WorldWideScience

Sample records for accelerating policy decisions

  1. Accelerating policy decisions to adopt haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine: a global, multivariable analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica C Shearer

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adoption of new and underutilized vaccines by national immunization programs is an essential step towards reducing child mortality. Policy decisions to adopt new vaccines in high mortality countries often lag behind decisions in high-income countries. Using the case of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib vaccine, this paper endeavors to explain these delays through the analysis of country-level economic, epidemiological, programmatic and policy-related factors, as well as the role of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI Alliance. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data for 147 countries from 1990 to 2007 were analyzed in accelerated failure time models to identify factors that are associated with the time to decision to adopt Hib vaccine. In multivariable models that control for Gross National Income, region, and burden of Hib disease, the receipt of GAVI support speeded the time to decision by a factor of 0.37 (95% CI 0.18-0.76, or 63%. The presence of two or more neighboring country adopters accelerated decisions to adopt by a factor of 0.50 (95% CI 0.33-0.75. For each 1% increase in vaccine price, decisions to adopt are delayed by a factor of 1.02 (95% CI 1.00-1.04. Global recommendations and local studies were not associated with time to decision. CONCLUSIONS: This study substantiates previous findings related to vaccine price and presents new evidence to suggest that GAVI eligibility is associated with accelerated decisions to adopt Hib vaccine. The influence of neighboring country decisions was also highly significant, suggesting that approaches to support the adoption of new vaccines should consider supply- and demand-side factors.

  2. Behavioral Decisions and Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalton, P.S.; Ghosal, S.

    2010-01-01

    We study the public policy implications of a model in which agents do not fully internalize all the conscequences of their actions. Such a model uni es seemingly disconected models with behavioral agents. We evaluate the scope of paternalistic and libertarian-parternalistic policies in the light of

  3. 40 CFR 164.91 - Accelerated decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accelerated decision. 164.91 Section 164.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING HEARINGS, UNDER THE FEDERAL INSECTICIDE, FUNGICIDE, AND RODENTICIDE...

  4. Mexican Information Policy: A Scattered Decision Model

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Jesús

    1993-01-01

    Mexico lacks a written national information policy. Nonetheless, information policy is set up by several government bodies. The decision model resembles a scattered decision model, where several agencies take action on whatever they consider to be the best for the public and the information-handling communities. A description of "de facto" policies set up by leading information agencies and legal framework is provided. The absence of an information blueprint is regarded as a lack of coord...

  5. Wading through the Consequences of Policy Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Fenice B.

    2013-01-01

    As long as we have schools, teachers and students, educational policy mandates, with a one-size-fits all subtext will always ebb and flow. Schools however, will forever encounter diversity writ large--teachers and students, families, languages, cognitive and academic abilities, interests, etc. The policy decisions do not necessarily fit the…

  6. 40 CFR 164.102 - Appeals from accelerated decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appeals from accelerated decisions. 164.102 Section 164.102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING HEARINGS, UNDER THE FEDERAL INSECTICIDE, FUNGICIDE,...

  7. Public education for energy policy decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review is given of the changes that took place in 1972-1973 in public opinion and political views in Sweden, leading to new attitudes and increasing interest in matters of energy policy. Although nuclear power was from the beginning the main issue, it became more and more widely recognized that a number of complex and technically difficult problems were involved. In late 1973, the Government decided to prepare a comprehensive energy policy programmme for the period 1975-1985 and to put this programme before Parliament in the spring of 1975. In order to involve the public in the decision-making process, a public education programme was introduced in January 1974. The essentials of this programme are described. The main effort was provided by the adult education associations, which were given financial incentives to start energy study circles and prepared their own study material. Journalist seminars were also arranged. The paper outlines the links between the educational efforts, the discussions in the study circles, and the standpoints ultimately taken by the different political parties on the energy issues. (author)

  8. A policy simulation based on multicriteria decision analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aubert, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    Most scenarios for future energy policy are based on one or two predominant policy objectives. In this paper, policy objectives from several existing energy scenarios for The Netherlands are combined, The attainment of ‘ideal values’ of policy criteria (i.e., the ‘ideal point’ multicriteria decision

  9. Acceleration, Stagnation and Crisis: the Role of Policies and Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Jerzmanowski, Michal

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study long run economic growth as a sequence of accelerations, slowdowns and crises, and estimate the role of institutions and macroeconomic policies in determining this sequence. We analyze the joint effect of policies and institutions on the frequency of the four growth regimes: stable growth, stagnation, crisis and miracle-like fast growth. The results confirm the importance of institutions for growth but also show that macro-policies; inflation, trade openness, size of go...

  10. Developing a decision aid to guide public sector health policy decisions: A study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brouwers Melissa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decision aids have been developed in a number of health disciplines to support evidence-informed decision making, including patient decision aids and clinical practice guidelines. However, policy contexts differ from clinical contexts in terms of complexity and uncertainty, requiring different approaches for identifying, interpreting, and applying many different types of evidence to support decisions. With few studies in the literature offering decision guidance specifically to health policymakers, the present study aims to facilitate the structured and systematic incorporation of research evidence and, where there is currently very little guidance, values and other non-research-based evidence, into the policy making process. The resulting decision aid is intended to help public sector health policy decision makers who are tasked with making evidence-informed decisions on behalf of populations. The intent is not to develop a decision aid that will yield uniform recommendations across jurisdictions, but rather to facilitate more transparent policy decisions that reflect a balanced consideration of all relevant factors. Methods/design The study comprises three phases: a modified meta-narrative review, the use of focus groups, and the application of a Delphi method. The modified meta-narrative review will inform the initial development of the decision aid by identifying as many policy decision factors as possible and other features of methodological guidance deemed to be desirable in the literatures of all relevant disciplines. The first of two focus groups will then seek to marry these findings with focus group members' own experience and expertise in public sector population-based health policy making and screening decisions. The second focus group will examine issues surrounding the application of the decision aid and act as a sounding board for initial feedback and refinement of the draft decision aid. Finally, the Delphi

  11. Application of HTA research on policy decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngkong, Sitaporn

    2014-05-01

    This article provides an overview of the potential uses of health technology assessment (HTA) in health technology or health intervention-related policy decision-making. It summarises the role of HTA in policy planning, health system investment, price negotiation, development of clinical practice guidelines, and communication with health professionals. While the multifaceted nature of HTA means that some aspects of the data can result in conflicting conclusions, the comprehensive approach of HTA is still recommended. To help minimise the potential conflicts within HTA data, a multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach is recommended as a way to assess a number of decision criteria simultaneously. A combination of HTA with MCDA allows policy decision-making to be undertaken in an empirically rigorous and rational way. This combination can be used to support policy decision-makers in Thailand and help them prioritise topics for assessment and make informed health benefit package coverage decisions. This approach enhances the legitimacy of policy decisions by increasing the transparency, systematic nature, and inclusiveness of the process.

  12. Using the Decision Case Method to Teach Legislative Policy Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfer, Terry A.; Gray, Karen A.

    2007-01-01

    Social work educators have long struggled with making policy practice real "more", especially to micro-oriented students (Sundet & Kelly, 2002). The decision case method can generate excitement about social policy advocacy while educating students about current advocacy work, particularly if the case involves state or local efforts to influence…

  13. Situating School District Resource Decision Making in Policy Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, Angeline K.

    2016-01-01

    Decentralization and deregulation policies assume that local educational leaders make better resource decisions than state policy makers do. Conceptual models drawn from organizational theory, however, offer competing predictions about how district central office administrators are likely to leverage their professional expertise in devolved…

  14. Do environmental policy instruments influence fiduciaries’ decisions?

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew M Haigh; Shapiro, Matthew A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the import for fiduciary investors (pension funds, insurance companies, and mutual funds in OECD countries) of companies’ environmental performance levels in light of existing and nascent energy-usage and environmental management policies. The study is based on an experiment using a sample of fiduciaries located mainly in Europe, North America, and Australia. Subjects are allocated to one of two groups: one group invests with reference to environmental considerations, whil...

  15. Special interest in decision making in entrepreneurship policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Torben; Klyver, Kim; Schou Nielsen, Pia

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the role of the special interests of key decision makers in entrepreneurship policy formation at the national level. An ethnographic method is applied to analyse in depth the 2005 decision by the Danish Government to shift from volume oriented to growth oriented...... entrepreneurship policy. The theoretical value of this paper is its challenge to the widespread rationality view in the entrepreneurship field and a deepened understanding of how the pursuit of special interests is related to ambiguous evidence and system-level rationality....

  16. Energy policy decision making and public opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By the example of nuclear the author demonstrates the interactions of short-term fluctuations on the world energy market, energy forecasts, specific events and discussions on energy policy both within political parties and in the general public, and draws conclusions which are valid beyond the Federal Republic of Germany: An analysis of the general public's attitude towards nuclear energy shows two initial phases, i.e. euphoria and scepticism/ideology/agitation. The early eighties, then, led to a third phase - realism. Up to 1983 a consensus prevailed between the leading political parties in Germany regarding the basic energy-policy objective of minimizing the supply risk by providing for a well-balanced use of all available energy sources. The resulting attitude had a positive bearing on the public opinion: more than two thirds of the population were in favour of nuclear. In the mid-eighties, the development of nuclear was by and large completed in the Federal Republic of Germany as well as in the United States and other western industrialized countries and the capacity of nuclear power plants is considered sufficient for the years to come. In addition, abundant long-term reserves of domestic lignite and hardcoal are available: this also should have furnished a good reason to envisage calmly the issues of power supply. Instead, we are again facing emotional discussions on the acceptance of nuclear. Public opinion in the Federal Republic of Germany has changed since the Social Democrats followed the example of the Ecologists and advocated a rapid withdrawal from nuclear. In a recent poll four-fifths of the persons asked did not rule out the possibility of a major accident in a German power station. The wish to ignore today's energy supply problems by escaping into a supposedly safe but yet distant and vague future is part of every public debate. Technical and scientific issues are examined no longer in this global context. Predictions of experts and counter

  17. Modeling Policy and Agricultural Decisions in Afghanistan

    CERN Document Server

    Widener, Michael J; Gros, Andreas; Metcalf, Sara; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2011-01-01

    Afghanistan is responsible for the majority of the world's supply of poppy crops, which are often used to produce illegal narcotics like heroin. This paper presents an agent-based model that simulates policy scenarios to characterize how the production of poppy can be dampened and replaced with licit crops over time. The model is initialized with spatial data, including transportation network and satellite-derived land use data. Parameters representing national subsidies, insurgent influence, and trafficking blockades are varied to represent different conditions that might encourage or discourage poppy agriculture. Our model shows that boundary-level interventions, such as targeted trafficking blockades at border locations, are critical in reducing the attractiveness of growing this illicit crop. The principle of least effort implies that interventions decrease to a minimal non-regressive point, leading to the prediction that increases in insurgency or other changes are likely to lead to worsening conditions,...

  18. Impacts of subsidy policies on vaccination decisions in contact networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Xu, Xiao-Ke; Small, Michael; Wang, Lin; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2013-07-01

    To motivate more people to participate in vaccination campaigns, various subsidy policies are often supplied by government and the health sectors. However, these external incentives may also alter the vaccination decisions of the broader public, and hence the choice of incentive needs to be carefully considered. Since human behavior and the networking-constrained interactions among individuals significantly impact the evolution of an epidemic, here we consider the voluntary vaccination on human contact networks. To this end, two categories of typical subsidy policies are considered: (1) under the free subsidy policy, the total amount of subsidy is distributed to a certain fraction of individual and who are vaccinated without personal cost, and (2) under the partial-offset subsidy policy, each vaccinated person is offset by a certain amount of subsidy. A vaccination decision model based on evolutionary game theory is established to study the effects of these different subsidy policies on disease control. Simulations suggest that, because the partial-offset subsidy policy encourages more people to take vaccination, its performance is significantly better than that of the free subsidy policy. However, an interesting phenomenon emerges in the partial-offset scenario: with limited amount of total subsidy, a moderate subsidy rate for each vaccinated individual can guarantee the group-optimal vaccination, leading to the maximal social benefits, while such an optimal phenomenon is not evident for the free subsidy scenario.

  19. Approximate Policy Iteration with a Policy Language Bias: Solving Relational Markov Decision Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Fern, A; Yoon, S; 10.1613/jair.1700

    2011-01-01

    We study an approach to policy selection for large relational Markov Decision Processes (MDPs). We consider a variant of approximate policy iteration (API) that replaces the usual value-function learning step with a learning step in policy space. This is advantageous in domains where good policies are easier to represent and learn than the corresponding value functions, which is often the case for the relational MDPs we are interested in. In order to apply API to such problems, we introduce a relational policy language and corresponding learner. In addition, we introduce a new bootstrapping routine for goal-based planning domains, based on random walks. Such bootstrapping is necessary for many large relational MDPs, where reward is extremely sparse, as API is ineffective in such domains when initialized with an uninformed policy. Our experiments show that the resulting system is able to find good policies for a number of classical planning domains and their stochastic variants by solving them as extremely lar...

  20. Making robust policy decisions using global biodiversity indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Nicholson

    Full Text Available In order to influence global policy effectively, conservation scientists need to be able to provide robust predictions of the impact of alternative policies on biodiversity and measure progress towards goals using reliable indicators. We present a framework for using biodiversity indicators predictively to inform policy choices at a global level. The approach is illustrated with two case studies in which we project forwards the impacts of feasible policies on trends in biodiversity and in relevant indicators. The policies are based on targets agreed at the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD meeting in Nagoya in October 2010. The first case study compares protected area policies for African mammals, assessed using the Red List Index; the second example uses the Living Planet Index to assess the impact of a complete halt, versus a reduction, in bottom trawling. In the protected areas example, we find that the indicator can aid in decision-making because it is able to differentiate between the impacts of the different policies. In the bottom trawling example, the indicator exhibits some counter-intuitive behaviour, due to over-representation of some taxonomic and functional groups in the indicator, and contrasting impacts of the policies on different groups caused by trophic interactions. Our results support the need for further research on how to use predictive models and indicators to credibly track trends and inform policy. To be useful and relevant, scientists must make testable predictions about the impact of global policy on biodiversity to ensure that targets such as those set at Nagoya catalyse effective and measurable change.

  1. Making robust policy decisions using global biodiversity indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Emily; Collen, Ben; Barausse, Alberto; Blanchard, Julia L; Costelloe, Brendan T; Sullivan, Kathryn M E; Underwood, Fiona M; Burn, Robert W; Fritz, Steffen; Jones, Julia P G; McRae, Louise; Possingham, Hugh P; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2012-01-01

    In order to influence global policy effectively, conservation scientists need to be able to provide robust predictions of the impact of alternative policies on biodiversity and measure progress towards goals using reliable indicators. We present a framework for using biodiversity indicators predictively to inform policy choices at a global level. The approach is illustrated with two case studies in which we project forwards the impacts of feasible policies on trends in biodiversity and in relevant indicators. The policies are based on targets agreed at the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) meeting in Nagoya in October 2010. The first case study compares protected area policies for African mammals, assessed using the Red List Index; the second example uses the Living Planet Index to assess the impact of a complete halt, versus a reduction, in bottom trawling. In the protected areas example, we find that the indicator can aid in decision-making because it is able to differentiate between the impacts of the different policies. In the bottom trawling example, the indicator exhibits some counter-intuitive behaviour, due to over-representation of some taxonomic and functional groups in the indicator, and contrasting impacts of the policies on different groups caused by trophic interactions. Our results support the need for further research on how to use predictive models and indicators to credibly track trends and inform policy. To be useful and relevant, scientists must make testable predictions about the impact of global policy on biodiversity to ensure that targets such as those set at Nagoya catalyse effective and measurable change.

  2. Are economic evaluations an important tool in vaccine policy decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Philip

    2011-10-01

    In the 1980s, drug prices began rising considerably worldwide, and in the 1990s, countries began incorporating health economics into the scientific review process. Rising prices in vaccines began around the year 2000 and national bodies began to use health economics to review vaccines in the next decade. Health economics is a discipline that evaluates alternative interventions, balancing costs and health outcomes. There are characteristics of infectious diseases that differ from other illnesses, most notably the herd effect. We reviewed the role of economics in conducting vaccine scientific reviews. We conclude that health economics can move some of the considerations in vaccine policy decision-making from the political to the scientific arena, but there are still many unresolved issues. Health economists will continue to address these issues in the coming years, but there will always be a need for a separate policy review.

  3. Why Are Cultural Policy Decisions Communicated in Cool Cash?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Trine; Grønholm, Adam; Møgelgaard, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we analyze the role of the economic rationale in modern cultural policy decision communication and ask why it remains such an important factor, even though research has argued against it. Based on Luhmann’s system theory, we show how the economic rationale manifests itself...... in the cultural political communication as parasitic and complementary couplings, and how different communication forms are in play: the indirect, direct, and the both-and form. The point is to construct communicative positions in cultural policy. The positions involve the economic rationale in their own...... particular way and each of them offers themselves as a communicative platform which the culture politician can optionally step into and out of. The arts system stands out from other systems by not distinguishing itself in one single distinction and coding. In exactly this issue lies the communicative...

  4. Rationality versus reality: the challenges of evidence-based decision making for health policy makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruning Nealia S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current healthcare systems have extended the evidence-based medicine (EBM approach to health policy and delivery decisions, such as access-to-care, healthcare funding and health program continuance, through attempts to integrate valid and reliable evidence into the decision making process. These policy decisions have major impacts on society and have high personal and financial costs associated with those decisions. Decision models such as these function under a shared assumption of rational choice and utility maximization in the decision-making process. Discussion We contend that health policy decision makers are generally unable to attain the basic goals of evidence-based decision making (EBDM and evidence-based policy making (EBPM because humans make decisions with their naturally limited, faulty, and biased decision-making processes. A cognitive information processing framework is presented to support this argument, and subtle cognitive processing mechanisms are introduced to support the focal thesis: health policy makers' decisions are influenced by the subjective manner in which they individually process decision-relevant information rather than on the objective merits of the evidence alone. As such, subsequent health policy decisions do not necessarily achieve the goals of evidence-based policy making, such as maximizing health outcomes for society based on valid and reliable research evidence. Summary In this era of increasing adoption of evidence-based healthcare models, the rational choice, utility maximizing assumptions in EBDM and EBPM, must be critically evaluated to ensure effective and high-quality health policy decisions. The cognitive information processing framework presented here will aid health policy decision makers by identifying how their decisions might be subtly influenced by non-rational factors. In this paper, we identify some of the biases and potential intervention points and provide some initial

  5. Clean Coal Technologies - Accelerating Commerical and Policy Drivers for Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Coal is and will remain the world's most abundant and widely distributed fossil fuel. Burning coal, however, can pollute and it produces carbon dioxide. Clean coal technologies address this problem. The widespread deployment of pollution-control equipment to reduce sulphur dioxide, Nox and dust emissions from industry is just one example which has brought cleaner air to many countries. Since the 1970s, various policy and regulatory measures have created a growing commercial market for these clean coal technologies, with the result that costs have fallen and performance has improved. More recently, the need to tackle rising CO2 emissions to address climate change means that clean coal technologies now extend to include those for CO2 capture and storage (CCS). This short report from the IEA Coal Industry Advisory Board (CIAB) presents industry's considered recommendations on how to accelerate the development and deployment of this important group of new technologies and to grasp their very signifi cant potential to reduce emissions from coal use. It identifies an urgent need to make progress with demonstration projects and prove the potential of CCS through government-industry partnerships. Its commercialisation depends upon a clear legal and regulatory framework,public acceptance and market-based financial incentives. For the latter, the CIAB favours cap-and-trade systems, price supports and mandatory feed-in tariffs, as well as inclusion of CCS in the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism to create demand in developing economies where coal use is growing most rapidly. This report offers a unique insight into the thinking of an industry that recognises both the threats and growing opportunities for coal in a carbon constrained world.

  6. Using decision pathway surveys to inform climate engineering policy choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Robin; Satterfield, Terre; Hasell, Ariel

    2016-01-01

    Over the coming decades citizens living in North America and Europe will be asked about a variety of new technological and behavioral initiatives intended to mitigate the worst impacts of climate change. A common approach to public input has been surveys whereby respondents’ attitudes about climate change are explained by individuals’ demographic background, values, and beliefs. In parallel, recent deliberative research seeks to more fully address the complex value tradeoffs linked to novel technologies and difficult ethical questions that characterize leading climate mitigation alternatives. New methods such as decision pathway surveys may offer important insights for policy makers by capturing much of the depth and reasoning of small-group deliberations while meeting standard survey goals including large-sample stakeholder engagement. Pathway surveys also can help participants to deepen their factual knowledge base and arrive at a more complete understanding of their own values as they apply to proposed policy alternatives. The pathway results indicate more fully the conditional and context-specific nature of support for several “upstream” climate interventions, including solar radiation management techniques and carbon dioxide removal technologies. PMID:26729883

  7. The impact of ECB monetary policy decisions and communication on the yield curve

    OpenAIRE

    Claus Brand; Daniel Buncic; Jarkko Turunen

    2006-01-01

    We analyse high-frequency changes in the euro area money market yield curve on dates when the ECB regularly sets and communicates decisions on policy interest rates to construct different indicators of monetary policy news relating to policy decisions and to central bank communication. The indicators show that ECB communication during the press conference may result in significant changes in market expectations of the path of monetary policy. Furthermore, our results suggest that these change...

  8. Does IFRIC 15 Matter? The Decision Usefulness of Accelerated Revenue and Earnings Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Lau Chee Kwong

    2013-01-01

    The newly issued IFRIC 15 Agreements for the Construction of Real Estate are likely to cause Malaysian property developers to change their revenue recognition policy from a stage-of-completion basis (accelerated) to a completion basis (conservative). In the US, consistent with the approach taken by the Financial Accounting standards Board (FASB), Altomuro, Beatty and Weber (2005) found that reported earnings based on accelerated revenue recognition are value relevant. The subsequent eliminati...

  9. Public Discourse in Energy Policy Decision-Making: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idaho Citizen; Eileen DeShazo; John Freemuth; Tina Giannini; Troy Hall; Ann Hunter; Jeffrey C. Joe; Michael Louis; Carole Nemnich; Jennie Newman; Steven J. Piet; Stephen Sorensen; Paulina Starkey; Kendelle Vogt; Patrick Wilson

    2010-08-01

    The ground is littered with projects that failed because of strong public opposition, including natural gas and coal power plants proposed in Idaho over the past several years. This joint project , of the Idaho National Laboratory, Boise State University, Idaho State University and University of Idaho has aimed to add to the tool box to reduce project risk through encouraging the public to engage in more critical thought and be more actively involved in public or social issues. Early in a project, project managers and decision-makers can talk with no one, pro and con stakeholder groups, or members of the public. Experience has shown that talking with no one outside of the project incurs high risk because opposition stakeholders have many means to stop most (if not all) energy projects. Talking with organized stakeholder groups provides some risk reduction from mutual learning, but organized groups tend not to change positions except under conditions of a negotiated settlement. Achieving a negotiated settlement may be impossible. Furthermore, opposition often arises outside pre-existing groups. Standard public polling provides some information but does not reveal underlying motivations, intensity of attitudes, etc. Improved methods are needed that probe deeper into stakeholder (organized groups and members of the public) values and beliefs/heuristics to increase the potential for change of opinions and/or out-of-box solutions. The term “heuristics” refers to the mental short-cuts, underlying beliefs, and paradigms that everyone uses to filter and interpret information, to interpret what is around us, and to guide our actions and decisions. This document is the final report of a 3-year effort to test different public discourse methods in the subject area of energy policy decision-making. We analyzed 504 mail-in surveys and 80 participants in groups on the Boise State University campus for their preference, financial support, and evaluations of eight attributes

  10. The Economics and Politics of Trade Policy: An Empirical Analysis of ITC Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Wendy L. Hansen; PRUSA, Thomas J.

    1996-01-01

    We study the determinants of trade policy decisions focusing specifically on antidumping and countervailing duty statutes administered by the International Trade Commission (ITC). Using detailed industry, import, and political pressure data we model ITC decision making, weighing the relative impact of economic and political factors in predicting policy outcomes. We find the ITC's decision making is significantly influenced by both economic and political factors. However, because an industry h...

  11. Supporting Policy and Program Decisions: Recommendations for Conducting High Quality Systematic Evidence Reviews. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    Policy and program decisions typically involve selecting one choice from among a set of options, and research about the effect of those options can help inform the decision process. However, for the research to be useful, decision makers need a way of drawing accurate lessons from what often can be a large assortment of relevant studies.…

  12. Confession and Carrying into Execution of Foreign Arbitration Courts' Decisions: Reciprocity and Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarina, Salima A.; Nukusheva, Aigul A.; Kalmagambetov, Kassym S.; Kumysbekova, Zhanara T.; Nesterova, Elena V.

    2016-01-01

    The article contains a comparative analysis of foreign arbitration courts' decisions, ensuring the reciprocity and public policy. The aim of the study is to explore such aspects as reciprocity and public policy of arbitration courts. The result is the view of the public policy, despite its apparent irrelevance in today's Kazakhstan, which is of…

  13. Optimal policy for value-based decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Satohiro; Drugowitsch, Jan; Pouget, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    For decades now, normative theories of perceptual decisions, and their implementation as drift diffusion models, have driven and significantly improved our understanding of human and animal behaviour and the underlying neural processes. While similar processes seem to govern value-based decisions, we still lack the theoretical understanding of why this ought to be the case. Here, we show that, similar to perceptual decisions, drift diffusion models implement the optimal strategy for value-based decisions. Such optimal decisions require the models' decision boundaries to collapse over time, and to depend on the a priori knowledge about reward contingencies. Diffusion models only implement the optimal strategy under specific task assumptions, and cease to be optimal once we start relaxing these assumptions, by, for example, using non-linear utility functions. Our findings thus provide the much-needed theory for value-based decisions, explain the apparent similarity to perceptual decisions, and predict conditions under which this similarity should break down. PMID:27535638

  14. Improving societal acceptance of rad waste management policy decisions: an approach based on complex intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In today's context elaborate public participation exercises are conducted around the world to elicit and incorporate societal risk perceptions into nuclear policy Decision-Making. However, on many occasions, such as in the case of rad waste management, the society remains unconvinced about these decisions. This naturally leads to the questions: are techniques for incorporating societal risk perceptions into the rad waste policy decision making processes sufficiently mature? How could societal risk perceptions and legal normative principles be better integrated in order to render the decisions more equitable and convincing to society? Based on guidance from socio-psychological research this paper postulates that a critical factor for gaining/improving societal acceptance is the quality and adequacy of criteria for option evaluation that are used in the policy decision making. After surveying three rad waste public participation cases, the paper identifies key lacunae in criteria abstraction processes as currently practiced. A new policy decision support model CIRDA: Complex Intelligent Risk Discourse Abstraction model that is based on the heuristic of Risk-Risk Analysis is proposed to overcome these lacunae. CIRDA's functionality of rad waste policy decision making is modelled as a policy decision-making Abstract Intelligent Agent and the agent program/abstraction mappings are presented. CIRDA is then applied to a live (U.K.) rad waste management case and the advantages of this method as compared to the Value Tree Method as practiced in the GB case are demonstrated. (author)

  15. The Aftermath of Accelerating Algebra: Evidence from District Policy Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clotfelter, Charles T.; Ladd, Helen F.; Vigdor, Jacob L.

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, the California State Board of Education voted to require all students to enroll in algebra by 8th grade. This policy initiative, yet to be actually implemented, represents the culmination of a decades-long movement toward offering algebra instruction before the traditional high school years. Nationally, the proportion of 8th grade…

  16. Systematic environmental monitoring model for decision in Public Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Cunha Cardoso Filho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Addresses the existing interdisciplinary between Information Science and public policies, and proposes to environmental monitoring tool as a relevant tool for improving the process of evaluating the effectiveness of these social policies and social programs, there included the legislative branch, through the collection, processing and provision of information allowing to identify the environmental changes and propose, consistently, the improvement of public policies that meet the demands of citizens.

  17. Integrating evidence on patient preferences in healthcare policy decisions: protocol of the patient-VIP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirksen, C.D.; Utens, C.M.; Joore, M.A.; Barneveld, T.A. van; Boer, B.; Dreesens, D.H.; Laarhoven, H. van; Smit, C.; Stiggelbout, A.M.; Weijden, T.T. van der

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite a strong movement towards active patient involvement in healthcare policy decisions, systematic and explicit consideration of evidence of this research on patient preferences seems limited. Furthermore, little is known about the opinions of several stakeholders towards considerat

  18. The effect of OPEC policy decisions on oil and stock prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents evidence of the effects of OPEC policy decisions on the US and UK stock markets, as well as on oil prices, during periods of conflict and non-conflict from 1986 to 2004. The outcomes of this study are potentially valuable in assessing future strategies for OPEC policy decisions on oil production targets for its Members. This paper also adds to the strong body of evidence supporting the hypothesis that market returns are influenced by factors that affect business conditions, such as oil price shocks. The key findings are that there are asymmetric reactions to OPEC policy decisions during conflict periods for the US and UK stock markets. During conflict periods, oil markets require time to incorporate OPEC decisions. Conversely, in non-conflict periods the evidence suggests that the oil markets incorporate OPEC decisions efficiently. (Author)

  19. Optimal subsidy policy for accelerating the diffusion of green products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongguang Peng

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We consider a dynamic duopoly market in which two firms respectively produce green products and conventional products. The two types of product can substitute each other in some degree. Their demand rates depend on not only prices but the consumers’ increasing environmental awareness. Too high initial cost relative to conventional products becomes one of the major obstacles that hinder the adoption of green products. The government employs subsidy policy to trigger the adoption of green products. The purpose of the paper is to explore the optimal subsidy strategy to fulfill the government’s objective. Design/methodology/approach: We suppose the players in the game employ open-loop strategies, which make sense since the government generally cannot alter his policy for political and economic purposes. We take a differential game approach and use backward induction to analyze the firms’ pricing strategy under Cournot competition, and then focus upon a Stackelberg equilibrium to find the optimal subsidy strategy of the government. Findings: The results show that the more remarkable the energy or environmental performance, or the bigger the initial cost of green products, the higher the subsidy level should be. Due to the increasing environmental awareness and the learning curve, the optimal subsidy level decreases over time. Research limitations/implications: In our model several simplifying assumptions are made to keep the analysis more tractable. In particular, we have assumed only one type of green product. In reality several types of product with different energy or environmental performances exist. Our research can be extended in future work to take into account product differentiation on energy or environmental performance and devise a discriminatory subsidy policy accordingly. Originality/value: In the paper we set the objective of the government as minimizing the total social cost induced by the energy consumption or

  20. Communication, Decision making, and the Optimal Degree of Transparency of Monetary Policy Committees

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Anke

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops a theoretical model of dynamic decision-making of a monetary policy committee with heterogeneous members. It investigates the optimal transparency, and the optimal way of transmitting information of committees, by analysing the effects different communication strategies have on financial markets. It is shown that the communication strategy of the central bank committee has a significant effect on the predictability of monetary policy decisions when there is asymmetric info...

  1. Assisting Sustainable Forest Management and Forest Policy Planning with the Sim4Tree Decision Support System

    OpenAIRE

    Floris Dalemans; Paul Jacxsens; Jos Van Orshoven; Vincent Kint; Pieter Moonen; Bart Muys

    2015-01-01

    As European forest policy increasingly focuses on multiple ecosystem services and participatory decision making, forest managers and policy planners have a need for integrated, user-friendly, broad spectrum decision support systems (DSS) that address risks and uncertainties, such as climate change, in a robust way and that provide credible advice in a transparent manner, enabling effective stakeholder involvement. The Sim4Tree DSS has been accordingly developed as a user-oriented, modular and...

  2. Committees versus individuals: an experimental analysis of monetary policy decision-making

    OpenAIRE

    Lombardelli, Clare; Proudman, James; Talbot, James

    2002-01-01

    The results of an experimental analysis of monetary policy decision-making under uncertainty are reported. A large sample of economically literate undergraduate and postgraduate students from the London School of Economics was used to play a simple monetary policy game, both as individuals and in committees of five players. The findings - that groups make better decisions than individuals - accord with previous work by Blinder and Morgan. An attempt was also made to establish why group decisi...

  3. Six policy actions for accelerated deployment of renewable energy. READy Renewable Energy Action on Deployment. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-03-15

    The READy book presents a kaleidoscope of policy options that have proven to accelerate the deployment of renewable energy technologies, based on experiences around the world at the local and national levels. Lessons learned from successful cases are distilled into six essential action points. Together these categories of policy actions compose the ACTION Star, a guide for taking action now while preparing for growth over the long term.

  4. Data-Based Decision Making at the Policy, Research, and Practice Levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schildkamp, Kim; Ebbeler, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Data-based decision making (DBDM) can lead to school improvement. However, schools struggle with the implementation of DBDM. In this symposium, we will discuss research and the implementation of DBDM at the national and regional policy level and the classroom level. We will discuss policy issues aro

  5. Controlling equine influenza: policy networks and decision-making during the 2007 Australian equine influenza outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemann, K; Gillespie, J A; Toribio, J-A L M L; Ward, M P; Dhand, N K

    2014-10-01

    Rapid, evidence-based decision-making is critical during a disease outbreak response; however, compliance by stakeholders is necessary to ensure that such decisions are effective - especially if the response depends on voluntary action. This mixed method study evaluated technical policy decision-making processes during the 2007 outbreak of equine influenza in Australia by identifying and analysing the stakeholder network involved and the factors driving policy decision-making. The study started with a review of the outbreak literature and published policy documents. This identified six policy issues regarding policy modifications or differing interpretations by different state agencies. Data on factors influencing the decision-making process for these six issues and on stakeholder interaction were collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 24 individuals representing 12 industry and government organizations. Quantitative data were analysed using social network analysis. Qualitative data were coded and patterns matched to test a pre-determined general theory using a method called theory-oriented process-tracing. Results revealed that technical policy decisions were framed by social, political, financial, strategic and operational considerations. Industry stakeholders had influence through formal pre-existing channels, yet specific gaps in stakeholder interaction were overcome by reactive alliances formed during the outbreak response but outside the established system. Overall, the crisis management system and response were seen as positive, and 75-100% of individuals interviewed were supportive of, had interest in and considered the outcome as good for the majority of policy decisions, yet only 46-75% of those interviewed considered that they had influence on these decisions. Training to increase awareness and knowledge of emergency animal diseases (EADs) and response systems will improve stakeholder

  6. Controlling equine influenza: policy networks and decision-making during the 2007 Australian equine influenza outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemann, K; Gillespie, J A; Toribio, J-A L M L; Ward, M P; Dhand, N K

    2014-10-01

    Rapid, evidence-based decision-making is critical during a disease outbreak response; however, compliance by stakeholders is necessary to ensure that such decisions are effective - especially if the response depends on voluntary action. This mixed method study evaluated technical policy decision-making processes during the 2007 outbreak of equine influenza in Australia by identifying and analysing the stakeholder network involved and the factors driving policy decision-making. The study started with a review of the outbreak literature and published policy documents. This identified six policy issues regarding policy modifications or differing interpretations by different state agencies. Data on factors influencing the decision-making process for these six issues and on stakeholder interaction were collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 24 individuals representing 12 industry and government organizations. Quantitative data were analysed using social network analysis. Qualitative data were coded and patterns matched to test a pre-determined general theory using a method called theory-oriented process-tracing. Results revealed that technical policy decisions were framed by social, political, financial, strategic and operational considerations. Industry stakeholders had influence through formal pre-existing channels, yet specific gaps in stakeholder interaction were overcome by reactive alliances formed during the outbreak response but outside the established system. Overall, the crisis management system and response were seen as positive, and 75-100% of individuals interviewed were supportive of, had interest in and considered the outcome as good for the majority of policy decisions, yet only 46-75% of those interviewed considered that they had influence on these decisions. Training to increase awareness and knowledge of emergency animal diseases (EADs) and response systems will improve stakeholder

  7. The Aftermath of Accelerating Algebra: Evidence from a District Policy Initiative. Working Paper 18161

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clotfelter, Charles T.; Ladd, Helen F.; Vigdor, Jacob L.

    2012-01-01

    In 2002/03, the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools in North Carolina initiated a broad program of accelerating entry into algebra coursework. The proportion of moderately-performing students taking algebra in 8th grade increased from half to 85%, then reverted to baseline levels, in the span of just five years. We use this policy-induced variation to…

  8. Interdependencies Between the Capital Market and the Monetary Policy Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Guni

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The declared scope of this work is to highlight the main correlations between the monetary and the capital market, including identifying the adequate objective of monetary policy which might positively influence over the offer on the capital market. The main target of the monetary market consists in the stability of the prices. The link between monetary policy and stock market is extremely important. The stock prices are sensible to economical conditions. Moreover, these prices rapidly change, thus there is a chance for a deviation from the fundamental value, with side-effects for economy.

  9. Essays on the Making and Implementation of Monetary Policy Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.K. Bierut

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAccording to the recent book by Professor Alan S. Blinder "The Quiet Revolution. Central Banking Goes Modern", published in 2004, "...one of the hallmarks of the quiet revolution in central banking practice has apparently been a movement toward making decisions by committee, whereas prev

  10. Framework for a spatial Decision Support Tool for policy and decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carsjens, G.J.; Chen, W.

    2008-01-01

    The main challenge of developing of a spatial DST (Decision Support Tool) to support the decision making on future livestock production will not be a technical one, but instead a challenge of meeting the con-text requirements of the tool, such as the characteristics of the country-specific spatial p

  11. The Role of the Media in Foreign Policy Decision-Making: A Theoretical Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanan Naveh

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper maintains that the media is involved in all stages of foreign policy formulation processes and that political leaders take the media into consideration in its national and international aspects. Moreover, the paper argues that this double-edged media environment is considered mainly in the publication, or media management stage. The involvement of the media in this decision-making process is complex. When an external, international event occurs, political leaders learn about it from the media. This information is processed through various image components and than the policy or decision-formulating process is set in motion. Media advisors and PR professionals participate in the process, officials consult with them and consider their advice. Finally, they take the media into account when they define their policy and match to it the appropriate media tools. Past studies of foreign policy decision-making neglected to deal with this complex role of the media. They described the media (if at all as one of the channels of informing leaders of international events, as input for the decision-making process. Actual reality demonstrates that this perspective minimizes the place of the media and therefore it should be dealt theoretically as well as in applied research case studies using a more complex approach emphasizing the crucial role of the media in foreign policy. The paper develops and presents a framework for the analysis of foreign policy decision-making which tries to compensate for some of the flaws of existing models in the field, incorporating the complex processes of media input into decision-making, as well as reflecting the role of the press and TV in the formulation stage of policy-making.

  12. Decentralization and environmentally sound decision making: Policy implications

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Cardona Castillo

    2007-01-01

    Among the major political and economic trends that have been evolving in Latin America in recent years, the emergence of municipal governments as frontline actors stands out. Central American countries have begun to grant local governments greater rights and responsibilities regarding natural resource management. In Guatemala, one of the major pieces of legislation to achieve important rural development goals, as claimed by the government, is the Law of Decentralization. As more decision maki...

  13. Factors Contributing To Employee Decisions To Ignore Diversity Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L. Figiel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Diversity is examined beyond the traditional definitions in the context of employers and the changing workforce. Realization by employers of non-compliance with diversity policies is revealed, as well as an exploration of reasons why perceptions and lingering stereotypes exist. Solutions for training the workforce on successfully embracing differences are explored to provide employers with the tools to commit to their missions and cultural goals for a diverse workplace.

  14. Agency Conflict and Corporate Dividend Policy Decisions in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    NWIDOBIE BARINE MICHAEL

    2013-01-01

    Differences in management and shareholders priorities have been recognized and accepted to exist creating problems in the agency to which financial theorists opined that dividend payments is the best means of resolving the conflict. Results obtained using the multiple regression equation model to identify dividend policy determinants of quoted firms in Nigeria showed that solutions to agency problems past dissatisfactory behaviors of shareholders (complaints of shareholders) is not a determin...

  15. Supply chain decision making supported by an Open books policy

    OpenAIRE

    Agndal, Henrik; Nilsson, Ulf

    2008-01-01

    Based on a study of a buyer–seller relationship in the automotive industry, this article identifies 17 different decision-making processes where openly sharing cost data—a so-called open books policy—plays an important supporting role. These processes relate to supplier selection, various activities that occur prior to production, and the full-speed production stage of the exchange process. Overall, open books plays the greatest role in the pre-production stage, although it is found to suppor...

  16. Green electricity policy in the Netherlands. An analysis of policy decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last decades, fundamental changes in both market conditions and the national and international policy framework in the Netherlands can be observed. The Dutch Government has intervened in markets regularly, demonstrating fundamental shifts in policy and approach. This study aims to analyse the developments in renewable energy policy making in the Netherlands. It assesses changes in the choice of policy instruments and target groups, the role of stakeholders and offers explanations behind policy successes and failures. The following conclusions can be drawn on the policy choices: First, the objectives and targets of Dutch renewable energy policy were frequently ambiguous. Although the government emphasised the importance of investments in local capacity, imports were always (implicitly) seen as an alternative option in meeting targets. Second, for a long period the government focused on reducing investment costs and dismantling administrative barriers. Only recently has the lack of a stable investment climate been identified as a potential barrier. Third, although many stakeholders have advocated a mandatory approach, Dutch policies stimulating renewable energy have always been voluntary. Finally, the Ministry of Economic Affairs has always played a very dominant role in renewable energy policy formulation and implementation, which may explain the fact that some unfavourable market reactions to policies have not been foreseen. (author)

  17. Assessing Patient Participation in Health Policy Decision-Making in Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos Souliotis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the importance of patient participation in the design and evaluation of health programs and services is well-documented, there is scarcity of research with regard to patient association (PA participation in health policy decision-making processes. To this end, the present study aimed to validate further a previously developed instrument as well as to investigate the degree of PA participation in health policy decision-making in Cyprus. A convenient sample of 114 patients-members of patients associations took part in the study. Participants were recruited from an umbrella organization, the Pancyprian Federation of Patient Associations and Friends (PFPA. PA participation in health policy decision-making was assessed with the Health Democracy Index (HDI, an original 8-item tool. To explore its psychometric properties, Cronbach α was computed as regards to its internal consistency, while its convergent validity was tested against a self-rated question enquiring about the degree of PA participation in health policy decision-making. The findings revealed that the HDI has good internal consistency and convergent validity. Furthermore, PAs were found to participate more in consultations in health-related organizations and the Ministry of Health (MoH as well as in reforms or crucial decisions in health policy. Lower levels were documented with regard to participation in hospital boards, ethics committees in clinical trials and health technology assessment (HTA procedures. Overall, PA participation levels were found to be lower than the mid-point of the scale. Targeted interventions aiming to facilitate patients’ involvement in health policy decision-making processes and to increase its impact are greatly needed in Cyprus.

  18. Assessing Patient Participation in Health Policy Decision-Making in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souliotis, Kyriakos; Agapidaki, Eirini; Peppou, Lily Evangelia; Tzavara, Chara; Samoutis, George; Theodorou, Mamas

    2016-01-01

    Although the importance of patient participation in the design and evaluation of health programs and services is well-documented, there is scarcity of research with regard to patient association (PA) participation in health policy decision-making processes. To this end, the present study aimed to validate further a previously developed instrument as well as to investigate the degree of PA participation in health policy decision-making in Cyprus. A convenient sample of 114 patients-members of patients associations took part in the study. Participants were recruited from an umbrella organization, the Pancyprian Federation of Patient Associations and Friends (PFPA). PA participation in health policy decision-making was assessed with the Health Democracy Index (HDI), an original 8-item tool. To explore its psychometric properties, Cronbach α was computed as regards to its internal consistency, while its convergent validity was tested against a self-rated question enquiring about the degree of PA participation in health policy decision-making. The findings revealed that the HDI has good internal consistency and convergent validity. Furthermore, PAs were found to participate more in consultations in health-related organizations and the Ministry of Health (MoH) as well as in reforms or crucial decisions in health policy. Lower levels were documented with regard to participation in hospital boards, ethics committees in clinical trials and health technology assessment (HTA) procedures. Overall, PA participation levels were found to be lower than the mid-point of the scale. Targeted interventions aiming to facilitate patients’ involvement in health policy decision-making processes and to increase its impact are greatly needed in Cyprus.

  19. Economics of climate policy and collective decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explores the reasons why economic instruments of climate change are reluctantly applied and stresses the need for interdisciplinary research linking economic theory and empirical testing to deliberative political procedures. It is divided in three parts. The first one recalls the main issues in implementing Cost-Benefit Analysis such as information problems, uncertainties, discounting the future and irreversibilities. The second part shows how these issues can be treated in integrated assessment and techno-economic models and presents a case study, which shows that (1) The chosen scenario tends to stabilize atmospheric CO2 concentration at around 550 ppm in the long run; (2) Exclusion of possibility to trade CO2 emission permits under a cap regime would increase the cost of emission abatement for OECD countries; and (3) Combining different flexibility instruments might lead to significant gains in the overall cost of climate policy. The third part presents results of a survey conducted among the main economic and environmental associations in Switzerland. The survey reveals conflicting views on economic instruments. It shows how the social acceptability of these instruments can be improved in taking explicitly into account these opposing views of special interest groups. Therefore, policy scenarios should be selected in combining techno-economic models with empirical studies about their political and normative context

  20. Using intraday data to gauge financial market responses to Fed and ECB monetary policy decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Magnus

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines bond and stock market volatility reactions in the euro area and the US following their respective economies’ monetary policy decisions, over a uniform sample period (April 1999 to May 2006). For this purpose, intraday data on the US and euro area bond and stock markets are used. A strong upsurge in intraday volatility at the time of the release of the monetary policy decisions by the two central banks is found, which is more pronounced for the US financial markets followin...

  1. Water pricing policies, public decision making and farmers' response: implications for water policy

    OpenAIRE

    Varela-Ortega, Consuelo; Sumpsi, Jose M.; Garrido, Alberto; Blanco, Maria; Iglesias, Eva

    1998-01-01

    The problems caused by water scarcity demand important changes in the criteria and objectives of water policies. The agricultural sector in Spain consumes up to 80% of all available hydric resources and the need to increase the efficiency of current uses of water in the agricultural sector is at the core of the country's national water policy. One alternative would be to resort to water pricing policies with the aim of providing incentives to save water consumption although it would inflict a...

  2. [Influenza A from the rational choice theory: proposals for decision making in prevention policies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Francisco Garrido; Fernández, Luís Andrés López; García, Eugenia Gil

    2009-01-01

    This article is a reflection on the social uncertainty caused by Influenza A and on the consequences that it can have on decision making in health promotion policies. We use concepts and metaphors of the Rational Choice Theory, among them, the "in gratitude effect" or the "distrust effect", as we analyse how these can become obstacles for the efficiency of prevention policies. Then, we focus on the information asymmetry of the principal-agent relationship, and we propose measures to diminish the "moral risk" that they cause. We finish by advancing some proposals for designing lines and strategies of action in health promotion policies.

  3. Merging Energy Policy Decision Support, Education, and Communication: The 'World Energy' Simulation Role-Playing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney-varga, J. N.; Franck, T.; Jones, A.; Sterman, J.; Sawin, E.

    2013-12-01

    To meet international goals for climate change mitigation and adaptation, as well as energy access and equity, there is an urgent need to explore and define energy policy paths forward. Despite this need, students, citizens, and decision-makers often hold deeply flawed mental models of the energy and climate systems. Here we describe a simulation role-playing game, World Energy, that provides an immersive learning experience in which participants can create their own path forward for global energy policy and learn about the impact of their policy choices on carbon dioxide emissions, temperature rise, energy supply mix, energy prices, and energy demand. The game puts players in the decision-making roles of advisors to the United Nations Sustainable Energy for All Initiative (drawn from international leaders from industry, governments, intergovernmental organizations, and citizens groups) and, using a state-of-the-art decision-support simulator, asks them to negotiate a plan for global energy policy. We use the En-ROADS (Energy Rapid Overview and Decision Support) simulator, which runs on a laptop computer in <0.1 sec. En-ROADS enables users to specify many factors, including R&D-driven cost reductions in fossil fuel-based, renewable, or carbon-neutral energy technologies; taxes and subsidies for different energy sources; performance standards and energy efficiency; emissions prices; policies to address other greenhouse gas emissions (e.g., methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons, etc.); and assumptions about GDP and population. In World Energy, participants must balance climate change mitigation goals with equity, prices and access to energy, and the political feasibility of policies. Initial results indicate participants gain insights into the dynamics of the energy and climate systems and greater understanding of the potential impacts policies.

  4. Committee Structure and its Implications for Monetary Policy Decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Berk (Jan Marc); B.K. Bierut

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe investigate the implications for the setting of interest rates when monetary policy decisions are taken by a committee, in which a subset of members may meet prior to the voting in the committee and therefore has the possibility to reach consensus ex ante to vote unanimously ex post.

  5. Accountability Policies and Teacher Decision Making: Barriers to the Use of Data to Improve Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Debra; Louis, Karen Seashore; Schroeder, Roger G.

    2004-01-01

    One assumption underlying accountability policies is that results from standardized tests and other sources will be used to make decisions about school and classroom practice. We explore this assumption using data from a longitudinal study of nine high schools nominated as leading practitioners of Continuous Improvement (CI) practices. We use the…

  6. Public Marketing: An Alternative Policy Decision-Making Idea for Small Cities. Community Development Research Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, James; And Others

    The concept of public marketing presents a strategy for the systems approach to community development that would facilitate the community decision making process via improved communication. Basic aspects of the social marketing process include: (1) product policy; (2) channels of distribution; (3) pricing (perceived price vs quality and quantity…

  7. Moving towards tangible decision-making tools for policy makers: Measuring and monitoring energy access provision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Access to energy services has been recognised as central to achieving economic growth and sustainable development. However, almost 1.3 billion people in the world still lack access to electricity and 2.7 billion lack access to clean cooking facilities. In this backdrop, the issue of energy access is receiving more interest than ever before and this has brought to the fore, the need for a robust decision support tool for policy makers to measure the progress of energy access provision and also to provide direction for future policy making. The paper studies existing definitions of energy access and identifies the key requirements for an appropriate decision-making tool to measure and monitor energy access provision. In this context the paper assesses the strengths and weaknesses of the metrics currently being used to measure energy access in policy, as well as of contemporary monitoring and evaluation frameworks being used in other sectors. Based on these insights, a dashboard of indicators is proposed as an alternate decision support tool for policy makers to measure energy access. The paper concludes with a discussion on what is needed to operationalise this proposed framework. - Highlights: ► No one indicator or metric can successfully capture progress on energy access. ► A service oriented approach is necessary to measure energy access. ► Socio-economic and political contexts influence success of energy access policies.

  8. Decision-making of biomass ethanol fuel policy based on life cycle 3E assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LENG Ru-bo; DAI Du; CHEN Xiao-jun; WANG Cheng-tao

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the environmental, economic, energy performance of biomass ethanol fuel in China and tosupport the decision-making of biomass ethanol energy policy, an assessment method of life cycle 3E (economy, en vironment, energy) was applied to the three biomass ethanol fuel cycle alternatives, which includes cassava-based, corn-based and wheat-based ethanol fuel. The assessments provide a comparison of the economical performance, energy efficiency and environmental impacts of the three alternatives. And the development potential of the three alternatives in China was examined. The results are very useful for the Chinese government to make decisions on the biomass ethanol energy policy, and some advises for the decision-making of Chinese government were given.

  9. How Qualitative Research Informs Clinical and Policy Decision Making in Transplantation: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Allison; Morton, Rachael L; Webster, Angela C

    2016-09-01

    Patient-centered care is no longer just a buzzword. It is now widely touted as a cornerstone in delivering quality care across all fields of medicine. However, patient-centered strategies and interventions necessitate evidence about patients' decision-making processes, values, priorities, and needs. Qualitative research is particularly well suited to understanding the experience and perspective of patients, donors, clinicians, and policy makers on a wide range of transplantation-related topics including organ donation and allocation, adherence to prescribed therapy, pretransplant and posttransplant care, implementation of clinical guidelines, and doctor-patient communication. In transplantation, evidence derived from qualitative research has been integrated into strategies for shared decision-making, patient educational resources, process evaluations of trials, clinical guidelines, and policies. The aim of this article is to outline key concepts and methods used in qualitative research, guide the appraisal of qualitative studies, and assist clinicians to understand how qualitative research may inform their practice and policy.

  10. How Qualitative Research Informs Clinical and Policy Decision Making in Transplantation: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Allison; Morton, Rachael L; Webster, Angela C

    2016-09-01

    Patient-centered care is no longer just a buzzword. It is now widely touted as a cornerstone in delivering quality care across all fields of medicine. However, patient-centered strategies and interventions necessitate evidence about patients' decision-making processes, values, priorities, and needs. Qualitative research is particularly well suited to understanding the experience and perspective of patients, donors, clinicians, and policy makers on a wide range of transplantation-related topics including organ donation and allocation, adherence to prescribed therapy, pretransplant and posttransplant care, implementation of clinical guidelines, and doctor-patient communication. In transplantation, evidence derived from qualitative research has been integrated into strategies for shared decision-making, patient educational resources, process evaluations of trials, clinical guidelines, and policies. The aim of this article is to outline key concepts and methods used in qualitative research, guide the appraisal of qualitative studies, and assist clinicians to understand how qualitative research may inform their practice and policy. PMID:27479165

  11. Modeling decision making as a support tool for policy making on renewable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the findings of a study on decision making models for the analysis of capital-risk investors’ preferences on biomass power plants projects. The aim of the work is to improve the support tools for policy makers in the field of renewable energy development. Analytic Network Process (ANP) helps to better understand capital-risk investors preferences towards different kinds of biomass fueled power plants. The results of the research allow public administration to better foresee the investors’ reaction to the incentive system, or to modify the incentive system to better drive investors’ decisions. Changing the incentive system is seen as major risk by investors. Therefore, public administration must design better and longer-term incentive systems, forecasting market reactions. For that, two scenarios have been designed, one showing a typical decision making process and another proposing an improved decision making scenario. A case study conducted in Italy has revealed that ANP allows understanding how capital-risk investors interpret the situation and make decisions when investing on biomass power plants; the differences between the interests of public administrations’s and promoters’, how decision making could be influenced by adding new decision criteria, and which case would be ranked best according to the decision models. - Highlights: • We applied ANP to the investors’ preferences on biomass power plants projects. • The aim is to improve the advising tools for renewable energy policy making. • A case study has been carried out with the help of two experts. • We designed two scenarios: decision making as it is and how could it be improved. • Results prove ANP is a fruitful tool enhancing participation and transparency

  12. Voices of decision makers on evidence-based policy: A case of evolving TB/HIV co-infection policy in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K Srikanth; Sahay, Seema

    2016-01-01

    This study explores decision makers' perspectives on evidence-based policy (EBP) development using the case of TB/HIV co-infection in India. Twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with purposively selected key national and international policy decision makers in India. Verbatim transcripts were processed and analysed thematically using QSR (NUD*IST 6). The decision makers were unequivocal in recognizing the TB/HIV co-infection as an important public health issue in India and stated the problem to be different than Africa. The need of having a "third programme" for co-infection was not felt. According to them, the public health management of this co-infection must be within the realm of these two programmes. The study also emphasized on decision makers' perspectives on evidence and the process of utilization of evidence for decision-making for co-infection. Study findings showed global evidence was not always accepted by the decision makers and study shows several examples of decision makers demanding local evidence for policy decisions. Decision makers did make interim policies based on global evidence but most of the time their mandate was to get local evidence. Thus, operations research/implementation science especially multi-centric studies emerge as important strategy for EBP development. Researcher-policy maker interface was a gap where role of researcher as aggressive communicator of research findings was expected.

  13. Applying multi-criteria decision-making to improve the waste reduction policy in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jun-Pin; Hung, Ming-Lung; Chao, Chia-Wei; Ma, Hwong-wen

    2010-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the waste reduction problem has been a major issue in environmental protection. Both recycling and waste reduction policies have become increasingly important. As the complexity of decision-making has increased, it has become evident that more factors must be considered in the development and implementation of policies aimed at resource recycling and waste reduction. There are many studies focused on waste management excluding waste reduction. This study paid more attention to waste reduction. Social, economic, and management aspects of waste treatment policies were considered in this study. Further, a life-cycle assessment model was applied as an evaluation system for the environmental aspect. Results of both quantitative and qualitative analyses on the social, economic, and management aspects were integrated via the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method into the comprehensive decision-making support system of multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM). A case study evaluating the waste reduction policy in Taoyuan County is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of this model. In the case study, reinforcement of MSW sorting was shown to be the best practice. The model in this study can be applied to other cities faced with the waste reduction problems.

  14. Policy, practice and decision making for zoonotic disease management: water and Cryptosporidium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Zoë; Alcock, Ruth E; Christley, Robert M; Haygarth, Philip M; Heathwaite, A Louise; Latham, Sophia M; Mort, Maggie; Oliver, David M; Pickup, Roger; Wastling, Jonathan M; Wynne, Brian

    2012-04-01

    Decision making for zoonotic disease management should be based on many forms of appropriate data and sources of evidence. However, the criteria and timing for policy response and the resulting management decisions are often altered when a disease outbreak occurs and captures full media attention. In the case of waterborne disease, such as the robust protozoa, Cryptosporidium spp, exposure can cause significant human health risks and preventing exposure by maintaining high standards of biological and chemical water quality remains a priority for water companies in the UK. Little has been documented on how knowledge and information is translated between the many stakeholders involved in the management of Cryptosporidium, which is surprising given the different drivers that have shaped management decisions. Such information, coupled with the uncertainties that surround these data is essential for improving future management strategies that minimise disease outbreaks. Here, we examine the interplay between scientific information, the media, and emergent government and company policies to examine these issues using qualitative and quantitative data relating to Cryptosporidium management decisions by a water company in the North West of England. Our results show that political and media influences are powerful drivers of management decisions if fuelled by high profile outbreaks. Furthermore, the strength of the scientific evidence is often constrained by uncertainties in the data, and in the way knowledge is translated between policy levels during established risk management procedures. In particular, under or over-estimating risk during risk assessment procedures together with uncertainty regarding risk factors within the wider environment, was found to restrict the knowledge-base for decision-making in Cryptosporidium management. Our findings highlight some key current and future challenges facing the management of such diseases that are widely applicable to other

  15. Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention claims equipment for stabilizing the position of the front covers of the accelerator chamber in cyclic accelerators which significantly increases accelerator reliability. For stabilizing, it uses hydraulic cushions placed between the electromagnet pole pieces and the front chamber covers. The top and the bottom cushions are hydraulically connected. The cushions are disconnected and removed from the hydraulic line using valves. (J.P.)

  16. Objective criteria ranking framework for renewable energy policy decisions in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    K, Nwofor O.; N, Dike V.

    2016-08-01

    We present a framework that seeks to improve the objectivity of renewable energy policy decisions in Nigeria. It consists of expert ranking of resource abundance, resource efficiency and resource environmental comfort in the choice of renewable energy options for large scale power generation. The rankings are converted to a more objective function called Resource Appraisal Function (RAF) using dependence operators derived from logical relationships amongst the various criteria. The preferred option is that with the highest average RAF coupled with the least RAF variance. The method can be extended to more options, more criteria, and more opinions and can be adapted for similar decisions in education, environment and health sectors.

  17. Incorporation of environmental and health impacts into policy, planning and decision making for the electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the report of an international expert group on ways to incorporate considerations of environmental and health impacts into policy, planning and decision making in the electricity sector. The problems addressed are very complex, and a comprehensive approach is needed. Both economic efficiency and the efficient use of resources are of key importance. The report does not attempt to present solutions to the problems, but seeks instead to describe a series of options and a mechanism for making trade-offs between them so that different countries and different decision-making bodies can be guided to make choices in a rational way

  18. Exploring the quality of evidence for complex and contested policy decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluijs, Jeroen P van der [Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands); Petersen, Arthur C; Janssen, Peter H M [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Risbey, James S [Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, Hobart (Australia); Ravetz, Jerome R [James Martin Institute for Science and Civilization, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom)], E-mail: j.p.vandersluijs@uu.nl

    2008-04-15

    Policy decisions on complex environmental risks often involve contested science. Typically there are no 'facts' that entail a unique correct policy. The evidence that is embodied in scientific policy advice requires quality assessment. Advice should be relevant to the policy issue, scientifically tenable and robust under societal scrutiny. In 2003, the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency adopted a standardized method, referred to as 'guidance', whereby key quality aspects of knowledge production and use are exhibited through a checklist for uncertainty assessment and communication. Although the guidance is not fully used within all projects yet, it is increasingly used, attitudes towards dealing with uncertainty in performing and reporting environmental assessments have changed, and communication on uncertainty in the agency's reports has improved over the past five years. In this letter, we present results from the application of the guidance to controversies on the risks of ambient particulate matter. The active deliberation on uncertainty in the policy-advisory setting brings about a joint learning process for advisors and policy makers, which leads to a deeper understanding and increased awareness of the phenomenon of uncertainty and its policy implications.

  19. Split decisions: Family finance when a policy discontinuity allocates overseas work

    OpenAIRE

    Clemens, Michael A.; Tiongson, Erwin R.

    2012-01-01

    Labor markets are increasingly global. Overseas work can enrich households but also split them geographically, with ambiguous net effects on decisions about work, investment, and education. These net effects, and their mechanisms, are poorly understood. This study investigates a policy discontinuity in the Philippines that resulted in quasi-random assignment of temporary, partial-household migration to high-wage jobs in Korea. This allows unusually reliable measurement of the reduced-form eff...

  20. The Research on the Decision-making Mechanism of China's Monetary Policy Regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Ju'e

    2002-01-01

    The article adopts the quarterly data of the monetary and macroeconomics variables from 1978 ~ 1999, applies the asymmetrical information game analysis, the regression and cointegration errorcorrection model, to investigate on the decision-making mechanism of money supply and money regulation project. It suggests the regulation process which central bank controls with instruments of the monetary policy and the mode detail of its operation.

  1. Linguistic Diversity and Its Impact on Economic Policies and Political Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, S.; Gabszewicz, J.; Ginsburgh, V.; Savvateev, A.; Filatov, A.

    2009-01-01

    The paper addresses the issue of linguistic diversity and its impact on economic policy and political decisions. Importance of the topic is illustrated by examination of optimal sets of official languages in the European Union. It is shown that alternative estimation methods of language disenfranchisement alter the order in which the languages enter the list of the official ones. Also, we present an overview of gametheoretic models of language acquisition, where individuals weigh costs and be...

  2. Beyond Radicalism and Resignation: The Competing Logics for Public Participation in Policy Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Rikki Dean

    2014-01-01

    From the World Bank to the Occupy Movement, support for greater citizen participation in social policy decisions has become ubiquitous. This paper argues that existing typologies of participation are problematic in that they do not recognise the plurality of competing participatory logics that explain this rise in support for participation from groups with such divergent world views. Participatory practice is constructed in multiple ways, and each construction can only be understood with refe...

  3. Accelerating Progress in Eating Disorders Prevention: A Call for Policy Translation Research and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, S Bryn

    2016-01-01

    The public health burden of eating disorders is well documented, and over the past several decades, researchers have made important advances in the prevention of eating disorders and related problems with body image. Despite these advances, however, several critical limitations to the approaches developed to date leave the field far from achieving the large-scale impact that is needed. This commentary provides a brief review of what achievements in prevention have been made and identifies the gaps that limit the potential for greater impact on population health. A plan is then offered with specific action steps to accelerate progress in high-impact prevention, most compellingly by promoting a shift in priorities to policy translation research and training for scholars through the adoption of a triggers-to-action framework. Finally, the commentary provides an example of the application of the triggers-to-action framework as practiced at the Strategic Training Initiative for the Prevention of Eating Disorders, a program based at the Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health and Boston Children's Hospital. Much has been achieved in the nearly 30 years of research carried out for the prevention of eating disorders and body image problems, but several critical limitations undermine the field's potential for meaningful impact. Through a shift in the field's priorities to policy translation research and training with an emphasis on macro-environmental influences, the pace of progress in prevention can be accelerated and the potential for large-scale impact substantially improved. PMID:25880718

  4. Addressing preference heterogeneity in public health policy by combining Cluster Analysis and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Turner, Robin; Cunich, Michelle;

    2015-01-01

    of the population in relation to the importance assigned to relevant criteria. It involves combining Cluster Analysis (CA), to generate the subgroup sets of preferences, with Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA), to provide the policy framework into which the clustered preferences are entered. We employ three...... preferences as valid determinants of public policy, a transparent analytical procedure is needed. In this proof of method study we show how public preferences could be incorporated into policy decisions in a way that respects both the multi-criterial nature of those decisions, and the heterogeneity...

  5. Management challenges at the intersection of public policy environments and strategic decision making in public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longest, Beaufort B

    2012-01-01

    Hospitals in the United States are heavily impacted by public policies that affect them. For example, Medicare and Medicaid programs account for more than half the revenue in most of the nation's almost 5,000 community hospitals, including the almost 1,100 public hospitals controlled by state and local governments (American Hospital Association, 2012). The public hospitals are especially closely aligned with and controlled by governmental entities compared with hospitals with other kinds of sponsorship. This article addresses the management challenges at the intersection of the strategic management of public hospitals and their public policy environments. Public hospitals are complicated entities designed not only to provide health services but also in many cases to play key roles in health-related research and education and to play important general economic development roles in their communities. The multi-faceted strategic decision making in these organizations is as heavily affected by their public policy environments as by their business, demographic, technological or other external environments. Effectively managing the intersection of their public policy environments and their strategic management is indeed vital for contemporary public hospitals. This article is intended to clarify certain aspects of this intersection through a description and model of the strategic activity in public hospitals and the connection between this activity and their external environments. Specific attention is focused on the concept of public policy environments and their features. Attention is also given to how managers can assess public policy environments and incorporate the results into strategic activities.

  6. Use of risk assessment and life cycle assessment in decision making: a common policy research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Sarah J; Fairman, Robyn; Lofstedt, Ragnar E

    2002-10-01

    Quantitative risk assessment (RA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) are both analytical tools used to support decision making in environmental management. They have been developed and used by largely separate groups of specialists, and it is worth considering whether there is a common research agenda that may increase the relevance of these tools in decision-making processes. The validity of drawing comparisons between use of the tools is established through examining key aspects of the two approaches for their similarities and differences, including the nature of each approach and contextual and methodological aspects. Six case studies involving use of each approach in public decision making are described and used to draw out concerns about using RA and LCA in this context. The following categories of concern can be distinguished: philosophical approach of the tools; quantitative versus qualitative assessment; stakeholder participation; the nature of the results; and the usefulness of the results in relation to time and financial resource requirements. These can be distilled into a common policy research agenda focusing on: the legitimacy of using tools built on a particular perspective in decision making; recognition and role of value judgments in RA and LCA; treatment of uncertainty and variability; the influence of analytical tools in focusing attention on particular aspects of a decision-making situation; and understandability of the results for nonspecialists. It is concluded that it is time to bring together the experiences of RA and LCA specialists and benefit from cross-fertilization of ideas. PMID:12442986

  7. The effect of straight-line and accelerated depreciation rules on risky investment decisions: An experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Ackermann, Hagen; Fochmann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze how depreciation rules influence the decision behavior of investors. For this purpose, we conduct a laboratory experiment in which participants decide on the composition of an asset portfolio in different choice situations. Using an experimental environment with different payment periods, we show that accelerated compared to straight-line depreciation can increase the willingness to invest as hypothesized by theory. Additionally, we are able to replicate th...

  8. A hierarchical decision aid in a debate on national energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide public depate on the future energy policy of Finland has been going on for the past few years, and at the moment the discussion is centered around the question whether a new nuclear power plant should be built or not. To clarify the differences between anti-nuclear and pro-nuclear opinions, a decision analysis of the issue was conducted with a microcomputer-based decision aid which utilizes the Analytic Hierarchy Process. The participants representing the opposite opinions were the Minister of Finance and a chief industrial executive. This paper presents the preference profiles of the participants and sensitivity analyses of the results, and discusses the implications of the results for the depate. Essential sources of opinion differences are pointed out and a deeper understanding of the issue is gained. This enables focusing the depate on the critical questions and elimination of less important criteria, which otherwise might receive disproportonate attention

  9. The power of science economic research and European decision-making : the case of energy and environment policies

    CERN Document Server

    Rossetti di Valdalbero, Domenico

    2010-01-01

    This book highlights the interaction between science and politics and between research in economics and European Union policy-making. It focuses on the use of Quantitative tools, Top-down and Bottom-up models in up-stream European decision-making process through five EU policy case studies: energy taxation, climate change, energy efficiency, renewable energy, and internalisation of external costs.

  10. “Triumphalism” and Decision Making in China’s Asia Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YINHONG; SHI

    2013-01-01

    The recent years have seen the fading influence of China and the increasing role of the United States in East Asia.This situation is partly attributed to problems in China’s foreign policy orientation,diplomatic behaviors,and policy-making mechanism.In its relations with the East Asian neighbors,China has exhibited a kind of"triumphalism."The complex causes of this triumphalism include the conception of"G2 the Chinese version,"China’s rising popular nationalism,the less-regulated mass media and the coordination failure within the bureaucracy.Nevertheless,the Chinese top leaders have the final say and their role is always decisive.

  11. An Integrated Assessment of Water Scarcity Effects on Energy and Land Use Decisions and Mitigation Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, M. I.; Kim, S. H.; Liu, L.; Liu, Y.; Calvin, K. V.; Leon, C.; Edmonds, J.; Kyle, P.; Patel, P.; Wise, M. A.; Davies, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    Water is essential for the world's food supply, for energy production, including bioenergy and hydroelectric power, and for power system cooling. Water is already scarce in many regions and could present a critical constraint as society attempts simultaneously to mitigate climate forcing and adapt to climate change, and to provide food for an increasing population. We use the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), where interactions between population, economic growth, energy, land and water resources interact simultaneously in a dynamically evolving system, to investigate how water scarcity affects energy and land use decisions as well as mitigation policies. In GCAM, competing claims on water resources from all claimants—energy, land, and economy—are reconciled with water resource availability—from renewable water, non-renewable groundwater sources and desalinated water—across 235 major river basins. Limits to hydrologic systems have significant effects on energy and land use induced emissions via constraints on decisions of their use. We explore these effects and how they evolve under climate change mitigation policies, which can significantly alter land use patterns, both by limiting land use change emissions and by increasing bioenergy production. The study also explores the mitigation scenarios in the context of the shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs). We find that previous estimates of global water withdrawal projections are overestimated, as our simulations show that it is more economical in some basins to alter agricultural and energy activities rather than utilize non-renewable groundwater or desalinated water. This study highlights the fact that water is a binding factor in agriculture, energy and land use decisions in integrated assessment models (IAMs), and stresses the crucial role of water in regulating agricultural commodities trade and land-use and energy decisions.

  12. Why do we need to integrate farmer decision making and wildlife models for policy evaluation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malawska, Anna Katarzyna; Topping, Christopher John; Nielsen, Helle Ørsted

    2014-01-01

    Environmental and agricultural policy instruments cause changes in land-use which in turn affect habitat quality and availability for a range of species. These policies often have wildlife or biodiversity goals, but in many cases they are ineffective. The low effectiveness and the emergence of un...... responses in the form of spatially explicit, dynamically connected agent-based models. Although complex and necessitating true inter-disciplinarity, these approaches have matured to the point where this endeavour is now feasible....... and technical limitations, traditional agricultural economic and ecological models fall short in terms of predictions of impacts of agri-environmental measures. The feedback situation between policy, human behaviour and ecological systems behaviour can confound these approaches, which do not take systems...... complexity into account. Therefore, a solution that integrates both feedback interactions and the differing scales at which these interactions take place is needed. For this, we suggest developing integrated policy assessment tools comprising of simulated farmer decision making, on-farm land-use and wildlife...

  13. Risk and Rationality in Adolescent Decision Making: Implications for Theory, Practice, and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Valerie F; Farley, Frank

    2006-09-01

    Crime, smoking, drug use, alcoholism, reckless driving, and many other unhealthy patterns of behavior that play out over a lifetime often debut during adolescence. Avoiding risks or buying time can set a different lifetime pattern. Changing unhealthy behaviors in adolescence would have a broad impact on society, reducing the burdens of disease, injury, human suffering, and associated economic costs. Any program designed to prevent or change such risky behaviors should be founded on a clear idea of what is normative (what behaviors, ideally, should the program foster?), descriptive (how are adolescents making decisions in the absence of the program?), and prescriptive (which practices can realistically move adolescent decisions closer to the normative ideal?). Normatively, decision processes should be evaluated for coherence (is the thinking process nonsensical, illogical, or self-contradictory?) and correspondence (are the outcomes of the decisions positive?). Behaviors that promote positive physical and mental health outcomes in modern society can be at odds with those selected for by evolution (e.g., early procreation). Healthy behaviors may also conflict with a decision maker's goals. Adolescents' goals are more likely to maximize immediate pleasure, and strict decision analysis implies that many kinds of unhealthy behavior, such as drinking and drug use, could be deemed rational. However, based on data showing developmental changes in goals, it is important for policy to promote positive long-term outcomes rather than adolescents' short-term goals. Developmental data also suggest that greater risk aversion is generally adaptive, and that decision processes that support this aversion are more advanced than those that support risk taking. A key question is whether adolescents are developmentally competent to make decisions about risks. In principle, barring temptations with high rewards and individual differences that reduce self-control (i.e., under ideal

  14. Risk and Rationality in Adolescent Decision Making: Implications for Theory, Practice, and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Valerie F; Farley, Frank

    2006-09-01

    Crime, smoking, drug use, alcoholism, reckless driving, and many other unhealthy patterns of behavior that play out over a lifetime often debut during adolescence. Avoiding risks or buying time can set a different lifetime pattern. Changing unhealthy behaviors in adolescence would have a broad impact on society, reducing the burdens of disease, injury, human suffering, and associated economic costs. Any program designed to prevent or change such risky behaviors should be founded on a clear idea of what is normative (what behaviors, ideally, should the program foster?), descriptive (how are adolescents making decisions in the absence of the program?), and prescriptive (which practices can realistically move adolescent decisions closer to the normative ideal?). Normatively, decision processes should be evaluated for coherence (is the thinking process nonsensical, illogical, or self-contradictory?) and correspondence (are the outcomes of the decisions positive?). Behaviors that promote positive physical and mental health outcomes in modern society can be at odds with those selected for by evolution (e.g., early procreation). Healthy behaviors may also conflict with a decision maker's goals. Adolescents' goals are more likely to maximize immediate pleasure, and strict decision analysis implies that many kinds of unhealthy behavior, such as drinking and drug use, could be deemed rational. However, based on data showing developmental changes in goals, it is important for policy to promote positive long-term outcomes rather than adolescents' short-term goals. Developmental data also suggest that greater risk aversion is generally adaptive, and that decision processes that support this aversion are more advanced than those that support risk taking. A key question is whether adolescents are developmentally competent to make decisions about risks. In principle, barring temptations with high rewards and individual differences that reduce self-control (i.e., under ideal

  15. From Thoughts To Action - Linking Practice, Science, Policy And Decision Making: Dissemination Activities Of The Global Risk Forum, GRF Davos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stal, Marc; Sutter, Corina; Ammann, Walter

    2010-05-01

    The world's growing population in combination with expanding urbanisation, globalisation and climate change has greatly aggravated the risk potential to all communities and nations. These increasing risks imply the intensification of worldwide disasters, hence collaborations and worldwide knowledge exchange to mitigate these negative impacts is mandatory. How can these exchange and collaboration activities take place? The Global Risk Forum, GRF Davos addresses the variety of risks that face communities with a special focus on climate change, natural hazards, environmental degradation as well as technical, biological risks, pandemics and terrorism - all across different political institutions, national and international organisations, countries and business sectors. One of GRF's main goals is to bridge the gap between science and practice and to promote and accelerate the worldwide exchange of know-how and experience. GRF Davos aims at targeting solutions and promoting good practice in integral risk management and climate change adaptation.. The Forum also provides and manages a network for decision-makers, practitioners and experts from politics, government, IGOs, business, science, NGOs, media and the public and works on maintaining and expanding these networks constantly to enable the dissemination of disaster and risk reduction techniques. In order to link practice, science, policy and decision making, GRF Davos has three pillars, the Risk Academy, the International Disaster and Risk Conferences and Workshops (IDRC) as well as the online Platform for Networks. With its pillars, the GRFs aims at reducing vulnerability for all types of risks and disasters to protect life, property, environment, critical infrastructure and all means of business for the worldwide community on a sustainable basis.

  16. Tensions between policy and practice: A qualitative analysis of decisions regarding compulsory admission to psychiatric hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fistein, Elizabeth C; Clare, Isabel C H; Redley, Marcus; Holland, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    The use of detention for psychiatric treatment is widespread and sometimes necessary. International human rights law requires a legal framework to safeguard the rights to liberty and personal integrity by preventing arbitrary detention. However, research suggests that extra-legal factors may influence decisions to detain. This article presents observational and interview data to describe how decisions to detain are made in practice in one jurisdiction (England and Wales) where a tension between policy and practice has been described. The analysis shows that practitioners mould the law into 'practical criteria' that appear to form a set of operational criteria for identifying cases to which the principle of soft paternalism may be applied. Most practitioners also appear willing, albeit often reluctantly, to depart from their usual reliance on the principle of soft paternalism and authorise detention of people with the capacity to refuse treatment, in order to prevent serious harm. We propose a potential resolution for the tension between policy and practice: two separate legal frameworks to authorise detention, one with a suitable test of capacity, used to enact soft paternalism, and the other to provide legal justification for detention for psychiatric treatment of the small number of people who retain decision-making capacity but nonetheless choose to place others at risk by refusing treatment. This separation of detention powers into two systems, according to the principle that justifies the use of detention would be intellectually coherent, consistent with human rights instruments and, being consistent with the apparent moral sentiments of practitioners, less prone to idiosyncratic interpretations in practice. PMID:27062108

  17. Policy issues arising from the judgmental nature of risk-based decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regulation of risks is pervaded by the need to exercise judgement. The scientific basis for characterising risk problems and judging the effectiveness of possible controls is often uncertain, lacking information and understanding of the processes involved. However, the risk management measures adopted will not be determined by science alone, but must reflect sociological, economic, ethical and political considerations. These in turn are in themselves judgmental, informed to a greater or lesser extent by empirical evidence and influenced by the prevailing climate of public opinion. The overall process provides a rich source of confusion for the public as to the status of the eventual policy decision, with important implications for the manner in which the process of communication is managed. The important role of judgement, as distinct from formal analysis, at every stage needs to be reflected in risk communication. The engagement of those who bear the risks, and of other interested parties in the exercise of judgement must be tailored to nature of the judgement and to the decision to be made. Appropriate procedures need to be adopted to enable that engagement. Although the issue has come into particular prominence in recent years, it is not a new phenomenon. The presentation will describe the arrangements that have been developed in the UK over the past 25 years, and will be illustrated by some specific examples of risk decision making on issues of high public concern. (author)

  18. Politics of oil in Venezuela: A decision-making analysis of PDVSA's internationalisation policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena, Cesar E.

    The high degree of international vertical integration achieved by the Venezuelan state oil enterprise, Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA), has placed it among the most important oil multinationals (MNs). The policy of creating downstream outlets through the establishment of foreign direct investments (FDIs) in the form of refinery assets was given the term of 'internationalisation'. By analysing PDVSA's internationalisation policy, the thesis explores the difficulties encountered by a major state-owned enterprise (SOE) from a developing country in its efforts to grow beyond national borders. The study focuses on the impact of democratic bargaining on the process of oil policymaking in Venezuela, stressing the constraints posed by politics on PDVSA's efforts to expand its foreign operations. Specifically, the study examines the intricate policymaking process that shaped the origins and the development of PDVSA's internationalisation policy, underlying the events and factors that influenced each one of its three distinguishable phases: adoption, formulation, and implementation. The tensions between politics and corporate strategy are highlighted at the core of the policymaking process. The study also looks at the relationship between the oil industry and the other two key decision-making centres involved in the oil policymaking process: the executive and Congress. In exploring the ways in which each one of them sought to influence policy outcome, the study attempts to gain insight into the main factors that prompted the tensions among the policy actors involved. Three environments, or pressure-generating centres, constantly exert influence on the oil industry: the oil market, the political context and the government's financial situation. By seeking to determine the industry's response to their pervasive influence on policy formulation and implementation, this research ascertains the extent to which these variables influenced the decision-making process that

  19. Between Policy-Making and Planning SEA and Strategic Decision-Making in the Danish Energy Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Ivar

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with the challenge of approaching decision-making processes through strategic environmental assessment (SEA). It is argued that the interaction between policy-making and planning in strategic decision-making processes is a neglected reason for problems with applying SEA......, as legislation and guidance on SEA primarily approach either the policy or plan level. To substantiate the argument, the extent of interaction is empirically investigated. Four contemporary decision-making processes in the Danish energy sector are mapped as a series of choices. Fundamental changes...... with considerable environmental impacts are decided these years, often without preceding SEA processes. The mapping shows a profound interaction between policy-making and planning. In this interaction, public consultation, systematic environmental analyses, and transparency on alternatives are primarily related...

  20. Informing policy and programme decisions for scaling up the PMTCT and paediatric HIV response through joint technical missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jashi, Mariam; Viswanathan, Rekha; Ekpini, Rene; Chandan, Upjeet; Idele, Priscilla; Luo, Chewe; Legins, Ken; Chatterjee, Anirban

    2013-07-01

    In 2005, due to slow global progress in the scale-up of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and paediatric HIV programmes, the Inter-agency Task Team (IATT) on the Prevention of HIV infection among Pregnant Women, Mothers, and their Children initiated joint technical missions (JTMs) to countries of high HIV disease burden. The JTMs were intended to galvanize country actions for a more comprehensive response to PMTCT and paediatric HIV by bringing national and global stakeholders together to review national policies and programmes and develop country-specific recommendations for accelerating scale-up. Between 2005 and 2010, the IATT conducted JTMs in 18 low- and middle-income countries. In 2007, to assess the role played by the missions, a review in the first eight countries (Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, India, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania and Zambia) that hosted JTMs was undertaken. Country progress was assessed through desk review and key informant interviews. For each country, documents reviewed included JTM reports, baseline data for PMTCT and paediatric HIV care and treatment, and 2004 to 2007 trend data on key PMTCT and paediatric HIV indicators. Drawing upon the findings, this paper posits that JTMs contributed to national scale-up of PMTCT and paediatric HIV programmes through strengthening governance and co-ordination mechanisms for the programmes, promoting enabling policy environments, and supporting the development of national scale-up plans, which have been critical for leveraging additional financial resources for scale-up. Although the impact of the JTMs could be enhanced through greater follow-up and continued targeted assistance in technical areas such as infant and young child feeding, community-based programming and supply chain management, findings indicate that the JTMs are a useful mechanism for informing policy and programme decisions necessary for scaling up PMTCT and paediatric HIV responses. Moreover, by bringing

  1. The Boardroom Perspective: How Does Energy Efficiency Policy Influence Decision Making in Industry?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report delves into the major factors or driving forces that decision makers within a large industrial company take into account when deciding to make new investments - the so-called {sup b}oardroom perspective{sup .} The rationale for an individual company making an investment that will reduce energy consumption varies considerably and depends on a range of factors. This report explores those factors that influence companies to invest in energy savings and proposes a methodology to evaluate the effectiveness of a country's energy efficiency and greenhouse gas mitigation policies mix from this boardroom perspective. This paper is the product of collaboration between the IEA and the Institute of Industrial Productivity (IIP).

  2. Evidence for the credibility of health economic models for health policy decision-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Rikke; Lindholt, Jes S.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the credibility of health economic models of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms for health policy decision-making has improved since 2005 when a systematic review by Campbell et al. concluded that reporting standards were poor and there was divergence between...... the findings of studies that was hard to explain. METHODS: A systematic literature review was carried out following PRISMA reporting principles. Health economic models of the cost-effectiveness of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms published between 2005-2010 were included. Key characteristics were...... benefited from general advances in health economic modelling and some improvements in reporting were noted. However, the low level of agreement between studies in model structures and assumptions, and difficulty in justifying these (convergent validity), remain a threat to the credibility of health economic...

  3. Rational Risk-Benefit Decision-Making in the Setting of Military Mefloquine Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, Remington L

    2015-01-01

    Mefloquine is an antimalarial drug that has been commonly used in military settings since its development by the US military in the late 1980s. Owing to the drug's neuropsychiatric contraindications and its high rate of inducing neuropsychiatric symptoms, which are contraindications to the drug's continued use, the routine prescribing of mefloquine in military settings may be problematic. Due to these considerations and to recent concerns of chronic and potentially permanent psychiatric and neurological sequelae arising from drug toxicity, military prescribing of mefloquine has recently decreased. In settings where mefloquine remains available, policies governing prescribing should reflect risk-benefit decision-making informed by the drug's perceived benefits and by consideration both of the risks identified in the drug's labeling and of specific military risks associated with its use. In this review, these risks are identified and recommendations are made for the rational prescribing of the drug in light of current evidence.

  4. Stock Market Dynamics, Leveraged Network-Based Financial Accelerator and Monetary Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Luca RICCETTI; Russo, Alberto; Gallegati, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we build an agent-based model based on a threefold financial accelerator: (i) leverage accelerator - negative shocks on firms' output make banks less willing to loan funds, and firms less willing to make investments, hence a credit reduction follows further reducing the output; (ii) stock market accelerator - due to lower profit, firms' capitalization on the stock market decreases, thus the distance-to-default (DD) diminishes and it reinforces the leverage accelerator; (iii) net...

  5. External factors affecting decision-making and use of evidence in an Australian public health policy environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardo, Pauline; Collie, Alex; Livingstone, Charles

    2014-05-01

    This study examined external factors affecting policy and program decision-making in a specific public health policy context: injury prevention and rehabilitation compensation in the Australian state of Victoria. The aim was twofold: identify external factors that affect policy and program decision-making in this specific context; use this evidence to inform targeting of interventions aimed at increasing research use in this context. Qualitative interviews were undertaken from June 2011 to January 2012 with 33 employees from two state government agencies. Key factors identified were stakeholder feedback and action, government and ministerial input, legal feedback and action, injured persons and the media. The identified external factors were able to significantly influence policy and program decision-making processes: acting as both barriers and facilitators, depending on the particular issue at hand. The factors with the most influence were the Minister and government, lawyers, and agency stakeholders, particularly health providers, trade unions and employer groups. This research revealed that interventions aimed at increasing use of research in this context must target and harness the influence of these groups. This research provides critical insights for researchers seeking to design interventions to increase use of research in policy environments and influence decision-making in Victorian injury prevention and rehabilitation compensation. PMID:24632115

  6. Integrating horizon scanning and strategic risk prioritisation using a weight of evidence framework to inform policy decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Garnett, Kenisha; Lickorish, Fiona A.; Rocks, Sophie A.; Prpich, G.; Rathe, A. A.; Pollard, Simon J. T.

    2016-01-01

    Poor connection between data on emerging issues and credible policy decisions continues to challenge governments, and is only likely to grow as demands on time and resources increase. Here we summarise recent efforts to integrate horizon scanning and risk prioritisation approaches to better connect emerging issues to the political discourse on environmental and food-related issues. Our categorisation of insights including potential future risks and opportunities to inform policy discussions h...

  7. How citizen advisory boards provide input into major waste policy decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, E.; Murakami, L.; Hanson, L. [Rocky Flats Citizen Advisory Board, Westminster, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Volunteer citizen boards, such as Site Specific Advisory Boards, can be a very important key to success for the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Waste Management program. These boards can provide informed, independent recommendations reflecting the diversity of the community and its values. A successful volunteer process requires collaboration among regulators, DOE and other Boards; knowing how and when to interface with the broader public; understanding the diversity and representational issues of a citizens group; knowing the {open_quotes}ins and outs{close_quotes} of working with volunteers; education and training and most importantly, planning. Volunteers on a citizens board were created to tackle the big picture, policy decisions. The chair of the Rocky Flats Citizens Advisory Board will describe her Board`s successes, including the challenges in reaching consensus agreements, as well as the need for integration with other boards and the sites` on-going public involvement programs to provide the input the department is seeking. Finally, one of the greatest challenges for the boards is interfacing with the greater public-at-large, seeing how the CAB has overcome this challenge and integrating broader public input into its decisions.

  8. How citizen advisory boards provide input into major waste policy decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volunteer citizen boards, such as Site Specific Advisory Boards, can be a very important key to success for the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Waste Management program. These boards can provide informed, independent recommendations reflecting the diversity of the community and its values. A successful volunteer process requires collaboration among regulators, DOE and other Boards; knowing how and when to interface with the broader public; understanding the diversity and representational issues of a citizens group; knowing the open-quotes ins and outsclose quotes of working with volunteers; education and training and most importantly, planning. Volunteers on a citizens board were created to tackle the big picture, policy decisions. The chair of the Rocky Flats Citizens Advisory Board will describe her Board's successes, including the challenges in reaching consensus agreements, as well as the need for integration with other boards and the sites' on-going public involvement programs to provide the input the department is seeking. Finally, one of the greatest challenges for the boards is interfacing with the greater public-at-large, seeing how the CAB has overcome this challenge and integrating broader public input into its decisions

  9. Methods of legitimation: how ethics committees decide which reasons count in public policy decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Kyle T

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, liberal democratic societies have struggled with the question of how best to balance expertise and democratic participation in the regulation of emerging technologies. This study aims to explain how national deliberative ethics committees handle the practical tension between scientific expertise, ethical expertise, expert patient input, and lay public input by explaining two institutions' processes for determining the legitimacy or illegitimacy of reasons in public policy decision-making: that of the United Kingdom's Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) and the United States' American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM). The articulation of these 'methods of legitimation' draws on 13 in-depth interviews with HFEA and ASRM members and staff conducted in January and February 2012 in London and over Skype, as well as observation of an HFEA deliberation. This study finds that these two institutions employ different methods in rendering certain arguments legitimate and others illegitimate: while the HFEA attempts to 'balance' competing reasons but ultimately legitimizes arguments based on health and welfare concerns, the ASRM seeks to 'filter' out arguments that challenge reproductive autonomy. The notably different structures and missions of each institution may explain these divergent approaches, as may what Sheila Jasanoff (2005) terms the distinctive 'civic epistemologies' of the US and the UK. Significantly for policy makers designing such deliberative committees, each method differs substantially from that explicitly or implicitly endorsed by the institution.

  10. COMMON AGRICULTURAL POLICY FROM HEALTH CHECK DECISIONS TO THE POST-2013 REFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculescu Oana Marilena

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposed for being presented belongs to the field research International Affairs and European Integration. The paper entitled Common Agricultural Policy from Health Check decisions to the post-2013 reform aims to analyze the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP from the Health Check adoption in November 2008 to a new reform post-2013. The objectives of the paper are the presentation of the Health Check with its advantages and disadvantages as well as the analysis of the opportunity of a new European policy and its reforming having in view that the analysis of Health Check condition was considered a compromise. The paper is related to the internal and international research consisting in several books, studies, documents that analyze the particularities of the most debated, controversial and reformed EU policy. A personal study is represented by the first report within the PhD paper called The reform of CAP and its implications for Romanias agriculture(coordinator prof. Gheorghe Hurduzeu PhD, Academy of Economic Studies Bucharest, Faculty of International Business, research studies in the period 2009-2012. The research methodology used consists in collecting and analysis data from national and international publications, their validation, followed by a dissemination of the results in order to express a personal opinion regarding CAP and its reform. The results of the research consist in proving the opportunity of a new reform due to the fact that Health Check belongs already to the past. The paper belongs to the field research mentioned, in the attempt to prove the opportunity of building a new EU agricultural policy. The challenges CAP is facing are: food safety, environmental and climate changes, territorial balance as well as new challenges-improving sustainable management of natural resources, maintaining competitiveness in the context of globalization growth, strengthening EU cohesion in rural areas, increasing the support of CAP for

  11. Racism, gun ownership and gun control: biased attitudes in US whites may influence policy decisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry O'Brien

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Racism is related to policies preferences and behaviors that adversely affect blacks and appear related to a fear of blacks (e.g., increased policing, death penalty. This study examined whether racism is also related to gun ownership and opposition to gun controls in US whites. METHOD: The most recent data from the American National Election Study, a large representative US sample, was used to test relationships between racism, gun ownership, and opposition to gun control in US whites. Explanatory variables known to be related to gun ownership and gun control opposition (i.e., age, gender, education, income, conservatism, anti-government sentiment, southern vs. other states, political identification were entered in logistic regression models, along with measures of racism, and the stereotype of blacks as violent. Outcome variables included; having a gun in the home, opposition to bans on handguns in the home, support for permits to carry concealed handguns. RESULTS: After accounting for all explanatory variables, logistic regressions found that for each 1 point increase in symbolic racism there was a 50% increase in the odds of having a gun at home. After also accounting for having a gun in the home, there was still a 28% increase in support for permits to carry concealed handguns, for each one point increase in symbolic racism. The relationship between symbolic racism and opposition to banning handguns in the home (OR1.27 CI 1.03,1.58 was reduced to non-significant after accounting for having a gun in the home (OR1.17 CI.94,1.46, which likely represents self-interest in retaining property (guns. CONCLUSIONS: Symbolic racism was related to having a gun in the home and opposition to gun control policies in US whites. The findings help explain US whites' paradoxical attitudes towards gun ownership and gun control. Such attitudes may adversely influence US gun control policy debates and decisions.

  12. The use of citizens' juries in health policy decision-making: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Jackie; Duszynski, Katherine; Krawczyk, Stephanie; Braunack-Mayer, Annette

    2014-05-01

    Deliberative inclusive approaches, such as citizen juries, have been used to engage citizens on a range of issues in health care and public health. Researchers engaging with the public to inform policy and practice have adapted the citizen jury method in a variety of ways. The nature and impact of these adaptations has not been evaluated. We systematically searched Medline (PubMED), CINAHL and Scopus databases to identify deliberative inclusive methods, particularly citizens' juries and their adaptations, deployed in health research. Identified studies were evaluated focussing on principles associated with deliberative democracy: inclusivity, deliberation and active citizenship. We examined overall process, recruitment, evidence presentation, documentation and outputs in empirical studies, and the relationship of these elements to theoretical explications of deliberative inclusive methods. The search yielded 37 papers describing 66 citizens' juries. The review demonstrated that the citizens' jury model has been extensively adapted. Inclusivity has been operationalised with sampling strategies that aim to recruit representative juries, although these efforts have produced mixed results. Deliberation has been supported through use of steering committees and facilitators to promote fair interaction between jurors. Many juries were shorter duration than originally recommended, limiting opportunity for constructive dialogue. With respect to citizenship, few juries' rulings were considered by decision-making bodies thereby limiting transfer into policy and practice. Constraints in public policy process may preclude use of the 'ideal' citizens' jury with potential loss of an effective method for informed community engagement. Adapted citizens' jury models provide an alternative: however, this review demonstrates that special attention should be paid to recruitment, independent oversight, jury duration and moderation. PMID:24657639

  13. TIME Impact - a new user-friendly tuberculosis (TB) model to inform TB policy decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, R M G J; Lalli, M; Sumner, T; Hamilton, M; Pedrazzoli, D; Bonsu, F; Hippner, P; Pillay, Y; Kimerling, M; Ahmedov, S; Pretorius, C; White, R G

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide, predominantly affecting low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where resources are limited. As such, countries need to be able to choose the most efficient interventions for their respective setting. Mathematical models can be valuable tools to inform rational policy decisions and improve resource allocation, but are often unavailable or inaccessible for LMICs, particularly in TB. We developed TIME Impact, a user-friendly TB model that enables local capacity building and strengthens country-specific policy discussions to inform support funding applications at the (sub-)national level (e.g. Ministry of Finance) or to international donors (e.g. the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria).TIME Impact is an epidemiological transmission model nested in TIME, a set of TB modelling tools available for free download within the widely-used Spectrum software. The TIME Impact model reflects key aspects of the natural history of TB, with additional structure for HIV/ART, drug resistance, treatment history and age. TIME Impact enables national TB programmes (NTPs) and other TB policymakers to better understand their own TB epidemic, plan their response, apply for funding and evaluate the implementation of the response.The explicit aim of TIME Impact's user-friendly interface is to enable training of local and international TB experts towards independent use. During application of TIME Impact, close involvement of the NTPs and other local partners also builds critical understanding of the modelling methods, assumptions and limitations inherent to modelling. This is essential to generate broad country-level ownership of the modelling data inputs and results. In turn, it stimulates discussions and a review of the current evidence and assumptions, strengthening the decision-making process in general.TIME Impact has been effectively applied in a variety of settings. In South Africa, it

  14. TIME Impact - a new user-friendly tuberculosis (TB) model to inform TB policy decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, R M G J; Lalli, M; Sumner, T; Hamilton, M; Pedrazzoli, D; Bonsu, F; Hippner, P; Pillay, Y; Kimerling, M; Ahmedov, S; Pretorius, C; White, R G

    2016-03-24

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide, predominantly affecting low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where resources are limited. As such, countries need to be able to choose the most efficient interventions for their respective setting. Mathematical models can be valuable tools to inform rational policy decisions and improve resource allocation, but are often unavailable or inaccessible for LMICs, particularly in TB. We developed TIME Impact, a user-friendly TB model that enables local capacity building and strengthens country-specific policy discussions to inform support funding applications at the (sub-)national level (e.g. Ministry of Finance) or to international donors (e.g. the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria).TIME Impact is an epidemiological transmission model nested in TIME, a set of TB modelling tools available for free download within the widely-used Spectrum software. The TIME Impact model reflects key aspects of the natural history of TB, with additional structure for HIV/ART, drug resistance, treatment history and age. TIME Impact enables national TB programmes (NTPs) and other TB policymakers to better understand their own TB epidemic, plan their response, apply for funding and evaluate the implementation of the response.The explicit aim of TIME Impact's user-friendly interface is to enable training of local and international TB experts towards independent use. During application of TIME Impact, close involvement of the NTPs and other local partners also builds critical understanding of the modelling methods, assumptions and limitations inherent to modelling. This is essential to generate broad country-level ownership of the modelling data inputs and results. In turn, it stimulates discussions and a review of the current evidence and assumptions, strengthening the decision-making process in general.TIME Impact has been effectively applied in a variety of settings. In South Africa, it

  15. Addressing preference heterogeneity in public health policy by combining Cluster Analysis and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis: Proof of Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Turner, Robin; Cunich, Michelle; Salkeld, Glenn; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Dowie, Jack

    2015-01-01

    The use of subgroups based on biological-clinical and socio-demographic variables to deal with population heterogeneity is well-established in public policy. The use of subgroups based on preferences is rare, except when religion based, and controversial. If it were decided to treat subgroup preferences as valid determinants of public policy, a transparent analytical procedure is needed. In this proof of method study we show how public preferences could be incorporated into policy decisions in a way that respects both the multi-criterial nature of those decisions, and the heterogeneity of the population in relation to the importance assigned to relevant criteria. It involves combining Cluster Analysis (CA), to generate the subgroup sets of preferences, with Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA), to provide the policy framework into which the clustered preferences are entered. We employ three techniques of CA to demonstrate that not only do different techniques produce different clusters, but that choosing among techniques (as well as developing the MCDA structure) is an important task to be undertaken in implementing the approach outlined in any specific policy context. Data for the illustrative, not substantive, application are from a Randomized Controlled Trial of online decision aids for Australian men aged 40-69 years considering Prostate-specific Antigen testing for prostate cancer. We show that such analyses can provide policy-makers with insights into the criterion-specific needs of different subgroups. Implementing CA and MCDA in combination to assist in the development of policies on important health and community issues such as drug coverage, reimbursement, and screening programs, poses major challenges -conceptual, methodological, ethical-political, and practical - but most are exposed by the techniques, not created by them.

  16. Embedding health policy and systems research into decision-making processes in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koon, Adam D; Rao, Krishna D; Tran, Nhan T; Ghaffar, Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Attention is increasingly directed to bridging the gap between the production of knowledge and its use for health decision-making in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). An important and underdeveloped area of health policy and systems research (HPSR) is the organization of this process. Drawing from an interdisciplinary conception of embeddedness, a literature review was conducted to identify examples of embedded HPSR used to inform decision-making in LMICs. The results of the literature review were organized according to the World Health Organization's Building Blocks Framework. Next, a conceptual model was created to illustrate the arrangement of organizations that produce embedded HPSR and the characteristics that facilitate its uptake into the arena of decision-making. We found that multiple forces converge to create context-specific pathways through which evidence enters into decision-making. Depending on the decision under consideration, the literature indicates that decision-makers may call upon an intricate combination of actors for sourcing HPSR. While proximity to decision-making does have advantages, it is not the position of the organization within the network, but rather the qualities the organization possesses, that enable it to be embedded. Our findings suggest that four qualities influence embeddedness: reputation, capacity, quality of connections to decision-makers, and quantity of connections to decision-makers and others. In addition to this, the policy environment (e.g. the presence of legislation governing the use of HPSR, presence of strong civil society, etc.) strongly influences uptake. Through this conceptual model, we can understand which conditions are likely to enhance uptake of HPSR in LMIC health systems. This raises several important considerations for decision-makers and researchers about the arrangement and interaction of evidence-generating organizations in health systems. PMID:23924162

  17. Dark Matter: The "Gravitational Pull" of Maternalist Discourses on Politicians' Decision Making for Early Childhood Policy in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bown, Kathryn; Sumsion, Jennifer; Press, Frances

    2011-01-01

    The article reports on a study investigating influences on Australian politicians' decision making for early childhood education and care (ECEC) policy. The astronomical concept of dark matter is utilised as a metaphor for considering normalising, and therefore frequently difficult to detect and disrupt, influences implicated in politicians'…

  18. Arrest Decisions as Precludes To? An Evaluation of Policy Related Research. Volume I: Administrative Summary and Training Script.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neithercutt, M. G.; And Others

    The document is the first part of a study conducted to evaluate policy-related research on police arrest discretion as an alternative solution to arrest. It presents the administrative summary of the Arrest Decisions as Preludes To? (ADAPT) project and contains scripts intended for use by police departments as a staff training device. The…

  19. New dawn for electricity? EU policy and the changing decision space for electricity production in Sweden; a CANES Working Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Maans

    2009-11-15

    The European Union has taken an increasing interest in governing the energy sector in its Member States. However, EU still competes with national-level policies as well as sectoral organizational fields with sticky institutions, norms and knowledge. Therefore, despite its high ambitions in the energy field, for instance in the promotion of renewables and market reform, it is not clear whether the EU really exerts a strong influence, and if there is such an influence, the processes of influence and 'filtering' through to national political and industrial structures are not well understood. This paper examines a recent strategic change amongst national actors in Sweden in the energy sector; the decision space for investment in electricity. It examines the influence of European policy change, national political and policy change and organizational field-level developments on this decision space. It finds that European policy has rarely been very coercive, partly because Sweden has been a forerunner both on electricity market reform and renewable energy promotion, but that its influence is notable both directly through its emissions trading directive and more indirectly through signalling its intentions and long-term goals. Still, it appears that domestic developments, both cognitive and normative structures in the organizational field, and national policy change remain more instrumental determinants of the changed decision space. (Author)

  20. Decisiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Junichiro Ishida

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates how the presence of strong leadership influences an organization's ability to acquire and process information. The key concept is the leader's decisiveness. A decisive leader can make a bold move in response to a large change in the underlying landscape, whereas an indecisive leader biases her position excessively towards the status quo. An organization led by an indecisive leader needs to accumulate unrealistically strong evidence before it changes the course of actio...

  1. Democratic population decisions result in robust policy-gradient learning: a parametric study with GPU simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Richmond

    Full Text Available High performance computing on the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU is an emerging field driven by the promise of high computational power at a low cost. However, GPU programming is a non-trivial task and moreover architectural limitations raise the question of whether investing effort in this direction may be worthwhile. In this work, we use GPU programming to simulate a two-layer network of Integrate-and-Fire neurons with varying degrees of recurrent connectivity and investigate its ability to learn a simplified navigation task using a policy-gradient learning rule stemming from Reinforcement Learning. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, we want to support the use of GPUs in the field of Computational Neuroscience. Second, using GPU computing power, we investigate the conditions under which the said architecture and learning rule demonstrate best performance. Our work indicates that networks featuring strong Mexican-Hat-shaped recurrent connections in the top layer, where decision making is governed by the formation of a stable activity bump in the neural population (a "non-democratic" mechanism, achieve mediocre learning results at best. In absence of recurrent connections, where all neurons "vote" independently ("democratic" for a decision via population vector readout, the task is generally learned better and more robustly. Our study would have been extremely difficult on a desktop computer without the use of GPU programming. We present the routines developed for this purpose and show that a speed improvement of 5x up to 42x is provided versus optimised Python code. The higher speed is achieved when we exploit the parallelism of the GPU in the search of learning parameters. This suggests that efficient GPU programming can significantly reduce the time needed for simulating networks of spiking neurons, particularly when multiple parameter configurations are investigated.

  2. The Felbertauern landslide of 2013: Traffic disruption, regional economic consequences and policy decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfurtscheller, Clemens; Genovese, Elisabetta

    2016-04-01

    The Felbertauern landslide of May 2013 caused the total destruction of approximately 100 meters of road including an avalanche gallery, generating several direct and indirect impacts on the regional-economy. The Felbertauern road, an important traffic arteria for the whole NUTS-3 region East-Tyrol (Austria), was totally blocked for several weeks. Short after the event, regional decision makers were hardly in need for an estimation of the regional-economic impacts of the road blockage to opt for alternatives to reopen the road. So, two weeks after the event, an analysis of the possible effects was carried out using only scattered information and statistical data. The analysis is based on a three-month interruption scenario. Retrospectively the road blockage was only two months. Due to the fact that short after the event no up-to-date data on regional-economics at necessary scales was available, impacts on tourism by analysing overnight stays, additional transportation costs and time losses for the local companies were calculated. Using these numbers, a cost-benefit-analysis was carried out for a projected bypass, a mid-term 1.5 kilometer long route as an alternative to the destroyed road. Finally, the impacts on the local companies were severe, due to additional transportation costs of approx. Euro 1.4 million and Euro 76 000 additional time costs using an alternative approach. The impacts on regional tourism were calculated with Euro 7.7 to 10.7 million - that means 0.6 to 0.8% of the total economic output of the region. The study shows the strong impact of indirect and business interruption costs on regional economies and describes the major problems faced during the study - in particular the low availability of input data. The results of consistent cost assessment are critical for decision makers who are responsible for the development of policies to prevent the impacts on societies.

  3. Democratic population decisions result in robust policy-gradient learning: a parametric study with GPU simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Paul; Buesing, Lars; Giugliano, Michele; Vasilaki, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    High performance computing on the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) is an emerging field driven by the promise of high computational power at a low cost. However, GPU programming is a non-trivial task and moreover architectural limitations raise the question of whether investing effort in this direction may be worthwhile. In this work, we use GPU programming to simulate a two-layer network of Integrate-and-Fire neurons with varying degrees of recurrent connectivity and investigate its ability to learn a simplified navigation task using a policy-gradient learning rule stemming from Reinforcement Learning. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, we want to support the use of GPUs in the field of Computational Neuroscience. Second, using GPU computing power, we investigate the conditions under which the said architecture and learning rule demonstrate best performance. Our work indicates that networks featuring strong Mexican-Hat-shaped recurrent connections in the top layer, where decision making is governed by the formation of a stable activity bump in the neural population (a "non-democratic" mechanism), achieve mediocre learning results at best. In absence of recurrent connections, where all neurons "vote" independently ("democratic") for a decision via population vector readout, the task is generally learned better and more robustly. Our study would have been extremely difficult on a desktop computer without the use of GPU programming. We present the routines developed for this purpose and show that a speed improvement of 5x up to 42x is provided versus optimised Python code. The higher speed is achieved when we exploit the parallelism of the GPU in the search of learning parameters. This suggests that efficient GPU programming can significantly reduce the time needed for simulating networks of spiking neurons, particularly when multiple parameter configurations are investigated. PMID:21572529

  4. Policy maker and health care provider perspectives on reproductive decision-making amongst HIV-infected individuals in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zweigenthal Virginia

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide there is growing attention paid to the reproductive decisions faced by HIV-infected individuals. Studies in both developed and developing countries have suggested that many HIV-infected women continue to desire children despite knowledge of their HIV status. Despite the increasing attention to the health care needs of HIV-infected individuals in low resource settings, little attention has been given to reproductive choice and intentions. Health care providers play a crucial role in determining access to reproductive health services and their influence is likely to be heightened in delivering services to HIV-infected women. We examined the attitudes of health care policy makers and providers towards reproductive decision-making among HIV-infected individuals. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 14 health care providers at two public sector health care facilities located in Cape Town, South Africa. In addition, 12 in-depth interviews with public sector policy makers and managers, and managers within HIV/AIDS and reproductive health NGOs were conducted. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Results Providers and policy makers approached the issues related to being HIV-infected and child bearing differently. Biomedical considerations were paramount in providers' approaches to HIV infection and reproductive decision-making, whereas, policy makers approached the issues more broadly recognizing the structural constraints that inform the provision of reproductive health care services and the possibility of "choice" for HIV-infected individuals. Conclusion The findings highlight the diversity of perspectives among policy makers and providers regarding the reproductive decisions taken by HIV-infected people. There is a clear need for more explicit policies recognizing the reproductive rights and choices of HIV-infected individuals.

  5. Data policy and availability supporting global change research development, and decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An explosion of information has created a crisis for today's information age. We must determine how to use the best available information resources, tools, and technology. To do this, we need to have leadership at the interagency level to promote a coherent information policy. It is also important to find ways to educate the users of information regarding the tools available to them. This paper reports that advances in technology have resulted in efforts to shift from disciplinary and mission-oriented systems to decision support systems and personalized information systems. One such effort is being made by the Interagency Working Group on Data Management for Global Change (IWGDMGC). Five federal agencies - the Department of Commerce (DOC), Department of Energy (DOE), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Library of Medicine (NLM), and Department of Defense (DoD) - have an ongoing cooperative information management group, Commerce, Energy, NASA, NLM, and Defense Information (CENDI), that is meeting the challenge of coordinating and integrating its information management systems. Although it is beginning to be technically feasible to have a system with text, bibliographic, and numeric data on-line for the user to manipulate at the user's own workstation, promoting its full development will require national recognition that the resource investment in such a system is worthwhile. It also requires close cooperation between the producers and users of the information - that is, the research and policy community and the information community. National resources need to be mobilized in a coordinated manner to move us into the next generation of information support systems

  6. Rational Risk-Benefit Decision-Making in the Setting of Military Mefloquine Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remington L. Nevin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mefloquine is an antimalarial drug that has been commonly used in military settings since its development by the US military in the late 1980s. Owing to the drug’s neuropsychiatric contraindications and its high rate of inducing neuropsychiatric symptoms, which are contraindications to the drug’s continued use, the routine prescribing of mefloquine in military settings may be problematic. Due to these considerations and to recent concerns of chronic and potentially permanent psychiatric and neurological sequelae arising from drug toxicity, military prescribing of mefloquine has recently decreased. In settings where mefloquine remains available, policies governing prescribing should reflect risk-benefit decision-making informed by the drug’s perceived benefits and by consideration both of the risks identified in the drug’s labeling and of specific military risks associated with its use. In this review, these risks are identified and recommendations are made for the rational prescribing of the drug in light of current evidence.

  7. Energy conservation: policy issues and end-use scenarios of savings potential. Part 3. Policy barriers and investment decisions in industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    This work is based on previous research reported in Construction of Energy Conservation Scenarios: Interim Report of Work in Progress, LBL 7834, June 1978. Several guidelines were selected for subsequent work. In addition, five subjects were chosen to be investigated--recycling, industrial decision making, recreational travel, residential and commercial buildings, and end-use energy conservation data base. This report concerns industrial decision making. The industrial sector consumes about forty percent of the energy used both in California and in the nation. Opportunities for conserving substantial amounts of energy exist in industry, and decisions are made each year regarding investment in conservation. Government policy (1) could be formulated to encourage conservation investments, but government intervention should be limited to those situations where it is both necessary and likely to be effective. To assist policy makers in understanding the industrial decision making process and recognizing the factors which prevent a measure's being adopted, a methodology is developed that can be applied to most conservation measures in all industrial subsectors. The methodology is summarized in two flow charts and a matrix that are described in Sections I and II respectively.

  8. K-D Decision Tree: An Accelerated and Memory Efficient Nearest Neighbor Classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Tomoyuki; Wada, Toshikazu

    This paper presents a novel algorithm for Nearest Neighbor (NN) classifier. NN classification is a well-known method of pattern classification having the following properties: * it performs maximum-margin classification and achieves less than twice the ideal Bayesian error, * it does not require knowledge of pattern distributions, kernel functions or base classifiers, and * it can naturally be applied to multiclass classification problems. Among the drawbacks are A) inefficient memory use and B) ineffective pattern classification speed. This paper deals with the problems A and B. In most cases, NN search algorithms, such as k-d tree, are employed as a pattern search engine of the NN classifier. However, NN classification does not always require the NN search. Based on this idea, we propose a novel algorithm named k-d decision tree (KDDT). Since KDDT uses Voronoi-condensed prototypes, it consumes less memory than naive NN classifiers. We have confirmed that KDDT is much faster than NN search-based classifier through a comparative experiment (from 9 to 369 times faster than NN search based classifier). Furthermore, in order to extend applicability of the KDDT algorithm to high-dimensional NN classification, we modified it by incorporating Gabriel editing or RNG editing instead of Voronoi condensing. Through experiments using simulated and real data, we have confirmed the modified KDDT algorithms are superior to the original one.

  9. Using science-policy integration to improve ecosystem science and inform decision-making: Lessons from U.S. LTERs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templer, Pamela H.; Lambert, Kathleen Fallon; Weiss, Marissa; Baron, Jill S.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Foster, David R.

    2016-01-01

    This Special Session took place on 12 August 2015 at the 100th Meeting of the Ecological Society of America in Baltimore, Maryland, and was conceived of and coordinated by the Science Policy Exchange. The Science Policy Exchange (SPE) is a boundary- spanning organization established to work at the interface of science and policy to confront pressing environmental challenges . SPE was created as a collaborative of six research institutions to increase the impact of science on environmental decisions. This session was organized by Marissa Weiss and co- organized by Pamela Templer, Kathleen Fallon Lambert, Jill Baron, Charles Driscoll, and David Foster. Along the theme of ESA ’ s Centennial meeting, the group of presenters represented collectively more than 100 years of experience in integration of science, policy, and outreach.

  10. Strategic Grassland Bird Conservation throughout the Annual Cycle: Linking Policy Alternatives, Landowner Decisions, and Biological Population Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan G Drum

    Full Text Available Grassland bird habitat has declined substantially in the United States. Remaining grasslands are increasingly fragmented, mostly privately owned, and vary greatly in terms of habitat quality and protection status. A coordinated strategic response for grassland bird conservation is difficult, largely due to the scope and complexity of the problem, further compounded by biological, sociological, and economic uncertainties. We describe the results from a collaborative Structured Decision Making (SDM workshop focused on linking social and economic drivers of landscape change to grassland bird population outcomes. We identified and evaluated alternative strategies for grassland bird conservation using a series of rapid prototype models. We modeled change in grassland and agriculture cover in hypothetical landscapes resulting from different landowner decisions in response to alternative socio-economic conservation policy decisions. Resulting changes in land cover at all three stages of the annual cycle (breeding, wintering, and migration were used to estimate changes in grassland bird populations. Our results suggest that successful grassland bird conservation may depend upon linkages with ecosystem services on working agricultural lands and grassland-based marketing campaigns to engage the public. With further development, spatial models that link landowner decisions with biological outcomes can be essential tools for making conservation policy decisions. A coordinated non-traditional partnership will likely be necessary to clearly understand and systematically respond to the many conservation challenges facing grassland birds.

  11. Strategic Grassland Bird Conservation throughout the annual cycle: Linking policy alternatives, landowner decisions, and biological population outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drum, Ryan G.; Ribic, Christine; Koch, Katie; Lonsdorf, Eric V.; Grant, Edward C.; Ahlering, Marissa; Barnhill, Laurel; Dailey, Thomas; Lor, Socheata; Mueller, Connie; Pavlacky, D.C.; Rideout, Catherine; Sample, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Grassland bird habitat has declined substantially in the United States. Remaining grasslands are increasingly fragmented, mostly privately owned, and vary greatly in terms of habitat quality and protection status. A coordinated strategic response for grassland bird conservation is difficult, largely due to the scope and complexity of the problem, further compounded by biological, sociological, and economic uncertainties. We describe the results from a collaborative Structured Decision Making (SDM) workshop focused on linking social and economic drivers of landscape change to grassland bird population outcomes. We identified and evaluated alternative strategies for grassland bird conservation using a series of rapid prototype models. We modeled change in grassland and agriculture cover in hypothetical landscapes resulting from different landowner decisions in response to alternative socio-economic conservation policy decisions. Resulting changes in land cover at all three stages of the annual cycle (breeding, wintering, and migration) were used to estimate changes in grassland bird populations. Our results suggest that successful grassland bird conservation may depend upon linkages with ecosystem services on working agricultural lands and grassland-based marketing campaigns to engage the public. With further development, spatial models that link landowner decisions with biological outcomes can be essential tools for making conservation policy decisions. A coordinated non-traditional partnership will likely be necessary to clearly understand and systematically respond to the many conservation challenges facing grassland birds.

  12. Strategic Grassland Bird Conservation throughout the Annual Cycle: Linking Policy Alternatives, Landowner Decisions, and Biological Population Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drum, Ryan G; Ribic, Christine A; Koch, Katie; Lonsdorf, Eric; Grant, Evan; Ahlering, Marissa; Barnhill, Laurel; Dailey, Thomas; Lor, Socheata; Mueller, Connie; Pavlacky, David C; Rideout, Catherine; Sample, David

    2015-01-01

    Grassland bird habitat has declined substantially in the United States. Remaining grasslands are increasingly fragmented, mostly privately owned, and vary greatly in terms of habitat quality and protection status. A coordinated strategic response for grassland bird conservation is difficult, largely due to the scope and complexity of the problem, further compounded by biological, sociological, and economic uncertainties. We describe the results from a collaborative Structured Decision Making (SDM) workshop focused on linking social and economic drivers of landscape change to grassland bird population outcomes. We identified and evaluated alternative strategies for grassland bird conservation using a series of rapid prototype models. We modeled change in grassland and agriculture cover in hypothetical landscapes resulting from different landowner decisions in response to alternative socio-economic conservation policy decisions. Resulting changes in land cover at all three stages of the annual cycle (breeding, wintering, and migration) were used to estimate changes in grassland bird populations. Our results suggest that successful grassland bird conservation may depend upon linkages with ecosystem services on working agricultural lands and grassland-based marketing campaigns to engage the public. With further development, spatial models that link landowner decisions with biological outcomes can be essential tools for making conservation policy decisions. A coordinated non-traditional partnership will likely be necessary to clearly understand and systematically respond to the many conservation challenges facing grassland birds. PMID:26569108

  13. What defines 'enough' information? How policy workers make judgements and decisions during information seeking: preliminary results from an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Berryman

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Reports findings from research in progress investigating judgment and decision making during information seeking in the workplace, in particular, the assessment of enough information. Characteristics of this judgment and the role of context in shaping it are framed against theories of human judgment and decision making. Method. Thirty-three semi-structured interviews were conducted with public sector policy workers in Australia. Two interviews were carried out, the first with individual participants and the second, a joint interview with two participants. Interviews were taped and transcribed and inductive data analysis carried out. Findings. Findings discussed in this paper focus on contextual factors that frame policy workers' judgment and decision making while information seeking, factors including ill-structured problems, shifting goals, time stress and action-feedback loops. Also revealed was the importance of developing a framework, against which the judgment of enough information can be made, and the fluid and iterative nature of these judgments. Conclusion. The contextual factors reported show similarities with those identified by naturalistic decision making researchers, suggesting this new field of decision theory has much to offer researchers into information seeking in context.

  14. Understanding where policies and decisions can go wrong: utilising a 360 analysis model as a proactive reputation management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwiak, Carol L

    2014-01-01

    An organisation's reputation is its most relevant asset. The perceptions of the various audiences with which an organisation interacts both directly and indirectly can enhance or destroy that reputation. Due to the critical role these audiences play in an organisation's reputation, they should be actively considered as a part of an organisation's reputation management strategy. This paper introduces the 360 analysis model, which considers the benefits, detriments and potential fallout in regard to different audiences when creating policy or making important organisational decisions. The model's goal is to foster well-considered policy and decisions that proactively protect an organisation's reputation. The model is also designed to be used as a research construct that can be utilised in the expansion of the reputation management literature in regard to heterogeneity and dynamics within and across audiences that can have an impact on an organisation's reputation.

  15. Understanding where policies and decisions can go wrong: utilising a 360 analysis model as a proactive reputation management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwiak, Carol L

    2014-01-01

    An organisation's reputation is its most relevant asset. The perceptions of the various audiences with which an organisation interacts both directly and indirectly can enhance or destroy that reputation. Due to the critical role these audiences play in an organisation's reputation, they should be actively considered as a part of an organisation's reputation management strategy. This paper introduces the 360 analysis model, which considers the benefits, detriments and potential fallout in regard to different audiences when creating policy or making important organisational decisions. The model's goal is to foster well-considered policy and decisions that proactively protect an organisation's reputation. The model is also designed to be used as a research construct that can be utilised in the expansion of the reputation management literature in regard to heterogeneity and dynamics within and across audiences that can have an impact on an organisation's reputation. PMID:24854733

  16. Accelerating the Pace of Change in Energy Technologies Through an Integrated Federal Energy Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-11-01

    In this report, the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) calls for the development of a coordinated government-wide Federal energy policy. This will be a major undertaking, given the large number of Federal policies that affect the development, implementation, and use of energy technologies. For that reason, we recommend that the Administration initiate a process analogous to the Quadrennial Defense Review undertaken every four years by the Department of Defense

  17. The Role of Forestry Sinks in the CDM - Analysing the Effects of Policy Decisions on the Carbon Market

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Martina

    2003-01-01

    The details on rules and modalities for the inclusion of forestry projects in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) are one of the last non resolved implementation issues of the Kyoto Protocol. We examine in detail the implications of different policy decisions concerning the inclusion of CDM forestry sink enhancement projects in the first commitment period of the climate regime (2008-2012). Our analysis is based on the development of marginal forestry cost curves which are implemented into t...

  18. Gender role attitudes, work decisions and social policies in europe: a series of empirical essays

    OpenAIRE

    De Henau, Jérôme

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to understand why European countries show a very different picture of female employment (in their fertile ages) which is not the case for men of the same age. We shed light on the various positions of countries in this framework of earner-carer models, in analysing policy designs, policy outcomes and policy determinants. That is, respectively, family policy indicators, employment of mothers and childless women, gender role attitudes and their interacting effect with p...

  19. A retrospective investigation of energy efficiency standards: policies may have accelerated long term declines in appliance costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We perform a retrospective investigation of multi-decade trends in price and life-cycle cost (LCC) for home appliances in periods with and without energy efficiency (EE) standards and labeling polices. In contrast to the classical picture of the impact of efficiency standards, the introduction and updating of appliance standards is not associated with a long-term increase in purchase price; rather, quality-adjusted prices undergo a continued or accelerated long-term decline. In addition, long term trends in appliance LCCs—which include operating costs—consistently show an accelerated long term decline with EE policies. We also show that the incremental price of efficiency improvements has declined faster than the baseline product price for selected products. These observations are inconsistent with a view of EE standards that supposes a perfectly competitive market with static supply costs. These results suggest that EE policies may be associated with other forces at play, such as innovation and learning-by-doing in appliance production and design, that can affect long term trends in quality-adjusted prices and LCCs. (letter)

  20. A retrospective investigation of energy efficiency standards: policies may have accelerated long term declines in appliance costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buskirk, R. D.; Kantner, C. L. S.; Gerke, B. F.; Chu, S.

    2014-11-01

    We perform a retrospective investigation of multi-decade trends in price and life-cycle cost (LCC) for home appliances in periods with and without energy efficiency (EE) standards and labeling polices. In contrast to the classical picture of the impact of efficiency standards, the introduction and updating of appliance standards is not associated with a long-term increase in purchase price; rather, quality-adjusted prices undergo a continued or accelerated long-term decline. In addition, long term trends in appliance LCCs—which include operating costs—consistently show an accelerated long term decline with EE policies. We also show that the incremental price of efficiency improvements has declined faster than the baseline product price for selected products. These observations are inconsistent with a view of EE standards that supposes a perfectly competitive market with static supply costs. These results suggest that EE policies may be associated with other forces at play, such as innovation and learning-by-doing in appliance production and design, that can affect long term trends in quality-adjusted prices and LCCs.

  1. How Biodiversity Conservation Policy Accelerates Agrarian Differentiation: The Account of an Upland Village in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dressler, W.H.; Xuan To, P.; Mahanty, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows how the implementation of Vietnam«SQ»s recent biodiversity conservation policy in Ba Vi National Park has increased the economic value of nature, created sustained conflict, and exacerbated agrarian differentiation in an upland village in northern Vietnam. Increased global and natio

  2. Tools to support policy decisions related to treatment strategies and surveillance of Schistosomiasis japonica towards elimination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Nong Zhou

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Appropriate diagnostics to monitor disease trends and assess the effectiveness and impact of interventions are essential for guiding treatment strategies at different thresholds of schistosomiasis transmission and for certifying elimination. Field validation of these assays is urgently needed before they can be adopted to support policy decisions of the national programme for control and elimination of schistosomiasis in P.R. China. We compared the efficacy and utility of different immunoassays in guiding control strategies and monitoring the endemic status of S. japonicum infections towards elimination. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in seven villages with different transmission intensities settings to assess the performance and utility of three immunoassays, e.g., an indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA_JX, an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA_SZ, and a dot immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA_SH. 6,248 individuals aged 6-65 years old who gave consent and supplied their stool and blood samples were included for data analysis. Results showed that ELISA_SZ performed significantly higher sensitivity (95.45%, 95%CI: 92.94-97.97% than IHA_JX (87.59%, 95%CI: 83.51-91.49% and DIGFA_SH (79.55%, 95%CI: 74.68-84.41%, especially in subgroups with very low infection intensity. The specificity of ELISA_SZ, IHA_JX, DIGFA_SH in 6-9 year olds with occasional exposure was nearly 90%. DIGFA_SH performed the highest screening efficacy for patients among three assays with overall positive predicative value of 13.07% (95%CI: 11.42-14.72%. We found a positive correlation of antibody positive rate of IHA_JX with results of stool examination in age strata (r = 0.70, P<0.001. Seropositivity of IHA_JX in children aged 6-9 years old showed an excellent correlation with prevalence of schistosome infection in the seven communities (r = 0.77, P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Studies suggest that ELISA

  3. Integrating horizon scanning and strategic risk prioritisation using a weight of evidence framework to inform policy decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, K; Lickorish, F A; Rocks, S A; Prpich, G; Rathe, A A; Pollard, S J T

    2016-08-01

    Poor connection between data on emerging issues and credible policy decisions continues to challenge governments, and is only likely to grow as demands on time and resources increase. Here we summarise recent efforts to integrate horizon scanning and risk prioritisation approaches to better connect emerging issues to the political discourse on environmental and food-related issues. Our categorisation of insights including potential future risks and opportunities to inform policy discussions has emerged from a structured three-year programme of horizon scanning for a UK pan-governmental futures partnership led by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra). Our efforts to integrate horizon scanning and risk prioritisation, utilising a qualitative weight of evidence framework, has created a systematic process for identifying all signals of potential future change with significant impact for the strategic mission and underlying values of policy actors. Our approach encourages an exploration of factors out of the control of organisations, recognising that resilience depends on the flexibility of management strategies and the preparedness to deal with a variety of unexpected outcomes. We discuss how this approach addresses key cultural and evaluative challenges that policy actors have had in embedding horizon scanning in evidence-based policy processes, and suggest further developments to build confidence in the use of horizon scanning for strategic planning. PMID:27093126

  4. Uncertainty in Renewable Energy Policy: How do Renewable Energy Credit markets and Production Tax Credits affect decisions to invest in renewable energy?

    OpenAIRE

    Eryilmaz, Derya; Homans, Frances

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the impacts of uncertainties in the US renewable energy policy on the investment decisions of renewable electricity producers. We develop a dynamic optimization model to understand how investment in wind energy depends on market and policy uncertainties in renewable energy markets. These uncertainties include the stochastic prices in the market for Renewable Electricity Credits (RECs) and the federal government's uncertain decision about continuation of Production Tax Cred...

  5. Policies for accelerating access to clean energy, improving health, advancing development, and mitigating climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Andy; Smith, Kirk R; Anderson, Dennis; Epstein, Paul R; McMichael, Anthony J; Roberts, Ian; Wilkinson, Paul; Woodcock, James; Woods, Jeremy

    2007-10-01

    The absence of reliable access to clean energy and the services it provides imposes a large disease burden on low-income populations and impedes prospects for development. Furthermore, current patterns of fossil-fuel use cause substantial ill-health from air pollution and occupational hazards. Impending climate change, mainly driven by energy use, now also threatens health. Policies to promote access to non-polluting and sustainable sources of energy have great potential both to improve public health and to mitigate (prevent) climate disruption. There are several technological options, policy levers, and economic instruments for sectors such as power generation, transport, agriculture, and the built environment. However, barriers to change include vested interests, political inertia, inability to take meaningful action, profound global inequalities, weak technology-transfer mechanisms, and knowledge gaps that must be addressed to transform global markets. The need for policies that prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate while addressing the energy needs of disadvantaged people is a central challenge of the current era. A comprehensive programme for clean energy should optimise mitigation and, simultaneously, adaption to climate change while maximising co-benefits for health--eg, through improved air, water, and food quality. Intersectoral research and concerted action, both nationally and internationally, will be required. PMID:17868819

  6. Policies for accelerating access to clean energy, improving health, advancing development, and mitigating climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Andy; Smith, Kirk R; Anderson, Dennis; Epstein, Paul R; McMichael, Anthony J; Roberts, Ian; Wilkinson, Paul; Woodcock, James; Woods, Jeremy

    2007-10-01

    The absence of reliable access to clean energy and the services it provides imposes a large disease burden on low-income populations and impedes prospects for development. Furthermore, current patterns of fossil-fuel use cause substantial ill-health from air pollution and occupational hazards. Impending climate change, mainly driven by energy use, now also threatens health. Policies to promote access to non-polluting and sustainable sources of energy have great potential both to improve public health and to mitigate (prevent) climate disruption. There are several technological options, policy levers, and economic instruments for sectors such as power generation, transport, agriculture, and the built environment. However, barriers to change include vested interests, political inertia, inability to take meaningful action, profound global inequalities, weak technology-transfer mechanisms, and knowledge gaps that must be addressed to transform global markets. The need for policies that prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate while addressing the energy needs of disadvantaged people is a central challenge of the current era. A comprehensive programme for clean energy should optimise mitigation and, simultaneously, adaption to climate change while maximising co-benefits for health--eg, through improved air, water, and food quality. Intersectoral research and concerted action, both nationally and internationally, will be required.

  7. The Impacts of Subsidy Policies on Vaccination Decisions in Contact Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Xu, Xiao-Ke; Small, Michael; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Often, vaccination programs are carried out based on self-interest rather than being mandatory. Owing to the perceptions about risks associated with vaccines and the `herd immunity' effect, it may provide suboptimal vaccination coverage for the population as a whole. In this case, some subsidy policies may be offered by the government to promote vaccination coverage. But, not all subsidy policies are effective in controlling the transmission of infectious diseases. We address the question of which subsidy policy is best, and how to appropriately distribute the limited subsidies to maximize vaccine coverage. To answer these questions, we establish a model based on evolutionary game theory, where individuals try to maximize their personal payoffs when considering the voluntary vaccination mechanism. Our model shows that voluntary vaccination alone is insufficient to control an epidemic. Hence, two subsidy policies are systematically studied: (1) in the free subsidy policy the total amount of subsidies is distri...

  8. The Formation of New Monetary Policies: Decisions of Central Banks on the Great Recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Esther Castro

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect that the Great Recession had on monetary policies has led to the profound reorientation of central banks’ actions from 2007 to 2013. The purpose of this work is to analyze the monetary policies applied by the main central banks, mainly the European Central Bank, the Federal Reserve System of USA and the Bank of Japan, in order to raise thoughts on the guidelines that central banks should follow in the future. In the first section the bases of monetary policy before the crisis are described; in the second we explain the change in the orientation of the role of central banks during the crisis; and finally, we synthesize the bases on which the economic debate is taking place on the orientation of future monetary policies. We conclude that, in so far as the inoperativeness of transmission mechanisms still persists, monetary policies will remain in a process of change.

  9. But What Do the Data Say? Lessons in Integrating Science and Policy to Inform International and Domestic Water Management Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, K.

    2015-12-01

    As scientists we are often encouraged to describe our research in terms of its "broader impacts" - to link our results to a tangible action or change outside of our scientific discipline. Although writing these goals in a proposal is simple, actually executing the proposed "broader impacts" is often more complicated. This presentation will briefly describe several international and domestic experiences that sought to utilize scientific research to inform pressing policy decisions related to water management. The lessons draw from ongoing efforts to improve transboundary groundwater collaboration in the Middle East, mitigate the impact of glacial lake outburst floods in high mountain regions, and prompt a political response to the California drought and groundwater depletion. As current initiatives at the science-policy interface, key challenges and ideas for improvement will be discussed, particularly: effective, concise communication of scientific data, awareness of broader political/economic contexts, and long-term trust building with decision-makers. Finally, this presentation will highlight several opportunities and suggestions to promote graduate students' involvement in these activities and to build skills at the science-policy interface.

  10. The Space Station decision - Politics, bureaucracy, and the making of public policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccurdy, Howard E.

    1991-01-01

    The lack of consensus that dominates the conception of major scientific and technological programs is demonstrated via a comparison of the decisions to build the Space Station and the Space Transportation System, and the decision to go to the moon. It is argued that the way political reality conditions administrative behavior in NASA is shown by the decision to promote international cooperation prior to program approval. It is concluded that so long as NASA remains a government agency, its officials will struggle to learn how to balance professional accountability with political reality.

  11. One map policy (OMP) implementation strategy to accelerate mapping of regional spatial planing (RTRW) in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasyim, Fuad; Subagio, Habib; Darmawan, Mulyanto

    2016-06-01

    A preparation of spatial planning documents require basic geospatial information and thematic accuracies. Recently these issues become important because spatial planning maps are impartial attachment of the regional act draft on spatial planning (PERDA). The needs of geospatial information in the preparation of spatial planning maps preparation can be divided into two major groups: (i). basic geospatial information (IGD), consist of of Indonesia Topographic maps (RBI), coastal and marine environmental maps (LPI), and geodetic control network and (ii). Thematic Geospatial Information (IGT). Currently, mostly local goverment in Indonesia have not finished their regulation draft on spatial planning due to some constrain including technical aspect. Some constrain in mapping of spatial planning are as follows: the availability of large scale ofbasic geospatial information, the availability of mapping guidelines, and human resources. Ideal conditions to be achieved for spatial planning maps are: (i) the availability of updated geospatial information in accordance with the scale needed for spatial planning maps, (ii) the guideline of mapping for spatial planning to support local government in completion their PERDA, and (iii) capacity building of local goverment human resources to completed spatial planning maps. The OMP strategies formulated to achieve these conditions are: (i) accelerating of IGD at scale of 1:50,000, 1: 25,000 and 1: 5,000, (ii) to accelerate mapping and integration of Thematic Geospatial Information (IGT) through stocktaking availability and mapping guidelines, (iii) the development of mapping guidelines and dissemination of spatial utilization and (iv) training of human resource on mapping technology.

  12. Government policy and healthcare management: proposal of a shared decision-making model

    OpenAIRE

    Petrillo, Antonella; Felice, Fabio de; Vanzanella, Carmela; Crispino, Filippo; Jennifer L Martin; Craven, Michael P; Morgan, Stephen P; Pecchia, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    As a consequence of the current economic crisis many changes have been introduced to health systems on national levels to reduce expenditure and to introduce more cost-effective methods. Then recent developments in medical technology have led to a shift in the traditional framework of physician-patient responsibility in health care decision making. In this context, the health community urges, in any case, decision makers to ensure that all changes introduced are in accordance with Health Syst...

  13. A tool for rapid assessment of erosion risk to support decision-making and policy development at the Ngenge watershed in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutekanga, F.P.; Visser, S.M.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2010-01-01

    This study tests a rapid, user-friendly method for assessing changes in erosion risk, which yields information to aid policy development and decision-making for sustainable natural resources management. There is currently a lack of timely, up-to-date and current information to support policy develop

  14. The Swedish model for groundwater policy: legal foundations, decision-making and practical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jeffrey; Sjöström, Jan; Höök, Malin; Sundström, Bo

    2013-06-01

    Public policy concerning groundwater is often complex, with diverse competing interests. With many countries facing similar challenges, it is instructive to examine the policy approaches that have and have not worked abroad. This article contributes to an international exchange of ideas on how best to approach these common problems by explaining how Sweden regulates its groundwater resources. From constitutional foundations to the practical details associated with applying existing policy, a synopsis is provided of groundwater jurisprudence in Sweden. Multiple governmental agencies are involved with groundwater policy in Sweden; this decentralized approach is probably a function of the natural abundance of clean aquifers throughout the country. Historically, the easy accessibility of high-quality groundwater made it a low priority in the context of environmental policy. It has simply never been an economic necessity to control groundwater resources through a single, unified governmental agency. Sweden is lagging behind many industrialized countries when it comes to implementing policies that protect and manage groundwater. Despite this, there are elements of Sweden's approach that are highly innovative and possibly unique globally and which therefore merit discussion.

  15. How robust is a robust policy? A comparative analysis of alternative robustness metrics for supporting robust decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwakkel, Jan; Haasnoot, Marjolijn

    2015-04-01

    In response to climate and socio-economic change, in various policy domains there is increasingly a call for robust plans or policies. That is, plans or policies that performs well in a very large range of plausible futures. In the literature, a wide range of alternative robustness metrics can be found. The relative merit of these alternative conceptualizations of robustness has, however, received less attention. Evidently, different robustness metrics can result in different plans or policies being adopted. This paper investigates the consequences of several robustness metrics on decision making, illustrated here by the design of a flood risk management plan. A fictitious case, inspired by a river reach in the Netherlands is used. The performance of this system in terms of casualties, damages, and costs for flood and damage mitigation actions is explored using a time horizon of 100 years, and accounting for uncertainties pertaining to climate change and land use change. A set of candidate policy options is specified up front. This set of options includes dike raising, dike strengthening, creating more space for the river, and flood proof building and evacuation options. The overarching aim is to design an effective flood risk mitigation strategy that is designed from the outset to be adapted over time in response to how the future actually unfolds. To this end, the plan will be based on the dynamic adaptive policy pathway approach (Haasnoot, Kwakkel et al. 2013) being used in the Dutch Delta Program. The policy problem is formulated as a multi-objective robust optimization problem (Kwakkel, Haasnoot et al. 2014). We solve the multi-objective robust optimization problem using several alternative robustness metrics, including both satisficing robustness metrics and regret based robustness metrics. Satisficing robustness metrics focus on the performance of candidate plans across a large ensemble of plausible futures. Regret based robustness metrics compare the

  16. Impact of Asymmetric Carbon Information on Supply Chain Decisions under Low-Carbon Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Through the establishment of the leading manufacturer Stackelberg game model under asymmetric carbon information, this paper investigates the misreporting behaviors of the supply chain members and their influences on supply chain performance. Based on “Benchmarking” allocation mechanism, three policies are considered: carbon emission trading, carbon tax, and a new policy which combined carbon quota and carbon tax mechanism. The results show that, in the three models, the leader in the supply chain, even if he has advantages of carbon information, will not lie about his information. That is because the manufacturer’s misreporting behavior has no effect on supply chain members’ performance. But the retailer will lie about the information when he has carbon information advantage. The high-carbon-emission retailers under the carbon trading policy, all the retailers under the carbon tax policy, and the high-carbon-emission retailers under combined quotas and tax policy would like to understate their carbon emissions. Coordination of revenue sharing contract is studied in supply chain to induce the retailer to declare his real carbon information. Optimal contractual parameters are deduced in the three models, under which the profit of the supply chain can be maximized.

  17. A Global Review of Incentive Programs to Accelerate Energy-Efficient Appliances and Equipment

    OpenAIRE

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2014-01-01

    Incentive programs are an essential policy tool to move the market toward energy-efficient products. They offer a favorable complement to mandatory standards and labeling policies by accelerating the market penetration of energy-efficient products above equipment standard requirements and by preparing the market for increased future mandatory requirements. They sway purchase decisions and in some cases production decisions and retail stocking decisions toward energy-efficient products. Incent...

  18. Average, sensitive and Blackwell-optimal policies in denumerable Markov decision chains with unbounded rewards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Dekker (Rommert); A. Hordijk (Arie)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we consider a (discrete-time) Markov decision chain with a denumerabloe state space and compact action sets and we assume that for all states the rewards and transition probabilities depend continuously on the actions. The first objective of this paper is to develop an anal

  19. Games, Social Simulations, and Data--Integration for Policy Decisions: The "Sudan" Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landwehr, Peter; Spraragen, Marc; Ranganathan, Balki; Carley, Kathleen M.; Zyda, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the development of the "Sudan Game," an interactive model of the country in the time period leading up to the Sudanese referendum on the secession of the South. While many simulations are designed to educate about their subjects, the "Sudan Game" is intended to be a prototype for policy making via gameplay. It…

  20. A decision support tool for simulating the effects of alternative policies affecting water resources: an application at the European scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassio, A.; Giupponi, C.; Hiederer, R.; Simota, C.

    2005-03-01

    This paper presents the methodology applied and results obtained from testing the Decision Support System 'mDSS' developed by the MULINO Project (Multi-sectoral, integrated and operational decision support system for the sustainable use of water resources at the catchment scale), for assessing alternative measures for the reduction of nitrogen pressure from agriculture on water resources at European level. The European policy background is set by the EU Nitrates Directive (91/676/EEC) and the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC). The nature of the research is exploratory. It is aimed in particular at testing the usefulness of available official statistics for ex ante evaluations of alternative policy measures at the European scale, and the feasibility of such operations within the newly released mDSS software. Alternative measures for reducing N-pressure and spatial targets were designed and simulated in a GIS environment based on raster maps of 1 km resolution. The geographic extent of the present work is defined as the agricultural land of EU15. Data deriving from official statistics were used to calculate a simplified nitrogen balance, in which the sources of nitrogen are separated into organic (livestock manure) and mineral fertilisers, to distinguish the potential contribution of livestock and crop productions to water pollution at the river basin scale. Spatial indicators and evaluation indices were defined within a conceptual framework. For the study the DPSIR approach (Driving force, Pressure, State, Impact, Response), proposed by the European Environmental Agency, was adopted. The approach was subsequently elaborated by means of the multi-criteria functionality provided by mDSS. The results of this application test at the regional scale highlight the potential of the tool for evaluating the effects of policy measures targeted at different spatial implementation strategies through the application of simple screening models and using available data

  1. Applying health economics for policy decision making: do devices differ from drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Corinna; Tarricone, Rosanna; Siebert, Markus; Drummond, Michael

    2011-05-01

    Medical devices pose unique challenges for economic evaluation and associated decision-making processes that differ from pharmaceuticals. We highlight and discuss these challenges in the context of cardiac device therapy, based on a systematic review of relevant economic evaluations. Key challenges include practical difficulties in conducting randomized clinical trials, allowing for a 'learning curve' and user characteristics, accounting for the wider organizational impacts of introducing new devices, and allowing for variations in product characteristics and prices over time.

  2. Student engagement in university decision-making:policies, processes and the student voice

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, Philip

    2013-01-01

    This thesis explores student engagement in university decision-making. Universities are expected to involve their students in a range of governance activities. Yet, the conceptual base for this is under-formed and often draws from learning theories. As a result, the emphasis is on what students should do and how they can be motivated to engage. This thesis proposes an alternative view that examines the issue from a public participation perspective. To support this, it offers a model of engage...

  3. A decision support system for integrated tourism development: rethinking tourism policies and management strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Bousset, J.P.; Skuras, D.; Tesitel, J.; Marsat, J.B.; A. Petrou; Fiallo-Pantziou, E.; Kuova, D.; Barto, M.

    2007-01-01

    Identifying the most appropriate institutional structures and strategies to integrate the views and coordinate the actions of diverse tourism stakeholders is a key stage in the development of integrated tourism in rural and lagging areas. In this work a Decision Support System (DSS) is developed which combines tools to assist in the analysis of the views, concerns and planned strategies of a wide range of tourism stakeholders in the face of given trends in tourists' expectations. The role a...

  4. The greatest happiness of the greatest number? Policy actors' perspectives on the limits of economic evaluation as a tool for informing health care coverage decisions in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Steve

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents qualitative findings from an assessment of the acceptability of using economic evaluation among policy actors in Thailand. Using cost-utility data from two economic analyses a hypothetical case scenario was created in which policy actors had to choose between two competing interventions to include in a public health benefit package. The two competing interventions, laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC for gallbladder disease versus renal dialysis for chronic renal disease, were selected because they highlighted conflicting criteria influencing the allocation of healthcare resources. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 36 policy actors who play a major role in resource allocation decisions within the Thai healthcare system. These included 14 policy makers at the national level, five hospital directors, ten health professionals and seven academics. Results Twenty six out of 36 (72% respondents were not convinced by the presentation of economic evaluation findings and chose not to support the inclusion of a proven cost-effective intervention (LC in the benefit package due to ethical, institutional and political considerations. There were only six respondents, including three policy makers at national level, one hospital director, one health professional and one academic, (6/36, 17% whose decisions were influenced by economic evaluation evidence. Conclusion This paper illustrates limitations of using economic evaluation information in decision making priorities of health care, perceived by different policy actors. It demonstrates that the concept of maximising health utility fails to recognise other important societal values in making health resource allocation decisions.

  5. Incorporation of environmental issues into policy, planning and decision making for the electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of efficient and rational use of energy offers the chance of a joint strategy for energy and environment policy. The energy side benefits from value for money and security of supply by 'saving' energy resources. The environment side benefits because CO2 emissions are avoided and other traditional energy related pollutants are reduced. Three major structural problems of traditional electricity supply are discussed: the lack of attention given to the possible uses of heat arising from electricity production, insufficient use of the decentralized electricity supply from industrial co-generation and from renewable energy resources, and the lack of attention given to the possible ways of reducing electricity demand. To cope with these problems, a comprehensive policy framework is needed which combines all the possibilities for action in planning administrative law and economic incentives, as well as for information and advisory measures, including further education and training. (author). 20 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  6. Pricing and ordering decisions of two competing supply chains with different composite policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taleizadeh, Ata Allah; Noori-Daryan, Mahsa; Govindan, Kannan

    2016-01-01

    to abate the operation costs of the chains and subsequently increase market shares. Hence, because of the importance and application of these strategies in the current non-exclusive markets, in this study, we introduce different composite coordinating strategies to enhance the coordination of the supply...... chains. Here, we consider two competing supply chains where both chains launch the same product under different brands to the market by applying different composite coordinating strategies. Each supply chain comprises one manufacturer and a group of non-competing retailers where the manufacturer receives...... policies, are considered between upstream and downstream members while in the second one, different composite polices are considered between upstream and downstream members such that the supplier offers a composite policy, as the first chain, to the manufacturer and the manufacturer proposes a composite...

  7. The Influence of Entry Mode Decisions on International Marketing Policies. A Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Musso

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Several studies on firms' marketing strategy in foreign markets revealed inconsistent resultsregarding the relationship between entry mode strategies and the adoption of marketing policies. Thisinconsistency was due to the diversity of assumptions used for the conceptualization of the influence of entrymodes on marketing strategies. The purpose of this paper is to offer a conceptual model that can support theanalysis of how the firm’s choice of entry mode may influence the adoption of marketing tools in the selectedmarket.

  8. Behavioral Public Economics: Welfare and Policy Analysis with Non-Standard Decision-Makers

    OpenAIRE

    B. Douglas Bernheim; Antonio Rangel

    2005-01-01

    This paper has two goals. First, we discuss several emerging approaches to applied welfare analysis under non-standard (“behavioral”) assumptions concerning consumer choice. This provides a foundation for Behavioral Public Economics. Second, we illustrate applications of these approaches by surveying behavioral studies of policy problems involving saving, addiction, and public goods. We argue that the literature on behavioral public economics, though in its infancy, has already fundamentally ...

  9. Racism, gun ownership and gun control:biased attitudes in US whites may influence policy decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Kerry O'Brien; Walter Forrest; Dermot Lynott; Michael Daly

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Racism is related to policies preferences and behaviors that adversely affect blacks and appear related to a fear of blacks (e.g., increased policing, death penalty). This study examined whether racism is also related to gun ownership and opposition to gun controls in US whites. METHOD: The most recent data from the American National Election Study, a large representative US sample, was used to test relationships between racism, gun ownership, and opposition to gun control in US wh...

  10. Development of policies for Natura 2000 sites: a multi-criteria approach to support decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, Carla; Boggia, Antonio

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to present a methodology to support decision makers in the choice of Natura 2000 sites needing an appropriate management plan to ensure a sustainable socio-economic development. In order to promote sustainable development in the Natura 2000 sites compatible with nature preservation, conservation measures or management plans are necessary. The main issue is to decide when only conservation measures can be applied and when the sites need an appropriate management plan. We present a case study for the Italian Region of Umbria. The methodology is based on a multi-criteria approach to identify the biodiversity index (BI), and on the development of a human activities index (HAI). By crossing the two indexes for each site on a Cartesian plane, four groups of sites were identified. Each group corresponds to a specific need for an appropriate management plan. Sites in the first group with a high level both of biodiversity and human activities have the most urgent need of an appropriate management plan to ensure sustainable development. The proposed methodology and analysis is replicable in other regions or countries by using the data available for each site in the Natura 2000 standard data form. A multi-criteria analysis is especially suitable for supporting decision makers when they deal with a multidimensional decision process. We found the multi-criteria approach particularly sound in this case, due to the concept of biodiversity itself, which is complex and multidimensional, and to the high number of alternatives (Natura 2000 sites) to be assessed.

  11. The limits of scientific information for informing forest policy decisions under changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, J. S.

    2011-12-01

    The distribution of tree species is largely determined by climate, with important consequences for ecosystem function, biodiversity, and the human economy. In the past, conflicts about priority among these various goods have produced persistent debate about forest policy and management. Despite this history of conflict, there has been general agreement on the framework for the debate: Our benchmark for assessing human impact is generally some historical condition (in the New World, this is often pre-European settlement). Wilderness is to be managed with minimal human intervention. Native species are preferred over non-natives. And regional landscapes can be effectively partitioned into independent jurisdictions with different management priorities. Each of these principles was always somewhat mythical, but the dynamics of broad scale species range shifts under climate change make all of them untenable in the future. Managed relocation (MR, or assisted migration) is a controversial proposal partly because it demands scientific answers that we do not have: Are trees naturally capable of shifting their ranges as fast as climate will force them? Will deliberate introductions of species beyond their native ranges have adverse impacts on the receiving ecosystem? What are appropriate targets for hydrologic or fire management under novel no-analog climates? However, these demands on science mask a more fundamental concern: the ethical framework underlying existing forest policy is unsupported in the context of long-term non-stationary environmental trends. Whether or not we conclude that MR is a useful policy option, debate about MR is useful because it forces us to place the global change ecology agenda in a larger ethical debate about our goals when managing novel ecosystems.

  12. 固定资产新加速折旧政策影响分析%New Accelerated Depreciation of Fixed Assets Policy Impact Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗鉴益; 徐伟

    2016-01-01

    2014年10月财政部、国家税务总局联合发布了关于固定资产新加速折旧政策的通知。新政策旨在推动我国经济转型,加速促进传统企业的技术改造,鼓励扶持中小企业创业创新,提高国际竞争能力。为帮助企业正确选择加速折旧政策从而实现减税负,对固定资产加速折旧方法的设计、新加速折旧政策及存在的问题进行了分析,对固定资产的认定标准、折旧方法和年限的确定、研发费用的加计扣除,以及加速折旧的选择时机等进行了探讨。%In October 2014,the Ministry of Finance and the State Administration of Taxation jointly issued a notice about the policy of new accelerated depreciation of fixed assets.New policy aimed at promoting China ’s economic and the traditional enterprise ’s technological transformation, encouraging and supporting small and medium-sized enterprises business innovation and improving the international competitiveness.This paper analyzed the design of accelerated depreciation of fixed assets,new accelerated depreciation policy and existing problems.The judging standard of fixed assets,depreciation method,depreciation life confirmation,research and development costs deduction and timing of accelerated depreciation aspects,that choosing accelerated depreciation policy to help enterprise reduce tax incidence and so on were discussed.

  13. State policy decisions in the 1990s with implications for the financial well-being of later-life families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gretchen J

    2006-01-01

    This study explores trends and patterns in states' policy decisions affecting the economic well-being of later-life individuals and families in the United States in recent decades, focusing on the 1990s. Rules were selected from the areas of inheritance, estate taxes, homestead exemptions, Medicaid eligibility, estate recovery, and filial responsibility. Results indicate an increasing use of a broad definition of family, one implying that spouses, the nuclear family, extended kin, step-relations, and sometimes in-laws constitute an ongoing collective whose members share economic resources and risks over their lives and beyond. Despite this global trend, states varied in their rules addressing intrafamilial financial obligations and families' accountability to states. While some seemed interested in facilitating the conservation of familial resources, others seemed willing to minimize public assistance while coercing kin into accepting financial responsibility for one another. Research was suggested to answer questions raised by this study.

  14. THE IMPACT OF MONETARY POLICY DECISIONS ON THE STOCK PRICES DURING THE PERIOD OF INFLATION TARGETING: AN EMPRICAL STUDY IN BIST

    OpenAIRE

    Ozdemir, Ahmet Kerem; Otluoglu, Emir

    2015-01-01

    an important issue both for policy makers and financial investors. In this context this study investigates the impact of monetary policy decisions on the stock prices during the period of inflation targeting. We used Johansen cointegration test and VAR/VEC methods in order to analyze the relationships between various BIST stock indices, overnight interbank interest rate, and USD-Turkish Lira exchange rate. Results demonstrate that interest rate shocks impact stock prices negatively and this i...

  15. Optimal pricing and lot-sizing decisions under Weibull distribution deterioration and trade credit policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manna S.K.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the problem of simultaneous determination of retail price and lot-size (RPLS under the assumption that the supplier offers a fixed credit period to the retailer. It is assumed that the item in stock deteriorates over time at a rate that follows a two-parameter Weibull distribution and that the price-dependent demand is represented by a constant-price-elasticity function of retail price. The RPLS decision model is developed and solved analytically. Results are illustrated with the help of a base example. Computational results show that the supplier earns more profits when the credit period is greater than the replenishment cycle length. Sensitivity analysis of the solution to changes in the value of input parameters of the base example is also discussed.

  16. Use of monitoring data to support conservation management and policy decisions in Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montambault, Jensen Reitz; Wongbusarakum, Supin; Leberer, Trina; Joseph, Eugene; Andrew, Wayne; Castro, Fran; Nevitt, Brooke; Golbuu, Yimnang; Oldiais, Noelle W; Groves, Craig R; Kostka, Willy; Houk, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Adaptive management implies a continuous knowledge-based decision-making process in conservation. Yet, the coupling of scientific monitoring and management frameworks remains rare in practice because formal and informal communication pathways are lacking. We examined 4 cases in Micronesia where conservation practitioners are using new knowledge in the form of monitoring data to advance marine conservation. These cases were drawn from projects in Micronesia Challenge jurisdictions that received funding for coupled monitoring-to-management frameworks and encompassed all segments of adaptive management. Monitoring in Helen Reef, Republic of Palau, was catalyzed by coral bleaching and revealed evidence of overfishing that led to increased enforcement and outreach. In Nimpal Channel, Yap, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), monitoring the recovery of marine food resources after customary restrictions were put in place led to new, more effective enforcement approaches. Monitoring in Laolao Bay, Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, was catalyzed by observable sediment loads from poor land-use practices and resulted in actions that reduced land-based threats, particularly littering and illegal burning, and revealed additional threats from overfishing. Pohnpei (FSM) began monitoring after observed declines in grouper spawning aggregations. This data led to adjusting marine conservation area boundaries and implementing market-based size class restrictions. Two themes emerged from these cases. First, in each case monitoring was conducted in a manner relevant to the social and ecological systems and integrated into the decision-making process. Second, conservation practitioners and scientists in these cases integrated culturally appropriate stakeholder engagement throughout all phases of the adaptive management cycle. More broadly, our study suggests, when describing adaptive management, providing more details on how monitoring and management activities are

  17. Funding the new biologics--public policy issues in drug formulary decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Steven

    2002-12-01

    One function of drug formularies is to allow health care providers to exert some control over spending. Decisions about whether to include a given medication in a formulary are based on estimates of its costs and effectiveness, relative to other treatment strategies. These decisions are made from a societal perspective, as opposed to that of individual patients, which sometimes results in conflicts. The clinical response to a medication often varies widely among subjects, which means that a small subgroup of patients might benefit dramatically, while others with the same disease do not. The result would be that a drug might appear not to be cost effective in an economic analysis, even though it is of proven value for some patients. New and innovative medications are assessed according to high standards of cost effectiveness, even though established treatments are wasteful of valuable health care resources. Moreover, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) discriminate against certain patient groups, including those with diseases that are associated with a high morbidity but a low mortality. Such patients often incur high indirect costs, including loss of employment income and costs incurred by family caregivers that QALYs do not reflect. Therefore, even though QALYs are transparent and widely applicable, they are not necessarily appropriate in the evaluation of a particular therapeutic intervention. A new paradigm should be developed for evaluating emerging therapies. An example would be a risk-sharing approach, whereby the pharmaceutical industry and public insurers share in the costs and rewards of introducing new treatments. This would have implications for the prices charged for new medications.

  18. Funding the New Biologics – Public Policy Issues in Drug Formulary Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Lewis

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available One function of drug formularies is to allow health care providers to exert some control over spending. Decisions about whether to include a given medication in a formulary are based on estimates of its costs and effectiveness, relative to other treatment strategies. These decisions are made from a societal perspective, as opposed to that of individual patients, which sometimes results in conflicts. The clinical response to a medication often varies widely among subjects, which means that a small subgroup of patients might benefit dramatically, while others with the same disease do not. The result would be that a drug might appear not to be cost effective in an economic analysis, even though it is of proven value for some patients. New and innovative medications are assessed according to high standards of cost effectiveness, even though established treatments are wasteful of valuable health care resources. Moreover, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs discriminate against certain patient groups, including those with diseases that are associated with a high morbidity but a low mortality. Such patients often incur high indirect costs, including loss of employment income and costs incurred by family caregivers that QALYs do not reflect. Therefore, even though QALYs are transparent and widely applicable, they are not necessarily appropriate in the evaluation of a particular therapeutic intervention. A new paradigm should be developed for evaluating emerging therapies. An example would be a risk-sharing approach, whereby the pharmaceutical industry and public insurers share in the costs and rewards of introducing new treatments. This would have implications for the prices charged for new medications.

  19. Canada's implementation of the Paragraph 6 Decision: is it sustainable public policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosio Andre

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following the Implementation of Paragraph 6 of the Doha Declaration on TRIPS and Public Health, Canada was among the first countries globally to amend its patent law, which resulted in Canada's Access to Medicines Regime (CAMR. CAMR allows the production and export of generic drugs to developing countries without the requisite manufacturing capacity to undertake a domestic compulsory license. CAMR has been the subject of much criticism lodged at its inability to ensure fast access to urgent medicines for least developing and developing countries in need. Only recently did the Canadian government grant Apotex the compulsory licenses required under CAMR to produce and export antiretroviral therapy to Rwanda's population. Methods The objective of this research is to investigate whether the CAMR can feasibly achieve its humanitarian objectives given the political interests embedded in the crafting of the legislation. We used a political economy framework to analyze the effect of varied institutions, political processes, and economic interests on public policy outcomes. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with nineteen key stakeholders from government, civil society and industry. Qualitative data analysis was performed using open-coding for themes, analyzing by stakeholder group. Results CAMR is removed from the realities of developing countries and the pharmaceutical market. The legislation needs to include commercial incentives to galvanize the generic drug industry to make use of this legislation. CAMR assumes that developing country governments have the requisite knowledge and human resource capacity to make use of the regime, which is not the case. The legislation does not offer sufficient incentives for countries to turn to Canada when needed drugs may be procured cheaply from countries such as India. In the long term, developing and least developing countries seek sustainable solutions to meet the health

  20. Decision-makers, donors and data: factors influencing the development of mental health and psychosocial policy in the Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwi, Anthony B; Blignault, Ilse; Bunde-Birouste, Anne W; Ritchie, Jan E; Silove, Derrick M

    2011-07-01

    Mental disorders and psychosocial problems are common, and present a significant public health burden globally. Increasingly, attention has been devoted to these issues in the aftermath of violent conflict. The Solomon Islands, a small Pacific island nation, has in recent years experienced periods of internal conflict. This article examines how policy decisions regarding mental health and wellbeing were incorporated into the national agenda in the years which followed. The study reveals the policy shifts, contextual influences and players responsible. The Solomon Islands' experience reflects incremental change, built upon longstanding but modest concern with mental health and social welfare issues, reinforced by advocacy from the small mental health team. Armed conflict and ethnic tensions from 1998 to 2003 promoted wider recognition of unmet mental health needs and psychosocial problems. Additional impetus was garnered through the positioning of key health leaders, some of whom were trained in public health. Working together, with an understanding of culture and politics, and drawing on external support, they drove the agenda. Contextual factors, notably further violence and the ongoing risk of instability, a growing youth population, and emerging international and local evidence, also played a part. PMID:21115459

  1. Integrated energy and carbon modeling with a decision support system: Policy scenarios for low-carbon city development in Bangkok

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy use in Bangkok accounts for a large portion of the total energy consumption in Thailand. Few energy and carbon studies, however, have focused on the level of the city. International research indicates that cities are the key drivers of energy usage and the associated carbon emissions. This paper presents a study on the options for energy and carbon development for the city of Bangkok. The Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) model is used to simulate a range of policy interventions and to predict how these would change energy and carbon development from 2000 to 2025. The planning period is assumed to start in 2005, and 2000 is used as the baseline year. Sustainability of the sixteen proposed policies and scenarios is analyzed using a multi-criteria decision-making approach. Results of this study provide an insight into Bangkok's energy and carbon future and highlight the steps required to promote a sustainable low-carbon society. The most significant energy savings are in the transport sector, where a modal shift from private passenger vehicles to mass transit systems has the potential to significantly reduce energy demand, carbon emissions, and local air pollutants.

  2. Improving energy decisions towards better scientific policy advice for a safe and secure future energy system

    CERN Document Server

    Droste-Franke, Bert; Kaiser, M; Schreurs, Miranda; Weber, Christoph; Ziesemer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Managing a successful transition of the current energy supply system to less carbon emitting options, ensuring a safe and secure supply during the whole process and in the long term, is one of the largest challenges of our time. Various approaches and first implementations show that it is not only technological issue, but also a matter of societal acceptance and acceptability, considering basic ethic values of the society. The main foci of the book are, thus, to develop an understanding about the specific challenges of the scientific policy advice in the area, to explore typical current approaches for the analysis of future energy systems and to develop criteria for the quality assessment and guidelines for the improvement of such studies. The book provides assistance to the interpretation of existing studies and guidelines for setting up and carrying out new analyses as well as for communicating and applying the results. Thereby, it aims to support the involved actors such as the respective scientific expert...

  3. Science-policy interface in transformative adaptive flood risk management - decision-making in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Thomas; Attems, Marie-Sophie; Rauter, Magdalena; Fuchs, Sven

    2016-04-01

    Facing the challenges of climate change, this paper aims to analyse and to evaluate the multiple use of flood alleviation schemes with respect to social transformation in communities exposed to flood hazards in Europe. The overall goals are: (1) the identification of indicators and parameters necessary for strategies to increase societal resilience, (2) an analysis of the institutional settings needed for societal transformation, and (3) perspectives of changing divisions of responsibilities between public and private actors necessary to arrive at more resilient societies. As such, governance is done by people interacting and defining risk mitigation measures as well as climate change adaptation are therefore simultaneously both outcomes of, and productive to, public and private responsibilities. Building off current knowledge this paper focussed on different dimensions of adaptation and mitigation strategies based on social, economic and institutional incentives and settings, centring on the linkages between these different dimensions and complementing existing flood risk governance arrangements. As such, the challenges of adaptation to flood risk will be tackled by converting scientific frameworks into practical assessment and policy advice. This paper used the Formative Scenario Analysis (FSA) as a method to construct well-defined sets of assumptions to gain insight into a system and its potential future development, based on qualitatively assessed impact factors and rated quantitative relations between these factors, such as impact and consistency analysis. The purpose of this approach was to develop scenarios, where participations develop their own strategies how to implement a transformative adaptation strategy in flood risk management. In particular, the interaction between researcher, the public and policy makers was analysed. Challenges and limitations were assessed, such as benefits on costs of adaptation measures, for the implementation of visions to

  4. Integrated agro-hydrological modelling and economic analysis of BMPs to support decision making and policy design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroy, E.; Rousseau, A. N.; Hallema, D. W.

    2012-12-01

    With recent efforts and increasing control over point source pollution of freshwater, agricultural non-point pollution sources have become responsible for most of sediment and nutrient loads in North American water systems. Environmental and agricultural agencies have recognised the need for reducing eutrophication and have developed various policies to compel or encourage producers to best management practices (BMPs). Addressing diffuse pollution is challenging considering the complex and cumulative nature of transport processes, high variability in space and time, and prohibitive costs of distributed water quality monitoring. Many policy options exist to push producers to adopt environmentally desirable behaviour while keeping their activity viable, and ensure equitable costs to consumers and tax payers. On the one hand, economic instruments (subsidies, taxes, water quality markets) are designed to maximize cost-effectiveness, so that farmers optimize their production for maximum profit while implementing BMPs. On the other hand, emission standards or regulation of inputs are often easier and less costly to implement. To study economic and environmental impacts of such policies, a distributed modelling approach is needed to deal with the complexity of the system and the large environmental and socio-economic data requirements. Our objective is to integrate agro-hydrological modelling and economic analysis to support decision and policy making processes of BMP implementation. The integrated modelling system GIBSI was developed in an earlier study within the Canadian WEBs project (Watershed Evaluation of BMPs) to evaluate the influence of BMPs on water quality. The case study involved 30 and 15 year records of discharge and water quality measurements respectively, in the Beaurivage River watershed (Quebec, Canada). GIBSI provided a risk-based overview of the impact of BMPs (including vegetated riparian buffer strips, precision slurry application, conversion to

  5. Global changes in atmospheric concentrations of hydrochlorofluorocarbons and hydrofluorocarbons: assessing and guiding international policy decisions (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montzka, S. A.; Miller, B. R.; Hu, L.; Siso, C.; Moore, F.; Hall, B. D.; Elkins, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric observations allow an objective and independent assessment of policy controls related to the release of chemicals to the atmosphere. Currently there are substantial uncertainties regarding the magnitude of recent hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) use and how these compound classes will affect future stratospheric ozone depletion and climate. Here we report recent atmospheric trends for these compounds as measured from NOAA's global sampling network and other broad-scale sampling programs. When combined with our understanding of loss rates, the observations suggest smaller emission increases in HCFCs since 2007 than derived for the baseline scenario of the 2010 WMO Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion. They indicate that HCFC emissions have increased minimally (constant within 5%) after the 2007 Adjustments to the Montreal Protocol were agreed upon, which was well in advance of the 2013 freeze on global HCFC production. Additionally, our measurements allow the climate impacts associated with current use of HFCs to be accurately estimated and the future climate benefits of potential controls to be assessed. Global emissions of the major HFCs used as ODS substitutes totaled 450-500 MtCO2-eq/yr in 2012, which is approximately 1.5% of fossil-fuel-related emissions of CO2 in recent years. Approximately one-third of CO2-equivalent HFC emissions related to ODS substitution are currently from use of HFC-134a in mobile air conditioning, an application for which a short-lived and low-GWP alternative has been identified.

  6. Quantification of the regional carbon cycle of the biosphere: policy, science and land-use decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihlar, J

    2007-11-01

    This paper addresses some issues related to the carbon cycle and its utilization by society. Traditional uses for agriculture, forestry, as a source of fuel and other products, and for pastoral farming, among others, have recently been supplemented by identifying its potential for mitigating the increasing concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Through the Kyoto Protocol, carbon has become a commodity and the CO(2)-absorbing capability of the vegetation and soils an economically valuable asset. The multi-facetted roles of the C cycle and its sensitivity to human activities present a demand for techniques that permit accurate, timely and affordable characterization of the various components of this cycle, especially on land where most human activities take place. Such techniques must satisfy a range of demands in terms of purpose, clients for the information, and biosphere properties. However, if successful, they offer the potential to support monitoring, reporting, policy setting, and management of terrestrial biospheric resources. The context for these requirements and possibilities is illustrated with reference to the China Carbon Sequestration Project and its findings.

  7. Policies to improve end-of-life decisions in Flemish hospitals: communication, training of health care providers and use of quality assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noortgate Nele

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence and implementation of institutional end-of-life policies has been comprehensively studied in Flanders, Belgium, a country where euthanasia was legalised in 2002. Developing end-of-life policies in hospitals is a first step towards improving the quality of medical decision-making at the end-of-life. Implementation of policies through quality assessments, communication and the training and education of health care providers is equally important in improving actual end-of-life practice. The aim of the present study is to report on the existence and nature of end-of-life policy implementation activities in Flemish acute hospitals. Methods A cross-sectional mail survey was sent to all acute hospitals (67 main campuses in Flanders (Belgium. The questionnaire asked about hospital characteristics, the prevalence of policies on five types of end-of-life decisions: euthanasia, palliative sedation, alleviation of symptoms with possible life-shortening effect, do-not-resuscitate decision, and withdrawing or withholding of treatment, the internal and external communication of these policies, training and education on aspects of end-of-life care, and quality assessments of end-of-life care on patient and family level. Results The response rate was 55%. Results show that in 2007 written policies on most types of end-of-life decisions were widespread in acute hospitals (euthanasia: 97%, do-not-resuscitate decisions: 98%, palliative sedation: 79%. While standard communication of these policies to health care providers was between 71% and 91%, it was much lower to patients and/or family (between 17% and 50%. More than 60% of institutions trained and educated their caregivers in different aspects on end-of-life care. Assessment of the quality of these different aspects at patient and family level occurred in 25% to 61% of these hospitals. Conclusions Most Flemish acute hospitals have developed a policy on end-of-life practices

  8. Policy statements and practice guidelines for medical end-of-life decisions in Dutch health care institutions: Developments in the past decade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, H.R.W.; Wolf, de JT; Hesselink, B.A.M.; Heide, van der A.; Wal, van der G.; Maas, van der P.J.; Philipsen, B.D.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the existence of policy statements on euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (EAS) and practice guidelines for all medical end-of-life decisions in Dutch health care institutions in 2005, whether the existence of practice guidelines is related to characteristics of institu

  9. Multi-criteria decision analysis of breast cancer control in low- and middle- income countries: development of a rating tool for policy makers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venhorst, K.; Zelle, S.G.; Tromp, N.; Lauer, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to develop a rating tool for policy makers to prioritize breast cancer interventions in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs), based on a simple multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach. The definition and identification of criteria play a key

  10. Supporting Building Portfolio Investment and Policy Decision Making through an Integrated Building Utility Data Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, Azizan [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Lasternas, Bertrand [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Alschuler, Elena [US DOE; View Inc; Loftness, Vivian [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Wang, Haopeng [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Mo, Yunjeong [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Wang, Ting [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Zhang, Chenlu [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Sharma, Shilpi [Carnegie Mellon; Stevens, Ivana [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-03-18

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act stimulus funding of 2009 for smart grid projects resulted in the tripling of smart meters deployment. In 2012, the Green Button initiative provided utility customers with access to their real-time1 energy usage. The availability of finely granular data provides an enormous potential for energy data analytics and energy benchmarking. The sheer volume of time-series utility data from a large number of buildings also poses challenges in data collection, quality control, and database management for rigorous and meaningful analyses. In this paper, we will describe a building portfolio-level data analytics tool for operational optimization, business investment and policy assessment using 15-minute to monthly intervals utility data. The analytics tool is developed on top of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Standard Energy Efficiency Data (SEED) platform, an open source software application that manages energy performance data of large groups of buildings. To support the significantly large volume of granular interval data, we integrated a parallel time-series database to the existing relational database. The time-series database improves on the current utility data input, focusing on real-time data collection, storage, analytics and data quality control. The fully integrated data platform supports APIs for utility apps development by third party software developers. These apps will provide actionable intelligence for building owners and facilities managers. Unlike a commercial system, this platform is an open source platform funded by the U.S. Government, accessible to the public, researchers and other developers, to support initiatives in reducing building energy consumption.

  11. Rosneft, Gazprom and the Government: the Decision-Making Triangle on Russia's Energy Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russia finds itself exposed to many risks in the fast-moving global revolution in energy affairs, and cannot avail of its opportunities despite its unique combination of natural resources and experience in their exploitation. It has entered the phase of economic stagnation, and the under-performance of the energy sector is one of the key determinants of the durability of this trend. Energy export can no longer be wielded as a heavy-impact instrument of foreign policy, and the squabbles for shrinking oil and gas revenues form a key driver of the evolving crisis of the petro-authoritarian regime built by President Vladimir Putin. Escalating problems in the Russian energy sector are caused by the system of decision-making on oil and gas matters, in which Putin acts as a supreme arbiter in the flexible triangle formed by the government and two super-large state companies-Gazprom and Rosneft. It is the imperative of checking the decline of budget revenues that determines the priority in government policy of greater confiscation of profits and heavier taxation of the energy business. This squeeze on the interests of energy 'oligarchs' provokes them to appeal to Putin for tax breaks, which he is increasingly reluctant to grant, given the need to pursue an active social policy. The constant flow of insoluble issues makes Putin irritable and generally less engaged with the energy business than he used to be. Gazprom's notorious inefficiency in its core business emboldens competitors to capture greater shares of the domestic market and to demand exemptions from its export monopoly. Putin is loath to carry this political liability but remains reluctant to contemplate reforms that would amount to un-bundling of this conglomerate. Rosneft under the control of Igor Sechin has become the champion of the Russian oil industry, executing a series of acquisitions and signing a series of deals with Western 'majors'. Putin's benevolence is the key to the

  12. Evaluation of power investment decisions under uncertain carbon policy: A case study for converting coal fired steam turbine to combined cycle gas turbine plants in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Policy uncertainty effects quantified in Australian power generation investments. • A decision criterion provided to recommend optimal investment timing. • The Clean Energy Act 2011 and high carbon price policy scenarios investigated. • Post- implementation policy uncertainty creates disincentive for policy objectives. • Setting a higher carbon price may dampen effects of political uncertainty. - Abstract: Greenhouse gas (GHG) intensive fuels are currently a major input into the Australian electricity sector. Accordingly, climate change mitigation policies represent a systematic risk to investment in electricity generation assets. Although the Australian government introduced carbon pricing in 2012 and announced a commitment to the continuation of the Kyoto protocol beyond 2012, the opposition at the time signalled that should they be provided the opportunity they would repeal these policies. This paper uses a real options analysis (ROA) framework to investigate the optimal timing of one potential business response to carbon pricing: investment in the conversion of coal plant to lower emission CCGT plant. An American-style option valuation method is used for this purpose. The viewpoint is from that of a private investor assessing three available options for an existing coal plant: (1) to invest in its conversion to CCGT; (2) to abandon it, or; (3) to take no immediate action. The method provides a decision criterion that informs the investor whether or not to delay the investment. The effect of market and political uncertainty is studied for both the Clean Energy Act 2011 (CEA) and high carbon price (HCP) policy scenarios. The results of the modelling suggest that political uncertainty after the implementation of carbon pricing impedes the decision to switch to cleaner technologies. However, this effect can be mitigated by implementing higher expected carbon prices

  13. The Real-Time Data Analysis and Decision System for Particle Flux Detection in the LHC Accelerator at CERN.

    CERN Document Server

    Zamantzas, C; Dehning, B

    2006-01-01

    The superconducting Large Hadron Collider (LHC) under construction at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) is an accelerator unprecedented in terms of beam energy, particle production rate and also in the potential of self-destruction. Its operation requires a large variety of instrumentation, not only for the control of the beams, but also for the protection of the complex hardware systems. The Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system has to prevent the superconducting magnets from becoming normal conducting and protect the machine components against damages making it one of the most critical elements for the protection of the LHC. For its operation, the system requires 3600 detectors to be placed at various locations around the 27 km ring. The measurement system is sub-divided to the tunnel electronics, which are responsible for acquiring, digitising and transmitting the data, and the surface electronics, which receive the data via 2 km optical data links, process, analyze, store and issue warning...

  14. Achieving a Risk-Informed Decision-Making Environment at NASA: The Emphasis of NASA's Risk Management Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, Homayoon

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the evolution of risk management (RM) at NASA. The aim of the RM approach at NASA is to promote an approach that is heuristic, proactive, and coherent across all of NASA. Risk Informed Decision Making (RIDM) is a decision making process that uses a diverse set of performance measures along with other considerations within a deliberative process to inform decision making. RIDM is invoked for key decisions such as architecture and design decisions, make-buy decisions, and budget reallocation. The RIDM process and how it relates to the continuous Risk Management (CRM) process is reviewed.

  15. COPE-SMARTER - A decision support system for analysing the challenges, opportunities and policy initiatives: A case study of electric commercial vehicles market diffusion in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn; Kaplan, Sigal; Frenzel, Ina;

    2016-01-01

    of electric commercial vehicles (ECVs) in commercial sector in Denmark. We propose a new four-step expert-based technique, named COPE-SMARTER, for evaluating the market diffusion of environmental friendly technologies by combining SWOT analysis and multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) techniques. We focus......Stakeholder's strategies in encouraging wide-scale market penetration depend on their perceptions. This study focuses on perceptions of Danish practitioners in policy-making organizations regarding the perceived challenges, opportunities and policy initiatives for the majority-market adoption...

  16. Provincial prenatal record revision: a multiple case study of evidence-based decision-making at the population-policy level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olson Joanne

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a significant gap in the knowledge translation literature related to how research evidence actually contributes to health care decision-making. Decisions around what care to provide at the population (rather than individual level are particularly complex, involving considerations such as feasibility, cost, and population needs in addition to scientific evidence. One example of decision-making at this "population-policy" level involves what screening questions and intervention guides to include on standardized provincial prenatal records. As mandatory medical reporting forms, prenatal records are potentially powerful vehicles for promoting population-wide evidence-based care. However, the extent to which Canadian prenatal records reflect best-practice recommendations for the assessment of well-known risk factors such as maternal smoking and alcohol consumption varies markedly across Canadian provinces and territories. The goal of this study is to better understand the interaction of contextual factors and research evidence on decision-making at the population-policy level, by examining the processes by which provincial prenatal records are reviewed and revised. Methods Guided by Dobrow et al.'s (2004 conceptual model for context-based evidence-based decision-making, this study will use a multiple case study design with embedded units of analysis to examine contextual factors influencing the prenatal record revision process in different Canadian provinces and territories. Data will be collected using multiple methods to construct detailed case descriptions for each province/territory. Using qualitative data analysis techniques, decision-making processes involving prenatal record content specifically related to maternal smoking and alcohol use will be compared both within and across each case, to identify key contextual factors influencing the uptake and application of research evidence by prenatal record review

  17. Strategic decision-making of Chinese managers on corporate social responsibility issues: A policy-capturing study

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shuo

    2011-01-01

    The motivations of this study are as follows: to provide a comprehensive review of the corporate social responsibility (CSR) literature; to analyse CSR issues from a strategic decision-making aspect; and to investigate the process of individual decision-makers’ CSRrelated decision-making in China. Therefore, the aims of this research are (1) to examine how managers’ strategic decision-making concerning CSR differs in different environments, (2) to analyse how stakeholder claims influence a ma...

  18. Space-time clustering analysis of wildfires: The influence of dataset characteristics, fire prevention policy decisions, weather and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Joana; Pereira, Mário G; Tonini, Marj

    2016-07-15

    The present study focuses on the dependence of the space-time permutation scan statistics (STPSS) (1) on the input database's characteristics and (2) on the use of this methodology to assess changes on the fire regime due to different type of climate and fire management activities. Based on the very strong relationship between weather and the fire incidence in Portugal, the detected clusters will be interpreted in terms of the atmospheric conditions. Apart from being the country most affected by the fires in the European context, Portugal meets all the conditions required to carry out this study, namely: (i) two long and comprehensive official datasets, i.e. the Portuguese Rural Fire Database (PRFD) and the National Mapping Burnt Areas (NMBA), respectively based on ground and satellite measurements; (ii) the two types of climate (Csb in the north and Csa in the south) that characterizes the Mediterranean basin regions most affected by the fires also divide the mainland Portuguese area; and, (iii) the national plan for the defence of forest against fires was approved a decade ago and it is now reasonable to assess its impacts. Results confirmed (1) the influence of the dataset's characteristics on the detected clusters, (2) the existence of two different fire regimes in the country promoted by the different types of climate, (3) the positive impacts of the fire prevention policy decisions and (4) the ability of the STPSS to correctly identify clusters, regarding their number, location, and space-time size in spite of eventual space and/or time splits of the datasets. Finally, the role of the weather on days when clustered fires were active was confirmed for the classes of small, medium and large fires. PMID:27058134

  19. The effect of political cycles on power investment decisions: Expectations over the repeal and reinstatement of carbon policy mechanisms in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Effect of political cycles quantified in power generation investments. • Expected repeal and reinstatement of carbon policy modelled dynamically. • A survey of experts informed the decision making model. • Expectations over reinstatement of policy dampens the effect of expected repeal. - Abstract: Political uncertainty over global greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policy is likely to defer investment in cleaner technologies. It may also incentivise short-lived, high-cost interim investments while businesses wait for the uncertainty to subside. The range of possible policy responses to the issue has created uncertainty over the future of national mitigation pathways. Given that the electricity sector, globally, is a major emitter of GHGs, this represents a systematic risk to investment in electricity generation assets. This paper uses a real options analysis framework informed by a survey of experts conducted in Australia – used as a proxy to model the degree of the uncertainty – to investigate the optimal timing for investment in the conversion of a coal plant to a combined cycle gas turbine plant using the American-style option valuation method. The effect of market and political uncertainty is studied for the Clean Energy Act 2011 in Australia. Political uncertainty is addressed bi-modally in terms of: (1) uncertainty over the repeal of the carbon pricing policy, and (2) if it is repealed, uncertainty over the reinstatement of the policy, to represent the effect of electoral cycles and the possibility of more stringent future global mitigation efforts. Results of the analysis show that although political uncertainty with respect to GHG mitigation policy may delay investment in the conversion of the coal plant, expectations over the reinstatement of the carbon pricing reduces the amount of option premium to defer the conversion decision

  20. Broadening public input into science policy decision making: can the democratic model for science communication influence scientific, innovation and technological trajectories?

    OpenAIRE

    O'Mahony, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    This PhD thesis investigates the potential use of science communication models to engage a broader swathe of actors in decision making in relation to scientific and technological innovation in order to address possible democratic deficits in science and technology policy-making. A four-pronged research approach has been employed to examine different representations of the public(s) and different modes of engagement. The first case study investigates whether patient-groups could represent an a...

  1. Challenges to Slovakia and Poland health policy decisions: use of investment treaties to claim compensation for reversal of privatisation/liberalisation policies

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, David

    2010-01-01

    Investment treaties, and possibly the EU Treaty itself, are being used by multinational companies Penta and Eureko to try and force the Slovak government to pay compensation for reversing health privatisation and liberalisation policies. Similar action has been used against the Polish government by Eureko to win compensation worth nearly 2 billion Euros and a policy commitment to further privatisation.

  2. Joint research project to develop a training course or nuclear policy decision makers and planners in developing countries between KAERI and IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E. J.; Suh, I. S.; Lee, H. Y. and others

    2000-12-01

    KAERI developed training course curricula on nuclear power policy and planning for decision makers and planners in developing countries under the assistance of the IAEA. It was utilized two IAEA staff members and a Korean consultation group were utilized for the development of curricula. Curriculum consists of training objectives, training contents in modular basis, detailed contents of each training module, training setting, training duration, session hours, and entry requirements of audience. One is workshop on nuclear energy policy for high-level decision makers in developing countries. The other is training course on nuclear power planning and project management for middle level managers in developing countries. The textbook in English will be printed by the end of February in 2001. Developed curricula will be implemented for Vietnam high level nuclear decision makers, middle level managers in developing countries and north Korea nuclear high level decision makers in 2001. These training courses' curricula and textbook will be utilized as basic technical documents to promote the national nuclear bilateral technical cooperation programs with Morocco, Egypt, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Ukraine, etc.

  3. Joint research project to develop a training course or nuclear policy decision makers and planners in developing countries between KAERI and IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KAERI developed training course curricula on nuclear power policy and planning for decision makers and planners in developing countries under the assistance of the IAEA. It was utilized two IAEA staff members and a Korean consultation group were utilized for the development of curricula. Curriculum consists of training objectives, training contents in modular basis, detailed contents of each training module, training setting, training duration, session hours, and entry requirements of audience. One is workshop on nuclear energy policy for high-level decision makers in developing countries. The other is training course on nuclear power planning and project management for middle level managers in developing countries. The textbook in English will be printed by the end of February in 2001. Developed curricula will be implemented for Vietnam high level nuclear decision makers, middle level managers in developing countries and north Korea nuclear high level decision makers in 2001. These training courses' curricula and textbook will be utilized as basic technical documents to promote the national nuclear bilateral technical cooperation programs with Morocco, Egypt, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Ukraine, etc

  4. The Role of Science in Advising the Decision Making Process: A Pathway for Building Effective Climate Change Mitigation Policies in Mexico at the Local Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza, Roberto; Velazquez-Angulo, Gilberto; Flores-Tavizón, Edith; Romero-González, Jaime; Huertas-Cardozo, José Ignacio

    2016-04-27

    This study examines a pathway for building urban climate change mitigation policies by presenting a multi-dimensional and transdisciplinary approach in which technical, economic, environmental, social, and political dimensions interact. Now, more than ever, the gap between science and policymaking needs to be bridged; this will enable judicious choices to be made in regarding energy and climate change mitigation strategies, leading to positive social impacts, in particular for the populations at-risk at the local level. Through a case study in Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, we propose a multidimensional and transdisciplinary approach with the role of scientist as policy advisers to improve the role of science in decision-making on mitigation policies at the local level in Mexico.

  5. The Role of Science in Advising the Decision Making Process: A Pathway for Building Effective Climate Change Mitigation Policies in Mexico at the Local Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza, Roberto; Velazquez-Angulo, Gilberto; Flores-Tavizón, Edith; Romero-González, Jaime; Huertas-Cardozo, José Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    This study examines a pathway for building urban climate change mitigation policies by presenting a multi-dimensional and transdisciplinary approach in which technical, economic, environmental, social, and political dimensions interact. Now, more than ever, the gap between science and policymaking needs to be bridged; this will enable judicious choices to be made in regarding energy and climate change mitigation strategies, leading to positive social impacts, in particular for the populations at-risk at the local level. Through a case study in Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, we propose a multidimensional and transdisciplinary approach with the role of scientist as policy advisers to improve the role of science in decision-making on mitigation policies at the local level in Mexico. PMID:27128933

  6. The Role of Science in Advising the Decision Making Process: A Pathway for Building Effective Climate Change Mitigation Policies in Mexico at the Local Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Barraza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines a pathway for building urban climate change mitigation policies by presenting a multi-dimensional and transdisciplinary approach in which technical, economic, environmental, social, and political dimensions interact. Now, more than ever, the gap between science and policymaking needs to be bridged; this will enable judicious choices to be made in regarding energy and climate change mitigation strategies, leading to positive social impacts, in particular for the populations at-risk at the local level. Through a case study in Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, we propose a multidimensional and transdisciplinary approach with the role of scientist as policy advisers to improve the role of science in decision-making on mitigation policies at the local level in Mexico.

  7. The Role of Science in Advising the Decision Making Process: A Pathway for Building Effective Climate Change Mitigation Policies in Mexico at the Local Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza, Roberto; Velazquez-Angulo, Gilberto; Flores-Tavizón, Edith; Romero-González, Jaime; Huertas-Cardozo, José Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    This study examines a pathway for building urban climate change mitigation policies by presenting a multi-dimensional and transdisciplinary approach in which technical, economic, environmental, social, and political dimensions interact. Now, more than ever, the gap between science and policymaking needs to be bridged; this will enable judicious choices to be made in regarding energy and climate change mitigation strategies, leading to positive social impacts, in particular for the populations at-risk at the local level. Through a case study in Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, we propose a multidimensional and transdisciplinary approach with the role of scientist as policy advisers to improve the role of science in decision-making on mitigation policies at the local level in Mexico. PMID:27128933

  8. Cooperation and organization in decision making : a more decisive road safety policy ? : results from a multiple case study in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bax, C.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the administrative processes that led to the implementation of road safety measures in Dutch Regional Traffic and Transport Plans. The design of the study is a multiple case study in six regions in the Netherlands. The road safety policy is evaluated by looking at the effectivene

  9. 18 CFR 388.103 - Notice and publication of decisions, rules, statements of policy, organization and operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... organization, its methods of operation, statements of policy and interpretations, procedural and substantive... be obtained from: Commerce Clearing House, Inc. 4025 West Peterson Avenue, Chicago, Illinois...

  10. Health care policy in theory and practice: a review of the process as a product of rational decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosono, M

    1998-01-01

    Decisions are not made in a vacuum. Both theories and practical circumstances influence how reason and decision-making are conceived. In this article, the focus is on organizations and their impact on shaping the decision-making process. Organizational theories, management philosophies, and structural considerations are reviewed, with emphasis placed on how they influence the search for information, the conceptualization of data, the possible uses of knowledge, and the formation of behavioral goals. Accordingly, decision-making is contextualized; organizational assumptions are linked to the reasonableness of a decision. As modern writers say, the "taken-for-grantedness" of an organization is illustrated to be tied inextricably to the nature of reason and assessments of rationality.

  11. How can public policies accelerate the progress in technologies for the struggle against climate change?; Comment les politiques publiques peuvent-elles accelerer le progres sur les technologies de lutte contre le changement climatique?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieillefosse, A

    2008-07-01

    After having recalled the three stages of the technical progress according to Schumpeter (invention, innovation and diffusion), and the roles of R and D and learning in this process, the author briefly comments the cost evolution of different energy production technologies between 1980 and 1995, proposes a simple modelling of the learning system under the influence of public policies, and indicates the research themes by 2050. Then, she discusses the fact that the R and D level is not socially optimal, notably because of market imperfections, and also because some innovations may have applications within a time which is too long for companies. This is the reason why the State generally takes care of fundamental research. She discusses either demand-based or supply-based public policies aiming at accelerating the progress in low carbon technologies, describes the international cooperation in R and D (agreement on research on low carbon technologies, standards), and how to promote the diffusion of technology towards developing countries (problem of emission increase in these countries, technology transfer in general and within the frame of the convention on climate change, public development support and direct foreign investments)

  12. 试论审计政策与审计决策的相关性%Relevance of Audit Policy and Audit Decisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏明

    2014-01-01

    During decision-making process of audit policy, "entrepreneurial spirit" is needed. Formulation of audit policy and decision-making to follow the rule of law, such as audits "internal system of order". The logic of audit policies can be understood, respected and implement in the whole society lies in: the concept of public accountability in national systems au-dit gives moral rationality, and its legitimacy, that the people granted the right to audit and supervision, it's complete reflect-ing the will of the people or the country.%审计政策决策过程中要发挥“企业家精神”,审计政策的制订要遵循审计规律和决策规律等“内在制序”。审计政策能够在全社会得到理解尊重并贯彻执行的逻辑力量在于:公共受托责任观念赋予了审计在国家制度中的道德合理性,而其合法性即人民授予的审计监督权完整的体现了人民或国家的意志。

  13. NitroGenius: a nitrogen decision support system. A game to develop the optimal policy to solve the Dutch nitrogen pollution problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erisman, Jan Willem; Hensen, Arjan; de Vries, Wim; Kros, Hans; van de Wal, Tamme; de Winter, Wim; Wien, Jan Erik; van Elswijk, Mark; Maat, Matthijs; Sanders, Kaj

    2002-03-01

    A nitrogen decision support system in the form of a game (NitroGenius) was developed for the Second International Nitrogen Conference. The aims were to: i) improve understanding among scientists and policy makers about the complexity of nitrogen pollution problems in an area of intensive agricultural, industrial, and transportation activity (The Netherlands); and ii) search for optimal policy solutions to prevent pollution effects at lowest economic and social costs. NitroGenius includes a model of nitrogen flows at relevant spatial and temporal scales including emissions of ammonia and nitrogen oxides and contamination of surface- and groundwaters. NitroGenius also includes an economic model describing relationships for important sectors and impacts of different nitrogen control measures on Gross Domestic Product (GDP), unemployment, energy use, and environmental costs. About 50 teams played NitroGenius during the Second International Nitrogen Conference. The results show that careful planning and selection of abatement options can solve Dutch nitrogen problems at reasonable cost.

  14. Decision-Support Tools that Harmonize People and Nature: Using InVEST Water Models in Innovative Policies in China and Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghile, Y.; Daily, G. C.

    2011-12-01

    In promising a return (of services) on investments in natural capital, the scientific community needs to deliver knowledge and tools to quantify and forecast this return. To help address this challenge, the Natural Capital Project has developed a suite of models for Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST). InVEST helps decision makers visualize the impacts of potential policies - identifying tradeoffs and compatibilities between environmental, economic, and social benefits - by modeling and mapping the delivery, distribution, and economic value of ecosystem services under alternative scenarios. We will describe InVEST water models - for sediment retention, water quality provision, and hydropower production - and their application in major land-use policies in China and Latin America. To meet increasing demand for this family of tools and related approaches, the science of ecosystem service provision must be advanced rapidly.

  15. Space to Village: Connecting Science and Policy for Better Climate Decision-Making in the Developing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, C. E.; Danao-Schroeder, N.; Mugo, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    As climate change is felt around the world, research indicates that developing countries bear the greatest impacts. Scientists have long been building models, applications, and tools to assist with climate change mitigation, adaptation and extreme event early warning systems, but too often these programs and products do not reach their intended user groups, or may not take into account the realities of developing countries. Less common are models and applications built or developed collaboratively with the intended users, particularly those at the local level. The SERVIR Program, a unique partnership between NASA and the US Agency for International Development (USAID),is attempting to change that. The SERVIR Program works to improve resilience to climate change by strengthening the capacity of governments and other key stakeholders to integrate Earth observation information and geospatial technologies into development decision-making. Working in partnership with regional institutions around the world, SERVIR develops geospatial tools and decision-support applications while concurrently building the capacity of local analysts and decision-makers to utilize them. In many cases, these same users are helping shape the tools that provide them with critical information. In this session we will present two case studies from the Eastern and Southern Africa and Hindu Kush-Himalaya regions that demonstrates the transformation of science into applied decision-making, and the impacts those decisions are having across geographic scales, from the regional and national level to the village level.

  16. Spatial evapotranspiration, rainfall and land use data in water accounting – Part 2: Reliability of water accounting results for policy decisions in the Awash basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Karimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Water Accounting Plus (WA+ is a framework that summarizes complex hydrological processes and water management issues in river basins. The framework is designed to use satellite based measurements of land and water as input data. A concern associated with the use of satellite measurements is their accuracy. This study focuses on the impact of the error in remote sensing measurements on water accounting and information provided to policy makers. The Awash basin in the central rift valley in Ethiopia is used as a case study to explore the reliability of WA+ outputs, in the light of input data errors. The Monte Carlo technique was used for stochastic simulation of WA+ outputs over a period of three years. The results show that the stochastic mean of the majority of WA+ parameters and performance indicators are within 5% deviation from the original values. Stochastic simulation can be used as part of a standard procedure for WA+ water accounting because it provides the error bandwidth for every WA+ output, which is essential information for sound decision making. The majority of WA+ parameters and performance indicators have a Coefficient of Variation (CV of less than 20% which implies that they are reliable. The results also indicate that the "utilized flow" and "basin closure fraction" (the degree to which available water in a basin is utilized have a high margin of error and thus a low reliability. As such it is recommended that they are not used to formulate important policy decisions.

  17. Integrating Indigenous Traditional, Local and Scientific Knowledge for Improved Management, Policy and Decision-Making in Reindeer Husbandry in the Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Nancy G.; Yurchak, Boris; Turi, Johan Mathis; Mathiesen, Svein D.; Aissi-Wespi, Rita L.

    2004-01-01

    As scientists and policy-makers from both indigenous and non-indigenous communities begin to build closer partnerships to address common sustainability issues such as the health impacts of climate change and anthropogenic activities, it becomes increasingly important to create shared information management systems which integrate all relevant factors for optimal information sharing and decision-making. This paper describes a new GIs-based system being designed to bring local and indigenous traditional knowledge together with scientific data and information, remote sensing, and information technologies to address health-related environment, weather, climate, pollution and land use change issues for improved decision/policy-making for reindeer husbandry. The system is building an easily-accessible archive of relevant current and historical, traditional, local and remotely-sensed and other data and observations for shared analysis, measuring, and monitoring parameters of interest. Protection of indigenous culturally sensitive information will be respected through appropriate data protocols. A mechanism which enables easy information sharing among all participants, which is real time and geo-referenced and which allows interconnectivity with remote sites is also being designed into the system for maximum communication among partners. A preliminary version of our system will be described for a Russian reindeer test site, which will include a combination of indigenous knowledge about local conditions and issues, remote sensing and ground-based data on such parameters as the vegetation state and distribution, snow cover, temperature, ice condition, and infrastructure.

  18. The role of stakeholders in Murray-Darling Basin water management: How do irrigators make water use decisions and how can this influence water policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, E. M.; Wheeler, S. A.; Smith, D. J.; Gray, S.; Overton, I. C.; Crossman, N. D.; Doody, T.

    2014-12-01

    Water stress and overallocation are at the forefront of water management and policy challenges in Australia, especially in the Murray Darling Basin (MDB). Farmland within the MDB generates 40 percent of Australia's total agricultural production and utilizes 60 percent of all irrigation water withdrawn nationally. The Murray Darling Basin Plan, drafted in 2008 and enacted in November 2012, has at its core the establishment of environmentally sustainable diversion limits based on a threshold of water extraction which, if exceeded, would cause harm to key environmental assets in the MDB. The overall goal of the Plan is to balance economic, social and environmental outcomes within the Basin. Because irrigated agriculture is the major water user in the MDB, it is important to understand the factors that influence irrigation water use. We applied a mental modeling approach to assessing farmer water use decisions. The approach allowed us to solicit and document farmer insights into the multifaceted nature of irrigation water use decisions in the MDB. Following are a few insights gained from the workshops: 1) For both environmental and economic reasons, irrigators in the MDB have become experts in water use and water efficiency. Water managers and government officials could benefit by partnering with farmers and incorporating this expertise into water management decisions. 2) Irrigators in the MDB may have been misperceived when it comes to accepting policy change. Many, if not most, of the farmers we talked to understood the need for, or at least the inevitability of, governmental policies and regulations. But a lack of accountability and predictability has added to the uncertainty in farming decisions. 3) Irrigators in the MDB subscribe to the concept of environmental sustainability, although they might not always agree with how the concept is implemented. Farmers should be recognized for their significant investments in the long-term sustainability of their farms and

  19. Informing decision making in agricultural greenhouse gas mitigation policy: A Best–Worst Scaling survey of expert and farmer opinion in the sheep industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Effectiveness and practicality of greenhouse gas mitigation measures are assessed. ► Best–Worst Scaling surveys are used to elicit expert and sheep farmer opinion. ► Effective and practical measures are priority candidates for policy inclusion. ► Support mechanisms may be needed to deliver effective, low practicality measures. ► Variation in farmers’ perceptions of practicality holds implications for policy delivery. -- Abstract: Policy decision making for agricultural greenhouse gas mitigation is hindered by scientific uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of mitigation measures. Successful on-farm adoption of measures is contingent upon farmer perception of the relative practicality of implementing the measure and associated incentives and advice. In the absence of a comprehensive evidence base we utilised Best–Worst Scaling, a discrete choice survey method, to elicit expert and farmer opinion on the relative effectiveness and practicality of mitigation measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from sheep production systems. The method enabled individual mitigation measures to be ranked on a ratio scale of effectiveness (expert opinion) and practicality (farmer opinion). Six measures were identified as possessing the combined qualities of effectiveness and practicality and are considered priority candidates for policy promotion. The overall preferred measure was the use of legumes in pasture reseed mixes. Estimation and analysis of the distribution of individual respondent scores revealed heterogeneity in farmers’ perceptions of practicality, suggesting that flexible policies are required to enable farmers to select mitigation measures most suited to their farm type and locality. Practical measures with below average effectiveness may be widely adopted with limited regulation, incentivisation or advice, whilst some highly effective measures with lower practicality are likely to present greater obstacles to adoption

  20. To notify or not to notify : Decision aid for policy makers on whether to make an infectious disease mandatorily notifiable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijkerk, Paul; Fanoy, E. B.; Kardamanidis, K.; van der Plas, S. M.; te Wierik, M. J.; Kretzschmar, M. E.; Haringhuizen, G. B.; van Vliet, H. J.; van der Sande, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Mandatory notification can be a useful tool to support infectious disease prevention and control. Guidelines are needed to help policymakers decide whether mandatory notification of an infectious disease is appropriate. We developed a decision aid, based on a range of criteria previously used in the

  1. Information used in the decision-making process regarding influenza vaccination policy: perceptions of stakeholders in France and the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, M.L.; Perrier, L.; Paget, J.; Mosnier, A.; Buthion, V.; Cohen, J.M.; Späth, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To minimize the medical and societal impact of influenza, most WHO countries recommend seasonal vaccination in targeted populations; however, little is known about the decision-making procedures at a country-level. In Europe, the Netherlands has the highest rate of influenza vaccination

  2. Education Policy and School Segregation of Migrant Students in Catalonia: The Politics of Non-Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonal, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    This article shows how the Catalan government has not developed an agenda to tackle school segregation despite the growing number of migrant pupils who arrived over the course of the last decade. Education policy has explicitly disregarded the possibilities of improving the regulatory framework for tackling segregation; it has exercised…

  3. Amendment of the assured delivery provisions of BPA's Long-Term Intertie Access Policy and increased assured delivery: Access for non-scheduling utilities. Record of decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonneville Power Administration's BPA's preferred alternative for providing non-Federal Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest (PNW-PSW) Intertie access is to adopt the Capacity Ownership alternative combined with the Increased Assured Delivery--Access for Non-Scheduling Utilities alternative. BPA's decision to offer Capacity Ownership was documented in a March 1994 Non-Federal Capacity Ownership Record of Decision (ROD). This ROD documents BPA's decision to facilitate PNW-PSW Intertie access by proceeding with (1) bidirectional Increased Assured Delivery--Access for Non Scheduling Utilities; and (2) amending the Assured Delivery provisions of BPA's Long-Term Intertie Access Policy (LTIAP). Given that the various non-Federal PNW-PSW Intertie access alternatives in the NFP EIS all allowed for different types of contracts, little environmental impact difference among the alternatives was found. Rather, environmental impact was found to be associated with whether exchange contracts or firm power sales contracts would predominate. Such impacts and related environmental analysis are discussed further in section 3.0 of this ROD

  4. Jezebel at the welfare office: How racialized stereotypes of poor women's reproductive decisions and relationships shape policy implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Masters, N. Tatiana; Lindhorst, Taryn P.; Marcia K. Meyers

    2014-01-01

    Current welfare scholarship lacks an analysis of how caseworkers discuss sexuality-related issues with clients. Seventy-two of 232 transcribed welfare interviews in three states included discussion of reproductive decisions and relationships. Overall, caseworkers’ language reflected negative myths regarding African American women's sexuality and motherhood. By virtue of their status as welfare recipients, regardless of their individual races, clients were placed into racialized myths through ...

  5. Searching for solutions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by agricultural policy decisions--Application of system dynamics modeling for the case of Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dace, Elina; Muizniece, Indra; Blumberga, Andra; Kaczala, Fabio

    2015-09-15

    European Union (EU) Member States have agreed to limit their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from sectors not covered by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (non-ETS). That includes also emissions from agricultural sector. Although the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has established a methodology for assessment of GHG emissions from agriculture, the forecasting options are limited, especially when policies and their interaction with the agricultural system are tested. Therefore, an advanced tool, a system dynamics model, was developed that enables assessment of effects various decisions and measures have on agricultural GHG emissions. The model is based on the IPCC guidelines and includes the main elements of an agricultural system, i.e. land management, livestock farming, soil fertilization and crop production, as well as feedback mechanisms between the elements. The case of Latvia is selected for simulations, as agriculture generates 22% of the total anthropogenic GHG emissions in the country. The results demonstrate that there are very limited options for GHG mitigation in the agricultural sector. Thereby, reaching the non-ETS GHG emission targets will be very challenging for Latvia, as the level of agricultural GHG emissions will be exceeded considerably above the target levels. Thus, other non-ETS sectors will have to reduce their emissions drastically to "neutralize" the agricultural sector's emissions for reaching the EU's common ambition to move towards low-carbon economy. The developed model may serve as a decision support tool for impact assessment of various measures and decisions on the agricultural system's GHG emissions. Although the model is applied to the case of Latvia, the elements and structure of the model developed are similar to agricultural systems in many countries. By changing numeric values of certain parameters, the model can be applied to analyze decisions and measures in other countries. PMID:25958357

  6. Real World Nuclear Decision Making: Using Behavioral Economics Insights to Adjust Nonproliferation and Deterrence Policies to Predictable Deviations from Rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Center on Contemporary Conflict

    2014-01-01

    Performer: Monterey Institute of International Studies Principal Investigators: Jeffrey Knopf, Miles Pomper, and Anne Harrington. FY: 2014-2015. Research in neuroscience and related branches of psychology has begun to influence social science disciplines, most notably through the rise of the “behavioral economics” perspective. Behavioral economics has clear applications to nuclear strategy and other policies that deal with WMD threats. The Monterey Institute will dra...

  7. How do economic evaluations inform health policy decisions for treatment and prevention in Canada and the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husereau, Don; Culyer, Anthony J; Neumann, Peter; Jacobs, Philip

    2015-06-01

    Canadian and US health systems have often been characterized as having vastly different approaches to the financing and delivery of healthcare, with Canada portrayed as more reliant on rationing based on costs. In this article, we examine the similarities and differences between the two countries, the evolution and current role of health economic evaluation, and the roles played by health economists. We suggest both countries have similarly used economic evaluation to a limited extent for drug and immunization decisions, with variability in use more of a reflection of the incompleteness of both systems and their inherent institutional barriers rather than political ideology.

  8. Policy recommendations on accelerating coordinated care delivery%加快实施分级诊疗工作的政策建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵琨; 肖月

    2015-01-01

    我国分级诊疗工作面临诸多挑战,如何加快分级诊疗工作,实现资源、服务和患者下沉,解决困扰居民的看病难和看病贵问题,是卫生决策者面临的重大决策问题。本研究分析了我国分级诊疗工作的难点,并基于分析对分级诊疗体系的建设提出了近期和中远期政策建议,包括构建更加科学合理的医疗服务体系,分步实施分级诊疗,建立相关的激励和约束机制,加强社会宣传和医患教育等。%Coordinated care delivery is faced with various challenges to carry out in China,which are major decisions to make for decision makers,including how to push forward,how to deliver resources, services and patients to primary institutions,and how to ease the difficulties and affordability of seeing doctors.Based on analysis of roadblocks in coordinated care delivery in China,the authors provided near-term and long-term policy recommendations on the system,including how to build a scientific and reasonable healthcare delivery system,coordinated care delivery by stages,building incentives and constraint mechanisms,and enhancing public awareness and patient-doctor education.

  9. A Case Study of Community Involvement Influence on Policy Decisions: Victories of a Community-Based Participatory Research Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith M. Williams

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Buffalo Lupus Project was a community-university partnership that investigated associations between exposure to a local waste site and high rates of lupus and other autoimmune diseases. The partnership’s major accomplishment was successful advocacy for containment and clean-up of the site. As a result of community education, the remediation plan suggested by the community was adopted. Additionally, when a local childhood lead poisoning testing program was canceled, community members signed a letter to legislators urging them to replace the funding, which was restored within one week. This demonstrated how coordinated community-based capacity-building efforts can influence health policy.

  10. 推进我国医药行业兼并重组的政策选择%The policy recommendations of accelerating pharmaceutical industry transfermergers and reorganization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚霞

    2013-01-01

    National strategic orientation of accelerating industry transfermergers and reorganization has provided favourable policy environment for development of pharmaceutical industry since initiation of the eleven Five-Year Plan,yet it faced various challenges such as unreasonable industrial structure,serious homogeneity of products,lower level of industrial concentration and etc.How to take active and steady measures to facilitate the mergers and reorganization of pharmaceutical industries,in accordance with national strategy and the Twelve Five Year Stratetic Plan of Pharmaceutical Industry,is a must-to-address issue for pharmaceutical industry development.%“十一五”以来,国家加快推进产业转移和行业兼并重组的战略导向为医药行业发展提供了良好的政策环境,但行业发展仍面临产业结构不合理、产品同质化严重、行业集中度低等问题。“十二五”期间,如何根据国家战略和医药工业“十二五”规划,积极稳妥的推进医药行业兼并重组是医药工业发展必须解决的问题。

  11. Searching for solutions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by agricultural policy decisions — Application of system dynamics modeling for the case of Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    European Union (EU) Member States have agreed to limit their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from sectors not covered by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (non-ETS). That includes also emissions from agricultural sector. Although the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has established a methodology for assessment of GHG emissions from agriculture, the forecasting options are limited, especially when policies and their interaction with the agricultural system are tested. Therefore, an advanced tool, a system dynamics model, was developed that enables assessment of effects various decisions and measures have on agricultural GHG emissions. The model is based on the IPCC guidelines and includes the main elements of an agricultural system, i.e. land management, livestock farming, soil fertilization and crop production, as well as feedback mechanisms between the elements. The case of Latvia is selected for simulations, as agriculture generates 22% of the total anthropogenic GHG emissions in the country. The results demonstrate that there are very limited options for GHG mitigation in the agricultural sector. Thereby, reaching the non-ETS GHG emission targets will be very challenging for Latvia, as the level of agricultural GHG emissions will be exceeded considerably above the target levels. Thus, other non-ETS sectors will have to reduce their emissions drastically to “neutralize” the agricultural sector's emissions for reaching the EU's common ambition to move towards low-carbon economy. The developed model may serve as a decision support tool for impact assessment of various measures and decisions on the agricultural system's GHG emissions. Although the model is applied to the case of Latvia, the elements and structure of the model developed are similar to agricultural systems in many countries. By changing numeric values of certain parameters, the model can be applied to analyze decisions and measures in other countries. - Highlights:

  12. Searching for solutions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by agricultural policy decisions — Application of system dynamics modeling for the case of Latvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dace, Elina, E-mail: elina.dace@rtu.lv [Institute of Energy Systems and Environment, Riga Technical University, Azenes 12/1, Riga LV1048 (Latvia); Muizniece, Indra; Blumberga, Andra [Institute of Energy Systems and Environment, Riga Technical University, Azenes 12/1, Riga LV1048 (Latvia); Kaczala, Fabio [Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Faculty of Health & Life Sciences, Linnaeus University, SE-39182 Kalmar (Sweden)

    2015-09-15

    European Union (EU) Member States have agreed to limit their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from sectors not covered by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (non-ETS). That includes also emissions from agricultural sector. Although the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has established a methodology for assessment of GHG emissions from agriculture, the forecasting options are limited, especially when policies and their interaction with the agricultural system are tested. Therefore, an advanced tool, a system dynamics model, was developed that enables assessment of effects various decisions and measures have on agricultural GHG emissions. The model is based on the IPCC guidelines and includes the main elements of an agricultural system, i.e. land management, livestock farming, soil fertilization and crop production, as well as feedback mechanisms between the elements. The case of Latvia is selected for simulations, as agriculture generates 22% of the total anthropogenic GHG emissions in the country. The results demonstrate that there are very limited options for GHG mitigation in the agricultural sector. Thereby, reaching the non-ETS GHG emission targets will be very challenging for Latvia, as the level of agricultural GHG emissions will be exceeded considerably above the target levels. Thus, other non-ETS sectors will have to reduce their emissions drastically to “neutralize” the agricultural sector's emissions for reaching the EU's common ambition to move towards low-carbon economy. The developed model may serve as a decision support tool for impact assessment of various measures and decisions on the agricultural system's GHG emissions. Although the model is applied to the case of Latvia, the elements and structure of the model developed are similar to agricultural systems in many countries. By changing numeric values of certain parameters, the model can be applied to analyze decisions and measures in other countries. - Highlights:

  13. Development of a decision support system for setting up a wind energy policy across the Walloon Region (southern Belgium)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lejeune, P. [Unit of Forest and Nature Management, Gembloux Agricultural University, 2, Passage des Deportes, B-5030 Gembloux (Belgium); Feltz, C. [Unit of Soil, Ecology and Territory, Gembloux Agricultural University, 2, Passage des Deportes, B-5030 Gembloux (Belgium)

    2008-11-15

    Wallonia (the region covering southern Belgium) is committed to making a significant increase in its wind-powered electricity production capacity by 2010. Therefore, a decision support system designed to evaluate and map environmental and landscape constraints fundamental to the building of wind farms was developed for the whole Walloon Region (17,000 km{sup 2}). This system is a geodatabase using 40 criteria (landscape or environmental) corresponding to three constraint levels (exclusion, highly sensitive and sensitive). This geodatabase also has analysis functions developed in the ArcGIS 9 software environment that are used to update the overall constraints map, to analyse sensitivity with respect to constraint criteria-defining parameters as well as to perform full diagnostic studies on wind farm projects. (author)

  14. Emerging methods and tools for environmental risk assessment, decision-making, and policy for nanomaterials: summary of NATO Advanced Research Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linkov, Igor, E-mail: Igor.Linkov@usace.army.mi [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Environmental Laboratory (United States); Steevens, Jeffery, E-mail: Jeffery.A.Steevens@us.army.mi [U.S. Army ERDC (United States); Adlakha-Hutcheon, Gitanjali, E-mail: Gitanjali.Adlakha-Hutcheon@drdc-rddc.gc.c [Defense Research and Development Canada (Canada); Bennett, Erin, E-mail: ebennett@bioengineering.co [Intertox Inc. and Bioengineering Group (United States); Chappell, Mark, E-mail: Mark.a.chappell@usace.army.mi [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Environmental Laboratory (United States); Colvin, Vicki, E-mail: colvin@rice.ed [Rice University, ICON (United States); Davis, J. Michael, E-mail: Davis.Jmichael@epa.go [Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Center for Environmental Assessment (United States); Davis, Thomas, E-mail: ta.davis@umontreal.c [University of Montreal, Environment Canada and Department of Chemistry (Canada); Elder, Alison, E-mail: Alison_Elder@urmc.rochester.ed [University of Rochester, Department of Environmental Medicine (United States); Foss Hansen, Steffen, E-mail: sfh@er.dtu.d [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, NanoDTU (Denmark); Hakkinen, Pertti Bert, E-mail: berthakkinen@gmail.co [Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment (TERA) (United States); Hussain, Saber M., E-mail: Saber.Hussain@wpafb.af.mi [Air Force Research Laboratory (United States); Karkan, Delara, E-mail: Delara_karkan@hc-sc.gc.c [Health Canada (Canada); Korenstein, Rafi, E-mail: korens@post.tau.ac.i [Marian Gertner Institute for Medical Nanosystems, Tel Aviv University, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine (Israel); Lynch, Iseult, E-mail: iseult@fiachra.ucd.i [School of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, University College Dublin, Irish Centre for Colloid Science and Biomaterials (Ireland); Metcalfe, Chris, E-mail: cmetcalfe@trentu.c [Trent University (Canada)

    2009-04-15

    Nanomaterials and their associated technologies hold promising opportunities for the development of new materials and applications in a wide variety of disciplines, including medicine, environmental remediation, waste treatment, and energy conservation. However, current information regarding the environmental effects and health risks associated with nanomaterials is limited and sometimes contradictory. This article summarizes the conclusions of a 2008 NATO workshop designed to evaluate the wide-scale implications (e.g., benefits, risks, and costs) of the use of nanomaterials on human health and the environment. A unique feature of this workshop was its interdisciplinary nature and focus on the practical needs of policy decision makers. Workshop presentations and discussion panels were structured along four main themes: technology and benefits, human health risk, environmental risk, and policy implications. Four corresponding working groups (WGs) were formed to develop detailed summaries of the state-of-the-science in their respective areas and to discuss emerging gaps and research needs. The WGs identified gaps between the rapid advances in the types and applications of nanomaterials and the slower pace of human health and environmental risk science, along with strategies to reduce the uncertainties associated with calculating these risks.

  15. Wildlife Preservation and Endangered Species: Decision, Discretion and Policy Implementation in the Island Special Constabulary Force, Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Brooks

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There is worldwide interest to preserve wild and endangered species. Several countries have become signatories to, or have acceded to international agreements, and have developed appropriate law enforcement institutions. Simultaneously, and within the context of Jamaica, law enforcement emphases have instead been occupied with ‘major crimes’. Jamaican police are expected to prioritize the solution of ‘serious crimes’ rather than enforcing the Wildlife Protection Act (WPA and the Endangered Species Act (ESA. The Island Special Constabulary Force (ISCF has been mandated to enforce the WPA and the ESA. The aim of this case study was to investigate how capacity impacts implementation of the WPA and the ESA; to assess the discretion across the different ISCF ranks impacts implementation of the WPA and the ESA; to conduct an investigation into how the level of import/seriousness placed on WPA and the ESA impacts implementation; and to evaluate how implementation of the WPA and the ESA stacked in relation to the enforcement of other offences. Enforcement was influenced by; 1 ignorance by ignorance of the complexities of the law; 2 lack of sufficient emphasis within the ISCF; 3 disconnect between ISCF strategic goals and operational realities; 4 implementation susceptible to excessive use of discretion and 5 a strong organizational culture that defined and placed emphasis on traditional notions of crime. The findings are far reaching and can be employed to provide action, direction and focus for policy makers, particularly in the ISCF.

  16. Using evidence on violence and injury prevention for policy development and decision making in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Luis Alberto; Pacheco, Sergio; Juárez, Alethia Yurithzi; Palacios, Luis Alexandro; Cerqueira, Maria Teresa

    2012-05-01

    This report describes the implementation process and functional structure of the Observatory of Security and Citizen Conviviality of the Juarez Municipality (Observatorio de Seguridad y Convivencia Ciudadanas del Municipio de Juárez) in Chihuahua, Mexico, and discusses the most relevant lessons learned and main challenges in the near future. The Observatory, created in 2008, is a joint effort of the Juarez Municipal Government, Autonomous University of Ciudad Juarez (Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez), and the Pan American Health Organization. The Observatory's main objective is to propose strategies and public policy recommendations to prevent and control violence and injuries in the Juarez Municipality. Most key federal, state, and local agencies have joined this independent autonomous citizen-based initiative, feed the databases, and benefit from the information produced by a multisectoral, multidisciplinary approach. The Observatory contributes far more than the technical data provided and its facilitating functions. The clear results obtained in such a short time-as seen in the preliminary results of the case study on road injuries from January 2009 to July 2011-demonstrate the appropriateness of this course of action and should stimulate the creation of new observatories whenever and wherever needed. Lessons learned, as discussed here, can open the way to new endeavors, and current challenges show how much work remains to be done. PMID:22767036

  17. Using evidence on violence and injury prevention for policy development and decision making in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Luis Alberto; Pacheco, Sergio; Juárez, Alethia Yurithzi; Palacios, Luis Alexandro; Cerqueira, Maria Teresa

    2012-05-01

    This report describes the implementation process and functional structure of the Observatory of Security and Citizen Conviviality of the Juarez Municipality (Observatorio de Seguridad y Convivencia Ciudadanas del Municipio de Juárez) in Chihuahua, Mexico, and discusses the most relevant lessons learned and main challenges in the near future. The Observatory, created in 2008, is a joint effort of the Juarez Municipal Government, Autonomous University of Ciudad Juarez (Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez), and the Pan American Health Organization. The Observatory's main objective is to propose strategies and public policy recommendations to prevent and control violence and injuries in the Juarez Municipality. Most key federal, state, and local agencies have joined this independent autonomous citizen-based initiative, feed the databases, and benefit from the information produced by a multisectoral, multidisciplinary approach. The Observatory contributes far more than the technical data provided and its facilitating functions. The clear results obtained in such a short time-as seen in the preliminary results of the case study on road injuries from January 2009 to July 2011-demonstrate the appropriateness of this course of action and should stimulate the creation of new observatories whenever and wherever needed. Lessons learned, as discussed here, can open the way to new endeavors, and current challenges show how much work remains to be done.

  18. Understanding the use of science in decision-making on cockle fisheries and gas mining in the Dutch Wadden Sea : putting the science-policy interface in a wider perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, H.A.C.; Nieuwaal, C. van

    2010-01-01

    The use of science to inform and underpin decision-making on natural resources is not self evident as stakeholders often use science in a selective and strategic way. Scientific analyses of science utilisation often focus on how the science–policy interface is organised and from this perspective pro

  19. Measuring equity in household's health care payments (Tehran-Iran 2013): technical points for health policy decision makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezapour, Aziz; Ebadifard Azar, Farbod; Azami Aghdash, Saber; Tanoomand, Asghar; Hosseini Shokouh, Seyed Morteza; Yousefzadeh, Negar; Atefi Manesh, Pezhman; Sarabi Asiabar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Households’ financial protection against health payments and expenditures and equity in utilization of health care services are of the most important tasks of governments. This study aims to measuring equity in household’s health care payments according to fairness in financial contribution (FFC) and Kakwani indices in Tehran-Iran, 2013. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014.The study sample size was estimated to be 2200 households. Households were selected using stratified-cluster sampling including typical families who reside in the city of Tehran. The data were analyzed through Excel and Stata v.11software. Recall period for the inpatient care was 1 year and for outpatient1 month. Results: The indicator of FFC for households in health financing was estimated to be 0.68 and the trend of the indicator was ascending by the rise in the ranking of households’ financial level. The Kakwani index was estimated to be a negative number (-0.00125) which indicated the descending trend of health financing system. By redistribution of incomes or the exempt of the poorest quintiles from health payments, Kakwani index was estimated to be a positive number (0.090555) which indicated the ascending trend of health financing system. Conclusion: According to this study, the equity indices in health care financing denote injustice and a descending trend in the health care financing system. This finding clearly shows that deliberate policy making in health financing by national health authorities and protecting low-income households against health expenditures are required to improve the equity in health. PMID:26793637

  20. The use of comparative effectiveness research to inform policy decisions on the inclusion of bevacizumab for the treatment of macular diseases in Thailand's pharmaceutical benefit package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anothaisintawee T

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Thunyarat Anothaisintawee,1,2 Pattara Leelahavarong,1 Tanapat Ratanapakorn,3 Yot Teerawattananon11Health Intervention and Technology Assessment Program, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand; 2Family Medicine Department and Section of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Khon Kaen Univerity, Khon Kaen, ThailandAbstract: There is increasing impetus to use pharmaceutical interventions, ie, ranibizumab or bevacizumab, for the treatment of particular macular diseases. This paper describes the evidence and decision-making of the National List of Essential Medicines Committee that recently announced the inclusion of bevacizumab for the treatment of macular diseases in its pharmaceutical benefit package. The findings of a systematic review and meta-analysis in this paper indicate that the intravitreal administration of bevacizumab is superior to nonpharmaceutical treatments for age-related macular degeneration (AMD and diabetic macular edema (DME, but inconclusive for retinal vein occlusion, given the limited evidence. The study also failed to distinguish among the differences in terms of visual acuity improvement, reduction of central macular thickness, and response to treatment between AMD and DME patients treated with bevacizumab and those treated with ranibizumab. Although bevacizumab was not licensed for AMD and DME, the committee decided to include bevacizumab in the National List of Essential Medicines. It is expected that many patients who are in need of treatment but who are unable to afford the expensive alternative drug, ranibizumab, will be able to receive this effective treatment instead and be prevented from suffering irreversible loss of vision. At the same time, this policy will help generate evidence about the real-life effectiveness and safety profiles of the drug for future policy development in Thailand and other settings

  1. Investigation of Public Discourse Methods in Energy Policy Decision-Making: A Summary of What You Told Us and What We Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Analysis Team; Eileen DeShazo; John Freemuth; Tina Giannini; Troy Hall; Ann Hunter; Jeffrey C. Joe; Michael Louis; Carole Nemnich; Jennie Newman; Steven J. Piet; Stephen Sorensen; Paulina Starkey; Kendella Vogt; Patrick Wilson

    2010-09-01

    The ground is littered with projects that failed because of strong public opposition, including natural gas and coal power plants proposed in Idaho over the past several years. This joint project , of the Idaho National Laboratory, Boise State University, Idaho State University and University of Idaho has aimed to add to the tool box to reduce project risk through encouraging the public to engage in more critical thought and be more actively involved in public or social issues. Early in a project, project managers and decision-makers can talk with no one, pro and con stakeholder groups, or members of the public. Experience has shown that talking with no one outside of the project incurs high risk because opposition stakeholders have many means to stop most (if not all) energy projects. Talking with organized stakeholder groups provides some risk reduction from mutual learning, but organized groups tend not to change positions except under conditions of a negotiated settlement. Achieving a negotiated settlement may be impossible. Furthermore, opposition often arises outside pre-existing groups. Standard public polling provides some information but does not reveal underlying motivations, intensity of attitudes, etc. Improved methods are needed that probe deeper into stakeholder (organized groups and members of the public) values and beliefs (sometimes called /heuristics) to increase the potential for change of opinions and/or out-of-box solutions. The term “heuristics” refers to the mental short-cuts, underlying beliefs, and paradigms that everyone uses to filter and interpret information, to interpret what is around us, and to guide our actions and decisions. This document is the final report of a 3-year effort to test different public discourse methods in the subject area of energy policy decision-making. We analyzed 504 mail-in surveys and 80 participants in groups on the Boise State University campus for their preference, financial support, and evaluations of

  2. Use of Participatory Systems Dynamics Modelling to Generate User-Friendly Decision Support Systems for the Design of Management Policies for Complex Human-Environmental Systems: A Case Study from the Varied Socio-environmental Landscape of Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malard, J. J.; Baig, A. I.; Carrera, J.; Mellini, L.; Pineda, P.; Monterroso, O.; Melgar-Quiñonez, H.; Adamowski, J. F.; Halbe, J.; Monardes, H.; Gálvez, J.

    2014-12-01

    The design of effective management policies for socioenvironmental systems requires the development of comprehensive, yet sufficiently simple, decision support systems (DSS) for policy makers. Guatemala is a particularly complex case, combining an enormous diversity of climates, geographies, and agroecosystems within a very small geographical scale. Although food insecurity levels are very high, indicating a generally inadequate management of the varied agroecosystems of the country, different regions have shown vastly different trends in food insecurity over the past decade, including between regions with similar geophysical and climatic characteristics and/or governmental programmes (e.g., agricultural support). These observations suggest two important points: firstly, that not merely environmental conditions but rather socio-environmental interactions play a crucial role in the successful management of human-environmental systems, and, secondly, that differences in the geophysical and climatic environments between the diverse regions significantly impact the success or failure of policies. This research uses participatory systems dynamic modelling (SDM) to build a DSS that allows local decision-makers to (1) determine the impact of current and potential policies on agroecosystem management and food security, and (2) design sustainable and resilient policies for the future. The use of participatory SDM offers several benefits, including the active involvement of the end recipients in the development of the model, greatly increasing its acceptability; the integration of physical (e.g., precipitation, crop yield) and social components in one model; adequacy for modelling long-term trends in response to particular policy decisions; and the inclusion of local stakeholder knowledge on system structure and trends through the participatory process. Preliminary results suggest that there is a set of common variables explaining the generally high levels of food insecurity

  3. Understanding marketing decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Wierenga (Berend)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWhile a whole range of factors influences the outcomes of a marketing policy, it is managerial decision-making that can really make a difference. A clearer understanding of how marketers make decisions should therefore improve their quality.

  4. Beliefs Underlying the Decision to Eat Breakfast: The Role of Theory-based Behavioral Analysis in the Development of Policy, Communication and Educational Interventions for Healthy Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlestadt, Susan E; Stevenson, Laurel D; Hung, Chia-Ling; Roditis, Maria Leia; Fly, Alyce D; Sheats, Jylana L

    2011-01-01

    Policy, communication, and education efforts to influence any social or health outcome are more effective if based on an understanding of the underlying behaviors and their determinants. This conceptual paper outlines how behavioral theory can help design interventions for one healthy eating behavior, eating breakfast. More specifically, the paper illustrates how a prominent health behavior theory, the Reasoned Action Approach, can be used to guide formative research to identify factors underlying people's decisions. Select findings are presented from three studies of beliefs underlying eating breakfast: online surveys with 1185 undergraduates from a large university in Indiana; in-depth interviews with 61 adults from four Indiana worksites; and 63 in-depth interviews with students from three middle schools in rural Indiana. Analyses of data from the undergraduates demonstrated the role of self-efficacy. Analyses of data from the working adults revealed the importance of normative beliefs about what employers believed. Analyses comparing consequences perceived by adults with those perceived by middle school students found that both groups believed that eating breakfast would provide energy but only middle school students believed that eating breakfast would improve alertness. For each finding, the theory is presented, the finding is described, implications for interventions are suggested, and the need for additional research is outlined. In sum, theory-based behavioral research can help develop interventions at intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental levels that are warranted to encourage healthy eating.

  5. Monetary Policy and Economic Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iordachioaia Adelina-Geanina

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available There is widespread agreement that monetary policy matters,but there is disagreement about how it should be conducted. Behind this disagreement lie differences in theoretical understandings. The paper contrasts the New Classical, Neo-Keynesian, and Post-Keynesian frameworks, there by surfacing the differences. The New Classical model has policy only affecting long run inflation. The Neo-Keynesian has policy impacting inflation, unemployment, and real wages. The Post-Keynesian model also impacts growth, so policy implicitly picks a quadruple. Inflation targeting is a sub-optimal policy frame because it biases decisions toward low inflation by obscuring the fact that policy also affects unemployment, real wages, and growth.

  6. Linear Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Vretenar, M

    2014-01-01

    The main features of radio-frequency linear accelerators are introduced, reviewing the different types of accelerating structures and presenting the main characteristics aspects of linac beam dynamics.

  7. Marginal cost curves for water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: a policy and decision making guide for efficient water use in crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukalla, Abebe; Krol, Maarten; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2016-04-01

    Reducing water footprints (WF) in irrigated crop production is an essential element in water management, particularly in water-scarce areas. To achieve this, policy and decision making need to be supported with information on marginal cost curves that rank measures to reduce the WF according to their cost-effectiveness and enable the estimation of the cost associated with a certain WF reduction target, e.g. towards a certain reasonable WF benchmark. This paper aims to develop marginal cost curves (MCC) for WF reduction. The AquaCrop model is used to explore the effect of different measures on evapotranspiration and crop yield and thus WF that is used as input in the MCC. Measures relate to three dimensions of management practices: irrigation techniques (furrow, sprinkler, drip and subsurface drip); irrigation strategies (full and deficit irrigation); and mulching practices (no mulching, organic and synthetic mulching). A WF benchmark per crop is calculated as resulting from the best-available production technology. The marginal cost curve is plotted using the ratios of the marginal cost to WF reduction of the measures as ordinate, ranking with marginal costs rise with the increase of the reduction effort. For each measure, the marginal cost to reduce WF is estimated by comparing the associated WF and net present value (NPV) to the reference case (furrow irrigation, full irrigation, no mulching). The NPV for each measure is based on its capital costs, operation and maintenances costs (O&M) and revenues. A range of cases is considered, including: different crops, soil types and different environments. Key words: marginal cost curve, water footprint benchmark, soil water balance, crop growth, AquaCrop

  8. Designing for Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonassen, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Decision making is the most common kind of problem solving. It is also an important component skill in other more ill-structured and complex kinds of problem solving, including policy problems and design problems. There are different kinds of decisions, including choices, acceptances, evaluations, and constructions. After describing the centrality…

  9. 和谐财政政策的抉择原则及其评价框架%Decision-making Principles and Evaluation Frame of Harmonious Fiscal Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向宏桥

    2005-01-01

    Harmonious fiscal policy is the inner requirement for constructing harmonious society and is an important means of realizing such society. The harmonious fiscal policy should realize the harmony of "two hands", the harmony of values, the unity of short-term and long-term harmony, the unity of parts and the whole harmony, the unity of internal and external efficacy harmony. To scientifically evaluate harmony of fiscal policy is the prerequisite to bring harmonious fiscal policy to its full play.

  10. Comparative Multi-Criteria Assessment of Climate Policies and Sustainable Development Strategies in Cameroon: Towards a GIS Decision-Support Tool for the Design of an Optimal REDD+ Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Gwanyebit Kehbila

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cameroon is committed to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation plus conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of carbon stocks (REDD+. To achieve this goal, the government has introduced a series of policy reforms and formulated a number of key strategic planning documents to advance the REDD+ readiness process in Cameroon. This paper assesses the extent to which major cross-sectoral policies support or impede the development and implementation of an optimal REDD+ strategy in Cameroon from a comparative multi-criteria perspective. Study results reveal that a majority of the policy instruments reviewed appeared to be less prescriptive in terms of any tangible REDD+ strategy, as they do not have provisions for tangible measures to reduce deforestation and forest degradation. Given the lack of adequate flexibility, prompt review and responsiveness of these cross-sectoral policies to adapt themselves to new realities and respond to a changing environment, this paper introduces a GIS-REDD+ decision support system (GIS-REDD+DSS that is necessary to support the adaptive element of an adaptive REDD+ strategy in Cameroon. The GIS-REDD+DSS, an electronic REDD+agri intermediary hub, serves the following purpose: (1 host a database of locally-relevant climate information, improved input technologies, best practices as well as land use and forest cover geo-spatial maps; (2 host a virtual economic tool that performs economic valuations (costs and benefits and financial analysis of REDD+agri projects to aid investment decision-making; and (3 host an electronic marketplace to mediate any-to-any transactions among REDD+agri project developers, service providers, input suppliers, private and institutional investors and buyers (wholesalers and retailers, thereby creating value in two ways: aggregation and matching. This decision support tool, we argue, is a fundamental prerequisite for “policy and REDD+ safeguard

  11. 重大决策终身责任追究制度问题及对策探究%The System of Lifelong Responsibility Investigation for Decision-making of Major Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅扬; 朱明鹏

    2015-01-01

    重大决策终身责任追究制度是我国政治改革的一个新亮点,需要明晰“重大决策”和“终身责任”在其中的实质内涵。另外,由于立法进程滞后,在实践中,还存在着追责事由界定不清、追责主体动力不足以及追责对象定位不准等现实问题。故此,有必要在国家层面制定统一的行政决策法和行政问责法等相关法律法规,来规范重大决策责任追究的事由、主体和对象。%The system of lifelong responsibility investigation for decision-making of major policy is a new bright spot of China's political reform which should clear the essence of the connotation of"decision-mak⁃ing of major policy"and"lifelong responsibility. In addition, due to the lagging legislation, there are Practi⁃cal difficulties in unclear definition of accountability reason, lack of motivation of accountability subject and incorrect positioning of accountability object in practice. Therefore, it is necessary to formulate a unified law of administrative decision-making and the law of administrative accountability to regulate reason, subject and object in responsibility investigation of decision-making of major policy.

  12. Future accelerators (?)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Womersley

    2003-08-21

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  13. Deploying Renewables -- principles for effective policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-09-29

    Renewable energy can play a fundamental role in tackling climate change, environmental degradation and energy security. As these challenges have become ever more pressing, governments and markets are seeking innovative solutions. Yet, what are the key factors that will determine the success of renewable energy policies? How can current policies be improved to encourage greater deployment of renewables? What impact can more effective policies have on renewables' share in the future global energy mix and how soon? This publication addresses these questions. Responding to the Gleneagles G8 call for a clean and secure energy future, it highlights key policy tools to fast-track renewables into the mainstream. This analysis illustrates good practices by applying the combined metrics of effectiveness and efficiency to renewable energy policies in the electricity, heating and transport sectors. It highlights significant barriers to accelerating renewables penetration, and argues that the great potential of renewables can be exploited much more rapidly and to a much larger extent if good practices are adopted. Carefully designed policy frameworks, customised to support technologies at differing stages of maturity, will deliver a strong portfolio of renewable energy technologies. The document provides recommendations on key principles for policy design as a template for decision makers.

  14. 国际金融危机以来日本货币政策转变分析--经济条件、决策体制与政策理念的影响%Japan’s Monetary Policy Transition Since the International Financial Crisis-- The Impact of Economic Conditions, the Decision-making system and Policy Ideas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔岩

    2015-01-01

    2008年9月发生的以美国为源头的国际金融危机,对日本经济产生了重大的冲击。在大幅度经济衰退的情况下,日本银行在2010年时隔4年后再次启动了宽松货币政策,至今这一政策已经实施了5年之久,中间经历了重大的转变,由2013年3月以前的“总括性宽松政策”变为其后的“异维度量化宽松政策”。文章从不同时期日本经济背景出发,侧重于日本银行体制和决策者政策理念对政策决定的影响,分析日本货币政策发生的重大转变。具体包括国际金融危机发生后宽松政策的再启动与黑田日本银行实施的“异维度量化宽松政策”、日本银行决策体制与政策理念的改变对政策转变的影响和后一政策实施的效果及展望等3部分内容。%The international ifnancial crisis that originated from The United States in September 2008 has had a major impact on Japanese economy. In the case of a signiifcant recession, the Bank of Japan restarted easing monetary policy in 2010 after four years. To date, this policy has been implemented for ifve years with signiifcant changes happened during this period. In March 2013, fomer Comprehensive Monetary Easing Policy was turned into Extradimensional Quantitative Easing Monetary Policy. Proceeding from the background of Japanese economy in different times, this paper focuses on the impact of the Japanese banking system and the ideas of policy makers on policy decisions and on the significant changes happened in Japanede economy. Speciifc content includes: the "Lehman shock" and the restarting of Japan’s easing monetary policy, Extradimensional Quantitative Easing Monetary Policy after Kuroda served as president of the Bank of Japan and the impact of the Bank of Japan’s policy decision-making system and policy ideas on policy transition.

  15. Firm′s Optimal Production Decision with Exogenous Abatement Policy%外生减排政策约束下企业最优生产决策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂强; 李炳丽

    2015-01-01

    通过构建企业利润最大化的动态最优控制模型,分析了企业分别在单一碳限额政策、单一碳税政策,以及由碳税和碳限额组成的混合政策下的生产决策问题。研究表明,相对于单一碳限额政策,混合政策能更早实现目标碳限额量;而相对于单一碳税政策,混合政策下的CO2排放量更小。企业产量在单一碳税政策下随碳税率的递增而递减,而在混合政策下存在碳税率阈值,政府制定的碳税率大于(小于)该阈值时,企业产量随碳税率的增加而增加(减少);最后通过数值模拟验证了所得结论的有效性。%An optimal control model was established to maximize the firm′s profits.The firm′s optimal production decision was analyzed under three different exogenous abatement policies:the carbon tax policy , the carbon constraints policy , and the hy-brid policy of carbon tax and carbon constraints .The results indicate that the firm′s CO2 emissions under the hybrid policy reach the carbon constraints earlier than that under the carbon constraints policy , and CO2 emissions under the hybrid policy are less than that under the carbon tax policy .In addition, the firm′s outputs are declining with the increase of carbon tax rate under the carbon tax policy .However , under the hybrid policy , there exists a threshold .When the carbon tax rate designed by the govern-ment is more (less) than this threshold, the firm′s output are increasing (decreasing) with the increase of carbon tax rate.Fi-nally, one numerical example was given to illustrate the effectiveness of these proposed models .

  16. The Establishment of the Green Tax Policy in China – To Accelerate the Construction of Circular Economy Experimental Zone in Qaidam Basin of Qinghai Province as an Example

    OpenAIRE

    Afan Sun

    2013-01-01

    “The overall plan on the test zone of circular economy in Qaidam area of Qinghai province” provided approval by the State Council on March 15, 2010, which was the second regional recycling economy program after Gansu Province. As the largest circular economy area, its success would have far-reaching effects. As the basic means of government regulation, the taxation would play very important role in the development of recycling economy. The establishment and improvement of green tax policy wou...

  17. The main decisions which the Parliament and Government will have to take from summer 2012 in order France be able to reach its energy policy objectives. Report to the Prime Minister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on several hearings, this report aims at formulating a set of propositions of decisions which the French Parliament and Government should take during the 2012-2017 term to reach France's energy policy objectives. After having recalled the context and outlined why years to come are crucial for energy policy, in France and in the rest of Europe as well, the author discusses the European and French commitments in relationship with investment programs, perspectives of electricity price increase and radioactive waste management. Then, he addresses the main energy challenges to be faced, more particularly with respect to energy efficiency, renewable energies, power grids, gas (including shale gas) and electronuclear production. He also discusses transverse issues like research and development, carbon tax, energy precariousness, and other issues related to sustainable development

  18. Accelerating Value Creation with Accelerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Eythor Ivar

    2015-01-01

    accelerator programs. Microsoft runs accelerators in seven different countries. Accelerators have grown out of the infancy stage and are now an accepted approach to develop new ventures based on cutting-edge technology like the internet of things, mobile technology, big data and virtual reality. It is also...... with the traditional audit and legal universes and industries are examples of emerging potentials both from a research and business point of view to exploit and explore further. The accelerator approach may therefore be an Idea Watch to consider, no matter which industry you are in, because in essence accelerators...

  19. Hybrid Security Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu CONSTANTINESCU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Policy is defined as the rules and regulations set by the organization. They are laid down by management in compliance with industry regulations, law and internal decisions. Policies are mandatory. Security policies rules how the information is protected against security vulnerabilities and they are the basis for security awareness, training and vital for security audits. Policies are focused on desired results. The means of achieving the goals are defined on controls, standards and procedures.

  20. La investigación traslacional y su aporte para la toma de decisiones en políticas de salud Translational research and its contribution to the decision making process in health policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Báltica Cabieses

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años, la investigación traslacional (IT se ha establecido como una prioridad en salud a nivel mundial. Esta revisión tiene por objetivo: (1 definir la IT y describir su naturaleza compleja; (2 identificar componentes de IT; (3 vincular IT a la toma de decisiones en políticas de salud; (4 reconocer algunos obstáculos y desafíos de IT asociados a la toma de decisiones en políticas de salud. Para ello se realizó una búsqueda sistemática en bases de datos y literatura gris seleccionada, que incluyan como palabras clave IT y políticas de salud, encontrándose 60 documentos. Los resultados indican una evolución del concepto de IT en el tiempo, incorporando recientemente la inherente complejidad que existe en la transferencia del conocimiento científico en salud. La literatura internacional muestra aplicaciones de la IT en diversos escenarios de investigación y práctica clínica. La aplicación de IT a salud pública y toma de decisiones en salud es aún incipiente pero necesaria y podría convertirse en una prioridad para políticas de salud en un país.Recently, the translational research model (TR has been established as a key feature in health worldwide. The objectives of this review are: (1 to define the TR and describe its complex nature; (2 to identify the components of the TR; (3 to link the TR to the decision-making process in health policies; (4 to recognize frequent obstacles and challenges of the association between the TR and the decision-making process in health policies. A systematic literature review was conducted in scientific databases and selected grey literature was done including TR and health policy as key words. We found 60 papers. Results show that the concept of TR and its theoretical formulation has evolved over time and has only recently incorporated the complexity that exists in the transference of scientific knowledge to health. International literature shows different applications of the TR

  1. SCIENCE, SCIENTISTS, AND POLICY ADVOCACY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effectively resolving the typical ecological policy issue requires providing an array of scientific information to decision-makers. In my experience, the ability of scientists (and scientific information) to inform constructively ecological policy deliberations has been diminishe...

  2. Laser accelerator

    OpenAIRE

    Vigil, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In 1979,W. B. Colson and S. K. Ride proposed a new kind of electron accelerator using a uniform magnetic field in combination with a circularly-polarized laser field. A key concept is to couple the oscillating electric field to the electron’s motion so that acceleration is sustained. This dissertation investigates the performance of the proposed laser accelerator using modern high powered lasers and mag-netic fields that are significan...

  3. Deploying Renewables: Principles for Effective Policies. Executive Summary [Russian Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Renewable energy can play a fundamental role in tackling climate change, environmental degradation and energy security. As these challenges have become ever more pressing, governments and markets are seeking innovative solutions. Yet, what are the key factors that will determine the success of renewable energy policies? How can current policies be improved to encourage greater deployment of renewables? What impact can more effective policies have on renewables’ share in the future global energy mix and how soon? Deploying Renewables: Principles for Effective Policies addresses these questions. Responding to the Gleneagles G8 call for a clean and secure energy future, it highlights key policy tools to fast-track renewables into the mainstream. This analysis illustrates good practices by applying the combined metrics of effectiveness and efficiency to renewable energy policies in the electricity, heating and transport sectors. It highlights significant barriers to accelerating renewables penetration, and argues that the great potential of renewables can be exploited much more rapidly and to a much larger extent if good practices are adopted. Carefully designed policy frameworks, customised to support technologies at differing stages of maturity, will deliver a strong portfolio of renewable energy technologies. Deploying Renewables: Principles for Effective Policies provides recommendations on key principles for policy design as a template for decision makers.

  4. 基于ERP的(s,S)策略下库存优化控制决策支持系统%INVENTORY CONTROL STRATEGY OPTIMIZATION DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM BASED ON (s, S) POLICY IN ERP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建斌; 罗晓萌; 吴建华; 温渤

    2011-01-01

    Because the ERP software can not dynamically obtain optimal order policy and false to effectively analyze historical data, this paper establishes optimization mathematical model under discount criteria in order to minimize inventory cost. We also analyze the data in ERP software and dynamically obtain all kinds of product's optimal order policy which are similar to (s, S) strategy. Furthermore, we design and develop inventory control strategy optimization decision support system which provides decision support for users and greatly reduce inventory cost for enterprise.%针对当前ERP软件系统无法动态地给出优化订购策略并对历史数据进行有效的分析等不足,以最小化库存费用为目标建立起折扣准则下库存优化数学模型,对ERP软件中导出的各类历史数据进行模型化分析,动态地得出各类产品(s,S)结构形式的优化订购策略.基于该模型设计并开发了库存优化控制决策支持系统,为用户提供决策支持,很大程度降低了企业库存费用.

  5. LIBO accelerates

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The prototype module of LIBO, a linear accelerator project designed for cancer therapy, has passed its first proton-beam acceleration test. In parallel a new version - LIBO-30 - is being developed, which promises to open up even more interesting avenues.

  6. State Decision-Makers Guide for Hazardous Waste Management: Defining Hazardous Wastes, Problem Recognition, Land Use, Facility Operations, Conceptual Framework, Policy Issues, Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, Alan; And Others

    Presented are key issues to be addressed by state, regional, and local governments and agencies in creating effective hazardous waste management programs. Eight chapters broadly frame the topics which state-level decision makers should consider. These chapters include: (1) definition of hazardous waste; (2) problem definition and recognition; (3)…

  7. Introducing economic evaluation as a policy tool in Korea: Will decision makers get quality information? A critical review of published Korean economic evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.-S. Lee (Kun-Sei); W.B.F. Brouwer (Werner); S.-I. Lee (Sang-Il); H.-W. Koo (Hye-Won)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractInterest in the use of economic evaluations in Korea as an aid for healthcare decision makers has been growing rapidly since the financial crisis of the Korean National Health Insurance fund and the separation in 2000 of the roles of prescribing and dispensing drugs. The Korean Health In

  8. Does central bank communication really lead to better forecasts of policy decisions? New evidence based on a Taylor rule model for the ECB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, Jan-Egbert; De Haan, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, it is widely believed that greater disclosure and clarity over policy may lead to greater predictability of central bank actions. We examine whether communication by the European Central Bank (ECB) adds information compared to the information provided by a Taylor rule model in which real-t

  9. LCA as a decision support tool in policy making: the case study of Danish spring barley production in a changed climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niero, Monia; Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky;

    2015-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) can support policy makers in the choice of the most effective measures to adapt to climate change in crop production. A case study involving spring barley cultivation in Denmark under changed climate conditions has been performed using primary data from future climate ...

  10. Policies to phase in or out nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author first outlines that national nuclear policies are very different as some countries decided or now decide to develop atomic energy, while others decide to give up. He also comments how the graphite-gas technology was adopted and later given up by France. He discusses the motivations of countries which yesterday decided and today decide to develop this technology of electricity production. He shows that these motivations are almost the same. In a second part, he comments the decision of Germany of an accelerated nuclear phasing out, and the choice of a premature closure of the French Fessenheim nuclear power station. He states that the age of a power station is not a good criterion for reactor ranking in terms of danger, and that such decisions of premature closing are economically very costly

  11. Geospatial decision support systems for societal decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    While science provides reliable information to describe and understand the earth and its natural processes, it can contribute more. There are many important societal issues in which scientific information can play a critical role. Science can add greatly to policy and management decisions to minimize loss of life and property from natural and man-made disasters, to manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources, and in general, to enhance and protect our quality of life. However, the link between science and decision-making is often complicated and imperfect. Technical language and methods surround scientific research and the dissemination of its results. Scientific investigations often are conducted under different conditions, with different spatial boundaries, and in different timeframes than those needed to support specific policy and societal decisions. Uncertainty is not uniformly reported in scientific investigations. If society does not know that data exist, what the data mean, where to use the data, or how to include uncertainty when a decision has to be made, then science gets left out -or misused- in a decision making process. This paper is about using Geospatial Decision Support Systems (GDSS) for quantitative policy analysis. Integrated natural -social science methods and tools in a Geographic Information System that respond to decision-making needs can be used to close the gap between science and society. The GDSS has been developed so that nonscientists can pose "what if" scenarios to evaluate hypothetical outcomes of policy and management choices. In this approach decision makers can evaluate the financial and geographic distribution of potential policy options and their societal implications. Actions, based on scientific information, can be taken to mitigate hazards, protect our air and water quality, preserve the planet's biodiversity, promote balanced land use planning, and judiciously exploit natural resources. Applications using the

  12. Split Decisions, Split Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The lead stories in Nature and Science went in opposite directions this week. Science chose outer space, launching into NASA’s hotly disputed decision to shelve a planned mission to Pluto. Nature plunged into inner space with a story about a report to the European Commission advising against granting “premature” approval to create human embryos for stem-cell research.

  13. Effects of a State Mandated Policy (Site-Based Councils and of Potential Role Incumbents on Teacher Screening Decisions in High and Low Performing Schools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Phillip Young

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Some states have viewed teacher selection as a means of improving student performance and have mandated the use of site-based teacher councils. To assess the utility of this legislative action, an experimental study was conducted. This study uses a 2X3X2 factorial design that varies state legislation, role of the decision maker, and academic performance of the school site. Credentials of hypothetical teacher candidates were evaluated as if screening for a vacant position, and evaluations were submitted to a MANOVA. Results indicate that legislated alterations in the teacher-selection process failed to have any substantial effects on outcomes in the screening of teacher candidates for elementary school positions. Although screening decisions were found to be the same for participants affiliated with both low- and high-performing school districts, teachers were more appreciative of candidate’s credentials than either principals or parents.

  14. Introducing Economic Evaluation as a Policy Tool in Korea: Will Decision Makers get Quality Information?: A Critical Review of Published Korean Economic Evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Kun-Sei Lee; Brouwer, Werner B.F.; Sang-Il Lee; Hye-Won Koo

    2005-01-01

    Interest in the use of economic evaluations in Korea as an aid for healthcare decision makers has been growing rapidly since the financial crisis of the Korean National Health Insurance fund and the separation in 2000 of the roles of prescribing and dispensing drugs. The Korean Health Insurance Review Agency (HIRA) is considering making it mandatory for pharmaceutical companies to submit the results of an economic evaluation when demanding reimbursement of new pharmaceuticals. The usefulness ...

  15. 19 July 2013 - Chairman of the Policy Committee, European Cancer Organisation, President, European Association for Cancer Research E. Celis visiting the ATLAS experimental cavern with ATLAS Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson, B. Heinemann and signing the Guest Book with Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers. Life Sciences Adviser M. Dosanjh present.

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    19 July 2013 - Chairman of the Policy Committee, European Cancer Organisation, President, European Association for Cancer Research E. Celis visiting the ATLAS experimental cavern with ATLAS Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson, B. Heinemann and signing the Guest Book with Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers. Life Sciences Adviser M. Dosanjh present.

  16. Accelerating RCRA corrective action: The principles of the DOE approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is involved in the remediation of environmental contamination at many of its facilities under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). RCRA's corrective action provisions were established by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA). In response to the HSWA mandate, EPA established a program for the conduct of RCRA corrective action that was similar to that established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). In addition, EPA developed and implemented its ''stabilization'' initiative as a means of quickly addressing immediate risks posed by releases until long term solutions can be applied. To improve the efficiency of environmental restoration at its facilities, DOE is developing guidance and training programs on accelerated environmental restoration under RCRA. A RCRA guidance document, entitled ''Accelerating RCRA Corrective Action at DOE Facilities,'' is currently being developed by DOE's Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance. The new guidance document will outline a decision-making process for determining if acceleration is appropriate for individual facilities, for identifying, evaluating, and selecting options for program acceleration, and for implementing selected acceleration options. The document will also discuss management and planning strategies that provide a firm foundation for accelerating RCRA corrective action. These strategies include a number of very basic principles that have proven effective at DOE and other federal facilities, as well as some new approaches. The purpose of this paper is to introduce DOE's new guidance document, discuss the general approach presented in the guidance for accelerating RCRA corrective action, and to emphasize some of the more important principles of effective management and planning

  17. Policies to Accelerate Fuel, Technology andBehavioural Change in Transport - Results and Success of the Austrian Climate: Active Mobile Programme after the First Seven Years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is plenty of concepts and strategies on almost all administrative levels to reduce carbon emissions and boost energy efficiency in transport. But it usually takes a long time to adapt national and regional legislation to these strategies with considerable loss of valuable time. Furthermore some of the defined measures will never find the necessary ''political will'' for implementation. To bridge this gap Austria's Environmental ministry supported by the Austrian Energy Agency, got into action 2005 and set up an action programme, condensing all so called ''soft'' and ''voluntary'' measures in transport (''mobility management''), that do not necessarily need to wait for legislation or specific administrative framework conditions. In its comprehensive approach - not only transport is targeted, but also buildings, renewables and energy saving - and also in its effects regarding the reduction of GHG emissions, Climate:active and especially climate:active mobile seems to be one-of-a-kind in Europe. Climate-active mobile set-up: free-of-charge consulting programmes addressing specific target groups (companies, cites andmunicipalities, real estate developers, schools andyouth, tourism); a financial support programme with 51 Mio Euro since 2007 for mobility management measures, fleet conversions to low-carbon technologies, work travel plans etc.; an EcoDriving training programme with up to now 20,000 trainees and educating all novice drivers in Austria in a smart driving style; a broad awareness raising campaign; about 2,900 klima:aktiv mobil partners among the target groups implementing sustainable transport measures and therewith reduces more than 530,000 tons of CO2 emissions every year, created or saved 4300 ''green jobs'' in transport and induced ''green'' investments by companies and administrations 7 to 8 times higher as the funding. Climate-active mobile is one of the main drivers in Austria to accelerate fuel, technology andbehavioural change in transport and

  18. Real-world nuclear decision making: using behavioral economics insights to adjust nonproliferation and deterrence policies to predictable deviations from rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Knopf, Jeffrey W.; Harrington, Anne I.; Pomper, Miles

    2016-01-01

    42 p. The invention of nuclear weapons created unprecedented challenges for the world. Even today, seventy years after the first atomic weapons test, the effort to find effective policies and strategies for dealing with nuclear weapons remains a daunting challenge. From early in the nuclear age, attention focused on deterrence as a strategy to prevent nuclear war. By the 1960s, key states were also seeking to limit the growth of nuclear arsenals and spread of nuclear arms through tools suc...

  19. Reviewing innovative Earth Observation solutions for filling science-policy gaps in hydrology

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, Anthony; Giuliani, Gregory; Ray, Nicolas; RAHMAN Kazi; Abbaspour, Karim; NATIVI Stefano; Craglia, Massimo; Cripe, Douglas; Quevauviller, Philippe; Beniston, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Hydrological modeling and water management intrinsically ask for better integration of data, information and models due to their complex and interdisciplinary nature. The challenge is to inform policy- and decision-makers with reliable data and efficient tools based on scientific models. The latest technological advances in Earth observation and Web technologies allowed the development of Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs) that are accelerating the pace of data sharing at regional and nation...

  20. Science and technology policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Who is responsible for environmental and technological policy in Denmark? And how are those "policy-makers" made accountable to the public for their decisions?   This report attempts to answer these important questions by presenting the Danish contribution to the EU-funded project, Analysing Public...

  1. Cyber security policy guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    Bayuk, nifer L; Rohmeyer, l; Sachs, cus; Schmidt, frey; Weiss, eph

    2012-01-01

    This book is a taxonomy and thesaurus of current cybersecurity policy issues, including a thorough description of each issue and a corresponding list of pros and cons with respect to identified stances on each issue. It documents policy alternatives for the sake of clarity with respect to policy alone, and dives into organizational implementation issues. Without using technical jargon, the book emphasizes the importance of critical and analytical thinking when making policy decisions.  It also equips the reader with descriptions of the impact of specific policy ch

  2. The True Cost of Electric Power. An Inventory of Methodologies to Support Future Decision-making in Comparing the Cost and Competitiveness of Electricity Generation Technologies. Summary for policy-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In energy markets across the world, market prices for fossil fuels are often lower than the prices of energy generated from renewable sources, such as solar, wind, and bio-fuels. These market prices, however, don't take into account the 'true costs' of the energy being sold, because they ignore the external costs to society caused by pollution and its resulting burdens, including damages to public health and the environment. Accounting for these externalities can as much as double the cost of some fossil fuels and, in some cases, make them more expensive than renewables. Because renewable forms of energy have far lower external costs than energy generated from fossil fuels, if one can implement policies that incorporate those costs into the price of electricity generated from all technologies, the playing field levels out and renewables can compete on a more fair and economically justified basis. The challenge, of course, is determining those 'true costs'. Estimating the true costs of electricity generation is both complex and controversial. It is complex because it must take into account several factors, including the population density near a power plant, the fuel it uses, and its pollution abatement technology. It is controversial because it requires assumptions and decisions to be made that the public does not like or does not understand. These include monetizing some types of risks (for example, to health) and ignoring others, such as occupational risks from coal mining when they are already 'internalized' by the coal company in the wages it pays. Finally, these approaches are certain to be controversial because they can affect billions of dollars in investments in electricity generation. This report, The True Cost of Electric Power, examines the various methods that have been used to measure such 'true' costs and looks at how such estimates can be used in company decision-making and public policy to ensure that

  3. Ideal and Real Japanese Monetary Policy: A Comparative Analysis of Actual and Optimal Policy Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Nakashima, Kiyotaka

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the successes and failures of Japanese monetary policy by evaluating policies from January 1980 to May 2003 in the light of optimal policy rules. First, we quantitatively conceptualize the Bank of Japan (BOJ)'s policy decisions by employing Bernanke and Mihov's (1998) econometric methodology for developing monetary-policy measures, and term the resulting policy measure the `actual policy measure'. Next, assuming that the BOJ is committed to optimal policy rules, we simul...

  4. Advocating for Grade-Based Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbault, Keri M.

    2014-01-01

    Parents often struggle with the decision to accelerate their child and may worry about social and emotional issues, although research indicates positive effects on the social and emotional adjustment of carefully selected accelerants. As children's advocates, parents can work effectively with a school system to secure an appropriate academic…

  5. Towards the sustainable energy system. The future of the transition policy for energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaugural speech at the occasion of the acceptance of the office for Energy Transition and Sustainable Development at the Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences of the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam, Netherlands, November 21, 2006. The transition policy in the Netherlands towards a sustainable energy supply system succeeded in creating a basis in the Dutch society, although at the cost of making clear choices with regard to concrete projects, new policy tools and financial means. In order to accelerate those choices the Dutch government needs to take decisive measures

  6. Regulatory decision making by decision analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) has studied with the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) the applicability of decision analytic approach to the treatment of nuclear safety related problems at the regulatory body. The role of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) in decision making has also been discussed. In the study, inspectors from STUK exercised with a decision analytic approach by reoperationalizing two occurred and solved problems. The research scientist from VTT acted as systems analysts guiding the analysis process. The first case was related to a common cause failure phenomenon in solenoid valves controlling pneumatic valves important to safety of the plant. The problem of the regulatory body was to judge whether to allow continued operation or to require more detailed inspections and in which time chedule the inspections should be done. The latter problem was to evaluate design changes of external electrical grid connections after a fire incident had revealed weakness in the separation of electrical system. In both cases, the decision analysis was carried out several sessions in which decision makers, technical experts as well as experts of decision analysis participated. A multi-attribute value function was applied as a decision model so that attributes had to be defined to quantify the levels of achievements of the objectives. The attributes included both indicators related to the level of operational safety of the plant such as core damage frequency given by PSA, and indicators related to the safety culture, i.e., how well the chosen option fits on the regulatory policy. (24 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.)

  7. Accelerator operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section is concerned with the operation of both the tandem-linac system and the Dynamitron, two accelerators that are used for entirely different research. Developmental activities associated with the tandem and the Dynamitron are also treated here, but developmental activities associated with the superconducting linac are covered separately because this work is a program of technology development in its own right

  8. Advanced accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the suitability of four novel particle acceleration technologies for multi-TeV particle physics machines: laser driven linear accelerators (linac), plasma beat-wave devices, plasma wakefield devices, and switched power and cavity wakefield linacs. The report begins with the derivation of beam parameters practical for multi-TeV devices. Electromagnetic field breakdown of materials is reviewed. The two-beam accelerator scheme for using a free electron laser as the driver is discussed. The options recommended and the conclusions reached reflect the importance of cost. We recommend that more effort be invested in achieving a self-consistent range of TeV accelerator design parameters. Beat-wave devices have promise for 1-100 GeV applications and, while not directly scalable to TeV designs, the current generation of ideas are encouraging for the TeV regime. In particular, surfatrons, finite-angle optical mixing devices, plasma grating accelerator, and the Raman forward cascade schemes all deserve more complete analysis. The exploitation of standard linac geometry operated in an unconventional mode is in a phase of rapid evolution. While conceptual projects abound, there are no complete designs. We recommend that a fraction of sponsored research be devoted to this approach. Wakefield devices offer a great deal of potential; trades among their benefits and constraints are derived and discussed herein. The study of field limitation processes has received inadequate attention; this limits experiment designers. The costs of future experiments are such that investment in understanding these processes is prudent. 34 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Decision Theory and the Governance of Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Edward J.

    1987-01-01

    Provides an overview of the decision making process for science and technology. Finds that government agencies and officials are not the major decision makers. Examines obstacles to achieving intelligent decisions when policy makers are scientists, business executives, and consumers. Concludes with five strategies for improving technological…

  10. Rational decisions

    CERN Document Server

    Binmore, Ken

    2008-01-01

    It is widely held that Bayesian decision theory is the final word on how a rational person should make decisions. However, Leonard Savage--the inventor of Bayesian decision theory--argued that it would be ridiculous to use his theory outside the kind of small world in which it is always possible to ""look before you leap."" If taken seriously, this view makes Bayesian decision theory inappropriate for the large worlds of scientific discovery and macroeconomic enterprise. When is it correct to use Bayesian decision theory--and when does it need to be modified? Using a minimum of mathematics,

  11. 基于实物期权的碳税政策对CCS项目投资决策影响研究%Research on the Effect of Carbon Tax Policy on CCS Projects Investment Decision Based on Real Option

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林则夫; 文书洋; 宋斌

    2015-01-01

    全球变暖对人类的生存和发展造成了巨大的威胁. 作为一个崛起中的大国,节能减排、保护环境是中国不可避免的责任更是可持续发展的要求. 碳捕集与封存( CCS)技术可以实现短期大量减排,受到各国重视. CCS项目具有不确定性,投资者在投资过程中具有较高的决策灵活性. 本文在考虑CCS投资特点的基础上,建立了基于实物期权CCS项目投资决策模型. 大量研究表明碳排放政策是影响投资者决策的重要因素,本文设定税率为政策变量,给出了包含推迟期权价值的CCS项目价值函数. 假设使得CCS项目价值为正的最低税率是最佳的税率. 以项目价值函数等于零为临界条件求解模型得到临界税率与其他技术经济变量的隐函数.最后,本文结合案例用数值仿真的方法研究了各技术经济变量对临界税率的影响. 发现税收政策的有效性主要受到碳交易价格、无风险利率以及CCS项目的投资额的影响. 最后根据研究发现提出了政策建议.%Global warming is a challenge and threat for human beings. As a rising power, China has its own obligation to contribute to emission reduction which is also a requirement of sustainable development. CCS technology plays an important role in emission reduction for its ability to achieve large amount of reduction in a short time. CCS investment is full of uncertainty, the investors have flexibility during the process. In this paper, the characteristics of CCS investment was taken into account, and the investment decision model of CCS investment was build. Researches show that policy on CO2 emission is a key factor of CCS project investment decision. In this study, carbon tax rate is set as policy variable. Function of project value of CCS is given, which take the value of real option into consideration. Under the assumption that as long as the tax rate is able to make manufacturers to invest in CCS, the policy is

  12. Key Factors Affecting a Technology Entrepreneur's Choice of Incubator or Accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane A. Isabelle

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Technology entrepreneurship rarely succeeds in isolation; increasingly, it occurs in interconnected networks of business partners and other organizations. For entrepreneurs lacking access to an established business ecosystem, incubators and accelerators provide a possible support mechanism for access to partners and resources. Yet, these relatively recent approaches to supporting entrepreneurship are still evolving. Therefore, it can be challenging for entrepreneurs to assess these mechanisms and to make insightful decisions on whether or not to join an incubator or accelerator, and which incubator or accelerator best meets their needs. In this article, five key factors that entrepreneurs should take into consideration about incubators and accelerators are offered. Insights are drawn from two surveys of managers and users of incubators and accelerators. An understanding of these five key success factors (stage of venture, fit with incubator’s mission, selection and graduation policies, services provided, and network of partners and potential pitfalls will help entrepreneurs confidently enter into a relationship with an incubator or accelerator.

  13. KEKB accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KEKB, the B-Factory at High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) recently achieved the luminosity of 1 x 1034 cm-2s-1. This luminosity is two orders higher than the world's level at 1990 when the design of KEKB started. This unprecedented result was made possible by KEKB's innovative design and technology in three aspects - beam focusing optics, high current storage, and beam - beam interaction. Now KEKB is leading the luminosity frontier of the colliders in the world. (author)

  14. Accelerating networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evolving out-of-equilibrium networks have been under intense scrutiny recently. In many real-world settings the number of links added per new node is not constant but depends on the time at which the node is introduced in the system. This simple idea gives rise to the concept of accelerating networks, for which we review an existing definition and-after finding it somewhat constrictive-offer a new definition. The new definition provided here views network acceleration as a time dependent property of a given system as opposed to being a property of the specific algorithm applied to grow the network. The definition also covers both unweighted and weighted networks. As time-stamped network data becomes increasingly available, the proposed measures may be easily applied to such empirical datasets. As a simple case study we apply the concepts to study the evolution of three different instances of Wikipedia, namely, those in English, German, and Japanese, and find that the networks undergo different acceleration regimes in their evolution

  15. Implementing Participatory Decision Making in Forest Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananda, Jayanath

    2007-04-01

    Forest policy decisions are often a source of debate, conflict, and tension in many countries. The debate over forest land-use decisions often hinges on disagreements about societal values related to forest resource use. Disagreements on social value positions are fought out repeatedly at local, regional, national, and international levels at an enormous social cost. Forest policy problems have some inherent characteristics that make them more difficult to deal with. On the one hand, forest policy decisions involve uncertainty, long time scales, and complex natural systems and processes. On the other hand, such decisions encompass social, political, and cultural systems that are evolving in response to forces such as globalization. Until recently, forest policy was heavily influenced by the scientific community and various economic models of optimal resource use. However, growing environmental awareness and acceptance of participatory democracy models in policy formulation have forced the public authorities to introduce new participatory mechanisms to manage forest resources. Most often, the efforts to include the public in policy formulation can be described using the lower rungs of Arnstein’s public participation typology. This paper presents an approach that incorporates stakeholder preferences into forest land-use policy using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). An illustrative case of regional forest-policy formulation in Australia is used to demonstrate the approach. It is contended that applying the AHP in the policy process could considerably enhance the transparency of participatory process and public acceptance of policy decisions.

  16. 中国上市公司现金股利决策模型%Decision-making models for cash dividend policies for Chinese listed companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜琪; 宋逢明

    2012-01-01

    Data for listed companies in the Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges was used to analyze the factors contributing to the propensity for cash dividend distributions and the cash payout ratio of Chinese listed companies.Regulatory changes in the CSRC refinancing policy significantly increased the listed companies' propensity to pay cash dividends.Cash dividends have become the major channel for profit distributions in the Chinese stock market.Companies with higher retained earnings ratios have higher propensity to pay cash dividends,which supports the life-cycle theory of dividends.However,higher profitability and higher growth rates lead to lower payout ratios suggesting that some high-quality companies choose lower payout ratios to meet regulatory requirements,which may be the major driving force for the low ratio of aggregate cash dividends to aggregate profits in the Chinese stock market.%该文从是否现金分红和现金股利支付水平2个维度,建立公司现金股利决策模型,分析确定影响中国沪深两市A股上市公司现金股利政策的因素。2001-03中国证监会再融资政策的调整,显著提高了上市公司现金分红的意愿,现金股利已成为中国上市公司利润分配的主要形式。公司留存收益的比例越高,则现金分红的可能性越大,支持了股利的生命周期理论。而从现金分红公司的股利支付水平来看,盈利水平越高,成长性越好的公司,现金股利的支付率却越低,其原因在于中国部分优质上市公司为达到再融资的监管要求而勉强分红,从而导致了中国A股市场现金股利总额占净利润总额的比例偏低。

  17. The policy on gender equality in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    The briefing paper describes current Danish policies, practices and legislation within the area of gender equality. It addresses economic independence, reconciliation policies, participation in decision-making, gender-based violence and trafficking, gender stereotypes, and gender equality...

  18. 高校“三重一大”制度的生成逻辑、内在规范和实施机制%On the Generative Logic,Internal Regulation and Implementation Mechanism of "Three Importance and One Greatness" Collective Policy Decision System in University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄德水

    2011-01-01

    To uphold "Three Importance and One Greatness" collective policy decision system,which makes decision-making model change from individual,subjective,administrative type to collective,scientific,governance type,is very important for perfection of the Corruption Punishment and Prevention System.The collective policy decision system currently is undermined by non-democracy,non-implementation and non-system.Accordingly,we must further establish and perfect collective decision-making rules,implementation performance evaluation mechanism,decision supervision mechanism and decision responsibility mechanism.%“三重一大”制度是高校推进惩治和预防腐败体系建设的重要内容,实现了从个体决策、主观决策、行政型决策到集体决策、科学决策、治理型决策的变迁。当前,该制度面临着非民主障碍、非执行障碍和非系统障碍。针对此,要进一步建立健全集体决策规程,执行绩效评估机制、决策监督机制和决策责任机制。

  19. 22 CFR 161.2 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... appropriate, Federal, State and local governmental authorities and public involvement in decisions which... environmental concerns and, when consistent with the foreign policy of the United States, lend...

  20. Accelerators and the Accelerator Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process.

  1. accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    On the inside of the cavitytThere is a layer of niobium. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment.

  2. Selective immigration policies, migrants' education and welfare at origin

    OpenAIRE

    Bertoli, Simone; Brücker, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    Destination countries are progressively shifting towards selective immigration policies. These can effectively increase migrants' average education even if one allows for endogenous schooling decisions and education policies at origin. Still, more selective immigration policies reduce social welfare at origin.

  3. Monetary Policy Committees, Learning and Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Anke Weber

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers optimal communication by monetary policy committees in a model of imperfect knowledge and learning. The main policy implications are that there may be costs to central bank communication if the public is perpetually learning about the committee's decision-making process and policy preferences. When committee members have heterogeneous policy preferences, welfare is greater under majority voting than under consensus decision-making. Furthermore, central bank communication ...

  4. The Statistical Research of Regional R&D Activities and Policy Decision Research of Promoting Economic Development%区域R&D活动统计分析与促进经济发展对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志斌; 施建军

    2003-01-01

    Ever since the English scholar Friedman brought forward the concept of technological innovation system in 1987, schoIars all over the world have carried out researches on the nation's overall competitiveness from the perspective of technological innovation system. They have tried to prove that technological innovation system has a vital effect on the enhancement of a nation' s technology level, economic development and overall power, and that its core, the R&D activities, play a fundamental and decisive role in economic development. In this paper, the authors will compare Jiangsu's R&D expenditore from such indices as resource, input and output with that of Beijing, Shanghai, Shandong, Guangdong and Shanxi,the other provinces and cities also on the top six list. Concluding applicable experience from advanced R&D development and examining on the relationship between regional R&D development and regional economic development will Provide reference for the enactment of R&D development policies for economic development.

  5. Science and technology policy

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Who is responsible for environmental and technological policy in Denmark? And how are those "policy-makers" made accountable to the public for their decisions?   This report attempts to answer these important questions by presenting the Danish contribution to the EU-funded project, Analysing Public Accountability Procedures in Europe.   The first chapter presents Danish public accountability procedures and places them in historical perspective. The other chapters are case studies of genetical...

  6. Task Release Control for Decision Making Queues

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, Vaibhav; Bullo, Francesco; Langbort, Cédric

    2010-01-01

    We consider the optimal duration allocation in a decision making queue. Decision making tasks arrive at a given rate to a human operator. The correctness of the decision made by human evolves as a sigmoidal function of the duration allocated to the task. Each task in the queue loses its value continuously. We elucidate on this trade-off and determine optimal policies for the human operator. We show the optimal policy requires the human to drop some tasks. We present a receding horizon optimization strategy, and compare it with the greedy policy.

  7. An Emerging Field of Research: Challenges in Pediatric Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Lipstein, Ellen A.; Brinkman, William B.; Fiks, Alexander G.; Hendrix, Kristin S.; Kryworuchko, Jennifer; Miller, Victoria A.; Prosser, Lisa A.; Ungar, Wendy J.; Fox, David

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in pediatric decision science, spurred by policies advocating for children’s involvement in medical decision making. Challenges specific to pediatric decision research include: the dynamic nature of child participation in decisions due to the growth and development of children, the family context of all pediatric decisions, and the measurement of preferences and outcomes that may inform decision making in the pediatric setting. The objectives of this manuscript are t...

  8. [Population policy: substantial but insufficient advances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Y Gonzalez, A

    1988-01-01

    Population policy was revised in Mexico in 1973 following the introduction of family planning and the abolition of rules prohibiting contraceptives. The laws of 1936 and 1947 favored population growth, but it was due to the improvement of public health (and the resulting drop in mortality rates), agricultural reform, and industrialization that an accelerated demographic expansion occurred. The National Council on Population (CONAPO) was created whose activities include family planning with modern contraceptive technology and maternal-infant health care. In accordance with the goals set in 1977, population growth is sought to be reduced to 1%/year by the year 2000. Public educational programs about reproduction, the family, and the community have been launched. The integration of women into the development of the country under the aegis of the Comision Nacional de las Mujer has not been fully achieved. The processing and analysis of demographic information for longterm policy development has also been limited. The lack of clear guidance from CONAPO has limited the involvement of state and municipal councils in the solution of Mexico's population problems. Future challenges will focus on the legal framework for reconciling public and private interests, and the interaction of population programs and economic and social development. The centralized decision making of population policy has involved more organizations, but still more needs to be done.

  9. Encouraging energy efficiency: Policies and programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Successfully overcoming the barriers to higher energy efficiency requires development of policies designed for specific users and locations. Reform of energy pricing, which entails removing subsidies and beginning internalization of externalities, is critical to give technology producers and users proper signals for investment and management decisions. But while a rise in energy prices increases the amount of energy-efficiency improvement that is cost-effective, it does not remove other barriers that deter investment. Minimum efficiency standards or agreements can raise the market floor, and are important because they affect the entire market in the near-term. But they may not raise the celining very much, and do little to push the efficiency frontier. To accomplish these goals, incentives and other market-development strategies are needed. Utility programs in particular can play a key role in pushing energy efficiency beyond the level where users are likely to invest on their own. Policies, programs, and pricing should complement one another. Pricing reform alone will not overcome the many entrenched barriers to higher energy efficiency, but trying to accelerate energy efficiency improvement without addressing energy pricing problems will lead to limited success. Whether tagerting new equipment or management of existing systems, policies must reflect a thorough understanding of the particular system and an awareness of the motivations of the actors. 25 refs

  10. The impact of the Oncotype DX Recurrence Score on treatment decisions and clinical outcomes in patients with early breast cancer: the Maccabi Healthcare Services experience with a unified testing policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegelmann-Danieli, Nava; Silverman, Barbara; Zick, Aviad; Beit-Or, Anat; Katzir, Itzhak; Porath, Avi

    2013-01-01

    The Oncotype DX Recurrence Score is a validated prognosticator in oestrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer. Our retrospective analysis of a prospectively defined cohort summarises the clinical implications associated with Oncotype DX testing according to the Maccabi Healthcare Services (MHS) policy. The MHS eligibility criteria for testing included ER+ N0/pN1mic invasive tumours, discussion of test implications with an oncologist, ductal carcinoma 0.6–1 cm Grade 2–3, HER2 negative ductal carcinomas with 1.1–4.0 cm Grade 1–2, or lobular carcinoma. Large (> 1 cm) Grade 3 tumours could have grade reassessed. We linked Recurrence Score results with patients’ information and used chi-squared tests to assess the associations thereof. Between January 2008 and December 2011, tests were performed on 751 patients (MHS-eligible, 713); 54%, 38%, and 8% of patients had low, intermediate, and high Recurrence Score results, respectively. Recurrence Score distribution varied significantly with age (P = 0.002), with increasing Recurrence Score values with decreasing age. The proportion of patients with high Recurrence Score results varied by grade/size combination and histology, occurring in 32% of small (≤ 1 cm) Grade 3 and 3% of larger (1.1–4 cm) Grade 1 ductal tumours and only in 2% of lobular carcinomas. Chemotherapy was administered to 1%, 13%, and 61% of patients with low, intermediate, and high Recurrence Score results, respectively (P < 0.0001), but only to 2% of intermediate score patients ≥ 65 years. Luteinising-hormone-releasing hormone agonists with tamoxifen were used in 27% of low Recurrence Score patients ≤ 50 years. With a median follow-up of 26 months, no systemic recurrences were documented, whereas four patients exhibited locoregional recurrences. In summary, in this low-to-moderate risk patient population, testing identified 46% of patients as intermediate/high risk. Treatment decisions were influenced by Recurrence Score results and

  11. Policymaker's Guide to Feed-in Tariff Policy Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, T. D.; Cory, K.; Kreycik, C.; Williams, E.

    2010-07-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most widely used renewable energy policy in the world for driving accelerating renewable energy (RE) deployment, accounting for a greater share of RE development than either tax incentives or renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies. FITs have generated significant RE deployment, helping bring the countries that have implemented them successfully to the forefront of the global RE industry. In the European Union (EU), FIT policies have led to the deployment of more than 15,000 MW of solar photovoltaic (PV) power and more than 55,000 MW of wind power between 2000 and the end of 2009. In total, FITs are responsible for approximately 75% of global PV and 45% of global wind deployment. Countries such as Germany, in particular, have demonstrated that FITs can be used as a powerful policy tool to drive RE deployment and help meet combined energy security and emissions reductions objectives. This policymaker's guide provides a detailed analysis of FIT policy design and implementation and identifies a set of best practices that have been effective at quickly stimulating the deployment of large amounts of RE generation. Although the discussion is aimed primarily at decision makers who have decided that a FIT policy best suits their needs, exploration of FIT policies can also help inform a choice among alternative renewable energy policies.

  12. Firm Financial Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru NEGREA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Financial policy outlines the main directions of action of the financial activity. In determining financial policy, managers must take into consideration interests of all stakeholders, given the political, social, financial and monetary context of the firm, but also the technical and technological one. In addition, the educational, environmental and scientific context must be considered when establishing the financial policy, as it also influences the latter. Therefore, within financial policy, managers must identify and adopt those financial decisions that can positively influence the future development of the firm. Present studies intended as a tool for those interested in the future of the firm, e.g. employers, employees, banks, insurance companies, service providers, etc. It details directions of actions used by managers within financial policy in order to increase firm profits.

  13. Decision Analysis For Nuclear Fuel Cycle Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prime objective in this talk is to explore the impact of widely different (or hypothetical) fuel cycle requirement rather than to attempt to predict a probable scenario. In the course of preparation of this talk, it was realized that, despite the very speculative nature of this kind of endeavor, studies like these are considered essential to the long-range planning needs of the national nuclear power industry, utilities and those providing supporting services, even though the current presentation are extremely primitive in that purpose. A nuclear electricity utility tries to reduce fuel cycle costs. But the problems have to be approached with a long-term perspective, and the logical conclusion is that utility has to make technical progress. As nuclear generation gradually become great, supplies of the fuel cycle services are responsible for the R and D about the nuclear fuel cycle services which is useful to implement the technical choices they propose. Then it is for the utility to choose according to his knowledge, if necessary by carrying out additional research. But only the utility acquires real operating experience and prototype reactor or laboratory tests offer limited knowledge quantities. One way to ensure a good guarantee of supply is, obviously, to make the order far enough ahead of time to have a stock. But, on the other hand, stocks are expensive and should be kept to a strict minimum. Therefore, a detailed analysis of uncertainties is required, as well as an effort to optimize the handling of the overall problem. As mentioned earlier, in recent years, specifically the right way to handle the back-end of the fuel cycle has been always hotly contested and ultimately it was a question of reprocessing or direct disposal of spent fuel elements. Direct disposal of spent fuel is, at present, the only possibility of spent fuel disposal option available to the Korean utility. Korea, having virtually no indigenous uranium resources, can hardly afford to forego reusing recoverable nuclear fuel, and thus reprocessing, in the long run

  14. A decision model for policy measures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flury, F.C.

    1974-01-01

    The greater part of the measures taken by authorities affects both the aspects of prosperity and that of welfare. In this connection the definition of priorities presents special problems. Possibilities and limitations of the model are illustrated.

  15. Teachers in Early Childhood Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilderry, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines teacher accountability and authority in early childhood policy. It reports on data from a study that investigated the influences affecting early childhood teacher decision-making at the preschool level in Victoria, Australia. Using a question raised by Ball "Where are the teachers in all this [policy]?" provided a…

  16. Globalization and new policy concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Swinbank, Alan

    2015-01-01

    The transfer of some decision-making authority from the domestic to the supranational arena as a result of the establishment of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1995 potentially changed domestic policy dynamics. The WTO agreements reflect the trade policy concerns addressed in the Uruguay...

  17. Media independence and dividend policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Dandoune, Salma

    2012-01-01

    independence and dividend policies in emerging markets. Using a dataset from twenty three emerging markets, we show a significantly negative relationship between dividend policies (payout ratio and decision to pay dividend) and media independence. We argue that independent media reduces information asymmetries...

  18. Net Resource Assessment (NetRA): A Collaborative Effort Between USGS Science and Decisions Center, the Science Impact Laboratory for Policy and Economics (University of New Mexico) and Sandia National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshire, D.; Bernknopf, R.; Adhikari, D. R.; Babis, C.; Broadbent, C. D.; Tidwell, V. C.

    2015-12-01

    Department of Interior Secretarial Order No. 3330, "… establishes a Department-wide mitigation strategy that will ensure consistency and efficiency in the review and permitting of infrastructure development projects and in conserving our Nation's valuable natural and cultural resources." The USGS Organic Act authorizes resource assessments to estimate the in-place potential capacity of energy, mineral, hydrologic, and biologic resources (20 Stat. 394; 43 U.S.C. 31) and later amendments. These two statements form the basis for the development of the Net Resources Assessment (NetRA) framework. NetRA is a policy-relevant, interdisciplinary approach to assessing natural resources availability in examining the regional-scale interrelationships between energy or mineral extraction and impact on ecosystem services. The systems dynamics approach (SD) emphasizes the interdependence of natural resource development and its effect on collocated ecosystem services over space and time. The example of the NetRA that will be presented focuses on tradeoffs associated with land management decisions in the West. The Piceance Basin, CO example that will be discussed involves development of a continuous gas deposit and its impact on Mule Deer and water quality. The SD is the hub for generating a range of simulated landscape outcomes. The probabilistic model provides an economic indicator as to the expected net societal benefit of economic development and biophysical indicators for ecosystem services affected in the region. Both natural and economic indicators are associated with each outcome via a tradeoff analysis the can be used for risk analysis. The NetRA also retains map attributes for before and after map comparisons to specific alternatives for an existing baseline. The model has three stages: map-based scenario development with slider bars (choice variables), side-by-side extraction and ecosystem services sub-models, and integrated multiple resource trade-off outcomes.

  19. Inventory Decision Model of Unanimous Ordering Policy with Multi-item Maintenance Materials%多品种维修器材统一订购策略的库存决策模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚东; 孙志刚

    2013-01-01

    分析了一种多品种维修器材联合订货的库存决策模型,该模型采用连续检查的多品种统一订购库存策略.维修器材库存控制的目的是在确保维修器材服务水平的基础上,降低库存成本.根据这一思想设计了算法,该算法首先假设订货点和订购提前期为零,根据库存成本确定最大库存量,然后考虑订货点和订购提前期不为零的情况,根据维修器材满足率确定各品种维修器材的订货点,从而求得决策参数.最后通过实例证明模型和算法的有效性.%An inventory decision model of multi-item maintenance materials is analyzed, which is a joint ordering problem. A unanimous ordering policy which review inventory continuously of multi-item is applied in the model. The aim of inventory control of maintenance materials is ensuring the service level and reducing the inventory cost. According to this thought, an algorithm is designed. Firstly, supposed that ordering level and lead time are both zero, and then determine the order-up-to level according to the inventory cost. After that, ordering level of all kinds of maintenance materials is computed according to the fill rate. Finally, an example is given to demonstrate the validity of the model and algorithm.

  20. ADDRESSING COMPLEX SPATIAL DECISION PROBLEMS IN MOUNTAINOUS AREAS: THE INTELLIGENT SPATIAL DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS (SDSS) APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Kostas Tolidis; Efi Dimopoulou

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the issue of land use planning and land policy making for mountain regions, considered as regions with specific characteristics (natural, cultural, etc.), but also development constraints. Spatial decision making in such regions is characterized by complexity (semi-structured spatial decision problems) and multiplicity of problems. These indicate the need for qualitative information in support of the decision-making process, in order to improve effectiveness in decision m...

  1. Some perspective decisions for the regeneration system equipment of the thermal and nuclear power plants decreasing the probability of water ingress into the turbine and rotor acceleration by return steam flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, N. N.; Svyatkin, F. A.; Sintsova, T. G.; Ukhanova, M. G.; Yesin, S. B.; Nikolayenkova, E. K.; Yurchenko, A. Yu.; Grigorieva, E. B.

    2016-03-01

    The regeneration system heaters are one of the sources of possible ingress of the water into the turbine. The water penetrates into the turbine either at the heaters overflow or with the return flow of steam generated when the water being in the heater boils up in the dynamic operation modes or at deenergization of the power-generating unit. The return flow of steam and water is dangerous to the turbine blades and can result in the rotor acceleration. The known protective devices used to prevent the overflow of the low-pressure and high-pressure heaters (LPH and HPH), of the horizontal and vertical heaters of heating-system water (HWH and VWH), as well as of the deaerators and low-pressure mixing heaters (LPMH) were considered. The main protective methods of the steam and water return flows supplied by the heaters in dynamic operation modes or at deenergization of the power-generating unit are described. Previous operating experience shows that the available protections do not fully prevent water ingress into the turbine and the rotor acceleration and, therefore, the development of measures to decrease the possibility of ingress of the water into the turbine is an actual problem. The measures allowing eliminating or reducing the water mass in the heaters are expounded; some of them were designed by the specialists of OAO Polzunov Scientific and Development Association on Research and Design of Power Equipment (NPO CKTI) and are efficiently introduced at heat power plants and nuclear power plants. The suggested technical solutions allow reducing the possibility of the water ingress into the turbine and rotor acceleration by return steam flow in the dynamic operation modes or in the case of power generating unit deenergization. Some of these solutions have been tested in experimental-industrial exploitation and can be used in industry.

  2. [Public policy analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subirats, J

    2001-01-01

    This article presents to public health professionals concepts and perspectives from political science relevant for creating a healthier public policy. Currently, there is no uniform vision of what constitutes public interest and the decisions of public administrations tend to be based on compromise. In public debate, what is paramount is the capacity to persuade. From the perspective of public policy analysis, the crucial issue is definition: the final decision depends on the definition of the problem that has emerged triumphant in the public debate among competing actors with different definitions of the problem. From a policy analysis perspective, the problems entering the agenda of public administration does not necessarily correspond to their severity, as competing actors try to impose their point of view. Because of its historical evolution, the Spanish political system has specific traits. The relatively weak democratic tradition tends to make the decision process less visibles, with strong technocratic elements and weaker social articulation. Both the juridical tradition and liberal rhetoric portray lobbying as contrary to public interest, when in fact it is constantly performed by powerful vested interest groups, through both personal contacts and economic connections. Regulatory policies, with concentrated costs and diffuse benefits, seem to be moving from Spain to the European Union. To promote healthier public policies, the development of civil society initiatives and the building of coalitions will play an increasingly greater role in the future. PMID:11423032

  3. On the Optimality of Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Berk (Jan Marc); B.K. Bierut

    2004-01-01

    textabstractMost monetary policy committees decide on interest rates using a simple majority voting rule. Given the inherent heterogeneity of committee members, this voting rule is suboptimal in terms of the quality of the interest rate decision, but popular for other (political) reasons. We show th

  4. Evidence-based policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vohnsen, Nina Holm

    2013-01-01

    A current ambition in welfare states as diverse as Denmark, the UK, and in the USA is to base political decision making on rigorous research (Cartwright et al 2009; Mulgan 2009; Bason 2010). Sound as this might seem the ambition has nevertheless been problematized by both policy-makers and the re......A current ambition in welfare states as diverse as Denmark, the UK, and in the USA is to base political decision making on rigorous research (Cartwright et al 2009; Mulgan 2009; Bason 2010). Sound as this might seem the ambition has nevertheless been problematized by both policy...... a full account, see Vohnsen 2011). These insights will be relevant for the anthropological researcher of legislative processes who wishes to move beyond a merely discursive approach to the study of policy and politics....

  5. Communication in Monetary Policy Committees

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Marc Berk; Beata K. Bierut

    2005-01-01

    This paper models monetary policy decisions as being taken by an interacting group of heterogeneous policy makers, organized in a MPC. We show that communication between members generally improves the quality of monetary policy by increasing knowledge about uncertain future economic developments. Interestingly, we find that it is sometimes beneficial to restrict communication to a subset of MPC members. We also show that the optimal size of a communicating MPC is generally smaller than otherw...

  6. Are new industry policies precautionary?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galland, Daniel; McDaniels, Timothy L

    2008-01-01

    industry characterized by risks, uncertainties, exponential growth, economic significance and environmental controversy, the outcomes of such reactive policies are generally reflected in siting criteria that yield implicit environmental and socio-economic disadvantages and trade-offs. This paper proposes....... The paper finally argues that, although in practice, policy makers generally tend to make incremental choices that are reactive to diverse issues, new industries could adopt more precautionary policies based on processes of public negotiation, analytical decision making and regional planning based...

  7. Transparency of human resource policy

    OpenAIRE

    Mellander, Erik

    2014-01-01

    The scope of public human resource policy is outlined. Motivation for the need of transparency in this policy is provided in terms of informational asymmetries, human capital externalities, and long planning horizons. Transparency is defined both along a time dimension - ex ante and ex post - and by a taxonomy due to Geraats (2014), referring to different facets of decision-making, implementation, and outcomes: political, economic, procedural, policy, and operational transparency. Five aspect...

  8. Introduction of pentavalent vaccine in Indonesia: a policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadisoemarto, Panji F; Reich, Michael R; Castro, Marcia C

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of pentavalent vaccine containing Haemophilus influenzae type b antigen in Indonesia’s National Immunization Program occurred nearly three decades after the vaccine was first available in the United States and 16 years after Indonesia added hepatitis B vaccine into the program. In this study, we analyzed the process that led to the decision to introduce pentavalent vaccine in Indonesia. Using process tracing and case comparison, we used qualitative data gathered through interviews with key informants and data extracted from written sources to identify four distinct but interrelated processes that were involved in the decision making: (a) pentavalent vaccine use policy process, (b) financing process, (c) domestic vaccine development process and (d) political process. We hypothesized that each process is associated with four necessary conditions that are jointly sufficient for the successful introduction of pentavalent vaccine in Indonesia, namely (a) an evidence-based vaccine use recommendation, (b) sufficient domestic financing capacity, (c) sufficient domestic vaccine manufacturing capacity and (d) political support for introduction. This analysis of four processes that led to the decision to introduce a new vaccine in Indonesia may help policy makers and other stakeholders understand and manage activities that can accelerate vaccine introduction in the future. PMID:27107293

  9. Big Decisions, Big Risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent; Bruzelius, Nils; Rothengatter, Werner

    2002-01-01

    In terms of risk, many appraisals of very large infrastructure investments assume, or pretend to assume, that infrastructure policies and projects exist in a predictable Newtonian world of cause and effect where things go according to plan. In reality, the world of policy and project preparation...... major projects. The article describes lessons and recommendations on how to improve accountability in decision making on very large infrastructure investments in Denmark. The conventional approach to infrastructure investments is replaced by an alternative focusing on accountability. Redrawing...... and implementation is a highly stochastic one where things happen only with a certain probability and rarely turn out as originally intended. The failure to reflect the probabilistic reality of investment preparation and implementation is a central reason for the poor track record that can be documented for many...

  10. Failing Decision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Recently the Danish subway trains have begun to announce “on time” when they arrive at a station on time. This action reflects a worrying acceptance of the normality of failure. If trains were generally expected to be on time, there would be no reason to – triumphantly – announce it. This chapter...... as a controlled cost for achieving organizational goals. Decisions must fail so the organization can succeed. This chapter uses two cases to elaborate on these ideas. By way of introduction, I will reflect on the notion of ‘failing decisions’ within organization and decision theory. This chapter is also propelled...

  11. Analysis of China's Overheated Economy and Macroeconomic Policy Options

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KeshaGuo

    2004-01-01

    Based on macroeconomic analysis since 2003, this article holds mat a trena towaras overheating has surfaced in China's economy. China's rapid economic expansion has affected the quality of its growth, with rising material and energy consumption and imbalanced economic structure as the main manifestations. Regarding macroeconomic policy options in 2004, decision-makers should shift the policy focus from control of deflation to prevention of inflation; the pace of economic growth should be properly set; a balance between consumption and investment should be strengthened by controlling excessive expansion of investment, and industrial restructuring should be conducted in a coordinated manner on the basis of properly controlling the overly rapid indastrial growth; policies should be continued to boost exports and sustainable growth of foreign investment; and more efforts should be made to accelerate the change in the mode of economic growth.

  12. Linear Accelerator (LINAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Linear Accelerator A linear accelerator (LINAC) customizes high energy x-rays to ... ensured? What is this equipment used for? A linear accelerator (LINAC) is the device most commonly used ...

  13. Time to decision: the drivers of innovation adoption decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciganek, Andrew Paul; (Dave) Haseman, William; Ramamurthy, K.

    2014-03-01

    Organisations desire timeliness. Timeliness facilitates a better responsiveness to changes in an organisation's external environment to either attain or maintain competitiveness. Despite its importance, decision timeliness has not been explicitly examined. Decision timeliness is measured in this study as the time taken to commit to a decision. The research objective is to identify the drivers of decision timeliness in the context of adopting service-oriented architecture (SOA), an innovation for enterprise computing. A research model rooted in the technology-organisation-environment (TOE) framework is proposed and tested with data collected in a large-scale study. The research variables have been examined before in the context of adoption, but their applicability to the timeliness of innovation decision-making has not received much attention and their salience is unclear. The results support multiple hypothesised relationships, including the finding that a risk-oriented organisational culture as well as normative and coercive pressures accelerates decision timeliness. Top management support as well as the traditional innovation attributes (compatibility, relative advantage and complexity/ease-of-use) were not found to be significant when examining their influence on decision timeliness, which appears inconsistent with generally accepted knowledge and deserves further examination.

  14. Economics: Scarcity and Citizen Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliard, June V.; Morton, John S.

    1981-01-01

    Maintaining that economics can contribute significantly to the achievement of citizenship education goals within the social studies program, this article offers information on concepts for analyzing economic policies, dealing with policy issues in the classroom, and understanding the relationship of scarcity to decision making. (DB)

  15. 可再生能源投资决策行为影响因素实证分析与政策启示%An Positive Study and Policy Enlightenment of Influencing Factors in Renewable Energy Investment Decision-Making Behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓天; 薛惠锋

    2012-01-01

    Lack of full consideration of the influencing factors of the investors' s behaviors in the process of investment decision-making can be the main reason why many current policies have failed to obtain the realistic results. This paper makes a quantitative description of causual relations among the infuencing factors concerning the renewable energy investment decision-making behaviors through establishing the analytical conceptual model for the renewable energy investment decision-making behaviors based on the behavior decision-making theory. Also, the method of combining quality and quantity is adopted to carry out the measurement and regression analysis of the variables in the model. The research results indicate that the priori beliefs, preference for policy and technological risk attitude held by the investors may have an obvious effect upon the investment policy,and that the renewable energy shares(I. e. the decision-making results by the investor) in the investment combination are found to be in the posivie correlation with the performances of investment combination, on the basis of which, this paper points out that research results can improve the policy enlightment for the efficiency of renewable energy investment policy.%缺乏对投资决策过程中投资者行为影响因素的考量是当前许多政策未取得理想效果的主要原因.基于行为决策理论,通过构建可再生能源投资决策行为分析概念模型,定性描述可再生能源投资决策行为影响因素之间的因果关系.采用定量和定性相结合的方法对模型中的变量进行测量与多元回归分析.研究结果表明投资者的先验信念、政策偏好和技术风险态度对投资决策有显著影响,并且投资组合中可再生能源的份额(即投资者的决策结果)与其投资组合的业绩正相关.据此,提出了该研究结果对提高可再生能源投资政策有效性的政策启示.

  16. International Organisations and Transnational Education Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moutsios, Stavros

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the World Bank/IMF (International Monetary Fund), the OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) and the WTO (World Trade Organisation) as institutions of transnational policy making. They are all at present making education policies which are decisively...... shaping current directions and developments in national education systems. The paper reviews the enhanced role of these institutions in producing education policies and investigates the ideological basis as well as the processes through which these policies are made. It is argued that decisions are taken...... the transnationalisation of education policy making but also the full submission of education to the pursuits of global economy....

  17. Policy Route Map for Academic Libraries' Digital Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulouris, Alexandros; Kapidakis, Sarantos

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a policy decision tree for digital information management in academic libraries. The decision tree is a policy guide, which offers alternative access and reproduction policy solutions according to the prevailing circumstances (for example acquisition method, copyright ownership). It refers to the digital information life cycle,…

  18. TESOL and Policy Enactments: Perspectives from Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Vaidehi; Morgan, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Prior research in the area of language policy and planning (LPP) has been focused primarily on macro decision-making and the impact of national, local, and institutional policies in educational settings. Only recently have scholars begun examining the everyday contexts in which policies are interpreted and negotiated in ways that reflect local…

  19. PARTY FORMATION INCOLLECTIVE DECISION-MAKING

    OpenAIRE

    Martin J. Osborne; Rabee Tourky

    2002-01-01

    We study party formation in a general model of collective decisionmaking, modeling parties as agglomerations of policy positions championed by decision-makers. We show that if there are economies of party size and the policy chosen is not beaten by another policy in pairwise voting, then players agglomerate into exactly two parties. This result does not depend on the magnitude of the economies of party size or sensitively on the nature of the individuals' preferences. Our analysis encompasses...

  20. Patent data mining: a tool for accelerating HIV vaccine innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K; Cavicchi, J; Jensen, K; Fitzgerald, R; Bennett, A; Kowalski, S P

    2011-05-31

    Global access to advanced vaccine technologies is challenged by the interrelated components of intellectual property (IP) management strategies, technology transfer (legal and technical) capabilities and the capacity necessary for accelerating R&D, commercialization and delivery of vaccines. Due to a negative association with the management of IP, patents are often overlooked as a vast resource of freely available, information akin to scientific journals as well as business and technological information and trends fundamental for formulating policies and IP management strategies. Therefore, a fundamental step towards facilitating global vaccine access will be the assembly, organization and analysis of patent landscapes, to identify the amount of patenting, ownership (assignees) and fields of technology covered. This is critical for making informed decisions (e.g., identifying licensees, building research and product development collaborations, and ascertaining freedom to operate). Such information is of particular interest to the HIV vaccine community where the HIV Vaccine Enterprise, have voiced concern that IP rights (particularly patents and trade secrets) may prevent data and materials sharing, delaying progress in research and development of a HIV vaccine. We have compiled and analyzed a representative HIV vaccine patent landscape for a prime-boost, DNA/adenoviral vaccine platform, as an example for identifying obstacles, maximizing opportunities and making informed IP management strategy decisions towards the development and deployment of an efficacious HIV vaccine. PMID:21496469

  1. Decision rules for decision tables with many-valued decisions

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2011-01-01

    In the paper, authors presents a greedy algorithm for construction of exact and partial decision rules for decision tables with many-valued decisions. Exact decision rules can be \\'over-fitted\\', so instead of exact decision rules with many attributes, it is more appropriate to work with partial decision rules with smaller number of attributes. Based on results for set cover problem authors study bounds on accuracy of greedy algorithm for exact and partial decision rule construction, and complexity of the problem of minimization of decision rule length. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  2. Policy Capacity Is Necessary but Not Sufficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gen, Sheldon; Wright, Amy Conley

    2015-01-01

    Policy capacity focuses on the managerial and organizational abilities to inform policy decisions with sound research and analysis, and facilitate policy implementation with operational efficiency. It stems from a view of the policy process that is rational and positivistic, in which optimal policy choices can be identified, selected, and implemented with objectivity. By itself, however, policy capacity neglects the political aspects of policy-making that can dominate the process, even in health policies. These technical capabilities are certainly needed to advance reforms in health policies, but they are not sufficient. Instead, they must be complemented with public engagement and policy advocacy to ensure support from the public that policies are meant to serve. PMID:26673469

  3. Us Dividend Policy Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wijaya

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The main issue writer examines in this writing is to analyze whether or not dividend policy is a determinant to maintain stock values or firm values as a whole.  It is essential that dividend policy is managed properly to enhance the satisfaction of the investors at any level of characteristics. At the end, investors are the key that determines the stock value movement. Some investors are looking for capital gain and some do care about dividend payout.  Thus, the decision of dividend policy becomes crucial. It needs to understand that a firm's dividend policy may have effects on shareholder welfare. The answers can be found out by analyzing different factors of dividend policy. Taken as a whole, to see if there are other alternatives if dividend policy that can maintain or even boost up firm values. Different dividend policy has some upsides and downsides that a corporation needs to consider. One of the alternatives that is common and has become a key is stock repurchase plan.

  4. Career Maturity of Students in Accelerated versus Traditional Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Nicole J.; Richard, George V.; Duffy, Ryan D.

    2007-01-01

    The authors assessed the career maturity of students in accelerated versus traditional academic programs. Students in traditional programs were hypothesized to be more advanced regarding their career decision making and development when compared with students in accelerated programs. The Medical Career Development Inventory (see M. L. Savickas,…

  5. The effect of interest groups on poliheuristic decision making: the case of the Keystone XL pipeline

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Taylor John Garrett

    2015-01-01

    Poliheuristic (PH) decision making theory has been developed to bridge rational choice and cognitive based theories of foreign policy decision making. PH theory asserts that decisions are made in two stages. In the first stage, decision makers act based on simplified decision strategies, or cognitive heuristics which seek to constrain the decision alternatives. In the second stage, the decision maker weighs the alternatives and selects the one which maximizes utility, according to the rationa...

  6. Iowa Acceleration Scale Manual: A Guide for Whole-Grade Acceleration K-8. (3rd Edition, Manual)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assouline, Susan G.; Colangelo, Nicholas; Lupkowski-Shoplik, Ann; Forstadt, Leslie; Lipscomb, Jonathon

    2009-01-01

    Feedback from years of nationwide use has resulted in a 3rd Edition of this unique, systematic, and objective guide to considering and implementing academic acceleration. Developed and tested by the Belin-Blank Center at the University of Iowa, the IAS ensures that acceleration decisions are systematic, thoughtful, well reasoned, and defensible.…

  7. Administrative decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reviews relevant administrative decisions that have been taken in various countries during the last semester of 1999 and the first one of 2000. In Argentina, an inter-ministerial commission has been settled to examine the prospects of completing the construction of the Atucha-2 unit. In Sweden, an agreement has been signed between Sydkraft, Vattenfall and the Swedish government on a compensation plan for the early shutdown of the Barsebaeck unit 1. In Switzerland, the government of the canton of Bern has rejected a constitutional initiative requesting the shutdown of the Muehleberg nuclear power plant. (A.C.)

  8. Economic models of consumer protection policies

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes some of my recent work on consumer protection. I present three theoretical models which illustrate the merits and drawbacks of a number of common consumer protection policies, namely: policies which prevent firms from setting unduly high prices; policies which prevent firms requiring on-the-spot decision making by prospective customers, and policies which prevent suppliers from paying commission payments to sales intermediaries.

  9. Participation in decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EG Valoyi

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the extent to which employees would like to participate in decision making concerning various organisational issues, especially those concerning: the work itself, working conditions, human resources issues, and corporate policy and planning. The sample consisted of 146 participants, including managers, middle managers, and junior officials from a South African development corporation. A questionnaire to measure employees' desire to participate in decision making was specially constructed for this investigation. It has found that employees with higher academic qualifications were more desirous to participate in decision-making at all levels than employees with lower academic qualifications. This was also true for employees in higher job grades than in lower job grades. Men were more desirous to participate in decision making than women. The implications of the findings are discussed. Opsomming Die doel van die huidige studie was om vas te stel in watter mate werknemers sal wil deelneem aan die besluit- nameproses van organisasies, veral rakende die volgende sake: die werk self, werksomstandighede, menslike hulpbronaangeleenthede en korporatiewe beleid en beplanning. Die steekproef het uit 146 deelnemers, insluitende bestuurders, middelvlakbestuurders en junior amptenare van'n Suid Afrikaanse ontwikkelingskorporasie, bestaan. nVraelys wat die begeerte van werknemers meet om aan die besluitnameproses deel te neem, is spesiaal vir die doel van hierdie ondersoek, ontwerp. Dit is bevind dat werknemers met hoer akademiese kwalifikasies meer begerig is om aan die besluitnameproses op alle vlakke deel te neem as werknemers met laer akademiese kwalifikasies. Dit was ook waar vir werknemers in hoervlakposte vergeleke met werknemers in laervlakposte. Mans was ook meer begerig om aan die besluitnameproses deel te neem as vroue. Die implikasies van die studie word bespreek.

  10. Aid, social policy, and development

    OpenAIRE

    Addison, Tony; Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses past and current social policy strategies in the international aid architecture. From the 1990s, aid strategy and policy shifted to put a stronger emphasis on human development. This accelerated with the Millennium Development Goals and will continue under the Sustainable Development Goals, which have even more ambitious targets. The paper also assesses some of the concerns associated with the 'Paris-style' aid modalities, and discusses major challenges for the future glo...

  11. Aid, social policy, and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Tarp, Finn

    This paper discusses past and current social policy strategies in the international aid architecture. From the 1990s, aid strategy and policy shifted to put a stronger emphasis on human development. This accelerated with the Millennium Development Goals and will continue under the Sustainable...... Development Goals, which have even more ambitious targets. The paper also assesses some of the concerns associated with the ‘Paris-style’ aid modalities, and discusses major challenges for the future global development agenda....

  12. Design of Adaptive Policy Pathways under Deep Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babovic, Vladan

    2013-04-01

    The design of large-scale engineering and infrastructural systems today is growing in complexity. Designers need to consider sociotechnical uncertainties, intricacies, and processes in the long- term strategic deployment and operations of these systems. In this context, water and spatial management is increasingly challenged not only by climate-associated changes such as sea level rise and increased spatio-temporal variability of precipitation, but also by pressures due to population growth and particularly accelerating rate of urbanisation. Furthermore, high investment costs and long term-nature of water-related infrastructure projects requires long-term planning perspective, sometimes extending over many decades. Adaptation to such changes is not only determined by what is known or anticipated at present, but also by what will be experienced and learned as the future unfolds, as well as by policy responses to social and water events. As a result, a pathway emerges. Instead of responding to 'surprises' and making decisions on ad hoc basis, exploring adaptation pathways into the future provide indispensable support in water management decision-making. In this contribution, a structured approach for designing a dynamic adaptive policy based on the concepts of adaptive policy making and adaptation pathways is introduced. Such an approach provides flexibility which allows change over time in response to how the future unfolds, what is learned about the system, and changes in societal preferences. The introduced flexibility provides means for dealing with complexities of adaptation under deep uncertainties. It enables engineering systems to change in the face of uncertainty to reduce impacts from downside scenarios while capitalizing on upside opportunities. This contribution presents comprehensive framework for development and deployment of adaptive policy pathway framework, and demonstrates its performance under deep uncertainties on a case study related to urban

  13. SCIENCE, SCIENTISTS, AND POLICY ADVOCACY - MAY 16, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effectively resolving many current ecological policy issues requires an array of scientific information. Sometimes scientific information is summarized for decision-makers by policy analysts or others, but often it comes directly from scientists. The ability of scientists (and sc...

  14. Urban photovoltaic electricity policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 10 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at urban photovoltaic electricity policies. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy as a significant and sustainable renewable energy option. The objective of Task 10 is stated as being to enhance the opportunities for wide-scale, solution-oriented application of photovoltaics in the urban environment. The goal of the study presented was to evaluate a standardised basis for urban policies regarding photovoltaic integration in a set of cities in the countries participating in the IEA's Task 10, Urban Scale PV. The investigation was focused on three topics: the present state of the policies, the prospects for future policies fostering photovoltaic deployment and the prospects for future policies to cope with large-scale photovoltaic integration. The first section analyses the state of the policies; this analysis is then confirmed in section 2, which deals with present obstacles to PV deployment and solutions to overcome them. The third section investigates future prospects for PV deployment with the question of mastering large scale integration. The report concludes that cities could formulate urban solutions by developing integrated, specific provisions for PV deployment in their urban infrastructure planning.

  15. Radioactive waste disposal policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The responsibilities of the Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food and Ministry policy on radioactive waste disposal are described. The disposal of solid radioactive waste at sea is subject to detailed safeguards developed within two international agreements to which the United Kingdom is a contracting party. The agreements are discussed together with a research and monitoring programme to provide scientific data for informed decisions on waste disposal authorisations and dumping licences. (U.K.)

  16. Policies as Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Majone, G.

    1980-01-01

    The received view of the scientific method, as represented for instance by logical positivism, has only historical interest for the specialists, but it is still widely, if implicitly, held by decision and policy analysts. On the other hand, recent developments in philosophy and the history of science, which stress the fallibility of theories and the social and historical character of scientific knowledge and criteria, have not yet been assimilated by analysts. This paper argues that these rec...

  17. 2014 CERN Accelerator Schools: Plasma Wake Acceleration

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    A specialised school on Plasma Wake Acceleration will be held at CERN, Switzerland from 23-29 November, 2014.   This course will be of interest to staff and students in accelerator laboratories, university departments and companies working in or having an interest in the field of new acceleration techniques. Following introductory lectures on plasma and laser physics, the course will cover the different components of a plasma wake accelerator and plasma beam systems. An overview of the experimental studies, diagnostic tools and state of the art wake acceleration facilities, both present and planned, will complement the theoretical part. Topical seminars and a visit of CERN will complete the programme. Further information can be found at: http://cas.web.cern.ch/cas/PlasmaWake2014/CERN-advert.html http://indico.cern.ch/event/285444/

  18. Modeling the Economics of Beach Nourishment Decisions in Response to Coastal Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, M.; Ashton, A. D.; Hoagland, P.; Jin, D.; Kite-Powell, H.; Lorenzo-Trueba, J.

    2012-12-01

    width from nourishment each year. In contrast, for practical nourishment volumes, erosion from accelerating sea-level rise eventually out-competes beach nourishment and inundation occurs. Under the myopic decision-making model, with both constant and accelerating sea-level rise, nourishment does not take place until a property is critically endangered. The beach slope, nourishment volume, property value, and initial beach width all are found to be important factors in determining when nourishment should start and how frequently it should occur thereafter. These models can be used by policy-makers to formulate better coastal management policies, by coastal geologists to understand human impacts on beach dynamics, and by the insurance industry to realistically anticipate human risk-taking and decision-making.

  19. The direction of acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Thomas; Burde, Jan-Philipp; Lück, Stephan

    2015-11-01

    Acceleration is a physical quantity that is difficult to understand and hence its complexity is often erroneously simplified. Many students think of acceleration as equivalent to velocity, a ˜ v. For others, acceleration is a scalar quantity, which describes the change in speed Δ|v| or Δ|v|/Δt (as opposed to the change in velocity). The main difficulty with the concept of acceleration therefore lies in developing a correct understanding of its direction. The free iOS app AccelVisu supports students in acquiring a correct conception of acceleration by showing acceleration arrows directly at moving objects.

  20. Policy Driven Development: Flexible Policy Insertion for Large Scale Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demchak, Barry; Krüger, Ingolf

    2012-07-01

    The success of a software system depends critically on how well it reflects and adapts to stakeholder requirements. Traditional development methods often frustrate stakeholders by creating long latencies between requirement articulation and system deployment, especially in large scale systems. One source of latency is the maintenance of policy decisions encoded directly into system workflows at development time, including those involving access control and feature set selection. We created the Policy Driven Development (PDD) methodology to address these development latencies by enabling the flexible injection of decision points into existing workflows at runtime, thus enabling policy composition that integrates requirements furnished by multiple, oblivious stakeholder groups. Using PDD, we designed and implemented a production cyberinfrastructure that demonstrates policy and workflow injection that quickly implements stakeholder requirements, including features not contemplated in the original system design. PDD provides a path to quickly and cost effectively evolve such applications over a long lifetime. PMID:25383258

  1. U.S. climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international climate agreement does make sense if they are supported by the United States, the world's largest emitters of greenhouse gas (GHG) per capita. But this country is now bound by any treaty that forced him to reduce this pollution. The national energy transition is delayed: the lifestyle and the American system of production are still largely rely on fossil fuels. The coming to power of Barack Obama, who announced his intention to engage in action against climate change, had raised hopes of the international community: the Copenhagen compromise and agreements resulting from Cancun also directly the involvement of American and Chinese leaders. Since then, however, the context has changed dramatically: the economic crisis makes priority policies to boost growth. The abandonment of the climate bills in Congress, the Supreme Court decision restricting States' initiatives and actions taken by the Republican opposition to block the regulations of the Federal Agency for Environmental Protection (EPA) led to a slowing of presidential ambitions. They are focusing on an energy security strategy, providing for the operation of large domestic reserves of oil, reducing import dependency - constant of U.S. policy since the presidency of Richard Nixon - the use of alternatives energy, and finally the acceleration of energy efficiency in transport and construction. This orientation requires a staunch support to innovation, according to the will of American leadership in global technology industry green. Internationally, the meeting between Chinese and U.S. presidents in Copenhagen has identified the concessions acceptable to each of these key players in the negotiations. The special envoy of the White House reminds happy: the United States does not object to a new global agreement but discussions about it should only take the implementation of measures adopted in Cancun, whose variation to be the main issue of the Durban conference in late November 2011. Washington

  2. Decision theory and decision behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    Rapoport, Anatol

    1998-01-01

    The book treats two approaches to decision theory: (1) the normative, purporting to determine how a 'perfectly rational' actor ought to choose among available alternatives; (2) the descriptive, based on observations of how people actually choose in real life and in laboratory experiments. The mathematical tools used in the normative approach range from elementary algebra to matrix and differential equations. Sections on different levels can be studied independently. Special emphasis is made on 'offshoots' of both theories to cognitive psychology, theoretical biology, and philosophy.

  3. Deforestation, leakage and avoided deforestation policies: a spatial analysis

    OpenAIRE

    DELACOTE, Philippe; Elizabeth J. Z. Robinson; Roussel, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of several avoided deforestation policies within a patchy forested landscape. Central is the idea that deforestation choices in one area influence deforestation decisions in nearby patches. We explore the interplay between forest landscapes comprising heterogeneous patches, localised spatial displacement, and avoided deforestation policies. Avoided deforestation policies at a landscape level are respectively: two Payments for Environmental Services (PES) policie...

  4. Quantifying the Value of Downscaled Climate Model Information for Adaptation Decisions: When is Downscaling a Smart Decision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terando, A. J.; Wootten, A.; Eaton, M. J.; Runge, M. C.; Littell, J. S.; Bryan, A. M.; Carter, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    Two types of decisions face society with respect to anthropogenic climate change: (1) whether to enact a global greenhouse gas abatement policy, and (2) how to adapt to the local consequences of current and future climatic changes. The practice of downscaling global climate models (GCMs) is often used to address (2) because GCMs do not resolve key features that will mediate global climate change at the local scale. In response, the development of downscaling techniques and models has accelerated to aid decision makers seeking adaptation guidance. However, quantifiable estimates of the value of information are difficult to obtain, particularly in decision contexts characterized by deep uncertainty and low system-controllability. Here we demonstrate a method to quantify the additional value that decision makers could expect if research investments are directed towards developing new downscaled climate projections. As a proof of concept we focus on a real-world management problem: whether to undertake assisted migration for an endangered tropical avian species. We also take advantage of recently published multivariate methods that account for three vexing issues in climate impacts modeling: maximizing climate model quality information, accounting for model dependence in ensembles of opportunity, and deriving probabilistic projections. We expand on these global methods by including regional (Caribbean Basin) and local (Puerto Rico) domains. In the local domain, we test whether a high resolution (2km) dynamically downscaled GCM reduces the multivariate error estimate compared to the original coarse-scale GCM. Initial tests show little difference between the downscaled and original GCM multivariate error. When propagated through to a species population model, the Value of Information analysis indicates that the expected utility that would accrue to the manager (and species) if this downscaling were completed may not justify the cost compared to alternative actions.

  5. Is the Jury Still Out? Toward Greater Insight in Policy Learning in Participatory Decision Processes—the Case of Dutch Citizens' Juries on Water Management in the Rhine Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Cornelisse

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the potential for policy learning offered by participatory processes, specifically so-called citizens' juries. We establish the need for policy learning by pointing to the increased complexity of water management tasks and challenges. A conceptual discussion subsequently distinguishes between cognitive, normative, and relational learning. The public participation literature suggests that participatory processes will contribute to various forms of learning. We assess the truth of this assumption on the basis of three case studies: citizens' juries on water management in the Dutch part of Rhine basin. We analyze whether the three forms of learning have occurred among jurors, and among policy makers. We find high levels of cognitive, normative, and relational levels of learning for the jurors, but relatively low levels of learning for policy makers. We analyze the reason for this divergence.

  6. Environmental science-policy interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamelarczyk, Kewin Bach Friis

    in future REDD+ design and implementation. To curtail potential negative consequences of the identified mode of science-policy interaction in Zambia, the study concludes by making a number of proposals. The proposals are generic in nature and may be found relevant in environmental policy processes outside......In response to a history of contended and ineffective policy initiatives aimed at arresting environmental problems, scientific knowledge is increasingly called for to inform decision makers in their design of better policy solutions. Based on the rationale that scientific knowledge...... on the environment is indispensable in environmental policy making, significant human and financial resources are being allocated to activities that are able to generate the required scientific knowledge. However, for many involved in such activities, the question arises: when do policy makers actually listen...

  7. The Effect of Unconventional Monetary Policy on the Macro Economy: Evidence from Japan's Quantitative Easing Policy Period

    OpenAIRE

    Masahiko Shibamoto; Minoru Tachibana

    2013-01-01

    This paper assesses the effectiveness of unonventional monetary policy on the macro ecnomy. It focuses on the Japanese economy during the Bank of Japan's quantitative easing policy period, and analyzes the effects of monetary policy shocks and systematic monetary policy using the vector autoregression model with simultaneous interaction between stock prices and policy decisions. The main finding is that unconventional monetary policy has a significant effect on the macro economy, which is clo...

  8. Administrative decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 17 January 2002, the Finnish Council of State (the Government) had issued a positive Decision in Principle on the application made by the utility Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) to construct a new nuclear power plant unit (see Nuclear Law Bulletin No. 69). At that time, the Council of State also declared that the liability amount of nuclear operators should be raised significantly, and three ministers issued a statement according to which the 1987 Nuclear Energy Act (the text of this Act is reproduced in the Supplement to Nuclear Law Bulletin No. 41) should be amended to ensure that the nuclear operator has to bear liability for the costs of radioactive waste management for 50 years after the repository has been closed. (author)

  9. Essays on equilibrium policy analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Gallipoli, G.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes and implements a method to carry out policy analysis within an equilibrium framework. This method allows to account for potential effects induced by price adjustments. The analysis is based on overlapping generation, life-cycle models where heterogeneous agents make endogenous decisions regarding their consumption and education as well as labour supply and criminal activity. Some of the agent's optimising decisions (education, crime) are discrete choices. The first part ...

  10. San Francisco Accelerator Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Where are today's challenges in accelerator physics?' was the theme of the open session at the San Francisco meeting, the largest ever gathering of accelerator physicists and engineers

  11. Improved plasma accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, D. Y.

    1971-01-01

    Converging, coaxial accelerator electrode configuration operates in vacuum as plasma gun. Plasma forms by periodic injections of high pressure gas that is ionized by electrical discharges. Deflagration mode of discharge provides acceleration, and converging contours of plasma gun provide focusing.

  12. Standing wave linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consideration is being given to standing wave linear accelerator containing generator, phase shifter, two accelerating resonator sections, charged particle injector and waveguide bridge. Its first arm is oined up with generator via the phase shifter, the second and the third ones-with accelerating sections and the fourth one - with HF-power absorber. HF-power absorber represents a section of circular diaphragmatic wavequide with transformer with input wave and intrawaveguide output load located between injector and the first accelerating section. The section possesses holes in side walls lying on accelerator axis. The distances between centers of the last cell of the fast accelerating section and the first cell of the second accelerating sectiOn equal (2n+3)lambda/4, where n=1, 2, 3..., lambda - wave length of generator. The suggested system enables to improve by one order spectral characteristics of accelerators as compared to the prototype in which magnetrons are used as generator

  13. Accelerator Technology Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    In fiscal year (FY) 1991, the Accelerator Technology (AT) division continued fulfilling its mission to pursue accelerator science and technology and to develop new accelerator concepts for application to research, defense, energy, industry, and other areas of national interest. This report discusses the following programs: The Ground Test Accelerator Program; APLE Free-Electron Laser Program; Accelerator Transmutation of Waste; JAERI, OMEGA Project, and Intense Neutron Source for Materials Testing; Advanced Free-Electron Laser Initiative; Superconducting Super Collider; The High-Power Microwave Program; (Phi) Factory Collaboration; Neutral Particle Beam Power System Highlights; Accelerator Physics and Special Projects; Magnetic Optics and Beam Diagnostics; Accelerator Design and Engineering; Radio-Frequency Technology; Free-Electron Laser Technology; Accelerator Controls and Automation; Very High-Power Microwave Sources and Effects; and GTA Installation, Commissioning, and Operations.

  14. High Energy Particle Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Audio Productions, Inc, New York

    1960-01-01

    Film about the different particle accelerators in the US. Nuclear research in the US has developed into a broad and well-balanced program.Tour of accelerator installations, accelerator development work now in progress and a number of typical experiments with high energy particles. Brookhaven, Cosmotron. Univ. Calif. Berkeley, Bevatron. Anti-proton experiment. Negative k meson experiment. Bubble chambers. A section on an electron accelerator. Projection of new accelerators. Princeton/Penn. build proton synchrotron. Argonne National Lab. Brookhaven, PS construction. Cambridge Electron Accelerator; Harvard/MIT. SLAC studying a linear accelerator. Other research at Madison, Wisconsin, Fixed Field Alternate Gradient Focusing. (FFAG) Oakridge, Tenn., cyclotron. Two-beam machine. Comments : Interesting overview of high energy particle accelerators installations in the US in these early years. .

  15. A Global Review of Incentive Programs to Accelerate Energy-Efficient Appliances and Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Phadke, Amol; Leventis, Greg; Gopal, Anand

    2013-08-01

    Incentive programs are an essential policy tool to move the market toward energy-efficient products. They offer a favorable complement to mandatory standards and labeling policies by accelerating the market penetration of energy-efficient products above equipment standard requirements and by preparing the market for increased future mandatory requirements. They sway purchase decisions and in some cases production decisions and retail stocking decisions toward energy-efficient products. Incentive programs are structured according to their regulatory environment, the way they are financed, by how the incentive is targeted, and by who administers them. This report categorizes the main elements of incentive programs, using case studies from the Major Economies Forum to illustrate their characteristics. To inform future policy and program design, it seeks to recognize design advantages and disadvantages through a qualitative overview of the variety of programs in use around the globe. Examples range from rebate programs administered by utilities under an Energy-Efficiency Resource Standards (EERS) regulatory framework (California, USA) to the distribution of Eco-Points that reward customers for buying efficient appliances under a government recovery program (Japan). We found that evaluations have demonstrated that financial incentives programs have greater impact when they target highly efficient technologies that have a small market share. We also found that the benefits and drawbacks of different program design aspects depend on the market barriers addressed, the target equipment, and the local market context and that no program design surpasses the others. The key to successful program design and implementation is a thorough understanding of the market and effective identification of the most important local factors hindering the penetration of energy-efficient technologies.

  16. Transport policy

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    Transport is a fundamental component of all modern economies. Transport Policy presents a wide ranging collection of previously published articles which aim to provide the reader with an understanding of the main elements of transport policy.

  17. Maximal Acceleration Is Nonrotating

    OpenAIRE

    Page, Don N.

    1997-01-01

    In a stationary axisymmetric spacetime, the angular velocity of a stationary observer that Fermi-Walker transports its acceleration vector is also the angular velocity that locally extremizes the magnitude of the acceleration of such an observer, and conversely if the spacetime is also symmetric under reversing both t and phi together. Thus a congruence of Nonrotating Acceleration Worldlines (NAW) is equivalent to a Stationary Congruence Accelerating Locally Extremely (SCALE). These congruenc...

  18. A Solid state accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a solid state accelerator concept utilizing particle acceleration along crystal channels by longitudinal electron plasma waves in a metal. Acceleration gradients of order 100 GV/cm are theoretically possible, but channeling radiation limits the maximum attainable energy to 105 TeV for protons. Beam dechanneling due to multiple scattering is substantially reduced by the high acceleration gradient. Plasma wave dissipation and generation in metals are also discussed

  19. Applications of particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle accelerators are now widely used in a variety of applications for scientific research, applied physics, medicine, industrial processing, while possible utilisation in power engineering is envisaged. Earlier presentations of this subject, given at previous CERN Accelerator School sessions have been updated with papers contributed to the first European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology (ECAART) held in September 1989 in Frankfurt and to the Second European Particle Accelerator Conference in Nice in June 1990. (orig.)

  20. Accelerators at school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latest subject covered by the CERN Accelerator School was 'Applied Geodesy of Particle Accelerators', which attracted an impressive number of outside participants to CERN for a week in April. Since the forerunners of today's particle accelerators were demonstrated over 50 years ago, the positioning of accelerator components has progressed from the laboratory bench-top to tunnels tens of kilometres long. Despite this phenomenal growth in size, sub-millimetre accuracy is still required

  1. 经济高碳化形成机理与低碳经济政策选择%Policy Decision Making on Economic High Carbon Forming Mechanism and Low Carbon Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘胜

    2011-01-01

    In the context of separated policy making,regional and global warming will be the consequent of the unlimited carbon emission due to profit pursuing and environmental cost being shouldered by the whole society.To solve this,government should implement intervening and guidance policies.From policy layers' perspective,there should be some macro policies targeting at economic development and low carbon emission,some middle policies developing low carbon industry and low carbon city,and some micro policies with participants from communities,corporate entities,individuals,and environmental NGOs.From the policy makers' perspective,there should be a low carbon policy chain integrating policy tools of government guidance,economic incentives,and micro economic entities.In the end,some policy advices are proposed for low carbon economy development in China.%在分散决策下,只要能持续获得利润或效用且环境成本由全社会分担,无节制的碳排放行为就会继续进行,其结果就是区域性或全球性的气候变暖。为治理这一市场失灵问题,政府应出台政策进行适当干预和引导。从政策层次来看,需要系统制定低碳经济发展方向和碳减排目标等方面的宏观政策,发展低碳产业和低碳城市的中观政策,社区、企业、个人、环境类非正式组织共同参与的微观政策;从政策主体来看,需要整合政府引导、经济激励和微观经济个体自愿参与的政策工具这些政策又要相互配合、相互作用,形成低碳经济政策链。文章最后提出了我国发展低碳经济的政策建议。

  2. VIEWS ON THE CONCEPT OF FINANCIAL POLICY AND ITS MANIFESTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Mugurel Gabriel Sorin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study proposes an analysis of the main views expressed in the literature on financial policy, as well as the shaping of our own, clear and comprehensive vision, regarding the content of this concept. The main objective of our research is to clarify the content of the financial policy concept, so that this policy may be effectively used in the service of overall development of our economy and society. Reaching such an objective has implied the research of a vast existing literature on the field, in the country as well as abroad, observing a vast variety of understandings regarding the meaning of the concept itself, the objectives stated within the financial policy as well as the main approaches (ways to follow for achieving these objectives. Of course the achievement of such a research is not possible without a meaningful analysis of the principles expressed in this field's literature. In relation to this matter we can see that each author has his own conception regarding the subject under review. These expressed conceptions are, in turn, based on previous research in the analyzed area. The accelerated dynamism proved by the evolution of our economy and society in this stage shows us that through the financial policy, outlined both at a micro and a macroeconomic level, clear fundamental objectives must be formulated that should be possible to achieve by partial objectives (sequential, practical methods and procedures being adapted to them. Our research is at the present stage, a theoretical and methodological one. It is based on the comparisons we make between the views expressed in the studies of different authors, trying to draw the red line of these views and observing the fundamental meaning given to the financial policy concept. We express our conviction that a clear conceptual expression of the financial policy notion comes to the rescue of the general management (macro and microeconomic facilitating the process of adopting the

  3. Monetary policy in the media

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Helge; Ehrmann, Michael; Fratzscher, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    Just like private companies depend crucially on their ability to reach customers, policymakers must communicate with private agents to be successful--and much of this communication is channeled through the media. This is especially true for central banks because the effectiveness of monetary policy depends to a large degree on their credibility among the general public. Using the case of the European Central Bank (ECB), the paper analyses the favorableness with which monetary policy decisions...

  4. Legislative Organization of Fiscal Policy.

    OpenAIRE

    Crain, W Mark; Muris, Timothy J

    1995-01-01

    In the voluminous literature on fiscal policy, there is little evidence about the impact of legislative organization on shaping fiscal decisions. By comparing different organizations of committee structure to control tax and spending policies, this article presents such evidence. Regarding spending, we test whether the dispersion of spending authority among multiple committees creates a problem similar to that of the "common pool." Using American state data, we find that when only one committ...

  5. Trade Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Murray Gibbs

    2014-01-01

    In an otherwise insightful and thoughtful article, Sebastian Pfotenhauer (Trade Policy Is Science Policy,” Issues, Fall 2013) might better have entitled his contribution “Trade Policy Needs to Be Reconciled with Science Policy.” The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the agreements administered by the World Trade Organization, particularly the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), were adopted to promote international trade and i...

  6. Policy Capacity Is Necessary but Not Sufficient Comment on "Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gen, Sheldon; Wright, Amy Conley

    2015-01-01

    Policy capacity focuses on the managerial and organizational abilities to inform policy decisions with sound research and analysis, and facilitate policy implementation with operational efficiency. It stems from a view of the policy process that is rational and positivistic, in which optimal policy choices can be identified, selected, and implemented with objectivity. By itself, however, policy capacity neglects the political aspects of policy-making that can dominate the process, even in health policies. These technical capabilities are certainly needed to advance reforms in health policies, but they are not sufficient. Instead, they must be complemented with public engagement and policy advocacy to ensure support from the public that policies are meant to serve. PMID:26673469

  7. Policy Capacity Is Necessary but Not Sufficient; Comment on “Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheldon Gen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Policy capacity focuses on the managerial and organizational abilities to inform policy decisions with sound research and analysis, and facilitate policy implementation with operational efficiency. It stems from a view of the policy process that is rational and positivistic, in which optimal policy choices can be identified, selected, and implemented with objectivity. By itself, however, policy capacity neglects the political aspects of policy-making that can dominate the process, even in health policies. These technical capabilities are certainly needed to advance reforms in health policies, but they are not sufficient. Instead, they must be complemented with public engagement and policy advocacy to ensure support from the public that policies are meant to serve.

  8. Acceleration: It's Elementary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Mariam

    2012-01-01

    Acceleration is one tool for providing high-ability students the opportunity to learn something new every day. Some people talk about acceleration as taking a student out of step. In actuality, what one is doing is putting a student in step with the right curriculum. Whole-grade acceleration, also called grade-skipping, usually happens between…

  9. The CERN Accelerator School

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction to accelerator physics The CERN Accelerator School: Introduction to Accelerator Physics, which should have taken place in Istanbul, Turkey, later this year has now been relocated to Budapest, Hungary.  Further details regarding the new hotel and dates will be made available as soon as possible on a new Indico site at the end of May.

  10. Accelerators and Dinosaurs

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, Michael Stanley

    2003-01-01

    Using naturally occuring particles on which to research might have made accelerators become extinct. But in fact, results from astrophysics have made accelerator physics even more important. Not only are accelerators used in hospitals but they are also being used to understand nature's inner workings by searching for Higgs bosons, CP violation, neutrino mass and dark matter (2 pages)

  11. Far field acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernow, R.C.

    1995-07-01

    Far fields are propagating electromagnetic waves far from their source, boundary surfaces, and free charges. The general principles governing the acceleration of charged particles by far fields are reviewed. A survey of proposed field configurations is given. The two most important schemes, Inverse Cerenkov acceleration and Inverse free electron laser acceleration, are discussed in detail.

  12. Policy Problematization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    This article places Michel Foucault's concept of "problematization" in relation to educational policy research. My goal is to examine a key assumption of policy related to "solving problems" through such technologies. I discuss the potential problematization has to alter conceptions of policy research; and, through this…

  13. Nursing informatics, ethics and decisions: implications for translational research

    OpenAIRE

    Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Dowie, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Nursing informatics, ethics and decisions: implications for translational research Objective: To introduce, in the multi-disciplinary contexts of clinical decision making and policy formation, a theory-based decision-analytic framework for the transparent forward translation of research into practice which can simultaneously identify and communicate the needs for backward translation from practice to research.Method:Web-based decision analytic software is used to demonstrate how the weights f...

  14. A Primer on Macroprudential Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poutineau, Jean-Christophe; Vermandel, Gauthier

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces macroprudential policy using a static New Keynesian Macroeconomics model with financial frictions. The authors analyze two related questions: First, they show how the procyclicality of financial factors, captured by the financial accelerator, amplifies the transmission of supply and demand shocks and impacts the intuition…

  15. Conclusions: inequality, impacts, and policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Salverda; B. Nolan; D. Checchi; I. Marx; A. McKnight; I.G. Tóth; H. van de Werfhorst

    2014-01-01

    Keeping economic inequality in check is an uphill battle, though countries differ. General drivers seem mediated, moderated, accelerated or perhaps even replaced by demographic, institutions or policy-making changes. Growing inequality is not found robustly linked to worsening social outcomes (healt

  16. Dose/response relationships and policy formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ICRP 26 cost/benefit approach to establishing operational radiation protection guidelines is discussed. The purpose is to aid the policy maker in the decision making process, using as a basis the dose-response curve

  17. The Influence of the Policy of Accelerated Depreciation of Fixed Assets on Enterprise Finance---Based on%固定资产加速折旧政策对企业财务的影响--基于《关于完善固定资产加速折旧企业所得税政策的通知》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞卿

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:From the aspects of the fixed asset investment, return on equity, actual tax burden, and net cash flow, etc., this paper expounds the influence of relevant state policy of accelerated depreciation of fixed assets on enterprise finance , and puts forward some corresponding suggestions.%通过对固定资产投资、股东权益收益率、实际税负和净现金流量等方面的分析,阐明了国家有关固定资产加速折旧的政策对企业财务的影响,并提出相关建议。

  18. Policy recommendations to promote shale gas development in China based on a technical and economic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of its resource potential and clean burning advantages, the development of shale gas can significantly increase the supply of cleaner energy while offering the associated benefits. To foster shale gas development, many policy incentives have been introduced in China. However, the current incentives have not been sufficiently aggressive, and the shale gas industry has been slow to develop. Existing policies thus need to be further improved. To provide effective support for decision makers in China, a technical and economic evaluation is performed in this study to explore the profitability of shale gas production in pilot zones. The results show that shale gas production is subeconomic under the current technical and economic conditions. Based on this evaluation, a policy analysis is conducted to investigate the profitability improvement offered by the major policies available in China to elucidate a path toward improving incentive policies. The results indicate that policy instruments related to gas prices, financial subsidies, corporate income taxes or combinations thereof could be used as priority options to improve policy incentives. Based on these results, recommendations are presented to improve the current incentive polices aimed at accelerating shale gas development. -- Highlights: •We explore the economic feasibility of shale gas development in China. •Current incentive policies cannot render shale gas development economically viable. •These incentives must be improved to effectively promote shale gas development. •We investigate the effect of the major policies available in China to light a path. •Recommendations are proposed to continually improve the incentive polices in China

  19. Voice in political decision-making: the effect of group voice on perceived trustworthiness of decision makers and subsequent acceptance of decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwel, Bart W; Harinck, Fieke; Ellemers, Naomi; Daamen, Dancker D L

    2010-06-01

    The implementation of carbon dioxide capture and storage technology (CCS) is considered an important climate change mitigation strategy, but the viability of this technology will depend on public acceptance of CCS policy decisions. The results of three experiments with students as participants show that whether or not interest groups receive an opportunity to express their opinions in the decision-making process (i.e., group voice) affects acceptance of CCS policy decisions, with inferred trustworthiness of the decision maker mediating this effect. Decision-making procedures providing different interest groups with equal opportunities to voice their opinions instigate more trust in the decision maker and, in turn, lead to greater willingness to accept decisions compared to no-voice procedures (i.e., unilateral decision-making-Study 1) and unequal group-voice procedures (i.e., when one type of interest group receives voice, but another type of interest group does not-Study 2). Study 3 further shows that an individual's own level of knowledge about CCS moderates the desire for an opportunity for members of the general public to voice opinions in the decision-making process, inferred trustworthiness of decision makers, and policy acceptance. These results imply that people care about voice in decision-making even when they are not directly personally involved in the decision-making process. We conclude that people tend to use procedural information when deciding to accept or oppose policy decisions on political complex issues; hence, it is important that policymakers use fair group-voice procedures and that they communicate to the public how they arrive at their decisions.

  20. Direct Laser Acceleration in Laser Wakefield Accelerators

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    In this dissertation, the direct laser acceleration (DLA) of ionization-injected electrons in a laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) operating in the quasi-blowout regime has been investigated through experiment and simulation. In the blowout regime of LWFA, the radiation pressure of an intense laser pulse can push a majority of the plasma electrons out and around the main body of the pulse. The expelled plasma electrons feel the electrostatic field of the relatively-stationary ions and are t...

  1. The Accelerator Reliability Forum

    CERN Document Server

    Lüdeke, Andreas; Giachino, R

    2014-01-01

    A high reliability is a very important goal for most particle accelerators. The biennial Accelerator Reliability Workshop covers topics related to the design and operation of particle accelerators with a high reliability. In order to optimize the over-all reliability of an accelerator one needs to gather information on the reliability of many different subsystems. While a biennial workshop can serve as a platform for the exchange of such information, the authors aimed to provide a further channel to allow for a more timely communication: the Particle Accelerator Reliability Forum [1]. This contribution will describe the forum and advertise it’s usage in the community.

  2. A Study of Monetary Policy in Emerging Markets: A Financial Accelerator Model Based on Open Economy%新兴市场国货币政策规则研究——基于开放经济的金融加速器模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑重

    2011-01-01

    The economical phenomena specialized in the emerging markets,such as date dollarization,capital reversion and so on,make the financial accelerator model of open economy more adaptable than the classical economic theories to meeting the need of monetary policy analysis in emerging markets.This paper develops a financial accelerator model of open economy based on China's economic data as the selected parameters.The results show that the behavior order of the monetary policy rules will vary according to the nature of external shocks.When the world interest rate shocks become the main source of the shocks,the advantages of the floating exchange rate are still obvious,which means that the rationality of fear of floating exchange rate in emerging markets is open to questions.%新兴市场国所特有的经济现象如债务美元化、资本逆转,使得开放经济的金融加速器模型较传统经济理论更能适应新兴市场国货币政策分析需要。通过构建以中国经济数据作为参数选择依据的开放经济的金融加速器模型所做的研究,结果表明货币政策规则的表现排序会因冲击性质不同而出现变化;当世界利率冲击是主要的冲击来源时,浮动汇率的优势依然明显,这意味着新兴市场国的汇率"浮动恐惧症"的合理性尚待商榷。

  3. Induction linear accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birx, Daniel

    1992-03-01

    Among the family of particle accelerators, the Induction Linear Accelerator is the best suited for the acceleration of high current electron beams. Because the electromagnetic radiation used to accelerate the electron beam is not stored in the cavities but is supplied by transmission lines during the beam pulse it is possible to utilize very low Q (typicallymarriage of liner accelerator technology and nonlinear magnetic compressors has produced some unique capabilities. It now appears possible to produce electron beams with average currents measured in amperes, peak currents in kiloamperes and gradients exceeding 1 MeV/meter, with power efficiencies approaching 50%. The nonlinear magnetic compression technology has replaced the spark gap drivers used on earlier accelerators with state-of-the-art all-solid-state SCR commutated compression chains. The reliability of these machines is now approaching 1010 shot MTBF. In the following paper we will briefly review the historical development of induction linear accelerators and then discuss the design considerations.

  4. 精英与公民参与决策博弈的新视角——基于托马斯的有效决策模型%A New Perspective of Policy Decision- making Game Between Elite and Citizen Participation--Based on the effective decision -making model of Thomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖军飞

    2011-01-01

    精英决策模式是众多民主国家普遍适用的公共决策模式。随着“强势民主”、“公民治理”的兴起及信息技术的提高,公民参与公共决策成为未来的发展趋势。有效决策模型解决了公民参与公共决策存在的无序性、非公益性及非均衡性等问题,为我国公共决策模式的发展提供了指导方向,我国应坚持精英主导下的公民参与公共决策模式。%Elite decision- making model is generally applicable to many democratic countries in the world. As the rise of "strong democracy" and "citizen governance", and the improvement of information technology, citizen participation in public decision - making has been the development trend in the future. The effective decision - making model solves the disorder, non- public and non- equilibrium problems when citizen participation in public decision- making, and provides direction for the development of public decision - making model in China. We should adhere to the public decision - making model of elite- led and citizen participation.

  5. Tax Reform and Payout Policy:Do Shareholder Clienteles or Payout Policy Adjust?

    OpenAIRE

    Korkeamaki, Timo; Liljeblom, Eva; Pasternack, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Changes in taxation of corporate dividends offer excellent opportunities to study dividend clientele effects. We explore payout policies and ownership structures around a major tax reform that took place in Finland in 2004. Consistent with dividend clienteles affecting firms’ dividend policy decisions, we find that Finnish firms altered their dividend policies based on the changed tax incentives of their largest shareholders. While firms adjust their payout policies, our results also indica...

  6. Enhanced decision support for policy makers using a web interface to health-economic models - Illustrated with a cost-effectiveness analysis of nation-wide infant vaccination with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hubben, G.A.A.; Bos, J.M.; Glynn, D.M.; van der Ende, A.; van Alphen, L.; Postma, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a web-based user-interface (web interface) to enhance the usefulness of health-economic evaluations to support decision making (http://pcv.healtheconomics.nl). It allows the user to interact with a health-economic model to evaluate predefined and customized scenarios and perform se

  7. Pension reform and couples' joint retirement decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Hospido, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Rising life expectancy and the growing fiscal insolvency of public pension systems have prompted many developed countries to raise the pension entitlement age. The success of such policies depends on the responsiveness of individuals to such changes. Retirement has increasingly become a decision made jointly by a couple rather than individually by one partner. The empirical evidence indicates that almost a third of dual-earner couples in Europe and the US coordinate their retirement decision ...

  8. Adversarial decision and optimization-based models

    OpenAIRE

    Villacorta Iglesias, Pablo Jos??

    2015-01-01

    Decision making is all around us. Everyone makes choices everyday, from the moment we open our eyes in the morning. Some of them do not have very important consequences in our life and these consequences are easy to take into account. However, in the business world, managers make decisions that have important consequences on the future of their own firm (in terms of revenues, market position, business policy) and their employees. In these cases, it is difficult to account fo...

  9. How to Create an Innovation Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Helbing, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Too many policy failures are fundamentally failures of knowledge. This has become particularly apparent during the recent financial and economic crisis, which is questioning the validity of mainstream scholarly paradigms. We propose to pursue a multi-disciplinary approach and to establish new institutional settings which remove or reduce obstacles impeding efficient knowledge creation. We provided suggestions on (i) how to modernize and improve the academic publication system, and (ii) how to support scientific coordination, communication, and co-creation in large-scale multi-disciplinary projects. Both constitute important elements of what we envision to be a novel ICT infrastructure called "Innovation Accelerator" or "Knowledge Accelerator".

  10. Decision Making with Imperfect Decision Makers

    CERN Document Server

    Guy, Tatiana Valentine; Wolpert, David H

    2012-01-01

    Prescriptive Bayesian decision making has reached a high level of maturity and is well-supported algorithmically. However, experimental data shows that real decision makers choose such Bayes-optimal decisions surprisingly infrequently, often making decisions that are badly sub-optimal. So prevalent is such imperfect decision-making that it should be accepted as an inherent feature of real decision makers living within interacting societies. To date such societies have been investigated from an economic and gametheoretic perspective, and even to a degree from a physics perspective. However, lit

  11. USAID Policy: Gender equality and female empowerment policy

    OpenAIRE

    United States Agency for International Development (USAID)

    2012-01-01

    This report is an update on USAID's progress towards gender equity and female empowerment since 1982. This policy strives towards positive development that is beneficial to men, women, and children. The goals are to reduce gender disparity in access to resources, reduce gender-based violence, and increase women's agency, leadership, and decision-making.

  12. Pharmacoeconomics and formulary decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, L A

    1996-01-01

    Pharmacoeconomic assessment of formulary actions has become increasingly common in local, national, and international formulary decision making. Tactics for managing medication use include formulary management and drug policies. Pharmacoeconomic data can provide support for these formulary decisions. For example, pharmacoeconomic data can support the inclusion or exclusion of a drug on or from the formulary and support practice guidelines that promote the most cost-effective or appropriate utilisation of pharmaceutical products. Various strategies can be used to incorporate pharmacoeconomics into formulary decision making. These include using published pharmacoeconomic studies and economic modelling techniques, and conducting local pharmacoeconomic research. Criteria for evaluating the pharmacoeconomic literature, suggestions for employing economic models, and suggested guidelines for conducting pharmacoeconomic projects are discussed. Although most formularies are viewed as cost-containment tools, formularies should not be a list of the 'cheapest' alternatives. Today's formulary should contain agents that optimise therapeutic outcomes while controlling cost. Pharmacoeconomic assessments of formulary decisions help to ensure that the agents promoted by our formularies yield the highest outcome per dollar spent. A discussion of the process for formulary action in a US hospital, the influence of pharmacoeconomics on US formularies, and strategies for incorporating pharmacoeconomics into formulary decision making are presented in this paper. PMID:10160112

  13. Medical decision making in scarcity situations

    OpenAIRE

    Delden, Johannes; Vrakking, Astrid; van der Heide, Agnes; Maas, Paul

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe issue of the allocation of resources in health care is here to stay. The goal of this study was to explore the views of physicians on several topics that have arisen in the debate on the allocation of scarce resources and to compare these with the views of policy makers. We asked physicians (oncologists, cardiologists, and nursing home physicians) and policy makers to participate in an interview about their practices and opinions concerning factors playing a role in decision m...

  14. Group decision support using Toulmin argument structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States). School of Information Technology and Engineering; Sage, A.P. [George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States). School of Information Technology and Engineering

    1996-12-31

    This paper addresses the need for sound science, technology, and management assessment relative to environmental policy decision making through an approach that involves a logical structure for evidence, a framed decision-making process, and an environment that encourages group participation. Toulmin-based logic possesses these characteristics and is used as the basis for development of a group decision support system. This system can support several user groups, such as pesticide policy-making experts, who can use the support system to state arguments for or against an important policy issue, and pest management experts, who can use the system to assist in identifying and evaluating alternatives for controlling pests on agricultural commodities. The resulting decision support system assists in improving the clarity of the lines of reasoning used in specific situations; the warrants, grounds, and backings that are used to support claims and specific lines of reasoning; and the contradictions, rebuttals, and arguments surrounding each step in the reasoning process associated with evaluating a claim or counterclaim. Experts and decisions makers with differing views can better understand each other`s thought processes. The net effect is enhanced communications and understanding of the whole picture and, in many cases, consensus on decisions to be taken.

  15. The Structure of Decision:US Taiwan Policy in the 1950s%一九五○年代美国对台决策模式分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张淑雅

    2004-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ. Foreword A key relationship in the Cold War international scene of the 1950s was that between China and the US. The US government has since the 1970s been declassifying official documents and materials of this period regarding China policy, allowing scholars for the first time to really study the history of the era in a relatively objective way.

  16. Particle-accelerator decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generic considerations involved in decommissioning particle accelerators are examined. There are presently several hundred accelerators operating in the United States that can produce material containing nonnegligible residual radioactivity. Residual radioactivity after final shutdown is generally short-lived induced activity and is localized in hot spots around the beam line. The decommissioning options addressed are mothballing, entombment, dismantlement with interim storage, and dismantlement with disposal. The recycle of components or entire accelerators following dismantlement is a definite possibility and has occurred in the past. Accelerator components can be recycled either immediately at accelerator shutdown or following a period of storage, depending on the nature of induced activation. Considerations of cost, radioactive waste, and radiological health are presented for four prototypic accelerators. Prototypes considered range from small accelerators having minimal amounts of radioactive mmaterial to a very large accelerator having massive components containing nonnegligible amounts of induced activation. Archival information on past decommissionings is presented, and recommendations concerning regulations and accelerator design that will aid in the decommissioning of an accelerator are given

  17. Particle-accelerator decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opelka, J.H.; Mundis, R.L.; Marmer, G.J.; Peterson, J.M.; Siskind, B.; Kikta, M.J.

    1979-12-01

    Generic considerations involved in decommissioning particle accelerators are examined. There are presently several hundred accelerators operating in the United States that can produce material containing nonnegligible residual radioactivity. Residual radioactivity after final shutdown is generally short-lived induced activity and is localized in hot spots around the beam line. The decommissioning options addressed are mothballing, entombment, dismantlement with interim storage, and dismantlement with disposal. The recycle of components or entire accelerators following dismantlement is a definite possibility and has occurred in the past. Accelerator components can be recycled either immediately at accelerator shutdown or following a period of storage, depending on the nature of induced activation. Considerations of cost, radioactive waste, and radiological health are presented for four prototypic accelerators. Prototypes considered range from small accelerators having minimal amounts of radioactive mmaterial to a very large accelerator having massive components containing nonnegligible amounts of induced activation. Archival information on past decommissionings is presented, and recommendations concerning regulations and accelerator design that will aid in the decommissioning of an accelerator are given.

  18. Policy implications for familial searching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Joyce

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the United States, several states have made policy decisions regarding whether and how to use familial searching of the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS database in criminal investigations. Familial searching pushes DNA typing beyond merely identifying individuals to detecting genetic relatedness, an application previously reserved for missing persons identifications and custody battles. The intentional search of CODIS for partial matches to an item of evidence offers law enforcement agencies a powerful tool for developing investigative leads, apprehending criminals, revitalizing cold cases and exonerating wrongfully convicted individuals. As familial searching involves a range of logistical, social, ethical and legal considerations, states are now grappling with policy options for implementing familial searching to balance crime fighting with its potential impact on society. When developing policies for familial searching, legislators should take into account the impact of familial searching on select populations and the need to minimize personal intrusion on relatives of individuals in the DNA database. This review describes the approaches used to narrow a suspect pool from a partial match search of CODIS and summarizes the economic, ethical, logistical and political challenges of implementing familial searching. We examine particular US state policies and the policy options adopted to address these issues. The aim of this review is to provide objective background information on the controversial approach of familial searching to inform policy decisions in this area. Herein we highlight key policy options and recommendations regarding effective utilization of familial searching that minimize harm to and afford maximum protection of US citizens.

  19. Building Energy-Efficiency Best Practice Policies and Policy Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark; Can, Stephane de la Rue de; Zheng, Nina; Williams, Christopher; Amman, Jennifer; Staniaszek, Dan

    2012-10-26

    This report addresses the single largest source of greenhouse gas emissions and the greatest opportunity to reduce these emissions. The IPCC 4th Assessment Report estimates that globally 35% to 40% of all energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions (relative to a growing baseline) result from energy use in buildings. Emissions reductions from a combination of energy efficiency and conservation (using less energy) in buildings have the potential to cut emissions as much as all other energy-using sectors combined. This is especially the case for China, India and other developing countries that are expected to account for 80% or more of growth in building energy use worldwide over the coming decades. In short, buildings constitute the largest opportunity to mitigate climate change and special attention needs to be devoted to developing countries. At the same time, the buildings sector has been particularly resistant to achieving this potential. Technology in other sectors has advanced more rapidly than in buildings. In the recent past, automobile companies have made large investments in designing, engineering, and marketing energy efficient and alternative fuel vehicles that reduce greenhouse gas emissions. At the same time, the buildings sector – dependent on millions and millions of decisions by consumers and homeowners – face a large variety of market barriers that cause very substantial underinvestment in energy efficiency. How can the trajectory of energy use in buildings be changed to reduce the associated CO{sub 2} emissions? Is it possible to greatly accelerate this change? The answer to these questions depends on policy, technology, and behavior. Can policies be crafted and implemented to drive the trajectory down? Can the use of existing energy efficiency technologies be increased greatly and new technologies developed and brought to market? And what is the role of behavior in reducing or increasing energy use in buildings? These are the three overarching issues

  20. New York State's Higher Education Policy Vacuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, H. Carl

    This report by the New York State Comptroller states that the state is currently making decisions regarding higher education based on short-term fiscal and political concerns rather than basing such decisions on long-range strategic plans founded on carefully deliberated policies. Specifically, New York has been without a comprehensive review of…

  1. Essays on Energy Technology Innovation Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Gabriel Angelo Sherak

    Motivated by global climate change, enhancing innovation systems for energy technologies is seen as one of the largest public policy challenges of the near future. The role of policy in enhancing energy innovation systems takes several forms: public provision of research and develop funding, facilitating the private sector's capability to develop new technologies, and creating incentives for private actors to adopt innovative and appropriate technologies. This dissertation explores research questions that span this range of policies to develop insights in how energy technology innovation policy can be reformed in the face of climate change. The first chapter of this dissertation explores how decision making to allocate public research and development funding could be improved through the integration of expert technology forecasts. I present a framework to evaluate and optimize the U.S. Department of Energy's research and development portfolio of applied energy projects, accounting for spillovers from technical complimentary and competition for the same market share. This project integrates one of the largest and most comprehensive sets of expert elicitations on energy technologies (Anadon et al., 2014b) in a benefit evaluation framework. This work entailed developing a new method for probability distribution sampling that accommodates the information that can be provided by expert elicitations. The results of this project show that public research and development in energy storage and solar photovoltaic technologies has the greatest marginal returns to economic surplus, but the methodology developed in this chapter is broadly applicable to other public and private R&D-sponsoring organizations. The second chapter of this dissertation explores how policies to transfer technologies from federally funded research laboratories to commercialization partners, largely private firms, create knowledge spillovers that lead to further innovation. In this chapter, I study the U

  2. An introduction to acceleration mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the acceleration of charged particles by electromagnetic fields, i.e., by fields that are produced by the motion of other charged particles driven by some power source. The mechanisms that are discussed include: Ponderamotive Forces, Acceleration, Plasma Beat Wave Acceleration, Inverse Free Electron Laser Acceleration, Inverse Cerenkov Acceleration, Gravity Acceleration, 2D Linac Acceleration and Conventional Iris Loaded Linac Structure Acceleration

  3. Science communication in policy making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coumou, Hilde; van der Werf Kulichova, Z.; Wehrmann, C.;

    2014-01-01

    Policy making regarding application of agricultural biotechnology has been controversial. This study investigates what determines the motivation of European biotech scientists to actively participate in policy making. To do this, a conceptual framework was developed based on the Theory of Planned...... Behavior. The framework was operationalized in semi-structured interviews with 17 European biotech scientists to collect data about their motivation to involve in GMO policy making. The results of this qualitative study suggest that the attitude of the scientists towards active participation in policy...... making is dependent on their view of the way science and decision making relate to each other. The respondents who are currently active in policy making seem to be driven by commitment to the public good. However, many respondents feel social pressure from environmental NGOs to withdraw from engagement...

  4. Suggestions on Fiscal Policies of Accelerating the Development of Cultural Industries in Xi'an%加快发展西安文化产业的财政政策刍议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟迪

    2012-01-01

    Cultural industries in Xi'an have undergone the considerable development in recent years.According to the development status of cultural industries in Xi'an,and through the comparison of three capital cities in western provinces,this paper proposes the suggestions on fiscal policies for promoting the development of cultural industries in Xi'an.%近年来西安市文化产业已有了长足的发展。根据西安文化产业的发展现状,通过三个西部省会城市之间的比较,提出了促进西安文化产业发展的财政政策建议。

  5. A decision-support tool for strategic decision-making in biopharmaceutical manufacture.

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, A.C.

    2005-01-01

    The need for software tools to support decision-making relating to biomanufacture is becoming increasingly critical in order to accelerate the time-to-market and reduce costs. The main objective of this thesis is the design and implementation of a decision-support tool that integrates both the business and process perspectives of biopharmaceutical manufacture to aid the evaluation of manufacturing alternatives. The tool, designated BioPharmKit, was built on the platform of the simulation pack...

  6. Lifelong Learning, Policy and Desire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Recent lifelong learning policies have been criticized for creating an illusion of freedom whilst simultaneously reducing choice. The concept of desire permits engagement with the conscious and unconscious drives that underpin individual decision-making, which direct the life course. Utilizing the ideas of Hume and Spinoza, the present article…

  7. Empirical Findings and Educational Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter, Ludwig

    1988-01-01

    Sketches relevant issues of the relationship between findings in the field of educational science and decisions to be taken in educational policy. Discusses possible interaction models, identifying factors relevant to their realization. States that the identification of factors determining the application of research findings remains an important…

  8. Policy Creation Model for Policy-Based Management in Telecommunications Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Astudillo, Carlos A; Calderón, Oscar J

    2011-01-01

    Policy-based management (PBM) is being used as technological solution on the managing and controlling complex networks and systems. One of the most important issues involved in the life-cycle of PBM is the policies creation because the future decisions made by the management system depend on this, and therefore, the network behavior. In this paper we present a novel model for creating management policies in telecommunications networks. We propose a model which includes a Policy Creation Process, Actors, Policy Abstraction Levels and a Procedure for Creating Policies. An implementation of the proposed model over the Technology Division at University of Cauca is included.

  9. Utilisation of medical technology assessment in health policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, WJA; Wieringh, R; van den Heuvel, LPM

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To assess the contribution of medical technology assessment (MTA) to health policy decision making, the question has to be answered whether MTA is actually being used in decision-making processes and what factors are related to its utilisation. Design: We investigated recent Dutch policy

  10. Delay Discounting and Social Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherly, Jeffrey N.; Plumm, Karyn M.; Derenne, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The present study used a delay discounting framework to study decisions about six social policy issues and one monetary outcome. For outcomes that nearly all participants discounted, social policies were discounted significantly more than money. A similar result was observed when analyzing all outcomes using data only from participants who…

  11. International Organisations and Transnational Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutsios, Stavros

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the World Bank/IMF (International Monetary Fund), the OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) and the WTO (World Trade Organisation) as institutions of transnational policy making. They are all at present making education policies which are decisively shaping current directions and developments in…

  12. The Environment, Economics and Water Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Stringer, Randy

    1997-01-01

    Water's unique physical properties. complex. economic characteristics, important cultural features, and essential role in supporting all life on earth distinguish it from all other natural resources. These multifaceted characteristics mean that developing effective water policies involves economic, ecological, environmental, legal,·and political considerations. In most societies, political considerations dominate water use decisions. Nonetheless, most water policy options are framed and discu...

  13. Optimization of Overflow Policies in Call Centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koole, G.M.; Nielsen, B.F.; Nielsen, T.B.

    2015-01-01

    . A Markov decision chain is used to determine the optimal policy. This policy outperforms considerably the ones used most often in practice, which use a fixed threshold. The present method can be used also for other call-center models and other situations where performance is based on actual waiting times...

  14. Accelerator reliability workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, L.; Duru, Ph.; Koch, J.M.; Revol, J.L.; Van Vaerenbergh, P.; Volpe, A.M.; Clugnet, K.; Dely, A.; Goodhew, D

    2002-07-01

    About 80 experts attended this workshop, which brought together all accelerator communities: accelerator driven systems, X-ray sources, medical and industrial accelerators, spallation sources projects (American and European), nuclear physics, etc. With newly proposed accelerator applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, replacement of nuclear power plants and others. Reliability has now become a number one priority for accelerator designers. Every part of an accelerator facility from cryogenic systems to data storage via RF systems are concerned by reliability. This aspect is now taken into account in the design/budget phase, especially for projects whose goal is to reach no more than 10 interruptions per year. This document gathers the slides but not the proceedings of the workshop.

  15. Switched Matrix Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a new concept for a microwave circuit functioning as a charged-particle accelerator at mm-wavelengths, permitting an accelerating gradient higher than conventional passive circuits can withstand consistent with cyclic fatigue. The device provides acceleration for multiple bunches in parallel channels, and permits a short exposure time for the conducting surface of the accelerating cavities. Our analysis includes scalings based on a smooth transmission line model and a complementary treatment with a coupled-cavity simulation. We provide also an electromagnetic design for the accelerating structure, arriving at rough dimensions for a seven-cell accelerator matched to standard waveguide and suitable for bench tests at low power in air at 91.392. GHz. A critical element in the concept is a fast mm-wave switch suitable for operation at high-power, and we present the considerations for implementation in an H-plane tee. We discuss the use of diamond as the photoconductor switch medium

  16. Accelerator and radiation physics

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Samita; Nandy, Maitreyee

    2013-01-01

    "Accelerator and radiation physics" encompasses radiation shielding design and strategies for hadron therapy accelerators, neutron facilities and laser based accelerators. A fascinating article describes detailed transport theory and its application to radiation transport. Detailed information on planning and design of a very high energy proton accelerator can be obtained from the article on radiological safety of J-PARC. Besides safety for proton accelerators, the book provides information on radiological safety issues for electron synchrotron and prevention and preparedness for radiological emergencies. Different methods for neutron dosimetry including LET based monitoring, time of flight spectrometry, track detectors are documented alongwith newly measured experimental data on radiation interaction with dyes, polymers, bones and other materials. Design of deuteron accelerator, shielding in beam line hutches in synchrotron and 14 MeV neutron generator, various radiation detection methods, their characteriza...

  17. Leaky Fermi accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Kushal; Rom-Kedar, Vered; Turaev, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    A Fermi accelerator is a billiard with oscillating walls. A leaky accelerator interacts with an environment of an ideal gas at equilibrium by exchange of particles through a small hole on its boundary. Such interaction may heat the gas: we estimate the net energy flow through the hole under the assumption that the particles inside the billiard do not collide with each other and remain in the accelerator for sufficiently long time. The heat production is found to depend strongly on the type of the Fermi accelerator. An ergodic accelerator, i.e. one which has a single ergodic component, produces a weaker energy flow than a multi-component accelerator. Specifically, in the ergodic case the energy gain is independent of the hole size, whereas in the multi-component case the energy flow may be significantly increased by shrinking the hole size.

  18. Nuclear physics accelerator facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes many of the nuclear physics heavy-ion accelerator facilities in the US and the research programs being conducted. The accelerators described are: Argonne National Laboratory--ATLAS; Brookhaven National Laboratory--Tandem/AGS Heavy Ion Facility; Brookhaven National Laboratory--Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) (Proposed); Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory--Bevalac; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory--88-Inch Cyclotron; Los Alamos National Laboratory--Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF); Massachusetts Institute of Technology--Bates Linear Accelerator Center; Oak Ridge National Laboratory--Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory--Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator; Stanford Linear Accelerator Center--Nuclear Physics Injector; Texas AandM University--Texas AandM Cyclotron; Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL); University of Washington--Tandem/Superconducting Booster; and Yale University--Tandem Van de Graaff

  19. Accelerator reliability workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 80 experts attended this workshop, which brought together all accelerator communities: accelerator driven systems, X-ray sources, medical and industrial accelerators, spallation sources projects (American and European), nuclear physics, etc. With newly proposed accelerator applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, replacement of nuclear power plants and others. Reliability has now become a number one priority for accelerator designers. Every part of an accelerator facility from cryogenic systems to data storage via RF systems are concerned by reliability. This aspect is now taken into account in the design/budget phase, especially for projects whose goal is to reach no more than 10 interruptions per year. This document gathers the slides but not the proceedings of the workshop

  20. Midmarket Solar Policies in the United States: A Guide for Midsized Solar Customers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Tian; Liu, Chang; O' Shaughnessy, Eric; Mathur, Shivani; Holm, Alison; Miller, John

    2016-09-01

    The first part of this guide introduces the key solar policies necessary for policy-based decision-making, which involves using knowledge of a solar policy to improve project economics and efficiency. Policies that could result in policy-based decisions include interconnection standards, net metering, user fees, incentives, and third-party ownership policies. The goal of this section is to equip prospective customers and project developers with the tools necessary to understand and use solar policies in a dynamic policy environment. The second part of this guide provides a complete, state-by-state inventory of midmarket solar policies for potential customers and developers to use as reference when making policy-based decisions. Although solar policies are dynamic, the profiles provide a framework for assessing policies to build the parameters that could be used to determine feasibility and structure of a solar PV system for midmarket customers and developers.

  1. High Gradient Accelerator Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temkin, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics. Plasma Science and Fusion Center

    2016-07-12

    The goal of the MIT program of research on high gradient acceleration is the development of advanced acceleration concepts that lead to a practical and affordable next generation linear collider at the TeV energy level. Other applications, which are more near-term, include accelerators for materials processing; medicine; defense; mining; security; and inspection. The specific goals of the MIT program are: • Pioneering theoretical research on advanced structures for high gradient acceleration, including photonic structures and metamaterial structures; evaluation of the wakefields in these advanced structures • Experimental research to demonstrate the properties of advanced structures both in low-power microwave cold test and high-power, high-gradient test at megawatt power levels • Experimental research on microwave breakdown at high gradient including studies of breakdown phenomena induced by RF electric fields and RF magnetic fields; development of new diagnostics of the breakdown process • Theoretical research on the physics and engineering features of RF vacuum breakdown • Maintaining and improving the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator, the highest frequency operational accelerator in the world, a unique facility for accelerator research • Providing the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator facility as a facility for outside users • Active participation in the US DOE program of High Gradient Collaboration, including joint work with SLAC and with Los Alamos National Laboratory; participation of MIT students in research at the national laboratories • Training the next generation of Ph. D. students in the field of accelerator physics.

  2. High Gradient Accelerator Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temkin, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics. Plasma Science and Fusion Center

    2016-07-12

    The goal of the MIT program of research on high gradient acceleration is the development of advanced acceleration concepts that lead to a practical and affordable next generation linear collider at the TeV energy level. Other applications, which are more near-term, include accelerators for materials processing; medicine; defense; mining; security; and inspection. The specific goals of the MIT program are: • Pioneering theoretical research on advanced structures for high gradient acceleration, including photonic structures and metamaterial structures; evaluation of the wakefields in these advanced structures • Experimental research to demonstrate the properties of advanced structures both in low power microwave cold test and high power, high gradient test at megawatt power levels • Experimental research on microwave breakdown at high gradient including studies of breakdown phenomena induced by RF electric fields and RF magnetic fields; development of new diagnostics of the breakdown process • Theoretical research on the physics and engineering features of RF vacuum breakdown • Maintaining and improving the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator, the highest frequency operational accelerator in the world, a unique facility for accelerator research • Providing the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator facility as a facility for outside users • Active participation in the US DOE program of High Gradient Collaboration, including joint work with SLAC and with Los Alamos National Laboratory; participation of MIT students in research at the national laboratories • Training the next generation of Ph. D. students in the field of accelerator physics.

  3. Building a wave energy policy focusing on innovation, manufacturing and deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Irish Government has set a goal to make Ireland a world leader for research, development and deployment of ocean energy technologies. Ireland has a wave energy resource of 21 TWh and an ambition is to achieve at least 500 MW installed generating capacity from ocean energy by 2020. This paper investigates what is required to move from ambition to delivery. A successful wave energy strategy will require focused policies that will stimulate innovation to develop the technologies, manufacturing to produce the devices and deployment to build the required wave power plants. The paper draws on the successful policies in Ireland that have stimulated each of these dimensions, albeit for different sectors. From 2004 to 2008, successful policies in (ICT and biotech) innovation led to an increase in Ireland's Innovation Index score from 0.48 to 0.53. The policy focus on (food and pharmaceuticals) manufacturing in Ireland resulted in high levels of economic growth over the period 1998-2002, reaching >10% GDP growth levels per annum, and full employment. Successful wind energy policies deployment has accelerated rapidly since 2003 and reached 1.2 GW installed capacity in 2009 representing 15% of Ireland's total installed capacity. The paper draws on appropriate elements of these policies to build a successful wave energy policy for Ireland. It also draws on the successful policies adopted in Denmark for innovation, manufacturing and deployment of wind energy. The Danish wind turbine manufacturers hold a world market share of approximately 40%. The paper proposes establishing a wave energy strategy group to develop an action plan to deliver the 500 MW. It also proposes a novel extension of corporate tax specifically for wave energy companies, an initial 30% capital grant scheme for wave energy developers, a grid code for wave energy devices and fast tracking of planning decisions through an amended approach to strategic infrastructure. (author)

  4. Building a wave energy policy focusing on innovation, manufacturing and deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, G. [Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Hydraulics and Maritime Research Centre (HMRC), University College Cork (UCC) (Ireland); Gallachoir, B.P.O. [Sustainable Energy Research Group, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland)

    2010-10-15

    The Irish Government has set a goal to make Ireland a world leader for research, development and deployment of ocean energy technologies. Ireland has a wave energy resource of 21 TWh and an ambition is to achieve at least 500 MW installed generating capacity from ocean energy by 2020. This paper investigates what is required to move from ambition to delivery. A successful wave energy strategy will require focused policies that will stimulate innovation to develop the technologies, manufacturing to produce the devices and deployment to build the required wave power plants. The paper draws on the successful policies in Ireland that have stimulated each of these dimensions, albeit for different sectors. From 2004 to 2008, successful policies in (ICT and biotech) innovation led to an increase in Ireland's Innovation Index score from 0.48 to 0.53. The policy focus on (food and pharmaceuticals) manufacturing in Ireland resulted in high levels of economic growth over the period 1998-2002, reaching >10% GDP growth levels per annum, and full employment. Successful wind energy policies deployment has accelerated rapidly since 2003 and reached 1.2 GW installed capacity in 2009 representing 15% of Ireland's total installed capacity. The paper draws on appropriate elements of these policies to build a successful wave energy policy for Ireland. It also draws on the successful policies adopted in Denmark for innovation, manufacturing and deployment of wind energy. The Danish wind turbine manufacturers hold a world market share of approximately 40%. The paper proposes establishing a wave energy strategy group to develop an action plan to deliver the 500 MW. It also proposes a novel extension of corporate tax specifically for wave energy companies, an initial 30% capital grant scheme for wave energy developers, a grid code for wave energy devices and fast tracking of planning decisions through an amended approach to strategic infrastructure. (author)

  5. 面向新高中課程改革:學校政策制定者的觀點和決定The New Senior Secondary School Curriculum Reform in Hong Kong: School Policy Makers’ Perspectives and Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    陳健生(通訊作者)Jacqueline Kin-Sang Chan

    2012-03-01

    perceive the new senior secondary school curriculum, as well as the decisions they make on the planning and construction of their new school curriculum. This paper aims to explore the perspectives and decision making of the school policy makers on the new secondary school curriculum. It focuses on three questions: (1 What are the perspectives of the school policy makers on the new secondary school curriculum? (2 What are the decision making of the school policy makers in constructing the new school curriculum in their own school contexts? (3 What are the factors affecting school policy makers’ decisions?

  6. Immigration policy and self-selecting migrants

    OpenAIRE

    Milo Bianchi

    2008-01-01

    I build a simple theory of self-selection into migration and immigration policy formation. I show that any immigration policy affects immigrants skill composition, and this effect may drive the policy outcome in the receiving country. For example, restricting immigration when it is low skilled may worsen immigrants' self-selection and thus the receiving country skill distribution. Hence, understanding the migration decision becomes crucial for analyzing the political economy of immigration. B...

  7. Immigration Policy and Self-Selecting Migrants.

    OpenAIRE

    BIANCHI, MILO

    2013-01-01

    I build a simple theory of self-selection into migration and immigration policy formation. I show that any immigration policy affects immigrants skill composition, and this effect may drive the policy outcome in the receiving country. For example, restricting immigration when it is low skilled may worsen immigrants' self-selection and thus the receiving country skill distribution. Hence, understanding the migration decision becomes crucial for analyzing the political economy of immigration. B...

  8. The Political Economy of Immigration Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Facchini, Giovanni; Mayda, Anna Maria

    2009-01-01

    We analyze a newly available dataset of migration policy decisions reported by governments to the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs between 1976 and 2007. We find evidence indicating that most governments have policies aimed at either maintaining the status quo or at lowering the level of migration. We also document variation in migration policy over time and across countries of different regions and income levels. Finally, we examine patterns in various ...

  9. On the Fundamental Principles of Economic Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Witold Jakóbik

    2007-01-01

    The article contributes to the debate focused on the institutional principles of policies conducted by the fiscal as well as the monetary authorities. The author offers a brief review of the main relations between the aims of macroeconomic policy and the instruments that enable to fulfill the former. At the same time specific determinants of the aim-oriented decisions by the central bank or the government are reviewed. Last but not least in the analysis is the dilemma of policy mix coordinati...

  10. Policy Innovation in Innovation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    During the past two decades Europe has experienced important changes and transformations in the way in which governments approach the issue of science, technology and innovation, and their relation to economic growth and competitiveness. This has to do with the European Union level as well...... as with national and sub-national governments in Europe, all of them introducing interesting novelties in their innovation policy. These changes refer to different aspects of policy, mainly the content of policy initiatives towards science, technology and innovation; the instruments governments are using...... the issue of generating incentives to boost innovation? Second, what are the specific policy innovations that have been introduced since then, in particular the type of policy instruments being used? And last but not least, how can this policy change be characterized and explained both in terms of actors...

  11. Toward a multi-objective decision support framework to support regulations of unconventional oil and gas development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alongi, M.; Howard, C.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Ryan, J. N.

    2015-12-01

    Unconventional oil and gas development (UOGD) using hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling has recently fostered an unprecedented acceleration in energy development. Regulations seek to protect environmental quality of areas surrounding UOGD, while maintaining economic benefits. One such regulation is a setback distance, which dictates the minimum proximity between an oil and gas well and an object such as a residential or commercial building, property line, or water source. In general, most setback regulations have been strongly politically motivated without a clear scientific basis for understanding the relationship between the setback distance and various performance outcomes. This presentation discusses a new decision support framework for setback regulations, as part of a large NSF-funded sustainability research network (SRN) on UOGD. The goal of the decision support framework is to integrate a wide array of scientific information from the SRN into a coherent framework that can help inform policy regarding UOGD. The decision support framework employs multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) optimization coupled with simulation models of air quality and other performance-based outcomes on UOGD. The result of the MOEA optimization runs are quantitative tradeoff curves among different objectives. For example, one such curve could demonstrate air pollution concentrations versus estimates of energy development profits, for different levels of setback distance. Our results will also inform policy-relevant discussions surrounding UOGD such as comparing single- and multi-well pads, as well as regulations on the density of well development over a spatial area.

  12. Policy stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Rasmussen, Rasmus Kjærgaard

    present three central policy stories from the field. The stories tell of how the event was first interested, then activated and finally evaluated. Besides adding a new understanding to policy-driven events as a locus of value creation, we also argue that the AWG 2016 offer speculative bets for new...

  13. The financial accelerator effect: concept and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ćorić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This review concentrates on the role of information asymmetry in financial markets in the amplification and propagation of short-run output fluctuations. We find that the financial accelerator effect, as it is known, provides a consistent, first principle based, theoretical framework for the analysis of the relationship between financial markets and short-run output fluctuations. It also provides a plausible explanation of the proximate causes of the recent crisis, and first principle-based theoretical background for the credit policy measures taken during this crisis by many central banks and fiscal authorities. Despite the theoretical plausibility, the empirical evidence about the economic importance of the financial accelerator effect is still relatively weak. We also suggest two new aspects to expand existing concept of the financial accelerator effect, which call for further research.

  14. Accelerator Modeling with MATLAB Accelerator Toolbox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces Accelerator Toolbox (AT)--a collection of tools to model storage rings and beam transport lines in the MATLAB environment. The objective is to illustrate the flexibility and efficiency of the AT-MATLAB framework. The paper discusses three examples of problems that are analyzed frequently in connection with ring-based synchrotron light sources

  15. Angular velocities, angular accelerations, and coriolis accelerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graybiel, A.

    1975-01-01

    Weightlessness, rotating environment, and mathematical analysis of Coriolis acceleration is described for man's biological effective force environments. Effects on the vestibular system are summarized, including the end organs, functional neurology, and input-output relations. Ground-based studies in preparation for space missions are examined, including functional tests, provocative tests, adaptive capacity tests, simulation studies, and antimotion sickness.

  16. Racetrack linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved recirculating electron beam linear accelerator of the racetrack type is described. The system comprises a beam path of four straight legs with four Pretzel bending magnets at the end of each leg to direct the beam into the next leg of the beam path. At least one of the beam path legs includes a linear accelerator. (UK)

  17. COLLECTIVE-FIELD ACCELERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sessler, Andrew M.

    1969-07-04

    Diverse methods proposed for the acceleration of particles by means of collective fields are reviewed. A survey is made of the various currently active experimental programs devoted to investigating collective acceleration, and the present status of the research is briefly noted.

  18. KEK digital accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashita, T.; Adachi, T.; Takayama, K.; Leo, K. W.; Arai, T.; Arakida, Y.; Hashimoto, M.; Kadokura, E.; Kawai, M.; Kawakubo, T.; Kubo, Tomio; Koyama, K.; Nakanishi, H.; Okazaki, K.; Okamura, K.; Someya, H.; Takagi, A.; Tokuchi, A.; Wake, M.

    2011-07-01

    The High Energy Accelerator Research Organization KEK digital accelerator (KEK-DA) is a renovation of the KEK 500 MeV booster proton synchrotron, which was shut down in 2006. The existing 40 MeV drift tube linac and rf cavities have been replaced by an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source embedded in a 200 kV high-voltage terminal and induction acceleration cells, respectively. A DA is, in principle, capable of accelerating any species of ion in all possible charge states. The KEK-DA is characterized by specific accelerator components such as a permanent magnet X-band ECR ion source, a low-energy transport line, an electrostatic injection kicker, an extraction septum magnet operated in air, combined-function main magnets, and an induction acceleration system. The induction acceleration method, integrating modern pulse power technology and state-of-art digital control, is crucial for the rapid-cycle KEK-DA. The key issues of beam dynamics associated with low-energy injection of heavy ions are beam loss caused by electron capture and stripping as results of the interaction with residual gas molecules and the closed orbit distortion resulting from relatively high remanent fields in the bending magnets. Attractive applications of this accelerator in materials and biological sciences are discussed.

  19. Asia honours accelerator physicists

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    "Steve Meyers of Cern and Jie Wei of Beijing's Tsinghua University are the first recipients of a new prize for particle physics. The pair were honoured for their contributions to numerous particle-accelerator projects - including Cern's Large Hadron Collider - by the Asian Committee for Future Accelerators (ACFA)..." (1 paragraph)

  20. Accelerators for energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tremendous progress of accelerators for these several decades, has been motivated mainly by the research on subnuclear physics. The culmination in high energy accelerators might be SSC, 20 TeV collider in USA, probably the ultimate accelerator being built with the conventional principle. The technology cultivated and integrated for the accelerator development, can now stably offer the high power beam which could be used for the energy problems. The Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) with high current, 10 kA and short pulse, 20 ns heavy ion beam (HIB) of mass number ∼200, would be the most promising application of accelerators for energy production. In this scenario, the fuel containing D-T mixture, will be compressed to the high temperature, ∼10 keV and to the high density state, ∼1000 times the solid density with the pressure of ablative plasma or thermal X ray produced by bombarding of high power HIB. The efficiency, beam power/electric power for accelerator, and the repetition rate of HIB accelerators could be most suitable for the energy production. In the present paper, the outline of HIB ICF (HIF) is presented emphasizing the key issues of high current heavy ion accelerator system. (author)

  1. Accelerators Beyond The Tevatron?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lach, Joseph; /Fermilab

    2010-07-01

    Following the successful operation of the Fermilab superconducting accelerator three new higher energy accelerators were planned. They were the UNK in the Soviet Union, the LHC in Europe, and the SSC in the United States. All were expected to start producing physics about 1995. They did not. Why?

  2. Nordic Energy Policy Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Birte Holst

    2016-01-01

    , not least in the power sector. Over the years, five focus areas have been addressed. Energy security of supply triggered the Nordic cooperation with the need to develop a long-term energy policy. This required decision-making support and energy systems analyses based on reliable and valid data, modelling...... and policy scenarios. Energy markets developed from a political wish to make the important oil and gas sector an area of cooperation that led finally to the recognition that there was no common ground for closer cooperation in this field. However, power utilities and grid companies cooperated across...... the borders long before the politicians supported and pushed for further cooperation. Energy efficiency was addressed by a portfolio of activities ranging from knowledge-sharing, public campaigns, labelling and standardisation of products. The need to address environmental degradation was inspired by the UN...

  3. Nitrogenius: a nitrogen decision support system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erisman, J.W.; Hensen, A.; Vries, de W.; Kros, H.; Wal, van der T.; Winter, de W.; Wien, J.E.; Elswijk, van M.; Maat, M.; Sanders, K.

    2002-01-01

    A nitrogen decision support system in the form of a game (NitroGenius) was developed for the Second International Nitrogen Conference. The aims were to: i) improve understanding among scientists and policy makers about the complexity of nitrogen pollution problems in an area of intensive agricultura

  4. 75 FR 81640 - Record of Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ...; Establish a civic engagement component for ORV management; Establish procedures for prompt and efficient... Seashore Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of... National Seashore (Seashore) Off-Road Vehicle (ORV) Management Plan. The ROD documents the decision by...

  5. Personnel policy and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the field of personnel policy and management two main points must be considered and fitted together: the aspects of the applicant and the aspects of the utility. The applicant wishes a position which suits to his abilities, education, training, experience and self-evaluation. The enterprise has beside these qualification criteria to look to some additional points: reliability - not only in the profession of the applicant but also in his daily life. In this examination licensing authorities are involved too; responsibility in a very broad sense and the ability to make correct decisions sometimes under stress situations. (orig.)

  6. Thoughts on Drug Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦兴宁

    2013-01-01

    Through the book“The economics of Public Issues”,in chapter 6,the author discussed why the government could not easily get spectacular success in the il egal commodity such as sex,booze,and drugs in economic way.In normal market, according to the law of demand,when the price of good is rising,the consumed amount wil decrease.However,the government has executed a lot of policies to reduce supply of drugs, but the consequence is not as good as they expected. Economics can help to find the answer to the phenomenon and improve the government's decision.

  7. Maximal Acceleration Is Nonrotating

    CERN Document Server

    Page, D N

    1998-01-01

    In a stationary axisymmetric spacetime, the angular velocity of a stationary observer that Fermi-Walker transports its acceleration vector is also the angular velocity that locally extremizes the magnitude of the acceleration of such an observer, and conversely if the spacetime is also symmetric under reversing both t and phi together. Thus a congruence of Nonrotating Acceleration Worldlines (NAW) is equivalent to a Stationary Congruence Accelerating Locally Extremely (SCALE). These congruences are defined completely locally, unlike the case of Zero Angular Momentum Observers (ZAMOs), which requires knowledge around a symmetry axis. The SCALE subcase of a Stationary Congruence Accelerating Maximally (SCAM) is made up of stationary worldlines that may be considered to be locally most nearly at rest in a stationary axisymmetric gravitational field. Formulas for the angular velocity and other properties of the SCALEs are given explicitly on a generalization of an equatorial plane, infinitesimally near a symmetry...

  8. Linear induction accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines a new layout for the injector and accelerating sectins of a linear induction accelerator. The sections are combined in a single housing: an induction system with a current-pulse generator based on double strip shaping lines laid over ferromagnetic cores; a multichannel spark discharger with forced current division among channels; and a system for core demagnetization and electron-beam formation and transport. The results of formation of an electron beam in the injector system and its acceleration in the first accelerating section of the accelerator for injection of beams with energies of 0.2-0.4 MeV, currents of 1-2 kA, and pulse durations of 60 nsec are given

  9. Collinear wake field acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Voss-Weiland scheme of wake field acceleration a high current, ring-shaped driving bunch is used to accelerate a low current beam following along on axis. In such a structure, the transformer ratio, i.e., the ratio of maximum voltage that can be gained by the on-axis beam and the voltage lost by the driving beam, can be large. In contrast, it has been observed that for an arrangement in which driving and driven bunches follow the same path, and where the current distribution of both bunches is gaussian, the transformer ratio is not normally greater than two. This paper explores some of the possibilities and limitations of a collinear acceleration scheme. In addition to its application to wake field acceleration in structures, this study is also of interest for the understanding of the plasma wake field accelerator. 11 refs., 4 figs

  10. Accelerators, Beams And Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators And Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemann, R.H.; /SLAC

    2011-10-24

    Accelerator science and technology have evolved as accelerators became larger and important to a broad range of science. Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams was established to serve the accelerator community as a timely, widely circulated, international journal covering the full breadth of accelerators and beams. The history of the journal and the innovations associated with it are reviewed.

  11. Policy Overview and Options for Maximizing the Role of Policy in Geothermal Electricity Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, E.; Kreycik, C.; Young, K.

    2009-09-01

    Geothermal electricity production capacity has grown over time because of multiple factors, including its renewable, baseload, and domestic attributes; volatile and high prices for competing technologies; and policy intervention. Overarching federal policies, namely the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA), provided certainty to project investors in the 1980s, leading to a boom in geothermal development. In addition to market expansion through PURPA, research and development policies provided an investment of public dollars toward developing technologies and reducing costs over time to increase the market competitiveness of geothermal electricity. Together, these efforts are cited as the primary policy drivers for the currently installed capacity. Informing policy decisions depends on the combined impacts of policies at the federal and state level on geothermal development. Identifying high-impact suites of policies for different contexts, and the government levels best equipped to implement them, would provide a wealth of information to both policy makers and project developers.

  12. Informatics Perspectives on Decision Taking

    CERN Document Server

    Bergstra, J A

    2011-01-01

    A decision is an act or event of decision taking. Decision making always includes decision taking, the latter not involving significant exchanges with non-deciding agents. A decision outcome is a piece of storable information constituting the result of a decision. Decision outcomes are typed, for instance: plan, command, assertion, or boolean reply to a question. A decision effect is any consequence of putting a decision outcome into effect. Decision outcomes must be expected by the decider to lead to certain decision effects, by way of their being put into effect. The availability of a model or of a theory of the causal chain leading from a decision outcome to one or more decision effects is assumed for the decision taker, otherwise the decision outcome is merely an utterance. Decision effectiveness measures the decision effects against objectives meant to be served with the decision. Decision taking is positioned amidst many similar notions including: decision making, decision process, decision making proce...

  13. 76 FR 9210 - Draft DOC National Aquaculture Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... DOC National Aquaculture Policy AGENCY: Commerce. ACTION: Notice of availability of draft aquaculture... draft national aquaculture policy that supports sustainable aquaculture in the United States. The intent of the policy is to guide DOC's actions and decisions on aquaculture and to provide a...

  14. Constructing "Common Sense" Policies for Schools: The Role of Journalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on how five journalists arrived at their decisions about how to report policy, particularly educational policy. It is part of a larger study that takes the position that the media play a central role in educational policy-making and that educators need to understand the power that journalists working within corporate…

  15. Project Decision Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolstadås, Asbjørn; Pinto, Jeffrey K.; Falster, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    To add value to project performance and help obtain project success, a new framework for decision making in projects is defined. It introduces the project decision chain inspired by the supply chain thinking in the manufacturing sector and uses three types of decisions: authorization, selection......, and plan decision. A primitive decision element is defined where all the three decision types can be accommodated. Each task in the primitive element can in itself contain subtasks that in turn will comprise new primitive elements. The primitive elements are nested together in a project decision chain....

  16. Aid, Social Policy, and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    Development Goals (MDGs) and will continue under the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which have even more ambitious targets. The paper also assesses some of the concerns associated with the ‘Paris-style’ aid modalities, and discusses major challenges for the future global development agenda.......This paper discusses past and current social policy strategies in the international aid architecture as an introduction to the UNU-WIDER Special Issue. Beginning in the 1990s, aid strategy and policy shifted to put a stronger emphasis on human development. This accelerated with the Millennium...

  17. The miniature accelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    The image that most people have of CERN is of its enormous accelerators and their capacity to accelerate particles to extremely high energies. But thanks to some cutting-edge studies on beam dynamics and radiofrequency technology, along with innovative construction techniques, teams at CERN have now created the first module of a brand-new accelerator, which will be just 2 metres long. The potential uses of this miniature accelerator will include deployment in hospitals for the production of medical isotopes and the treatment of cancer. It’s a real David-and-Goliath story.   Serge Mathot, in charge of the construction of the "mini-RFQ", pictured with the first of the four modules that will make up the miniature accelerator. The miniature accelerator consists of a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ), a component found at the start of all proton accelerator chains around the world, from the smallest to the largest. The LHC is designed to produce very high-intensity beams ...

  18. Large electrostatic accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The increasing importance of energetic heavy ion beams in the study of atomic physics, nuclear physics, and materials science has partially or wholly motivated the construction of a new generation of large electrostatic accelerators designed to operate at terminal potentials of 20 MV or above. In this paper, the author briefly discusses the status of these new accelerators and also discusses several recent technological advances which may be expected to further improve their performance. The paper is divided into four parts: (1) a discussion of the motivation for the construction of large electrostatic accelerators, (2) a description and discussion of several large electrostatic accelerators which have been recently completed or are under construction, (3) a description of several recent innovations which may be expected to improve the performance of large electrostatic accelerators in the future, and (4) a description of an innovative new large electrostatic accelerator whose construction is scheduled to begin next year. Due to time and space constraints, discussion is restricted to consideration of only tandem accelerators.

  19. Accelerator programme at CAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Accelerator Programme at the Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT), Indore, has very broad based concept under which all types of accelerators are to be taken up for design and fabrication. This centre will be housing a wide variety of accelerators to serve as a common facility for the universities, national laboratories in addition to laboratories under the Department of Atomic Energy. In the first phase of the programme, a series of electron accelerators are designed and fabricated. They are synchrotron radiation sources of 450 MeV (INDUS-I) and of 2 GeV (INDUS-II), microtron upto energy of 20 MeV, linear accelerator upto 20 MeV, and DC Accelerator for industrial irradiation upto 750 KeV and 20 KW. A proton accelerator of 300 MeV with 20 MeV linac injector is also designed. CAT is also developing a strong base for support technologies like ultra high vacuum, radio frequency and microwaves, DC pulsed and superconducting magnets, power supplies and controls etc. These technologies are very useful for other industrial applications also. To develop user groups to utilise INDUS-II synchrotron radiation source, a batch production of rotating Anode X-ray generators with power supplies has been initiated. So also, the sputter ion pumps, electron guns, turbo molecular pumps are brought into batch production. (author)

  20. Collective ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress achieved in the understanding and development of collective ion acceleration is presented. Extensive analytic and computational studies of slow cyclotron wave growth on an electron beam in a helix amplifier were performed. Research included precise determination of linear coupling between beam and helix, suppression of undesired transients and end effects, and two-dimensional simulations of wave growth in physically realizable systems. Electrostatic well depths produced exceed requirements for the Autoresonant Ion Acceleration feasibility experiment. Acceleration of test ions to modest energies in the troughs of such waves was also demonstrated. Smaller efforts were devoted to alternative acceleration mechanisms. Langmuir wave phase velocity in Converging Guide Acceleration was calculated as a function of the ratio of electron beam current to space-charge limiting current. A new collective acceleration approach, in which cyclotron wave phase velocity is varied by modulation of electron beam voltage, is proposed. Acceleration by traveling Virtual Cathode or Localized Pinch was considered, but appears less promising. In support of this research, fundamental investigations of beam propagation in evacuated waveguides, of nonneutral beam linear eigenmodes, and of beam stability were carried out. Several computer programs were developed or enhanced. Plans for future work are discussed

  1. 12 CFR 367.16 - Ethics Counselor decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ethics Counselor decisions. 367.16 Section 367... POLICY SUSPENSION AND EXCLUSION OF CONTRACTOR AND TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS § 367.16 Ethics Counselor... disputed material facts, the Ethics Counselor shall base the decision on the facts as found, together...

  2. Pedagogical Decision Making through the Lens of Teacher Preparation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prachagool, Veena; Nuangchalerm, Prasart; Subramaniam, Ganakumaran; Dostal, Jirí

    2016-01-01

    Pedagogical decision making is very important for professional teachers, it concerns belief, self-efficacy, and actions that teachers expose to classroom. This paper employed theoretical lens and education policy in Thailand to examine the preservice teachers' views about pedagogical decision making. Discussion helps school mentors understand…

  3. Reproductive decision-making in a macro-micro environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philipov, D.; Liefbroer, A.C.; Klobas, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    - Takes a new approach to understanding Europe’s fertility gap - Demonstrates how the macro-level environment affects micro-level decision-making - Provides new insights into how people make decisions about having children as well as how policies affect fertility This book provides new insights into

  4. Participation in European water policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ast, J. A.; Boot, S. P.

    This paper considers the possibilities for interactive policy-making in European water management. In the new European Water Framework Directive, public information and consultation are major elements in the procedure (process) that leads to River Basin Management Plans. In general, decision making in integrated water management should not be limited to the application of models and desk studies. Important decisions need a high level of participation. In this interactive approach, visions, ideas, patterns of behaviour and solutions to perceived problems of different societal actors can be identified and incorporated into the decision-making process. For example, farmer organisations, environmental groups and associations of house owners, but also individual citizens often have various and differing ideas about measures that change the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of a river basin. Well-organised interaction has two main potential advantages: The quality of the decision will be higher because specific knowledge of people involved and their different views are taken into consideration. The interaction enables exchange of information which can lead to a better understanding of the ins and outs of the specific situation and in this way contribute to public support. By means of two examples of water related policy issues in Europe, i.e. economic approaches in the water framework directive and Integrated Product Policy, various opportunities for pluralistic as well as corporatist types of participation in modern water management are presented and discussed.

  5. FISCAL POLICY AND FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burim GASHI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will try to analyze the fiscal policy and to suggest fiscal policy measures as very crucial instrument to market economy during the global financial crisis. Decision makers of monetary and financial policy in Kosovo currently are not under taking significant measures to promote growth and development. Public spending is excessive; the public debt is constantly growing, current account deficit also. In addition unemployment is high, capital investments in public and private sectors are insufficient, as well as investments in science and education. Market infrastructure in Kosovo is not functional and market laws are not enforced. The central government in Kosovo is facing trade of between market liberalization and challenges with public spending. Therefore fiscal policy measures are insufficient and cannot stimulate economic growth.

  6. Accelerator Toolbox for MATLAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces Accelerator Toolbox (AT)--a collection of tools to model particle accelerators and beam transport lines in the MATLAB environment. At SSRL, it has become the modeling code of choice for the ongoing design and future operation of the SPEAR 3 synchrotron light source. AT was designed to take advantage of power and simplicity of MATLAB--commercially developed environment for technical computing and visualization. Many examples in this paper illustrate the advantages of the AT approach and contrast it with existing accelerator code frameworks

  7. Hadron accelerators in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaldi, U. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland). Accelerator School; Silari, M. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milan (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    The application of hadron accelerators (protons and light ions) in cancer therapy is discussed. After a brief introduction on the rationale for the use of heavy charged particles in radiation therapy, a discussion is given on accelerator technology and beam delivery systems. Next, existing and planned facilities are briefly reviewed. The Italian Hadron-therapy Project is then described in some detail, with reference ro both the National Centre for Oncological Hadron-therapy and the design of different types of compact proton accelerators aimed at introducing proton therapy in a large umber of hospitals. (author) 28 refs.

  8. Confronting Twin Paradox Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Thomas W.

    2016-05-01

    The resolution to the classic twin paradox in special relativity rests on the asymmetry of acceleration. Yet most students are not exposed to a satisfactory analysis of what exactly happens during the acceleration phase that results in the nonaccelerated observer's more rapid aging. The simple treatment presented here offers both graphical and quantitative solutions to the problem, leading to the correct result that the acceleration-induced age gap is 2Lβ years when the one-way distance L is expressed in light-years and velocity β ≡v/c .

  9. Entropic accelerating universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easson, Damien A., E-mail: easson@asu.ed [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Department of Physics and School of Earth and Space Exploration and Beyond Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ 85287-1504 (United States); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-4030 (United States); Frampton, Paul H., E-mail: frampton@physics.unc.ed [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Smoot, George F., E-mail: gfsmoot@lbl.go [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Institute for the Early Universe, Ewha Womans University and Advanced Academy, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chaire Blaise Pascale, Universite Paris Denis Diderot, Paris (France)

    2011-01-31

    To accommodate the observed accelerated expansion of the universe, one popular idea is to invoke a driving term in the Friedmann-Lemaitre equation of dark energy which must then comprise 70% of the present cosmological energy density. We propose an alternative interpretation which takes into account the entropy and temperature intrinsic to the horizon of the universe due to the information holographically stored there. Dark energy is thereby obviated and the acceleration is due to an entropic force naturally arising from the information storage on the horizon surface screen. We consider an additional quantitative approach inspired by surface terms in general relativity and show that this leads to the entropic accelerating universe.

  10. ACCELERATORS: School prizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedicated to its goal of encouraging scientists and students to work in the field of particle accelerators, the US Particle Accelerator School (operating since 1981) has switched to a new format. Starting this year, it will offer in alternate years basic accelerator physics plus advanced subjects in both university and symposium styles over four weeks. Expanding the school from two to four weeks gives additional flexibility, and undergraduate participation should be encouraged by university credits being offered for particular courses. In the intervening years, the school will organize six-day topical courses

  11. Auroral electron acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two theories of auroral electron acceleration are discussed. Part 1 examines the currently widely held view that the acceleration is an ordered process in a quasi-static electric field. It is suggested that, although there are many factors seeming to support this theory, the major qualifications and uncertainties that have been identified combine to cast serious doubt over its validity. Part 2 is devoted to a relatively new interpretation in terms of stochastic acceleration in turbulent electric fields. This second theory, which appears to account readily for most known features of the electron distribution function, is considered to provide a more promising approach to this central question in magnetospheric plasma physics. (author)

  12. The particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the Palais de la Decouverte (in Paris) is the sole scientific vulgarization establishment in the world to operate an actual particle accelerator able to provoke different types of nuclear reactions, the author recalls some historical aspects of the concerned department since the creation of the 'Radioactivity - Atom synthesis' department in 1937. He recalls the experiments which were then performed, the installation of the particle accelerator in 1964 and its renewal. He describes what's going on in this accelerator. He gives an overview of the difficulties faced after it has been decided to move it, of the works which had to be performed, and of radiation protection measures

  13. Language Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Simmonds, Michael; Kjeldergaard, Nadja; Hagstrøm, Jeppe; Møller, Tina; Nielsen, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the methods and effects of a monolingual language policy stipulated at the International Bachelor Study Programme in Social Science at Roskilde University. The report is centered around the data collected through recordings of group meetings with two project groups from the aforementioned study, as well as two qualitative interviews with one member of each group. The analytical theoretical framework utilised in the study consists of Bernard Spolsky’s Language Policy th...

  14. Uncertainty and the Design of Long-Run Fiscal Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Alan J. Auerbach; Kevin A. Hassett

    1999-01-01

    This paper explores optimal fiscal policy in an overlapping-generations general-equilibrium model under uncertainty and the impact on optimal policy of the introduction of a type of policy stickiness intended to account for the stylized fact that major reforms happen infrequently. In general, our analysis suggests not only that action should not be delayed, but further that action should actually be accelerated. The added realism of restrictions on the frequency of policy changes alters this ...

  15. ACCELERATING THE ADOPTION PROCESS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AMONG SMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Leloux

    2015-07-01

    solar panel installation, heat pumps and wind energy, generating electricity. We have a two-track approach: development of a tool to support SMEs in their decision making process about suitable and appropriate technologies and solutions, and research to understand the barriers and obstacles that hinder adoption and implementation of sustainable energy solutions. In this paper we introduce a tool which aims to support SMEs in their decision making process on renewable energy applications in the expectation that this will accelerate that process.

  16. Study on Differential Pricing Decisions for the Product with Multiple Warranty under Pro-rata Warranty Policy%按比例保修策略下多保修期差别定价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢震; 王丽颖

    2011-01-01

    保修策略是联系厂商和顾客的一种合同责任,它往往用于促进产品的销售.产品保修期长短与其定价有着紧密的联系.本文在考虑一个厂商采用按比例保修策略及设定多个保修期的基础上,以产品的保修期和价格为决策变量,以厂商收益最大化为目标,研究了产品故障次数成指数分布下最优保修期和价格的组合策略,并通过算例比较了差别定价和单一定价下厂商的收益.最后,通过灵敏度分析,研究了消费者保修期偏移弹性对厂商收益所产生的影响.%Warranty service is a contract between manufacture and consumer, which is usually applied to sales promotion. The price is related to warranty length of product. Considering the reality, based on the consumer utility theory, assuming pro-rata warranty policy and the product failure with Index distribution function, in order to maximum manufacture' s revenue, It studies the differential pricing issues for the product with multiple warranty. It analyzes the optimal combinational strategy with pricing and warranty, and employs optimization theory and method to derive the optimal pricing policy, and verifies the validity of the model through the numerical analysis and analyzes the difference between differential pricing and single pricing. Then it analyzes the impact of the consumer shift flexibility to the benefits of manufacturers.

  17. SPS accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    See photo 8202397: View towards the downstream end of one of the SPS accelerating cavities (200 MHz, travelling wave structure). See 7603195 and 8011289 for more details, 7411032 for the travelling wave structure, and also 8104138.

  18. SPS accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    View towards the downstream end of one of the SPS accelerating cavities (200 MHz, travelling wave structure). See 7603195 and 8011289 for more details, 7411032 for the travelling wave structure, and also 8104138.

  19. Rejuvenating CERN's Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    In the coming years and especially in 2005, CERN's accelerators are going to receive an extensive renovation programme to ensure they will perform reliably and effectively when the LHC comes into service.

  20. Dimension Driven Accelerating Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, S

    2009-01-01

    The current acceleration of the universe leads us to investigate higher dimensional gravity theory, which is able to explain acceleration from a theoretical view point without the need of introducing dark energy by hand. We argue that the terms containing higher dimensional metric coefficients produce an extra negative pressure that apparently drives an acceleration of the 3D space, tempting us to suggest that the accelerating universe seems to act as a window to the existence of extra spatial dimensions. Interesting to point out that in this case our cosmology apparently mimics the well known quintessence scenario fuelled by a generalised Chaplygin-type of fluid where a smooth transition from a dust dominated model to a de Sitter like one takes place. Correspondence to models generated by a tachyonic form of matter is also briefly discussed.