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  1. CD46 accelerates macrophage-mediated host susceptibility to meningococcal sepsis in a murine model.

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    Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Ding; Sjölinder, Mikael; Wan, Yi; Sjölinder, Hong

    2017-01-01

    CD46, a membrane cofactor expressed on all nucleated human cells, plays an essential role in suppressing autoimmune reactions and protecting host cells from complement-mediated attack. Human transgenic CD46 homozygous mice (CD46+/+ ) are prone to lethal sepsis upon infection with Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis). However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we determined thatCD46+/+ mice produce large numbers of M1 type macrophages with enhanced surface expression of MHC II and production of pro-inflammatory mediators such as IL-6, TNF, IL-12, and IL-1β In the presence of M-CSF or GM-CSF, CD46 signaling enhances monocyte-macrophage differentiation. Additionally, CD46+/+ macrophages rapidly undergo apoptosis upon LPS challenge or meningococcal infection, which could contribute to uncontrolled bacterial dissemination in vivo. Adoptive transfer of CD46+/+ peritoneal macrophages aggravated septic responses in wild-type mice, but the depletion of macrophages partially alleviated septic reactions in CD46+/+ mice after N. meningitidis infection. Our findings reveal a novel role of CD46 in accelerating inflammatory responses upon meningococcal infection or LPS stimulation by regulating the functional polarization and survival of macrophages. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Notch Regulates Macrophage-Mediated Inflammation in Diabetic Wound Healing

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    Andrew S. Kimball

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages are essential immune cells necessary for regulated inflammation during wound healing. Recent studies have identified that Notch plays a role in macrophage-mediated inflammation. Thus, we investigated the role of Notch signaling on wound macrophage phenotype and function during normal and diabetic wound healing. We found that Notch receptor and ligand expression are dynamic in wound macrophages during normal healing. Mice with a myeloid-specific Notch signaling defect (DNMAMLfloxedLyz2Cre+ demonstrated delayed early healing (days 1–3 and wound macrophages had decreased inflammatory gene expression. In our physiologic murine model of type 2 diabetes (T2D, Notch receptor expression was significantly increased in wound macrophages on day 6, following the initial inflammatory phase of wound healing, corresponding to increased inflammatory cytokine expression. This increase in Notch1 and Notch2 was also observed in human monocytes from patients with T2D. Further, in prediabetic mice with a genetic Notch signaling defect (DNMAMLfloxedLyz2Cre+ on a high-fat diet, improved wound healing was seen at late time points (days 6–7. These findings suggest that Notch is critical for the early inflammatory phase of wound healing and directs production of macrophage-dependent inflammatory mediators. These results identify that canonical Notch signaling is important in directing macrophage function in wound repair and define a translational target for the treatment of non-healing diabetic wounds.

  3. Role of the receptor Mas in macrophage-mediated inflammation in vivo.

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    Hammer, Anna; Yang, Guang; Friedrich, Juliane; Kovacs, Agnes; Lee, De-Hyung; Grave, Katharina; Jörg, Stefanie; Alenina, Natalia; Grosch, Janina; Winkler, Jürgen; Gold, Ralf; Bader, Michael; Manzel, Arndt; Rump, Lars C; Müller, Dominik N; Linker, Ralf A; Stegbauer, Johannes

    2016-12-06

    Recently, an alternative renin-angiotensin system pathway has been described, which involves binding of angiotensin-(1-7) to its receptor Mas. The Mas axis may counterbalance angiotensin-II-mediated proinflammatory effects, likely by affecting macrophage function. Here we investigate the role of Mas in murine models of autoimmune neuroinflammation and atherosclerosis, which both involve macrophage-driven pathomechanisms. Mas signaling affected macrophage polarization, migration, and macrophage-mediated T-cell activation. Mas deficiency exacerbated the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and increased macrophage infiltration as well as proinflammatory gene expression in the spleen and spinal cord. Furthermore, Mas deficiency promoted atherosclerosis by affecting macrophage infiltration and migration and led to increased oxidative stress as well as impaired endothelial function in ApoE-deficient mice. In summary, we identified the Mas axis as an important factor in macrophage function during inflammation of the central nervous and vascular system in vivo. Modulating the Mas axis may constitute an interesting therapeutic target in multiple sclerosis and/or atherosclerosis.

  4. 5-Lipoxygenase is not essential in macrophage-mediated oxidation of low-density lipoprotein.

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    Jessup, W; Darley-Usmar, V; O'Leary, V; Bedwell, S

    1991-01-01

    The concentration-dependent effects of a series of lipoxygenase inhibitors and antioxidants on the macrophage-mediated oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were measured. Their influence on macrophage 5-lipoxygenase pathway activity was also studied over the same concentration range. No correlation between inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase and of macrophage-mediated oxidation of LDL was observed. The capacity of the compounds to prevent cell-mediated modification of LDL could be...

  5. MFAP4 Promotes Vascular Smooth Muscle Migration, Proliferation and Accelerates Neointima Formation

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    Schlosser, Anders; Pilecki, Bartosz; Hemstra, Line E.

    2016-01-01

    kinase and downstream kinases. In addition, we showed that MFAP4 promotes monocyte chemotaxis in integrin αVβ3-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS: MFAP4 regulates integrin αVβ3-induced VSMC proliferation and migration, as well as monocyte chemotaxis, and accelerates neointimal hyperplasia after vascular...

  6. Accelerated oral wound healing using a pre-vascularized mucosal cell sheet.

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    Lee, Jaewang; Kim, Eun Hye; Shin, Daiha; Roh, Jong-Lyel

    2017-09-06

    Cell sheets with pre-vascularization have recently been developed but remain relatively untested in oral wound healing. Therefore, we examined the potential utility of our newly developed pre-vascularized mucosal cell sheets in oral wound healing. Mucosal keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial progenitor cells were primarily cultured for in vitro cell expansion from mucosa and blood of Sprague-Dawley rats. Mucosal cell sheets were generated using cultured keratinocytes and plasma fibrin (K sheet) or keratinocytes and a mixture of fibrin, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells (PV sheet). Autologous sheets were transplanted on deep wounds in the buccal region of rats. The gross and histological characteristics of wound healing were compared among control wound, K sheet, and PV sheet groups. We successfully cultured and expanded keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial progenitor cells in vitro for generating mucosal cell sheets with or without pre-vascularization. In the in vivo oral wound model, compared with the control wound, the PV sheet group exhibited rapid wound closure more prominently than the K sheet group. The histological healing in the PV sheet group was similar to that in rat normal buccal mucosa without fibrosis. The pre-vascularized mucosal cell sheet exhibited in vivo efficacy in oral wound healing by promoting accelerated healing.

  7. 5-Lipoxygenase is not essential in macrophage-mediated oxidation of low-density lipoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, W; Darley-Usmar, V; O'Leary, V; Bedwell, S

    1991-08-15

    The concentration-dependent effects of a series of lipoxygenase inhibitors and antioxidants on the macrophage-mediated oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were measured. Their influence on macrophage 5-lipoxygenase pathway activity was also studied over the same concentration range. No correlation between inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase and of macrophage-mediated oxidation of LDL was observed. The capacity of the compounds to prevent cell-mediated modification of LDL could be explained in terms of their activity as either aqueous- or lipid-peroxyl radical scavengers. Two potent 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors (MK 886 and Revlon 5901), which had no radical-scavenging properties, were unable to block LDL modification. It is concluded that 5-lipoxygenase is not essential for LDL oxidation by macrophages.

  8. TRAIL-deficiency accelerates vascular calcification in atherosclerosis via modulation of RANKL.

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    Belinda A Di Bartolo

    Full Text Available The osteoprotegerin (OPG and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL cytokine system, not only controls bone homeostasis, but has been implicated in regulating vascular calcification. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL is a second ligand for OPG, and although its effect in vascular calcification in vitro is controversial, its role in vivo is not yet established. This study aimed to investigate the role of TRAIL in vascular calcification in vitro using vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs isolated from TRAIL(-/- and wild-type mice, as well as in vivo, in advanced atherosclerotic lesions of TRAIL(-/-ApoE(-/- mice. The involvement of OPG and RANKL in this process was also examined. TRAIL dose-dependently inhibited calcium-induced calcification of human VSMCs, while TRAIL(-/- VSMCs demonstrated accelerated calcification induced by multiple concentrations of calcium compared to wild-type cells. Consistent with this, RANKL mRNA was significantly elevated with 24 h calcium treatment, while OPG and TRAIL expression in human VSMCs was inhibited. Brachiocephalic arteries from TRAIL(-/-ApoE(-/- and ApoE(-/- mice fed a high fat diet for 12 w demonstrated increased chondrocyte-like cells in atherosclerotic plaque, as well as increased aortic collagen II mRNA expression in TRAIL(-/-ApoE(-/- mice, with significant increases in calcification observed at 20 w. TRAIL(-/-ApoE(-/- aortas also had significantly elevated RANKL, BMP-2, IL-1β, and PPAR-γ expression at 12 w. Our data provides the first evidence that TRAIL deficiency results in accelerated cartilaginous metaplasia and calcification in atherosclerosis, and that TRAIL plays an important role in the regulation of RANKL and inflammatory markers mediating bone turn over in the vasculature.

  9. 4D.02: ACCELERATED VASCULAR AGING: RESULTS FROM THE CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS AFFECTING VASCULAR AGE (CRAVE) STUDY.

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    Vlachopoulos, C; Terentes-Printzios, D; Xaplanteris, P; Ioakeimidis, N; Aznaouridis, K; Pietri, P; Stefanadis, C; Tousoulis, D

    2015-06-01

    is included in full-text article.) : The presence of more RFs is associated with accelerated progression of vascular aging.

  10. Improving hemocompatibility and accelerating endothelialization of vascular stents by a copper-titanium film.

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    Liu, Hengquan; Pan, Changjiang; Zhou, Shijie; Li, Junfeng; Huang, Nan; Dong, Lihua

    2016-12-01

    Bio-inorganic films and drug-eluting coatings are usually used to improve the hemocompatibility and inhibit restenosis of vascular stent; however, above bio-performances couldn't combine together with single materials. In the present study, we reported a simple approach to fabricate a metal film with the aim of imparting the stent with good blood compatibility and accelerating endothelialization. The films with various ratios of Cu and Ti were prepared through the physical vapor deposition. Phase structure and element composition were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The releasing volume of copper ion in Cu/Ti film was determined by immersing test. The hemolysis ratio, platelet adhesion and clotting time were applied to evaluate the hemocompatibility. The proliferative behaviors of endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells under certain copper concentration were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Results indicated that copper-titanium films exhibited good hemocompatibility in vitro; however, the increase of Cu/Ti ratio could lead to increasing hemolysis ratio. Endothelial cells displayed more proliferative than smooth muscle cells when the copper concentration was copper concentration was increased. The complete endothelialization of the film with low copper in vivo was observed at the 2nd week, indicating that the copper-titanium film with the lower copper concentration could promote endothelialization. Therefore, the inorganic copper-titanium film could be potential biomaterials to improve blood compatibility and accelerating endothelialization of vascular stents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Interleukin-10 overexpression promotes Fas-ligand-dependent chronic macrophage-mediated demyelinating polyneuropathy.

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    Dru S Dace

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Demyelinating polyneuropathy is a debilitating, poorly understood disease that can exist in acute (Guillain-Barré syndrome or chronic forms. Interleukin-10 (IL-10, although traditionally considered an anti-inflammatory cytokine, has also been implicated in promoting abnormal angiogenesis in the eye and in the pathobiology of autoimmune diseases such as lupus and encephalomyelitis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Overexpression of IL-10 in a transgenic mouse model leads to macrophage-mediated demyelinating polyneuropathy. IL-10 upregulates ICAM-1 within neural tissues, promoting massive macrophage influx, inflammation-induced demyelination, and subsequent loss of neural tissue resulting in muscle weakness and paralysis. The primary insult is to perineural myelin followed by secondary axonal loss. Infiltrating macrophages within the peripheral nerves demonstrate a highly pro-inflammatory signature. Macrophages are central players in the pathophysiology, as in vivo depletion of macrophages using clodronate liposomes reverses the phenotype, including progressive nerve loss and paralysis. Macrophage-mediate demyelination is dependent on Fas-ligand (FasL-mediated Schwann cell death. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings mimic the human disease chronic idiopathic demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP and may also promote further understanding of the pathobiology of related conditions such as acute idiopathic demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP or Guillain-Barré syndrome.

  12. Inhibition of Prostaglandin Transporter (PGT Promotes Perfusion and Vascularization and Accelerates Wound Healing in Non-Diabetic and Diabetic Rats.

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    Zhongbo Liu

    Full Text Available Peripheral ischemia, resulting from diminished arterial flow and defective local vascularization, is one of the main causes of impaired wound healing in diabetes. Vasodilatory prostaglandins (PGs, including PGE2 and PGI2, regulate blood flow in peripheral tissues. PGs also stimulate angiogenesis by inducing vascular endothelial growth factor. However, PG levels are reduced in diabetes mainly due to enhanced degradation. We hypothesized that inhibition of the prostaglandin transporter (PGT (SLCO2A1, which mediates the degradation of PGs, would increase blood flow and stimulate vascularization, thereby mitigating peripheral ischemia and accelerating wound healing in diabetes. Here we report that inhibiting PGT with intravenously injected PGT inhibitor, T26A, increased blood flow in ischemic hind limbs created in non-diabetic rats and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Systemic, or combined with topical, T26A accelerated closure of cutaneous wounds. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that inhibition of PGT enhanced vascularization (marked by larger numbers of vessels formed by CD34+ cells, and accelerated re-epithelialization of cutaneous wounds. In cultured primary human bone marrow CD34+ cells and human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKs either inhibiting or silencing PGT increased migration in both cell lines. Thus PGT directly regulates mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs and HEKs, which could contribute to PGT-mediated vascularization and re-epithelialization. At the molecular level, systemic inhibition of PGT raised circulating PGE2. Taken together, our data demonstrate that PGT modulates arterial blood flow, mobilization of EPCs and HEKs, and vascularization and epithelialization in wound healing by regulating vasodilatory and pro-angiogenic PGs.

  13. Functional Roles of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase in Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses

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    Yanyan Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a natural host defensive process that is largely regulated by macrophages during the innate immune response. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs are proline-directed serine and threonine protein kinases that regulate many physiological and pathophysiological cell responses. p38 MAPKs are key MAPKs involved in the production of inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2. p38 MAPK signaling plays an essential role in regulating cellular processes, especially inflammation. In this paper, we summarize the characteristics of p38 signaling in macrophage-mediated inflammation. In addition, we discuss the potential of using inhibitors targeting p38 expression in macrophages to treat inflammatory diseases.

  14. Gut flora-dependent metabolite Trimethylamine-N-oxide accelerates endothelial cell senescence and vascular aging through oxidative stress.

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    Ke, Yilang; Li, Dang; Zhao, Mingming; Liu, Changjie; Liu, Jia; Zeng, Aiping; Shi, Xiaoyun; Cheng, Si; Pan, Bing; Zheng, Lemin; Hong, Huashan

    2018-02-20

    Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), gut microbiota-dependent metabolites, has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular diseases. However, little is known about the relationship between TMAO and vascular aging. Here, we observed a change in TMAO during the aging process and the effects of TMAO on vascular aging and endothelial cell (EC) senescence. We analyzed age-related plasma levels of TMAO in young adults (18-44 years old), older adults (≥ 65 years old), and 1-month-old, 3-month-old, 6-month-old and 10-month-old senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) and age-matched senescence-accelerated mouse resistance 1 (SAMR1) models. We found that circulating TMAO increased with age both in humans and mice. Next, we observed that a TMAO treatment for 16 weeks induced vascular aging in SAMR1 mice and accelerated the process in SAMP8 mice, as measured by an upregulation of senescence markers including senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal), p53, and p21, vascular dysfunction and remodeling. In vitro, we demonstrated that prolonged TMAO treatment induced senescence in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), characterized by reduced cell proliferation, increased expressions of senescence markers, stagnate G0/G1, and impaired cell migration. Furthermore, TMAO suppressed sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expression and increased oxidative stress both in vivo and in vitro and then activated the p53/p21/Rb pathway resulting in increased p53, acetylation of p53, p21, and decreased CDK2, cyclinE1, and phosphorylation of Rb. In summary, these data suggest that elevated circulating TMAO during the aging process may deteriorate EC senescence and vascular aging, which is probably associated with repression of SIRT1 expression and increased oxidative stress, and, thus, the activation of the p53/p21/Rb pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy accelerates vascularization in keratinized oral mucosal surgical flaps

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    Helmers, R.; Milstein, D.M.J.; van Hulst, R.A.; de Lange, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is thought to promote vascular regeneration in wounds. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of HBOT in advancing vascular regeneration in healing oral mucosal surgical flaps. Methods A palatine partial-thickness mucosal flap was raised in

  16. CD47-blocking immunotherapies stimulate macrophage-mediated destruction of small-cell lung cancer.

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    Weiskopf, Kipp; Jahchan, Nadine S; Schnorr, Peter J; Cristea, Sandra; Ring, Aaron M; Maute, Roy L; Volkmer, Anne K; Volkmer, Jens-Peter; Liu, Jie; Lim, Jing Shan; Yang, Dian; Seitz, Garrett; Nguyen, Thuyen; Wu, Di; Jude, Kevin; Guerston, Heather; Barkal, Amira; Trapani, Francesca; George, Julie; Poirier, John T; Gardner, Eric E; Miles, Linde A; de Stanchina, Elisa; Lofgren, Shane M; Vogel, Hannes; Winslow, Monte M; Dive, Caroline; Thomas, Roman K; Rudin, Charles M; van de Rijn, Matt; Majeti, Ravindra; Garcia, K Christopher; Weissman, Irving L; Sage, Julien

    2016-07-01

    Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly aggressive subtype of lung cancer with limited treatment options. CD47 is a cell-surface molecule that promotes immune evasion by engaging signal-regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα), which serves as an inhibitory receptor on macrophages. Here, we found that CD47 is highly expressed on the surface of human SCLC cells; therefore, we investigated CD47-blocking immunotherapies as a potential approach for SCLC treatment. Disruption of the interaction of CD47 with SIRPα using anti-CD47 antibodies induced macrophage-mediated phagocytosis of human SCLC patient cells in culture. In a murine model, administration of CD47-blocking antibodies or targeted inactivation of the Cd47 gene markedly inhibited SCLC tumor growth. Furthermore, using comprehensive antibody arrays, we identified several possible therapeutic targets on the surface of SCLC cells. Antibodies to these targets, including CD56/neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), promoted phagocytosis in human SCLC cell lines that was enhanced when combined with CD47-blocking therapies. In light of recent clinical trials for CD47-blocking therapies in cancer treatment, these findings identify disruption of the CD47/SIRPα axis as a potential immunotherapeutic strategy for SCLC. This approach could enable personalized immunotherapeutic regimens in patients with SCLC and other cancers.

  17. Autophagy in pulmonary macrophages mediates lung inflammatory injury via NLRP3 inflammasome activation during mechanical ventilation.

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    Zhang, Yang; Liu, Gongjian; Dull, Randal O; Schwartz, David E; Hu, Guochang

    2014-07-15

    The inflammatory response is a primary mechanism in the pathogenesis of ventilator-induced lung injury. Autophagy is an essential, homeostatic process by which cells break down their own components. We explored the role of autophagy in the mechanisms of mechanical ventilation-induced lung inflammatory injury. Mice were subjected to low (7 ml/kg) or high (28 ml/kg) tidal volume ventilation for 2 h. Bone marrow-derived macrophages transfected with a scrambled or autophagy-related protein 5 small interfering RNA were administered to alveolar macrophage-depleted mice via a jugular venous cannula 30 min before the start of the ventilation protocol. In some experiments, mice were ventilated in the absence and presence of autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine (15 mg/kg ip) or trichostatin A (1 mg/kg ip). Mechanical ventilation with a high tidal volume caused rapid (within minutes) activation of autophagy in the lung. Conventional transmission electron microscopic examination of lung sections showed that mechanical ventilation-induced autophagy activation mainly occurred in lung macrophages. Autophagy activation in the lungs during mechanical ventilation was dramatically attenuated in alveolar macrophage-depleted mice. Selective silencing of autophagy-related protein 5 in lung macrophages abolished mechanical ventilation-induced nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor containing pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation and lung inflammatory injury. Pharmacological inhibition of autophagy also significantly attenuated the inflammatory responses caused by lung hyperinflation. The activation of autophagy in macrophages mediates early lung inflammation during mechanical ventilation via NLRP3 inflammasome signaling. Inhibition of autophagy activation in lung macrophages may therefore provide a novel and promising strategy for the prevention and treatment of ventilator-induced lung injury. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Minocycline differentially modulates macrophage mediated peripheral immune response following Japanese encephalitis virus infection.

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    Dutta, Kallol; Mishra, Manoj Kumar; Nazmi, Arshed; Kumawat, Kanhaiya Lal; Basu, Anirban

    2010-11-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a neurotropic flavivirus that is the causative agent of a major mosquito-borne encephalitis in the world. Evasion of peripheral immune system facilitates the entry of the virus into the central nervous system (CNS) where it causes extensive neuronal inflammatory damage that leads to death or severe neuropschychiatric sequel in survivors. It has been proposed that after entry into the body, the virus is carried into the CNS by peripheral immune cells that act as Trojan horses. In this study we investigate whether macrophages can be considered as such a Trojan horse. We also investigate the role of minocycline, a synthetic tetracycline, in such processes. Minocycline has been found to be broadly protective in neurological disease models featuring inflammation and cell death but there has been no report of it having any modulatory role in peripheral macrophage-mediated immune response against viral infection. Persistence of internalized virus within macrophages was visualized by immunofluorescent staining. Cytotoxicity assay revealed that there was no significant cell death after 24 h and 72 h infection with JEV. Proinflammatory cytokine levels were elevated in cells that were infected with JEV but it was abrogated following minocycline treatment. Reactive oxygen species level was also increased after JEV infection. Nitric oxide level was found to increase after 72 h post infection but remained unchanged after 24h. The cellular levels of signaling molecules such as PI3 kinase, phophoAkt and phospho p38MAP kinase were found to be altered after JEV infection and minocycline treatment. JEV infection also affected the VEGF-MMP pathway. Increased activity of MMP-9 was detected from JEV-infected macrophage culture supernatants after 72 h; minocycline treatment resulted in reduced activity. Thus it seems that minocycline dampens peripheral immune reactions by decreasing proinflammatory cytokine release from infected macrophages and the

  19. Inhibition of the proliferation and acceleration of migration of vascular endothelial cells by increased cysteine-rich motor neuron 1

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    Nakashima, Yukiko; Morimoto, Mayuka [Department of Immunobiology, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mukogawa Women' s University, 11-68 Koshien Kyuban-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8179 (Japan); Toda, Ken-ichi [Department of Dermatology, Kitano Hospital, The Tazuke Kofukai Nedical Institute, 2-4-20 Ohgimachi, Kita-ku, Osaka 530-8480 (Japan); Shinya, Tomohiro; Sato, Keizo [Department of Clinical Biochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University of Health and Welfare, Nobeoka, Miyazaki 882-8508 (Japan); Takahashi, Satoru, E-mail: imwalrus@mukogawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Immunobiology, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mukogawa Women' s University, 11-68 Koshien Kyuban-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8179 (Japan); Institute for Biosciences, Mukogawa Women' s University, 11-68 Koshien Kyuban-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8179 (Japan)

    2015-07-03

    Cysteine-rich motor neuron 1 (CRIM1) is upregulated only in extracellular matrix gels by angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). It then plays a critical role in the tube formation of endothelial cells. In the present study, we investigated the effects of increased CRIM1 on other endothelial functions such as proliferation and migration. Knock down of CRIM1 had no effect on VEGF-induced proliferation or migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), indicating that basal CRIM1 is not involved in the proliferation or migration of endothelial cells. Stable CRIM1-overexpressing endothelial F-2 cells, termed CR1 and CR2, were constructed, because it was difficult to prepare monolayer HUVECs that expressed high levels of CRIM1. Proliferation was reduced and migration was accelerated in both CR1 and CR2 cells, compared with normal F-2 cells. Furthermore, the transient overexpression of CRIM1 resulted in decreased proliferation and increased migration of bovine aortic endothelial cells. In contrast, neither proliferation nor migration of COS-7 cells were changed by the overexpression of CRIM1. These results demonstrate that increased CRIM1 reduces the proliferation and accelerates the migration of endothelial cells. These CRIM1 effects might contribute to tube formation of endothelial cells. CRIM1 induced by angiogenic factors may serve as a regulator in endothelial cells to switch from proliferating cells to morphological differentiation. - Highlights: • CRIM1 was upregulated only in tubular endothelial cells, but not in monolayers. • Increased CRIM1 reduced the proliferation of endothelial cells. • Increased CRIM1 accelerated the migration of endothelial cells. • Increased CRIM1 had no effect on the proliferation or migration of COS-7 cells.

  20. Vascular aging processes accelerate following a cubic kinetic: pulse wave velocity as an objective counterpart that time, as we age, goes by faster

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    Gabutti L

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Luca Gabutti, Rosaria Del Giorno Department of Internal Medicine and Nephrology, Bellinzona Regional Hospital, Bellinzona, SwitzerlandArterial stiffness is a marker of vascular aging and is considered to be the most reliable parameter expressing, like an integral in mathematics, the cumulative consequences, on the vascular wall, of degenerative and adaptive changes occurring throughout life.1 The efficiency of the reparative processes, the cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF, and early life and genetic determinants, all play a relevant role.1 Among CVRF, the acceleration in arterial stiffness progression related to age is mainly influenced by hypertension.1 A pathological acceleration translates into the concept of early vascular aging, a concept that can be quantified calculating the gap between the subject’s chronological (estimated on the basis of the epidemiological data obtained in the normal population and effective vascular age.2 Data of subpopulations without active risk factors for accelerated vascular aging can be found mainly in three large epidemiological studies, performed respectively in Portugal,3 Argentina,4 and seven different European countries (Belgium, Czech Republic, France, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, and UK gathered in a collaborative investigation.5 Those doing this secondary analysis were aware of the limitation related to the use of cross-sectional data to extrapolate longitudinal changes, and their aims were combining the abovementioned epidemiological data concerning the normal population to calculate with the highest possible accuracy 1 the age-related increase in acceleration of the pulse wave velocity (PWV and to estimate both 2 the age-specific relative amount of time equivalent to that necessary to progress 1 year in vascular age at 20, and 3 the cumulative relative age calculated in year equivalents. 

  1. Accelerated Fibrinolysis and Its Propagation on Vascular Endothelial Cells by Secreted and Retained tPA

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    Urano, Tetsumei; Suzuki, Yuko

    2012-01-01

    We successfully visualized the secretory dynamics of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) tagged by green fluorescent protein (tPA-GFP) from cultured vascular endothelial cells (VECs) using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy and demonstrated that tPA-GFP secreted from VECs was retained on cell surfaces in a heavy-chain-dependent manner. Progressive binding of Alexa568-labeled Glu-plasminogen was also observed on the surface of active tPA-GFP expressing cells via lysine binding sites (LBS), which was not observed on inactive mutant tPA-GFP expressing cells. These results suggest that retained tPA on VECs effectively activated plasminogen to plasmin, which then facilitated the binding of additional plasminogen on the cell surface by proteolytically cleaving surface-associated proteins and exposing their C-terminal lysine residues. Thus prolonged retention of tPA appeared to play an important role in initiating and amplifying plasmin generation on VECs. LBS-dependent binding of plasminogen was also observed as a narrow band at the lytic front of the fibrin mesh formed on active tPA-GFP expressing cells, which expanded outward as the lytic area increased. This binding was not observed on inactive mutant tPA-GFP expressing cells or in the presence of aprotinin. The binding of plasminogen to partially digested fibrin appears to be indispensable for spontaneous fibrinolysis. PMID:23118500

  2. Accelerated Fibrinolysis and Its Propagation on Vascular Endothelial Cells by Secreted and Retained tPA

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    Tetsumei Urano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We successfully visualized the secretory dynamics of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA tagged by green fluorescent protein (tPA-GFP from cultured vascular endothelial cells (VECs using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF microscopy and demonstrated that tPA-GFP secreted from VECs was retained on cell surfaces in a heavy-chain-dependent manner. Progressive binding of Alexa568-labeled Glu-plasminogen was also observed on the surface of active tPA-GFP expressing cells via lysine binding sites (LBS, which was not observed on inactive mutant tPA-GFP expressing cells. These results suggest that retained tPA on VECs effectively activated plasminogen to plasmin, which then facilitated the binding of additional plasminogen on the cell surface by proteolytically cleaving surface-associated proteins and exposing their C-terminal lysine residues. Thus prolonged retention of tPA appeared to play an important role in initiating and amplifying plasmin generation on VECs. LBS-dependent binding of plasminogen was also observed as a narrow band at the lytic front of the fibrin mesh formed on active tPA-GFP expressing cells, which expanded outward as the lytic area increased. This binding was not observed on inactive mutant tPA-GFP expressing cells or in the presence of aprotinin. The binding of plasminogen to partially digested fibrin appears to be indispensable for spontaneous fibrinolysis.

  3. Calcium Overload Accelerates Phosphate-Induced Vascular Calcification Via Pit-1, but not the Calcium-Sensing Receptor.

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    Masumoto, Asuka; Sonou, Tomohiro; Ohya, Masaki; Yashiro, Mitsuru; Nakashima, Yuri; Okuda, Kouji; Iwashita, Yuko; Mima, Toru; Negi, Shigeo; Shigematsu, Takashi

    2017-07-01

    Vascular calcification (VC) is a risk factor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD-mineral and bone metabolism disorder is an important problem in patients with renal failure. Abnormal levels of serum phosphate and calcium affect CKD-mineral and bone metabolism disorder and contribute to bone disease, VC, and cardiovascular disease. Hypercalcemia is a contributing factor in progression of VC in patients with CKD. However, the mechanisms of how calcium promotes intracellular calcification are still unclear. This study aimed to examine the mechanisms underlying calcium-induced calcification in a rat aortic tissue culture model. Aortic segments from 7-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were cultured in serum-supplemented medium for 10 days. We added high calcium (HiCa; calcium 3.0 mM) to high phosphate (HPi; phosphate 3.8 mM) medium to accelerate phosphate and calcium-induced VC. We used phosphonoformic acid and the calcimimetic R-568 to determine whether the mechanism of calcification involves Pit-1 or the calcium-sensing receptor. Medial VC was significantly augmented by HPi+HiCa medium compared with HPi alone (300%, p<0.05), and was associated with upregulation of Pit-1 protein. Pit-1 protein concentrations in HPi+HiCa medium were greater than those in HPi medium. Phosphonoformic acid completely negated the augmentation of medial VC induced by HPi+HiCa. R-568 had no additive direct effect on medial VC. These results indicated that exposure to HPi+HiCa accelerates medial VC, and this is mediated through Pit-1, not the calcium-sensing receptor.

  4. Direct surface modification of metallic biomaterials via tyrosine oxidation aiming to accelerate the re-endothelialization of vascular stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakinoki, Sachiro; Takasaki, Kensuke; Mahara, Atsushi; Ehashi, Tomo; Hirano, Yoshiaki; Yamaoka, Tetsuji

    2018-02-01

    Rapid in-situ re-endothelialization of coronary stents is one of the most effective approaches to inhibit late thrombosis and restenosis. Strut surfaces allowing excellent adhesion and migration of endothelial cells and endothelial progenitor cells may accelerate in-situ re-endothelialization. Here, a well-known endothelial cell adhesive peptide, Arg-Glu-Asp-Val (REDV), was directly immobilized onto metallic surfaces by means of single-step tyrosine oxidation with copper chloride (II) and hydrogen peroxide, which we recently reported as a new biomaterial modification technique. REDV immobilization on a 316L stainless steel plate improved endothelial cell adhesion and effectively suppressed platelet adhesion in vitro. In addition, a Co-Cr stent immobilized with Ac-Tyr-Gly-Gly-Gly-Arg-Glu-Asp-Val (Y-REDV) was implanted into a rabbit abdominal aorta. On 7 days postimplantation, 80% of the strut surface of the Y-REDV-immobilized stent was covered by a thin neointimal layer and was similar in appearance to native endothelium. Restenosis and late thrombosis were not observed in the Y-REDV-immobilized stent for 42 days. These findings suggest that direct immobilization of Y-REDV peptide onto metallic biomaterials by tyrosine oxidation is effective for promoting in-situ re-endothelialization in vascular stents. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 491-499, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Hepatocyte Growth Factor Effects on Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Human Arteries: A Novel Strategy to Accelerate Vascular Ulcer Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Valente

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular ulcers are a serious complication of peripheral vascular disease, especially in diabetics. Several approaches to treat the wounds are proposed but they show poor outcomes and require long healing times. Hepatocyte Growth Factor/Scatter Factor (HGF/SF is a pleiotropic cytokine exerting many biological activities through the c-Met receptor. This study was aimed at verifying whether HGF/SF influences proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis on mesenchymal stem cells isolated from human arteries (hVW-MSCs. hVW-MSCs were exposed to NIBSC HGF/SF (2.5, 5, 10, and 70 ng/mL from 6 hrs to 7 days. HGF and c-MET mRNA and protein expression, cell proliferation (Alamar Blue and Ki–67 assay, migration (scratch and transwell assays, and angiogenesis (Matrigel were investigated. hVW-MSCs displayed stemness features and expressed HGF and c-MET. HGF/SF did not increase hVW-MSC proliferation, whereas it enhanced the cell migration, the formation of capillary-like structures, and the expression of angiogenic markers (vWF, CD31, and KDR. The HGF/SF effects on hVW-MSC migration and angiogenic potential are of great interest to accelerate wound healing process. Local delivery of HGF/SF could therefore improve the healing of unresponsive vascular ulcers.

  6. Calcification of human vascular smooth muscle cells: associations with osteoprotegerin expression and acceleration by high-dose insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Ping; Knudsen, Kirsten Quyen Nguyen; Wogensen, Lise

    2007-01-01

    and measured the expression of the bone-related molecule osteoprotegerin (OPG). Human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were grown from aorta from kidney donors. Induction of calcification was performed with beta-glycerophosphate. The influence of insulin (200 microU/ml or 1,000 microU/ml) on calcification...

  7. Inorganic Phosphate Accelerates the Migration of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells: Evidence for the Involvement of miR-223

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzinger-Le Meuth, Valérie; Hénaut, Lucie; Djelouat, Mohamed Seif el Islam; Benchitrit, Joyce; Massy, Ziad A.; Metzinger, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Backgound An elevated serum inorganic phosphate (Pi) level is a major risk factor for kidney disease and downstream vascular complications. We focused on the effect of Pi levels on human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), with an emphasis on the role of microRNAs (miRNAs). Methodology/Principal Findings Exposure of human primary VSMCs in vitro to pathological levels of Pi increased calcification, migration rate and concomitantly reduced cell proliferation and the amount of the actin cytoskeleton. These changes were evidenced by significant downregulation of miRNA-143 (miR-143) and miR-145 and concomitant upregulation of their targets and key markers in synthetic VSMCs, such as Krüppel-like factors−4 and −5 and versican. Interestingly, we also found that miR-223 (a marker of muscle damage and a key factor in osteoclast differentiation) is expressed in VSMCs and is significantly upregulated in Pi-treated cells. Over-expressing miR-223 in VSMCs increased proliferation and markedly enhanced VSMC migration. Additionally, we found that the expression of two of the known miR-223 targets, Mef2c and RhoB, was highly reduced in Pi treated as well as miR-223 over-expressing VSMCs. To complement these in vitro findings, we also observed significant downregulation of miR-143 and miR-145 and upregulation of miR-223 in aorta samples collected from ApoE knock-out mice, which display vascular calcification. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that (i) high levels of Pi increase VSMC migration and calcification, (ii) altered expression levels of miR-223 could play a part in this process and (iii) miR-223 is a potential new biomarker of VSMC damage. PMID:23094093

  8. Inorganic phosphate accelerates the migration of vascular smooth muscle cells: evidence for the involvement of miR-223.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Yusuf Rangrez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An elevated serum inorganic phosphate (Pi level is a major risk factor for kidney disease and downstream vascular complications. We focused on the effect of Pi levels on human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs, with an emphasis on the role of microRNAs (miRNAs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Exposure of human primary VSMCs in vitro to pathological levels of Pi increased calcification, migration rate and concomitantly reduced cell proliferation and the amount of the actin cytoskeleton. These changes were evidenced by significant downregulation of miRNA-143 (miR-143 and miR-145 and concomitant upregulation of their targets and key markers in synthetic VSMCs, such as Krüppel-like factors-4 and -5 and versican. Interestingly, we also found that miR-223 (a marker of muscle damage and a key factor in osteoclast differentiation is expressed in VSMCs and is significantly upregulated in Pi-treated cells. Over-expressing miR-223 in VSMCs increased proliferation and markedly enhanced VSMC migration. Additionally, we found that the expression of two of the known miR-223 targets, Mef2c and RhoB, was highly reduced in Pi treated as well as miR-223 over-expressing VSMCs. To complement these in vitro findings, we also observed significant downregulation of miR-143 and miR-145 and upregulation of miR-223 in aorta samples collected from ApoE knock-out mice, which display vascular calcification. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that (i high levels of Pi increase VSMC migration and calcification, (ii altered expression levels of miR-223 could play a part in this process and (iii miR-223 is a potential new biomarker of VSMC damage.

  9. NF-κB/AP-1-Targeted Inhibition of Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses by Depigmenting Compound AP736 Derived from Natural 1,3-Diphenylpropane Skeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Thai Ha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available AP736 was identified as an antimelanogenic drug that can be used for the prevention of melasma, freckles, and dark spots in skin by acting as a suppressor of melanin synthesis and tyrosinase expression. Since macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses are critical for skin health, here we investigated the potential anti-inflammatory activity of AP736. The effects of AP736 on various inflammatory events such as nitric oxide (NO/prostaglandin (PG E2 production, inflammatory gene expression, phagocytic uptake, and morphological changes were examined in RAW264.7 cells. AP736 was found to strongly inhibit the production of both NO and PGE2 in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- treated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, AP736 strongly inhibited both LPS-induced morphological changes and FITC-dextran-induced phagocytic uptake. Furthermore, AP736 also downregulated the expression of multiple inflammatory genes, such as inducible NO synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase- (COX- 2, and interleukin- (IL- 1β in LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells. Transcription factor analysis, including upstream signalling events, revealed that both NF-κB and AP-1 were targeted by AP736 via inhibition of the IKK/IκBα and IRAK1/TAK1 pathways. Therefore, our results strongly suggest that AP736 is a potential anti-inflammatory drug due to its suppression of NF-κB-IKK/IκBα and AP-1-IRAK1/TAK1 signalling, which may make AP736 useful for the treatment of macrophage-mediated skin inflammation.

  10. Expression of recipient CD47 on rat insulinoma cell xenografts prevents macrophage-mediated rejection through SIRPα inhibitory signaling in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Teraoka

    Full Text Available We have previously proven that the interspecies incompatibility of CD47 is responsible for in vitro phagocytosis of xenogeneic cells by host macrophages. Utilizing an in vivo model in the present study, we investigated whether genetically engineered expression of mouse CD47 in rat insulinoma cells (INS-1E could inhibit macrophage-mediated xenograft rejection. INS-1E cells transfected with the pRc/CMV-mouse CD47 vector (mCD47-INS-1E induced SIRPα-tyrosine phosphorylation in mouse macrophages in vitro, whereas cells transfected with the control vector (cont-INS-1E did not. When these cells were injected into the peritoneal cavity of streptozotocin-induced diabetic Rag2(-/-γ chain (-/- mice, which lack T, B, and NK cells, the expression of mouse CD47 on the INS-1E cells markedly reduced the susceptibility of these cells to phagocytosis by macrophages. Moreover, these mice became normoglycemic after receiving mCD47-INS-1E, whereas the mice that received cont-INS-1E failed to achieve normoglycemia. Furthermore, injection of an anti-mouse SIRPα blocking monoclonal antibody into the mouse recipients of mCD47-INS-1E cells prevented achievement of normoglycemia. These results demonstrate that interspecies incompatibility of CD47 significantly contributes to in vivo rejection of xenogeneic cells by macrophages. Thus, genetic induction of the expression of recipient CD47 on xenogeneic donor cells could provide inhibitory signals to recipient macrophages via SIPRα; this constitutes a novel approach for preventing macrophage-mediated xenograft rejection.

  11. VASCULAR DEMENTIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alekseyevna Cherdak

    2010-01-01

    vascular cognitive disorders and vascular dementia (VD. The heterogeneity of vascular cognitive disorders, concurrence of vascular and neurodegenerative diseases are discussed. Data from studies of specific therapy for VD are given.

  12. A Natural CCR2 Antagonist Relieves Tumor-associated Macrophage-mediated Immunosuppression to Produce a Therapeutic Effect for Liver Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Yao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a common malignant tumor in the digestive tract with limited therapeutic choices. Although sorafenib, an orally administered multikinase inhibitor, has produced survival benefits for patients with advanced HCC, favorable clinical outcomes are limited due to individual differences and resistance. The application of immunotherapy, a promising approach for HCC is urgently needed. Macrophage infiltration, mediated by the CCL2/CCR2 axis, is a potential immunotherapeutic target. Here, we report that a natural product from Abies georgei, named 747 and related in structure to kaempferol, exhibits sensitivity and selectivity as a CCR2 antagonist. The specificity of 747 on CCR2 was demonstrated via calcium flux, the binding domain of CCR2 was identified in an extracellular loop by chimera binding assay, and in vivo antagonistic activity of 747 was confirmed through a thioglycollate-induced peritonitis model. In animals, 747 elevated the number of CD8+ T cells in tumors via blocking tumor-infiltrating macrophage-mediated immunosuppression and inhibited orthotopic and subcutaneous tumor growth in a CD8+ T cell-dependent manner. Further, 747 enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of low-dose sorafenib without obvious toxicity, through elevating the numbers of intra-tumoral CD8+ T cells and increasing death of tumor cells. Thus, we have discovered a natural CCR2 antagonist and have provided a new perspective on development of this antagonist for treatment of HCC. In mouse models of HCC, 747 enhanced the tumor immunosuppressive microenvironment and potentiated the therapeutic effect of sorafenib, indicating that the combination of an immunomodulator with a chemotherapeutic drug could be a new approach for treating HCC.

  13. All-Trans Retinoic Acid Promotes an M1- to M2-Phenotype Shift and Inhibits Macrophage-Mediated Immunity to Leishmania major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália S. Vellozo

    2017-11-01

    reduced proinflammatory cytokines, iNOS expression, and parasite killing by macrophages. Moreover, ATRA promoted an M1 to M2 transition in bone marrow-derived macrophages from both strains. Therefore, ATRA uncouples macrophage maturation and development of M1 phenotype and downmodulates macrophage-mediated immunity to L. major parasites. Cautions should be taken for the therapeutic use of ATRA, by considering direct effects on innate immunity to intracellular pathogens.

  14. Vascular Cures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is the first national program to bring the power of the patient to vascular research and care. ... Our recent national Vascular Research Summit brought together leaders from 31 institutions to generate collaborative projects for ...

  15. Comparative study of the corrosion behavior of peripheral stents in an accelerated corrosion model: experimental in vitro study of 28 metallic vascular endoprostheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprottka, Karolin J.; Paprottka, Philipp M.; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Waggershauser, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Clinical cases of stent-fractures show that corrosion behavior might play a role in these fractures. Implanted in vivo, especially in combination with other implanted foreign materials, these metallic products are exposed to special conditions, which can cause a process of corrosion. Here, we aimed to test the corrosion potential of stents made of different materials in an in vitro setting. METHODS A total of 28 peripheral stents of different materials (nitinol, cobalt-chromium-nickel, tantalum, V4A) and surface treatments (electropolish, mechanical polish, no polish) were tested in vitro. Corrosion was accelerated by applying a constant voltage of 3.5 V and amperage of 1.16 mA in 0.9% NaCl. RESULTS Nitinol stents showed the lowest susceptibility to corrosion and the longest period without damage. The Memotherm II® (BARD Angiomed®) was the only stent that showed neither macroscopic nor microscopic damages. The worst performing material was cobalt-chromium-nickel, which showed corrosion damages about ten times earlier compared to nitinol. Considering the reasons for termination of the test, nitinol stents primarily showed length deficits, while V4A and tantalum stents showed fractures. Cobalt-chromium-nickel stents had multiple fractures or a complete lysis in equal proportions. When placed in direct contact, nitinol stents showed best corrosion resistance, regardless of what material they were combined with. In terms of polishing treatments, electropolished stents performed the best, mechanical-polished stents and those without polishing treatment followed. CONCLUSION The analysis of corrosion behavior may be useful to select the right stent fulfilling the individual needs of the patient within a large number of different stents. PMID:26268301

  16. [Vascular dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, H.F. de; Gijn, J. van

    2004-01-01

    Vascular dementia is one of the most frequently occurring dementia syndromes. Its prevalence is about 5% among subjects above 85 years of age. Elevated blood pressure and atherosclerosis are the most important risk factors. According to international criteria, vascular dementia usually occurs within

  17. Vascular ring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anne Mette S; Larsen, Signe H; Hjortdal, Vibeke E

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vascular ring is a rare cause of recurrent respiratory infections, dysphagia and stridor. Surgical repair is considered safe but the long-term outcomes are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mortality and morbidity following vascular ring surgery in a single...... age of 1.4 years (range 0.008-64 years) were operated for vascular ring. Median follow-up was 6.8 years (range 2.4-34 years). Presenting symptoms were stridor (52%), dysphagia or vomiting (52%) and recurrent respiratory infections (48%). There were no early or late deaths. Three months postoperatively...

  18. Vascular anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy Jyotsna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of vascular anomalies is an emerging multidisciplinary, super-specialisation field involving several surgical, medical and radiological specialties. Over the years, development in this field has been limited because of complex nomenclature and lack of consensus on the best practice for treatment of some of the more complex vascular anomalies. It was only in 1996 that the International Society of the Study of Vascular Anomalies defined nomenclature for the anomalies and gave clear guidelines on management, allowing for improved clinical practices. As in all fields of clinical medicine, the correct diagnosis of the vascular anomalies is essential to choose the appropriate treatment. This paper gives clear guidelines for diagnosis, understanding of the anomalies and discusses their management.

  19. Vascular Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Alekseyevna Cherdak; O V Uspenskaya

    2015-01-01

    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Elsevier via http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00463-8 Vascular dementia is one of the most common causes of dementia after Alzheimer's disease, causing around 15% of cases. However, unlike Alzheimer's disease, there are no licensed treatments for vascular dementia. Progress in the specialty has been difficult because of uncertainties over disease classification and diagnostic criteria, controversy over the e...

  20. 21-O-Angeloyltheasapogenol E3, a Novel Triterpenoid Saponin from the Seeds of Tea Plants, Inhibits Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses in a NF-κB-Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Seok Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 21-O-Angeloyltheasapogenol E3 (ATS-E3 is a triterpenoid saponin recently isolated from the seeds of the tea tree Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze. ATS-E3 has several beneficial properties including anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antiatherosclerotic, and anticancer effects. Unlike other phenolic compounds isolated from tea plants, there are no studies reporting the pharmacological action of ATS-E3. In this study, we therefore aimed to explore the cellular and molecular inhibitory activities of ATS-E3 in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. ATS-E3 remarkably diminished cellular responses of macrophages such as FITC-dextran-induced phagocytic uptake, sodium nitroprusside- (SNP- induced radical generation, and LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO production. Analysis of its molecular activity showed that this compound significantly suppressed the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS, nuclear translocation of nuclear factor- (NF- κB subunits (p50 and p65, phosphorylation of inhibitor of κB kinase (IKK, and the enzyme activity of AKT1. Taken together, the novel triterpenoid saponin compound ATS-E3 contributes to the beneficial effects of tea plants by exerting anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities in an AKT/IKK/NF-κB-dependent manner.

  1. Vascular Vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazyar Hashemilar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Vertigo is a common complaint in neurology and medicine. The most common causes of vertigo are benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, vestibular neuritis, Meniere’s disease, and vascular disorders. Vertigo of vascular origin is usually limited to migraine, transient ischemic attacks, and ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. Vascular causes lead to various central or peripheral vestibular syndromes with vertigo. This review provides an overview of epidemiology and clinical syndromes of vascular vertigo. Vertigo is an illusion of movement caused by asymmetrical involvement of the vestibular system by various causes. Migraine is the most frequent vascular disorder that causes vertigo in all age groups. Vertigo may occur in up to 25% of patients with migraine. The lifetime prevalence of migrainous vertigo is almost 1%. Cerebrovascular disorders are estimated to account for 3% to 7% of patients with vertigo. Vestibular paroxysmia has been diagnosed in 1.8% to 4% of cases in various dizziness units. Vasculitic disorders are rare in the general population, but vertigo may be seen in almost up to 50% of patients with different vasculitic syndromes. Conclusions: Migraine, cerebrovascular disorders especially involving the vertebrobasilar territory, cardiocirculatory diseases, neurovascular compression of the eighth nerve, and vasculitis are vascular causes of vertigo syndromes.

  2. Vascular Access Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Vascular Access Procedures A vascular access procedure inserts a flexible, ... the limitations of Vascular Access Procedures? What are Vascular Access Procedures? A vascular access procedure involves the insertion ...

  3. Vascular Access for Hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adequacy Eating & Nutrition for Hemodialysis Vascular Access for Hemodialysis What is a vascular access? A vascular access ... Set Up the Vascular Access Well before Starting Hemodialysis Patients should set up a vascular access well ...

  4. What Is Vascular Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Policy What Is Vascular Disease? What Is Vascular Disease? Vascular disease is any abnormal condition of the blood ... Privacy Policy × Your ticket for the: What Is Vascular Disease? Title What Is Vascular Disease? USD Close Print

  5. Vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, John T; Thomas, Alan

    2015-10-24

    Vascular dementia is one of the most common causes of dementia after Alzheimer's disease, causing around 15% of cases. However, unlike Alzheimer's disease, there are no licensed treatments for vascular dementia. Progress in the specialty has been difficult because of uncertainties over disease classification and diagnostic criteria, controversy over the exact nature of the relation between cerebrovascular pathology and cognitive impairment, and the paucity of identifiable tractable treatment targets. Although there is an established relation between vascular and degenerative Alzheimer's pathology, the mechanistic link between the two has not yet been identified. This Series paper critiques some of the key areas and controversies, summarises treatment trials so far, and makes suggestions for what progress is needed to advance our understanding of pathogenesis and thus maximise opportunities for the search for new and effective management approaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Vascular trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, T; Nobori, M; Tanaka, N

    1999-07-01

    Vascular trauma is essentially acute arterial obstruction, often combined with hemorrhage, fracture, and infection. It can be both life-threatening and limb-threatening and needs an emergency operation. In vascular trauma patient, multiple fracture and organ injury, such as brain, lung, liver, spleen, kidney, or gastrointestinal tract should be evaluated to decide treatment priority. When the pulse distal from the injured site is absent or diminished, vascular trauma is most likely and reconstruction should be accomplished within "the golden time (6-8 hours)". Intimal damage followed by platelet aggregation and thrombus formation will necessitate resection and repair of the site instead of simple thrombectomy. Although autogenous vein is the first choice, artificial graft can be implanted for short segment in non-infected field.

  7. VASCULAR SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a complex and serious condition encompassing deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), usually in the lower extremities.1,2. Thromboses can result from venous stasis, vascular injury or hypercoagulability, and those involving the deep veins proximal to the knee are ...

  8. miR-181a Induces Macrophage Polarized to M2 Phenotype and Promotes M2 Macrophage-mediated Tumor Cell Metastasis by Targeting KLF6 and C/EBPα

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Bi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages can acquire a variety of polarization status and functions: classically activated macrophages (M1 macrophages; alternatively activated macrophages (M2 macrophages. However, the molecular basis of the process is still unclear. Here, this study addresses that microRNA-181a (miR-181a is a key molecule controlling macrophage polarization. We found that miR-181a is overexpressed in M2 macrophages than in M1 macrophages. miR-181a expression was decreased when M2 phenotype converted to M1, whereas it increased when M1 phenotype converted to M2. Overexpression of miR-181a in M1 macrophages diminished M1 phenotype expression while promoting polarization to the M2 phenotype. In contrast, knockdown of miR-181a in M2 macrophages promoted M1 polarization and diminished M2 phenotype expression. Mechanistically, Bioinformatic analysis revealed that Kruppel-like factor 6 (KLF6 and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBPα is a potential target of miR-181a and luciferase assay confirmed that KLF6 and C/EBPα translation is suppressed by miR-181a through interaction with the 3′UTR of KLF6 and C/EBPα mRNA. Further analysis showed that induction of miR-181a suppressed KLF6 and C/EBPα protein expression. Importantly, miR-181a also diminishes M2 macrophages-mediated migration and invasion capacity of tumor cells. Collectively, our results suggest that miR-181a plays a significant role in regulating macrophage polarization through directly target KLF6 and C/EBPα.

  9. Future accelerators (?)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Womersley

    2003-08-21

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  10. Fetal origin of vascular aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Pitale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is increasingly regarded as an independent risk factor for development of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and hypertension and their complications (e.g. MI and Stroke. It is well known that vascular disease evolve over decades with progressive accumulation of cellular and extracellular materials and many inflammatory processes. Metabolic syndrome, obesity and diabetes are conventionally recognized as risk factors for development of coronary vascular disease (CVD. These conditions are known to accelerate ageing process in general and vascular ageing in particular. Adverse events during intrauterine life may programme organ growth and favour disease later in life, popularly known as, ′Barker′s Hypothesis′. The notion of fetal programming implies that during critical periods of prenatal growth, changes in the hormonal and nutritional milieu of the conceptus may alter the full expression of the fetal genome, leading to permanent effects on a range of physiological.

  11. [Estrogens and vascular thrombosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmou, A

    1982-09-01

    The incidence of thromboses among young women has increased with widespread use of oral contraceptives (OCs) due to the significant thromboembolic risk of estrogen. Estrogens intervene at the vascular, platelet, and plasma levels as a function of hormonal variations in the menstrual cycle, increasing the aggregability of the platelets and thrombocytes, accelerating the formation of clots, and decreasing the amount of antithrombin III. Estrogens are used in medicine to treat breast and prostate cancers and in gynecology to treat dysmenorrhea, during the menopause, and in contraception. Smoking, cardiovascular disease and hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes are contraindicators to estrogen use. Thrombosis refers to blockage of a blood vessel by a clot or thrombus. Before estrogens are prescribed, a history of phlebitis, obesity, hyperlipidemia, or significant varicosities should be ruled out. A history of venous thrombosis, hyperlipoproteinemia, breast nodules, serious liver condition, allergies to progesterone, and some ocular diseases of vascular origin definitively rule out treatment with estrogens. A family history of infarct, embolism, diabetes, cancer, or vascular accidents at a young age signals a need for greater patient surveillance. All patients receiving estrogens should be carefully observed for signs of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypercoagulability, or diabetes. Nurses have a role to play in carefully eliciting the patient's history of smoking, personal and family medical problems, and previous and current laboratory results, as well as in informing the patients of the risks and possible side effects of OCs, especially for those who smoke. Nurses should educate patients receiving estrogens, especially those with histories of circulatory problems, to avoid standing in 1 position for prolonged periods, avoid heat which is a vasodilator, avoid obesity, excercise regularly, wear appropriate footgear, and follow other good health

  12. Electrostatic accelerators

    OpenAIRE

    Hinterberger, F.

    2006-01-01

    The principle of electrostatic accelerators is presented. We consider Cockcroft– Walton, Van de Graaff and Tandem Van de Graaff accelerators. We resume high voltage generators such as cascade generators, Van de Graaff band generators, Pelletron generators, Laddertron generators and Dynamitron generators. The speci c features of accelerating tubes, ion optics and methods of voltage stabilization are described. We discuss the characteristic beam properties and the variety of possible beams. We ...

  13. Electrostatic accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Hinterberger, F

    2006-01-01

    The principle of electrostatic accelerators is presented. We consider Cockcroft– Walton, Van de Graaff and Tandem Van de Graaff accelerators. We resume high voltage generators such as cascade generators, Van de Graaff band generators, Pelletron generators, Laddertron generators and Dynamitron generators. The speci c features of accelerating tubes, ion optics and methods of voltage stabilization are described. We discuss the characteristic beam properties and the variety of possible beams. We sketch possible applications and the progress in the development of electrostatic accelerators.

  14. Accelerating Value Creation with Accelerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Eythor Ivar

    2015-01-01

    accelerator programs. Microsoft runs accelerators in seven different countries. Accelerators have grown out of the infancy stage and are now an accepted approach to develop new ventures based on cutting-edge technology like the internet of things, mobile technology, big data and virtual reality. It is also...... an approach to facilitate implementation and realization of business ideas and is a lucrative approach to transform research into ventures and to revitalize regions and industries in transition. Investors have noticed that the accelerator approach is a way to increase the possibility of success by funnelling...... with the traditional audit and legal universes and industries are examples of emerging potentials both from a research and business point of view to exploit and explore further. The accelerator approach may therefore be an Idea Watch to consider, no matter which industry you are in, because in essence accelerators...

  15. LIBO accelerates

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The prototype module of LIBO, a linear accelerator project designed for cancer therapy, has passed its first proton-beam acceleration test. In parallel a new version - LIBO-30 - is being developed, which promises to open up even more interesting avenues.

  16. Accelerating Inspire

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2266999

    2017-01-01

    CERN has been involved in the dissemination of scientific results since its early days and has continuously updated the distribution channels. Currently, Inspire hosts catalogues of articles, authors, institutions, conferences, jobs, experiments, journals and more. Successful orientation among this amount of data requires comprehensive linking between the content. Inspire has lacked a system for linking experiments and articles together based on which accelerator they were conducted at. The purpose of this project has been to create such a system. Records for 156 accelerators were created and all 2913 experiments on Inspire were given corresponding MARC tags. Records of 18404 accelerator physics related bibliographic entries were also tagged with corresponding accelerator tags. Finally, as a part of the endeavour to broaden CERN's presence on Wikipedia, existing Wikipedia articles of accelerators were updated with short descriptions and links to Inspire. In total, 86 Wikipedia articles were updated. This repo...

  17. Induction accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Takayama, Ken

    2011-01-01

    A broad class of accelerators rests on the induction principle whereby the accelerating electrical fields are generated by time-varying magnetic fluxes. Particularly suitable for the transport of bright and high-intensity beams of electrons, protons or heavy ions in any geometry (linear or circular) the research and development of induction accelerators is a thriving subfield of accelerator physics. This text is the first comprehensive account of both the fundamentals and the state of the art about the modern conceptual design and implementation of such devices. Accordingly, the first part of the book is devoted to the essential features of and key technologies used for induction accelerators at a level suitable for postgraduate students and newcomers to the field. Subsequent chapters deal with more specialized and advanced topics.

  18. Cosmic Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Rachel

    2011-03-01

    In this series of lectures we review observational evidence for, and theoretical investigations into, cosmic acceleration and dark energy. The notes are in four sections. First I review the basic cosmological formalism to describe the expansion history of the universe and how distance measures are defined. The second section covers the evidence for cosmic acceleration from cosmic distance measurements. Section 3 discusses the theoretical avenues being considered to explain the cosmological observations. Section 4 discusses how the growth of inhomogeneities and large scale structure observations might help us pin down the theoretical origin of cosmic acceleration.

  19. Circulating Progenitor Cells in Diabetic Vascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, O.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with diabetes have altered levels and function of (bone marrow-derived) vascular progenitor cells (endothelial progenitor cells-EPC, smooth muscle progenitor cells-SPC) which may contribute to their accelerated atherosclerosis. The results from clinical and experimental studies in this

  20. Yolk-sac–derived macrophages regulate fetal testis vascularization and morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFalco, Tony; Bhattacharya, Indrashis; Williams, Alyna V.; Sams, Dustin M.; Capel, Blanche

    2014-01-01

    Organogenesis of the testis is initiated when expression of Sry in pre-Sertoli cells directs the gonad toward a male-specific fate. The cells in the early bipotential gonad undergo de novo organization to form testis cords that enclose germ cells inside tubules lined by epithelial Sertoli cells. Although Sertoli cells are a driving force in the de novo formation of testis cords, recent studies in mouse showed that reorganization of the vasculature and of interstitial cells also play critical roles in testis cord morphogenesis. However, the mechanism driving reorganization of the vasculature during fetal organogenesis remained unclear. Here we demonstrate that fetal macrophages are associated with nascent gonadal and mesonephric vasculature during the initial phases of testis morphogenesis. Macrophages mediate vascular reorganization and prune errant germ cells and somatic cells after testis architecture is established. We show that gonadal macrophages are derived from primitive yolk-sac hematopoietic progenitors and exhibit hallmarks of M2 activation status, suggestive of angiogenic and tissue remodeling functions. Depletion of macrophages resulted in impaired vascular reorganization and abnormal cord formation. These findings reveal a previously unappreciated role for macrophages in testis morphogenesis and suggest that macrophages are an intermediary between neovascularization and organ architecture during fetal organogenesis. PMID:24912173

  1. Horizontal Accelerator

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Horizontal Accelerator (HA) Facility is a versatile research tool available for use on projects requiring simulation of the crash environment. The HA Facility is...

  2. Accelerated construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Accelerated Construction Technology Transfer (ACTT) is a strategic process that uses various innovative techniques, strategies, and technologies to minimize actual construction time, while enhancing quality and safety on today's large, complex multip...

  3. Accelerated hypertension: Treatable yet underdiagnosed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranav Ish

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients who present in young age with accelerated hypertension (HTN should always be evaluated for secondary causes of hypertension. Renal parenchyma and vascular diseases constitute the majority of the etiology. Other causes include endocrine diseases such as pheochromocytoma, pregnancy-related HTN, and sleep apnea. We report a 23-year-old female who presented with palpitations and headache under treatment for anxiety from a tertiary care hospital. She was found to have accelerated HTN and was thoroughly worked up for etiology and treatment.

  4. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

    1959-02-17

    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  5. Plant Vascular Biology 2013: vascular trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursache, Robertas; Heo, Jung-Ok; Helariutta, Ykä

    2014-04-01

    About 200 researchers from around the world attended the Third International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2013) held in July 2013 at the Rantapuisto Conference Center, in Helsinki, Finland (http://www.pvb2013.org). The plant vascular system, which connects every organ in the mature plant, continues to attract the interest of researchers representing a wide range of disciplines, including development, physiology, systems biology, and computational biology. At the meeting, participants discussed the latest research advances in vascular development, long- and short-distance vascular transport and long-distance signalling in plant defence, in addition to providing a context for how these studies intersect with each other. The meeting provided an opportunity for researchers working across a broad range of fields to share ideas and to discuss future directions in the expanding field of vascular biology. In this report, the latest advances in understanding the mechanism of vascular trafficking presented at the meeting have been summarized.

  6. Bioprinting for vascular and vascularized tissue biofabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Pallab; Ayan, Bugra; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T

    2017-03-15

    Bioprinting is a promising technology to fabricate design-specific tissue constructs due to its ability to create complex, heterocellular structures with anatomical precision. Bioprinting enables the deposition of various biologics including growth factors, cells, genes, neo-tissues and extra-cellular matrix-like hydrogels. Benefits of bioprinting have started to make a mark in the fields of tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and pharmaceutics. Specifically, in the field of tissue engineering, the creation of vascularized tissue constructs has remained a principal challenge till date. However, given the myriad advantages over other biofabrication methods, it becomes organic to expect that bioprinting can provide a viable solution for the vascularization problem, and facilitate the clinical translation of tissue engineered constructs. This article provides a comprehensive account of bioprinting of vascular and vascularized tissue constructs. The review is structured as introducing the scope of bioprinting in tissue engineering applications, key vascular anatomical features and then a thorough coverage of 3D bioprinting using extrusion-, droplet- and laser-based bioprinting for fabrication of vascular tissue constructs. The review then provides the reader with the use of bioprinting for obtaining thick vascularized tissues using sacrificial bioink materials. Current challenges are discussed, a comparative evaluation of different bioprinting modalities is presented and future prospects are provided to the reader. Biofabrication of living tissues and organs at the clinically-relevant volumes vitally depends on the integration of vascular network. Despite the great progress in traditional biofabrication approaches, building perfusable hierarchical vascular network is a major challenge. Bioprinting is an emerging technology to fabricate design-specific tissue constructs due to its ability to create complex, heterocellular structures with anatomical precision

  7. Collagen vascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001223.htm Collagen vascular disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... previously said to have "connective tissue" or "collagen vascular" disease. We now have names for many specific conditions ...

  8. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein prevents vascular aging and vascular smooth muscle cells senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meili; Fu, Yi; Gao, Cheng; Jia, Yiting; Huang, Yaqian; Liu, Limei; Wang, Xian; Wang, Wengong; Kong, Wei

    2016-09-16

    Aging-related vascular dysfunction contributes to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), a vascular extracellular matrix protein, has been described as a negative regulatory factor for the vascular aging-related processes including atherosclerosis and vascular calcification. However, whether COMP is implicated in the process of vascular aging remains unclear. Here, we identified a novel function of COMP in preventing vascular aging and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) senescence. Firstly, vascular COMP expression was decreased in three different senescence-accelerated mouse models and was also declining with age. COMP(-/-) mice displayed elevated senescence-associated markers expression, including p53, p21 and p16, in the aortas compared with their wild type (WT) littermates. In accordance, COMP deficiency induced aging-related vascular dysfunction as evidenced by the significantly reduced phenylephrine-induced contraction and increased vascular stiffness as evaluated by pulse wave velocity. The aortic wall of COMP(-/-) mice was susceptible to senescence by displaying senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA β-gal) activity induced by periadventitial application of CaCl2 to the abdominal aorta. In vitro, COMP knockdown by small interfering (si) RNA led to the elevation of p53, p21 and p16 as well as SA β-gal activity in VSMCs after H2O2 stimulation. VSMCs isolated from COMP(-/-) mice showed elevated senescence-associated markers expression and supplement of COMP adenovirus to COMP-deficient VSMCs greatly rescued cellular senescence. Taken together, these findings revealed the essential role of COMP in retarding the development of vascular aging and VSMC senescence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Vascular Dysfunction: A Key Player in Chronic Cardio-renal Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, Hirofumi; Yamashina, Akira

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes the current methods for the functional assessment of vascular damage (e.g., assessment of endothelial function, measurement of pulse wave velocity, and pressure wave analysis) and describes the association between vascular dysfunction and chronic cardio-renal syndrome. Vascular dysfunction may contribute to the development and progression of heart failure. Additionally, vascular dysfunction, especially increased arterial stiffness and abnormal pressure wave reflection and central hemodynamics, has been reported to accelerate renal function decline. Furthermore, renal dysfunction worsens vascular pathophysiological abnormalities. Therefore, the functional assessment of vascular damage may be useful in the management of cardio-renal syndrome.

  10. Laser acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, T.; Nakajima, K.; Mourou, G.

    2017-02-01

    The fundamental idea of Laser Wakefield Acceleration (LWFA) is reviewed. An ultrafast intense laser pulse drives coherent wakefield with a relativistic amplitude robustly supported by the plasma. While the large amplitude of wakefields involves collective resonant oscillations of the eigenmode of the entire plasma electrons, the wake phase velocity ˜ c and ultrafastness of the laser pulse introduce the wake stability and rigidity. A large number of worldwide experiments show a rapid progress of this concept realization toward both the high-energy accelerator prospect and broad applications. The strong interest in this has been spurring and stimulating novel laser technologies, including the Chirped Pulse Amplification, the Thin Film Compression, the Coherent Amplification Network, and the Relativistic Mirror Compression. These in turn have created a conglomerate of novel science and technology with LWFA to form a new genre of high field science with many parameters of merit in this field increasing exponentially lately. This science has triggered a number of worldwide research centers and initiatives. Associated physics of ion acceleration, X-ray generation, and astrophysical processes of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are reviewed. Applications such as X-ray free electron laser, cancer therapy, and radioisotope production etc. are considered. A new avenue of LWFA using nanomaterials is also emerging.

  11. Accelerators and the Accelerator Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process.

  12. accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    On the inside of the cavity there is a layer of niobium. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment.

  13. Stromal vascular fraction improves deep partial thickness burn wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Sibel; Coruh, Atilla; Deniz, Kemal

    2014-11-01

    The practice of early burn wound excision and wound closure by immediate autologous skin or skin substitutes is the preferred treatment in extensive deep partial and full-thickness burns. To date there is no proven definite medical treatment to decrease burn wound size and accelerate burn wound healing in modern clinical practice. Stromal vascular fraction is an autologous mixture that has multiple proven beneficial effects on different kinds of wounds. In our study, we investigated the effects of stromal vascular fraction on deep partial-thickness burn wound healing. In this study, 20 Wistar albino rats were used. Inguinal adipose tissue of the rats was surgically removed and stromal vascular fraction was isolated. Thereafter, deep second-degree burns were performed on the back of the rats by hot water. The rats were divided into two groups in a randomized fashion. The therapy group received stromal vascular fraction, whereas the control group received only physiologic serum by intradermal injection. Assessment of the burn wound healing between the groups was carried out by histopathologic and immuno-histochemical data. Stromal vascular fraction increased vascular endothelial growth factor, proliferating cell nuclear antigen index, and reduced inflammation of the burn wound. Furthermore, vascularization and fibroblastic activity were achieved earlier and observed to be at higher levels in the stromal vascular fraction group. Stromal vascular fraction improves burn wound healing by increasing cell proliferation and vascularization, reducing inflammation, and increasing fibroblastic activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  14. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... was moderately reproduced (kappa = 0.59). Vascular grade was significantly associated with axillary node involvement, tumour size, malignancy grade, oestrogen receptor status and histological type. In univariate analyses vascular grade significantly predicted recurrence free survival and overall survival for all...

  15. Uterine vascular lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Srinivas, Amruthashree; Chandrashekar, Babitha Moogali; Vijayakumar, Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the uterus are rare; most reported in the literature are arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Uterine AVMs can be congenital or acquired. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of reports of acquired vascular lesions of the uterus following pregnancy, abortion, cesarean delivery, and curettage. It can be seen from these reports that there is confusion concerning the terminology of uterine vascular lesions. There is also a lack of diagnostic criteria and management guidelines, which has led to an increased number of unnecessary invasive procedures (eg, angiography, uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy for abnormal vaginal bleeding). This article familiarizes readers with various vascular lesions of the uterus and their management.

  16. Vascular biology of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myatt, L; Webster, R P

    2009-03-01

    Preeclampsia, a pregnancy-specific syndrome characterized by hypertension, proteinuria and edema, resolves on delivery of the placenta. Normal pregnancy is itself characterized by systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and alterations in levels of angiogenic factors and vascular reactivity. This is exacerbated in preeclampsia with an associated breakdown of compensatory mechanisms, eventually leading to placental and vascular dysfunction. The underlying pathology of preeclampsia is thought to be a relatively hypoxic or ischemic placenta. Both the placenta and maternal vasculatures are major sources of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species which can interact to produce peroxynitrite a powerful prooxidant that covalently modifies proteins by nitration of tyrosine residues, to possibly alter vascular function in preeclampsia. The linkage between placental hypoxia and maternal vascular dysfunction has been proposed to be via placental syncytiotrophoblast basement membranes shed by the placenta or via angiogenic factors which include soluble flt1 and endoglin secreted by the placenta that bind vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placental growth factor (PIGF) in the maternal circulation. There is also abundant evidence of altered reactivity of the maternal and placental vasculature and of the altered production of autocoids in preeclampsia. The occurrence of preeclampsia is increased in women with preexisting vascular disease and confers a long-term risk for development of cardiovascular disease. The vascular stress test of pregnancy thus identifies those women with a previously unrecognized at risk vascular system and promotes the development of preeclampsia. Preexisting maternal vascular dysfunction intensified by placental factors is possibly responsible for the individual pathologies of preeclampsia.

  17. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...

  18. Vascular cognitive impairment and vascular dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klavdija Ovčar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the developed world, five to ten percent of people older than 65 years have dementia. One fifth of dementia etiologies are due to vascular brain lesions (VaD – vascular dementia. A milder form is called vascular cognitive impairment (VCI. The main clinical criteria for VaD are: 1. cognitive decline verified with standardized cognitive test/scale, 2. evidence of the associated vascular brain lesion, 3. excluded reversible causes of cognitive decline. The main risk factors for VaD are age, atherosclerosis, diabetes and hypertension. They play a key role in pathogenesis of the cognitive impairment. Depending on the damaged brain region, different cognitive domains may be affected with or without other neurological signs. These diversities in the clinical picture challenge the correct diagnosis. Unique feature of VaD is its progression, which can be stopped, if patients receive an appropriate treatment.The treatment of VCI and VaD symptoms is similar to that in Alzheimer’s disease. More importantly, VCI may be slowed down or even stopped with proper secondary stroke prevention and good rehabilitation. The most efficient is primary stroke prevention with healthy lifestyle and treatment of acquired risk factors.

  19. Vascular disease burden in Indian subjects with vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Mina; Anand, Kuljeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Vascular disease factors like hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, and ischaemic heart disease contribute to the development of vascular dementia. As comorbidity of vascular disease factors in vascular dementia is common, we investigated the vascular disease burden in subjects with vascular dementia. To investigate the vascular disease burden due to four vascular disease factors: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, and ischaemic heart disease in Indian subjects with vascular dementia. In this study, 159 subjects with probable vascular dementia (as per NINDS-AIREN criteria) attending the memory clinic at a tertiary care hospital were assessed for the presence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, and ischaemic heart disease using standardised operational definitions and for severity of dementia on the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale. The data obtained was subjected to appropriate statistical analysis. Dyslipidaemia (79.25 per cent) was the most common vascular disease factor followed by hypertension (73.58 per cent), ischaemic heart disease (58.49 per cent), and diabetes mellitus (40.80 per cent). Most subjects (81.1 per cent) had two or more vascular disease factors. Subjects with more severe dementia had more vascular disease factors (sig 0.001). People with moderate to severe dementia have a significantly higher vascular disease burden; therefore, higher vascular disease burden may be considered as a poor prognostic marker in vascular dementia. Subjects with vascular dementia and their caregivers must manage cognitive impairment and ADL alongside managing serious comorbid vascular diseases that may worsen the dementia.

  20. Vascular remodelling in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Eugene Haydn; Soltani, Amir; Reid, David William; Ward, Chris

    2008-02-01

    We review the recent literature, focusing on 2006 and 2007, to produce an update on the patho-biology of angiogenesis and vascular endothelial growth factor in the asthmatic airway. In terms of conceptual development in asthma research, airway inflammation and remodelling have been regarded as separate processes or perhaps as sequential, with early inflammation leading later to remodelling. Recent insights identify a central role for vascular endothelial growth factor in stimulating both inflammation and vascular remodelling coincidentally, with the full panoply of vascular endothelial growth factor mediated events being complex and wide. Both nitric oxide and matrix metalloproteinase-9 induction may be important downstream pathogenic mechanisms. Virus-mediated exacerbations are a prime manifestation of the oscillating trajectory of clinical asthma. The early stimulation of vascular endothelial growth factor production is probably a central aetiological mechanism, with secondary inflammation and angiogenesis. The time scale of the latter, especially, fits with the time scale of clinico-physiological changes after exacerbation. These vascular endothelial growth factor induced changes are potentially modifiable with therapy. Insights into the importance of vascular endothelial growth factor and angiogenesis in asthma pathogenesis now lead to potential new therapeutic possibilities and elucidate why recent advances in asthma therapeutics have been so successful.

  1. Understanding Vascular Endothelium

    OpenAIRE

    Gimbrone, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding Vascular Endothelium : Nature’s Container for Blood The entire cardiovascular system, from the chambers of the heart to the smallest capillaries of peripheral tissues, is lined by a single-cell-thick continuous layer—the vascular endothelium. For many years, this gossamer membrane was thought to function largely as an inert barrier, passively separating the reactive components of the circulating blood from the cells and connective tissue matrix of the various organs of the body....

  2. Hypercholesterolaemia and vascular dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Appleton, Jason P.; Scutt, Polly; Sprigg, Nikola; Bath, Philip M.

    2017-01-01

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second commonest cause of dementia. Stroke is the leading cause of disability in adults in developed countries, the second major cause of dementia and the third commonest cause of death. Traditional vascular risk factors–diabetes, hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension and smoking–are implicated as risk factors for VaD. The associations between cholesterol and small vessel disease (SVD), stroke, cognitive impairment and subsequent dementia are complex and as yet no...

  3. Advancing and Translating Knowledge in Vascular Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husmann, Marc; Barton, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    For centuries, physicians have depended on the use of written information to gain knowledge. Book printing and binding introduced by Gutenberg in the fifteenth century revolutionized and accelerated the distribution of information. Advancing medical knowledge and progress is not only linked to the scientific quality of a discovery determining it will be accepted by the peers but also by its communication and sharing of new findings with the medical community. All these factors determine whether new knowledge will advance and improve clinical practice, medical education, and ultimately, patient care, and human health. In the past decade medical publishing has witnessed a revolution with regard to the instant, online availability of published "open access" information, which can be accessed and printed from any computer connected to the internet. As an example, how language and availability of printed information may affect distribution of knowledge, we discuss the publication of the first results of balloon angioplasty in patients with peripheral vascular disease 40 years ago by Andreas Grüntzig, M.D. at the University of Zürich. Vascular Medicine, as part of Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine, will provide open access provided to all published content for sharing and distributing new and most up-to-date information on clinical practice and medical knowledge in vascular medicine. We anticipate that the ongoing transformation of scientific publishing through open access will further accelerate this process and make new knowledge available even faster. Immediate, unrestricted, and rapid access to the most current knowledge published will play a role in maintaining and advancing human vascular health across the globe.

  4. Antioxidants and vascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielli, Alessandra; Scioli, Maria Giovanna; Mazzaglia, Donatella; Doldo, Elena; Orlandi, Augusto

    2015-12-15

    Oxygen free radicals and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are common products of normal aerobic cellular metabolism, but high levels of ROS lead to oxidative stress and cellular damage. Increased production of ROS favors vascular dysfunction, inducing altered vascular permeability and inflammation, accompanied by the loss of vascular modulatory function, the imbalance between vasorelaxation and vasoconstriction, and the aberrant expression of inflammatory adhesion molecules. Inflammatory stimuli promote oxidative stress generated from the increased activity of mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, particularly of the Nox4 isoform, with the consequent impairment of mitochondrial β-oxidation. Vascular dysfunction due to the increase in Nox4 activity and ROS overproduction leads to the progression of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and neurological disorders. Considerable research into the development of effective antioxidant therapies using natural derivatives or new synthetic molecules has been conducted. Antioxidants may prevent cellular damage by reducing ROS overproduction or interfering in reactions that involve ROS. Vitamin E and ascorbic acid are well known as natural antioxidants that counteract lipid peroxidative damage by scavenging oxygen-derived free radicals, thus restoring vascular function. Recently, preliminary studies on natural antioxidants such as goji berries, thymus, rosemary, green tea ginseng, and garlic have been conducted for their efficacy in preventing vascular damage. N-acetyl-cysteine and propionyl-L-carnitine are synthetic compounds that regulate ROS production by replacing endogenous antioxidants in both endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In this review, we consider the molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of oxidative stress-induced vascular dysfunction as well as the beneficial effects of antioxidant therapies.

  5. Piezoelectric particle accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Mark A.; Jongewaard, Erik N.; Haase, Andrew A.; Franzi, Matthew

    2017-08-29

    A particle accelerator is provided that includes a piezoelectric accelerator element, where the piezoelectric accelerator element includes a hollow cylindrical shape, and an input transducer, where the input transducer is disposed to provide an input signal to the piezoelectric accelerator element, where the input signal induces a mechanical excitation of the piezoelectric accelerator element, where the mechanical excitation is capable of generating a piezoelectric electric field proximal to an axis of the cylindrical shape, where the piezoelectric accelerator is configured to accelerate a charged particle longitudinally along the axis of the cylindrical shape according to the piezoelectric electric field.

  6. Homocysteine, vitamins, and prevention of vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCully, Kilmer S

    2004-04-01

    Within the past four decades, the efforts of investigators worldwide have established the amino acid homocysteine as an important factor in arteriosclerosis and diseases of aging. After its discovery in 1932, homocysteine was demonstrated to be an important intermediate in the metabolism of amino acids. However, little was known about the broader biomedical significance of homocysteine until 1962, when children with mental retardation, accelerated growth, dislocated ocular lenses, and frequent vascular thrombosis were found to excrete homocysteine in the urine. My study of two patients with homocystinuria caused by different inherited enzymatic disorders in 1968 disclosed advanced widespread arteriosclerotic plaques in both cases. This discovery led to the conclusion that homocysteine causes vascular disease by a direct effect on the cells and tissues of the arteries. This interpretation suggests that homocysteine is important in the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis in persons with hereditary, dietary, environmental, hormonal, metabolic, and other factors predisposing them to hyperhomocysteinemia. Within the past decade, many major clinical and epidemiological studies have proven that hyperhomocysteinemia is a potent independent risk factor for vascular disease. According to the homocysteine theory of arteriosclerosis, insufficient dietary intake of the B vitamins, folic acid and pyridoxine, caused by losses of these nutrients during processing of foods, leads to elevation of blood homocysteine and vascular disease in the general population. The dramatic decline in cardiovascular mortality since the 1960s in the United States is attributed to fortification of the food supply by synthetic pyridoxine and folic acid. The recent Swiss Heart Study showed that B vitamins slowed restenosis in patients with coronary arteriosclerosis treated with angioplasty. Currently, more than 20 prospective, worldwide, interventional trials involving at least 100,000 participants are

  7. Vascularized epiphyseal transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenti, Marco; Delcroix, Luca; Romano, G Federico; Capanna, Rodolfo

    2007-01-01

    In skeletally immature patients, the transfer of vascularized epiphysis along with a variable amount of adjoining diaphysis may provide the potential for growth of such a graft, preventing future limb length discrepancy. This article describes the authors' experience with the vascularized transfer of the proximal fibular epiphysis in the reconstruction of large bone defects including the epiphysis in a series of 27 patients ranging in age from 2 to 11 years. The follow-up, ranging from 2 to 14 years, has been long enough to allow some evaluation of the validity, indications, and limits of this reconstructive option.

  8. 2014 CERN Accelerator Schools: Plasma Wake Acceleration

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    A specialised school on Plasma Wake Acceleration will be held at CERN, Switzerland from 23-29 November, 2014.   This course will be of interest to staff and students in accelerator laboratories, university departments and companies working in or having an interest in the field of new acceleration techniques. Following introductory lectures on plasma and laser physics, the course will cover the different components of a plasma wake accelerator and plasma beam systems. An overview of the experimental studies, diagnostic tools and state of the art wake acceleration facilities, both present and planned, will complement the theoretical part. Topical seminars and a visit of CERN will complete the programme. Further information can be found at: http://cas.web.cern.ch/cas/PlasmaWake2014/CERN-advert.html http://indico.cern.ch/event/285444/

  9. CECR1-mediated cross talk between macrophages and vascular mural cells promotes neovascularization in malignant glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, C; Chrifi, I; Mustafa, D; van der Weiden, M; Leenen, P J M; Duncker, D J; Kros, J M; Cheng, C

    2017-09-21

    Glioblastomas (glioblastoma multiforme, GBM) are most malignant brain tumors characterized by profound vascularization. The activation of macrophages strongly contributes to tumor angiogenesis during GBM development. Previously, we showed that extracellular adenosine deaminase protein Cat Eye Syndrome Critical Region Protein 1 (CECR1) is highly expressed by M2-like macrophages in GBM where it defines macrophage M2 polarization and contributes to tumor expansion. In this study, the effect of CECR1 in macrophages on tumor angiogenesis was investigated. Immunohistochemical evaluation of GBM tissue samples showed that the expression of CECR1 correlates with microvascular density in the tumors, confirming data from the TCGA set. In a three-dimensional co-culture system consisting of human pericytes, human umbilical vein endothelial cells and THP1-derived macrophages, CECR1 knockdown by siRNA and CECR1 stimulation of macrophages inhibited and promoted new vessel formation, respectively. Loss and gain of function studies demonstrated that PDGFB mRNA and protein levels in macrophages are modulated by CECR1. The proangiogenic properties of CECR1 in macrophages were partially mediated via paracrine activation of pericytes by PDGFB-PDGFRβ signaling. CECR1-PDGFB-PDGFRβ cross-activation between macrophages and pericytes promoted pericyte migration, shown by transwell migration assay, and enhanced expression and deposition of periostin, a matrix component with proangiogenic properties. CECR1 function in (M2-like) macrophages mediates cross talk between macrophages and pericytes in GBM via paracrine PDGFB-PDGFRβ signaling, promoting pericyte recruitment and migration, and tumor angiogenesis. Therefore, CECR1 offers a new portent target for anti-angiogenic therapy in GBM via immune modulation.

  10. Hypercholesterolaemia and vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Jason P; Scutt, Polly; Sprigg, Nikola; Bath, Philip M

    2017-07-15

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second commonest cause of dementia. Stroke is the leading cause of disability in adults in developed countries, the second major cause of dementia and the third commonest cause of death. Traditional vascular risk factors-diabetes, hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension and smoking-are implicated as risk factors for VaD. The associations between cholesterol and small vessel disease (SVD), stroke, cognitive impairment and subsequent dementia are complex and as yet not fully understood. Similarly, the effects of lipids and lipid-lowering therapy on preventing or treating dementia remain unclear; the few trials that have assessed lipid-lowering therapy for preventing (two trials) or treating (four trials) dementia found no evidence to support the use of lipid-lowering therapy for these indications. It is appropriate to treat those patients with vascular risk factors that meet criteria for lipid-lowering therapy for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, and in line with current guidelines. Managing the individual patient in a holistic manner according to his or her own vascular risk profile is recommended. Although the paucity of randomized controlled evidence makes for challenging clinical decision making, it provides multiple opportunities for on-going and future research, as discussed here. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Depression in vascular dementia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naarding, P.; Koning, I. de; Kooten, F. van; Dippel, D.W.; Janzing, J.G.E.; Mast, R.C. van der; Koudstaal, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the presence of different dimensions of depression in subjects with vascular dementia. BACKGROUND: After a stroke, cognitive, affective and behavioural disturbances are common. It has been suggested that the nature of affective symptomatology can help to differentiate organic

  12. Vascular management in rotationplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Craig R; Hartman, Curtis W; Simon, Pamela J; Baxter, B Timothy; Neff, James R

    2008-05-01

    The Van Nes rotationplasty is a useful limb-preserving procedure for skeletally immature patients with distal femoral or proximal tibial malignancy. The vascular supply to the lower limb either must be maintained and rotated or transected and reanastomosed. We asked whether there would be any difference in the ankle brachial index or complication rate for the two methods of vascular management. Vessels were resected with the tumor in seven patients and preserved and rotated in nine patients. One amputation occurred in the group in which the vessels were preserved. Four patients died secondary to metastatic disease diagnosed preoperatively. The most recent ankle brachial indices were 0.96 and 0.82 for the posterior tibial and dorsalis pedis arteries, respectively, in the reconstructed group. The ankle brachial indices were 0.98 and 0.96 for the posterior tibial and dorsalis pedis arteries, respectively, in the rotated group. Outcomes appear similar using both methods of vascular management and one should not hesitate to perform an en bloc resection when there is a question of vascular involvement.

  13. Self-Replenishing Vascularized Fouling-Release Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, C; Vu, TL; Lin, JJ; Kolle, S; Juthani, N; Watson, E; Weaver, JC; Alvarenga, J; Aizenberg, J

    2014-08-13

    Inspired by the long-term effectiveness of living antifouling materials, we have developed a method for the self-replenishment of synthetic biofouling-release surfaces. These surfaces are created by either molding or directly embedding 3D vascular systems into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and filling them with a silicone oil to generate a nontoxic oil-infused material. When replenished with silicone oil from an outside source, these materials are capable of self-lubrication and continuous renewal of the interfacial fouling-release layer. Under accelerated lubricant loss conditions, fully infused vascularized samples retained significantly more lubricant than equivalent nonvascularized controls. Tests of lubricant-infused PDMS in static cultures of the infectious bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli as well as the green microalgae Botryococcus braunii, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Dunaliella sauna, and Nannochloropsis oculata showed a significant reduction in biofilm adhesion compared to PDMS and glass controls containing no lubricant. Further experiments on vascularized versus nonvascularized samples that had been subjected to accelerated lubricant evaporation conditions for up to 48 h showed significantly less biofilm adherence on the vascularized surfaces. These results demonstrate the ability of an embedded lubricant-filled vascular network to improve the longevity of fouling-release surfaces.

  14. Renal posttransplant's vascular complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bašić Dragoslav

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Despite high graft and recipient survival figures worldwide today, a variety of technical complications can threaten the transplant in the postoperative period. Vascular complications are commonly related to technical problems in establishing vascular continuity or to damage that occurs during donor nephrectomy or preservation [13]. AIM The aim of the presenting study is to evaluate counts and rates of vascular complications after renal transplantation and to compare the outcome by donor type. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 463 kidneys (319 from living related donor LD and 144 from cadaveric donor - CD were transplanted during the period between June 1975 and December 1998 at the Urology & Nephrology Institute of Clinical Centre of Serbia in Belgrade. Average recipients' age was 33.7 years (15-54 in LD group and 39.8 (19-62 in CD group. Retrospectively, we analyzed medical records of all recipients. Statistical analysis is estimated using Hi-squared test and Fischer's test of exact probability. RESULTS Major vascular complications including vascular anastomosis thrombosis, internal iliac artery stenosis, internal iliac artery rupture obliterant vasculitis and external iliac vein rupture were analyzed. In 25 recipients (5.4% some of major vascular complications were detected. Among these cases, 22 of them were from CD group vs. three from LD group. Relative rate of these complications was higher in CD group vs. LD group (p<0.0001. Among these complications dominant one was vascular anastomosis thrombosis which occurred in 18 recipients (17 from CD vs. one from LD. Of these recipients 16 from CD lost the graft, while the rest of two (one from each group had lethal outcome. DISCUSSION Thrombosis of renal allograft vascular anastomosis site is the most severe complication following renal transplantation. In the literature, renal allograft thrombosis is reported with different incidence rates, from 0.5-4% [14, 15, 16]. Data from the

  15. High Energy Particle Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Audio Productions, Inc, New York

    1960-01-01

    Film about the different particle accelerators in the US. Nuclear research in the US has developed into a broad and well-balanced program.Tour of accelerator installations, accelerator development work now in progress and a number of typical experiments with high energy particles. Brookhaven, Cosmotron. Univ. Calif. Berkeley, Bevatron. Anti-proton experiment. Negative k meson experiment. Bubble chambers. A section on an electron accelerator. Projection of new accelerators. Princeton/Penn. build proton synchrotron. Argonne National Lab. Brookhaven, PS construction. Cambridge Electron Accelerator; Harvard/MIT. SLAC studying a linear accelerator. Other research at Madison, Wisconsin, Fixed Field Alternate Gradient Focusing. (FFAG) Oakridge, Tenn., cyclotron. Two-beam machine. Comments : Interesting overview of high energy particle accelerators installations in the US in these early years. .

  16. Improved plasma accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, D. Y.

    1971-01-01

    Converging, coaxial accelerator electrode configuration operates in vacuum as plasma gun. Plasma forms by periodic injections of high pressure gas that is ionized by electrical discharges. Deflagration mode of discharge provides acceleration, and converging contours of plasma gun provide focusing.

  17. Vascular manifestations of Behcet's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Georgiyeva Goloeva

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion. Vascular disorders in BD were diagnosed in one fourth of the patients, mainly in young male patients. Severe thromboses with the development of chronic venous insignificance, Budd-Chiari syndrome, pulmonary and iliac artery aneurysms, and arterial thromboses were observed in male patients only. Vascular events were associated with erythema nodosum and epididymitis; in these concomitances, the vascular risk was substantially increased. Vascular death rates were 2,2%.

  18. Local Augmented Angiotensinogen Secreted from Apoptotic Vascular Endothelial Cells Is a Vital Mediator of Vascular Remodelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyh-Jong Wu

    Full Text Available Vascular remodelling is a critical vasculopathy found in atheromatous diseases and allograft failures. The local renin angiotensin system (RAS has been implicated in vascular remodelling. However, the mechanisms by which the augmented local RAS is associated with the initial event of endothelial cell apoptosis in injured vasculature remain undefined. We induced the apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs through serum starvation (SS. After the cells were subjected to SS, we found that the mRNA expression of angiotensinogen (AGT was increased by >3-fold in HUVECs and by approximately 2.5-fold in VSMCs. In addition, the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE mRNA was increased in VSMCs but decreased to 50% in HUVECs during the same apoptotic process. Increases in the expression of AGT protein and angiotensin II (Ang II were found in a serum-free medium conditioned by HUVECs (SSC. The increased Ang II was suppressed using lisinopril (an ACE inhibitor treatment. Moreover, the activation of ERK1/2 induced by the SSC in VSMCs was also suppressed by losartan. In conclusion, we first demonstrated that the augmented AGT released from apoptotic endothelial cells acts as a vital progenitor of Ang II to accelerate vascular remodelling, and we suggest that blocking local augmented Ang II might be an effective strategy for restraining intimal hyperplasia.

  19. Mussel-inspired immobilization of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) for enhanced endothelialization of vascular grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young Min; Lee, Yu Bin; Kim, Seok Joo; Kang, Jae Kyeong; Park, Jong-Chul; Jang, Wonhee; Shin, Heungsoo

    2012-07-09

    Most polymeric vascular prosthetic materials have low patency rate for replacement of small diameter vessels (polydopamine-mediated immobilization of growth factors on the surface of polymeric materials as a versatile tool to modify surface characteristics of vascular grafts potentially for accelerated endothelialization. Polydopamine was deposited on the surface of biocompatible poly(L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL) elastomer, on which vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was subsequently immobilized by simple dipping. Surface characteristics and composition were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Immobilization of VEGF on the polydopamine-deposited PLCL films was effective (19.8 ± 0.4 and 197.4 ± 19.7 ng/cm(2) for DPv20 and DPv200 films, respectively), and biotin-mediated labeling of immobilized VEGF revealed that the fluorescence intensity increased as a function of the concentration of VEGF solution. The effect of VEGF on adhesion of HUVECs was marginal, which may have been masked by polydopamine layer that also enhanced cell adhesion. However, VEGF-immobilized substrate significantly enhanced proliferation of HUVECs for over 7 days of in vitro culture and also improved their migration. In addition, immobilized VEGF supported robust cell to cell interactions with strong expression of CD 31 marker. The same process was effective for immobilization of basic fibroblast growth factor, demonstrating the robustness of polydopamine layer for secondary ligation of growth factors as a simple and novel surface modification strategy for vascular graft materials.

  20. The CERN Accelerator School

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction to accelerator physics The CERN Accelerator School: Introduction to Accelerator Physics, which should have taken place in Istanbul, Turkey, later this year has now been relocated to Budapest, Hungary.  Further details regarding the new hotel and dates will be made available as soon as possible on a new Indico site at the end of May.

  1. Accelerators and Dinosaurs

    CERN Multimedia

    Turner, Michael Stanley

    2003-01-01

    Using naturally occuring particles on which to research might have made accelerators become extinct. But in fact, results from astrophysics have made accelerator physics even more important. Not only are accelerators used in hospitals but they are also being used to understand nature's inner workings by searching for Higgs bosons, CP violation, neutrino mass and dark matter (2 pages)

  2. Engineering vascularized skeletal muscle tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levenberg, Shulamit; Rouwkema, Jeroen; Macdonald, Mara; Garfein, Evan S.; Kohane, Daniel S.; Darland, Diane C.; Marini, Robert; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Mulligan, Richard C.; D'Amore, Patricia A.; Langer, Robert

    2005-01-01

    One of the major obstacles in engineering thick, complex tissues such as muscle is the need to vascularize the tissue in vitro. Vascularization in vitro could maintain cell viability during tissue growth, induce structural organization and promote vascularization upon implantation. Here we describe

  3. Macrophage mediated PCI enhanced gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Catherine E.; Zamora, Genesis; Kwon, Young J.; Berg, Kristian; Madsen, Steen J.; Hirschberg, Henry

    2015-03-01

    Photochemical internalization (PCI) is a photodynamic therapy-based approach for improving the delivery of macromolecules and genes into the cell cytosol. Prodrug activating gene therapy (suicide gene therapy) employing the transduction of the E. coli cytosine deaminase (CD) gene into tumor cells, is a promising method. Expression of this gene within the target cell produces an enzyme that converts the nontoxic prodrug, 5-FC, to the toxic metabolite, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). 5-FC may be particularly suitable for brain tumors, because it can readily cross the bloodbrain barrier (BBB). In addition the bystander effect, where activated drug is exported from the transfected cancer cells into the tumor microenvironment, plays an important role by inhibiting growth of adjacent tumor cells. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are frequently found in and around glioblastomas. Monocytes or macrophages (Ma) loaded with drugs, nanoparticles or photosensitizers could therefore be used to target tumors by local synthesis of chemo attractive factors. The basic concept is to combine PCI, to enhance the ex vivo transfection of a suicide gene into Ma, employing specially designed core/shell NP as gene carrier.

  4. Macrophage-mediated response to hypoxia in disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tazzyman S

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Simon Tazzyman,1 Craig Murdoch,2 James Yeomans,1 Jack Harrison,1 Munitta Muthana3 1Department of Oncology, 2School of Clinical Dentistry, 3Department of Infection and Immunity, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK Abstract: Hypoxia plays a critical role in the pathobiology of various inflamed, diseased tissues, including malignant tumors, atherosclerotic plaques, myocardial infarcts, the synovia of rheumatoid arthritic joints, healing wounds, and sites of bacterial infection. These areas of hypoxia form when the blood supply is occluded and/or the oxygen supply is unable to keep pace with cell growth and/or infiltration of inflammatory cells. Macrophages are ubiquitous in all tissues of the body and exhibit great plasticity, allowing them to perform divergent functions, including, among others, patrolling tissue, combating invading pathogens and tumor cells, orchestrating wound healing, and restoring homeostasis after an inflammatory response. The number of tissue macrophages increases markedly with the onset and progression of many pathological states, with many macrophages accumulating in avascular and necrotic areas, where they are exposed to hypoxia. Recent studies show that these highly versatile cells then respond rapidly to the hypoxia present by altering their expression of a wide array of genes. Here we review the evidence for hypoxia-driven macrophage inflammatory responses in various disease states, and how this influences disease progression and treatment. Keywords: macrophage, hypoxia, inflammation, cytokine

  5. Macrophages mediate cardioprotective cellular postconditioning in acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Couto, Geoffrey; Liu, Weixin; Tseliou, Eleni; Sun, Baiming; Makkar, Nupur; Kanazawa, Hideaki; Arditi, Moshe; Marbán, Eduardo

    2015-08-03

    Ischemic injury in the heart induces an inflammatory cascade that both repairs damage and exacerbates scar tissue formation. Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) are a stem-like population that is derived ex vivo from cardiac biopsies; they confer both cardioprotection and regeneration in acute myocardial infarction (MI). While the regenerative effects of CDCs in chronic settings have been studied extensively, little is known about how CDCs confer the cardioprotective process known as cellular postconditioning. Here, we used an in vivo rat model of ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury-induced MI and in vitro coculture assays to investigate how CDCs protect stressed cardiomyocytes. Compared with control animals, animals that received CDCs 20 minutes after IR had reduced infarct size when measured at 48 hours. CDCs modified the myocardial leukocyte population after ischemic injury. Specifically, introduction of CDCs reduced the number of CD68+ macrophages, and these CDCs secreted factors that polarized macrophages toward a distinctive cardioprotective phenotype that was not M1 or M2. Systemic depletion of macrophages with clodronate abolished CDC-mediated cardioprotection. Using both in vitro coculture assays and a rat model of adoptive transfer after IR, we determined that CDC-conditioned macrophages attenuated cardiomyocyte apoptosis and reduced infarct size, thereby recapitulating the beneficial effects of CDC therapy. Together, our data indicate that CDCs limit acute injury by polarizing an effector macrophage population within the heart.

  6. The Vascular Depression Hypothesis: Mechanisms Linking Vascular Disease with Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Warren D.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Alexopoulos, George S.

    2013-01-01

    The ‘Vascular Depression’ hypothesis posits that cerebrovascular disease may predispose, precipitate, or perpetuate some geriatric depressive syndromes. This hypothesis stimulated much research that has improved our understanding of the complex relationships between late-life depression (LLD), vascular risk factors, and cognition. Succinctly, there are well-established relationships between late-life depression, vascular risk factors, and cerebral hyperintensities, the radiological hallmark of vascular depression. Cognitive dysfunction is common in late-life depression, particularly executive dysfunction, a finding predictive of poor antidepressant response. Over time, progression of hyperintensities and cognitive deficits predicts a poor course of depression and may reflect underlying worsening of vascular disease. This work laid the foundation for examining the mechanisms by which vascular disease influences brain circuits and influences the development and course of depression. We review data testing the vascular depression hypothesis with a focus on identifying potential underlying vascular mechanisms. We propose a disconnection hypothesis, wherein focal vascular damage and white matter lesion location is a crucial factor influencing neural connectivity that contributes to clinical symptomatology. We also propose inflammatory and hypoperfusion hypotheses, concepts that link underlying vascular processes with adverse effects on brain function that influence the development of depression. Testing such hypotheses will not only inform the relationship between vascular disease and depression but also provide guidance on the potential repurposing of pharmacological agents that may improve late-life depression outcomes. PMID:23439482

  7. The overlap between neurodegenerative and vascular factors in the pathogenesis of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iadecola, Costantino

    2010-09-01

    There is increasing evidence that cerebrovascular dysfunction plays a role not only in vascular causes of cognitive impairment but also in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Vascular risk factors and AD impair the structure and function of cerebral blood vessels and associated cells (neurovascular unit), effects mediated by vascular oxidative stress and inflammation. Injury to the neurovascular unit alters cerebral blood flow regulation, depletes vascular reserves, disrupts the blood-brain barrier, and reduces the brain's repair potential, effects that amplify the brain dysfunction and damage exerted by incident ischemia and coexisting neurodegeneration. Clinical-pathological studies support the notion that vascular lesions aggravate the deleterious effects of AD pathology by reducing the threshold for cognitive impairment and accelerating the pace of the dementia. In the absence of mechanism-based approaches to counteract cognitive dysfunction, targeting vascular risk factors and improving cerebrovascular health offers the opportunity to mitigate the impact of one of the most disabling human afflictions.

  8. The Accelerator Reliability Forum

    CERN Document Server

    Lüdeke, Andreas; Giachino, R

    2014-01-01

    A high reliability is a very important goal for most particle accelerators. The biennial Accelerator Reliability Workshop covers topics related to the design and operation of particle accelerators with a high reliability. In order to optimize the over-all reliability of an accelerator one needs to gather information on the reliability of many different subsystems. While a biennial workshop can serve as a platform for the exchange of such information, the authors aimed to provide a further channel to allow for a more timely communication: the Particle Accelerator Reliability Forum [1]. This contribution will describe the forum and advertise it’s usage in the community.

  9. Brain Vascular Imaging Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bàrbara Laviña

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent major improvements in a number of imaging techniques now allow for the study of the brain in ways that could not be considered previously. Researchers today have well-developed tools to specifically examine the dynamic nature of the blood vessels in the brain during development and adulthood; as well as to observe the vascular responses in disease situations in vivo. This review offers a concise summary and brief historical reference of different imaging techniques and how these tools can be applied to study the brain vasculature and the blood-brain barrier integrity in both healthy and disease states. Moreover, it offers an overview on available transgenic animal models to study vascular biology and a description of useful online brain atlases.

  10. Plant Vascular Biology 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Biao

    2014-11-17

    This grant supported the Second International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2010) held July 24-28, 2010 on the campus of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Biao Ding (Ohio State University; OSU) and David Hannapel (Iowa State University; ISU) served as co-chairs of this conference. Biao Ding served as the local organizer. PVB is defined broadly here to include studies on the biogenesis, structure and function of transport systems in plants, under conditions of normal plant growth and development as well as of plant interactions with pathogens. The transport systems cover broadly the xylem, phloem, plasmodesmata and vascular cell membranes. The PVB concept has emerged in recent years to emphasize the integrative nature of the transport systems and approaches to investigate them.

  11. Pathophysiology of vascular dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizzo Claudia

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The concept of Vascular Dementia (VaD has been recognized for over a century, but its definition and diagnostic criteria remain unclear. Conventional definitions identify the patients too late, miss subjects with cognitive impairment short of dementia, and emphasize consequences rather than causes, the true bases for treatment and prevention. We should throw out current diagnostic categories and describe cognitive impairment clinically and according to commonly agreed instruments that document the demographic data in a standardized manner and undertake a systematic effort to identify the underlying aetiology in each case. Increased effort should be targeted towards the concept of and criteria for Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Post-Stroke Dementia as well as for genetic factors involved, especially as these categories hold promise for early prevention and treatment.

  12. Vascular cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Vakhnina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular pathology of the brain is the second most common cause of cognitive impairment after Alzheimer's disease. The article describes the modern concepts of etiology, pathogenetic mechanisms, clinical features and approaches to diagnosis and therapy of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI. Cerebrovascular accident, chronic cerebral circulatory insufficiency and their combination, sometimes in combination with a concomitant neurodegenerative process, are shown to be the major types of brain lesions leading to VCI. The clinical presentation of VCI is characterized by the neuropsychological status dominated by impairment of the executive frontal functions (planning, control, attention in combination with focal neurological symptoms. The diagnosis is based on comparing of the revealed neuropsychological and neurological features with neuroimaging data. Neurometabolic, acetylcholinergic, glutamatergic, and other vasoactive drugs and non-pharmacological methods are widely used to treat VCI. 

  13. Pathophysiology of vascular dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzo Claudia; Duro Giovanni; Iemolo Francesco; Castiglia Laura; Hachinski Vladimir; Caruso Calogero

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The concept of Vascular Dementia (VaD) has been recognized for over a century, but its definition and diagnostic criteria remain unclear. Conventional definitions identify the patients too late, miss subjects with cognitive impairment short of dementia, and emphasize consequences rather than causes, the true bases for treatment and prevention. We should throw out current diagnostic categories and describe cognitive impairment clinically and according to commonly agreed instruments th...

  14. Industrial Application of Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    At CERN, we are very familiar with large, high energy particle accelerators. However, in the world outside CERN, there are more than 35000 accelerators which are used for applications ranging from treating cancer, through making better electronics to removing harmful micro-organisms from food and water. These are responsible for around $0.5T of commerce each year. Almost all are less than 20 MeV and most use accelerator types that are somewhat different from what is at CERN. These lectures will describe some of the most common applications, some of the newer applications in development and the accelerator technology used for them. It will also show examples of where technology developed for particle physics is now being studied for these applications. Rob Edgecock is a Professor of Accelerator Science, with a particular interest in the medical applications of accelerators. He works jointly for the STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the International Institute for Accelerator Applications at the Univer...

  15. Industrial Application of Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    At CERN, we are very familiar with large, high energy particle accelerators. However, in the world outside CERN, there are more than 35000 accelerators which are used for applications ranging from treating cancer, through making better electronics to removing harmful micro-organisms from food and water. These are responsible for around $0.5T of commerce each year. Almost all are less than 20 MeV and most use accelerator types that are somewhat different from what is at CERN. These lectures will describe some of the most common applications, some of the newer applications in development and the accelerator technology used for them. It will also show examples of where technology developed for particle physics is now being studied for these applications. Rob Edgecock is a Professor of Accelerator Science, with a particular interest in the medical applications of accelerators. He works jointly for the STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the International Institute for Accelerator Applications at the Uni...

  16. Pulmonary vascular imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedullo, P.F.; Shure, D.

    1987-03-01

    A wide range of pulmonary vascular imaging techniques are available for the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected pulmonary vascular disease. The characteristics of any ideal technique would include high sensitivity and specificity, safety, simplicity, and sequential applicability. To date, no single technique meets these ideal characteristics. Conventional pulmonary angiography remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of acute thromboembolic disease despite the introduction of newer techniques such as digital subtraction angiography and magnetic resonance imaging. Improved noninvasive lower extremity venous testing methods, particularly impedance plethysmography, and ventilation-perfusion scanning can play significant roles in the noninvasive diagnosis of acute pulmonary emboli when properly applied. Ventilation-perfusion scanning may also be useful as a screening test to differentiate possible primary pulmonary hypertension from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. And, finally, angioscopy may be a useful adjunctive technique to detect chronic thromboembolic disease and determine operability. Optimal clinical decision-making, however, will continue to require the proper interpretation of adjunctive information obtained from the less-invasive techniques, applied with an understanding of the natural history of the various forms of pulmonary vascular disease and with a knowledge of the capabilities and shortcomings of the individual techniques.

  17. Update on Vascular Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ayesha; Kalaria, Raj N; Corbett, Anne; Ballard, Clive

    2016-09-01

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is a major contributor to the dementia syndrome and is described as having problems with reasoning, planning, judgment, and memory caused by impaired blood flow to the brain and damage to the blood vessels resulting from events such as stroke. There are a variety of etiologies that contribute to the development of vascular cognitive impairment and VaD, and these are often associated with other dementia-related pathologies such as Alzheimer disease. The diagnosis of VaD is difficult due to the number and types of lesions and their locations in the brain. Factors that increase the risk of vascular diseases such as stroke, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and smoking also raise the risk of VaD. Therefore, controlling these risk factors can help lower the chances of developing VaD. This update describes the subtypes of VaD, with details of their complex presentation, associated pathological lesions, and issues with diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. [How Treatable is Vascular Dementia?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Etsuro

    2016-04-01

    Vascular dementia is an umbrella term, encompassing the pathological changes in the brain due to cerebrovascular disease that result in dementia. Vascular dementia is the second most common form of dementia, after Alzheimer's disease. In this paper, I outline the concept of vascular dementia, the key aspects of the disease that are yet to be clarified, and the current status of clinical trials. Assessing these factors, I discuss how treatable vascular dementia presently is. Use of the term'vascular dementia'is riddled with uncertainties regarding disease classification, and non-standardized diagnostic criteria. There are difficulties in determining the exact relationship between cerebrovascular pathology and cognitive impairment. The comorbid effects of Alzheimer's pathology in some individuals also present an obstacle to reliable clinical diagnosis, and hinder research into effective management approaches. Vascular dementia is preventable and treatable, as there are established primary and secondary prevention measures for the causative cerebrovascular diseases, such as vascular risk factor intervention, antiplatelet therapy, and anticoagulation, amongst others. However, unlike Alzheimer's disease, there are no established symptomatic treatments for vascular dementia. Clinical trials of cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine indicate that they produce small cognitive benefits in patients with vascular dementia, though the exact clinical significance of these is uncertain. Data are insufficient to support the widespread use of these drugs in vascular dementia. Rehabilitation and physical and cognitive exercise may be beneficial, but evidence of cognitive benefit and relief of neuropsychiatric symptoms due to exercise is lacking.

  19. Accelerator and radiation physics

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Samita; Nandy, Maitreyee

    2013-01-01

    "Accelerator and radiation physics" encompasses radiation shielding design and strategies for hadron therapy accelerators, neutron facilities and laser based accelerators. A fascinating article describes detailed transport theory and its application to radiation transport. Detailed information on planning and design of a very high energy proton accelerator can be obtained from the article on radiological safety of J-PARC. Besides safety for proton accelerators, the book provides information on radiological safety issues for electron synchrotron and prevention and preparedness for radiological emergencies. Different methods for neutron dosimetry including LET based monitoring, time of flight spectrometry, track detectors are documented alongwith newly measured experimental data on radiation interaction with dyes, polymers, bones and other materials. Design of deuteron accelerator, shielding in beam line hutches in synchrotron and 14 MeV neutron generator, various radiation detection methods, their characteriza...

  20. Nonparaxial accelerating Talbot effect

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yiqi; Belić, Milivoj R; Li, Changbiao; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Wen, Feng; Zhang, Yanpeng; Xiao, Min

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the Talbot effect of nonpraxial accelerating beams, theoretically and numerically. It is based on the interference of nonparaxial accelerating solutions of the Helmholtz equation in two dimensions. The effect originates from the interference of such solutions that accelerate along concentric semicircular trajectories with different radii. The Talbot images form along certain central angles, which are referred to as the Talbot angles. These angles are inversely proportional to the radial differences between the nearest beams, which are equal and fixed. A single nonparaxial accelerating beam possesses duality - it can be viewed as a Talbot effect of itself with an infinite or zero Talbot angle. By choosing the coefficient for each beam component properly, we also obtain the fractional nonparaxial accelerating Talbot effect. These results improve the understanding of nonparaxial accelerating beams and the Talbot effect among them.

  1. Accelerator reliability workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, L.; Duru, Ph.; Koch, J.M.; Revol, J.L.; Van Vaerenbergh, P.; Volpe, A.M.; Clugnet, K.; Dely, A.; Goodhew, D

    2002-07-01

    About 80 experts attended this workshop, which brought together all accelerator communities: accelerator driven systems, X-ray sources, medical and industrial accelerators, spallation sources projects (American and European), nuclear physics, etc. With newly proposed accelerator applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, replacement of nuclear power plants and others. Reliability has now become a number one priority for accelerator designers. Every part of an accelerator facility from cryogenic systems to data storage via RF systems are concerned by reliability. This aspect is now taken into account in the design/budget phase, especially for projects whose goal is to reach no more than 10 interruptions per year. This document gathers the slides but not the proceedings of the workshop.

  2. Miniaturization Techniques for Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, James E.

    2003-05-27

    The possibility of laser driven accelerators [1] suggests the need for new structures based on micromachining and integrated circuit technology because of the comparable scales. Thus, we are exploring fully integrated structures including sources, optics (for both light and particle) and acceleration in a common format--an accelerator-on-chip (AOC). Tests suggest a number of preferred materials and techniques but no technical or fundamental roadblocks at scales of order 1 {micro}m or larger.

  3. Power Converters for Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Visintini, R.

    2015-06-15

    Particle accelerators use a great variety of power converters for energizing their sub-systems; while the total number of power converters usually depends on the size of the accelerator or combination of accelerators (including the experimental setup), the characteristics of power converters depend on their loads and on the particle physics requirements: this paper aims to provide an overview of the magnet power converters in use in several facilities worldwide.

  4. High Gradient Accelerator Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temkin, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics. Plasma Science and Fusion Center

    2016-07-12

    The goal of the MIT program of research on high gradient acceleration is the development of advanced acceleration concepts that lead to a practical and affordable next generation linear collider at the TeV energy level. Other applications, which are more near-term, include accelerators for materials processing; medicine; defense; mining; security; and inspection. The specific goals of the MIT program are: • Pioneering theoretical research on advanced structures for high gradient acceleration, including photonic structures and metamaterial structures; evaluation of the wakefields in these advanced structures • Experimental research to demonstrate the properties of advanced structures both in low-power microwave cold test and high-power, high-gradient test at megawatt power levels • Experimental research on microwave breakdown at high gradient including studies of breakdown phenomena induced by RF electric fields and RF magnetic fields; development of new diagnostics of the breakdown process • Theoretical research on the physics and engineering features of RF vacuum breakdown • Maintaining and improving the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator, the highest frequency operational accelerator in the world, a unique facility for accelerator research • Providing the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator facility as a facility for outside users • Active participation in the US DOE program of High Gradient Collaboration, including joint work with SLAC and with Los Alamos National Laboratory; participation of MIT students in research at the national laboratories • Training the next generation of Ph. D. students in the field of accelerator physics.

  5. Accelerator Review Report 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Tovey, Dan; Appleby, Rob; Bartolini, Riccardo; Bruning, Oliver; Clarke, Jim; Flint, Jonathan; Kilcoyne, Susan H.; Thomason, John; Jamieson, Charlotte; The Accelerator Science and Technology Centre (ASTeC); The Cockcroft Institute (CI); The John Adams Institute for Accelerator Science (JAI)

    2014-01-01

    The panel was created to review the accelerator programme and provide information on the breadth and scope of the STFC’s current accelerator R&D portfolio. The review’s prime driver is to underpin the development of the STFC accelerator landscape and strategy. The panel’s report will go to SB for comment and development of a high-level accelerator strategy, taking into account information from parallel reviews on neutron and photon activities. The ASB will then establish a more detailed accel...

  6. The pathobiology of vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iadecola, Costantino

    2013-11-20

    Vascular cognitive impairment defines alterations in cognition, ranging from subtle deficits to full-blown dementia, attributable to cerebrovascular causes. Often coexisting with Alzheimer's disease, mixed vascular and neurodegenerative dementia has emerged as the leading cause of age-related cognitive impairment. Central to the disease mechanism is the crucial role that cerebral blood vessels play in brain health, not only for the delivery of oxygen and nutrients, but also for the trophic signaling that inextricably links the well-being of neurons and glia to that of cerebrovascular cells. This review will examine how vascular damage disrupts these vital homeostatic interactions, focusing on the hemispheric white matter, a region at heightened risk for vascular damage, and on the interplay between vascular factors and Alzheimer's disease. Finally, preventative and therapeutic prospects will be examined, highlighting the importance of midlife vascular risk factor control in the prevention of late-life dementia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Anaesthesia for vascular emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellard, L; Djaiani, G

    2013-01-01

    Patients presenting with vascular emergencies including acute aortic syndrome, ruptured thoracic or abdominal aortic aneurysms, thoracic aortic trauma and acute lower limb ischaemia have a high risk of peri-operative morbidity and mortality. Although anatomical suitability is not universal, endovascular surgery may improve mortality and the results of ongoing randomised controlled trials are awaited. Permissive hypotension pre-operatively should be the standard of care with the systolic blood pressure kept to 50-100 mmHg as long as consciousness is maintained. The benefit of local anaesthesia over general anaesthesia is not definitive and this decision should be tailored for a given patient and circumstance. Cerebrospinal fluid drainage for prevention of paraplegia is often impractical in the emergency setting and is not backed by strong evidence; however, it should be considered postoperatively if symptoms develop. We discuss the pertinent anaesthetic issues when a patient presents with a vascular emergency and the impact that endovascular repair has on anaesthetic management. Anaesthesia © 2012 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  8. Pediatric vascularized composite allotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumit, Gaby; Gharb, Bahar Bassiri; Rampazzo, Antonio; Papay, Francis; Siemionow, Maria Z; Zins, James E

    2014-10-01

    Vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) has experienced a growing acceptance, which has led to a debate centered on extending the indications of the procedure to include pediatric patients. The aim of this article was to discuss such indications based on the evidence in pediatric solid organ transplantation, reconstructive surgery in children, and VCA in adult patients. Papers published on the outcomes of pediatric solid organ transplantation, growth after replantation of extremities, vascularized autologous tissue transfer, craniofacial surgery, orthognathic procedures, facial fractures, and outcomes after repair of peripheral nerves in children were reviewed. Although the outcomes of solid organ transplantation in children have improved, the transplanted organs continue to have a limited lifespan. Long-term immunosuppressive therapy exposes the patients to an increased lifetime risk of infections, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, and malignancy. Growth impairment and learning disabilities are other relevant drawbacks, which affect the pediatric recipients. Nonadherence to medication is a common cause of graft dysfunction and loss among the adolescent transplant recipients. Rejection episodes, hospitalizations, and medication adverse effects contribute negatively to the quality of life of the patients. Although normal growth after limb transplantation could be expected, pediatric facial transplant recipients may present with arrest of growth of transplanted midfacial skeleton. Considering the non-life-threatening nature of the conditions that lead to eligibility for VCA, it is suggested that it is premature to extend the indications of VCA to include pediatric patients under the currently available immunosuppressive protocols.

  9. Spinal Cord Vascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoreza Ghoreishi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The spinal cord is subject to many of the same vascular diseases that involve the brain, but its anatomy and embryology render it susceptible to some syndromes that do not have intracranial counterparts.The embryonic arterial supply to the spinal cord derives from intradural vessels that enter at each spinal level and divide to follow the dorsal and ventral roots. SPINAL CORD ISCHEMIA: The midthoracic levels of the spinal cord are traditionally considered to be the most vulnerable to compromise from hypoperfusion, but more recent evidence suggests that the lower thoracic cord is at greater risk . The actual prevalence of spinal cord infarction is unknown, but is generally cited as representing 1% to 2% of all central neurovascular events and 5% to 8% of all acute myelopathies. Weakness (100%, sensory loss (89%, back pain at onset (82%, and urinary complaints requiring catheterization (75% were the most common symptoms of cord ischemia at the time of presentation . Weakness most commonly affects both legs. Examination typically reveals flaccid paresis accompanied by diminished superficial and tendon reflexes below the level of the lesion. Preservation of strength and reflexes suggests the rare syndrome of posterior spinal artery territory infarction. Weakness most commonly affects both legs. Examination typically reveals flaccid paresis accompanied by diminished superficial and tendon reflexes below the level of the lesion. Preservation of strength and reflexes suggests the rare syndrome of posterior spinal artery territory infarction.   Aortic pathologies with regional hemodynamic compromise are the most common cause of spinal cord infarction, accounting for 30% to 40% of cases.                                                                                 The medical management of spinal cord ischemia is generally supportive and focused on reducing risk for

  10. Temporary vascular shunting in vascular trauma: A 10-year review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five patients with non-viable limbs had the vessel ligated. Conclusions. A TIVS in the damage control setting is both life- and limb-saving. These shunts can be inserted safely in a facility without access to a surgeon with vascular surgery experience if there is uncontrollable bleeding or the delay to definitive vascular surgery ...

  11. Temporary vascular shunting in vascular trauma: A 10-year review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    part of a damage control procedure, 7 patients were referred from a hospital without access to vascular surgical facilities with the TIVS in situ, and in the remaining 6 patients the TIVS was inserted during repair of a lower limb fracture with an associated vascular injury. Damage control procedure. Twenty-two patients had a ...

  12. Additive Manufacturing of Vascular Grafts and Vascularized Tissue Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elomaa, Laura; Yang, Yunzhi Peter

    2017-10-01

    There is a great need for engineered vascular grafts among patients with cardiovascular diseases who are in need of bypass therapy and lack autologous healthy blood vessels. In addition, because of the severe worldwide shortage of organ donors, there is an increasing need for engineered vascularized tissue constructs as an alternative to organ transplants. Additive manufacturing (AM) offers great advantages and flexibility of fabrication of cell-laden, multimaterial, and anatomically shaped vascular grafts and vascularized tissue constructs. Various inkjet-, extrusion-, and photocrosslinking-based AM techniques have been applied to the fabrication of both self-standing vascular grafts and porous, vascularized tissue constructs. This review discusses the state-of-the-art research on the use of AM for vascular applications and the key criteria for biomaterials in the AM of both acellular and cellular constructs. We envision that new smart printing materials that can adapt to their environment and encourage rapid endothelialization and remodeling will be the key factor in the future for the successful AM of personalized and dynamic vascular tissue applications.

  13. Beam Diagnostics for Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Koziol, Heribert

    2005-01-01

    This introductory course aims at a reasonably complete coverage of beam diagnostic devices used in linear and circular accelerators and in primary beam lines. The weight is on the concepts and the indication of variants, while for technical details the reader is referred to the literature. The present updated version replaces those from previous General Accelerator Physics Courses.

  14. Accelerators Beyond The Tevatron?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lach, Joseph; /Fermilab

    2010-07-01

    Following the successful operation of the Fermilab superconducting accelerator three new higher energy accelerators were planned. They were the UNK in the Soviet Union, the LHC in Europe, and the SSC in the United States. All were expected to start producing physics about 1995. They did not. Why?

  15. Asia honours accelerator physicists

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    "Steve Meyers of Cern and Jie Wei of Beijing's Tsinghua University are the first recipients of a new prize for particle physics. The pair were honoured for their contributions to numerous particle-accelerator projects - including Cern's Large Hadron Collider - by the Asian Committee for Future Accelerators (ACFA)..." (1 paragraph)

  16. KEK digital accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Iwashita

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The High Energy Accelerator Research Organization KEK digital accelerator (KEK-DA is a renovation of the KEK 500 MeV booster proton synchrotron, which was shut down in 2006. The existing 40 MeV drift tube linac and rf cavities have been replaced by an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR ion source embedded in a 200 kV high-voltage terminal and induction acceleration cells, respectively. A DA is, in principle, capable of accelerating any species of ion in all possible charge states. The KEK-DA is characterized by specific accelerator components such as a permanent magnet X-band ECR ion source, a low-energy transport line, an electrostatic injection kicker, an extraction septum magnet operated in air, combined-function main magnets, and an induction acceleration system. The induction acceleration method, integrating modern pulse power technology and state-of-art digital control, is crucial for the rapid-cycle KEK-DA. The key issues of beam dynamics associated with low-energy injection of heavy ions are beam loss caused by electron capture and stripping as results of the interaction with residual gas molecules and the closed orbit distortion resulting from relatively high remanent fields in the bending magnets. Attractive applications of this accelerator in materials and biological sciences are discussed.

  17. The Atomki accelerator center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajda, I.; Fülöp, Zs.; Biri, S.

    2017-06-01

    Particle accelerators are the driving forces of nuclear physics laboratories and MTA Atomki, the Institute for Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences is no exception. The Atomki Accelerator Center (AAC) incorporates several low-energy charged-particle accelerators, offering the possibility of choosing ions with various charge states, energies and beam intensities. Currently, the AAC has six main facilities: a cyclotron (K=20), two Van de Graaff accelerators (1 MV, 5 MV), an ECR ion source, an electromagnetic isotope separator and a 2 MV Tandetron installed in 2015. The accelerators, spanning a range of beam energies from 50 eV to 27 MeV, have been designed for a broad range of research projects and applications in various fields - mainly in nuclear and atomic physics, materials science, environmental research and archaeology. The structure of the laboratory with a short description of the most important topics, education and outreach activities are presented.

  18. Nutrition and vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, L; Heim, L; Sherzai, A; Jaceldo-Siegl, K; Sherzai, A

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this review was to elucidate the relationship between VaD and various nutritional factors based on epidemiological studies. Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second most common type of dementia. The prevalence of VaD continues to increase as the US population continues to grow and age. Currently, control of potential risk factors is believed to be the most effective means of preventing VaD. Thus, identification of modifiable risk factors for VaD is crucial for development of effective treatment modalities. Nutrition is one of the main modifiable variables that may influence the development of VaD. A systematic review of literature was conducted using the PubMed, Web of Science, and CINAHL Plus databases with search parameters inclusive of vascular dementia, nutrition, and vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). Fourteen articles were found that proposed a potential role of specific nutritional components in VaD. These components included antioxidants, lipids, homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12, and fish consumption. Antioxidants, specifically Vitamin E and C, and fatty fish intake were found to be protective against VaD risk. Fried fish, elevated homocysteine, and lower levels of folate and vitamin B12 were associated with increased VaD. Evidence for dietary lipids was inconsistent, although elevated midlife serum cholesterol may increase risk, while late-life elevated serum cholesterol may be associated with decreased risk of VaD. Currently, the most convincing evidence as to the relationship between VaD and nutrition exists for micronutrients, particularly Vitamin E and C. Exploration of nutrition at the macronutrient level and additional long term prospective cohort studies are warranted to better understand the role of nutrition in VaD disease development and progression. At present, challenges in this research include limitations in sample size, which was commonly cited. Also, a variety of diagnostic criteria for VaD were employed in the studies

  19. The Danish Vascular Registry, Karbase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldrup N

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nikolaj Eldrup,1,2 Charlotte Cerqueira,3 Louise de la Motte,2,4 Lisbet Knudsen Rathenborg,2,4 Allan K Hansen2,5 1Department of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, Aarhus University Hospital, 2Karbase, The Danish Vascular Registry, Aarhus, 3Registry Support Centre (East – Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Capital Region of Denmark, 4Department of Vascular Surgery, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, 5Department of Vascular Surgery, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark Aim: The Danish Vascular Registry (DVR, Karbase, is monitoring arterial and advanced vein interventions conducted at all vascular departments in Denmark. The main aim of the DVR is to improve the quality of treatment for patients undergoing vascular surgery in Denmark by using the registry for quality assessment and research. Study population: All patients undergoing vascular interventions (surgical and endovascular at any vascular department in Denmark are registered in the DVR. The DVR was initiated in 1989, and each year, ~9,000 procedures are added. By January 2016, .180,000 procedures have been recorded. Since 2001, data completeness has been .90% (compared to the Danish National Patient Register. Main variables: Variables include information on descriptive patient data (ie, age, sex, height, and weight and comorbidity (ie, previous cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Process variable includes waiting time (time from event to medical contact and treatment and the type of procedures conducted. Outcome variables for in-hospital complications (ie, wound complications, myocardial infarction, stroke, amputation, respiratory complications, and renal insufficiency and 30-day patency are submitted. Variables for medical treatment (antithrombotic and statin treatment, amputation, and survival are extracted from nationwide, administrative registers. Conclusion: The DVR reports outcome on key indicators for

  20. Diagnostic criteria for vascular dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheltens, P.; Hijdra, A. H.

    1998-01-01

    The term vascular dementia implies the presence of a clinical syndrome (dementia) caused by, or at least assumed to be caused by, a specific disorder (cerebrovascular disease). In this review, the various sets of criteria used to define vascular dementia are outlined. The various sets of criteria

  1. Dynamic adaption of vascular morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, Fridolin; Jacobsen, Jens Christian Brings

    2012-01-01

    The structure of vascular networks adapts continuously to meet changes in demand of the surrounding tissue. Most of the known vascular adaptation mechanisms are based on local reactions to local stimuli such as pressure and flow, which in turn reflects influence from the surrounding tissue. Here ...

  2. Caffeine's Vascular Mechanisms of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Echeverri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is the most widely consumed stimulating substance in the world. It is found in coffee, tea, soft drinks, chocolate, and many medications. Caffeine is a xanthine with various effects and mechanisms of action in vascular tissue. In endothelial cells, it increases intracellular calcium stimulating the production of nitric oxide through the expression of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase enzyme. Nitric oxide is diffused to the vascular smooth muscle cell to produce vasodilation. In vascular smooth muscle cells its effect is predominantly a competitive inhibition of phosphodiesterase, producing an accumulation of cAMP and vasodilation. In addition, it blocks the adenosine receptors present in the vascular tissue to produce vasoconstriction. In this paper the main mechanisms of action of caffeine on the vascular tissue are described, in which it is shown that caffeine has some cardiovascular properties and effects which could be considered beneficial.

  3. The Danish Vascular Registry, Karbase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, Nikolaj; Cerqueira, Charlotte; de la Motte, Louise

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The Danish Vascular Registry (DVR), Karbase, is monitoring arterial and advanced vein interventions conducted at all vascular departments in Denmark. The main aim of the DVR is to improve the quality of treatment for patients undergoing vascular surgery in Denmark by using the registry...... for quality assessment and research. STUDY POPULATION: All patients undergoing vascular interventions (surgical and endovascular) at any vascular department in Denmark are registered in the DVR. The DVR was initiated in 1989, and each year, ∼9,000 procedures are added. By January 2016, >180,000 procedures...... have been recorded. Since 2001, data completeness has been >90% (compared to the Danish National Patient Register). MAIN VARIABLES: Variables include information on descriptive patient data (ie, age, sex, height, and weight) and comorbidity (ie, previous cardiovascular disease and diabetes). Process...

  4. Social media in vascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indes, Jeffrey E; Gates, Lindsay; Mitchell, Erica L; Muhs, Bart E

    2013-04-01

    There has been a tremendous growth in the use of social media to expand the visibility of various specialties in medicine. The purpose of this paper is to describe the latest updates on some current applications of social media in the practice of vascular surgery as well as existing limitations of use. This investigation demonstrates that the use of social networking sites appears to have a positive impact on vascular practice, as is evident through the incorporation of this technology at the Cleveland Clinic and by the Society for Vascular Surgery into their approach to patient care and physician communication. Overall, integration of social networking technology has current and future potential to be used to promote goals, patient awareness, recruitment for clinical trials, and professionalism within the specialty of vascular surgery. Copyright © 2013 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The miniature accelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    The image that most people have of CERN is of its enormous accelerators and their capacity to accelerate particles to extremely high energies. But thanks to some cutting-edge studies on beam dynamics and radiofrequency technology, along with innovative construction techniques, teams at CERN have now created the first module of a brand-new accelerator, which will be just 2 metres long. The potential uses of this miniature accelerator will include deployment in hospitals for the production of medical isotopes and the treatment of cancer. It’s a real David-and-Goliath story.   Serge Mathot, in charge of the construction of the "mini-RFQ", pictured with the first of the four modules that will make up the miniature accelerator. The miniature accelerator consists of a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ), a component found at the start of all proton accelerator chains around the world, from the smallest to the largest. The LHC is designed to produce very high-intensity beams ...

  6. Multicavity proton cyclotron accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Hirshfield

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A mechanism for acceleration of protons is described, in which energy gain occurs near cyclotron resonance as protons drift through a sequence of rotating-mode TE_{111} cylindrical cavities in a strong nearly uniform axial magnetic field. Cavity resonance frequencies decrease in sequence from one another with a fixed frequency interval Δf between cavities, so that synchronism can be maintained between the rf fields and proton bunches injected at intervals of 1/Δf. An example is presented in which a 122 mA, 1 MeV proton beam is accelerated to 961 MeV using a cascade of eight cavities in an 8.1 T magnetic field, with the first cavity resonant at 120 MHz and with Δf=8 MHz. Average acceleration gradient exceeds 40 MV/m, average effective shunt impedance is 223 MΩ/m, but maximum surface field in the cavities does not exceed 7.2 MV/m. These features occur because protons make many orbital turns in each cavity and thus experience acceleration from each cavity field many times. Longitudinal and transverse stability appear to be intrinsic properties of the acceleration mechanism, and an example to illustrate this is presented. This acceleration concept could be developed into a proton accelerator for a high-power neutron spallation source, such as that required for transmutation of nuclear waste or driving a subcritical fission burner, provided a number of significant practical issues can be addressed.

  7. Noninfarct vascular dementia and Alzheimer dementia spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, V Olga; Gillie, Edward X; Smith, Joseph A

    2005-03-15

    Vascular dementia is an overarching superordinate category of which multiinfarct vascular dementia is only one subtype. To contribute to the definition of vascular dementia, method involved investigation of mental status, oral language and comprehension in 81 consecutive vascular patients comprising two vascular samples: cerebral infarct sample (n=43) and cerebral noninfarct sample (n=38). To determine baseline, method also involved investigation of 36 demographically equivalent normal elderly. Results indicate both vascular samples performed significantly worse than normal elderly. Results further indicate there were no robust, reliable, significant differences between cerebral infarct and cerebral noninfarct patients. The lack of significant differences between cerebral infarct and cerebral noninfarct vascular samples brings into focus the ambiguous transition between diffuse, generalized disease and the multifocality underlying the vascular dementia-Alzheimer dementia spectrum. Cross-cutting infarct and noninfarct vascular populations were vascular factors of arteriosclerosis, abnormal blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, abnormal electrocardiogram, peripheral vascular disease, and other variables implicated in the distal causality of both infarct and noninfarct vascular dementias. Results indicate cerebral infarction is not the only path to the final common phenotype of vascular dementia. Vascular dementia is reconceptualized so as to include noninfarct vascular dementia: vascular dementia caused by underlying vascular factors other than cerebral infarction. It is suggested that one form of the subtype of noninfarct vascular dementia is Alzheimer-type vascular dementia.

  8. Direct Laser Acceleration in Laser Wakefield Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, J. L.; Froula, D. H.; Marsh, K. A.; Joshi, C.; Lemos, N.

    2017-10-01

    The direct laser acceleration (DLA) of electrons in a laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) has been investigated. We show that when there is a significant overlap between the drive laser and the trapped electrons in a LWFA cavity, the accelerating electrons can gain energy from the DLA mechanism in addition to LWFA. The properties of the electron beams produced in a LWFA, where the electrons are injected by ionization injection, have been investigated using particle-in-cell (PIC) code simulations. Particle tracking was used to demonstrate the presence of DLA in LWFA. Further PIC simulations comparing LWFA with and without DLA show that the presence of DLA can lead to electron beams that have maximum energies that exceed the estimates given by the theory for the ideal blowout regime. The magnitude of the contribution of DLA to the energy gained by the electron was found to be on the order of the LWFA contribution. The presence of DLA in a LWFA can also lead to enhanced betatron oscillation amplitudes and increased divergence in the direction of the laser polarization. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  9. RF linear accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Wangler, Thomas P

    2008-01-01

    Thomas P. Wangler received his B.S. degree in physics from Michigan State University, and his Ph.D. degree in physics and astronomy from the University of Wisconsin. After postdoctoral appointments at the University of Wisconsin and Brookhaven National Laboratory, he joined the staff of Argonne National Laboratory in 1966, working in the fields of experimental high-energy physics and accelerator physics. He joined the Accelerator Technology Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1979, where he specialized in high-current beam physics and linear accelerator design and technology. In 2007

  10. Confronting Twin Paradox Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Thomas W.

    2016-05-01

    The resolution to the classic twin paradox in special relativity rests on the asymmetry of acceleration. Yet most students are not exposed to a satisfactory analysis of what exactly happens during the acceleration phase that results in the nonaccelerated observer's more rapid aging. The simple treatment presented here offers both graphical and quantitative solutions to the problem, leading to the correct result that the acceleration-induced age gap is 2Lβ years when the one-way distance L is expressed in light-years and velocity β ≡v/c .

  11. Accelerator Production of Radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlyer, David J.; Ruth, Thomas J.

    2012-06-01

    While many radioactive isotopes in use today are found in nature, many more are artificially produced by irradiating target materials with nuclear particles. Two different technologies can provide the energetic particles needed: nuclear reactors, which produce a flux of neutrons, and particle accelerators, which produce a flux of charged particles. This chapter will deal with the important aspects of the production of radionuclides with accelerators, along with some details on their applications, commercially-available accelerator systems used for this purpose, and the size of the equipment business.

  12. Non-accelerator experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldhaber, M.

    1986-01-01

    This report discusses several topics which can be investigated without the use of accelerators. Topics covered are: (1) proton decay, (2) atmospheric neutrinos, (3) neutrino detection, (4) muons from Cygnus X-3, and (5) the double-beta decay.

  13. Macromolecular ion accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yun-Fei; Lin, Jung-Lee; Lai, Szu-Hsueh; Chu, Ming-Lee; Wang, Yi-Sheng; Chen, Chung-Hsuan

    2012-07-03

    Presented herein are the development of macromolecular ion accelerator (MIA) and the results obtained by MIA. This new instrument utilizes a consecutive series of planar electrodes for the purpose of facilitating stepwise acceleration. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is employed to generate singly charged macromolecular ions. A regular Z-gap microchannel plate (MCP) detector is mounted at the end of the accelerator to record the ion signals. In this work, we demonstrated the detection of ions with the mass-to-charge (m/z) ratio reaching 30,000,000. Moreover, we showed that singly charged biomolecular ions can be accelerated with the voltage approaching 1 MV, offering the evidence that macromolecular ions can possess much higher kinetic energy than ever before.

  14. The next big accelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    Cramer, J G

    2002-01-01

    Accelerator physics in the US has been devastated by the cancellation of two high-energy physics colliders facilities. However there are future plans. A suggestion is made to build the new collider in the Australian outback.

  15. Accelerated learning in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Capacci Carneal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Most accelerated learning (AL programmes are ‘catch up’ initiatives to assist out-of-school youth into formal education. But what happens when adults join and complete AL classes?

  16. DIELECTRIC WALL ACCELERATOR TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampayan, S; Caporaso, G; Chen, Y; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Holmes, C; Nelson, S; Poole, B; Rhodes, M; Sanders, D; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J

    2007-10-18

    The dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) is a compact pulsed power device where the pulse forming lines, switching, and vacuum wall are integrated into a single compact geometry. For this effort, we initiated a extensive compact pulsed power development program and have pursued the study of switching (gas, oil, laser induced surface flashover and photoconductive), dielectrics (ceramics and nanoparticle composites), pulse forming line topologies (asymmetric and symmetric Blumleins and zero integral pulse forming lines), and multilayered vacuum insulator (HGI) technology. Finally, we fabricated an accelerator cell for test on ETAII (a 5.5 MeV, 2 kA, 70 ns pulsewidth electron beam accelerator). We review our past results and report on the progress of accelerator cell testing.

  17. Rejuvenating CERN's Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    In the coming years and especially in 2005, CERN's accelerators are going to receive an extensive renovation programme to ensure they will perform reliably and effectively when the LHC comes into service.

  18. SPS accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    View towards the downstream end of one of the SPS accelerating cavities (200 MHz, travelling wave structure). See 7603195 and 8011289 for more details, 7411032 for the travelling wave structure, and also 8104138.

  19. Linear Accelerator (LINAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... View full size with caption Related Articles and Media External Beam Therapy (EBT) Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) Image-guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) and Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) Images related to Linear Accelerator Sponsored ...

  20. Joint International Accelerator School

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    2014-01-01

    The CERN and US Particle Accelerator Schools recently organised a Joint International Accelerator School on Beam Loss and Accelerator Protection, held at the Hyatt Regency Hotel, Newport Beach, California, USA from 5-14 November 2014. This Joint School was the 13th in a series of such schools, which started in 1985 and also involves the accelerator communities in Japan and Russia.   Photo courtesy of Alfonse Pham, Michigan State University.   The school attracted 58 participants representing 22 different nationalities, with around half from Europe and the other half from Asia and the Americas. The programme comprised 26 lectures, each of 90 minutes, and 13 hours of case study. The students were given homework each day and had an opportunity to sit a final exam, which counted towards university credit. Feedback from the participants was extremely positive, praising the expertise and enthusiasm of the lecturers, as well as the high standard and quality of their lectures. Initial dis...

  1. Amps particle accelerator definition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellen, J. M., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The Particle Accelerator System of the AMPS (Atmospheric, Magnetospheric, and Plasmas in Space) payload is a series of charged particle accelerators to be flown with the Space Transportation System Shuttle on Spacelab missions. In the configuration presented, the total particle accelerator system consists of an energetic electron beam, an energetic ion accelerator, and both low voltage and high voltage plasma acceleration devices. The Orbiter is illustrated with such a particle accelerator system.

  2. LHCb GPU Acceleration Project

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)744808; Campora Perez, Daniel Hugo; Neufeld, Niko; Vilasis Cardona, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb detector is due to be upgraded for processing high-luminosity collisions, which will increase the load on its computation infrastructure from 100 GB/s to 4 TB/s, encouraging us to look for new ways of accelerating the Online reconstruction. The Coprocessor Manager is our new framework for integrating LHCb’s existing computation pipelines with massively parallel algorithms running on GPUs and other accelerators. This paper describes the system and analyzes its performance.

  3. Accelerating News Issue 2

    CERN Document Server

    Kahle, K; Wildner, E

    2012-01-01

    In this summer issue we look at how developments in collimator materials could have applications in aerospace and beyond, and how Polish researchers are harnessing accelerators for medical and industrial uses. We see how the LHC luminosity upgrade is linking with European industry and US researchers, and how the neutrino oscillation community is progressing. We find out the mid-term status of TIARA-PP and how it is mapping European accelerator education resources.

  4. Accelerated Evidence Search Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Accelerated Evidence Search Report IMPORTANT INFORMATIVE STATEMENTS Accelerated Multi-Camera Evidence Search and Retrieval CSSP Project #: CSSP -2013...CD-1063 was supported by the Canadian Safety and Security Program ( CSSP ) which is led by Defence Research and Development Canada’s Centre for...Border Technology Division The CSSP is a federally-funded program to strengthen Canada’s ability to anticipate, prevent/mitigate, prepare for, respond to

  5. Contemporary vascular smartphone medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Thomas; O'Neill, Stephen; Johns, Neil; Brady, Richard R W

    2013-08-01

    Use of smartphones and medical mHealth applications (apps) within the clinical environment provides a potential means for delivering elements of vascular care. This article reviews the contemporary availability of apps specifically themed to major vascular diseases and the opportunities and concerns regarding their integration into practice. Smartphone apps relating to major vascular diseases were identified from the app stores for the 6 most popular smartphone platforms, including iPhone, Android, Blackberry, Nokia, Windows, and Samsung. Search terms included peripheral artery (arterial) disease, varicose veins, aortic aneurysm, carotid artery disease, amputation, ulcers, hyperhydrosis, thoracic outlet syndrome, vascular malformation, and lymphatic disorders. Forty-nine vascular-themed apps were identified. Sixteen (33%) were free of charge. Fifteen apps (31%) had customer satisfaction ratings, but only 3 (6%) had greater than 100. Only 13 apps (27%) had documented medical professional involvement in their design or content. The integration of apps into the delivery of care has the potential to benefit vascular health care workers and patients. However, high-quality apps designed by clinicians with vascular expertise are currently lacking and represent an area of concern in the mHealth market. Improvement in the quality and reliability of these apps will require the development of robust regulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Depression in vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naarding, Paul; de Koning, Inge; dan Kooten, Fop; Dippel, Diederik W J; Janzing, Joost G E; van der Mast, Rose C; Koudstaal, Peter J

    2003-04-01

    To study the presence of different dimensions of depression in subjects with vascular dementia. After a stroke, cognitive, affective and behavioural disturbances are common. It has been suggested that the nature of affective symptomatology can help to differentiate organic from psychological depression. Cognitive and affective symptoms were assessed in 78 stroke patients and a principal component analysis was performed on these symptoms. Also, a discriminant analysis was carried out to establish the contribution of different symptoms on the diagnosis 'depressive disorder' and 'dementia'. (1) Principal component analysis revealed three distinct sub-syndromes: one with predominantly mood symptoms, one with essentially psychomotor symptoms, and one with vegetative symptoms; (2) mood, psychomotor and vegetative symptoms were all independently and strongly related to a diagnosis of major depressive disorder according to DSM-III-R criteria; (3) the psychomotor factor was also firmly associated with dementia; and (4) discriminant analysis gave further support for our conclusion that some of the depressive features, in particular the psychomotor factor, are at least partly related to the organic brain damage from stroke. The results indicate that different dimensions of depression could be discerned in a group of stroke patients and that the symptom profile of depression in these patients can be affected by the presence of dementia. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Epigenetic Diabetic Vascular Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ahmadzadeh-Amiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic vascular complications (DVC influence several vital organ systems including cardiovascular, renal, ocular and nervous systems making it a major public health problem. Although extensive researches were performed in this field, the exact mechanisms responsible for these organ damages in diabetes remain obscure. Several metabolic disturbances have been involved in its complication and change in genes associated with these pathways occurred. Gene expression to produce a biologically active protein can be controlled by transcriptional and translational alteration on the head of genes without change in nucleotide composition. These epigenetic adjustments are steady, but possibly reversible and can be transmitted to future generation. Gene expression can be regulated by three epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation, histone modifications and noncoding microRNAs (miRNAs activity. Epigenetic studies must be directed to better realize the role of epigenetic changes to the etiology of DVC and knowledge of epigenetic would play a pivotal role in the application of individualized medicine. Application and development of high technology sequencing combined with more sensitive and advanced methodologies for epigenome studying help to determine specific epigenetic events that stimulate gene responses in patients with diabetes mellitus.

  8. [Extremity vascular traumas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Romeo; Rutolo, Ferdinando; Cozzolino, Giuseppe; D'Amario, Vanessa; Spigonardo, Francesca

    2005-01-01

    The Authors report on a series of 61 vascular traumas treated over a 7 years, separated in two groups. The first one includes 35 cases, that are street accidents, on the work and gunshot wounds. The second group includes 26 iatrogenic causes due to arterial catheterism. All patients underwent ecocolor Doppler directly in the operating theatre and, when this diagnostic procedure was not enough, pre-operating angiography was used (10 cases of complex traumas of the lower limb). One death was reported far each groups (3.27%). In 55 cases (90.1%), limb savage was achieved. In the others 4 (6.93%) of the first group, limb demolition was necessary for different causes. In the first group, severe neurological sequelaes were observed in 2 cases and motor deficits caused by tendon lesions in 1 case. The good results obtained are the result of the short ischemic interval between the acute event and treatment, thanks to a multidisciplinary approach of a specific equipe, that is rapid as possible.

  9. Vascular injuries during gynecological laparoscopy: the vascular surgeon's advice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Barbosa Barros

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Iatrogenic vascular problems due to laparoscopy are a well recognized problem and lead to significant repercussions. In this context, a ten-year review of cases topic is presented, based on experience gained while heading two important vascular surgery services. CASES: Five patients with vascular injuries during elective laparoscopy are described. These patients presented with seven lesions of iliac vessels. All cases were evaluated immediately and required laparotomy, provisional hemostasis and urgent attendance by a vascular surgeon. Direct suturing was performed in three cases. One aortoiliac bypass and one ilioiliac reversed venous graft were made. Venous lesions were sutured. One case of a point-like perforation of the small bowel was found. There were no deaths and no complications during the postoperative period. DISCUSSION: Important points on this subject are made, and advice is given. There needs to be immediate recognition of the vascular injury, and expert repair by a vascular surgeon is recommended, in order to significantly reduce the degree of complications.

  10. Trauma vascular, visión del cirujano vascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. D. Cristián Salas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El 3% de todas las lesiones en trauma tiene un componente vascular. Con los conflictos armados del siglo pasado se lograron grandes avances en este campo. A partir de la Guerra de Vietnam gracias a las mejoras en el manejo prehospitalario, traslado de pacientes, y avances en técnica quirúrgica se lograron tasas de sobrevida y de amputaciones que se han mantenido estables hasta la fecha. El diagnóstico de lesiones vasculares en extremidades se realiza con el examen físico, sin embargo las lesiones de vasos torácicos y abdominales requieren de imágenes de apoyo, siempre que el paciente se encuentre estabilizado, generalmente tomografía axial computada. La mayoría de las lesiones vasculares son por trauma penetrante, comprometiendo principalmente las extremidades. Con el desarrollo de los procedimientos invasivos vasculares en los últimos años se ha observado un aumento de lesiones vasculares iatrogénicas. Hoy en día muchos pacientes con trauma vascular son manejados por vía endovascular.

  11. Role of preoperative vascular ultrasonography in hemodialysis vascular access operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siribumrungwong, Boonying; Tomtitchong, Prakitpunthu; Kanpirom, Kitti

    2010-12-01

    Preoperative vascular mapping increase rate of successful hemodialysis vascular access operation. Several studies recommend using this procedure routinely. But some studies recommend using this procedure in selected patients. So this study aims to determine the impacts of preoperative vascular mapping in unfavorable-examined patients. 55 patients were studied retrospectively from August 2006 to October 2009. Before April 2008, the operative plans were based on physical examination (group 1). After April 2008, the surgeon did preoperative vascular mapping prior to the operation in unfavorable-examined patients (group 2). The results were compared. There were high maturation rates in favorable-examined patients. In unfavorable-examined patients, preoperative vascular mapping can identified nonpalpable favorable vein which successful maturation of 18.75%. Complementary duplex scan decrease rate of unsuccessful operation significantly (p = 0.037) but does not increase maturation rate. Careful physical examination is important part before operation. Preoperative vascular mapping has benefit only in patients with unfavorable-examined patients. It finds some nonpalpable favorable vein and decrease unsuccessful exploration.

  12. Diabetes and Retinal Vascular Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui Seok Shin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes predominantly affects the microvascular circulation of the retina resulting in a range of structural changes unique to this tissue. These changes ultimately lead to altered permeability, hyperproliferation of endothelial cells and edema, and abnormal vascularization of the retina with resulting loss of vision. Enhanced production of inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress are primary insults with significant contribution to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR. We have determined the identity of the retinal vascular cells affected by hyperglycemia, and have delineated the cell autonomous impact of high glucose on function of these cells. We discuss some of the high glucose specific changes in retinal vascular cells and their contribution to retinal vascular dysfunction. This knowledge provides novel insight into the molecular and cellular defects contributing to the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy, and will aid in the development of innovative, as well as target specific therapeutic approaches for prevention and treatment of DR.

  13. ( Elaeis guineensis Jacq ) vascular wilt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effet de la jachére sur l'expérimentation de la fusariose vasculaire du palmier à huile ( Elaeis guineensis Jacq ) : Effects of the fallow in the expression of oil-palm ( Elaeis guineensis Jacq ) vascular wilt.

  14. Small type accelerator. Try for accelerator driven system

    CERN Document Server

    Mori, Y

    2003-01-01

    FFAG (Fixed-field alternating gradient) accelerator for accelerator driven subcritical reactor, which aims to change from long-lived radioactive waste to short-lived radioactivity, is introduced. It is ring accelerator. The performance needed is proton as accelerator particle, 10MW (total) beam power, about 1GeV beam energy, >30% power efficiency and continuous beam. The feature of FFAG accelerator is constant magnetic field. PoP (Proof-of-principle)-FFAG accelerator, radial type, was run at first in Japan in 2000. The excursion is about some ten cm. In principle, beam can be injected and extracted at any place of ring. The 'multi-fish' acceleration can accelerate beams to 100% duty by repeating acceleration. 150MeV-FFAG accelerator has been started since 2001. It tried to practical use, for example, treatment of cancer. (S.Y.)

  15. Heritability of Retinal Vascular Fractals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergmann, Anna Stage; Broe, Rebecca; Kessel, Line

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the genetic contribution to the pattern of retinal vascular branching expressed by its fractal dimension. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 50 monozygotic and 49 dizygotic, same-sex twin pairs aged 20 to 46 years. In 50°, disc-centered fundus photographs, the reti...... vasculature may affect the retinal response to potential vascular disease in later life....

  16. The Danish Vascular Registry, Karbase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldrup, Nikolaj; Cerqueira, Charlotte; de la Motte, Louise; Rathenborg, Lisbet Knudsen; Hansen, Allan K

    2016-01-01

    Aim The Danish Vascular Registry (DVR), Karbase, is monitoring arterial and advanced vein interventions conducted at all vascular departments in Denmark. The main aim of the DVR is to improve the quality of treatment for patients undergoing vascular surgery in Denmark by using the registry for quality assessment and research. Study population All patients undergoing vascular interventions (surgical and endovascular) at any vascular department in Denmark are registered in the DVR. The DVR was initiated in 1989, and each year, ∼9,000 procedures are added. By January 2016, >180,000 procedures have been recorded. Since 2001, data completeness has been >90% (compared to the Danish National Patient Register). Main variables Variables include information on descriptive patient data (ie, age, sex, height, and weight) and comorbidity (ie, previous cardiovascular disease and diabetes). Process variable includes waiting time (time from event to medical contact and treatment) and the type of procedures conducted. Outcome variables for in-hospital complications (ie, wound complications, myocardial infarction, stroke, amputation, respiratory complications, and renal insufficiency) and 30-day patency are submitted. Variables for medical treatment (antithrombotic and statin treatment), amputation, and survival are extracted from nationwide, administrative registers. Conclusion The DVR reports outcome on key indicators for monitoring the quality at all vascular departments in Denmark for the purpose of quality improvement. Furthermore, data are available for research and are being used in international collaborations on changes in clinical practices. PMID:27822118

  17. [Cutaneous vascular anomalies in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, L; Kacenelenbogen, N

    2015-09-01

    Vascular anomalies, which are erroneously categorized under the term angiomas, are a highly heterogeneous group of lesions that are poorly understood and affect a mean of 5 to 10 % of children. The fortuitous discovery of propranolol's efficacy in one of these entities has made them a topical issue. The paper's main objective is to inform family doctors of the various types of vascular anomalies, clarify their classification, and provide a common terminology. Its secondary objective is to provide a decision tree that enables primary care doctors to avoid diagnostic pitfalls, successfully detect cases, and optimize management. Systematic review. According to a recent study, 71,3 % of publications use the term hemangioma erroneously, regardless of the authors' field. The key for family doctors is to use one international classification only, that of the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA), in order to facilitate management and comprehension between the different healthcare levels. The diagnosis of vascular anomalies is clinical in 90 % of cases, so all family doctors can, whilst using a decision tree, diagnose a vascular anomaly and refer only those that are complex for specialist care. The most common vascular anomaly is infantile hemangioma in infants, which spontaneously regresses around the age of 5-7 years in 90 % of cases. Watchful waiting and regular follow-up suffice, therefore, in such settings.

  18. Displacement of plasma protein and conduction velocity in rats under action of acceleration forces and hypokinesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranski, S.; Edelwejn, Z.; Wojtkowiak, M.

    1980-01-01

    The permeability of capillary vessels was investigated in order to determine if acceleration alone or following prolonged hypokinesia would induce changes in the vascular wall leading to the penetration by l-albumins and/or proteins with larger molecules. In rats undergoing action of +5 Gz accelerations, no increase in vascular permeability, as tested with the use of (Cr-5k)-globulin, was demostrated. In rats immobilized for 4 weeks before centrifugation, rather weak migration of (Cr-51)-globulin from the vessels was observed. Immobilization resulted also in lowering of conduction velocity in the sciatic nerve.

  19. Accelerators in Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kailas, S

    2002-01-01

    Accelerators built for basic research in frontier areas of science have become important and inevitable tools in many areas of science and technology. Accelerators are examples of science driven high technology development. Accelerators are used for a wide ranging applications, besides basic research. Accelerator based multidisciplinary research holds great promise

  20. Plasma-based accelerator structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Carl B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Plasma-based accelerators have the ability to sustain extremely large accelerating gradients, with possible high-energy physics applications. This dissertation further develops the theory of plasma-based accelerators by addressing three topics: the performance of a hollow plasma channel as an accelerating structure, the generation of ultrashort electron bunches, and the propagation of laser pulses is underdense plasmas.

  1. Particle accelerator physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wiedemann, Helmut

    2007-01-01

    Particle Accelerator Physics is an in-depth and comprehensive introduction to the field of high-energy particle acceleration and beam dynamics. Part I gathers the basic tools, recalling the essentials of electrostatics and electrodynamics as well as of particle dynamics in electromagnetic fields. Part II is an extensive primer in beam dynamics, followed in Part III by the introduction and description of the main beam parameters. Part IV is devoted to the treatment of perturbations in beam dynamics. Part V discusses the details of charged particle accleration. Part VI and Part VII introduce the more advanced topics of coupled beam dynamics and the description of very intense beams. Part VIII is an exhaustive treatment of radiation from accelerated charges and introduces important sources of coherent radiation such as synchrotrons and free-electron lasers. Part IX collects the appendices gathering useful mathematical and physical formulae, parameters and units. Solutions to many end-of-chapter problems are give...

  2. Quasar Jet Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polito, Nicholas; Hough, David

    2009-10-01

    We observed radio jets in six lobe-dominated quasars (LDQs) from 1995 to 2008 using the NRAO VLBA at 8.4 and 15 GHz. These observations have tracked jet component positions and velocities over that time period. There is a correlation between apparent jet speed and projected core distance in these LDQs at greater than 99 per cent confidence levels (Hough 2008, Extragalactic Jets, eds: Rector and DeYoung, ASP, p. 274). Four of our sources show this effect particularly strongly. We only tracked single jet components over relatively short distances, but the assumption of a unique velocity profile allows us to study component motion on an effective timescale of approximately 20-50 years. Results for 3C207 and 3C263 show a good fit using a constant acceleration model. The cause of such acceleration is still unknown, though ``magnetic acceleration'' by a gradient in magnetic field pressure is one possibility.

  3. Superconducting Accelerator Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Mess, K H; Wolff, S

    1996-01-01

    The main topic of the book are the superconducting dipole and quadrupole magnets needed in high-energy accelerators and storage rings for protons, antiprotons or heavy ions. The basic principles of low-temperature superconductivity are outlined with special emphasis on the effects which are relevant for accelerator magnets. Properties and fabrication methods of practical superconductors are described. Analytical methods for field calculation and multipole expansion are presented for coils without and with iron yoke. The effect of yoke saturation and geometric distortions on field quality is studied. Persistent magnetization currents in the superconductor and eddy currents the copper part of the cable are analyzed in detail and their influence on field quality and magnet performance is investigated. Superconductor stability, quench origins and propagation and magnet protection are addressed. Some important concepts of accelerator physics are introduced which are needed to appreciate the demanding requirements ...

  4. Accelerating the culture change!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klunk, S W; Panetta, J; Wooten, J

    1996-11-01

    Exide Electronics, a major supplier of uninterruptible power system equipment, embarked on a journey of changing a culture to improve quality, enhance customer responsiveness, and reduce costs. This case study examines the evolution of change over a period of seven years, with particular emphasis on the most recent years, 1992 through 1995. The article focuses on the Raleigh plant operations and describes how each succeeding year built on the successes and fixed the shortcomings of the prior years to accelerate the culture change, including corrective action and continuous improvement processes, organizational structures, expectations, goals, achievements, and pitfalls. The real challenge to changing the culture was structuring a dynamic approach to accelerate change! The presentation also examines how the evolutionary process itself can be created and accelerated through ongoing communication, regular feedback of progress and goals, constant evaluation and direction of the process, and measuring and paying for performance.

  5. Artificial seismic acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felzer, Karen R.; Page, Morgan T.; Michael, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    In their 2013 paper, Bouchon, Durand, Marsan, Karabulut, 3 and Schmittbuhl (BDMKS) claim to see significant accelerating seismicity before M 6.5 interplate mainshocks, but not before intraplate mainshocks, reflecting a preparatory process before large events. We concur with the finding of BDMKS that their interplate dataset has significantly more fore- shocks than their intraplate dataset; however, we disagree that the foreshocks are predictive of large events in particular. Acceleration in stacked foreshock sequences has been seen before and has been explained by the cascade model, in which earthquakes occasionally trigger aftershocks larger than themselves4. In this model, the time lags between the smaller mainshocks and larger aftershocks follow the inverse power law common to all aftershock sequences, creating an apparent acceleration when stacked (see Supplementary Information).

  6. Microelectromechanical acceleration-sensing apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Robb M. (Albuquerque, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Polosky, Marc A. (Albuquerque, NM); Hoke, Darren A. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, George E. (Rio Rancho, NM)

    2006-12-12

    An acceleration-sensing apparatus is disclosed which includes a moveable shuttle (i.e. a suspended mass) and a latch for capturing and holding the shuttle when an acceleration event is sensed above a predetermined threshold level. The acceleration-sensing apparatus provides a switch closure upon sensing the acceleration event and remains latched in place thereafter. Examples of the acceleration-sensing apparatus are provided which are responsive to an acceleration component in a single direction (i.e. a single-sided device) or to two oppositely-directed acceleration components (i.e. a dual-sided device). A two-stage acceleration-sensing apparatus is also disclosed which can sense two acceleration events separated in time. The acceleration-sensing apparatus of the present invention has applications, for example, in an automotive airbag deployment system.

  7. Monoenergetic laser wakefield acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Andreev

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Three dimensional test particle simulations are applied to optimization of the plasma-channeled laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA operating in a weakly nonlinear regime. Electron beam energy spread, emittance, and luminosity depend upon the proportion of the electron bunch size to the plasma wavelength. This proportion tends to improve with the laser wavelength increase. We simulate a prospective two-stage ∼1GeV LWFA with controlled energy spread and emittance. The input parameters correspond to realistic capabilities of the BNL Accelerator Test Facility that features a picosecond-terawatt CO_{2} laser and a high-brightness electron gun.

  8. Shielding high energy accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Stevenson, Graham Roger

    2001-01-01

    After introducing the subject of shielding high energy accelerators, point source, line-of-sight models, and in particular the Moyer model. are discussed. Their use in the shielding of proton and electron accelerators is demonstrated and their limitations noted. especially in relation to shielding in the forward direction provided by large, flat walls. The limitations of reducing problems to those using it cylindrical geometry description are stressed. Finally the use of different estimators for predicting dose is discussed. It is suggested that dose calculated from track-length estimators will generally give the most satisfactory estimate. (9 refs).

  9. Accelerating News Issue 4

    CERN Document Server

    Szeberenyi, A; Wildner, E

    2012-01-01

    In this winter issue, we are very pleased to announce the approval of EuCARD-2 by the European Commission. We look at the conclusions of EUROnu in proposing future neutrino facilities at CERN, a new milestone reached by CLIC and progress on the SPARC upgrade using C-band technology. We also report on recent events: second Joint HiLumi LHC-LARP Annual Meeting and workshop on Superconducting technologies for the Next Generation of Accelerators aiming at closer collaboration with industry. The launch of the Accelerators for Society brochure is also highlighted.

  10. Vascular endothelial growth factor coordinates islet innervation via vascular scaffolding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert, Rachel B.; Cai, Qing; Hong, Ji-Young; Plank, Jennifer L.; Aamodt, Kristie; Prasad, Nripesh; Aramandla, Radhika; Dai, Chunhua; Levy, Shawn E.; Pozzi, Ambra; Labosky, Patricia A.; Wright, Christopher V. E.; Brissova, Marcela; Powers, Alvin C.

    2014-01-01

    Neurovascular alignment is a common anatomical feature of organs, but the mechanisms leading to this arrangement are incompletely understood. Here, we show that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling profoundly affects both vascularization and innervation of the pancreatic islet. In mature islets, nerves are closely associated with capillaries, but the islet vascularization process during embryonic organogenesis significantly precedes islet innervation. Although a simple neuronal meshwork interconnects the developing islet clusters as they begin to form at E14.5, the substantial ingrowth of nerve fibers into islets occurs postnatally, when islet vascularization is already complete. Using genetic mouse models, we demonstrate that VEGF regulates islet innervation indirectly through its effects on intra-islet endothelial cells. Our data indicate that formation of a VEGF-directed, intra-islet vascular plexus is required for development of islet innervation, and that VEGF-induced islet hypervascularization leads to increased nerve fiber ingrowth. Transcriptome analysis of hypervascularized islets revealed an increased expression of extracellular matrix components and axon guidance molecules, with these transcripts being enriched in the islet-derived endothelial cell population. We propose a mechanism for coordinated neurovascular development within pancreatic islets, in which endocrine cell-derived VEGF directs the patterning of intra-islet capillaries during embryogenesis, forming a scaffold for the postnatal ingrowth of essential autonomic nerve fibers. PMID:24574008

  11. Targeting local vascular and systemic consequences of inflammation on vascular and cardiac valve calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénaut, Lucie; Sanchez-Nino, Maria Dolores; Aldamiz-Echevarría Castillo, Gonzalo; Sanz, Ana B; Ortiz, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac valve calcification and vascular calcification (VC) are associated with cardiovascular mortality in the general population and in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD, diabetes mellitus, and atherosclerosis are among the causes of systemic inflammation that are associated with VC. This review collates clinical and experimental evidence that inflammation accelerates VC progression. Specifically, we review the actions of key pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammation-related transcription factors on VC, and the role played by senescence. Inflammatory cytokines, such as the TNF superfamily and IL-6 superfamily, and inflammation-related transcription factor NF-κB promote calcification in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells, valvular interstitial cells, or experimental animal models through direct effects, but also indirectly by decreasing circulating Fetuin A or Klotho levels. Experimental evidence suggests a causal link between inflammation and VC that would change the clinical approach to prevention and treatment of VC. However, the molecular basis remains unclear and little is known about VC in humans treated with drugs targeting inflammatory cytokines. The effect of biologicals targeting TNF-α, RANKL, IL-6, and other inflammatory mediators on VC, in addition to the impact of dietary phosphate in patients with chronic systemic inflammation, requires study.

  12. Laser Wakefield Accelerators

    OpenAIRE

    Najmudin, Z.

    2017-01-01

    The one-dimensional wakefield generation equations are solved for increasing levels of non-linearity, to demonstrate how they contribute to the overall behaviour of a non-linear wakefield in a plasma. The effect of laser guiding is also studied as a way to increase the interaction length of a laser wakefield accelerator.

  13. The CERN Accelerator School

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

      Introduction to accelerator physics This course will take place in Istanbul, Turkey, from 18 to 30 September 2016. It is now open for registration, and further information can be found here: http://cas.web.cern.ch/cas/Turkey-2016/Turkey-advert.html

  14. SPS accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    See photo 8302397: View from the downstream end of one of the SPS accelerating cavities (200 MHz, travelling wave structure). See 7603195 and 8011289 for more details, 7411032 for the travelling wave structure, and also 8104138. Giacomo Primadei stands on the left.

  15. The CERN accelerator complex

    CERN Multimedia

    Mobs, Esma Anais

    2016-01-01

    The LHC is the last ring (dark blue line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.

  16. The CERN accelerator complex

    CERN Multimedia

    Haffner, Julie

    2013-01-01

    The LHC is the last ring (dark grey line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.

  17. The CERN accelerator complex

    CERN Multimedia

    Christiane Lefèvre

    2008-01-01

    The LHC is the last ring (dark grey line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.

  18. Dissociation by acceleration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, K.; Zamaklar, m.

    2008-01-01

    We show that mesons, described using rotating relativistic strings in a holographic setup, undergo dissociation when their acceleration 'a' exceeds a value which scales with the angular momentum 'J' as a_max ~ \\sqrt{T_s/J}, where 'T_s' is the string tension.

  19. SPS accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    One of the SPS acceleration cavities (200 MHz, travelling wave structure). On the ceiling one sees the coaxial transmission line which feeds the power from the amplifier, located in a surface building above, to the upstream end of the cavity. See 7603195 for more details, 7411032 for the travelling wave structure, and also 8104138, 8302397.

  20. SPS accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    One of the SPS accelerating cavities (200 MHz, travelling wave structure). The power that is fed into the upstream end of the cavity is extracted at the downstream end and sent into a dump load. See 7603195 for more details, 7411032 for the travelling wave structure, and also 8011289, 8302397.

  1. The CERN Accelerator School

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction to accelerator physics This course will take place in Budapest, Hungary, from 2 to 14 October 2016. It is now open for registration and further information can be found at: http://cas.web.cern.ch/cas/Hungary2016/Hungary-advert.html and http://indico.cern.ch/event/532397/.

  2. Angular Accelerating White Light

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Significant interest has been devoted to tailoring optical fields that transversely accelerate during propagation in the form of Airy, Weber and Mathieu beams. In this work, the authors introduce a new type of optical field that exhibits controlled...

  3. Imaging of peripheral vascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Al-Qaisi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Mo Al-Qaisi1, David M Nott1, David H King1, Sam Kaddoura2, Mo Hamady31Charing Cross Hospital, London, UK; 2Royal Brompton Hospital, London, UK; 3St. Mary’s Hospital, London, UKAbstract: This illustrated review article gives an evidence-based update on the different modalities used for imaging peripheral vascular disease (duplex ultrasound, computed tomography angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, and digital subtraction angiography. After discussing the latest technological developments for each modality, their limitations are also highlighted. The evidence is presented for the various modalities’ roles in the imaging of peripheral vascular disease, including problem-solving applications. The strengths and weaknesses of each modality are therefore critically appraised, including the salient technological, clinical, and financial aspects. This review allows the general and specialist practitioner to make an informed decision on how best to deploy imaging tests in peripheral vascular disease as part of an evidence-based approach. The article concludes with a rational imaging algorithm for the investigation of peripheral vascular disease.Keywords: imaging, peripheral, vascular, duplex, angiography, arterial 

  4. Optimal treatment of vascular birthmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Jochen A; Dünne, Anja A; Lippert, Burkard M; Folz, Benedikt J

    2003-01-01

    Optimal functional and cosmetic outcomes for vascular lesions require a thorough preoperative diagnosis of vascular anomalies, since correct classification of each vascular lesion has a direct influence on the treatment of choice. Many different classification systems have been discussed controversially. Based on clinical practicality and significant accuracy of forecast with regard to the clinical course of a lesion, Mulliken and Glowacki's biologic classification gained most clinical relevance and has become accepted as the official classification scheme by the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA). Based on comprehensive description of relevant literature results, the current communication shall give an overview of differing, internationally accepted treatments. Although conservative management can be proposed for uncomplicated hemangiomas occurring in infancy, the proliferative progression of these lesions provides an adequate indication for treatment, while vascular malformations, which usually persist throughout life, always require therapeutic intervention if they start to cause clinical symptoms. Based on individual parameters (such as diameter, location and growth dynamics), different treatments, including cryotherapy, corticosteroids, laser therapy, sclerotherapy, surgery, and/or embolization, can be performed successfully. Currently, however, none of these treatments represents the solitary treatment of choice.

  5. Vascular calcification: Inducers and inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Donghyun, E-mail: dhlee@cau.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Integrative Engineering, Chung-Ang University, 221 Heukseok-Dong, Dongjak-Gu, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {center_dot} Types of vascular calcification processes. {center_dot} Inducers of vascular calcification. {center_dot} Inhibitors of vascular calcifications. {center_dot} Clinical utility for vascular calcification therapy. {center_dot} Implications for the development of new tissue engineering strategies. - Abstract: Unlike the traditional beliefs, there are mounting evidences suggesting that ectopic mineral depositions, including vascular calcification are mostly active processes, many times resembling that of the bone mineralization. Numbers of agents are involved in the differentiation of certain subpopulation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) into the osteoblast-like entity, and the activation and initiation of extracellular matrix ossification process. On the other hand, there are factors as well, that prevent such differentiation and ectopic calcium phosphate formation. In normal physiological environments, activities of such procalcific and anticalcific regulatory factors are in harmony, prohibiting abnormal calcification from occurring. However, in certain pathophysiological conditions, such as atherosclerosis, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and diabetes, such balances are altered, resulting in abnormal ectopic mineral deposition. Understanding the factors that regulate the formation and inhibition of ectopic mineral formation would be beneficial in the development of tissue engineering strategies for prevention and/or treatment of such soft-tissue calcification. Current review focuses on the factors that seem to be clinically relevant and/or could be useful in developing future tissue regeneration strategies. Clinical utilities and implications of such factors are also discussed.

  6. Trauma vascular, visión del cirujano vascular

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. D. Cristián Salas

    2011-01-01

    El 3% de todas las lesiones en trauma tiene un componente vascular. Con los conflictos armados del siglo pasado se lograron grandes avances en este campo. A partir de la Guerra de Vietnam gracias a las mejoras en el manejo prehospitalario, traslado de pacientes, y avances en técnica quirúrgica se lograron tasas de sobrevida y de amputaciones que se han mantenido estables hasta la fecha. El diagnóstico de lesiones vasculares en extremidades se realiza con el examen físico, sin embargo las lesi...

  7. Neurodegeneration in accelerated aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibye-Knudsen, Moren

    2016-11-01

    The growing proportion of elderly people represents an increasing economic burden, not least because of age-associated diseases that pose a significant cost to the health service. Finding possible interventions to age-associated disorders therefore have wide ranging implications. A number of genetically defined accelerated aging diseases have been characterized that can aid in our understanding of aging. Interestingly, all these diseases are associated with defects in the maintenance of our genome. A subset of these disorders, Cockayne syndrome, Xeroderma pigmentosum group A and ataxia-telangiectasia, show neurological involvement reminiscent of what is seen in primary human mitochondrial diseases. Mitochondria are the power plants of the cells converting energy stored in oxygen, sugar, fat, and protein into ATP, the energetic currency of our body. Emerging evidence has linked this organelle to aging and finding mitochondrial dysfunction in accelerated aging disorders thereby strengthens the mitochondrial theory of aging. This theory states that an accumulation of damage to the mitochondria may underlie the process of aging. Indeed, it appears that some accelerated aging disorders that show neurodegeneration also have mitochondrial dysfunction. The mitochondrial alterations may be secondary to defects in nuclear DNA repair. Indeed, nuclear DNA damage may lead to increased energy consumption, alterations in mitochondrial ATP production and defects in mitochondrial recycling, a term called mitophagy. These changes may be caused by activation of poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase 1 (PARP1), an enzyme that responds to DNA damage. Upon activation PARP1 utilizes key metabolites that attenuate pathways that are normally protective for the cell. Notably, pharmacological inhibition of PARP1 or reconstitution of the metabolites rescues the changes caused by PARP1 hyperactivation and in many cases reverse the phenotypes associated with accelerated aging. This implies that modulation

  8. Relativity and accelerator engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Schenefeld (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-09-15

    From a geometrical viewpoint, according to the theory of relativity, space and time constitute a four-dimensional continuum with pseudo-Euclidean structure. This has recently begun to be a practically important statement in accelerator physics. An X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) is in fact the best, exciting example of an engineering system where improvements in accelerator technology makes it possible to develop ultrarelativistic macroscopic objects with an internal fine structure, and the theory of relativity plays an essential role in their description. An ultrarelativistic electron bunch modulated at nanometer-scale in XFELs has indeed a macroscopic finite-size of order of 10 μm. Its internal, collective structure is characterized in terms of a wave number vector. Here we will show that a four-dimensional geometrical approach, unusual in accelerator physics, is needed to solve problems involving the emission of radiation from an ultrarelativistic modulated electron beam accelerating along a curved trajectory. We will see that relativistic kinematics enters XFEL physics in a most fundamental way through the so-called Wigner rotation of the modulation wave number vector, which is closely associated to the relativity of simultaneity. If not taken into account, relativistic kinematics effects would lead to a strong qualitative disagreement between theory and experiments. In this paper, several examples of relativistic kinematics effects, which are important for current and future XFEL operation, are studied. The theory of relativity is applied by providing details of the clock synchronization procedure within the laboratory frame. This approach, exploited here but unusual in literature, is rather ''practical'', and should be acceptable to accelerator physicists.

  9. Heritability of Retinal Vascular Fractals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergmann, Anna Stage; Broe, Rebecca; Kessel, Line

    2017-01-01

    , the branching pattern of the retinal vessels demonstrated a higher structural similarity in monozygotic than in dizygotic twin pairs. The retinal vascular fractal dimension was mainly determined by genetic factors, which accounted for 54% of the variation. The genetically predetermination of the retinal......Purpose: To determine the genetic contribution to the pattern of retinal vascular branching expressed by its fractal dimension. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 50 monozygotic and 49 dizygotic, same-sex twin pairs aged 20 to 46 years. In 50°, disc-centered fundus photographs......, the retinal vascular fractal dimension was measured using the box-counting method and compared within monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs using Pearson correlation coefficients. Falconer's formula and quantitative genetic models were used to determine the genetic component of variation. Results: The mean...

  10. [Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Ken

    2014-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are the two major forms of dementia in the elderly, and they had been separated categorically on the basis of pathogenetic mechanisms and clinical operationalized criteria. However, it was claimed that this strict separation might steered toward the overdiagnosis of vascular dementia, this dichotomy has been reevaluated in the light of recent epidemiological and neuropathological knowledge. Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is now considered as one of the vascular risk factors to the onset and evolution of Alzheimer's disease. Futhermore, the term "AD with CVD" has been used to classify patients fulfilling the clinical criteria for possible AD and who also present clinical or brain imaging evidence of relevant CVD.

  11. Nonlinear dynamics in particle accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Dilão, Rui

    1996-01-01

    This book is an introductory course to accelerator physics at the level of graduate students. It has been written for a large audience which includes users of accelerator facilities, accelerator physicists and engineers, and undergraduates aiming to learn the basic principles of construction, operation and applications of accelerators.The new concepts of dynamical systems developed in the last twenty years give the theoretical setting to analyse the stability of particle beams in accelerator. In this book a common language to both accelerator physics and dynamical systems is integrated and dev

  12. Blood-brain barrier damage in vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Masaki; Chiba, Yoichi; Matsumoto, Koichi; Murakami, Ryuta; Fujihara, Ryuji; Kawauchi, Machi; Miyanaka, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Toshitaka

    2016-04-01

    New findings on flow or drainage pathways of brain interstitial fluid and cerebrospinal fluid have been made. The interstitial fluid flow has an effect on the passage of blood-borne substances in the brain parenchyma, especially in areas near blood-brain barrier (BBB)-free regions. Actually, blood-borne substances can be transferred in areas with intact BBB function, such as the hippocampus, the corpus callosum, periventricular areas, and medial portions of the amygdala, presumably through leaky vessels in the subfornical organs or the choroid plexus. Increasing evidence indicates that dysfunction of the BBB function may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of vascular dementia. Accordingly, we have examined which insults seen in patients suffering from vascular dementia have an effect on the BBB using experimental animal models exhibiting some phenotypes of vascular dementia. The BBB in the hippocampus was clearly deteriorated in Mongolian gerbils exposed to acute ischemia followed by reperfusion and also in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) showing hypertension. The BBB in the corpus callosum was clearly deteriorated in Wistar rats with permanent ligation of the bilateral common carotid arteries showing chronic hypoperfusion. The BBB in the hippocampus and the olfactory bulb was mildly deteriorated in aged senescence accelerated prone mice (SAMP8) showing cognitive dysfunction. The BBB in the hippocampus was mildly deteriorated in aged animals with hydrocephalus. Mild endothelial damage was seen in hyperglycemic db/db mice. In addition, mRNA expression of osteopontin, matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), and CD36 was increased in vessels showing BBB damage in hypertensive SHRSP. As osteopontin, MMP-13 and CD36 are known to be related to brain injury and amyloid β accumulation or clearance, BBB damage followed by increased gene expression of these molecules not only contributes to the pathogenesis of vascular dementia, but also bridges

  13. Vascular education and training in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirasiritham, Sopon

    2008-12-01

    Cardiovascular diseases have become more prevalent and threatening to the health of the population of Asia due to the rapidly growing number of aging people. The Asian Society for Vascular Surgery unites 13 member organizations: Japan, Korea, China, India, Hong Kong, Singapore, Malaysia, Taiwan, Bangladesh, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Indonesia, and Thailand. The essential mission of the Asian Society for Vascular Surgery is to improve training in vascular surgery to increase the number of competent vascular surgeons in Asia. Almost every member country has its own vascular training program. Most curricula for vascular surgery training are composed of basic vascular research, clinical vascular medicine, vascular investigation, and open and endovascular surgery, with the period of training ranging from 2 to 4 years.

  14. Vascular Gene Expression: A Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Concepción eMartínez-Navarro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The phloem is the conduit through which photoassimilates are distributed from autotrophic to heterotrophic tissues and is involved in the distribution of signaling molecules that coordinate plant growth and responses to the environment. Phloem function depends on the coordinate expression of a large array of genes. We have previously identified conserved motifs in upstream regions of the Arabidopsis genes, encoding the homologs of pumpkin phloem sap mRNAs, displaying expression in vascular tissues. This tissue-specific expression in Arabidopsis is predicted by the overrepresentation of GA/CT-rich motifs in gene promoters. In this work we have searched for common motifs in upstream regions of the homologous genes from plants considered to possess a primitive vascular tissue (a lycophyte, as well as from others that lack a true vascular tissue (a bryophyte, and finally from chlorophytes. Both lycophyte and bryophyte display motifs similar to those found in Arabidopsis with a significantly low E-value, while the chlorophytes showed either a different conserved motif or no conserved motif at all. These results suggest that these same genes are expressed coordinately in non- vascular plants; this coordinate expression may have been one of the prerequisites for the development of conducting tissues in plants. We have also analyzed the phylogeny of conserved proteins that may be involved in phloem function and development. The presence of CmPP16, APL, FT and YDA in chlorophytes suggests the recruitment of ancient regulatory networks for the development of the vascular tissue during evolution while OPS is a novel protein specific to vascular plants.

  15. Surface disturbances: their role in accelerating desertification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, Jayne

    1995-01-01

    Maintaining soil stability and normal water and nutrient cycles in desert systems is critical to avoiding desertification. These particular ecosystem processes are threatened by trampling of livestock and people, and by off-road vehicle use. Soil compaction and disruption of cryptobiotic soil surfaces (composed of cyanobacteria, lichens, and mosses) can result in decreased water availability to vascular plants through decreased water infiltration and increased albedo with possible decreased precipitation. Surface disturbance may also cause accelerated soil loss through wind and water erosion and decreased diversity and abundance of soil biota. In addition, nutrient cycles can be altered through lowered nitrogen and carbon inputs and slowed decomposition of soil organic matter, resulting in lower nutrient levels in associated vascular plants. Some cold desert systems may be especially susceptible to these disruptions due to the paucity of surface-rooting vascular plants for soil stabilization, fewer nitrogen-fixing higher plants, and lower soil temperatures, which slow nutrient cycles. Desert soils may recover slowly from surface disturbances, resulting in increased vulnerability to desertification. Recovery from compaction and decreased soil stability is estimated to take several hundred years. Re-establishment rates for soil bacterial and fungal populations are not known. The nitrogen fixation capability of soil requires at least 50 years to recover. Recovery of crusts can be hampered by large amounts of moving sediment, and re-establishment can be extremely difficult in some areas. Given the sensitivity of these resources and slow recovery times, desertification threatens million of hectares of semiarid lands in the United States.

  16. Angioembolisation in vaginal vascular malformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava D

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaginal arteriovenous malformations are rare entities and their most common presentation is vaginal haemorrhage. This case report describes a 22-year-old woman who presented at 20 weeks of gestation with slow growing soft and tender swelling at anterior vaginal wall. Diagnosis was confirmed as vaginal vascular malformation on contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. The mass did not subside after delivery and patient developed dyspareunia. It was successfully treated by angioembolisation using polyvinyl alcohol particles. Angioembolisation being safe and effective should be the treatment of first choice for symptomatic vaginal vascular malformation.

  17. Accelerator research studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The Accelerator Research Studies program at the University of Maryland, sponsored by the Department of Energy under grant number DE-FG05-91ER40642, is currently in the first year of a three-year funding cycle. The program consists of the following three tasks: TASK A, Study of Transport and Longitudinal Compression of Intense, High-Brightness Beams, TASK B, Study of Collective Ion Acceleration by Intense Electron Beams and Pseudospark Produced High Brightness Electron Beams; TASK C, Study of a Gyroklystron High-power Microwave Source for Linear Colliders. In this report we document the progress that has been made during the past year for each of the three tasks.

  18. Accelerating time to benefit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Geraldi, Joana; Grex, Sara

    Despite the ubiquitous pressure for speed, our approaches to accelerate projects remain constrained to the old-fashioned understanding of the project as a vehicle to deliver products and services, not value. This article explores an attempt to accelerate time to benefit. We describe and deconstruct...... of the time. Although all cases valued speed and speed to benefit, and implemented most practices proposed by the methodology, only three of the five projects were more successful in decreasing time to speed. Based on a multi-case study comparison between these five different projects and their respective...... the implementation of a large intervention undertaken in five project-based organizations in Denmark – the Project Half Double where the same project methodology has been applied in five projects, each of them in five distinct organizations in Denmark, as a bold attempt to realize double the benefit in half...

  19. accelerating cavity from LEP

    CERN Multimedia

    This is an accelerating cavity from LEP, with a layer of niobium on the inside. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment. These challenging requirements pushed European industry to new achievements. 256 of these cavities are now used in LEP to double the energy of the particle beams.

  20. Acceleration of microparticle

    CERN Document Server

    Shibata, H

    2002-01-01

    A microparticle (dust) ion source has been installed at the high voltage terminal of the 3.75 MV single ended Van de Graaff electrostatic accelerator and a beam line for microparticle experiments has been build at High Fluence Irradiation Facility (HIT) of Research Center for Nuclear Science and Technology, the University of Tokyo. Microparticle acceleration has been successful in obtaining expected velocities of 1-20 km/s or more for micron or submicron sized particles. Development of in situ dust detectors and analyzers on board satellites and spacecraft in the expected mass and velocity range of micrometeoroids and investigation of hypervelocity impact phenomena by using time of flight mass spectrometry, impact flash or luminescence measurement and scanning electron or laser microscope observation for metals, ceramics, polymers and semiconductors bombarded by micron-sized particles were started three years ago. (author)

  1. Lectures in accelerator theory

    CERN Document Server

    Month, M

    1981-01-01

    Accelerator theory is a broad area of study involving the behaviour of particle beams. Out of the many categories, the author has chosen to describe three phenomena taken from (1) the theory of single particle motion in nonlinear fields; (2) the theory of high intensity coherent motion and; (3) the theory of current accumulation. He deals with the behaviour of particles in the nonlinear field arising from the electromagnetic interaction of colliding beams. An analysis of the development of traveling waves on particle beams is presented. The situation studied is that of a uniform beam current in a circular accelerator and the excitation for the coherent motion is induced by the resistivity of the vacuum chamber wall. A description of the current accumulation process used at the proton storage rings at CERN (ISR) is given. (0 refs).

  2. Accelerators for Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Arlene J.

    2000-05-30

    The vast majority of radiation treatments for cancerous tumors are given using electron linacs that provide both electrons and photons at several energies. Design and construction of these linacs are based on mature technology that is rapidly becoming more and more standardized and sophisticated. The use of hadrons such as neutrons, protons, alphas, or carbon, oxygen and neon ions is relatively new. Accelerators for hadron therapy are far from standardized, but the use of hadron therapy as an alternative to conventional radiation has led to significant improvements and refinements in conventional treatment techniques. This paper presents the rationale for radiation therapy, describes the accelerators used in conventional and hadron therapy, and outlines the issues that must still be resolved in the emerging field of hadron therapy.

  3. Hardware Accelerated Simulated Radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laney, D; Callahan, S; Max, N; Silva, C; Langer, S; Frank, R

    2005-04-12

    We present the application of hardware accelerated volume rendering algorithms to the simulation of radiographs as an aid to scientists designing experiments, validating simulation codes, and understanding experimental data. The techniques presented take advantage of 32 bit floating point texture capabilities to obtain validated solutions to the radiative transport equation for X-rays. An unsorted hexahedron projection algorithm is presented for curvilinear hexahedra that produces simulated radiographs in the absorption-only regime. A sorted tetrahedral projection algorithm is presented that simulates radiographs of emissive materials. We apply the tetrahedral projection algorithm to the simulation of experimental diagnostics for inertial confinement fusion experiments on a laser at the University of Rochester. We show that the hardware accelerated solution is faster than the current technique used by scientists.

  4. Particle accelerator physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wiedemann, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    This book by Helmut Wiedemann is a well-established, classic text, providing an in-depth and comprehensive introduction to the field of high-energy particle acceleration and beam dynamics. The present 4th edition has been significantly revised, updated and expanded. The newly conceived Part I is an elementary introduction to the subject matter for undergraduate students. Part II gathers the basic tools in preparation of a more advanced treatment, summarizing the essentials of electrostatics and electrodynamics as well as of particle dynamics in electromagnetic fields. Part III is an extensive primer in beam dynamics, followed, in Part IV, by an introduction and description of the main beam parameters and including a new chapter on beam emittance and lattice design. Part V is devoted to the treatment of perturbations in beam dynamics. Part VI then discusses the details of charged particle acceleration. Parts VII and VIII introduce the more advanced topics of coupled beam dynamics and describe very intense bea...

  5. Accelerated plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D L

    1975-03-21

    The concept of a stressed elastic lithospheric plate riding on a viscous asthenosphere is used to calculate the recurrence interval of great earthquakes at convergent plate boundaries, the separation of decoupling and lithospheric earthquakes, and the migration pattern of large earthquakes along an arc. It is proposed that plate motions accelerate after great decoupling earthquakes and that most of the observed plate motions occur during short periods of time, separated by periods of relative quiescence.

  6. Accelerating regular polygon beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwick, Shane

    2010-12-15

    Beams that possess high-intensity peaks that follow curved paths of propagation under linear diffraction have recently been shown to have a multitude of interesting uses. In this Letter, a family of phase-only masks is derived, and each mask gives rise to multiple accelerating intensity maxima. The curved paths of the peaks can be described by the vertices of a regular polygon that is centered on the optic axis and expands with propagation.

  7. Accelerating News Issue 3

    CERN Document Server

    Kahle, K; Tanguy, C; Wildner, E

    2012-01-01

    This summer saw CERN announce to a worldwide audience the discovery of a Higgs-like boson, so this issue takes a look at the machine behind the discovery, the LHC, as well as future plans for a possible Higgs factory in the form of LEP3. Looking ahead too are European strategies for particle physics and accelerator-based neutrino physics. In addition, taking stock of the work so far, HiLumi LHC and EuCARD showcase their latest results.

  8. Particle Accelerator Focus Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, José; Rocha, Jorge; Redondo, Luís; Cruz, João

    2017-08-01

    The Laboratório de Aceleradores e Tecnologias de Radiação (LATR) at the Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, of Instituto Superior Técnico (IST) has a horizontal electrostatic particle accelerator based on the Van de Graaff machine which is used for research in the area of material characterization. This machine produces alfa (He+) and proton (H+) beams of some μA currents up to 2 MeV/q energies. Beam focusing is obtained using a cylindrical lens of the Einzel type, assembled near the high voltage terminal. This paper describes the developed system that automatically focuses the ion beam, using a personal computer running the LabVIEW software, a multifunction input/output board and signal conditioning circuits. The focusing procedure consists of a scanning method to find the lens bias voltage which maximizes the beam current measured on a beam stopper target, which is used as feedback for the scanning cycle. This system, as part of a wider start up and shut down automation system built for this particle accelerator, brings great advantages to the operation of the accelerator by turning it faster and easier to operate, requiring less human presence, and adding the possibility of total remote control in safe conditions.

  9. The Silicon Lattice Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, J

    2003-11-24

    Previously, the generalized luminosity L was defined and calculated for all incident channels based on an NLC e{sup +}e{sup -} design. Alternatives were then considered to improve the differing beam-beam effects in the e{sup -}e{sup -}, e{gamma} and {gamma}{gamma} channels. One example was tensor beams composed of bunchlets n{sub ijk} implemented with a laser-driven, silicon accelerator based on micromachining techniques. Problems were considered and expressions given for radiative broadening due to bunchlet manipulation near the final focus to optimize luminosity via charge enhancement, neutralization or bunch shaping. Because the results were promising, we explore fully integrated structures that include sources, optics (for both light and particles) and acceleration in a common format--an accelerator-on-chip. Acceptable materials (and wavelengths) must allow velocity synchronism between many laser and electron pulses with optimal efficiency in high radiation environments. There are obvious control and cost advantages that accrue from using silicon structures if radiation effects can be made acceptable and the structures fabricated. Tests related to deep etching, fabrication and radiation effects on candidate amorphous and crystalline materials indicate Si(1.2 < {lambda}{sub L} < 10 {micro}m) and fused c-SiO{sub 2}(0.3 < {lambda}{sub L} < 4 {micro}m) to be ideal.

  10. Acceleration during magnetic reconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresnyak, Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-07-16

    The presentation begins with colorful depictions of solar x-ray flares and references to pulsar phenomena. Plasma reconnection is complex, could be x-point dominated or turbulent, field lines could break due to either resistivity or non-ideal effects, such as electron pressure anisotropy. Electron acceleration is sometimes observed, and sometimes not. One way to study this complex problem is to have many examples of the process (reconnection) and compare them; the other way is to simplify and come to something robust. Ideal MHD (E=0) turbulence driven by magnetic energy is assumed, and the first-order acceleration is sought. It is found that dissipation in big (length >100 ion skin depths) current sheets is universal and independent on microscopic resistivity and the mean imposed field; particles are regularly accelerated while experiencing curvature drift in flows driven by magnetic tension. One example of such flow is spontaneous reconnection. This explains hot electrons with a power-law tail in solar flares, as well as ultrashort time variability in some astrophysical sources.

  11. Particle Accelerator Focus Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes José

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Laboratório de Aceleradores e Tecnologias de Radiação (LATR at the Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, of Instituto Superior Técnico (IST has a horizontal electrostatic particle accelerator based on the Van de Graaff machine which is used for research in the area of material characterization. This machine produces alfa (He+ and proton (H+ beams of some μA currents up to 2 MeV/q energies. Beam focusing is obtained using a cylindrical lens of the Einzel type, assembled near the high voltage terminal. This paper describes the developed system that automatically focuses the ion beam, using a personal computer running the LabVIEW software, a multifunction input/output board and signal conditioning circuits. The focusing procedure consists of a scanning method to find the lens bias voltage which maximizes the beam current measured on a beam stopper target, which is used as feedback for the scanning cycle. This system, as part of a wider start up and shut down automation system built for this particle accelerator, brings great advantages to the operation of the accelerator by turning it faster and easier to operate, requiring less human presence, and adding the possibility of total remote control in safe conditions.

  12. Optimizing accelerator technology

    CERN Document Server

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    A new EU-funded research and training network, oPAC, is bringing together 22 universities, research centres and industry partners to optimize particle accelerator technology. CERN is one of the network’s main partners and will host 5 early-stage researchers in the BE department.   A diamond detector that will be used for novel beam diagnostics applications in the oPAC project based at CIVIDEC. (Image courtesy of CIVIDEC.) As one of the largest Marie Curie Initial Training Networks ever funded by the EU – to the tune of €6 million – oPAC extends well beyond the particle physics community. “Accelerator physics has become integral to research in almost every scientific discipline – be it biology and life science, medicine, geology and material science, or fundamental physics,” explains Carsten P. Welsch, oPAC co-ordinator based at the University of Liverpool. “By optimizing the operation of accelerators, all of these...

  13. Introduction to Microwave Linear [Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittum, David H

    1999-01-04

    The elements of microwave linear accelerators are introduced starting with the principles of acceleration and accelerating structures. Considerations for microwave structure modeling and design are developed from an elementary point of view. Basic elements of microwave electronics are described for application to the accelerator circuit and instrumentation. Concepts of beam physics are explored together with examples of common beamline instruments. Charged particle optics and lattice diagnostics are introduced. Considerations for fixed-target and colliding-beam experimentation are summarized.

  14. Vascular ultrasound for atherosclerosis imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.L. de Korte (Chris); H.H.G. Hansen (Hendrik); A.F.W. van der Steen (Ton)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractCardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in the Western world. Therefore, detection and quantification of atherosclerotic disease is of paramount importance to monitor treatment and possible prevention of acute events. Vascular ultrasound is an excellent technique to assess the

  15. Signaling circuitry in vascular morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Carmen M; Iruela-Arispe, M Luisa

    2010-05-01

    In this mini-review, we have highlighted the recent breakthroughs in growth factor signaling that have made conceptual changes in our understanding of how blood vessels are formed. Studies conducted over the past few years have focused on understanding the cell biology of vascular morphogenesis. The major themes include characterization of the different cell types that comprise a vascular sprout, as well as the regulatory influence of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions on signaling outcomes. In addition, novel trends have emerged, including nonconventional ways in which vascular endothelial growth factor contributes to cell survival and metabolic balance. The growth of new capillary sprouts from a preexisting vascular network requires a highly coordinated cellular response to both growth factors and morphogens. This response is sensed and triggered by cell surface receptors responsible for the activation of an intracellular cascade that efficiently initiates migration and proliferation programs. While the molecular players that coordinate these effects have been identified, recent findings have expanded our understanding of how context, in particular cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, affects endothelial cell responses to growth factors.

  16. Vascular complications in orthopedic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervu, A; Quinones-Baldrich, W J

    1988-10-01

    Vascular complications may be seen secondary to trauma or in the perioperative period following elective surgery. Prompt recognition and correction of these problems are of utmost importance to assure functional viability of the affected extremity. Evaluation may be complicated by the presence of preexisting atherosclerotic occlusive disease in the elderly patient. Relevant points in the history and physical examination include mechanism of injury, preexisting disease, evaluation of motor and sensory function, and presence and character of pulses. Noninvasive vascular studies should be obtained in all patients. Absolute indications for angiography include absent pulses, signs and symptoms of ischemia, a bruit, and a posterior knee dislocation; decreased pulses, a significant hematoma, and proximity of the fracture fragment are relative indications. Controversial issues in the management of combined orthopedic and vascular injuries include the use of internal versus external fixation, the use of prosthetic versus autogenous material, and the need for venous reconstruction. Popliteal artery trauma is still associated with a high limb loss rate, and careful evaluation of knee injuries is necessary. Vascular compromise may also complicate joint replacement surgery. These complications are preventable, and management is greatly simplified by a detailed preoperative evaluation.

  17. Intestinal vascular anomalies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frémond, B; Yazbeck, S; Dubois, J; Brochu, P; Garel, L; Ouimet, A

    1997-06-01

    Vascular anomalies are an uncommon cause of gastrointestinal bleeding in childhood. Confusing nomenclature has made objective comparisons of published cases difficult and has interfered with an established consensus regarding diagnosis and therapeutic modalities. The purpose of this study was to clarify the situation by reviewing the records of all children who had intestinal vascular anomalies who were referred to our institution from 1975 to 1995. Thirteen lesions were identified in nine children (five boys and four girls). The median age at clinical onset was 8 years. Only two patients presented with a complex syndrome (Klippel-Trenaunay, 1; Osler-Rendu-Weber, 1). Diagnosis, location, and extension of these anomalies was only possible by angiography, which indicated that seven patients had isolated venous malformations and two had arteriovenous malformations. Because the lesions did not involve the serosa, intraoperative localization was a major problem. The main findings were a few slightly dilated mesenteric veins. Treatment was conservative in four children and surgical in five. Pathological findings on resected bowel demonstrated dilated and abnormal veins in the mucosa and submucosa. Selective angiography should not be delayed in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding if results of all other investigations are negative. Because these lesions are rarely recognizable on operative inspection, precise preoperative angiographic localization of intestinal vascular anomalies is essential to allow for a safe and limited resection of the involved bowel segment. Based on a better understanding of the natural history of these lesions, a classification of vascular anomalies of intestines in children is proposed.

  18. Silk Biomaterials with Vascularization Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hongyan; Ning, Hongyan; Liu, Shanshan; Lu, Qiang; Fan, Zhihai; Lu, Haijun; Lu, Guozhong; Kaplan, David L

    2016-01-20

    Functional vascularization is critical for the clinical regeneration of complex tissues such as kidney, liver or bone. The immobilization or delivery of growth factors has been explored to improve vascularization capacity of tissue engineered constructs, however, the use of growth factors has inherent problems such as the loss of signaling capability and the risk of complications such as immunological responses and cancer. Here, a new method of preparing water-insoluble silk protein scaffolds with vascularization capacity using an all aqueous process is reported. Acid was added temporally to tune the self-assembly of silk in lyophilization process, resulting in water insoluble scaffold formation directly. These biomaterials are mainly noncrystalline, offering improved cell proliferation than previously reported silk materials. These systems also have appropriate softer mechanical property that could provide physical cues to promote cell differentiation into endothelial cells, and enhance neovascularization and tissue ingrowth in vivo without the addition of growth factors. Therefore, silk-based degradable scaffolds represent an exciting biomaterial option, with vascularization capacity for soft tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  19. Prothrombin Loading of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell-Derived Exosomes Regulates Coagulation and Calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapustin, Alexander N; Schoppet, Michael; Schurgers, Leon J; Reynolds, Joanne L; McNair, Rosamund; Heiss, Alexander; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi; Hackeng, Tilman M; Schlieper, Georg; Harrison, Paul; Shanahan, Catherine M

    2017-03-01

    The drug warfarin blocks carboxylation of vitamin K-dependent proteins and acts as an anticoagulant and an accelerant of vascular calcification. The calcification inhibitor MGP (matrix Gla [carboxyglutamic acid] protein), produced by vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), is a key target of warfarin action in promoting calcification; however, it remains unclear whether proteins in the coagulation cascade also play a role in calcification. Vascular calcification is initiated by exosomes, and proteomic analysis revealed that VSMC exosomes are loaded with Gla-containing coagulation factors: IX and X, PT (prothrombin), and proteins C and S. Tracing of Alexa488-labeled PT showed that exosome loading occurs by direct binding to externalized phosphatidylserine (PS) on the exosomal surface and by endocytosis and recycling via late endosomes/multivesicular bodies. Notably, the PT Gla domain and a synthetic Gla domain peptide inhibited exosome-mediated VSMC calcification by preventing nucleation site formation on the exosomal surface. PT was deposited in the calcified vasculature, and there was a negative correlation between vascular calcification and the levels of circulating PT. In addition, we found that VSMC exosomes induced thrombogenesis in a tissue factor-dependent and PS-dependent manner. Gamma-carboxylated coagulation proteins are potent inhibitors of vascular calcification suggesting warfarin action on these factors also contributes to accelerated calcification in patients receiving this drug. VSMC exosomes link calcification and coagulation acting as novel activators of the extrinsic coagulation pathway and inducers of calcification in the absence of Gla-containing inhibitors. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Accelerated cognitive decline in patients with type 2 diabetes: MRI correlates and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijmer, Y.D.; Berg, E. van den; Bresser, J.H.J. de; Kessels, R.P.C.; Biessels, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia. We examined brain imaging correlates and vascular and metabolic risk factors of accelerated cognitive decline in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods Cognitive functioning and brain volume

  1. Accelerated cognitive decline in patients with type 2 diabetes : MRI correlates and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijmer, Yael D.; van den Berg, Esther; de Bresser, Jeroen; Kessels, Roy P. C.; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Algra, Ale; Biessels, Geert Jan

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia. We examined brain imaging correlates and vascular and metabolic risk factors of accelerated cognitive decline in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods Cognitive functioning and brain volume

  2. Accelerated cognitive decline in patients with type 2 diabetes: MRI correlates and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijmer, Y.D.; Berg, E. van den; Bresser, J. de; Kessels, R.P.C.; Kappelle, L.J.; Algra, A.; Biessels, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia. We examined brain imaging correlates and vascular and metabolic risk factors of accelerated cognitive decline in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Cognitive functioning and brain volume

  3. Markers of Early Vascular Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsis, Vasilios; Antza, Christina; Doundoulakis, Ioannis; Stabouli, Stella

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular damage is clinically manifested as coronary artery disease, heart failure, stroke and peripheral artery disease. The prevalence of these adverse conditions is higher with advancing age. Although many patients present cardiovascular damage late in their life, it is common to see patients with early atherosclerosis in cardiovascular intensive care units at ages lower than 50 years in men and 55 for women. In this review of the literature we identified risk factors of early vascular damage. The classic risk factors such as age, gender, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking, alcohol, hypertension, obesity, family history and newer biomarkers such as hs-CRP, folic acid, homocysteine, fibrinogen are neither strong nor predictive of the individual patient's risk to present early cardiovascular disease. All these risk factors have been used to propose risk scores for possible future events but we still lack a single strong marker indicating new onset of disease that will predict the future independently of the classical factors. The role of vascular imaging techniques to identify patients with subclinical atherosclerotic vascular damage before clinical disease, including the effect of known and unknown risk factors on the vascular tree, seems to be very important for intensifying preventive measures in high risk patients. Early arteriosclerosis measured from pulse wave velocity is associated with reduced arterial elasticity and is associated with future cardiovascular events. Vascular measurements may better represent the continuum of cardiovascular disease from a young healthy to an aged diseased vessel that is going to produce adverse clinical events. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Pediatric central nervous system vascular malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, Ezra A. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Orbach, Darren B. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Neurointerventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) vascular anomalies include lesions found only in the pediatric population and also the full gamut of vascular lesions found in adults. Pediatric-specific lesions discussed here include infantile hemangioma, vein of Galen malformation and dural sinus malformation. Some CNS vascular lesions that occur in adults, such as arteriovenous malformation, have somewhat distinct manifestations in children, and those are also discussed. Additionally, children with CNS vascular malformations often have associated broader vascular conditions, e.g., PHACES (posterior fossa anomalies, hemangioma, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies, eye anomalies and sternal anomalies), hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (related to the RASA1 mutation). The treatment of pediatric CNS vascular malformations has greatly benefited from advances in endovascular therapy, including technical advances in adult interventional neuroradiology. Dramatic advances in therapy are expected to stem from increased understanding of the genetics and vascular biology that underlie pediatric CNS vascular malformations. (orig.)

  5. Subclinical hypothyroidism after vascular complicated pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanden, M. van der; Hop-de Groot, R.J.; Sweep, F.C.; Ross, H.A.; Heijer, M. den; Spaanderman, M.E.A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Women with a history of vascular complicated pregnancy are at risk for developing remote cardiovascular disease. It is associated with underlying cardiovascular risk factors both jeopardizing trophoblast and vascular function. Subclinical hypothyroidism may relate to both conditions.

  6. ESRD QIP - Vascular Access - Payment Year 2018

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes facility details, performance rates, vascular access topic measure score, and the state and national average measure scores for the vascular...

  7. NEURO-VASCULAR INJURIES ASSOCIATED WITH LIMB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-12-01

    Dec 1, 2000 ... Results: Road traffic accidents were the main cause of fractures associated with neuro- vascular ... the patients with vascular or nerve injury associated with fractures .... of traumatic aorto-iliac dissection injury in a child with.

  8. Self-management of vascular risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Sol-de Rijk, B.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The aim of this thesis was to provide insight into the potential of a self-management approach in treatment of vascular risk factors and to develop a self-management intervention. Furthermore to examine if this intervention, based on self-efficacy promoting theory, is effective in reducing vascular risk factors in patients with established vascular diseases. Patients with different manifestations of vascular diseases appeared to have high levels of self-efficacy concerning the self-ma...

  9. Vascular smooth muscle function: defining the diabetic vascular phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Rosa Maria; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo

    2013-10-01

    In this issue of Diabetologia, a meta-analysis performed by Montero and co-authors (Diabetologia doi 10.1007/s00125-013-2974-1 ) demonstrates a significant impairment of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) function in type 2 diabetic patients. Endothelial function and VSM function between type 2 diabetic and healthy individuals were associated, especially in the microcirculation, confirming the hypothesis that unresponsiveness of VSM cells to NO may amplify the consequences of reduced NO availability. This study suggests a novel interpretation for endothelial dysfunction in diabetic patients, indicating VSM cells as key players. Causative mechanisms of VSM dysfunction, which seems to be a feature of the vascular phenotype of type 2 diabetes mellitus, are largely unexplored in humans. Future studies should also address the crucial issue of the prognostic significance of VSM dysfunction in diabetic patients, and possibly in other conditions characterised by high cardiovascular risk.

  10. Specificity of haemostasis abnormalities for vascular phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, G D; Haverkate, F

    1998-01-01

    Atherothrombosis is a systemic disease, hence it is difficult to prove the specificity of haemostasis abnormality for any single vascular phenotype. Associations between haemostatic variables and any given phenotype, e.g. (vascular) dementia, should be interpreted with caution, given the overlaps of vascular disease phenotypes, risk factors, and haemostatic variables.

  11. 21 CFR 870.4450 - Vascular clamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vascular clamp. 870.4450 Section 870.4450 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4450 Vascular clamp. (a) Identification. A vascular clamp is a surgical instrument used to occlude a blood vessel temporarily. (b) Classification. Class II...

  12. Hippocampal atrophy in subcortical vascular dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, L.A.; Gertz, H.J.; Scheltens, P.; Wolf, H

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose: New research criteria for subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD) have been suggested to define a more homogeneous subgroup of vascular dementia. Hippocampal (Hc) atrophy is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but it also occurs in other dementia disorders including vascular

  13. APT accelerator. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, G.; Rusthoi, D. [comp.] [ed.

    1995-03-01

    The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project, sponsored by Department of Energy Defense Programs (DOE/DP), involves the preconceptual design of an accelerator system to produce tritium for the nation`s stockpile of nuclear weapons. Tritium is an isotope of hydrogen used in nuclear weapons, and must be replenished because of radioactive decay (its half-life is approximately 12 years). Because the annual production requirements for tritium has greatly decreased since the end of the Cold War, an alternative approach to reactors for tritium production, based on a linear accelerator, is now being seriously considered. The annual tritium requirement at the time this study was undertaken (1992-1993) was 3/8 that of the 1988 goal, usually stated as 3/8-Goal. Continued reduction in the number of weapons in the stockpile has led to a revised (lower) production requirement today (March, 1995). The production requirement needed to maintain the reduced stockpile, as stated in the recent Nuclear Posture Review (summer 1994) is approximately 3/16-Goal, half the previous level. The Nuclear Posture Review also requires that the production plant be designed to accomodate a production increase (surge) to 3/8-Goal capability within five years, to allow recovery from a possible extended outage of the tritium plant. A multi-laboratory team, collaborating with several industrial partners, has developed a preconceptual APT design for the 3/8-Goal, operating at 75% capacity. The team has presented APT as a promising alternative to the reactor concepts proposed for Complex-21. Given the requirements of a reduced weapons stockpile, APT offers both significant safety, environmental, and production-fexibility advantages in comparison with reactor systems, and the prospect of successful development in time to meet the US defense requirements of the 21st Century.

  14. VLHC accelerator physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Blaskiewicz et al.

    2001-11-01

    A six-month design study for a future high energy hadron collider was initiated by the Fermilab director in October 2000. The request was to study a staged approach where a large circumference tunnel is built that initially would house a low field ({approx}2 T) collider with center-of-mass energy greater than 30 TeV and a peak (initial) luminosity of 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The tunnel was to be scoped, however, to support a future upgrade to a center-of-mass energy greater than 150 TeV with a peak luminosity of 2 x 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1} using high field ({approx} 10 T) superconducting magnet technology. In a collaboration with Brookhaven National Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, a report of the Design Study was produced by Fermilab in June 2001. 1 The Design Study focused on a Stage 1, 20 x 20 TeV collider using a 2-in-1 transmission line magnet and leads to a Stage 2, 87.5 x 87.5 TeV collider using 10 T Nb{sub 3}Sn magnet technology. The article that follows is a compilation of accelerator physics designs and computational results which contributed to the Design Study. Many of the parameters found in this report evolved during the study, and thus slight differences between this text and the Design Study report can be found. The present text, however, presents the major accelerator physics issues of the Very Large Hadron Collider as examined by the Design Study collaboration and provides a basis for discussion and further studies of VLHC accelerator parameters and design philosophies.

  15. Accelerated Innovation Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Opportunities: I. Engage NASA team (examples) a) Research and technology calls . provide suggestions to AES, HRP, OCT. b) Use NASA@Work to solicit other ideas; (possibly before R+D calls). II. Stimulate collaboration (examples) a) NHHPC. b) Wharton Mack Center for Technological Innovation (Feb 2013). c) International ] DLR ] :envihab (July 2013). d) Accelerated research models . NSF, Myelin Repair Foundation. III. Engage public Prizes (open platform: InnoCentive, yet2.com, NTL; Rice Business Plan, etc.) IV. Use same methods to engage STEM.

  16. Accelerating abelian gauge dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, Stephen Louis

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, we suggest a new acceleration method for Abelian gauge theories based on linear transformations to variables which weight all length scales equally. We measure the autocorrelation time for the Polyakov loop and the plaquette at β=1.0 in the U(1) gauge theory in four dimensions, for the new method and for standard Metropolis updates. We find a dramatic improvement for the new method over the Metropolis method. Computing the critical exponent z for the new method remains an important open issue.

  17. Introduction to Accelerator Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peggs, Stephen; Satogata, Todd

    2017-08-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Linear motion; 3. Strong focusing transverse optics; 4. Longitudinal and off-momentum motion; 5. Action and emittance - one particle or many?; 6. Magnets; 7. RF cavities; 8. Linear errors and their correction; 9. Sextupoles, chromaticity and the Hénon map; 10. Octupoles, detuning and slow extraction; 11. Synchrotron radiation - classical damping; 12. Synchrotron radiation - quantum excitation; 13. Linacs - protons and ions; 14. Linacs - electrons; 15. The beam-beam interaction and 1-D resonances; 16. Routes to chaos; Appendix: selected formulae for accelerator design; References; Index.

  18. 2014 CERN Accelerator Schools

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    A specialised school on Power Converters will be held in Baden, Switzerland, from 7 to 14 May 2014. Please note that the deadline for applications is 7 FEBRUARY 2014. A course on Introduction to Accelerator Physics will be held in Prague, Czech Republic, from 31 August to 12 September 2014. Applications are now open for this school; the application deadline is 25 APRIL 2014. Further information on these schools and other CAS events can be found on the CAS website and on the Indico page. For further information please contact Barbara.strasser@cern.ch

  19. Near-infraread spectroscopy during peripheral vascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, Torben Veith; Eiberg, Jonas Peter; Vogt, Katja

    1997-01-01

    Original,Near-infraread spectroscopy,Vascular disease,Vascular by-pass surgery,Perioperative oxymetry......Original,Near-infraread spectroscopy,Vascular disease,Vascular by-pass surgery,Perioperative oxymetry...

  20. Accelerator School Success

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Accelerator specialists don't grow on trees: training them is the job of the CERN Accelerator School (CAS). Group photo during visit to the Daresbury Laboratory. CAS and the CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory jointly organised a specialised school on Power Converters in Warrington, England from 12-18 May 2004. The last CAS Power Converter course was in 1990, so there was plenty of ground to cover. The challenging programme proposed a review of the state of the art and the latest developments in the field, including 30 hours of tuition. The school also included a visit to the CCLRC Daresbury laboratory, a one-day excursion to Liverpool and Chester and a themed (Welsh medieval) dinner at the school's closure. A record attendance of 91 students of more than 20 different nationalities included not only participants from Europe and North America but also from Armenia, Taiwan, India, Turkey, Iran and for the first time, fee-paying students from China and Australia. European industry showed a welcome and solid interest in...

  1. Broadband accelerator control network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skelly, J.; Clifford, T.; Frankel, R.

    1983-01-01

    A broadband data communications network has been implemented at BNL for control of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AG) proton accelerator, using commercial CATV hardware, dual coaxial cables as the communications medium, and spanning 2.0 km. A 4 MHz bandwidth Digital Control channel using CSMA-CA protocol is provided for digital data transmission, with 8 access nodes available over the length of the RELWAY. Each node consists of an rf modem and a microprocessor-based store-and-forward message handler which interfaces the RELWAY to a branch line implemented in GPIB. A gateway to the RELWAY control channel for the (preexisting) AGS Computerized Accelerator Operating system has been constructed using an LSI-11/23 microprocessor as a device in a GPIB branch line. A multilayer communications protocol has been defined for the Digital Control Channel, based on the ISO Open Systems Interconnect layered model, and a RELWAY Device Language defined as the required universal language for device control on this channel.

  2. Acceleration in Linear and Circular Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellington, S. H.; Docherty, W.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the construction of a simple accelerometer and explains its use in demonstrating acceleration, deceleration, constant speed, measurement of acceleration, acceleration and the inclined plane and angular and radial acceleration. (GS)

  3. [Menopause: Hypertension and vascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberman, J M

    2018-01-28

    Hypertension is the main cardiovascular risk factor affecting 25% of women. Hormone changes and hypertension after menopause may lead to higher target organ damage and cardiovascular disease such as increased arterial stiffness, coronary diseases, chronic heart failure and stroke. The physiopathological mechanisms involved in the development of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in menopausal women are controversial. There are pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic differences in both sexes, the women have more coughing when using the converting-enzyme inhibitors, more cramps when using thiazide diuretics and more oedema in the inferior limbs when using calcium antagonists. The aim of this review is to analyse possible physiopathological mechanisms involved in hypertension after menopause and to gain a better understanding of the biological effects mediated by vascular ageing in women when the level of oestrogen protective effect decreases over the vascular system. Copyright © 2017 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Accelerator Technology: Geodesy and Alignment for Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Missiaen, D

    2013-01-01

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Accelerators and Colliders' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the the Section '8.9 Geodesy and Alignment for Particle Accelerators' of the Chapter '8 Accelerator Technology' with the content: 8.9 Geodesy and Alignment for Particle Accelerators 8.9.1 Introduction 8.9.2 Reference and Co-ordinate Systems 8.9.3 Definition of the Beam Line on the Accelerator Site 8.9.4 Geodetic Network 8.9.5 Tunnel Preliminary Works 8.9.6 The Alignment References 8.9.7 Alignment of Accelerator Components 8.9.8 Permanent Monitoring and Remote Alignment of Low Beta Quadrupoles 8.9.9 Alignment of Detector Components

  5. 2014 Joint International Accelerator School: Beam Loss and Accelerator Protection

    CERN Document Server

    JAS - Joint US-CERN-Japan-Russia Accelerator School

    2016-01-01

    Many particle accelerators operate with very high beam power and very high energy stored in particle beams as well as in magnet systems. In the future, the beam power in high intensity accelerators will further increase. The protection of the accelerator equipment from the consequences of uncontrolled release of the energy is essential. This was the motivation for organizing a first school on beam losses and accelerator protection (in general referred to as machine protection). During the school the methods and technologies to identify, mitigate, monitor and manage the technical risks associated with the operation of accelerators with high-power beams or subsystems with large stored energy were presented. At the completion of the school the participants should have been able to understand the physical phenomena that can damage machine subsystems or interrupt operations and to analyze an accelerator facility to produce a register of technical risks and the corresponding risk mitigation and management strategie...

  6. Angiogenesis, Cancer, and Vascular Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Junji Moriya; Tohru Minamino

    2017-01-01

    Several lines of evidence have revealed that the angiogenic response to ischemic injury declines with age, which might account for the increased morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among the elderly. While impairment of angiogenesis with aging leads to delayed wound healing or exacerbation of atherosclerotic ischemic diseases, it also inhibits the progression of cancer. Age-related changes of angiogenesis have been considered to at least partly result from vascular aging o...

  7. DNA Damage: A Main Determinant of Vascular Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula K. Bautista-Niño

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vascular aging plays a central role in health problems and mortality in older people. Apart from the impact of several classical cardiovascular risk factors on the vasculature, chronological aging remains the single most important determinant of cardiovascular problems. The causative mechanisms by which chronological aging mediates its impact, independently from classical risk factors, remain to be elucidated. In recent years evidence has accumulated that unrepaired DNA damage may play an important role. Observations in animal models and in humans indicate that under conditions during which DNA damage accumulates in an accelerated rate, functional decline of the vasculature takes place in a similar but more rapid or more exaggerated way than occurs in the absence of such conditions. Also epidemiological studies suggest a relationship between DNA maintenance and age-related cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, mouse models of defective DNA repair are means to study the mechanisms involved in biological aging of the vasculature. We here review the evidence of the role of DNA damage in vascular aging, and present mechanisms by which genomic instability interferes with regulation of the vascular tone. In addition, we present potential remedies against vascular aging induced by genomic instability. Central to this review is the role of diverse types of DNA damage (telomeric, non-telomeric and mitochondrial, of cellular changes (apoptosis, senescence, autophagy, mediators of senescence and cell growth (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP/senescence-messaging secretome (SMS, insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 signaling, the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR-nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB axis, reactive oxygen species (ROS vs. endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS-cyclic guanosine monophosphate

  8. Vascular Aging and Arterial Stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana de Rezende Mikael

    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiovascular diseases (CVD account annually for almost one third of all deaths worldwide. Among the CVD, systemic arterial hypertension (SAH is related to more than half of those outcomes. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for SAH because it causes functional and structural damage to the arterial wall, leading to stiffness. Several studies have related oxidative stress, production of free radicals, and neuroendocrine and genetic changes to the physiopathogenesis of vascular aging. Indirect ways to analyze that aging process have been widely studied, pulse wave velocity (PWV being considered gold standard to assess arterial stiffness, because there is large epidemiological evidence of its predictive value for cardiovascular events, and it requires little technical knowledge to be performed. A pulse wave is generated during each cardiac contraction and travels along the arterial bed until finding peripheral resistance or any bifurcation point, determining the appearance of a reflected wave. In young individuals, arteries tend to be more elastic, therefore, the reflected wave occurs later in the cardiac cycle, reaching the heart during diastole. In older individuals, however, the reflected wave occurs earlier, reaching the heart during systole. Because PWV is an important biomarker of vascular damage, highly valuable in determining the patient’s global cardiovascular risk, we chose to review the articles on vascular aging in the context of cardiovascular risk factors and the tools available to the early identification of that damage.

  9. CERN Accelerator School: Registration open for Advanced Accelerator Physics course

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Registration is now open for the CERN Accelerator School’s Advanced Accelerator Physics course to be held in Warsaw, Poland from 27 September to 9 October 2015.   The course will be of interest to physicists and engineers who wish to extend their knowledge of accelerator physics. The programme offers core lectures on accelerator physics in the mornings and a practical course with hands-on tuition in the afternoons.  Further information can be found at: http://cas.web.cern.ch/cas/Poland2015/Warsaw-advert.html http://indico.cern.ch/event/361988/

  10. CERN Accelerator School: Registration open for Advanced Accelerator Physics course

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Registration is now open for the CERN Accelerator School’s Advanced Accelerator Physics course to be held in Warsaw, Poland from 27 September to 9 October 2015.   The course will be of interest to physicists and engineers who wish to extend their knowledge of Accelerator Physics. The programme offers core lectures on accelerator physics in the mornings and a practical course with hands-on tuition in the afternoons.  Further information can be found at: http://cas.web.cern.ch/cas/Poland2015/Warsaw-advert.html http://indico.cern.ch/event/361988/

  11. Acceleration Modes and Transitions in Pulsed Plasma Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Greve, Christine M.

    2018-01-01

    Pulsed plasma accelerators typically operate by storing energy in a capacitor bank and then discharging this energy through a gas, ionizing and accelerating it through the Lorentz body force. Two plasma accelerator types employing this general scheme have typically been studied: the gas-fed pulsed plasma thruster and the quasi-steady magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) accelerator. The gas-fed pulsed plasma accelerator is generally represented as a completely transient device discharging in approximately 1-10 microseconds. When the capacitor bank is discharged through the gas, a current sheet forms at the breech of the thruster and propagates forward under a j (current density) by B (magnetic field) body force, entraining propellant it encounters. This process is sometimes referred to as detonation-mode acceleration because the current sheet representation approximates that of a strong shock propagating through the gas. Acceleration of the initial current sheet ceases when either the current sheet reaches the end of the device and is ejected or when the current in the circuit reverses, striking a new current sheet at the breech and depriving the initial sheet of additional acceleration. In the quasi-steady MPD accelerator, the pulse is lengthened to approximately 1 millisecond or longer and maintained at an approximately constant level during discharge. The time over which the transient phenomena experienced during startup typically occur is short relative to the overall discharge time, which is now long enough for the plasma to assume a relatively steady-state configuration. The ionized gas flows through a stationary current channel in a manner that is sometimes referred to as the deflagration-mode of operation. The plasma experiences electromagnetic acceleration as it flows through the current channel towards the exit of the device. A device that had a short pulse length but appeared to operate in a plasma acceleration regime different from the gas-fed pulsed plasma

  12. Vascularization regenerative medicine and tissue engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brey, Eric M

    2014-01-01

    A Complex and Growing Field The study of vascularization in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) and its applications is an emerging field that could revolutionize medical approaches for organ and tissue replacement, reconstruction, and regeneration. Designed specifically for researchers in TERM fields, Vascularization: Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering provides a broad overview of vascularization in TERM applications. This text summarizes research in several areas, and includes contributions from leading experts in the field. It defines the difficulties associated with multicellular processes in vascularization and cell-source issues. It presents advanced biomaterial design strategies for control of vascular network formation and in silico models designed to provide insight not possible in experimental systems. It also examines imaging methods that are critical to understanding vascularization in engineered tissues, and addresses vascularization issues within the context of specific...

  13. Electrostatic accelerators fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    Electrostatic accelerators are an important and widespread subgroup within the broad spectrum of modern, large particle acceleration devices. They are specifically designed for applications that require high-quality ion beams in terms of energy stability and emittance at comparatively low energies (a few MeV). Their ability to accelerate virtually any kind of ion over a continuously tunable range of energies make them a highly versatile tool for investigations in many research fields including, but not limited to, atomic and nuclear spectroscopy, heavy ion reactions, accelerator mass spectroscopy as well as ion-beam analysis and modification. The book is divided into three parts. The first part concisely introduces the field of accelerator technology and techniques that emphasize their major modern applications. The second part treats the electrostatic accelerator per se: its construction and operational principles as well as its maintenance. The third part covers all relevant applications in which electrosta...

  14. Network acceleration techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Patricia (Inventor); Awrach, James Michael (Inventor); Maccabe, Arthur Barney (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Splintered offloading techniques with receive batch processing are described for network acceleration. Such techniques offload specific functionality to a NIC while maintaining the bulk of the protocol processing in the host operating system ("OS"). The resulting protocol implementation allows the application to bypass the protocol processing of the received data. Such can be accomplished this by moving data from the NIC directly to the application through direct memory access ("DMA") and batch processing the receive headers in the host OS when the host OS is interrupted to perform other work. Batch processing receive headers allows the data path to be separated from the control path. Unlike operating system bypass, however, the operating system still fully manages the network resource and has relevant feedback about traffic and flows. Embodiments of the present disclosure can therefore address the challenges of networks with extreme bandwidth delay products (BWDP).

  15. SPS accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    The SPS started up with 2 accelerating cavities (each consisting of 5 tank sections) in LSS3. They have a 200 MHz travelling wave structure (see 7411032 and 7802190) and 750 kW of power is fed to each of the cavities from a 1 MW tetrode power amplifier, located in a surface building above, via a coaxial transmission line. Clemens Zettler, builder of the SPS RF system, is standing at the side of one of the cavities. In 1978 and 1979 another 2 cavities were added and entered service in 1980. These were part of the intensity improvement programme and served well for the new role of the SPS as proton-antiproton collider. See also 7411032, 8011289, 8104138, 8302397.

  16. ACCELERATING NANO-TECHNOLOGICAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Stissing; Koch, Christian

    2007-01-01

    By viewing the construction industry as a technological innovation system (TIS) this paper discusses possible initiatives to accelerate nanotechnological innovations. The point of departure is a recent report on the application of nano-technology in the Danish construction industry, which concludes...... that opportunities are generally poorly appreciated by the industry and research communities alike. It is found that the construction industry is characterized by low-tech trajectories where dedicated innovation networks are often too fragile for innovations to stabilize and diffuse. The institutional features...... of the system are furthermore poorly equipped at identifying potentials within high-tech areas. In order to exploit the potentials of nano-technology it is thus argued that an alternative TIS needs to be established. Initiatives should identify and support “incubation rooms” or marked niches in order...

  17. GPU Accelerated Prognostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorospe, George E., Jr.; Daigle, Matthew J.; Sankararaman, Shankar; Kulkarni, Chetan S.; Ng, Eley

    2017-01-01

    Prognostic methods enable operators and maintainers to predict the future performance for critical systems. However, these methods can be computationally expensive and may need to be performed each time new information about the system becomes available. In light of these computational requirements, we have investigated the application of graphics processing units (GPUs) as a computational platform for real-time prognostics. Recent advances in GPU technology have reduced cost and increased the computational capability of these highly parallel processing units, making them more attractive for the deployment of prognostic software. We present a survey of model-based prognostic algorithms with considerations for leveraging the parallel architecture of the GPU and a case study of GPU-accelerated battery prognostics with computational performance results.

  18. HIGH ENERGY PARTICLE ACCELERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courant, E.D.; Livingston, M.S.; Snyder, H.S.

    1959-04-14

    An improved apparatus is presented for focusing charged particles in an accelerator. In essence, the invention includes means for establishing a magnetic field in discrete sectors along the path of moving charged particles, the magnetic field varying in each sector in accordance with the relation. B = B/ sub 0/ STAln (r-r/sub 0/)/r/sub 0/!, where B/sub 0/ is the value of the magnetic field at the equilibrium orbit of radius r/sub 0/ of the path of the particles, B equals the magnetic field at the radius r of the chamber and n equals the magnetic field gradient index, the polarity of n being abruptly reversed a plurality of times as the particles travel along their arcuate path. With this arrangement, the particles are alternately converged towards the axis of their equillbrium orbit and diverged therefrom in successive sectors with a resultant focusing effect.

  19. ISOLDE - Accelerating Future

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) was first developed in Copenhagen in the late 50s. The technique was taken to CERN in the 60s and the CERN facility was given the name ISOLDE. The method is based on energetic protons hitting a solid target. The reaction products produced through spallation, fission and fragmentation are heated out in the form of an electrically neutral gas. In the subsequent steps the gas is ionized, accelerated and magnetically separated to produce isotopically pure beams for experiments in nuclear physics, atomic physics, astrophysics, solid state physics and for medical applications. An overview will be given of the physics at ISOLDE as well as over the techniques used to produce the necessary isotopes. Furthermore, a part of the talk will be dedicated to the future plans at ISOLDE including the proposal to build a next generation radioactive beam facility at CERN. The talk ends with a guided visit to the ISOLDE facility. Prerequisite knowledge: None.

  20. Accelerator based fusion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Keh-Fei; Chao, Alexander Wu

    2017-08-01

    A feasibility study of fusion reactors based on accelerators is carried out. We consider a novel scheme where a beam from the accelerator hits the target plasma on the resonance of the fusion reaction and establish characteristic criteria for a workable reactor. We consider the reactions d+t\\to n+α,d+{{}3}{{H}\\text{e}}\\to p+α , and p+{{}11}B\\to 3α in this study. The critical temperature of the plasma is determined from overcoming the stopping power of the beam with the fusion energy gain. The needed plasma lifetime is determined from the width of the resonance, the beam velocity and the plasma density. We estimate the critical beam flux by balancing the energy of fusion production against the plasma thermo-energy and the loss due to stopping power for the case of an inert plasma. The product of critical flux and plasma lifetime is independent of plasma density and has a weak dependence on temperature. Even though the critical temperatures for these reactions are lower than those for the thermonuclear reactors, the critical flux is in the range of {{10}22}-{{10}24}~\\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-2}~{{\\text{s}}-1} for the plasma density {ρt}={{10}15}~\\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-3} in the case of an inert plasma. Several approaches to control the growth of the two-stream instability are discussed. We have also considered several scenarios for practical implementation which will require further studies. Finally, we consider the case where the injected beam at the resonance energy maintains the plasma temperature and prolongs its lifetime to reach a steady state. The equations for power balance and particle number conservation are given for this case.

  1. Cast dielectric composite linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, David M [Livermore, CA; Sampayan, Stephen [Manteca, CA; Slenes, Kirk [Albuquerque, NM; Stoller, H M [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-11-10

    A linear accelerator having cast dielectric composite layers integrally formed with conductor electrodes in a solventless fabrication process, with the cast dielectric composite preferably having a nanoparticle filler in an organic polymer such as a thermosetting resin. By incorporating this cast dielectric composite the dielectric constant of critical insulating layers of the transmission lines of the accelerator are increased while simultaneously maintaining high dielectric strengths for the accelerator.

  2. Collective accelerator for electron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, R.J.

    1985-05-13

    A recent concept for collective acceleration and focusing of a high energy electron bunch is discussed, in the context of its possible applicability to large linear colliders in the TeV range. The scheme can be considered to be a member of the general class of two-beam accelerators, where a high current, low voltage beam produces the acceleration fields for a trailing high energy bunch.

  3. NIIEFA accelerators for applied purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorogushin, M. F.; Strokach, A. P.; Filatov, O. G.

    2016-12-01

    Since the foundation of the institute, we have designed and delivered more than three hundred different accelerators to Russia and abroad: cyclotrons, linear accelerators, and neutron generators. The technical characteristics of our equipment makes it competitive on the international market. Here we present the application, main parameters, and status of accelerators manufactured by NIIEFA, as well as prospects for the development of electrophysical systems for applied purposes.

  4. Motion Representation with Acceleration Images

    OpenAIRE

    Kataoka, Hirokatsu; He, Yun; Shirakabe, Soma; Satoh, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Information of time differentiation is extremely important cue for a motion representation. We have applied first-order differential velocity from a positional information, moreover we believe that second-order differential acceleration is also a significant feature in a motion representation. However, an acceleration image based on a typical optical flow includes motion noises. We have not employed the acceleration image because the noises are too strong to catch an effective motion feature ...

  5. Particle Acceleration by MHD Turbulence

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Jungyeon; Lazarian, A.

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in understanding of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence call for revisions in the picture of particle acceleration. We make use of the recently established scaling of slow and fast MHD modes in strong and weak MHD turbulence to provide a systematic study of particle acceleration in magnetic pressure (low-$\\beta$) and gaseous pressure (high-$\\beta$) dominated plasmas. We consider the acceleration by large scale compressions in both slow and fast particle diffusion limits. We c...

  6. Accelerators for research and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, J.R.

    1990-06-01

    The newest particle accelerators are almost always built for extending the frontiers of research, at the cutting edge of science and technology. Once these machines are operating and these technologies mature, new applications are always found, many of which touch our lives in profound ways. The evolution of accelerator technologies will be discussed, with descriptions of accelerator types and characteristics. The wide range of applications of accelerators will be discussed, in fields such as nuclear science, medicine, astrophysics and space-sciences, power generation, airport security, materials processing and microcircuit fabrication. 13 figs.

  7. Compact accelerator for medical therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caporaso, George J.; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Hawkins, Steven A.; Sampayan, Stephen E.; Paul, Arthur C.

    2010-05-04

    A compact accelerator system having an integrated particle generator-linear accelerator with a compact, small-scale construction capable of producing an energetic (.about.70-250 MeV) proton beam or other nuclei and transporting the beam direction to a medical therapy patient without the need for bending magnets or other hardware often required for remote beam transport. The integrated particle generator-accelerator is actuable as a unitary body on a support structure to enable scanning of a particle beam by direction actuation of the particle generator-accelerator.

  8. Superconducting Radiofrequency (SRF) Acceleration Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — SRF cavities enable accelerators to increase particle beam energy levels while minimizing the use of electrical power by all but eliminating electrical resistance....

  9. [Advances in the research of negative-pressure wound therapy inducing the vascularization of dermal substitute].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, H W; Wang, X G; You, Z G; Han, C M

    2017-08-20

    In clinical practice, skin defects resulted from various acute and chronic diseases occur frequently. Dermal substitute (DS), known as dermal regenerative template, is used more and more widely, but the slow process of vascularization limits its clinical application. At present, there are many strategies developed to enhance the process of vascularization, such as modifying the structure of dermal scaffolds, prevascularization by seeding stem cells and/or endothelial cells. Recently, negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) emerged and rapidly became popular in promoting wound healing due to its intrinsic advantages. Furthermore, some researchers introduced this technique to accelerate the vascularization process of DS. This paper represents a comprehensive overview on the efficiency of NPWT in different combination models, and the related mechanism.

  10. Short Acceleration Times from Superdiffusive Shock Acceleration in the Heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, S.; Zimbardo, G.

    2015-12-01

    The analysis of time profiles of particles accelerated at interplanetary shocks allows particle transport properties to be inferred. The frequently observed power-law decay upstream, indeed, implies a superdiffusive particle transport when the level of magnetic field variance does not change as the time interval from the shock front increases. In this context, a superdiffusive shock acceleration (SSA) theory has been developed, allowing us to make predictions of the acceleration times. In this work we estimate for a number of interplanetary shocks, including the solar wind termination shock, the acceleration times for energetic protons in the framework of SSA and we compare the results with the acceleration times predicted by standard diffusive shock acceleration. The acceleration times due to SSA are found to be much shorter than in the classical model, and also shorter than the interplanetary shock lifetimes. This decrease of the acceleration times is due to the scale-free nature of the particle displacements in the framework of superdiffusion. Indeed, very long displacements are possible, increasing the probability for particles far from the front of the shock to return, and short displacements have a high probability of occurrence, increasing the chances for particles close to the front to cross the shock many times.

  11. Ghrelin improves vascular autophagy in rats with vascular calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mingming; Liu, Lin; Song, Chenfang; Chen, Wei; Gui, Shuyan

    2017-06-15

    This study aimed to investigate whether ghrelin ameliorated vascular calcification (VC) through improving autophagy. VC model was induced by nicotine plus vitamin D 3 in rats and β-glycerophosphate in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC). Calcium deposition was detected by von Kossa staining or alizarin red S staining. ALP activity was also detected. Western blot was used to assess the protein expression. Ghrelin treatment attenuated the elevation of calcium deposition and ALP activity in VC model both in vivo and in vitro. Interesting, the protein levels of autophagy markers, LC3 and beclin1 were significantly upregulated by ghrelin in VC model. An autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine blocks the ameliorative effect of ghrelin on VC. Furthermore, protein expressions of phosphate-AMPK were increased by ghrelin treatment both in calcified aorta and VSMC. The effect of ghrelin on autophagy induction and VC attenuation was prevented by AMPK inhibitor, compound C. Our results suggested that ghrelin improved autophagy through AMPK activation, which was resulted in VC amelioration. These data maybe throw light on prevention and therapy of VC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of vascular burden as measured by vascular indexes upon vascular dementia: a matched case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Paul Y; Caldwell, Casey R; Targonski, Paul V

    2012-01-01

    Paul Y Takahashi, Casey R Caldwell, Paul V TargonskiPrimary Care Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester MN, USABackground: Vascular dementia (VaD) is a challenging illness that affects the lives of older adults and caregivers. It is unclear how multiple vascular risk factor exposures (polyvascular disease) affect VaD.Purpose: To determine the relationship between multiple vascular risk exposures, as counted on an index in cases with VaD, compared with healthy age-/gender-matched controls.M...

  13. Vascular dementia: Facts and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular dementia (VaD is the second most frequent dementia after Alzheimer’s disease, and is diagnosed during lifetime in 20% of demented patients. Five­year survival rate in VaD is 39%, while it is estimated to be 75% in healthy persons of the same age. It is therefore important to make correct diagnosis of VaD early in the course of the disease. Risk factors for VaD are identical to stroke risk factors, and there are significant possibilities for the prevention of vascular cognitive decline. Cognitive decline develops acutely or step­by­step within three months after stroke, but more gradual progression of intellectual decline is also possible. Neurological examination can reveal pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs, pseudobulbar palsy, gait disturbance and urinary incontinence. Neuropsychological profile comprises the loss of cognitive set shifting, decline in word fluency, verbal learning difficulties, perseverations, difficulties in complex figure copying, and in patients with cortically located lesions also problems with speech and praxia. The basis of the diagnosis is, besides history, neurological examination and neuropsychological assessment, computed tomography and/ or magnetic resonance brain imaging. Vascular risk factors control is the most important measure in VaD prevention. Modern guidelines for the treatment of cognitive decline in VaD emphasize that donepezil can be useful in the improvement of cognitive status at the level of Class IIa recommendation at the level of evidence A, while memantine may be useful in patients with mixed VaD and Alzheimer’s disease dementia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175022 i br. 175033

  14. MIGRAINE AND STROKE: VASCULAR COMORBIDITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donata eGuidetti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Several comorbidities are associated to migraine.Recent meta-analyses have consistently demonstrated a relationship between migraine and stroke, which is well-defined for ischaemic stroke and migraine with aura, even stronger in females on oral contraceptives or smokers. However, there seems to be no clear-cut association between stroke in migraineurs and the common vascular risk factors, at least in the young adult population. Migraineurs also run an increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke, while the association between migraine and cardiovascular disease remains poorly defined.Another aspect is the relationship between migraine and the presence of silent brain lesions. It has been demonstrated that there is an increased frequency of ischaemic lesions in the white matter of migraineurs, especially silent infarcts in the posterior circulation territory in patients with at least 10 attacks per month. Although there is a higher prevalence of patent foramen ovale (PFO in migraineurs, the relationship between migraine and PFO remains controversial and PFO closure is not a recommended procedure to prevent migraine. As an increased frequency of cervical artery dissections has been observed in migrainous patients, it has been hypothesized that migraine may represent a predisposing factor for cervical artery dissection. There still remains the question as to whether migraine should be considered a true vascular disease or if the comorbidity between migraine and cerebrovascular disease may have underlying shared risk factors or pathophysiological mechanisms. Although further studies are required to clarify this issue, current evidence supports a clinical management where MA patients should be screened for other concomitant vascular risk factors and treated accordingly.

  15. Spinal vascular malformations; Spinale Gefaessmalformationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, U. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    Spinal vascular malformations are a group of rare diseases with different clinical presentations ranging from incidental asymptomatic findings to progressive tetraplegia. This article provides an overview about imaging features as well as clinical and therapeutic aspects of spinal arteriovenous malformations, cavernomas and capillary telangiectasia. (orig.) [German] Spinale Gefaessmalformationen sind eine Gruppe seltener Erkrankungen mit unterschiedlichen klinischen Praesentationen, die vom asymptomatischen Zufallsbefund bis zur progredienten Tetraparese reichen. Dieser Artikel gibt einen Ueberblick ueber radiologische Befunde sowie klinische und therapeutische Aspekte von spinalen arteriovenoesen Malformationen, Kavernomen und kapillaeren Teleangiektasien. (orig.)

  16. Vascular comorbidities in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thormann, Anja; Magyari, Melinda; Koch-Henriksen, Nils

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the occurrence of vascular comorbidities before and after the clinical onset of multiple sclerosis. In this combined case–control and cohort study, all Danish born citizens with onset of multiple sclerosis 1980–2005 were identified from the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry...... and randomly matched with controls regarding year of birth, gender, and municipality on January 1st in the year of multiple sclerosis (MS) onset (index date). Individual-level information on comorbidities was obtained from several independent nationwide registries and linked to the study population by unique...

  17. Thomas Edison Accelerated Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Henry M.; Chasin, Gene

    This paper describes early outcomes of a Sacramento, California, elementary school that participated in the Accelerated Schools Project. The school, which serves many minority and poor students, began training for the project in 1992. Accelerated Schools were designed to advance the learning rate of students through a gifted and talented approach,…

  18. COMPASS Accelerator Design Technical Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanni, Emilio; Dolgashev, Valery; Tantawi, Sami; Neilson, Jeff; /SLAC

    2016-03-14

    This report is a survey of technical options for generating a MeV-class accelerator for space based science applications. The survey was performed focusing on the primary technical requirements of the accelerator in the context of a satellite environment with its unique challenges of limited electrical power (PE), thermal isolation, dimensions, payload requirement and electrical isolation.

  19. Natural Acceleration: Supporting Creative Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, LeoNora M.

    2011-01-01

    "Natural acceleration" happens through an internal fire that burns to learn and may transcend school boundaries. Based on their passionate interests and connections with a domain, children who hunger for domain understandings outside school curricula require different types of acceleration, motivated by these interests. The lifeworks,…

  20. [Vascular depression, limits of the concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebert, Florence

    2004-09-01

    The concept of vascular depression has recently been reassessed and more clearly delineated. The diagnostic criteria for vascular depression require a major depression associated with evidence of confluent or diffuse vascular lesions in the subcortical regions on MRI. The clinical symptoms are not specific, but they are often associated with mild cognitive decline. Ischemia is probably the main factor for vascular depression, but the relationship between ischemic lesions and clinical symptoms remains not well explained. The apolipoproteine E genotype is not a risk factor for vascular depression, but it is associated with more severe hyperintensities on MRI. A pharmacological resistance has been described in vascular depression, but, in recent studies, clinical improvement has been observed with antidepressants in more than 80% of cases. A neuropsychological follow-up is recommended, because dementia may appear with 25% of patients.

  1. Protecting against vascular disease in brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Endothelial cells exert an enormous influence on blood vessels throughout the circulation, but their impact is particularly pronounced in the brain. New concepts have emerged recently regarding the role of this cell type and mechanisms that contribute to endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease. Activation of the renin-angiotensin system plays a prominent role in producing these abnormalities. Both oxidative stress and local inflammation are key mechanisms that underlie vascular disease of diverse etiology. Endogenous mechanisms of vascular protection are also present, including antioxidants, anti-inflammatory molecules, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ. Despite their clear importance, studies of mechanisms that underlie cerebrovascular disease continue to lag behind studies of vascular biology in general. Identification of endogenous molecules and pathways that protect the vasculature may result in targeted approaches to prevent or slow the progression of vascular disease that causes stroke and contributes to the vascular component of dementia and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:21335467

  2. Industrial accelerators and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hamm, Marianne E

    2012-01-01

    This unique new book is a comprehensive review of the many current industrial applications of particle accelerators, written by experts in each of these fields. Readers will gain a broad understanding of the principles of these applications, the extent to which they are employed, and the accelerator technology utilized. The book also serves as a thorough introduction to these fields for non-experts and laymen. Due to the increased interest in industrial applications, there is a growing interest among accelerator physicists and many other scientists worldwide in understanding how accelerators are used in various applications. The government agencies that fund scientific research with accelerators are also seeking more information on the many commercial applications that have been or can be developed with the technology developments they are funding. Many industries are also doing more research on how they can improve their products or processes using particle beams.

  3. Accelerators for high intensity beams

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Weiren

    2014-01-01

    As particle accelerators strive forever increasing performance, high intensity particle beams become one of the critical demands requested across the board by a majority of accelerator users (proton, electron and ion) and for most applications. Much effort has been made by our community to pursue high intensity accelerator performance on a number of fronts. Recognizing its importance, we devote this volume to Accelerators for High Intensity Beams. High intensity accelerators have become a frontier and a network for innovation. They are responsible for many scientific discoveries and technological breakthroughs that have changed our way of life, often taken for granted. A wide range of topics is covered in the fourteen articles in this volume.

  4. Energy Innovation Acceleration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfson, Johanna [Fraunhofer USA Inc., Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The Energy Innovation Acceleration Program (IAP) – also called U-Launch – has had a significant impact on early stage clean energy companies in the Northeast and on the clean energy economy in the Northeast, not only during program execution (2010-2014), but continuing into the future. Key results include: Leverage ratio of 105:1; $105M in follow-on funding (upon $1M investment by EERE); At least 19 commercial products launched; At least 17 new industry partnerships formed; At least $6.5M in revenue generated; >140 jobs created; 60% of assisted companies received follow-on funding within 1 year of program completion; In addition to the direct measurable program results summarized above, two primary lessons emerged from our work executing Energy IAP:; Validation and demonstration awards have an outsized, ‘tipping-point’ effect for startups looking to secure investments and strategic partnerships. An ecosystem approach is valuable, but an approach that evaluates the needs of individual companies and then draws from diverse ecosystem resources to fill them, is most valuable of all.

  5. SPS RF Accelerating Cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    This picture shows one of the 2 new cavities installed in 1978-1979. The main RF-system of the SPS comprises four cavities: two of 20 m length and two of 16.5 m length. They are all installed in one long straight section (LSS 3). These cavities are of the travelling-wave type operating at a centre frequency of 200.2 MHz. They are wideband, filling time about 700 ns and untuned. The power amplifiers, using tetrodes are installed in a surface building 200 m from the cavities. Initially only two cavities were installed, a third cavity was installed in 1978 and a forth one in 1979. The number of power amplifiers was also increased: to the first 2 MW plant a second 2 MW plant was added and by end 1979 there were 8 500 kW units combined in pairs to feed each of the 4 cavities with up to about 1 MW RF power, resulting in a total accelerating voltage of about 8 MV. See also 7412016X, 7412017X, 7411048X

  6. LHC Dipoles Accelerate

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Andrezej Siemko (left), Peter Sievers (centre), and Lucio Rossi (right), have the exciting challenge of preparing and testing 2000 magnets for the LHC. The LHC is going to require a lot of powerful magnets by the time it begins operation in 2006. More specifically, it is going to need 130 special magnets, 400 quadrupoles, and a whopping 1250 dipoles! Preparing and testing these magnets for the conditions they will encounter in the LHC is not an easy task. But evaluation of the most recently received magnet, from the German company Noell, is showing that while the monumental task of receiving and testing nearly 2000 magnets is going to be exhausting, the goals are definitely attainable. At the moment and over the next year, pre-series magnets (the magnets that CERN uses to fine tune performance) are arriving slowly (90 in total will arrive), but by 2003 the rate of series magnet arrival will accelerate to 9 per week, that's over 450 in a single year! And working with these magnets when they arrive is tough. ...

  7. The entangled accelerating universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F. [Colina de los Chopos, Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Estacion Ecologica de Biocosmologia, Pedro de Alvarado, 14, 06411-Medellin (Spain)], E-mail: p.gonzalezdiaz@imaff.cfmac.csic.es; Robles-Perez, Salvador [Colina de los Chopos, Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Estacion Ecologica de Biocosmologia, Pedro de Alvarado, 14, 06411-Medellin (Spain)

    2009-08-31

    Using the known result that the nucleation of baby universes in correlated pairs is equivalent to spacetime squeezing, we show in this Letter that there exists a T-duality symmetry between two-dimensional warp drives, which are physically expressible as localized de Sitter little universes, and two-dimensional Tolman-Hawking and Gidding-Strominger baby universes respectively correlated in pairs, so that the creation of warp drives is also equivalent to spacetime squeezing. Perhaps more importantly, it has been also seen that the nucleation of warp drives entails a violation of the Bell's inequalities, and hence the phenomena of quantum entanglement, complementarity and wave function collapse. These results are generalized to the case of any dynamically accelerating universe filled with dark or phantom energy whose creation is also physically equivalent to spacetime squeezing and to the violation of the Bell's inequalities, so that the universe we are living in should be governed by essential sharp quantum theory laws and must be a quantum entangled system.

  8. Cosmic transparency and acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holanda, R. F. L.; Pereira, S. H.; Jain, Deepak

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, by considering an absorption probability independent of photon wavelength, we show that current type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and gamma-ray burst (GRB) observations plus high-redshift measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation temperature support cosmic acceleration regardless of the transparent-universe assumption. Two flat scenarios are considered in our analyses: the Λ CDM model and a kinematic model. We consider τ (z )=2 ln (1 +z )ɛ, where τ (z ) denotes the opacity between an observer at z =0 and a source at z . This choice is equivalent to deforming the cosmic distance duality relation as DLDA-1=(1 +z )2+ɛ and, if the absorption probability is independent of photon wavelength, the CMB temperature evolution law is TCMB(z )=T0(1 +z )1+2 ɛ /3. By marginalizing on the ɛ parameter, our analyses rule out a decelerating universe at 99.99% C.L. for all scenarios considered. Interestingly, by considering only SNe Ia and GRBs observations, we obtain that a decelerated universe—indicated by ΩΛ≤0.33 and q0>0 —is ruled out around 1.5 σ C.L. and 2 σ C.L., respectively, regardless of the transparent-universe assumption.

  9. Hot Spot Cosmic Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-11-01

    length of more than 3 million light-years, or no less than one-and-a-half times the distance from the Milky Way to the Andromeda galaxy, this structure is indeed gigantic. The region where the jets collide with the intergalactic medium are known as " hot spots ". Superposing the intensity contours of the radio emission from the southern "hot spot" on a near-infrared J-band (wavelength 1.25 µm) VLT ISAAC image ("b") shows three distinct emitting areas; they are even better visible on the I-band (0.9 µm) FORS1 image ("c"). This emission is obviously associated with the shock front visible on the radio image. This is one of the first times it has been possible to obtain an optical/near-IR image of synchrotron emission from such an intergalactic shock and, thanks to the sensitivity and image sharpness of the VLT, the most detailed view of its kind so far . The central area (with the strongest emission) is where the plasma jet from the galaxy centre hits the intergalactic medium. The light from the two other "knots", some 10 - 15,000 light-years away from the central "hot spot", is also interpreted as synchrotron emission. However, in view of the large distance, the astronomers are convinced that it must be caused by electrons accelerated in secondary processes at those sites . The new images thus confirm that electrons are being continuously accelerated in these "knots" - hence called "cosmic accelerators" - far from the galaxy and the main jets, and in nearly empty space. The exact physical circumstances of this effect are not well known and will be the subject of further investigations. The present VLT-images of the "hot spots" near 3C 445 may not have the same public appeal as some of those beautiful images that have been produced by the same instruments during the past years. But they are not less valuable - their unusual importance is of a different kind, as they now herald the advent of fundamentally new insights into the mysteries of this class of remote and active

  10. EXHIBITION: Accelerated Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ An exhibition of plastic arts and two evenings of performances by sound and visual artists as part of CERN's fiftieth anniversary celebrations. The fiftieth anniversary of a world famous organization like CERN, an international laboratory specializing in fundamental research, is a cause for celebration. Since March this year, Geneva and neighbouring parts of France have been the venues for a wealth of small and large-scale events, which will continue until November. Given CERN's location in the commune of Meyrin, the ForuMeyrin is hosting two "salons" consisting of an exhibition of plastic arts and evenings of music and visual arts performances with the collective title of "Accelerated Particles". Several works will be exhibited and performed. Salon des matières: An exhibition of plastic arts Until Wednesday 3 November 2004. Tuesdays to Fridays: 4.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. Saturdays: 2.00 p.m. to 6.00 p.m. Doors open late on the evening of the performances. Salon des ...

  11. EXHIBITION: Accelerated Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    An exhibition of plastic arts and two evenings of performances by sound and visual artists as part of CERN's 50th anniversary celebrations. Fifty candles for CERN, an international laboratory renowned for fundamental research, is a cause for celebration. Since March this year, Geneva and neighbouring parts of France have been the venues for a wealth of small and large-scale events, which will continue until November. Given CERN's location in the commune of Meyrin, the ForuMeyrin is hosting exhibitions of plastic arts and performances entitled: Accelerated Particles. Several works will be exhibited and performed in two 'salons'. Salon des matières: An exhibition of plastic arts From Tues 12 October to Wed 3 November 2004 Tuesdays to Fridays: 16:00 to 19:00 Saturdays: 14:00 to 18:00 Exhibition open late on performance nights, entrance free Salon des particules: Musical and visual performances Tues 12 and Mon 25 October from 20:00 to 23:00 Preview evening for both events: Tues 12 October from 18:...

  12. Vascular adaption to physical inactivity in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Bleeker, M.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents studies on vascular adaptation to physical inactivity and deconditioning. Although it is clear that physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the underlying physiological mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In contrast to physical inactivity, exercise decreases the risk for cardiovascular disease. This beneficial effect of exercise is partly due to changes in vascular function and structure. However, far less is known about vascular ...

  13. CAS CERN Accelerator School 5th General Accelerator Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, S.

    1994-01-01

    The fifth CERN Accelerator School (CAS) basic course on General Accelerator Physics was given at the University of Jyvaeskylae, Finland, from 7 to 18 September 1992. Its syllabus was based on the previous similar courses held at Gif-sur-Yvette in 1984, Aarhus 1986, Salamanca 1988 and Juelich 1990, and whose proceedings were published as CERN Reports 85-19, 87-10, 89-05 and 91-04, respectively. However, certain topics were treated in a different way, improved or extended, while new subjects were introduced. As far as the proceedings of this school are concerned the opportunity was taken not only to include the lectures presented but also to select and revise the most appropriate chapters from the previous similar schools. In this way the present volumes constitute a rather complete introduction to all aspects of the design and construction of particle accelerators, including optics, emittance, luminosity, longitudinal and transverse beam dynamics, insertions, chromaticity, transfer lines, resonances, accelerating structures, tune shifts, coasting beams, lifetime, synchrotron radiation, radiation damping, beam-beam effects, diagnostics, cooling, ion and positron sources, RF and vacuum systems, injection and extraction, conventional, permanent and superconducting magnets, cyclotrons, RF linear accelerators, microtrons, as well as applications of particle accelerators (including therapy) and the history of accelerators. See hints under the relevant topics.

  14. Enhanced Recovery after Vascular Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena D. Stojanovic

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The beginnings of the enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS program were first developed for patients in colorectal surgery, and after it was established as the standard of care in this surgical field, it began to be applied in many others surgical areas. This is multimodal, evidence-based approach program and includes simultaneous optimization of preoperative status of patients, adequate selection of surgical procedure and postoperative management. The aim of this program is to reduce complications, the length of hospital stay and to improve the patients outcome. Over the past decades, special attention was directed to the postoperative management in vascular surgery, especially after major vascular surgery because of the great risk of multiorgan failure, such as: respiratory failure, myocardial infarction, hemodynamic instability, coagulopathy, renal failure, neurological disorders, and intra-abdominal complications. Although a lot of effort was put into it, there is no unique acceptable program for ERAS in this surgical field, and there is still a need to point out the factors responsible for postoperative outcomes of these patients. So far, it is known that special attention should be paid to already existing diseases, type and the duration of the surgical intervention, hemodynamic and fluid management, nutrition, pain management, and early mobilization of patients.

  15. Neuroradiological findings in vascular dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guermazi, Ali; Miaux, Yves; Suhy, Joyce; Pauls, Jon; Lopez, Ria [Synarc, Inc., Department of Radiology Services, San Francisco, CA (United States); Rovira-Canellas, Alex [Hospital General Universitari Vall d' Hebron, Unita de Resonancia Magnetica, Barcelona (Spain); Posner, Holly [Eisai, Inc., Teaneck, NJ (United States)

    2007-01-15

    There are multiple diagnostic criteria for vascular dementia (VaD) that may define different populations. Utilizing the criteria of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and Association Internationale pour la Recherche et l'Enseignement en Neurosciences (NINDS-AIREN) has provided improved consistency in the diagnosis of VaD. The criteria include a table listing brain imaging lesions associated with VaD. The different neuroradiological aspects of the criteria are reviewed based on the imaging data from an ongoing large-scale clinical trial testing a new treatment for VaD. The NINDS-AIREN criteria were applied by a centralized imaging rater to determine eligibility for enrollment in 1,202 patients using brain CT or MRI. Based on the above data set, the neuroradiological features that are associated with VaD and that can result from cerebral small-vessel disease with extensive leukoencephalopathy or lacunae (basal ganglia or frontal white matter), or may be the consequence of single strategically located infarcts or multiple infarcts in large-vessel territories, are illustrated. These features may also be the consequence of global cerebral hypoperfusion, intracerebral hemorrhage, or other mechanisms such as genetically determined arteriopathies. Neuroimaging confirmation of cerebrovascular disease in VaD provides information about the topography and severity of vascular lesions. Neuroimaging may also assist with the differential diagnosis of dementia associated with normal pressure hydrocephalus, chronic subdural hematoma, arteriovenous malformation or tumoral diseases. (orig.)

  16. Proatherogenic pathways leading to vascular calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzini, Michael J. [Department of Cardiology, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Schulze, P. Christian [Department of Medicine, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States)]. E-mail: christian.schulze@bmc.org

    2006-03-15

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world and atherosclerosis is the major common underlying disease. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis involves local vascular injury, inflammation and oxidative stress as well as vascular calcification. Vascular calcification has long been regarded as a degenerative process leading to mineral deposition in the vascular wall characteristic for late stages of atherosclerosis. However, recent studies identified vascular calcification in early stages of atherosclerosis and its occurrence has been linked to clinical events in patients with cardiovascular disease. Its degree correlates with local vascular inflammation and with the overall impact and the progression of atherosclerosis. Over the last decade, diverse and highly regulated molecular signaling cascades controlling vascular calcification have been described. Local and circulating molecules such as osteopontin, osteoprogerin, leptin and matrix Gla protein were identified as critical regulators of vascular calcification. We here review the current knowledge on molecular pathways of vascular calcification and their relevance for the progression of cardiovascular disease.

  17. Vascular tumors and malformations in children, Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguiness, Sheilagh M

    2016-03-01

    Over the past decade, I have been amazed at the growth in the field of vascular anomalies. The recognition of vascular birthmarks as a defined area of medicine is a relatively recent event. The International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) was founded by Drs John Mulliken and Anthony Young in the late 1970s. Mulliken and Glowacki's sentinel 1982 paper on the biologic classification of vascular anomalies further established the field, by providing clarity of nomenclature and unifying concepts that had previously been lacking. ©2016 Frontline Medical Communications.

  18. [Diagnosis and management of vascular anomalies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philandrianos, C; Degardin, N; Casanova, D; Petit, P; Bartoli, J-M; Bardot, J; Magalon, G

    2011-06-01

    Vascular anomalies are a complex pathological group. They are especially difficult to study because of confusion in the terminology used. The classification developed by the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) in 1996 allows using a common scientific language. There are two groups of lesions: vascular tumor and vascular malformation. The management of these anomalies is difficult and must involve an interdisciplinary approach including specialists in plastic surgery, radiology, pediatry and dermatology. We propose a simplified approach for the management of these pathologies. This approach is coming from the experience of Marseille (France) multidisciplinary team. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Tumor vascular disruption using various radiation types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JJ Bevelacqua

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of disrupting a tumor’s vascular structure with various radiation types and radionuclides is investigated. Calculated absorbed dose profiles for photons and 4He ions suggest that low-energy beta-gamma and alpha emitting radionuclides can deposit sufficient absorbed dose to disrupt a tumor’s vascular structure while minimizing the dose outside the blood vessel. Candidate radionuclides uniformly distributed in microspheres are theoretically investigated with respect to their vascular disruption potential and to offer an alternative to 90Y microsphere therapy. Requisite activities of candidate low-energy beta-gamma and alpha emitting radionuclides to facilitate vascular disruption are calculated.

  20. Vascular function in health, hypertension, and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Gliemann, Lasse; Hellsten, Ylva

    2015-01-01

    muscle, which can affect muscle function. Central aspects in the vascular impairments are alterations in the formation of prostacyclin, the bioavailability of NO and an increased formation of vasoconstrictors and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Regular physical activity effectively improves vascular...... to the formation of vasodilators such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostacyclin. In essential hypertension and type II diabetes, the endothelial function and regulation of vascular tone is impaired with consequent increases in peripheral vascular resistance and inadequate regulation of oxygen supply to the skeletal...

  1. EDITORIAL: Laser and plasma accelerators Laser and plasma accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Robert

    2009-02-01

    This special issue on laser and plasma accelerators illustrates the rapid advancement and diverse applications of laser and plasma accelerators. Plasma is an attractive medium for particle acceleration because of the high electric field it can sustain, with studies of acceleration processes remaining one of the most important areas of research in both laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. The rapid advance in laser and accelerator technology has led to the development of terawatt and petawatt laser systems with ultra-high intensities and short sub-picosecond pulses, which are used to generate wakefields in plasma. Recent successes include the demonstration by several groups in 2004 of quasi-monoenergetic electron beams by wakefields in the bubble regime with the GeV energy barrier being reached in 2006, and the energy doubling of the SLAC high-energy electron beam from 42 to 85 GeV. The electron beams generated by the laser plasma driven wakefields have good spatial quality with energies ranging from MeV to GeV. A unique feature is that they are ultra-short bunches with simulations showing that they can be as short as a few femtoseconds with low-energy spread, making these beams ideal for a variety of applications ranging from novel high-brightness radiation sources for medicine, material science and ultrafast time-resolved radiobiology or chemistry. Laser driven ion acceleration experiments have also made significant advances over the last few years with applications in laser fusion, nuclear physics and medicine. Attention is focused on the possibility of producing quasi-mono-energetic ions with energies ranging from hundreds of MeV to GeV per nucleon. New acceleration mechanisms are being studied, including ion acceleration from ultra-thin foils and direct laser acceleration. The application of wakefields or beat waves in other areas of science such as astrophysics and particle physics is beginning to take off, such as the study of cosmic accelerators considered

  2. "small ACCELERATORS" 24 May - 2 June 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    CERN Accelerator School and Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (KVI) Groningen, the Netherlands announce a course on "Small Accelerators", Hotel Golden Tulip Drenthe, Zeegse, the Netherlands, 24 May - 2 June 2005. This specialised course is dedicated to the physics and the main applications of small accelerators. The course will review the different accelerator types as well as their specificities in terms of accelerator physics.

  3. Particle acceleration in binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinitsyna V.G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cygnus X-3 massive binary system is one of the powerful sources of radio and X-ray emission consisting of an accreting compact object, probably a black hole, with a Wolf-Rayet star companion. Based on the detections of ultra high energy gamma-rays by Kiel and Havera Park, Cygnus X-3 has been proposed to be one of the most powerful sources of charged cosmic ray particles in the Galaxy. The results of long-term observations of the Cyg X-3 binary at energies 800 GeV–85 TeV detected by SHALON in 1995 are presented with images, integral spectra and spectral energy distribution. The identification of source with Cygnus X-3 detected by SHALON was secured by the detection of its 4.8 hour orbital period in TeV gamma-rays. During the whole observation period of Cyg X-3 with SHALON significant flux increases were detected at energies above 0.8 TeV. These TeV flux increases are correlated with flaring activity at a lower energy range of X-ray and/or at observations of Fermi LAT as well as with radio emission from the relativistic jets of Cygnus X-3. The variability of very high-energy gamma-radiation and correlation of radiation activity in the wide energy range can provide essential information on particle mechanism production up to very high energies. Whereas, modulation of very high energy emission connected to the orbital motion of the binary system, provides an understanding of the emission processes, nature and location of particle acceleration.

  4. Particle acceleration in binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinitsyna, V. G.; Sinitsyna, V. Y.

    2017-06-01

    Cygnus X-3 massive binary system is one of the powerful sources of radio and X-ray emission consisting of an accreting compact object, probably a black hole, with a Wolf-Rayet star companion. Based on the detections of ultra high energy gamma-rays by Kiel and Havera Park, Cygnus X-3 has been proposed to be one of the most powerful sources of charged cosmic ray particles in the Galaxy. The results of long-term observations of the Cyg X-3 binary at energies 800 GeV-85 TeV detected by SHALON in 1995 are presented with images, integral spectra and spectral energy distribution. The identification of source with Cygnus X-3 detected by SHALON was secured by the detection of its 4.8 hour orbital period in TeV gamma-rays. During the whole observation period of Cyg X-3 with SHALON significant flux increases were detected at energies above 0.8 TeV. These TeV flux increases are correlated with flaring activity at a lower energy range of X-ray and/or at observations of Fermi LAT as well as with radio emission from the relativistic jets of Cygnus X-3. The variability of very high-energy gamma-radiation and correlation of radiation activity in the wide energy range can provide essential information on particle mechanism production up to very high energies. Whereas, modulation of very high energy emission connected to the orbital motion of the binary system, provides an understanding of the emission processes, nature and location of particle acceleration.

  5. Acceleration of particles in plasmas

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    The accelerating fields in radio-frequency accelerators are limited to roughly 100 MV/m due to material breakdown which occurs on the walls of the structure. In contrast, a plasma, being already ionized, can support electric fields in excess of 100 GV/m. Such high accelerating gradients hold the promise of compact particle accelerators. Plasma acceleration has been an emerging and fast growing field of research in the past two decades. In this series of lectures, we will review the principles of plasma acceleration. We will see how relativistic plasma waves can be excited using an ultra-intense laser or using a particle beam. We will see how these plasma waves can be used to accelerate electrons to high energy in short distances. Throughout the lectures, we will also review recent experimental results. Current laser-plasma experiments throughout the world have shown that monoenergetic electron beams from 100 MeV to 1 GeV can be obtained in distances ranging from the millimetre to the centimetre. Experiments a...

  6. Application of electron accelerator worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machi, Sueo [Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    Electron accelerator is an important radiation source for radiation technology, which covers broad fields such as industry, health care, food and environmental protection. There are about 1,000 electron accelerators for radiation processing worldwide. Electron accelerator has advantage over Co-60 irradiator in term of high dose rate and power, assurance of safety, and higher economic performance at larger volume of irradiation. Accelerator generating higher energy in the range of 10 MeV and high power electron beam is now commercially available. There is a trend to use high-energy electron accelerator replacing Co-60 in case of large through-put of medical products. Irradiated foods, in particular species, are on the commercial market in 35 countries. Electron accelerator is used efficiently and economically for production of new or modified polymeric materials through radiation-induced cross-linking, grafting and polymerization reaction. Another important application of electron beam is the curing of surface coatings in the manufacture of products. Electron accelerators of large capacity are used for cleaning exhaust gases in industrial scale. Economic feasibility studies of this electron beam process have shown that this technology is more cost effective than the conventional process. It should be noted that the conventional limestone process produce gypsum as a by-product, which cannot be used in some countries. By contrast, the by-product of the electron beam process is a valuable fertilizer. (Y. Tanaka)

  7. Implementation of a vascular access quality programme improves vascular access care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, M.; van der Mark, W.; Beukers, N.; de Bruin, C.; Blankestijn, P. J.; Huisman, R. M.; Zijlstra, J. J.; van der Sande, F. M.; Tordoir, J. H. M.

    Introduction. In the Netherlands an access quality improvement plan (QIP) was introduced by vascular access coordinators (VAC) with the aim to decrease vascular access-related complications by preemptive intervention of malfunctioning accesses. A vascular access QIP was established in 24 centres

  8. 2014 CERN Accelerator Schools: Beam Loss and Accelerator Protection

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    The US-CERN-JAPAN-RUSSIA Joint International Accelerator School is organising a course on Beam Loss and Accelerator Protection to be held in Newport Beach, California, USA from 5-14 November, 2014.    This school is intended for physicists and engineers who are or may be engaged in the design, construction, and/or operation of accelerators with high power photon or particle beams and/or accelerator sub-systems with large stored energy. Application deadlines are 15 August and 4 September. Further information on this Joint School can be found at: http://cas.web.cern.ch/cas/JAS/Newport%20Beach%202014/NPBadvert.html http://indico.cern.ch/event/287647/ http://uspas.fnal.gov/programs/JAS/JAS14.shtml

  9. Superconducting Magnets for Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, Luca; Yamamoto, Akira; Zlobin, Alexander V

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we summarize the evolution and contributions of superconducting magnets to particle accelerators as chronicled over the last 50 years of Particle Accelerator Conferences (PAC, NA-PAC and IPAC). We begin with an historical overview based primarily on PAC Proceedings augmented with references to key milestones in the development of superconducting magnets for particle accelerators. We then provide some illustrative examples of applications that have occurred over the past 50 years, focusing on those that have either been realized in practice or provided technical development for other projects, with discussion of possible future applications.

  10. Diffraction Accelerator Of Charged Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Alekseev, Yu K; Kosarev, A A; Poseryaev, A V; Shvedunov, V I; Vetrov, A A; Zayarniy, D A

    2004-01-01

    We present the results of theoretical and numerical analysis of the physical processes for laser linear accelerator based on two symmetric resonance diffraction gratings with double-sided accelerating field excitation. Structures parameters optimization provides π-mode field amplitude distribution in neighboring diffraction zone. The maximum energy gradient restricted by ablation processes in grating materials is estimated as 1-3 GeV/m. The numerical analyses and analytical approximation of electric and magnetic field structures are done, longitudinal and transverse electron beam dynamics in accelerating systems are considered, wake fields and focusing properties of diffraction gratings are estimated.

  11. Vascular risk in obesity: Facts, misconceptions and the unknown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Rhodri J; Ajjan, Ramzi A

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a major burden on healthcare systems worldwide due to the association with numerous complications, arguably the most important of which are the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Both are thought to develop from similar origins and occur at variable rates in obese individuals, including those with similar body mass indices. This phenomenon is likely a result of an increased susceptibility for the storage of excess fat in the wrong place, namely, ectopic fat surrounding the liver, pancreas and muscles. This triggers a concatenation of events leading to insulin resistance and inflammation which culminate in an increased atherothrombotic potential due to the dysfunction of vascular endothelial cells causing accelerated atherosclerotic plaque formation and a pro-thrombotic phenotype. The degree of weight loss following different interventions is well documented but it is less widely known what effect weight loss by various means has on the deleterious process mentioned above, in particular their effects on cardiovascular events. This review summarises the processes leading to increased vascular risk in obesity and examines the effects of currently available weight loss strategies on reversing these processes and how this translates to cardiovascular disease. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Vascular restoration: Is there a window of opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianhua; Kang, Xiaoran; Li, Tianzhu

    2015-12-01

    The usage of drug eluting stents (DES) has markedly reduced the rates of coronary revascularization procedures compared with bare metal stents (BMS). However, this technology still faces challenges in terms of the prevention of late stent thrombosis, major adverse cardiac events (MACE) progression, and the catch-up phenomenon of restenosis. Restoration of endothelial function upon after stenting, therefore, is the key to mitigating the risk of these toxicities and determining the level of the efficacy and safety of an implant. Review of the clinical studies of multiple DES, has suggested that there exists a window of opportunity, within the first two to three months after stent implantation, for restoring vascular function. If re-endothelialization reaches sufficient level within this period, vascular restoration can occur; however, if this opportunity is missed, re-endothelialization is unlikely to reach the level of endothelial maturation necessary to prevent the late stent thrombosis, MACE progression and the catch-up on restenosis. This hypothesis could aid in explaining variable clinical responses for revascularization treatments such as plain old balloon angioplasty (POBA), BMS, or DES. Patients could be grouped according to responses to the different treatment modalities: for Type 1 patients, POBA is sufficient and safe because they possess the capacity with effective endothelial response; for Type 2 patients, re-endothelialization occurs within the window but BMS are needed to maintain the arterial lumen open; for Type 3 individuals, overly accelerated vascular smooth muscle proliferation render sufficient re-endothelialization impossible. Designing based on this principle predicts that the next technology advancement for the interventional cardiology will not be biodegradable DES by default, but rather a DES that can spur early restoration of the endothelial function within the window period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Co-culture systems for vascularization--learning from nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, C James; Fuchs, Sabine; Unger, Ronald E

    2011-04-30

    The endothelial cell (EC) is practically ubiquitous in the human body and forms the inner cellular lining of the entire cardiovascular system. Following tissue injury, the microcirculation becomes the stage for both the inflammatory response and the subsequent healing reaction to restore physiological function to the damaged tissue. The advent of the multidisciplinary field of Regenerative Medicine (RegMed), of which Tissue Engineering (TE) and drug delivery using modern stimuli-responsive or interactive biomaterials are important components, has opened up new approaches to the acceleration of the healing response. A central and rate-limiting role in the latter is played by the process of vascularization or neovascularization, so that it is not surprising that in RegMed concepts have been developed for the drug- and gene-delivery of potent stimuli such as vascular-endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to promote neovessel development. However, not all of these novel materials can be tested in vivo, and in vitro co-culture model systems using human primary cells are being developed to pre-evaluate and determine which of the RegMed concepts exhibit the most promising potential for success after implantation. This review describes some of the growing number of in vitro co-cultures model systems that are being used to study cell-cell and cell-material interactions at the cellular and molecular levels to determine which materials are best suited to integrate into the host, promote a rapid vascularization and fit into the regenerative process without disturbing or slowing the normal healing steps. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Adiposity, adipocytokines & microvesicles in the etiology of vascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanhai, D.A.N.I.S.

    2013-01-01

    Vascular disease, in this thesis the terms vascular and cardiovascular are used interchangeably, is the number 1 cause of death worldwide. In 2008, 30% of all mortality had a vascular origin. Vascular mortality rates after a first manifestation of vascular disease are decreasing in Western society,

  15. FPGA controlled artificial vascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laqua D.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the oxygen saturation of an unborn child is an invasive procedure, so far. Transabdominal fetal pulse oximetry is a promising method under research, used to estimate the oxygen saturation of a fetus noninvasively. Due to the nature of the method, the fetal information needs to be extracted from a mixed signal. To properly evaluate signal processing algorithms, a phantom modeling fetal and maternal blood circuits and tissue layers is necessary. This paper presents an improved hardware concept for an artificial vascular system, utilizing an FPGA based CompactRIO System from National Instruments. The experimental model to simulate the maternal and fetal blood pressure curve consists of two identical hydraulic circuits. Each of these circuits consists of a pre-pressure system and an artificial vascular system. Pulse curves are generated by proportional valves, separating these two systems. The dilation of the fetal and maternal artificial vessels in tissue substitutes is measured by transmissive and reflective photoplethysmography. The measurement results from the pressure sensors and the transmissive optical sensors are visualized to show the functionality of the pulse generating systems. The trigger frequency for the maternal valve was set to 1 per second, the fetal valve was actuated at 0.7 per second for validation. The reflective curve, capturing pulsations of the fetal and maternal circuit, was obtained with a high power LED (905 nm as light source. The results show that the system generates pulse curves, similar to its physiological equivalent. Further, the acquired reflective optical signal is modulated by the alternating diameter of the tubes of both circuits, allowing for tests of signal processing algorithms.

  16. Vascular permeability alterations induced by arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Chieh; Tsai, Ming-Hsien; Wang, Hsiu-Jen; Yu, Hsin-Su; Chang, Louis W

    2004-01-01

    The impact of arsenic on the integrity of blood vessels in vivo via in situ exposure (local injection) of arsenic was investigated. Vascular permeability changes were evaluated by means of the Evans blue assay and the India ink tracer techniques. Rats were intravenously injected with Evans blue followed by intradermal injections of various doses of sodium arsenite on the back skins of the animals. Evans blue at different time points was extracted and assayed as indices of vascular leakage. Skin at various time point injection sites was sampled for arsenic measurement via graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. Our time course study with Evans blue technique demonstrated a biphasic pattern of vascular permeability change: an early phase of permeability reduction and a later phase of permeability promotion at all dose levels tested. The India ink tracer technique also demonstrated a time-correlated increase in vascular labelling in the tissues examined, signifying an increase in vascular leakage with time. Moreover, we found that despite an early increase in tissue arsenic content at time of injection, tissue arsenic declined rapidly and returned to near control levels after 30-60 min. Thus, an inverse correlation between tissue arsenic content and the extent of vascular permeability was apparent. This study provides the first demonstration that in situ exposure to arsenic will produce vascular dysfunction (vascular leakage) in vivo.

  17. Functional preservation of vascular smooth muscle tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, W. C.; Hutchins, P. M.; Kimzey, S. L.

    1973-01-01

    The ionic and cellular feedback relationships operating to effect the vascular decompensatory modifications were examined to reveal procedures for implementing protective measures guarding against vascular collapse when returning from a weightless environment to that of the earth's gravity. The surgical procedures for preparing the rat cremaster, and the fixation methods are described. Abstracts of publications resulting from this research are included.

  18. VASCULAR EFFECTS OF KETAMINE IN ISOLATED RABBIT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel Owu

    Summary: The precise mechanism by which ketamine induces relaxation of vascular smooth muscle is not clear. The goal of this study was to further characterize the vascular actions of ketamine in rabbit aortic smooth muscles. Ring segments (2mm) of rabbit aortae were suspended in 20ml organ baths containing ...

  19. Arteriovenous Malformations and Other Vascular Malformation Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Kevin J.; Smith, Matthew C. P.; Li, Dean Y.

    2013-01-01

    Vascular malformations are a disruption of the normal vascular pattern in which it is expected that a capillary network of microscopic vessels lies interposed between high-pressure arteries that deliver blood and thin-walled veins that collect low-pressure blood for return to the heart. In the case of arteriovenous malformations, arteries or arterioles connect directly to the venous collection system, bypassing any capillary bed. Clinical consequences result from rupture and hemorrhage, from dramatically increased blood flow, or from the loss of capillary functions such as nutrient exchange and filtering function. These malformations can occur sporadically or as a component of inherited vascular malformation syndromes. In these and other hereditary vascular malformation syndromes, genetic studies have identified proteins and pathways involved in vascular morphogenesis and development. A common theme observed is that vascular malformations result from disruption in pathways involved in vascular stability. Here we review the vascular malformations and pathways involved in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, capillary malformation–arteriovenous malformation, cerebral cavernous malformations, and mucocutaneous venous malformations. PMID:23125071

  20. Non-suture methods of vascular anastomosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeebregts, CJ; Heijmen, RH; van den Dungen, JJ; van Schilfgaarde, R

    Background: The main aim of performing a vascular anastomosis is to achieve maximal patency rates. An important factor to achieve that goal is to minimize damage to the vessel walls. Sutures inevitably induce vascular wall damage, which influences the healing of the anastomosis. Over time, several

  1. Vascular birthmarks of infancy: resolving nosologic confusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Jennifer L; Frieden, Ilona J

    2002-04-01

    The terminology describing congenital vascular birthmarks has been a source of confusion in the medical literature. Mulliken and Glowacki [1982: Plas. Recons. Surg. 69:412-422] published a biologic classification system which has become the most widely accepted framework for classifying vascular birthmarks and is accepted as the official classification schema by the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA). In this study, we evaluate the current nosology of vascular birthmarks used in standard medical genetics reference texts compared with the accepted Mulliken ISSVA framework. In five sources examined, a variety of terms were used to describe congenital vascular anomalies. The degree of agreement with accepted ISSVA classification varied both within and among texts, with agreement as low as 22% and as high as 75%. In all texts, hemangioma was the most commonly used term, appearing 79 times. Use of the term "hemangioma" had the lowest rate of agreement with the ISSVA classification criteria, with agreement in 23% of citations. The terms "vascular malformation" and "port-wine stain" were used less frequently, but with a much higher degree of agreement with the ISSVA classification: 82% and 66%, respectively. These results establish that nosologic confusion is widespread even in standard genetic reference texts. In particular, the term "hemangioma" is used imprecisely. The ISSVA classification system provides an extremely useful framework for geneticists to classify vascular birthmarks in their evaluation of infants and children with vascular anomalies in order to provide more accurate evaluation, prognosis, and genetic counseling. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Hemorrhage Control for Major Traumatic Vascular Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    and it is unclear if this contributed to the high (46%) mortality in OPEN patients with thoracic aortic injury. Intra- abdominal arterial hemorrhage...Endovascular therapy for overcoming challenges presented with blunt abdominal aortic injury. Vascular and endovascular surgery 2012;46:329-331. 23...systematically define the clinical and logistical issues surrounding traditional open vascular surgery and catheter-based hemorrhage control. The

  3. Vascular dementia | Connor | African Journal of Psychiatry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is a common but heterogeneous condition in which there is a clear temporal relationship between the dementia and vascular disease. It may result from multiple large or small vessel strokes or a single strategic stroke. Subcortical ischaemic VaD includes multiple lacunes and subcortical ...

  4. Evaluation of Peripheral Vascular Calcification and Serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Vascular calcification is a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality in the general population. It is highly prevalent in end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Low magnesium (Mg) levels have been reported to have a strong association with vascular calcification in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The aims of this ...

  5. Management Strategies in Hemodialysis Vascular Access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van der Linden (Joke)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractSince the introduction of the AV fistula and the use of interposition graft little improvement has been made in the vascular access field. Still, vascular access related complications, are one of the most important reasons for patient hospitalization, morbidity and even mortality

  6. Reconstructive vascular surgery below the knee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, L B; Jelnes, R; Sager, P

    1986-01-01

    In a series of 38 consecutive patients with advanced peripheral vascular disease (i.e. rest pain) reconstructive vascular surgery was performed with the distal anastomosis below the knee. Ankle/arm pressure index (AAI) was 0.28 (0.11-0.47) preoperatively; accumulated graft patency rate was 0.47 (SD...

  7. Percutaneous Treatment of Peripheral Vascular Malformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van der Linden (Edwin)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractVascular malformations arise from errors in the morphological processes that shape the embryonic vascular system during fetal development. These developmental errors result in abnormal clusters of blood vessels. Although these lesions are present at birth, they might not become visible

  8. SNEAP 80: symposium of Northeastern Accelerator personnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billen, J.H. (ed.)

    1980-01-01

    Reports of operations are presented for twenty-seven facilities, along with reports on accelerators in progress, ion sources, insulating gases, charging systems, stripping foils, accelerating tubes, and upgraded accelerator systems. (GHT)

  9. PanVascular medicine. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzer, Peter (ed.) [Health Care Center Bitterfeld (Germany). Division of Cardiovascular Disease

    2015-06-01

    Vascular management and care has become a truly multidisciplinary enterprise as the number of specialists involved in the treatment of patients with vascular diseases has steadily increased. While in the past, treatments were delivered by individual specialists, in the twenty-first century a team approach is without doubt the most effective strategy. In order to promote professional excellence in this dynamic and rapidly evolving field, a shared knowledge base and interdisciplinary standards need to be established. Pan Vascular Medicine, 2nd edition has been designed to offer such an interdisciplinary platform, providing vascular specialists with state-of-the art descriptive and procedural knowledge. Basic science, diagnostics, and therapy are all comprehensively covered. In a series of succinct, clearly written chapters, renowned specialists introduce and comment on the current international guidelines and present up-to-date reviews of all aspects of vascular care.

  10. Fundamental principles of vascular network topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopylova, Veronika S; Boronovskiy, Stanislav E; Nartsissov, Yaroslav R

    2017-06-15

    The vascular system is arguably the most important biological system in many organisms. Although the general principles of its architecture are simple, the growth of blood vessels occurs under extreme physical conditions. Optimization is an important aspect of the development of computational models of the vascular branching structures. This review surveys the approaches used to optimize the topology and estimate different geometrical parameters of the vascular system. The review is focused on optimizations using complex cost functions based on the minimum total energy principle and the relationship between the laws of growth and precise vascular network topology. Experimental studies of vascular networks in different species are also discussed. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  11. Stem/Progenitor cells in vascular regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Xu, Qingbo

    2014-06-01

    A series of studies has been presented in the search for proof of circulating and resident vascular progenitor cells, which can differentiate into endothelial and smooth muscle cells and pericytes in animal and human studies. In terms of pluripotent stem cells, including embryonic stem cells, iPS, and partial-iPS cells, they display a great potential for vascular lineage differentiation. Development of stem cell therapy for treatment of vascular and ischemic diseases remains a major challenging research field. At the present, there is a clear expansion of research into mechanisms of stem cell differentiation into vascular lineages that are tested in animal models. Although there are several clinical trials ongoing that primarily focus on determining the benefits of stem cell transplantation in ischemic heart or peripheral ischemic tissues, intensive investigation for translational aspects of stem cell therapy would be needed. It is a hope that stem cell therapy for vascular diseases could be developed for clinic application in the future.

  12. Using Polymeric Scaffolds for Vascular Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alida Abruzzo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the high occurrence of cardiovascular disease and increasing numbers of patients requiring vascular access, there is a significant need for small-diameter (<6 mm inner diameter vascular graft that can provide long-term patency. Despite the technological improvements, restenosis and graft thrombosis continue to hamper the success of the implants. Vascular tissue engineering is a new field that has undergone enormous growth over the last decade and has proposed valid solutions for blood vessels repair. The goal of vascular tissue engineering is to produce neovessels and neoorgan tissue from autologous cells using a biodegradable polymer as a scaffold. The most important advantage of tissue-engineered implants is that these tissues can grow, remodel, rebuild, and respond to injury. This review describes the development of polymeric materials over the years and current tissue engineering strategies for the improvement of vascular conduits.

  13. Hedgehog and Resident Vascular Stem Cell Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciaran J. Mooney

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hedgehog pathway is a pivotal morphogenic driver during embryonic development and a key regulator of adult stem cell self-renewal. The discovery of resident multipotent vascular stem cells and adventitial progenitors within the vessel wall has transformed our understanding of the origin of medial and neointimal vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs during vessel repair in response to injury, lesion formation, and overall disease progression. This review highlights the importance of components of the Hh and Notch signalling pathways within the medial and adventitial regions of adult vessels, their recapitulation following vascular injury and disease progression, and their putative role in the maintenance and differentiation of resident vascular stem cells to vascular lineages from discrete niches within the vessel wall.

  14. High temperature superconductor accelerator magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nugteren, J.

    2016-01-01

    For future particle accelerators bending dipoles are considered with magnetic fields exceeding 20T. This can only be achieved using high temperature superconductors (HTS). These exhibit different properties from classical low temperature superconductors and still require significant research and

  15. Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) facility will be based on upgrades to the existing NML pulsed SRF facility. ASTA is envisioned to contain 3 to 6...

  16. Extinction Events Can Accelerate Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehman, Joel; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2015-01-01

    Extinction events impact the trajectory of biological evolution significantly. They are often viewed as upheavals to the evolutionary process. In contrast, this paper supports the hypothesis that although they are unpredictably destructive, extinction events may in the long term accelerate...

  17. Particle accelerator; the Universe machine

    CERN Multimedia

    Yurkewicz, Katie

    2008-01-01

    "In summer 2008, scientists will switch on one of the largest machines in the world to search for the smallest of particle. CERN's Large Hadron Collider particle accelerator has the potential to chagne our understanding of the Universe."

  18. Sequentially pulsed traveling wave accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaso, George J [Livermore, CA; Nelson, Scott D [Patterson, CA; Poole, Brian R [Tracy, CA

    2009-08-18

    A sequentially pulsed traveling wave compact accelerator having two or more pulse forming lines each with a switch for producing a short acceleration pulse along a short length of a beam tube, and a trigger mechanism for sequentially triggering the switches so that a traveling axial electric field is produced along the beam tube in synchronism with an axially traversing pulsed beam of charged particles to serially impart energy to the particle beam.

  19. Hamiltonian mechanics of stochastic acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burby, J W; Zhmoginov, A I; Qin, H

    2013-11-08

    We show how to find the physical Langevin equation describing the trajectories of particles undergoing collisionless stochastic acceleration. These stochastic differential equations retain not only one-, but two-particle statistics, and inherit the Hamiltonian nature of the underlying microscopic equations. This opens the door to using stochastic variational integrators to perform simulations of stochastic interactions such as Fermi acceleration. We illustrate the theory by applying it to two example problems.

  20. Design acceleration in chemical engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Cortes Robles, Guillermo; Negny, Stéphane; Le Lann, Jean-Marc

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays, Chemical Engineering has to face a new industrial context with for example: the gradually falling of hydrocarbon reserves after 2020-2030, relocation, emerging of new domains of application (nano-micro technologies) which necessitate new solutions and knowledges… All this tendencies and demands accelerate the need of tool for design and innovation (technically, technologically). In this context, this paper presents a tool to accelerate innovative preliminary design. This model is ba...

  1. High temperature superconductor accelerator magnets

    OpenAIRE

    van Nugteren, J.

    2016-01-01

    For future particle accelerators bending dipoles are considered with magnetic fields exceeding 20T. This can only be achieved using high temperature superconductors (HTS). These exhibit different properties from classical low temperature superconductors and still require significant research and development before they can be applied in a practical accelerator magnet. In order to study HTS in detail, a five tesla demonstrator magnet named Feather-M2 is designed and constructed. The magnet is ...

  2. High Temperature Superconductor Accelerator Magnets

    OpenAIRE

    Van Nugteren, Jeroen; ten Kate, Herman; de Rijk, Gijs; Dhalle, Marc

    2016-01-01

    For future particle accelerators bending dipoles are considered with magnetic fields exceeding $20T$. This can only be achieved using high temperature superconductors (HTS). These exhibit different properties from classical low temperature superconductors and still require significant research and development before they can be applied in a practical accelerator magnet. In order to study HTS in detail, a five tesla demonstrator magnet named Feather-M2 is designed and constructed. The magnet ...

  3. High-Intensity Proton Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2011-12-27

    Analysis is presented for an eight-cavity proton cyclotron accelerator that could have advantages as compared with other accelerators because of its potentially high acceleration gradient. The high gradient is possible since protons orbit in a sequence of TE111 rotating mode cavities of equally diminishing frequencies with path lengths during acceleration that greatly exceed the cavity lengths. As the cavities operate at sequential harmonics of a basic repetition frequency, phase synchronism can be maintained over a relatively wide injection phase window without undue beam emittance growth. It is shown that use of radial vanes can allow cavity designs with significantly smaller radii, as compared with simple cylindrical cavities. Preliminary beam transport studies show that acceptable extraction and focusing of a proton beam after cyclic motion in this accelerator should be possible. Progress is also reported on design and tests of a four-cavity electron counterpart accelerator for experiments to study effects on beam quality arising from variations injection phase window width. This device is powered by four 500-MW pulsed amplifiers at 1500, 1800, 2100, and 2400 MHz that provide phase synchronous outputs, since they are driven from a with harmonics derived from a phase-locked 300 MHz source.

  4. Electrodynamics in accelerated frames revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maluf, J.W. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Brasilia (Brazil); Ulhoa, S.C. [Instituto de Ciencia e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, UFVJM, Diamantina, MG (Brazil)

    2010-10-15

    Maxwell's equations are formulated in arbitrary moving frames by means of tetrad fields, which are interpreted as reference frames adapted to observers in space-time. We assume the existence of a general distribution of charges and currents in an inertial frame. Tetrad fields are used to project the electromagnetic fields and sources on accelerated frames. The purpose is to study several configurations of fields and observers that in the literature are understood as paradoxes. For instance, are the two situations, (i) an accelerated charge in an inertial frame, and (ii) a charge at rest in an inertial frame described from the perspective of an accelerated frame, physically equivalent? Is the electromagnetic radiation the same in both frames? Normally in the analysis of these paradoxes the electromagnetic fields are transformed to (uniformly) accelerated frames by means of a coordinate transformation of the Faraday tensor. In the present approach coordinate and frame transformations are disentangled, and the electromagnetic field in the accelerated frame is obtained through a frame (local Lorentz) transformation. Consequently the fields in the inertial and accelerated frames are described in the same coordinate system. This feature allows the investigation of paradoxes such as the one mentioned above. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Tutorial on Superconducting Accelerator Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, M. J. Penny; Goodzeit, Carl L.

    1997-05-01

    A multimedia CD-ROM tutorial on the physics and engineering concepts of superconducting magnets for particle accelerators is being developed under a U.S. Dept. of Energy SBIR grant. The tutorial, scheduled for distribution this summer, is targeted to undergraduate junior or senior level science students. However, its unified presentation of the broad range of issues involved in the design of superconducting magnets for accelerators and the extensive detail about the construction process (including animations and video clips) will also be of value to staff of research institutes and industrial concerns with an interest in applied superconductivity or magnet development. The source material, which is based on the world-wide R and D programs to develop superconducting accelerator magnets, is organized in five units with the following themes: Introduction to magnets and accelerators; (2) Superconductors for accelerator magnets; (3) Magnetic design methods for accelerator magnets; (4) Electrical, mechanical, and cryogenic considerations for the final magnet package; (5) Performance characteristics and measurement methods. A detailed outline and examples will be shown.

  6. Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome induces vascular dysfunction in obese OLETF rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Penghao [State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Hypertension and Department of Hypertension, Rui Jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Xie, Qihai [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Jiading District Central Hospital, Shanghai (China); Wei, Tong [State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Hypertension and Department of Hypertension, Rui Jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Chen, Yichen [Department of Pharmacology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Chen, Hong, E-mail: hchen100@shsmu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Shen, Weili, E-mail: wlshen@sibs.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Hypertension and Department of Hypertension, Rui Jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China)

    2015-12-04

    Objective: Obesity-induced vascular dysfunction is related to chronic low-grade systemic inflammation. Recent studies indicate that NLRP3, a multiprotein complex formed by NOD-like receptor (NLR) family members, is a key component mediating internal sterile inflammation, but the role in obesity-related vascular dysfunction is largely unknown. In the present study, we investigate whether NLRP3 activation is involved in vascular inflammation in obese Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats (OLETF). Methods and results: Male OLETF with their control Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka rats (LETO) were studied at 3 and 12 months of age. Aortic relaxation in response to acetylcholine decreased gradually with age in both strains, with early and persistent endothelium dysfunction in obese OLETF compared with age-matched LETO controls. These changes are associated with parallel changes of aortic endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) content, macrophage accumulation and intimal thickening. NLRP3 increased in OLETF rats compared to LETO. Consistent with inflammasome activation, the conversion of procaspase-1 to cleaved and activated forms as well as IL-1β markedly increased in OLETF rats. Additionally, we observed increased expression of dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp1) and decreased fusion-relative protein optic atropy-1(OPA1). Altered mitochondrial dynamics was associated with elevated oxidative stress level in OLETF aortas. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that obesity seems to accelerate endothelial dysfunction in OLETFs via the activation of NLRP3 and mitochondrial dysfunction. - Highlights: • NLRP3 is involved in obesity-induced vascular dysfunction. • Impaired mitochondrial dynamics may have been linked to mitochondrial defect and inflammasome activation. • Obesity seems to accelerate vascular dysfunction via NLRP3 activation and mitochondrial dysfunction.

  7. Longitudinal Stretching for Maturation of Vascular Tissues Using Magnetic Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R. Olsen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cellular spheroids were studied to determine their use as “bioinks” in the biofabrication of tissue engineered constructs. Specifically, magnetic forces were used to mediate the cyclic longitudinal stretching of tissues composed of Janus magnetic cellular spheroids (JMCSs, as part of a post-processing method for enhancing the deposition and mechanical properties of an extracellular matrix (ECM. The purpose was to accelerate the conventional tissue maturation process via novel post-processing techniques that accelerate the functional, structural, and mechanical mimicking of native tissues. The results of a forty-day study of JMCSs indicated an expression of collagen I, collagen IV, elastin, and fibronectin, which are important vascular ECM proteins. Most notably, the subsequent exposure of fused tissue sheets composed of JMCSs to magnetic forces did not hinder the production of these key proteins. Quantitative results demonstrate that cyclic longitudinal stretching of the tissue sheets mediated by these magnetic forces increased the Young’s modulus and induced collagen fiber alignment over a seven day period, when compared to statically conditioned controls. Specifically, the elastin and collagen content of these dynamically-conditioned sheets were 35- and three-fold greater, respectively, at seven days compared to the statically-conditioned controls at three days. These findings indicate the potential of using magnetic forces in tissue maturation, specifically through the cyclic longitudinal stretching of tissues.

  8. Vascular narrowing in pulmonary arterial hypertension is heterogeneous: rethinking resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rol, N.; Timmer, E.M.; Faes, T.J.; Noordegraaf, A.V.; Grunberg, K.; Bogaard, H.J.; Westerhof, N.

    2017-01-01

    In idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), increased pulmonary vascular resistance is associated with structural narrowing of small (resistance) vessels and increased vascular tone. Current information on pulmonary vascular remodeling is mostly limited to averaged increases in wall

  9. Taking care of your vascular access for hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... below as a reminder. What Is a Vascular Access? A vascular access is an opening made in your skin ... access into your body. Know What Type of Vascular Access You Have There are 3 main types of ...

  10. Bypass materials in vascular surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willich, Stephan N.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Arteriosclerotic changes can lead to circulatory disturbances in various areas of the human vascular system. In addition to pharmacological therapy and the management of risk factors (e. g. hypertension, diabetes, lipid metabolism disorders, and lifestyle, surgical interventions also play an important role in the treatment of arteriosclerosis. Long-segment arterial occlusions, in particular, can be treated successfully with bypass sur-gery. A number of different materials are available for this type of operation, such as autologous vein or pros-thetic grafts comprised of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or Dacron®. Prosthetic materials are used especially in the treatment of peripheral artery disease, such as in aortoiliac or femoropopliteal bypass surgery. The present report will thus focus on this area in order to examine the effectiveness of different bypass materials. Among the efforts being made to refine the newly introduced DRG system in Germany, analysing the different bypass materials used in vascular surgery is particularly important. Indeed, in its current version the German DRG system does not distinguish between bypass materials in terms of reimbursement rates. Differences in cost structures are thus of especial interest to hospitals in their budget calculations, whereas both private and statutory health insurance funds are primarily interested in long-term results and their costs. Objectives: The goal of this HTA is to compare the different bypass materials used in vascular surgery in terms of their medical efficiency and cost-effectiveness, as well as with regard to their ethical, social and legal implications. In addition, this report aims to point out the areas in which further medical, epidemiological and health economic research is still needed. Methods: Relevant publications were identified by means of a structured search of databases accessed through the German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information

  11. [Gastric vascular lesions in cirrhosis: gastropathy and antral vascular ectasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Meritxell; Calvet, Xavier; Vergara, Mercedes; Bella, Maria Rosa; Junquera, Félix; Martinez-Bauer, Eva; Campo, Rafael

    2015-02-01

    Portal hypertensive gastropathy (GHP) is a complication of portal hypertension usually associated with liver cirrhosis. The pathogenesis is unclear but the presence of portal hypertension is an essential factor for its development. GHP may be asymptomatic or present as gastrointestinal bleeding or iron deficiency anemia. Endoscopic lesions vary from a mosaic pattern to diffuse red spots; the most common location is the fundus. Treatment is indicated when there is acute or chronic bleeding, as secondary prophylaxis. There is insufficient evidence to recommend primary prophylaxis in patients who have never bled. Drugs that decrease portal pressure, such as non-cardioselective beta-blockers, and/or endoscopic ablative treatments, such as argon-beam coagulation, may be used. The role of transarterial intrahepatic portosystemic shunt) or bypass surgery has been insufficiently analyzed. Antral vascular ectasia (EVA) is a rare entity in liver cirrhosis, whose pathophysiology is still unknown. Clinical presentation is similar to that of GHP and endoscopy usually shows red spots in the antrum. Biopsy is often required to differentiate EVA from GHP. There is no effective medical therapy, so endoscopic ablative therapy and, in severe cases, antrectomy are recommended. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  12. The Probiotic Mixture VSL#3 Accelerates Gastric Ulcer Healing by Stimulating Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmani, Poonam; De Simone, Claudio; Chadee, Kris

    2013-01-01

    Studies assessing the effect and mechanism of probiotics on diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract (GI) including gastric ulcers are limited despite extensive work and promising results of this therapeutic option for other GI diseases. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which the probiotic mixture VSL#3 (a mixture of eight probiotic bacteria including Lactobacilli, Bifidobacteria and Streptococcus species) heals acetic acid induced gastric ulcer in rats. VSL#3 was administered orally at low (6×109 bacteria) or high (1.2×1010 bacteria) dosages from day 3 after ulcer induction for 14 consecutive days. VSL#3 treatments significantly enhanced gastric ulcer healing in a dose-dependent manner. To assess the mechanism(s) whereby VSL#3 exerted its protective effects, we quantified the gene expression of several pro-inflammatory cytokines, protein and expression of stomach mucin-Muc5ac, regulatory cytokine-IL-10, COX-2 and various growth factors. Of all the components examined, only expression and protein production of VEGF was increased 332-fold on day 7 in the ulcerated tissues of animals treated with VSL#3. Predictably, animals treated with VEGF neutralizing antibody significantly delayed gastric ulcer healing in VSL#3 treated animals. This is the first report to demonstrate high efficacy of the probiotic mixture VSL#3 in enhancing gastric ulcer healing. Probiotic efficacy was effective at higher concentrations of VSL#3 by specifically increasing the expression and production of angiogenesis promoting growth factors, primarily VEGF. PMID:23484048

  13. Biomaterials with persistent growth factor gradients in vivo accelerate vascularized tissue formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Banu; Jiang, Bin; Somo, Sami I; Appel, Alyssa A; Larson, Jeffery C; Tichauer, Kenneth M; Brey, Eric M

    2015-12-01

    Gradients of soluble factors play an important role in many biological processes, including blood vessel assembly. Gradients can be studied in detail in vitro, but methods that enable the study of spatially distributed soluble factors and multi-cellular processes in vivo are limited. Here, we report on a method for the generation of persistent in vivo gradients of growth factors in a three-dimensional (3D) biomaterial system. Fibrin loaded porous poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) scaffolds were generated using a particulate leaching method. Platelet derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) was encapsulated into poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres which were placed distal to the tissue-material interface. PLGA provides sustained release of PDGF-BB and its diffusion through the porous structure results in gradient formation. Gradients within the scaffold were confirmed in vivo using near-infrared fluorescence imaging and gradients were present for more than 3 weeks. The diffusion of PDGF-BB was modeled and verified with in vivo imaging findings. The depth of tissue invasion and density of blood vessels formed in response to the biomaterial increased with magnitude of the gradient. This biomaterial system allows for generation of sustained growth factor gradients for the study of tissue response to gradients in vivo. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Accelerated Functional Recovery after Skeletal Muscle Ischemia-reperfusion Injury using Freshly Isolated Bone Marrow Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-03

    capacity to restore function, neural evoked muscle force or torque (which depends on the integrity of neural, vascular, and muscular elements) is an...Accelerated functional recovery after skeletal muscle ischemiaereperfusion injury using freshly isolated bone marrow cells Benjamin T. Corona, PhD...Available online 3 January 2014 Keywords: Ischemia Reperfusion Stem cell Skeletal muscle Bone marrow Injury a b s t r a c t Background: Relatively little

  15. [A new specialty is born: Vascular medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroche, J-P

    2016-05-01

    On the 4th of December 2015, the French authorities officially recognized the birth of a specialty in vascular medicine entitled CO-DES cardiology-vascular/vascular Medicine. France is the 7th country to obtain this specialty after Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Slovenia, six countries in the EEC. It has taken years to achieve a long but exciting experience: we went from hopes to disappointments, sometimes with the blues, but lobbying helping… with sustained confidence. This article tells the story of 30 years of struggle to achieve this vascular medicine specialty. Gaston Bachelard wrote: "Nothing is obvious, nothing is given, all is built." For the construction of vascular medicine, we had to overcome many obstacles, nothing was given to us, everything was conquered. Beware "The specialist is one who knows more and more things about an increasingly restricted field, up to 'knowing everything about nothing"' recalled Ralph Barton Ferry, philosopher; so there is room for modesty and humility but also convictions. The physical examination will remain the basis of our exercise. But let us recall the contributions of all those vascular physicians who practiced in the past, together with those currently active, who built day after day, year after year, a vascular medicine of quality. It is because of the trust of our colleagues and our patients that we can occupy the place that is ours today. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Microbleeds in vascular dementia: clinical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Flier, Wiesje M; Cordonnier, Charlotte

    2012-11-01

    Microbleeds are small dot-like lesions which can be appreciated on gradient echo, T2*-weighted magnetic resonance images as hypointensities. They are considered as an expression of small vessel disease on MRI, next to lacunes and white matter hyperintensities (WMH). Microbleeds are relatively common in vascular dementia, with reported prevalences between 35% and 85%. In the context of vascular dementia, microbleeds are mainly thought to result from hypertensive vasculopathy, but the frequent co-occurrence of lobar microbleeds suggests that neurodegenerative pathology and/or cerebral amyloid angiopathy is also of importance. The presence of multiple microbleeds in vascular dementia or in patients with vascular cognitive impairment is related to worse performance on cognitive tests, mainly in psychomotor speed and executive functioning. They may have some predictive value in terms of predicting development of (vascular) dementia, mortality and disability. Data on the occurrence of stroke and post-stroke dementia in patients with microbleeds are to date not available. New definitions and diagnostic criteria for vascular dementia and vascular cognitive impairment are needed and should take into account microbleeds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Accelerator and electrodynamics capability review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Kevin W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) uses capability reviews to assess the science, technology and engineering (STE) quality and institutional integration and to advise Laboratory Management on the current and future health of the STE. Capability reviews address the STE integration that LANL uses to meet mission requirements. The Capability Review Committees serve a dual role of providing assessment of the Laboratory's technical contributions and integration towards its missions and providing advice to Laboratory Management. The assessments and advice are documented in reports prepared by the Capability Review Committees that are delivered to the Director and to the Principal Associate Director for Science, Technology and Engineering (PADSTE). Laboratory Management will use this report for STE assessment and planning. LANL has defined fifteen STE capabilities. Electrodynamics and Accelerators is one of the seven STE capabilities that LANL Management (Director, PADSTE, technical Associate Directors) has identified for review in Fiscal Year (FY) 2010. Accelerators and electrodynamics at LANL comprise a blend of large-scale facilities and innovative small-scale research with a growing focus on national security applications. This review is organized into five topical areas: (1) Free Electron Lasers; (2) Linear Accelerator Science and Technology; (3) Advanced Electromagnetics; (4) Next Generation Accelerator Concepts; and (5) National Security Accelerator Applications. The focus is on innovative technology with an emphasis on applications relevant to Laboratory mission. The role of Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) in support of accelerators/electrodynamics will be discussed. The review provides an opportunity for interaction with early career staff. Program sponsors and customers will provide their input on the value of the accelerator and electrodynamics capability to the Laboratory mission.

  18. CAS Accelerator Physics (RF for Accelerators) in Denmark

    CERN Multimedia

    Barbara Strasser

    2010-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and Aarhus University jointly organised a specialised course on RF for Accelerators, at the Ebeltoft Strand Hotel, Denmark from 8 to 17 June 2010.   Caption The challenging programme focused on the introduction of the underlying theory, the study and the performance of the different components involved in RF systems, the RF gymnastics and RF measurements and diagnostics. This academic part was supplemented with three afternoons dedicated to practical hands-on exercises. The school was very successful, with 100 participants representing 25 nationalities. Feedback from the participants was extremely positive, praising the expertise and enthusiasm of the lecturers, as well as the high standard and excellent quality of their lectures. In addition to the academic programme, the participants were able to visit a small industrial exhibition organised by Aarhus University and take part in a one-day excursion consisting of a visit of the accelerators operated ...

  19. Fascia and Primo Vascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical basis for the concept of acupuncture points/meridians in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has not been resolved. This paper reviews the fascia research progress and the relationship among acupuncture points/meridians, primo vascular system (PVS, and fascia. Fascia is as a covering, with common origins of layers of the fascial system despite diverse names for individual parts. Fascia assists gliding and fluid flow and holds memory and is highly innervated. Fascia is intimately involved with nourishment of all cells of the body, including those of disease and cancer. The human body’s fascia network may be the physical substrate represented by the meridians of TCM. The PVS is a newly found circulatory system; recent increased interest has led to new research and new discoveries in the anatomical and functional aspects of the PVS. The fasciology theory provides new insights into the physiological effects of acupuncture needling on basic cellular mechanisms including connective tissue mechanotransduction and regeneration. This view represents a theoretical basis and means for applying modern biomedical research to examining TCM principles and therapies, and it favors a holistic approach to diagnosis and treatment.

  20. Vascular inflammatory cells in hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Harrison

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common disorder with uncertain etiology. In the last several years, it has become evident that components of both the innate and adaptive immune system play an essential role in hypertension. Macrophages and T cells accumulate in the perivascular fat, the heart and the kidney of hypertensive patients and in animals with experimental hypertension. Various immunosuppressive agents lower blood pressure and prevent end-organ damage. Mice lacking lymphocytes are protected against hypertension, and adoptive transfer of T cells, but not B cells in the animals restores their blood pressure response to stimuli such as angiotensin II or high salt. Recent studies have shown that mice lacking macrophages have blunted hypertension in response to angiotensin II and that genetic deletion of macrophages markedly reduces experimental hypertension. Dendritic cells have also been implicated in this disease. Many hypertensive stimuli have triggering effects on the central nervous system and signals arising from the circumventricular organ seem to promote inflammation. Studies have suggested that central signals activate macrophages and T cells, which home to the kidney and vasculature and release cytokines, including IL-6 and IL-17, which in turn cause renal and vascular dysfunction and lead to blood pressure elevation. These recent discoveries provide a new understanding of hypertension and provide novel therapeutic opportunities for treatment of this serious disease.

  1. Dental infection and vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoellner, Hans

    2011-04-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory response to bacterial plaque in which the anchoring bone and soft tissues supporting teeth are destroyed, resulting in tooth mobility and loss. Dental caries involves the spread of infection from the dentine to the vascular dental pulp and periapical bony tissues, before involvement of adjacent soft tissues and spreading sepsis. Several case-controlled, cross-sectional, and cohort studies report correlation between periodontitis and increased cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and peripheral artery disease, as determined by clinical disease, angiography, ultrasonography, and reduced flow-mediated dilation. Some studies report a similar relationship of atherosclerosis with periapical infection and potentially also with coronal caries, and this review identifies the need to investigate these associations further. Smoking and cadmium exposure are epidemiologically confounding environmental risk factors shared by atherosclerosis and periodontitis. Further complicating epidemiological studies are the risk factors for both atherosclerosis and periodontitis, with which periodontitis appears to have separate positive feedback relationships. These include diabetes, increased plasma lipid levels, hypertension, and white blood cell count. Animal and human intervention studies provide some direct support of a causal role for periodontitis in atherosclerosis, and possible mechanisms include bacterial invasion of arteries, specific atherogenic properties of oral bacteria, the acute phase response, and cytokine polymorphisms. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  2. Intracranial Vascular Malformations and Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Colin B; Rosenow, Felix; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam

    2015-06-01

    Among the spectrum of intracranial vascular malformations (IVMs), arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), and cavernous malformations (CCMs) are of particular importance for epilepsy. Seizures are a common mode of presentation for both conditions. Seizures may occur de novo or secondary to intracerebral hemorrhage. Timely imaging is thus crucial for patients with seizures and AVMs or CCMs. Patients with a first-ever AVM- or CCM-related seizure can now be considered to have epilepsy according to the International League Against Epilepsy criteria. Observational studies and case series suggest that between 45 to 78% of patients with AVM-related epilepsy and 47 to 60% of patients with CCM-related epilepsy may achieve seizure freedom through antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) alone. Invasive procedures are available although current evidence suggests that epilepsy-specific preintervention evaluations are underused. Randomized controlled trials and population-based studies have demonstrated worse short-term functional outcomes after routine intervention on unruptured AVMs or CCMs when compared with conservative management. The role of invasive therapy for IVM-related epilepsy has yielded mixed results. Case series have reported high estimates of seizure freedom although these results have not been replicated in controlled observational studies. Randomized controlled trials of immediate invasive therapy versus conservative management, in addition to usual care with AEDs and of different types of treatment and their timing, are warranted for AVMs and CCM-related epilepsy. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. Oral vascular malformations: laser treatment and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, U.; Rocchetti, F.; Gaimari, G.; Tenore, G.; Palaia, G.; Lo Giudice, G.

    2016-03-01

    Vascular malformations are a very heterogeneous group of circulatory system's diseases that can involve different kind of vessels: arterial, venous or lymphatic ones. Many treatments, such as conventional surgery, embolization, steroid therapy and laser therapy, are available for vascular lesions. The laser approach relies more therapeutic techniques: the transmucosal thermophotocoagulation, intralesional photocoagulation, the excisional biopsy. Today laser is demonstrated to be the gold standard technique to treat vascular lesions that allows a safe and efficient treatment and a lower post-operative healing time. The only disadvantage is the risk of carbonization that could be avoided by using the multiple-spot single pulsed wave technique.

  4. Imaging evaluation of fetal vascular anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Koch, Bernadette L.; Laor, Tal [MLC 5031 Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Adams, Denise M. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics and Hemangioma and Vascular Malformation Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Gupta, Anita [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lim, Foong-Yen [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Pediatric Surgery and Fetal Center of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Vascular anomalies can be detected in utero and should be considered in the setting of solid, mixed or cystic lesions in the fetus. Evaluation of the gray-scale and color Doppler US and MRI characteristics can guide diagnosis. We present a case-based pictorial essay to illustrate the prenatal imaging characteristics in 11 pregnancies with vascular malformations (5 lymphatic malformations, 2 Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, 1 venous-lymphatic malformation, 1 Parkes-Weber syndrome) and vascular tumors (1 congenital hemangioma, 1 kaposiform hemangioendothelioma). Concordance between prenatal and postnatal diagnoses is analyzed, with further discussion regarding potential pitfalls in identification. (orig.)

  5. Vascular pathology in the throwing athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, J R; Weiland, A J

    2000-08-01

    Vascular pathology in the upper extremity of a throwing athlete comprises a spectrum of serious disorders apt to threaten the patient's career and the viability of the involved parts. Such pathology includes digital vessel thrombosis, proximal thrombosis with distal embolization, vessel aneurysm, and vessel compression, such as in thoracic outlet syndrome and quadrilateral space syndrome. This article provides a description of vascular disorders prone to result from sports activities and a review of published data relevant to throwing athletes. Recognition of vascular compromise as a cause for dead arm syndrome or painful digital dysfunction among athletes is essential to prevent the grave consequences of progressive ischemia.

  6. Retroperitoneal vascular malformation mimicking incarcerated inguinal hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubey Indu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 30-year-old man presented to the Department of Surgery with a painful groin swelling on right side. Exploration revealed a reddish-blue hemangiomatous mass in the scrotum extending through inguinal canal into the retroperitoneum. On further dissection swelling was found to be originating from right external iliac vein. The swelling was excised after ligating all vascular connections. The histopathological examination of excised mass confirmed the diagnosis of venous variety of vascular malformation. This is the first reported case of vascular malformation arising from retroperitoneum and extending into inguinoscrotal region, presenting as incarcerated inguinal hernia.

  7. Mechanisms of Vascular Aging: New Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaley, Gabor; de Cabo, Rafael; Sonntag, William E.; Csiszar, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on molecular, cellular, and functional changes that occur in the vasculature during aging; explores the links between mitochondrial oxidative stress, inflammation, and development of vascular disease in the elderly patients; and provides a landscape of molecular mechanisms involved in cellular oxidative stress resistance, which could be targeted for the prevention or amelioration of unsuccessful vascular aging. Practical interventions for prevention of age-associated vascular dysfunction and disease in old age are considered here based on emerging knowledge of the effects of anti-inflammatory treatments, regular exercise, dietary interventions, and caloric restriction mimetics. PMID:20576649

  8. Subclinical hypothyroidism after vascular complicated pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zanden, Moniek; Hop-de Groot, Rianne J; Sweep, Fred C G J; Ross, H Alec; den Heijer, Martin; Spaanderman, Marc E A

    2013-01-01

    Women with a history of vascular complicated pregnancy are at risk for developing remote cardiovascular disease. It is associated with underlying cardiovascular risk factors both jeopardizing trophoblast and vascular function. Subclinical hypothyroidism may relate to both conditions. In 372 women with a history of vascular complicated pregnancy, we assessed thyroid function. Subclinical hypothyroidism was diagnosed in 73/372 women (19.6%). It occurred more often when pregnancy ended before 32 weeks of gestation (p = 0.008). In this cohort, subclinical hypothyroidism is more common after very preterm delivery. It may contribute to the elevated risk of remote cardiovascular disease.

  9. Maternal uterine vascular remodeling during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osol, George; Mandala, Maurizio

    2009-02-01

    Sufficient uteroplacental blood flow is essential for normal pregnancy outcome and is accomplished by the coordinated growth and remodeling of the entire uterine circulation, as well as the creation of a new fetal vascular organ: the placenta. The process of remodeling involves a number of cellular processes, including hyperplasia and hypertrophy, rearrangement of existing elements, and changes in extracellular matrix. In this review, we provide information on uterine blood flow increases during pregnancy, the influence of placentation type on the distribution of uterine vascular resistance, consideration of the patterns, nature, and extent of maternal uterine vascular remodeling during pregnancy, and what is known about the underlying cellular mechanisms.

  10. Cognitive Impairment in Chronic Kidney Disease: Vascular Milieu and the Potential Therapeutic Role of Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf G. Bronas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is considered a model of accelerated aging. More specifically, CKD leads to reduced physical functioning and increased frailty, increased vascular dysfunction, vascular calcification and arterial stiffness, high levels of systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress, as well as increased cognitive impairment. Increasing evidence suggests that the cognitive impairment associated with CKD may be related to cerebral small vessel disease and overall impairment in white matter integrity. The triad of poor physical function, vascular dysfunction, and cognitive impairment places patients living with CKD at an increased risk for loss of independence, poor health-related quality of life, morbidity, and mortality. The purpose of this review is to discuss the available evidence of cerebrovascular-renal axis and its interconnection with early and accelerated cognitive impairment in patients with CKD and the plausible role of exercise as a therapeutic modality. Understanding the cerebrovascular-renal axis pathophysiological link and its interconnection with physical function is important for clinicians in order to minimize the risk of loss of independence and improve quality of life in patients with CKD.

  11. DARHT II Scaled Accelerator Tests on the ETA II Accelerator*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weir, J T; Anaya Jr, E M; Caporaso, G J; Chambers, F W; Chen, Y; Falabella, S; Lee, B S; Paul, A C; Raymond, B A; Richardson, R A; Watson, J A; Chan, D; Davis, H A; Day, L A; Scarpetti, R D; Schultze, M E; Hughes, T P

    2005-05-26

    The DARHT II accelerator at LANL is preparing a series of preliminary tests at the reduced voltage of 7.8 MeV. The transport hardware between the end of the accelerator and the final target magnet was shipped to LLNL and installed on ETA II. Using the ETA II beam at 5.2 MeV we completed a set of experiments designed reduce start up time on the DARHT II experiments and run the equipment in a configuration adapted to the reduced energy. Results of the beam transport using a reduced energy beam, including the kicker and kicker pulser system will be presented.

  12. Metabolic acceleration in Mediterranean Perciformes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lika, Konstadia; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.; Papandroulakis, Nikos

    2014-11-01

    Larval stages are considered the most critical of fish development. During a very short period of time (2 to 3 months), larvae undergo major morphoanatomical and functional changes in order to transform into juveniles while remaining functioning (developing, eating, surviving). Depending on species and environmental conditions, patterns in larval development may vary. We study the patterns of larval development for nine fish species of Perciformes reared under aquaculture conditions and compare them in terms of species-specific parameters derived from DEB theory. We extended the standard DEB model to include metabolic acceleration during the larval period, where maximum specific assimilation and energy conductance increase with length between birth and metabolic metamorphosis. Metabolic acceleration has as a consequence that larvae initially grow slower than juveniles and adults. Our results indicate that the species with higher acceleration have lower growth rates at birth and they also suggest that metabolic acceleration is related to spawning season. High metabolic acceleration of demersal species is associated with summer-autumn spawning in the Mediterranean, where temperature is high and food availability is low.

  13. Vascular Complications During Catheter Ablation of Cardiac Arrhythmias: A Comparison Between Vascular Ultrasound Guided Access and Conventional Vascular Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Parikshit S; Padala, Santosh K; Gunda, Sampath; Koneru, Jayanthi N; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A

    2016-10-01

    Vascular access related complications are the most common complications from catheter based EP procedures and have been reported to occur in 1-13% of cases. We prospectively assessed vascular complications in a large series of consecutive patients undergoing catheter based electrophysiologic (EP) procedures with ultrasound (US) guided vascular access versus conventional access. Consecutive patients undergoing catheter ablation procedures at VCU medical center were included. US guided access was obtained in all cases starting June 2015 (US group) while modified Seldinger technique without US guidance (non-US group) was used in cases prior to this date. All vascular complications were recorded for a 30-day period after the procedure. A total of 689 patients underwent 720 procedures. Ablations for ventricular tachyarrhythmias (ventricular tachycardia: VT, premature ventricular contractions: PVCs) accounted for 89 (12%) cases; atrial fibrillation (AF) ablations accounted for 328 procedures (46%) and other catheter based procedures accounted for 42% of cases. A significantly higher incidence of complications was noted in the non-US group compared with the US group (19 [5.3%] vs. 4 [1.1%], respectively, P = 0.002). Major complications were also higher among the non-US group (9 [2.5%] vs. 2 [0.6%], P = 0.03). Increasing age (P = 0.04) and non-US guided vascular access (P = 0.002) were associated with a higher risk of vascular access complications. In a large series of patients undergoing catheter based EP procedures for cardiac arrhythmias, US guided vascular access was associated with a significantly decreased 30-day risk of vascular complications. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Effect of vascular burden as measured by vascular indexes upon vascular dementia: a matched case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi PY

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paul Y Takahashi, Casey R Caldwell, Paul V TargonskiPrimary Care Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester MN, USABackground: Vascular dementia (VaD is a challenging illness that affects the lives of older adults and caregivers. It is unclear how multiple vascular risk factor exposures (polyvascular disease affect VaD.Purpose: To determine the relationship between multiple vascular risk exposures, as counted on an index in cases with VaD, compared with healthy age-/gender-matched controls.Methods: This was a matched case-control study of subjects living in Olmsted County, MN with documented VaD. Controls were selected by gender and age within 3 years from those who did not have dementia. The exposures included a total index (eleven exposure factors added together, along with indexes for cerebrovascular disease (two exposures, cardiovascular disease (four exposures, vascular disease (three exposures, and lifestyle (two exposures. Analysis used matched conditional univariable logistic regression for each index.Results: A total of 1736 potential subjects were identified, and 205 subjects were diagnosed with VaD. There was a significant association of the total score index with an odds ratio of 1.45 (95% confidence interval 1.21–1.74. The cerebrovascular index was also associated with VaD with an odds ratio of 12.18 (95% confidence interval 6.29–23.61. The cardiovascular and vascular indexes were also associated with VaD status. The lifestyle index was not associated with VaD.Conclusion: The cumulative role of multiple vascular risk factors or diseases increased the risk of VaD, as noted by the total vascular index. The lifestyle index did not reveal any significant differences. Further work is required for evaluation of these indexes.Keywords: polyvascular disease, elderly, vascular dementia

  15. Accelerator Technology Division annual report, FY 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    This paper discusses: accelerator physics and special projects; experiments and injectors; magnetic optics and beam diagnostics; accelerator design and engineering; radio-frequency technology; accelerator theory and simulation; free-electron laser technology; accelerator controls and automation; and high power microwave sources and effects.

  16. Superconducting linear accelerator system for NSC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper reports the construction of a superconducting linear accelerator as a booster to the 15 UD Pelletron accelerator at Nuclear Science Centre, New Delhi. The LINAC will use superconducting niobium quarter wave resonators as the accelerating element. Construction of the linear accelerator has progressed ...

  17. Influence of Androgen Receptor in Vascular Cells on Reperfusion following Hindlimb Ischaemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxi Wu

    Full Text Available Studies in global androgen receptor knockout (G-ARKO and orchidectomised mice suggest that androgen accelerates reperfusion of the ischaemic hindlimb by stimulating angiogenesis. This investigation used novel, vascular cell-specific ARKO mice to address the hypothesis that the impaired hindlimb reperfusion in G-ARKO mice was due to loss of AR from cells in the vascular wall.Mice with selective deletion of AR (ARKO from vascular smooth muscle cells (SM-ARKO, endothelial cells (VE-ARKO, or both (SM/VE-ARKO were compared with wild type (WT controls. Hindlimb ischaemia was induced in these mice by ligation and removal of the femoral artery. Post-operative reperfusion was reduced in SM-ARKO and SM/VE-ARKO mice. Immunohistochemistry indicated that this was accompanied by a reduced density of smooth muscle actin-positive vessels but no change in the density of isolectin B4-positive vessels in the gastrocnemius muscle. Deletion of AR from the endothelium (VE-ARKO did not alter post-operative reperfusion or vessel density. In an ex vivo (aortic ring culture model of angiogenesis, AR was not detected in vascular outgrowths and angiogenesis was not altered by vascular ARKO or by exposure to dihydrotestosterone (DHT 10-10-10-7M; 6 days.These results suggest that loss of AR from vascular smooth muscle, but not from the endothelium, contributes to impaired reperfusion in the ischaemic hindlimb of G-ARKO. Impaired reperfusion was associated with reduced collateral formation rather than reduced angiogenesis.

  18. Virtual gap dielectric wall accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaso, George James; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Nelson, Scott; Sullivan, Jim; Hawkins, Steven A

    2013-11-05

    A virtual, moving accelerating gap is formed along an insulating tube in a dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) by locally controlling the conductivity of the tube. Localized voltage concentration is thus achieved by sequential activation of a variable resistive tube or stalk down the axis of an inductive voltage adder, producing a "virtual" traveling wave along the tube. The tube conductivity can be controlled at a desired location, which can be moved at a desired rate, by light illumination, or by photoconductive switches, or by other means. As a result, an impressed voltage along the tube appears predominantly over a local region, the virtual gap. By making the length of the tube large in comparison to the virtual gap length, the effective gain of the accelerator can be made very large.

  19. Superconducting Magnets for Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, L

    2012-01-01

    Superconductivity has been the most influential technology in the field of accelerators in the last 30 years. Since the commissioning of the Tevatron, which demonstrated the use and operability of superconductivity on a large scale, superconducting magnets and rf cavities have been at the heart of all new large accelerators. Superconducting magnets have been the invariable choice for large colliders, as well as cyclotrons and large synchrotrons. In spite of the long history of success, superconductivity remains a difficult technology, requires adequate R&D and suitable preparation, and has a relatively high cost. Hence, it is not surprising that the development has also been marked by a few setbacks. This article is a review of the main superconducting accelerator magnet projects; it highlights the main characteristics and main achievements, and gives a perspective on the development of superconducting magnets for the future generation of very high energy colliders.

  20. Niobium LEP 2 accelerating cavities

    CERN Multimedia

    An accelerating cavity from LEP. This could be cut open to show the layer of niobium on the inside. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment. These challenging requirements pushed European industry to new achievements. 256 of these cavities were used in an upgrade of the LEP accelerator to double the energy of the particle beams.

  1. A Multibunch Plasma Wakefield Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Kallos, Efthymios; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Katsouleas, Thomas C; Kimura, Wayne D; Kusche, Karl; Muggli, Patric; Pavlishin, Igor; Pogorelsky, Igor; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Zhou, Feng

    2005-01-01

    We investigate a plasma wakefield acceleration scheme where a train of electron microbunches feeds into a high density plasma. When the microbunch train enters such a plasma that has a corresponding plasma wavelength equal to the microbunch separation distance, a strong wakefield is expected to be resonantly driven to an amplitude that is at least one order of magnitude higher than that using an unbunched beam. PIC simulations have been performed using the beamline parameters of the Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility operating in the configuration of the STELLA inverse free electron laser (IFEL) experiment. A 65 MeV electron beam is modulated by a 10.6 um CO2 laser beam via an IFEL interaction. This produces a train of ~90 microbunches separated by the laser wavelength. In this paper, we present both a simple theoretical treatment and simulation results that demonstrate promising results for the multibunch technique as a plasma-based accelerator.

  2. Symposium on accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    The area of accelerator mass spectrometry has expanded considerably over the past few years and established itself as an independent and interdisciplinary research field. Three years have passed since the first meeting was held at Rochester. A Symposium on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry was held at Argonne on May 11-13, 1981. In attendance were 96 scientists of whom 26 were from outside the United States. The present proceedings document the program and excitement of the field. Papers are arranged according to the original program. A few papers not presented at the meeting have been added to complete the information on the status of accelerator mass spectrometry. Individual papers were prepared separately for the data base.

  3. Accelerator science in medical physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, K; Wilson, P; Jones, B

    2011-12-01

    The use of cyclotrons and synchrotrons to accelerate charged particles in hospital settings for the purpose of cancer therapy is increasing. Consequently, there is a growing demand from medical physicists, radiographers, physicians and oncologists for articles that explain the basic physical concepts of these technologies. There are unique advantages and disadvantages to all methods of acceleration. Several promising alternative methods of accelerating particles also have to be considered since they will become increasingly available with time; however, there are still many technical problems with these that require solving. This article serves as an introduction to this complex area of physics, and will be of benefit to those engaged in cancer therapy, or who intend to acquire such technologies in the future.

  4. Harmonic ratcheting for fast acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Cook

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in the design of rf cavities for the acceleration of medium-energy charged ions is the need to rapidly sweep the radio frequency over a large range. From low-power medical synchrotrons to high-power accelerator driven subcritical reactor systems, and from fixed focus alternating gradient accelerators to rapid cycling synchrotrons, there is a strong need for more efficient, and faster, acceleration of protons and light ions in the semirelativistic range of hundreds of MeV/u. A conventional way to achieve a large, rapid frequency sweep (perhaps over a range of a factor of 6 is to use custom-designed ferrite-loaded cavities. Ferrite rings enable the precise tuning of the resonant frequency of a cavity, through the control of the incremental permeability that is possible by introducing a pseudoconstant azimuthal magnetic field. However, rapid changes over large permeability ranges incur anomalous behavior such as the “Q-loss” and “f-dot” loss phenomena that limit performance while requiring high bias currents. Notwithstanding the incomplete understanding of these phenomena, they can be ameliorated by introducing a “harmonic ratcheting” acceleration scheme in which two or more rf cavities take turns accelerating the beam—one turns on when the other turns off, at different harmonics—so that the radio frequency can be constrained to remain in a smaller range. Harmonic ratcheting also has straightforward performance advantages, depending on the particular parameter set at hand. In some typical cases it is possible to halve the length of the cavities, or to double the effective gap voltage, or to double the repetition rate. This paper discusses and quantifies the advantages of harmonic ratcheting in general. Simulation results for the particular case of a rapid cycling medical synchrotron ratcheting from harmonic number 9 to 2 show that stability and performance criteria are met even when realistic engineering details

  5. Hydrogels for Engineering of Perfusable Vascular Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Zheng, Huaiyuan; Poh, Patrina S. P.; Machens, Hans-Günther; Schilling, Arndt F.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogels are commonly used biomaterials for tissue engineering. With their high-water content, good biocompatibility and biodegradability they resemble the natural extracellular environment and have been widely used as scaffolds for 3D cell culture and studies of cell biology. The possible size of such hydrogel constructs with embedded cells is limited by the cellular demand for oxygen and nutrients. For the fabrication of large and complex tissue constructs, vascular structures become necessary within the hydrogels to supply the encapsulated cells. In this review, we discuss the types of hydrogels that are currently used for the fabrication of constructs with embedded vascular networks, the key properties of hydrogels needed for this purpose and current techniques to engineer perfusable vascular structures into these hydrogels. We then discuss directions for future research aimed at engineering of vascularized tissue for implantation. PMID:26184185

  6. Headache as Risk Factor for Vascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2010-01-01

    The association of severe or recurrent headache or migraine with vascular disease in childhood or adolescence was examined by a National Health and Nutrition Survey at the National Institute of Neurological Disease and Stroke and of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD.

  7. Regulation of Vascular Function on Posttranscriptional Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Eisenreich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Posttranscriptional control of gene expression is crucial for regulating plurality of proteins and functional plasticity of the proteome under (pathophysiologic conditions. Alternative splicing as well as micro (miRNA-mediated mechanisms play an important role for the regulation of protein expression on posttranscriptional level. Both alternative splicing and miRNAs were shown to influence cardiovascular functions, such as endothelial thrombogenicity and the vascular tone, by regulating the expression of several vascular proteins and their isoforms, such as Tissue Factor (TF or the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS. This review will summarize and discuss the latest findings on the (pathophysiologic role of alternative splicing processes as well as of miRNAs on modulation of vascular functions, such as coagulation, thrombosis, and regulation of the vascular tone.

  8. Vascular tumors of bone : Imaging findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermaat, Marieke; Vanel, Daniel; Kroon, Herman M.; Verbeke, Sofie L. J.; Alberghini, Marco; Bovee, Judith V. M. G.; Bloem, Johan L.

    Purpose: To identify radiological features of malignant vascular tumors of bone, which can be used to avoid erroneously diagnosing metastases based on radiological multifocality, and histological epitheloid phenotype. Materials and methods: From the databases of the Bologna & Netherlands Committee

  9. Vascular adaption to physical inactivity in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents studies on vascular adaptation to physical inactivity and deconditioning. Although it is clear that physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the underlying physiological mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In contrast to physical

  10. Diagnosis and Management of Lymphatic Vascular Disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rockson, Stanley G

    2008-01-01

    ... it. The most readily recognizable attribute of lymphatic vascular incompetence is the presence of the characteristic swelling of tissues, called lymphedema, which arises as a consequence of insufficient lymph transport...

  11. Extracellular Matrix Molecules Facilitating Vascular Biointegration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin K.C. Ng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available All vascular implants, including stents, heart valves and graft materials exhibit suboptimal biocompatibility that significantly reduces their clinical efficacy. A range of biomolecules in the subendothelial space have been shown to play critical roles in local regulation of thrombosis, endothelial growth and smooth muscle cell proliferation, making these attractive candidates for modulation of vascular device biointegration. However, classically used biomaterial coatings, such as fibronectin and laminin, modulate only one of these components; enhancing endothelial cell attachment, but also activating platelets and triggering thrombosis. This review examines a subset of extracellular matrix molecules that have demonstrated multi-faceted vascular compatibility and accordingly are promising candidates to improve the biointegration of vascular biomaterials.

  12. Evidence for a vascular factor in migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asghar, Mohammad S; Hansen, Adam E; Amin, Faisal Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that migraine is caused by neural dysfunction without involvement of vasodilatation. Because dismissal of vascular mechanisms seemed premature, we examined diameter of extra- and intracranial vessels in migraine without aura patients....

  13. Hydrogels for Engineering of Perfusable Vascular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels are commonly used biomaterials for tissue engineering. With their high-water content, good biocompatibility and biodegradability they resemble the natural extracellular environment and have been widely used as scaffolds for 3D cell culture and studies of cell biology. The possible size of such hydrogel constructs with embedded cells is limited by the cellular demand for oxygen and nutrients. For the fabrication of large and complex tissue constructs, vascular structures become necessary within the hydrogels to supply the encapsulated cells. In this review, we discuss the types of hydrogels that are currently used for the fabrication of constructs with embedded vascular networks, the key properties of hydrogels needed for this purpose and current techniques to engineer perfusable vascular structures into these hydrogels. We then discuss directions for future research aimed at engineering of vascularized tissue for implantation.

  14. World Federation of Vascular Societies: presidential address

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Henrik Hegaard

    2010-01-01

    The presidential address describes briefly the history of the World Federation for Vascular Societies (WFVS) and its objectives. Vascular Surgery today includes interventional procedures (open surgical and endovascular) in addition to risk factor reduction and medical treatment. It is equally imp...... throughout the world. In addition, for introduction of new treatments, training issues and dissemination of science a global organisation like the WFVS is needed.......The presidential address describes briefly the history of the World Federation for Vascular Societies (WFVS) and its objectives. Vascular Surgery today includes interventional procedures (open surgical and endovascular) in addition to risk factor reduction and medical treatment. It is equally....... Similar, in order to be able to train with relevant case mix and numbers, and in order always to have both complex open and endovascular skills on call 24 hours per day, 365 days a year, centralisation into larger units is necessary. The WFVS is important simply looking at the huge demographic differences...

  15. Acceleration parameters for fluid physics with accelerating bodies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gledhill, Irvy MA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available accelerating bodies, and reference must be made, above all, to the Mach number for transonic effects. Other parameters from the literature on impulsive start-up in wind tunnels are also shown to be useful in delimiting regimes of flow, such as the Freymuth...

  16. State of accelerator for therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Maruhashi, A

    2002-01-01

    21 facilities carry out particle radiotherapy in the world and 6 facilities will start in the next year. They are shown in the table. 6 facilities of them exist in Japan. Small accelerator for proton therapy is developed. The area of them becomes smaller than 100 m sup 2. 5 makers, form, kinds of accelerator, length of track, beam energy of them are shown. States of particle radiotherapy in 4 facilities in Japan are explained by the kinds of particle, energy, beam intensity, time structure and radiation room. The important problems are reconsideration of building and compact rotating gantry. The problems of radiotherapy are explained. (S.Y.)

  17. OpenMP for Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, J C; Stotzer, E J; Hart, A; de Supinski, B R

    2011-03-15

    OpenMP [13] is the dominant programming model for shared-memory parallelism in C, C++ and Fortran due to its easy-to-use directive-based style, portability and broad support by compiler vendors. Similar characteristics are needed for a programming model for devices such as GPUs and DSPs that are gaining popularity to accelerate compute-intensive application regions. This paper presents extensions to OpenMP that provide that programming model. Our results demonstrate that a high-level programming model can provide accelerated performance comparable to hand-coded implementations in CUDA.

  18. Acceleration effects on atomic clocks

    CERN Document Server

    Dahia, F

    2014-01-01

    We consider a free massive particle inside a box which is dragged by Rindler observers. Admitting that the particle obeys the Klein-Gordon equation, we find the frequencies of the stationary states of this system. Transitions between the stationary states are employed to set a standard frequency for a toy atomic clock. Comparing the energy spectrum of the accelerated system with the energy spectrum of an identical system in an inertial frame, we determine the influence of the instantaneous acceleration on the rate of atomic clocks. We argue that our result does not violate the clock hypothesis.

  19. Electron Cloud Effects in Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furman, M.A.

    2012-11-30

    Abstract We present a brief summary of various aspects of the electron-cloud effect (ECE) in accelerators. For further details, the reader is encouraged to refer to the proceedings of many prior workshops, either dedicated to EC or with significant EC contents, including the entire ?ECLOUD? series [1?22]. In addition, the proceedings of the various flavors of Particle Accelerator Conferences [23] contain a large number of EC-related publications. The ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter series [24] contains one dedicated issue, and several occasional articles, on EC. An extensive reference database is the LHC website on EC [25].

  20. Seismic response of linear accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Collette, C; Guinchard, M; Hauviller, C

    2010-01-01

    This paper is divided into two parts. The first part presents recent measurements of ground motion in the LHC tunnel at CERN. From these measurements, an update of the ground motion model currently used in accelerator simulations is presented. It contains new features like a model of the lateral motion and the technical noise. In the second part, it is shown how this model can be used to evaluate the seismic response of a linear accelerator in the frequency domain. Then, the approach is validated numerically on a regular lattice, taking the dynamic behavior of the machine alignment stage and the mechanical stabilization of the quadrupoles into account.

  1. Seismic response of linear accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Collette

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is divided into two parts. The first part presents recent measurements of ground motion in the LHC tunnel at CERN. From these measurements, an update of the ground motion model currently used in accelerator simulations is presented. It contains new features like a model of the lateral motion and the technical noise. In the second part, it is shown how this model can be used to evaluate the seismic response of a linear accelerator in the frequency domain. Then, the approach is validated numerically on a regular lattice, taking the dynamic behavior of the machine alignment stage and the mechanical stabilization of the quadrupoles into account.

  2. Calorimetry at industrial electron accelerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne; Kovacs, A.

    1985-01-01

    Calorimetry is a convenient way to measure doses at industrial electron accelerators, where high absorbed doses (1-100 kGy) are delivered at dose rates of 102-105 Gy s-1 or even higher. Water calorimeters have been used for this purpose for several years, but recently other materials such as grap......Calorimetry is a convenient way to measure doses at industrial electron accelerators, where high absorbed doses (1-100 kGy) are delivered at dose rates of 102-105 Gy s-1 or even higher. Water calorimeters have been used for this purpose for several years, but recently other materials...

  3. Thermodynamics of Accelerating Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appels, Michael; Gregory, Ruth; Kubizňák, David

    2016-09-23

    We address a long-standing problem of describing the thermodynamics of an accelerating black hole. We derive a standard first law of black hole thermodynamics, with the usual identification of entropy proportional to the area of the event horizon-even though the event horizon contains a conical singularity. This result not only extends the applicability of black hole thermodynamics to realms previously not anticipated, it also opens a possibility for studying novel properties of an important class of exact radiative solutions of Einstein equations describing accelerated objects. We discuss the thermodynamic volume, stability, and phase structure of these black holes.

  4. Einstein, Nobel Prize, and Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Jarlskog, C

    2005-01-01

    We are celebrating the year of physics thanks to Einstein’s monumental contributions a hundred years ago. Indeed, the current field of accelerator physics is also deeply indebted to him. Why did it take more than a decade and a half for him to be "crowned" in Stockholm by the Nobel Prize? Did he get the Prize for the "wrong" thing? Based on original material from the archives of the Swedish Academy of Sciences, I will discuss how Einstein got the Nobel Prize and will give a short summary of his everlasting impact on the field of accelerator physics.

  5. Hamiltonian theory of stochastic acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhnovskii, Yurii A; Pollak, Eli

    2006-04-01

    Stochastic acceleration, defined in terms of a stochastic equation of motion for the acceleration, is derived from a Hamiltonian model. A free particle is coupled bilinearly to a harmonic bath through the particle's momentum and coordinate. Under appropriate conditions, momentum coupling induces velocity diffusion which is not destroyed by the spatial coupling. Spatial-momentum coupling may induce spatial subdiffusion. The thermodynamic equilibrium theory presented in this paper does not violate the second law of thermodynamics, although the average velocity squared of the particle may increase in time without bound.

  6. Biomimicry, vascular restenosis and coronary stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, R S; van der Giessen, W J; Holmes, D R

    1998-01-01

    Biomimicry is in its earliest stages and is being considered in the realm of tissue engineering. If arterial implants are to limit neointimal thickening, purely passive structures cannot succeed. Bioactivity must be present, either by pharmacologic intervention or by fabricating a 'living stent' that contains active cellular material. As tissue engineering evolves, useful solutions will emerge from applying this knowledge directly to vascular biologic problems resulting from angioplasty, stenting, and vascular prosthesis research.

  7. Standardized Definitions for Hemodialysis Vascular Access

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Timmy; Mokrzycki, Michele; Moist, Louise; Maya, Ivan; Vazquez, Miguel; Lok, Charmaine

    2011-01-01

    Vascular access dysfunction is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among end-stage renal disease patients 1,2. Vascular access dysfunction exists in all 3 types of available accesses: arteriovenous fistulas, arteriovenous grafts, and tunneled catheters. In order to improve clinical research and outcomes in hemodialysis access dysfunction, the development of a multidisciplinary network of collaborative investigators with various areas of expertise, and common standards for ter...

  8. Vascular Plaque Determination for Stroke Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0608 TITLE: Vascular Plaque Determination for Stroke Risk Assessment PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Vince, David Geoffrey...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Vascular Plaque Determination for Stroke Risk Assessment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0608 5c. PROGRAM... plaques at high risk for initiating a cerebrovascular accident. The core of the current research project is a pilot clinical study to enroll 100 subjects

  9. 3D Bioprinting for Vascularized Tissue Fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Dylan; Jia, Jia; Yost, Michael; Markwald, Roger; Mei, Ying

    2017-01-01

    3D bioprinting holds remarkable promise for rapid fabrication of 3D tissue engineering constructs. Given its scalability, reproducibility, and precise multi-dimensional control that traditional fabrication methods do not provide, 3D bioprinting provides a powerful means to address one of the major challenges in tissue engineering: vascularization. Moderate success of current tissue engineering strategies have been attributed to the current inability to fabricate thick tissue engineering constructs that contain endogenous, engineered vasculature or nutrient channels that can integrate with the host tissue. Successful fabrication of a vascularized tissue construct requires synergy between high throughput, high-resolution bioprinting of larger perfusable channels and instructive bioink that promotes angiogenic sprouting and neovascularization. This review aims to cover the recent progress in the field of 3D bioprinting of vascularized tissues. It will cover the methods of bioprinting vascularized constructs, bioink for vascularization, and perspectives on recent innovations in 3D printing and biomaterials for the next generation of 3D bioprinting for vascularized tissue fabrication.

  10. Materials for engineering vascularized adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yu-Chieh; Cheng, Ming-Huei; Uriel, Shiri; Brey, Eric M

    2011-05-01

    Loss of adipose tissue can occur due to congenital and acquired lipoatrophies, trauma, tumor resection, and chronic disease. Clinically, it is difficult to regenerate or reconstruct adipose tissue. The extensive microvsacular network present in adipose, and the sensitivity of adipocytes to hypoxia, hinder the success of typical tissue transfer procedures. Materials that promote the formation of vascularized adipose tissue may offer alternatives to current clinical treatment options. A number of synthetic and natural biomaterials common in tissue engineering have been investigated as scaffolds for adipose regeneration. While these materials have shown some promise they do not account for the unique extracellular microenvironment of adipose. Adipose derived hydrogels more closely approximate the physical and chemical microenvironment of adipose tissue, promote preadipocyte differentiation and vessel assembly in vitro, and stimulate vascularized adipose formation in vivo. The combination of these materials with techniques that promote rapid and stable vascularization could lead to new techniques for engineering stable, vascularized adipose tissue for clinical application. In this review we discuss materials used for adipose tissue engineering and strategies for vascularization of these scaffolds. Materials that promote formation of vascularized adipose tissue have the potential to serve as alternatives or supplements to existing treatment options, for adipose defects or deficiencies resulting from chronic disease, lipoatrophies, trauma, and tumor resection. Copyright © 2009 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Management of vascular anomalies in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elajmi, A; Clapuyt, P; Hammer, F; Bataille, A-C; Lengele, B; Boon, L M

    2016-10-01

    Vascular anomalies, which are broadly identified as "angiomas", are rare entities and often unknown by the medical sphere. They are divided in two different categories which carry different prognosis and management: "vascular tumors" and "vascular malformations". Their precise identification is crucial and involves a good knowledge of the biological classification published by Mulliken and Glowacki and that has recently been updated by the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA). Vascular tumors are benign, common, inborn or not and most of the time disappear with growth. Vascular malformations are always congenital and growth with the child. They can involve type of vessels solely or combined with others. A rheologic differentiation between slow and fast flow malformations is essential in order to characterize the seriousness of the lesion. Frequently, their diagnosis is clinically established and the anamnesis is conducted to answer three questions that are the time of revelation of the lesion ("When?"), its aspect ("What?") and its evolution ("How?"). Further investigations are usually not required but a non-invasive imaging technique such as Doppler ultrasound could be useful if a doubt exists. Surgery is not mandatory and must always be well thought because its consequences might be disastrous. It must be left to cosmetic sequelae of these lesions or to lesions that are totally resectable without causing any unacceptable deformation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Cardiopulmonary Manifestations of Collagen Vascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Hamza; McWilliams, Sebastian R; Bhalla, Sanjeev

    2017-10-09

    The study aimed to illustrate the cardiopulmonary findings of the following collagen vascular diseases on cross-sectional imaging: rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma (progressive systemic sclerosis), systemic lupus erythematosus, the inflammatory myopathies (polymyositis/dermatomyositis), and Sjögren's syndrome. Although collagen vascular diseases can affect any part of the body, interstitial lung disease and pulmonary hypertension are the two most important cardiopulmonary complications and are responsible for the majority of morbidity and mortality in this patient population. Interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features (IPAF) is a newly described entity that encompasses interstitial lung disease in patients with clinical, serologic, or morphologic features suggestive of but not diagnostic of collagen vascular disease; these patients are thought to have better outcomes than idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. Interstitial lung disease and pulmonary hypertension determine the prognosis in collagen vascular disease patients. IPAF is a new term to label patients with possible collagen vascular disease-related interstitial lung disease. Collagen vascular disease patients are at increased risk for various malignancies.

  13. Vascular retraction driven by matrix softening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Megan

    We recently discovered we can directly apply physical forces and monitor the downstream responses in a living organism in real time through manipulation of the blood vessels of a marine organism called, Botryllus schlosseri. The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a key role in regulating vascular growth and homeostasis in Botryllus,a basal chordate which has a large, transparent extracorporeal vascular network that can encompass areas >100 cm2. We have determined that lysyl oxidase 1 (LOX1), which is responsible for cross-linking collagen, is expressed in all vascular cells and is critically important for vascular maintenance. Inhibition of LOX1 activity in vivo by the addition of a specific inhibitor, ß-aminopropionitrile (BAPN), caused a rapid, global regression of the entire vascular bed, with some vessels regressing >10 mm within 16 hrs. In this talk, I will discuss the molecular and cellular origins of this systemic remodeling event, which hinges upon the ability of the vascular cells to sense and respond to mechanical signals, while introducing this exciting new model system for studies of biological physics and mechanobiology. Collaborators: Anthony DeTomaso, Delany Rodriguez, Aimal Khankhel (UCSB).

  14. Stroke injury, cognitive impairment and vascular dementia☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaria, Raj N.; Akinyemi, Rufus; Ihara, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    The global burden of ischaemic strokes is almost 4-fold greater than haemorrhagic strokes. Current evidence suggests that 25–30% of ischaemic stroke survivors develop immediate or delayed vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) or vascular dementia (VaD). Dementia after stroke injury may encompass all types of cognitive disorders. States of cognitive dysfunction before the index stroke are described under the umbrella of pre-stroke dementia, which may entail vascular changes as well as insidious neurodegenerative processes. Risk factors for cognitive impairment and dementia after stroke are multifactorial including older age, family history, genetic variants, low educational status, vascular comorbidities, prior transient ischaemic attack or recurrent stroke and depressive illness. Neuroimaging determinants of dementia after stroke comprise silent brain infarcts, white matter changes, lacunar infarcts and medial temporal lobe atrophy. Until recently, the neuropathology of dementia after stroke was poorly defined. Most of post-stroke dementia is consistent with VaD involving multiple substrates. Microinfarction, microvascular changes related to blood–brain barrier damage, focal neuronal atrophy and low burden of co-existing neurodegenerative pathology appear key substrates of dementia after stroke injury. The elucidation of mechanisms of dementia after stroke injury will enable establishment of effective strategy for symptomatic relief and prevention. Controlling vascular disease risk factors is essential to reduce the burden of cognitive dysfunction after stroke. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock. PMID:26806700

  15. Vascular Adventitia Calcification and Its Underlying Mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Li

    Full Text Available Previous research on vascular calcification has mainly focused on the vascular intima and media. However, we show here that vascular calcification may also occur in the adventitia. The purpose of this work is to help elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms underlying vascular calcification. The calcified lesions were examined by Von Kossa staining in ApoE-/- mice which were fed high fat diets (HFD for 48 weeks and human subjects aged 60 years and older that had died of coronary heart disease, heart failure or acute renal failure. Explant cultured fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells (SMCswere obtained from rat adventitia and media, respectively. After calcification induction, cells were collected for Alizarin Red S staining. Calcified lesions were observed in the aorta adventitia and coronary artery adventitia of ApoE-/-mice, as well as in the aorta adventitia of human subjects examined. Explant culture of fibroblasts, the primary cell type comprising the adventitia, was successfully induced for calcification after incubation with TGF-β1 (20 ng/ml + mineralization media for 4 days, and the phenotype conversion vascular adventitia fibroblasts into myofibroblasts was identified. Culture of SMCs, which comprise only a small percentage of all cells in the adventitia, in calcifying medium for 14 days resulted in significant calcification.Vascular calcification can occur in the adventitia. Adventitia calcification may arise from the fibroblasts which were transformed into myofibroblasts or smooth muscle cells.

  16. Axon-glial disruption: the link between vascular disease and Alzheimer's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsburgh, Karen; Reimer, Michell M; Holland, Philip; Chen, Guiquan; Scullion, Gillian; Fowler, Jill H

    2011-08-01

    Vascular risk factors play a critical role in the development of cognitive decline and AD (Alzheimer's disease), during aging, and often result in chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. The neurobiological link between hypoperfusion and cognitive decline is not yet defined, but is proposed to involve damage to the brain's white matter. In a newly developed mouse model, hypoperfusion, in isolation, produces a slowly developing and diffuse damage to myelinated axons, which is widespread in the brain, and is associated with a selective impairment in working memory. Cerebral hypoperfusion, an early event in AD, has also been shown to be associated with white matter damage and notably an accumulation of amyloid. The present review highlights some of the published data linking white matter disruption to aging and AD as a result of vascular dysfunction. A model is proposed by which chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, as a result of vascular factors, results in both the generation and accumulation of amyloid and injury to white matter integrity, resulting in cognitive impairment. The generation of amyloid and accumulation in the vasculature may act to perpetuate further vascular dysfunction and accelerate white matter pathology, and as a consequence grey matter pathology and cognitive decline.

  17. Vascular health in children and adolescents: effects of obesity and diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R Short

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Kevin R Short, Piers R Blackett, Andrew W Gardner, Kenneth C CopelandDepartment of Pediatrics, Section of Diabetes and Endocrinology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USAAbstract: The foundations for cardiovascular disease in adults are laid in childhood and accelerated by the presence of comorbid conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Early detection of vascular dysfunction is an important clinical objective to identify those at risk for subsequent cardiovascular morbidity and events, and to initiate behavioral and medical interventions to reduce risk. Typically, cardiovascular screening is recommended for young adults, especially in people with a family history of cardiovascular conditions. Children and adolescents were once considered to be at low risk, but with the growing health concerns related to sedentary lifestyle, poor diet and obesity, cardiovascular screening may be needed earlier so that interventions to improve cardiovascular health can be initiated. This review describes comorbid conditions that increase cardiovascular risk in youth, namely obesity and diabetes, and describes noninvasive methods to objectively detect vascular disease and quantify vascular function and structure through measurements of endothelial function, arterial compliance, and intima-media thickness. Additionally, current strategies directed toward prevention of vascular disease in these populations, including exercise, dietary interventions and pharmacological therapy are described.Keywords: endothelial function, arterial compliance, intimal medial thickness, inflammation, intervention

  18. Role of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and oxidative stress in vascular complications in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Sho-ichi; Maeda, Sayaka; Matsui, Takanori; Ueda, Seiji; Fukami, Kei; Okuda, Seiya

    2012-05-01

    A non-enzymatic reaction between reducing sugars and amino groups of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids contributes to the aging of macromolecules, whose process has been known to progress at an accelerated rate under hyperglycemic and/or oxidative stress conditions. Over a course of days to weeks, early glycation products undergo further reactions such as rearrangements and dehydration to become irreversibly cross-linked, fluorescent protein derivatives termed advanced glycation end products (AGEs). In this paper, we review the role of AGE-oxidative stress axis and its therapeutic interventions in vascular complications in diabetes. AGEs elicit oxidative stress generation and subsequently cause inflammatory and thrombogenic reactions in various types of cells via interaction with a receptor for AGEs (RAGE), thereby being involved in vascular complications in diabetes. In addition, mitochondrial superoxide generation has been shown to play an important role in the formation and accumulation of AGEs under diabetic conditions. Further, we have recently found that a pathophysiological crosstalk between AGE-RAGE axis and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) could contribute to the progression of vascular damage in diabetes. These observations suggest that inhibition of AGE-RAGE-oxidative stress axis or blockade of its interaction with RAS is a novel therapeutic strategy for preventing vascular complications in diabetes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Hypertensive organ damage in patients with vascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlek, A.L.M.

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the most common vascular risk factors, and is an important cause of development of different vascular diseases. The main aim of this thesis was to determine the burden of hypertension-associated vascular diseases and end-organ damage in patients with manifest vascular disease.

  20. Lung irradiation induces pulmonary vascular remodelling resembling pulmonary arterial hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghobadi, G.; Bartelds, B.; van der Veen, S. J.; Dickinson, M. G.; Brandenburg, S.; Berger, R. M. F.; Langendijk, J. A.; Coppes, R. P.; van Luijk, P.

    Background Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a commonly fatal pulmonary vascular disease that is often diagnosed late and is characterised by a progressive rise in pulmonary vascular resistance resulting from typical vascular remodelling. Recent data suggest that vascular damage plays an

  1. Vascular associated gene variants in patients with preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Jacob A; Bare, Lance A; Olsen, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    Preeclampsia has been linked to subsequent vascular disease with many shared predisposing factors. We investigated the association between severe preeclampsia, and its subtypes, and specific vascular-related polymorphisms.......Preeclampsia has been linked to subsequent vascular disease with many shared predisposing factors. We investigated the association between severe preeclampsia, and its subtypes, and specific vascular-related polymorphisms....

  2. A review about biomarkers for the investigation of vascular function and impairment in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derosa, Giuseppe; Maffioli, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to analyze the main biomarkers of vascular function and impairment in patients with type 2 diabetes. Medline, SCOPUS, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases were searched. We concluded that proatherogenic adhesion molecules (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1, and soluble E selectin) and inflammatory cytokines (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α) were elevated in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Their increased expression and release contribute to the accelerated atherogenesis typical of these patients. For these reasons, the early identification of high levels of these biomarkers will help to establish new strategies to reduce cardiovascular complications.

  3. Ion Accelerator Merges Several Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, G.

    1984-01-01

    Intense ion beam formed by merging multiple ion beamlets into one concentrated beam. Beamlet holes in graphite screen and focusing grids arranged in hexagonal pattern. Merged beam passes through single hole in each of aluminum accelerator and decelerator grids. Ion extraction efficiency, beam intensity, and focusing improved.

  4. Petawatt pulsed-power accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stygar, William A.; Cuneo, Michael E.; Headley, Daniel I.; Ives, Harry C.; Ives, legal representative; Berry Cottrell; Leeper, Ramon J.; Mazarakis, Michael G.; Olson, Craig L.; Porter, John L.; Wagoner; Tim C.

    2010-03-16

    A petawatt pulsed-power accelerator can be driven by various types of electrical-pulse generators, including conventional Marx generators and linear-transformer drivers. The pulsed-power accelerator can be configured to drive an electrical load from one- or two-sides. Various types of loads can be driven; for example, the accelerator can be used to drive a high-current z-pinch load. When driven by slow-pulse generators (e.g., conventional Marx generators), the accelerator comprises an oil section comprising at least one pulse-generator level having a plurality of pulse generators; a water section comprising a pulse-forming circuit for each pulse generator and a level of monolithic triplate radial-transmission-line impedance transformers, that have variable impedance profiles, for each pulse-generator level; and a vacuum section comprising triplate magnetically insulated transmission lines that feed an electrical load. When driven by LTD generators or other fast-pulse generators, the need for the pulse-forming circuits in the water section can be eliminated.

  5. High-current electron accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseyev, B. V.; Gorelikov, I. M.; Kazurov, V. I.; Mashkov, L. V.; Greshko, A. G.; Soklakov, G. I.; Fedorenko, A. I.; Yurekevich, K. B.

    1986-02-01

    A high current electron accelerator was developed and built on the basis of computer aided design calculations and electrolytic trough simulation. A 15 stage Arkadyev/Marx pulse voltage generator serves as the primary energy storing device. Each stage consists of two IK-100-0.4 capacitors connected in parallel and all immersed in transformer oil inside a metal container on electrically insulating posts. Each stage is shielded on both the positive and negative potential side. The shields, made of copper foil, not only smooth the electric field in the clearances but also constitute part of the commutating circuit and contribute to reduction of the overall generator size. The pulse voltage generator is triggered by a synchronizer through the conventional firing circuit of a TGI1-350/16 thyratron. To operate the accelerator in the nanosecond mode, the generator discharges into a diode through a twin shaping line. In this mode the accelerator can produce 0.8 MeV to 240 kA electron beams of 0.8 ns duration. To operate in the microsecond mode, the shaping line acts as storing capacitor, and the discharge gaps must be charged with polarity reversal in each stage. In this mode the accelerator can produce 0.5 MeV to 10 kA electron beams of 1 microsecond duration.

  6. CLIC Drive Beam Accelerating Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Wegner, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Travelling structures for accelerating the high-current (4.2 A) CLIC Drive Beam to an energy of 2.37 GeV are presented. The structures are optimised for efficiency (full beam loading operation) and a desired filling time. Higher order modes are studied and are reduced by detuning along the structure and by damping with silicon carbide loads.

  7. CERNois wins prestigious accelerator award

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    During the 2nd International Particle Accelerator Conference, CERN’s Rogelio Tomás García became the first Spaniard to receive the Frank Sacherer Prize for his work in particle beam optics.   Rogelio Tomás García at the 2nd International Particle Accelerator Conference. The Frank Sacherer Prize is awarded to physicists who have made a “significant, original contribution to the accelerator field" early on in their career. This year the prize was given to Rogelio Tomás García who, at only 35 years of age, has made important contributions to the optics design, optics measurement, and correction techniques applied at both the LHC and Brookhaven’s RHIC. “Tomás has had a vital impact on CERN’s beam optics studies and has made very impressive achievements in the field of beam optics,” says Oliver Brüning, Head of the Accelerators and Beam Physics...

  8. Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grames, Joseph; Higinbotham, Douglas; Montgomery, Hugh

    2010-09-08

    The Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) in Newport News, Virginia, USA, is one of ten national laboratories under the aegis of the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). It is managed and operated by Jefferson Science Associates, LLC. The primary facility at Jefferson Lab is the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) as shown in an aerial photograph in Figure 1. Jefferson Lab was created in 1984 as CEBAF and started operations for physics in 1995. The accelerator uses superconducting radio-frequency (srf) techniques to generate high-quality beams of electrons with high-intensity, well-controlled polarization. The technology has enabled ancillary facilities to be created. The CEBAF facility is used by an international user community of more than 1200 physicists for a program of exploration and study of nuclear, hadronic matter, the strong interaction and quantum chromodynamics. Additionally, the exceptional quality of the beams facilitates studies of the fundamental symmetries of nature, which complement those of atomic physics on the one hand and of high-energy particle physics on the other. The facility is in the midst of a project to double the energy of the facility and to enhance and expand its experimental facilities. Studies are also pursued with a Free-Electron Laser produced by an energy-recovering linear accelerator.

  9. Accelerated bridge paint test program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    The accelerated bridge paint (AB-Paint) program evaluated a new Sherwin-Williams two-coat, : fast-curing paint system. The system is comprised of an organic zinc-rich primer (SW Corothane I : Galvapac One-Pack Zinc-Rich Primer B65 G11) and a polyurea...

  10. Accelerator-Based Neutrino Beams

    OpenAIRE

    Hübner, K

    2003-01-01

    The design principles of accelerator-based neutrino beams are outlined and the beams currently in operation or under construction are briefly described. The concepts and basic features of the different types of advanced neutrino beams which are under study are summarized.

  11. Introduction to RF linear accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Pichoff, N

    2006-01-01

    After a short introduction to applications of RF linacs and their advantages and drawbacks as opposed to circular accelerators, the model of RF resonant cavities and their excitation by RF sources or beam is introduced. Then beam dynamics notions, essential to linacs, such as transit-time factor, synchronism, r.m.s. properties, matching and mismatching in linear or nonlinear forces, are presented.

  12. Deletion of Krüppel‐Like Factor 4 in Endothelial and Hematopoietic Cells Enhances Neointimal Formation Following Vascular Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Tadashi; Yamashita, Maho; Horimai, Chihiro; Hayashi, Matsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Background Krüppel‐like factor 4 (Klf4) is involved in a variety of cellular functions by activating or repressing the transcription of multiple genes. Results of previous studies showed that tamoxifen‐inducible global deletion of the Klf4 gene in mice accelerated neointimal formation following vascular injury, in part via enhanced proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Because Klf4 is also expressed in non‐SMCs including endothelial cells (ECs), we determined if Tie2 promoter‐dependent...

  13. Surgery accelerates the development of endometriosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Qiqi; Liu, Xishi; Guo, Sun-Wei

    2016-09-01

    Surgery is currently the mainstay treatment for solid tumors and many benign diseases, including endometriosis, and women tend to receive substantially more surgeries than men mainly because of gynecological and cosmetic surgeries. Despite its cosmetic, therapeutic, or even life-saving benefits, surgery is reported to increase the cancer risk and promotes cancer metastasis. Surgery activates adrenergic signaling, which in turn suppresses cell-mediated immunity and promotes angiogenesis and metastasis. Because immunity, angiogenesis, and invasiveness are all involved in the pathophysiology of endometriosis, it is unclear whether surgery may accelerate the development of endometriosis. The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that surgery activates adrenergic signaling, increases angiogenesis, and accelerates the growth of endometriotic lesions. This was a prospective, randomized experimentation. The first experiment used 42 female adult Balb/C mice, and the second used 90 female adult Balb/C mice. In experiment 1, 3 days after the induction of endometriosis, mice were randomly divided into 3 groups of approximately equal sizes, control, laparotomy, and mastectomy. In experiment 2, propranolol infusion via Alzet pumps was used to forestall the effect of sympathetic nervous system activation by surgery. In both experiments, mice were evaluated 2 weeks after surgery. Lesion size, hotplate latency, and immunohistochemistry analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor, CD31-positive microvessels, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, phosphorylated cyclic adenosine monophosphate-responsive element-binding protein, β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB)-2, ADRB1, ADRB3, ADRA1, and ADRA2 in ectopic implants. Both mastectomy and laparotomy increased lesion weight and exacerbated hyperalgesia, increased microvessel density and elevated the immunoreactivity against ADRB2, phosphorylated cyclic adenosine monophosphate-responsive element-binding protein, vascular

  14. Sunitinib Does Not Accelerate Tumor Growth in Patients with Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krastan B. Blagoev

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical studies have suggested that sunitinib accelerates metastases in animals, ascribing this to inhibition of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor or the tumor’s adaptation. To address whether sunitinib accelerates tumors in humans, we analyzed data from the pivotal randomized phase III trial comparing sunitinib and interferon alfa in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. The evidence clearly shows that sunitinib was not harmful, did not accelerate tumor growth, and did not shorten survival. Specifically, neither longer sunitinib treatment nor a greater effect of sunitinib on tumors reduced survival. Sunitinib did reduce the tumor’s growth rate while administered, thereby improving survival, without appearing to alter tumor biology after discontinuation. Concerns arising from animal models do not apply to patients receiving sunitinib and likely will not apply to similar agents.

  15. Impact of Integrated Vascular Residencies on Academic Productivity within Vascular Surgery Divisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bradford J; Valsangkar, Nakul P; Liang, Tiffany W; Murphy, Michael P; Zimmers, Teresa A; Bell, Teresa M; Davies, Mark G; Koniaris, Leonidas G

    2017-02-01

    Changing training paradigms in vascular surgery have been introduced to reduce overall training time. Herein, we sought to examine how shortened training for vascular surgeons may have influenced overall divisional academic productivity. Faculty from the top 55 surgery departments were identified according to National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding. Academic metrics of 315 vascular surgery, 1,132 general surgery, and 2,403 other surgical specialties faculty were examined using institutional Web sites, Scopus, and NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools from September 1, 2014, to January 31, 2015. Individual-level and aggregate numbers of publications, citations, and NIH funding were determined. The mean size of the vascular divisions was 5 faculty. There was no correlation between department size and academic productivity of individual faculty members (R(2) = 0.68, P = 0.2). Overall percentage of vascular surgery faculty with current or former NIH funding was 20%, of which 10.8% had major NIH grants (R01/U01/P01). Vascular surgery faculty associated with integrated vascular training programs demonstrated significantly greater academic productivity. Publications and citations were higher for vascular surgery faculty from institutions with both integrated and traditional training programs (48 of 1,051) compared to those from programs with integrated training alone (37 of 485) or traditional fellowships alone (26 of 439; P productivity was improved within vascular surgery divisions with integrated training programs or both program types. These data suggest that the earlier specialization of integrated residencies in addition to increasing dedicated vascular training time may actually help promote research within the field of vascular surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Imaging of vascular tumors with an emphasis on ISSVA classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Taiki; Matsusako, Masaki; Mimura, Hidefumi; Osuga, Keigo; Matsui, Mizuko; Eto, Hikaru; Ohtake, Naoyuki; Manabe, Atsushi; Kusakawa, Isao; Tsutsumi, Yoshiyuki; Nosaka, Shunsuke; Kamo, Minobu; Saida, Yukihisa

    2013-12-01

    The International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) classification is becoming the international standard classification system for vascular tumors and vascular malformations. The ISSVA classification strictly distinguishes vascular tumors (neoplastic lesions) from vascular malformations (non-neoplastic lesions) based on whether there is a proliferation of vascular endothelial cells present, and it is an extremely useful classification system for determining therapeutic measures. For vascular tumors, it is clinically significant in terms of discriminating infantile hemangioma and rapidly involuting congenital hemangioma, which are expected to spontaneously regress, from other vascular tumors requiring treatment. Needless to say, clinical courses are important for diagnosis, and it is also important for radiologists to understand imaging findings on vascular tumors because such tumors have unique findings on diagnostic images. In this paper, vascular tumors are classified based on the ISSVA classification, and clinical and imaging findings are reviewed.

  17. Accelerator applications in energy and security

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Weiren

    2015-01-01

    As accelerator science and technology progressed over the past several decades, the accelerators themselves have undergone major improvements in multiple performance factors: beam energy, beam power, and beam brightness. As a consequence, accelerators have found applications in a wide range of fields in our life and in our society. The current volume is dedicated to applications in energy and security, two of the most important and urgent topics in today's world. This volume makes an effort to provide a review as complete and up to date as possible of this broad and challenging subject. It contains overviews on each of the two topics and a series of articles for in-depth discussions including heavy ion accelerator driven inertial fusion, linear accelerator-based ADS systems, circular accelerator-based ADS systems, accelerator-reactor interface, accelerators for fusion material testing, cargo inspection, proton radiography, compact neutron generators and detectors. It also has a review article on accelerator ...

  18. Technology and applications of advanced accelerator concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Weiren

    2016-01-01

    Since its invention in the 1920s, particle accelerators have made tremendous progress in accelerator science, technology and applications. However, the fundamental acceleration principle, namely, to apply an external radiofrequency (RF) electric field to accelerate charged particles, remains unchanged. As this method (either room temperature RF or superconducting RF) is approaching its intrinsic limitation in acceleration gradient (measured in MeV/m), it becomes apparent that new methods with much higher acceleration gradient (measured in GeV/m) must be found for future very high energy accelerators as well as future compact (table-top or room-size) accelerators. This volume introduces a number of advanced accelerator concepts (AAC) — their principles, technologies and potential applications. For the time being, none of them stands out as a definitive direction in which to go. But these novel ideas are in hot pursuit and look promising. Furthermore, some AAC requires a high power laser system. This has the ...

  19. Comparative assessment of vascular function in autoimmune rheumatic diseases: considerations of prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltész, Pál; Kerekes, György; Dér, Henriett; Szücs, Gabriella; Szántó, Sándor; Kiss, Emese; Bodolay, Edit; Zeher, Margit; Timár, Orsolya; Szodoray, Péter; Szegedi, Gyula; Szekanecz, Zoltán

    2011-05-01

    Numerous autoimmune-inflammatory rheumatic diseases have been associated with accelerated atherosclerosis or other types of vasculopathy leading to increased cardio- and cerebrovascular disease risk. Traditional risk factors, as well as the role of systemic inflammation including cytokines, chemokines, proteases, autoantibodies, adhesion receptors and others have been implicated in the development of these vascular pathologies. The characteristics of vasculopathies may significantly differ depending on the underlying disease. While classical accelerated atherosclerosis has been associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or spondyloarthropathies (SpA), obliterative vasculopathy may rather be characteristic for systemic sclerosis (SSc) or mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). Antiphospholipid antibodies have been implicated in vasculopathies underlying SLE, antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), RA and MCTD. There is also heterogeneity with respect to inflammatory risk factors. Cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) or interleukin 6 (IL-6) and immune complexes are primarily involved in arthritides, such as RA, SpA, as well as in SLE. On the other hand, autoantibodies including anti-oxLDL anti-cardiolipin and anti-β2GPI are rather involved in SLE- and APS-associated vasculopathies. Regarding the non-invasive assessment of vascular function, endothelial dysfunction, overt atherosclerosis and vascular stiffness may be indicated by brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), common carotid intima-media thickness (ccIMT) and aortic pulse-wave velocity (PWV), respectively. These abnormalities have been described in most inflammatory rheumatic diseases. While ccIMT and stiffness are relatively stable, FMD may be influenced by many confounding factors. In addition to traditional vasculoprotection, immunosuppressive agents including corticosteroids, traditional and biologic DMARDs may have significant vascular and metabolic

  20. Sirtuins, Cell Senescence, and Vascular Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Yujiro; Goligorsky, Michael S

    2016-05-01

    The sirtuins (SIRTs) constitute a class of proteins with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylase or adenosine diphosphate-ribosyltransferase activity. Seven SIRT family members have been identified in mammals, from SIRT1, the best studied for its role in vascular aging, to SIRT7. SIRT1 and SIRT2 are localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm. SIRT3, SIRT4, and SIRT5 are mitochondrial, and SIRT6 and SIRT7 are nuclear. Extensive studies have clearly revealed that SIRT proteins regulate diverse cell functions and responses to stressors. Vascular aging involves the aging process (senescence) of endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. Two types of cell senescence have been identified: (1) replicative senescence with telomere attrition; and (2) stress-induced premature senescence without telomere involvement. Both types of senescence induce vascular cell growth arrest and loss of vascular homeostasis, and contribute to the initiation and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Previous mechanistic studies have revealed in detail that SIRT1, SIRT3, and SIRT6 show protective functions against vascular aging, and definite vascular function of other SIRTs is under investigation. Thus, direct SIRT modulation and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide stimulation of SIRT are promising candidates for cardiovascular disease therapy. A small number of pilot studies have been conducted to assess SIRT modulation in humans. These clinical studies have not yet provided convincing evidence that SIRT proteins alleviate morbidity and mortality in patients with cardiovascular diseases. The outcomes of multiple ongoing clinical trials are awaited to define the efficacy of SIRT modulators and SIRT activators in cardiovascular diseases, along with the potential adverse effects of chronic SIRT modulation. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI: Progress towards knowledge and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Di Legge

    Full Text Available Abstract Until recently, the study of cognitive impairment as a manifestation of cerebrovascular disease (CVD has been hampered by the lack of common standards for assessment. The term vascular cognitive impairment (VCI encompasses all levels of cognitive decline associated with CVD from mild deficits in one or more cognitive domains to crude dementia syndrome. VCI incorporates the complex interactions among classic vascular risk factors (i.e. arterial hypertension, high cholesterol, and diabetes, CVD subtypes, and Alzheimer's Disease (AD pathology. VCI may be the earliest, commonest, and subtlest manifestation of CVD and can be regarded as a highly prevalent and preventable syndrome. However, cognition is not a standardized outcome measure in clinical trials assessing functional ability after stroke. Furthermore, with the exception of anti-hypertensive medications, the impact of either preventive or acute stroke treatments on cognitive outcome is not known. Although clinical, epidemiological, neuroimaging, and experimental data support the VCI concept, there is a lack of integrated knowledge on the role played by the most relevant pathophysiological mechanisms involved in several neurological conditions including stroke and cognitive impairment such as excitotoxicity, apoptosis, mitochondrial DNA damage, oxidative stress, disturbed neurotransmitter release, and inflammation. For this reason, in 2006 the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS and the Canadian Stroke Network (CSN defined a set of data elements to be collected in future studies aimed at defining VCI etiology, clinical manifestations, predictive factors, and treatment. These recommendations represent the first step toward developing diagnostic criteria for VCI based on sound knowledge rather than on hypotheses. The second step will be to integrate all studies using the agreed methodologies. This is likely to accelerate the search for answers.

  2. Adiposity, adipocytokines & microvesicles in the etiology of vascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kanhai, D.A.N.I.S.

    2013-01-01

    Vascular disease, in this thesis the terms vascular and cardiovascular are used interchangeably, is the number 1 cause of death worldwide. In 2008, 30% of all mortality had a vascular origin. Vascular mortality rates after a first manifestation of vascular disease are decreasing in Western society, which is attributable to better disease awareness, better preventive strategies and better healthcare systems. As mortality rates are decreasing, the number of patients surviving their first vascul...

  3. CAS - CERN Accelerator School: Advanced Accelerator Physics Course

    CERN Document Server

    Herr, W

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the proceedings of the Course on Advanced Accelerator Physics organized by the CERN Accelerator School. The course was held in Trondheim, Norway from 18 to 29 August 2013, in collaboration with the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. Its syllabus was based on previous courses and in particular on the course held in Berlin 2003 whose proceedings were published as CERN Yellow Report CERN- 2006-002. The field has seen significant advances in recent years and some topics were presented in a new way and other topics were added. The lectures were supplemented with tutorials on key topics and 14 hours of hands on courses on Optics Design and Corrections, RF Measurement Techniques and Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics. These courses are a key element of the Advanced Level Course.

  4. Fresnel diffraction patterns as accelerating beams

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yiqi; Zheng, Huaibin; Wu, Zhenkun; Li, Yuanyuan; Lu, Keqing; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that beams originating from Fresnel diffraction patterns are self-accelerating in free space. In addition to accelerating and self-healing, they also exhibit parabolic deceleration property, which is in stark contrast to other accelerating beams. We find that the trajectory of Fresnel paraxial accelerating beams is similar to that of nonparaxial Weber beams. Decelerating and accelerating regions are separated by a critical propagation distance, at which no acceleration is present. During deceleration, the Fresnel diffraction beams undergo self-smoothing, in which oscillations of the diffracted waves gradually focus and smooth out at the critical distance.

  5. Time-Resolved Magnetic Resonance Angiography in the Evaluation of Intracranial Vascular Lesions and Tumors: A Pictorial Essay of Our Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-Cheng; Chen, Hung-Chieh; Wu, Chen-Hao; Chen, Wen-Hsien; Tsuei, Yuang-Seng; Chen, Clayton Chi-Chang

    2015-11-01

    Time-resolved magnetic resonance angiography (TR MRA) is a promising less invasive technique for the diagnosis of intracranial vascular lesions and hypervascular tumors. Similar to 4-dimensional computed tomographic angiography obtaining high frame rate images, TR MRA utilizes acceleration techniques to acquire sequential arterial and venous phase images for identifying, localizing, and classifying vascular lesions. Because of the good agreement with digital subtraction angiography for grading brain arteriovenous malformations with the Spetzler-Martin classification and the good sensitivity for visualizing arteriovenous fistulas, studies have suggested that TR MRA could serve as a screening or routine follow-up tool for diagnosing intracranial vascular disorders. In this pictorial essay, we report on the use of TR MRA at 3.0 T to diagnose intracranial vascular lesions and hypervascular tumors, employing DSA as the reference technique. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Design and development of multilayer vascular graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Krishna

    2011-07-01

    Vascular graft is a widely-used medical device for the treatment of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and aneurysm as well as for the use of vascular access and pediatric shunt, which are major causes of mortality and morbidity in this world. Dysfunction of vascular grafts often occurs, particularly for grafts with diameter less than 6mm, and is associated with the design of graft materials. Mechanical strength, compliance, permeability, endothelialization and availability are issues of most concern for vascular graft materials. To address these issues, we have designed a biodegradable, compliant graft made of hybrid multilayer by combining an intimal equivalent, electrospun heparin-impregnated poly-epsilon-caprolactone nanofibers, with a medial equivalent, a crosslinked collagen-chitosan-based gel scaffold. The intimal equivalent is designed to build mechanical strength and stability suitable for in vivo grafting and to prevent thrombosis. The medial equivalent is designed to serve as a scaffold for the activity of the smooth muscle cells important for vascular healing and regeneration. Our results have shown that genipin is a biocompatible crosslinker to enhance the mechanical properties of collagen-chitosan based scaffolds, and the degradation time and the activity of smooth muscle cells in the scaffold can be modulated by the crosslinking degree. For vascular grafting and regeneration in vivo, an important design parameter of the hybrid multilayer is the interface adhesion between the intimal and medial equivalents. With diametrically opposite affinities to water, delamination of the two layers occurs. Physical or chemical modification techniques were thus used to enhance the adhesion. Microscopic examination and graft-relevant functional characterizations have been performed to evaluate these techniques. Results from characterization of microstructure and functional properties, including burst strength, compliance, water permeability and suture

  7. Preparation and features of polycaprolactone vascular grafts with the incorporated vascular endothelial growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevostyanova, V. V., E-mail: sevostyanova.victoria@gmail.com; Khodyrevskaya, Y. I.; Glushkova, T. V.; Antonova, L. V.; Kudryavtseva, Y. A.; Barbarash, O. L.; Barbarash, L. S. [Research Institute for Complex Issues of Cardiovascular Diseases, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    The development of tissue-engineered small-diameter vascular grafts is an urgent issue in cardiovascular surgery. In this study, we assessed how the incorporation of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) affects morphological and mechanical properties of polycaprolactone (PCL) vascular grafts along with its release kinetics. Vascular grafts were prepared using two-phase electrospinning. In pursuing our aims, we performed scanning electron microscopy, mechanical testing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results demonstrated the preservation of a highly porous structure and improvement of PCL/VEGF scaffold mechanical properties as compared to PCL grafts. A prolonged VEGF release testifies the use of this construct as a scaffold for tissue-engineered vascular grafts.

  8. Observation of acceleration and deceleration in gigaelectron-volt-per-metre gradient dielectric wakefield accelerators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Shea, B D; Andonian, G; Barber, S K; Fitzmorris, K L; Hakimi, S; Harrison, J; Hoang, P D; Hogan, M J; Naranjo, B; Williams, O B; Yakimenko, V; Rosenzweig, J B

    2016-01-01

    .... To address this need, short wavelength accelerators based on wakefields, where an intense relativistic electron beam radiates the demanded fields directly into the accelerator structure or medium...

  9. Blood flow restricted exercise and vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Masahiro; Okita, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    It is established that regular aerobic training improves vascular function, for example, endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and arterial stiffness or compliance and thereby constitutes a preventative measure against cardiovascular disease. In contrast, high-intensity resistance training impairs vascular function, while the influence of moderate-intensity resistance training on vascular function is still controversial. However, aerobic training is insufficient to inhibit loss in muscular strength with advancing age; thus, resistance training is recommended to prevent sarcopenia. Recently, several lines of study have provided compelling data showing that exercise and training with blood flow restriction (BFR) leads to muscle hypertrophy and strength increase. As such, BFR training might be a novel means of overcoming the contradiction between aerobic and high-intensity resistance training. Although it is not enough evidence to obtain consensus about impact of BFR training on vascular function, available evidences suggested that BFR training did not change coagulation factors and arterial compliance though with inconsistence results in endothelial function. This paper is a review of the literature on the impact of BFR exercise and training on vascular function, such as endothelial function, arterial compliance, or other potential factors in comparison with those of aerobic and resistance training.

  10. Cytoskeleton, cytoskeletal interactions, and vascular endothelial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Jingli Wang,1 Michael E Widlansky1,21Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Medicine Division, 2Department of Pharmacology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USAAbstract: Far from being inert, the vascular endothelium is a critical regulator of vascular function. While the endothelium participates in autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine signaling, it also transduces mechanical signals from the cell surface involving key cell structural elements. In this review, we discuss the structure of the vascular endothelium and its relationship to traditional cardiovascular risk factors and clinical cardiovascular events. Further, we review the emerging evidence that cell structural elements, including the glycocalyx, intercellular junctions, and cytoskeleton elements, help the endothelium to communicate with its environment to regulate vascular function, including vessel permeability and signal transduction via nitric oxide bioavailability. Further work is necessary to better delineate the regulatory relationships between known key regulators of vascular function and endothelial cell structural elements.Keywords: endothelium, shear stress, eNOS, cardiovascular risk factors, glycocalyx

  11. Toward a pathological definition of vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg, Lea Tenenholz; Heinsen, Helmut

    2010-12-15

    To date, there are no widely accepted neuropathological criteria for vascular dementia, although creating such a standard is ranked high on the wish list of all the researchers in this field. Such criteria would make it possible to perform large multicentre clinicopathological studies and, consequently, to better understand which, how, and where vascular brain lesions lead to cognitive decline, as it is possible to do in Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease. However, a major obstacle in the standardization of diagnosis is the fact that vascular brain lesions are a large group comprising heterogeneous changes that have different pathogeneses. Although it is accepted that some kinds of vascular changes cause cognitive impairment, it is not uncommon to find reports of the assumed same histological changes in control subjects. An indispensable first step in the unequivocal establishment of neuropathological criteria is to uniform the definitions used for each one of the lesions, preferably based on its pathogenesis. In the present, non-standardized state of ambiguity, a given lesion is designated by different names between and within the clinical, radiological, and pathological settings, and several definitions simply overlap. Before attempting to create new criteria, a multidisciplinary group-task is urged to identify and minimize the uncontrolled proliferation of definitions. Only then, it will be possible to advance the understanding of how vascular brain changes affect cognition. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Blood Flow Restricted Exercise and Vascular Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Horiuchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is established that regular aerobic training improves vascular function, for example, endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and arterial stiffness or compliance and thereby constitutes a preventative measure against cardiovascular disease. In contrast, high-intensity resistance training impairs vascular function, while the influence of moderate-intensity resistance training on vascular function is still controversial. However, aerobic training is insufficient to inhibit loss in muscular strength with advancing age; thus, resistance training is recommended to prevent sarcopenia. Recently, several lines of study have provided compelling data showing that exercise and training with blood flow restriction (BFR leads to muscle hypertrophy and strength increase. As such, BFR training might be a novel means of overcoming the contradiction between aerobic and high-intensity resistance training. Although it is not enough evidence to obtain consensus about impact of BFR training on vascular function, available evidences suggested that BFR training did not change coagulation factors and arterial compliance though with inconsistence results in endothelial function. This paper is a review of the literature on the impact of BFR exercise and training on vascular function, such as endothelial function, arterial compliance, or other potential factors in comparison with those of aerobic and resistance training.

  13. Neuropsychological profiles of vascular disease and risk of dementia: implications for defining vascular cognitive impairment no dementia (VCI-ND)

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan, BCM; Minett, T.; Muniz-Terrera, G.; Harrison, SL; Matthews, FE; Brayne, C.

    2017-01-01

    $\\textbf{Background}$ vascular cognitive impairment no dementia (VCI-ND) defines a preclinical phase of cognitive decline associated with vascular disorders. The neuropsychological profile of VCI-ND may vary according to different vascular conditions. $\\textbf{Objective}$ to determine the neuropsychological profile of individuals with no dementia and vascular disorders, including hypertension, peripheral vascular disease (PVD), coronary heart disease (CHD), diabetes and stroke. Ri...

  14. Accelerate!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter, John P

    2012-11-01

    The old ways of setting and implementing strategy are failing us, writes the author of Leading Change, in part because we can no longer keep up with the pace of change. Organizational leaders are torn between trying to stay ahead of increasingly fierce competition and needing to deliver this year's results. Although traditional hierarchies and managerial processes--the components of a company's "operating system"--can meet the daily demands of running an enterprise, they are rarely equipped to identify important hazards quickly, formulate creative strategic initiatives nimbly, and implement them speedily. The solution Kotter offers is a second system--an agile, networklike structure--that operates in concert with the first to create a dual operating system. In such a system the hierarchy can hand off the pursuit of big strategic initiatives to the strategy network, freeing itself to focus on incremental changes to improve efficiency. The network is populated by employees from all levels of the organization, giving it organizational knowledge, relationships, credibility, and influence. It can Liberate information from silos with ease. It has a dynamic structure free of bureaucratic layers, permitting a level of individualism, creativity, and innovation beyond the reach of any hierarchy. The network's core is a guiding coalition that represents each level and department in the hierarchy, with a broad range of skills. Its drivers are members of a "volunteer army" who are energized by and committed to the coalition's vividly formulated, high-stakes vision and strategy. Kotter has helped eight organizations, public and private, build dual operating systems over the past three years. He predicts that such systems will lead to long-term success in the 21st century--for shareholders, customers, employees, and companies themselves.

  15. Elementary principles of linear accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loew, G.A.; Talman, R.

    1983-09-01

    These lectures come in five sections. The first is this introduction. The second is a short chronology of what are viewed as important milestones in the field. The third covers proton linacs. It introduces elementary concepts such as transit time, shunt impedance, and Q. Critical issues such as phase stability and transverse forces are discussed. The fourth section contains an elementary discussion of waveguide accelerating structures. It can be regarded as an introduction to some of the more advanced treatments of the subject. The final section is devoted to electron accelerators. Taking SLAC as an example, various topics are discussed such as structure design, choice of parameters, frequency optimization, beam current, emittance, bunch length and beam loading. Recent developments and future challenges are mentioned briefly. 41 figures, 4 tables.

  16. History of hadron therapy accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degiovanni, Alberto; Amaldi, Ugo

    2015-06-01

    In the last 60 years, hadron therapy has made great advances passing from a stage of pure research to a well-established treatment modality for solid tumours. In this paper the history of hadron therapy accelerators is reviewed, starting from the first cyclotrons used in the thirties for neutron therapy and passing to more modern and flexible machines used nowadays. The technical developments have been accompanied by clinical studies that allowed the selection of the tumours which are more sensitive to this type of radiotherapy. This paper aims at giving a review of the origin and the present status of hadron therapy accelerators, describing the technological basis and the continuous development of this application to medicine of instruments developed for fundamental science. At the end the present challenges are reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Industrial applications of electron accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Cleland, M R

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the industrial applications of electron accelerators for modifying the physical, chemical or biological properties of materials and commercial products by treatment with ionizing radiation. Many beneficial effects can be obtained with these methods, which are known as radiation processing. The earliest practical applications occurred during the 1950s, and the business of radiation processing has been expanding since that time. The most prevalent applications are the modification of many different plastic and rubber products and the sterilization of single-use medical devices. Emerging applications are the pasteurization and preservation of foods and the treatment of toxic industrial wastes. Industrial accelerators can now provide electron energies greater than 10 MeV and average beam powers as high as 700 kW. The availability of high-energy, high-power electron beams is stimulating interest in the use of X-rays (bremsstrahlung) as an alternative to gamma rays from radioactive nuclides.

  18. Airbreathing Acceleration Toward Earth Orbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, J C

    2007-05-09

    As flight speed increases, aerodynamic drag rises more sharply than the availability of atmospheric oxygen. The ratio of oxygen mass flux to dynamic pressure cannot be improved by changing altitude. The maximum possible speed for airbreathing propulsion is limited by the ratio of air capture area to vehicle drag area, approximately Mach 6 at equal areas. Simulation of vehicle acceleration shows that the use of atmospheric oxygen offers a significant potential for minimizing onboard consumables at low speeds. These fundamental calculations indicate that a practical airbreathing launch vehicle would accelerate to near steady-state speed while consuming only onboard fuel, then transition to rocket propulsion. It is suggested that an aircraft carrying a rocket-propelled vehicle to approximately Mach 5 could be a realistic technical goal toward improving access to orbit.

  19. Greece welcomes CERN Accelerator School

    CERN Multimedia

    CAS School

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and the University of the Aegean jointly organised a course on intermediate-level Accelerator Physics in Chios, Greece, from 19 to 30 September, 2011.   CAS Students pose for a group photo in Chios, Greece. This course followed the established format of the intermediate school, with lectures in the mornings and specialised courses in the afternoons. The latter provided “hands-on” education and experience in three topics: “RF Measurement Techniques”, “Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics” and “Optics Design and Correction”.  Participants selected one of the three courses and followed the chosen topic throughout the school. Guided studies and tutorials on core subjects, seminars and a poster session completed the programme. An excursion included a visit to the Nea Moni monastery, a guided tour of two medieval villages, Pyrgi and Mesta, and finished with a typical Greek me...

  20. The US Muon Accelerator Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torun, Y.; /IIT, Chicago; Kirk, H.; /Brookhaven; Bross, A.; Geer, Steve; Shiltsev, Vladimir; /Fermilab; Zisman, M.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2010-05-01

    An accelerator complex that can produce ultra-intense beams of muons presents many opportunities to explore new physics. A facility of this type is unique in that, in a relatively straightforward way, it can present a physics program that can be staged and thus move forward incrementally, addressing exciting new physics at each step. At the request of the US Department of Energy's Office of High Energy Physics, the Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration (NFMCC) and the Fermilab Muon Collider Task Force (MCTF) have recently submitted a proposal to create a Muon Accelerator Program that will have, as a primary goal, to deliver a Design Feasibility Study for an energy-frontier Muon Collider by the end of a 7 year R&D program. This paper presents a description of a Muon Collider facility and gives an overview of the proposal.

  1. Hardware-Accelerated Simulated Radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laney, D; Callahan, S; Max, N; Silva, C; Langer, S; Frank, R

    2005-08-04

    We present the application of hardware accelerated volume rendering algorithms to the simulation of radiographs as an aid to scientists designing experiments, validating simulation codes, and understanding experimental data. The techniques presented take advantage of 32-bit floating point texture capabilities to obtain solutions to the radiative transport equation for X-rays. The hardware accelerated solutions are accurate enough to enable scientists to explore the experimental design space with greater efficiency than the methods currently in use. An unsorted hexahedron projection algorithm is presented for curvilinear hexahedral meshes that produces simulated radiographs in the absorption-only regime. A sorted tetrahedral projection algorithm is presented that simulates radiographs of emissive materials. We apply the tetrahedral projection algorithm to the simulation of experimental diagnostics for inertial confinement fusion experiments on a laser at the University of Rochester.

  2. Extinction Events Can Accelerate Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Joel Lehman; Risto Miikkulainen

    2015-01-01

    Extinction events impact the trajectory of biological evolution significantly. They are often viewed as upheavals to the evolutionary process. In contrast, this paper supports the hypothesis that although they are unpredictably destructive, extinction events may in the long term accelerate evolution by increasing evolvability. In particular, if extinction events extinguish indiscriminately many ways of life, indirectly they may select for the ability to expand rapidly through vacated niches. ...

  3. Accelerated Metals Development by Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    Laboratory (AFRL) “Science and Technology Workforce for the 21st Century ( STW -21)” initiative to shape the AFRL science and engineer workforce by...providing workforce agility and responsiveness to deal with dynamic technical and resource challenges. The goal was to provide the opportunity for...allowed AFRL/RX to augment its staff, facilities, and equipment by leveraging the resources of OSU. This program focused on accelerating materials

  4. Research in accelerator physics (theory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuma, Shoroku

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: beam-beam interaction in colliders with momentum oscillation; isolated difference resonance and evolution of the particle distribution; study of magnet sorting for the SSC High Energy Booster; development of a discrete HESQ; beam dynamics in compact synchrotrons; theoretical problems in multi-stage FEL for two-beam acceleration; operation of Tevatron near integer tunes; and detailed examination of coupling impedance of various devices in storage rings; impact on beams from the insertion devices.

  5. Accelerating Universe via Spatial Averaging

    OpenAIRE

    Nambu, Yasusada; TANIMOTO, Masayuki

    2005-01-01

    We present a model of an inhomogeneous universe that leads to accelerated expansion after taking spatial averaging. The model universe is the Tolman-Bondi solution of the Einstein equation and contains both a region with positive spatial curvature and a region with negative spatial curvature. We find that after the region with positive spatial curvature begins to re-collapse, the deceleration parameter of the spatially averaged universe becomes negative and the averaged universe starts accele...

  6. An accelerator worth fighting for

    CERN Multimedia

    1996-01-01

    Financial pressures from member states have upset the calculations of the European Laboratory for Particle Physics's (CERN) major accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Despite preference for domestic high energy programs, CERN members accord high priority to LHC physics. Converting to a global facility can help spread the high annual cost of subscription. But given the political realities, a revision of the LHC project appears more feasible. CERN's management needs to deploy its skills to overcome the financial obstacles to the facility.

  7. Status of JAERI tandem accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Tadashi; Kanda, Susumu; Takeuchi, Suehiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] (and others)

    2001-02-01

    JAERI Tandem Accelerator had been operated approximately 230 days in fiscal year of 1999. Meanwhile, we had three times of maintenance period with vent. Total operation-times were 5273 hours. We could not carry out the experiment using rare gas, due to malfunction of the RF power supply for the ECR ion source. The type of the RF power supply is peculiar and it is impossible to get spare parts for repair. We are now investigating the backup RF power supply. The power supply for the magnet became unstable due to degradation of insulation in the shunt resistance, which is used for feedback stabilization. Stability was recovered after cleaning. The acrylic resin shaft was cracked. This cracks have a potential for severe accidents. So far bearing of the shaft has no problem. The reason of cracks may be self-destruction by charge accumulation in the shaft. JAERI Tandem Accelerator is approximately 20 years old. There appear requirements on the higher ion currents for additional ion species. Therefore, authors are investigating cost effective improvement plans of RFQ (Radio Frequency Quadra-pole) and IH type accelerator based on KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization) R and D. As a whole, maintenance services for the control system are increasing due to some changes of computer programs. There are some difficulties to keep skilled personnel for facilities operation. Authors are gradually increasing hired personnel with contract from 1993. However, loads for JAERI permanent staffs are still heavy. It takes much longer time to educate skilled persons especially for safety. (Y. Tanaka)

  8. Accelerator x-ray sources

    CERN Document Server

    Talman, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This first book to cover in-depth the generation of x-rays in particle accelerators focuses on electron beams produced by means of the novel Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) technology. The resulting highly brilliant x-rays are at the centre of this monograph, which continues where other books on the market stop. Written primarily for general, high energy and radiation physicists, the systematic treatment adopted by the work makes it equally suitable as an advanced textbook for young researchers.

  9. JACoW Decoupling CERN accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Dworak, Andrzej

    2018-01-01

    The accelerator complex at CERN is a living system. Accelerators are being dismantled, upgraded or change their purpose. New accelerators are built. The changes do not happen overnight, but when they happen they may require profound changes across the handling systems. Central timings (CT), responsible for sequencing and synchronization of accelerators, are good examples of such systems. This paper shows how over the past twenty years the changes and new requirements influenced the evolution of the CTs. It describes experience gained from using the Central Beam and Cycle Manager (CBCM) CT model, for strongly coupled accelerators, and how it led to a design of a new Dynamic Beam Negotiation (DBN) model for the AD and ELENA accelerators, which reduces the coupling, increasing accelerator independence. The paper ends with an idea how to merge strong points of both models in order to create a single generic system able to efficiently handle all CERN accelerators and provide more beam time to experiments and LHC.

  10. A Critical Theory Perspective on Accelerated Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookfield, Stephen D.

    2003-01-01

    Critically analyzes accelerated learning using concepts from Herbert Marcuse (rebellious subjectivity) and Erich Fromm (automaton conformity). Concludes that, by providing distance and separation, accelerated learning has more potential to stimulate critical autonomous thought. (SK)

  11. Berkeley Lab Laser Accelerator (BELLA) facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Berkeley Lab Laser Accelerator (BELLA) facility (formerly LOASIS) develops advanced accelerators and radiation sources. High gradient (1-100 GV/m) laser-plasma...

  12. Accelerator Technology Division: Annual Report FY 1990

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schriber, Stanley

    1991-01-01

    The Accelerator Technology (AT) Division continued in fiscal year 1990 to fulfill its mission of developing accelerator science and technology for application to research, defense, energy, and other problems of national interest...

  13. Accelerated Cure Project for Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... content Accelerating research toward a cure for multiple sclerosis Toggle navigation Search form Search Connect Volunteer Donate ... to accelerate efforts toward a cure for multiple sclerosis by rapidly advancing research that determines its causes ...

  14. Vascular effects of maternal alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadoss, Jayanth; Magness, Ronald R

    2012-08-15

    Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a significant field of scientific exploration primarily because of its negative effects on the developing fetus, which is specifically defined as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Though the effects on the mother are less explored compared with those on the fetus, alcohol produces multiple effects on the maternal vascular system. Alcohol has major effects on systemic hemodynamic variables, endocrine axes, and paracrine factors regulating vascular resistance, as well as vascular reactivity. Alcohol is also reported to have significant effects on the reproductive vasculature including alterations in blood flow, vessel remodeling, and angiogenesis. Data presented in this review will illustrate the importance of the maternal vasculature in the pathogenesis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and that more studies are warranted in this field.

  15. Roles of xenobiotic receptors in vascular pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lei; Zhang, Zihui; Luo, Xiaoqin

    2014-01-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), 2 closely related and liver-enriched members of the nuclear receptor superfamily, and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a nonnuclear receptor transcription factor (TF), are major receptors/TFs regulating the expression of genes for the clearance and detoxification of xenobiotics. They are hence defined as "xenobiotic receptors". Recent studies have demonstrated that PXR, CAR and AhR also regulate the expression of key proteins involved in endobiotic responses such as the metabolic homeostasis of lipids, glucose, and bile acid, and inflammatory processes. It is suggested that the functions of PXR, CAR and AhR may be closely implicated in the pathogeneses of metabolic vascular diseases, such as hyperlipidemia, atherogenesis, and hypertension. Therefore, manipulation of the activities of these receptors may provide novel strategies for the treatment of vascular diseases. Here, we review the pathophysiological roles of PXR, CAR and AhR in the vascular system.

  16. Nonsurgical management of vascular malformation of masseter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Jayaraman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intramuscular vascular anomalies are rare congenital hamartomatous lesions. Less than 1% of these occur in skeletal muscle out of which 15% arise in head and neck musculature. In the head and neck region, masseter muscle is the most common site. It accounts for about 5% of intramuscular vascular malformations. They are present from birth but are clinically apparent during infancy and childhood and occasionally during adulthood. Due to its location it is often mistaken for a parotid swelling. The usual treatment of choice is surgical excision with a margin. This is associated with loss of motor function, hemorrhage, nerve damage. Intralesional sclerotherapy, embolization are nonsurgical alternatives for treatment of slow flow venous malformations. Sclerotherapy can be used solely in multiple sittings or as an adjunct to surgery. This article presents a case report of a 28-year-old male with recurrent intramuscular vascular malformation in the masseter muscle, which was successfully treated by ethanol sclerotherapy.

  17. Vascular permeability in cerebral cavernous malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikati, Abdul G; Khanna, Omaditya; Zhang, Lingjiao

    2015-01-01

    -controlled observational study investigated whether the brains of human subjects with familial CCM show vascular hyperpermeability by dynamic contrast-enhanced quantitative perfusion magnetic resonance imaging, in comparison with CCM cases without familial disease, and whether lesional or brain vascular permeability...... vascular hyperpermeability in humans with an autosomal dominant disease, as predicted mechanistically. Brain permeability, more than lesion permeability, may serve as a biomarker of CCM disease activity, and help calibrate potential drug therapy....... correlates with CCM disease activity. Permeability in white matter far (WMF) from lesions was significantly greater in familial than in sporadic cases, but was similar in CCM lesions. Permeability in WMF increased with age in sporadic patients, but not in familial cases. Patients with more aggressive...

  18. Impaired Pulmonary Vascular Development in Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Christopher D.; Abman, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), the chronic lung disease associated with preterm birth, results from disruption of normal pulmonary vascular and alveolar growth. Though BPD was once described as primarily due to postnatal injury from mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy after preterm birth, it is increasingly appreciated that BPD results from antenatal and perinatal factors that interrupt lung development in infants born at the extremes of prematurity. The lung in BPD consists of a simplified parenchymal architecture that limits gas exchange and leads to increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. This review outlines recent advances in the understanding of pulmonary vascular development and describes how disruption of these mechanisms results in BPD. We point to future therapies that may augment postnatal vascular growth to prevent and treat this severe chronic lung disease. PMID:26044102

  19. Cavitation onset caused by acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhao; Kiyama, Akihito; Tagawa, Yoshiyuki; Daily, David J; Thomson, Scott L; Hurd, Randy; Truscott, Tadd T

    2017-07-24

    Striking the top of a liquid-filled bottle can shatter the bottom. An intuitive interpretation of this event might label an impulsive force as the culprit in this fracturing phenomenon. However, high-speed photography reveals the formation and collapse of tiny bubbles near the bottom before fracture. This observation indicates that the damaging phenomenon of cavitation is at fault. Cavitation is well known for causing damage in various applications including pipes and ship propellers, making accurate prediction of cavitation onset vital in several industries. However, the conventional cavitation number as a function of velocity incorrectly predicts the cavitation onset caused by acceleration. This unexplained discrepancy leads to the derivation of an alternative dimensionless term from the equation of motion, predicting cavitation as a function of acceleration and fluid depth rather than velocity. Two independent research groups in different countries have tested this theory; separate series of experiments confirm that an alternative cavitation number, presented in this paper, defines the universal criteria for the onset of acceleration-induced cavitation.

  20. LEP superconducting accelerating cavity module

    CERN Multimedia

    1995-01-01

    With its 27-kilometre circumference, the Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider was the largest electron-positron accelerator ever built. The excavation of the LEP tunnel was Europe’s largest civil-engineering project prior to the Channel Tunnel. Three tunnel-boring machines started excavating the tunnel in February 1985 and the ring was completed three years later. In its first phase of operation, LEP consisted of 5176 magnets and 128 accelerating cavities. CERN’s accelerator complex provided the particles and four enormous detectors, ALEPH, DELPHI, L3 and OPAL, observed the collisions. LEP was commissioned in July 1989 and the first beam circulated in the collider on 14 July. The collider's initial energy was chosen to be around 91 GeV, so that Z bosons could be produced. The Z boson and its charged partner the W boson, both discovered at CERN in 1983, are responsible for the weak force, which drives the Sun, for example. Observing the creation and decay of the short-lived Z boson was a critical test of...