end user perspective. First, potentially suitable bio-based plastics are selected based on manufacturers' specifications in technical data sheets, then a first experimental evaluation is performed on injection moulded ISO specimens, and finally a further selection of plastics is tested on large 50×70cm panels. This technical feasibility study indicates that so far bio-based plastics do not completely match the properties of high performance materials like flame retardant V-0 PC/ABS blends used in electronic devices. The performance gap is being decreased by the development of stereocomplex PLA and hybrid PLA blends with polycarbonate, which offer clearly improved properties with respect to maximum usage temperature and toughness. In addition, several materials meet the V-0 flammability requirements needed in specific durable applications. On the other hand, improving these properties so far has negative consequences for the bio-based content. This study also shows that replacement of bulk polymers like PS is feasible using PLA compounds with a bio-based content as high as 85%.

  19. SU-E-T-124: Anthropomorphic Phantoms for Confirmation of Linear Accelerator Based Small Animal Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perks, J; Benedict, S [UC Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Lucero, S [UC Davis, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To document the support of radiobiological small animal research by a modern radiation oncology facility. This study confirms that a standard, human use linear accelerator can cover the range of experiments called for by researchers performing animal irradiation. A number of representative, anthropomorphic murine phantoms were made. The phantoms confirmed the small field photon and electron beams dosimetry validated the use of the linear accelerator for rodents. Methods: Laser scanning a model, CAD design and 3D printing produced the phantoms. The phantoms were weighed and CT scanned to judge their compatibility to real animals. Phantoms were produced to specifically mimic lung, gut, brain, and othotopic lesion irradiations. Each phantom was irradiated with the same protocol as prescribed to the live animals. Delivered dose was measured with small field ion chambers, MOS/FETs or TLDs. Results: The density of the phantom material compared to density range across the real mice showed that the printed material would yield sufficiently accurate measurements when irradiated. The whole body, lung and gut irradiations were measured within 2% of prescribed doses with A1SL ion chamber. MOSFET measurements of electron irradiations for the orthotopic lesions allowed refinement of the measured small field output factor to better than 2% and validated the immunology experiment of irradiating one lesion and sparing another. Conclusion: Linacs are still useful tools in small animal bio-radiation research. This work demonstrated a strong role for the clinical accelerator in small animal research, facilitating standard whole body dosing as well as conformal treatments down to 1cm field. The accuracy of measured dose, was always within 5%. The electron irradiations of the phantom brain and flank tumors needed adjustment; the anthropomorphic phantoms allowed refinement of the initial output factor measurements for these fields which were made in a large block of solid water.

  20. Acceleration Control in Nonlinear Vibrating Systems based on Damped Least Squares

    CERN Document Server

    Pilipchuk, V N

    2011-01-01

    A discrete time control algorithm using the damped least squares is introduced for acceleration and energy exchange controls in nonlinear vibrating systems. It is shown that the damping constant of least squares and sampling time step of the controller must be inversely related to insure that vanishing the time step has little effect on the results. The algorithm is illustrated on two linearly coupled Duffing oscillators near the 1:1 internal resonance. In particular, it is shown that varying the dissipation ratio of one of the two oscillators can significantly suppress the nonlinear beat phenomenon.

  1. Simulation study of accelerator based quasi-mono-energetic epithermal neutron beams for BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, M; Habib, N; Bashter, I I; El-Mesiry, M S; Mansy, M S

    2016-01-01

    Filtered neutron techniques were applied to produce quasi-mono-energetic neutron beams in the energy range of 1.5-7.5 keV at the accelerator port using the generated neutron spectrum from a Li (p, n) Be reaction. A simulation study was performed to characterize the filter components and transmitted beam lines. The feature of the filtered beams is detailed in terms of optimal thickness of the primary and additive components. A computer code named "QMNB-AS" was developed to carry out the required calculations. The filtered neutron beams had high purity and intensity with low contamination from the accompanying thermal, fast neutrons and γ-rays.

  2. 1Alpha,25-(OH)2D3 acts in the early phase of osteoblast differentiation to enhance mineralization via accelerated production of mature matrix vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woeckel, V J; Alves, R D A M; Swagemakers, S M A; Eijken, M; Chiba, H; van der Eerden, B C J; van Leeuwen, J P T M

    2010-11-01

    1Alpha,25-dihydroxyitamin D(3) (1,25D3) deficiency leads to impaired bone mineralization. We used the human pre-osteoblastic cell line SV-HFO, which forms within 19 days of culture an extracellular matrix that starts to mineralize around day 12, to examine the mechanism by which 1,25D3 regulates osteoblasts and directly stimulates mineralization. Time phase studies showed that 1,25D3 treatment prior to the onset of mineralization, rather than during mineralization led to accelerated and enhanced mineralization. This is supported by the observation of unaltered stimulation by 1,25D3 even when osteoblasts were devitalized just prior to onset of mineralization and after 1,25D3 treatment. Gene Chip expression profiling identified the pre-mineralization and mineralization phase as two strongly distinctive transcriptional periods with only 0.6% overlap of genes regulated by 1,25D3. In neither phase 1,25D3 significantly altered expression of extracellular matrix genes. 1,25D3 significantly accelerated the production of mature matrix vesicles (MVs) in the pre-mineralization. Duration rather than timing determined the extent of the 1,25D3 effect. We propose the concept that besides indirect effects via intestinal calcium uptake 1,25D3 directly accelerates osteoblast-mediated mineralization via increased production of mature MVs in the period prior to mineralization. The accelerated deposition of mature MVs leads to an earlier onset and higher rate of mineralization. These effects are independent of changes in extracellular matrix protein composition. These data on 1,25D3, mineralization, and MV biology add new insights into the role of 1,25D3 in bone metabolism and emphasize the importance of MVs in bone and maintaining bone health and strength by optimal mineralization status.

  3. Road Vehicle Highly Accelerated Stress Screening and Auditing for Electric and Electronic Products%道路车辆电工电子设备高加速应力筛选和稽核

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许毅; 杨弋; 黄燕秋; 易顺希; 陈水鑫; 卢兆明

    2015-01-01

    As the mature the automotive enterprises, the highly accelerated stress screening and auditing have been introduced into R&D, trial production and bulk supply management of the assembly electrical and electronic equipment, for which the demand has entered the domestic inspection market. Based on the discussion of the highly accelerated life test (HALT), this paper introduced and discussed the essential factors and laboratory requirements for the highly accelerated stress screening (HASS) and auditing (HASA).%成熟的汽车企业已经将高加速环境应力筛选和稽核引入装车电工电子设备的研发、试产和批量供货的管理中,其需求已进入国内检测市场。在讨论了高加速寿命试验(HALT)基础上,介绍并讨论高加速应力筛选(HASS)和稽核(HASA)的各项要素和实验室要求。

  4. Use of zooming and pulseshaping for acceleration to high velocities and fusion neutron production on the Nike laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasik, Max; Weaver, J. L.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Kehne, D. M.; Zalesak, S. T.; Velikovich, A. L.; Oh, J.; Obenschain, S. P.; Arikawa, Y.

    2011-10-01

    We will present results from follow-on experiments to the record-high velocities of 1000 km/s achieved on Nike [Karasik et al, Phys. Plasmas 17, 056317(2010)], in which highly accelerated planar foils of deuterated polystyrene were made to collide with a witness foil to produce ~ 1 Gbar shock pressures and result in heating of matter to thermonuclear temperatures. Still higher velocities and higher target densities are required for impact fast ignition. The aim of these experiments is using the focal zoom capability of Nike and shaping the driving pulse to minimize shock heating of the accelerated target to achieve higher densities and velocities. In-flight target density is inferred from target heating upon collision via DD neutron time-of-flight ion temperature measurement. Work is supported by US DOE (NNSA) and Office of Naval Research. SAIC

  5. Optimizing pulse shaping and zooming for acceleration to high velocities and fusion neutron production on the Nike laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasik, Max; Weaver, J. L.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Zalesak, S. T.; Velikovich, A. L.; Oh, J.; Obenschain, S. P.; Arikawa, Y.; Watari, T.

    2010-11-01

    We will present results from follow-on experiments to the record-high velocities of 1000 km/s achieved on Nike [Karasik et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056317 (2010) ], in which highly accelerated planar foils of deuterated polystyrene were made to collide with a witness foil to produce extreme shock pressures and result in heating of matter to thermonuclear temperatures. Still higher velocities and higher target densities are required for impact fast ignition. The aim of these experiments is shaping the driving pulse to minimize shock heating of the accelerated target and using the focal zoom capability of Nike to achieve higher densities and velocities. Spectroscopic measurements of electron temperature achieved upon impact will complement the neutron time-of-flight ion temperature measurement. Work is supported by US DOE and Office of Naval Research.

  6. Experimental and theoretical evaluation of accelerator based epithermal neutron yields for BNCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielopolski, L.; Ludewig, H.; Powell, J. R.; Raparia, D.; Alessi, J. G.; Alburger, D. E.; Zucker, M. S.; Lowenstein, D. I.

    1999-06-01

    At BNL, we have evaluated the beam current required to produce a clinical neutron beam for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) with an epithermal neutron flux of 1012n/cm2/hr. Experiments were carried out on a Van de Graaff accelerator at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) at Columbia University. A thick Li target was irradiated by protons with energies from 1.8 to 2.5 MeV. The neutron spectra resulting from the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction, followed by various filter configurations, were determined by measuring pulse height distributions with a gas filled proton recoil spectrometer. These distributions were unfolded into neutron energy spectra using the PSNS code, from which the required beam currents were estimated to be about 5 mA. Results are in good agreement with calculations using the MCNP-4A transport code. In addition comparison was also made between the neutron flux obtained at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (where clinical trials of BNCT are ongoing), and measurements at RARAF, using a 10BF3 detector in a phantom. These results also support the requirement for about 5 mA beam current.

  7. Van de Graaff based positron source production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Kasey Roy

    The anti-matter counterpart to the electron, the positron, can be used for a myriad of different scientific research projects to include materials research, energy storage, and deep space flight propulsion. Currently there is a demand for large numbers of positrons to aid in these mentioned research projects. There are different methods of producing and harvesting positrons but all require radioactive sources or large facilities. Positron beams produced by relatively small accelerators are attractive because they are easily shut down, and small accelerators are readily available. A 4MV Van de Graaff accelerator was used to induce the nuclear reaction 12C(d,n)13N in order to produce an intense beam of positrons. 13N is an isotope of nitrogen that decays with a 10 minute half life into 13C, a positron, and an electron neutrino. This radioactive gas is frozen onto a cryogenic freezer where it is then channeled to form an antimatter beam. The beam is then guided using axial magnetic fields into a superconducting magnet with a field strength up to 7 Tesla where it will be stored in a newly designed Micro-Penning-Malmberg trap. Several source geometries have been experimented on and found that a maximum antimatter beam with a positron flux of greater than 0.55x10 6 e+s-1 was achieved. This beam was produced using a solid rare gas moderator composed of krypton. Due to geometric restrictions on this set up, only 0.1-1.0% of the antimatter was being frozen to the desired locations. Simulations and preliminary experiments suggest that a new geometry, currently under testing, will produce a beam of 107 e+s-1 or more.

  8. Accelerating Value Creation with Accelerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Eythor Ivar

    2015-01-01

    Accelerators can help to accelerate value creation. Accelerators are short-term programs that have the objective of creating innovative and fast growing ventures. They have gained attraction as larger corporations like Microsoft, Barclays bank and Nordea bank have initiated and sponsored accelera......Accelerators can help to accelerate value creation. Accelerators are short-term programs that have the objective of creating innovative and fast growing ventures. They have gained attraction as larger corporations like Microsoft, Barclays bank and Nordea bank have initiated and sponsored...... an approach to facilitate implementation and realization of business ideas and is a lucrative approach to transform research into ventures and to revitalize regions and industries in transition. Investors have noticed that the accelerator approach is a way to increase the possibility of success by funnelling...

  9. Direct Acceleration of Pickup Ions at the Solar Wind Termination Shock the Production of Anomalous Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Ellison, D C; Baring, M G; Ellison, Donald C.; Jones, Frank C.; Baring, Matthew G.

    1999-01-01

    We have modeled the injection and acceleration of pickup ions at the solar wind termination shock and investigated the parameters needed to produce the observed Anomalous Cosmic Ray (ACR) fluxes. A non-linear Monte Carlo technique was employed, which in effect solves the Boltzmann equation and is not restricted to near-isotropic particle distribution functions. This technique models the injection of thermal and pickup ions, the acceleration of these ions, and the determination of the shock structure under the influence of the accelerated ions. The essential effects of injection are treated in a mostly self-consistent manner, including effects from shock obliquity, cross-field diffusion, and pitch-angle scattering. Using recent determinations of pickup ion densities, we are able to match the absolute flux of hydrogen in the ACRs by assuming that pickup ion scattering mean free paths, at the termination shock, are much less than an AU and that modestly strong cross-field diffusion occurs. Simultaneously, we mat...

  10. Production of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays via one-shot acceleration of galactic cosmic rays by jets

    CERN Document Server

    Caprioli, Damiano

    2015-01-01

    We propose that ultra-high-energy (UHE) cosmic rays (CRs) above $10^{18}$eV are produced in relativistic jets of powerful active galactic nuclei via an original mechanism, which we dub "espresso" acceleration: "seed" galactic CRs with energies $\\lesssim 10^{17}$eV that penetrate the jet sideways receive a "one-shot" boost of a factor of $\\sim\\Gamma^2$ in energy, where $\\Gamma$ is the Lorentz factor of the relativistic flow. For typical jet parameters, a few per cent of the CRs in the host galaxy can undergo this process, and powerful blazars with $\\Gamma\\gtrsim 30$ may accelerate UHECRs up to more than $10^{20}$eV. The chemical composition of espresso-accelerated UHECRs is determined by the one at the Galactic CR knee, and is expected to be proton-dominated at $10^{18}$eV and increasingly heavy at higher energies, in agreement with recent observations of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  11. Corrosion Screening of EV31A Magnesium and Other Magnesium Alloys using Laboratory-Based Accelerated Corrosion and Electro-Chemical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Corrosion Screening of EV31A Magnesium and Other Magnesium Alloys Using Laboratory-Based Accelerated Corrosion and Electro-chemical Methods...originator. Army Research Laboratory Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5066 ARL-TR-6899 July 2014 Corrosion Screening of EV31A...Magnesium and Other Magnesium Alloys Using Laboratory-Based Accelerated Corrosion and Electro-chemical Methods Brian E. Placzankis, Joseph P

  12. Optimal Model-Based Fault Estimation and Correction for Particle Accelerators and Industrial Plants Using Combined Support Vector Machines and First Principles Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayyar-Rodsari, Bijan; Schweiger, Carl; /SLAC /Pavilion Technologies, Inc., Austin, TX

    2010-08-25

    Timely estimation of deviations from optimal performance in complex systems and the ability to identify corrective measures in response to the estimated parameter deviations has been the subject of extensive research over the past four decades. The implications in terms of lost revenue from costly industrial processes, operation of large-scale public works projects and the volume of the published literature on this topic clearly indicates the significance of the problem. Applications range from manufacturing industries (integrated circuits, automotive, etc.), to large-scale chemical plants, pharmaceutical production, power distribution grids, and avionics. In this project we investigated a new framework for building parsimonious models that are suited for diagnosis and fault estimation of complex technical systems. We used Support Vector Machines (SVMs) to model potentially time-varying parameters of a First-Principles (FP) description of the process. The combined SVM & FP model was built (i.e. model parameters were trained) using constrained optimization techniques. We used the trained models to estimate faults affecting simulated beam lifetime. In the case where a large number of process inputs are required for model-based fault estimation, the proposed framework performs an optimal nonlinear principal component analysis of the large-scale input space, and creates a lower dimension feature space in which fault estimation results can be effectively presented to the operation personnel. To fulfill the main technical objectives of the Phase I research, our Phase I efforts have focused on: (1) SVM Training in a Combined Model Structure - We developed the software for the constrained training of the SVMs in a combined model structure, and successfully modeled the parameters of a first-principles model for beam lifetime with support vectors. (2) Higher-order Fidelity of the Combined Model - We used constrained training to ensure that the output of the SVM (i.e. the

  13. Optimal Model-Based Fault Estimation and Correction for Particle Accelerators and Industrial Plants Using Combined Support Vector Machines and First Principles Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayyar-Rodsari, Bijan; Schweiger, Carl; /SLAC /Pavilion Technologies, Inc., Austin, TX

    2010-08-25

    Timely estimation of deviations from optimal performance in complex systems and the ability to identify corrective measures in response to the estimated parameter deviations has been the subject of extensive research over the past four decades. The implications in terms of lost revenue from costly industrial processes, operation of large-scale public works projects and the volume of the published literature on this topic clearly indicates the significance of the problem. Applications range from manufacturing industries (integrated circuits, automotive, etc.), to large-scale chemical plants, pharmaceutical production, power distribution grids, and avionics. In this project we investigated a new framework for building parsimonious models that are suited for diagnosis and fault estimation of complex technical systems. We used Support Vector Machines (SVMs) to model potentially time-varying parameters of a First-Principles (FP) description of the process. The combined SVM & FP model was built (i.e. model parameters were trained) using constrained optimization techniques. We used the trained models to estimate faults affecting simulated beam lifetime. In the case where a large number of process inputs are required for model-based fault estimation, the proposed framework performs an optimal nonlinear principal component analysis of the large-scale input space, and creates a lower dimension feature space in which fault estimation results can be effectively presented to the operation personnel. To fulfill the main technical objectives of the Phase I research, our Phase I efforts have focused on: (1) SVM Training in a Combined Model Structure - We developed the software for the constrained training of the SVMs in a combined model structure, and successfully modeled the parameters of a first-principles model for beam lifetime with support vectors. (2) Higher-order Fidelity of the Combined Model - We used constrained training to ensure that the output of the SVM (i.e. the

  14. On Accelerated Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Letelier, P S; Letelier, Patricio S.; Oliveira, Samuel R.

    1998-01-01

    The C-metric is revisited and global interpretation of some associated spacetimes are studied in some detail. Specially those with two event horizons, one for the black hole and another for the acceleration. We found that the spacetime fo an accelerated Schwarzschild black hole is plagued by either conical singularities or lack of smoothness and compactness of the black hole horizon. By using standard black hole thermodynamics we show that accelerated black holes have higher Hawking temperature than Unruh temperature. We also show that the usual upper bound on the product of the mass and acceleration parameters (<1/sqrt(27)) is just a coordinate artifact. The main results are extended to accelerated Kerr black holes. We found that they are not changed by the black hole rotation.

  15. On accelerator-based neutron sources and neutron field characterization with low energy neutron spectrometer based on position sensitive 3He counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, I; Miyamaru, H; Kato, I; Mori, Y

    2009-07-01

    The development of new neutron sources for BNCT applications, based on particle accelerators is currently underway all over the world. Though nuclear reactors were used for a long time as the only neutron source available having the requested flux levels, the accelerator-based ones have recently been investigated on the other hand due to its easy-to-use and acceptable performances. However, when using an accelerator, various secondary particles would be emitted which forms a troublesome background. Moreover, the neutrons produced have usually an energy spectrum somewhat different from the requested one and thus should be largely moderated. An additional issue to be taken into account is the patient positioning, which should be close to the neutron source, in order to take advantage of a neutron flux level high enough to limit the BNCT treatment time within 1h. This implies that, inside a relatively narrow space, neutrons should be moderated, while unnecessary secondary particles should be shielded. Considering that a background-free neutron field from an accelerator-driven neutron source dedicated to BNCT application is generally difficult to be provided, the characterization of such a neutron field will have to be clearly assessed. In the present study, a low energy neutron spectrometer has been thus designed and is now being developed to measure the accelerator-based neutron source performance. The presently proposed spectrometer is based on a (3)He proportional counter, which is 50 cm long and 5 cm in diameter, with a gas pressure of 0.5 MPa. It is quite unique that the spectrometer is set up in parallel with the incident neutron beam and a reaction depth distribution is measured by it as a position sensitive detector. Recently, a prototype detector has been developed and the signal test is now underway. In this paper, the feature of the accelerator-based neutron sources is outlined and importance of neutron field characterization is discussed. And the developed

  16. MRI-based brain atrophy rates in ADNI phase 2: acceleration and enrichment considerations for clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xue; Ching, Christopher R K; Mezher, Adam; Gutman, Boris A; Hibar, Derrek P; Bhatt, Priya; Leow, Alex D; Jack, Clifford R; Bernstein, Matt A; Weiner, Michael W; Thompson, Paul M

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work was to assess statistical power to detect treatment effects in Alzheimer's disease (AD) clinical trials using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived brain biomarkers. We used unbiased tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to analyze n = 5,738 scans, from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative 2 participants scanned with both accelerated and nonaccelerated T1-weighted MRI at 3T. The study cohort included 198 healthy controls, 111 participants with significant memory complaint, 182 with early mild cognitive impairment (EMCI) and 177 late mild cognitive impairment (LMCI), and 155 AD patients, scanned at screening and 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. The statistical power to track brain change in TBM-based imaging biomarkers depends on the interscan interval, disease stage, and methods used to extract numerical summaries. To achieve reasonable sample size estimates for potential clinical trials, the minimal scan interval was 6 months for LMCI and AD and 12 months for EMCI. TBM-based imaging biomarkers were not sensitive to MRI scan acceleration, which gave results comparable with nonaccelerated sequences. ApoE status and baseline amyloid-beta positron emission tomography data improved statistical power. Among healthy, EMCI, and LMCI participants, sample size requirements were significantly lower in the amyloid+/ApoE4+ group than for the amyloid-/ApoE4- group. ApoE4 strongly predicted atrophy rates across brain regions most affected by AD, but the remaining 9 of the top 10 AD risk genes offered no added predictive value in this cohort.

  17. Demonstration of a high-intensity neutron source based on a liquid-lithium target for Accelerator based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, S; Arenshtam, A; Kijel, D; Paul, M; Weissman, L; Berkovits, D; Eliyahu, I; Feinberg, G; Kreisel, A; Mardor, I; Shimel, G; Shor, A; Silverman, I; Tessler, M

    2015-12-01

    A free surface liquid-lithium jet target is operating routinely at Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF), bombarded with a ~1.91 MeV, ~1.2 mA continuous-wave narrow proton beam. The experiments demonstrate the liquid lithium target (LiLiT) capability to constitute an intense source of epithermal neutrons, for Accelerator based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The target dissipates extremely high ion beam power densities (>3 kW/cm(2), >0.5 MW/cm(3)) for long periods of time, while maintaining stable conditions and localized residual activity. LiLiT generates ~3×10(10) n/s, which is more than one order of magnitude larger than conventional (7)Li(p,n)-based near threshold neutron sources. A shield and moderator assembly for BNCT, with LiLiT irradiated with protons at 1.91 MeV, was designed based on Monte Carlo (MCNP) simulations of BNCT-doses produced in a phantom. According to these simulations it was found that a ~15 mA near threshold proton current will apply the therapeutic doses in ~1h treatment duration. According to our present results, such high current beams can be dissipated in a liquid-lithium target, hence the target design is readily applicable for accelerator-based BNCT.

  18. GPU-based acceleration of an automatic white matter segmentation algorithm using CUDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labra, Nicole; Figueroa, Miguel; Guevara, Pamela; Duclap, Delphine; Hoeunou, Josselin; Poupon, Cyril; Mangin, Jean-Francois

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a parallel implementation of an algorithm for automatic segmentation of white matter fibers from tractography data. We execute the algorithm in parallel using a high-end video card with a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) as a computation accelerator, using the CUDA language. By exploiting the parallelism and the properties of the memory hierarchy available on the GPU, we obtain a speedup in execution time of 33.6 with respect to an optimized sequential version of the algorithm written in C, and of 240 with respect to the original Python/C++ implementation. The execution time is reduced from more than two hours to only 35 seconds for a subject dataset of 800,000 fibers, thus enabling applications that use interactive segmentation and visualization of small to medium-sized tractography datasets.

  19. Ship-Based Nuclear Energy Systems for Accelerating Developing World Socioeconomic Advance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroski, Robert; Wood, Lowell

    2014-07-01

    those having intermittency characteristics. Consideration is directed to the relative economics of ship-based and land-based nuclear power stations, and the costs of undersea transmission lines and suitable moorings are discussed, as well as station-maintenance expenses. Potential cost savings from reduced seismic engineering, serialized production, and reduction/elimination of site-specific engineering are determined to be likely to enable large floating nuclear energy systems to be deployed at both significantly lower cost and with lower financial risk than comparable land-based systems. Such plants thus appear to be a compelling option for agilely supplying flexible energy-flows to developing regions, especially as they allow major components of the overhead costs and time-delays of large-scale energy systems to be avoided. Finally, the critical set of issues related to appropriately regulating and insuring floating nuclear power plants designed for export is examined. Approaches to ensuring adequate safety and environmental stewardship while properly allocating risks between system owners/operators and host countries of floating nuclear energy systems are discussed, along with possible pathways toward implementation. Robustness of exemplary nuclear energy systems from all forms of misuse, including materials diversion, is noted, thus ensuring suitability for complications-free, non-discriminatory global deployments. Availability of abundant, low-cost nuclear energy which can flexibly satisfy the full spectrum of energy demands of the economies of developing countries will inevitably result in significantly earlier and more environmentally-sound energy intensification of societies enjoying such advantages. This will help spur autocatalytic gains in human well-being and economic development rates similar to those seen in the developed world during the last two-thirds of a century, while avoiding some of the undesirable sideeffects often associated with those gains

  20. A bremsstrahlung gamma-ray source based on stable ionization injection of electrons into a laser wakefield accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Döpp, A; Thaury, C; Lifschitz, A; Sylla, F; Goddet, J-P; Tafzi, A; Iaquanello, G; Lefrou, T; Rousseau, P; Conejero, E; Ruiz, C; Phuoc, K Ta; Malka, V

    2016-01-01

    Laser wakefield acceleration permits the generation of ultra-short, high-brightness relativistic electron beams on a millimeter scale. While those features are of interest for many applications, the source remains constraint by the poor stability of the electron injection process. Here we present results on injection and acceleration of electrons in pure nitrogen and argon. We observe stable, continuous ionization-induced injection of electrons into the wakefield for laser powers exceeding a threshold of 7 TW. The beam charge scales approximately linear with the laser energy and is limited by beam loading. For 40 TW laser pulses we measure a maximum charge of almost 1 nC per shot, originating mostly from electrons of less than 10 MeV energy. The relatively low energy, the high charge and its stability make this source well-suited for applications such as non-destructive testing. Hence, we demonstrate the production of energetic radiation via bremsstrahlung conversion at 1 Hz repetition rate. In accordance wit...

  1. Knowledge Innovation Mode Based on New Product Development Procedure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yi

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge classification based on new product development procedure The new product development procedure requires that each stage has necessary activity and output result,generally files,in fact these output results are coded product knowledge produced in each stage,also including product knowledge and process knowledge without coding,for instance the knowledge and experiences of project management,etc.

  2. An accelerated photo-magnetic imaging reconstruction algorithm based on an analytical forward solution and a fast Jacobian assembly method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouizi, F.; Erkol, H.; Luk, A.; Marks, M.; Unlu, M. B.; Gulsen, G.

    2016-10-01

    We previously introduced photo-magnetic imaging (PMI), an imaging technique that illuminates the medium under investigation with near-infrared light and measures the induced temperature increase using magnetic resonance thermometry (MRT). Using a multiphysics solver combining photon migration and heat diffusion, PMI models the spatiotemporal distribution of temperature variation and recovers high resolution optical absorption images using these temperature maps. In this paper, we present a new fast non-iterative reconstruction algorithm for PMI. This new algorithm uses analytic methods during the resolution of the forward problem and the assembly of the sensitivity matrix. We validate our new analytic-based algorithm with the first generation finite element method (FEM) based reconstruction algorithm previously developed by our team. The validation is performed using, first synthetic data and afterwards, real MRT measured temperature maps. Our new method accelerates the reconstruction process 30-fold when compared to a single iteration of the FEM-based algorithm.

  3. PRODUCT GENE REPRESENTATION AND ACQUISITION METHOD BASED ON POPULATION OF PRODUCT CASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The representation and acquisition of a product gene is a crucial problem in product evolutionary design. A new methodology of product gene representation and acquisition from a population of product cases is proposed, and the methodology for product evolutionary design based on a population of product cases is realized. By properly classifying product cases according to its product species, the populations of product cases are divided and a model is established. Knowledge of the scheme design is extracted and formulated as the function base, principle base, and structure base, which are then combined to form a product gene. Subsequently, the product gene tree is created and represented by object-oriented method. Then combining this method with the evolutionary reasoning technology, an intelligent and automatic evolutionary scheme design of product based on the population of product cases is realized. This design method will be helpful in the processing of knowledge formulation, accumulation, and reuse, and in addressing the difficulty of acquiring design knowledge in traditional design. In addition, the disadvantages of manual case adaptation and update in case-based reasoning can be eliminated. Moreover, by optimizing the design scheme in multiple levels and aspects of product function, principle, and structure etc., the level of creativity in the scheme design can be improved.

  4. Results on accelerator production of innovative radionuclides for metabolic radiotherapy and PET and on related nuclear data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groppi, Flavia [LASA, Radiochemistry Laboratory, Universita degli Studi di Milano and INFN-Milano, via F.lli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate, Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: Flavia.Groppi@mi.infn.it; Bonardi, Mauro L. [LASA, Radiochemistry Laboratory, Universita degli Studi di Milano and INFN-Milano, via F.lli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate, Milan (Italy); Menapace, Enzo [ENEA, Division for Advanced Physics Technologies, Via Don Fiammelli 2, I-40128 Bologna (Italy); Morzenti, Sabrina [LASA, Radiochemistry Laboratory, Universita degli Studi di Milano and INFN-Milano, via F.lli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate, Milan (Italy); Zona, Cristiano [LASA, Radiochemistry Laboratory, Universita degli Studi di Milano and INFN-Milano, via F.lli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate, Milan (Italy); Canella, Lea [LASA, Radiochemistry Laboratory, Universita degli Studi di Milano and INFN-Milano, via F.lli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate, Milan (Italy); Alfassi, Zeev B. [Department Nuclear Engineering, Ben Gurion University, Beer Sheva (Israel)

    2006-06-23

    A range of high specific activity accelerator-produced radionuclides in no-carrier-added (NCA) form, for uses in metabolic radiotherapy and for PET, has been investigated. To this aim it was necessary optimizing the irradiation parameters by determining the excitation functions of the nuclear reactions involved, as needed for the following selective radiochemical separations of the radionuclides of interest. For the NCA radionuclides investigated, the spectrometry measurements, done at LASA-INFN on {gamma}, X and on {alpha} spectra are discussed together with the measurements of radionuclidic, radiochemical and chemical purities by analytical and radioanalytical techniques.

  5. Magnetic, Acceleration Fields and Gyroscope Quaternion (MAGYQ-Based Attitude Estimation with Smartphone Sensors for Indoor Pedestrian Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Renaudin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of proposed pedestrian navigation solutions on a dedicated infrastructure is a limiting factor to the deployment of location based services. Consequently self-contained Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning (PDR approaches are gaining interest for autonomous navigation. Even if the quality of low cost inertial sensors and magnetometers has strongly improved, processing noisy sensor signals combined with high hand dynamics remains a challenge. Estimating accurate attitude angles for achieving long term positioning accuracy is targeted in this work. A new Magnetic, Acceleration fields and GYroscope Quaternion (MAGYQ-based attitude angles estimation filter is proposed and demonstrated with handheld sensors. It benefits from a gyroscope signal modelling in the quaternion set and two new opportunistic updates: magnetic angular rate update (MARU and acceleration gradient update (AGU. MAGYQ filter performances are assessed indoors, outdoors, with dynamic and static motion conditions. The heading error, using only the inertial solution, is found to be less than 10° after 1.5 km walking. The performance is also evaluated in the positioning domain with trajectories computed following a PDR strategy.

  6. A Framework for 3D Model-Based Visual Tracking Using a GPU-Accelerated Particle Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J A; Capson, D W

    2012-01-01

    A novel framework for acceleration of particle filtering approaches to 3D model-based, markerless visual tracking in monocular video is described. Specifically, we present a methodology for partitioning and mapping the computationally expensive weight-update stage of a particle filter to a graphics processing unit (GPU) to achieve particle- and pixel-level parallelism. Nvidia CUDA and Direct3D are employed to harness the massively parallel computational power of modern GPUs for simulation (3D model rendering) and evaluation (segmentation, feature extraction, and weight calculation) of hundreds of particles at high speeds. The proposed framework addresses the computational intensity that is intrinsic to all particle filter approaches, including those that have been modified to minimize the number of particles required for a particular task. Performance and tracking quality results for rigid object and articulated hand tracking experiments demonstrate markerless, model-based visual tracking on consumer-grade graphics hardware with pixel-level accuracy up to 95 percent at 60+ frames per second. The framework accelerates particle evaluation up to 49 times over a comparable CPU-only implementation, providing an increased particle count while maintaining real-time frame rates.

  7. Structural Performance Assessment Based on Statistical and Wavelet Analysis of Acceleration Measurements of a Building during an Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosbeh R. Kaloop

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces the analysis of structural health monitoring (SHM system based on acceleration measurements during an earthquake. The SHM system is applied to assess the performance investigation of the administration building in Seoul National University of Education, South Korea. The statistical and wavelet analysis methods are applied to investigate and assess the performance of the building during an earthquake shaking which took place on March 31, 2014. The results indicate that (1 the acceleration, displacement, and torsional responses of the roof recording point on the top floor of the building are more dominant in the X direction; (2 the rotation of the building has occurred at the base recording point; (3 95% of the energy content of the building response is shown in the dominant frequency range (6.25–25 Hz; (4 the wavelet spectrum illustrates that the roof vibration is more obvious and dominant during the shaking; and (5 the wavelet spectrum reveals the elasticity responses of the structure during the earthquake shaking.

  8. Comparing the standards of one metabolic equivalent of task in accurately estimating physical activity energy expenditure based on acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohyun; Lee, Jongshill; Park, Hoon Ki; Jang, Dong Pyo; Song, Soohwa; Cho, Baek Hwan; Jung, Yoo-Suk; Park, Rae-Woong; Joo, Nam-Seok; Kim, In Young

    2016-08-24

    The purpose of the study is to analyse how the standard of resting metabolic rate (RMR) affects estimation of the metabolic equivalent of task (MET) using an accelerometer. In order to investigate the effect on estimation according to intensity of activity, comparisons were conducted between the 3.5 ml O2 · kg(-1) · min(-1) and individually measured resting VO2 as the standard of 1 MET. MET was estimated by linear regression equations that were derived through five-fold cross-validation using 2 types of MET values and accelerations; the accuracy of estimation was analysed through cross-validation, Bland and Altman plot, and one-way ANOVA test. There were no significant differences in the RMS error after cross-validation. However, the individual RMR-based estimations had as many as 0.5 METs of mean difference in modified Bland and Altman plots than RMR of 3.5 ml O2 · kg(-1) · min(-1). Finally, the results of an ANOVA test indicated that the individual RMR-based estimations had less significant differences between the reference and estimated values at each intensity of activity. In conclusion, the RMR standard is a factor that affects accurate estimation of METs by acceleration; therefore, RMR requires individual specification when it is used for estimation of METs using an accelerometer.

  9. The monitoring of transient regimes on machine tools based on speed, acceleration and active electric power absorbed by motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodinca, M.

    2016-08-01

    This paper intend to propose some new results related with computer aided monitoring of transient regimes on machine-tools based on the evolution of active electrical power absorbed by the electric motor used to drive the main kinematic chains and the evolution of rotational speed and acceleration of the main shaft. The active power is calculated in numerical format using the evolution of instantaneous voltage and current delivered by electrical power system to the electric motor. The rotational speed and acceleration of the main shaft are calculated based on the signal delivered by a sensor. Three real-time analogic signals are acquired with a very simple computer assisted setup which contains a voltage transformer, a current transformer, an AC generator as rotational speed sensor, a data acquisition system and a personal computer. The data processing and analysis was done using Matlab software. Some different transient regimes were investigated; several important conclusions related with the advantages of this monitoring technique were formulated. Many others features of the experimental setup are also available: to supervise the mechanical loading of machine-tools during cutting processes or for diagnosis of machine-tools condition by active electrical power signal analysis in frequency domain.

  10. Magnetic, Acceleration Fields and Gyroscope Quaternion (MAGYQ)-based attitude estimation with smartphone sensors for indoor pedestrian navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaudin, Valérie; Combettes, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The dependence of proposed pedestrian navigation solutions on a dedicated infrastructure is a limiting factor to the deployment of location based services. Consequently self-contained Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning (PDR) approaches are gaining interest for autonomous navigation. Even if the quality of low cost inertial sensors and magnetometers has strongly improved, processing noisy sensor signals combined with high hand dynamics remains a challenge. Estimating accurate attitude angles for achieving long term positioning accuracy is targeted in this work. A new Magnetic, Acceleration fields and GYroscope Quaternion (MAGYQ)-based attitude angles estimation filter is proposed and demonstrated with handheld sensors. It benefits from a gyroscope signal modelling in the quaternion set and two new opportunistic updates: magnetic angular rate update (MARU) and acceleration gradient update (AGU). MAGYQ filter performances are assessed indoors, outdoors, with dynamic and static motion conditions. The heading error, using only the inertial solution, is found to be less than 10° after 1.5 km walking. The performance is also evaluated in the positioning domain with trajectories computed following a PDR strategy.

  11. John Adams Lecture | Accelerator-Based Neutrino Physics: Past, Present and Future by Kenneth Long | 8 December

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    John Adams Lecture: Accelerator-Based Neutrino Physics: Past, Present and Future by Dr. Kenneth Long (Imperial College London & STFC).   Monday, 8 December 2014 from 2 p.m. to 4 p.m. at CERN ( 503-1-001 - Council Chamber ) Abstract: The study of the neutrino is the study of physics beyond the Standard Model. We now know that the neutrinos have mass and that neutrino mixing occurs causing neutrino flavour to oscillate as neutrinos propagate through space and time. Further, some measurements can be interpreted as hints for new particles known as sterile neutrinos. The measured values of the mixing parameters make it possible that the matter-antimatter (CP) symmetry may be violated through the mixing process. The consequences of observing CP-invariance violation in neutrinos would be profound. To discover CP-invariance violation will require measurements of exquisite precision. Accelerator-based neutrino sources are central to the future programme and advances in technique are required ...

  12. Monte Carlo-based fluorescence molecular tomography reconstruction method accelerated by a cluster of graphic processing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Guotao; Gong, Hui; Deng, Yong; Fu, Jianwei; Luo, Qingming

    2011-02-01

    High-speed fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) reconstruction for 3-D heterogeneous media is still one of the most challenging problems in diffusive optical fluorescence imaging. In this paper, we propose a fast FMT reconstruction method that is based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and accelerated by a cluster of graphics processing units (GPUs). Based on the Message Passing Interface standard, we modified the MC code for fast FMT reconstruction, and different Green's functions representing the flux distribution in media are calculated simultaneously by different GPUs in the cluster. A load-balancing method was also developed to increase the computational efficiency. By applying the Fréchet derivative, a Jacobian matrix is formed to reconstruct the distribution of the fluorochromes using the calculated Green's functions. Phantom experiments have shown that only 10 min are required to get reconstruction results with a cluster of 6 GPUs, rather than 6 h with a cluster of multiple dual opteron CPU nodes. Because of the advantages of high accuracy and suitability for 3-D heterogeneity media with refractive-index-unmatched boundaries from the MC simulation, the GPU cluster-accelerated method provides a reliable approach to high-speed reconstruction for FMT imaging.

  13. Brazing of Mo to a CuZr alloy for the production of bimetallic raw materials for the CLIC accelerating structures

    CERN Document Server

    Salvo, M; Heikkinen, Samuli; Salvo, Milena; Casalegno, Valentina; Sgobba, Stefano; Rizzo, Stefano; Izquierdo, Gonzalo Arnau; Taborelli, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    Future linear accelerators, as CLIC (Compact Linear Collider), are extremely demanding in terms of material properties. Traditionally accelerating structure is made of brazed OFE copper parts. For the high conducting regions submitted to mechanical fatigue, CuZr would represent an improved selection than pure copper while for regions where the highest electric field is applied a refractory metal, i.e. Mo, could result in a better performance. The feasibility of joining such materials, namely CuZr (UNS C15000) and pure Mo has been investigated. The joining method developed and investigated here consists in a vacuum brazing process exploiting a Cu-based brazing filler applied under appropriate vacuum conditions. Apparent shear strength (adapted from ASTM B898) on the joined samples was about 200 MPa. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. LIBO accelerates

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The prototype module of LIBO, a linear accelerator project designed for cancer therapy, has passed its first proton-beam acceleration test. In parallel a new version - LIBO-30 - is being developed, which promises to open up even more interesting avenues.

  15. RECIRCULATING ACCELERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERG,J.S.; GARREN,A.A.; JOHNSTONE,C.

    2000-04-07

    This paper compares various types of recirculating accelerators, outlining the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches. The accelerators are characterized according to the types of arcs they use: whether there is a single arc for the entire recirculator or there are multiple arcs, and whether the arc(s) are isochronous or non-isochronous.

  16. An Lck-cre transgene accelerates autoantibody production and lupus development in (NZB × NZW)F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R K; Gould, K A

    2016-02-01

    Lupus is an autoimmune disease characterized by the development of antinuclear autoantibodies and immune complex-mediated tissue damage. T cells in lupus patients appear to undergo apoptosis at an increased rate, and this enhanced T cell apoptosis has been postulated to contribute to lupus pathogenesis by increasing autoantigen load. However, there is no direct evidence to support this hypothesis. In this study, we show that an Lck-cre transgene, which increases T cell apoptosis as a result of T cell-specific expression of cre recombinase, accelerates the development of autoantibodies and nephritis in lupus-prone (NZB × NZW)F1 mice. Although the enhanced T cell apoptosis in Lck-cre transgenic mice resulted in an overall decrease in the relative abundance of splenic CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, the proportion of activated CD4(+) T cells was increased and no significant change was observed in the relative abundance of suppressive T cells. We postulate that the Lck-cre transgene promoted lupus by enhancing T cell apoptosis, which, in conjunction with the impaired clearance of apoptotic cells in lupus-prone mice, increased the nuclear antigen load and accelerated the development of anti-nuclear autoantibodies. Furthermore, our results also underscore the importance of including cre-only controls in studies using the cre-lox system.

  17. How substance-based ontologies for gravity can be productive: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ayush; Elby, Andrew; Conlin, Luke D.

    2014-06-01

    Many science education researchers have argued that learners' commitment to a substance (matter-based) ontology impedes the learning of scientific concepts that scientists typically conceptualize as processes or interactions, such as force, electric current, and heat. By this account, students' tendency to classify these entities as substances or properties of substances leads to robust misconceptions, and instruction should steer novices away from substance-based reasoning. We argue that substance-based reasoning can contribute to the learning and understanding of these very same physics concepts. Our case study focuses on a group of elementary school science teachers in our professional development program. Starting from substance-based metaphors for gravity, the teachers build a sophisticated explanation for why objects of different masses fall with the same acceleration. We argue that, for conceptual, epistemological, and affective reasons, instructional interventions should focus on tapping these productive substance-based resources when they arise rather than attempting to suppress them.

  18. Recent acceleration of ice loss in the Northern Patagonia Icefield based on an updated decennial evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. López

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ice elevation changes of the Northern Patagonia Icefield (NPI were analyzed by comparing three Digital Elevation Models (DEM corresponding to 1975 (constructed based on topographic maps, the SRTM DEM of 2000 yr and a SPOT 5 DEM of 2005. In addition, the glacier length fluctuations and the surface area evolution between 2001 and 2011 of 25 glaciers of the NPI were studied: the information extracted from the Landsat ETM+ satellite image of 11 March 2001 was compared to the measurements performed based on the Landsat ETM+ satellite image of 19 February 2011. From a global point of view, the majority of the studied glaciers thinned, retreated and lost surface between 2001 and 2011, only few glaciers (Leones, Nef, Pared Sur and Soler located on the eastern side of the NPI have been stable. Glaciers located on the western side of the NPI suffered a stronger wasting compared to the glaciers located on the eastern side.

    Overall, over the ablation areas of the NPI (below 1150 m a.s.l. a more rapid thinning of 2.6 m yr−1 occurred between 2000 and 2005 yr compared to the period 1975–2000, in which a mean thinning of 1.7 m yr−1 was measured for the same zones of the NPI. For the whole period (1975–2005 the most important thinning of the ablation areas has been estimated for HPN-1 Glacier (4.4 m yr−1 followed by Benito (3.4 m yr−1, Fraenkel (2.4 m yr−1, Gualas (2.1 m yr−1 and Acodado glaciers, all of them located on the western side of the NPI.

    Between 2001 and 2011, a noteworthy retreat of 1.9 km was experienced by Gualas Glacier and by Reichert Glacier with 1.6 km, both located on the north-western side of the NPI. On the south-western side of the NPI, during the same decennia, Steffen Glacier experienced a remarkable retreat of 1.6 km as well. During the 2001–2011 period, Steffen Glacier more than doubled its rate of retreat (compared to the 1979–2001

  19. Recent acceleration of ice loss in the Northern Patagonia Icefield based on an updated decennial evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, P.; Casassa, G.

    2011-12-01

    Ice elevation changes of the Northern Patagonia Icefield (NPI) were analyzed by comparing three Digital Elevation Models (DEM) corresponding to 1975 (constructed based on topographic maps), the SRTM DEM of 2000 yr and a SPOT 5 DEM of 2005. In addition, the glacier length fluctuations and the surface area evolution between 2001 and 2011 of 25 glaciers of the NPI were studied: the information extracted from the Landsat ETM+ satellite image of 11 March 2001 was compared to the measurements performed based on the Landsat ETM+ satellite image of 19 February 2011. From a global point of view, the majority of the studied glaciers thinned, retreated and lost surface between 2001 and 2011, only few glaciers (Leones, Nef, Pared Sur and Soler) located on the eastern side of the NPI have been stable. Glaciers located on the western side of the NPI suffered a stronger wasting compared to the glaciers located on the eastern side. Overall, over the ablation areas of the NPI (below 1150 m a.s.l.) a more rapid thinning of 2.6 m yr-1 occurred between 2000 and 2005 yr compared to the period 1975-2000, in which a mean thinning of 1.7 m yr-1 was measured for the same zones of the NPI. For the whole period (1975-2005) the most important thinning of the ablation areas has been estimated for HPN-1 Glacier (4.4 m yr-1) followed by Benito (3.4 m yr-1), Fraenkel (2.4 m yr-1), Gualas (2.1 m yr-1) and Acodado glaciers, all of them located on the western side of the NPI. Between 2001 and 2011, a noteworthy retreat of 1.9 km was experienced by Gualas Glacier and by Reichert Glacier with 1.6 km, both located on the north-western side of the NPI. On the south-western side of the NPI, during the same decennia, Steffen Glacier experienced a remarkable retreat of 1.6 km as well. During the 2001-2011 period, Steffen Glacier more than doubled its rate of retreat (compared to the 1979-2001 period) and experienced the disintegration of its main front as well as a lateral tongue that retreated 3.1 km. The

  20. Reuse-based software production technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Software reuse is viewed as a key technology to improve software product quality and productivity. This paper discusses a series of technologies related with software reuse and software component technology: component model, which describes component's essential characteristics; component acquisition technology, of which domain engineering is the main approach; component management technology, of which component library is the kernel; application integration and composition technology, of which application engineering is the main approach; software evolution technology, of which software reengineering is the main approach, etc. This paper introduces the software development environment: JadeBird Software Production Line System, which effectively integrates the above-mentioned technologies.

  1. Knowledge Management in Set Based Lean Product Development Process

    OpenAIRE

    Furian, Robert; Lacroix, Frank,; STOKIC, DRAGAN; Correia, Ana; Grama, Cristina; Faltus, Stefan; Maksimovic, Maksim; Grote, Karl-Heinrich; Beyer, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Part 2: Design, Manufacturing and Production Management; International audience; The objective of the research is to examine and develop new methods and tools for management of knowledge in Lean Product development. Lean Product development attempts to apply lean philosophy and principles within product development process. Special emphasis is given to the so-called Set Based Lean Design principles. Such product development process requires innovative methodologies and tools for capturing, re...

  2. Gelatin Based Skin Regenerative Template: Market Research and Product Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Arjun G

    2009-01-01

    Skin regeneration and wound management in the Bio-Pharma industry has been an area with constant research and new product development. The range of products includes foams, sheets, sprays, powders, hydrocolloids and gels. Majority of these products that exist in the market are collagen based products. However, using collagen products is very expensive and could also have long term risks on patient’s health. Furthermore, they do not regenerate the skin to its original shape and texture and thu...

  3. Research on Web-Based Product Structure and Configuration Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENJi-zhong; TIANLing; XUXiao-hui

    2004-01-01

    An enhanced system architecture of Web-based product structure and configuration management system along with its, functions are is presented. The key techniques, such as construction of object models of product structure and product configuration, hybrid approach method in product configuration management, sharing and integration of heterogeneous product data, integration with other sub-systems, are discussed too. A prototype system is developed by J2EE technology.

  4. Electromagnetic nonlinearities in a Roebel-cable-based accelerator magnet prototype: variational approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruuskanen, J.; Stenvall, A.; Lahtinen, V.; Pardo, E.

    2017-02-01

    Superconducting magnets are the most expensive series of components produced in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). When developing such magnets beyond state-of-the-art technology, one possible option is to use high-temperature superconductors (HTS) that are capable of tolerating much higher magnetic fields than low-temperature superconductors (LTS), carrying simultaneously high current densities. Significant cost reductions due to decreased prototype construction needs can be achieved by careful modelling of the magnets. Simulations are used, e.g. for designing magnets fulfilling the field quality requirements of the beampipe, and adequate protection by studying the losses occurring during charging and discharging. We model the hysteresis losses and the magnetic field nonlinearity in the beampipe as a function of the magnet’s current. These simulations rely on the minimum magnetic energy variation principle, with optimization algorithms provided by the open-source optimization library interior point optimizer. We utilize this methodology to investigate a research and development accelerator magnet prototype made of REBCO Roebel cable. The applicability of this approach, when the magnetic field dependence of the superconductor’s critical current density is considered, is discussed. We also scrutinize the influence of the necessary modelling decisions one needs to make with this approach. The results show that different decisions can lead to notably different results, and experiments are required to study the electromagnetic behaviour of such magnets further.

  5. Clinic based transfer of the N(D,W)(60Co) calibration coefficient using a linear accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, W; Evans, M D C; Serré, L; McCaffrey, J P; Podgorsak, E B; Seuntjens, J P

    2009-03-01

    Ionization chambers used for reference dosimetry require a local secondary standard ionization chamber with a 60Co absorbed dose to water calibration coefficient N(D,W)(60Co) traceable to a national primary standards dosimetry laboratory or an accredited secondary dosimetry calibration laboratory. Clinic based (in-house) transfer of this coefficient to tertiary reference ionization chambers has traditionally been accomplished with chamber cross calibration in water using a 60Co beam; however, access to 60Co teletherapy machines has become increasingly limited for clinic based physicists. In this work, the accuracy of alternative methods of transferring the N(D,W)(60Co) calibration coefficient using 6 and 18 MV photon beams from a linear accelerator in lieu of 60Co has been investigated for five different setups and four commonly used chamber types.

  6. Computation of thermal properties via 3D homogenization of multiphase materials using FFT-based accelerated scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Lemaitre, Sophie; Choi, Daniel; Karamian, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study the thermal effective behaviour for 3D multiphase composite material consisting of three isotropic phases which are the matrix, the inclusions and the coating media. For this purpose we use an accelerated FFT-based scheme initially proposed in Eyre and Milton (1999) to evaluate the thermal conductivity tensor. Matrix and spherical inclusions media are polymers with similar properties whereas the coating medium is metallic hence better conducting. Thus, the contrast between the coating and the others media is very large. For our study, we use RVEs (Representative volume elements) generated by RSA (Random Sequential Adsorption) method developed in our previous works, then, we compute effective thermal properties using an FFT-based homogenization technique validated by comparison with the direct finite elements method. We study the thermal behaviour of the 3D-multiphase composite material and we show what features should be taken into account to make the computational approach efficient.

  7. Pharmacokinetics-Based Approaches for Bioequivalence Evaluation of Topical Dermatological Drug Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raney, Sam G; Franz, Thomas J; Lehman, Paul A; Lionberger, Robert; Chen, Mei-Ling

    2015-11-01

    The pharmacokinetic approach has accelerated the development of high-quality generic medicines with extraordinary cost savings, transforming the pharmaceutical industry and healthcare system in the USA. While this is true for systemically absorbed drug products, the availability of generic versions of topical dermatological products remains constrained due to the limited methods accepted for bioequivalence evaluation of these products. The current review explores the possibility of developing appropriate bioequivalence approaches based on pharmacokinetic principles for topical dermatological products. This review focuses on the strengths and limitations of the three most promising pharmacokinetics-based methods to evaluate the performance and bioequivalence of topical dermatological products, which include in vivo skin stripping, in vivo microdialysis, and in vitro permeation testing (IVPT) with excised human skin. It is hoped that recent advances in pharmaceutical and regulatory science will facilitate the development of robust bioequivalence approaches for these dosage forms, enable more efficient methodologies to compare the performance of new drug products in certain pre-approval or post-approval change situations, and promote the availability of high-quality generic versions of topical dermatological products.

  8. Accelerated Chemical Reactions and Organic Synthesis in Leidenfrost Droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Ryan M; Pulliam, Christopher J; Thery, Fabien; Cooks, R Graham

    2016-08-22

    Leidenfrost levitated droplets can be used to accelerate chemical reactions in processes that appear similar to reaction acceleration in charged microdroplets produced by electrospray ionization. Reaction acceleration in Leidenfrost droplets is demonstrated for a base-catalyzed Claisen-Schmidt condensation, hydrazone formation from precharged and neutral ketones, and for the Katritzky pyrylium into pyridinium conversion under various reaction conditions. Comparisons with bulk reactions gave intermediate acceleration factors (2-50). By keeping the volume of the Leidenfrost droplets constant, it was shown that interfacial effects contribute to acceleration; this was confirmed by decreased reaction rates in the presence of a surfactant. The ability to multiplex Leidenfrost microreactors, to extract product into an immiscible solvent during reaction, and to use Leidenfrost droplets as reaction vessels to synthesize milligram quantities of product is also demonstrated.

  9. Ionizing radiation accelerates Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission, which involves delayed mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production in normal human fibroblast-like cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobashigawa, Shinko, E-mail: kobashin@nagasaki-u.ac.jp [Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Course of Life Sciences and Radiation Research, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Suzuki, Keiji; Yamashita, Shunichi [Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Course of Life Sciences and Radiation Research, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan)

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report first time that ionizing radiation induces mitochondrial dynamic changes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiation-induced mitochondrial fission was caused by Drp1 localization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found that radiation causes delayed ROS from mitochondria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Down regulation of Drp1 rescued mitochondrial dysfunction after radiation exposure. -- Abstract: Ionizing radiation is known to increase intracellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through mitochondrial dysfunction. Although it has been as a basis of radiation-induced genetic instability, the mechanism involving mitochondrial dysfunction remains unclear. Here we studied the dynamics of mitochondrial structure in normal human fibroblast like cells exposed to ionizing radiation. Delayed mitochondrial O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}-} production was peaked 3 days after irradiation, which was coupled with accelerated mitochondrial fission. We found that radiation exposure accumulated dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) to mitochondria. Knocking down of Drp1 expression prevented radiation induced acceleration of mitochondrial fission. Furthermore, knockdown of Drp1 significantly suppressed delayed production of mitochondrial O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}-}. Since the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, which was induced by radiation was prevented in cells knocking down of Drp1 expression, indicating that the excessive mitochondrial fission was involved in delayed mitochondrial dysfunction after irradiation.

  10. Design and analysis of a piezoelectric material based touch screen with additional pressure and its acceleration measurement functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xiang-Cheng; Liu, Jia-Yi; Gao, Ren-Long; Chang, Jie; Li, Long-Tu

    2013-12-01

    Touch screens are becoming more and more prevalent in everyday environments due to their convenience and humanized operation. In this paper, a piezoelectric material based touch screen is developed and investigated. Piezoelectric ceramics arrayed under the touch panel at the edges or corners are used as tactile sensors to measure the touch positioning point similarly to conventional touch screens. However, additional touch pressure and its acceleration performance can also be obtained to obtain a higher-level human-machine interface. The piezoelectric ceramics can also be added to a traditional touch screen structure, or they can be used independently to construct a novel touch screen with a high light transmittance approach to a transparent glass. The piezoelectric ceramics were processed from PZT piezoelectric ceramic powder into a round or rectangular shape. According to the varied touch position and physical press strength of a finger, or even a gloved hand or fingernail, the piezoelectric tactile sensors will have different output voltage responses. By calculating the ratio of different piezoelectric tactile sensors’ responses and summing up all piezoelectric tactile sensors’ output voltages, the touch point position, touch pressure and touch force acceleration can be detected. A prototype of such a touch screen is manufactured and its position accuracy, touch pressure and response speed are measured in detail. The experimental results show that the prototype has many advantages such as high light transmittance, low energy cost and high durability.

  11. Accelerator-based analytical technique in the study of some anti-diabetic medicinal plants of Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olabanji, S.O. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy)], E-mail: skayode2002@yahoo.co.uk; Omobuwajo, O.R. [Department of Pharmacognosy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Ceccato, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Dipartmento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy); Adebajo, A.C. [Department of Pharmacognosy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Buoso, M.C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Moschini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Dipartmento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy)

    2008-05-15

    Diabetes mellitus, a clinical syndrome characterized by hyperglycemia due to deficiency of insulin, is a disease involving the endocrine pancreas and causes considerable morbidity and mortality in the world. In Nigeria, many plants, especially those implicated in herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes, have not been screened for their elemental constituents while information on phytochemistry of some of them is not available. There is therefore the need to document these constituents as some of these plants are becoming increasingly important as herbal drugs or food additives. The accelerator-based technique PIXE, using the 1.8 MeV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at INFN, LNL, Legnaro (Padova) Italy, was employed in the determination of the elemental constituents of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants. Leaves of Gardenia ternifolia, Caesalpina pulcherrima, Solemostenon monostachys, whole plant of Momordica charantia and leaf and stem bark of Hunteria umbellata could be taken as vegetables, neutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in the management of diabetes. However, Hexabolus monopetalus root should be used under prescription.

  12. Accelerator-based analytical technique in the study of some anti-diabetic medicinal plants of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabanji, S. O.; Omobuwajo, O. R.; Ceccato, D.; Adebajo, A. C.; Buoso, M. C.; Moschini, G.

    2008-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus, a clinical syndrome characterized by hyperglycemia due to deficiency of insulin, is a disease involving the endocrine pancreas and causes considerable morbidity and mortality in the world. In Nigeria, many plants, especially those implicated in herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes, have not been screened for their elemental constituents while information on phytochemistry of some of them is not available. There is therefore the need to document these constituents as some of these plants are becoming increasingly important as herbal drugs or food additives. The accelerator-based technique PIXE, using the 1.8 MeV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at INFN, LNL, Legnaro (Padova) Italy, was employed in the determination of the elemental constituents of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants. Leaves of Gardenia ternifolia, Caesalpina pulcherrima, Solemostenon monostachys, whole plant of Momordica charantia and leaf and stem bark of Hunteria umbellata could be taken as vegetables, neutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in the management of diabetes. However, Hexabolus monopetalus root should be used under prescription.

  13. A piezoelectric micro generator worked at low frequency and high acceleration based on PZT and phosphor bronze bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Gang; Yang, Bin; Hou, Cheng; Li, Guimiao; Liu, Jingquan; Chen, Xiang; Yang, Chunsheng

    2016-12-01

    Recently, piezoelectric energy harvesters (PEHs) have been paid a lot of attention by many researchers to convert mechanical energy into electrical and low level vibration. Currently, most of PEHs worked under high frequency and low level vibration. In this paper, we propose a micro cantilever generator based on the bonding of bulk PZT wafer and phosphor bronze, which is fabricated by MEMS technology, such as mechanical chemical thinning and etching. The experimental results show that the open-circuit output voltage, output power and power density of this fabricated prototype are 35 V, 321 μW and 8664 μW cm-3 at the resonant frequency of 100.8 Hz, respectively, when it matches an optimal loading resistance of 140 kΩ under the excitation of 3.0 g acceleration. The fabricated micro generator can obtain the open-circuit stable output voltage of 61.2 V when the vibration acceleration arrives at 7.0 g. Meanwhile, when this device is pasted on the vibrating vacuum pump, the output voltage is about 11 V. It demonstrates that this novel proposed device can scavenge high vibration level energy at low frequency for powering the inertial sensors in internet of things application.

  14. A comparative study of an accelerated life-test model and a toxicokinetics-based model for the analysis of Porcellio scaber survival data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shijin

    2004-01-01

    Statistical models have long been used for reliability analysis and risk assessment. In the present study, an accelerated life-test model was used to analyze a set of dose-time-response data obtained with the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber. Survival data were experimentally obtained by exposing P. scaber to diazinon (a nonpersistent insecticide) at six concentrations between 2 and 11.31 microg/g (toxicant/soil). Survival data are presented on a weekly basis. The accelerated life-test model assumed a log-normal distribution and constant variance across all diazinon concentrations. Model parameters were obtained by maximum likelihood estimation. The accelerated life-test model was compared to a toxicokinetics-based model reported in the literature. Survival predictions made by both models were compared with the observed data. Both the accelerated life-test model and the toxicokinetics-based model underestimated toxicity at a diazinon concentration of 8 microg/g. Overall, however, the accelerated life-test model outperformed the toxicokinetics-based model, with survival predictions closer to the observed data in most cases and a stronger correlation between predicted and observed survivals. However, as a statistical model, the accelerated life-test model did not reveal mechanistic information, and only statistical and distributional interpretations of its model parameters could be made.

  15. Undulator-based production of polarized positrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, G. [Tel-Aviv Univ. (Israel); Barley, J. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Batygin, Y. [SLAC, Menlo Park, CA (US)] (and others)

    2009-05-15

    Full exploitation of the physics potential of a future International Linear Collider will require the use of polarized electron and positron beams. Experiment E166 at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) has demonstrated a scheme in which an electron beam passes through a helical undulator to generate photons (whose first-harmonic spectrum extended to 7.9 MeV) with circular polarization, which are then converted in a thin target to generate longitudinally polarized positrons and electrons. The experiment was carried out with a one-meter-long, 400-period, pulsed helical undulator in the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) operated at 46.6 GeV. Measurements of the positron polarization have been performed at five positron energies from 4.5 to 7.5 MeV. In addition, the electron polarization has been determined at 6.7MeV, and the effect of operating the undulator with a ferrofluid was also investigated. To compare the measurements with expectations, detailed simulations were made with an upgraded version of GEANT4 that includes the dominant polarization-dependent interactions of electrons, positrons, and photons with matter. The measurements agree with calculations, corresponding to 80% polarization for positrons near 6 MeV and 90% for electrons near 7 MeV. (orig.)

  16. Secondary Neutron Production from Space Radiation Interactions: Advances in Model and Experimental Data Base Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Braley, G. Scott; Iwata, Yoshiyuki; Iwase, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Takashi; Ronningen, Reginald M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2003-01-01

    For humans engaged in long-duration missions in deep space or near-Earth orbit, the risk from exposure to galactic and solar cosmic rays is an important factor in the design of spacecraft, spacesuits, and planetary bases. As cosmic rays are transported through shielding materials and human tissue components, a secondary radiation field is produced. Neutrons are an important component of that secondary field, especially in thickly-shielded environments. Calculations predict that 50% of the dose-equivalent in a lunar or Martian base comes from neutrons, and a recent workshop held at the Johnson Space Center concluded that as much as 30% of the dose in the International Space Station may come from secondary neutrons. Accelerator facilities provide a means for measuring the effectiveness of various materials in their ability to limit neutron production, using beams and energies that are present in cosmic radiation. The nearly limitless range of beams, energies, and target materials that are present in space, however, means that accelerator-based experiments will not provide a complete database of cross sections and thick-target yields that are necessary to plan and design long-duration missions. As such, accurate nuclear models of neutron production are needed, as well as data sets that can be used to compare with, and verify, the predictions from such models. Improvements in a model of secondary neutron production from heavy-ion interactions are presented here, along with the results from recent accelerator-based measurements of neutron-production cross sections. An analytical knockout-ablation model capable of predicting neutron production from high-energy hadron-hadron interactions (both nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions) has been previously developed. In the knockout stage, the collision between two nuclei result in the emission of one or more nucleons from the projectile and/or target. The resulting projectile and target remnants, referred to as

  17. Accelerator based Production of Auger-Electron-emitting Isotopes for Radionuclide Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisgaard, Helge

    Sb from the enriched 119Sn target material with high radionuclidic- and chemical purity. A method that also allows efficient recovery of the 119Sn for recycling. To demonstrate the ability of producing therapeutic quantities of 119Sb and other radioisotopes for therapy with a low-energy cyclotron...... isotopes (e.g. 119Sb or 64Cu) using the PETtrace cyclotron commonly found at the larger PET-centers in the hospitals. Finally, research in a new method to measure the radiotoxicity of Auger-emitters invitro using cellular microinjection has been carried out. The purpose of this method is to be able...

  18. The impact of accelerating electronic prescribing on hospitals' productivity levels: can health information technology bend the curve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Eric W; Huerta, Timothy R; Thompson, Mark A; Patry, Roland

    This paper examines how different strategies for implementing computerized prescriber order entry (CPOE) impact hospitals' productivity. We used the American Hospital Association's Annual Survey to construct hospital-level measures for 1,812 facilities and analyzed the productivity indices against CPOE use rates. The relationship between CPOE use rates and indices for "technical efficiency change" and "total factor productivity" was significant. Hospitals introducing CPOE facilitywide in a one-year period (where usage went from zero to more than 50%) experienced declines in both productivity indices. One implication is that hospitals achieving the goals of the "meaningful use" program promoted by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services may do so at the expense of productivity.

  19. Model-based optimization of production systems

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Gas lifted method is one of the artificial lift technique used in the oil and gas industry.This method is applied most in oil well to improve the oil recovery by lowering the bottomhole pressure. Normally in the field there are multi-gas lifted wells that requires certain amount of gas to be injected to achieve the maximum oil production. Generally the amount of gas available is limited, therefore is has to be allocated per well in the best way possible to achieve maximum oil production in...

  20. The miniature accelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    The image that most people have of CERN is of its enormous accelerators and their capacity to accelerate particles to extremely high energies. But thanks to some cutting-edge studies on beam dynamics and radiofrequency technology, along with innovative construction techniques, teams at CERN have now created the first module of a brand-new accelerator, which will be just 2 metres long. The potential uses of this miniature accelerator will include deployment in hospitals for the production of medical isotopes and the treatment of cancer. It’s a real David-and-Goliath story.   Serge Mathot, in charge of the construction of the "mini-RFQ", pictured with the first of the four modules that will make up the miniature accelerator. The miniature accelerator consists of a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ), a component found at the start of all proton accelerator chains around the world, from the smallest to the largest. The LHC is designed to produce very high-intensity beams ...