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Sample records for acceleration proof-of-principle experiment

  1. A proof of principle experiment of laser wakefield accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, K.; Enomoto, A.; Nakanishi, H.; Ogata, A.; Kato, Y.; Kitagawa, Y.; Mima, K.; Shiraga, H.; Yamakawa, K.; Downer, M.; Horton, W.; Newberger, B.; Tajima, T.

    1992-01-01

    Ultrashort super-intense lasers allow us to test a principle of the laser wakefield particle acceleration. The peak power of 30 TW and the pulse width of 1 ps produced by the Nd:glass laser system is capable of creating a highly-ionized plasma of a moderate density gas in an ultrafast time scale and generating a large amplitude plasma wave with the accelerating gradient of 2.5 GeV/m. Particle acceleration can be demonstrated by injecting a few MeV electrons emitted from a solid target by intense laser irradiation. (Author) 2 figs., 5 refs

  2. IFA proof of principle experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    IFA proof of principle experiments is discussed. Controlled beam front motion experiments are reported, which demonstrate that accurate IFA programming of the motion of the potential well at the head of an IREB has been achieved. The status of IFA ion experiments is also discussed

  3. Proof-of-principle experiment of the vacuum beat wave accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, A.; Krushelnick, K.; Esarey, E.; Sprangle, P.

    1997-01-01

    The vacuum beat wave accelerator (VBWA) is discussed and design parameters for proof-of-principle experiment are presented. The VBWA utilizes two focused laser beams of differing wavelengths to generate a beat wave that can impart a net acceleration to charged particles. Theory and simulations show that the single-stage energy gain of the VBWA is limited by diffraction of the laser beams, particle slippage in phase and velocity, and radial walk-off. In the simulations the particles are synchronous with the beat wave for a short interval of time and the energy gain has the nature of an impulse delivered near the focal region. Simulations also show that the problem of radial walk-off may be ameliorated by using a converging beam of particles. For terawatt-level laser beams, with wavelengths 1 μm and 0.5 μm, and a 4.5 MeV finite-emittance electron beam the energy can be increased to ∼12.5MeV in a non-synchronous interaction over a distance of under 4 mm, with a peak acceleration gradient >15GeV/m and an estimated trapping fraction of -1%. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  4. Tritium proof-of-principle injector experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, P.W.; Milora, S.L.; Combs, S.K.; Carlson, R.V.; Coffin, D.O.

    1988-01-01

    The Tritium Proof-of-Principle (TPOP) pellet injector was designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate the production and acceleration of tritium pellets for fueling future fision reactors. The injector uses the pipe-gun concept to form pellets directly in a short liquid-helium-cooled section of the barrel. Pellets are accelerated by using high-pressure hydrogen supplied from a fast solenoid valve. A versatile, tritium-compatible gas-handling system provides all of the functions needed to operate the gun, including feed gas pressure control and flow control, plus helium separation and preparation of mixtures. These systems are contained in a glovebox for secondary containment of tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). 18 refs., 3 figs

  5. TOREX-4: a torsatron proof of principle experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Politzer, P.A.; Lidsky, L.M.; Montgomery, D.B.

    1979-03-01

    TOREX-4 is a torsatron Proof of Principle experiment designed to simultaneously achieve ntau approx. = to 5 x 10 13 , n approx. = to 5 x 10 14 /cm 3 , and T greater than or equal to 1 keV. TOREX-4 is capable of operating without externally driven currents; sufficient neutral beam power to reach betas of 2 to 5% is provided. The unique 4(+2) constant pitch angle winding configuration allows the reliable design of large systems with far greater experimental flexibility than can be achieved in conventional stellarators of comparable size. This will allow investigation of the basic physics questions of the torsatron configuration over a wide range of plasma properties and field configurations without sacrifice of the Proof of Principle goals

  6. Vane fabrication for the proof-of-principle radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, S.W.; Potter, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    The electrodes for the Proof-of-Principle (POP) Radio-Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator were machined on a numerically controlled, three-axis, vertical mill. These pole tips, or vanes, were prepared for, and used, in the successful demonstration of RFQ practicality at Los Alamos National Laboratory in February 1980. The data set that described the vanes contained about 10 million bits of tool position data. The vanes were cut from OFHC copper blanks. The tolerances achieved were approximately +- 0.005 cm. The design and manufacturing procedures are described

  7. Immune responses accelerate ageing: proof-of-principle in an insect model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Rhiannon Pursall

    Full Text Available The pathology of many of the world's most important infectious diseases is caused by the immune response. Additionally age-related disease is often attributed to inflammatory responses. Consequently a reduction in infections and hence inflammation early in life has been hypothesized to explain the rise in lifespan in industrialized societies. Here we demonstrate experimentally for the first time that eliciting an immune response early in life accelerates ageing. We use the beetle Tenebrio molitor as an inflammation model. We provide a proof of principle for the effects of early infection on morbidity late in life and demonstrate a long-lasting cost of immunopathology. Along with presenting a proof-of-principle study, we discuss a mechanism for the apparently counter-adaptive persistence of immunopathology in natural populations. If immunopathology from early immune response only becomes costly later in life, natural selection on reducing self-harm would be relaxed, which could explain the presence of immune self-harm in nature.

  8. A contraband detection system proof-of-principle device using electrostatic acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sredniawski, Joseph J.; Debiak, T.W.; Kamykowski, E.; Rathke, J.; Milton, B.; Rogers, J.; Schmor, P.; Stanford, G.; Brando, J.

    1996-01-01

    A new Contraband Detection System (CDS) Proof-of- Principle (POP) device is nearing completion at Northrop Grumman's Advanced Technology and Development Center. We employ gamma resonance absorption (GRA) to detect nitrogen or chlorine in explosives and certain forms of illegal drugs. Using tomography, 3-D images of the total density and selected element density are generated. These characteristics together may be utilized with considerable confidence in determining if contraband is present in baggage or cargo. The CDS employs a high current (10 mA) DC electrostatic accelerator that provides a beam of protons at either 1.75 or 1.89 MeV. These high energy particles impinge upon a target coated with 13 C or 34 S. The resultant resonant gamma rays are preferentially absorbed in either 14 N or 35 Cl. Because of the penetrating power of the gamma rays, this approach can be utilized for inspection of fully loaded aircraft containers such as the LD3. Our current program calls for testing of the POP CDS by late 1996. This paper presents the overall design and characteristics of the CDS POP. (author)

  9. X-ray diffraction without sample preparation: Proof-of-principle experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansford, Graeme M.

    2013-01-01

    The properties of a novel X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique having very low sensitivity to the sample morphology were previously elucidated through theoretical considerations and model simulations (Hansford, 2011). This technique opens up the possibility of mineralogical analysis by XRD without sample preparation. Here, the results of proof-of-principle experimental tests are presented. Two sets of experiments were performed using a vacuum chamber equipped with an X-ray tube source, sample holder and charge-coupled detector. Firstly, a pressed-powder pellet of α-quartz was placed in three different positions relative to the X-ray source and detector. The changes in position represent gross sample movements which would be inconceivable in conventional XRD analysis. The resulting back-reflection energy-dispersive spectra show a very high degree of correspondence other than an overall intensity factor dependent on the distance between the sample and detector. Secondly, the back-reflection spectrum of an unprepared limestone hand specimen, having mm-scale surface morphology, was compared to the spectrum of a calcite pressed-powder pellet. The correspondence of the diffraction peaks in the spectra demonstrate that the limestone is comprised dominantly of calcite. In both cases, the claims of the earlier paper are fully supported by the results of these experimental tests. -- Highlights: • Proof-of-principle tests of a novel X-ray diffraction (XRD) method were conducted. • Very low sensitivity to sample position and orientation was demonstrated. • Insensitivity to sample morphology is inferred. • A simple analysis of an unprepared limestone hand specimen was performed. • This technique enables mineralogical analysis by XRD without sample preparation

  10. Design of a speed meter interferometer proof-of-principle experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gräf, C; Barr, B W; Bell, A S; Campbell, F; Cumming, A V; Gordon, N A; Hammond, G D; Hennig, J; Houston, E A; Huttner, S H; Jones, R A; Leavey, S S; Macarthur, J; Marwick, M; Rigby, S; Sorazu, B; Spencer, A; Danilishin, S L; Lück, H; Schilling, R

    2014-01-01

    The second generation of large scale interferometric gravitational wave (GW) detectors will be limited by quantum noise over a wide frequency range in their detection band. Further sensitivity improvements for future upgrades or new detectors beyond the second generation motivate the development of measurement schemes to mitigate the impact of quantum noise in these instruments. Two strands of development are being pursued to reach this goal, focusing both on modifications of the well-established Michelson detector configuration and development of different detector topologies. In this paper, we present the design of the world's first Sagnac speed meter (SSM) interferometer, which is currently being constructed at the University of Glasgow. With this proof-of-principle experiment we aim to demonstrate the theoretically predicted lower quantum noise in a Sagnac interferometer compared to an equivalent Michelson interferometer, to qualify SSM for further research towards an implementation in a future generation large scale GW detector, such as the planned Einstein telescope observatory. (paper)

  11. Fast-wave ion cyclotron current drive for ITER and prospects for near-term proof-of-principle experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, D.W.; Batchelor, D.B.; Carter, M.D.; Jaeger, E.F.; Ryan, P.M.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    Low-frequency fast-wave current drive (FWCD) with frequencies in the range from 30 to 100 MHz looks promising for current drive in ITER. Its theoretical efficiencies are comparable to other current-drive techniques, and it could be significantly cheaper than other proposed current drive methods because of the ready availability of inexpensive (<$1/W), efficient, multi-megawatt rf power sources. The most critical issues for FWCD are concerns about the acceptability and survivability of an appropriate antenna launching system and the lack of an experimental demonstration of FWCD in a large tokamak. We describe an antenna array that is flush with the first wall of ITER and should be able to survive in the plasma environment, present theoretical calculations of FWCD in ITER, and show results from a brief survey of some present-day tokamaks in which it might be possible to carry out FWCD proof-of-principle experiments. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  12. High-speed tapping-mode atomic force microscopy using a Q-controlled regular cantilever acting as the actuator: Proof-of-principle experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balantekin, M., E-mail: mujdatbalantekin@iyte.edu.tr [Electrical and Electronics Engineering, İzmir Institute of Technology, Urla, İzmir 35430 (Turkey); Satır, S.; Torello, D.; Değertekin, F. L. [Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0405 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    We present the proof-of-principle experiments of a high-speed actuation method to be used in tapping-mode atomic force microscopes (AFM). In this method, we do not employ a piezotube actuator to move the tip or the sample as in conventional AFM systems, but, we utilize a Q-controlled eigenmode of a cantilever to perform the fast actuation. We show that the actuation speed can be increased even with a regular cantilever.

  13. Tritium proof-of-principle pellet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, P.W.

    1991-07-01

    The tritium proof-of-principle (TPOP) experiment was designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the formation and acceleration of the world's first tritium pellets for fueling of future fusion reactors. The experiment was first used to produce hydrogen and deuterium pellets at ORNL. It was then moved to the Tritium Systems Test Assembly at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the production of tritium pellets. The injector used in situ condensation to produce cylindrical pellets in a 1-m-long, 4-mm-ID barrel. A cryogenic 3 He separator, which was an integral part of the gun assembly, was capable of lowering 3 He levels in the feed gas to <0.005%. The experiment was housed to a glovebox for tritium containment. Nearly 1500 pellets were produced during the course of the experiment, and about a third of these were pure tritium or mixtures of deuterium and tritium. Over 100 kCi of tritium was processed through the experiment without incident. Tritium pellet velocities of 1400 m/s were achieved with high-pressure hydrogen propellant. The design, operation, and results of this experiment are summarized. 34 refs., 44 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Soft magnetic tweezers: a proof of principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosconi, Francesco; Allemand, Jean François; Croquette, Vincent

    2011-03-01

    We present here the principle of soft magnetic tweezers which improve the traditional magnetic tweezers allowing the simultaneous application and measurement of an arbitrary torque to a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule. They take advantage of a nonlinear coupling regime that appears when a fast rotating magnetic field is applied to a superparamagnetic bead immersed in a viscous fluid. In this work, we present the development of the technique and we compare it with other techniques capable of measuring the torque applied to the DNA molecule. In this proof of principle, we use standard electromagnets to achieve our experiments. Despite technical difficulties related to the present implementation of these electromagnets, the agreement of measurements with previous experiments is remarkable. Finally, we propose a simple way to modify the experimental design of electromagnets that should bring the performances of the device to a competitive level.

  15. Infrared laser induced population transfer and parity selection in (14)NH3: A proof of principle experiment towards detecting parity violation in chiral molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietiker, P; Miloglyadov, E; Quack, M; Schneider, A; Seyfang, G

    2015-12-28

    We have set up an experiment for the efficient population transfer by a sequential two photon-absorption and stimulated emission-process in a molecular beam to prepare quantum states of well defined parity and their subsequent sensitive detection. This provides a proof of principle for an experiment which would allow for parity selection and measurement of the time evolution of parity in chiral molecules, resulting in a measurement of the parity violating energy difference ΔpvE between enantiomers of chiral molecules. Here, we present first results on a simple achiral molecule demonstrating efficient population transfer (about 80% on the average for each step) and unperturbed persistence of a selected excited parity level over flight times of about 1.3 ms in the beam. In agreement with model calculations with and without including nuclear hyperfine structure, efficient population transfer can be achieved by a rather simple implementation of the rapid adiabatic passage method of Reuss and coworkers and considering also the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage technique of Bergmann and coworkers as an alternative. The preparation step uses two powerful single mode continuous wave optical parametric oscillators of high frequency stability and accuracy. The detection uses a sensitive resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization method after free flight lengths of up to 0.8 m in the molecular beam. Using this technique, we were able to also resolve the nuclear hyperfine structure in the rovibrational levels of the ν1 and ν3 fundamentals as well as the 2ν4 overtone of (14)NH3, for which no previous data with hyperfine resolution were available. We present our new results on the quadrupole coupling constants for the ν1, ν3, and 2ν4 levels in the context of previously known data for ν2 and its overtone, as well as ν4, and the ground state. Thus, now, (14)N quadrupole coupling constants for all fundamentals and some overtones of (14)NH3 are known and can be used for

  16. Infrared laser induced population transfer and parity selection in {sup 14}NH{sub 3}: A proof of principle experiment towards detecting parity violation in chiral molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietiker, P.; Miloglyadov, E.; Quack, M., E-mail: Martin@Quack.ch; Schneider, A.; Seyfang, G. [Physical Chemistry, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2015-12-28

    We have set up an experiment for the efficient population transfer by a sequential two photon—absorption and stimulated emission—process in a molecular beam to prepare quantum states of well defined parity and their subsequent sensitive detection. This provides a proof of principle for an experiment which would allow for parity selection and measurement of the time evolution of parity in chiral molecules, resulting in a measurement of the parity violating energy difference Δ{sub pv}E between enantiomers of chiral molecules. Here, we present first results on a simple achiral molecule demonstrating efficient population transfer (about 80% on the average for each step) and unperturbed persistence of a selected excited parity level over flight times of about 1.3 ms in the beam. In agreement with model calculations with and without including nuclear hyperfine structure, efficient population transfer can be achieved by a rather simple implementation of the rapid adiabatic passage method of Reuss and coworkers and considering also the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage technique of Bergmann and coworkers as an alternative. The preparation step uses two powerful single mode continuous wave optical parametric oscillators of high frequency stability and accuracy. The detection uses a sensitive resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization method after free flight lengths of up to 0.8 m in the molecular beam. Using this technique, we were able to also resolve the nuclear hyperfine structure in the rovibrational levels of the ν{sub 1} and ν{sub 3} fundamentals as well as the 2ν{sub 4} overtone of {sup 14}NH{sub 3}, for which no previous data with hyperfine resolution were available. We present our new results on the quadrupole coupling constants for the ν{sub 1}, ν{sub 3}, and 2ν{sub 4} levels in the context of previously known data for ν{sub 2} and its overtone, as well as ν{sub 4}, and the ground state. Thus, now, {sup 14}N quadrupole coupling constants for all

  17. Thermal Shock Experiment (TSEX): a ''proof-of-principle'' evaluation of the use of electron beam heating to simulate the thermal mechanical environment anticipated for the first wall of the Reference Theta-Pinch Reactor (RTPR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, P.E.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1977-06-01

    The results of a ''proof-of-principle'' Thermal Shock Experiment (TSEX), designed to simulate the thermal mechanical response of insulator-metal composite first walls anticipated for pulsed high-density fusion reactors, are given. A programmable 10-kV, 1.0-A electron beam was used to pulse repeatedly (0.30-mm)Al 2 O 3 /(1.0-mm) Nb-1Zr composite samples 200 to 300 K, relative to a base-line temperature of 1000 K. The experimental goals of TSEX were established relative to the first-wall environment anticipated for the Reference Theta-Pinch Reactor (RTPR). A detailed description of the TSEX ''proof-of-principle'' apparatus, experimental procedure, and diagnostics is given. The results of extensive thermal analyses are given, which are used to estimate the thermal stresses generated. Although little or no control was exercised over the sample fabrication and thermal history, one sample experienced in excess of 800 thermal cycles of approximately 250 K at approximately 1000 K, and the results of optical and SEM examination of this specimen are presented. The resistance of this sample to macroscopic failure was truly impressive. Recommendations for the construction of an apparatus dedicated to extensive testing of first-wall composites are given on the basis of these ''proof-of-principle'' TSEX results

  18. Tritium proof-of-principle pellet injector results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, P.W.; Fehling, D.T.; Gouge, M.J.; Milora, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    The tritium proof-of-principle (TPOP) experiment was built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the feasibility of forming solid tritium pellets and accelerating them to high velocities for fueling future fusion reactors. TPOP used a pneumatic pipe-gun with a 4-mm-i.d. by 1-m-long barrel. Nearly 1500 pellets were fired by the gun during the course of the experiment; about a third of these were tritium or mixtures of deuterium and tritium. The system also contained a cryogenic 3 He separator that reduced the 3 He level to <0.005%. Pure tritium pellets were accelerated to 1400 m/s. Experiments evaluated the effect of cryostat temperature and fill pressure on pellet size, the production of pellets from mixtures of tritium and deuterium, and the effect of aging on pellet integrity. The tritium phase of these experiments was performed at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. About 100 kCi of tritium was processed through the apparatus without incident. 8 refs., 7 figs

  19. A new proof-of-principle contraband detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sredniawski, J.J.; Debiak, T.; Kamykowski, E.; Rathke, J. [Northrop Grumman Corp., Bethpage, NY (United States). Advanced Technology and Development Center; Schmor, P.; Altman, A.; Rogers, J.; Boyd, J. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). TRIUMF Facility; Brondo, J. [Scientific Innovations, Inc., East Hampton, NY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    A new concept for a CDS has been developed under a Phase I ARPA funded program; it uses gamma resonance absorption (GRA) to detect certain illegal drugs that may be transported in man-portable containers. A high detection probability for heroin and cocaine is possible with a device that is also searching for explosives. Elemental detection of both N and Cl is utilized, and with tomography, a 3D density image of the elements is generated. Total density image is also developed. These two together may be used with considerable confidence in determining if heroin or cocaine is present in the interrogated containers in a small quantity (1 kg). The CDS employs a high current ({ge}10 mA) DC accelerator that produces a beam of 1.75 or 1.89 MeV protons. These protons impact a target with coatings of {sup 13}C and {sup 34}S. Depending on the coating, the resultant resonant gamma rays are preferentially absorbed in either {sup 14}N or {sup 35}Cl. The resonant gammas come off the target in a conical fan at 80.7{degree} for N and 82{degree} for Cl; a common array of segmented BGO detectors is used over an arc of 53{degree} to provide input to an imaging subsystem. The tomography makes use of rotation and vertical translation of a baggage carousel holding typically 18 average sized bags for batch processing of the contents. The single proton accelerator and target can supply multiple detection stations with the appropriate gammas, a feature that may lead to very high throughput potential approaching 2000 bags/hr. Each detection station can operate somewhat independently from the others. This paper presents the overall requirements, design, operating principles, and characteristics of the CDS proof-of-principle device developed in the Phase I program.

  20. Results from the RACE [Ring ACceleration Experiment] Compact Torus Acceleration Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, J.H.; Hartman, C.W.; Eddleman, J.L.; Kusse, B.

    1987-06-01

    RACE (Ring ACceleration Experiment) is a proof-of-principle experiment aimed at demonstrating acceleration of magnetically confined compact torus plasma rings to directed kinetic energies well in excess of their magnetic and thermal energies. In the course of the first year of operation the following have been observed: successful formation of rings in the RACE geometry; acceleration of rings with large forces, F/sub accelerate/ ∼F/sub equilibrium/ without apparent degradation of the ring structure; peak velocities of ≅2.5 x 10 8 cm/sec; acceleration efficiency of >30% at speeds of 1.5 x 10 8 cm/sec inferred from trajectory and capacitor bank data; kinetic to magnetic energy ratios ∼10 were observed. Experiments in the near future will be aimed at confirmation of the mass/energy measurements by calorimetry and direct density measurements

  1. Proof-of-principle functionals for the shape function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayers, Paul W.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that the density per particle, or shape function, determines all the properties of molecules and, more generally, finite Coulomb systems (e.g., clusters). Here, we provide numerical evidence for this 'existence' theorem, showing that atomic properties (specifically the kinetic energy and exchange energy) have simple approximate expressions in terms of the shape function. While the accuracy of our results is limited, this provides 'proof-of-principle' evidence that shape-functional theory represents an alternative to density-functional theory for finite Coulomb systems

  2. Proof of principle for epitope-focused vaccine design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Bruno E.; Bates, John T.; Loomis, Rebecca J.; Baneyx, Gretchen; Carrico, Chris; Jardine, Joseph G.; Rupert, Peter; Correnti, Colin; Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr; Vittal, Vinayak; Connell, Mary J.; Stevens, Eric; Schroeter, Alexandria; Chen, Man; MacPherson, Skye; Serra, Andreia M.; Adachi, Yumiko; Holmes, Margaret A.; Li, Yuxing; Klevit, Rachel E.; Graham, Barney S.; Wyatt, Richard T.; Baker, David; Strong, Roland K.; Crowe, James E.; Johnson, Philip R.; Schief, William R.

    2014-03-01

    Vaccines prevent infectious disease largely by inducing protective neutralizing antibodies against vulnerable epitopes. Several major pathogens have resisted traditional vaccine development, although vulnerable epitopes targeted by neutralizing antibodies have been identified for several such cases. Hence, new vaccine design methods to induce epitope-specific neutralizing antibodies are needed. Here we show, with a neutralization epitope from respiratory syncytial virus, that computational protein design can generate small, thermally and conformationally stable protein scaffolds that accurately mimic the viral epitope structure and induce potent neutralizing antibodies. These scaffolds represent promising leads for the research and development of a human respiratory syncytial virus vaccine needed to protect infants, young children and the elderly. More generally, the results provide proof of principle for epitope-focused and scaffold-based vaccine design, and encourage the evaluation and further development of these strategies for a variety of other vaccine targets, including antigenically highly variable pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus and influenza.

  3. Proof of Principle for Electronic Collimation of a Gamma Ray Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ERDC TN-EQT-16-1 January 2016 Proof of Principle for Electronic Collimation of a Gamma...in achieving the proof of principle of the technique, which is intended to be further developed. A gamma ray detector system utilizing electronic...waveforms from longitudinal (along the axis) waveforms yield proof of principle . TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTION: The component detector technologies were

  4. Proof-of-Principle Dermal Decontamination Experiments: Swine Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    cycles and the measurements taken after each cycle were recorded. All water rinses were performed using tap water and applied using a gentle stream...uniform and highly reproducible. EpiDermFT ( EFT ) consists of organized basal, spinous, granular, and cornified epidermal layers analogous to those found...in vivo. The dermal compartment is composed of a collagen matrix containing viable normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). EFT is mitotically and

  5. 3D Simulations for a Micron-Scale, Dielectric-Based Acceleration Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoder, R. B.; Travish, G.; Xu Jin; Rosenzweig, J. B.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental program to demonstrate a dielectric, slab-symmetric accelerator structure has been underway for the past two years. These resonant devices are driven by a side-coupled 800-nm laser and can be configured to maintain the field profile necessary for synchronous acceleration and focusing of relativistic or nonrelativistic particles. We present 3D simulations of various versions of the structure geometry, including a metal-walled structure relevant to ongoing cold tests on resonant properties, and an all-dielectric structure to be constructed for a proof-of-principle acceleration experiment.

  6. First results of the plasma wakefield acceleration experiment at PITZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lishilin, O.; Gross, M.; Brinkmann, R.; Engel, J.; Grüner, F.; Koss, G.; Krasilnikov, M.; Martinez de la Ossa, A.; Mehrling, T.; Osterhoff, J.; Pathak, G.; Philipp, S.; Renier, Y.; Richter, D.; Schroeder, C.; Schütze, R.; Stephan, F.

    2016-01-01

    The self-modulation instability of long particle beams was proposed as a new mechanism to produce driver beams for proton driven plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA). The PWFA experiment at the Photo Injector Test facility at DESY, Zeuthen site (PITZ) was launched to experimentally demonstrate and study the self-modulation of long electron beams in plasma. Key aspects for the experiment are the very flexible photocathode laser system, a plasma cell and well-developed beam diagnostics. In this contribution we report about the plasma cell design, preparatory experiments and the results of the first PWFA experiment at PITZ. - Highlights: • A self-modulation mechanism for producing driver beams for PWFA is proposed. • A proof-of-principle experiment is launched at the Photo Injector Test facility at DESY. • The self-modulation instability occurs in long particle beams passing through plasma. • A heat pipe oven and a laser are used to produce plasma.

  7. A new proof-of-principle contraband detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sredniawski, J.J.; Debiak, T.; Kamykowski, E.

    1995-12-01

    An accelerator-based technique is being developed to detect contraband materials in large containers. The source, which uses a low-energy proton beam to generate high-energy gamma rays, uses the gamma resonance absorption technique to detect nitrogen-14 and chlorine-35 in containers. Both these materials are commonly found in contraband drugs as well as in explosives. Through the use of segmented BGO detectors to detect the resonant gamma rays a quantity as low as ∼ 1 kg can be located with a considerable degree of confidence. Several stations at a port of entry can be operated with one accelerator, as described

  8. AWAKE, The Advanced Proton Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Gschwendtner, E.; Amorim, L.; Apsimon, R.; Assmann, R.; Bachmann, A.M.; Batsch, F.; Bauche, J.; Berglyd Olsen, V.K.; Bernardini, M.; Bingham, R.; Biskup, B.; Bohl, T.; Bracco, C.; Burrows, P.N.; Burt, G.; Buttenschon, B.; Butterworth, A.; Caldwell, A.; Cascella, M.; Chevallay, E.; Cipiccia, S.; Damerau, H.; Deacon, L.; Dirksen, P.; Doebert, S.; Dorda, U.; Farmer, J.; Fedosseev, V.; Feldbaumer, E.; Fiorito, R.; Fonseca, R.; Friebel, F.; Gorn, A.A.; Grulke, O.; Hansen, J.; Hessler, C.; Hofle, W.; Holloway, J.; Huther, M.; Jaroszynski, D.; Jensen, L.; Jolly, S.; Joulaei, A.; Kasim, M.; Keeble, F.; Li, Y.; Liu, S.; Lopes, N.; Lotov, K.V.; Mandry, S.; Martorelli, R.; Martyanov, M.; Mazzoni, S.; Mete, O.; Minakov, V.A.; Mitchell, J.; Moody, J.; Muggli, P.; Najmudin, Z.; Norreys, P.; Oz, E.; Pardons, A.; Pepitone, K.; Petrenko, A.; Plyushchev, G.; Pukhov, A.; Rieger, K.; Ruhl, H.; Salveter, F.; Savard, N.; Schmidt, J.; Seryi, A.; Shaposhnikova, E.; Sheng, Z.M.; Sherwood, P.; Silva, L.; Soby, L.; Sosedkin, A.P.; Spitsyn, R.I.; Trines, R.; Tuev, P.V.; Turner, M.; Verzilov, V.; Vieira, J.; Vincke, H.; Wei, Y.; Welsch, C.P.; Wing, M.; Xia, G.; Zhang, H.

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Proton Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment (AWAKE) aims at studying plasma wakefield generation and electron acceleration driven by proton bunches. It is a proof-of-principle R&D experiment at CERN and the world's first proton driven plasma wakefield acceleration experiment. The AWAKE experiment will be installed in the former CNGS facility and uses the 400 GeV/c proton beam bunches from the SPS. The first experiments will focus on the self-modulation instability of the long (rms ~12 cm) proton bunch in the plasma. These experiments are planned for the end of 2016. Later, in 2017/2018, low energy (~15 MeV) electrons will be externally injected to sample the wakefields and be accelerated beyond 1 GeV. The main goals of the experiment will be summarized. A summary of the AWAKE design and construction status will be presented.

  9. Discrimination Training Reduces High Rate Social Approach Behaviors in Angelman Syndrome: Proof of Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald, M.; Allen, D.; Villa, D.; Oliver, C.

    2013-01-01

    This proof of principle study was designed to evaluate whether excessively high rates of social approach behaviors in children with Angelman syndrome (AS) can be modified using a multiple schedule design. Four children with AS were exposed to a multiple schedule arrangement, in which social reinforcement and extinction, cued using a novel…

  10. Reducing intrusive traumatic memories after emergency caesarean section: A proof-of-principle randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsch, Antje; Vial, Yvan; Favrod, Céline; Harari, Mathilde Morisod; Blackwell, Simon E; Watson, Peter; Iyadurai, Lalitha; Bonsall, Michael B; Holmes, Emily A

    2017-07-01

    Preventative psychological interventions to aid women after traumatic childbirth are needed. This proof-of-principle randomized controlled study evaluated whether the number of intrusive traumatic memories mothers experience after emergency caesarean section (ECS) could be reduced by a brief cognitive intervention. 56 women after ECS were randomized to one of two parallel groups in a 1:1 ratio: intervention (usual care plus cognitive task procedure) or control (usual care). The intervention group engaged in a visuospatial task (computer-game 'Tetris' via a handheld gaming device) for 15 min within six hours following their ECS. The primary outcome was the number of intrusive traumatic memories related to the ECS recorded in a diary for the week post-ECS. As predicted, compared with controls, the intervention group reported fewer intrusive traumatic memories (M = 4.77, SD = 10.71 vs. M = 9.22, SD = 10.69, d = 0.647 [95% CI: 0.106, 1.182]) over 1 week (intention-to-treat analyses, primary outcome). There was a trend towards reduced acute stress re-experiencing symptoms (d = 0.503 [95% CI: -0.032, 1.033]) after 1 week (intention-to-treat analyses). Times series analysis on daily intrusions data confirmed the predicted difference between groups. 72% of women rated the intervention "rather" to "extremely" acceptable. This represents a first step in the development of an early (and potentially universal) intervention to prevent postnatal posttraumatic stress symptoms that may benefit both mother and child. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02502513. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Proof of principle in vitro study of a prototype ultrasound technology to size stone fragments during ureteroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Mathew D; Teichman, Joel M H; Bailey, Michael R

    2009-07-01

    Proof-of-principle in vitro experiments evaluated a prototype ultrasound technology to size kidney stone fragments. Nineteen human stones were measured using manual calipers. A 10-MHz, 1/8'' (10F) ultrasound transducer probe pinged each stone on a kidney tissue phantom submerged in water using two methods. In Method 1, the instrument was aligned such that the ultrasound pulse traveled through the stone. In Method 2, the instrument was aligned partially over the stone such that the ultrasound pulse traveled through water. For Method 1, the correlation between caliper- and ultrasound-determined stone size was r(2) = 0.71 (P stone measurements were accurate and precise to within 1 mm. For Method 2, the correlation was r(2) = 0.99 (P stone size with good accuracy and precision. This technology may be possible to incorporate into ureteroscopy.

  12. Proof-of-principle demonstration of Nb3Sn superconducting radiofrequency cavities for high Q0 applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posen, S.; Liepe, M.; Hall, D. L.

    2015-02-01

    Many future particle accelerators require hundreds of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavities operating with high duty factor. The large dynamic heat load of the cavities causes the cryogenic plant to make up a significant part of the overall cost of the facility. This contribution can be reduced by replacing standard niobium cavities with ones coated with a low-dissipation superconductor such as Nb3Sn. In this paper, we present results for single cell cavities coated with Nb3Sn at Cornell. Five coatings were carried out, showing that at 4.2 K, high Q0 out to medium fields was reproducible, resulting in an average quench field of 14 MV/m and an average 4.2 K Q0 at quench of 8 × 109. In each case, the peak surface magnetic field at quench was well above Hc1, showing that it is not a limiting field in these cavities. The coating with the best performance had a quench field of 17 MV/m, exceeding gradient requirements for state-of-the-art high duty factor SRF accelerators. It is also shown that—taking into account the thermodynamic efficiency of the cryogenic plant—the 4.2 K Q0 values obtained meet the AC power consumption requirements of state-of-the-art high duty factor accelerators, making this a proof-of-principle demonstration for Nb3Sn cavities in future applications.

  13. The Study of Advanced Accelerator Physics Research at UCLA Using the ATF at BNL: Vacuum Acceleration by Laser of Free Electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, David B.

    2016-01-01

    An experiment was designed and data were taken to demonstrate that a tightly focused laser on vacuum can accelerate an electron beam in free space. The experiment was proof-of-principle and showed a clear effect for the laser beam off and on. The size of the effect was about 20% and was consistent over 30 laser and beam shots.

  14. Report for slot cutter proof-of-principle test, Buried Waste Containment System project. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Several million cubic feet of hazardous and radioactive waste was buried in shallow pits and trenches within many US Department of Energy (US DOE) sites. The pits and trenches were constructed similarly to municipal landfills with both stacked and random dump waste forms such as barrels and boxes. Many of the hazardous materials in these waste sites are migrating into groundwater systems through plumes and leaching. On-site containment is one of the options being considered for prevention of waste migration. This report describes the results of a proof-of-principle test conducted to demonstrate technology for containing waste. This proof-of-principle test, conducted at the RAHCO International, Inc., facility in the summer of 1997, evaluated equipment techniques for cutting a horizontal slot beneath an existing waste site. The slot would theoretically be used by complementary equipment designed to place a cement barrier under the waste. The technology evaluated consisted of a slot cutting mechanism, muck handling system, thrust system, and instrumentation. Data were gathered and analyzed to evaluate the performance parameters

  15. Report for slot cutter proof-of-principle test, Buried Waste Containment System project. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-21

    Several million cubic feet of hazardous and radioactive waste was buried in shallow pits and trenches within many US Department of Energy (US DOE) sites. The pits and trenches were constructed similarly to municipal landfills with both stacked and random dump waste forms such as barrels and boxes. Many of the hazardous materials in these waste sites are migrating into groundwater systems through plumes and leaching. On-site containment is one of the options being considered for prevention of waste migration. This report describes the results of a proof-of-principle test conducted to demonstrate technology for containing waste. This proof-of-principle test, conducted at the RAHCO International, Inc., facility in the summer of 1997, evaluated equipment techniques for cutting a horizontal slot beneath an existing waste site. The slot would theoretically be used by complementary equipment designed to place a cement barrier under the waste. The technology evaluated consisted of a slot cutting mechanism, muck handling system, thrust system, and instrumentation. Data were gathered and analyzed to evaluate the performance parameters.

  16. Axial focusing of impact energy in the Earth's interior: Proof-of-principle tests of a new hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boslough, M. B.; Chael, E. P.; Trucano, T. G.; Kipp, M. E.; Crawford, D. A.

    1994-01-01

    A causal link between major impact events and global processes would probably require a significant change in the thermal state of the Earth's interior, presumably brought about by coupling of impact energy. One possible mechanism for such energy coupling from the surface to the deep interior would be through focusing due to axial symmetry. Antipodal focusing of surface and body waves from earthquakes is a well-known phenomenon which has previously been exploited by seismologists in studies of the Earth's deep interior. Antipodal focusing from impacts on the Moon, Mercury, and icy satellites has also been invoked by planetary scientists to explain unusual surface features opposite some of the large impact structures on these bodies. For example, 'disrupted' terrains have been observed antipodal to the Caloris impact basis on Mercury and Imbrium Basin on the Moon. Very recently there have been speculations that antipodal focusing of impact energy within the mantle may lead to flood basalt and hotspot activity, but there has not yet been an attempt at a rigorous model. A new hypothesis was proposed and preliminary proof-of-principle tests for the coupling of energy from major impacts to the mantle by axial focusing of seismic waves was performed. Because of the axial symmetry of the explosive source, the phases and amplitudes are dependent only on ray parameter (or takeoff angle) and are independent of azimuthal angle. For a symmetric and homogeneous Earth, all the seismic energy radiated by the impact at a given takeoff angle will be refocused (minus attenuation) on the axis of symmetry, regardless of the number of reflections and refractions it has experienced. Mantle material near the axis of symmetry will experience more strain cycles with much greater amplitude than elsewhere and will therefore experience more irreversible heating. The situation is very different than for a giant earthquake, which in addition to having less energy, has an asymmetric focal

  17. Proposal for the theoretical investigation of the relativistic beam-plasma interaction with application to the proof-of-principle electron beam-heated linear solenoidal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1978-09-01

    A 36-month program to study the linear relativistic electron beam-plasma interaction is proposed. This program is part of a joint proposal between the Physics International Company (PI) and Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) that combines the advanced electron beam generator technology at PI with the highly developed computer simulation technology at LASL. The proposed LASL program includes direct support for 1- and 3-m beam-plasma interaction experiments planned at PI and development of theory relevant for design of a 10-m proof-of-principle electron beam-driven linear solenoidal reactor

  18. Determining paediatric patient thickness from a single digital radiograph-a proof of principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, Mark; Vinnicombe, Sarah; Sutton, David G

    2018-04-05

    This work presents a proof of principle for a method of estimating the thickness of an attenuator from a single radiograph using the image, the exposure factors with which it was acquired and a priori knowledge of the characteristics of the X-ray unit and detector used for the exposure. It is intended this could be developed into a clinical tool to assist with paediatric patient dose audit, for which a measurement of patient size is required. The proof of principle used measured pixel value and effective linear attenuation coefficient to estimate the thickness of a Solid Water attenuator. The kerma at the detector was estimated using a measurement of pixel value on the image and measured detector calibrations. The initial kerma was estimated using a lookup table of measured output values. The effective linear attenuation coefficient was measured for Solid Water at varying kV p . 11 test images of known and varying thicknesses of Solid Water were acquired at 60, 70 and 81 kV p . Estimates of attenuator thickness were made using the model and the results compared to the known thickness. Estimates of attenuator thickness made using the model differed from the known thickness by 3.8 mm (3.2%) on average, with a range of 0.5-10.8 mm (0.5-9%). A proof of principle is presented for a method of estimating the thickness of an attenuator using a single radiograph of the attenuator. The method has been shown to be accurate using a Solid Water attenuator, with a maximum difference between estimated and known attenuator thickness of 10.8 mm (9%). The method shows promise as a clinical tool for estimating abdominal paediatric patient thickness for paediatric patient dose audit, and is only contingent on the type of data routinely collected by Medical Physics departments. Advances in knowledge: A computational model has been created that is capable of accurately estimating the thickness of a uniform attenuator using only the radiographic image, the exposure factors with which

  19. Proof-of-principle experimental realization of a qubit-like qudit-based quantum key distribution scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuang; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Chau, H. F.; Chen, Wei; Wang, Chao; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2018-04-01

    In comparison to qubit-based protocols, qudit-based quantum key distribution ones generally allow two cooperative parties to share unconditionally secure keys under a higher channel noise. However, it is very hard to prepare and measure the required quantum states in qudit-based protocols in general. One exception is the recently proposed highly error tolerant qudit-based protocol known as the Chau15 (Chau 2015 Phys. Rev. A 92 062324). Remarkably, the state preparation and measurement in this protocol can be done relatively easily since the required states are phase encoded almost like the diagonal basis states of a qubit. Here we report the first proof-of-principle demonstration of the Chau15 protocol. One highlight of our experiment is that its post-processing is based on practical one-way manner, while the original proposal in Chau (2015 Phys. Rev. A 92 062324) relies on complicated two-way post-processing, which is a great challenge in experiment. In addition, by manipulating time-bin qudit and measurement with a variable delay interferometer, our realization is extensible to qudit with high-dimensionality and confirms the experimental feasibility of the Chau15 protocol.

  20. Light ion ignitors for inertial confinement fusion: progress toward proof-of-principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintenz, J.P.; Kuswa, G.W.

    1981-01-01

    From the inception of the REB effort, it was recognized that light ion beams offered substantial advantages as an ICF driver, and as the pulse power driver program progressed the possibilities of using light ion beams became increasingly evident. Because of the rapid progress made in the available power in these light ion beams, their superior target deposition characteristics, the fact that nonrelativistic ion beams can readily be bunched by a factor of 2 to 4, and the favorable scaling relations leading toward reactor levels, Sandia shifted its ICF emphasis from electrons to ions in 1979. The progress which has been made toward proof-of-principle using light ion ignitors, as well as the remaining problems, will be detailed in this paper

  1. Human genetics of infectious diseases: between proof of principle and paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaïs, Alexandre; Abel, Laurent; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2009-09-01

    The observation that only a fraction of individuals infected by infectious agents develop clinical disease raises fundamental questions about the actual pathogenesis of infectious diseases. Epidemiological and experimental evidence is accumulating to suggest that human genetics plays a major role in this process. As we discuss here, human predisposition to infectious diseases seems to cover a continuous spectrum from monogenic to polygenic inheritance. Although many studies have provided proof of principle that infectious diseases may result from various types of inborn errors of immunity, the genetic determinism of most infectious diseases in most patients remains unclear. However, in the future, studies in human genetics are likely to establish a new paradigm for infectious diseases.

  2. LED lighting and the Next Generation of Greenhouse for Tomatoes. Proof of Principle; LED belichting en Het Nieuwe Telen bij tomaat. Proof of Principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dueck, T.; Janse, J.; Eveleens, B. [Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw, Wageningen (Netherlands); Nieboer, S.; Valstar, W.; Grootscholten, M. [GreenQ Improvement Centre, Bleiswijk (Netherlands)

    2012-08-15

    In this Proof of Principle project a tomato crop was grown under artificial lighting with the aim of 30% energy saving at the same level of production. Tomatoes (cultivar Komeett) were illuminated with 110 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1} HPS (High Pressure Sodium) above the crop and 85 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1} LED interlighting. The LEDs hung in 2 rows, approximately 40 cm above the lower leaves and the second strand at 40 or 70 cm above that. There were two types of LEDs used: production LEDs (light efficiency 1.6 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, 87% red/13% blue) and inter-lighting LEDs (light efficiency 1.9 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, 95% red/5% blue), with the same light intensity. At the start, the crop was given as much light as it could handle, and because the crop developed so well, the stem density was increased relatively early. This resulted in high fruit load, while insufficient light was available to compensate for the low levels of sunlight in the winter. In the 192 cm row spacing system the plants were too close to each other. Additional problems occurred with trace elements, lesser bumble bee activity, and a moist greenhouse climate which weakened the crop in the winter. Thus Botrytis occurred on the leaves and stems. The crop struggled with its recovery until early spring with more sunlight. Compared to a reference crop with 79 kg m{sup -2} tomatoes, 75 kg m{sup -2} were produced under-production LEDs, and 80 kg m{sup -2} under the interlighting LEDs, mainly because latter LEDs were used longer during the summer. 30% of the energy for dehumidification and heat energy, and 27% of the electricity was saved, relative to the reference crop. Thus it appears possible to save 30% energy with a near identical production [Dutch] In dit Proof of Principle project is een belichte tomatenteelt geteeld met als doel 30% energiebesparing bij een gelijke productie. Tomaten van het ras Komeett werden belicht met 110 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1} SON-T belichting boven

  3. Wake field acceleration experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Where and how will wake field acceleration devices find use for other than, possibly, accelerators for high energy physics? I don't know that this can be responsibly answered at this time. What I can do is describe some recent results from an ongoing experimental program at Argonne which support the idea that wake field techniques and devices are potentially important for future accelerators. Perhaps this will spawn expanded interest and even new ideas for the use of this new technology. The Argonne program, and in particular the Advanced Accelerator Test Facility (AATF), has been reported in several fairly recent papers and reports. But because this is a substantially new audience for the subject, I will include a brief review of the program and the facility before describing experiments. 10 refs., 7 figs

  4. Diamond coating in accelerator structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, X.E.

    1998-08-01

    The future accelerators with 1 GeV/m gradient will give rise to hundreds of degrees instantaneous temperature rise on the copper surface. Due to its extraordinary thermal and electric properties, diamond coating on the surface is suggested to remedy this problem. Multi-layer structure, with the promise of even more temperature reduction, is also discussed, and a proof of principle experiment is being carried out

  5. Proof of principle study of the use of a CMOS active pixel sensor for proton radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco, Joao; Depauw, Nicolas

    2011-02-01

    Proof of principle study of the use of a CMOS active pixel sensor (APS) in producing proton radiographic images using the proton beam at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). A CMOS APS, previously tested for use in s-ray radiation therapy applications, was used for proton beam radiographic imaging at the MGH. Two different setups were used as a proof of principle that CMOS can be used as proton imaging device: (i) a pen with two metal screws to assess spatial resolution of the CMOS and (ii) a phantom with lung tissue, bone tissue, and water to assess tissue contrast of the CMOS. The sensor was then traversed by a double scattered monoenergetic proton beam at 117 MeV, and the energy deposition inside the detector was recorded to assess its energy response. Conventional x-ray images with similar setup at voltages of 70 kVp and proton images using commercial Gafchromic EBT 2 and Kodak X-Omat V films were also taken for comparison purposes. Images were successfully acquired and compared to x-ray kVp and proton EBT2/X-Omat film images. The spatial resolution of the CMOS detector image is subjectively comparable to the EBT2 and Kodak X-Omat V film images obtained at the same object-detector distance. X-rays have apparent higher spatial resolution than the CMOS. However, further studies with different commercial films using proton beam irradiation demonstrate that the distance of the detector to the object is important to the amount of proton scatter contributing to the proton image. Proton images obtained with films at different distances from the source indicate that proton scatter significantly affects the CMOS image quality. Proton radiographic images were successfully acquired at MGH using a CMOS active pixel sensor detector. The CMOS demonstrated spatial resolution subjectively comparable to films at the same object-detector distance. Further work will be done in order to establish the spatial and energy resolution of the CMOS detector for protons. The

  6. How predictive are photosensitive epilepsy models as proof of principle trials for epilepsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Eunice S M; Sims, John R

    2014-06-01

    Human photosensitive epilepsy models have been used as proof of principle (POP) trials for epilepsy. Photosensitive patients are exposed to intermittent photic stimulation and the reduction in sensitivity to the number of standard visual stimulation frequencies is used as an endpoint. The aim of this research was to quantify the predictive capabilities of photosensitive POP trials, through a survey of current literature. A literature search was undertaken to identify articles describing photosensitive POP trials. Minimally efficacious doses (MEDs) in epilepsy were compared to doses in the POP trials that produced 50-100% response (ED50-100). Ratios of these doses were calculated and summarised statistically. The search identified ten articles describing a total of 17 anti-epileptic drugs. Of these, data for both MED and ED50-100 were available for 13 anti-epileptic drugs. The average ratio of MED to ED50-100 was 0.95 (95% CI 0.60-1.30). The difference in MED to ED50-100 ratios between partial epilepsy (0.82) was not significantly different from that of generalised epilepsy (1.08) (p=0.51). Photosensitive POP trials are a useful tool to quantitatively predict efficacy in epilepsy, and can be useful as early and informative indicators in anti-epileptic drug discovery and development. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Single Sensor Gait Analysis to Detect Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: A Proof of Principle Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Esser

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the potential utility of gait analysis using a single sensor unit (inertial measurement unit [IMU] as a simple tool to detect peripheral neuropathy in people with diabetes. Seventeen people (14 men aged 63±9 years (mean±SD with diabetic peripheral neuropathy performed a 10-m walk test instrumented with an IMU on the lower back. Compared to a reference healthy control data set (matched by gender, age, and body mass index both spatiotemporal and gait control variables were different between groups, with walking speed, step time, and SDa (gait control parameter demonstrating good discriminatory power (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve >0.8. These results provide a proof of principle of this relatively simple approach which, when applied in clinical practice, can detect a signal from those with known diabetes peripheral neuropathy. The technology has the potential to be used both routinely in the clinic and for tele-health applications. Further research should focus on investigating its efficacy as an early indicator of or effectiveness of the management of peripheral neuropathy. This could support the development of interventions to prevent complications such as foot ulceration or Charcot's foot.

  8. Single Sensor Gait Analysis to Detect Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: A Proof of Principle Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Patrick; Collett, Johnny; Maynard, Kevin; Steins, Dax; Hillier, Angela; Buckingham, Jodie; Tan, Garry D; King, Laurie; Dawes, Helen

    2018-02-01

    This study explored the potential utility of gait analysis using a single sensor unit (inertial measurement unit [IMU]) as a simple tool to detect peripheral neuropathy in people with diabetes. Seventeen people (14 men) aged 63±9 years (mean±SD) with diabetic peripheral neuropathy performed a 10-m walk test instrumented with an IMU on the lower back. Compared to a reference healthy control data set (matched by gender, age, and body mass index) both spatiotemporal and gait control variables were different between groups, with walking speed, step time, and SDa (gait control parameter) demonstrating good discriminatory power (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve >0.8). These results provide a proof of principle of this relatively simple approach which, when applied in clinical practice, can detect a signal from those with known diabetes peripheral neuropathy. The technology has the potential to be used both routinely in the clinic and for tele-health applications. Further research should focus on investigating its efficacy as an early indicator of or effectiveness of the management of peripheral neuropathy. This could support the development of interventions to prevent complications such as foot ulceration or Charcot's foot. Copyright © 2018 Korean Diabetes Association.

  9. Psychosocial and Psychological Vulnerability in Adolescents with Gender Dysphoria: A "Proof of Principle" Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechard, Melanie; VanderLaan, Doug P; Wood, Hayley; Wasserman, Lori; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2017-10-03

    For adolescents with gender dysphoria, it has become common to be offered hormonal treatment to either delay or suppress pubertal development and/or to masculinize or feminize the body. At the same time, it has been our clinical impression that the psychological vulnerability of at least some of these youth has been overlooked. Fifty consecutive referrals of adolescents with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of gender identity disorder (GID) constituted the sample. Information obtained at intake was coded for the presence or absence of 15 psychosocial and psychological vulnerability factors. The mean number of psychosocial/psychological vulnerability factors coded as present was 5.56 (range, 0-13). Over half of the sample had six or more of the vulnerability factors. The number of factors coded as present was significantly correlated with behavioral and emotional problems on the Youth Self-Report Form and the Child Behavior Checklist, but not with demographic variables or IQ. The findings supported the clinical impression that a large percentage of adolescents referred for gender dysphoria have a substantial co-occurring history of psychosocial and psychological vulnerability, thus supporting a "proof of principle" for the importance of a comprehensive psychologic/psychiatric assessment that goes beyond an evaluation of gender dysphoria per se.

  10. Quantification of the Robusta fraction in a coffee blend via Raman spectroscopy: proof of principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wermelinger, Thomas; D'Ambrosio, Lucio; Klopprogge, Babette; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2011-09-14

    Among the 100 different known Coffea species, Coffea arabica L. (Arabica) and Coffea canephora Pierre (Robusta) are the only two of commercial interest. They differ in a range of agronomic, genetic, and chemical properties. Due to the significant price difference between Arabica and Robusta, there is an economic incentive to illicitly replace Arabica with Robusta. Therefore, it is crucial to have accurate methods to determine the Robusta-to-Arabica-ratio in blends. This paper presents the proof of principle of a new and fast approach to determine the Robusta fraction in a blend based on Raman spectroscopy. The oils of two references (a pure Robusta and pure Arabica coffee) and six blends thereof consisting of different Robusta and Arabica fractions were extracted using a Soxhlet system. The solutes were analyzed by means of Raman spectroscopy without further workup. Using the intensity ratio between two Raman peaks, one characteristic for kahweol and one characteristic for fatty acids, allowed determinination of the Robusta content in a given mixture. The intensity ratio is linearly dependent on the Robusta content of the compound. Above a Robusta content of 75 wt %, kahweol was not detectable. The Raman data are in agreement with results obtained from the very time-consuming multistep DIN 10777 procedures based on HPLC.

  11. Voluntary control of corticomuscular coherence through neurofeedback: a proof-of-principle study in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Carlowitz-Ghori, K; Bayraktaroglu, Z; Waterstraat, G; Curio, G; Nikulin, V V

    2015-04-02

    Corticomuscular coherence (CMC) relates to synchronization between activity in the motor cortex and the muscle activity. The strength of CMC can be affected by motor behavior. In a proof-of-principle study, we examined whether independent of motor output parameters, healthy subjects are able to voluntarily modulate CMC in a neurofeedback paradigm. Subjects received visual online feedback of their instantaneous CMC strength, which was calculated between an optimized spatial projection of multichannel electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) in an individually defined target frequency range. The neurofeedback training consisted of either increasing or decreasing CMC strength using a self-chosen mental strategy while performing a simple motor task. Evaluation of instantaneous coherence showed that CMC strength was significantly larger when subjects had to increase than when to decrease CMC; this difference between the two task conditions did not depend on motor performance. The exclusion of confounding factors such as motor performance, attention and task complexity in study design provides evidence that subjects were able to voluntarily modify CMC independent of motor output parameters. Additional analysis further strengthened the assumption that the subjects' response was specifically shaped by the neurofeedback. In perspective, we suggest that CMC-based neurofeedback could provide a therapeutic approach in clinical conditions, such as motor stroke, where CMC is altered. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Setup and proof of principle of SAPIS (Stored Atoms Polarized Ion Source), a novel source of polarized H-/D- ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmerich, R.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was the setup and the proof-of-principle of a new type of negative polarized hydrogen or deuterium ion source, which is based on the charge-exchange reaction vectorH 0 +Cs 0 →vectorH - +Cs + , as for instance the Colliding-Beams-Source (CBS) at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY in Juelich. In contrast to the CBS, the use of a storage cell for the charge-exchange region promises an increase in H - current by at least an order of magnitude without considerable polarization losses. For these purposes, a new laboratory was equipped and both a polarized hydrogen/deuterium atomic beam source and an intense neutral cesium-beam source have been build-on. A Lambshift polarimeter, which allows the measurement of the nuclear polarization of the atomic as well as ionic beams, was completed with the construction of a new spin-filter. After commissioning and optimizing each of these sources, a storage cell was developed and installed in the charge-exchange region with a magnetic field. Additionally, components for the extraction, detection and analysis of the negative ion beam were installed. Following the decisive proof of principle, investigation of the properties of the storage cell, especially as to H recombination and depolarisation, was begun. Furthermore, a number of software programs was developed for the control and monitoring of different components of the sources as well as a universal measuring software for the complete installation, including the measurement and calculation of the beam polarization. At the same time, the remote control system of the Cologne source of polarized ions LASCO at the FN tandem accelerator was completely modernized. (orig.)

  13. Proof-of-principle of high-fidelity coupled CRUD deposition and cycle depletion simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, Daniel J.; Kendrick, Brian K.; Petrov, Victor; Manera, Annalisa; Collins, Benjamin; Downar, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A multiphysics framework for the high-fidelity simulation of CRUD deposition is developed to better understand the coupled physics and their respective feedback mechanisms. This framework includes the primary physics of lattice depletion, computational fluid dynamics, and CRUD chemistry. The three physics are coupled together via the operator-splitting technique, where predictor–corrector and fixed-point iteration schemes are utilized to converge the nonlinear solution. High-fidelity simulations may provide a means to predict and assess potential operating issues, including CRUD induced power shift and CRUD induced localized corrosion, known as CIPS and CILC, respectively. As a proof-of-principle, a coupled 500-day cycle depletion simulation of a pressurized water reactor fuel pin cell was performed using the coupled code suite; a burnup of 31 MWd/kgHM was reached. The simulation recreated the classic striped CRUD pattern often seen on pulled fuel rods containing CRUD. It is concluded that the striping is caused by the flow swirl induced by spacer grid mixing vanes. Two anti-correlated effects contribute to the striping: (1) the flow swirl yields significant azimuthal temperature variations, which impact the locations where CRUD deposits, and (2) the flow swirl is correlated to increased shear stress along the cladding surface and subsequent erosion of the CRUD layer. The CIPS condition of the core is concluded to be primarily controlled by lithium tetraborate precipitation, referred to as boron hideout, which occurs in regions experiencing subcooled nucleate boiling as soluble boron and lithium species reach their solubility limit within the CRUD layer. Subsequently, a localized reduction in power occurs due to the high neutron absorption cross section of boron-10

  14. MRI-guided robotic system for transperineal prostate interventions: proof of principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Bosch, Michiel R; Moman, Maaike R; Van Vulpen, Marco; Battermann, Jan J; Lagendijk, Jan J W; Moerland, Marinus A; Duiveman, Ed; Van Schelven, Leonard J; De Leeuw, Hendrik

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the proof of principle of the University Medical Center Utrecht (UMCU) robot dedicated to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided interventions in patients. The UMCU robot consists of polymers and non-ferromagnetic materials. For transperineal prostate interventions, it can be placed between the patient's legs inside a closed bore 1.5T MR scanner. The robot can manually be translated and rotated resulting in five degrees of freedom. It contains a pneumatically driven tapping device to automatically insert a needle stepwise into the prostate using a controller unit outside the scanning room. To define the target positions and to verify the needle insertion point and the needle trajectory, a high-resolution 3D balanced steady state free precession (bSSFP) scan that provides a T2/T1-weighted contrast is acquired. During the needle insertion fast 2D bSSFP images are generated to track the needle on-line. When the target position is reached, the radiation oncologist manually places a fiducial gold marker (small seed) at this location. In total two needle trajectories are used to place all markers. Afterwards, a high-resolution 3D bSSFP scan is acquired to visualize the fiducial gold markers. Four fiducial gold markers were placed transperineally into the prostate of a patient with a clinical stage T3 prostate cancer. In the generated scans, it was possible to discriminate the patient's anatomy, the needle and the markers. All markers were delivered inside the prostate. The procedure time was 1.5 h. This study proves that MRI-guided needle placement and seed delivery in the prostate with the UMCU robot are feasible. (note)

  15. The Influence of Perceived Stress on Cortical Reactivity: A Proof-Of-Principle Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosan Luijcks

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate how perceived stress may affect electroencephalographical (EEG activity in a stress paradigm in a sample of 76 healthy participants. EEG activity was analyzed using multilevel modeling, allowing estimation of nested effects (EEG time segments within subjects. The stress paradigm consisted of a 3-minute pre-stimulus stress period and a 2-minute post-stimulus phase. At t=3 minutes, a single electrical stimulus was delivered. Participants were unaware of the precise moment of stimulus delivery and its intensity level. In the EEG time course of alpha activity, a stronger increase was observed during the post-stimulus period as compared to the pre-stimulus period. An opposite time course effect was apparent for gamma activity. Both effects were in line with a priori expectations and support the validity of this experimental EEG-stress paradigm. Secondly, we investigated whether interaction effects of stress and coping, as measured with the Perceived Stress Scale-10 questionnaire (PSS-10, could be demonstrated. A higher perceived stress score was accompanied by a greater increase in delta- and theta-activity during the post-stimulus phase, compared to low scores. In contrast, low coping capacity was associated with a stronger decrease in slow beta, fast beta and gamma activity during the post-stimulus phase. The results of the present article may be interpreted as proof-of-principle that EEG stress-related activity depends on the level of subjectively reported perceived stress. The inclusion of psychosocial variables measuring coping styles as well as stress-related personality aspects permits further examination of the interconnection between mind and body and may inform on the process of transformation from acute to chronic stress.

  16. Milk Sweetened with Xylitol: A Proof-of-Principle Caries Prevention Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L; Zegarra, Graciela; Vasquez Huerta, Elsa C; Castillo, Jorge L; Milgrom, Peter; Roberts, Marilyn C; Cabrera-Matta, Ailin R; Merino, Ana P

    2016-09-15

    To evaluate the efficacy of xylitol-sweetened milk as a caries-preventive strategy. In this nine-month prospective proof-of-principle trial, Peruvian schoolchildren were randomized to one of five different milk groups: (1) eight g of xylitol per 200 mL milk once per day; (2) four g of xylitol per 100 mL milk twice per day; (3) eight g of sorbitol per 200 mL milk once per day; (4) four g of sorbitol per 100 mL milk twice per day; or (5) eight g of sucrose per 200 mL milk once per day. The primary outcome was plaque mutans streptococci (MS) at nine months. A secondary outcome was caries incidence. We hypothesized that children in the xylitol groups would have a greater MS decline and lower caries incidence. One hundred fifty-three children were randomized in the intent-to-treat analyses. Children receiving xylitol had a greater decline in MS than children receiving sucrose (P=0.02) but were not different from children receiving sorbitol (P=0.07). Dental caries incidence for xylitol once per day or twice per day was 5.3±3.4 and 4.3±4.0 surfaces, respectively, compared to sorbitol once per day, sorbitol twice per day, or sucrose (4.1±2.8, 3.7±4.2, and 3.2±3.4 surfaces, respectively). There were no differences in caries incidence between xylitol and sucrose (rate ratio [RR] = 1.51; 95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 0.88, 2.59; P=0.13) or between xylitol and sorbitol (RR = 1.28; 95 percent CI = 0.90, 1.83; P=0.16). Xylitol-sweetened milk significantly reduced mutans streptococci levels compared to sucrose-sweetened milk, but differences in caries incidence were not detected.

  17. MRI-guided robotic system for transperineal prostate interventions: proof of principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Bosch, Michiel R; Moman, Maaike R; Van Vulpen, Marco; Battermann, Jan J; Lagendijk, Jan J W; Moerland, Marinus A [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX, Utrecht (Netherlands); Duiveman, Ed; Van Schelven, Leonard J [Medical Technology and Clinical Physics, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX, Utrecht (Netherlands); De Leeuw, Hendrik [Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX, Utrecht (Netherlands)], E-mail: M.R.vandenBosch@umcutrecht.nl

    2010-03-07

    In this study, we demonstrate the proof of principle of the University Medical Center Utrecht (UMCU) robot dedicated to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided interventions in patients. The UMCU robot consists of polymers and non-ferromagnetic materials. For transperineal prostate interventions, it can be placed between the patient's legs inside a closed bore 1.5T MR scanner. The robot can manually be translated and rotated resulting in five degrees of freedom. It contains a pneumatically driven tapping device to automatically insert a needle stepwise into the prostate using a controller unit outside the scanning room. To define the target positions and to verify the needle insertion point and the needle trajectory, a high-resolution 3D balanced steady state free precession (bSSFP) scan that provides a T2/T1-weighted contrast is acquired. During the needle insertion fast 2D bSSFP images are generated to track the needle on-line. When the target position is reached, the radiation oncologist manually places a fiducial gold marker (small seed) at this location. In total two needle trajectories are used to place all markers. Afterwards, a high-resolution 3D bSSFP scan is acquired to visualize the fiducial gold markers. Four fiducial gold markers were placed transperineally into the prostate of a patient with a clinical stage T3 prostate cancer. In the generated scans, it was possible to discriminate the patient's anatomy, the needle and the markers. All markers were delivered inside the prostate. The procedure time was 1.5 h. This study proves that MRI-guided needle placement and seed delivery in the prostate with the UMCU robot are feasible. (note)

  18. Multidisciplinary management of very advanced stage III and IV melanoma: Proof-of-principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, Haim; Ben-Ami, Eytan; Shapira-Frommer, Roni; Schachter, Jacob

    2012-08-01

    study may be considered a proof-of-principle investigation, enabling long-term remissions by combining induction therapy and surgery.

  19. A proof-of-principle experiment of a novel harmonics separation optics for synchrotron facilities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oberta, Peter; Mikulík, P.; Hrdý, Jaromír

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 6 (2012), s. 1012-1014 ISSN 0909-0495 R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI1/412 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : harmonics separation * diffractive-refractive optics * nclined geometry Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.186, year: 2012

  20. Shielding experiments for accelerator facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Susumu; Sakamoto, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    2000-06-01

    A series of shielding experiments was carried out by using AVF cyclotron accelerator of TIARA at JAERI in order to validate shielding design methods for accelerator facilities in intermediate energy region. In this paper neutron transmission experiment through thick shields and radiation streaming experiment through a labyrinth are reported. (author)

  1. Shielding experiments for accelerator facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Susumu; Sakamoto, Yukio

    2000-01-01

    A series of shielding experiments was carried out by using AVF cyclotron accelerator of TIARA at JAERI in order to validate shielding design methods for accelerator facilities in intermediate energy region. In this paper neutron transmission experiment through thick shields and radiation streaming experiment through a labyrinth are reported. (author)

  2. Characteristics of an electron-beam rocket pellet accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, C.C.; Foster, C.A.; Schechter, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    An electron-beam rocket pellet accelerator has been designed, built, assembled, and tested as a proof-of-principle (POP) apparatus. The main goal of accelerators based on this concept is to use intense electron-beam heating and ablation of a hydrogen propellant stick to accelerate deuterium and/or tritium pellets to ultrahigh speeds (10 to 20 km/s) for plasma fueling of next-generation fusion devices such as the International Thermonuclear Engineering Reactor (ITER). The POP apparatus is described and initial results of pellet acceleration experiments are presented. Conceptual ultrahigh-speed pellet accelerators are discussed. 14 refs., 8 figs

  3. Proof-of-principle demonstration of Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting radiofrequency cavities for high Q{sub 0} applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posen, S., E-mail: sep93@cornell.edu; Liepe, M.; Hall, D. L. [Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2015-02-23

    Many future particle accelerators require hundreds of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavities operating with high duty factor. The large dynamic heat load of the cavities causes the cryogenic plant to make up a significant part of the overall cost of the facility. This contribution can be reduced by replacing standard niobium cavities with ones coated with a low-dissipation superconductor such as Nb{sub 3}Sn. In this paper, we present results for single cell cavities coated with Nb{sub 3}Sn at Cornell. Five coatings were carried out, showing that at 4.2 K, high Q{sub 0} out to medium fields was reproducible, resulting in an average quench field of 14 MV/m and an average 4.2 K Q{sub 0} at quench of 8 × 10{sup 9}. In each case, the peak surface magnetic field at quench was well above H{sub c1}, showing that it is not a limiting field in these cavities. The coating with the best performance had a quench field of 17 MV/m, exceeding gradient requirements for state-of-the-art high duty factor SRF accelerators. It is also shown that—taking into account the thermodynamic efficiency of the cryogenic plant—the 4.2 K Q{sub 0} values obtained meet the AC power consumption requirements of state-of-the-art high duty factor accelerators, making this a proof-of-principle demonstration for Nb{sub 3}Sn cavities in future applications.

  4. Use of advanced programmable logic controllers to monitor and control the Elmo Bumpy Torus-proof-of-principle device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, B.A.

    1983-01-01

    The Elmo Bumpy Torus - Proof-of-Principle (EBT-P) device is designed with an instrumentation and control system based upon the use of an advanced Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). The modern PLC incorporates many advanced programming features not available in earlier PLC's intended for application to conventional relay logic replacement. The additional power and flexibility of these modern PLC's is especially applicable to an experimental device such as EBT-P which is made up of several complex interrelated subsystems whose operational characteristics will be evolving throughout the lifetime of the device. The rationale for the selection of advanced PLC's for EBT-P and the approach taken to design of the software developed to control EBT-P are the topics addressed in this paper

  5. Prospects of the surfatron laser plasma accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsouleas, T.; Joshi, C.; Mori, W.; Dawson, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    The surfatron concept is proposed as a possible solution to the problem of staging in the laser-plasma beat wave accelerator scheme. Prospects of a 100 GeV particle accelerator based on the surfatron concept are explored. Finite angle optical mixing appears to be a promising solution for drastically reducing the width of the plane wave, thereby, making the required laser power and the device size realizable for a proof-of-principle experiment. Our conclusions are based mainly on analytical theory and one-dimensional particle simulations

  6. Evaluation of the Use of Home Blood Pressure Measurement Using Mobile Phone-Assisted Technology: The iVitality Proof-of-Principle Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijsman, L.W.; Richard, E.; Cachucho, R.; Craen, A.J. de; Jongstra, S.; Mooijaart, S.P.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mobile phone-assisted technologies provide the opportunity to optimize the feasibility of long-term blood pressure (BP) monitoring at home, with the potential of large-scale data collection. OBJECTIVE: In this proof-of-principle study, we evaluated the feasibility of home BP monitoring

  7. Evaluation of the Use of Home Blood Pressure Measurement Using Mobile Phone-Assisted Technology: The iVitality Proof-of-Principle Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijsman, Liselotte W.; Richard, Edo; Cachucho, Ricardo; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Jongstra, Susan; Mooijaart, Simon P.

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phone-assisted technologies provide the opportunity to optimize the feasibility of long-term blood pressure (BP) monitoring at home, with the potential of large-scale data collection. In this proof-of-principle study, we evaluated the feasibility of home BP monitoring using mobile

  8. Cognitive Testing in People at Increased Risk of Dementia Using a Smartphone App: The iVitality Proof-of-Principle Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongstra, Susan; Wijsman, Liselotte Willemijn; Cachucho, Ricardo; Hoevenaar-Blom, Marieke Peternella; Mooijaart, Simon Pieter; Richard, Edo

    2017-01-01

    Background: Smartphone-assisted technologies potentially provide the opportunity for large-scale, long-term, repeated monitoring of cognitive functioning at home. Objective: The aim of this proof-of-principle study was to evaluate the feasibility and validity of performing cognitive tests in people

  9. Quantification of Hand Motor Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease: A Proof-of-Principle Study Using Inertial and Force Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Noort, Josien C; Verhagen, Rens; van Dijk, Kees J; Veltink, Peter H; Vos, Michelle C P M; de Bie, Rob M A; Bour, Lo J; Heida, Ciska T

    2017-10-01

    This proof-of-principle study describes the methodology and explores and demonstrates the applicability of a system, existing of miniature inertial sensors on the hand and a separate force sensor, to objectively quantify hand motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) in a clinical setting (off- and on-medication condition). Four PD patients were measured in off- and on- dopaminergic medication condition. Finger tapping, rapid hand opening/closing, hand pro/supination, tremor during rest, mental task and kinetic task, and wrist rigidity movements were measured with the system (called the PowerGlove). To demonstrate applicability, various outcome parameters of measured hand motor symptoms of the patients in off- vs. on-medication condition are presented. The methodology described and results presented show applicability of the PowerGlove in a clinical research setting, to objectively quantify hand bradykinesia, tremor and rigidity in PD patients, using a single system. The PowerGlove measured a difference in off- vs. on-medication condition in all tasks in the presented patients with most of its outcome parameters. Further study into the validity and reliability of the outcome parameters is required in a larger cohort of patients, to arrive at an optimal set of parameters that can assist in clinical evaluation and decision-making.

  10. Proof-of-principle for SERS imaging of Aspergillus nidulans hyphae using in vivo synthesis of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusinkiewicz, Martin A; Farazkhorasani, Fatemeh; Dynes, James J; Wang, Jian; Gough, Kathleen M; Kaminskyj, Susan G W

    2012-11-07

    High spatial resolution methods to assess the physiology of growing cells should permit analysis of fungal biochemical composition. Whole colony methods cannot capture the details of physiology and organism-environment interaction, in part because the structure, function and composition of fungal hyphae vary within individual cells depending on their distance from the growing apex. Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) can provide chemical information on materials that are in close contact with appropriate metal substrates, such as nanopatterned gold surfaces and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Since nanoparticles can be generated by living cells, we have created conditions for AuNP formation within and on the surface of Aspergillus nidulans hyphae in order to explore their potential for SERS analysis. AuNP distribution and composition have been assessed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, fluorescence light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy. AuNPs were often associated with hyphal walls, both in the peripheral cytoplasm and on the outer wall surface. Interpretation of SERS spectra is challenging, and will require validation for the diversity of organic molecules present. Here, we show proof-of-principle that it is possible to generate SERS spectra from nanoparticles grown in situ by living hyphae.

  11. Does brain creatine content rely on exogenous creatine in healthy youth? A proof-of-principle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merege-Filho, Carlos Alberto Abujabra; Otaduy, Maria Concepción Garcia; de Sá-Pinto, Ana Lúcia; de Oliveira, Maira Okada; de Souza Gonçalves, Lívia; Hayashi, Ana Paula Tanaka; Roschel, Hamilton; Pereira, Rosa Maria Rodrigues; Silva, Clovis Artur; Brucki, Sonia Maria Dozzi; da Costa Leite, Claudia; Gualano, Bruno

    2017-02-01

    It has been hypothesized that dietary creatine could influence cognitive performance by increasing brain creatine in developing individuals. This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, proof-of-principle study aimed to investigate the effects of creatine supplementation on cognitive function and brain creatine content in healthy youth. The sample comprised 67 healthy participants aged 10 to 12 years. The participants were given creatine or placebo supplementation for 7 days. At baseline and after the intervention, participants undertook a battery of cognitive tests. In a random subsample of participants, brain creatine content was also assessed in the regions of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left hippocampus, and occipital lobe by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) technique. The scores obtained from verbal learning and executive functions tests did not significantly differ between groups at baseline or after the intervention (all p > 0.05). Creatine content was not significantly different between groups in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left hippocampus, and occipital lobe (all p > 0.05). In conclusion, a 7-day creatine supplementation protocol did not elicit improvements in brain creatine content or cognitive performance in healthy youth, suggesting that this population mainly relies on brain creatine synthesis rather than exogenous creatine intake to maintain brain creatine homeostasis.

  12. Proof-of-principle study of a small animal PET/field-cycled MRI combined system using conventional PMT technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Hao; Handler, William B.; Scholl, Timothy J.; Simpson, P.J.; Chronik, Blaine A.

    2010-01-01

    There are currently several approaches to the development of combined PET/MRI systems, all of which need to address adverse interactions between the two systems. Of particular relevance to the majority of proposed PET/MRI systems is the effect that static and dynamic magnetic fields have on the performance of PET detection systems based on photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). In the work reported in this paper, performance of two conventional PMTs has been systematically investigated and characterized as a function of magnetic field exposure conditions. Detector gain, energy resolution, time resolution, and efficiency were measured for static field exposures between 0 and 6.3 mT. Additionally, the short-term recovery and long-term stability of gain and energy resolution were measured in the presence of repeatedly applied dynamic magnetic fields changing at 4 T/s. It was found that the detectors recovered normal operation within several milliseconds following the end of large pulsed magnetic fields. In addition, the repeated applications of large pulsed magnetic fields did not significantly affect detector stability. Based on these results, we implemented a proof-of-principle PET/field-cycled MRI (FCMRI) system for small animal imaging using commercial PMT-based PET detectors. The first PET images acquired within the PET/FCMRI system are presented. The image quality, in terms of spatial resolution, was compared between standalone PET and the PET/FCMRI system. Finally, the relevance of these results to various aspects of PET/MRI system design is discussed.

  13. Rapid and accurate detection of urinary pathogens by mobile IMS-based electronic nose: a proof-of-principle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roine, Antti; Saviauk, Taavi; Kumpulainen, Pekka; Karjalainen, Markus; Tuokko, Antti; Aittoniemi, Janne; Vuento, Risto; Lekkala, Jukka; Lehtimäki, Terho; Tammela, Teuvo L; Oksala, Niku K J

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common disease with significant morbidity and economic burden, accounting for a significant part of the workload in clinical microbiology laboratories. Current clinical chemisty point-of-care diagnostics rely on imperfect dipstick analysis which only provides indirect and insensitive evidence of urinary bacterial pathogens. An electronic nose (eNose) is a handheld device mimicking mammalian olfaction that potentially offers affordable and rapid analysis of samples without preparation at athmospheric pressure. In this study we demonstrate the applicability of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) -based eNose to discriminate the most common UTI pathogens from gaseous headspace of culture plates rapidly and without sample preparation. We gathered a total of 101 culture samples containing four most common UTI bacteries: E. coli, S. saprophyticus, E. faecalis, Klebsiella spp and sterile culture plates. The samples were analyzed using ChemPro 100i device, consisting of IMS cell and six semiconductor sensors. Data analysis was conducted by linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and logistic regression (LR). The results were validated by leave-one-out and 5-fold cross validation analysis. In discrimination of sterile and bacterial samples sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 97% were achieved. The bacterial species were identified with sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 96% using eNose as compared to urine bacterial cultures. These findings strongly demonstrate the ability of our eNose to discriminate bacterial cultures and provides a proof of principle to use this method in urinanalysis of UTI.

  14. Rapid and accurate detection of urinary pathogens by mobile IMS-based electronic nose: a proof-of-principle study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Roine

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common disease with significant morbidity and economic burden, accounting for a significant part of the workload in clinical microbiology laboratories. Current clinical chemisty point-of-care diagnostics rely on imperfect dipstick analysis which only provides indirect and insensitive evidence of urinary bacterial pathogens. An electronic nose (eNose is a handheld device mimicking mammalian olfaction that potentially offers affordable and rapid analysis of samples without preparation at athmospheric pressure. In this study we demonstrate the applicability of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS -based eNose to discriminate the most common UTI pathogens from gaseous headspace of culture plates rapidly and without sample preparation. We gathered a total of 101 culture samples containing four most common UTI bacteries: E. coli, S. saprophyticus, E. faecalis, Klebsiella spp and sterile culture plates. The samples were analyzed using ChemPro 100i device, consisting of IMS cell and six semiconductor sensors. Data analysis was conducted by linear discriminant analysis (LDA and logistic regression (LR. The results were validated by leave-one-out and 5-fold cross validation analysis. In discrimination of sterile and bacterial samples sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 97% were achieved. The bacterial species were identified with sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 96% using eNose as compared to urine bacterial cultures.These findings strongly demonstrate the ability of our eNose to discriminate bacterial cultures and provides a proof of principle to use this method in urinanalysis of UTI.

  15. Distributed Optical Fiber Radiation and Temperature Sensing at High Energy Accelerators and Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2090137; Brugger, Markus

    The aim of this Thesis is to investigate the feasibility of a distributed optical fiber radiation sensing system to be used at high energy physics accelerators and experiments where complex mixed-field environments are present. In particular, after having characterized the response of a selection of radiation sensitive optical fibers to ionizing radiation coming from a 60Co source, the results of distributed optical fiber radiation measurements in a mixed-field environment are presented along with the method to actually estimate the dose variation. This study demonstrates that distributed optical fiber dosimetry in the above mentioned mixed-field radiation environment is feasible, allowing to detect dose variations of about 10-15 Gy with a 1 m spatial resolution. The proof of principle has fully succeeded and we can now tackle the challenge of an industrial installation taking into account that some optimizations need to be done both on the control unit of the system as well as on the choice of the sensing f...

  16. Accelerator physics experiments at Aladdin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Cornacchia, M.; Jackson, A.; Zisman, M.S.

    1985-07-01

    The Aladdin accelerator is a 1 GeV synchrotron light source located at the University of Wisconsin. The results of experimental studies of the Aladdin accelerator are described. The primary purpose of the experiments reported was to investigate reported anomalies in the behavior of the linear lattice, particularly in the vertical plane. A second goal was to estimate the ring broadband impedance. Experimental observations and interpretation of the linear properties of the Aladdin ring are described, including the beta function and dispersion measurements. Two experiments are described to measure the ring impedance, the first a measurement of the parasitic mode loss, and the second a measurement of the beam transfer function. Measurements of the longitudinal and transverse emittance at 100 and 200 MeV are described and compared with predictions. 10 refs., 24 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Single-energy computed tomography-based pulmonary perfusion imaging: Proof-of-principle in a canine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Tokihiro, E-mail: toyamamoto@ucdavis.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States); Kent, Michael S.; Wisner, Erik R. [Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, University of California Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Johnson, Lynelle R.; Stern, Joshua A. [Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, University of California Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Qi, Lihong [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Fujita, Yukio [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokai University, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan); Boone, John M. [Department of Radiology, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: Radiotherapy (RT) that selectively avoids irradiating highly functional lung regions may reduce pulmonary toxicity, which is substantial in lung cancer RT. Single-energy computed tomography (CT) pulmonary perfusion imaging has several advantages (e.g., higher resolution) over other modalities and has great potential for widespread clinical implementation, particularly in RT. The purpose of this study was to establish proof-of-principle for single-energy CT perfusion imaging. Methods: Single-energy CT perfusion imaging is based on the following: (1) acquisition of end-inspiratory breath-hold CT scans before and after intravenous injection of iodinated contrast agents, (2) deformable image registration (DIR) for spatial mapping of those two CT image data sets, and (3) subtraction of the precontrast image data set from the postcontrast image data set, yielding a map of regional Hounsfield unit (HU) enhancement, a surrogate for regional perfusion. In a protocol approved by the institutional animal care and use committee, the authors acquired CT scans in the prone position for a total of 14 anesthetized canines (seven canines with normal lungs and seven canines with diseased lungs). The elastix algorithm was used for DIR. The accuracy of DIR was evaluated based on the target registration error (TRE) of 50 anatomic pulmonary landmarks per subject for 10 randomly selected subjects as well as on singularities (i.e., regions where the displacement vector field is not bijective). Prior to perfusion computation, HUs of the precontrast end-inspiratory image were corrected for variation in the lung inflation level between the precontrast and postcontrast end-inspiratory CT scans, using a model built from two additional precontrast CT scans at end-expiration and midinspiration. The authors also assessed spatial heterogeneity and gravitationally directed gradients of regional perfusion for normal lung subjects and diseased lung subjects using a two-sample two-tailed t

  18. Single-energy computed tomography-based pulmonary perfusion imaging: Proof-of-principle in a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tokihiro; Kent, Michael S; Wisner, Erik R; Johnson, Lynelle R; Stern, Joshua A; Qi, Lihong; Fujita, Yukio; Boone, John M

    2016-07-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) that selectively avoids irradiating highly functional lung regions may reduce pulmonary toxicity, which is substantial in lung cancer RT. Single-energy computed tomography (CT) pulmonary perfusion imaging has several advantages (e.g., higher resolution) over other modalities and has great potential for widespread clinical implementation, particularly in RT. The purpose of this study was to establish proof-of-principle for single-energy CT perfusion imaging. Single-energy CT perfusion imaging is based on the following: (1) acquisition of end-inspiratory breath-hold CT scans before and after intravenous injection of iodinated contrast agents, (2) deformable image registration (DIR) for spatial mapping of those two CT image data sets, and (3) subtraction of the precontrast image data set from the postcontrast image data set, yielding a map of regional Hounsfield unit (HU) enhancement, a surrogate for regional perfusion. In a protocol approved by the institutional animal care and use committee, the authors acquired CT scans in the prone position for a total of 14 anesthetized canines (seven canines with normal lungs and seven canines with diseased lungs). The elastix algorithm was used for DIR. The accuracy of DIR was evaluated based on the target registration error (TRE) of 50 anatomic pulmonary landmarks per subject for 10 randomly selected subjects as well as on singularities (i.e., regions where the displacement vector field is not bijective). Prior to perfusion computation, HUs of the precontrast end-inspiratory image were corrected for variation in the lung inflation level between the precontrast and postcontrast end-inspiratory CT scans, using a model built from two additional precontrast CT scans at end-expiration and midinspiration. The authors also assessed spatial heterogeneity and gravitationally directed gradients of regional perfusion for normal lung subjects and diseased lung subjects using a two-sample two-tailed t-test. The mean TRE

  19. Single-energy computed tomography-based pulmonary perfusion imaging: Proof-of-principle in a canine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tokihiro; Kent, Michael S.; Wisner, Erik R.; Johnson, Lynelle R.; Stern, Joshua A.; Qi, Lihong; Fujita, Yukio; Boone, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy (RT) that selectively avoids irradiating highly functional lung regions may reduce pulmonary toxicity, which is substantial in lung cancer RT. Single-energy computed tomography (CT) pulmonary perfusion imaging has several advantages (e.g., higher resolution) over other modalities and has great potential for widespread clinical implementation, particularly in RT. The purpose of this study was to establish proof-of-principle for single-energy CT perfusion imaging. Methods: Single-energy CT perfusion imaging is based on the following: (1) acquisition of end-inspiratory breath-hold CT scans before and after intravenous injection of iodinated contrast agents, (2) deformable image registration (DIR) for spatial mapping of those two CT image data sets, and (3) subtraction of the precontrast image data set from the postcontrast image data set, yielding a map of regional Hounsfield unit (HU) enhancement, a surrogate for regional perfusion. In a protocol approved by the institutional animal care and use committee, the authors acquired CT scans in the prone position for a total of 14 anesthetized canines (seven canines with normal lungs and seven canines with diseased lungs). The elastix algorithm was used for DIR. The accuracy of DIR was evaluated based on the target registration error (TRE) of 50 anatomic pulmonary landmarks per subject for 10 randomly selected subjects as well as on singularities (i.e., regions where the displacement vector field is not bijective). Prior to perfusion computation, HUs of the precontrast end-inspiratory image were corrected for variation in the lung inflation level between the precontrast and postcontrast end-inspiratory CT scans, using a model built from two additional precontrast CT scans at end-expiration and midinspiration. The authors also assessed spatial heterogeneity and gravitationally directed gradients of regional perfusion for normal lung subjects and diseased lung subjects using a two-sample two-tailed t

  20. Can repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation increase muscle strength in functional neurological paresis? A proof-of-principle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broersma, M; Koops, E A; Vroomen, P C; Van der Hoeven, J H; Aleman, A; Leenders, K L; Maurits, N M; van Beilen, M

    2015-05-01

    Therapeutic options are limited in functional neurological paresis disorder. Earlier intervention studies did not control for a placebo effect, hampering assessment of effectivity. A proof-of-principle investigation was conducted into the therapeutic potential of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), using a single-blind two-period placebo-controlled cross-over design. Eleven patients received active 15 Hz rTMS over the contralateral motor cortex (hand area), in two periods of 5 days, for 30 min once a day at 80% of resting motor threshold, with a train length of 2 s and an intertrain interval of 4 s. Eight of these eleven patients were also included in the placebo treatment condition. Primary outcome measure was change in muscle strength as measured by dynamometry after treatment. Secondary outcome measure was the subjective change in muscle strength after treatment. In patients who received both treatments, active rTMS induced a significantly larger median increase in objectively measured muscle strength (24%) compared to placebo rTMS (6%; P difference due to treatment, i.e. patients did not perceive these objectively measured motor improvements (P = 0.40). Our findings suggest that rTMS by itself can potentially improve muscle weakness in functional neurological paresis disorder. Whereas patients' muscle strength increased as measured with dynamometry, patients did not report increased functioning of the affected hand, subjectively. The results may indicate that decreased muscle strength is not the core symptom and that rTMS should be added to behavioral approaches in functional neurological paresis. © 2015 EAN.

  1. Abscopal effect of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Proof of principle in an experimental model of colon cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivillin, Veronica A.; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Schwint, Amanda E. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Radiobiology, B1650KNA San Martin, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pozzi, Emiliano C.C.; Curotto, Paula [Centro Atomico Ezeiza, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Research and Production Reactors, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Colombo, Lucas L. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Oncologia Angel H. Roffo, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Thorp, Silvia I.; Farias, Ruben O. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Instrumentation and Control, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Garabalino, Marcela A. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Radiobiology, B1650KNA San Martin, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gonzalez, Sara J. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Instrumentation and Control, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Santa Cruz, Gustavo A. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Carando, Daniel G. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2017-11-15

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate, for the first time, the abscopal effect of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Twenty-six BDIX rats were inoculated subcutaneously with 1 x 10{sup 6} DHD/K12/TRb syngeneic colon cancer cells in the right hind flank. Three weeks post-inoculation, the right leg of 12 rats bearing the tumor nodule was treated with BPA-BNCT (BPA-Boronophenylalanine) at the RA-3 nuclear reactor located in Buenos Aires, Argentina, at an absorbed dose of 7.5 Gy to skin as the dose-limiting tissue. The remaining group of 14 tumor-bearing rats were left untreated and used as control. Two weeks post-BNCT, 1 x 10{sup 6} DHD/K12/TRb cells were injected subcutaneously in the contralateral left hind flank of each of the 26 BDIX rats. Tumor volume in both legs was measured weekly for 7 weeks to determine response to BNCT in the right leg and to assess a potential influence of BNCT in the right leg on tumor development in the left leg. Within the BNCT group, a statistically significant reduction was observed in contralateral left tumor volume in animals whose right leg tumor responded to BNCT (post-treatment/pre-treatment tumor volume <1) versus animals who failed to respond (post/pre ≥1), i.e., 13 ± 15 vs 271 ± 128 mm{sup 3}. In addition, a statistically significant reduction in contralateral left leg tumor volume was observed in BNCT-responsive animals (post/pre <1) vs untreated animals, i.e., 13 ± 15 vs 254 ± 251 mm{sup 3}. The present study performed in a simple animal model provides proof of principle that the positive response of a tumor to BNCT is capable of inducing an abscopal effect. (orig.)

  2. Big Data Analyses for Continuous Evaluation of Pharmacotherapy: A Proof of Principle with Doxapram in Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Robert B; Weteringen, Willem van; Voller, Swantje; Poppe, Jarinda A; Koch, Birgit C P; de Groot, Ronald; Tibboel, Dick; Knibbe, Catherijne A J; Reiss, Irwin K M; Simons, Sinno H P; Dino Research Group

    2017-01-01

    Drug effect evaluation is often based on subjective interpretation of a selection of patient data. Continuous analyses of high frequency patient monitor data are a valuable source to measuring drug effects. However, these have not yet been fully explored in clinical care. We aim to evaluate the usefulness and applicability of high frequency physiological data for analyses of pharmacotherapy. As a proof of principle, the effects of doxapram, a respiratory stimulant, on the oxygenation in preterm infants were studied. Second-to-second physiological data were collected from 12 hours before until 36 hours after start of doxapram loading dose plus continuous maintenance dose in seven preterm infants. Besides physiological data, plasma concentrations of doxapram and keto-doxapram were measured. Arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) increased after the start of doxapram treatment alongside an increase in heart rate. The respiratory rate remained unaffected. The number of saturation dips and the time below a saturation of 80%, as well as the area under the 80%-saturation-time curve (AUC), were significantly lowered after the start of doxapram. The AUC under 90% saturation also significantly improved after start of doxapram. Plasma concentrations of doxapram and keto-doxapram were measured. Using high-frequency monitoring data, we showed the detailed effects over time of pharmacotherapy. We could objectively determine the respiratory condition and the effects of doxapram treatment in preterm infants. This type of analysis might help to develop individualized drug treatments with tailored dose adjustments based on a closed-loop algorithm. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Large Neutral Amino Acid Supplementation Exerts Its Effect through Three Synergistic Mechanisms: Proof of Principle in Phenylketonuria Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danique van Vliet

    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria (PKU was the first disorder in which severe neurocognitive dysfunction could be prevented by dietary treatment. However, despite this effect, neuropsychological outcome in PKU still remains suboptimal and the phenylalanine-restricted diet is very demanding. To improve neuropsychological outcome and relieve the dietary restrictions for PKU patients, supplementation of large neutral amino acids (LNAA is suggested as alternative treatment strategy that might correct all brain biochemical disturbances caused by high blood phenylalanine, and thereby improve neurocognitive functioning.As a proof-of-principle, this study aimed to investigate all hypothesized biochemical treatment objectives of LNAA supplementation (normalizing brain phenylalanine, non-phenylalanine LNAA, and monoaminergic neurotransmitter concentrations in PKU mice.C57Bl/6 Pah-enu2 (PKU mice and wild-type mice received a LNAA supplemented diet, an isonitrogenic/isocaloric high-protein control diet, or normal chow. After six weeks of dietary treatment, blood and brain amino acid and monoaminergic neurotransmitter concentrations were assessed.In PKU mice, the investigated LNAA supplementation regimen significantly reduced blood and brain phenylalanine concentrations by 33% and 26%, respectively, compared to normal chow (p<0.01, while alleviating brain deficiencies of some but not all supplemented LNAA. Moreover, LNAA supplementation in PKU mice significantly increased brain serotonin and norepinephrine concentrations from 35% to 71% and from 57% to 86% of wild-type concentrations (p<0.01, respectively, but not brain dopamine concentrations (p = 0.307.This study shows that LNAA supplementation without dietary phenylalanine restriction in PKU mice improves brain biochemistry through all three hypothesized biochemical mechanisms. Thereby, these data provide proof-of-concept for LNAA supplementation as a valuable alternative dietary treatment strategy in PKU. Based on these

  4. Abscopal effect of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Proof of principle in an experimental model of colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivillin, Veronica A.; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Schwint, Amanda E.; Pozzi, Emiliano C.C.; Curotto, Paula; Colombo, Lucas L.; Thorp, Silvia I.; Farias, Ruben O.; Garabalino, Marcela A.; Gonzalez, Sara J.; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A.; Carando, Daniel G.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate, for the first time, the abscopal effect of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Twenty-six BDIX rats were inoculated subcutaneously with 1 x 10 6 DHD/K12/TRb syngeneic colon cancer cells in the right hind flank. Three weeks post-inoculation, the right leg of 12 rats bearing the tumor nodule was treated with BPA-BNCT (BPA-Boronophenylalanine) at the RA-3 nuclear reactor located in Buenos Aires, Argentina, at an absorbed dose of 7.5 Gy to skin as the dose-limiting tissue. The remaining group of 14 tumor-bearing rats were left untreated and used as control. Two weeks post-BNCT, 1 x 10 6 DHD/K12/TRb cells were injected subcutaneously in the contralateral left hind flank of each of the 26 BDIX rats. Tumor volume in both legs was measured weekly for 7 weeks to determine response to BNCT in the right leg and to assess a potential influence of BNCT in the right leg on tumor development in the left leg. Within the BNCT group, a statistically significant reduction was observed in contralateral left tumor volume in animals whose right leg tumor responded to BNCT (post-treatment/pre-treatment tumor volume <1) versus animals who failed to respond (post/pre ≥1), i.e., 13 ± 15 vs 271 ± 128 mm 3 . In addition, a statistically significant reduction in contralateral left leg tumor volume was observed in BNCT-responsive animals (post/pre <1) vs untreated animals, i.e., 13 ± 15 vs 254 ± 251 mm 3 . The present study performed in a simple animal model provides proof of principle that the positive response of a tumor to BNCT is capable of inducing an abscopal effect. (orig.)

  5. Identification of lymphogranuloma venereum-associated Chlamydia trachomatis serovars by fluorescence in situ hybridisation--a proof-of-principle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frickmann, Hagen; Essig, Andreas; Poppert, Sven

    2014-04-01

    We describe a proof-of-principle evaluation of a fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) procedure to identify Chlamydia trachomatis serovars L1-L3, the causative agents of lymphogranuloma venereum, in cell cultures based on newly designed DNA probes. Rapid and easy-to-perform FISH could facilitate the diagnosis of lymphogranuloma venereum without nucleic acid amplification or serotyping, but requires broader evaluation studies, for example, in tropical high-endemicity regions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Awakening the potential of plasma acceleration

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Civil engineering has begun for the new AWAKE experiment, which looks to push the boundaries of particle acceleration. This proof-of-principle experiment will harness the power of wakefields generated by proton beams in plasma cells, producing accelerator gradients hundreds of times higher than those used in current RF cavities.   Civil engineering works are currently ongoing at the AWAKE facility. As one of CERN's accelerator R&D experiments, the AWAKE project is rather unique. Like all of CERN's experiments, AWAKE is a collaborative endeavour with institutes and organisations participating around the world. "But unlike fixed-target experiments, where the users take over once CERN has delivered the facility, in AWAKE, the synchronised proton, electron and laser beams provided by CERN are an integral part of the experiment," explains Edda Gschwendtner, CERN AWAKE project leader. "So, of course, CERN's involvement in the project goes well...

  7. Laser all-ceramic crown removal and pulpal temperature--a laboratory proof-of-principle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechmann, P; Buu, N C H; Rechmann, B M T; Finzen, F C

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this proof-of-principle laboratory pilot study was to evaluate the temperature increase in the pulp chamber in a worst case scenario during Er:YAG laser debonding of all-ceramic crowns. Twenty extracted molars were prepared to receive all-ceramic IPS E.max CAD full contour crowns. The crowns were bonded to the teeth with Ivoclar Multilink Automix. Times for laser debonding and temperature rise in the pulp chamber using micro-thermocouples were measured. The Er:YAG was used with 560 mJ/pulse. The irradiation was applied at a distance of 5 mm from the crown surface. Additional air-water spray for cooling was utilized. Each all-ceramic crown was successfully laser debonded with an average debonding time of 135 ± 35 s. No crown fractured, and no damage to the underlying dentin was detected. The bonding cement deteriorated, but no carbonization at the dentin/cement interface occurred. The temperature rise in the pulp chamber averaged 5.4° ± 2.2 °C. During 8 out of the 20 crown removals, the temperature rise exceeded 5.5 °C, lasting 5 to 43 s (average 18.8 ± 11.6 s). A temperature rise of 11.5 °C occurred only once, while seven times the temperature rise was limited to 6.8 ± 0.5 °C. Temperature rises above 5.5 °C occurred only when the laser was applied from one side and additional cooling from the side opposite the irradiation. Er:YAG laser energy can successfully be used to efficiently debond all-ceramic crowns from natural teeth. Temperature rises exceeding 5.5 °C only occur when an additional air/water cooling from a dental syringe is inaccurately directed. To avoid possible thermal damage and to allow further heat diffusion, clinically temperature-reduced water might be applied.

  8. A proof-of-principle simulation for closed-loop control based on preexisting experimental thalamic DBS-enhanced instrumental learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Fu; Yang, Shih-Hung; Lin, Sheng-Huang; Chen, Po-Chuan; Lo, Yu-Chun; Pan, Han-Chi; Lai, Hsin-Yi; Liao, Lun-De; Lin, Hui-Ching; Chen, Hsu-Yan; Huang, Wei-Chen; Huang, Wun-Jhu; Chen, You-Yin

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been applied as an effective therapy for treating Parkinson's disease or essential tremor. Several open-loop DBS control strategies have been developed for clinical experiments, but they are limited by short battery life and inefficient therapy. Therefore, many closed-loop DBS control systems have been designed to tackle these problems by automatically adjusting the stimulation parameters via feedback from neural signals, which has been reported to reduce the power consumption. However, when the association between the biomarkers of the model and stimulation is unclear, it is difficult to develop an optimal control scheme for other DBS applications, i.e., DBS-enhanced instrumental learning. Furthermore, few studies have investigated the effect of closed-loop DBS control for cognition function, such as instrumental skill learning, and have been implemented in simulation environments. In this paper, we proposed a proof-of-principle design for a closed-loop DBS system, cognitive-enhancing DBS (ceDBS), which enhanced skill learning based on in vivo experimental data. The ceDBS acquired local field potential (LFP) signal from the thalamic central lateral (CL) nuclei of animals through a neural signal processing system. A strong coupling of the theta oscillation (4-7 Hz) and the learning period was found in the water reward-related lever-pressing learning task. Therefore, the theta-band power ratio, which was the averaged theta band to averaged total band (1-55 Hz) power ratio, could be used as a physiological marker for enhancement of instrumental skill learning. The on-line extraction of the theta-band power ratio was implemented on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). An autoregressive with exogenous inputs (ARX)-based predictor was designed to construct a CL-thalamic DBS model and forecast the future physiological marker according to the past physiological marker and applied DBS. The prediction could further assist the design of

  9. Proof-of-principle test of coherent-state continuous variable quantum key distribution through turbulent atmosphere (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derkach, Ivan D.; Peuntinger, Christian; Ruppert, László; Heim, Bettina; Gunthner, Kevin; Usenko, Vladyslav C.; Elser, Dominique; Marquardt, Christoph; Filip, Radim; Leuchs, Gerd

    2016-10-01

    Continuous-variable quantum key distribution is a practical application of quantum information theory that is aimed at generation of secret cryptographic key between two remote trusted parties and that uses multi-photon quantum states as carriers of key bits. Remote parties share the secret key via a quantum channel, that presumably is under control of of an eavesdropper, and which properties must be taken into account in the security analysis. Well-studied fiber-optical quantum channels commonly possess stable transmittance and low noise levels, while free-space channels represent a simpler, less demanding and more flexible alternative, but suffer from atmospheric effects such as turbulence that in particular causes a non-uniform transmittance distribution referred to as fading. Nonetheless free-space channels, providing an unobstructed line-of-sight, are more apt for short, mid-range and potentially long-range (using satellites) communication and will play an important role in the future development and implementation of QKD networks. It was previously theoretically shown that coherent-state CV QKD should be in principle possible to implement over a free-space fading channel, but strong transmittance fluctuations result in the significant modulation-dependent channel excess noise. In this regime the post-selection of highly transmitting sub-channels may be needed, which can even restore the security of the protocol in the strongly turbulent channels. We now report the first proof-of-principle experimental test of coherent state CV QKD protocol using different levels Gaussian modulation over a mid-range (1.6-kilometer long) free-space atmospheric quantum channel. The transmittance of the link was characterized using intensity measurements for the reference but channel estimation using the modulated coherent states was also studied. We consider security against Gaussian collective attacks, that were shown to be optimal against CV QKD protocols . We assumed a

  10. Office of Fusion Energy recommendations on the Elmo Bumpy Torus proof-of-principle experiment site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This report provies background information and rationale for the procedures used and decisions made up to this point. A brief history and technical description of the EBT concept are given. The OFE recommendations as to siting are included

  11. Laser spectroscopy of short-lived radionuclides in an ion trap: MIRACLS’ proof-of-principle experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Maier, Franziska Maria

    2017-01-01

    Since 1978 Collinear Laser Spectroscopy is done at COLLAPS [1], which is located at ISOLDE,CERN’sfacilityforsynthesizingradioactiveions,toexplorethenuclearshell structure of the most exotic atomic nuclides far away from stability. At COLLAPS a laser beam is overlapped with a radioactive ion beam. If the wavelength of the laser corresponds to the energy difference of the electronic transitions, the laser excites the ions. The excited ions decay back to the ionic ground state and emit fluorescence photons that can be detected with photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). By measuring the hyperfine structure of the involved ionic states one obtains information about the nuclear spin, the nuclear magnetic dipole moment and the nuclear electric quadrupole moment. This hyperfine splitting is caused by the interaction of the bound electrons withtheatomicnucleus. Theelectronsinduceanelectromagneticfieldattheplaceof the nucleus that interacts with the electromagnetic nuclear moments and the nuclear spin. By calculating th...

  12. A laser plasma beatwave accelerator experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahim, N.A.

    1987-03-01

    An experiment to test the laser plasma beatware accelerator concept is outlined. A heuristic estimate of the relevant experimental parameters is obtained from fluid theory and considerations of wave-particle interactions. Acceleration of 10 MeV electrons to approximately 70 MeV over a plasma length of 3 cm appears to be feasible. This corresponds to an accelerating gradient of approximately 2.5 GeV/m

  13. Operational experience of the ATLAS accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Hartog, P K; Bogaty, J M; Bollinger, L M; Clifft, B E; Craig, S L; Harden, R E; Markovich, P; Munson, F H; Nixon, J M; Pardo, R C; Phillips, D R; Shepard, K W; Tilbrook, I R; Zinkmann, G P [Argonne National Lab., IL (USA). Physics Div.

    1990-02-01

    The ATLAS accelerator consists of a HVEC model FN tandem accelerator injecting into a linac of independently-phased niobium superconducting resonators. The accelerator provides beams with masses 6 {le} A {le} 127 and with energies ranging up to 20 MeV/A for the lightest ions and 4 MeV/A for the heaviest ions. Portions of the linac have been in operation since 1978 and, over the last decade, more than 35000 h of operating experience have been accumulated. The long-term stability of niobium resonators, and their feasibility for use in heavy-ion accelerators is now well established. (orig.).

  14. Operational experience with the Daresbury accelerator tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, T.W.; Eastham, D.A.; Joy, T.; Leese, J.M.; Tait, N.R.S.; Thorn, R.

    1986-01-01

    Operational experience with the Daresbury MKI accelerator tube is reviewed with particular attention to conditioning and high voltage performance. The effects of surges and transients on the tube are described and lines of future development are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Survey of teaching experiments with small accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treado, P.A.; Lambert, J.M.

    1974-01-01

    Accelerator facilities are being used to provide an educational experience to undergraduate students, both science and non-science majors, and to graduate students. Nuclear physics, accelerator physics, atomic physics, chemistry, materials science, and some nuclear techniques applied to biology, medicine and energy/environmental problems are components of various courses. Previously published experiments are the ones most frequently used, but societal needs have caused some recent, interesting experiments to be adopted. A brief outline of a number of conventional and interesting experiments, and a tabulation of reference materials pertinent to such experiments is given. Experimental science can be presented to students in a dramatic and an exciting manner with an accelerator and readily available, but quite inexpensive, ancillary equipment. Lectures, discussions, demonstrations, and the collection and analysis of data provide a well-rounded educational experience

  16. Inverse Cerenkov laser acceleration experiment at ATF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.J.; Pogorelsky, I.; Fernow, R.; Kusche, K.P.; Liu, Y.; Kimura, W.D.; Kim, G.H.; Romea, R.D.; Steinhauer, L.C.

    1994-01-01

    Inverse Cerenkov laser acceleration was demonstrated using an axicon optical system at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). The ATF S-band linac and a high power 10.6 μm CO 2 laser were used for the experiment. Experimental arrangement and the laser and the electron beams synchronization are discussed. The electrons were accelerated more than 0.7 MeV for a 34 MW CO 2 laser power. More than 3.7 MeV acceleration was measured with 0.7 GW CO 2 laser power, which is more than 20 times of the previous ICA experiment. The experimental results are compared with computer program TRANSPORT simulations

  17. Results from non-accelerator experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkerson, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    The diversity of non-accelerator experiments is at first look both dazzling and even daunting. However, nearly all of these experiments strive to attain the same goal, to search for new physics, beyond the current Standard Model. These measurements are also unified in the fact that their results are often dominated by systematic uncertainties. This review necessarily covers only a limited subset of non-accelerator experiments, and will concentrate on the experimental areas where there has been significant recent progress. The topics reviewed include neutrino mazes, double beta decay, solar neutrino, and long-baseline neutrino oscillation measurements

  18. Measuring localized nonlinear components in a circular accelerator with a nonlinear tune response matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Franchetti

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a method for measuring the nonlinear errors in a circular accelerator by taking advantage of the feed-down effect of high order multipoles when the closed orbit is globally deformed. We devise a nonlinear tune response matrix in which the response to a closed orbit deformation is obtained in terms of change of machine tune and correlated with the strength of the local multipoles. A numerical example and a proof of principle experiment to validate the theoretical methods are presented and discussed.

  19. A proposed laser wakefield acceleration experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahim, N.A.

    1995-05-01

    In this report we discuss the basic concepts of a laser wakefield experiment using an ultrashort laser pulse. In particular, we obtain some heuristic estimates of experimental parameters relevant to an experiment to test the laser wakefield acceleration concept. (author). 8 refs., 2 tabs

  20. An $ep$ collider based on proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Wing, M.; Mete, O.; Aimidula, A.; Welsch, C.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Mandry, S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent simulations have shown that a high-energy proton bunch can excite strong plasma wakefields and accelerate a bunch of electrons to the energy frontier in a single stage of acceleration. This scheme could lead to a future $ep$ collider using the LHC for the proton beam and a compact electron accelerator of length 170 m, producing electrons of energy up to 100 GeV. The parameters of such a collider are discussed as well as conceptual layouts within the CERN accelerator complex. The physics of plasma wakefield acceleration will also be introduced, with the AWAKE experiment, a proof of principle demonstration of proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration, briefly reviewed, as well as the physics possibilities of such an $ep$ collider.

  1. Space experiments with particle accelerators: SEPAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obayashi, T.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper, the program of the space experiments with particle accelerators (SEPAC) is described. The SEPAC is to be prepared for the Space Shuttle/First Spacelab Mission. It is planned in the SEPAC to carry out the active and interactive experiments on and in the Earth's ionosphere and magnetosphere. It is also intended to make an initial performance test for the overall program of Spacelab/SEPAC experiments. The instruments to be used are electron beam accelerators, MPD arcjects, and associated diagnostic equipments. The main scientific objectives of the experiments are Vehicle Charge Neutralization, Beam Plasma Physics, and Beam Atmosphere Interactions. The SEPAC system consists of the following subsystems. Those are accelerators, monitoring and diagnostic equipments, and control and data management equipments. The SEPAC functional objectives for experiment operations are SEPAC system checkout, EBA firing test, MPD firing test, electron beam experiments, plasma beam propagation, artificial aurora excitation, equatorial aerochemistry, electron echo experiment, E parallel B experiment, passive experiments, SEPAC system deactivation, and battery charging. Most experiment procedures are carried out by the pre-set computer program. (Kato, T.)

  2. Operational experience of the ATLAS accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Hartog, P.K.; Bogaty, J.M.; Bollinger, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    The ATLAS accelerator consists of a HVEC model FN tandem accelerator injecting into a linac of independently-phased niobium superconducting resonators. The accelerator provides beams with masses from 6≤A≤127 and with energies ranging up to 20 MeV/A for the lightest ions and 4 MeV/A for the heaviest ions. Portions of the linac have been in operation since 1978 and, over the last decade, more than 35,000 hours of operating experience have been accumulated. The long-term stability of niobium resonators, and their feasibility for use in heavy-ion accelerators is now well established. 11 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  3. TU-CD-BRA-08: Single-Energy Computed Tomography-Based Pulmonary Perfusion Imaging: Proof-Of-Principle in a Canine Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, T; Boone, J [University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA (United States); Kent, M; Wisner, E [University of California Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, CA (United States); Fujita, Y [Tokai University, Isehara (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Pulmonary perfusion imaging has provided significant insights into pulmonary diseases, and can be useful in radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to prospectively establish proof-of-principle in a canine model for single-energy CT-based perfusion imaging, which has the potential for widespread clinical implementation. Methods: Single-energy CT perfusion imaging is based on: (1) acquisition of inspiratory breath-hold CT scans before and after intravenous injection of iodinated contrast medium, (2) deformable image registration (DIR) of the two CT image data sets, and (3) subtraction of the pre-contrast image from post-contrast image, yielding a map of Hounsfield unit (HU) enhancement. These subtraction image data sets hypothetically represent perfused blood volume, a surrogate for perfusion. In an IACUC-approved clinical trial, we acquired pre- and post-contrast CT scans in the prone posture for six anesthetized, mechanically-ventilated dogs. The elastix algorithm was used for DIR. The registration accuracy was quantified using the target registration errors (TREs) for 50 pulmonary landmarks in each dog. The gradient of HU enhancement between gravity-dependent (ventral) and non-dependent (dorsal) regions was evaluated to quantify the known effect of gravity, i.e., greater perfusion in ventral regions. Results: The lung volume difference between the two scans was 4.3±3.5% on average (range 0.3%–10.1%). DIR demonstrated an average TRE of 0.7±1.0 mm. HU enhancement in lung parenchyma was 34±10 HU on average and varied considerably between individual dogs, indicating the need for improvement of the contrast injection protocol. HU enhancement in ventral (gravity-dependent) regions was found to be greater than in dorsal regions. A population average ventral-to-dorsal gradient of HU enhancement was strong (R{sup 2}=0.94) and statistically significant (p<0.01). Conclusion: This canine study demonstrated relatively accurate DIR and a strong ventral

  4. TU-CD-BRA-08: Single-Energy Computed Tomography-Based Pulmonary Perfusion Imaging: Proof-Of-Principle in a Canine Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, T; Boone, J; Kent, M; Wisner, E; Fujita, Y

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Pulmonary perfusion imaging has provided significant insights into pulmonary diseases, and can be useful in radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to prospectively establish proof-of-principle in a canine model for single-energy CT-based perfusion imaging, which has the potential for widespread clinical implementation. Methods: Single-energy CT perfusion imaging is based on: (1) acquisition of inspiratory breath-hold CT scans before and after intravenous injection of iodinated contrast medium, (2) deformable image registration (DIR) of the two CT image data sets, and (3) subtraction of the pre-contrast image from post-contrast image, yielding a map of Hounsfield unit (HU) enhancement. These subtraction image data sets hypothetically represent perfused blood volume, a surrogate for perfusion. In an IACUC-approved clinical trial, we acquired pre- and post-contrast CT scans in the prone posture for six anesthetized, mechanically-ventilated dogs. The elastix algorithm was used for DIR. The registration accuracy was quantified using the target registration errors (TREs) for 50 pulmonary landmarks in each dog. The gradient of HU enhancement between gravity-dependent (ventral) and non-dependent (dorsal) regions was evaluated to quantify the known effect of gravity, i.e., greater perfusion in ventral regions. Results: The lung volume difference between the two scans was 4.3±3.5% on average (range 0.3%–10.1%). DIR demonstrated an average TRE of 0.7±1.0 mm. HU enhancement in lung parenchyma was 34±10 HU on average and varied considerably between individual dogs, indicating the need for improvement of the contrast injection protocol. HU enhancement in ventral (gravity-dependent) regions was found to be greater than in dorsal regions. A population average ventral-to-dorsal gradient of HU enhancement was strong (R"2=0.94) and statistically significant (p<0.01). Conclusion: This canine study demonstrated relatively accurate DIR and a strong ventral

  5. Diagnostics for advanced laser acceleration experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misuri, Alessio

    2002-01-01

    The first proposal for plasma based accelerators was suggested by 1979 by Tajima and Dawson. Since then there has been a tremendous progress both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical progress is particularly due to the growing interest in the subject and to the development of more accurate numerical codes for the plasma simulations (especially particle-in-cell codes). The experimental progress follows from the development of multi-terawatt laser systems based on the chirped-pulse amplification technique. These efforts have produced results in several experiments world-wide, with the detection of accelerated electrons of tens of MeV. The peculiarity of these advanced accelerators is their ability to sustain extremely large acceleration gradients. In the conventional radio frequency linear accelerators (RF linacs) the acceleration gradients are limited roughly to 100 MV/m; this is partially due to breakdown which occurs on the walls of the structure. The electrical breakdown is originated by the emission of the electrons from the walls of the cavity. The electrons cause an avalanche breakdown when they reach other metal parts of the RF linacs structure

  6. Diagnostics for advanced laser acceleration experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misuri, Alessio [Univ. of Pisa (Italy)

    2002-01-01

    The first proposal for plasma based accelerators was suggested by 1979 by Tajima and Dawson. Since then there has been a tremendous progress both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical progress is particularly due to the growing interest in the subject and to the development of more accurate numerical codes for the plasma simulations (especially particle-in-cell codes). The experimental progress follows from the development of multi-terawatt laser systems based on the chirped-pulse amplification technique. These efforts have produced results in several experiments world-wide, with the detection of accelerated electrons of tens of MeV. The peculiarity of these advanced accelerators is their ability to sustain extremely large acceleration gradients. In the conventional radio frequency linear accelerators (RF linacs) the acceleration gradients are limited roughly to 100 MV/m; this is partially due to breakdown which occurs on the walls of the structure. The electrical breakdown is originated by the emission of the electrons from the walls of the cavity. The electrons cause an avalanche breakdown when they reach other metal parts of the RF linacs structure.

  7. Accelerator/Experiment operations - FY 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brice, S.; Conrad, J.; Denisov, D.; Ginther, G.; Holmes, S.; James, C.; Lee, W.; Louis, W.; Moore, C.; Plunkett, R.; Raja, R.; /Fermilab

    2006-10-01

    This Technical Memorandum (TM) summarizes the Fermilab accelerator and experiment operations for FY 2006. It is one of a series of annual publications intended to gather information in one place. In this case, the information concerns the FY 2006 Run II at the Tevatron Collider, the MiniBooNE experiments running in the Booster Neutrino Beam in neutrino and antineutrino modes, MINOS using the Main Injector Neutrino Beam (NuMI), and SY 120 activities.

  8. Neutrino mixing and future accelerator neutrino experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilenky, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    No evidence for neutrino mixing has been obtained in experiments searching for oscillations with neutrinos from accelerators and reactors. The possible reason is that neutrino masses are too small to produce any sizable effects in the experiments with terrestrial neutrinos. We put forward here the point of view that the reason for that can be traced to the presence of a hierarchy of neutrino masses as well as strength of couplings between lepton families. (orig.)

  9. Implosion scaling and hydro dynamically equivalent target design - Strategy for proof of principle of high gain inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, M.; Nishihara, K.; Azechi, H.; Nakatsuka, M.; Kanabe, T.; Miyanaga, N.

    2003-01-01

    Scaling laws for hydro dynamically similar implosions are derived by applying Lie group analysis to the set of partial differential equations for the hydrodynamic system. Physically this implies that any fluid system belonging to a common similarity group evolves quite in the same manner including hydrodynamic instabilities. The scalings strongly depend on the description of the energy transport, i.e., whether the fluid system is heat conductive or adiabatic. Under a fully specified group transformation including prescriptions on the laser wavelength and the ionization state, the hydrodynamic similarity can still be preserved even when the system is cooperated with such other energy sources as classical laser absorption, hot electrons, local alpha heating, and bremsstrahlung loss. The results are expected to give the basis of target design and diagnostics for scaled high gain experiments in future. (author)

  10. Application of high power modulated intense relativistic electron beams for development of Wake Field Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, M.

    1989-01-01

    This final Progress Report addresses DOE-sponsored research on the development of future high-gradient particle accelerators. The experimental and the theoretical research, which lasted three years, investigated the Two Beam Accelerator (TBA). This high-voltage-gradient accelerator was powered by a modulated intense relativistic electron beam (MIREB) of power >10 10 watts. This research was conceived after a series of successful experiments performed at NRL generating and using MIREBs. This work showed that an RF structure could be built which was directly powered by a modulated intense relativistic electron beam. This structure was then used to accelerate a second electron beam. At the end of the three year project the proof-of-principle accelerator demonstrated the generation of a high current beam of electrons with energy >60 MeV. Scaling laws needed to design practical devices for future applications were also derived

  11. Collaboration between a human group and artificial intelligence can improve prediction of multiple sclerosis course: a proof-of-principle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacchella, Andrea; Romano, Silvia; Ferraldeschi, Michela; Salvetti, Marco; Zaccaria, Andrea; Crisanti, Andrea; Grassi, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis has an extremely variable natural course. In most patients, disease starts with a relapsing-remitting (RR) phase, which proceeds to a secondary progressive (SP) form. The duration of the RR phase is hard to predict, and to date predictions on the rate of disease progression remain suboptimal. This limits the opportunity to tailor therapy on an individual patient's prognosis, in spite of the choice of several therapeutic options. Approaches to improve clinical decisions, such as collective intelligence of human groups and machine learning algorithms are widely investigated. Methods: Medical students and a machine learning algorithm predicted the course of disease on the basis of randomly chosen clinical records of patients that attended at the Multiple Sclerosis service of Sant'Andrea hospital in Rome. Results: A significant improvement of predictive ability was obtained when predictions were combined with a weight that depends on the consistence of human (or algorithm) forecasts on a given clinical record. Conclusions: In this work we present proof-of-principle that human-machine hybrid predictions yield better prognoses than machine learning algorithms or groups of humans alone. To strengthen this preliminary result, we propose a crowdsourcing initiative to collect prognoses by physicians on an expanded set of patients.

  12. Design and implementation of an array of micro-electrochemical detectors for two-dimensional liquid chromatography--proof of principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abia, Jude A; Putnam, Joel; Mriziq, Khaled; Guiochon, Georges A

    2010-03-05

    Simultaneous two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) is an implementation of two-dimensional liquid chromatography which has the potential to provide very fast, yet highly efficient separations. It is based on the use of time x space and space x space separation systems. The basic principle of this instrument has been validated long ago by the success of two-dimensional thin layer chromatography. The construction of a pressurized wide and flat column (100 mm x 100 mm x 1 mm) operated under an inlet pressure of up to 50 bar was described previously. However, to become a modern analytical method, simultaneous 2D-LC requires the development of detectors suitable for the monitoring of the composition of the eluent of this pressurized planar, wide column. An array of five equidistant micro-electrochemical sensors was built for this purpose and tested. Each sensor is a three-electrode system, with the working electrode being a 25 microm polished platinum micro-electrode. The auxiliary electrode is a thin platinum wire and the reference electrode an Ag/AgCl (3M sat. KCl) electrode. In this first implementation, proof of principle is demonstrated, but the final instrument will require a much larger array. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Probe State- and Trait-Like Conditions in Chronic Tinnitus: A Proof-of-Principle Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Schecklmann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Several neuroscience tools showed the involvement of auditory cortex in chronic tinnitus. In this proof-of-principle study we probed the capability of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS for the measurement of brain oxygenation in auditory cortex in dependence from chronic tinnitus and from intervention with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Methods. Twenty-three patients received continuous theta burst stimulation over the left primary auditory cortex in a randomized sham-controlled neuronavigated trial (verum = 12; placebo = 11. Before and after treatment, sound-evoked brain oxygenation in temporal areas was measured with fNIRS. Brain oxygenation was measured once in healthy controls (n=12. Results. Sound-evoked activity in right temporal areas was increased in the patients in contrast to healthy controls. Left-sided temporal activity under the stimulated area changed over the course of the trial; high baseline oxygenation was reduced and vice versa. Conclusions. By demonstrating that rTMS interacts with auditory evoked brain activity, our results confirm earlier electrophysiological findings and indicate the sensitivity of fNIRS for detecting rTMS induced changes in brain activity. Moreover, our findings of trait- and state-related oxygenation changes indicate the potential of fNIRS for the investigation of tinnitus pathophysiology and treatment response.

  14. High temperature experiment for accelerator inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    The High Temperature Experiment (HTE) is intended to produce temperatures of 50-100 eV in solid density targets driven by heavy ion beams from a multiple beam induction linac. The fundamental variables (particle species, energy number of beamlets, current and pulse length) must be fixed to achieve the temperature at minimum cost, subject to criteria of technical feasibility and relevance to the development of a Fusion Driver. The conceptual design begins with an assumed (radiation-limited) target temperature and uses limitations due to particle range, beamlet perveance, and target disassembly to bound the allowable values of mass number (A) and energy (E). An accelerator model is then applied to determine the minimum length accelerator, which is a guide to total cost. The accelerator model takes into account limits on transportable charge, maximum gradient, core mass per linear meter, and head-to-tail momentum variation within a pulse

  15. Reconstructing cone-beam CT with spatially varying qualities for adaptive radiotherapy: a proof-of-principle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenting; Yan, Hao; Gu, Xuejun; Tian, Zhen; Luo, Ouyang; Yang, Liu; Zhou, Linghong; Cervino, Laura; Wang, Jing; Jiang, Steve; Jia, Xun

    2014-10-21

    With the aim of maximally reducing imaging dose while meeting requirements for adaptive radiation therapy (ART), we propose in this paper a new cone beam CT (CBCT) acquisition and reconstruction method that delivers images with a low noise level inside a region of interest (ROI) and a relatively high noise level outside the ROI. The acquired projection images include two groups: densely sampled projections at a low exposure with a large field of view (FOV) and sparsely sampled projections at a high exposure with a small FOV corresponding to the ROI. A new algorithm combining the conventional filtered back-projection algorithm and the tight-frame iterative reconstruction algorithm is also designed to reconstruct the CBCT based on these projection data. We have validated our method on a simulated head-and-neck (HN) patient case, a semi-real experiment conducted on a HN cancer patient under a full-fan scan mode, as well as a Catphan phantom under a half-fan scan mode. Relative root-mean-square errors (RRMSEs) of less than 3% for the entire image and ~1% within the ROI compared to the ground truth have been observed. These numbers demonstrate the ability of our proposed method to reconstruct high-quality images inside the ROI. As for the part outside ROI, although the images are relatively noisy, it can still provide sufficient information for radiation dose calculations in ART. Dose distributions calculated on our CBCT image and on a standard CBCT image are in agreement, with a mean relative difference of 0.082% inside the ROI and 0.038% outside the ROI. Compared with the standard clinical CBCT scheme, an imaging dose reduction of approximately 3-6 times inside the ROI was achieved, as well as an 8 times outside the ROI. Regarding computational efficiency, it takes 1-3 min to reconstruct a CBCT image depending on the number of projections used. These results indicate that the proposed method has the potential for application in ART.

  16. Accelerator/Experiment Operations - FY 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czarapata, P. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); et al.

    2015-10-01

    This Technical Memorandum summarizes the Fermilab accelerator and experiment operations for FY 2015. It is one of a series of annual publications intended to gather information in one place. In this case, the information concerns the FY 2015 NOvA, MINOS+ and MINERvA experiments using the Main Injector Neutrino Beam (NuMI), the activities in the SciBooNE Hall using the Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB), and the SeaQuest experiment and Meson Test Beam (MTest) activities in the 120 GeV external Switchyard beam (SY120).

  17. The FAST (FRC Acceleration Space Thruster) Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Adam; Eskridge, R.; Lee, M.; Richeson, J.; Smith, J.; Thio, Y. C. F.; Slough, J.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Field Reverse Configuration (FRC) is a magnetized plasmoid that has been developed for use in magnetic confinement fusion. Several of its properties suggest that it may also be useful as a thruster for in-space propulsion. The FRC is a compact toroid that has only poloidal field, and is characterized by a high plasma beta = (P)/(B (sup 2) /2Mu0), the ratio of plasma pressure to magnetic field pressure, so that it makes efficient use of magnetic field to confine a plasma. In an FRC thruster, plasmoids would be repetitively formed and accelerated to high velocity; velocities of = 250 km/s (Isp = 25,000s) have already been achieved in fusion experiments. The FRC is inductively formed and accelerated, and so is not subject to the problem of electrode erosion. As the plasmoid may be accelerated over an extended length, it can in principle be made very efficient. And the achievable jet powers should be scalable to the MW range. A 10 kW thruster experiment - FAST (FRC Acceleration Space Thruster) has just started at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The design of FAST and the status of construction and operation will be presented.

  18. Accelerator/Experiment Operations - FY 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, A.; Convery, M.; Geer, S.; Geesaman, D.; Harris, D.; Johnson, D.; Lang, K.; McFarland, K.; Messier, M.; Moore, C. D.; Newhart, D.; Reimer, P. E.; Plunkett, R.; Rominsky, M.; Sanchez, M.; Schmidt, J. J.; Shanahan, P.; Tate, C.; Thomas, J.; Donatella Torretta, Donatella Torretta; Matthew Wetstein, Matthew Wetstein

    2016-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum summarizes the Fermilab accelerator and experiment operations for FY 2016. It is one of a series of annual publications intended to gather information in one place. In this case, the information concerns the FY 2016 NOvA, MINOS+ and MINERvA experiments using the Main Injector Neutrino Beam (NuMI), the MicroBooNE experiment and the activities in the SciBooNE Hall using the Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB), and the SeaQuest experiment, LArIAT experiment and Meson Test Beam activities in the 120 GeV external switchyard beam (SY120). Each section was prepared by the relevant authors, and was then edited for inclusion in this summary.

  19. Accelerator/Experiment Operations - FY 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Convery, M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Geer, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Geesaman, D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Harris, D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Johnson, D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Lang, K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); McFarland, K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Messier, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Moore, C. D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Newhart, D. [Fermilab; Reimer, P. E. [Argonne; Plunkett, R. [Fermilab; Rominsky, M. [Fermilab; Sanchez, M. [Iowa State U.; Schmidt, J. J. [Fermilab; Shanahan, P. [Fermilab; Tate, C. [Fermilab; Thomas, J. [University Coll. London; Donatella Torretta, Donatella Torretta [Fermilab; Matthew Wetstein, Matthew Wetstein [Iowa State University

    2016-10-01

    This Technical Memorandum summarizes the Fermilab accelerator and experiment operations for FY 2016. It is one of a series of annual publications intended to gather information in one place. In this case, the information concerns the FY 2016 NOvA, MINOS+ and MINERvA experiments using the Main Injector Neutrino Beam (NuMI), the MicroBooNE experiment and the activities in the SciBooNE Hall using the Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB), and the SeaQuest experiment, LArIAT experiment and Meson Test Beam activities in the 120 GeV external switchyard beam (SY120). Each section was prepared by the relevant authors, and was then edited for inclusion in this summary.

  20. Setup and proof of principle of SAPIS (Stored Atoms Polarized Ion Source), a novel source of polarized H{sup -}/D{sup -} ions; Aufbau und Funktionsnachweis von SAPIS (Stored Atoms Polarized Ion Source), einer neuartigen Quelle polarisierter H{sup -}/D{sup -}-Ionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmerich, R.

    2007-02-14

    The objective of this work was the setup and the proof-of-principle of a new type of negative polarized hydrogen or deuterium ion source, which is based on the charge-exchange reaction (vector)H{sup 0}+Cs{sup 0}{yields}(vector)H{sup -}+Cs{sup +}, as for instance the Colliding-Beams-Source (CBS) at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY in Juelich. In contrast to the CBS, the use of a storage cell for the charge-exchange region promises an increase in H{sup -} current by at least an order of magnitude without considerable polarization losses. For these purposes, a new laboratory was equipped and both a polarized hydrogen/deuterium atomic beam source and an intense neutral cesium-beam source have been build-on. A Lambshift polarimeter, which allows the measurement of the nuclear polarization of the atomic as well as ionic beams, was completed with the construction of a new spin-filter. After commissioning and optimizing each of these sources, a storage cell was developed and installed in the charge-exchange region with a magnetic field. Additionally, components for the extraction, detection and analysis of the negative ion beam were installed. Following the decisive proof of principle, investigation of the properties of the storage cell, especially as to H recombination and depolarisation, was begun. Furthermore, a number of software programs was developed for the control and monitoring of different components of the sources as well as a universal measuring software for the complete installation, including the measurement and calculation of the beam polarization. At the same time, the remote control system of the Cologne source of polarized ions LASCO at the FN tandem accelerator was completely modernized. (orig.)

  1. A comparison of some anthropometric parameters between an Italian and a UK population: 'proof of principle' of a European project using MammoGrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, R.; Thompson, D.; Del Frate, C.; Cordell, M.; Highnam, R.; Tromans, C.; Warsi, I.; Ding, J.; Sala, E.; Estrella, F.; Solomonides, A.E.; Odeh, M.; McClatchey, R.; Bazzocchi, M.; Amendolia, S.R.; Brady, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To demonstrate the use of grid technology to produce a database of mammograms and supporting patient data, specifically using breast density as a biomarker of risk for breast cancer, for epidemiological purposes. Method: The cohort comprised 1737 women from the UK and Italy, aged 28-87 years, mean 54.7 years, who underwent mammography after giving consent to the use of their data in the project. Information regarding height, weight, and exposure data (mAs and kV) was recorded. The computer program Generate-SMF was applied to all films in the database to measure breast volume, dense breast volume, and thereby percentage density. Visual readings of density using a six-category classification system were also available for 596 women. Results: The UK and Italian participants were similar in height, but the UK women were significantly heavier with a slightly higher body mass index (BMI), despite being younger. Both absolute and percentage breast density were significantly higher in the Udine cohort. Images from the medio-lateral projection (MLO) give a significantly lower percentage density than cranio-caudal (CC) images (p < 0.0001). Total breast volume is negatively associated with percentage density, as are BMI and age (p < 0.0001 for all), although 80% of the variability in percentage density remains unexplained. Conclusion: The study offers proof of principle that confederated databases generated using Grid technology provide a useful and adaptable environment for large quantities of image, numerical, and qualitative data suitable for epidemiological research using the example of mammographic density as a biomarker of risk for breast cancer

  2. Evaluation of the Use of Home Blood Pressure Measurement Using Mobile Phone-Assisted Technology: The iVitality Proof-of-Principle Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijsman, Liselotte W; Richard, Edo; Cachucho, Ricardo; de Craen, Anton Jm; Jongstra, Susan; Mooijaart, Simon P

    2016-06-13

    Mobile phone-assisted technologies provide the opportunity to optimize the feasibility of long-term blood pressure (BP) monitoring at home, with the potential of large-scale data collection. In this proof-of-principle study, we evaluated the feasibility of home BP monitoring using mobile phone-assisted technology, by investigating (1) the association between study center and home BP measurements; (2) adherence to reminders on the mobile phone to perform home BP measurements; and (3) referrals, treatment consequences and BP reduction after a raised home BP was diagnosed. We used iVitality, a research platform that comprises a Website, a mobile phone-based app, and health sensors, to measure BP and several other health characteristics during a 6-month period. BP was measured twice at baseline at the study center. Home BP was measured on 4 days during the first week, and thereafter, at semimonthly or monthly intervals, for which participants received reminders on their mobile phone. In the monthly protocol, measurements were performed during 2 consecutive days. In the semimonthly protocol, BP was measured at 1 day. We included 151 participants (mean age [standard deviation] 57.3 [5.3] years). BP measured at the study center was systematically higher when compared with home BP measurements (mean difference systolic BP [standard error] 8.72 [1.08] and diastolic BP 5.81 [0.68] mm Hg, respectively). Correlation of study center and home measurements of BP was high (R=0.72 for systolic BP and 0.72 for diastolic BP, both PMobile phone-assisted technology is a reliable and promising method with good adherence to measure BP at home during a 6-month period. This provides a possibility for implementation in large-scale studies and can potentially contribute to BP reduction.

  3. Proof-of-Principle of Onchocerciasis Elimination with Ivermectin Treatment in Endemic Foci in Africa: Final Results of a Study in Mali and Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traore, Mamadou O.; Sarr, Moussa D.; Badji, Alioune; Bissan, Yiriba; Diawara, Lamine; Doumbia, Konimba; Goita, Soula F.; Konate, Lassana; Mounkoro, Kalifa; Seck, Amadou F.; Toe, Laurent; Toure, Seyni; Remme, Jan H. F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Mass treatment with ivermectin controls onchocerciasis as a public health problem, but it was not known if it could also interrupt transmission and eliminate the parasite in endemic foci in Africa where vectors are highly efficient. A longitudinal study was undertaken in three hyperendemic foci in Mali and Senegal with 15 to 17 years of annual or six-monthly ivermectin treatment in order to assess residual levels of infection and transmission, and test whether treatment could be safely stopped. This article reports the results of the final evaluations up to 5 years after the last treatment. Methodology/Principal Findings Skin snip surveys were undertaken in 131 villages where 29,753 people were examined and 492,600 blackflies were analyzed for the presence of Onchocerca volvulus larva using a specific DNA probe. There was a declining trend in infection and transmission levels after the last treatment. In two sites the prevalence of microfilaria and vector infectivity rate were zero 3 to 4 years after the last treatment. In the third site, where infection levels were comparatively high before stopping treatment, there was also a consistent decline in infection and transmission to very low levels 3 to 5 years after stopping treatment. All infection and transmission indicators were below postulated thresholds for elimination. Conclusion/Significance The study has established the proof of principle that onchocerciasis elimination with ivermectin treatment is feasible in at least some endemic foci in Africa. The study results have been instrumental for the current evolution from onchocerciasis control to elimination in Africa. PMID:23029586

  4. Urinary volatile compounds as biomarkers for lung cancer: a proof of principle study using odor signatures in mouse models of lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Matsumura

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A potential strategy for diagnosing lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer-related death, is to identify metabolic signatures (biomarkers of the disease. Although data supports the hypothesis that volatile compounds can be detected in the breath of lung cancer patients by the sense of smell or through bioanalytical techniques, analysis of breath samples is cumbersome and technically challenging, thus limiting its applicability. The hypothesis explored here is that variations in small molecular weight volatile organic compounds ("odorants" in urine could be used as biomarkers for lung cancer. To demonstrate the presence and chemical structures of volatile biomarkers, we studied mouse olfactory-guided behavior and metabolomics of volatile constituents of urine. Sensor mice could be trained to discriminate between odors of mice with and without experimental tumors demonstrating that volatile odorants are sufficient to identify tumor-bearing mice. Consistent with this result, chemical analyses of urinary volatiles demonstrated that the amounts of several compounds were dramatically different between tumor and control mice. Using principal component analysis and supervised machine-learning, we accurately discriminated between tumor and control groups, a result that was cross validated with novel test groups. Although there were shared differences between experimental and control animals in the two tumor models, we also found chemical differences between these models, demonstrating tumor-based specificity. The success of these studies provides a novel proof-of-principle demonstration of lung tumor diagnosis through urinary volatile odorants. This work should provide an impetus for similar searches for volatile diagnostic biomarkers in the urine of human lung cancer patients.

  5. IKONET: distributed accelerator and experiment control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koldewijn, P.

    1986-01-01

    IKONET is a network consisting of some 35 computers used to control the 500 MeV Medium Energy Amsterdam electron accelerator (MEA) and its various experiments. The control system is distributed over a whole variety of machines, which are combined in a transparent central-oriented network. The local hardware is switched and tuned via Camac by a series of mini-computers with a real-time multitask operating system. Larger systems provide central intelligence for the higher-level control layers. An image of the complete accelerator settings is maintained by central database administrators. Different operator facilities handle touchpanels, multi-purpose knobs and graphical displays. The network provides remote login facilities and file servers. On basis of the present layout, an overview is given of future developments for subsystems of the network. (Auth.)

  6. Characteristics of bipolar-pulse generator for intense pulsed heavy ion beam acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igawa, K.; Tomita, T.; Kitamura, I.; Ito, H.; Masugata, K.

    2006-01-01

    Intense pulsed heavy ion beams are expected to be applied to the implantation technology for semiconductor materials. In the application it is very important to purify the ion beam. In order to improve the purity of an intense pulsed ion beams we have proposed a new type of pulsed ion beam accelerator named 'bipolar pulse accelerator (BPA)'. A prototype of the experimental system has been developed to perform proof of principle experiments of the accelerator. A bipolar pulse generator has been designed for the generation of the pulsed ion beam with the high purity via the bipolar pulse acceleration and the electrical characteristics of the generator were evaluated. The production of the bipolar pulse has been confirmed experimentally. (author)

  7. Studies of hydrogen pellet acceleration with fuseless electromagnetic railgun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.

    1986-01-01

    A fuseless circular-bore electromagnetic railgun specifically designed for injection of high-velocity hydrogen pellets was constructed and tested. Hydrogen pellets were first accelerated to medium velocities (∼ 500 m/s) using a gas gun and then injected into the railgun. Once a pellet entered the railgun, a plasma arc was initiated by electrically breaking down the propellant gas which followed the pellet from the gas gun into the railgun. Utilizing the propulsive force of this plasma arc armature, further acceleration of the hydrogen pellet was achieved. Using a 60 cm long railgun, proof-of-principle experiments were performed on hydrogen pellets, 1.6 mm, in diameter and 2.15 mm in length, producing velocities exceeding 1.5 km/s. Encouraged by this preliminary success, more extensive studies are in progress to further improve the performance and capabilities of the current system

  8. Computer-generated direct perception displays for supporting PWR feedwater system start-up and fault management: a proof-of-principle in design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reising, D.V.C.; Jones, B.G.; Shaheen, S.; Moray, N.; Sanderson, P.M.; Rasmussen, J.

    1998-01-01

    difficult problems which have not yet been investigated in extending the proposed approach to fault management. In the present research Rasmussen et al's framework was used for designing computer-generated graphical displays that support pressurized water reactor (PWR) start-up. Specifically, a suite of displays was developed to support a PWR's feedwater (FW) system start-up as a proof-of-principle. The suite of displays demonstrate the theoretical design approach and are not meant to represent a fully implementable interface for FW system control. (author)

  9. Pulsed power accelerator for material physics experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Reisman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We have developed the design of Thor: a pulsed power accelerator that delivers a precisely shaped current pulse with a peak value as high as 7 MA to a strip-line load. The peak magnetic pressure achieved within a 1-cm-wide load is as high as 100 GPa. Thor is powered by as many as 288 decoupled and transit-time isolated bricks. Each brick consists of a single switch and two capacitors connected electrically in series. The bricks can be individually triggered to achieve a high degree of current pulse tailoring. Because the accelerator is impedance matched throughout, capacitor energy is delivered to the strip-line load with an efficiency as high as 50%. We used an iterative finite element method (FEM, circuit, and magnetohydrodynamic simulations to develop an optimized accelerator design. When powered by 96 bricks, Thor delivers as much as 4.1 MA to a load, and achieves peak magnetic pressures as high as 65 GPa. When powered by 288 bricks, Thor delivers as much as 6.9 MA to a load, and achieves magnetic pressures as high as 170 GPa. We have developed an algebraic calculational procedure that uses the single brick basis function to determine the brick-triggering sequence necessary to generate a highly tailored current pulse time history for shockless loading of samples. Thor will drive a wide variety of magnetically driven shockless ramp compression, shockless flyer plate, shock-ramp, equation of state, material strength, phase transition, and other advanced material physics experiments.

  10. CHARACTERISATION OF THE ALICE ACCELERATOR AS AN INJECTOR FOR THE EMMA NS-FFAG

    CERN Document Server

    Garland, J M; McKenzie, J W; Muratori, B D

    2010-01-01

    EMMA (ElectronModel with Many Applications) is the first proof-of-principle non-scaling FFAG accelerator and is presently under construction at Daresbury Laboratory in the UK. To probe different parts of the bunch phase space during the acceleration from 10 to 20 MeV (which requires rapid resonance crossing), electron bunches are needed with sufficiently small emittance. To understand the phase space painting into the 3000 mm-mrad EMMA acceptance, we have modelled ALICE (Accelerators and Lasers in Combined Experiments) - which acts as an injector for EMMA - using GPT and compared the estimated emittances with measurements made with a variety of screen-based methods. Although the emittances are not yet as small as desired, we obtain reasonable agreement between simulation and measurement.

  11. LHC Accelerator Fault Tracker - First Experience

    CERN Document Server

    Apollonio, Andrea; Roderick, Chris; Schmidt, Ruediger; Todd, Benjamin; Wollmann, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Availability is one of the key performance indicators of LHC operation, being directly correlated with integrated luminosity production. An effective tool for availability tracking is a necessity to ensure a coherent capture of fault information and relevant dependencies on operational modes and beam parameters. At the beginning of LHC Run 2 in 2015, the Accelerator Fault Tracking (AFT) tool was deployed at CERN to track faults or events affecting LHC operation. Information derived from the AFT is crucial for the identification of areas to improve LHC availability, and hence LHC physics production. For the 2015 run, the AFT has been used by members of the CERN Availability Working Group, LHC Machine coordinators and equipment owners to identify the main contributors to downtime and to understand the evolution of LHC availability throughout the year. In this paper the 2015 experience with the AFT for availability tracking is summarised and an overview of the first results as well as an outlook to future develo...

  12. Energy deposition via magnetoplasmadynamic acceleration: I. Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilland, James; Mikellides, Pavlos; Marriott, Darin

    2009-01-01

    The expansion of a high-temperature fusion plasma through an expanding magnetic field is a process common to most fusion propulsion concepts. The propulsive efficiency of this process has a strong bearing on the overall performance of fusion propulsion. In order to simulate the expansion of a fusion plasma, a concept has been developed in which a high velocity plasma is first stagnated in a converging magnetic field to high (100s of eV) temperatures, then expanded though a converging/diverging magnetic nozzle. As a first step in constructing this experiment, a gigawatt magnetoplasmadynamic plasma accelerator was constructed to generate the initial high velocity plasma and has been characterized. The source is powered by a 1.6 MJ, 1.6 ms pulse forming network. The device has been operated with currents up to 300 kA and power levels up to 200 MWe. These values are among the highest levels reached in an magnetoplasmadynamic thruster. The device operation has been characterized by quasi-steady voltage and current measurements for helium mass flow rates from 0.5 to 27 g s -1 . Probe results for downstream plasma density and electron temperature are also presented. The source behavior is examined in terms of current theories for magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters.

  13. Laser wakefield accelerator experiments at LBNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leemans, W.P.; Rodgers, D.; Catravas, P.E.; Fubiani, G.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Esarey, E.; Shadwick, B.A.; Brussaard, G.J.H.; Tilborg, J. van; Chattopadhyay, S.; Wurtele, J.S.; Archambault, L.; Dickinson, M.R.; DiMaggio, S.; Short, R.; Barat, K.L.; Donahue, R.; Floyd, J.; Smith, A.; Wong, E.

    2001-01-01

    The status is presented of the laser wakefield acceleration research at the l'OASIS laboratory of the Center for Beam Physics at LBNL. Experiments have been performed on laser driven production of relativistic electron beams from plasmas using a high repetition rate (10 Hz), high power (10 TW) Ti:sapphire (0.8 μm) laser system. Large amplitude plasma waves have been excited in the self-modulated laser wakefield regime by tightly focusing (spot diameter 8 μm) a single high power (≤10 TW), ultra-short (≥50 fs) laser pulse onto a high density (>10 19 cm -3 ) pulsed gasjet (length 1.2 mm). Nuclear activation measurements in lead and copper targets indicate the production of electrons with energy in excess of 25 MeV. This result was confirmed by electron distribution measurements using a bending magnet spectrometer. Progress on implementing the colliding pulse laser injection method is also presented. This method is expected to produce low emittance ( 7 electrons/bunch

  14. Conduction cooled high temperature superconducting dipole magnet for accelerator applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangenberg, N.; Nielsen, G.; Hauge, N.

    2012-01-01

    A 3T proof-of-principle dipole magnet for accelerator applications, based on 2nd generation high temperature superconducting tape was designed, built, and tested by a consortium under the lead of Danfysik. The magnet was designed to have a straight, circular bore with a good field region of radius...

  15. Staged electron laser accelerator (STELLA) experiment at brookhaven ATF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogorelsky, I V; Steenbergen, A van; Gallardo, J C [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); and others

    1998-03-01

    The STELLA experiment is being prepared at the BNL Accelerator Test Facility (STF). The goal of the experiment is to demonstrate quasi-monochromatic inverse Cherenkov acceleration (ICA) of electrons bunched to the laser wavelength period. Microbunches on the order of 2 {mu}m in length separated by 10.6 {mu}m will be produced using an inverse free electron laser (IFEL) accelerator driven by a CO{sub 2} laser. The design and simulations for two phases of this experiment including demonstration of 10 MeV and 100 MeV acceleration are presented. (author)

  16. Limitations of heavy ion synchrotron acceleration for inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berley, D.; Danby, G.T.

    1977-01-01

    The potential benefits from heavy ion inertial fusion motivate the rapid development of a program to test the principle. To define the program, accelerator parameters which have not hitherto been commonly considered must be studied interactively with basic questions of space charge limitations and charge exchange. Beam lifetime and power output efficiency may ultimately lead to a linear accelerator as the choice for an ignition device. For proof of principle, however, at power levels way beyond present inertial fusion experience, synchrotrons may have applicability at lower cost. The power and energy which can be delivered by the accelerating system to the reaction chamber are limited by space charge defocussing and intra beam charge exchange scattering, both of which are beam density dependent. These put constraints on linac injector energy, synchrotron aperture, synchrotron magnetic rigidity, acceleration time, ion species and charge to mass ratio. The accelerator system considered is classical. A linear accelerator injects into a synchrotron which accelerates the ion beam to the full energy delivered to the target. The maximum energy deliverable by a synchrotron is treated in section I. The targetting parameters and the energy gained through synchrotron acceleration completely determine the synchrotron aperture. These are discussed in sections II and III. The ion range in material is treated in section IV. The problem of intrabeam scattering is considered in section V. Finally, in section VI is a discussion of examples to meet specified goals

  17. Hadron and photon experiments at fixed-target accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diddens, A.N.; Diebold, R.; Gaillard, J.M.; Galaktionov, Yu.V.; Gerstein, S.S.; Pilcheer, J.; Sosnowski, R.

    1979-01-01

    Possible hadron and photon experiments at 20 TeV stationary-target proton accelerator have been considered in order to see typical limitations and possibilities of the experiments in this new energy domain

  18. Susceptibility of materials processing experiments to low-level accelerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The types of material processing experiments being considered for shuttle can be grouped into four categories: (1) contained solidification experiment; (2) quasicontainerless experiments; (3) containerless experiments; and (4) fluids experiments. Low level steady acceleration, compensated and uncompensated transient accelerations, and rotation induced flow factors that must be considered in the acceleration environment of a space vehicle whose importance depends on the type of experiment being performed. Some control of these factors may be exercised by the location and orientation of the experiment relative to shuttle and by the orbit vehicle attitude chosen for mission. The effects of the various residual accelerations can have serious consequence to the control of the experiment and must be factored into the design and operation of the apparatus.

  19. An inverse free electron laser accelerator experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wernick, I.; Marshall, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    A free electron laser was configured as an autoaccelerator to test the principle of accelerating electrons by stimulated absorption of radiation (λ = 1.65mm) by an electron beam (750kV) traversing an undulator. Radiation is produced in the first section of a constant period undulator (1 w1 = 1.43cm) and then absorbed (∼ 40%) in a second undulator, having a tapered period (1 w2 = 1.8 - 2.25cm), which results in the acceleration of a subgroup (∼ 9%) of electrons to ∼ 1MeV

  20. Silvio Gesell's Theory and Accelerated Money Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Jérôme Blanc

    1998-01-01

    A former version of this paper was published as “Free Money for Social Progress : Theory and practice of Gesell's accelerated money”, American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 57(8), October, 1998, pp. 469-483.; Silvio Gesell (1862-1930) proposed a system of stamped money in order to accelerate monetary circulation and to free money from interest. This was part of a global socialist system intended to free economy from rent and interest. In the 1930s, Irving Fisher, who proposed the system...

  1. Development of a synchrotron radiation beam monitor for the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarpelli, Andrea [Univ. of Ferrara (Italy)

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear integrable optics applied to beam dynamics may mitigate multi-particle instabilities, but proof of principle experiments have never been carried out. The Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) is an electron and proton storage ring currently being built at Fermilab, which addresses tests of nonlinear lattice elements in a real machine in addition to experiments on optical stochastic cooling and on the single-electron wave function. These experiments require an outstanding control over the lattice parameters, achievable with fast and precise beam monitoring systems. This work describes the steps for designing and building a beam monitor for IOTA based on synchrotron radiation, able to measure intensity, position and transverse cross-section beam.

  2. Beam studies and experimental facility for the AWAKE experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, Chiara; Petrenko, Alexey; Timko, Helga; Argyropoulos, Theodoros; Bartosik, Hannes; Bohl, Thomas; Esteban Müller, Juan; Goddard, Brennan; Meddahi, Malika; Pardons, Ans; Shaposhnikova, Elena; Velotti, Francesco M; Vincke, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    A Proton Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment has been proposed as an approach to eventually accelerate an electron beam to the TeV energy range in a single plasma section. To verify this novel technique, a proof of principle R&D experiment, AWAKE, is planned at CERN using 400 GeV proton bunches from the SPS. An electron beam will be injected into the plasma cell to probe the accelerating wakefield. The AWAKE experiment will be installed in the CNGS facility profiting from existing infrastructure where only minor modifications need to be foreseen. The design of the experimental area and the proton and electron beam lines are shown. The achievable SPS proton bunch properties and their reproducibility have been measured and are presented.

  3. Accelerator based atomic physics experiments: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moak, C.D.

    1976-01-01

    Atomic Physics research with beams from accelerators has continued to expand and the number of papers and articles at meetings and in journals reflects a steadily increasing interest and an increasing support from various funding agencies. An attempt will be made to point out where interdisciplinary benefits have occurred, and where applications of the new results to engineering problems are expected. Drawing from material which will be discussed in the conference, a list of the most active areas of research is presented. Accelerator based atomic physics brings together techniques from many areas, including chemistry, astronomy and astrophysics, nuclear physics, solid state physics and engineering. An example is the use of crystal channeling to sort some of the phenomena of ordinary heavy ion stopping powers. This tool has helped us to reach a better understanding of stopping mechanisms with the result that now we have established a better base for predicting energy losses of heavy ions in various materials

  4. Acceleration ion focusing (IFR) and transport experiments with the recirculating linear accelerator (RLA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Smith, D.L.; Puokey, J.W.; Bennett, L.F.; Wagner, J.S.; Olson, W.R.; George, M.; Turman, B.N.; Prestwich, K.R.; Struve, K.W.

    1992-01-01

    The focusing and transport of intense relativistic electron beams in the Sandia Laboratories Recirculating Linear Accelerator (RLA) is accomplished with the aid of an ion focusing channel (IFR). We report here experiments evaluating the beam generation in the injector and its subsequent acceleration and transport through the first post-accelerating cavity. Two injectors and one type of post-accelerating cavity were studied. Beams of 6-20 kA current were injected and successfully transported and accelerated through the cavity. The transport efficiencies were 90% - 100%, and the beam Gaussian profile (4 MeV injector) and radius (5 mm) remained the same through acceleration. We describe the RLA, present the experimental results and compare them with numerical simulations. (Author) 3 refs., 7 figs

  5. TeV/m Nano-Accelerator: Current Status of CNT-Channeling Acceleration Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Young Min [Northern Illinois U.; Lumpkin, Alex H. [Fermilab; Thangaraj, Jayakar Charles [Fermilab; Thurman-Keup, Randy Michael [Fermilab; Shiltsev, Vladimir D. [Fermilab

    2014-09-17

    Crystal channeling technology has offered various opportunities in the accelerator community with a viability of ultrahigh gradient (TV/m) acceleration for future HEP collider. The major challenge of channeling acceleration is that ultimate acceleration gradients might require a high power driver in the hard x-ray regime (~ 40 keV). This x-ray energy exceeds those for x-rays as of today, although x-ray lasers can efficiently excite solid plasma and accelerate particles inside a crystal channel. Moreover, only disposable crystal accelerators are possible at such high externally excited fields which would exceed the ionization thresholds destroying the atomic structure, so acceleration will take place only in a short time before full dissociation of the lattice. Carbon-based nanostructures have great potential with a wide range of flexibility and superior physical strength, which can be applied to channeling acceleration. This paper presents a beam- driven channeling acceleration concept with CNTs and discusses feasible experiments with the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) in Fermilab.

  6. The electron accelerator for the AWAKE experiment at CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepitone, K., E-mail: kevin.pepitone@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Doebert, S., E-mail: steffen.doebert@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Burt, G. [The University of Lancaster, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Chevallay, E.; Chritin, N.; Delory, C.; Fedosseev, V.; Hessler, Ch.; McMonagle, G. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Mete, O. [The University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Verzilov, V. [Triumf, Vancouver (Canada); Apsimon, R. [The University of Lancaster, Lancaster (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-01

    The AWAKE collaboration prepares a proton driven plasma wakefield acceleration experiment using the SPS beam at CERN. A long proton bunch extracted from the SPS interacts with a high power laser and a 10 m long rubidium vapour plasma cell to create strong wakefields allowing sustained electron acceleration. The electron bunch to probe these wakefields is supplied by a 20 MeV electron accelerator. The electron accelerator consists of an RF-gun and a short booster structure. This electron source should provide beams with intensities between 0.1 and 1 nC, bunch lengths between 0.3 and 3 ps and an emittance of the order of 2 mm mrad. The wide range of parameters should cope with the uncertainties and future prospects of the planned experiments. The layout of the electron accelerator, its instrumentation and beam dynamics simulations are presented.

  7. Channel-accelerating gap interaction and beam acceleration and transport experiments with the recirculating linear accelerator (RLA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Smith, D.L.; Poukey, J.W.; Wagner, J.S.; Bennett, L.F.; Olson, W.R.; Turman, B.N.; Prestwich, K.R.; Wells, J.; Struve, K.

    1992-01-01

    The lifetime of the Ion Focusing Regime (IFR) channel following the pulsing of the post-accelerating gaps is critical for open-ended low energy devices. It dictates the number of allowable beam recirculations through the gaps. In the case of a closed racetrack configuration, it is significant but not as critical, since the presence of the electron beam focuses the ions and lengthens the lifetime of the ion channel. The authors have experimentally established that pulsing an accelerating gap perturbs the IFR channel. However for the parameters studied, the lifetime is long enough to allow at least four beam recirculations in a spiral device. In addition transparent grids of cusp fields positioned upstream and downstream from the gaps prevent them from perturbing the IFR channel. Experiments were performed with and without injected electron beams. For the experiments investigating the IFR channel interaction with the accelerating gap, the injector was removed and the beam line was extended downstream and upstream from the accelerating cavity. Only the first straight section of the RLA with one accelerating cavity (ET-2) was utilized. The acceleration and transport experiments were performed utilizing two injectors: first the low energy 1.3-MV Isolated Blumlein (IB) injector and most recently the new 4-MV 20-kA injector. Beams of 6--20 kA current were produced and successfully transported and accelerated through the ET-2 post-accelerating gap. For both injectors an apertured non-immersed ion-focused foilless diode was selected among various options. It is the simplest and easiest to operate and can be adjusted to provide variable beam impedance loads to the injector. The transport efficiencies were 90% for the low energy injector and 100% for the new 4-MV injector. The beam Gaussian profile and radius (5 mm) remain the same through acceleration. Experimental results will be presented and compared with numerical simulations

  8. Some experiments with heavy ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, R.V.F.

    1983-01-01

    Studies of nuclear structure at high angular momentum are currently one of the main research topics at the Argonne Superconducting Linac. Some of the techniques used in γ-ray spectroscopy are discussed. Target properties required for the experiments are reviewed. Some recent results are presented

  9. Accelerator Preparations for Muon Physics Experiments at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syphers, M.J.; /Fermilab

    2009-10-01

    The use of existing Fermilab facilities to provide beams for two muon experiments - the Muon to Electron Conversion Experiment (Mu2e) and the New g-2 Experiment - is under consideration. Plans are being pursued to perform these experiments following the completion of the Tevatron Collider Run II, utilizing the beam lines and storage rings used today for antiproton accumulation without considerable reconfiguration. Operating scenarios being investigated and anticipated accelerator improvements or reconfigurations will be presented.

  10. Plasma ignition and tuning in different cells of a 1.3 GHz nine-cell superconducting radio frequency cavity: Proof of principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, P. V.; Moss, Andrew; Goudket, Philippe; Pattalwar, Shrikant; Herbert, Joe; Valizadeh, Reza; McIntosh, Peter

    2018-06-01

    Field emission is one of the critical issues in the superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities and can degrade their accelerating gradient during operation. The contamination present at top surface of the SRF cavity is one of the foremost reasons for field emission. Plasma based surface processing can be a viable option to eliminate such surface contaminants and enhance performance of the SRF cavity especially for in-situ applications. These days, 1.3 GHz nine-cell SRF cavity has become baseline standard for many particle accelerators, it is of interest to develop plasma cleaning technique for such SRF cavities. In the development of the plasma processing technique for SRF cavities, the most challenging task is to ignite and tune the plasma in different cells of the SRF cavity. At Daresbury laboratory, UK, we have successfully achieved plasma ignition in different cells of a 1.3 GHz nine-cell SRF cavity. The plasma ignition in different cells of the cavity was accomplished at room temperature towards room temperature plasma cleaning of the SRF cavity surface. Here, we report the successful demonstration of the plasma ignition in different cells of a 1.3 GHz nine-cell SRF cavity.

  11. Scintillation detectors in experiments on plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystritskij, V.M.; Gerasimov, V.V.; Kublikov, R.V.; Parzhitskij, S.S.; Smirnov, V.S.; Wozniak, J.; Dudkin, G.N.; Nechaev, B.A.; Padalko, V.M.

    2005-01-01

    The gating circuits for photomultipliers of scintillation detectors operating in powerful pulsed electromagnetic and nuclear radiation fields are investigated. PMTs with the jalousie-type dynode system and with the linear dynode system are considered. The basic gating circuits of the photomultipliers involving active and resistor high-voltage dividers are given. The results of the investigations are important for experiments in which it is necessary to discriminate in time the preceding background radiation and the process of interest. (author)

  12. Cosmic rays and new accelerator experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraki, Y.

    The cross-section of sigma(anti-D,D) increases with energy. The heavy vector boson production cross-section deviates from the naive law 1/M 3 F(s/M 2 ) at very high energy. Comparison with dsigma/dP(T)/(had) and Drell-Yan cross-section dsigma/(dM/2)/(d-y) at very high energy will provide evidence about the existence of the colour quantum number. Centauro will soon be checked by a cosmic-ray experiment. The detail dynamics of such a hadron rich event will be extensively studied at anti-pp colliders. The investigation of the Feynman scaling at the anti-pp collider for hadrons brings a very important knowledge on astrophysics. The 2μ, 3μ, 4μ and multi muon bundle at the anti-pp colliders is extremely interesting. A cosmic ray muon bundle event suggests the successive decay of a anti-BB pair. The total cross-section for (anti-BB) is estimated as 500μb at 150 TeV

  13. Induction Accelerator Technology Choices for the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitner, M.A.; Celata, C.M.; Lee, E.P.; Logan, B.G.; Sabbi, G.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    Over the next three years the research program of the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF-VNL), a collaboration among LBNL, LLNL, and PPPL, is focused on separate scientific experiments in the injection, transport and focusing of intense heavy ion beams at currents from 100 mA to 1 A. As a next major step in the HIF-VNL program, we aim for a complete 'source-to-target' experiment, the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX). By combining the experience gained in the current separate beam experiments IBX would allow the integrated scientific study of the evolution of a single heavy ion beam at high current (∼1 A) through all sections of a possible heavy ion fusion accelerator: the injection, acceleration, compression, and beam focusing.This paper describes the main parameters and technology choices of the planned IBX experiment. IBX will accelerate singly charged potassium or argon ion beams up to 10 MeV final energy and a longitudinal beam compression ratio of 10, resulting in a beam current at target of more than 10 Amperes. Different accelerator cell design options are described in detail: Induction cores incorporating either room temperature pulsed focusing-magnets or superconducting magnets

  14. Developments in accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1985-01-01

    The long term goal of Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) is the development of an accelerator with the large beam power, large beam stored-energy, and high brightness needed to implode small deuterium-tritium capsules for fusion power. While studies of an RF linac/storage ring combination as an intertial fusion driver continue in Japan and Europe, the US program in recent times has concentrated on the study of the suitability of linear induction acceleration of ions for this purpose. Novel features required include use of multiple beams, beam current amplification in the linac, and manipulation of long beam bunches with a large velocity difference between head and tail. Recent experiments with an intense bright beam of cesium ions have established that much higher currents can be transported in a long quadrupole system than was believed possible a few years ago. A proof-of-principle ion induction linac to demonstrate beam current amplification with multiple beams is at present being fabricated at LBL

  15. Developments in accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1985-05-01

    The long term goal of Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) is the development of an accelerator with the large beam power, large beam stored-energy, and high brightness needed to implode small deuterium-tritium capsules for fusion power. While studies of an rf linac/storage ring combination as an inertial fusion driver continue in Japan and Europe, the US program in recent times has concentrated on the study of the suitability of linear induction acceleration of ions for this purpose. Novel features required include use of multiple beams, beam current amplification in the linac, and manipulation of long beam bunches with a large velocity difference between head and tail. Recent experiments with an intense bright beam of cesium ions have established that much higher currents can be transported in a long quadrupole system than was believed possible a few years ago. A proof-of-principle ion induction linac to demonstrate beam current amplification with multiple beams is at present being fabricated at LBL. 28 refs., 4 figs

  16. Accelerator Production of Isotopes for Medical Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapi, Suzanne

    2014-03-01

    The increase in use of radioisotopes for medical imaging and therapy has led to the development of novel routes of isotope production. For example, the production and purification of longer-lived position emitting radiometals has been explored to allow for nuclear imaging agents based on peptides, antibodies and nanoparticles. These isotopes (64Cu, 89Zr, 86Y) are typically produced via irradiation of solid targets on smaller medical cyclotrons at dedicated facilities. Recently, isotope harvesting from heavy ion accelerator facilities has also been suggested. The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) will be a new national user facility for nuclear science to be completed in 2020. Radioisotopes could be produced by dedicated runs by primary users or may be collected synergistically from the water in cooling-loops for the primary beam dump that cycle the water at flow rates in excess of hundreds of gallons per minute. A liquid water target system for harvesting radioisotopes at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) was designed and constructed as the initial step in proof-of-principle experiments to harvest useful radioisotopes in this manner. This talk will provide an overview of isotope production using both dedicated machines and harvesting from larger accelerators typically used for nuclear physics. Funding from Department of Energy under DESC0007352 and DESC0006862.

  17. The LILIA (laser induced light ions acceleration) experiment at LNF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agosteo, S.; Anania, M.P.; Caresana, M.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; De Martinis, C.; Delle Side, D.; Fazzi, A.; Gatti, G.; Giove, D.; Giulietti, D.; Gizzi, L.A.; Labate, L.; Londrillo, P.; Maggiore, M.; Nassisi, V.; Sinigardi, S.; Tramontana, A.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Turchetti, G.

    2014-01-01

    Laser-matter interaction at relativistic intensities opens up new research fields in the particle acceleration and related secondary sources, with immediate applications in medical diagnostics, biophysics, material science, inertial confinement fusion, up to laboratory astrophysics. In particular laser-driven ion acceleration is very promising for hadron therapy once the ion energy will attain a few hundred MeV. The limited value of the energy up to now obtained for the accelerated ions is the drawback of such innovative technique to the real applications. LILIA (laser induced light ions acceleration) is an experiment now running at LNF (Frascati) with the goal of producing a real proton beam able to be driven for significant distances (50–75 cm) away from the interaction point and which will act as a source for further accelerating structure. In this paper the description of the experimental setup, the preliminary results of solid target irradiation and start to end simulation for a post-accelerated beam up to 60 MeV are given

  18. The LILIA (laser induced light ions acceleration) experiment at LNF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agosteo, S. [Energy Department, Polytechnic of Milan and INFN, Milan (Italy); Anania, M.P. [INFN LNF Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Caresana, M. [Energy Department, Polytechnic of Milan and INFN, Milan (Italy); Cirrone, G.A.P. [INFN LNS Catania, Catania (Italy); De Martinis, C. [Physics Department, University of Milan and INFN, Milan (Italy); Delle Side, D. [LEAS, University of Salento and INFN, Lecce (Italy); Fazzi, A. [Energy Department, Polytechnic of Milan and INFN, Milan (Italy); Gatti, G. [INFN LNF Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Giove, D. [Physics Department, University of Milan and INFN, Milan (Italy); Giulietti, D. [Physics Department, University of Pisa and INFN, Pisa (Italy); Gizzi, L.A.; Labate, L. [INO-CNR and INFN, Pisa (Italy); Londrillo, P. [Physics Department, University of Bologna and INFN, Bologna (Italy); Maggiore, M. [INFN LNL, Legnaro (Italy); Nassisi, V., E-mail: vincenzo.nassisi@le.infn.it [LEAS, University of Salento and INFN, Lecce (Italy); Sinigardi, S. [Physics Department, University of Bologna and INFN, Bologna (Italy); Tramontana, A.; Schillaci, F. [INFN LNS Catania, Catania (Italy); Scuderi, V. [INFN LNS Catania, Catania (Italy); Institute of Physics of the ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic); Turchetti, G. [Physics Department, University of Bologna and INFN, Bologna (Italy); and others

    2014-07-15

    Laser-matter interaction at relativistic intensities opens up new research fields in the particle acceleration and related secondary sources, with immediate applications in medical diagnostics, biophysics, material science, inertial confinement fusion, up to laboratory astrophysics. In particular laser-driven ion acceleration is very promising for hadron therapy once the ion energy will attain a few hundred MeV. The limited value of the energy up to now obtained for the accelerated ions is the drawback of such innovative technique to the real applications. LILIA (laser induced light ions acceleration) is an experiment now running at LNF (Frascati) with the goal of producing a real proton beam able to be driven for significant distances (50–75 cm) away from the interaction point and which will act as a source for further accelerating structure. In this paper the description of the experimental setup, the preliminary results of solid target irradiation and start to end simulation for a post-accelerated beam up to 60 MeV are given.

  19. Plasma opening switch experiments on the Particle Beam Accelerator II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, M.A.; McDaniel, D.H.; Mendel, C.W.; Rochau, G.E.; Moore, W.B.S.; Mowrer, G.R.; Simpson, W.W.; Zagar, D.M.; Grasser, T.; McDougal, C.D.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma opening switch (POS) experiments have been done since 1986 on the PBFA-II ion beam accelerator to develop a rugged POS that will open rapidly ( 80%) into a high impedance (> 10 ohm) load. In a recent series of experiments on PBFA II, the authors have developed and tested three different switch designs that use magnetic fields to control and confine the injected plasma. All three configurations couple current efficiently to a 5-ohm electron beam diode. In this experimental series, the PBFA-II Delta Series, more extensive diagnostics were used than in previous switch experiments on PBFA II or on the Blackjack 5 accelerator at Maxwell Laboratories. Data from the experiments with these three switch designs is presented

  20. Criticality calculations in reactor accelerator coupling experiment (Race)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reda, M.A.; Spaulding, R.; Hunt, A.; Harmon, J.F.; Beller, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    A Reactor Accelerator Coupling Experiment (RACE) is to be performed at the Idaho State University Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC). The electron accelerator is used to generate neutrons by inducing Bremsstrahlung photon-neutron reactions in a Tungsten- Copper target. This accelerator/target system produces a source of ∼1012 n/s, which can initiate fission reactions in the subcritical system. This coupling experiment between a 40-MeV electron accelerator and a subcritical system will allow us to predict and measure coupling efficiency, reactivity, and multiplication. In this paper, the results of the criticality and multiplication calculations, which were carried out using the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX, for different coupling design options are presented. The fuel plate arrangements and the surrounding tank dimensions have been optimized. Criticality using graphite instead of water for reflector/moderator outside of the core region has been studied. The RACE configuration at the IAC will have a criticality (k-effective) of about 0,92 and a multiplication of about 10. (authors)

  1. Experimental test accelerator: description and results of initial experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.; Birx, D.; Briggs, R.

    1980-01-01

    The ETA is a high current (10,000 Amp) linear induction accelerator that produces short (30 ns) pulses of electrons at 5 MeV twice per second or in bursts of 5 pulses separated by as little as one millisecond. At this time the machine has operated at 65% of its design current and 90% of the design voltage. This report contains a description of the accelerator and its diagnostics; the results of the initial year of operation; a comparison of design codes with experiments on beam transport; and a discussion of some of the special problems and their status

  2. Proof of Principle for a Real-Time Pathogen Isolation Media Diagnostic: The Use of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy to Discriminate Bacterial Pathogens and Antimicrobial-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Grown on Blood Agar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalie A. Multari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS is a rapid, in situ, diagnostic technique in which light emissions from a laser plasma formed on the sample are used for analysis allowing automated analysis results to be available in seconds to minutes. This speed of analysis coupled with little or no sample preparation makes LIBS an attractive detection tool. In this study, it is demonstrated that LIBS can be utilized to discriminate both the bacterial species and strains of bacterial colonies grown on blood agar. A discrimination algorithm was created based on multivariate regression analysis of spectral data. The algorithm was deployed on a simulated LIBS instrument system to demonstrate discrimination capability using 6 species. Genetically altered Staphylococcus aureus strains grown on BA, including isogenic sets that differed only by the acquisition of mutations that increase fusidic acid or vancomycin resistance, were also discriminated. The algorithm successfully identified all thirteen cultures used in this study in a time period of 2 minutes. This work provides proof of principle for a LIBS instrumentation system that could be developed for the rapid discrimination of bacterial species and strains demonstrating relatively minor genomic alterations using data collected directly from pathogen isolation media.

  3. Collaboration between a human group and artificial intelligence can improve prediction of multiple sclerosis course: a proof-of-principle study [version 1; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Tacchella

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis has an extremely variable natural course. In most patients, disease starts with a relapsing-remitting (RR phase, which proceeds to a secondary progressive (SP form. The duration of the RR phase is hard to predict, and to date predictions on the rate of disease progression remain suboptimal. This limits the opportunity to tailor therapy on an individual patient's prognosis, in spite of the choice of several therapeutic options. Approaches to improve clinical decisions, such as collective intelligence of human groups and machine learning algorithms are widely investigated. Methods: Medical students and a machine learning algorithm predicted the course of disease on the basis of randomly chosen clinical records of patients that attended at the Multiple Sclerosis service of Sant'Andrea hospital in Rome. Results: A significant improvement of predictive ability was obtained when predictions were combined with a weight that depends on the consistence of human (or algorithm forecasts on a given clinical record. Conclusions: In this work we present proof-of-principle that human-machine hybrid predictions yield better prognoses than machine learning algorithms or groups of humans alone. To strengthen this preliminary result, we propose a crowdsourcing initiative to collect prognoses by physicians on an expanded set of patients.

  4. Accelerating Innovation Through Coopetition: The Innovation Learning Network Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Chris; Ford Carleton, Penny; Krumpholz, Elizabeth; Chow, Marilyn P

    Coopetition, the simultaneous pursuit of cooperation and competition, is a growing force in the innovation landscape. For some organizations, the primary mode of innovation continues to be deeply secretive and highly competitive, but for others, a new style of shared challenges, shared purpose, and shared development has become a superior, more efficient way of working to accelerate innovation capabilities and capacity. Over the last 2 decades, the literature base devoted to coopetition has gradually expanded. However, the field is still in its infancy. The majority of coopetition research is qualitative, primarily consisting of case studies. Few studies have addressed the nonprofit sector or service industries such as health care. The authors believe that this article may offer a unique perspective on coopetition in the context of a US-based national health care learning alliance designed to accelerate innovation, the Innovation Learning Network or ILN. The mission of the ILN is to "Share the joy and pain of innovation," accelerating innovation by sharing solutions, teaching techniques, and cultivating friendships. These 3 pillars (sharing, teaching, and cultivating) form the foundation for coopetition within the ILN. Through the lens of coopetition, we examine the experience of the ILN over the last 10 years and provide case examples that illustrate the benefits and challenges of coopetition in accelerating innovation in health care.

  5. OPTIMUM DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS FOR ACCELERATED RELIABILITY TESTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Marian ZAHARIA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented a case study that demonstrates how design to experiments (DOE information can be used to design better accelerated reliability tests. In the case study described in this paper, will be done a comparison and optimization between main accelerated reliability test plans (3 Level Best Standard Plan, 3 Level Best Compromise Plan, 3 Level Best Equal Expected Number Failing Plan, 3 Level 4:2:1 Allocation Plan. Before starting an accelerated reliability test, it is advisable to have a plan that helps in accurately estimating reliability at operating conditions while minimizing test time and costs. A test plan should be used to decide on the appropriate stress levels that should be used (for each stress type and the amount of the test units that need to be allocated to the different stress levels (for each combination of the different stress types' levels. For the case study it used ALTA 7 software what provides a complete analysis for data from accelerated reliability tests

  6. A Proton-Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration experiment at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    The AWAKE Collaboration has been formed in order to demonstrate protondriven plasma wakefield acceleration for the first time. This technology could lead to future colliders of high energy but of a much reduced length compared to proposed linear accelerators. The SPS proton beam in the CNGS facility will be injected into a 10m plasma cell where the long proton bunches will be modulated into significantly shorter micro-bunches. These micro-bunches will then initiate a strong wakefield in the plasma with peak fields above 1 GV/m that will be harnessed to accelerate a bunch of electrons from about 20MeV to the GeV scale within a few meters. The experimental program is based on detailed numerical simulations of beam and plasma interactions. The main accelerator components, the experimental area and infrastructure required as well as the plasma cell and the diagnostic equipment are discussed in detail. First protons to the experiment are expected at the end of 2016 and this will be followed by an initial 3–4 yea...

  7. Ion energy recovery experiment based on magnetic electro suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.; Stirling, W.L.; Dagenhart, W.K.; Barber, G.C.; Ponte, N.S.

    1980-05-01

    A proof-of-principle experiment on direct recovery of residual hydrogen ions based on a magnetic electron suppression scheme is described. Ions extracted from a source plasma a few kilovolts above the ground potential (approx. 20 A) are accelerated to 40 keV by a negative potential maintained on a neutralizer gas cell. As the residual ions exit the gas cell, they are deflected from the neutral beam by a magnetic field that also suppresses gas cell electrons and then recovered on a ground-potential surface. Under optimum conditions, a recovery efficiency (the ratio of the net recovered current to the available full-energy ion current) of 80% +- 20% has been obtained. Magnetic suppression of the beam plasma electrons was rather easily achieved; however, handling the fractional-energy ions originating from molecular species (H 2 + and H 3 + ) proved to be extremely important to recovery efficiency

  8. An inverse free electron laser accelerator: Experiment and theoretical interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Jyan-Min.

    1997-01-01

    Experimental and numerical studies of the Inverse Free Electron Laser using a GW-level 10.6 μm CO 2 laser have been carried out at Brookhaven's Accelerator Test Facility. An energy gain of 2.5 % (ΔE/E) on a 40 MeV electron beam has been observed E which compares well with theory. The effects on IFEL acceleration with respect to the variation of the laser electric field, the input electron beam energy, and the wiggler magnetic field strength were studied, and show the importance of matching the resonance condition in the IFEL. The numerical simulations were performed under various conditions and the importance of the electron bunching in the IFEL is shown. The numerical interpretation of our IFEL experimental results was examined. Although good numerical agreement with the experimental results was obtained, there is a discrepancy between the level of the laser power measured in the experiment and used in the simulation, possibly due to the non-Gaussian profile of the input high power laser beam. The electron energy distribution was studied numerically and a smoothing of the energy spectrum by the space charge effect at the location of the spectrometer was found, compared with the spectrum at the exit of the wiggler. The electron bunching by the IFEL and the possibility of using the IFEL as an electron prebuncher for another laser-driven accelerator were studied numerically. We found that bunching of the electrons at 1 meter downstream from the wiggler can be achieved using the existing facility. The simulation shows that there is a fundamental difference between the operating conditions for using the IFEL as a high gradient accelerator, and as a prebuncher for another accelerator

  9. A New Type of Accelerator for Charged Particle Cancer Therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Edgecock, Rob

    2013-01-01

    acceleration of protons and light ions for the treatment of certain cancers. They have unique features as they combine techniques from the existing types of accelerators, cyclotrons and synchrotrons, and hence look to have advantages over both for this application. However, these unique features meant that it was necessary to build one of these accelerators to show that it works and to undertake a detailed conceptual design of a medical machine. Both of these have now been done. This paper will describe the concepts of this type of accelerator, show results from the proof-of-principle machine (EMMA) and described the medical machine (PAMELA).

  10. Knowledge based instrumentation environment for future accelerator experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satyanarayana, B.

    1992-01-01

    Modern particle physics experiments are growing in complexity in terms of design and operation. Large scale accelerators producing very high energy particles are being employed, equipped with a variety of fine grain detectors to record the events. Main challenges in these experiments include: 1) Real-time supervision and fault diagnosis, 2)Trigger generation and monitoring, 3) Management of large volumes of event data, and 4) Track fitting and particle identification. The object of this paper is to propose artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to meet these challenges in an efficient way. Concepts are exemplified with the help of existing systems in this domain and new application areas in particle physics experiments are suggested for systems which are designed to work in different domains. (author). 11 refs

  11. Numerical modeling of the plasma ring acceleration experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddleman, J.L.; Hammer, J.H.; Hartman, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    Modeling of the LLNL RACE experiment and its many applications has necessitated the development and use of a wide array of computational tools. The two-dimensional MHD code, HAM, has been used to model the formation of a compact torus plasma ring in a magnetized coaxial gun and its subsequent acceleration by an additional applied toroidal field. Features included in the 2-D calculations are self-consistent models for (1) the time-dependent poloidal field produced by a capacitor bank discharge through a solenoid field coil (located either inside the gun inner electrode or outside the outer gun electrode) and the associated diffusion of magnetic flux through neighboring conductors, (2) gas flow into the gun annular region from a simulated puffed gas valve plenum, (3) formation and motion of a current sheet produced by J x B forces resulting from discharge of the gun capacitor bank through the plasma load between the coaxial gun electrodes, (4) the subsequent stretching and reconnection of the poloidal field lines to form a compact torus plasma ring, and (5) finally the discharge of the accelerator capacitor bank producing an additional toroidal field for acceleration of the plasma ring. The code has been extended to include various models for gas breakdown, plasma anomalous resistivity, and mass entrainment from ablation of electrode material

  12. Magnetohydrodynamic Particle Acceleration Processes: SSX Experiments, Theory and Astrophysical Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthaeus, W.; Brown, M.

    2006-01-01

    This is the final technical report for a funded program to provide theoretical support to the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment. We examined mhd relaxation, reconnecton between two spheromaks, particle acceleration by these processes, and collisonless effects, e.g., Hall effect near the reconnection zone,. Throughout the project, applications to space plasma physics and astrophysics were included. Towards the end of the project we were examining a more fully turbulent relaxation associated with unconstrained dynamics in SSX. We employed experimental, spacecraft observations, analytical and numerical methods.

  13. Nanodiamond targets for accelerator X-ray experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobko, A., E-mail: lobko@inp.bsu.by [Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, 11 Bobrujskaya Str., Minsk 220030 (Belarus); Golubeva, E. [Belarusian State University, 4 Nezavisimosti Prosp., Minsk 220030 (Belarus); Kuzhir, P.; Maksimenko, S. [Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, 11 Bobrujskaya Str., Minsk 220030 (Belarus); Ryazan State RadioEngineering University, 59/1 Gagarina Street, Ryazan 390005 (Russian Federation); Paddubskaya, A. [Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, 11 Bobrujskaya Str., Minsk 220030 (Belarus); Shenderova, O. [International Technology Center, 8100 Brownleigh Dr., S. 120, Raleigh, NC 27617 (United States); Uglov, V. [Belarusian State University, 4 Nezavisimosti Prosp., Minsk 220030 (Belarus); Valynets, N. [Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, 11 Bobrujskaya Str., Minsk 220030 (Belarus)

    2015-07-15

    Results of fabrication of a nanodiamond target for accelerator X-ray experiments are reported. Nanodiamond film with dimensions 5 × 7 mm and thickness of 500 nm has been made of the high pressure high temperature nanodiamonds using a filtration method. The average crystallite size of primary nanodiamond particles varies around 100 nm. Source nanodiamonds and fabricated nanodiamond film were characterized using Raman spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and X-ray diffractometry. Preliminary results show that targets made of nanodiamonds are perspective in generating crystal-assisted radiation by the relativistic charged particles, such as parametric X-rays, diffracted transition radiation, diffracted Bremsstrahlung, etc.

  14. Nanodiamond targets for accelerator X-ray experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobko, A.; Golubeva, E.; Kuzhir, P.; Maksimenko, S.; Paddubskaya, A.; Shenderova, O.; Uglov, V.; Valynets, N.

    2015-01-01

    Results of fabrication of a nanodiamond target for accelerator X-ray experiments are reported. Nanodiamond film with dimensions 5 × 7 mm and thickness of 500 nm has been made of the high pressure high temperature nanodiamonds using a filtration method. The average crystallite size of primary nanodiamond particles varies around 100 nm. Source nanodiamonds and fabricated nanodiamond film were characterized using Raman spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and X-ray diffractometry. Preliminary results show that targets made of nanodiamonds are perspective in generating crystal-assisted radiation by the relativistic charged particles, such as parametric X-rays, diffracted transition radiation, diffracted Bremsstrahlung, etc

  15. Subpanel on accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    Neutrinos are among nature's fundamental constituents, and they are also the ones about which we know least. Their role in the universe is widespread, ranging from the radioactive decay of a single atom to the explosions of supernovae and the formation of ordinary matter. Neutrinos might exhibit a striking property that has not yet been observed. Like the back-and-forth swing of a pendulum, neutrinos can oscillate to-and-from among their three types (or flavors) if nature provides certain conditions. These conditions include neutrinos having mass and a property called open-quotes mixing.close quotes The phenomenon is referred to as neutrino oscillations. The questions of the origin of neutrino mass and mixing among the neutrino flavors are unsolved problems for which the Standard Model of particle physics holds few clues. It is likely that the next critical step in answering these questions will result from the experimental observation of neutrino oscillations. The High Energy Physics Advisory Panel (HEPAP) Subpanel on Accelerator-Based Neutrino Oscillation Experiments was charged to review the status and discovery potential of ongoing and proposed accelerator experiments on neutrino oscillations, to evaluate the opportunities for the U.S. in this area of physics, and to recommend a cost-effective plan for pursuing this physics, as appropriate. The complete charge is provided in Appendix A. The Subpanel studied these issues over several months and reviewed all the relevant and available information on the subject. In particular, the Subpanel reviewed the two proposed neutrino oscillation programs at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The conclusions of this review are enumerated in detail in Chapter 7 of this report. The recommendations given in Chapter 7 are also reproduced in this summary

  16. Accelerating Translational Research through Open Science: The Neuro Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, E Richard

    2016-12-01

    Translational research is often afflicted by a fundamental problem: a limited understanding of disease mechanisms prevents effective targeting of new treatments. Seeking to accelerate research advances and reimagine its role in the community, the Montreal Neurological Institute (Neuro) announced in the spring of 2016 that it is launching a five-year experiment during which it will adopt Open Science-open data, open materials, and no patenting-across the institution. The experiment seeks to examine two hypotheses. The first is whether the Neuro's Open Science initiative will attract new private partners. The second hypothesis is that the Neuro's institution-based approach will draw companies to the Montreal region, where the Neuro is based, leading to the creation of a local knowledge hub. This article explores why these hypotheses are likely to be true and describes the Neuro's approach to exploring them.

  17. Accelerating Translational Research through Open Science: The Neuro Experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Richard Gold

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Translational research is often afflicted by a fundamental problem: a limited understanding of disease mechanisms prevents effective targeting of new treatments. Seeking to accelerate research advances and reimagine its role in the community, the Montreal Neurological Institute (Neuro announced in the spring of 2016 that it is launching a five-year experiment during which it will adopt Open Science-open data, open materials, and no patenting-across the institution. The experiment seeks to examine two hypotheses. The first is whether the Neuro's Open Science initiative will attract new private partners. The second hypothesis is that the Neuro's institution-based approach will draw companies to the Montreal region, where the Neuro is based, leading to the creation of a local knowledge hub. This article explores why these hypotheses are likely to be true and describes the Neuro's approach to exploring them.

  18. Improvement in performance and operational experience of 14 UD Pelletron accelerator facility, BARC-TIFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagwat, P.V.

    2002-01-01

    14 UD Pelletron accelerator facility at Mumbai has been operational since 1989. The project MEHIA (Medium Energy Heavy Ion Accelerator) started in 1982 and was formally inaugurated on 30th December 1988. Since then the accelerator has been working round the clock. Improvement in accelerator performance and operational experience are described. (author)

  19. Beam Dynamics Studies for a Laser Acceleration Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer, James; Noble, Robert; Palmer, Dennis T; Siemann, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The NLC Test Accelerator at SLAC was built to address various beam dynamics issues for the Next Linear Collider. An S-Band RF gun, originally proposed for the NLCTA, is being installed together with a large-angle extraction line at 60 MeV. This is followed by a matching section, final focus and buncher for the laser acceleration experiment, E163. The laser-electron interaction area is followed by a broad range, high resolution spectrometer (HES) for electron bunch analysis. The RF gun is discussed in another paper. We discuss only the beam dynamics and high resolution analysis system at 6 MeV based on using Parmela and high-order Transport for bunch charges from 50 pC to 1 nC. Beyond the diagnostics, this system uses the emittance compensating solenoids and a low energy, high resolution spectrometer (LES) to help tune for best operating point and match to the linac. Optical symmetries in the design of the 25.5° extraction line provide 1:1 phase space transfer without linear dispersion or use of sextu...

  20. Dynamic behavior of IREB in a collective ion acceleration experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fine, T.A.; Rhee, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The authors report an experimental study of dynamic behavior of net current in conjunction with collective ion acceleration. In the presence of neutral gas, either puffed in or released from the anode foil, the IREB injected is subject to the charge and current neutralizations, resulting in a complicated time and space dependent beam distribution in the drift tube. To investigate the dynamic behavior of the current in the drift tube, typically a 0.5 MeV, 70 kA, 100 ns electron beam of 2.54 cm diam is injected through a foil anode into a drift tube of 15 cm diam. Reproducibility of experiment was improved by using a specially designed anode system with a foil changer which allowed the production of many shots of high current electron beam without disturbing the vacuum condition. The net currents were measured by a Rogowski coil built in the anode system, and a movable Faraday cup along the drift tube. The ions accelerated were diagnosed mainly by a Thomson spectrometer system placed at the end of the drift tube

  1. Planned Enhanced Wakefield Transformer Ratio Experiment at Argonne Wakefield Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Kanareykin, Alex; Gai, Wei; Jing, Chunguang; Konecny, Richard; Power, John G

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a preliminary experimental study of a wakefield accelerating scheme that uses a carefully spaced and current ramped electron pulse train to produce wakefields that increases the transformer ratio much higher than 2. A dielectric structure was designed and fabricated to operate at 13.625 GHz with dielectric constant of 15.7. The structure will be initially excited by two beams with first and second beam charge ratio of 1:3. The expected transformer ratio is 3 and the setup can be easily extend to 4 pulses which leads to a transformer ratio of more than 6. The dielectric structure cold test results show the tube is within the specification. A set of laser splitters was also tested to produce ramped bunch train of 2 - 4 pulses. Overall design of the experiment and initial results will be presented.

  2. Gamma-neutron activation experiments using laser wakefield accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leemans, W.P.; Rodgers, D.; Catravas, P.E.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Fubiani, G.; Esarey, E.; Shadwick, B.A.; Donahue, R.; Smith, A.

    2001-01-01

    Gamma-neutron activation experiments have been performed with relativistic electron beams produced by a laser wakefield accelerator. The electron beams were produced by tightly focusing (spot diameter ≅6 μm) a high power (up to 10 TW), ultra-short (≥50 fs) laser beam from a high repetition rate (10 Hz) Ti:sapphire (0.8 μm) laser system, onto a high density (>10 19 cm -3 ) pulsed gasjet of length ≅1.5 mm. Nuclear activation measurements in lead and copper targets indicate the production of electrons with energy in excess of 25 MeV. This result was confirmed by electron distribution measurements using a bending magnet spectrometer. Measured γ-ray and neutron yields are also found to be in reasonable agreement with simulations using a Monte Carlo transport code

  3. The E166 experiment: Development of an undulator-based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A longitudinal polarized positron beam is foreseen for the international linear collider (ILC). A proof-of-principle experiment has been performed in the final focus test beam at SLAC to demonstrate the production of polarized positrons for implementation at the ILC. The E166 experiment uses a 1 m long helical undulator in a ...

  4. About the realization of laser acceleration schemes based on plasmoids in R.F. wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessler, A.M.; Wurtele, J.S.; Dzergach, A.I.; Kabanov, V.S.

    1998-06-01

    The laser acceleration of plasmoids is investigated theoretically. Preliminary studies suggest that this configuration, which is based on the forced oscillations of finite pieces of plasma contained in moving or vibrating r.f. wells, has very much simplified plasma physics compared to that of other plasma-based ion acceleration schemes. It is necessary to consider the case when the applied electric field, E, of frequency ω, is large, E ≤ e/4π var-epsilon o rλ, where r is the Classical electron radius and when the plasma density, n, is high n 2 . Realization of this proposal requires the development, among other things, of biresonant accelerating systems including oversized single-mode tue-like resonators and the connection of this resonator to a terawatt FELs. If these problems, which will be delineated, are overcome--and progress in optics gives one reason to believe they can be--then gradients of ∼ 10 GeV/m can be attained. Preliminary design of a linac, based upon this proposal and of a proof-of-principle experiment are presented

  5. Proof on principle experiments of laser wakefield acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, K.; Kawakubo, T.; Nakanishi, H.

    1994-01-01

    The principle of laser wakefield particle acceleration has been tested by the Nd:glass laser system providing a short pulse with a power of 10 TW and a duration of 1 ps. Electrons accelerated up to 18 MeV/c have been observed by injecting 1 MeV/c electrons emitted from a solid target by an intense laser impact. The accelerating field gradient of 30 GeV/m is inferred. (author)

  6. Accelerated Aging Experiments for Capacitor Health Monitoring and Prognostics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper discusses experimental setups for health monitoring and prognostics of electrolytic capacitors under nominal operation and accelerated aging conditions....

  7. Experiments on heat pipes submitted to strong accelerations; Experimentation de caloducs soumis a de fortes accelerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labuthe, A [Dassault Aviation, 92 - Saint Cloud (France)

    1997-12-31

    In order to evaluate the possibility to use heat pipes as efficient heat transfer devices in aircrafts, a study of their behaviour during strong accelerations is necessary. This study has been jointly carried out by the Laboratory of Thermal Studies of Poitiers (France) and Dassault Aviation company. It is based on a series of tests performed with an experimental apparatus that uses the centrifugal effect to simulate the acceleration fields submitted to the heat pipe. Un-priming - priming cycles have been performed under different power and acceleration levels and at various functioning temperatures in order to explore the behaviour of heat pipes: rate of un-priming and re-priming, functioning in blocked mode etc.. This preliminary study demonstrates the rapid re-priming of the tested heat pipes when submitted to favourable acceleration situations and the possibility to use them under thermosyphon conditions despite the brief unfavourable acceleration periods encountered. (J.S.)

  8. Experiments on heat pipes submitted to strong accelerations; Experimentation de caloducs soumis a de fortes accelerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labuthe, A. [Dassault Aviation, 92 - Saint Cloud (France)

    1996-12-31

    In order to evaluate the possibility to use heat pipes as efficient heat transfer devices in aircrafts, a study of their behaviour during strong accelerations is necessary. This study has been jointly carried out by the Laboratory of Thermal Studies of Poitiers (France) and Dassault Aviation company. It is based on a series of tests performed with an experimental apparatus that uses the centrifugal effect to simulate the acceleration fields submitted to the heat pipe. Un-priming - priming cycles have been performed under different power and acceleration levels and at various functioning temperatures in order to explore the behaviour of heat pipes: rate of un-priming and re-priming, functioning in blocked mode etc.. This preliminary study demonstrates the rapid re-priming of the tested heat pipes when submitted to favourable acceleration situations and the possibility to use them under thermosyphon conditions despite the brief unfavourable acceleration periods encountered. (J.S.)

  9. Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Intracranial Tumors : Early Experience with Linear Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Chang Ok; Chung, Sang Sup; Chu, Sung Sil; Kim, Young Soo; Yoon, Do Heum; Kim, Sun Ho; Loh, John Juhn; Kim, Gwi Eon [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-06-15

    Between August 1988 and December 1991, 24 patients with intracranial tumors were treated with stereotactic radiosurgery(RS) using a 10 MV linear accelerator at Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine. There were 5 meningiomas, 3 craniopharyngiomas, 9 glial tumors, 2 solitary metastases, 2 acoustic neurinomas, 2 pineal tumors, and 1 non-Hodgkin Iymphoma. Ten patients were treated as primary treatment after diagnosis with stereotactic biopsy or neuroimaging study. Nine patients underwent RS for post-op. residual tumors and three patients as a salvage treatment for recurrence after external irradiation. Two patients received RS as a boost followed by fractionated conventional radiotherapy. Among sixteen patients who were followed more than 6 months with neuroimage, seven patients (2 meningiomas, 4 benign glial tumors, one non-Hodgkin lymphoma) showed complete response on neuroimage after RS and nine patients showed decreased tumor size. There was no acute treatment related side reaction. Late complications include three patients with symptomatic peritumoral braid edema and one craniopharyngioma with optic chiasmal injury. Through this early experience, we conclude that stereotactically directed single high doses of irradiation to the small intracranial tumors is effective for tumor control. However, in order to define the role of radiosurgery in the management of intracranial tumors, we should get the long-term results available to demonstrate the benefits versus potential complications of this therapeutic modality.

  10. Accelerators as Authentic Training Experiences for Nascent Entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Morgan P.; de Vries, Huibert; Harrison, Geoff; Bliemel, Martin; de Klerk, Saskia; Kasouf, Chick J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to address the role of accelerators as authentic learning-based entrepreneurial training programs. Accelerators facilitate the development and assessment of entrepreneurial competencies in nascent entrepreneurs through the process of creating a start-up venture. Design/methodology/approach: Survey data from…

  11. Operational experience with compressed geometry acceleration tubes in the Oak Ridge 25URC tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.M.; Haynes, D.L.; Juras, R.C.; Meigs, M.J.; Ziegler, N.F.

    1989-01-01

    Installation of compressed geometry acceleration tubes and other associated modifications have increased the effective voltage capability of the Oak Ridge 25URC tandem accelerator by about 3 MV. Since mid-September 1988, the accelerator has been operated routinely at terminal potentials up to 24 MV and occasionally near 25 MV. In 3500 hours of full-column operation, including 1100 hours at potentials about 22 MV, no significant spark-included damage was observed. Some considerations related to further improvements in voltage performance are discussed. 7 refs., 5 figs

  12. Ameliorating Intrusive Memories of Distressing Experiences Using Computerized Reappraisal Training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woud, M.L.; Holmes, E.A.; Postma, P.; Dalgleish, T.; Mackintosh, B.

    2012-01-01

    The types of appraisals that follow traumatic experiences have been linked to the emergence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Could changing reappraisals following a stressful event reduce the emergence of PTSD symptoms? The present proof-of-principle study examined whether a nonexplicit,

  13. Electron-beam rocket acceleration of hydrogen pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, C.C.; Foster, C.A.; Milora, S.L.; Schechter, D.E.; Whealton, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    A proof-of-principle device for characterizing electron-beam rocket pellet acceleration has been developed and operated during the last few years. Experimental data have been collected for thousands of accelerated hydrogen pellets under a variety of beam conditions. One intact hydrogen pellet was accelerated to a speed of 578 m/s by an electron beam of 10 kV, 0.8 A, and I ms. The collected data reveal the significant finding that the measured bum velocity of bare hydrogen pellets increases with the square of the beam voltage in a way that is qualitatively consistent with the theoretical prediction based on the neutral gas shielding (NGS) model. The measured bum velocity increases with the beam current or power and then saturates at values two to three times greater than that predicted by the NGS model. The discrepancy may result from low pellet strength and large beam-pellet interaction areas. Moreover, this feature may be the cause of the low measured exhaust velocity, which often exceeds the sonic velocity of the ablated gas. Consistent with the NGS model, the measured exhaust velocity increases in direct proportion to the beam current and in inverse proportion to the beam voltage. To alleviate the pellet strength problem, experiments have been performed with the hydrogen ice contained in a lightweight rocket casing or shell. Pellets in such sabots have the potential to withstand higher beam powers and achieve higher thrust-coupling efficiency. Some experimental results are reported and ways of accelerating pellets to higher velocity are discussed

  14. Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    The talk summarizes the principles of particle acceleration and addresses problems related to storage rings like LEP and LHC. Special emphasis will be given to orbit stability, long term stability of the particle motion, collective effects and synchrotron radiation.

  15. Operating experience with the Fermilab 500-GeV accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, G.S.; Gannon, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    The Fermilab accelerator has been operating for more than four years. It has been improved so that it is now capable of operating at an energy of 500 GeV and an intensity in excess of 2.0 x 10 13 protons per pulse. The accelerator is manned on a 24 hour a day basis by an operating team of five persons. This is possible in part, because almost all of the hardware systems have status monitoring and control through an advanced computer control system. A discussion is given of the operation of the accelerator with emphasis on person to machine interface, operator training techniques used at Fermilab, and the keeping of records and reliability information

  16. Parametric investigations of target normal sheath acceleration experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zani, Alessandro; Sgattoni, Andrea; Passoni, Matteo

    2011-01-01

    One of the most important challenges related to laser-driven ion acceleration research is to actively control some important ion beam features. This is a peculiar topic in the light of future possible technological applications. In the present work we make use of one theoretical model for target normal sheath acceleration in order to reproduce recent experimental parametric studies about maximum ion energy dependencies on laser parameters. The key role played by pulse energy and intensity is enlightened. Finally the effective dependence of maximum ion energy on intensity is evaluated using a combined theoretical approach, obtained by means of an analytical and a particle-in-cell numerical investigation.

  17. Parametric investigations of target normal sheath acceleration experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zani, Alessandro; Sgattoni, Andrea; Passoni, Matteo

    2011-10-01

    One of the most important challenges related to laser-driven ion acceleration research is to actively control some important ion beam features. This is a peculiar topic in the light of future possible technological applications. In the present work we make use of one theoretical model for target normal sheath acceleration in order to reproduce recent experimental parametric studies about maximum ion energy dependencies on laser parameters. The key role played by pulse energy and intensity is enlightened. Finally the effective dependence of maximum ion energy on intensity is evaluated using a combined theoretical approach, obtained by means of an analytical and a particle-in-cell numerical investigation.

  18. Acceleration units for the Induction Linac Systems Experiment (ILSE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltens, A.; Brady, V.; Brodzik, D.; Hansen, L.; Laslett, L.J.; Mukherjee, S.; Bubp, D.; Ravenscroft, D.; Reginato, L.

    1989-03-01

    The design of a high current heavy ion induction linac driver for inertial confinement fusion is optimized by adjusting the acceleration units along the length of the accelerator to match the beam current, energy, and pulse duration at any location. At the low energy end of the machine the optimum is a large number of electrostatically focused parallel beamlets, whereas at higher energies the optimum is a smaller number of magnetically focused beams. ILSE parallels this strategy by using 16 electrostatically focused beamlets at the low end followed by 4 magnetically focused beams after beam combining. 3 refs., 2 figs

  19. Coincident ion acceleration and electron extraction for space propulsion using the self-bias formed on a set of RF biased grids bounding a plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafalskyi, D; Aanesland, A

    2014-01-01

    We propose an alternative method to accelerate ions in classical gridded ion thrusters and ion sources such that co-extracted electrons from the source may provide beam space charge neutralization. In this way there is no need for an additional electron neutralizer. The method consists of applying RF voltage to a two-grid acceleration system via a blocking capacitor. Due to the unequal effective area of the two grids in contact with the plasma, a dc self-bias is formed, rectifying the applied RF voltage. As a result, ions are continuously accelerated within the grid system while electrons are emitted in brief instants within the RF period when the RF space charge sheath collapses. This paper presents the first experimental results and a proof-of-principle. Experiments are carried out using the Neptune thruster prototype which is a gridded Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) source operated at 4 MHz, attached to a larger beam propagation chamber. The RF power supply is used both for the ICP discharge (plasma generation) and powering the acceleration grids via a capacitor for ion acceleration and electron extraction without any dc power supplies. The ion and electron energies, particle flux and densities are measured using retarding field energy analyzers (RFEA), Langmuir probes and a large beam target. The system operates in Argon and N 2 . The dc self-bias is found to be generated within the gridded extraction system in all the range of operating conditions. Broad quasi-neutral ion-electron beams are measured in the downstream chamber with energies up to 400 eV. The beams from the RF acceleration method are compared with classical dc acceleration with an additional external electron neutralizer. It is found that the two acceleration techniques provide similar performance, but the ion energy distribution function from RF acceleration is broader, while the floating potential of the beam is lower than for the dc accelerated beam. (paper)

  20. Beam studies and experimental facility for the AWAKE experiment at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracco, Chiara; Gschwendtner, Edda; Petrenko, Alexey; Timko, Helga; Argyropoulos, Theodoros; Bartosik, Hannes; Bohl, Thomas; Esteban Müller, Juan; Goddard, Brennan; Meddahi, Malika; Pardons, Ans; Shaposhnikova, Elena; Velotti, Francesco M.; Vincke, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    A Proton Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment has been proposed as an approach to eventually accelerate an electron beam to the TeV energy range in a single plasma section. To verify this novel technique, a proof of principle R and D experiment, AWAKE, is planned at CERN using 400 GeV proton bunches from the SPS. An electron beam will be injected into the plasma cell to probe the accelerating wakefield. The AWAKE experiment will be installed in the CNGS facility profiting from existing infrastructure where only minor modifications need to be foreseen. The design of the experimental area and the proton and electron beam lines are shown. The achievable SPS proton bunch properties and their reproducibility have been measured and are presented. - Highlights: • A proton driven plasma wakefield experiment using the first time protons as drive beam is proposed. • The integration of AWAKE experiment, the proton, laser and electron beam line in an existing CERN facility is demonstrated. • The necessary modifications in the experimental facility are presented. • Proton beam optics and a new electron beam line are adapted to match with the required beam parameters. • Short high-intensity bunches were studied in the SPS to guide the design parameters of the AWAKE project

  1. RF Accelerating Structure for the Muon Cooling Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corlett, J.; Green, M.; Li, D.; Holtkamp, N.; Moretti, A.; Kirk, H. G.; Palmer, R. B.; Zhao, Y.; Summers, D.

    1999-01-01

    The ionization cooling of muons requires longitudinal acceleration of the muons after scattering in a hydrogen target. In order to maximize the accelerating voltage, they propose using linear accelerating structures with cells bounded by thin beryllium metal foils. this produces an on-axis field equivalent to the maximum surface field, whereas with beam-pipes the accelerating field is approximately half that of the peak surface field in the cavity. The muons interact only weakly with the thin foils. A π/2 interleaved cavity structure has been chosen, with alternate cells coupled together externally, and the two groups of cells fed in quadrature. At present they are considering an operating temperature of 77K to gain a factor of at least two in Q-value over room temperature. They will describe the design of the π/2 interleaved cavity structure, design of an alternative π-mode open structure, preliminary experimental results from a low-power test cavity, and plans for high-power testing

  2. Neutrino mass and mixing, and non-accelerator experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.G.H.

    1992-01-01

    We review the current status of experimental knowledge about neutrinos derived from kinematic mass measurements, neutrino oscillation searches at reactors and accelerators, solar neutrinos, atmospheric neutrinos, and single and double beta decay. The solar neutrino results yield fairly strong and consistent indication that neutrino oscillations are occurring. Other evidence for new physics is less consistent and convincing

  3. Calibration and application of medical particle accelerators to space radiation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Kwangsun; Park, Miyoung; Chae, Jangsoo; Yoon, Sangpil; Shin, Dongho

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce radioisotope facilities and medical particle accelerators that can be applied to space radiation experiments and the experimental conditions required by the space radiation experiments. Space radiation experiments on the ground are critical in determining the lifetimes of satellites and in choosing or preparing the appropriate electrical parts to assure the designated mission lifetime. Before the completion of building the 100-MeV proton linear accelerator in Gyeongju, or even after the completion, the currently existing proton accelerators for medical purposes could suggest an alternative plan. We have performed experiments to calibrate medical proton beam accelerators to investigate whether the beam conditions are suitable for applications to space radiation experiments. Based on the calibration results, we propose reference beam operation conditions for space radiation experiments.

  4. Experience of FlexCtrl SCADA usage for accelerator automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiforov, A.S.; Alejnikov, V.V.; Sychev, K.P.; Borina, I.V.; Rukavishnikov, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Software of particle accelerator control system is described in this paper. Software is based on licensed software (FlexCtrl SCADA, Photon Application Builder, Cogent DataHub) and additionally developed class library. This software is integrated programming environment and according to its functionality serves as visual programming. Properties number of IDE components as well as components number can be increased due to the fact that IDE is characterized by its openness

  5. Implications of accelerator experiments for models of the Kolar Gold Mine particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarma, K V.L. [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India); Wolfenstein, L [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA)

    1976-03-01

    The significance of accelerator searches for the new particles discovered in the Kolar Gold Mine experiments depends on the characteristics of the models of these particles. Models that could give cosmic ray neutrinos a great advantage over accelerator neutrinos are presented. The new particles should be produced in e/sup +/e/sup -/ colliding beams, but the cross-section is model dependent.

  6. Spectroscopic measurements of plasma emission light for plasma-based acceleration experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippi, F.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Anania, M.P.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E.; Ferrario, M.; Cianchi, A.; Zigler, A.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced particle accelerators are based on the excitation of large amplitude plasma waves driven by either electron or laser beams. Future experiments scheduled at the SPARC-LAB test facility aim to demonstrate the acceleration of high brightness electron beams through the so-called resonant Plasma Wakefield Acceleration scheme in which a train of electron bunches (drivers) resonantly excites wakefields into a preformed hydrogen plasma; the last bunch (witness) injected at the proper accelerating phase gains energy from the wake. The quality of the accelerated beam depends strongly on plasma density and its distribution along the acceleration length. The measurements of plasma density of the order of 10 16 –10 17  cm −3 can be performed with spectroscopic measurements of the plasma-emitted light. The measured density distribution for hydrogen filled capillary discharge with both Balmer alpha and Balmer beta lines and shot-to-shot variation are here reported.

  7. Spectroscopic measurements of plasma emission light for plasma-based acceleration experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, F.; Anania, M. P.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Ferrario, M.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Zigler, A.

    2016-09-01

    Advanced particle accelerators are based on the excitation of large amplitude plasma waves driven by either electron or laser beams. Future experiments scheduled at the SPARC_LAB test facility aim to demonstrate the acceleration of high brightness electron beams through the so-called resonant Plasma Wakefield Acceleration scheme in which a train of electron bunches (drivers) resonantly excites wakefields into a preformed hydrogen plasma; the last bunch (witness) injected at the proper accelerating phase gains energy from the wake. The quality of the accelerated beam depends strongly on plasma density and its distribution along the acceleration length. The measurements of plasma density of the order of 1016-1017 cm-3 can be performed with spectroscopic measurements of the plasma-emitted light. The measured density distribution for hydrogen filled capillary discharge with both Balmer alpha and Balmer beta lines and shot-to-shot variation are here reported.

  8. Accelerator mass spectrometry at Peking University: experiments and progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jiaer; Guo Zhiyu; Yan Shengqing; Li Renxing; Xiao Min; Li Kun; Liu Hongtao; Liu Kexin; Wang Jianjun; Li Bin; Lu Xiangyang; Yuan Sixun; Chen Tiemei; Gao Shijun; Zheng Shuhui; Chen Chengye; Liu Yan

    1997-01-01

    The Peking University Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (PKUAMS) has been put into routine operation. 14 C measurements of archaeological samples with fast cycling injection have shown good results. The new multi-target high-intensity sputtering ion source has been tested and 10 Be measurements were carried out with a new detector in which both the stopping of the intense flux of 10 B ions and the identification of 10 Be ions are performed. 26 Al samples were also measured. While various applications show good prospects for PKUAMS, further upgrade is desirable

  9. Accelerator-based atomic physics experiments with photon and ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.M.; Jones, K.W.; Meron, M.

    1984-01-01

    Accelerator-based atomic physics experiments at Brookhaven presently use heavy-ion beams from the Dual MP Tandem Van de Graaff Accelerator Facility for atomic physics experiments of several types. Work is presently in progress to develop experiments which will use the intense photon beams which will be available in the near future from the ultraviolet (uv) and x-ray rings of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). Plans are described for experiments at the NSLS and an exciting development in instrumentation for heavy-ion experiments is summarized

  10. Computer automation of an accelerator mass spectrometry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gressett, J.D.; Maxson, D.L.; Matteson, S.; McDaniel, F.D.; Duggan, J.L.; Mackey, H.J.; North Texas State Univ., Denton, TX; Anthony, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The determination of trace impurities in electronic materials using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) requires efficient automation of the beam transport and mass discrimination hardware. The ability to choose between a variety of charge states, isotopes and injected molecules is necessary to provide survey capabilities similar to that available on conventional mass spectrometers. This paper will discuss automation hardware and software for flexible, high-sensitivity trace analysis of electronic materials, e.g. Si, GaAs and HgCdTe. Details regarding settling times will be presented, along with proof-of-principle experimental data. Potential and present applications will also be discussed. (orig.)

  11. The proof-of-concept experiment for the spiral line induction accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putnam, S D; Bailey, V L; Smith, J; Lidestri, J; Thomas, H; Lackner, H; Nishimoto, H [Pulse Sciences, Inc., San Leandro, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A proof-of-concept experiment (POCE) for the Spiral Line Induction Accelerator (SLIA) is underway at Pulse Sciences, Inc. to demonstrate a new compact high current ({>=} few kiloamperes) recirculating induction accelerator for high power ({>=} 100 kW) commercial processing and other applications. Hardware has been fabricated to generate 9.5 MeV electron beams at 2 and 10 kA by recirculating the beam for two passes through each of two 1.5 MeV accelerating units. Initial experiments have demonstrated acceleration of 2 and 10 kA beams to 5.5 MeV by transport around a complete turn with two passes through a single accelerating unit and work is currently in progress to complete the full POCE. Experimental results to date are reported. (author). 5 figs., 14 refs.

  12. Mechanical engineering and design criteria for the Magnetically Insulated Transmission Experiment Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staller, G.E.; Hamilton, I.D.; Aker, M.F.; Fifer, H.G.

    1978-02-01

    A single-unit electron beam accelerator was designed, fabricated, and assembled in Sandia's Technical Area V to conduct magnetically insulated transmission experiments. Results of these experiments will be utilized in the future design of larger, more complex accelerators. This design makes optimum use of existing facilities and equipment. When designing new components, possible future applications were considered as well as compatibility with existing facilities and hardware

  13. ORR irradiation experiment OF-1: accelerated testing of HTGR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiegs, T.N.; Long, E.L. Jr.; Kania, M.J.; Thoms, K.R.; Allen, E.J.

    1977-08-01

    The OF-1 capsule, the first in a series of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor fuel irradiations in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor, was irradiated for more than 9300 hr at full reactor power (30 MW). Peak fluences of 1.08 x 10 22 neutrons/cm 2 (> 0.18 MeV) were achieved. General Atomic Company's magazine P13Q occupied the upper two-thirds of the test space and the ORNL magazine OF-1 the lower one-third. The ORNL portion tested various HTGR recycle particles and fuel bonding matrices at accelerated flux levels under reference HTGR irradiation conditions of temperature, temperature gradient, and fast fluence exposure

  14. Radiological Impact of the TRIGA Accelerator-Driven Experiment (TRADE)

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera-Martínez, A; Kadi, Y; Zanini, L; Parks, G T; Rubbia, Carlo; Burgio, N; Carta, M; Santagata, A; Cinotti, L

    2002-01-01

    The TRADE project, which is part of the European Roadmap towards the development of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS), foresees the coupling of a 110 MeV, 2 mA proton cyclotron with the core of a 1 MW Triga research reactor. We performed radioprotection studies using two state-of-the-art computer code packages, FLUKA and EA-MC. We concentrated on the calculation of the neutron and particle flux and dose rates during normal operation as well as in the case of several possible accidents, in order to assess the radiation damage and define the design of key components of the facility, such as the beam-line shielding. Both high-energy particle interactions and low-energy neutron transport are treated with a sophisticated method based on a full Monte Carlo simulation, combined with the use of modern nuclear data libraries.

  15. Multilayer Semiconductor Charged-Particle Spectrometers for Accelerator Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurov, Yu. B.; Lapushkin, S. V.; Sandukovsky, V. G.; Chernyshev, B. A.

    2018-03-01

    The current state of studies in the field of development of multilayer semiconductor systems (semiconductor detector (SCD) telescopes), which allow the energy to be precisely measured within a large dynamic range (from a few to a few hundred MeV) and the particles to be identified in a wide mass range (from pions to multiply charged nuclear fragments), is presented. The techniques for manufacturing the SCD telescopes from silicon and high-purity germanium are described. The issues of measuring characteristics of the constructed detectors and their impact on the energy resolution of the SCD telescopes and on the quality of the experimental data are considered. Much attention is given to the use of the constructed semiconductor devices in experimental studies at accelerators of PNPI (Gatchina), LANL (Los Alamos) and CELSIUS (Uppsala).

  16. Operational experience from a large EPICS-based accelerator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciarlette, D.J.; Gerig, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory is a third-generation x-ray light source which uses the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) to operate its linear accelerator, positron accumulator ring, booster synchrotron, and storage ring equipment. EPICS has been used at the APS since the beginning of installation and commissioning. Currently, EPICS controls approximately 100 VME crates containing over 100,000 process variables. With this complexity, the APS has had to review some of the methods originally employed and make changes as necessary. In addition, due to commissioning and operational needs, higher-level operator software needed to be created. EPICS has been flexible enough to allow this

  17. Accelerator Challenges and Opportunities for Future Neutrino Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    There are three types of future neutrino facilities currently under study, one based on decays of stored beta-unstable ion beams (Beta Beams), one based on decays of stored muon beams (Neutrino Factory), and one based on the decays of an intense pion beam (Superbeam). In this paper we discuss the challenges each design team must face and the R and D being carried out to turn those challenges into technical opportunities. A new program, the Muon Accelerator Program, has begun in the U.S. to carry out the R D for muon-based facilities, including both the Neutrino Factory and, as its ultimate goal, a Muon Collider. The goals of this program will be briefly described.

  18. Accelerating regenerative medicine: the Japanese experiment in ethics and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaght, Tamra

    2017-09-01

    In 2014, the Japanese National Diet introduced new laws aimed at promoting the clinical translation of stem cells and regenerative medicine. The basic action of these laws is to allow the early introduction of regenerative medicine products into the Japanese market through an accelerated approval process, while providing patients with access to certain types of stem cell and cell-based therapies in the context of private clinical practice. While this framework appears to offer enormous opportunities for the translation of stem cell science, it raises ethical challenges that have not yet been fully explored. This paper critically analyzes this framework with respect to the prioritization of safety over clinical benefit, distributive justice and public trust in science and medicine. It is argued that the framework unfairly burdens patients and strained healthcare systems without any clear benefits, and may undermine the credibility of the regenerative medicine field as it emerges.

  19. Intrinsic neutrino properties: As deduced from cosmology, astrophysics, accelerator and non-accelerator experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    I review the intrinsic properties of neutrinos as deduced from cosmological, astrophysical, and laboratory experiments. Bounds on magnetic moments and theoretical models which yield large moments but small masses are briefly discussed. The MSW solution to the solar neutrino problem is reviewed in light of the existing data from the 37 Cl and Kamiokande II experiments. The combined data disfavor the adiabatic solution and tend to support either the large angle solution or the nonadiabatic one. In the former case the 71 Ga signal will be suppressed by the same factor as for 37 Cl, and in the latter case the suppression factor could be as large as 10 or more. 41 refs

  20. Pellet injector development and experiments at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baylor, L.R.; Argo, B.E.; Barber, G.C.; Combs, S.K.; Cole, M.J.; Dyer, G.R.; Fehling, D.T.; Fisher, P.W.; Foster, C.A.; Foust, C.R.; Gouge, M.J.; Jernigan, T.C.; Langley, R.A.; Milora, S.L.; Qualls, A.L.; Schechter, D.E.; Sparks, D.O.; Tsai, C.C.; Wilgen, J.B.; Whealton, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    The development of pellet injectors for plasma fueling of magnetic confinement fusion experiments has been under way at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the past 15 years. Recently, ORNL provided a tritium-compatible four-shot pneumatic injector for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) based on the in situ condensation technique that features three single-stage gas guns and an advanced two-stage light gas gun driver. In another application, ORNL supplied the Tore Supra tokamak with a centrifuge pellet injector in 1989 for pellet fueling experiments that has achieved record numbers of injected pellets into a discharge. Work is progressing on an upgrade to that injector to extend the number of pellets to 400 and improve pellet repeatability. In a new application, the ORNL three barrel repeating pneumatic injector has been returned from JET and is being readied for installation on the DIII-D device for fueling and enhanced plasma performance experiments. In addition to these experimental applications, ORNL is developing advanced injector technologies, including high-velocity pellet injectors, tritium pellet injectors, and long-pulse feed systems. The two-stage light gas gun and electron-beam-driven rocket are the acceleration techniques under investigation for achieving high velocity. A tritium proof-of-principle (TPOP) experiment has demonstrated the feasibility of tritium pellet production and acceleration. A new tritium-compatible, extruder-based, repeating pneumatic injector is being fabricated to replace the pipe gun in the TPOP experiment and will explore issues related to the extrudability of tritium and acceleration of large tritium pellets. The tritium pellet formation experiments and development of long-pulse pellet feed systems are especially relevant to the International Tokamak Engineering Reactor (ITER)

  1. Theoretical and Experimental Studies in Accelerator Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenzweig, James [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2017-03-08

    This report describes research supported by the US Dept. of Energy Office of High Energy Physics (OHEP), performed by the UCLA Particle Beam Physics Laboratory (PBPL). The UCLA PBPL has, over the last two decades-plus, played a critical role in the development of advanced accelerators, fundamental beam physics, and new applications enabled by these thrusts, such as new types of accelerator-based light sources. As the PBPL mission is broad it is natural that it has been grown within the context of the accelerator science and technology stewardship of the OHEP. Indeed, steady OHEP support for the program has always been central to the success of the PBPL; it has provided stability, and above all has set the over-arching themes for our research directions, which have producing over 500 publications (>120 in high level journals). While other agency support has grown notably in recent years, permitting more vigorous pursuit of the program, it is transient by comparison. Beyond permitting program growth in a time of flat OHEP budgets, the influence of other agency missions is found in push to adapt advanced accelerator methods to applications, in light of the success the field has had in proof-of-principle experiments supported first by the DoE OHEP. This three-pronged PBPL program — advanced accelerators, fundamental beam physics and technology, and revolutionary applications — has produced a generation of students that have had a profound affect on the US accelerator physics community. PBPL graduates, numbering 28 in total, form a significant population group in the accelerator community, playing key roles as university faculty, scientific leaders in national labs (two have been named Panofsky Fellows at SLAC), and vigorous proponents of industrial application of accelerators. Indeed, the development of advanced RF, optical and magnet technology at the PBPL has led directly to the spin-off company, RadiaBeam Technologies, now a leading industrial accelerator firm

  2. Recent experience in accelerating polarized beam at the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratner, L.G.

    1988-01-01

    The most recent operation of the AGS for polarized protons occurred in December, 1987 and January, 1988. The primary purpose during this period was to tune up the accelerator as soon as possible and to provide a usable polarized beam for high energy physics. We succeeded in providing 1--2 /times/ 10 10 polarized protons per pulse at 18.5 GeV/c with an average polarization of 43 +- 3% and a peak of 52%. The conditions for this run differed in some respects from the previous run done in 1986. Due to problems with the main ring power supply, we were forced to use a back-up MG set which was only capable of 60% of the normal field rate of rise. This, of course enhanced the effect of the depolarizing resonances. A second difference was the fact that a complete horizontal and vertical realignment of the ring magnets was done during the 1987 summer shutdown. In addition, the fast pulsed quadrupole positions were readjusted with respect to the equilibrium orbit. It had been suspected that misalignment of these quads was responsible for large transverse emittance growth in both planes. We will look at the effects of these differences, but the bottom line is that the ''standard correction techniques'' worked as expected. 2 refs., 6 figs

  3. Experience of precision measuring distances by invar wires at accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porubaj, N.I.

    1977-01-01

    With a view to determining the deformations and displacements of the ring foundation of the ITEP accelerator, the method of very accurate distance measurements by means of invar wires and strips is described. Measurement errors are analyzed. This method has allowed to measure distances up to 40 m with a mean-square error of less than 40 μm. The calibration accuracy of 3 and 25-m measuring wires has been determined to be +- 27 μm. Time instability of the wires is +- 16 μm. It is shown that strips are more stable in time than wires. Elongation of 6, 19, 25 and 38 m invar wires has been measured as function of the tension time. The error due to tension of a 38-m wire may be tangible. Data on thermal coefficient variation in time has been obtained for invar wires and strips. The multiannual measurements of the ring foundation deformations show that variations of the mean radius are caused by increases of concrete temperature. Temperature increase by only 1 deg caused mean radius increase of 0.3 mm

  4. Collective acceleration of electrons and ions in a high current relativistic electron beam. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nation, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The original purpose of this research was an investigation into the use of slow space charge waves on weakly relativistic electron beams for ion acceleration. The work had three main objectives namely, the development of a suitable ion injector, the growth and study of the properties of slow space charge waves on an electron beam, and a combination of the two components parts into a suitable proof of principle demonstration of the wave accelerator. This work focusses on the first two of these objectives

  5. Magnetohydrodynamic Particle Acceleration Processes: SSX Experiments, Theory, and Astrophysical Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Michael R.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to provide theoretical and modeling support to the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment (SSX). Accordingly, the theoretical effort was tightly integrated into the SSX experimental effort. During the grant period, Michael Brown and his experimental collaborators at Swarthmore, with assistance from W. Matthaeus as appropriate, made substantial progress in understanding the physics SSX plasmas

  6. Subjective Acceleration of Time Experience in Everyday Life across Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Dennis; Lang, Frieder R.

    2015-01-01

    Most people believe that time seems to pass more quickly as they age. Building on assumptions of socioemotional selectivity theory, we investigated whether awareness that one's future lifetime is limited is associated with one's experience of time during everyday activities across adulthood in 3 studies. In the first 2 studies (Study 1: N = 608;…

  7. Design Considerations of a Novel Two-Beam Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luginsland, John William

    This thesis reports the design study of a new type of charged particle accelerator called the Twobetron. The accelerator consists of two beams of electrons traveling through a series of pillbox cavities. The power of a high current annular beam excites an electromagnetic mode in the cavities, which, in turn, drives a low current on-axis pencil beam to high energy. We focus on the design considerations that would make use of existing pulsed power systems, for a proof-of-principle experiment. Potential applications of this new device include radiotherapy, materials processing, and high energy accelerators. The first phase of the research involves analytic description of the accelerating process. This reveals the problem of phase slippage. Derbenev's proposed cure of beam radius modulation is analyzed. Further studies include the effect of initial phase and secondary beam loading. Scaling laws to characterize the Twobetron's performance are derived. Computer simulation is performed to produce a self-consistent analysis of the dynamics of the space charge and its interaction with the accelerator structure. Particle -in-cell simulations answer several questions concerning beam stability, cavity modes, and the nature of the structure. Specifically, current modulation on the primary beam is preserved in the simulations. However, these simulations also revealed that mode competition and significant cavity coupling are serious issues that need to be addressed. Also considered is non-axisymmetric instability on the driver beam of the Twobetron, in particular, the beam breakup instability (BBU), which is known to pose a serious threat to linear accelerators in general. We extend the classical analysis of BBU to annular beams. The effect of higher order non-axisymmetric modes is also examined. It is shown that annular beams are more stable than pencil beams to BBU in general. Our analysis also reveals that the rf magnetic field is more important than the rf electric field in

  8. The LILIA experiment: Energy selection and post-acceleration of laser generated protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchetti, Giorgio; Sinigardi, Stefano; Londrillo, Pasquale; Rossi, Francesco; Sumini, Marco; Giove, Dario; De Martinis, Carlo

    2012-12-01

    The LILIA experiment is planned at the SPARCLAB facility of the Frascati INFN laboratories. We have simulated the laser acceleration of protons, the transport and energy selection with collimators and a pulsed solenoid and the post-acceleration with a compact high field linac. For the highest achievable intensity corresponding to a = 30 over 108 protons at 30 MeV with a 3% spread are selected, and at least107 protons are post-accelerated up to 60 MeV. If a 10 Hz repetition rated can be achieved the delivered dose would be suitable for the treatment of small superficial tumors.

  9. The LILIA experiment: Energy selection and post-acceleration of laser generated protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchetti, Giorgio; Sinigardi, Stefano; Londrillo, Pasquale; Rossi, Francesco; Sumini, Marco; Giove, Dario; De Martinis, Carlo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bologna and INFN Sezione di Bologna (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Universita di Bologna and INFN Sezione di Bologna (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano and INFN Sezione di Milano (Italy)

    2012-12-21

    The LILIA experiment is planned at the SPARCLAB facility of the Frascati INFN laboratories. We have simulated the laser acceleration of protons, the transport and energy selection with collimators and a pulsed solenoid and the post-acceleration with a compact high field linac. For the highest achievable intensity corresponding to a= 30 over 10{sup 8} protons at 30 MeV with a 3% spread are selected, and at least10{sup 7} protons are post-accelerated up to 60 MeV. If a 10 Hz repetition rated can be achieved the delivered dose would be suitable for the treatment of small superficial tumors.

  10. Gravitational Acceleration Effects on Macrosegregation: Experiment and Computational Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Torres, J.; Curreri, P. A.; Stefanescu, D. M.; Sen, S.

    1999-01-01

    Experiments were performed under terrestrial gravity (1g) and during parabolic flights (10-2 g) to study the solidification and macrosegregation patterns of Al-Cu alloys. Alloys having 2% and 5% Cu were solidified against a chill at two different cooling rates. Microscopic and Electron Microprobe characterization was used to produce microstructural and macrosegregation maps. In all cases positive segregation occurred next to the chill because shrinkage flow, as expected. This positive segregation was higher in the low-g samples, apparently because of the higher heat transfer coefficient. A 2-D computational model was used to explain the experimental results. The continuum formulation was employed to describe the macroscopic transports of mass, energy, and momentum, associated with the solidification phenomena, for a two-phase system. The model considers that liquid flow is driven by thermal and solutal buoyancy, and by solidification shrinkage. The solidification event was divided into two stages. In the first one, the liquid containing freely moving equiaxed grains was described through the relative viscosity concept. In the second stage, when a fixed dendritic network was formed after dendritic coherency, the mushy zone was treated as a porous medium. The macrosegregation maps and the cooling curves obtained during experiments were used for validation of the solidification and segregation model. The model can explain the solidification and macrosegregation patterns and the differences between low- and high-gravity results.

  11. Accelerated approval of oncology products: the food and drug administration experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, John R; Ning, Yang-Min; Farrell, Ann; Justice, Robert; Keegan, Patricia; Pazdur, Richard

    2011-04-20

    We reviewed the regulatory history of the accelerated approval process and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) experience with accelerated approval of oncology products from its initiation in December 11, 1992, to July 1, 2010. The accelerated approval regulations allowed accelerated approval of products to treat serious or life-threatening diseases based on surrogate endpoints that are reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit. Failure to complete postapproval trials to confirm clinical benefit with due diligence could result in removal of the accelerated approval indication from the market. From December 11, 1992, to July 1, 2010, the FDA granted accelerated approval to 35 oncology products for 47 new indications. Clinical benefit was confirmed in postapproval trials for 26 of the 47 new indications, resulting in conversion to regular approval. The median time between accelerated approval and regular approval of oncology products was 3.9 years (range = 0.8-12.6 years) and the mean time was 4.7 years, representing a substantial time savings in terms of earlier availability of drugs to cancer patients. Three new indications did not show clinical benefit when confirmatory postapproval trials were completed and were subsequently removed from the market or had restricted distribution plans implemented. Confirmatory trials were not completed for 14 new indications. The five longest intervals from receipt of accelerated approval to July 1, 2010, without completion of trials to confirm clinical benefit were 10.5, 6.4, 5.5, 5.5, and 4.7 years. The five longest intervals between accelerated approval and successful conversion to regular approval were 12.6, 9.7, 8.1, 7.5, and 7.4 years. Trials to confirm clinical benefit should be part of the drug development plan and should be in progress at the time of an application seeking accelerated approval to prevent an ineffective drug from remaining on the market for an unacceptable time.

  12. Probing antimatter gravity – The AEGIS experiment at CERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellerbauer A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The weak equivalence principle states that the motion of a body in a gravitational field is independent of its structure or composition. This postulate of general relativity has been tested to very high precision with ordinary matter, but no relevant experimental verification with antimatter has ever been carried out. The AEGIS experiment will measure the gravitational acceleration of antihydrogen to ultimately 1% precision. For this purpose, a pulsed horizontal antihydrogen beam with a velocity of several 100 m s−1 will be produced. Its vertical deflection due to gravity will be detected by a setup consisting of material gratings coupled with a position-sensitive detector, operating as a moiré deflectometer or an atom interferometer. The AEGIS experiment is installed at CERN’s Antiproton Decelerator, currently the only facility in the world which produces copious amounts of low-energy antiprotons. The construction of the setup has been going on since 2010 and is nearing completion. A proof-of-principle experiment with antiprotons has demonstrated that the deflection of antiparticles by a few μm due to an external force can be detected. Technological and scientific development pertaining to specific challenges of the experiment, such as antihydrogen formation by positronium charge exchange or the position-sensitive detection of antihydrogen annihilations, is ongoing.

  13. A high-power target experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kirk, H G; Ludewig, H; Palmer, Robert; Samulyak, V; Simos, N; Tsang, Thomas; Bradshaw, T W; Drumm, Paul V; Edgecock, T R; Ivanyushenkov, Yury; Bennett, Roger; Efthymiopoulos, Ilias; Fabich, Adrian; Haseroth, H; Haug, F; Lettry, Jacques; Hayato, Y; Yoshimura, Koji; Gabriel, Tony A; Graves, Van; Spampinato, P; Haines, John; McDonald, Kirk T

    2005-01-01

    We describe an experiment designed as a proof-of-principle test for a target system capable of converting a 4 MW proton beam into a high-intensity muon beam suitable for incorporation into either a neutrino factory complex or a muon collider. The target system is based on exposing a free mercury jet to an intense proton beam in the presence of a high strength solenoidal field.

  14. Accelerator Technology and High Energy Physic Experiments, WILGA 2012; EuCARD Sessions

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, R S

    2012-01-01

    Wilga Sessions on HEP experiments, astroparticle physica and accelerator technology were organized under the umbrella of the EU FP7 Project EuCARD – European Coordination for Accelerator Research and Development. The paper is the second part (out of five) of the research survey of WILGA Symposium work, May 2012 Edition, concerned with accelerator technology and high energy physics experiments. It presents a digest of chosen technical work results shown by young researchers from different technical universities from this country during the XXXth Jubilee SPIE-IEEE Wilga 2012, May Edition, symposium on Photonics and Web Engineering. Topical tracks of the symposium embraced, among others, nanomaterials and nanotechnologies for photonics, sensory and nonlinear optical fibers, object oriented design of hardware, photonic metrology, optoelectronics and photonics applications, photonics-electronics co-design, optoelectronic and electronic systems for astronomy and high energy physics experiments, JET and pi-of-the ...

  15. Dosimetry of laser-accelerated electron beams used for in vitro cell irradiation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, C.; Kaluza, M.; Karsch, L.; Schlenvoigt, H.-P.; Schürer, M.; Sobiella, M.; Woithe, J.; Pawelke, J.

    2011-01-01

    The dosimetric characterization of laser-accelerated electrons applied for the worldwide first systematic radiobiological in vitro cell irradiation will be presented. The laser-accelerated electron beam at the JeTi laser system has been optimized, monitored and controlled in terms of dose homogeneity, stability and absolute dose delivery. A combination of different dosimetric components were used to provide both an online beam as well as dose monitoring and a precise absolute dosimetry. In detail, the electron beam was controlled and monitored by means of an ionization chamber and an in-house produced Faraday cup for a defined delivery of the prescribed dose. Moreover, the precise absolute dose delivered to each cell sample was determined by an radiochromic EBT film positioned in front of the cell sample. Furthermore, the energy spectrum of the laser-accelerated electron beam was determined. As presented in a previous work of the authors, also for laser-accelerated protons a precise dosimetric characterization was performed that enabled initial radiobiological cell irradiation experiments with laser-accelerated protons. Therefore, a precise dosimetric characterization, optimization and control of laser-accelerated and therefore ultra-short pulsed, intense particle beams for both electrons and protons is possible, allowing radiobiological experiments and meeting all necessary requirements like homogeneity, stability and precise dose delivery. In order to fulfill the much higher dosimetric requirements for clinical application, several improvements concerning, i.e., particle energy and spectral shaping as well as patient safety are necessary.

  16. On the application of design of experiments to accelerated life testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakim-Mashhadi, M.

    1992-01-01

    Today, there is an increasing demand for improved quality and reliability due to increasing system complexity and increasing demands from customer. Continuous improvement of quality is not only a means of competition but also a matter of staying in the market. Accelerated life testing and statistical design of experiments are two needed methods for improvement of quality. The combined use of them is very advantageous and increases the test efficiency. Accelerated life testing is a quick way to provide information on the life distribution of materials and products. By subjecting the test unit to conditions more severe than those at normal usage, the test time can be highly reduced. Estimates of life at normal stress levels are obtained by extrapolating the available information through a reasonable acceleration model. Accelerated life testing has mostly been used to measure reliability but it is high time to use it for improvement of quality. Design of experiments serves to find out the effect of design parameters and other interesting factors on performance measure and its variability. The obtained information is essential for a continuous improvement of quality. As an illustration, two sets of experiment are designed and performed at highly increased stress levels. The results are analysed and discussed and a time saving alternative is proposed. The combination of experimental design and accelerated life testing is discussed and illustrated. The combined use of these methods can be argued for in two different cases. One is for an exploratory improvement investigation and the other is for verification of reliability. In either case, the combined use is advantageous and improves the testing efficiency. Some general conclusions are drawn to be used for planning and performance of statistically designed accelerated life testing experiments. (70 refs.) (au)

  17. Brilliant radiation sources by laser-plasma accelerators and optical undulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debus, Alexander

    2012-09-06

    This thesis investigates the use of high-power lasers for synchrotron radiation sources with high brilliance, from the EUV to the hard X-ray spectral range. Hereby lasers accelerate electrons by laser-wakefield acceleration (LWFA), act as optical undulators, or both. Experimental evidence shows for the first time that LWFA electron bunches are shorter than the driving laser and have a length scale comparable to the plasma wavelength. Furthermore, a first proof of principle experiment demonstrates that LWFA electrons can be exploited to generate undulator radiation. Building upon these experimental findings, as well as extensive numerical simulations of Thomson scattering, the theoretical foundations of a novel interaction geometry for laser-matter interaction are developed. This new method is very general and when tailored towards relativistically moving targets not being limited by the focusability (Rayleigh length) of the laser, while it does not require a waveguide. In a theoretical investigation of Thomson scattering, the optical analogue of undulator radiation, the limits of Thomson sources in scaling towards higher peak brilliances are highlighted. This leads to a novel method for generating brilliant, highly tunable X-ray sources, which is highly energy efficient by circumventing the laser Rayleigh limit through a novel traveling-wave Thomson scattering (TWTS) geometry. This new method suggests increases in X-ray photon yields of 2-3 orders of magnitudes using existing lasers and a way towards efficient, optical undulators to drive a free-electron laser. The results presented here extend far beyond the scope of this work. The possibility to use lasers as particle accelerators, as well as optical undulators, leads to very compact and energy efficient synchrotron sources. The resulting monoenergetic radiation of high brilliance in a range from extreme ultraviolet (EUV) to hard X-ray radiation is of fundamental importance for basic research, medical

  18. Brilliant radiation sources by laser-plasma accelerators and optical undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debus, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This thesis investigates the use of high-power lasers for synchrotron radiation sources with high brilliance, from the EUV to the hard X-ray spectral range. Hereby lasers accelerate electrons by laser-wakefield acceleration (LWFA), act as optical undulators, or both. Experimental evidence shows for the first time that LWFA electron bunches are shorter than the driving laser and have a length scale comparable to the plasma wavelength. Furthermore, a first proof of principle experiment demonstrates that LWFA electrons can be exploited to generate undulator radiation. Building upon these experimental findings, as well as extensive numerical simulations of Thomson scattering, the theoretical foundations of a novel interaction geometry for laser-matter interaction are developed. This new method is very general and when tailored towards relativistically moving targets not being limited by the focusability (Rayleigh length) of the laser, while it does not require a waveguide. In a theoretical investigation of Thomson scattering, the optical analogue of undulator radiation, the limits of Thomson sources in scaling towards higher peak brilliances are highlighted. This leads to a novel method for generating brilliant, highly tunable X-ray sources, which is highly energy efficient by circumventing the laser Rayleigh limit through a novel traveling-wave Thomson scattering (TWTS) geometry. This new method suggests increases in X-ray photon yields of 2-3 orders of magnitudes using existing lasers and a way towards efficient, optical undulators to drive a free-electron laser. The results presented here extend far beyond the scope of this work. The possibility to use lasers as particle accelerators, as well as optical undulators, leads to very compact and energy efficient synchrotron sources. The resulting monoenergetic radiation of high brilliance in a range from extreme ultraviolet (EUV) to hard X-ray radiation is of fundamental importance for basic research, medical

  19. Serial isoelectric focusing as an effective and economic way to obtain maximal resolution and high-throughput in 2D-based comparative proteomics of scarce samples: proof-of-principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhoud, Murtada H; Wessels, Hans J C T; Wevers, Ron A; van Engelen, Baziel G; van den Heuvel, Lambert P; Smeitink, Jan A

    2005-01-01

    In 2D-based comparative proteomics of scarce samples, such as limited patient material, established methods for prefractionation and subsequent use of different narrow range IPG strips to increase overall resolution are difficult to apply. Also, a high number of samples, a prerequisite for drawing meaningful conclusions when pathological and control samples are considered, will increase the associated amount of work almost exponentially. Here, we introduce a novel, effective, and economic method designed to obtain maximum 2D resolution while maintaining the high throughput necessary to perform large-scale comparative proteomics studies. The method is based on connecting different IPG strips serially head-to-tail so that a complete line of different IPG strips with sequential pH regions can be focused in the same experiment. We show that when 3 IPG strips (covering together the pH range of 3-11) are connected head-to-tail an optimal resolution is achieved along the whole pH range. Sample consumption, time required, and associated costs are reduced by almost 70%, and the workload is reduced significantly.

  20. High gradient experiment by accelerator test facility for Japan Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Seishi; Akemoto, Mitsuo; Hayano, Hitoshi; Naito, Takashi; Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    1991-01-01

    For the e + e - linear colliders in TeV energy region such as the Japan Linear Collider (JLC), the accelerating gradient will be one of the important parameters affecting the over all design of main linacs. The gradient determines the accelerating structures, RF frequencies, peak power, AC power, total length and cost. High gradient experiment by using a traveling wave structure in S-band frequencies is presented. Discussions are given about the dependence of dark current and structure length. As one of the parameters indicating the quality of the structure, the multiplication factor η has been proposed

  1. Low-β acceleration with a MEQALAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Amersfoort, P.W.; Siebenlist, F.; Thomae, R.W.; Woljke, R.; Schonewille, F.G.; Ivanov, S.T.; Klein, H.; Schempp, A.; Weis, T.

    1986-01-01

    In a Multiple Electrostatic Quadrupole Array Linear Accelerator (MEQALAC) a number of parallel beams is accelerated simultaneously. This devise is useful for exit energies up to 1 MeV per nucleon. Radial stability is provided by electrostatic quadrupole lenses placed between successive acceleration gaps. The proof-of-principle MEQALAC presently available at FOM features four He + ion beams which are accelerated to an energy of 120 keV. The resonator cavity has a modified Interdigital-H-structure and contains 20 acceleration gaps. Its resonance frequency is 40 MHz. Transmission measurements on injected beams with currents ranging from 1 to 15 mA are presented. The transverse phase advance per cell of the quadrupole channels is varied between 43 0 and 114 0 . A maximum current of 2.2 mA per channel has been accelerated. A design for a MEQALAC which will be used for acceleration of N + ions to 1 MeV is presented. This accelerator will be operated at various frequencies to allow for a variation of the exit energy

  2. Rapid acceleration leads to rapid weakening in earthquake-like laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J. C.; Lockner, D. A.; Reches, Z.

    2012-12-01

    We simulated the slip of a fault-patch during a large earthquake by rapidly loading an experimental, ring-shaped fault with energy stored in a spinning flywheel. The flywheel abruptly delivers a finite amount of energy by spinning the fault-patch that spontaneously dissipates the energy without operator intervention. We conducted 42 experiments on Sierra White granite (SWG) samples, and 24 experiments on Kasota dolomite (KD) samples. Each experiment starts by spinning a 225 kg disk-shaped flywheel to a prescribed angular velocity. We refer to this experiment as an "earthquake-like slip-event" (ELSE). The strength-evolution in ELSE experiments is similar to the strength-evolution proposed for earthquake models and observed in stick-slip experiments. Further, we found that ELSE experiments are similar to earthquakes in at least three ways: (1) slip driven by the release of a finite amount of stored energy; (2) pattern of fault strength evolution; and (3) seismically observed values, such as average slip, peak-velocity and rise-time. By assuming that the measured slip, D, in ELSE experiments is equivalent to the average slip during an earthquake, we found that ELSE experiments (D = 0.003-4.6 m) correspond to earthquakes in moment-magnitude range of Mw = 4-8. In ELSE experiments, the critical-slip-distance, dc, has mean values of 2.7 cm and 1.2 cm for SWG and KD, that are much shorter than the 1-10 m in steady-state classical experiments in rotary shear systems. We attribute these dc values, to ELSE loading in which the fault-patch is abruptly loaded by impact with a spinning flywheel. Under this loading, the friction-velocity relations are strikingly different from those under steady-state loading on the same rock samples with the same shear system (Reches and Lockner, Nature, 2010). We further note that the slip acceleration in ELSE evolves systematically with fault strength and wear-rate, and that the dynamic weakening is restricted to the period of intense

  3. Design and fabrication of a Transverse Field Focussing (TFF) 180 keV negative ion accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuk, C.A.; Anderson, O.A.; Owren, H.M.; Paterson, J.A.; Purgalis, P.

    1985-11-01

    The 180 keV Transverse Field Focussing (TFF) negative ion accelerator described is the final component of a negative ion based neutral beam acceleration system which is being developed as proof-of-principle demonstration of a radiation hardened neutral beamline. The 180 keV beamline consists of: a surface conversion negative ion source, a 80 keV pre-accelerator, a TFF pumping, matching, and transport section, and the 180 keV TFF accelerator presented. This beamline is expected to provide 1 A of H - at 180 keV. In the design of the accelerator, particular importance was given to the rigidity of the accelerator electrode mounting structures and to the electrical isolation of the electrodes along with their related cooling lines. An optical alignment scheme was developed to assemble and to insure precision alignment of the electrodes

  4. A small scale accelerator driven subcritical assembly development and demonstration experiment at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wender, S.A.; Venneri, F.; Bowman, C.D.; Arthur, E.D.; Heighway, E.A.; Beard, C.A.; Bracht, R.R.; Buksa, J.J.; Chavez, W.; DeVolder, B.G.

    1994-01-01

    A small scale experiment is described that will demonstrate many of the aspects of accelerator-driven transmutation technology. This experiment uses the high-power proton beam from the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility accelerator and will be located in the Area-A experimental hall. Beam currents of up to 1 mA will be used to produce neutrons with a molten lead target. The target is surrounded by a molten salt and graphite moderator blanket. Fissionable material can be added to the molten salt to demonstrate plutonium burning or transmutation of commercial spent fuel or energy production from thorium. The experiment will be operated at power levels up to 5 MW t

  5. The electron accelerator for FELIX [Free Electron Laser for Infrared eXperiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amersfoort, P.W. van; Geer, C.A.J. van der; Meer, A.F.G. van der; Bruinsma, P.J.T.; Hoekstra, R.; Kroes, F.B.; Luyckx, G.; Noomen, J.G.; Poole, M.W.; Saxon, G.

    1989-01-01

    The authors discuss the design of the electron accelerator for the Free Electron Laser for Infrared eXperiments (FELIX), which is meant to provide the Dutch science community with a rapidly tunable source of infrared radiation. The first stage of the project will (at least) cover the wavelength range between 8 and 80 μm. The accelerator consists of a triode with a grid modulated at 1 GHz, a 3.8-MeV buncher, and two travelling-wave S-band linac structures, with which 70-A, 3-ps bunches are accelerated to an energy between 15 and 4-5 MeV. The system has been designed to minimize the energy spread in the electron beam. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  6. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1, 1986-September 30, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    Activities are reported on MBE-4, the four-beam proof-of-principle ion induction linear accelerator with the capability of beam-current amplification. Mechanical aspects of MBE-4, quadrupole insulator performance, and pulsers are discussed. The computer code, SLID, has been used to help understand the longitudinal beam dynamics in MBE-4. A computer-controlled emittance scanning system is in use in MBE-4. A systematic effort is under way to discover and correct all the defects peculiar to the low energy part of the linac design code

  7. Beam halo in high-intensity hadron accelerators caused by statistical gradient errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Gerigk

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The particle-core model for a continuous cylindrical beam is used to describe the motion of single particles oscillating in a uniform linear focusing channel. Using a random variation of the focusing forces, the model is deployed as proof of principle for the occurrence of large single particle radii without the presence of initial mismatch of the beam core. Multiparticle simulations of a periodic 3D transport channel are then used to qualify and quantify the effects in a realistic accelerator lattice.

  8. The LACARA Vacuum Laser Accelerator Experiment: Beam Positioning and Alignment in a Strong Magnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchelkunov, Sergey V.; Marshall, T. C.; Hirshfield, J. L.; Wang, Changbiao; LaPointe, M. A.

    2006-01-01

    LACARA (laser cyclotron auto-resonance accelerator) is a vacuum laser accelerator of electrons that is under construction at the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF), Brookhaven National Laboratory. It is expected that the experiment will be assembled by September 2006; this paper presents progress towards this goal. According to numerical studies, as an electron bunch moves along the LACARA solenoidal magnetic field (∼5.2 T, length ∼1 m), it will be accelerated from 50 to ∼75 MeV by interacting with a 0.8 TW Gaussian-mode circularly polarized optical pulse provided by the ATF CO2 10.6μm laser system. The LACARA laser transport optics must handle 10 J and be capable of forming a Gaussian beam inside the solenoid with a 1.4 mm waist and a Rayleigh range of 60 cm. The electron optics must transport a bunch having input emittance of 0.015 mm-mrad and 100 μm waist through the magnet. Precision alignment between the electron beam and the solenoid magnetic axis is required, and a method to achieve this is described in detail. Emittance- filtering may be necessary to yield an accelerated bunch having a narrow (∼1%) energy-spread

  9. Battle Management Language: Proof of Principle and Future Developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reus, N. M.de; Krom, P.P.J. de; Schade, U.; Pullen, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The NATO Modeling and Simulation Group Technical Activity 048 (MSG-048) was chartered in 2006 to investigate the potential of a Coalition Battle Management Language (C-BML) for Multinational and NATO interoperation of command and control systems with Modeling and Simulation. At its May, 2007

  10. Proof-of-Principle Polymer Engine-Generator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pelrine, Ronald

    2002-01-01

    ... in excess of 1000 C, more than sufficient to produce high potential efficiencies. Over 10000 cycles (the project target) were successfully demonstrated using propane and butane fuels, and much longer lifetimes are undoubtedly feasible...

  11. Magnetic particle imaging: from proof of principle to preclinical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopp, T.; Gdaniec, N.; Möddel, M.

    2017-07-01

    Tomographic imaging has become a mandatory tool for the diagnosis of a majority of diseases in clinical routine. Since each method has its pros and cons, a variety of them is regularly used in clinics to satisfy all application needs. Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a relatively new tomographic imaging technique that images magnetic nanoparticles with a high spatiotemporal resolution in a quantitative way, and in turn is highly suited for vascular and targeted imaging. MPI was introduced in 2005 and now enters the preclinical research phase, where medical researchers get access to this new technology and exploit its potential under physiological conditions. Within this paper, we review the development of MPI since its introduction in 2005. Besides an in-depth description of the basic principles, we provide detailed discussions on imaging sequences, reconstruction algorithms, scanner instrumentation and potential medical applications.

  12. Profiling the origin of ammonium nitrate: proof-of-principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carol-Visser, J.; Farmache, M.A.; Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    In many Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) the main charge consists of ammonium nitrate (AN). For forensic reasons, screening for the origin of AN is of importance. By assessing specifi c characteristics, diff erent AN batches can be profi led, in this way providing extra information which could

  13. IJzerrijk drinkwaterslib en verschraling landbouwgronden: een proof of principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, E.C.H.E.T.; Chardon, W.J.; Dorland, E.; Sluys, van der M.L.; Poelen, M.D.M.; Smolders, Alfons J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Bij de inrichting van het Natuurnetwerk Nederland en van Natura 2000-gebieden worden op grote schaal landbouwgronden heringericht als soortenrijke natuur. Om op korte termijn fosfaatarme bodemcondities te krijgen wordt op locaties waar de bodem te rijk is via maaibeheer en/of uitmijnen te bereiken,

  14. Photocathode driven linac at UCLA for FEL and plasma wakefield acceleration experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, S.; Aghamir, F.; Barletta, W.; Cline, D.; Dodd, J.; Katsouleas, T.; Kolonko, J.; Park, S.; Pellegrini, C.; Rosenzweig, J.; Smolin, J.; Terrien, J.; Davis, J.; Hairapetian, G.; Joshi, C.; Luhmann, N. Jr.; McDermott, D.

    1991-01-01

    The UCLA compact 20-MeV/c electron linear accelerator is designed to produce a single electron bunch with a peak current of 200 A, an rms energy spread of 0.2% or less, and a short 1.2 picosecond rms pulse duration. The linac is also designed to minimize emittance growth down the beamline so as to obtain emittances of the order of 8πmm-mrad in the experimental region. The linac will feed two beamlines, the first will run straight into the undulator for FEL experiments while the second will be used for diagnostics, longitudinal bunch compression, and other electron beam experiments. Here the authors describe the considerations put into the design of the accelerating structures and the transport to the experimental areas

  15. Rapid acceleration leads to rapid weakening in earthquake-like laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jefferson C.; Lockner, David A.; Reches, Z.

    2012-01-01

    After nucleation, a large earthquake propagates as an expanding rupture front along a fault. This front activates countless fault patches that slip by consuming energy stored in Earth’s crust. We simulated the slip of a fault patch by rapidly loading an experimental fault with energy stored in a spinning flywheel. The spontaneous evolution of strength, acceleration, and velocity indicates that our experiments are proxies of fault-patch behavior during earthquakes of moment magnitude (Mw) = 4 to 8. We show that seismically determined earthquake parameters (e.g., displacement, velocity, magnitude, or fracture energy) can be used to estimate the intensity of the energy release during an earthquake. Our experiments further indicate that high acceleration imposed by the earthquake’s rupture front quickens dynamic weakening by intense wear of the fault zone.

  16. Plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, R.; Angelis, U. de; Johnston, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    Recently attention has focused on charged particle acceleration in a plasma by a fast, large amplitude, longitudinal electron plasma wave. The plasma beat wave and plasma wakefield accelerators are two efficient ways of producing ultra-high accelerating gradients. Starting with the plasma beat wave accelerator (PBWA) and laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) schemes and the plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) steady progress has been made in theory, simulations and experiments. Computations are presented for the study of LWFA. (author)

  17. SPHINX phototube RICH detector for diffractive production experiments at Serpukhov accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Kozhevnikov, A; Molchanov, V; Rykalin, V I; Solyanik, V

    1999-01-01

    The RICH detector used in the SPHINX experiment at the Serpukhov accelerator is described. The optical system of this detector consists of two spherical mirrors with focal length of 125 cm. Two matrices with 736 phototubes in total are used for the photocathode. The standard performance characteristics of the detector are a value of 42 cm sup - sup 1 for N sub 0 and a single hit resolution of 0.5 cm. Particle identification capability of the detector is discussed.

  18. SPHINX phototube RICH detector for diffractive production experiments at Serpukhov accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozhevnikov, A.; Kubarovsky, V.; Molchanov, V.; Rykalin, V.; Solyanik, V.

    1999-01-01

    The RICH detector used in the SPHINX experiment at the Serpukhov accelerator is described. The optical system of this detector consists of two spherical mirrors with focal length of 125 cm. Two matrices with 736 phototubes in total are used for the photocathode. The standard performance characteristics of the detector are a value of 42 cm -1 for N 0 and a single hit resolution of 0.5 cm. Particle identification capability of the detector is discussed

  19. SPHINX phototube RICH detector for diffractive production experiments at Serpukhov accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozhevnikov, A.; Kubarovsky, V.; Molchanov, V. E-mail: molchanov@mx.ihep.su; Rykalin, V.; Solyanik, V

    1999-08-21

    The RICH detector used in the SPHINX experiment at the Serpukhov accelerator is described. The optical system of this detector consists of two spherical mirrors with focal length of 125 cm. Two matrices with 736 phototubes in total are used for the photocathode. The standard performance characteristics of the detector are a value of 42 cm{sup -1} for N{sub 0} and a single hit resolution of 0.5 cm. Particle identification capability of the detector is discussed.

  20. The origin of mass and experiments on high-energy particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, B.L.

    2006-01-01

    The visible world is one consisting of nucleons and electrons. The mass of nucleon arises from chiral symmetry breaking in quantum chromodynamics, so high energy accelerator experiments cannot give a clue to the nature of mass of matter in the visible world. The origin of the mass of the matter will be clarified when the mechanism of chiral symmetry breaking in quantum chromodynamics is established [ru

  1. Results from the S-DALINAC: one year of operational experience from a superconducting electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graef, H.D.; Horn, J.; Hummel, K.D.; Luettge, C.; Richter, A.; Riedorf, T.; Ruehl, K.; Schardt, P.; Spamer, E.; Stiller, A.; Thomas, F.; Titze, O.; Toepper, J.; Weise, H.; Winkler, T.

    1992-01-01

    Since August 1991 the superconducting cw-electron accelerator S-DALINAC at Darmstadt has produced single and multi pass beam which is used for different experiments. At energies below 10 MeV investigations of channeling radiation production and nuclear resonance fluorescence experiments are performed. Single pass operation yielding beam energies up to 40 MeV has been used for tests of the Free Electron Laser (FEL) beamline and for the investigation of spontaneous emission from the undulator. Two and three pass operation at higher energies produces beam for electron scattering experiments,(e,e') and (e,e'x), as well as for the production of channeling radiation. True cw operation allows for energies up to 84 MeV limited by the capacity of the He refrigerator. At higher energies the duty factor has to be reduced and pulse length is on the order of seconds. The successful operation of the entire accelerator was the result of several developments: six accelerating cavities fabricated from RRR = 280 niobium raised the average field gradient to 6 MV/m; the control systems for gun, rf, cavity tuners, and the beam transport system including beam diagnostics have been integrated into a reliable remote control of the S-DALINAC; and computer controlled path length adjustments for the two recirculating beamlines were installed for optimization of the reinjection phase. (Author) fig., tab., 10 refs

  2. X-ray production experiments on the RACE Compact Torus Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, J.H.; Eddleman, J.L.; Hartman, C.W.; McLean, H.S.; Molvik, A.W.; Gee, M.

    1989-12-01

    The Purpose of the Compact Torus Accelerator (CTA) program at LLNL is to prove the principle of a unique accelerator concept based on magnetically confined compact torus (CT) plasma rings and to study applications. Successful achievement of these goals could lead to a high power-density driver for many applications including an intense x-ray source for nuclear weapons effects simulation and an inertial fusion driver. Fusion applications and a description of the CTA concept are included in a companion paper at this conference. This paper will describe the initial experiments on soft x-ray production conducted on the plasma Ring ACcelerator Experiment (RACE) and compare the results to modeling studies. The experiments on CT stagnation and soft x-ray production were conducted with unfocused rings as a first of CT dynamics and the physics of x-ray production. The x-ray fluences observed are consistent with expectations based on calculations employing a radiation-hydrodynamics code. We conclude with a diffusion of future x-ray production studies that can be conducted on RACE and a possible multi-megajoule upgrade

  3. A 1MeV, 1A negative ion accelerator test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanada, M.; Dairaku, M.; Inoue, T.; Miyamoto, K.; Ohara, Y.; Okumura, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Yokoyama, K.

    1995-01-01

    For the Proof-of-Principle test of negative ion acceleration up to 1 MeV, the beam energy required for ITER, a negative ion test facility named MeV Test Facility (MTF) and an ion source/accelerator have been designed and constructed. They are designed to produce a 1 MeV H- beam at a low source pressure of 0.13Pa. The MTF has a power supply system, which constituts of a 1MV, 1A, 60 s Cockcroft-Walton type dc high energy generator and power supplies for negative ion generation and extraction (ion source power supplies). The negative ion source/accelerator is composed of a cesiated volume source and a 5-stage, multi-aperture, electrostatic accelerator. The MTF and the ion source/accelerator have been completed, and the accelertion test up to 1 MeV of the H- ions has started. (orig.)

  4. Flame acceleration of hydrogen - air - diluent mixtures at middle scale using ENACCEF: experiments and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrice Malet; Nathalie Lamoureux; Nabiha Djebaili-Chaumeix; Claude-Etienne Paillard; Pierre Pailhories; Jean-Pierre L'heriteau; Bernard Chaumont; Ahmed Bentaib

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In the case of hypothetic severe accident on light water nuclear reactor, hydrogen would be produced during reactor core degradation and released to the reactor building which could subsequently raise a combustion hazard. A local ignition of the combustible mixture would give birth initially to a slow flame which can be accelerated due to turbulence. Depending on the geometry and the premixed combustible mixture composition, the flame can accelerate and for some conditions transit to detonation or be quenched after a certain distance. The flame acceleration is responsible for the generation of high pressure loads that could damage the reactor's building. Moreover, geometrical configuration is a major factor leading to flame acceleration. Thus, recording experimental data notably on mid-size installations is required for the numeric simulations validation before modelling realistic scales. The ENACCEF vertical facility is a 6 meters high acceleration tube aimed at representing steam generator room leading to containment dome. This setup can be equipped with obstacles of different blockage ratios and shapes in order to obtain an acceleration of the flame. Depending on the geometrical characteristics of these obstacles, different regimes of the flame propagation can be achieved. The mixture composition's influence on flame velocity and acceleration has been investigated. Using a steam physical-like diluent (40% He - 60% CO 2 ), influence of dilution on flame speed and acceleration has been investigated. The flame front has also been recorded with ultra fast ombroscopy visualization, both in the tube and in dome's the entering. The flame propagation is computed using the TONUS code. Based on Euler's equation solving code using structured finite volumes, it includes the CREBCOM flames modelling and simulates the hydrogen/air turbulent flame propagation, taking into account 3D complex geometry and reactants concentration gradients. Since

  5. AWAKE Design Report: A Proton-Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Caldwell, A; Lotov, K; Muggli, P; Wing, M

    2013-01-01

    The AWAKE Collaboration has been formed in order to demonstrate proton driven plasma wakefield acceleration for the first time. This technology could lead to future colliders of high energy but of a much reduced length compared to proposed linear accelerators. The SPS proton beam in the CNGS facility will be injected into a 10m plasma cell where the long proton bunches will be modulated into significantly shorter micro-bunches. These micro-bunches will then initiate a strong wakefield in the plasma with peak fields above 1 GV/m that will be harnessed to accelerate a bunch of electrons from about 20MeV to the GeV scale within a few meters. The experimental program is based on detailed numerical simulations of beam and plasma interactions. The main accelerator components, the experimental area and infrastructure required as well as the plasma cell and the diagnostic equipment are discussed in detail. First protons to the experiment are expected at the end of 2015 and this will be followed by an initial 3–4 ye...

  6. Nuclear models, experiments and data libraries needed for numerical simulation of accelerator-driven system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauge, E.; Bersillon, O.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the transparencies of the speech concerning the nuclear models, experiments and data libraries needed for numerical simulation of Accelerator-Driven Systems. The first part concerning the nuclear models defines the spallation process, the corresponding models (intra-nuclear cascade, statistical model, Fermi breakup, fission, transport, decay and macroscopic aspects) and the code systems. The second part devoted to the experiments presents the angular measurements, the integral measurements, the residual nuclei and the energy deposition. In the last part, dealing with the data libraries, the author details the fundamental quantities as the reaction cross-section, the low energy transport databases and the decay libraries. (A.L.B.)

  7. Accelerator Studies on a possible Experiment on Proton-Driven Plasma Wakefields at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, R W; Fartoukh, S; Geschonke, G; Goddard, B; Hessler, C; Hillenbrand, S; Meddahi, M; Roesler, S; Zimmermann, F; Caldwell, A; Muggli, P; Xia, G

    2011-01-01

    There has been a proposal by Caldwell et al to use proton beams as drivers for high energy linear colliders. An experimental test with CERN’s proton beams is being studied. Such a test requires a transfer line for transporting the beam to the experiment, a focusing section for beam delivery into the plasma, the plasma cell and a downstream diagnostics and dump section. The work done at CERN towards the conceptual layout and design of such a test area is presented. A possible development of such a test area into a CERN test facility for high-gradient acceleration experiments is discussed.

  8. Lattice design of the integrable optics test accelerator and optical stochastic cooling experiment at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafka, Gene [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) storage ring at Fermilab will serve as the backbone for a broad spectrum of Advanced Accelerator R&D (AARD) experiments, and as such, must be designed with signi cant exibility in mind, but without compromising cost e ciency. The nonlinear experiments at IOTA will include: achievement of a large nonlinear tune shift/spread without degradation of dynamic aperture; suppression of strong lattice resonances; study of stability of nonlinear systems to perturbations; and studies of di erent variants of nonlinear magnet design. The ring optics control has challenging requirements that reach or exceed the present state of the art. The development of a complete self-consistent design of the IOTA ring optics, meeting the demands of all planned AARD experiments, is presented. Of particular interest are the precise control for nonlinear integrable optics experiments and the transverse-to-longitudinal coupling and phase stability for the Optical Stochastic Cooling Experiment (OSC). Since the beam time-of- ight must be tightly controlled in the OSC section, studies of second order corrections in this section are presented.

  9. The UCLA/SLAC Ultra-High Gradient Cerenkov Wakefield Accelerator Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Matthew C; Hogan, Mark; Ischebeck, Rasmus; Muggli, Patric; Rosenzweig, James E; Scott, A; Siemann, Robert; Travish, Gil; Walz, Dieter; Yoder, Rodney

    2005-01-01

    An experiment is planned to study the performance of dielectric Cerenkov wakefield accelerating structures at extremely high gradients in the GV/m range. This new UCLA/SLAC collaboration will take advantage of the unique SLAC FFTB electron beam and its demonstrated ultra-short pulse lengths and high currents (e.g., sz = 20 μm at Q = 3 nC). The electron beam will be focused down and sent through varying lengths of fused silica capillary tubing with two different sizes: ID = 200 μm / OD = 325 μm and ID = 100 μm / OD = 325 μm. The pulse length of the electron beam will be varied in order to alter the accelerating gradient and probe the breakdown threshold of the dielectric structures. In addition to breakdown studies, we plan to collect and measure coherent Cerenkov radiation emitted from the capillary tube to gain information about the strength of the accelerating fields. Status and progress on the experiment are reported.

  10. Mechanical design of recirculating accelerator experiments for heavy-ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpenko, V.

    1995-01-01

    Recirculating induction accelerators have been studied as a potential low cost driver for inertial fusion energy. At LLNL, we are developing a small (4.5-m diameter), scaled, experimental machine which will demonstrate many of the engineering solutions of a full scale driver. The small recirculator will accelerate singly ionized potassium ions from 80 to 320 keV and 2 to 8 mA, using electric dipoles for bending and permanent magnet quadrupoles for focusing in a compact periodic lattice. While very compact, and low cost, this design allows the investigation of most of the critical physics issues associated with space-charge-dominated beams in future IFE power plant drivers. This report describes the recirculator, its mechanical design, its vacuum design, and the process for aligning it. Additionally, a straight magnetic transport experiment is being carried out to test diagnostics and magnetic transport in preparation for the recirculator

  11. Operating experience with a new accelerator control system based upon microprocessors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magyary, S.; Lancaster, H.; Selph, F.; Fahmie, M.; Timossi, C.; Glatz, J.; Ritchie, A.; Hinkson, J.; Benjegerdes, R.; Brodzik, D.

    1981-03-01

    This paper describes the design and operating experience with a high performance control system tailored to the requirements of the SuperHILAC accelerator. A large number (20) of the latest 16-bit microcomputer boards are used in a parallel-distributed manner to get a high system bandwidth. Because of the high bandwidth, software costs and complexity are significantly reduced. The system by its very nature and design is easily upgraded and repaired. Dynamically assigned and labeled knobs, together with touch-panels, allow a flexible and efficient operator interface. An X-Y vector graphics system provides for display and labeling of real-time signals as well as general plotting functions. This control system allows attachment of a powerful auxiliary computer for scientific processing with access to accelerator parameters.

  12. Experiments on laser driven beatwave acceleration in a ponderomotively formed plasma channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tochitsky, S.Ya.; Narang, R.; Filip, C.V.; Clayton, C.E.; Marsh, K.A.; Joshi, C.; Musumeci, P.; Yoder, R.B.; Rosenzweig, J.B.; Pellegrini, C.

    2004-01-01

    A 10 ps long beam of 12 MeV electrons is externally injected into a ∼3-cm long plasma beatwave excited in a laser ionized hydrogen gas. The electrons have been accelerated to 50 MeV with a gradient of ∼1.3 GeV/m. It is shown that when the effective plasma wave amplitude-length product is limited by ionization-induced defocusing (IID), acceleration of electrons is significantly enhanced by using a laser pulse with a duration longer than the time required for ions to move across the laser spot size. Both experiments and two-dimensional simulations reveal that, in this case, self-guiding of the laser pulse in a ponderomotively formed plasma channel occurs. This compensates for IID and drives the beatwave over the longer length compared to when such a channel is not present

  13. Development and application of a computer model for large-scale flame acceleration experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, K.D.

    1987-07-01

    A new computational model for large-scale premixed flames is developed and applied to the simulation of flame acceleration experiments. The primary objective is to circumvent the necessity for resolving turbulent flame fronts; this is imperative because of the relatively coarse computational grids which must be used in engineering calculations. The essence of the model is to artificially thicken the flame by increasing the appropriate diffusivities and decreasing the combustion rate, but to do this in such a way that the burn velocity varies with pressure, temperature, and turbulence intensity according to prespecified phenomenological characteristics. The model is particularly aimed at implementation in computer codes which simulate compressible flows. To this end, it is applied to the two-dimensional simulation of hydrogen-air flame acceleration experiments in which the flame speeds and gas flow velocities attain or exceed the speed of sound in the gas. It is shown that many of the features of the flame trajectories and pressure histories in the experiments are simulated quite well by the model. Using the comparison of experimental and computational results as a guide, some insight is developed into the processes which occur in such experiments. 34 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs

  14. New IES scheme for power conditioning at ultra-high currents: from concept to MHD modeling and first experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuvatin, Alexandre S.; Aranchuk, Leonid E.; Rudakov, Leonid I.; Kokshenev, Vladimir A.; Kurmaev, Nikolai E.; Fursov, Fiodor I.; Huet, Dominique; Gasilov, Vladimir A.; Krukovskii, Alexandre Yu.

    2002-01-01

    This work introduces an inductive energy storage (IES) scheme which aims pulsed-power conditioning at multi- MJ energies. The key element of the scheme represents an additional plasma volume, where a magnetically accelerated wire array is used for inductive current switching. This plasma acceleration volume is connected in parallel to a microsecond capacitor bank and to a 100-ns current ruse-time useful load. Simple estimates suggest that optimized scheme parameters could be reachable even when operating at ultra-high currents. We describe first proof-of-principle experiments carried out on GIT12 generator at the wire-array current level of 2 MA. The obtained confirmation of the concept consists in generation of a 200 kV voltage directly at an inductive load. This load voltage value can be already sufficient to transfer the available magnetic energy into kinetic energy of a liner at this current level. Two-dimensional modeling with the radiational MHD numerical tool Marple confirms the development of inductive voltage in the system. However, the average voltage increase is accompanied by short-duration voltage drops due to interception of the current by the low-density upstream plasma. Upon our viewpoint, this instability of the current distribution represents the main physical limitation to the scheme performance

  15. Experiences and emotions of faculty teaching in accelerated second baccalaureate degree nursing programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Cheryl L; Boellaard, Melissa R; Zorn, Cecelia R

    2013-07-01

    The number of accelerated second baccalaureate degree nursing (ASBSN) programs has mushroomed over recent decades, with more than 225 currently in existence. Scholars have described students and programs, but research examining the faculty experience is limited. The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences and emotions of faculty teaching students in ASBSN programs. Using a descriptive qualitative survey design, faculty (N = 138) from 25 randomly selected programs in 11 midwestern states were surveyed using an instrument developed for this study and distributed online. Ten themes emerged, including (a) Engaging With Motivated, Mature, and Diverse Students, (b) Students Choosing Nursing for the "Wrong Reasons," (c) Too Much Work, Too Little Time for Students and Faculty, (d) Amazement, (e) Pride, and (f) Frustration. These findings will help novice and seasoned ASBSN faculty interpret their experiences, strengthen precepting and mentoring activities, and support administrators in determining staffing plans and designing ASBSN programs. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Fusion Concept Exploration Experiments at PPPL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart Zweben; Samuel Cohen; Hantao Ji; Robert Kaita; Richard Majeski; Masaaki Yamada

    1999-01-01

    Small ''concept exploration'' experiments have for many years been an important part of the fusion research program at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). this paper describes some of the present and planned fusion concept exploration experiments at PPPL. These experiments are a University-scale research level, in contrast with the larger fusion devices at PPPL such as the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), which are at ''proof-of-principle'' and ''proof-of-performance'' levels, respectively

  17. FPGA Compute Acceleration for High-Throughput Data Processing in High-Energy Physics Experiments

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The upgrades of the four large experiments of the LHC at CERN in the coming years will result in a huge increase of data bandwidth for each experiment which needs to be processed very efficiently. For example the LHCb experiment will upgrade its detector 2019/2020 to a 'triggerless' readout scheme, where all of the readout electronics and several sub-detector parts will be replaced. The new readout electronics will be able to readout the detector at 40MHz. This increases the data bandwidth from the detector down to the event filter farm to 40TBit/s, which must be processed to select the interesting proton-proton collisions for later storage. The architecture of such a computing farm, which can process this amount of data as efficiently as possible, is a challenging task and several compute accelerator technologies are being considered.    In the high performance computing sector more and more FPGA compute accelerators are being used to improve the compute performance and reduce the...

  18. Management of vestibular schwannomas with linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery: a single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Omer; Beyzadeoglu, Murat; Dincoglan, Ferrat; Demiral, Selcuk; Uysal, Bora; Gamsiz, Hakan; Oysul, Kaan; Dirican, Bahar; Sirin, Sait

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of treatment for vestibular schwannoma is to achieve local control without comprimising regional cranial nerve function. Stereotactic radiosurgery has emerged as a viable therapeutic option for vestibular schwannoma. The aim of the study is to report our 15-year single center experience using linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery in the management of patients with vestibular schwannoma. Between July 1998 and January 2013, 68 patients with unilateral vestibular schwannoma were treated using stereotactic radiosurgery at the Department of Radiation Oncology, Gulhane Military Medical Academy. All patients underwent high-precision stereotactic radiosurgery using a linear accelerator with 6-MV photons. Median follow-up time was 51 months (range, 9-107). Median age was 45 years (range, 20-77). Median dose was 12 Gy (range, 10-13) prescribed to the 85%-95% isodose line encompassing the target volume. Local tumor control in patients with periodic follow-up imaging was 96.1%. Overall hearing preservation rate was 76.5%. Linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery offers a safe and effective treatment for patients with vestibular schwannoma by providing high local control rates along with improved quality of life through well-preserved hearing function.

  19. Characterization studies of lithium vapour generated in heat pipe oven for the Plasma Wakefield Accelerator Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohandas, K.K.; Mahavar, Kanchan; Ajai Kumar; Kumar, Ravi A.V.

    2013-01-01

    Characterization and optimization studies of lithium vapor by white light as well as UV laser absorption were carried out as part of generation of photo ionized Li plasma for the Plasma Wake Field Acceleration Experiment. Temperature and buffer gas pressure dependency of the neutral density of lithium vapor was studied in detail. The line integrated neutral density of Li(n o L) was found to be of the order of 10 17 -10 18 cm -2 at heat pipe oven temperatures in the range from 600-800℃ which is sufficient to obtain the required 1013-1014 cm -3 plasma densities by photo ionization. (author)

  20. Some aspects of the applications of wire chambers in high energy physics experiments at large accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turala, M.

    1982-01-01

    An application of proportional and drift chambers in four large spectrometers at the accelerators of IHEP Serpukhov and CERN Geneva is described. An operation of wire chambers at high intensities and high multiplicities of particles is discussed. The results of investigations of their efficiencies, spatial resolution (for one and two-dimensional readout) and long term stability are presented. Problems of preselection of a given class of events are discussed. The systems for preselection of defined multiplicities or a scattering angle of particles, in which proportional chambers have been used, are described and the results of their application in the real experiments are presented. (author)

  1. Experiments on resonator concept of plasma wakefield accelerator driven by a train of relativistic electron bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, V.A.; Linnik, A.F.; Mirny, V. I; Onishchenko, I.N.; Uskov, V.V.

    2008-01-01

    The experimental installation was elaborated to increase plasma wakefield amplitude by means of using plasma resonator that allows all bunches of the train to participate in wakefield build-up contrary to waveguide case, in which due to group velocity effect only a part of the bunches participates. Experiments on plasma producing with resonant density, at which a coincidence of the plasma frequency and bunch repetition frequency is provided, are carried out. The first results of the measurements of beam energy loss on plasma wakefield excitation and energy gain by accelerated electrons are presented

  2. SABRE (Sandia Accelerator and Beam Research Experiment): A test bed for the light ion fusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuneo, M.E.; Hanson, D.L.; McKay, P.F.; Maenchen, J.E.; Tisone, G.C.; Adams, R.G.; Nash, T.; Bernard, M.; Boney, C.; Chavez, J.R.; Fowler, W.F.; Ruscetti, J.; Stearns, W.F.; Noack, D.; Wenger, D.F.

    1992-01-01

    Extraction applied-B ion diode experiments are underway on the recently completed SABRE positive polarity linear induction accelerator (6 MV, 220 kA). The authors are performing these experiments in direct support of the light ion fusion program on PBFAII at Sandia. SABRE provides a test bed with a higher shot rate and improved diagnostic access for ion source development and ion beam divergence control experiments. These experiments will also address the coupling of an ion diode to the turbulent, wide spectrum feed electrons which occur on these inductive adders in positive polarity. This work continues previous work on the HELIA accelerator. The diode is a uniformly magnetically insulated, extraction ion diode, with a 5-cm mean anode surface radius. The uniform insulation field profiles are generated by four individual 60 kJ capacitor banks. Field-exclusion profiles are also anticipated. They have developed a wide array of electrical, ion beam, and plasma diagnostics to accomplish their objectives. MITL (magnetically insulated transmission line) and diode voltages are being measured with a magnetic spectrometer, a range-filtered-scintillator (RFS) fiber optic/PMT system, and a range-filtered CR-39 nuclear track film based system. Beam energy can be determined by these diagnostics as well as a filtered Faraday cup array. MITL and ion currents are being measured with an array of Rogowski coils, common-mode rejection and single turn Bs, and resistive shunts. The ion source experiments will investigate thin-film lithium ion sources, particularly the active LEVIS (Laser EVaporation Ion Source) and the passive LiF source. LEVIS uses two pulsed lasers to evaporate and then ionize lithium from a lithium bearing thin-film on the anode. A ruby laser (20 ns, 12 J) for evaporation, and a dye laser for resonant lithium ionization have been developed. The performance of LEVIS with an array of active and passive surface cleaning techniques will be studied

  3. Current experiments using polarized beams of the JINR LHE accelerator complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehar, F.

    2001-01-01

    The present review is devoted to the spin-dependent experiments carried out or prepared at the JINR LHE Synchrocyclotron. The acceleration of polarized deuterons, and experiments using the internal targets, the beam extraction and the polarimetry are briefly described. Then, representative experiments using either the extracted deuteron beam or secondary beams of polarized nucleons produced by polarized deuterons are treated. Three current experiments: 'DELTA-SIGMA', 'DELTA' and 'pp-SINGLET', require the polarized nucleon beams in conjunction with the Dubna polarized proton target. Already available Δσ L (np) results from the first experiment show unexpected energy dependence. Experiment 'DELTA' should investigate the nucleon strangeness. The aim of the third experiment is to study a possible resonant behavior of the spin-singlet pp scattering amplitude. For all other Dubna experiments unpolarized nucleon or nuclei targets are used. The polarized deuteron beam allows determining spin-dependent observable necessary for understanding the deuteron structure, as well as the nucleon substructure. One part of investigations concerns deuteron break-up reactions and deuteron proton backward elastic scattering. A considerable amount of data was obtained in this domain. Another part is dedicated to the measurements of the same spin-dependent observable in a 'cumulative' region. Interesting results were obtained for proton or pion productions in inclusive and semi-inclusive measurements. In the field of inelastic deuteron reactions, the analyzing power measurements were performed in the region covering Roper resonances. Many existing models are in disagreement with observed momentum dependences of different results. Finally, the proton-carbon analyzing power measurements extended the momentum region of rescattering observables. Some inclusive Dubna results are compared to exclusive Saclay data, and to lepton-deuteron measurements. Most of the JINR LHE experiments are

  4. The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment User Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, A.; Rajaram, D.; MICE Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is a proof-of-principle experiment designed to demonstrate muon ionization cooling for the first time. MICE is currently on Step IV of its data taking programme, where transverse emittance reduction will be demonstrated. The MICE Analysis User Software (MAUS) is the reconstruction, simulation and analysis framework for the MICE experiment. MAUS is used for both offline data analysis and fast online data reconstruction and visualization to serve MICE data taking. This paper provides an introduction to MAUS, describing the central Python and C++ based framework, the data structure and and the code management and testing procedures.

  5. Simulations and experiments on external electron injection for laser wakefield acceleration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van W.

    2010-01-01

    Laser wake field acceleration is a technique that can be used to accelerate electrons using electric fields that are several orders of magnitude higher than those available in conventional accelerators. With these higher fields, it is possible to drastically reduce the length of accelerator needed

  6. Conceptual design of a laser-plasma accelerator driven free-electron laser demonstration experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seggebrock, Thorben

    2015-01-01

    Up to now, short-wavelength free-electron lasers (FEL) have been systems on the scale of hundreds of meters up to multiple kilometers. Due to the advancements in laser-plasma acceleration in the recent years, these accelerators have become a promising candidate for driving a fifth-generation synchrotron light source - a lab-scale free-electron laser. So far, demonstration experiments have been hindered by the broad energy spread typical for this type of accelerator. This thesis addresses the most important challenges of the conceptual design for a first lab-scale FEL demonstration experiment using analytical considerations as well as simulations. The broad energy spread reduces the FEL performance directly by weakening the microbunching and indirectly via chromatic emittance growth, caused by the focusing system. Both issues can be mitigated by decompressing the electron bunch in a magnetic chicane, resulting in a sorting by energies. This reduces the local energy spread as well as the local chromatic emittance growth and also lowers performance degradations caused by the short bunch length. Moreover, the energy dependent focus position leads to a focus motion within the bunch, which can be synchronized with the radiation pulse, maximizing the current density in the interaction region. This concept is termed chromatic focus matching. A comparison shows the advantages of the longitudinal decompression concept compared to the alternative approach of transverse dispersion. When using typical laser-plasma based electron bunches, coherent synchrotron radiation and space-charge contribute in equal measure to the emittance growth during decompression. It is shown that a chicane for this purpose must not be as weak and long as affordable to reduce coherent synchrotron radiation, but that an intermediate length is required. Furthermore, the interplay of the individual concepts and components is assessed in a start-to-end simulation, confirming the feasibility of the

  7. Conceptual design of a laser-plasma accelerator driven free-electron laser demonstration experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seggebrock, Thorben

    2015-07-08

    Up to now, short-wavelength free-electron lasers (FEL) have been systems on the scale of hundreds of meters up to multiple kilometers. Due to the advancements in laser-plasma acceleration in the recent years, these accelerators have become a promising candidate for driving a fifth-generation synchrotron light source - a lab-scale free-electron laser. So far, demonstration experiments have been hindered by the broad energy spread typical for this type of accelerator. This thesis addresses the most important challenges of the conceptual design for a first lab-scale FEL demonstration experiment using analytical considerations as well as simulations. The broad energy spread reduces the FEL performance directly by weakening the microbunching and indirectly via chromatic emittance growth, caused by the focusing system. Both issues can be mitigated by decompressing the electron bunch in a magnetic chicane, resulting in a sorting by energies. This reduces the local energy spread as well as the local chromatic emittance growth and also lowers performance degradations caused by the short bunch length. Moreover, the energy dependent focus position leads to a focus motion within the bunch, which can be synchronized with the radiation pulse, maximizing the current density in the interaction region. This concept is termed chromatic focus matching. A comparison shows the advantages of the longitudinal decompression concept compared to the alternative approach of transverse dispersion. When using typical laser-plasma based electron bunches, coherent synchrotron radiation and space-charge contribute in equal measure to the emittance growth during decompression. It is shown that a chicane for this purpose must not be as weak and long as affordable to reduce coherent synchrotron radiation, but that an intermediate length is required. Furthermore, the interplay of the individual concepts and components is assessed in a start-to-end simulation, confirming the feasibility of the

  8. Design study of prototype accelerator and MeV test facility for demonstration of 1 MeV, 1 A negative ion beam production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Takashi; Hanada, Masaya; Miyamoto, Kenji; Ohara, Yoshihiro; Okumura, Yoshikazu; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Maeno, Shuichi.

    1994-08-01

    In fusion reactors such as ITER, a neutral beam injector of MeV class beam energy and several tens MW class power is required as one of candidates of heating and current drive systems. However, the beam energy of existing high power accelerators are one order of magnitude lower than the required value. In order to realize a neutral beam injector for the fusion reactor, 'Proof-of-Principle' of such high energy acceleration is a critical issue at a reactor relevant beam current and pulse length. An accelerator and an accelerator facility which are necessary to demonstrate the Proof-of-Principle acceleration of negative ion beams up to 1 MeV, have been designed in the present study. The accelerator is composed of a cesium-volume type ion source and a multi-stage electrostatic acceleration system [Prototype Accelerator]. A negative hydrogen ion beam with the current of about one ampere (1 A) can be accelerated up to 1 MeV at a low operating pressure. Two types of acceleration system, a multi-multi type and a multi-single type, have been studied. The test facility has sufficient capability for the test of the Prototype Accelerator [MeV Test Facility]. The dc high voltage generator for negative ion acceleration is a Cockcroft-Walton type and capable of delivering 1 A at 1 MV (=1 MW) for 60 s. High voltage components including Prototype Accelerator are installed in a SF 6 vessel pressurized at 6 kg/cm 2 to overcome high voltage gradients. The vessel and the beamline are installed in a X-ray shield. (author)

  9. Proton acceleration experiments and warm dense matter research using high power lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, M; Alber, I; Guenther, M; Harres, K [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Bagnoud, V [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Brown, C R D [Plasma Physics Group, Imperial College London, SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Clarke, R; Heathcote, R; Li, B [STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), Chilton, Didcot, OX14 OQX (United Kingdom); Daido, H [Photo Medical Research Center, JAEA, Kizugawa-City, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Fernandez, J; Flippo, K; Gaillard, S; Gauthier, C [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Geissel, M [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Glenzer, S; Kritcher, A; Kugland, N; LePape, S [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Gregori, G, E-mail: markus.roth@physik.tu-darmstadt.d [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    The acceleration of intense proton and ion beams by ultra-intense lasers has matured to a point where applications in basic research and technology are being developed. Crucial for harvesting the unmatched beam parameters driven by the relativistic electron sheath is the precise control of the beam. In this paper we report on recent experiments using the PHELIX laser at GSI, the VULCAN laser at RAL and the TRIDENT laser at LANL to control and use laser accelerated proton beams for applications in high energy density research. We demonstrate efficient collimation of the proton beam using high field pulsed solenoid magnets, a prerequisite to capture and transport the beam for applications. Furthermore, we report on two campaigns to use intense, short proton bunches to isochorically heat solid targets up to the warm dense matter state. The temporal profile of the proton beam allows for rapid heating of the target, much faster than the hydrodynamic response time thereby creating a strongly coupled plasma at solid density. The target parameters are then probed by x-ray Thomson scattering to reveal the density and temperature of the heated volume. This combination of two powerful techniques developed during the past few years allows for the generation and investigation of macroscopic samples of matter in states present in giant planets or the interior of the earth.

  10. Proton acceleration experiments and warm dense matter research using high power lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, M; Alber, I; Guenther, M; Harres, K; Bagnoud, V; Brown, C R D; Clarke, R; Heathcote, R; Li, B; Daido, H; Fernandez, J; Flippo, K; Gaillard, S; Gauthier, C; Geissel, M; Glenzer, S; Kritcher, A; Kugland, N; LePape, S; Gregori, G

    2009-01-01

    The acceleration of intense proton and ion beams by ultra-intense lasers has matured to a point where applications in basic research and technology are being developed. Crucial for harvesting the unmatched beam parameters driven by the relativistic electron sheath is the precise control of the beam. In this paper we report on recent experiments using the PHELIX laser at GSI, the VULCAN laser at RAL and the TRIDENT laser at LANL to control and use laser accelerated proton beams for applications in high energy density research. We demonstrate efficient collimation of the proton beam using high field pulsed solenoid magnets, a prerequisite to capture and transport the beam for applications. Furthermore, we report on two campaigns to use intense, short proton bunches to isochorically heat solid targets up to the warm dense matter state. The temporal profile of the proton beam allows for rapid heating of the target, much faster than the hydrodynamic response time thereby creating a strongly coupled plasma at solid density. The target parameters are then probed by x-ray Thomson scattering to reveal the density and temperature of the heated volume. This combination of two powerful techniques developed during the past few years allows for the generation and investigation of macroscopic samples of matter in states present in giant planets or the interior of the earth.

  11. Results from Accelerator Driven TRIGA Reactor Experiments at The University of Texas at Austin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Kelly, S.; Braisted, J.; Krause, M.; Welch, L.

    2008-01-01

    Accelerator Driven Transmutation of High-Level Waste (ATW) is one possible solution to the fuel reprocessing back-end problem for the disposal of high level waste such as minor actinides (Am, Np or Cm) and long-lived fission products. International programs continue to support research towards the eventual construction and operation of a proton accelerator driven spallation neutron source coupled to a subcritical 'neutron amplifier' for more efficient HLW transmutation. This project was performed under DOE AFCI Reactor-Accelerator Coupling Experiments (RACE). A 20 MeV Electron Linac was installed in the BP no 5 cave placing neutron source adjacent to an offset reactor core to maximize neutron coupling with available systems. Asymmetric neutron injection 'wasted' neutrons due to high leakage but sufficient neutrons were available to raise reactor power to ∼100 watts. The Linac provided approximately 100 mA but only 50% reached target. The Linac cooling system could not prevent overheating at frequencies over 200 Hz. The Linac electron beam had harmonics of primary frequency and periodic low frequency pulse intensity changes. Neutron detection using fission chambers in current mode eliminated saturation dead time and produced better sensitivity. The Operation of 'dual shielded' fission chambers reduced electron noise from linac. Benchmark criticality calculation using start-up data showed that the MCNPX model overestimates reactivity. TRIGA core was loaded to just slightly supercritical by adding graphite elements and measuring reactivity of $0.037. MCNPX modeled TRIGA core with and without graphite to arrive at 'true' measured subcritical multiplication of 0.998733± 0.00069. Thus, Alpha for the UT-RACE TRIGA core was approximately 155.99 s -1 . The Stochastic Feynman-Alpha Method (SFM) accuracy was evaluated during transients and reactivity changes. SFM was shown to be a potential real-time method of reactivity determination in future ADSS but requires stable

  12. Beam Transfer Line Design for a Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment (AWAKE) at the CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C; Brethoux, D; Clerc, V; Goddard, B; Gschwendtner, E; Jensen, L K; Kosmicki, A; Le Godec, G; Meddahi, M; Muggli, P; Mutin, C; Osborne, O; Papastergiou, K; Pardons, A; Velotti, F M; Vincke, H

    2013-01-01

    The world’s first proton driven plasma wakefield acceleration experiment (AWAKE) is presently being studied at CERN. The experimentwill use a high energy proton beam extracted from the SPS as driver. Two possible locations for installing the AWAKE facility were considered: the West Area and the CNGS beam line. The previous transfer line from the SPS to the West Area was completely dismantled in 2005 and would need to be fully re-designed and re-built. For this option, geometric constraints for radiation protection reasons would limit the maximum proton beam energy to 300 GeV. The existing CNGS line could be used by applying only minor changes to the lattice for the final focusing and the interface between the proton beam and the laser, required for plasma ionisation and bunch-modulation seeding. The beam line design studies performed for the two options are presented.

  13. Self-pinch focusing experiments performed on the KALIF accelerator using the Bappl diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppe, P.; Nakagawa, Y.; Bauer, W.

    1996-01-01

    Experiments using the B appl diode with a subdivided beam drift section were performed on the KALIF accelerator with the objective to investigate the generation of net currents and their influence on the focusing properties of the extracted proton beam. The generation of net currents up to 50% of the diode current was observed for argon gas pressures below 0.1 mbar in the second drift section. The differences in the time histories of various net current monitors might be related to a radial dependency of the net current densities in the beam. A comparison of the focusing properties investigated in shots with and without current neutralization showed only small differences. No enhancement of the power density related to self-pinch effects was found. However, the possibility of beam propagation over a short vacuum distance allows the use of a backlighter target required for laser absorption spectroscopy. (author). 4 figs., 4 refs

  14. Optimization of accelerator target and detector for portal imaging using Monte Carlo simulation and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flampouri, S.; Evans, P.M.; Partridge, M.; Nahum, A.E.; Verhaegen, A.E.; Spezi, E.

    2002-01-01

    Megavoltage portal images suffer from poor quality compared to those produced with kilovoltage x-rays. Several authors have shown that the image quality can be improved by modifying the linear accelerator to generate more low-energy photons. This work addresses the problem of using Monte Carlo simulation and experiment to optimize the beam and detector combination to maximize image quality for a given patient thickness. A simple model of the whole imaging chain was developed for investigation of the effect of the target parameters on the quality of the image. The optimum targets (6 mm thick aluminium and 1.6 mm copper) were installed in an Elekta SL25 accelerator. The first beam will be referred to as Al6 and the second as Cu1.6. A tissue-equivalent contrast phantom was imaged with the 6 MV standard photon beam and the experimental beams with standard radiotherapy and mammography film/screen systems. The arrangement with a thin Al target/mammography system improved the contrast from 1.4 cm bone in 5 cm water to 19% compared with 2% for the standard arrangement of a thick, high-Z target/radiotherapy verification system. The linac/phantom/detector system was simulated with the BEAM/EGS4 Monte Carlo code. Contrast calculated from the predicted images was in good agreement with the experiment (to within 2.5%). The use of MC techniques to predict images accurately, taking into account the whole imaging system, is a powerful new method for portal imaging system design optimization. (author)

  15. Experience and development program for the I.V. Kurchatov Atomic Energy Institute electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aref'ev, A.V.; Blokhov, M.V.; Gerasimov, V.F.

    1981-01-01

    A program of physical investigations and the corresponding requirements to accelerated beam parameters are discussed in brief. The state and working capacity of separate units and the accelerator as a whole for the 8-year operating period are analyzed. The aim and principal program points of linear electron accelerator modernization are defined. The program of accelerator modernization assumes: electron beam energy increase up to 100-120 MeV; mounting of three additional accelerating sections; clystron efficiency increase; development of a highly reliable modulator; stabilized power supply sources; a system of synchronous start-up; a focusing system; a beam separation system and etc [ru

  16. Reacceleration experiment to demonstrate the concept of efficiency enhancement in a relativistic klystron two-beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westenskow, G.A.; Houck, T.L.

    1993-05-01

    High conversion efficiency of electro beam energy to rf energy can be achieved in two-beam accelerators using reacceleration of the bunched drive beam. To study issues with these designs we are planning a demonstration in which a modulated beam's energy is boosted as it passes through induction accelerator cells. For this experiment we will use the front end of the Choppertron to modulate a 5 MeV electron beam at 11.4 GHz. We have now tested the 5-MeV Choppertron and are reporting on the results. For the reacceleration experiment we plan to use three stages of rf power extraction interspersed with two stages of reacceleration

  17. Design of 6 Mev linear accelerator based pulsed thermal neutron source: FLUKA simulation and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, B.J., E-mail: bjp@physics.unipune.ac.in [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Chavan, S.T.; Pethe, S.N.; Krishnan, R. [SAMEER, IIT Powai Campus, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Bhoraskar, V.N. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Dhole, S.D., E-mail: sanjay@physics.unipune.ac.in [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2012-01-15

    The 6 MeV LINAC based pulsed thermal neutron source has been designed for bulk materials analysis. The design was optimized by varying different parameters of the target and materials for each region using FLUKA code. The optimized design of thermal neutron source gives flux of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6}ncm{sup -2}s{sup -1} with more than 80% of thermal neutrons and neutron to gamma ratio was 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4}ncm{sup -2}mR{sup -1}. The results of prototype experiment and simulation are found to be in good agreement with each other. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimized 6 eV linear accelerator based thermal neutron source using FLUKA simulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Beryllium as a photonuclear target and reflector, polyethylene as a filter and shield, graphite as a moderator. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimized pulsed thermal neutron source gives neutron flux of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results of the prototype experiment were compared with simulations and are found to be in good agreement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This source can effectively be used for the study of bulk material analysis and activation products.

  18. ELSA - one year of experience with the Bonn Electron Stretcher Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Althoff, K.H.; Drachenfels, W.v.; Dreist, A.; Husmann, D.; Neckenig, M.; Nuhn, H.D.; Schillo, M.; Schittko, F.J.; Wermelskirchen, C.

    1990-01-01

    One and a half year ago the Bonn Electron Stretcher Accelerator ELSA came into operation. Since then detailed machine studies have been performed between 0.5 and 2 GeV. The control system proved to be a valuable tool for operating the machine. Injection into ELSA including the fast extraction out of the 2.5 GeV booster-synchrotron has been investigated. The adjustment of dipoles and quadrupoles has been checked by closed orbit measurements. The slow extraction at a third integer resonance has been studied in detail. Extraction times up to 200 msec with a duty factor of about 35% are possible. For synchrotron radiation experiments the accumulation and storage of high currents up to 275 mA in ELSA was tested. The beam lifetime (1/e point) at 30 mA is in the order of 15 min. (due to vacuum limitations). Since one year the three experiments have been supplied with external beams. (author) 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  19. Supernova / Acceleration Probe: A Satellite Experiment to Study the Nature of the Dark Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldering, G; Althouse, W; Amanullah, R; Annis, J; Astier, P; Baltay, C; Barrelet, E; Basa, S; Bebek, C; Bergstrom, L; Bernstein, G; Bester, M; Bigelow, B; Blandford, R; Bohlin, R; Bonissent, A; Bower, C; Brown, M; Campbell, M; Carithers, W; Commins, E; Craig, W; Day, C; DeJongh, F; Deustua, S; Diehl, T; Dodelson, S; Ealet, A; Ellis, R; Emmet, W; Fouchez, D; Frieman, J; Fruchter, A; Gerdes, D; Gladney, L; Goldhaber, G; Goobar, A; Groom, D; Heetderks, H; Hoff, M; Holland, S; Huffer, M; Hui, L; Huterer, D; Jain, B; Jelinsky, P; Karcher, A; Kent, S; Kahn, S; Kim, A; Kolbe, W; Krieger, B; Kushner, G; Kuznetsova, N; Lafever, R; Lamoureux, J; Lampton, M; Fevre, OL; Levi, M; Limon, P; Lin, H; Linder, E; Loken, S; Lorenzon, W; Malina, R; Marriner, J; Marshall, P; Massey, R; Mazure, A; McKay, T; McKee, S; Miquel, R; Morgan, N; Mortsell, E; Mostek, N; Mufson, S; Musser, J; Nugent, P; Oluseyi, H; Pain, R; Palaio, N; Pankow, D; Peoples, J; Perlmutter, S; Prieto, E; Rabinowitz, D; Refregier, A; Rhodes, J; Roe, N; Rusin, D; Scarpine, V; Schubnell, M; Sholl, M; Smadja, G; Smith, RM; Smoot, G; Snyder, J; Spadafora, A; Stebbins, A; Stoughton, C; Szymkowiak, A; Tarle, G; Taylor, K; Tilquin, A; Tomasch, A; Tucker, D; Vincent, D; Lippe, HVD; Walder, J-P; Wang, G; Wester, W

    2004-05-12

    The Supernova / Acceleration Probe (SNAP) is a proposed space-based experiment designed to study the dark energy and alternative explanations of the acceleration of the Universe's expansion by performing a series of complementary systematics-controlled measurements. We describe a self-consistent reference mission design for building a Type Ia supernova Hubble diagram and for performing a wide-area weak gravitational lensing study. A 2-m wide-field telescope feeds a focal plane consisting of a 0.7 square-degree imager tiled with equal areas of optical CCDs and near infrared sensors, and a high-efficiency low-resolution integral field spectrograph. The SNAP mission will obtain high-signal-to-noise calibrated light-curves and spectra for several thousand supernovae at redshifts between z=0.1 and 1.7. A wide-field survey covering one thousand square degrees resolves ~100 galaxies per square arcminute. If we assume we live in a cosmological-constant-dominated Universe, the matter density, dark energy density, and flatness of space can all be measured with SNAP supernova and weak-lensing measurements to a systematics-limited accuracy of 1%. For a flat universe, the density-to-pressure ratio of dark energy can be similarly measured to 5% for the present value w0 and ~0.1 for the time variation w'. The large survey area, depth, spatial resolution, time-sampling, and nine-band optical to NIR photometry will support additional independent and/or complementary dark-energy measurement approaches as well as a broad range of auxiliary science programs.

  20. First trial of the muon acceleration for J-PARC muon g-2/EDM experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, R.; Otani, M.; Fukao, Y.; Kawamura, N.; Mibe, T.; Miyake, Y.; Shimomura, K.; Kondo, Y.; Hasegawa, K.; Bae, S.; Kim, B.; Razuvaev, G.; Iinuma, H.; Ishida, K.; Saito, N.

    2017-07-01

    Muon acceleration is an important technique in exploring the new frontier of physics. A new measurement of the muon dipole moments is planned in J-PARC using the muon linear accelerator. The low-energy (LE) muon source using the thin metal foil target and beam diagnostic system were developed for the world’s first muon acceleration. Negative muonium ions from the thin metal foil target as the LE muon source was successfully observed. Also the beam profile of the LE positive muon was measured by the LE-dedicated beam profile monitor. The muon acceleration test using a Radio-Frequency Quadrupole linac (RFQ) is being prepared as the first step of the muon accelerator development. In this paper, the latest status of the first muon acceleration test is described.

  1. Experimental studies of particle acceleration with ultra-intense lasers - Applications to nuclear physics experiments involving laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaisir, C.

    2010-11-01

    For the last ten years, the Ultra High Intensity Lasers offer the opportunity to produce accelerated particle beams which contain more than 10 12 electrons, protons accelerated into a few ps. We have simulated and developed some diagnostics based on nuclear activation to characterize both the angular and the energy distributions of the particle beams produced with intense lasers. The characterization methods which are presented are illustrated by means of results obtained in different experiments. We would use the particle beams produced to excite nuclear state in a plasma environment. It can modify intrinsic characteristics of the nuclei such as the half-life of some isomeric states. To prepare this kind of experiments, we have measured the nuclear reaction cross section (gamma,n) to produce the isomeric state of the 84 Rb, which has an excitation energy of 463 keV, with the electron accelerator ELSA of CEA/DIF in Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). (author)

  2. Proton beam transport experiments with pulsed high-field magnets at the Dresden laser acceleration source Draco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroll, Florian; Schramm, Ulrich [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Kraft, Stephan; Metzkes, Josefine; Schlenvoigt, Hans-Peter; Zeil, Karl [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Compact laser-driven ion accelerators are a potential alternative to large and expensive conventional accelerators. High-power short-pulse lasers, impinging on e.g. thin metal foils, enable multi-MeV ion acceleration on μm length and fs to ps time scale. The generated ion bunches (typically protons) show unique beam properties, like ultra-high pulse dose. Nevertheless, laser accelerators still require substantial development in reliable beam generation and transport. Recently developed pulsed magnets meet the demands of laser acceleration and open up new research opportunities: We present a pulsed solenoid for effective collection and focusing of laser-accelerated protons that acts as link between fundamental research and application. The solenoid is powered by a capacitor-based pulse generator and can reach a maximum magnetic field of 20 T. It was installed in the target chamber of the Draco laser at HZDR. The transported beam was detected by means of radiochromic film, scintillator and Thomson parabola spectrometer. We present the characterization of the solenoid with regard to future application in radiobiological irradiation studies. Furthermore, a detailed comparison to previous experiments with a similar magnet at the PHELIX laser at GSI, Darmstadt is provided.

  3. Intuitional experiment and numerical analysis of flow characteristics affected by flow accelerated corrosion in elbow pipe system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Joon [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung Hoon, E-mail: kimkh@khu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Seochun 1, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Wall-thinning erosion of pipelines in plants leads to fatal accidents unexpectedly. • Flow Acceleration Corrosion (FAC) is a main reason of wall-thinning. • For industrial safety, it is necessary to verify the tendency of FAC. • We focused on local wall thinning by FAC with intuitional visualization experiment and numerical analysis in elbow pipe.

  4. Accelerated Aging Experiments for Prognostics of Damage Growth in Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Abhinav; Goebel, Kai Frank; Larrosa, Cecilia C.; Janapati, Vishnuvardhan; Roy, Surajit; Chang, Fu-Kuo

    2011-01-01

    Composite structures are gaining importance for use in the aerospace industry. Compared to metallic structures their behavior is less well understood. This lack of understanding may pose constraints on their use. One possible way to deal with some of the risks associated with potential failure is to perform in-situ monitoring to detect precursors of failures. Prognostic algorithms can be used to predict impending failures. They require large amounts of training data to build and tune damage model for making useful predictions. One of the key aspects is to get confirmatory feedback from data as damage progresses. These kinds of data are rarely available from actual systems. The next possible resource to collect such data is an accelerated aging platform. To that end this paper describes a fatigue cycling experiment with the goal to stress carbon-carbon composite coupons with various layups. Piezoelectric disc sensors were used to periodically interrogate the system. Analysis showed distinct differences in the signatures of growing failures between data collected at conditions. Periodic X-radiographs were taken to assess the damage ground truth. Results after signal processing showed clear trends of damage growth that were correlated to damage assessed from the X-ray images.

  5. Accelerating phylogenetics computing on the desktop: experiments with executing UPGMA in programmable logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J P; Akella, S; Waddell, P H

    2004-01-01

    Having greater computational power on the desktop for processing taxa data sets has been a dream of biologists/statisticians involved in phylogenetics data analysis. Many existing algorithms have been highly optimized-one example being Felsenstein's PHYLIP code, written in C, for UPGMA and neighbor joining algorithms. However, the ability to process more than a few tens of taxa in a reasonable amount of time using conventional computers has not yielded a satisfactory speedup in data processing, making it difficult for phylogenetics practitioners to quickly explore data sets-such as might be done from a laptop computer. We discuss the application of custom computing techniques to phylogenetics. In particular, we apply this technology to speed up UPGMA algorithm execution by a factor of a hundred, against that of PHYLIP code running on the same PC. We report on these experiments and discuss how custom computing techniques can be used to not only accelerate phylogenetics algorithm performance on the desktop, but also on larger, high-performance computing engines, thus enabling the high-speed processing of data sets involving thousands of taxa.

  6. Combining computation and experiment to accelerate the discovery of new hydrogen storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Donald

    2009-03-01

    The potential of emerging technologies such as fuel cells (FCs) and photovoltaics for environmentally-benign power generation has sparked renewed interest in the development of novel materials for high density energy storage. For applications in the transportation sector, the demands placed upon energy storage media are especially stringent, as a potential replacement for fossil-fuel-powered internal combustion engines -- namely, the proton exchange membrane FC -- utilizes hydrogen as a fuel. Although hydrogen has about three times the energy density of gasoline by weight, its volumetric energy density (even at 700 bar) is roughly a factor of six smaller. Consequently, the safe and efficient storage of hydrogen has been identified as one of the key materials-based challenges to realizing a transition to FC vehicles. This talk will present an overview of recent efforts at Ford aimed at developing new materials for reversible, solid state hydrogen storage. A tight coupling between first-principles modeling and experiments has greatly accelerated our efforts, and several examples illustrating the benefits of this approach will be presented.

  7. Numerical simulations of recent proton acceleration experiments with sub-100 TW laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinigardi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Recent experiments carried out at the Italian National Research Center, National Optics Institute Department in Pisa, are showing interesting results regarding maximum proton energies achievable with sub-100 TW laser systems. While laser systems are being continuously upgraded in laboratories around the world, at the same time a new trend on stabilizing and making ion acceleration results reproducible is growing in importance. Almost all applications require a beam with fixed performance, so that the energy spectrum and the total charge exhibit moderate shot to shot variations. This result is surely far from being achieved, but many paths are being explored in order to reach it. Some of the reasons for this variability come from fluctuations in laser intensity and focusing, due to optics instability. Other variation sources come from small differences in the target structure. The target structure can vary substantially, when it is impacted by the main pulse, due to the prepulse duration and intensity, the shape of the main pulse and the total energy deposited. In order to qualitatively describe the prepulse effect, we will present a two dimensional parametric scan of its relevant parameters. A single case is also analyzed with a full three dimensional simulation, obtaining reasonable agreement between the numerical and the experimental energy spectrum.

  8. ''DIANA'' - A New, Deep-Underground Accelerator Facility for Astrophysics Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitner, M.; Leitner, D.; Lemut, A.; Vetter, P.; Wiescher, M.

    2009-01-01

    The DIANA project (Dakota Ion Accelerators for Nuclear Astrophysics) is a collaboration between the University of Notre Dame, University of North Carolina, Western Michigan University, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to build a nuclear astrophysics accelerator facility 1.4 km below ground. DIANA is part of the US proposal DUSEL (Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory) to establish a cross-disciplinary underground laboratory in the former gold mine of Homestake in South Dakota, USA. DIANA would consist of two high-current accelerators, a 30 to 400 kV variable, high-voltage platform, and a second, dynamitron accelerator with a voltage range of 350 kV to 3 MV. As a unique feature, both accelerators are planned to be equipped with either high-current microwave ion sources or multi-charged ECR ion sources producing ions from protons to oxygen. Electrostatic quadrupole transport elements will be incorporated in the dynamitron high voltage column. Compared to current astrophysics facilities, DIANA could increase the available beam densities on target by magnitudes: up to 100 mA on the low energy accelerator and several mA on the high energy accelerator. An integral part of the DIANA project is the development of a high-density super-sonic gas-jet target which can handle these anticipated beam powers. The paper will explain the main components of the DIANA accelerators and their beam transport lines and will discuss related technical challenges

  9. Ultra-High Gradient Channeling Acceleration in Nanostructures: Design/Progress of Proof-of-Concept (POC) Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Young Min [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States). Northern Illinois Center for Accelerator & Detector Development; Green, A. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States). Northern Illinois Center for Accelerator & Detector Development; Lumpkin, A. H. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Thurman-Keup, R. M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Shiltsev, V. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Zhang, X. [Shanhai Inst. of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Shanghai (China); Farinella, D. M. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Taborek, P. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Tajima, T. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Wheeler, J. A. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Center for Ultrafast Optical Science and FOCUS Center; Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, Palaiseau (France). Lab. d' Optique Appliquee; Mourou, G. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Center for Ultrafast Optical Science and FOCUS Center; Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, Palaiseau (France). Lab. d' Optique Appliquee

    2016-09-16

    A short bunch of relativistic particles or a short-pulse laser perturbs the density state of conduction electrons in a solid crystal and excites wakefields along atomic lattices in a crystal. Under a coupling condition the wakes, if excited, can accelerate channeling particles with TeV/m acceleration gradients in principle since the density of charge carriers (conduction electrons) in solids n0 = ~ 1020 – 1023 cm-3 is significantly higher than what can be obtained in gaseous plasma. Nanostructures have some advantages over crystals for channeling applications of high power beams. The dechanneling rate can be reduced and the beam acceptance increased by the large size of the channels. For beam-driven acceleration, a bunch length with a sufficient charge density would need to be in the range of the plasma wavelength to properly excite plasma wakefields, and channeled particle acceleration with the wakefields must occur before the ions in the lattices move beyond the restoring threshold. In the case of the excitation by short laser pulses, the dephasing length is appreciably increased with the larger channel, which enables channeled particles to gain sufficient amounts of energy. This paper describes simulation analyses on beam- and laser (X-ray)-driven accelerations in effective nanotube models obtained from Vsim and EPOCH codes. Experimental setups to detect wakefields are also outlined with accelerator facilities at Fermilab and NIU. In the FAST facility, the electron beamline was successfully commissioned at 50 MeV and it is being upgraded toward higher energies for electron accelerator R&D. The 50 MeV injector beamline of the facility is used for X-ray crystal-channeling radiation with a diamond target. It has been proposed to utilize the same diamond crystal for a channeling acceleration POC test. Another POC experiment is also designed for the NIU accelerator lab with time-resolved electron diffraction. Recently, a

  10. The operational experience with 15 UD Pelletron tandem accelerator and its status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, R.; Singh, J.; Singh, P.

    2015-01-01

    IUAC, New Delhi is equipped with many accelerators of different energy ranges. The 15 UD Pelletron tandem accelerator, the first ion accelerator installed, is a heavy ion accelerator and can accelerate almost all the injected negative ions. It has been operational since 1990 and is being used efficiently in different areas of research. The up time of this accelerator has always been better than 95% while the beam on target time has improved from ∼35% in earlier years to more than 60%. In these years, immense efforts have been put in for its operational improvements and better ion beam energies as well as currents. Recently a proper diagnosis was performed to improve its terminal voltage. Regular maintenance of its charging system, accelerating columns and regular unit wise conditioning have improved overall terminal voltage. The conditioning voltage of 15.5 MV was recently achieved and beam tests were performed at 15.1 MV. This has overall improved the performance of accelerator and the stable beam was delivered to user at the maximum terminal potential of 13.9 MV. The 15 UD Pelletron accelerator is also being used regularly as an injector for LINAC. Recently, few problems were encountered, in 15 UD Pelletron, during a routine LINAC operation. Those problems caused lots of beam instability and consequently beam, after boosting the energy from LINAC, was unstable. Proper investigations were carried out and necessary steps were performed in ion source and 15 UD Pelletron accelerator to overcome these problems. Thereafter, stable beam was delivered to user, using LINAC, continuously for around three months. All the efforts done to improve the performance of 15 UD Pelletron as well as to achieve stable beam from LINAC will be discussed. (author)

  11. The effect of three surface conditions, speed and running experience on vertical acceleration of the tibia during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boey, Hannelore; Aeles, Jeroen; Schütte, Kurt; Vanwanseele, Benedicte

    2017-06-01

    Research has focused on parameters that are associated with injury risk, e.g. vertical acceleration. These parameters can be influenced by running on different surfaces or at different running speeds, but the relationship between them is not completely clear. Understanding the relationship may result in training guidelines to reduce the injury risk. In this study, thirty-five participants with three different levels of running experience were recruited. Participants ran on three different surfaces (concrete, synthetic running track, and woodchip trail) at two different running speeds: a self-selected comfortable speed and a fixed speed of 3.06 m/s. Vertical acceleration of the lower leg was measured with an accelerometer. The vertical acceleration was significantly lower during running on the woodchip trail in comparison with the synthetic running track and the concrete, and significantly lower during running at lower speed in comparison with during running at higher speed on all surfaces. No significant differences in vertical acceleration were found between the three groups of runners at fixed speed. Higher self-selected speed due to higher performance level also did not result in higher vertical acceleration. These results may show that running on a woodchip trail and slowing down could reduce the injury risk at the tibia.

  12. Optically isolated electronic trigger system for experiments on a subnanosecond time scale with a pulsed Van de Graaff electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luthjens, L.H.; Vermeulen, M.J.W.; Hom, M.L.

    1980-01-01

    An optically isolated electronic trigger system for a pulsed Van de Graaff electron accelerator, producing an external pretrigger pulse 75 ns before arrival of the electron pulse at the target, is described. The total time jitter between trigger signal and electron pulse is 50 ps. The measurement of optical and electrical transients on a subnanosecond time scale with a sequential sampling oscilloscope is demonstrated. The contribution of various parts of the equipment to the total jitter is discussed. Those contributions to the jitter due to the electron transit time fluctuations in the accelerator assuming a constant acceleration voltage gradient and to the shot noise in the photomultiplier detector of the trigger system are calculated to be 5 ps and 12 to 21 ps respectively. Comparison with the experimental results leads to the conclusion that a considerable part of the total jitter may be attributed to acceleration voltage gradient fluctuations, to accelerator vibrations and possibly to density fluctuations in the insulation gas. Possible improvements of the trigger system are discussed. The apparatus is used for pulse radiolysis experiments with subnanosecond time resolution down to 100 ps in combination with subnanosecond time duration electron pulses

  13. Accelerating Inspire

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2266999

    2017-01-01

    CERN has been involved in the dissemination of scientific results since its early days and has continuously updated the distribution channels. Currently, Inspire hosts catalogues of articles, authors, institutions, conferences, jobs, experiments, journals and more. Successful orientation among this amount of data requires comprehensive linking between the content. Inspire has lacked a system for linking experiments and articles together based on which accelerator they were conducted at. The purpose of this project has been to create such a system. Records for 156 accelerators were created and all 2913 experiments on Inspire were given corresponding MARC tags. Records of 18404 accelerator physics related bibliographic entries were also tagged with corresponding accelerator tags. Finally, as a part of the endeavour to broaden CERN's presence on Wikipedia, existing Wikipedia articles of accelerators were updated with short descriptions and links to Inspire. In total, 86 Wikipedia articles were updated. This repo...

  14. Collaborative engagement experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullens, Katherine; Troyer, Bradley; Wade, Robert; Skibba, Brian; Dunn, Michael

    2006-05-01

    Unmanned ground and air systems operating in collaboration have the potential to provide future Joint Forces a significant capability for operations in complex terrain. Collaborative Engagement Experiment (CEE) is a consolidation of separate Air Force, Army and Navy collaborative efforts within the Joint Robotics Program (JRP) to provide a picture of the future of unmanned warfare. The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Material and Manufacturing Directorate, Aerospace Expeditionary Force Division, Force Protection Branch (AFRL/MLQF), The Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) Joint Technology Center (JTC)/Systems Integration Laboratory (SIL), and the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center - San Diego (SSC San Diego) are conducting technical research and proof of principle experiments for an envisioned operational concept for extended range, three dimensional, collaborative operations between unmanned systems, with enhanced situational awareness for lethal operations in complex terrain. This paper describes the work by these organizations to date and outlines some of the plans for future work.

  15. Development of a high repetition rate laser-plasma accelerator for ultra-fast electron diffraction experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaurepaire, B.

    2009-01-01

    Electronic microscopy and electron diffraction allowed the understanding of the organization of atoms in matter. Using a temporally short source, one can measure atomic displacements or modifications of the electronic distribution in matter. To date, the best temporal resolution for time resolved diffraction experiments is of the order of a hundred femto-seconds (fs). Laser accelerators are good candidates to reach the femtosecond temporal resolution in electron diffraction experiments. Such accelerators used to work at a low repetition rate, so that it was necessary to develop a new one operating at a high repetition rate in order to accumulate a large amount of data. In this thesis, a laser-plasma accelerator operating at the kHz repetition rate was developed and built. This source generates electron bunches at 100 keV from 3 mJ and 25 fs laser pulses. The physics of the acceleration has been studied, and the effect of the laser wavefront on the electron transverse distribution has been demonstrated. (author)

  16. Commissioning experiences on high voltage generator of 750 KeV DC accelerator at RRCAT, Indore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banwari, R.; Kasliwal, A.; Pandit, T.G.

    2009-01-01

    Design approach of high voltage generator for 750 keV DC accelerator, developed at RRCAT Indore, inculcates a unique feature of high frequency operation of symmetrical Cockcroft-Walton voltage generator. Apart from design simplicity and feasibility of modular construction, the high frequency use of symmetrical Cockcroft-Walton circuit gives added advantages of less ripple, better regulation, faster response and low stored energy in the system. Additionally the scheme allows us the use of low voltage, light weight components thus improving the overall economy of the system. The accelerator has been commissioned and made operational at its rated energy of 750 keV in the recent past. With brief introduction on design aspects of high voltage generator and filament power supply of this accelerator, the paper presented here describes the developmental steps of various components with focus on challenges encountered and solutions implemented. Development of high frequency inverter, high voltage ferrite core transformer, compensating inductors, interface bushings, voltage multiplier stack, and filament transformer along with floating power supply for electron emitter of the accelerator has been dealt in detail. The failures encountered during commissioning stages of the accelerator have been reported with measures taken for improvement of the specific components. Intricacies of the reflected capacitance of the multiplier stack and arc-current ground return are also described with their effects on system operation and reliability. (author)

  17. Generation and propagation of an electromagnetic pulse in the Trigger experiment and its possible role in electron acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, M. C.; Kintner, P. M.; Kudeki, E.; Holmgren, G.; Bostrom, R.; Fahleson, U. V.

    1980-01-01

    Instruments onboard the Trigger payload detected a large-amplitude, low-frequency, electric field pulse which was observed with a time delay consistent only with an electromagnetic wave. A model for this perturbation is constructed, and the associated field-aligned current is calculated as a function of altitude. This experiment may simulate the acceleration mechanism which results in the formation of auroral arcs, and possibly even other events in cosmic plasmas.

  18. ISLAM PROJECT: Interface between the signals from various experiments of a Van Graaff accelerator and PDP 11/44 computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Piquer, T. A.; Yuste Santos, C.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describe an interface between the signals from an in-beam experiment of a Van de Graaff accelerator and a PDP 11/44 computer. The information corresponding to one spectrum is taken from one digital voltammeter and is processed by mean of an equipment controlled by a M6809 microprocessor. The software package has been developed in assembly language and has a size of 1/2 K. (Author) 12 refs

  19. From experiment to design -- Fault characterization and detection in parallel computer systems using computational accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Keun Soo

    This dissertation summarizes experimental validation and co-design studies conducted to optimize the fault detection capabilities and overheads in hybrid computer systems (e.g., using CPUs and Graphics Processing Units, or GPUs), and consequently to improve the scalability of parallel computer systems using computational accelerators. The experimental validation studies were conducted to help us understand the failure characteristics of CPU-GPU hybrid computer systems under various types of hardware faults. The main characterization targets were faults that are difficult to detect and/or recover from, e.g., faults that cause long latency failures (Ch. 3), faults in dynamically allocated resources (Ch. 4), faults in GPUs (Ch. 5), faults in MPI programs (Ch. 6), and microarchitecture-level faults with specific timing features (Ch. 7). The co-design studies were based on the characterization results. One of the co-designed systems has a set of source-to-source translators that customize and strategically place error detectors in the source code of target GPU programs (Ch. 5). Another co-designed system uses an extension card to learn the normal behavioral and semantic execution patterns of message-passing processes executing on CPUs, and to detect abnormal behaviors of those parallel processes (Ch. 6). The third co-designed system is a co-processor that has a set of new instructions in order to support software-implemented fault detection techniques (Ch. 7). The work described in this dissertation gains more importance because heterogeneous processors have become an essential component of state-of-the-art supercomputers. GPUs were used in three of the five fastest supercomputers that were operating in 2011. Our work included comprehensive fault characterization studies in CPU-GPU hybrid computers. In CPUs, we monitored the target systems for a long period of time after injecting faults (a temporally comprehensive experiment), and injected faults into various types of

  20. First observations of acceleration of injected electrons in a laser plasma beatwave experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahim, N.A.; Martin, F.; Bordeur, P.; Heighway, E.A.; Matte, J.P.; Pepin, H.; Lavigne, P.

    1986-01-01

    The first experimental observations of acceleration of injected electrons in a laser driven plasma beatwave are presented. The plasma waves were excited in an ionized gas jet, using a short pulse high intensity CO 2 laser with two collinearly propagating beams (at λ = 9.6 μm and 10.6 μm) to excite a fast wave (v/sub p/ = c). The source of electrons was a laser plasma produced on an aluminum slab target by a third, synchronized CO 2 laser beam. A double-focusing dipole magnet was used to energy select and inject electrons into the beatwave, and a second magnetic spectrograph was used to analyze the accelerated electrons. Electron acceleration was only observed when the appropriate resonant plasma density was produced (∼ 10 17 cm -3 ), the two laser lines were incident on the plasma, and electrons were injected into this plasma from an external source

  1. SRF Accelerator Technology Transfer Experience from the Achievement of the SNS Cryomodule Production Run

    CERN Document Server

    Hogan, John; Daly, Edward; Drury, Michael A; Fischer, John; Hiatt, Tommy; Kneisel, Peter; Mammosser, John; Preble, Joseph P; Whitlatch, Timothy; Wilson, Katherine; Wiseman, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This paper will discuss the technology transfer aspect of superconducting RF expertise, as it pertains to cryomodule production, beginning with the original design requirements through testing and concluding with product delivery to the end user. The success of future industrialization, of accelerator systems, is dependent upon a focused effort on accelerator technology transfer. Over the past twenty years the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) has worked with industry to successfully design, manufacture, test and commission more superconducting RF cryomodules than any other entity in the United States. The most recent accomplishment of Jefferson Lab has been the successful production of twenty-four cryomodules designed for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). Jefferson Lab was chosen, by the United States Department of Energy, to provide the superconducting portion of the SNS linac due to its reputation as a primary resource for SRF expertise. The successful partnering with, and d...

  2. Planned High-brightness Channeling Radiation Experiment at Fermilab's Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomberg, Ben [NICADD, DeKalb; Mihalcea, Daniel [NICADD, DeKalb; Panuganti, Harsha [NICADD, DeKalb; Piot, Philippe [Fermilab; Brau, Charles [Vanderbilt U.; Choi, Bo [Vanderbilt U.; Gabella, William [Vanderbilt U.; Ivanov, Borislav [Vanderbilt U.; Mendenhall, Marcus [Vanderbilt U.; Lynn, Christopher [Swarthmore Coll.; Sen, Tanaji [Fermilab; Wagner, Wolfgang [Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendorf

    2014-07-01

    In this contribution we describe the technical details and experimental setup of our study aimed at producing high-brightness channeling radiation (CR) at Fermilab’s new user facility the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA). In the ASTA photoinjector area electrons are accelerated up to 40-MeV and focused to a sub-micron spot on a ~40 micron thick carbon diamond, the electrons channel through the crystal and emit CR up to 80-KeV. Our study utilizes ASTA’s long pulse train capabilities and ability to preserve ultra-low emittance, to produce the desired high average brightness.

  3. Construction, commissioning and operational experience of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.; Arnold, N.; Berg, W.

    1996-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source linear accelerator system consists of a 200 MeV, 2856 MHz S-Band electron linac and a 2-radiation-thick tungsten target followed by a 450 MeV positron linac. The linac system has operated 24 hours per day for the past year to support accelerator commissioning and beam studies and to provide beam for the user experimental program. It achieves the design goal for positron current of 8 mA and produces electron energies up to 650 MeV without the target in place. The linac is described and its operation and performance are discussed

  4. Construction, commissioning and operational experience of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.; Arnold, N.; Berg, W.; Cours, A.; Fuja, R.; Grelick, A. E.; Sereno, N.; Wesolowski, W.; Ko, K.; Qian, Y.L.; Russell, T.

    1996-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source linear accelerator system consists of a 200-MeV, 2856-MHz S-band electron linac and a 2-radiation-thick tungsten target followed by a 450-MeV positron linac. The linac system has operated 24 hours per day for the past year to support accelerator commissioning and beam studies and to provide beam for the user experimental program. It achieves the design goal for positron current of 8 mA and produces electron energies up to 650 MeV without the target in place. The linac is described and its operation and performance are discussed. (author)

  5. Profiles of fast ions that are accelerated by high harmonic fast waves in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, D; Heidbrink, W W; Podesta, M; Ruskov, E; Bell, R E; Fredrickson, E D; Medley, S S; Harvey, R W

    2010-01-01

    Combined neutral beam injection and high-harmonic fast-wave (HHFW) heating accelerate deuterium fast ions in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). With 1.1 MW of HHFW power, the neutron emission rate is about three times larger than in the comparison discharge without HHFW heating. Acceleration of fast ions above the beam injection energy is evident on an E||B type neutral particle analyzer (NPA), a 4-chord solid state neutral particle analyzer (SSNPA) array and a 16-channel fast-ion D-alpha (FIDA) diagnostic. The accelerated fast ions observed by the NPA and SSNPA diagnostics mainly come from passive charge exchange reactions at the edge due to the NPA/SSNPA localization in phase space. The spatial profile of accelerated fast ions that is measured by the FIDA diagnostic is much broader than in conventional tokamaks because of the multiple resonance layers and large orbits in NSTX. The fast-ion distribution function calculated by the CQL3D Fokker-Planck code differs from the measured spatial profile, presumably because the current version of CQL3D uses a zero-banana-width model. In addition, compressional Alfven eigenmode activity is stronger during the HHFW heating and it may affect the fast-ion spatial profile.

  6. Hosing Instability of the Drive Electron Beam in the E157 Plasma-Wakefield Acceleration Experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blue, Brent Edward

    2005-01-01

    In the plasma-wakefield experiment at SLAC, known as E157, an ultra-relativistic electron beam is used to both excite and witness a plasma wave for advanced accelerator applications. If the beam is tilted, then it will undergo transverse oscillations inside of the plasma. These oscillations can grow exponentially via an instability know as the electron hose instability. The linear theory of electron-hose instability in a uniform ion column predicts that for the parameters of the E157 experiment (beam charge, bunch length, and plasma density) a growth of the centroid offset should occur. Analysis of the E157 data has provided four critical results. The first was that the incoming beam did have a tilt. The tilt was much smaller than the radius and was measured to be 5.3 (micro)m/(delta) z at the entrance of the plasma (IP1.) The second was the beam centroid oscillates in the ion channel at half the frequency of the beam radius (betatron beam oscillations), and these oscillations can be predicted by the envelope equation. Third, up to the maximum operating plasma density of E157 (∼2 x 10 14 cm -3 ), no growth of the centroid offset was measured. Finally, time-resolved data of the beam shows that up to this density, no significant growth of the tail of the beam (up to 8ps from the centroid) occurred even though the beam had an initial tilt

  7. Hosing Instability of the Drive Electron Beam in the E157 Plasma-Wakefield Acceleration Experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blue, Brent Edward; /SLAC /UCLA

    2005-10-10

    In the plasma-wakefield experiment at SLAC, known as E157, an ultra-relativistic electron beam is used to both excite and witness a plasma wave for advanced accelerator applications. If the beam is tilted, then it will undergo transverse oscillations inside of the plasma. These oscillations can grow exponentially via an instability know as the electron hose instability. The linear theory of electron-hose instability in a uniform ion column predicts that for the parameters of the E157 experiment (beam charge, bunch length, and plasma density) a growth of the centroid offset should occur. Analysis of the E157 data has provided four critical results. The first was that the incoming beam did have a tilt. The tilt was much smaller than the radius and was measured to be 5.3 {micro}m/{delta}{sub z} at the entrance of the plasma (IP1.) The second was the beam centroid oscillates in the ion channel at half the frequency of the beam radius (betatron beam oscillations), and these oscillations can be predicted by the envelope equation. Third, up to the maximum operating plasma density of E157 ({approx}2 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup -3}), no growth of the centroid offset was measured. Finally, time-resolved data of the beam shows that up to this density, no significant growth of the tail of the beam (up to 8ps from the centroid) occurred even though the beam had an initial tilt.

  8. NOVEL TECHNIQUE OF POWER CONTROL IN MAGNETRON TRANSMITTERS FOR INTENSE ACCELERATORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazakevich, G. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Johnson, R. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Neubauer, M.; Lebedev, V. [Fermilab; Schappert, W. [Fermilab; Yakovlev, V. [Fermilab

    2016-10-21

    A novel concept of a high-power magnetron transmitter allowing dynamic phase and power control at the frequency of locking signal is proposed. The transmitter compensating parasitic phase and amplitude modulations inherent in Superconducting RF (SRF) cavities within closed feedback loops is intended for powering of the intensity-frontier superconducting accelerators. The con- cept uses magnetrons driven by a sufficient resonant (in- jection-locking) signal and fed by the voltage which can be below the threshold of self-excitation. This provides an extended range of power control in a single magnetron at highest efficiency minimizing the cost of RF power unit and the operation cost. Proof-of-principle of the proposed concept demonstrated in pulsed and CW regimes with 2.45 GHz, 1kW magnetrons is discussed here. A conceptual scheme of the high-power transmitter allowing the dynamic wide-band phase and y power controls is presented and discussed.

  9. Expected damage to accelerator equipment due to the impact of the full LHC beam: beam instrumentation, experiments and simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Burkart, Florian

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the biggest and most powerful particle accelerator in the world, designed to collide two proton beams with particle momentum of 7 TeV/c each. The stored energy of 362MJ in each beam is sufficient to melt 500 kg of copper or to evaporate about 300 liter of water. An accidental release of even a small fraction of the beam energy can cause severe damage to accelerator equipment. Reliable machine protection systems are necessary to safely operate the accelerator complex. To design a machine protection system, it is essential to know the damage potential of the stored beam and the consequences in case of a failure. One (catastrophic) failure would be, if the entire beam is lost in the aperture due to a problem with the beam dumping system. This thesis presents the simulation studies, results of a benchmarking experiment, and detailed target investigation, for this failure case. In the experiment, solid copper cylinders were irradiated with the 440GeV proton beam delivered by the ...

  10. Creation of ultra-high-pressure shocks by the collision of laser-accelerated disks: experiment and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.D.; Phillion, D.W.; Price, R.H.; Campbell, E.M.; Obenschain, S.P.; Whitlock, R.R.; McLean, E.A.; Ripin, B.H.

    1983-01-01

    We have used the SHIVA laser system to accelerate carbon disks to speeds in excess of 100 km/sec. The 3KJ/3 ns pulse, on a 1 mm diameter spot of a single disk produced a conventional shock of about 5 MB. The laser energy can, however, be stored in kinetic motion of this accelerated disk and delivered (reconverted to thermal energy) upon impact with another carbon disk. This collision occurs in a time much shorter than the 3 ns pulse, thus acting as a power amplifier. The shock pressures measured upon impact are estimated to be in the 20 MB range, thus demonstrating the amplification power of this colliding disk technique in creating ultra-high pressures. Theory and computer simulations of this process will be discussed, and compared with the experiment

  11. First electrons from the new 220 TW Frascati Laser for Acceleration and Multidisciplinary Experiments (FLAME) at Frascati National Laboratories (LNF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levato, T.; Calvetti, M.; Anelli, F.; Batani, D.; Benocci, R.; Cacciotti, L.; Cecchetti, C.A.; Cerafogli, O.; Chimenti, P.; Clozza, A.; Drenska, N.; Esposito, A.; Faccini, R.; Fioravanti, S.; Gamucci, A.; Gatti, C.; Giulietti, A.; Giulietti, D.; Labate, L.; Lollo, V.

    2013-01-01

    A new era of laser based plasma accelerators is emerging following the commissioning of many high power laser facilities around the world. Extremely short (tens of fs) laser pulses with energy of multi-joules level are available at these newly built facilities. Here we describe the new 220 TW FLAME facility. In particular we discuss the laser system general layout, the main measurements on the laser pulse parameters, the underground target area. Finally we give an overview of the first results of the Self-Injection Test Experiment (SITE), obtained at a low laser energy. This initial low laser energy experimental campaign was necessary for the validation of the radio-protection shielding (Esposito, 2011 [1]) we discuss here. With respect to our preliminary configuration, with a pulse duration of 30 fs and a focusing optic of F/15, we discuss here the minimum laser energy requirements for electron acceleration and the forward transmitted optical radiation

  12. Colliding pulse injection experiments in non-collinear geometry for controlled laser plasma wakefield acceleration of electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, Carl B.; Esarey, Eric H.; Geddes, Cameron G.R.; Leemans, Wim P.; Nakamura, Kei; Panasenko, Dmitriy; Schroeder, Carl B.; Bruhwiler, D.; Cary, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    An optical injection scheme for a laser-plasma based accelerator which employs a non-collinear counter-propagating laser beam to push background electrons in the focusing and acceleration phase via ponderomotive beat with the trailing part of the wakefield driver pulse is discussed. Preliminary experiments were performed using a drive beam of a 0 = 2.6 and colliding beam of a 1 = 0.8 both focused on the middle of a 200 mu m slit jet backed with 20 bar, which provided ∼ 260 mu m long gas plume. The enhancement in the total charge by the colliding pulse was observed with sharp dependence on the delay time of the colliding beam. Enhancement of the neutron yield was also measured, which suggests a generation of electrons above 10 MeV

  13. Simulation experiment on low-level RF control for dual-harmonic acceleration at CSNS RCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Sirong; Li Xiao; Zhang Chunlin; Sun Hong; Tang Jingyu

    2013-01-01

    The design and test of the low-level RF (LLRF) control system for the dual-harmonic acceleration at the rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) of China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) at phase Ⅰ is introduced. In order to implement the mode switch from the second harmonic to the fundamental during the acceleration cycle for one of the eight RF cavities, the LLRF system for the cavity has been designed differently from the others. Several technical measures such as the opening of the control loops during the mode switch and the reclosing of two tuning circuits of the RF amplifier at different moments, have been taken. The experimental results on the testing platform based on an RF prototype show good dynamic performance of the LLRF system and prove the feasibility of dual-harmonic operation. (authors)

  14. Prospects for experiments on neutrino masses and mixing via neutrino oscillations at future accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanou, R.E. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A study is made of the requirements necessary for improvement in our knowledge of limits in mass and mixing parameters for neutrinos via oscillation phenomena at accelerators. It is concluded that increased neutrino event rate (flux x energy) at modest energy machines (e.g., AGS and LAMPF) is the single most important requirement. This will permit smaller E/L ratios and refinement of systematics

  15. Photographic paper for determining physical parameters in radiobiological experiments with accelerated ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichhorn, K.; Regel, K.

    1979-01-01

    It is possible to display the energy flux density distribution of a beam of accelerated ions in the absorbed dose range of 1 Gy to 100 Gy with the aid of photographic paper. A special Al absorber arrangement in connection with photographic paper allows to determine both particle range and energy. Finally, photographic paper is shown to be suitable for an intercomparison of the absorbed doses of irradiated samples. (author)

  16. Patient and Staff (doctors and nurses) Experiences of Abdominal Hysterectomy in Accelerated Recovery Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Lis; Carlslund, Anne Mette; Møller, Charlotte

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: The accelerated recovery programme (ARP) is becoming commonplace in surgical specialties and has also been introduced to hysterectomy patients. Diagnostic, prognostic and other clinical indicators are well described. The aim of this article is to relay knowledge about the ARP, through...... of information relay and dialogue between staff and patients/family members. A nursing care ambulatory unit is recommended to support with information for women prior to and following hysterectomy in the ARP....

  17. Scientific Assessment Group for Experiments in Non-Accelerator Physics (SAGENAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    substantial non- baryonic component to dark matter . Dark matter candidates include Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WTMPs), axions, light...Currently, axions are also of interest as one of the prime candidates for non- baryonic dark matter . Axions with a mass in the region of 10Ś -10ŗ eV...issues in the non-accelerator program, such as the study of solar and atmospheric neutrino oscillations, the pursuit of dark matter , and the study of

  18. LANL sunnyside experiment: Study of neutron production in accelerator-driven targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, G.; Butler, G.; Cappiello, M.; Carius, S.; Daemen, L.; DeVolder, B.; Frehaut, J.; Goulding, C.; Grace, R.; Green, R.; Lisowski, P.; Littleton, P.; King, J.; King, N.; Prael, R.; Stratton, T.; Turner, S.; Ullmann, J.; Venneri, F.; Yates, M.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements have been made of the neutron production in prototypic targets for accelerator driven systems. Studies were conducted on four target assemblies containing lead, lithium, tungsten, and a thorium-salt mixture. Integral data on total neutron production were obtained as well as more differential data on neutron leakage and neutron flux profiles in the blanket/moderator region. Data analysis on total neutron production is complete and shows excellent agreement with calculations using the LAHET/MCNP code system

  19. Experiments assigned to determine the acceleration of 8000kN shear laboratory model elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiul Berghian, A.; Vasiu, T.; Abrudean, C.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper presents an experimental kinetics study by measuring accelerations using a bi-axial accelerometer constructed in the basis of a miniature integrated circuit, included in the class of micro-electrical and mechanical systems - MMA6261Q on the experimental installation reduced to the 1:5 dividing rule by comparison with the shear existent in exploitation, conceived and projected at the Faculty of Engineering in Hunedoara.

  20. LANL sunnyside experiment: Study of neutron production in accelerator-driven targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, G.; Butler, G.; Cappiello, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Measurements have been made of the neutron production in prototypic targets for accelerator driven systems. Studies were conducted on four target assemblies containing lead, lithium, tungsten, and a thorium-salt mixture. Integral data on total neutron production were obtained as well as more differential data on neutron leakage and neutron flux profiles in the blanket/moderator region. Data analysis on total neutron production is complete and shows excellent agreement with calculations using the LAHET/MCNP code system.

  1. Design study of electron cyclotron resonance-ion plasma accelerator for heavy ion cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, T.; Sugimoto, S.; Sasai, K.; Hattori, T.

    2014-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance-Ion Plasma Accelerator (ECR-IPAC) device, which theoretically can accelerate multiple charged ions to several hundred MeV with short acceleration length, has been proposed. The acceleration mechanism is based on the combination of two physical principles, plasma electron ion adiabatic ejection (PLEIADE) and Gyromagnetic Autoresonance (GYRAC). In this study, we have designed the proof of principle machine ECR-IPAC device and simulated the electromagnetic field distribution generating in the resonance cavity. ECR-IPAC device consisted of three parts, ECR ion source section, GYRAC section, and PLEIADE section. ECR ion source section and PLEIADE section were designed using several multi-turn solenoid coils and sextupole magnets, and GYRAC section was designed using 10 turns coil. The structure of ECR-IPAC device was the cylindrical shape, and the total length was 1024 mm and the maximum diameter was 580 mm. The magnetic field distribution, which maintains the stable acceleration of plasma, was generated on the acceleration center axis throughout three sections. In addition, the electric field for efficient acceleration of electrons was generated in the resonance cavity by supplying microwave of 2.45 GHz

  2. ASPIRE: An automated sample positioning and irradiation system for radiation biology experiments at Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kothari, Ashok; Barua, P.; Archunan, M.; Rani, Kusum; Subramanian, E.T.; Pujari, Geetanjali; Kaur, Harminder; Satyanarayanan, V.V.V.; Sarma, Asitikantha; Avasthi, D.K.

    2015-01-01

    An automated irradiation setup for biology samples has been built at Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi, India. It can automatically load and unload 20 biology samples in a run of experiment. It takes about 20 min [2% of the cell doubling time] to irradiate all the 20 samples. Cell doubling time is the time taken by the cells (kept in the medium) to grow double in numbers. The cells in the samples keep growing during entire of the experiment. The fluence irradiated to the samples is measured with two silicon surface barrier detectors. Tests show that the uniformity of fluence and dose of heavy ions reaches to 2% at the sample area in diameter of 40 mm. The accuracy of mean fluence at the center of the target area is within 1%. The irradiation setup can be used to the studies of radiation therapy, radiation dosimetry and molecular biology at the heavy ion accelerator. - Highlights: • Automated positioning and irradiation setup for biology samples at IUAC is built. • Loading and unloading of 20 biology samples can be automatically carried out. • Biologicals cells keep growing during entire experiment. • Fluence and dose of heavy ions are measured by two silicon barrier detectors. • Uniformity of fluence and dose of heavy ions at sample position reaches to 2%

  3. The High-Luminosity upgrade of the LHC: Physics and Technology Challenges for the Accelerator and the Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Burkhard

    2016-04-01

    In the second phase of the LHC physics program, the accelerator will provide an additional integrated luminosity of about 2500/fb over 10 years of operation to the general purpose detectors ATLAS and CMS. This will substantially enlarge the mass reach in the search for new particles and will also greatly extend the potential to study the properties of the Higgs boson discovered at the LHC in 2012. In order to meet the experimental challenges of unprecedented pp luminosity, the experiments will need to address the aging of the present detectors and to improve the ability to isolate and precisely measure the products of the most interesting collisions. The lectures gave an overview of the physics motivation and described the conceptual designs and the expected performance of the upgrades of the four major experiments, ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb, along with the plans to develop the appropriate experimental techniques and a brief overview of the accelerator upgrade. Only some key points of the upgrade program of the four major experiments are discussed in this report; more information can be found in the references given at the end.

  4. [Experiment studies of electron-positron interactions at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzbach, S.S.; Kofler, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    The High Energy Physics group at the University of Massachusetts has continued its' program of experimental studies of electron-positron interactions at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The group activities have included: analysis of data taken between 1982 and 1990 with the TPC detector at the PEP facility, continuing data collection and data analysis using the SLC/SLD facility, planning for the newly approved B-factory at SLAC, and participation in design studies for future high energy linear colliders. This report will briefly summarize these activities

  5. Accelerated testing for studying pavement design and performance (FY 2004) : thin bonded rigid overlay on PCCP and HMA (CISL experiment no. 13).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    The thirteenth full-scale Accelerated Pavement Test (APT) experiment at the Civil Infrastructure Laboratory (CISL) : of Kansas State University aimed to determine the response and the failure mode of thin concrete overlays. Four : pavement structures...

  6. Accelerator-based approach experiments for remote identification of fissionable and other materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuvilo, I.V.; Danilov, M.M.; Katarzhnov, Yu.D.; Kushin, V.V.; Nedopekin, V.G.; Plotnikov, S.V.; Rogov, V.I.

    1998-01-01

    Recently there has been a great deal of interest in studying possible methods for remote non-destructive material composition testing, for example, for cargo identification at transportation, neutron logging etc., by means of nuclear detection (D.R. Brown, T. Gozani (1995)). Of current concern are the applications of pulsed fast neutron analysis in determining the composition of fissile objects (I.I. Zaliubovskiy et al. (1993)). In this paper the observed experimental results are discussed indicating the possibility of practical realization of the method for remote material identification. The approach is based on measuring gamma ray spectra from an object to be examined after its irradiation with short neutron pulses produced by an accelerator. The obtained time and energy gamma spectra are used for material inspection. The information is obtained by using time-of-flight (TOF) analysis between the accelerator pulse and the arrival of gamma rays in NaI detectors located far enough from an object to be examined. The method seems to be the most effective for fissile materials identification. (orig.)

  7. Design and Development Tools for the Systems Engineering Experience Accelerator. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-20

    important ones for inclusion in this work. Others include: • Experience concept tools ( storyboarding , learner profile creation, 9 • Context tools...particular scenario (e.g., a particular DoD program) for the experience that supports the desired learning and develop a storyboard for the desired

  8. Experience in using workstations as hosts in an accelerator control environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abola, A.; Casella, R.; Clifford, T.; Hoff, L.; Katz, R.; Kennell, S.; Mandell, S.; McBreen, E.; Weygand, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    A new control system has been used for light ion acceleration at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). The control system uses Apollo workstations in the dual role of console hardware computer and controls system host. It has been found that having a powerful dedicated CPU with a demand paging virtual memory OS featuring strong interprocess communication, mapped memory shared files, shared code, and multi-window capabilities, allows us to provide an efficient operation environment in which users may view and manage several control processes simultaneously. The same features which make workstations good console computers also provide an outstanding platform for code development. The software for the system, consisting of about 30K lines of ''C'' code, was developed on schedule, ready for light ion commissioning. System development is continuing with work being done on applications programs

  9. Experience in using workstations as hosts in an accelerator control environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abola, A.; Casella, R.; Clifford, T.; Hoff, L.; Katz, R.; Kennell, S.; Mandell, S.; McBreen, E.; Weygand, D.P.

    1987-03-01

    A new control system has been used for light ion acceleration at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). The control system uses Apollo workstations in the dual role of console hardware computer and controls system host. It has been found that having a powerful dedicated CPU with a demand paging virtual memory OS featuring strong interprocess communication, mapped memory shared files, shared code, and multi-window capabilities, allows us to provide an efficient operation environment in which users may view and manage several control processes simultaneously. The same features which make workstations good console computers also provide an outstanding platform for code development. The software for the system, consisting of about 30K lines of ''C'' code, was developed on schedule, ready for light ion commissioning. System development is continuing with work being done on applications programs

  10. Experiences with Deriva: An Asset Management Platform for Accelerating eScience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugacov, Alejandro; Czajkowski, Karl; Kesselman, Carl; Kumar, Anoop; Schuler, Robert E; Tangmunarunkit, Hongsuda

    2017-10-01

    The pace of discovery in eScience is increasingly dependent on a scientist's ability to acquire, curate, integrate, analyze, and share large and diverse collections of data. It is all too common for investigators to spend inordinate amounts of time developing ad hoc procedures to manage their data. In previous work, we presented Deriva, a Scientific Asset Management System, designed to accelerate data driven discovery. In this paper, we report on the use of Deriva in a number of substantial and diverse eScience applications. We describe the lessons we have learned, both from the perspective of the Deriva technology, as well as the ability and willingness of scientists to incorporate Scientific Asset Management into their daily workflows.

  11. Contribution to the study of elementary particles in experiments involving accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldisseri, A.

    2006-05-01

    This document reviews the theoretical, experimental and technical achievements of the author since the beginning of his scientific career. Works in 5 fields have been highlighted: 1) rare decays of the η meson, 2) neutrino oscillations in NOMAD experiment, 3) quark and gluon plasma, 4) the PHENIX experiment at RHIC, and 5) the ALICE experiment in LHC. The PHENIX experiment was dedicated to the accurate measuring of photons and dileptons (particularly J/Ψ, Ψ' resonances) produced in heavy ion collisions. The ALICE experiment is devoted to the study of the quark gluon plasma. Its detector must be able to detect charged particles with a broad range of transverse momenta (from 100 MeV/c to 100 GeV/c). This document presented before an academic board will allow his author to manage research works and particularly to tutor thesis students

  12. Clinical experience of stereotactic radiosurgery at a linear accelerator for intraocular melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furdova, Alena; Sramka, Miron; Chorvath, Martin; Kralik, Gabriel; Furda, Robert; Gregus, Michal

    2017-10-01

    Long-term results with linear accelerator LINAC-based stereotactic radiosurgery for intraocular uveal malignant melanoma were assessed. A retrospective study was carried out of patients with uveal melanoma after a 1-day session stereotactic radiosurgery at LINAC in Slovakia. In the period 2001-2015, a group of 150 patients with uveal melanoma (139 choroidal melanoma, 11 ciliary body melanoma) was treated. The median tumor volume at baseline was 0.5 cm (with range from 0.2 to 1.6 cm). Tumors ranged in size from 2.4 to 20.8 mm in basal diameter and from 2.0 to 18.3 mm in thickness. The therapeutic dose was 35.0 Gy by 99% of dose volume histogram. Older age at treatment was correlated with the largest basal tumor diameter, tumor thickness, and TNM stage. The survival after stereotactic irradiation was 96% in 1 year, 93% in 2 years, 84% in 5 years, 80% in 7 years, and 53% in 11 years. In 20 (13.3%) patients, secondary enucleation was necessary because of complications (secondary glaucoma). Enucleation-free interval ranged from 1 to 6 years. The median age at death was lower (65.7 years) for patients who died from metastatic disease than for those who died from any other cause (75.0 years). Survival rates at 5-year intervals and the need for secondary enucleation because of complications after linear accelerator irradiation are comparable to other techniques.

  13. Electron acceleration observed by the FAST satellite within the IAR during a 3 Hz modulated EISCAT heater experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Cash

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative analysis is presented of the FAST satellite electric field and particle flux data during an EISCAT heating experiment run on 8 October 1998. Radio frequency heating, modulated at 3 Hz, launched ULF waves from the ionosphere into the lower magnetosphere. The ULF waves were observed in FAST data and constituted the first satellite detection of artificially excited Alfvénic ULF waves. The downward electron flux data for this event contain the first observations of electrons undergoing acceleration within the Ionospheric Alfvén Resonator (IAR due to parallel electric fields associated with an artificially stimulated Alfvén wave. The time history and spectral content of the observed down-ward electron fluxes is investigated by considering the effects of a localised parallel electric field. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that a power law electron energy distribution describes the time-variable observed fluxes better than a Maxwellian distribution.Key words. Ionosphere (active experiments; particle acceleration – Magnetospheric physics (electric fields

  14. Electron acceleration observed by the FAST satellite within the IAR during a 3 Hz modulated EISCAT heater experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Cash

    Full Text Available A quantitative analysis is presented of the FAST satellite electric field and particle flux data during an EISCAT heating experiment run on 8 October 1998. Radio frequency heating, modulated at 3 Hz, launched ULF waves from the ionosphere into the lower magnetosphere. The ULF waves were observed in FAST data and constituted the first satellite detection of artificially excited Alfvénic ULF waves. The downward electron flux data for this event contain the first observations of electrons undergoing acceleration within the Ionospheric Alfvén Resonator (IAR due to parallel electric fields associated with an artificially stimulated Alfvén wave. The time history and spectral content of the observed down-ward electron fluxes is investigated by considering the effects of a localised parallel electric field. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that a power law electron energy distribution describes the time-variable observed fluxes better than a Maxwellian distribution.

    Key words. Ionosphere (active experiments; particle acceleration – Magnetospheric physics (electric fields

  15. Accelerator driven nuclear energy and transmutation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldeman, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    of materials. These include the ISIS facility at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK, facilities at Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Argonne National Laboratory, USA, the SINQ facility at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland and the KENS facility at the KEK laboratory, Japan. Such experimental facilities, with the possible exception of SINQ, have relatively low accelerator beam power and would not be suitable for a serious study of transmutation or ultimately energy production. However, they have provided extremely valuable data which can be used in the design of more powerful facilities. In recent years, accelerator technology has advanced to such an extent that the possibility of building a proof of principle facility which explores, experimentally, ideas in transmutation and energy production, has become viable and proposals exist for several different plants

  16. Vibrotactile masking experiments reveal accelerated somatosensory processing in congenitally blind braille readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Arindam; Ye, Amanda J; Lisak, Joy A; Vargas, Maria G; Goldreich, Daniel

    2010-10-27

    Braille reading is a demanding task that requires the identification of rapidly varying tactile patterns. During proficient reading, neighboring characters impact the fingertip at ∼100 ms intervals, and adjacent raised dots within a character at 50 ms intervals. Because the brain requires time to interpret afferent sensorineural activity, among other reasons, tactile stimuli separated by such short temporal intervals pose a challenge to perception. How, then, do proficient Braille readers successfully interpret inputs arising from their fingertips at such rapid rates? We hypothesized that somatosensory perceptual consolidation occurs more rapidly in proficient Braille readers. If so, Braille readers should outperform sighted participants on masking tasks, which demand rapid perceptual processing, but would not necessarily outperform the sighted on tests of simple vibrotactile sensitivity. To investigate, we conducted two-interval forced-choice vibrotactile detection, amplitude discrimination, and masking tasks on the index fingertips of 89 sighted and 57 profoundly blind humans. Sighted and blind participants had similar unmasked detection (25 ms target tap) and amplitude discrimination (compared with 100 μm reference tap) thresholds, but congenitally blind Braille readers, the fastest readers among the blind participants, exhibited significantly less masking than the sighted (masker, 50 Hz, 50 μm; target-masker delays, ±50 and ±100 ms). Indeed, Braille reading speed correlated significantly and specifically with masking task performance, and in particular with the backward masking decay time constant. We conclude that vibrotactile sensitivity is unchanged but that perceptual processing is accelerated in congenitally blind Braille readers.

  17. Experience with the procurement of ferrite and temperature compensator for permanent magnets for accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, W.B.; Brown, B.C.; Volk, J.

    1997-07-01

    The use of permanent magnets for transporting the 8 GeV proton beam from the Fermilab Booster to the new Fermilab Main Injector accelerator has been implemented and the magnets for a new 8 GeV ring to be installed in the Main Injector tunnel for increasing the luminosity of pbar/p collisions in the Tevatron are about to start being produced. Strontium oxide ferrite was selected for the magnets due to it's low cost and satisfactory magnetic properties for the 1.5 kilogauss fields required in the 2-inch gap magnets. Fermilab has received 96,000 pounds of ferrite and by working with the Vendor (HITACHI, Edmore, MI) improved uniformity of Residual Induction (Br) has reached 3905 gauss ± 0.65%. Further details are given in the paper. Overcoming the magnetic field variation when the temperature of the magnets changes is accomplished by incorporation of approximately 30% nickel steel alloy. The ferrite changes approximately -0.2% per degree C, which is compensated for by the 13% by the volume of compensator alloy incorporated in the magnet. Fourteen thousand (14,000) pounds of this material has been received and in order to obtain sufficient uniformity the authors mixed equal amounts from each batch into each magnet. Results of this process are given in the paper

  18. Charged particle measurements from a rocket-borne electron accelerator experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duprat, G.R.J.; McNamara, A.G.; Whalen, B.A.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter presents charged particle observations which relate to the spatial distribution of energetic (keV) charged particles surrounding the accelerator during gun firings, the energy distribution of energetic electrons produced in the plasma by the electron beam, and the dependence of these characteristics on the beam energy, current, and injection angle. The primary objective of the flight of the Nike Black Brant rocket (NUB-06) was to use an electron beam to probe the auroral field lines for electric fields parallel to the magnetic field. The secondary objectives were to study electron beam interactions in the ionosphere and spacecraft charging effects. It is demonstrated that during high current (greater than or equal to 10ma electron beam firings, an intense suprathermal as well as energetic electron population is created on flux tubes near the beam. Certain similarities exist between these measurements and corresponding ones made in the Houston vacuum tank suggesting that the same instability observed in the laboratory is occurring at high altitudes in the ionosphere

  19. Conceptual designs of two petawatt-class pulsed-power accelerators for high-energy-density-physics experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Stygar

    2015-11-01

    (MHD simulations suggest Z 300 will deliver 4.3 MJ to the liner, and achieve a yield on the order of 18 MJ. Z 800 is 52 m in diameter and stores 130 MJ. This accelerator generates 890 TW at the output of its LTD system, and delivers 65 MA in 113 ns to a MagLIF target. The peak electrical power at the MagLIF liner is 2500 TW. The principal goal of Z 800 is to achieve high-yield thermonuclear fusion; i.e., a yield that exceeds the energy initially stored by the accelerator’s capacitors. 2D MHD simulations suggest Z 800 will deliver 8.0 MJ to the liner, and achieve a yield on the order of 440 MJ. Z 300 and Z 800, or variations of these accelerators, will allow the international high-energy-density-physics community to conduct advanced inertial-confinement-fusion, radiation-physics, material-physics, and laboratory-astrophysics experiments over heretofore-inaccessible parameter regimes.

  20. The LPCTrap experiment: measurement of the β-ν angular correlation in 6He using a transparent Paul trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lienard, E.; Ban, G.; Blieck, J.; Durand, D.; Duval, F.; Flechard, X.; Herbane, M.; Labalme, M.; Lemiere, Y.; Mauger, F.; Mery, A.; Naviliat-Cuncic, O.; Rodriguez, D.; Thomas, J. C.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the status of the LPCTrap experiment, devoted to measure the β-ν angular correlation in the pure Gamow-Teller decay of 6 He. This measurement is motivated by the search for the presence of tensor type contributions to the weak interaction. The 6 He ions are confined in a novel transparent Paul trap. The β particles and the recoil ions are detected in coincidence to deduce the angular correlation parameter. The commissioning run performed in 2005 has given the proof of principle of this experiment. Up to 10 5 coincidences were recorded during a second run in 2006.

  1. Experience with copper oxide production in antiproton source components at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ader, Christine R.; Harms, Elvin R. Jr; Morgan, James P.

    2000-01-01

    The Antiproton (Pbar) Source at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is a facility comprised of a target station, two rings called the Debuncher and Accumulator and the transport lines between those rings and the remainder of the particle accelerator complex. Water is by far the most common medium for carrying excess heat away from components, primarily electromagnets, in this facility. The largest of the water systems found in Pbar is the 95 degree Fahrenheit Low Conductivity Water (LCW) system. LCW is water which has had free ions removed, increasing its resistance to electrical current. This water circuit is used to cool magnets, power supplies, and stochastic cooling components and typically has a resistivity of 11--18 megaohms-cm. For more than ten years the Antiproton rings were plagued with overheating magnets due to plugged water-cooling channels. Various repairs have been tried over the years with no permanent success. Throughout all of this time, water samples have indicated copper oxide, CuO, as the source of the contamination. Matters came to a head in early 1997 following a major underground LCW leak between the Central Utilities Building and the Antiproton Rings enclosures. Over a span of several weeks following system turn-on, some twenty magnets overheated leading to unreliable Pbar source operation. Although it was known that oxygen in the system reacts with the copper tubing to form CuO, work to remedy this problem was not undertaken until this time period. Leaks, large quantities of make-up water, infrequent filter replacement, and thermal cycling also result in an increase in the corrosion product release rate. A three-pronged approach has been implemented to minimize the amount of copper oxide available to plug the magnets: (1) installation of an oxygen removal system capable of achieving dissolved oxygen concentrations in the parts per billion (ppb) range; (2) regular closed-loop filter/flushing of the copper headers and magnets and stainless

  2. Can cognitive activities during breaks in repetitive manual work accelerate recovery from fatigue? A controlled experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svend Erik Mathiassen

    Full Text Available Neurophysiologic theory and some empirical evidence suggest that fatigue caused by physical work may be more effectively recovered during "diverting" periods of cognitive activity than during passive rest; a phenomenon of great interest in working life. We investigated the extent to which development and recovery of fatigue during repeated bouts of an occupationally relevant reaching task was influenced by the difficulty of a cognitive activity between these bouts. Eighteen male volunteers performed three experimental sessions, consisting of six 7-min bouts of reaching alternating with 3 minutes of a memory test differing in difficulty between sessions. Throughout each session, recordings were made of upper trapezius muscle activity using electromyography (EMG, heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV using electrocardiography, arterial blood pressure, and perceived fatigue (Borg CR10 scale and SOFI. A test battery before, immediately after and 1 hour after the work period included measurements of maximal shoulder elevation strength (MVC, pressure pain threshold (PPT over the trapezius muscles, and a submaximal isometric contraction. As expected, perceived fatigue and EMG amplitude increased during the physical work bouts. Recovery did occur between the bouts, but fatigue accumulated throughout the work period. Neither EMG changes nor recovery of perceived fatigue during breaks were influenced by cognitive task difficulty, while heart rate and HRV recovered the most during breaks with the most difficult task. Recovery of perceived fatigue after the 1 hour work period was also most pronounced for the most difficult cognitive condition, while MVC and PPT showed ambiguous patterns, and EMG recovered similarly after all three cognitive protocols. Thus, we could confirm that cognitive tasks between bouts of fatiguing physical work can, indeed, accelerate recovery of some factors associated with fatigue, even if benefits may be moderate and some

  3. Can cognitive activities during breaks in repetitive manual work accelerate recovery from fatigue? A controlled experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Hallman, David M; Lyskov, Eugene; Hygge, Staffan

    2014-01-01

    Neurophysiologic theory and some empirical evidence suggest that fatigue caused by physical work may be more effectively recovered during "diverting" periods of cognitive activity than during passive rest; a phenomenon of great interest in working life. We investigated the extent to which development and recovery of fatigue during repeated bouts of an occupationally relevant reaching task was influenced by the difficulty of a cognitive activity between these bouts. Eighteen male volunteers performed three experimental sessions, consisting of six 7-min bouts of reaching alternating with 3 minutes of a memory test differing in difficulty between sessions. Throughout each session, recordings were made of upper trapezius muscle activity using electromyography (EMG), heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) using electrocardiography, arterial blood pressure, and perceived fatigue (Borg CR10 scale and SOFI). A test battery before, immediately after and 1 hour after the work period included measurements of maximal shoulder elevation strength (MVC), pressure pain threshold (PPT) over the trapezius muscles, and a submaximal isometric contraction. As expected, perceived fatigue and EMG amplitude increased during the physical work bouts. Recovery did occur between the bouts, but fatigue accumulated throughout the work period. Neither EMG changes nor recovery of perceived fatigue during breaks were influenced by cognitive task difficulty, while heart rate and HRV recovered the most during breaks with the most difficult task. Recovery of perceived fatigue after the 1 hour work period was also most pronounced for the most difficult cognitive condition, while MVC and PPT showed ambiguous patterns, and EMG recovered similarly after all three cognitive protocols. Thus, we could confirm that cognitive tasks between bouts of fatiguing physical work can, indeed, accelerate recovery of some factors associated with fatigue, even if benefits may be moderate and some responses may be

  4. Initial dosimetric experience using simple three-dimensional conformal external-beam accelerated partial-breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taghian, Alphonse G.; Kozak, Kevin R.; Doppke, Karen P.; Katz, Angela; Smith, Barbara L.; Gadd, Michele; Specht, Michelle; Hughes, Kevin; Braaten, Kristina; Kachnic, Lisa A.; Recht, Abram; Powell, Simon N.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Several accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI) techniques are being investigated in patients with early-stage breast cancer. We present our initial experience using three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT). Methods and Materials: Sixty-one patients with tumors of 2 cm or less and negative axillary nodes were treated with 3D-CRT accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI) between August 2003 and March 2005. The prescribed radiation dose was 32 Gy in 4-Gy fractions given twice daily. Efforts were made to minimize the number of beams required to achieve adequate planning target volume (PTV) coverage. Results: A combination of photons and electrons was used in 85% of patients. A three-field technique that consisted of opposed, conformal tangential photons and enface electrons was employed in 43 patients (70%). Nine patients (15%) were treated with a four-field arrangement, which consisted of three photon fields and enface electrons. Mean PTV volumes that received 100%, 95%, and 90% of the prescribed dose were 93% ± 7%, 97% ± 4%, and 98% ± 2%, respectively. Dose inhomogeneity exceeded 10% in only 7 patients (11%). Mean doses to the ipsilateral lung and heart were 1.8 Gy and 0.8 Gy, respectively. Conclusions: Simple 3D-CRT techniques of APBI can achieve appropriate PTV coverage while offering significant normal-tissue sparing. Therefore, this noninvasive approach may increase the availability of APBI to patients with early-stage breast cancer

  5. Accelerated Aging Experiments for Prognostics of Damage Growth in Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    builds on current understanding of fault modes in composites. This paper investigates faults in laminated ply composites. Such structures mainly...experiments where intermittent ground truth and in-situ characteristics are collected. Growth patterns are analyzed for damage types typical of laminated ...2: [0/902/45/-45/90], and Layup 3: [902/45/-45]2. Torayca T700G uni-directional carbon- prepreg material was used for 15.24 cm x 25.4 cm coupons with

  6. Calibration and monitoring of the MEG experiment by a proton beam from a Cockcroft-Walton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, J.; Bai, X.; Baldini, A.; Baracchini, E.; Bemporad, C.; Boca, G.; Cattaneo, P.W.; Cavoto, G.; Cei, F.; Cerri, C.; Corbo, M.; Curalli, N.; Bari, A. de; De Gerone, M.; Doke, T.; Dussoni, S.; Egger, J.

    2011-01-01

    The MEG experiment at PSI searches for the decay μ→eγ at a level of ∼10 -13 on the branching ratio BR(μ→eγ/μ→tot), well beyond the present experimental limit (BR≤1.2x10 -11 ) and is sensitive to the predictions of SUSY-GUT theories. To reach this goal the experiment uses one of the most intense continuous surface muon beams available (∼10 8 μ/s) and relies on advanced technology (LXe calorimetry, a gradient-field superconducting spectrometer as well as flexible and powerful trigger and acquisition systems). In order to maintain the highest possible energy, time and spatial resolutions for such detector, frequent calibration and monitoring, using a Cockcroft-Walton proton accelerator, are required. The proton beam is brought to the centre of MEG by a special bellows insertion system and travels in a direction opposite to the one of the normal μ-beam. Protons interact with a lithium tetraborate (Li 2 B 4 O 7 ) nuclear target and produce one γ (17.6 MeV) from the reaction 7 3 Li(p,γ) 8 4 Be or two coincident γs (11.67 and 4.4 MeV) from the reaction 11 5 B(p,γ 1 ) 12 6 C * . The 17.6 MeV γ is used for calibrating and monitoring the LXe calorimeter (σ E γ /E γ =3.85±0.15% at 17.6 MeV) while the coincident 11.67 and 4.4 MeV γs are used to measure the relative timing of the calorimeter and the spectrometer timing counters (σ Δt =0.450±0.015ns). - Highlights: →Experiments that search for rare phenomena need to be constantly monitor and calibrated. →We show that proton induced nuclear reactions generate γ-rays useful for calibrating and monitoring the MEG experiment. →We describe the design, assembly and test of the calibration and monitoring accelerator for the MEG experiment.

  7. Self-pinch focusing experiments performed on the KALIF accelerator using the B{sub appl} diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppe, P; Nakagawa, Y; Bauer, W [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); and others

    1997-12-31

    Experiments using the B{sub appl} diode with a subdivided beam drift section were performed on the KALIF accelerator with the objective to investigate the generation of net currents and their influence on the focusing properties of the extracted proton beam. The generation of net currents up to 50% of the diode current was observed for argon gas pressures below 0.1 mbar in the second drift section. The differences in the time histories of various net current monitors might be related to a radial dependency of the net current densities in the beam. A comparison of the focusing properties investigated in shots with and without current neutralization showed only small differences. No enhancement of the power density related to self-pinch effects was found. However, the possibility of beam propagation over a short vacuum distance allows the use of a backlighter target required for laser absorption spectroscopy. (author). 4 figs., 4 refs.

  8. Weak effect of ion cyclotron acceleration on rapidly chirping beam-driven instabilities in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidbrink, W W; Ruskov, E; Fredrickson, E D; Gorelenkov, N; Medley, S S; Berk, H L; Harvey, R W

    2006-01-01

    The fast-ion distribution function in the National Spherical Torus Experiment is modified from shot to shot while keeping the total injected power at ∼2 MW. Deuterium beams of different energy and tangency radius are injected into helium L-mode plasmas, producing a rich set of instabilities, including compressional Alfven eigenmodes, toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE), 50-100 kHz instabilities with rapid frequency sweeps or chirps, and strong, low frequency (10-20 kHz) fishbones. The experiment was motivated by a theory that attributes frequency chirping to the formation of holes and clumps in phase-space. In the theory, increasing the effective collision frequency of the fast ions that drive the instability can suppress frequency chirping. In the experiment, high-power (∼<3 MW) high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating accelerates the fast ions in an attempt to alter the nonlinear dynamics. Steady-frequency TAE modes diminish during the HHFW heating but there is little evidence that frequency chirping is suppressed

  9. Weak effect of ion cyclotron acceleration on rapidly chirping beam-driven instabilities in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidbrink, W W [University of California, Irvine, California (United States); Ruskov, E [University of California, Irvine, California (United States); Fredrickson, E D [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey (United States); Gorelenkov, N [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey (United States); Medley, S S [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey (United States); Berk, H L [University of Texas, Austin, Texas (United States); Harvey, R W [CompX, Del Mar, California (United States)

    2006-09-15

    The fast-ion distribution function in the National Spherical Torus Experiment is modified from shot to shot while keeping the total injected power at {approx}2 MW. Deuterium beams of different energy and tangency radius are injected into helium L-mode plasmas, producing a rich set of instabilities, including compressional Alfven eigenmodes, toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE), 50-100 kHz instabilities with rapid frequency sweeps or chirps, and strong, low frequency (10-20 kHz) fishbones. The experiment was motivated by a theory that attributes frequency chirping to the formation of holes and clumps in phase-space. In the theory, increasing the effective collision frequency of the fast ions that drive the instability can suppress frequency chirping. In the experiment, high-power ({approx}<3 MW) high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating accelerates the fast ions in an attempt to alter the nonlinear dynamics. Steady-frequency TAE modes diminish during the HHFW heating but there is little evidence that frequency chirping is suppressed.

  10. Weak effect of ion cyclotron acceleration on rapidly chirping beam-driven instabilities in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W W,Heidbrink; E,Ruskov; E D,Fredrickson; N,Gorelenkov; S S,Medley; H L,Berk; R W,Harvey

    2006-09-01

    The fast-ion distribution function in the National Spherical Torus Experiment is modified from shot to shot while keeping the total injected power at ~2 MW. Deuterium beams of different energy and tangency radius are injected into helium L-mode plasmas, producing a rich set of instabilities, including compressional Alfven eigenmodes, toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE), 50–100 kHz instabilities with rapid frequency sweeps or chirps, and strong, low frequency (10–20 kHz) fishbones. The experiment was motivated by a theory that attributes frequency chirping to the formation of holes and clumps in phase-space. In the theory, increasing the effective collision frequency of the fast ions that drive the instability can suppress frequency chirping. In the experiment, high-power (≤3MW) high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating accelerates the fast ions in an attempt to alter the nonlinear dynamics. Steady-frequency TAE modes diminish during the HHFW heating but there is little evidence that frequency chirping is suppressed.

  11. Proposed Physics Experiments for Laser-Driven Electron Linear Acceleration in a Dielectric Loaded Vacuum, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byer, Robert L. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics. Edward L. Ginzton Lab.

    2016-07-08

    This final report summarizes the last three years of research on the development of advanced linear electron accelerators that utilize dielectric wave-guide vacuum channels pumped by high energy laser fields to accelerate beams of electrons.

  12. Computer-controlled back scattering and sputtering-experiment using a heavy-ion-accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, H.; Birnbaum, M.; Degenhardt, K.H.; Mertens, P.; Tschammer, V.

    1978-12-01

    Control and data acquisition of a PDP 11/40 computer and CAMAC instrumentation are reported for an experiment that has been developed to measure sputtering in yields and energy losses for heavy 100 - 300 keV ions in thin metal foils. Besides a quadrupole mass filter or a bending magnet, a multichannel analyser is coupled to the computer, so that also pulse height analysis can be performed under computer control. CAMAC instrumentation and measuring programs are built in a modular form to enable an easy application to other experimental problems. (orig.) 891 KBE/orig. 892 BRE

  13. Modelling third harmonic ion cyclotron acceleration of deuterium beams for JET fusion product studies experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, M.; Johnson, T.; Dumont, R.

    2016-01-01

    Recent JET experiments have been dedicated to the studies of fusion reactions between deuterium (D) and Helium-3 (3He) ions using neutral beam injection (NBI) in synergy with third harmonic ion cyclotron radio-frequency heating (ICRH) of the beam. This scenario generates a fast ion deuterium tail...... enhancing DD and D3He fusion reactions. Modelling and measuring the fast deuterium tail accurately is essential for quantifying the fusion products. This paper presents the modelling of the D distribution function resulting from the NBI+ICRF heating scheme, reinforced by a comparison with dedicated JET fast...

  14. Multi-processor developments in the United States for future high energy physics experiments and accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaines, I.

    1988-03-01

    The use of multi-processors for analysis and high-level triggering in High Energy Physics experiments, pioneered by the early emulator systems, has reached maturity, in particular with the multiple microprocessor systems in use at Fermilab. It is widely acknowledged that such systems will fulfill the major portion of the computing needs of future large experiments. Recent developments at Fermilab's Advanced Computer Program will make such systems even more powerful, cost-effective, and easier to use than they are at present. The next generation of microprocessors, already available, will provide CPU power of about one VAX 780 equivalent/$300, while supporting most VMS FORTRAN extensions and large (>8MB) amounts of memory. Low cost high density mass storage devices (based on video tape cartridge technology) will allow parallel I/O to remove potential I/O bottlenecks in systems of over 1000 VAX equipment processors. New interconnection schemes and system software will allow more flexible topologies and extremely high data bandwidth, especially for on-line systems. This talk will summarize the work at the Advanced Computer Program and the rest of the US in this field. 3 refs., 4 figs

  15. Experiments in the accelerator beam: change in the charge radius of 2+ rotational levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, S.S.

    1977-01-01

    The method of in-beam implantation is discussed and illustrated by implantation of 57 Fe into single crystals of semiconductors. The application to isotopes which cannot be produced by radioactive sources is illustrated by a study of the isomer shifts in isotopic series of rotational nuclei. Spectra obtained for implantation of 57 Fe into single crystals of germanium as a function of temperature are shown. Two well defined sites are observed. The right hand resonance can be identified with a substitutional site, while the left hand resonance is produced by either an interstitial or a ''damage'' site. A series of experiments are considered which illustrate the use of in-beam implantation to produce high-quality, single-line sources of nuclei which cannot be produced by radioactive parents. In particular, these experiments measure the isomer shifts in a complete series of isotopes. Usually only the proton-rich isotopes can be measured with radioactive sources; in-beam implantation can then be used to complete the series. The Gd and Yb series are completed in this way. 10 references

  16. Analyzing radial acceleration with a smartphone acceleration sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Patrik; Kuhn, Jochen

    2013-03-01

    This paper continues the sequence of experiments using the acceleration sensor of smartphones (for description of the function and the use of the acceleration sensor, see Ref. 1) within this column, in this case for analyzing the radial acceleration.

  17. Accelerating Value Creation with Accelerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Eythor Ivar

    2015-01-01

    and developing the best business ideas and support the due diligence process. Even universities are noticing that the learning experience of the action learning approach is an effective way to develop capabilities and change cultures. Accelerators related to what has historically been associated...

  18. Acceleration of laser-injected electron beams in an electron-beam driven plasma wakefield accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knetsch, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    Plasma wakefields deliver accelerating fields that are approximately a 100 times higher than those in conventional radiofrequency or even superconducting radiofrequency cavities. This opens a transformative path towards novel, compact and potentially ubiquitous accelerators. These prospects, and the increasing demand for electron accelerator beamtime for various applications in natural, material and life sciences, motivate the research and development on novel plasma-based accelerator concepts. However, these electron beam sources need to be understood and controlled. The focus of this thesis is on electron beam-driven plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA) and the controlled injection and acceleration of secondary electron bunches in the accelerating wake fields by means of a short-pulse near-infrared laser. Two laser-triggered injection methods are explored. The first one is the Trojan Horse Injection, which relies on very good alignment and timing control between electron beam and laser pulse and then promises electron bunches with hitherto unprecedented quality as regards emittance and brightness. The physics of electron injection in the Trojan Horse case is explored with a focus on the final longitudinal bunch length. Then a theoretical and numerical study is presented that examines the physics of Trojan Horse injection when performed in an expanding wake generated by a smooth density down-ramp. The benefits are radically decreased drive-electron bunch requirements and a unique bunch-length control that enables longitudinal electron-bunch shaping. The second laser-triggered injection method is the Plasma Torch Injection, which is a versatile, all-optical laser-plasma-based method capable to realize tunable density downramp injection. At the SLAC National Laboratory, the first proof-of-principle was achieved both for Trojan Horse and Plasma Torch injection. Setup details and results are reported in the experimental part of the thesis along with the commissioning

  19. Accelerating the transfer and diffusion of energy saving technologies steel sector experience-Lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, Teruo; Yamaguchi, Mitsutsune

    2011-01-01

    It is imperative to tackle the issue globally mobilizing all available policies and measures. One of the important ones among them is technology transfer and diffusion. By utilizing international co-operation, industry can promote such measures in two ways: through government policy and through industry's own voluntary initiative. Needless to say, various government policies and measures play essential role. By the same token, industry initiative can complement them. There is much literature documenting the former. On the contrary there are few on the latter. This paper sheds light on the latter. The purpose of this paper is to explore the effectiveness of global voluntary sectoral approach for technology diffusion and transfer based on steel sector experience. The goal is to contribute toward building a worldwide low-carbon society by manufacturing goods with less energy through international cooperation of each sector. The authors believe that the voluntary sectoral approach is an effective method with political and practical feasibilities, and hope to see the continued growth of more initiatives based on this approach. - Highlights: → There exist huge reduction potentials in steel industries globally. → Technology transfer and diffusion are keys to achieve reductions. → Main barriers are economic, technological and policy-related. → Case studies in overcoming barriers are discussed. → In steel industry, a voluntary sectoral approach has shown to be effective.

  20. Accelerated partial-breast irradiation using proton beams: Initial clinical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, Kevin R.; Smith, Barbara L.; Adams, Judith C.; Kornmehl, Ellen; Katz, Angela; Gadd, Michele; Specht, Michelle; Hughes, Kevin; Gioioso, Valeria; Lu, H.-M.; Braaten, Kristina; Recht, Abram; Powell, Simon N.; DeLaney, Thomas F.; Taghian, Alphonse G.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: We present our initial clinical experience with proton, three-dimensional, conformal, external beam, partial-breast irradiation (3D-CPBI). Methods and Materials: Twenty patients with Stage I breast cancer were treated with proton 3D-CPBI in a Phase I/II clinical trial. Patients were followed at 3 to 4 weeks, 6 to 8 weeks, 6 months, and every 6 months thereafter for recurrent disease, cosmetic outcome, toxicity, and patient satisfaction. Results: With a median follow-up of 12 months (range, 8-22 months), no recurrent disease has been detected. Global breast cosmesis was judged by physicians to be good or excellent in 89% and 100% of cases at 6 months and 12 months, respectively. Patients rated global breast cosmesis as good or excellent in 100% of cases at both 6 and 12 months. Proton 3D-CPBI produced significant acute skin toxicity with moderate to severe skin color changes in 79% of patients at 3 to 4 weeks and moderate to severe moist desquamation in 22% of patients at 6 to 8 weeks. Telangiectasia was noted in 3 patients. Three patients reported rib tenderness in the treated area, and one rib fracture was documented. At last follow-up, 95% of patients reported total satisfaction with proton 3D-CPBI. Conclusions: Based on our study results, proton 3D-CPBI offers good-to-excellent cosmetic outcomes in 89% to 100% of patients at 6-month and 12-month follow-up and nearly universal patient satisfaction. However, proton 3D-CPBI, as used in this study, does result in significant acute skin toxicity and may potentially be associated with late skin (telangiectasia) and rib toxicity. Because of the dosimetric advantages of proton 3D-CPBI, technique modifications are being explored to improve acute skin tolerance

  1. Presence of Old Individuals in a Population Accelerates and Optimizes the Process of Selection: in silico Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistyakov, V A; Denisenko, Y V; Bren, A B

    2018-02-01

    One of the important components of the concept of aging-phenoptosis (programmed aging) is the notion of aging as an accelerator of evolution having the rank of subconcept. For many reasons, the main being the problematic experimental testing of evolutionary hypotheses, verification of the above-mentioned subconcept can be based primarily on analysis of the internal inconsistency of heuristic models and their correspondence to undisputedly observed facts. To illustrate the acceleration mechanism, and most importantly to structure the evolutionary process in communities that include naturally weakened individuals, V. P. Skulachev offered in 2003 a conceptual model that he later called a "fable about hares". Despite its simplicity, this model has undoubted internal logic. The natural trend in the development of conceptual models is their translation into the language of mathematics. The purpose of the present work was to create a variation of the known multi-agent model "predator-prey" that would allow us to "see" how the presence in the prey population of naturally weakened (old) members stimulates the selection of individuals with traits whose adaptive potential is not devaluated with age. The model (http://homebear.ru/PD) was developed on the Java platform, version 6, NetBeans development environment 8.2. Statistical analysis and preparation of illustrative materials were carried out using environment R, version 3.4.1. The results of numerical experiments set using our model correspond in principle to the provisions of the heuristic model of Skulachev and, consequently, confirm the absence in it of logical contradictions.

  2. Experience utilizing a 3.7 MeV tandem cascade accelerator (TCA) for PET radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, M.J.; Gaehle, G.; Dence, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    A 3.7 MeV TCA was installed at Washington University in the Spring of 1993 for evaluation as a PET isotope production accelerator. The accelerator was installed in a specially designed suite consisting of the accelerator room, a open-quotes hot labclose quotes and a open-quotes cold labclose quotes. The accelerator has been utilized routinely for PET isotope production since it's installation. Although the major radionuclide produced utilizing the TCA is oxygen-15, techniques for the production of fluorine-18 and nitrogen-13 have been developed. The novel techniques used to produce usable quantities of these latter two isotopes will be discussed

  3. Superconducting linear accelerator cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Elkonin, B.V.; Sokolowski, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    A large vertical cryostat for a superconducting linear accelerator using quarter wave resonators has been developed. The essential technical details, operational experience and performance are described. (author)

  4. Beam dynamics of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II (NDCX-II),a novel pulse-compressing ion accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, A.; Barnard, J.J.; Cohen, R.H.; Grote, D.P.; Lund, S.M.; Sharp, W.M.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Jung, J.-Y.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.A.; Logan, B.G.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Davidson, R.C.; Dorf, M.; Gilson, E.P.; Kaganovich, I.D.

    2009-01-01

    Intense beams of heavy ions are well suited for heating matter to regimes of emerging interest. A new facility, NDCX-II, will enable studies of warm dense matter at ∼1 eV and near-solid density, and of heavy-ion inertial fusion target physics relevant to electric power production. For these applications the beam must deposit its energy rapidly, before the target can expand significantly. To form such pulses, ion beams are temporally compressed in neutralizing plasma; current amplification factors of ∼50-100 are routinely obtained on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) at LBNL. In the NDCX-II physics design, an initial non-neutralized compression renders the pulse short enough that existing high-voltage pulsed power can be employed. This compression is first halted and then reversed by the beam's longitudinal space-charge field. Downstream induction cells provide acceleration and impose the head-to-tail velocity gradient that leads to the final neutralized compression onto the target. This paper describes the discrete-particle simulation models (1-D, 2-D, and 3-D) employed and the space-charge-dominated beam dynamics being realized.

  5. Disruption simulation experiments in a pulsed plasma accelerator - energy absorption and damage evolution on plasma facing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolt, H.; Barabash, V.; Gervash, A.; Linke, J.; Lu, L.P.; Ovchinnikov, I.; Roedig, M.

    1995-01-01

    Plasma accelerators are used as test beds for disruption simulation experiments on plasma facing materials, because the incident energy fluxes and the discharge duration are of similar order as those expected during disruptions in ITER. The VIKA facility was used for the testing of materials under incident energies up to 5 kJ/cm 2 . Different carbon materials, SiC, stainless steel, TZM and tungsten have been tested. From the experimental results a scaling of the ablation with incident energy density was derived. The resulting ablation depth on carbon materials is roughly 2 μm per kJcm -2 of incident energy density. For metals this ablation is much higher due to the partial loss of the melt layer from splashing. For stainless steel an ablation depth of 9.5 μm per kJcm -2 was determined. The result of a linear scaling of the ablation depth with incident energy density is consistent with a previous calorimetric study. (orig.)

  6. Commissioning and early experience with a new-generation low-energy linear accelerator with advanced delivery and imaging functionalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogliata Antonella

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A new-generation low-energy linear accelerator (UNIQUE was introduced in the clinical arena during 2009 by Varian Medical Systems. The world's first UNIQUE was installed at Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland and put into clinical operation in June 2010. The aim of the present contribution was to report experience about its commissioning and first year results from clinical operation. Methods Commissioning data, beam characteristics and the modeling into the treatment planning system were summarized. Imaging system of UNIQUE included a 2D-2D matching capability and tests were performed to identify system repositioning capability. Finally, since the system is capable of delivering volumetric modulated arc therapy with RapidArc, a summary of the tests performed for such modality to assess its performance in preclinical settings and during clinical usage was included. Results Isocenter virtual diameter was measured as less than 0.2 mm. Observed accuracy of isocenter determination and repositioning for 2D-2D matching procedures in image guidance was Conclusions The results of the commissioning tests and of the first period of clinical operation, resulted meeting specifications and having good margins respect to tolerances. UNIQUE was put into operation for all delivery techniques; in particular, as shown by the pre-treatment quality assurance results, it enabled accurate and safe delivery of RapidArc plans.

  7. High rates of carbon storage in old deciduous forests: Emerging mechanisms from the Forest Accelerated Succession ExperimenT (FASET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, C. M.; Nave, L. E.; Hardiman, B. S.; Bohrer, G.; Halperin, A.; Maurer, K.; Le Moine, J.; Nadelhoffer, K.; Vogel, C. S.; Curtis, P.; University Of Michigan Biological Station Forest Ecosystem Study (Umbs-Fest) Team

    2010-12-01

    Deciduous forests of the eastern US are broadly approaching an ecological threshold in which early successional dominant trees are senescing and giving way to later successional species, with unknown consequences for regional carbon (C) cycling. Though recent research demonstrates that forests may accumulate C for centuries, the mechanisms behind sustained rates of C storage in old, particularly deciduous, forests have not been identified. In a regionally representative forest at the University of Michigan Biological Station, we are combining observational and experimental C cycling studies to forecast how forest C storage responds to climate variation, disturbance, and succession. The Forest Accelerated Succession ExperimenT (FASET), in which >6,700 aspen and birch trees (~35 % LAI) were stem girdled within a 39 ha area, is testing the hypothesis that forest production will increase rather than decline with age, due to increases in nitrogen (N) availability, N allocation to the canopy, and the concurrent development of a more biologically and structurally complex canopy. Results thus far support our hypothesis that aging forests in the region may sustain high rates of C storage through shifts in N cycling and increased canopy complexity. Girdling-induced mortality of early successional species reduced soil respiration, accelerated fine root turnover, and prompted the redistribution of N from the foliage of early to later successional species. Nitrogen redistribution increased leaf area index (LAI) production by later successional species, offsetting declines in LAI from senescing early successional species. High rates of net primary production (NPP) were sustained in stands comprising a diverse assemblage of early and later successional species because later successional species, when already present in the canopy, rapidly compensated for declining growth of early successional species. Canopy structural complexity, which increased with forest age, was positively

  8. Collective acceleration of electrons and ions in a high current relativistic electron beam. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nation, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes work carried out on DOE contract number DE-AC02-80ER10569 during the period December 15, 1979 to May 31, 1992. The original purpose of this research was to investigate the use of slow space charge waves on weakly relativistic electron beams for ion acceleration. The work had three major objectives: development of a suitable ion injector, growth and study of the properties of slow space charge waves on an electron beam, and a combination of the two components into a suitable proof-of-principle demonstration of the wave accelerator. Work focused on the first two of these objectives. Control of the space charge waves' phase velocity was not obtained to the degree required for a working accelerator, so the project was duly terminated in favor of a program which focused on generating ultra high power microwave signals suitable for use in the next linear collider. Work done to develop suitable efficient, inexpensive, phase-stable microwave sources, with peak powers of up to 1 GW in the X band in pulses shorter than 1 ns, is described. Included are lists of the journal and conference papers resulting from this work, as well as a list of graduate students who completed their Ph.D. studies on the projects described in this report

  9. Single-centre experience of stereotactic radiosurgery and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for prolactinomas with the linear accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Peter J; Williams, Janet Rosemary; Smee, Robert Ian

    2015-06-01

    Primary management of prolactinomas is usually medical, with surgery a secondary option where necessary. This study is a review of a single centre's experience with focused radiotherapy where benefit was not gained by medical or surgical approaches. Radiotherapy as an alternative and adjuvant treatment for prolactinomas has been performed at our institution with the linear accelerator since 1990. We present a retrospective review of 13 patients managed with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and 5 managed with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT), as well as 5 managed with conventional radiotherapy, at the Prince of Wales Hospital. Patients with a histopathologically diagnosed prolactinoma were eligible. Those patients who had a confirmed pathological diagnosis of prolactinoma following surgical intervention, a prolactin level elevated above 500 μg/L, or a prolactin level persistently elevated above 200 μg/L with exclusion of other causes were represented in this review. At the end of documented follow-up (SRS median 6 years, FSRT median 2 years), no SRS patients showed an increase in tumour volume. After FSRT, 1 patient showed an increase in size, 2 showed a decrease in size and 2 patients showed no change. Prolactin levels trended towards improvement after SRS and FSRT, but no patients achieved the remission level of <20 μg/L. Seven of 13 patients in the SRS group achieved a level of <500 μg/L, whereas no patients reached this target after FSRT. A reduction in prolactin level is frequent after SRS and FSRT for prolactinomas; however, true biochemical remission is uncommon. Tumour volume control in this series was excellent, but this may be related to the natural history of the disease. Morbidity and mortality after stereotactic radiation were very low in this series. © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  10. Operating experiences on the co-generation system (CGS) as an uninterruptible power source (UPS) for the super-sized accelerator facility, RIBF of RIKEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujinawa, Tadashi; Yano, Yasushige

    2011-01-01

    The RI Beam Factory (RIBF) of RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, which succeeded in extracting first beam on December 28th 2006 as scheduled, is currently conducting nuclear physics experiments. The RIBF has six accelerators, one of which is the world's biggest and most powerful superconducting ring cyclotron (SRC). The accelerators require not only a huge amount of electricity but also a reliable power supply for the He-cryogenic system, vacuum system and superconducting magnet systems. For this purpose, the co-generation system (CGS) was introduced. A gas turbine generates 6.5 MW of power from liquid natural gas (LNG) and supplies it to the systems mentioned above as an uninterruptible power source (UPS). By utilizing gas heat exhaust from the gas turbine, the CGS will also supply cooled water to the cooling system of the RIBF accelerators as well as to the air-conditioning system for the bending. The CGS plant was completed on the 1st floor of the RIBF accelerator building and it began operating in April 2003. This paper covers the merits and demerits. (author)

  11. Some remarks about the effects of acceleration on time dilation in experiments with a Mössbauer source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, E.; Feoli, A.

    2018-02-01

    We suggest an alternative interpretation of the experimental results obtained studying the circular accelerated motion of a rotor that plays the role of an absorber of photons emitted by a Mössbauer source. A spectral shift was discovered and interpreted in the light of a generalized relativistic theory with maximal acceleration. Alternatively we propose that the shift could be explained by a time-dependent Doppler effect in standard relativity.

  12. Canine status epilepticus treated with fosphenytoin: A proof of principle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Edward E; Leppik, Ilo E; Coles, Lisa D; Podell, Michael; Vite, Charles H; Bush, William; Cloyd, James C

    2015-06-01

    There are a limited number of marketed intravenous antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) available to treat status epilepticus (SE). All were first developed for chronic therapy of epilepsy, not specifically for SE. Epilepsy and canine SE (CSE) occur naturally in dogs, with prevalence, presentation, and percentage of refractory cases similar to human epilepsy. The objective of this study was to determine if CSE treated with fosphenytoin (FOS) results in a similar responder rate as for people. A randomized clinical trial was performed for dogs with CSE. Dogs who presented during a seizure or who had additional seizures after enrolling received intravenous (i.v.) benzodiazepine (BZD) followed immediately by intravenous infusion of 15 mg/kg phenytoin equivalent (PE) of fosphenytoin (FOS) or saline placebo (PBO). If seizures continued, additional AEDs were administered per the standard of care for veterinary patients. Total and unbound plasma phenytoin (PHT) concentrations were measured. Consent was obtained for 50 dogs with CSE. Thirty-one had additional motor seizures and were randomized to the study intervention (22 FOS and 9 PBO). There was a statistically significant difference in the 12 h responder rate, with 63% in the FOS group versus 22% in the placebo group (p = 0.043) having no further seizures. The unbound PHT concentrations at 30 and 60 min were within the therapeutic concentrations for people (1-2 μg/ml) with the exception of one dog. There was mild vomiting in 36% of the FOS group (7/22) within 20 min of FOS administration and none of the placebo group (0/9) (p = 0.064). This proof of concept study provides the first evidence that FOS is tolerated and effective in canine SE at PHT concentrations clinically relevant for human SE. Furthermore, naturally occurring CSE can be utilized as a translational platform for future studies of novel SE compounds. © 2015 The Authors. Epilepsia published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International League Against Epilepsy.

  13. Semi-automatic assessment of skin capillary density: proof of principle and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronenschild, E H B M; Muris, D M J; Schram, M T; Karaca, U; Stehouwer, C D A; Houben, A J H M

    2013-11-01

    Skin capillary density and recruitment have been proven to be relevant measures of microvascular function. Unfortunately, the assessment of skin capillary density from movie files is very time-consuming, since this is done manually. This impedes the use of this technique in large-scale studies. We aimed to develop a (semi-) automated assessment of skin capillary density. CapiAna (Capillary Analysis) is a newly developed semi-automatic image analysis application. The technique involves four steps: 1) movement correction, 2) selection of the frame range and positioning of the region of interest (ROI), 3) automatic detection of capillaries, and 4) manual correction of detected capillaries. To gain insight into the performance of the technique, skin capillary density was measured in twenty participants (ten women; mean age 56.2 [42-72] years). To investigate the agreement between CapiAna and the classic manual counting procedure, we used weighted Deming regression and Bland-Altman analyses. In addition, intra- and inter-observer coefficients of variation (CVs), and differences in analysis time were assessed. We found a good agreement between CapiAna and the classic manual method, with a Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) of 0.95 (Pdifferences between the two methods, with an intercept of the Deming regression of 1.75 (-6.04; 9.54), while the Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean difference (bias) of 2.0 (-13.5; 18.4) capillaries/mm(2). The intra- and inter-observer CVs of CapiAna were 2.5% and 5.6% respectively, while for the classic manual counting procedure these were 3.2% and 7.2%, respectively. Finally, the analysis time for CapiAna ranged between 25 and 35min versus 80 and 95min for the manual counting procedure. We have developed a semi-automatic image analysis application (CapiAna) for the assessment of skin capillary density, which agrees well with the classic manual counting procedure, is time-saving, and has a better reproducibility as compared to the classic manual counting procedure. As a result, the use of skin capillaroscopy is feasible in large-scale studies, which importantly extends the possibilities to perform microcirculation research in humans. © 2013.

  14. Elmo Bumpy Torus proof of principle, Phase II: Title 1 report. Volume II. Toroidal vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The Toroidal Vessel provides the vacuum enclosure for containing the high temperature steady state plasma. In addition, the Toroidal Vessel must provide several viewing ports for plasma diagnostics, vacuum pumping ports for both high vacuum and roughing vacuum, feed-through ports for ECRH waveguides, limiter feed throughs for cooling and supporting the limiters, and ports for ion gages. The vessel must operate in an intense environment comprised of x-rays, microwaves, magnetic fields and plasma heat loads as well as the atmosphere pressure and gravity loads and the internal thermal stress loads due to heating and cooling of the torus. A key issue addressed was the choice of vacuum vessel seal and wall materials. In addition, during the course of the study, ORNL requested that horsecollar diagnostic ports be incorporated in the design. A comprehensive trade study was performed considering the vessel material issues in concert with the impact of the horsecollar port design. A change in baseline from an aluminum vessel with elastomer seals and circular diagnostic ports to austenitic stainless steel vessel with metal seals and horsecollar ports was agreed upon by both MDAC and ORNL towards the end of Title I

  15. Placebo in sports nutrition: a proof-of-principle study involving caffeine supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, B; de Oliveira, L F; da Silva, R P; de Salles Painelli, V; Gonçalves, L S; Yamaguchi, G; Mutti, T; Maciel, E; Roschel, H; Artioli, G G; Gualano, B

    2017-11-01

    We investigated the effects of supplement identification on exercise performance with caffeine supplementation. Forty-two trained cyclists (age 37 ± 8 years, body mass [BM] 74.3 ± 8.4 kg, height 1.76 ± 0.06 m, maximum oxygen uptake 50.0 ± 6.8 mL/kg/min) performed a ~30 min cycling time-trial 1 h following either 6 mg/kgBM caffeine (CAF) or placebo (PLA) supplementation and one control (CON) session without supplementation. Participants identified which supplement they believed they had ingested ("caffeine", "placebo", "don't know") pre- and post-exercise. Subsequently, participants were allocated to subgroups for analysis according to their identifications. Overall and subgroup analyses were performed using mixed-model and magnitude-based inference analyses. Caffeine improved performance vs PLA and CON (P ≤ 0.001). Correct pre- and post-exercise identification of caffeine in CAF improved exercise performance (+4.8 and +6.5%) vs CON, with slightly greater relative increases than the overall effect of caffeine (+4.1%). Performance was not different between PLA and CON within subgroups (all P > 0.05), although there was a tendency toward improved performance when participants believed they had ingested caffeine post-exercise (P = 0.06; 87% likely beneficial). Participants who correctly identified placebo in PLA showed possible harmful effects on performance compared to CON. Supplement identification appeared to influence exercise outcome and may be a source of bias in sports nutrition. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of the active second stage of labour: Proof of principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guettler, F.V.; Heinrich, A.; Rump, J.; Bucourt, M. de; Hamm, B.; Teichgraeber, U.K.; Schnackenburg, B.; Bamberg, C.

    2012-01-01

    To prove that magnetic resonance imaging of foetal anatomy during the active second stage of vaginal delivery is feasible. Initially, five pregnant volunteers around the 30th week of gestation were examined in an open MRI. Based on the findings, one vaginal delivery was acquired under real-time imaging. To monitor the birth status during image acquisition, an MR-compatible wireless cardiotocography (CTG) system was built. Single-shot sequence parameters were optimised to compensate motion artefacts during labour. Safety requirements to monitor the birth process under real-time MR imaging were met. High-resolution MR images were acquired immediately before and after delivery. In one patient, TSE single-shot cinematic sequences of the active second stage of labour were obtained. All sequences were adapted to tolerate movement of the mother and infant, as well as residual noise from the CTG. Furthermore, the MR imaging during labour showed only minor image artefacts. CTG-monitored acquisition of MRI series during the active second stage of delivery is feasible. Image quality should allow various further studies to improve models for birth simulation as well as potential investigation of obstructed labour and obstetric complications. (orig.)

  17. Elmo Bumpy Torus proof of principle. Phase II - title 1 report. Volume I. Device summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, D.W.

    1982-02-01

    This document presents a summary of the EBT-P Preliminary Design (Title I) effort. The work was performed, under the direction of ORNL, for the Department of Energy by MDAC-St. Louis. Major subcontractors assisting MDAC included General Dynamics for the magnet system, Gilbert Associates for the device utilities and facility architecture and engineering, and Lockheed - Oak Ridge for engineering support services. The Title I period of performance was from 1 October 1980 to 1 March 1982

  18. Elmo Bumpy Torus proof of principle, Phase II: Title 1 report. Volume VII. Cryogenic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poteat, T.J.

    1982-01-01

    This document, Volume VII EBT-P Cryogenic System Title I Design Report, describes the system that resulted from the Title I Preliminary Design effort. It is a self-contained document that can be read apart from the other Volumes comprising the EBT-P Title I Report. This document is a contract deliverable item and provides the detail necessary to support the Cryogenic System design contained in the EBT-P Baseline Design Data Book

  19. Proof-of-principle measurements for an NDA-based core discharge monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbig, J.K.; Monticone, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of using nondestructive assay instruments as a core discharge monitor for CANDU reactors was investigated at the Ontario Hydro Bruce Nuclear Generating Station A, Unit 3, in Ontario, Canada. The measurements were made to determine if radiation signatures from discharged irradiated fuel could be measured unambiguously and used to count the number of fuel pushes from a reactor face. Detectors using the (γ,n) reaction thresholds of beryllium and deuterium collected the data, but data from shielded and unshielded ion chambers were collected as well. The detectors were placed on a fueling trolley that carried the fueling machine between the reactors and the central service area. A microprocessor-based electronics system (the GRAND-I, which also resided on the trolley) provided detector biases and preamplifier power and acquired and transferred the data. It was connected by an RS-232 serial link to a lap-top computer adjacent to the fueling control console in the main-reactor control room. The lap-top computer collected and archived the data on a 3.5-in. floppy disk. The results clearly showed such an approach to be a adaptable as a core discharge monitor. 4 refs., 8 figs

  20. Proof of Principle for Active Detection of Fissionable Material Using Intense, Pulsed-Bremsstrahlung-Induced Photofission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-07

    September 2012 Defense Threat Reduction Agency 8725 John Kingman Road Ft. Belvoir, VA 22060 Office of Naval Research One Liberty Center 875 North...from cosmic rays) can accumulate with long measurement time. An alternative to the linac approach relies on the use of TW-level pulsed-power...Without their considerable effort, this work would not have been possible. This work was funded by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency and the Office of

  1. Diagnosis of Parkinsonian disorders using a channelized Hotelling observer model: Proof of principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bal, H.; Bal, G.; Acton, P. D.

    2007-01-01

    Imaging dopamine transporters using PET and SPECT probes is a powerful technique for the early diagnosis of Parkinsonian disorders. In order to perform automated accurate diagnosis of these diseases, a channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) based model was developed and evaluated using the SPECT tracer [Tc-99m]TRODAT-1. Computer simulations were performed using a digitized striatal phantom to characterize early stages of the disease (20 lesion-present cases with varying lesion size and contrast). Projection data, modeling the effects of attenuation and geometric response function, were obtained for each case. Statistical noise levels corresponding to those observed clinically were added to the projection data to obtain 100 noise realizations for each case. All the projection data were reconstructed, and a subset of the transaxial slices containing the striatum was summed and used for further analysis. CHO models, using the Laguerre-Gaussian functions as channels, were designed for two cases: (1) By training the model using individual lesion-present samples and (2) by training the model using pooled lesion-present samples. A decision threshold obtained for each CHO model was used to classify the study population (n=40). It was observed that individual lesion trained CHO models gave high diagnostic accuracy for lesions that were larger than those used to train the model and vice-versa. On the other hand, the pooled CHO model was found to give a high diagnostic accuracy for all the lesion cases (average diagnostic accuracy=0.95±0.07; p<0.0001 Fisher's exact test). Based on our results, we conclude that a CHO model has the potential to provide early and accurate diagnosis of Parkinsonian disorders, thereby improving patient management

  2. Human-derived nanoparticles and vascular response to injury in rabbit carotid arteries: Proof of principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A K Schwartz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Maria A K Schwartz1, John C Lieske2, Vivek Kumar2, Gerard Farell-Baril2, Virginia M Miller1,31Departments of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Internal Medicine; 2Division of Nephrology, and 3Surgery, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USAAbstract: Self-calcifying, self-replicating nanoparticles have been isolated from calcified human tissues. However, it is unclear if these nanoparticles participate in disease processes. Therefore, this study was designed to preliminarily test the hypothesis that human-derived nanoparticles are causal to arterial disease processes. One carotid artery of 3 kg male rabbits was denuded of endothelium; the contralateral artery remained unoperated as a control. Each rabbit was injected intravenously with either saline, calcified, or decalcified nanoparticles cultured from calcified human arteries or kidney stones. After 35 days, both injured and control arteries were removed for histological examination. Injured arteries from rabbits injected with saline showed minimal, eccentric intimal hyperplasia. Injured arteries from rabbits injected with calcified kidney stone- and arterial-derived nanoparticles occluded, sometimes with canalization. The calcified kidney stone-derived nanoparticles caused calcifications within the occlusion. Responses to injury in rabbits injected with decalcified kidney stone-derived nanoparticles were similar to those observed in saline-injected animals. However, decalcified arterial-derived nanoparticles produced intimal hyperplasia that varied from moderate to occlusion with canalization and calcifi cation. This study offers the first evidence that there may be a causal relationship between human-derived nanoparticles and response to injury including calcification in arteries with damaged endothelium.Keywords: arterial calcification, endothelial injury, intimal hyperplasia

  3. Mathematical and empirical proof of principle for an on-body personal lift augmentation device (PLAD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoli-Eramaki, Mohammad; Stevenson, Joan M; Reid, Susan A; Bryant, Timothy J

    2007-01-01

    In our laboratory, we have developed a prototype of a personal lift augmentation device (PLAD) that can be worn by workers during manual handling tasks involving lifting or lowering or static holding in symmetric and asymmetric postures. Our concept was to develop a human-speed on-body assistive device that would reduce the required lumbar moment by 20-30% without negative consequences on other joints or lifting kinematics. This paper provides mathematical proof using simplified free body diagrams and two-dimensional moment balance equations. Empirical proof is also provided based on lifting trials with nine male subjects who executed sagittal plane lifts using three lifting styles (stoop, squat, free) and three different loads (5, 15, and 25kg) under two conditions (PLAD, No-PLAD). Nine Fastrak sensors and six in-line strap force sensors were used to estimate the reduction of compressive and shear forces on L4/L5 as well as estimate the forces transferred to the shoulders and knees. Depending on lifting technique, the PLAD applied an added 23-36Nm of torque to assist the back muscles during lifting tasks. The peak pelvic girdle contact forces were estimated and their magnitudes ranged from 221.3+/-11.2N for stoop lifting, 324.3+/-17.2N for freestyle lifts to 468.47+/-23.2N for squat lifting. The PLAD was able to reduce the compression and shear forces about 23-29% and 7.9-8.5%, respectively.

  4. Shutting down sensorimotor interferences after stroke: A proof-of-principle SMR neurofeedback study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Louise Reichert

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Neurofeedback training aims at learning self-regulation of brain activity underlying cognitive, emotional or physiological functions. Despite of promising investigations on neurofeedback as a tool for cognitive rehabilitation in neurological diseases, such as after stroke, there is still a lack of research on feasibility and efficiency of neurofeedback in this field. Methods: The present study aimed at investigating behavioral and electrophysiological effects of 10 sessions of sensorimotor rhythm (SMR neurofeedback in a 74-year-old stroke patient (UG20. Based on previous results in healthy young participants, we hypothesized that SMR neurofeedback leads to a decrease in sensorimotor interferences and improved stimulus processing, reflected by changes in event-related potentials and electrophysiological coherence. To assess whether UG20 benefited from the training as much as healthy persons of a similar age, a healthy control group of N = 10 elderly persons was trained as well. Before and after neurofeedback training, participants took part in a multichannel EEG measurement conducted during a nonverbal and a verbal learning task. Results: Both UG20 and the healthy controls were able to regulate their SMR activity during neurofeedback training. Moreover, in a nonverbal learning task, changes in event-related potentials and coherence were observed after training: UG20 showed a better performance in the nonverbal learning task and a higher P3 amplitude after training than before, and coherence between central and parietal electrodes decreased after training. The control group also showed a behavioral improvement in the nonverbal learning task and tendencies for higher P3 amplitudes and decreased central-parietal coherence after training. Single-case analyses indicated that the changes observed in UG20 were not smaller than the changes in healthy controls. Conclusions: Neurofeedback can be successfully applied in a stroke patient and in healthy elderly persons. We suggest that SMR neurofeedback leads to a shutting-down of sensorimotor interferences which benefits semantic encoding and retrieval.

  5. Controlled-air and rotary-kiln proof-of-principle tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedahl, T.G.

    1982-05-01

    Although the incinerator tests did not represent optimized processing, general system design characteristics were established. The test results indicated that the rotary kiln incinerator would be most applicable in the Transuranic Waste Treatment Facility (TWTF) for the following reasons: (1) The rotary kiln is more capable of achieving near-complete combustion of the combustibles in the waste mixed with a high proportion of metal and noncombustible waste. Complete combustion of the combustible waste is preferred in order to reduce waste volume and ensure the production of a stable, immobilized waste form. (2) The rotary kiln processing appears to be more flexible. Kiln rotation rate, kiln incline, and waste feed rate and method are system variables which can be altered to meet the needs of processing variable waste compositions. The advantages of the rotary kiln system allow for a practical concept for processing a majority of the radioactive waste at the INEL. However, further engineering tests must be performed to determine the necessary processing angles and design information for TWTF waste processing

  6. Boron neutron capture therapy for oral precancer: proof of principle in an experimental animal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Monti Hughes; ECC Pozzi; S. Thorp; M. A. Garabalino; R. O. Farias; S. J. Gonzalez; E. M. Heber; M. E. Itoiz; R. F. Aromando; A. J. Molinari; M. Miller; D. W. Nigg; P. Curotto; V. A. Trivillin; A. E. Schwint

    2013-11-01

    Field-cancerized tissue can give rise to second primary tumours, causing therapeutic failure. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on biological targeting and would serve to treat undetectable foci of malignant transformation. The aim of this study was to optimize BNCT for the integral treatment for oral cancer, with particular emphasis on the inhibitory effect on tumour development originating in precancerous conditions, and radiotoxicity of different BNCT protocols in a hamster cheek pouch oral precancer model.

  7. A coupled RELAPS-3D/CFD methodology with a proof-of-principle calculation; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumiller, D.L.; Tomlinson, E.T.; Bauer, R.C.

    2000-01-01

    The RELAP5-3D computer code was modified to make the explicit coupling capability in the code fully functional. As a test of the modified code, a coupled RELAP5/RELAP5 analysis of the Edwards-O'Brien blowdown problem was performed which showed no significant deviations from the standard RELAP5-3D predictions. In addition, a multiphase Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code was modified to permit explicit coupling to RELAP5-3D. Several calculations were performed with this code. The first analysis used the experimental pressure history from a point just upstream of the break as a boundary condition. This analysis showed that a multiphase CFD code could calculate the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic conditions during a rapid blowdown transient. Finally, a coupled RELAP5/CFD analysis was performed. The results are presented in this paper

  8. Report on the Concept Review Committee recommendations for proof-of-principle alternate concept programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    The report is organized as follows: Section II contains a discussion of the meeting procedures used on October 16--18, 1978, and the rules employed for technical consultants and advisors to the CRC. Section III contains a discussion of the CRC recommendations and some of the factors taken into consideration by the Committee. Section IV briefly discusses where do we go from here in DOE's alternate concepts program

  9. Defining Glioblastoma Resectability Through the Wisdom of the Crowd: A Proof-of-Principle Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonabend, Adam M; Zacharia, Brad E; Cloney, Michael B; Sonabend, Aarón; Showers, Christopher; Ebiana, Victoria; Nazarian, Matthew; Swanson, Kristin R; Baldock, Anne; Brem, Henry; Bruce, Jeffrey N; Butler, William; Cahill, Daniel P; Carter, Bob; Orringer, Daniel A; Roberts, David W; Sagher, Oren; Sanai, Nader; Schwartz, Theodore H; Silbergeld, Daniel L; Sisti, Michael B; Thompson, Reid C; Waziri, Allen E; McKhann, Guy

    2017-04-01

    Extent of resection (EOR) correlates with glioblastoma outcomes. Resectability and EOR depend on anatomical, clinical, and surgeon factors. Resectability likely influences outcome in and of itself, but an accurate measurement of resectability remains elusive. An understanding of resectability and the factors that influence it may provide a means to control a confounder in clinical trials and provide reference for decision making. To provide proof of concept of the use of the collective wisdom of experienced brain tumor surgeons in assessing glioblastoma resectability. We surveyed 13 academic tumor neurosurgeons nationwide to assess the resectability of newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Participants reviewed 20 cases, including digital imaging and communications in medicine-formatted pre- and postoperative magnetic resonance images and clinical vignettes. The selected cases involved a variety of anatomical locations and a range of EOR. Participants were asked about surgical goal, eg, gross total resection, subtotal resection (STR), or biopsy, and rationale for their decision. We calculated a "resectability index" for each lesion by pooling responses from all 13 surgeons. Neurosurgeons' individual surgical goals varied significantly ( P = .015), but the resectability index calculated from the surgeons' pooled responses was strongly correlated with the percentage of contrast-enhancing residual tumor ( R = 0.817, P < .001). The collective STR goal predicted intraoperative decision of intentional STR documented on operative notes ( P < .01) and nonresectable residual ( P < .01), but not resectable residual. In this pilot study, we demonstrate the feasibility of measuring the resectability of glioblastoma through crowdsourcing. This tool could be used to quantify resectability, a potential confounder in neuro-oncology clinical trials. Copyright © 2016 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  10. Shutting Down Sensorimotor Interferences after Stroke: A Proof-of-Principle SMR Neurofeedback Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Johanna L.; Kober, Silvia E.; Schweiger, Daniela; Grieshofer, Peter; Neuper, Christa; Wood, Guilherme

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Neurofeedback training aims at learning self-regulation of brain activity underlying cognitive, emotional or physiological functions. Despite of promising investigations on neurofeedback as a tool for cognitive rehabilitation in neurological diseases, such as after stroke, there is still a lack of research on feasibility and efficiency of neurofeedback in this field. Methods: The present study aimed at investigating behavioral and electrophysiological effects of 10 sessions of sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) neurofeedback in a 74-years-old stroke patient (UG20). Based on previous results in healthy young participants, we hypothesized that SMR neurofeedback leads to a decrease in sensorimotor interferences and improved stimulus processing, reflected by changes in event-related potentials (ERPs) and electrophysiological coherence. To assess whether UG20 benefited from the training as much as healthy persons of a similar age, a healthy control group of N = 10 elderly persons was trained as well. Before and after neurofeedback training, participants took part in a multichannel electroencephalography measurement conducted during a non-verbal and a verbal learning task. Results: Both UG20 and the healthy controls were able to regulate their SMR activity during neurofeedback training. Moreover, in a non-verbal learning task, changes in ERPs and coherence were observed after training: UG20 showed a better performance in the non-verbal learning task and a higher P3 amplitude after training than before, and coherence between central and parietal electrodes decreased after training. The control group also showed a behavioral improvement in the non-verbal learning task and tendencies for higher P3 amplitudes and decreased central-parietal coherence after training. Single-case analyses indicated that the changes observed in UG20 were not smaller than the changes in healthy controls. Conclusion: Neurofeedback can be successfully applied in a stroke patient and in healthy elderly persons. We suggest that SMR neurofeedback leads to a shutting-down of sensorimotor interferences which benefits semantic encoding and retrieval. PMID:27471456

  11. Elmo Bumpy Torus proof of principle, Phase II: Title 1 report. Volume VIII. Device utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, D.T.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the activities conducted during the Preliminary Design Period for the Device Utilities Systems. All GAI preliminary specifications, drawings, and reports (listed in Section 4.0) have been transmitted to ORNL for review and approval. Device Utility Systems Descriptions are also presented in Section 4.0. The GAI Device Enclosure Gamma Radiation Analysis is presented in Appendix B. Pending design criteria revisions are described in Section 6.0. A type B Change Notice Request (CNR) has been transmitted to GAI. The Type B CNR authorizes cost and schedule assessment for each revision identified. Formal Proposed Design Changes (PDC's) will be provided to ORNL when this data is available

  12. A novel method for passing cerebrospinal fluid shunt tubing: a proof of principle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Goodrich, Dylan; Tubbs, Isaiah; Loukas, Marios; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2014-12-01

    Few innovations in the method of tunneling shunt tubing for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt diversion have been made since this treatment of hydrocephalus was first developed. Therefore, this feasibility study was performed with the hope of identifying an improved technique that could potentially carry fewer complications. On 10 cadaver sides and when placed in the supine position, small skin incisions were made at the clavicle and ipsilateral subcostal region, and magnets were used to pass standard shunt tubing between the two incisions. Nickel-plated magnets were less effective in pulling the shunt tubing below the skin compared with ceramic magnets. Of these, magnets with pull strengths of 150-200 lbs were the most effective in dragging the subcutaneous tubing between the two incisions. No obvious damage to the skin from the overlying magnet was seen in any specimen. Few options exist for tunneling distal shunt tubing for CSF shunt procedures. Future patient studies are needed to determine if the technique described herein is superior to current methods, particularly when examining patient groups that are at a greater risk for injury during tunneling shunt catheters.

  13. Elmo Bumpy Torus proof of principle, Phase II: Title 1 report. Volume IX. Support structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conlee, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    The EBT-P support structure provides structural support for the 36 mirror coil magnets, magnet protection system, the toroidal vessel, and much of the device ancillary equipment. The structure is comprised of a primary support and a superstructure. The primary support is a reinforced concrete ring located directly inboard of the torus and is supported by nine columns. The toroidal vessel and the mirror coil magnets are cantilevered from the ring with the centerline of the torus located eight feet above the floor. The superstructure is an aluminum truss structure that rests on the concrete ring. The superstructure provides support for the device ancillary equipment. Engineering drawings of the support structure are given

  14. Cellular telephones measure activity and lifespace in community-dwelling adults: proof of principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Ana Katrin; Witbrodt, Bradley C; Hoarty, Carrie A; Carlson, Richard H; Goulding, Evan H; Potter, Jane F; Bonasera, Stephen J

    2011-02-01

    To describe a system that uses off-the-shelf sensor and telecommunication technologies to continuously measure individual lifespace and activity levels in a novel way. Proof of concept involving three field trials of 30, 30, and 21 days. Omaha, Nebraska, metropolitan and surrounding rural region. Three participants (48-year-old man, 33-year-old woman, and 27-year-old male), none with any functional limitations. Cellular telephones were used to detect in-home position and in-community location and to measure physical activity. Within the home, cellular telephones and Bluetooth transmitters (beacons) were used to locate participants at room-level resolution. Outside the home, the same cellular telephones and global positioning system (GPS) technology were used to locate participants at a community-level resolution. Physical activity was simultaneously measured using the cellular telephone accelerometer. This approach had face validity to measure activity and lifespace. More importantly, this system could measure the spatial and temporal organization of these metrics. For example, an individual's lifespace was automatically calculated across multiple time intervals. Behavioral time budgets showing how people allocate time to specific regions within the home were also automatically generated. Mobile monitoring shows much promise as an easily deployed system to quantify activity and lifespace, important indicators of function, in community-dwelling adults. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.

  15. Conductive plastic film electrodes for Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) treatment : A proof of principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roodenburg, B.; Haan, S.W.H. de; Boxtel, L.B.J. van; Hatt, V.; Wouters, P.C.; Coronel, P.; Ferreira, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) treatment of food needs to be performed prior to packaging, either hygienic or aseptic packaging is necessary. New techniques for PEF treatment after packaging can be considered when plastic conductive (film) electrodes can be integrated within the package, so

  16. A proof-of-principle for frequency-domain vibration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobley, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    The economic and regulatory pressures on operating utilities to improve efficiency, availability, and reliability and to extend the effective operating life of existing electric power generating plants have created a real need for instrumentation, systems, and programs that can monitor, analyze, and provide the means to correct incipient machine and process problems. Predictive maintenance programs, properly utilized, can be one key to achieving these goals. Recent developments in microprocessor technology have provided the ability to routinely monitor the actual mechanical condition of all rotating and reciprocating machinery and process variables (i.e., pressure, temperature, flow, etc.) of other process equipment within an operating electric power generating plant. This direct correlation between frequency-domain vibration and actual mechanical condition of machinery and trending process variables of nonrotating equipment can provide the key to improving availability, reliability, and thermal efficiency and can provide the baseline information necessary for developing a realistic plan for extending the useful life of power plants. The premise of utilizing microprocessor-based predictive maintenance to improve power plant operation has been proven by a number of utilities

  17. Elmo Bumpy Torus proof of principle, Phase II: Title 1 report. Volume VIII. Device utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, D.T.

    1982-02-26

    This report describes the activities conducted during the Preliminary Design Period for the Device Utilities Systems. All GAI preliminary specifications, drawings, and reports (listed in Section 4.0) have been transmitted to ORNL for review and approval. Device Utility Systems Descriptions are also presented in Section 4.0. The GAI Device Enclosure Gamma Radiation Analysis is presented in Appendix B. Pending design criteria revisions are described in Section 6.0. A type B Change Notice Request (CNR) has been transmitted to GAI. The Type B CNR authorizes cost and schedule assessment for each revision identified. Formal Proposed Design Changes (PDC's) will be provided to ORNL when this data is available.

  18. Genetic Epidemiology of Polyautoimmunity and Common Autoimmunity in Colombia — Proof of Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Castiblanco Quinche, John Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: Las enfermedades autoinmunes (EA) son responsables de una gran porción de discapacidad y morbilidad a nivel mundial. Generalmente, las investigaciones científicas se centran en una sola enfermedad, aunque los fenotipos autoinmunes podrían estar representados por efectos pleiotrópicos en genes no-específicos al presentar mecanismos inmunogenéticos similares. Múltiples casos de una sola enfermedad dentro de familia son evidentes, y aún más sorprendente son los individuos en aquell...

  19. Proof-of-principle that a decoy virus protects oncolytic measles virus against neutralizing antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Xu C; Goß AV; Dorneburg C; Debatin KM; Wei J; Beltinger C

    2018-01-01

    Chun Xu,1,2,* Annika Verena Goß,1,* Carmen Dorneburg,1 Klaus-Michael Debatin,1 Jiwu Wei,2 Christian Beltinger1 1Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Section of Experimental Pediatric Oncology, University Medical Center Ulm, Ulm, Germany; 2Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Medical School of Nanjing University, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Attenuated oncolytic measles virus (OMV) is a promising antitumor agent in early-phase cl...

  20. Human genetics of infectious diseases: between proof of principle and paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Alcaïs, Alexandre; Abel, Laurent; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2009-01-01

    The observation that only a fraction of individuals infected by infectious agents develop clinical disease raises fundamental questions about the actual pathogenesis of infectious diseases. Epidemiological and experimental evidence is accumulating to suggest that human genetics plays a major role in this process. As we discuss here, human predisposition to infectious diseases seems to cover a continuous spectrum from monogenic to polygenic inheritance. Although many studies have provided proo...

  1. Extraluminal biodegradable splint to treat upper airway anterior malacia: A preclinical proof of principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorostidi, François; Courbon, Cécile; Burki, Marco; Reinhard, Antoine; Sandu, Kishore

    2018-02-01

    Upper airway malacia highly complicates the treatment of benign laryngotracheal stenosis, and no ideal option is available to date. We here explore the use of extraluminal biodegradable splints in an animal model of long-segment anterior tracheomalacia (TM). We show the efficacy, as well as the tissue tolerance, of a custom-made biodegradable extraluminal device surgically inserted around the trachea. Preclinical animal study. Anterior TM was induced in rabbits through an anterior neck approach by removing eight consecutive anterior tracheal rings without damaging the underlying mucosa. Malacia was corrected during the same surgery by pexy sutures, suspending the tracheal mucosa to an experimental biodegradable device. Symptoms, survival, and tissue reaction were compared to healthy and sham surgery controls. The model induced death by respiratory failure within minutes. Ten animals received the experimental treatment, and those who survived the perioperative period remained asymptomatic with a maximum follow-up of 221 days. Histological studies at programmed euthanasia showed complete degradation of the prosthesis, with significant remnant fibrosis around the trachea. However, the tracheal stiffness of test segments was comparatively less than that of control segments. Extraluminal biodegradable splints rescued animals with a condition otherwise incompatible with life. It was well tolerated, leaving peritracheal fibrosis that was not as stiff as normal trachea. The external tracheal stiffening was sufficient for the test animals to live through the phase of severe acute hypercollapsibility. This represents a valid option to help pediatric patients with laryngotracheal stenosis and associated cartilaginous airway malacia. NA. Laryngoscope, 128:E53-E58, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. Higher-level fusion for military operations based on abductive inference: proof of principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleev, Aleksandar V.; Josephson, John

    2006-04-01

    The ability of contemporary military commanders to estimate and understand complicated situations already suffers from information overload, and the situation can only grow worse. We describe a prototype application that uses abductive inferencing to fuse information from multiple sensors to evaluate the evidence for higher-level hypotheses that are close to the levels of abstraction needed for decision making (approximately JDL levels 2 and 3). Abductive inference (abduction, inference to the best explanation) is a pattern of reasoning that occurs naturally in diverse settings such as medical diagnosis, criminal investigations, scientific theory formation, and military intelligence analysis. Because abduction is part of common-sense reasoning, implementations of it can produce reasoning traces that are very human understandable. Automated abductive inferencing can be deployed to augment human reasoning, taking advantage of computation to process large amounts of information, and to bypass limits to human attention and short-term memory. We illustrate the workings of the prototype system by describing an example of its use for small-unit military operations in an urban setting. Knowledge was encoded as it might be captured prior to engagement from a standard military decision making process (MDMP) and analysis of commander's priority intelligence requirements (PIR). The system is able to reasonably estimate the evidence for higher-level hypotheses based on information from multiple sensors. Its inference processes can be examined closely to verify correctness. Decision makers can override conclusions at any level and changes will propagate appropriately.

  3. Peptide bond detection via graphene nanogaps: a proof of principle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Aldo Eugenio; Gala, Fabrizio; Chinappi, Mauro; Zollo, Giuseppe

    2018-03-29

    Solid-state nanopores and nanogaps are emerging as promising tools for single molecule analysis. 2D materials, such as graphene, can potentially reach the spatial resolution needed for nucleic acid and protein sequencing. In the context of the density functional theory, atomistic modeling and non-equilibrium Green's function calculation, we show that glycine based polypeptide chains translocating across a nano-gap between two semi-infinite graphene nano-ribbons leave a specific transverse current signature for each peptide bond. The projected density of states and bond current analyses reveal a complex scenario with a role played by the adjacent α-carbons and side chains and by the orbitals of the partially resonant double bond involving C, N and O atoms of the peptide bond. In this context, specific fingerprints of the atoms involved in the peptide bonds are found. The same scenario is evidenced also for peptides involving alanine residues. The signal measured can be considered as a specific fingerprint of peptide bonds between small and neutral amino acids with no polar/charge effects. On this basis, a newly conceived nano-device made of a graphene based array of nano-gap is proposed as a possible route to approach peptide sequencing with atomic resolution.

  4. Proton-counting radiography for proton therapy: a proof of principle using CMOS APS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poludniowski, G; Esposito, M; Evans, P M; Allinson, N M; Anaxagoras, T; Green, S; Parker, D J; Price, T; Manolopoulos, S; Nieto-Camero, J

    2014-01-01

    Despite the early recognition of the potential of proton imaging to assist proton therapy (Cormack 1963 J. Appl. Phys. 34 2722), the modality is still removed from clinical practice, with various approaches in development. For proton-counting radiography applications such as computed tomography (CT), the water-equivalent-path-length that each proton has travelled through an imaged object must be inferred. Typically, scintillator-based technology has been used in various energy/range telescope designs. Here we propose a very different alternative of using radiation-hard CMOS active pixel sensor technology. The ability of such a sensor to resolve the passage of individual protons in a therapy beam has not been previously shown. Here, such capability is demonstrated using a 36 MeV cyclotron beam (University of Birmingham Cyclotron, Birmingham, UK) and a 200 MeV clinical radiotherapy beam (iThemba LABS, Cape Town, SA). The feasibility of tracking individual protons through multiple CMOS layers is also demonstrated using a two-layer stack of sensors. The chief advantages of this solution are the spatial discrimination of events intrinsic to pixelated sensors, combined with the potential provision of information on both the range and residual energy of a proton. The challenges in developing a practical system are discussed. (paper)

  5. Proton-counting radiography for proton therapy: a proof of principle using CMOS APS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poludniowski, G; Allinson, N M; Anaxagoras, T; Esposito, M; Green, S; Manolopoulos, S; Nieto-Camero, J; Parker, D J; Price, T; Evans, P M

    2014-06-07

    Despite the early recognition of the potential of proton imaging to assist proton therapy (Cormack 1963 J. Appl. Phys. 34 2722), the modality is still removed from clinical practice, with various approaches in development. For proton-counting radiography applications such as computed tomography (CT), the water-equivalent-path-length that each proton has travelled through an imaged object must be inferred. Typically, scintillator-based technology has been used in various energy/range telescope designs. Here we propose a very different alternative of using radiation-hard CMOS active pixel sensor technology. The ability of such a sensor to resolve the passage of individual protons in a therapy beam has not been previously shown. Here, such capability is demonstrated using a 36 MeV cyclotron beam (University of Birmingham Cyclotron, Birmingham, UK) and a 200 MeV clinical radiotherapy beam (iThemba LABS, Cape Town, SA). The feasibility of tracking individual protons through multiple CMOS layers is also demonstrated using a two-layer stack of sensors. The chief advantages of this solution are the spatial discrimination of events intrinsic to pixelated sensors, combined with the potential provision of information on both the range and residual energy of a proton. The challenges in developing a practical system are discussed.

  6. A new respiratory monitoring and processing system based on Wii remote: proof of principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Y; Vedam, S; Gao, S; Balter, P

    2013-07-01

    To create a patient respiratory management system and patient self-practice tool using the Wii remote, a widely available consumer hardware product. The Wii remote (Wiimote) (Nintendo, Redmond, WA) contains an infrared (IR) camera that can track up to four spots whose coordinates are reported to a host computer via Bluetooth. The Wiimote is capable of tracking a fiducial box currently used by a commercial monitoring system [Real-time Position Management(TM) (RPM) system, Varian Associates, Palo Alto, CA], if the correct IR source is used. The authors validated the Wiimote tracking by comparing the amplitude and frequency of signals among those reported by Wiimote with known movements from an inhouse servo-driven respiratory simulator, as well as with those measured using the RPM. The simulator comparison was done using standard sinusoid signals with amplitude of 2.0 cm as well as recorded patient respiratory traces. The RPM comparisons were done by simultaneously recording the RPM reflective box position with the Wiimote and the RPM. Timing was compared between these two systems by using the digital beam-on signal from the CT scanner, for the 4DCT to synchronize these acquisitions. The data acquisition rate from the Wiimote was 100.0 ± 0.4 Hz with a version 2.1 Bluetooth adaptor. The standard deviation of the height of the motion extrema was 0.06 and 1.1 mm when comparing those measured by the Wiimote and the servomotor encoder for standard sinusoid signal and prerecorded patient respiratory signal, respectively. The standard deviation of the amplitude of motion extrema between the Wiimote and RPM was 0.9 mm and the timing difference was 253 ms. The performance of Wiimote shows promise for respiratory monitoring for its faster sampling rate as well as the potential optical and GPU abilities. If used with care it can deliver reasonable spatial and temporal accuracy.

  7. Acceleration of radioactive ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laxdal, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    There is an intense interest world-wide in the use of radioactive ion beams (RIBs) for experiment. In many existing or proposed facilities ions are produced or collected at source potential, ionized and re-accelerated. Within the past year three new ISOL based facilities have added dedicated post-accelerators to deliver accelerated RIBs to experiment. The paper gives an overview of RIB accelerators present and future, and explores the inherent features in the various acceleration methods with an emphasis on heavy ion linacs. The ISAC-I and ISAC-II post-accelerators are discussed as examples. Commissioning results and initial operating experience with ISAC-I will be presented

  8. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A. C. F.; Fonseca, P.; Coelho, L. F. S.

    2009-01-01

    The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ)[1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

  9. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A. C. F.; Fonseca, P.; Coelho, L. F. S.

    2009-03-01

    The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ) [1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

  10. Performance of linear accelerator Mevatron-74 at Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Soura, Srinagar - a 15 years experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, M.A.; Abbas, S.M.; Kaul, S.K.; Khan, F.A.; Ashraf Teli, M.

    1998-01-01

    In 1984, a linear accelerator, Mevatron-74 was installed in the Dept. of Radiation Oncology. Discussed in this paper is our experience with this costly machine which has not been cost effective at all with regard to the purpose it was purchased for. This will lay a guideline for the developing centres of our country to make correct decision as regards the purchase of radiotherapy equipment keeping in view their performance

  11. 26Al tracer experiment by accelerator mass spectrometry and its application to the studies for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Koichi; Yumoto, Sakae; Nagai, Hisao; Hosoyama, Yoshiyuki; Imamura, Mineo; Masuzawa, Shin-ichirou; Koizumi, Yoshinobu; Yamashita, Hiroshi.

    1990-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was applied for 26 Al tracer experiment to study the aluminum toxicity and metabolism in rats. To investigate the cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Alzheimer's disease, the aluminum incorporation into the brain (cerebrum) was studied by AMS using 26 Al as a tracer. When 26 Al was intraperitoneally injected into rats, a considerable amount of 26 Al was incorporated into the cerebrum after 5-35 days of the injection. (author)

  12. Laser acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, T.; Nakajima, K.; Mourou, G.

    2017-02-01

    The fundamental idea of Laser Wakefield Acceleration (LWFA) is reviewed. An ultrafast intense laser pulse drives coherent wakefield with a relativistic amplitude robustly supported by the plasma. While the large amplitude of wakefields involves collective resonant oscillations of the eigenmode of the entire plasma electrons, the wake phase velocity ˜ c and ultrafastness of the laser pulse introduce the wake stability and rigidity. A large number of worldwide experiments show a rapid progress of this concept realization toward both the high-energy accelerator prospect and broad applications. The strong interest in this has been spurring and stimulating novel laser technologies, including the Chirped Pulse Amplification, the Thin Film Compression, the Coherent Amplification Network, and the Relativistic Mirror Compression. These in turn have created a conglomerate of novel science and technology with LWFA to form a new genre of high field science with many parameters of merit in this field increasing exponentially lately. This science has triggered a number of worldwide research centers and initiatives. Associated physics of ion acceleration, X-ray generation, and astrophysical processes of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are reviewed. Applications such as X-ray free electron laser, cancer therapy, and radioisotope production etc. are considered. A new avenue of LWFA using nanomaterials is also emerging.

  13. Laser acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.; Nakajima, K.; Mourou, G.

    2017-01-01

    The fundamental idea of LaserWakefield Acceleration (LWFA) is reviewed. An ultrafast intense laser pulse drives coherent wakefield with a relativistic amplitude robustly supported by the plasma. While the large amplitude of wake fields involves collective resonant oscillations of the eigenmode of the entire plasma electrons, the wake phase velocity ∼ c and ultra fastness of the laser pulse introduce the wake stability and rigidity. A large number of worldwide experiments show a rapid progress of this concept realization toward both the high-energy accelerator prospect and broad applications. The strong interest in this has been spurring and stimulating novel laser technologies, including the Chirped Pulse Amplification, the Thin Film Compression, the Coherent Amplification Network, and the Relativistic Mirror Compression. These in turn have created a conglomerate of novel science and technology with LWFA to form a new genre of high field science with many parameters of merit in this field increasing exponentially lately. This science has triggered a number of worldwide research centers and initiatives. Associated physics of ion acceleration, X-ray generation, and astrophysical processes of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are reviewed. Applications such as X-ray free electron laser, cancer therapy, and radioisotope production etc. are considered. A new avenue of LWFA using nano materials is also emerging.

  14. Experiments investigating the effects of the accelerating gap voltage pulse on the ion focused (IFR) high current electron recirculators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Smith, D.L.; Poukey, J.W.; Wagner, J.S.; Bennett, L.F.; Olson, W.R.; Turman, B.N.; Prestwich, K.R.; Wells, J.

    1991-01-01

    The lifetime of the Ion Focusing Regime (IFR) channel following the pulsing of the post-accelerating gaps is critical for an open-ended, spiral recirculating electron linear accelerator. It dictates the number of allowable beam recirculations through the gap. In the case of a racetrack configuration, it is significant but not as critical, since the presence of the electron beam focuses the ions and lengthens the lifetime of the ion channel. It was established that pulsing the accelerating gap perturbs the IFR channel. However, for the parameters studied, the lifetime is long enough to allow at least four beam recirculations in a spiral device. In addition, cusp fields positioned upstream and downstream from the gap prevent it from perturbing the IFR channel. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  15. Experiments investigating the effects of the accelerating gap voltage pulse on the ion focused (IFR) high current electron recirculators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Smith, D.L.; Poukey, J.W.; Wagner, J.S.; Bennett, L.F.; Olson, W.R. Turnman, B.N.; Prestwich, K.R.; Wells, J.

    1991-01-01

    The lifetime of the Ion Focusing Regime (IFR) channel following the pulsing of the post-accelerating gaps is critical for an open-ended, spiral recirculating electron linear accelerator. It dictates the number of allowable beam recirculations through the gap. In the case of a racetrack configuration, its is significant but not as critical, since the presence of the electron beam focuses the ions and lengthens the lifetime of the ion channel. It was established that pulsing the accelerating gap perturbs the IFR channel. However, for the parameters studied, the lifetime is long enough to allow at least four beam recirculations in a spiral device. In addition, cusp fields positioned upstream and downstream from the gap prevent it from perturbing the IFR channel

  16. Conceptual designs of two petawatt-class pulsed-power accelerators for high-energy-density-physics experiments

    OpenAIRE

    W. A. Stygar; T. J. Awe; J. E. Bailey; N. L. Bennett; E. W. Breden; E. M. Campbell; R. E. Clark; R. A. Cooper; M. E. Cuneo; J. B. Ennis; D. L. Fehl; T. C. Genoni; M. R. Gomez; G. W. Greiser; F. R. Gruner

    2015-01-01

    We have developed conceptual designs of two petawatt-class pulsed-power accelerators: Z 300 and Z 800. The designs are based on an accelerator architecture that is founded on two concepts: single-stage electrical-pulse compression and impedance matching [Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 10, 030401 (2007)]. The prime power source of each machine consists of 90 linear-transformer-driver (LTD) modules. Each module comprises LTD cavities connected electrically in series, each of which is powered by 5-G...

  17. Linear Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vretenar, M

    2014-01-01

    The main features of radio-frequency linear accelerators are introduced, reviewing the different types of accelerating structures and presenting the main characteristics aspects of linac beam dynamics

  18. + → +̅: first result from NA62 experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    The decay + → +̅, with a very precisely predicted branching ratio of less than 10−10, is one of the best candidates to reveal indirect effects of new physics at the highest mass scales. The NA62 experiment at CERN SPS is designed to measure the branching ratio of the + → +̅ with a decay- in-flight technique, novel for this channel. NA62 took data in 2016, 2017 and another year run is scheduled in 2018. Statistics collected in 2016 allows NA62 to reach the Standard Model sensitivity for + → +̅, entering the domain of 10−10 single event sensitivity and showing the proof of principle of the experiment. The preliminary result on + → +̅ from the analysis of the 2016 data set is presented and prospects for future reviewed.

  19. Accelerations in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, J H

    1925-01-01

    This work on accelerometry was done at McCook Field for the purpose of continuing the work done by other investigators and obtaining the accelerations which occur when a high-speed pursuit airplane is subjected to the more common maneuvers. The accelerations obtained in suddenly pulling out of a dive with well-balanced elevators are shown to be within 3 or 4 per cent of the theoretically possible accelerations. The maximum acceleration which a pilot can withstand depends upon the length of time the acceleration is continued. It is shown that he experiences no difficulty under the instantaneous accelerations as high as 7.8 G., but when under accelerations in excess of 4.5 G., continued for several seconds, he quickly loses his faculties.

  20. Design of a 5-MA 100-ns linear-transformer-driver accelerator for wire array Z-pinch experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lin; Li, Zhenghong; Wang, Zhen; Liang, Chuan; Li, Mingjia; Qi, Jianmin; Chu, Yanyun

    2016-03-01

    The linear-transformer-driver (LTD) is a recently developed pulsed-power technology that shows great promise for a number of applications. These include a Z -pinch-driven fission-fusion-hybrid reactor that is being developed by the Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics. In support of the reactor development effort, we are planning to build an LTD-based accelerator that is optimized for driving wire-array Z -pinch loads. The accelerator comprises six modules in parallel, each of which has eight series 0.8-MA LTD cavities in a voltage-adder configuration. Vacuum transmission lines are used from the interior of the adder to the central vacuum chamber where the load is placed. Thus the traditional stack-flashover problem is eliminated. The machine is 3.2 m tall and 12 m in outer diameter including supports. A prototype cavity was built and tested for more than 6000 shots intermittently at a repetition rate of 0.1 Hz. A novel trigger, in which only one input trigger pulse is needed by utilizing an internal trigger brick, was developed and successfully verified in these shots. A full circuit modeling was conducted for the accelerator. The simulation result shows that a current pulse rising to 5.2 MA in 91 ns (10%-90%) can be delivered to the wire-array load, which is 1.5 cm in height, 1.2 cm in initial radius, and 1 mg in mass. The maximum implosion velocity of the load is 32 cm /μ s when compressed to 0.1 of the initial radius. The maximum kinetic energy is 78 kJ, which is 11.7% of the electric energy stored in the capacitors. This accelerator is supposed to enable a radiation energy efficiency of 20%-30%, providing a high efficient facility for research on the fast Z pinch and technologies for repetition-rate-operated accelerators.

  1. Accelerator Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champelovier, Y.; Ferrari, M.; Gardon, A.; Hadinger, G.; Martin, J.; Plantier, A.

    1998-01-01

    Since the cessation of the operation of hydrogen cluster accelerator in July 1996, four electrostatic accelerators were in operation and used by the peri-nuclear teams working in multidisciplinary collaborations. These are the 4 MV Van de Graaff accelerator, 2,5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator, 400 kV ion implanter as well as the 120 kV isotope separator

  2. SALOME: An Accelerator for the Practical Course in Accelerator Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Miltchev, Velizar; Riebesehl, Daniel; Roßbach, Jörg; Trunk, Maximilian; Stein, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    SALOME (Simple Accelerator for Learning Optics and the Manipulation of Electrons) is a short low energy linear electron accelerator built by the University of Hamburg. The goal of this project is to give the students the possibility to obtain hands-on experience with the basics of accelerator physics. In this contribution the layout of the device will be presented. The most important components of the accelerator will be discussed and an overview of the planned demonstration experiments will ...

  3. Early period of particle accelerator development and nuclear physics experiments at Taihoku Imperial University and Kyoto University (1/2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takekoshi, Hidekuni

    2007-01-01

    In 1926 Dr. Arakatsu was appointed Professor to Taipei Imperial University in Taiwan which was under the government by Japan in that time, and stared the construction of an electrostatic accelerator in 1930 for nuclear transmutations. He measured the detailed branching ratio of deuteron-lithium reaction following the investigation by Lawrence and Rutherford. In 1936 he was transferred to the physics laboratory of Kyoto University, and constructed a 600kV accelerator of Cockcroft-Walton type. His team studied photo-nuclear reactions using gamma rays produced by the proton-lithium reaction. In 1942 he started on the construction of a cyclotron, which was taken away by US army after the war. He participated in the investigation of the atomic bomb to Hiroshima. (K.Y.)

  4. Production and acceleration of Ca-beams with the ECR source in the Jinr-Ganil experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukyanov, S.M.; Artukh, A.G.; Gvozdev, B.A.; Kutner, V.B.; Penionzhkevich, Y.E.; Bex, L.; Bourgarel, M.P.; Ferme, J.

    1989-01-01

    The results of production and acceleration of 48 Ca-beams with the ECR-source are described. For this purpose a special technique has been developed which allows the metal to be extracted from the oxide with the aluminium as an acceptor. The mean rate of consumption of 48 Ca was about 2 mg/h and the beam intensity was about 15μA on charge state 6. The method for recuperation of used calcium is presented

  5. Clinical Experience With Image-Guided Radiotherapy in an Accelerated Partial Breast Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, Charles E.; Tallhamer, Michael M.S.; Johnson, Tim; Hunter, Kari C.M.D.; Howell, Kathryn; Kercher, Jane; Widener, Jodi; Kaske, Terese; Paul, Devchand; Sedlacek, Scot; Carter, Dennis L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the feasibility of fiducial markers for the use of image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) in an accelerated partial breast intensity modulated radiotherapy protocol. Methods and Materials: Nineteen patients consented to an institutional review board approved protocol of accelerated partial breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy with fiducial marker placement and treatment with IGRT. Patients (1 patient with bilateral breast cancer; 20 total breasts) underwent ultrasound guided implantation of three 1.2- x 3-mm gold markers placed around the surgical cavity. For each patient, table shifts (inferior/superior, right/left lateral, and anterior/posterior) and minimum, maximum, mean error with standard deviation were recorded for each of the 10 BID treatments. The dose contribution of daily orthogonal films was also examined. Results: All IGRT patients underwent successful marker placement. In all, 200 IGRT treatment sessions were performed. The average vector displacement was 4 mm (range, 2-7 mm). The average superior/inferior shift was 2 mm (range, 0-5 mm), the average lateral shift was 2 mm (range, 1-4 mm), and the average anterior/posterior shift was 3 mm (range, 1 5 mm). Conclusions: This study shows that the use of IGRT can be successfully used in an accelerated partial breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy protocol. The authors believe that this technique has increased daily treatment accuracy and permitted reduction in the margin added to the clinical target volume to form the planning target volume.

  6. Design of a 5-MA 100-ns linear-transformer-driver accelerator for wire array Z-pinch experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Lin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The linear-transformer-driver (LTD is a recently developed pulsed-power technology that shows great promise for a number of applications. These include a Z-pinch-driven fission-fusion-hybrid reactor that is being developed by the Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics. In support of the reactor development effort, we are planning to build an LTD-based accelerator that is optimized for driving wire-array Z-pinch loads. The accelerator comprises six modules in parallel, each of which has eight series 0.8-MA LTD cavities in a voltage-adder configuration. Vacuum transmission lines are used from the interior of the adder to the central vacuum chamber where the load is placed. Thus the traditional stack-flashover problem is eliminated. The machine is 3.2 m tall and 12 m in outer diameter including supports. A prototype cavity was built and tested for more than 6000 shots intermittently at a repetition rate of 0.1 Hz. A novel trigger, in which only one input trigger pulse is needed by utilizing an internal trigger brick, was developed and successfully verified in these shots. A full circuit modeling was conducted for the accelerator. The simulation result shows that a current pulse rising to 5.2 MA in 91 ns (10%–90% can be delivered to the wire-array load, which is 1.5 cm in height, 1.2 cm in initial radius, and 1 mg in mass. The maximum implosion velocity of the load is 32  cm/μs when compressed to 0.1 of the initial radius. The maximum kinetic energy is 78 kJ, which is 11.7% of the electric energy stored in the capacitors. This accelerator is supposed to enable a radiation energy efficiency of 20%–30%, providing a high efficient facility for research on the fast Z pinch and technologies for repetition-rate-operated accelerators.

  7. Conceptual design of a 10^{13}-W pulsed-power accelerator for megajoule-class dynamic-material-physics experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Stygar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a conceptual design of a next-generation pulsed-power accelerator that is optimized for megajoule-class dynamic-material-physics experiments. Sufficient electrical energy is delivered by the accelerator to a physics load to achieve—within centimeter-scale samples—material pressures as high as 1 TPa. The accelerator design is based on an architecture that is founded on three concepts: single-stage electrical-pulse compression, impedance matching, and transit-time-isolated drive circuits. The prime power source of the accelerator consists of 600 independent impedance-matched Marx generators. Each Marx comprises eight 5.8-GW bricks connected electrically in series, and generates a 100-ns 46-GW electrical-power pulse. A 450-ns-long water-insulated coaxial-transmission-line impedance transformer transports the power generated by each Marx to a system of twelve 2.5-m-radius water-insulated conical transmission lines. The conical lines are connected electrically in parallel at a 66-cm radius by a water-insulated 45-post sextuple-post-hole convolute. The convolute sums the electrical currents at the outputs of the conical lines, and delivers the combined current to a single solid-dielectric-insulated radial transmission line. The radial line in turn transmits the combined current to the load. Since much of the accelerator is water insulated, we refer to it as Neptune. Neptune is 40 m in diameter, stores 4.8 MJ of electrical energy in its Marx capacitors, and generates 28 TW of peak electrical power. Since the Marxes are transit-time isolated from each other for 900 ns, they can be triggered at different times to construct–over an interval as long as 1  μs–the specific load-current time history required for a given experiment. Neptune delivers 1 MJ and 20 MA in a 380-ns current pulse to an 18-mΩ load; hence Neptune is a megajoule-class 20-MA arbitrary waveform generator. Neptune will allow the international

  8. Cooling System for the Merit High-Power Target Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, F; Silva, P; Pezzeti, M; Pavlov, O; Pirotte, O; Metselaar, J; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fabich, A; Lettry, J; Kirk, H G; McDonald, K T; Titus, P; Bennett, J R J

    2010-01-01

    MERIT is a proof-of-principle experiment of a target station suitable as source for future muon colliders or neutrino factories. When installed at the CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) PS (Proton Synchrotron)complex fast-extracted high-intensity proton beams intercepted a free mercury jet inside a normal-conducting, pulsed 15-T capture solenoid magnet cooled with liquid nitrogen. Up to 25 MJ of Joule heat was dissipated in the magnet during a pulse. The fully automated, remotely controlled cryogenic system of novel design permitted the transfer of nitrogen by the sole means of differential pressures inside the vessels. This fast cycling system permitted several hundred tests in less than three weeks during the 2007 data taking campaign.

  9. Investigation of the wavelength influence on the efficiency of macroparticles acceleration and craters creation in the PALS double targets experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalal, M.; Limpouch, J.; Borodziuk, S.; Kasperczuk, A.; Pisarczyk, T.; Demchenko, N. N.; Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Rozanov, V.; Rohlena, Karel; Skála, Jiří; Ullschmied, Jiří; Kondrashov, V. N.; Pisarczyk, P.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 54, Suppl. C (2004), s. 415-420 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology /21./. Praha, 14.06.2004-17.06.2004] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A100 Grant - others:HPRI(XE) CT-1999-0053; IAEA(RU) 02-02-16966 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : laser plasma * macroparticles acceleration Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.292, year: 2004

  10. First operating experience with the helium cooling supply of the superconducting XFEL linear accelerator; Erste Betriebserfahrungen mit der Heliumkaelteversorgung des supraleitenden XFEL-Linearbeschleunigers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozhko, Y.; Escherich, K.; Jensch, K.; Petersen, B.; Schnautz, T.; Sellmann, D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Decker, L.; Ueresin, C.; Zajac, J. [Linde Kryotechnik, Pfungen (Switzerland); Paetzold, T. [Linde Kryotechnik, Hamburg (Germany); ENGIE, Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    In Hamburg, the European XFEL project was completed. The superconducting XFEL linear accelerator was commissioned in the course of 2017. The linear accelerator supplies electron bundles with an energy of up to 17.5 GeV and serves as the source of a free-electron laser (XFEL), which provides light with extreme intensity and brilliance with wavelengths in the X-ray range (0.2-0.05 nm). The active part of the linear accelerator consists of 96 cryomodules, each with 8 high-frequency resonators (cavities) and a superconducting magnet packet. The approx. 800 cavities made of high-purity niobium are operated at 1.3 GHz and cooled in a helium II bath at a temperature of 2.0 K. The cavities are surrounded by two thermal shields at temperatures of 5-8 K and 40-80 K. Parallel to the main accelerator, an injector is supplied with two cryogenic modules. The cryogenics of the XFEL linear accelerator includes a helium refrigeration system with design capacities of 2 KW at 2 K, 4 KW at 5/8 K and 24 KW at 40/80 K, various helium transfer lines, a branched distribution system and connection boxes between the module chains in the accelerator tunnel. It is reported on the commissioning of the components and first operating experience. [German] In Hamburg wurde das Europaeische XFEL Projekt fertiggestellt. Der supraleitende XFEL Linearbeschleuniger wurde im Laufe des Jahres 2017 in Betrieb genommen. Der Linearbeschleuniger liefert Elektronenpakete mit einer Energie von bis zu 17,5 GeV und dient als Quelle eines Freien-Elektronen-Lasers (XFEL), der Licht mit extremer Intensitaet und Brillanz mit Wellenlaengen im Roentgenbereich (0,2-0,05 nm) bereitstellt. Der aktive Teil des Linearbeschleunigers besteht aus 96 Kryomodulen mit jeweils 8 Hochfrequenzresonatoren (Kavitaeten) und einem supraleitenden Magnetpaket. Die ca. 800 Kavitaeten aus hochreinem Niob werden bei 1,3 GHz betrieben und in einem Helium-II-Bad bei einer Temperatur von 2,0 K gekuehlt. Die Kavitaeten sind von zwei thermischen

  11. sup 26 Al tracer experiment by accelerator mass spectrometry and its application to the studies for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease, 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Koichi (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Science and Technology); Yumoto, Sakae; Nagai, Hisao; Hosoyama, Yoshiyuki; Imamura, Mineo; Masuzawa, Shin-ichirou; Koizumi, Yoshinobu; Yamashita, Hiroshi

    1990-12-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was applied for {sup 26}Al tracer experiment to study the aluminum toxicity and metabolism in rats. To investigate the cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Alzheimer's disease, the aluminum incorporation into the brain (cerebrum) was studied by AMS using {sup 26}Al as a tracer. When {sup 26}Al was intraperitoneally injected into rats, a considerable amount of {sup 26}Al was incorporated into the cerebrum after 5-35 days of the injection. (author).

  12. Accelerating energy efficiency improvement in the public sector, using Energy Performance Contracting - a workshop on Nordic experiences and needs for improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottberg, Annika; Gode, Jenny; Axelsson, Ulrik

    2009-08-15

    This report provides documentation on a workshop on experiences of Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) in the Nordic countries, aiming to identify strengths, weaknesses and needs for improvements. The results of surveys undertaken to inform presentations and discussions at the workshop are reported. Furthermore, the outcomes of the discussions during the workshop and resulting recommend actions for different actors to further and accelerate the use of EPC in the public sector are reported. Target groups for this documentation are existing and potential EPC customers, providers and policy-makers

  13. Future accelerators (?)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Womersley

    2003-08-21

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  14. Design of a Laboratory Hall Thruster with Magnetically Shielded Channel Walls, Phase III: Comparison of Theory with Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Hofer, Richard R.; Goebel, Dan M.

    2012-01-01

    A proof-of-principle effort to demonstrate a technique by which erosion of the acceleration channel in Hall thrusters of the magnetic-layer type can be eliminated has been completed. The first principles of the technique, now known as "magnetic shielding," were derived based on the findings of numerical simulations in 2-D axisymmetric geometry. The simulations, in turn, guided the modification of an existing 6-kW laboratory Hall thruster. This magnetically shielded (MS) thruster was then built and tested. Because neither theory nor experiment alone can validate fully the first principles of the technique, the objective of the 2-yr effort was twofold: (1) to demonstrate in the laboratory that the erosion rates can be reduced by >order of magnitude, and (2) to demonstrate that the near-wall plasma properties can be altered according to the theoretical predictions. This paper concludes the demonstration of magnetic shielding by reporting on a wide range of comparisons between results from numerical simulations and laboratory diagnostics. Collectively, we find that the comparisons validate the theory. Near the walls of the MS thruster, theory and experiment agree: (1) the plasma potential has been sustained at values near the discharge voltage, and (2) the electron temperature has been lowered by at least 2.5-3 times compared to the unshielded (US) thruster. Also, based on carbon deposition measurements, the erosion rates at the inner and outer walls of the MS thruster are found to be lower by at least 2300 and 1875 times, respectively. Erosion was so low along these walls that the rates were below the resolution of the profilometer. Using a sputtering yield model with an energy threshold of 25 V, the simulations predict a reduction of 600 at the MS inner wall. At the outer wall ion energies are computed to be below 25 V, for which case we set the erosion to zero in the simulations. When a 50-V threshold is used the computed ion energies are below the threshold at both

  15. Time Structure of Particle Production in the Merit High-Power Target Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Efthymiopoulos, I; Palm, M; Lettry, J; Haug, F; Pereira, H; Pernegger, H; Steerenberg, R; Grudiev, A; Kirk, H G; Park, H; Tsang, T; Mokhov, N; Striganov, S; Carroll, A J; Graves, V B; Spampinato, P T; McDonald, K T; Bennett, J R J; Caretta, O; Loveridge, P

    2010-01-01

    The MERIT experiment is a proof-of-principle test of a target system for high power proton beam to be used as front-end for a neutrino factory complex or amuon collider. The experiment took data in autumn 2007 with the fast extracted beam from the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) to a maximum intensity of about 30 × 1012 protons per pulse. We report results from the portion of the MERIT experiment in which separated beam pulses were delivered to a free mercury jet target with time intervals between pulses varying from 2 to 700 μs. The analysis is based on the responses of particle detectors placed along side and downstream of the target.

  16. Construction and Performance of a Liquid Argon Calorimeter for use in Experiment E-706 at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSoi, William Edward [Rochester U.

    1990-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is a liquid argon calorimeter developed by the E-706 collaboration. This device was used in measuring the energy content of showers produced by the interaction of nucleons with 530 GeV/c pions at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. A description of the calorimeter's construction and design considerations precedes the analysis of its performance, which is the central topic to be discussed. The calorimeter was found to have an intrinsic energy for electromagnetic showers of 14.5%/$\\sqrt{E}$ and for hadronic showers a resolution of 183%/$\\sqrt{E}$. The position resolution of showers for the calorimeter was found to be 1.0 mm or better for energies greater than 2.0 GeV.

  17. Field experience on weld assemblies behaviour toward flow-accelerated corrosion in French nuclear power plants (NPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calonne-Chatelee, V.; Thebault, Y.; De Bouvier, O.; Dejoux, L.; Trevin, S.; Pavageau, E.-M.

    2007-01-01

    After the Mihama accident (2004), EDF re-examined its existing inspection strategy of Flow-Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) for the secondary loop of NPPs. Welds, which are still not taken into account by the predictive software BRT-CICERO, have been identified as a weak point. An inventory of the welds' inspections and a program of metallurgical examinations on field components have been established. The chromium content, hydrodynamic effects and dissimilar metal welds have been studied. These examinations showed that the welds' degradation was really due to FAC. It appears that the chromium contents, of the weld and of the base metal, is an important parameter. Moreover, the presence of a weld penetration and dissimilar metal welds seem to have a consequence on the damage of the weld assembly. These parameters will be investigated in an R and D program on the CIROCO loop. Meanwhile, all these results have been taken into account by the maintenance program. (author)

  18. Pilot experiment on proton acceleration using the 25 TW femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser system at PALS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prokůpek, Jan; Margarone, Daniele; Hřebíček, Jan; Krůs, Miroslav; Velyhan, Andriy; Pšikal, J.; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Mocek, Tomáš; Krása, Josef; Ullschmied, Jiří; Jungwirth, Karel; Korn, Georg; Rus, Bedřich

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 690, Oct (2012), s. 48-52 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/01.0027; GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/11/1165; GA MŠk EE.2.3.20.0087; GA MŠk LM2010014 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0061; HILASE(XE) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0027; OP VK 2 LaserGen(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0087; AVČR(CZ) M100101210 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : laser driven acceleration * proton beams * ion diagnostics Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.142, year: 2012

  19. Nelson's syndrome: single centre experience using the linear accelerator (LINAC) for stereotactic radiosurgery and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Peter J; Williams, Janet R; Smee, Robert I

    2014-09-01

    Nelson's syndrome is a unique clinical phenomenon of growth of a pituitary adenoma following bilateral adrenalectomies for the control of Cushing's disease. Primary management is surgical, with limited effective medical therapies available. We report our own institution's series of this pathology managed with radiation: prior to 1990, 12 patients were managed with conventional radiotherapy, and between 1990 and 2007, five patients underwent stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and two patients fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT), both using the linear accelerator (LINAC). Tumour control was equivocal, with two of the five SRS patients having a reduction in tumour volume, one patient remaining unchanged, and two patients having an increase in volume. In the FSRT group, one patient had a decrease in tumour volume whilst the other had an increase in volume. Treatment related morbidity was low. Nelson's syndrome is a challenging clinical scenario, with a highly variable response to radiation in our series. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cushing's disease: a single centre's experience using the linear accelerator (LINAC) for stereotactic radiosurgery and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, P J; Williams, J R; Smee, R I

    2014-01-01

    Cushing's disease is hypercortisolaemia secondary to an adrenocorticotrophic hormone secreting pituitary adenoma. Primary management is almost always surgical, with limited effective medical interventions available. Adjuvant therapy in the form of radiation is gaining popularity, with the bulk of the literature related to the Gamma Knife. We present the results from our own institution using the linear accelerator (LINAC) since 1990. Thirty-six patients who underwent stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), one patient who underwent fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) and for the purposes of comparison, 13 patients who had undergone conventional radiotherapy prior to 1990, were included in the analysis. Serum cortisol levels improved in nine of 36 (25%) SRS patients and 24 hour urinary free cortisol levels improved in 13 of 36 patients (36.1%). Tumour volume control was excellent in the SRS group with deterioration in only one patient (3%). The patient who underwent FSRT had a highly aggressive tumour refractory to radiation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Design and characterization of the DC acceleration and transport system required for the FOM 1 MW free electron maser experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caplan, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Urbanus, W.H.; Geer, C. van der [FOM-Institut voor Plasma Fysica, Nieuwegein (Netherlands)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    A Free Electron Maser (FEM) has been constructed and is soon to be tested at the FOM Institute (Rijnhuizen) Netherlands with the goal of producing 1 MW long pulse to CW microwave output in the range 130 GHz to 250 GHz. The design uses a DC beam system in a depressed collector configuration in order to make the overall wall plug efficiency 50%. The high voltage ({approximately} 2 MeV) power supply provides only the body interception current ({approximately} 30 mA) while the 12 amp beam current is supplied by the 100-200 keV collector supplies. Some of the design features to ensure low interception current, which is critical to long pulse (CW) operation are: (1) DC beam in-line transport and acceleration system, (2) emittance conserving solenoid focusing system, (3) halo suppression techniques at cathode edge, and (4) very low beam fill factor (<20%). A relativistic version of the Herman Optical theory developed for microwave tubes is used to determine current distribution functions everywhere along the beam from the electron gun, through the DC accelerator and transport system to the wiggler. This theory takes into account thermals far out on the gaussian tail which translates into beam current far outside the ideal beam edge. This theory is applied to the FOM beam line design to predict a series of beam envelope contours containing various percentages of total beam current up to 99.9%. Predictions of body interception current due to finite emittance (effective temperature) are presented and compared with measured experimental results.

  2. [Linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. Nine years' experience in a single institution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Rubio, A A; Martinez-Manrique, J J; Revuelta-Gutierrez, R; Gomez-Amador, J L; Martinez-Anda, J J; Ponce-Gomez, J A; Moreno-Jimenez, S

    2014-09-16

    INTRODUCTION. Pharmacological treatment is the first therapeutic step towards controlling pain in trigeminal neuralgia, but 25-50% of patients become medication resistant. There are currently several surgical alternatives for treating these patients. AIM. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of stereotactic radiosurgery for the treatment of patients with trigeminal neuralgia. PATIENTS AND METHODS. A follow-up study was conducted on 30 patients who underwent radiosurgery using a Novalis linear accelerator. Eighty per cent of the dosage was calculated at the isocentre, the entry zone of the root of the trigeminal nerve. The mean follow-up time was 27.5 months (range: 1-65 months). RESULTS. The mean age was 66 years (range: 36-87 years), with a time to progression of 7.1 years (range: 4-27 years). The distribution of the pain was from the right side (63.3%). Of the 30 patients, 27 experienced an improvement (90%) 1.6 months (range: 1 week-4 months) after the treatment; 10 patients (33.3%) scored grade I, and 17 patients (56.6%) obtained a score of grade II. During the follow-up, four patients (14.2%) suffered a relapse; two underwent re-irradiation. Time without recurrence was 62.7 months (range: 54.6-70.8 months). The rate of side effects was 76.7% and only three patients developed facial anaesthesia with loss of the corneal reflex. CONCLUSIONS. The use of the linear accelerator is an effective therapeutic option in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia, since it provides adequate long-term control of the pain, reduces the use of medication and improves the quality of life.

  3. Proposal for the Award of Two Contracts for the Technical Services for Work on Components of CERN Particle Accelerators and High Energy Physics Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This document concerns the award of two contracts for the technical services for work on components of CERN particle accelerators and high energy physics experiments. Following a market survey carried out among 73 firms in fourteen Member States, a call for tenders (IT-3156/SPL) was sent on 4 November 2002 to three consortia in four Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received tenders from the three consortia. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of two contracts with: 1) the consortium SERCO FACILITIES MANAGEMENT (NL) - GERARD PERRIER INDUSTRIE (FR) - INEO ALPES (FR), the lowest bidder, for approximately 55% of the technical services for work on components of CERN particle accelerators and high energy physics experiments, for an initial period of five years and for a total amount not exceeding 37 435 270 euros (54 902 500 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation from 1 January 2005. The contract will include options for two one-year extensions beyond the initial five-...

  4. AEg¯$\\overline {\\rm{g}}$IS Experiment: Measuring the acceleration g of the earth’s gravitational field on antihydrogen beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subieta Vasquez M. A.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The AEg¯ $\\overline {\\rm{g}}$IS experiment [1] aims at directly measuring the gravitational acceleration g on a beam of cold antihydrogen (H¯$\\overline {\\rm{H}}$ to a precision of 1%, performing the first test with antimatter of the (WEP Weak Equivalence Principle. The experimental apparatus is sited at the Antiproton Decelerator (AD at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland. After production by mixing of antiprotons with Rydberg state positronium atoms (Ps, the H¯$\\overline {\\rm{H}}$ atoms will be driven to fly horizontally with a velocity of a few 100 ms−1 for a path length of about 1 meter. The small deflection, few tens of μm, will be measured using two material gratings (of period ∼ 80 μm coupled to a position-sensitive detector working as a moiré deflectometer similarly to what has been done with matter atoms [2]. The shadow pattern produced by the H¯$\\overline {\\rm{H}}$ beam will then be detected by reconstructing the annihilation points with a spatial resolution (∼ 2 μm of each antiatom at the end of the flight path by the sensitive-position detector. During 2012 the experimental apparatus has been commissioned with antiprotons and positrons. Since the AD will not be running during 2013,during the refurbishment of the CERN accelerators, the experiment is currently working with positrons, electrons and protons, in order to prepare the way for the antihydrogen production in late 2014.

  5. Design of the accelerator stand with the ecr-source for simulation experiments on the of radiation damage of the steels of the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalykh, B.B.; Kuybeda, R.P.; Kulevoy, T.V.; Ziyatdinova, A.V.

    2014-01-01

    The imitation experiments of irradiation resistivity for steels used in nuclear industry by heavy ion beams are promising demand for material properties investigation. The formation of the defects on the real-existing reactors is fraught with many difficulties such as a long-term session of exposure and induced radioactivity in samples. Simulation of radiation defects on accelerators of charged particles does not have such a drawback. To form radiation defects in matter, it is necessary to have beams of various ions with different energy. The concept of the test bench based on a ECR heavy-ion source for the imitation experiments of the materials resistance under irradiation is presented and discussed.

  6. Recent US target-physics-related research in heavy-ion inertial fusion: simulations for tamped targets and for disk experiments in accelerator test facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark, J.W.K.

    1982-03-22

    Calculations suggest that experiments relating to disk heating, as well as beam deposition, focusing and transport can be performed within the context of current design proposals for accelerator test-facilities. Since the test-facilities have lower ion kinetic energy and beam pulse power as compared to reactor drivers, we achieve high-beam intensities at the focal spot by using short focal distance and properly designed beam optics. In this regard, the low beam emittance of suggested multi-beam designs are very useful. Possibly even higher focal spot brightness could be obtained by plasma lenses which involve external fields on the beam which is stripped to a higher charge state by passing through a plasma cell. Preliminary results suggest that intensities approx. 10/sup 13/ - 10/sup 14/ W/cm/sup 2/ are achievable. Given these intensities, deposition experiments with heating of disks to greater than a million degrees Kelvin (100 eV) are expected.

  7. Fluoride sample matrices and reaction cells — new capabilities for isotope measurements in accelerator mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliades J.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Two new techniques, which extend the range of elements that can be analyzed by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS, and which increase its isobar selection capabilities, have been recently introduced. The first consists of embedding the sample material in a fluoride matrix (e.g. PbF2, which facilitates the production, in the ion source, of fluoride molecular anions that include the isotope of interest. In addition to forming anions with large electron binding energies and thereby increasing the range of analysable elements, in many cases by selection of a molecular form with a particular number of fluorine atoms, some isobar discrimination can be obtained. The second technique, for the significant reduction of atomic isobar interferences, is used following mass selection of the rare isotope. It consists of the deceleration, cooling and reaction of the rare mass beam with a gas, selected so that unwanted isobars are greatly attenuated in comparison with the isotope of interest. Proof of principle measurements for the analysis of 36C1 and 41Ca have provided encouraging results and work is proceeding on the integration of these techniques in a new AMS system planned for installation in late 2012 at the University of Ottawa.

  8. Three-dimensional cardiac cine imaging using the kat ARC acceleration: Initial experience in clinical adult patients at 3T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Shigeo; Yamada, Yoshitake; Tanimoto, Akihiro; Fujita, Jun; Sano, Motoaki; Fukuda, Keiichi; Kuribayashi, Sachio; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Nozaki, Atsushi; Lai, Peng

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional cardiac cine imaging has demonstrated promising clinical 1.5-Tesla results; however, its application to 3T scanners has been limited because of the higher sensitivity to off-resonance artifacts. The aim of this study was to apply 3D cardiac cine imaging during a single breath hold in clinical patients on a 3T scanner using the kat ARC (k- and adaptive-t auto-calibrating reconstruction for Cartesian sampling) technique and to evaluate the interchangeability between 2D and 3D cine imaging for cardiac functional analysis and detection of abnormalities in regional wall motion. Following institutional review board approval, we obtained 2D cine images with an acceleration factor of two during multiple breath holds and 3D cine images with a net scan acceleration factor of 7.7 during a single breath hold in 20 patients using a 3T unit. Two readers independently evaluated the wall motion of the left ventricle (LV) using a 5-point scale, and the consistency in the detection of regional wall motion abnormality between 2D and 3D cine was analyzed by Cohen's kappa test. The LV volume was calculated at end-diastole and end-systole (LVEDV, LVESV); the ejection fraction (LVEF) and myocardial weight (LVmass) were also calculated. The relationship between functional parameters calculated for 2D and 3D cine images was analyzed using Pearson's correlation analysis. The bias and 95% limit of agreement (LA) were calculated using Bland-Altman plots. In addition, a qualitative evaluation of image quality was performed with regard to the myocardium-blood contrast, noise level and boundary definition. Despite slight degradation in image quality for 3D cine, excellent agreement was obtained for the detection of wall motion abnormalities between 2D and 3D cine images (κ=0.84 and 0.94 for each reader). Excellent correlations between the two imaging methods were shown for the evaluation of functional parameters (r>0.97). Slight differences in LVEDV, LVESV, LVEF and LVmass

  9. Beam test results of STS prototype modules for the future accelerator experiments FAIR/CBM and NICA/MPD projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharlamov, Petr; Dementev, Dmitrii; Shitenkov, Mikhail

    2017-10-01

    High-energy heavy-ion collision experiments provide the unique possibility to create and investigate extreme states of strongly-interacted matter and address the fundamental aspects of QCD. The experimental investigation the QCD phase diagram would be a major breakthrough in our understanding of the properties of nuclear matter. The reconstruction of the charged particles created in the nuclear collisions, including the determination of their momenta, is the central detection task in high-energy heavy-ion experiments. It is taken up by the Silicon Tracking System in CBM@FAIR and by Inner Tracker in MPD@NICA currently under development. These experiments requires very fast and radiation hard detectors, a novel data read-out and analysis concept including free streaming front-end electronics. Thermal and beam tests of prototype detector modules for these tracking systems showed the stability of sensors and readout electronics operation.

  10. Beam test results of STS prototype modules for the future accelerator experiments FAIR/CBM and NICA/MPD projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharlamov Petr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High-energy heavy-ion collision experiments provide the unique possibility to create and investigate extreme states of strongly-interacted matter and address the fundamental aspects of QCD. The experimental investigation the QCD phase diagram would be a major breakthrough in our understanding of the properties of nuclear matter. The reconstruction of the charged particles created in the nuclear collisions, including the determination of their momenta, is the central detection task in high-energy heavy-ion experiments. It is taken up by the Silicon Tracking System in CBM@FAIR and by Inner Tracker in MPD@NICA currently under development. These experiments requires very fast and radiation hard detectors, a novel data read-out and analysis concept including free streaming front-end electronics. Thermal and beam tests of prototype detector modules for these tracking systems showed the stability of sensors and readout electronics operation.

  11. Plasma based accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, Allen [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    The concept of laser-induced plasma wakefields as a technique to accelerate charged particles was introduced 35 years ago as a means to go beyond the accelerating gradients possible with metallic cavities supporting radio frequency electromagnetic fields. Significant developments in laser technology have made possible the pulse intensity needed to realize this concept, and rapid progress is now underway in the realization of laser-driven plasma wakefield acceleration. It has also been realized that similar accelerating gradients can be produced by particle beams propagating in plasmas, and experimental programs have also been undertaken to study this possibility. Positive results have been achieved with electron-driven plasma wakefields, and a demonstration experiment with proton-driven wakefields is under construction at CERN. The concepts behind these different schemes and their pros and cons are described, as well as the experimental results achieved. An outlook for future practical uses of plasma based accelerators will also be given.

  12. TIARA electrostatic accelerator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, Satoshi; Takada, Isao; Mizuhashi, Kiyoshi; Uno, Sadanori; Ohkoshi, Kiyonori; Nakajima, Yoshinori; Saitoh, Yuichi; Ishii, Yasuyuki; Kamiya, Tomihiro

    1996-07-01

    In order to promote the Advanced Radiation Technology Project, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute constructed TIARA facility composed of four ion accelerators at Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment for the period from 1988 to 1993. A 3MV tandem accelerator and an AVF cycrotron were completed in 1991 as the first phase of the construction, and a 3MV single-ended accelerator and a 400kV ion implanter were completed in 1993 as the second phase. Three electrostatic accelerators, the tandem, the single-ended and the implanter, were installed in the Multiple-beam facility of TIARA and have been operated for various experiments with using single, dual and triple beams without any serious trouble. This report describes the constructive works, machine performances, control systems, safety systems and accessory equipments of the electrostatic accelerators. (author)

  13. Thinking and practice of accelerating transformation of traditional Chinese medicine from experience medicine to evidence-based medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baoyan; Zhang, Yanhong; Hu, Jingqing; He, Liyun; Zhou, Xuezhong

    2011-06-01

    The gradual development of Chinese medicine is based on constant accumulation and summary of experience in clinical practice, but without the benefit of undergoing the experimental medicine stage. Although Chinese medicine has formed a systematic and unique theory system through thousands of years, with the development of evidence-based medicine, the bondage of the research methods of experience medicine to Chinese medicine is appearing. The rapid transition and transformation from experience medicine to evidence-based medicine have become important content in the development of Chinese medicine. According to the features of Chinese medicine, we propose the research idea of "taking two ways simultaneously," which is the study both in the ideal condition and in the real world. Analyzing and constructing the theoretical basis and methodology of clinical research in the real world, and building the stage for research technique is key to the effective clinical research of Chinese medicine. Only by gradually maturing and completing the clinical research methods of the real world could we realize "taking two ways simultaneously" and complementing each other, continuously produce scientific and reliable evidence of Chinese medicine, as well as transform and develop Chinese medicine from experience medicine to evidence-based medicine.

  14. Experience of micromultileaf collimator linear accelerator based single fraction stereotactic radiosurgery: Tumor dose inhomogeneity, conformity, and dose fall off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Linda X.; Garg, Madhur; Lasala, Patrick; Kim, Mimi; Mah, Dennis; Chen, Chin-Cheng; Yaparpalvi, Ravindra; Mynampati, Dinesh; Kuo, Hsiang-Chi; Guha, Chandan; Kalnicki, Shalom [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461 (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461 (United States); Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: Sharp dose fall off outside a tumor is essential for high dose single fraction stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) plans. This study explores the relationship among tumor dose inhomogeneity, conformity, and dose fall off in normal tissues for micromultileaf collimator (mMLC) linear accelerator (LINAC) based cranial SRS plans. Methods: Between January 2007 and July 2009, 65 patients with single cranial lesions were treated with LINAC-based SRS. Among them, tumors had maximum diameters {<=}20 mm: 31; between 20 and 30 mm: 21; and >30 mm: 13. All patients were treated with 6 MV photons on a Trilogy linear accelerator (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) with a tertiary m3 high-resolution mMLC (Brainlab, Feldkirchen, Germany), using either noncoplanar conformal fixed fields or dynamic conformal arcs. The authors also created retrospective study plans with identical beam arrangement as the treated plan but with different tumor dose inhomogeneity by varying the beam margins around the planning target volume (PTV). All retrospective study plans were normalized so that the minimum PTV dose was the prescription dose (PD). Isocenter dose, mean PTV dose, RTOG conformity index (CI), RTOG homogeneity index (HI), dose gradient index R{sub 50}-R{sub 100} (defined as the difference between equivalent sphere radius of 50% isodose volume and prescription isodose volume), and normal tissue volume (as a ratio to PTV volume) receiving 50% prescription dose (NTV{sub 50}) were calculated. Results: HI was inversely related to the beam margins around the PTV. CI had a ''V'' shaped relationship with HI, reaching a minimum when HI was approximately 1.3. Isocenter dose and mean PTV dose (as percentage of PD) increased linearly with HI. R{sub 50}-R{sub 100} and NTV{sub 50} initially declined with HI and then reached a plateau when HI was approximately 1.3. These trends also held when tumors were grouped according to their maximum diameters. The smallest tumor group

  15. Patient-reported outcomes of catheter-based accelerated partial breast brachytherapy and whole breast irradiation, a single institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jethwa, Krishan R; Kahila, Mohamed M; Mara, Kristin C; Harmsen, William S; Routman, David M; Pumper, Geralyn M; Corbin, Kimberly S; Sloan, Jeff A; Ruddy, Kathryn J; Hieken, Tina J; Park, Sean S; Mutter, Robert W

    2018-05-01

    Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) and whole breast irradiation (WBI) are treatment options for early-stage breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to compare patient-reported-outcomes (PRO) between patients receiving multi-channel intra-cavitary brachytherapy APBI or WBI. Between 2012 and 2015, 131 patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or early stage invasive breast cancer were treated with adjuvant APBI (64) or WBI (67) and participated in a PRO questionnaire. The linear analog scale assessment (LASA), harvard breast cosmesis scale (HBCS), PRO-common terminology criteria for adverse events- PRO (PRO-CTCAE), and breast cancer treatment outcome scale (BCTOS) were used to assess quality of life (QoL), pain, fatigue, aesthetic and functional status, and breast cosmesis. Comparisons of PROs were performed using t-tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum, Chi square, Fisher exact test, and regression methods. Median follow-up from completion of radiotherapy and questionnaire completion was 13.3 months. There was no significant difference in QoL, pain, or fatigue severity, as assessed by the LASA, between treatment groups (p > 0.05). No factors were found to be predictive of overall QoL on regression analysis. BCTOS health-related QoL scores were similar between treatment groups (p = 0.52).The majority of APBI and WBI patients reported excellent/good breast cosmesis, 88.5% versus 93.7% (p = 0.37). Skin color change (p = 0.011) and breast elevation (p = 0.01) relative to baseline were more common in the group receiving WBI. APBI and WBI were both associated with favorable patient-reported outcomes in early follow-up. APBI resulted in a lesser degree of patient-reported skin color change and breast elevation relative to baseline.

  16. Electrostatic accelerators

    OpenAIRE

    Hinterberger, F

    2006-01-01

    The principle of electrostatic accelerators is presented. We consider Cockcroft– Walton, Van de Graaff and Tandem Van de Graaff accelerators. We resume high voltage generators such as cascade generators, Van de Graaff band generators, Pelletron generators, Laddertron generators and Dynamitron generators. The speci c features of accelerating tubes, ion optics and methods of voltage stabilization are described. We discuss the characteristic beam properties and the variety of possible beams. We ...

  17. Electrostatic accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Hinterberger, F

    2006-01-01

    The principle of electrostatic accelerators is presented. We consider Cockcroft– Walton, Van de Graaff and Tandem Van de Graaff accelerators. We resume high voltage generators such as cascade generators, Van de Graaff band generators, Pelletron generators, Laddertron generators and Dynamitron generators. The speci c features of accelerating tubes, ion optics and methods of voltage stabilization are described. We discuss the characteristic beam properties and the variety of possible beams. We sketch possible applications and the progress in the development of electrostatic accelerators.

  18. Accelerator development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Because the use of accelerated heavy ions would provide many opportunities for new and important studies in nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, as well as other disciplines, both the Chemistry and Physics Divisions are supporting the development of a heavy-ion accelerator. The design of greatest current interest includes a tandem accelerator with a terminal voltage of approximately 25 MV injecting into a linear accelerator with rf superconducting resonators. This combined accelerator facility would be capable of accelerating ions of masses ranging over the entire periodic table to an energy corresponding to approximately 10 MeV/nucleon. This approach, as compared to other concepts, has the advantages of lower construction costs, lower operating power, 100 percent duty factor, and high beam quality (good energy resolution, good timing resolution, small beam size, and small beam divergence). The included sections describe the concept of the proposed heavy-ion accelerator, and the development program aiming at: (1) investigation of the individual questions concerning the superconducting accelerating resonators; (2) construction and testing of prototype accelerator systems; and (3) search for economical solutions to engineering problems. (U.S.)

  19. SSC accelerator availability allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, K.T.; Franciscovich, J.

    1991-03-01

    Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) operational availability is an area of major concern, judged by the Central Design Group to present such risk that use of modern engineering tools would be essential to program success. Experience has shown that as accelerator beam availability falls below about 80%, efficiency of physics experiments degrades rapidly due to inability to maintain adequate coincident accelerator and detector operation. For this reason, the SSC availability goal has been set at 80%, even though the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory accelerator, with a fraction of the SSC's complexity, has only recently approached that level. This paper describes the allocation of the top-level goal to part-level reliability and maintainability requirements, and it gives the results of parameter sensitivity studies designed to help identify the best approach to achieve the needed system availability within funding and schedule constraints. 1 ref., 12 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Optimization of accelerator control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiljev, N.D.; Mozin, I.V.; Shelekhov, V.A.; Efremov, D.V.

    1992-01-01

    Expensive exploitation of charged particle accelerators is inevitably concerned with requirements of effectively obtaining of the best characteristics of accelerated beams for physical experiments. One of these characteristics is intensity. Increase of intensity is hindered by a number of effects, concerned with the influence of the volume charge field on a particle motion dynamics in accelerator's chamber. However, ultimate intensity, determined by a volume charge, is almost not achieved for the most of the operating accelerators. This fact is caused by losses of particles during injection, at the initial stage of acceleration and during extraction. These losses are caused by deviations the optimal from real characteristics of the accelerating and magnetic system. This is due to a number of circumstances, including technological tolerances on structural elements of systems, influence of measuring and auxiliary equipment and beam consumers' installations, placed in the closed proximity to magnets, and instability in operation of technological systems of accelerator. Control task consists in compensation of deviations of characteristics of magnetic and electric fields by optimal selection of control actions. As for technical means, automatization of modern accelerators allows to solve optimal control problems in real time. Therefore, the report is devoted to optimal control methods and experimental results. (J.P.N.)

  1. Search for Evidence of Photoproduction of Higher Twist QCD Events at Experiment 683 at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traynor, Michael M. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Experiment 683 at Fermilab Wide Band Photon Laboratory observed events via $\\gamma P \\to jets$ during the 1991-1992 fixed target run. The present analysis attempted to observe the higher-twist subprocess in QCD using that data to measure the $p_\\perp$ spectrum via a clustering algorithm tuned to optimize the distinctive topology of higher-twist events. Results indicate a substantial $k_\\perp$ promotion effect at lower $p_\\perp$ and a significant NLO contribution to the photoproduction.

  2. Novel production techniques of radioisotopes using electron accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Daniel Robert

    Non-traditional radioisotope production techniques using a compact, high power linear electron accelerator have been demonstrated and characterized for the production of 18F, 47Sc, 147 Pm, and 99mTc from a variety of target candidates. These isotopes are used extensively in the medical field as diagnostic and therapy radioisotopes, as well as the space industry as RTG's. Primary focus was placed on 99mTc as it constitutes approximately 80% of all diagnostic procedures in the medical community that use radioactive tracers. It was also the prime focus due to recent events at the Chalk River nuclear reactor, which caused global shortages of this isotope a few years ago. A Varian K15 LINAC was first used to show proof of principle in Las Vegas. Various samples were then taken to the Idaho Accelerator Center where they were activated using an electron LINAC capable of electron energies from 4 to 25 MeV at a beam power of approximately 1 kW. Production rates, cross sections, and viability studies were then performed and conducted to assess the effectiveness of the candidate target and the maximum production rate for each radioisotope. Production rates for 18F from lithium fluoride salts were shown to be ideal at 21MeV, namely 1.7 Ci per kg of LiF salt, per kW of beam current, per 10 hour irradiation time. As the typical hospital consumption of 18F is around 500 mCi per day, it is clear that a large amount of 18F can be made from a small (300 gram) sample of LiF salt. However, since there is no current separation process for 18F from 19F, the viability of this technique is limited until a separations technique is developed. Furthermore, the calculated cross section for this reaction is in good agreement with literature, which supports the techniques for the isotopes mentioned below. Production rates for 47Sc from vanadium oxide targets were shown to be a maximum at 25 MeV with a production rate of 2 mCi per day, assuming a 2 kW beam and a 10 kg target. While this

  3. Linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery for brainstem metastases: the Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Paul J; Lin, Yijie Brittany; Yu, Alvin Y C; Ropper, Alexander E; Nguyen, Paul L; Marcus, Karen J; Hacker, Fred L; Weiss, Stephanie E

    2011-09-01

    To review the safety and efficacy of linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brainstem metastases. We reviewed all patients with brain metastases treated with SRS at DF/BWCC from 2001 to 2009 to identify patients who had SRS to a single brainstem metastasis. Overall survival and freedom-from-local failure rates were calculated from the date of SRS using the Kaplan-Meier method. Prognostic factors were evaluated using the log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards model. A total of 24 consecutive patients with brainstem metastases had SRS. At the time of SRS, 21/24 had metastatic lesions elsewhere within the brain. 23/24 had undergone prior WBRT. Primary diagnoses included eight NSCLC, eight breast cancer, three melanoma, three renal cell carcinoma and two others. Median dose was 13 Gy (range, 8-16). One patient had fractionated SRS 5 Gy ×5. Median target volume was 0.2 cc (range, 0.02-2.39). The median age was 57 years (range, 42-92). Follow-up information was available in 22/24 cases. At the time of analysis, 18/22 patients (82%) had died. The median overall survival time was 5.3 months (range, 0.8-21.1 months). The only prognostic factor that trended toward statistical significance for overall survival was the absence of synchronous brain metastasis at the time of SRS; 1-year overall survival was 31% with versus 67% without synchronous brain metastasis (log rank P = 0.11). Non-significant factors included primary tumor histology and status of extracranial disease (progressing vs. stable/absent). Local failure occurred in 4/22 cases (18%). Actuarial freedom from local failure for all cases was 78.6% at 1 year. RTOG grade 3 toxicities were recorded in two patients (ataxia, confusion). Linac-based SRS for small volume brainstem metastases using a median dose of 13 Gy is associated with acceptable local control and low morbidity.

  4. CEBAF Accelerator Achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Y C; Drury, M; Hovater, C; Hutton, A; Krafft, G A; Poelker, M; Reece, C; Tiefenback, M

    2011-01-01

    In the past decade, nuclear physics users of Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) have benefited from accelerator physics advances and machine improvements. As of early 2011, CEBAF operates routinely at 6 GeV, with a 12 GeV upgrade underway. This article reports highlights of CEBAF's scientific and technological evolution in the areas of cryomodule refurbishment, RF control, polarized source development, beam transport for parity experiments, magnets and hysteresis handling, beam breakup, and helium refrigerator operational optimization.

  5. Accelerated testing for studying pavement design and performance (FY 2003) : evaluation of the chemical stabilized subgrade soil (CISL Experiment No. 12).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Midwest States Accelerated Pavement Testing Pooled Fund Program, financed by the highway departments : of Missouri, Iowa, Kansas and Nebraska, has supported an accelerated pavement testing (APT) project to compare : the performance of stabilized ...

  6. RECIRCULATING ACCELERATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BERG, J.S.; GARREN, A.A.; JOHNSTONE, C.

    2000-01-01

    This paper compares various types of recirculating accelerators, outlining the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches. The accelerators are characterized according to the types of arcs they use: whether there is a single arc for the entire recirculator or there are multiple arcs, and whether the arc(s) are isochronous or non-isochronous

  7. LIBO accelerates

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The prototype module of LIBO, a linear accelerator project designed for cancer therapy, has passed its first proton-beam acceleration test. In parallel a new version - LIBO-30 - is being developed, which promises to open up even more interesting avenues.

  8. Belgian class II nuclear facilities such as irradiators and accelerators. Regulatory Body attention points and operating experience feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minne, Etienne; Peters, Christelle; Mommaert, Chantal; Kennes, Christian; Cortenbosch, Geert; Schmitz, Frederic; Haesendonck, Michel van [Bel V, Brussels (Belgium); Carlier, Pascal; Schrayen, Virginie; Wertelaers, An [Federal Agency for Nuclear Control, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-11-15

    The aim of this paper is to present the Regulatory Body attention points and the operating experience feedback from Belgian ''class IIA'' facilities such as industrial and research irradiators, bulk radionuclides producers and conditioners. Reinforcement of the nuclear safety and radiation protection has been promoted by the Federal Agency for Nuclear Control (FANC) since 2009. This paper is clearly a continuation of the former paper [1] presenting the evolution in the regulatory framework relative to the creation of Bel V, the subsidiary of the FANC, and to the new ''class IIA'' covering heavy installations such as those mentioned above. Some lessons learnt are extracted from the operating experience feedback based on the events declared to the authorities. Even though a real willingness to meet the new safety requirements is observed among the ''class IIA'' licensees, promoting the safety culture, the nuclear safety and radiation protection remains an endless challenge for the Regulatory Body.

  9. An accurate Rb density measurement method for a plasma wakefield accelerator experiment using a novel Rb reservoir

    CERN Document Server

    Öz, E.; Muggli, P.

    2016-01-01

    A method to accurately measure the density of Rb vapor is described. We plan on using this method for the Advanced Wakefield (AWAKE)~\\cite{bib:awake} project at CERN , which will be the world's first proton driven plasma wakefield experiment. The method is similar to the hook~\\cite{bib:Hook} method and has been described in great detail in the work by W. Tendell Hill et. al.~\\cite{bib:densitymeter}. In this method a cosine fit is applied to the interferogram to obtain a relative accuracy on the order of $1\\%$ for the vapor density-length product. A single-mode, fiber-based, Mach-Zenhder interferometer will be built and used near the ends of the 10 meter-long AWAKE plasma source to be able to make accurate relative density measurement between these two locations. This can then be used to infer the vapor density gradient along the AWAKE plasma source and also change it to the value desired for the plasma wakefield experiment. Here we describe the plan in detail and show preliminary results obtained using a prot...

  10. Collaborative engagement experiment (CEE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Robert L.; Reames, Joseph M.

    2005-05-01

    Unmanned ground and air systems operating in collaboration have the potential to provide future Joint Forces a significant capability for operations in complex terrain. Ground and air collaborative engagements potentially offer force conservation, perform timely acquisition and dissemination of essential combat information, and can eliminate high value and time critical targets. These engagements can also add considerably to force survivability by reducing soldier and equipment exposure during critical operations. The Office of the Secretary of Defense, Joint Robotics Program (JRP) sponsored Collaborative Engagement Experiment (CEE) is a consolidation of separate Air Force, Army and Navy collaborative efforts to provide a Joint capability. The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Material and Manufacturing Directorate, Aerospace Expeditionary Force Division, Force Protection Branch (AFRLMLQF), The Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) Joint Technology Center (JTC)/Systems Integration Laboratory (SIL), and the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center-San Diego (SSC San Diego) are conducting technical research and proof of principle for an envisioned operational concept for extended range, three dimensional, collaborative operations between unmanned systems, with enhanced situational awareness for lethal operations in complex terrain. This program will assess information requirements and conduct experiments to identify and resolve technical risks for collaborative engagements using Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). It will research, develop and physically integrate multiple unmanned systems and conduct live collaborative experiments. Modeling and Simulation systems will be upgraded to reflect engineering fidelity levels to greater understand technical challenges to operate as a team. This paper will provide an update of a multi-year program and will concentrate primarily on the JTC

  11. Electron electric dipole moment experiment using electric-fieldquantized slow cesium atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amini, Jason M.; Munger Jr., Charles T.; Gould, Harvey.

    2007-04-05

    A proof-of-principle electron electric dipole moment (e-EDM)experiment using slow cesium atoms, nulled magnetic fields, and electricfield quantization has been performed. With the ambient magnetic fieldsseen by the atoms reduced to less than 200 pT, an electric field of 6MV/m lifts the degeneracy between states of unequal lbar mF rbar and,along with the low (approximately 3 m/s) velocity, suppresses thesystematic effect from the motional magnetic field. The low velocity andsmall residual magnetic field have made it possible to induce transitionsbetween states and to perform state preparation, analysis, and detectionin regions free of applied static magnetic and electric fields. Thisexperiment demonstrates techniques that may be used to improve the e-EDMlimit by two orders of magnitude, but it is not in itself a sensitivee-EDM search, mostly due to limitations of the laser system.

  12. An extreme ultraviolet Michelson interferometer for experiments at free-electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilbert, Vinzenz; Fuchs, Silvio; Paulus, Gerhard G.; Zastrau, Ulf; Blinne, Alexander; Feigl, Torsten; Kämpfer, Tino; Rödel, Christian; Uschmann, Ingo; Wünsche, Martin; Förster, Eckhart

    2013-01-01

    We present a Michelson interferometer for 13.5 nm soft x-ray radiation. It is characterized in a proof-of-principle experiment using synchrotron radiation, where the temporal coherence is measured to be 13 fs. The curvature of the thin-film beam splitter membrane is derived from the observed fringe pattern. The applicability of this Michelson interferometer at intense free-electron lasers is investigated, particularly with respect to radiation damage. This study highlights the potential role of such Michelson interferometers in solid density plasma investigations using, for instance, extreme soft x-ray free-electron lasers. A setup using the Michelson interferometer for pseudo-Nomarski-interferometry is proposed

  13. An extreme ultraviolet Michelson interferometer for experiments at free-electron lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Vinzenz; Blinne, Alexander; Fuchs, Silvio; Feigl, Torsten; Kämpfer, Tino; Rödel, Christian; Uschmann, Ingo; Wünsche, Martin; Paulus, Gerhard G; Förster, Eckhart; Zastrau, Ulf

    2013-09-01

    We present a Michelson interferometer for 13.5 nm soft x-ray radiation. It is characterized in a proof-of-principle experiment using synchrotron radiation, where the temporal coherence is measured to be 13 fs. The curvature of the thin-film beam splitter membrane is derived from the observed fringe pattern. The applicability of this Michelson interferometer at intense free-electron lasers is investigated, particularly with respect to radiation damage. This study highlights the potential role of such Michelson interferometers in solid density plasma investigations using, for instance, extreme soft x-ray free-electron lasers. A setup using the Michelson interferometer for pseudo-Nomarski-interferometry is proposed.

  14. Accelerator Technology Division annual report, FY 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    This paper discusses: accelerator physics and special projects; experiments and injectors; magnetic optics and beam diagnostics; accelerator design and engineering; radio-frequency technology; accelerator theory and simulation; free-electron laser technology; accelerator controls and automation; and high power microwave sources and effects

  15. Neutrino physics and accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaftanov, V.

    1978-01-01

    The history is described of experiments aimed at the study of direct neutrino-matter interactions conducted in the past twenty years. Experiments are outlined carried out with the objective of proving the existence of the intermediate W meson which had been predicted by the weak interaction theory. The methods of obtaining neutrino beams using accelerators and the detectors used are briefly shown. Also described are experiments to be conducted in the near future in different laboratories. (Z.J.)

  16. Collective ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, B.B.; Faehl, R.J.; Newberger, B.S.; Shanahan, W.R.; Thode, L.E.

    1977-01-01

    Progress achieved in the understanding and development of collective ion acceleration is presented. Extensive analytic and computational studies of slow cyclotron wave growth on an electron beam in a helix amplifier were performed. Research included precise determination of linear coupling between beam and helix, suppression of undesired transients and end effects, and two-dimensional simulations of wave growth in physically realizable systems. Electrostatic well depths produced exceed requirements for the Autoresonant Ion Acceleration feasibility experiment. Acceleration of test ions to modest energies in the troughs of such waves was also demonstrated. Smaller efforts were devoted to alternative acceleration mechanisms. Langmuir wave phase velocity in Converging Guide Acceleration was calculated as a function of the ratio of electron beam current to space-charge limiting current. A new collective acceleration approach, in which cyclotron wave phase velocity is varied by modulation of electron beam voltage, is proposed. Acceleration by traveling Virtual Cathode or Localized Pinch was considered, but appears less promising. In support of this research, fundamental investigations of beam propagation in evacuated waveguides, of nonneutral beam linear eigenmodes, and of beam stability were carried out. Several computer programs were developed or enhanced. Plans for future work are discussed

  17. Multicavity proton cyclotron accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Hirshfield

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A mechanism for acceleration of protons is described, in which energy gain occurs near cyclotron resonance as protons drift through a sequence of rotating-mode TE_{111} cylindrical cavities in a strong nearly uniform axial magnetic field. Cavity resonance frequencies decrease in sequence from one another with a fixed frequency interval Δf between cavities, so that synchronism can be maintained between the rf fields and proton bunches injected at intervals of 1/Δf. An example is presented in which a 122 mA, 1 MeV proton beam is accelerated to 961 MeV using a cascade of eight cavities in an 8.1 T magnetic field, with the first cavity resonant at 120 MHz and with Δf=8 MHz. Average acceleration gradient exceeds 40 MV/m, average effective shunt impedance is 223 MΩ/m, but maximum surface field in the cavities does not exceed 7.2 MV/m. These features occur because protons make many orbital turns in each cavity and thus experience acceleration from each cavity field many times. Longitudinal and transverse stability appear to be intrinsic properties of the acceleration mechanism, and an example to illustrate this is presented. This acceleration concept could be developed into a proton accelerator for a high-power neutron spallation source, such as that required for transmutation of nuclear waste or driving a subcritical fission burner, provided a number of significant practical issues can be addressed.

  18. Autoxidation and acetylene-accelerated oxidation of NO in a 2-phase system; implications for the expression of denitrification in ex situ experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Shahid; Dörsch, Peter; Bakken, Lars

    2013-04-01

    Denitrification allows microorganisms to sustain respiration under anoxic conditions. The typical niche for denitrification is an environment with fluctuating oxygen concentrations such as soils and borders between anoxic and oxic zones of biofilms and sediments. In such environments, the organisms need adequate regulation of denitrification in response to changing oxygen availability to tackle both oxic and anoxic spells. The regulation of denitrification in soils has environmental implications, since it affects the proportions of N2, N2O and NO emitted to the atmosphere. The expression of denitrification enzymes is regulated by a complex regulatory network involving one or several positive feedback loops via the intermediate nitrogen oxides. Nitric oxide (NO) is known to induce denitrification in model organisms, but the quantitative effect of NO and its concentration dependency has not been assessed for denitrification in soils. NO is chemically unstable in the presence of oxygen due to autoxidation, and the oxidation of NO is accelerated by acetylene (C2H2) which is commonly used as an inhibitor of N2O reductase in denitrification studies. As a first step to a better understanding of NO's role in soil denitrification, we investigated NO oxidation kinetics for a closed "two phase" system (i.e. liquid phase + headspace) typically used for denitrification experiments with soil slurries, with and without acetylene present. Models were developed to adequately predict autoxidation and acetylene-accelerated oxidation. The minimum oxygen concentration in the headspace ([O2]min, mL L-1) for acetylene-accelerated NO oxidation was found to increase linearly with the NO concentration ([NO], mL L-1); [O2]min= 0.192 + [NO]*0.1 (r2=0.978). The models for NO oxidation were then used to assess NO-oxidation rates in denitrification experiments with batches of bacterial cells extracted from soil. The batches were exposed to low initial oxygen concentrations in gas tight serum

  19. FMIT accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, D.D.

    1983-01-01

    A 35-MeV 100-mA cw linear accelerator is being designed by Los Alamos for use in the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. Essential to this program is the design, construction, and evaluation of performance of the accelerator's injector, low-energy beam transport, and radio-frequency quadrupole sections before they are shipped to the facility site. The installation and testing of some of these sections have begun as well as the testing of the rf, noninterceptive beam diagnostics, computer control, dc power, and vacuum systems. An overview of the accelerator systems and the performance to date is given

  20. Electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramyan.

    1981-01-01

    The USSR produces an electron accelerator family of a simple design powered straight from the mains. The specifications are given of accelerators ELITA-400, ELITA-3, ELT-2, TEUS-3 and RIUS-5 with maximum electron energies of 0.3 to 5 MeV, a mean power of 10 to 70 kW operating in both the pulsed and the continuous (TEUS-3) modes. Pulsed accelerators ELITA-400 and ELITA-3 and RIUS-5 in which TESLA resonance transformers are used are characterized by their compact size. (Ha)