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Sample records for accelerates gastric emptying

  1. Orlistat accelerates gastric emptying and attenuates GIP release in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enç, Feruze Yilmaz; Ones, Tunç; Akin, H Levent; Dede, Fuat; Turoğlu, H Turgut; Ulfer, Gözde; Bekiroğlu, Nural; Haklar, Goncagül; Rehfeld, Jens F; Holst, Jens J; Ulusoy, Nefise B; Imeryüz, Neşe

    2009-03-01

    Orlistat, an inhibitor of digestive lipases, is widely used for the treatment of obesity. Previous reports on the effect of orally ingested orlistat together with a meal on gastric emptying and secretion of gut peptides that modulate postprandial responses are controversial. We investigated the effect of ingested orlistat on gastric emptying and plasma responses of gut peptides in response to a solid mixed meal with a moderate energy load. In healthy subjects, gastric emptying was determined using scintigraphy and studies were performed without and with 120 mg of orlistat in pellet form in random order. Orlistat shortened t lag and t half and decreased the area under the gastric emptying curve. Orlistat significantly attenuated the secretion of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) but did not alter the plasma responses of cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), pancreatic polypeptide (PP), and insulin. There was no peptide YY (PYY) response. Area under the curve of gastric emptying was positively correlated with integrated secretion of GIP (r=0.786) in orlistat and was negatively correlated with integrated plasma response of GLP-1 (r=-0.75) in control experiments, implying that inhibition of fat absorption modifies determinants of gastric emptying of a meal. Orlistat administered similar to its use in obesity treatment accelerates gastric emptying of a solid mixed meal with a moderate energy load and profoundly attenuates release of GIP without appreciably altering plasma responses of CCK, GLP-1, and PP. Since GIP is being implemented in the development of obesity, its role in weight control attained by orlistat awaits further investigation.

  2. Post-prandial reactive hypoglycaemia and diarrhea caused by idiopathic accelerated gastric emptying: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balan Kottekkattu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The majority of cases of post-prandial reactive hypoglycemia are considered idiopathic. Abnormalities of B-cell function and glucose regulation by insulin and glucagon have been postulated as causes but associated gastrointestinal dysfunction has not been reported. We report the first case of accelerated gastric emptying associated with post-prandial reactive hypoglycemia, abdominal bloating and diarrhea. We consider that gastric dysmotility is an important cause of this condition as treatment of the underlying abnormal gastric emptying allows effective control of symptoms. Case presentation A 20-year-old Caucasian woman presented with post-prandial fatigue, sweating, nausea, faintness and intermittent confusion, which had led to pre-syncope and syncope on occasions. She also experienced marked abdominal bloating and diarrhea over the same period. These episodes responded to oral administration of sweet drinks. Her symptoms were ameliorated by modification of her diet. Conclusion This is an original case report of the association of idiopathic accelerated gastric emptying with post-prandial reactive hypoglycemia and diarrhea. Family physicians, endocrinologists and gastroenterologists often consult patients with a constellation of post-prandial symptoms, which are considered to be idiopathic in most cases. This case indicates that gastric dysmotility might be the primary cause of these symptoms in some patients and, if found, offers a therapeutic target which in our case was successful.

  3. Ranitidine increases the bioavailability of imbibed alcohol by accelerating gastric emptying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, I; Anwar, N; Baraona, E; Lieber, C S

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism of the increase in alcohol bioavailability by ranitidine, we determined by nuclear scan the changes in gastric emptying of a 10% ethanol solution (containing 0.3 g ethanol/kg body weight and 300 microCi of technetium-labeled diethylene triamine pentacetic acid) in 8 normal men, before and after treatment with 300 mg ranitidine orally each evening for 1 week. We compared these changes with those of ethanol bioavailability, calculated by integration of the Michaelis-Menten function over the entire alcohol curves after random i.v. and, on a separate day, oral administration of the same ethanol dose, pre- and post-ranitidine. With ranitidine, we found an acceleration of gastric emptying in 7 of 8 subjects, with 20% shortening of the time to 50% emptying (51.8 +/- 4.1 min vs 64.3 +/- 3.4, without ranitidine; P ranitidine (P ranitidine increased blood alcohol concentrations (29 +/- 4 mg/dl vs 22 +/- 3, without ranitidine; P < .02), with a corresponding decrease in first pass metabolism of ethanol from 107 +/- 16 mg/kg to 47 +/- 16 (P < .01).

  4. Orlistat accelerates gastric emptying and attenuates GIP release in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enç, Feruze Yilmaz; Ones, Tunç; Akin, H Levent;

    2008-01-01

    Orlistat, an inhibitor of digestive lipases, is widely used for the treatment of obesity. Previous reports on the effect of orally ingested orlistat together with a meal on gastric emptying and secretion of gut peptides that modulate postprandial responses are controversial. We investigated...... the effect of ingested orlistat on gastric emptying and plasma responses of gut peptides in response to a solid mixed meal with a moderate energy load. In healthy subjects, gastric emptying was determined using scintigraphy and studies were performed without and with 120 mg of orlistat in pellet form...... in random order. Orlistat shortened t lag and t half and decreased the area under the gastric emptying curve. Orlistat significantly attenuated the secretion of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) but did not alter the plasma responses of cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1...

  5. Distal gastrectomy in pancreaticoduodenectomy is associated with accelerated gastric emptying, enhanced postprandial release of GLP-1, and improved insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmuth, Stefan; Wewalka, Marlene; Holst, Jens Juul

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the relationship between gastric emptying, postprandial GLP-1 and insulin sensitivity after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). BACKGROUND: Abnormal glucose regulation is highly prevalent in patients with pancreatic neoplasm and resolves in some after PD......, the cause of which is unclear. The procedure is carried out with pylorus preservation (PPPD) or with distal gastrectomy (Whipple procedure). Accelerated gastric emptying and ensuing enhanced release of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) conceivably play a role in glucose metabolism after PD. It was the purpose...

  6. Effects of gastric pacing on gastric emptying and plasma motilin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Yang; Dian-Chun Fang; Qian-Wei Li; Nian-Xu Sun; Qing-Lin Long; Jian-Feng Sui; Lu Gan

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To invertigate the effects of gastric pacing on gastric emptying and plasma motilin level in a canine model of gastric motility disorders and the correlation between gastric emptying and plasma motilin level.METHODS: Ten healthy Mongrel dogs were divided into:experimental group of six dogs and control group of four dogs. A model of gastric motility disorders was established in the experimental group undergone truncal vagotomy combined with injection of glucagon. Gastric half-emptying time (GEt1/2) was monitored with single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT), and the half-solid test meal was labeled with an isotope-99m Tc sulfur colloid. Plasma motilin concentration was measured with radioimmunoassay (RIA) kit. Surface gastric pacing at 1.1-1.2 times the intrinsic slow-wave frequency and a superimposed series of high frequency pulses (10-30 Hz) was performed for 45 min daily for a month in conscious dogs.RESULTS: After surgery, GEt1/2 in dogs undergone truncal vagotomy was increased significantly from 56.35±2.99 min to 79.42±l.91 min (P<0.001), but surface gastric pacing markedly accelerated gastric emptying and significantly decreased GEt1/2 to 64,94±l.75 min (P<0.001) in animals undergone vagotomy. There was a significant increase of plasma level of motilin at the phase of IMCⅢ (interdigertive myoelectrical complex, IMCⅢ) in the dogs undergone bilateral truncal vagotomy (baseline vs vagotomy, 184.29±9.81 pg/ml vs 242.09±17,22 pg/ml; P<0.01). But plasma motilin concentration (212.55±11.20 pg/ml; P<0.02) was decreased significantly after a long-term treatment with gastric pacing.Before gastric pacing, GEt1/2 and plasma motilin concentration of the dogs undergone vagotomy showed a positive correlation (r=0.867, P<0.01), but after a long-term gastric pacing, GEt1/2 and motilin level showed a negative correlation (r=-0.733, P<0,04).CONCLUSION: Surface gastric pacing with optimal pacing parameters can improve gastric emptying

  7. Gastric Emptying and Vagus Nerve Function After Laparoscopic Partial Fundoplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeboom, Maud Y. A.; Ringers, Jan; van Rijn, Pieter J. J.; Neijenhuis, Peter; Stokkel, Marcel P. M.; Masclee, Ad A. M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To establish the relation between vagus nerve dysfunction, gastric emptying, and antireflux surgery. Summary Background Data: Delayed gastric emptying occurs in up to 40% of reflux patients. After antireflux surgery, gastric emptying becomes normal or is even accelerated. Occasionally, severe gastric stasis is found and is associated with a negative outcome of the antireflux procedure. It has been suggested that injury to the vagus nerve could be the cause of this delayed emptying. Methods: We evaluated in a prospective study gastric emptying of solids and vagus nerve function (pancreatic polypeptide response to hypoglycemia) before and after surgery in 41 patients (22 women; age 43 ± 1.6 years) who underwent laparoscopic hemifundoplication. Results: All patients had relief of reflux symptoms varying from adequate (n = 8) to complete relief (n = 33). Gastric emptying of solids increased significantly (P < 0.001) after operation: lag phase from 19 ± 2 to 10 ± 1 minute, emptying rate (%/h) from 37 ± 2 to 48 ± 5 and half emptying time from 110 ± 8 to 81 ± 4 minutes. Gastric emptying improved to a similar extent in patients with delayed and normal preoperative gastric emptying. Postoperative signs of vagus nerve damage (PP peak < 47pmol/L) were present in 4 patients (10%). In these 4 patients gastric emptying both before and after operation did not differ from patients with normal vagus nerve function. In fact, none of the 41 patients had severely delayed emptying after laparoscopic hemifundoplication. Conclusions: Laparoscopic hemifundoplication affects vagus nerve integrity in 10% of patients, but this does not lead to a delay in gastric emptying. In fact, gastric emptying improved significantly after fundoplication. PMID:15492559

  8. Gastric emptying in normal subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, L.; Oster-Jorgensen, E.; Qvist, N.;

    1993-01-01

    This study was designed to clarify whether a part of the variability in gastric emptying could be ascribed to a relationship between meal ingestion and phase activity of the migrating motor complex and whether reproducibility is increased when meal ingestion takes place in relation to preselected...

  9. Gastric emptying measured by ultrasonography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    @@ A number of different methods have been used to estimate gastric emptying in humans, and all have their advantages and disadvantages. The method of choice will depend on whether solid or liquid meals are studied, the level of precision required, the degree of invasiveness that the subject or patient will tolerate, ethical considerations, and not at least the facilities available.

  10. Gastric and oesophageal emptying in obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddox, A.; Horowitz, M.; Wishart, J.; Collins, P. (Royal Adelaide Hospital (Australia))

    1989-01-01

    Gastric and esophageal emptying were evaluated in 31 obese patients and 31 control subjects. A double-isotope techniques was used to measure gastric emptying of a mixed solid/liquid meal, and esophageal emptying was measured as the time taken for a bolus of the solid meal to enter the stomach. Gastric emptying of the solid and the liquid meal and esophageal emptying were delayed in the obese patients compared with the control subjects. There were no significant relationships among gastric emptying, esophageal emptying, and upper gastrointestinal symptoms in the obese patients alone. However, in the total group of 62 subjects there were significant correlations between body mass index and both gastric and esophageal emptying. These results indicate that delayed gastric and esophageal emptying occurs frequently in obesity and that these abnormalties relate to body weight.

  11. Gastric emptying, glucose metabolism and gut hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Mechteld A R; Richir, Milan C; Garretsen, Martijn K

    2011-01-01

    To study the gastric-emptying rate and gut hormonal response of two carbohydrate-rich beverages. A specifically designed carbohydrate-rich beverage is currently used to support the surgical patient metabolically. Fruit-based beverages may also promote recovery, due to natural antioxidant...... and carbohydrate content. However, gastric emptying of fluids is influenced by its nutrient composition; hence, safety of preoperative carbohydrate loading should be confirmed. Because gut hormones link carbohydrate metabolism and gastric emptying, hormonal responses were studied....

  12. Gastric emptying: a comparison of three methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glerup, Henning; Bluhme, Henrik; Villadsen, Gerda Elisabeth;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A better understanding of the clinical relevance of delayed gastric emptying (e.g. in diabetes) requires a simple, easily accessible and inexpensive method for measuring it. Two "new" methods for measuring gastric emptying of liquids (the paracetamol absorption test and the 13C......-acetate breath test) are compared with the gold standard (gastric emptying scintigraphy (GES)). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The three techniques were used simultaneously in 10 healthy subjects. A gastric emptying time-retention curve was drawn for each technique and the results were compared at the 75%, 50% and 25...

  13. Review article: gastric emptying in functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, E M M

    2012-02-03

    Although delayed gastric emptying has been described in several functional gastrointestinal disorders, and appears to be especially common in functional dyspepsia, the relationship of this finding to symptoms and basic pathophysiology is difficult to define. The delineation of the interactions between delayed gastric emptying, on the one hand, and symptom pathogenesis, on the other, has been hampered by several factors. These include the limitations of the methodology itself, the extent of overlap between the various functional disorders and the sensitivity of gastric emptying to factors external to the stomach, be they elsewhere within the gastrointestinal tract, in the central nervous system or in the environment. In many instances, delayed gastric emptying is an epiphenomenon, reflecting the overlap between inadequately defined functional syndromes, shared pathophysiology or the activation of physiological interactions between the various organs of the gut. In others, it may imply a truly diffuse motor disorder. The disappointments attendant on attempts to alleviate symptoms through approaches designed to accelerate gastric emptying should therefore not come as a surprise. Pending the definition of the true significance of delayed gastric emptying in all functional gastrointestinal disorders, caution should be exerted in the interpretation of this finding in a patient with functional symptoms.

  14. Gastric Emptying Rates for Selected Athletic Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Edward F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The intent of this research was to compare the rate of gastric emptying of three commercially available athletic drinks with water and, in doing so, to determine their relative contributions of water, electrolytes, and carbohydrate to the body. (JD)

  15. Influences of fat restriction and lipase inhibition on gastric emptying in obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M.H. Mathus-Vliegen; M.L. van Ierland-van Leeuwen; R.J. Bennink

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Accelerated gastric emptying of solids may play a role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Orlistat, a potent lipase inhibitor, induces fat malabsorption and body weight loss but might accelerate gastric emptying as a result of suppressed CCK release. The aim was to investigate the role of fa

  16. The effect of polycarbophil on the gastric emptying of pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, R; Davis, S S

    1987-01-01

    The influence of the putative bioadhesive, polycarbophil, on the gastric emptying of a pellet formulation, has been investigated in three fasted subjects. The pellets were radiolabelled with technetium-99m. Gastric emptying was measured using the technique of gamma scintigraphy. The pellets emptied from the stomach rapidly and in an exponential manner. Polycarbophil did not retard the gastric emptying of the pellets.

  17. Involvement of endogenous opiates in regulation of gastric emptying of fat test meals in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fioramonti, J.; Fargeas, M.J.; Bueno, L.

    1988-08-01

    The role of endogenous opioids and cholecystokinin (CCK) in gastric emptying was investigated in mice killed 30 min after gavage with /sup 51/Cr-radiolabeled liquid meals. The meals consisted of 0.5 ml of milk or one of five synthetic meals containing arabic gum, glucose and/or arachis oil and/or casein. Naloxone (0.1 mg/kg sc) significantly (P less than 0.01) accelerated gastric emptying of milk and meals containing fat but did not modify gastric emptying of nonfat meals. The CCK antagonist asperlicin (0.1 mg/kg ip) increased by 25% gastric emptying of milk. The gastric emptying of meals containing glucose and casein but not fat was reduced after administration of the COOH-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK-8, 4 micrograms/kg ip). This decrease was antagonized by both asperlicin (10 mg/kg ip) and naloxone (0.1 mg/kg sc). Intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of an opiate antagonist that poorly crosses the blood-brain barrier, methyl levallorphan (10 micrograms/kg), did not modify gastric emptying of milk but accelerated it when peripherally administered (0.1 mg/kg sc). Similarly, asperlicin (icv) administered at a dose of 1 mg/kg did not affect milk emptying. These results indicate that endogenous opiates are involved at peripheral levels in the regulation of gastric emptying of fat meals only and that such regulation involves release of CCK.

  18. Atrial fibrillation and delayed gastric emptying.

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    Isadora C Botwinick

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation and delayed gastric emptying (DGE are common after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Our aim was to investigate a potential relationship between atrial fibrillation and DGE, which we defined as failure to tolerate a regular diet by the 7(th postoperative day. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of 249 patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy at our institution between 2000 and 2009. Data was analyzed with Fisher exact test for categorical variables and Mann-Whitney U or unpaired T-test for continuous variables. RESULTS: Approximately 5% of the 249 patients included in the analysis experienced at least one episode of postoperative atrial fibrillation. Median age of patients with atrial fibrillation was 74 years, compared with 66 years in patients without atrial fibrillation (p = 0.0005. Patients with atrial fibrillation were more likely to have a history of atrial fibrillation (p = 0.03. 92% of the patients with atrial fibrillation suffered from DGE, compared to 46% of patients without atrial fibrillation (p = 0.0007. This association held true when controlling for age. CONCLUSION: Patients with postoperative atrial fibrillation are more likely to experience delayed gastric emptying. Interventions to manage delayed gastric function might be prudent in patients at high risk for postoperative atrial fibrillation.

  19. Gastric Emptying in Patients with Diabetes: Gastric Emptying Time, Retention Rate and Effect of Cisapride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Byung Chun; Choi, Chung Il; Gwak, Dong Suck; Lee, Jae Tae; Lee, Kyu Bo; Kim, Bo Wan; Chung, Jun Mo [Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-07-15

    Gastic emptying scan in diabetic patients is widely used to assess the degree of motility disturbance and the symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, bloating, abdominal pain and early gastric fullness which we can't find anatomic lesion by fiberoscopic or barium study. In order to determine the relationship among diabetic gastropathy, neropathy, retinopathy and disease duration, gastric emptying scan using {sup 99m}Tc-tin colloid labeled scramble egg in hamburger was performed in 10 healthy male controls and 50 diabetic patients which were subdivided to no neuropathy, peripheral neuropathy and autonomic neuropathy groups according to the degree of diabetic neuropathy and no retinopathy, background retinopathy and proliferative retinopathy groups according to the degree of diabetic retinopathy. After medication of cisapride for 2 weeks, we observed the presence of improvement of gastric motility in diabetics. The results were as following: 1) In controls, gastric emptying time (GET1/2) was 75 +- 13.6 min and 2 hour gastric retension rate(GRR2) was 32 +- 11.1%. 2) In diabetics, GET/2 was prolonged more than 2 hours and GRR2 was 58 +- 23.1%. According to degree of neuropathy, GET1/2 was prolonged more than 2 hours in all three groups and GRR2 was 54+- 24.1% in no neuropathy group, 57 +- 24.3% in peripheral neuropathy group and 69 +- 24.6% in autonomic neuropathy group. According to degree of retinopathy, GET1/2 was 110 +- 23.4 min in no retinopathy group and prolonged more than 2 hours in other two groups and GRR2 was 45 +- 21.6% in no retinopathy group, 71 +- 19.7% in background retinopathy group and 73 +- 21.5% in proliferative retinopathy group. 3) After cisapride for 2 weeks, GET1/2 and GRR2 were improved as 90 +- 14.6 min and 40 +- 13.8% (initial GET1/2 and GRR2 were above 2 hours and 61 +- 15.4%). We can conclude from above findings that gastropathy in diabetic neuropathy suggesting main underlying factor in motility disorder. The degree of retinopathy and

  20. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide does not inhibit gastric emptying in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Goetze, Oliver; Anstipp, Jens;

    2004-01-01

    . Gastric emptying was calculated from the (13)CO(2) exhalation rates in breath samples collected over 360 min. Venous blood was drawn in 30-min intervals for the determination of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and GIP (total and intact). Statistical calculations were made by use of repeated-measures ANOVA...... and one-way ANOVA. During the infusion, GIP rose to steady-state concentrations of 159 +/- 15 pmol/l for total and 34 +/- 4 pmol/l for intact GIP (P

  1. Morbid obesity treated by gastroplasty: radionuclide gastric emptying studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnstein, N.B.; Shapiro, B.; Eckhauser, F.E.; Dmuchowski, C.F.; Knol, J.A.; Strodel, W.E.; Nakajo, M.; Swanson, D.P.

    1985-08-01

    Mechanisms by which gastroplasty for morbid obesity causes weight loss are poorly understood. The authors studied the role of altered gastric emptying in 50 patients before surgery, 1-4 weeks after surgery, and 2-24 months after surgery using technetium-99m pentetate in water for liquid meals and a Tc-99m styrene divinylbenzene copolymer resin in oatmeal for semisolid meals. They determined the emptying half-times of the stomach before and after surgery in the proximal and distal compartments. The proximal compartment emptied promptly in the early and late postoperative periods. The distal compartment emptied liquid at rates similar to those before surgery, while the late postoperative emptying of semisolids was significantly faster. No correlation was seen between the emptying half-times or changes thereof and eventual weight loss. Delayed gastric emptying is therefore not the mechanism for satiety and weight loss after gastroplasty has been performed.

  2. Effects of gastric emptying on the postprandial ghrelin response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, W.A.M.; Lluch, A.; Vinoy, S.; Stafleu, A.; Berg, van den R.; Holst, J.J.; Kok, F.J.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2006-01-01

    Distension and chemosensitization of the stomach are insufficient to induce a ghrelin response, suggesting that postgastric feedback is required. This postgastric feedback may be regulated through insulin. We investigated the relation between gastric emptying rate and the postprandial ghrelin respon

  3. Correlation between echographic gastric emptying and appetite: influence of psyllium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, J F; Chassany, O; Petit, A; Triki, R; Caulin, C; Segrestaa, J M

    1992-01-01

    The correlation between ultrasonographic gastric emptying and appetite was studied. Echographic evaluation of gastric emptying by measurement of the antral vertical diameter and assessment of sensations of hunger and satiety using analogue visual scales were performed simultaneously in 12 healthy volunteers. Measurements were carried out after the intake of 10.8 g psyllium or placebo in a randomised, crossover, double blind trial. The correlation between echographic gastric emptying and sensations of hunger and satiety was excellent (p < 0.001) after the intake of either psyllium or placebo. Psyllium significantly delayed gastric emptying from the third hour after a meal. It increased the sensation of satiety and decreased hunger at the sixth hour after the meal. The association between echographic measurement and visual scales is a simple method of evaluating the relationship between the stomach and appetite. The pharmacodynamic effect of psyllium should be confirmed by longterm therapeutic trials. PMID:1398229

  4. Delayed Gastric Emptying after Living Donor Hepatectomy for Liver Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanjay Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Delayed gastric emptying is a significant postoperative complication of living donor hepatectomy for liver transplantation and may require endoscopic or surgical intervention in severe cases. Although the mechanism of posthepatectomy delayed gastric emptying remains unknown, vagal nerve injury during intraoperative dissection and adhesion formation postoperatively between the stomach and cut liver surface are possible explanations. Here, we present the first reported case of delayed gastric emptying following fully laparoscopic hepatectomy for living donor liver transplantation. Additionally, we also present a case in which symptoms developed after open right hepatectomy, but for which dissection for left hepatectomy was first performed. Through our experience and these two specific cases, we favor a neurovascular etiology for delayed gastric emptying after hepatectomy.

  5. Inhibitory neural pathway regulating gastric emptying in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguchi, T; Nishioka, S; Takahashi, T

    2000-02-14

    The relaxation of the pylorus is one of the most important factors for promoting gastric emptying. However, the role of inhibitory neurotransmitters in the regulation of pyloric relaxation and gastric emptying remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of NO biosynthesis inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), and calcium dependent potassium channel blocker, apamin, on vagal stimulation-induced pyloric relaxation and gastric emptying in rats. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP), adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) caused pyloric relaxations in a dose dependent manner in vivo. Apamin (120 microg/kg) significantly reduced ATP and PACAP-induced pyloric relaxations without affecting SNP- or VIP-induced relaxations. Vagal stimulation (10 V, 1 ms, 1-20 Hz)-induced pyloric relaxation was significantly inhibited by L-NAME (10 mg/kg). The combined administration of L-NAME and apamin almost completely abolished vagal stimulation-induced pyloric relaxation. L-NAME and apamin significantly increased spontaneous contractions in the antrum, pylorus and duodenum. Increased motility index by L-NAME and apamin was significantly higher in the pylorus and duodenum, compared to that of antrum. L-NAME and apamin significantly delayed liquid gastric emptying. These results suggest that besides NO, probably ATP and PACAP, act as inhibitory neurotransmitters in the rat pylorus and regulate gastric emptying.

  6. Delayed postoperative gastric emptying following intrathecal morphine and intrathecal bupivacaine.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lydon, A M

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: A decrease in the rate of gastric emptying can delay resumption of enteral feeding, alter bioavailability of orally administered drugs, and result in larger residual gastric volumes, increasing the risk of nausea and vomiting. We compared the effects of 1) intrathecal bupivacaine (17.5 mg) and 2) the combination of intrathecal morphine (0.6 mg) and intrathecal bupivacaine (17.5 mg) on the rate of gastric emptying in patients undergoing elective hip arthroplasty. METHODS: Twenty four fasting ASA 1-3 patients were randomly assigned, in a double blind manner, to receive intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine (17.5 mg), either alone (group 1), or followed by intrathecal morphine (0.6 mg) (group 2). Gastric emptying was measured (using an acetaminophen absorption technique), twice in each patient; preoperatively, and approximately one hour postoperatively. Gastric emptying parameters are: AUC (area under the plasma acetaminophen concentration time curve), maximum plasma acetaminophen concentration (Cmax), and time to Cmax (tCmax), analyzed using paired Student\\'s t tests. RESULTS: Gastric emptying rates were reduced in both group 1 (AUC = 14.98 (3.8) and 11.05 (4.6) pre- and postoperatively, respectively) and group 2 (AUC = 13.93 (3.59) and 6.4 (3.42) pre- and postoperatively, respectively); the magnitude of the reduction was greater in group 2 [AUC (P = 0.04), Cmax (P = 0.05), tCmax (P = 0.13)]. CONCLUSION: The combination of intrathecal morphine (0.6 mg) and intrathecal bupivacaine (17.5 mg) delays gastric emptying postoperatively.

  7. Canine gastric emptying of polycarbophil: an indigestible, particulate substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, J; Bass, P

    1985-08-01

    We tested whether indigestible solids could empty from the canine stomach independently of gastric burst motor activity. Test meals contained polycarbophil, an indigestible particulate (1-3 mm diameter) substance. Test meals were slurries of 30 or 90 g of radiolabeled polycarbophil particles in saline. Meals were administered via an oral gastric tube. After 4 h, the stomach was drained via a gastric cannula, and the percentage of meal that had emptied into the duodenum was calculated. Antroduodenal motor responses to the meals were monitored with strain-gage force transducers. The motor responses to polycarbophil meals were compared with those after canned food and saline meals. Fifty percent of the 90-g polycarbophil meal emptied by 4 h; this occurred independently of gastric burst motor activity. Both polycarbophil and canned food elicited similar indexed motor responses and both delayed the postprandial reappearance of gastric burst motor activity. We conclude that small indigestible particles can stimulate fed state-like motility and empty from the stomach independently of gastric burst activity.

  8. In Vitro Evaluation of Tc-99m Radiopharmaceuticals for Gastric Emptying Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türkan Ertay

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Gastrointestinal motility and functional motility disorders causing either delayed or accelerated gastric emptying (GE may result in similar symptoms including nausea, vomiting, early satiety, fullness, bloating, and abdominal discomfort or pain. Hence, it is important to evaluate patients for both rapid and delayed GE in the same test. The gold standard technique to measure GE is scintigraphy by radiolabeled test meals. The aim of this study was to test alternative Tc-99m agents to label eggs as the solid meal and compare to Tc-99m sulfur colloid (SC for gastric emptying studies. Methods: In search of alternative agents for gastric emptying studies, we mixed and fried eggs with four different particulate compounds (Tc-99m labeled SC, tin colloid, nanocolloid and MAA, as well as with free pertechnetate and Tc-99m DTPA. We then measured the stability of these compounds in simulated gastric juice. Results: Our experiments demonstrated that in addition to Tc-99m sulfur colloid;Tc-99m MAA, Tc-99m nanocolloid and Tc-99m tin colloid also appear to make stable complexes with eggs in acidic environment. Conclusion: Therefore, these agents may be used for gastric emptying studies which could be more practical in routine conditions.

  9. Gastric emptying in adults treated for infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, L; Oster-Jörgensen, E; Hansen, L P;

    1989-01-01

    The gastric emptying rate was scintigraphically determined in 6 women and 26 men who had undergone medical or surgical treatment for infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis a median of 29 years previously. Dyspeptic complaints were reported by four of the seven medically treated and nine of the 25...

  10. SIRT1 regulates the mouse gastric emptying and intestinal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study addressed physiological significance of SIRT1 gene on mouse gastrointestinal growth and function (gastric emptying and intestinal growth). SIRT1 (a NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase) is a key cellular energy sensor, and involved in a wide variety of cellular functions including energy me...

  11. NERP-2 regulates gastric acid secretion and gastric emptying via the orexin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, Cherl; Toshinai, Koji; Waise, T M Zaved; Sakoda, Hideyuki; Sasaki, Kazuki; Ueta, Yoichi; Kim, Min-Seon; Minamino, Naoto; Nakazato, Masamitsu

    2017-02-16

    Neuroendocrine regulatory peptide (NERP)-2 is derived from a distinct region of VGF, a neurosecretory protein originally identified as a product of a nerve growth factor-responsive gene in rat PC12 cells. Colocalization of NERP-2 with orexin-A in the lateral hypothalamus increases orexin-A-induced feeding and energy expenditure in both rats and mice. Orexigenic and anorectic peptides in the hypothalamus modulate gastric function. In this study, we investigated the effect of NERP-2 on gastric function in rats. Intracerebroventricular administration of NERP-2 to rats increased gastric acid secretion and gastric emptying, whereas peripheral administration did not affect gastric function. NERP-2-induced gastric acid secretion and gastric emptying were blocked by an orexin 1 receptor antagonist, SB334867. NERP-2 also induced Fos expression in the lateral hypothalamus and the dorsomotor nucleus of the vagus X, which are key sites in the central nervous system for regulation of gastric function. Atropine, a blocker of vagal efferent signal transduction, completely blocked NERP-2-induced gastric acid secretion. These results demonstrate that central administration of NERP-2 activates the orexin pathway, resulting in elevated gastric acid secretion and gastric emptying.

  12. Weight Loss After Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding is not Caused by Altered Gastric Emptying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J. R.; van Ramshorst, B.; Gooszen, H. G.; Smout, A. J. P. M.; Buul, M. M. C. Tiel-Van

    2009-01-01

    In order to know the role of gastric emptying in the mechanism of weight loss and early satiety after a restrictive surgical procedure for treatment of morbid obesity, a consecutive series of patients were scintigraphically investigated before and after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. Sixte

  13. Radionuclide gastric emptying studies in patients with anorexia nervosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domstad, P.A.; Shih, W.J.; Humphries, L.; DeLand, F.H.; Digenis, G.A.

    1987-05-01

    To evaluate gastric emptying in anorexia nervosa patients, 26 patients (17 females, two males, ranging in age from 13 to 40 yr) with upper GI symptoms ingested 150-200 microCi (/sup 99m/Tc)triethelenetetraamine polysterene resin in cereal and were imaged in the supine position. Data were accumulated at 5 min intervals to obtain the gastric emptying time (GET). The results of the studies were divided into three categories: prolonged, 13 patients; rapid, 11; and normal 3. Twelve of 13 patients with prolonged GET were given 10 mg metoclopramide i.v. injections; nine of the 12 patients had a good response and three had no response. Five of the nine patients underwent metoclopramide therapy and four of the patients showed benefit from the therapy. One patient discontinued metoclopramide therapy because of somnolence. Although all patients had subjective symptoms of gastric dysfunction, our results indicated only 50% had objectively prolonged GET, and another 50% showed normal or even rapid GET. Therefore, this radionuclide study enables quantitatively objective documentation of gastric emptying, separation of those patients with rapid or normal GET from those with prolonged GET, thereby avoiding the possible side effects from metoclopramide medication, and prediction of effectiveness of metoclopramide therapy in patients with prolonged GET.

  14. Noninvasive Assessment of Gastric Emptying by Near-Infrared Fluorescence Reflectance Imaging in Mice: Pharmacological Validation with Tegaserod, Cisapride, and Clonidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Ulrich Gremlich

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Noninvasive near-infrared fluorescence reflectance imaging (FRI is an in vivo technique to assess physiological and molecular processes in the intact organism. Here we describe a method to assess gastric emptying in mice. TentaGel™ beads with covalently bound cyanine dye (Cy5.5 conjugates as fluorescent probe were administered by oral gavage. The amount of intragastric beads/label was derived from the fluorescence signal intensity measured in a region of interest corresponding to the mouse stomach. The FRI signal intensity decreased as a function of time reflecting gastric emptying. In control mice, the gastric half-emptying time was in agreement with literature data. Pharmacological modulation of gastric motility allowed the evaluation of the sensitivity of the FRI-based method. Gastric emptying was either stimulated or inhibited by treatment with the 5-HT4 receptor agonists tegaserod (Zelnorm® and cisapride or the α2-receptor agonist clonidine, respectively. Tegaserod and cisapride dose-dependently accelerated gastric emptying. In contrast, clonidine dose-dependently delayed gastric emptying. In conclusion, FRI using fluorescently labeled beads allows the reliable determination of gastric emptying as well as the assessment of pharmacological interventions. The technique thus offers the potential to characterize molecular targets and pathways involved in physiological regulation and pharmacological modulation of gastric emptying.

  15. Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 suppresses inhibition of gastric emptying by cholecystokinin (CCK) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Joanne; Kenny, Susan; Dockray, Graham J

    2013-08-10

    The intestinal hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) delays gastric emptying and inhibits food intake by actions on vagal afferent neurons. Recent studies suggest plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 suppresses the effect of CCK on food intake. In this study we asked whether PAI-1 also modulated CCK effects on gastric emptying. Five minute gastric emptying of liquid test meals was studied in conscious wild type mice (C57BL/6) and in transgenic mice over-expressing PAI-1 in gastric parietal cells (PAI-1H/Kβ mice), or null for PAI-1. The effects of exogenous PAI-1 and CCK8s on gastric emptying were studied after ip administration. Intragastric peptone delayed gastric emptying in C57BL/6 mice by a mechanism sensitive to the CCK-1 receptor antagonist lorglumide. Peptone did not delay gastric emptying in PAI-1-H/Kβ mice. Exogenous CCK delayed gastric emptying of a control test meal in C57BL/6 mice and this was attenuated by administration of PAI-1; exogenous CCK had no effect on emptying in PAI-1-H/Kβ mice. Prior administration of gastrin to increase gastric PAI-1 inhibited CCK-dependent effects on gastric emptying in C57BL/6 mice but not in PAI-1 null mice. Thus, both endogenous and exogenous PAI-1 inhibit the effects of CCK (whether exogenous or endogenous) on gastric emptying. The data are compatible with emerging evidence that gastric PAI-1 modulates vagal effects of CCK.

  16. Gastric emptying of wholemeal and white bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, D S; Goddard, J

    1977-09-01

    We studied the rates at which solid and liquid leave the stomach after meals of wholemeal and white bread by using a double isotope technique. There was no difference in the rates at which the solid phases of the gastric contents left the stomach but liquid left the stomach significantly more rapidly with white bread than with wholemeal bread. Furthermore, the amount of liquid leaving the stomach unaccompanied and therefore unbuffered by solid was significantly greater after while bread than wholemeal bread. These findings may be of significance in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulcer and they provide a rational basis for a possible form of dietary treatment.

  17. The menstrual cycle influences the gastric emptying of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaibara, Naoko; Kobori, Ayase; Sekime, Ayako; Miyasaka, Kyoko

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that ingestion of 60 mL of red wine or vodka prior to the ingestion of a pancake significantly inhibited the gastric emptying of the pancake in male subjects, but not in female subjects, and that the retention times of wine and vodka were significantly longer than those of the congener of red wine and mineral water in male subjects, whereas in female subjects the retention times of these four drinks did not differ significantly from one another. We hypothesized that the menstrual cycle may influence the gastric emptying of alcohol beverages. Here, we determined and compared the retention times of vodka and water in the stomach during the luteal phase and the follicular phase. Ten female healthy volunteers were studied. They recorded their basal body temperatures every day, and participated in the following experiments: each volunteer drank mineral water or vodka containing 14% alcohol (60 mL) during the low-temperature (follicular) phase as well as during the high-temperature (luteal) phase. The retention time of vodka was significantly longer than that of mineral water during the follicular phase, but no significant differences between the retention times of the two drinks were observed during the luteal phase. In conclusion, the menstrual cycle influences the gastric emptying rate of alcohol.

  18. Ghrelin stimulates gastric emptying and hunger in normal-weight humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, F; Edholm, T; Schmidt, P T;

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Ghrelin is produced primarily by enteroendocrine cells in the gastric mucosa and increases gastric emptying in patients with gastroparesis. MAIN OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of ghrelin on gastric emptying, appetite, and postprandial hormone secretion...

  19. Relationship between gastrointestinal and extra-gastrointestinal symptoms and delayed gastric emptying in functional dyspeptic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N Pallotta; P Pezzotti; E Calabrese; F Baccini; E Corazziari

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Delayed gastric emptying and an enlarged fasting gastric antrum are common findings in functional dyspepsia but their relationship with gastrointestinal (GI), and the frequently associated extra-GI symptoms remains unclear.This study evaluated the relationship between GI and extra-GI symptoms, fasting antral volume and delayed gastric emptying in functional dyspepsia.METHODS: In 108 functional dyspeptic patients antral volume and gastric emptying were assessed with ultrasonography (US). Symptoms were assessed with standardized questionnaire. The association of symptoms and fasting antral volume with delayed gastric emptying was estimated with logistic regression analysis.RESULTS: Delayed gastric emptying was detected in 39.8% of the patients. Postprandial drowsiness (AOR 11.25; 95%CI 2.75-45.93), nausea (AOR 3.51; 95%CI 1.19-10.32), fasting antral volume (AOR 1.93; 95%CI 1.22-3.05), were significantly associated with delayed gastric emptying. Symptoms, mainly the extra-GI ones as postprandial drowsiness and nausea, combined with fasting antral volume predicted the modality of gastric emptying with a sensitivity and specificity of 78%.CONCLUSION: In functional dyspeptic patients, (1) an analysis of fasting antral volume and of symptoms can offer valuable indication on the modality of gastric emptying,and (2) it seems appropriate to inquire on postprandial drowsiness that showed the best correlation with delayed gastric emptying.

  20. EFFECTS AND MECHANISM OF STRESS AND OF CRFMICROINJECTION INTO PVN ON GASTRIC EMPTYING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of wrap-restraint stress and of CRF or CRF antagonist (α-helical-CRF9-41) mi croinjection on gastric emptying, and the role of plasma motilin (Mot). Methods The effects of wrap-restraint stress or CRF and CRF antagonist microinjection into paraventricular nucleus ( PVN) on gastric emptying were determined by using dextran blue-2000 as a marker. The plasma level of Mot was determined by radioimmunoassay. Results Wrap-restraint stress inhibi ted gastric emptying. Microinjection of CRF into PVN inhibited gastric emptying dose-dependently. In normal condition, α-he lical-CRF9-41 bilaterally microinjected into PVN didn ' t modify gastric emptying; however, α-helical-CRF9-41 microinjection bi laterally into PVN 15min before wrap-restraint stress could significantly antagonize the effect of stress on gastric emptying. After 30min of stress or CRF microinjection into PVN, plasma levels of Mot significantly decreased, as compared with the normal control group. Conelusion Wrap-restraint stress can inhibit gastric emptying, and microinjection of CRF into PVN has the similar effect. The PVN is one of the specific sites for the action of CRF affecting on gastric emptying. Plasma Mot might partic ipate in the effects of stress and CRF-indluced alteration of gastric emptying.

  1. Mechanism‐Based Modeling of Gastric Emptying Rate and Gallbladder Emptying in Response to Caloric Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne, DP; Hansen, M; Bagger, JI; Lund, A; Rehfeld, JF; Alskär, O; Karlsson, MO; Vilsbøll, T; Knop, FK; Bergstrand, M

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids released postprandially modify the rate and extent of absorption of lipophilic compounds. The present study aimed to predict gastric emptying (GE) rate and gallbladder emptying (GBE) patterns in response to caloric intake. A mechanism‐based model for GE, cholecystokinin plasma concentrations, and GBE was developed on data from 33 patients with type 2 diabetes and 33 matched nondiabetic individuals who were administered various test drinks. A feedback action of the caloric content entering the proximal small intestine was identified for the rate of GE. The cholecystokinin concentrations were not predictive of GBE, and an alternative model linking the nutrients amount in the upper intestine to GBE was preferred. Relative to fats, the potency on GBE was 68% for proteins and 2.3% for carbohydrates. The model predictions were robust across a broad range of nutritional content and may potentially be used to predict postprandial changes in drug absorption. PMID:28028939

  2. Mechanism-Based Modeling of Gastric Emptying Rate and Gallbladder Emptying in Response to Caloric Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guiastrennec, B; Sonne, D P; Hansen, M;

    2016-01-01

    concentrations were not predictive of GBE, and an alternative model linking the nutrients amount in the upper intestine to GBE was preferred. Relative to fats, the potency on GBE was 68% for proteins and 2.3% for carbohydrates. The model predictions were robust across a broad range of nutritional content and may......Bile acids released postprandially modify the rate and extent of absorption of lipophilic compounds. The present study aimed to predict gastric emptying (GE) rate and gallbladder emptying (GBE) patterns in response to caloric intake. A mechanism-based model for GE, cholecystokinin plasma...... concentrations, and GBE was developed on data from 33 patients with type 2 diabetes and 33 matched nondiabetic individuals who were administered various test drinks. A feedback action of the caloric content entering the proximal small intestine was identified for the rate of GE. The cholecystokinin...

  3. Gastric emptying and disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Jutta; Binnewies, Ulrich; Rösch, Marie;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastric emptying (GE) is delayed in a subset of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We have shown before that altered release of gastrointestinal hormones may contribute to GE disturbances, but overall effects of disease activity remain unclear. Thus, we aimed to evaluate GE...... in patients with IBD during active disease and following therapy. DESIGN: A total of 20 healthy subjects (HC) and 26 patients with IBD hospitalized because of an acute episode of their disease (Crohn's disease (CD) n = 13, ulcerative colitis (UC) n = 13) underwent a standardized (13) C-octanoic acid GE breath...

  4. The effect of a single rectal dose of cisapride on delayed gastric emptying.The effect of a single rectal dose of cisapride on delayed gastric emptying.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummer, R.J.M.; Schoenmakers, E.A.J.M.; Kemerink, G.J.; Heidendal, G.A.K.; Sanders, D.G.M.; Stockbrügger, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Maastricht, The Netherlands. BACKGROUND: Cisapride has an established prokinetic effect in patients with delayed gastric emptying. However, rectal administration of the drug might be preferred in patients with either dysphagia or nausea due to gast

  5. Does antecolic reconstruction decrease delayed gastric emptying after pancreatoduodenectomy?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nadia Peparini; Piero Chirletti

    2012-01-01

    Delayed gastric emptying (DGE) is a frequent complication after pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy (PpPD).Kawai and colleagues proposed pylorus-resecting pancreatoduodenectomy (PrPD) with antecolic gastrojejunal anastomosis to obviate DGE occurring after PpPD.Here we debate the reported differences in the prevalence of DGE in antecolic and retrocolic gastro/duodeno-jejunostomies after PrPD and PpPD,respectively.We conduded that the route of the gastro/duodeno-jejunal anastomosis with respect to the transverse colon;i.e.,antecolic route or retrocolic route,is not responsible for the differences in prevalence of DGE after pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) and that the impact of the reconstructive method on DGE is related mostly to the angulation or torsion of the gastro/duodeno-jejunostomy.We report a prevalence of 8.9% grade A DGE and 1.1%grade C DGE in a series of 89 subtotal stomach-preserving PDs with Roux-en Y retrocolic reconstruction with anastomosis of the isolated Roux limb to the stomach and single Roux limb to both the pancreatic stump and hepatic duct.Retrocolic anastomosis of the isolated first jejunal loop to the gastric remnant allows outflow of the gastric contents by gravity through a "straight route".

  6. Effects of verapamil and diltiazem on gastric emptying in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavorski, R T; Hallgren, S E; Blue, P W

    1991-09-01

    It has been suggested that calcium-channel blockers may delay gastric emptying by inhibiting gastric smooth muscle contraction. Most reports in man, however, reveal no significant delay in gastric emptying after using nifedipine; other calcium-channel blockers have not been studied in humans to date. We studied the effects of verapamil and diltiazem on solid-phase gastric emptying in 10 healthy volunteers. Each subject underwent a radionuclide gastric emptying determination (1) without preadministered medication, (2) after verapamil 80 mg orally every 6 hr for 10 doses, and (3) after diltiazem 60 mg by mouth given as one dose. Results revealed no significant difference in gastric emptying rates after pretreatment with verapamil or diltiazem when compared with no premedication (P greater than 0.37). We conclude that verapamil and diltiazem do not significantly delay gastric emptying in normal subjects. These data may be of clinical significance when prescribing calcium-channel blockers to patients with diseases associated with altered gastric emptying.

  7. Tc-99m labeled triethelene tetraamine polysterene resin gastric emptying studies in bulimia patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih Weijen; Castellanos, F.X.; Domstad, P.A.; DeLand, F.H.; Humphries, L.; Digenis, G.A.

    1987-07-01

    To evaluate gastric emptying in patients with bulimia, 20 patients (all women, ranging in age from 12 to 49 years) with upper gastrointestinal symptoms ingested 150-200 ..mu..Ci/sup 99m/ Tc-triethelene tetraamine polysterene resin in cereal and had scintigraphy in the supine position. Data were accumulated at 5 min intervals to determine the gastric emptying time (GET). The results showed that the gastric emptying time was prolonged in 12 patients and decreased in 8. All 12 patients with prolonged emptying time were given 10 mg metoclopramide intravenously; 9 of these had a good response and 3 had no response. Although all patients had subjective symptoms of gastric dysfunction, the results indicate that about 60% had delayed and 40% had rapid gastric emptying. The findings of two extremes of gastric emptying time remain to be explained, however, this enables (Albibi and McCullum 1983) objective documentation of gastric emptying as this technique (American Psychiatric Association 1980) can separate those patients with rapid GET from those with prolonged GET, who might benefit from metoclopramide.

  8. Influence of SDZ RAD vs. MMF on gastric emptying in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Bart D; Evenepoel, Pieter; Kuypers, Dirk; Geypens, Benny; Ghoos, Yvo; Vanrenterghem, Yves

    2003-06-01

    SDZ RAD and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) are increasingly used in the prevention of renal allograft rejection. SDZ RAD, having a macrolide structure, and MMF, known with gastrointestinal side-effects, may have gastric motility modifying properties. Gastric emptying was examined 1 yr after renal transplantation in eight patients taking corticosteroids (CS), cyclosporin A (CsA) and SDZ RAD and six patients treated with CS, CsA and MMF. Comparing the two groups, no significant differences in gastric emptying of solids and liquids were noted. Compared with normal volunteers, solid gastric emptying was faster in the SDZ RAD group and similar in the MMF group. It is concluded that in stable renal transplant recipients treated with MMF, gastric emptying was normal. Because of the impact on drug absorption and gastrointestinal symptoms, further studies are indicated to corroborate the potential prokinetic properties of SDZ RAD.

  9. Effects of Helicobacter pylori infection on gastric emptying rate in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Grigoris I Leontiadis; George I Minopoulos; Efstratios Maltezos; Stamatia Kotsiou; Konstantinos I Manolas; Konstantinos Simopoulos; Dimitrios Hatseras

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The pathogenesis of delayed gastric emptying in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) remains unclear.We aimed to examine whether gastric emptying rate in NUD patients was associated with Helicobacter pylori(H pylori)infection and whether it was affected by eradication of the infection.METHODS: Gastric emptying rate of a mixed solid-liquid meal was assessed by the paracetamol absorption method in NUD patients and asymptomatic controls (n=17). H pylori status was assessed by serology and biopsy urease test.H pylori-positive NUD patients (n=23) received 10-day triple eradication therapy. H pylori status was re-assessed by biopsy urease test four weeks later, and if eradication was confirmed, gastric emptying rate was re-evaluated.RESULTS: Thirty-three NUD patients and 17 controls were evaluated. NUD patients had significantly delayed gastric emptying compared with controls. The mean maximum plasma paracetamol concentration divided by body mass (P=0.02), the mean area under plasma paracetamol concentration-time curve divided by body mass (AUC/BM)Gastric emptying rate did not differ significantly between H pylori-positive and H pylori-negative NUD patients. The were initially H pylori-positive, confirmed eradication of the infection did not significantly alter gastric emptying rate.and after Hp eradication, respectively (P=0.64), the mean eradication, respectively (P=0.93).CONCLUSION: Although gastdc emptying is delayed in NUD patients compared with controls, gastric emptying rate is not associated with H pylori status nor it is affected by eradication of the infection.

  10. Measurement of gastric emptying using isotopic method in diabetes, simple obesity and anorexia nervosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomofuji, Yoshinobu

    1988-12-01

    Gastric emptying of technetium labeled liquid meal were studied in 46 non-insulin-dependent diabetics, 7 obese patients, 8 anorexia nervosa patients, and 21 normal subjects. All subjects underwent endoscopy and barium study, and none showed any lesion in upper gastrointestinal tract. T1/2, time at which 50% of meal remained, was used as an indicator of gastric emptying. Eight normal subjects have some epigastric discomforts, and have slightly slower gastric emptying than the remaining 13 subjects. But there was no significant difference in T1/2 between the both groups (53.2+-12.8 min vs 45.1+-10.9 min). Fourteen diabetics have some epigastric discomforts, and have significantly more slower gastric emptying than the remaining 32 diabetics (T1/2; 67.7+-24.6 vs 50.5+-17.4, p<0.02). The gastric emptying of 13 diabetics who have three major diabetic complications (retinopathy, nephropathy, and peripheral neuropathy), was significantly more slower than that of 15 diabetics without any complication (T1/2; 68.1+-24.6 vs 43.5+-14.8, p<0.005). The gastric emptying of simple obesity did not show a fixed pattern, but the emptying of anorexia nervosa was remarkably delayed. These findings indicate that diabetic gastroparesis is common in the presence of the three major complications, and the delayed gastric emptying is associated with post-prandial discomfort in diabetics and anorexia nervosa patients. The measurement of gastric emptying can be useful to evaluate the management and the treatment for diabetes and anorexia nervosa. (author).

  11. Gastric emptying in Parkinson's disease: patients with and without response fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djaldetti, R; Baron, J; Ziv, I; Melamed, E

    1996-04-01

    Delayed gastric emptying may be an important pharmacokinetic mechanism underlying some of the response fluctuations that develop after long-term levodopa therapy. We performed a radionuclide gastric emptying study using a standard Tc-99m colloid-labeled solid meal in 30 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), 15 fluctuators with "delayed-on" and "no-on" phenomena, and 15 nonfluctuators. Fasting patients were given the standard meal, and gastric emptying was monitored with a gamma camera positioned over the stomach, recording data for 1 hour. PD patients had prolonged gastric emptying measured after 60 minutes compared with the normal control subjects (70.7 +/- 16% versus < 60%). Gastric retention measured after 1 hour was increased in patients with fluctuations compared with patients without fluctuations (77.4 +/- 15.5% versus 64.0 +/- 14.3%; p < 0.05). Half-time emptying was significantly delayed in patients with, as compared with those without, response fluctuations (221 +/- 202 minutes versus 85 +/- 31 minutes; p < 0.05). This demonstrates that delayed gastric emptying is common in PD patients and is more marked in those with response fluctuations. The stomach is an important target organ in PD, affected either by the basic PD pathology, chronic drug administration, or both.

  12. Effect of anxiety on the rate of gastric emptying of liquids.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lydon, A

    2012-02-03

    The efficacy of preoperative fasting is reduced in the presence of any factor which delays gastric emptying. We examined the association between anxiety and gastric emptying in adult patients undergoing elective surgery. Immediately before operation, 21 patients completed both a Spielberger state trait inventory (used to quantify current anxiety state (STAIs) and anxiety predisposition (STAIt)), and the Amsterdam preoperative anxiety and information scale (used to quantify anxiety and need for information). Gastric emptying was measured using the paracetamol absorption technique. Four to 10 weeks later, gastric emptying and STAI were measured again. Patients were more anxious before than after operation (STAIs = mean 35.4 (SD 10.9) and 25 (4.1), respectively; P = 0.0004). Neither anxiety state (P = 0.40) nor measures of anxiety relative to anxiety predisposition (P = 0.86) influenced gastric emptying (as measured by area under the paracetamol absorption-time curve). This contrasts with previous findings that anxiety in patients with low anxiety predisposition scores delays gastric emptying.

  13. Altered gastric emptying in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero-Plasencia, A.M.; Valenzuela-Barranco, M. [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Granada (Spain); Herrerias-Gutierrez, J.M. [Division of Gastroenterology, University Hospital ``Virgen de la Macarena``, Sevilla (Spain); Esteban-Carretero, J.M. [Central Service of Investigation in Health Sciences, University of Cadiz, Cadiz (Spain)

    1999-04-29

    Irritable bowel syndrome is the most frequent functional disorder of the digestive system. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome have motor disorders not only in the colon, but also in other parts of the digestive tract such as the oesophagus and small intestine; however, it is not known whether the stomach is also involved. We used a radiolabelled mixed solid-liquid meal (technetium-99m for the solid component, indium-111 for the liquid component) to study gastric emptying of solids (GES), liquids (GEL) and indigestible solids (GER) in 50 patients diagnosed as having irritable bowel syndrome (30 with predominant constipation and 20 with predominant diarrhoea). GER was measured by counting the number of indigestible solids remaining in the stomach 4 h after they were swallowed. In patients with irritable bowel syndrome, GES and GEL were slower than in control subjects (P<0.05). GER was normal in all patients except for two women. Thirty-two patients (64%) showed delayed GES, 29 (58%) delayed GEL, and 2 (4%) delayed GER. Among patients with irritable bowel syndrome, GES was slower in those with predominant constipation than in those with predominant diarrhoea (P<0.05); GEL and GER were similar in both groups. Gastroparesis was found in a large proportion of patients with irritable bowel syndrome, suggesting the presence of a more generalised motor disorder of the gut. (orig.) With 1 fig., 3 tabs., 48 refs.

  14. Mechanisms of gastric emptying disturbances in chronic and acute inflammation of the distal gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Jutta; Beglinger, Christoph; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2009-01-01

    . Thirteen healthy subjects (CON), 13 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), 10 with ulcerative colitis (UC), and 7 with diverticulitis (DIV) underwent a standardized (13)C-octanoic acid gastric emptying breath test. Plasma glucose, CCK, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were measured periodically......It is unclear why patients with inflammation of the distal bowel complain of symptoms referable to the upper gastrointestinal tract, specifically to gastric emptying (GE) disturbances. Thus we aimed to determine occurrence and putative pathomechanisms of gastric motor disorders in such patients...

  15. Effect of antiemetic drugs on decrease in gastric emptying in experimental model of motion sickness in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YKGUPTA; GeetaCHAUDHARY

    2003-01-01

    AIM:To study the effect of pretreatment with different antiemetic drugs on the motion sickness-induced inhibition in gastric emptying.METHODS:The rats were rotated for a period of 45 min at the rate of 30 rotations per min.RESULTS:Rotating the rats caused a significant decrease in gastric emptying as cvompared to the non-rotated group.Pretreatment with scopolamine(5 mg/kg,ip)did not reverse the delay in gastric emptying,while it per se caused inhibition of gastric emptying in the non-rotated group.Similarly other drugs mepyramine,cisapride,and granisetron did not have any effect on delay in gastric emptying caused by rotation.However beta blocker propranolol could partially but significantly reverse the decrease in gastric emptying.CONCLUSION:The present study demonstrated the potential use of propranolol as adjuvant with conventional antiemetics for motion sickness to combat associated secondary symptoms.

  16. Gastric emptying of a light hospital breakfast. A study using real time ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søreide, E; Hausken, T; Søreide, J A; Steen, P A

    1996-05-01

    While intake of clear fluids 2-3 h before surgery is considered safe as it does not influence gastric content, it is not known if the same applies to a light breakfast meal. We therefore studied gastric emptying of a light breakfast in healthy, female volunteers without evidence of gastrointestinal motility disorders. The test meal consisted of one slice of buttered toast with jam, one cup of coffee without milk or sugar and one glass of pulp-free orange juice taken together with a paracetamol mixture. Using gastric ultrasonography, the stomach was identified without problems in all subjects, and gastric emptying curves using changes in gastric antral area and serum-paracetamol were obtained. Emptying of the fluid phase started immediately after intake of the meal. All subjects had solid particles in the stomach 120 min after the meal, 3 patients were considered empty after 180 min, 6 after 210 min and all after 240 min. The gastric antral area returned to fasting value significantly faster than the disappearance of solid particles; median 150 min versus 210 min; P = 0.01. Our results show that in healthy subjects the stomach cannot be considered empty for solid particles the first 4 h after a light breakfast meal. To secure some safety limits, we suggest a 6-h mandatory preoperative fast after a light breakfast.

  17. The TRPA1 agonist, methyl syringate suppresses food intake and gastric emptying.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jung Kim

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential channel ankryn 1 (TRPA1 expressed in the gastrointestinal tract is associated with gastric motility, gastric emptying, and food intake. In this study, we investigated the effects of methyl syringate, a specific and selective TRPA1 agonist, on food intake, gastric emptying, and gut hormone levels in imprinting control region (ICR mice. The administration of methyl syringate suppressed cumulative food intake and gastric emptying. In addition, treatment with ruthenium red (RR, a general cation channel blocker, and HC-030031, a selective TRPA1 antagonist, inhibited methyl syringate-induced reduction of food intake and delayed gastric emptying in ICR mice. Methyl syringate also increased plasma peptide YY (PYY levels, but not glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 levels. The elevation in PYY was blocked by treatment with RR and HC-030031. The present findings indicate that methyl syringate regulates food intake and gastric emptying through a TRPA1-mediated pathway and, by extension, can contribute to weight suppression.

  18. Delayed gastric emptying does not normalize after gluten withdrawal in adult celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usai-Satta, Paolo; Oppia, Francesco; Scarpa, Mariella; Giannetti, Cristiana; Cabras, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Objective Delayed gastric emptying has been frequently detected in patients with untreated celiac disease. According to several studies, gluten withdrawal showed to be effective in normalizing the gastric emptying rate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the gastric emptying rate of solids in patients with celiac disease before and after a gluten-free diet. Methods Twelve adult patients with celiac disease (age range 20-57 years) and 30 healthy controls (age range 30-54 years) underwent a (13)C-octanoic acid breath test to measure gastric emptying. Half emptying time (t1/2) and lag phase (tlag) were calculated. After at least 12 months of a gluten-free diet, celiac patients underwent a new (13)C-octanoic acid breath test. A symptom score was utilized to detect dyspeptic and malabsorption symptoms in all the patients. Results The gastric motility parameters, t1/2 and tlag, were significantly longer in patients than in controls. On a gluten-free diet, surprisingly, the gastric emptying did not normalize despite an improvement of symptom score. No significant correlation between abnormal gastric emptying and specific symptom patterns, anthropometric parameters or severity of histological damage was found. Conclusions This finding supports the hypothesis that gluten-driven mucosal inflammation might determine motor abnormalities by affecting smooth muscle contractility or impairing gut hormone function. The persistence of these abnormalities on a gluten free diet suggests the presence of a persistent low-grade mucosal inflammation with a permanent perturbation of the neuro-immunomodulatory regulation.

  19. Gastric emptying after a new, more physiological anti-obesity operation: the Magenstrasse and Mill procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, A.R.; Johnston, D.; Barker, M.C.J.; Bury, R.F.; Boyce, J.; Sue-Ling, H. [Leeds General Infirmary (United Kingdom)

    2001-09-01

    The Magenstrasse and Mill (M and M) procedure for obesity is designed to preserve normal gastric emptying mechanisms. The hypothesis investigated in this study was that gastric emptying would be normal after the M and M gastroplasty. Gastric emptying studies were performed using both liquid and solid test meals, in ten morbidly obese patients (MO group) and in 13 patients after the M and M procedure (MM group). Seven people of normal weight served as controls and were matched for age, sex and height to the M and M and MO groups. Three years after the M and M procedure, mean (SD) weight loss was 42 (19) kg, with a mean loss of excess weight of 58% (20%). Gastric emptying half-times (t{sub 1/2}) are expressed in minutes, as median values (25th and 75th percentiles). The t{sub 1/2} for solids was 97 (85-110) min in the control group, 140 (86-220) min in the MO group and 79 (46-150) min in the MM group. Median gastric emptying for solids was 0.7% (0.6%-0.8%) per minute in the control group, 0.5% (0.3%-0.8%) in the MO group and 0.9% (0.4%-1.4%) in the M and M group. There were no statistically significant differences in the emptying times of the three groups. It is concluded that the M and M procedure achieves acceptable weight loss, while preserving gastric emptying mechanisms and thus minimising possible side-effects such as vomiting, dumping and diarrhoea, which are common complications of gastric bypass procedures. (orig.)

  20. The effect of phentolamine on basal and pethidine-induced inhibition of gastric emptying in healthy volunteers.

    OpenAIRE

    Petring, O U

    1989-01-01

    1. The effect of phentolamine 5 mg i.v. on basal and pethidine-induced inhibition of gastric emptying of semisolid TC-99m labelled Chelex-100 resin/oatmeal was studied in ten healthy volunteers. 2. Each volunteer acted as his/her own control. 3. Basal gastric emptying remained unchanged after administration of phentolamine. 4. Administration of phentolamine reversed the pethidine-induced inhibition of gastric emptying.

  1. In vitro and in vivo effects of ferulic acid on gastrointestinal motility: Inhibition of cisplatin-induced delay in gastric emptying in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osama A Badary; Azza S Awad; Mohey A Sherief; Farid MA Hamada

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of ferulic acid on gastrointestinal motility both in vitro and in vivo.METHODS: Ferulic acid induced concentrationdependent stimulation of the basal tone of isolated guinea pig ileum (2-20 μmol/L) and isolated rat fundus (0.05-0.4 mmol/L).RESULTS: Ferulic acid significantly accelerated the gastrointestinal transit and gastric emptying in rats in a dose-dependent manner (50-200 mg/kg, po). Cisplatin (2.5-20 mg/kg, ip) induced a dose-dependent delay in gastric emptying in rats. Pretreatment with ferulic acid dose-dependently, significantly reversed the cisplatininduced delay in gastric emptying.CONCLUSION: The endogenous prostaglandins (PGs)are involved in mediating the stimulant effects of ferulic acid. This effect of dietary ferulic acid may help improve other accompanying gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal discomfort and also may protect against emesis induced by cytotoxic drugs.

  2. Gastric emptying in patients with vitamin B{sub 12} deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagci, Muenci; Yamac, Kadri; Acar, Kadir; Haznedar, Rauf [Department of Hematology, Gazi Medical School (Turkey); Cingi, Elif; Kitapci, Mehmet [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Gazi Medical School (Turkey)

    2002-09-01

    The clinical presentation of patients with vitamin B{sub 12} deficiency varies in a spectrum ranging from haematological disorders to neuropsychiatric diseases. In rare cases, orthostatic hypotension, impotence, constipation and urinary retention have been attributed to autonomic nervous system dysfunction due to vitamin B{sub 12} deficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin B{sub 12} deficiency on autonomic nervous system function by studying gastric emptying times (T{sub 1/2}). Twenty patients with newly diagnosed vitamin B{sub 12} deficiency and 12 control patients with gastritis and normal vitamin B{sub 12} levels were enrolled in this study. Gastroduodenoscopy, endoscopic biopsy, histopathological evaluation of the biopsy specimens and radionuclide gastric emptying studies were performed. After vitamin B{sub 12} replacement therapy for 3 months, radionuclide gastric emptying studies were repeated. Mean gastric emptying T{sub 1/2} in patients before and after treatment and in controls were 103.83{+-}48.80 min, 90.00{+-}17.29 min and 74.55{+-}8.52 min, respectively. The difference in mean gastric emptying T{sub 1/2} between patients before treatment and controls was statistically significant (P<0.01). The statistically significant difference persisted after vitamin B{sub 12} treatment (P<0.05), though mean gastric emptying T{sub 1/2} was somewhat shorter. There were no positive or negative correlations between gastric emptying T{sub 1/2} and the following parameters: haemoglobin, vitamin B{sub 12} level and Helicobacter pylori positivity. In conclusion, gastric emptying T{sub 1/2} was prolonged in patients with vitamin B{sub 12} deficiency and this prolongation was not corrected after vitamin B{sub 12} replacement therapy. Although autonomic nervous system dysfunction due to vitamin B{sub 12} deficiency rarely gives rise to clinical manifestations, latent dysfunction demonstrated by laboratory tests seems to be a frequent phenomenon

  3. Effect of toxin-g from Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom on gastric emptying in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bucaretchi

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of toxin-g from Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom on the gastric emptying of liquids was studied in 176 young adult male Wistar rats (2-3 months of age divided into subgroups of 8 animals each. Toxin-g was injected iv at doses of 25, 37.5, 50 or 100 µg/kg and the effect on gastric emptying was assessed 30 min and 8 h later. A time-course study was also performed by injecting 50 µg of toxin-g /kg and measuring the effect on gastric emptying at times 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 24 and 48 h post-venom. Each envenomed animal was paired with its saline control and all received a saline test meal solution containing phenol red (60 µg/ml as a marker. Ten minutes after administering the test meal by gavage the animals were sacrificed and gastric retention was determined by measuring the residual marker concentration of the test meal. A significant delay in gastric emptying, at 30 min and 8 h post-venom, was observed only after 50 and 100 µg of toxin-g /kg compared to control values. The responses to these two doses were significantly different after 8 h post-venom. Toxin-g (50 µg/kg significantly delayed the gastric emptying of liquids at all times studied, with a peak response at 4 h after toxin administration compared to control values. These results indicate that the iv injection of toxin-g may induce a rapid, intense and sustained inhibition of gastric emptying 0.25 to 48 h after envenomation.

  4. Scintigraphic test of gastric emptying and motility: preliminary results in patients with chronic gastritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausmann, T. [Abt. Nuklearmedizin und Spezielle Biophysik, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Mueller-Schauenburg, W. [Abt. Nuklearmedizin, Univ. Tuebingen (Germany); Goeke, M. [Abt. Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Luebeck, M. [Abt. Nuklearmedizin, Univ.-Krankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Gratz, K.F. [Abt. Nuklearmedizin und Spezielle Biophysik, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Meier, P. [Abt. Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Manns, M. [Abt. Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Hundeshagen, H. [Abt. Nuklearmedizin und Spezielle Biophysik, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany)

    1995-11-01

    To record gastric peristalsis using a conventional scintigraphic gastric emptying test the frame rate was increased to 1 frame per 3 s at 10, 30, and 50 min postprandially. The gastric contraction frequency was obtained from the first harmonic of a Fourier transform of a gastric region of interest (ROI) curve. The propagation of gastric contractions was better revealed from computed functional images of the phase and amplitude distribution as compared with the multiple scintigraphic images. The maximal count-rate changes per pixel were calculated as an estimate of the most prominent regional contractile activity of the gastric wall. Among 12 patients with chronic gastritis the group with more severe dyspeptic complaints (n = 6) had significantly higher count-rate changes per pixel when compared with the group with minor complaints (20.0, 21.1 and 14.2 vs 12.9, 12.0, and 10.4 counts/pixel X s at 10, 30, and 50 min. respectively; p < 0.05). The mean half-times of gastric emptying (61, SD 11 vs 54, SD 13 min) and the mean gastric contraction frequencies (2.99, SD 0.19; 3.09, SD 0.33; 3.07, SD 0.10 vs 3.15, SD 0.15; 3.17, SD 0.13; 3.23, SD 0.20 cycles/min at 10, 30, and 50 min, respectively) did not show significant differences between both groups. Our preliminary results agree with the hypothesis of the occurrence of more powerful, nonexpulsive gastric-wall contractions in patients with more severe dyspeptic complaints. Hence, additional quantification of gastric motility allowed a more detailed evaluation of gastric-motor-activity disorders that were for so long not accessible to conventional gastric-emptying tests. (orig.)

  5. Gastric emptying of indigestible tablets in relation to composition and time of ingestion of meals studied by metal detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewe, K; Press, A G; Bollen, S; Schuhn, I

    1991-02-01

    Enteric-coated tablets leave the stomach mainly during the interdigestive phase. Composition as well as time of ingestion of meals may influence their gastric emptying considerably. In 12 normal volunteers gastric emptying of a plastic tablet with a metal core was followed by a metal detector in relation to different compositions and various times of ingestion of meals. With an empty stomach and after ingestion of 250 ml water, the mean time for gastric emptying of the tablet was 38 +/- 11 min (mean +/- SEM) and 38 +/- 8 min. Two hundred fifty milliliters of milk (652 kJ) and a formula diet (1000 kJ) delayed gastric emptying time to 128 +/- 14 and 152 +/- 6 min, respectively (P less than 0.05). Breakfast (2200 kJ) further retarded gastric emptying compared with both liquids to 249 +/- 24 min (P less than 0.05). There was a close correlation between nutritive density and gastric emptying of the tablet (r = 0.92; P less than 0.001). Main meals also delayed gastric emptying of tablets when compared to empty stomach (P less than 0.05). A snack after breakfast further delayed gastric emptying from 201 +/- 10 to 278 +/- 19 min (P less than 0.05). The largest delay was observed following ingestion of breakfast, lunch, dinner, and additional snacks (509 +/- 220 min). We conclude that the delay of gastric emptying of enteric-coated tablets by food is related to its nutritive density and eating habits. The gastric emptying of an enteric coated tablet that is ingested early in the morning may be delayed until late at night when several meals and snacks are ingested during the day, leading to unwanted alterations in bioavailability and to possible adverse effects.

  6. Opioid-induced delay in gastric emptying: a peripheral mechanism in humans.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, D B

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Opioids delay gastric emptying, which in turn may increase the risk of vomiting and pulmonary aspiration. Naloxone reverses this opiate action on gastric emptying, but it is not known whether this effect in humans is mediated by central or peripheral opiate antagonism. The importance of peripheral opioid receptor antagonism in modulating opioid-induced delay in gastric emptying was evaluated using methylnaltrexone, a quaternary derivative of the opiate antagonist naltrexone, which does not cross the blood-brain barrier. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, crossover placebo-controlled study, 11 healthy volunteers were given either placebo (saline), 0.09 mg\\/kg morphine, or 0.09 mg\\/kg morphine plus 0.3 mg\\/kg methylnaltrexone on three separate occasions before ingesting 500 ml deionized water. The rate of gastric emptying was measured by two methods: a noninvasive epigastric bioimpedance technique and the acetaminophen absorption test. RESULTS: The epigastric bioimpedance technique was sufficiently sensitive to detect opioid-induced changes in the rate of gastric emptying. The mean +\\/- SD time taken for the gastric volume to decrease to 50% (t0.5) after placebo was 5.5 +\\/- 2.1 min. Morphine prolonged gastric emptying to (t0.5) of 21 +\\/- 9.0 min (P < 0.03). Methylnaltrexone given concomitantly with morphine reversed the morphine-induced delay in gastric emptying to a t0.5 of 7.4 +\\/- 3.0 (P < 0.04). Maximum concentrations and area under the concentration curve from 0 to 90 min of serum acetaminophen concentrations after morphine were significantly different from placebo and morphine administered concomitantly with methylnaltrexone (P < 0.05). No difference in maximum concentration or area under the concentration curve from 0 to 90 min was noted between placebo and methylnaltrexone coadministered with morphine. CONCLUSIONS: The attenuation of morphine-induced delay in gastric emptying by methylnaltrexone suggests that the opioid effect is

  7. Scintigraphic evaluation of gastric emptying and motility; Nuklearmedizinische Diagnostik der Magenmotilitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linke, R. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2003-06-01

    The stomach consists of two functionally distinct parts. The fundus and upper corpus mainly serve as a reservoir and exert primarily a tonic activity, which presses ingesta towards the antrum and duodenum. The phasic contractility of the lower corpus and antrum cause mechanical breakdown and mixing of the food particels. A complex regulation of these mechanisms provides a regular gastric emptying. Various disorders such as diabetes mellitus, mixed connective tissue diseases, gastritis, tumors, dyspeptic disorders but also drugs and gastric surgery may influence or impair gastric function and may cause typical symptoms such as upper abdominal discomfort, bloating, nausea and vomiting. However, the interpretation of gastrointestinal symptoms often is difficult. Radionuclide studies of gastric emptying and motility are the most physiologic tools available for studying gastric motor function. Gastric scintigraphy is non-invasive, uses physiologic meal and is quantitative. Emptying curves generated from the gastric ROI offer information whether a disorder is accompanied by a regular, fast or slow gastric emptying. Data on gastric contractions (amplitude and frequency) provide additional information to results obtained by conventional emptying studies. Depending on the underlying disorder, gastric emptying and peristalsis showed both corresponding and discrepant findings. Therefore, both parameters should be routinely assessed to further improve characterisation of gastric dysfunction by scintigraphy. (orig.) [German] Proximaler und distaler Magen haben funktionell unterschiedliche Aufgaben. Waehrend der proximale Magen die Nahrung voruebergehend speichert und ueber die Generierung eines gastroduodenalen Druckgefaelles eine fraktionierte Entleerung in den Duenndarm bewirkt, dient die Peristaltik des distalen Magens der Durchmischung und Zerkleinerung des Speisebreis. Eine komplexe hormonelle, humorale und nervale Regulation dieser ineinandergreifenden Funktionen

  8. Gastric emptying of solids in humans: improved evaluation by Kaplan-Meier plots, with special reference to obesity and gender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grybaeck, P. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Naeslund, E. [Department of Surgery, Karolinska Institute at Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Hellstroem, P.M. [Department of Internal Medicine, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Jacobsson, H. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)]|[Department of Nuclear Medicine, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Backman, L. [Department of Surgery, Karolinska Institute at Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    It has been suggested that obesity is associated with an altered rate of gastric emptying, and that there are also sex differences in gastric emptying. The results of earlier studies examining gastric emptying rates in obesity and in males and females have proved inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of obesity and gender on gastric emptying, by extending conventional evaluation methods with Kaplan-Meier plots, in order to assess whether these factors have to be accounted for when interpreting results of scintigraphic gastric emptying tests. Twenty-one normal-weight volunteers and nine obese subjects were fed a standardised technetium-99m labelled albumin omelette. Imaging data were acquired at 5- and 10-min intervals in both posterior and anterior projections with the subjects in the sitting position. The half-emptying time, analysed by Kaplan-Meier plot (log-rank test), were shorter in obese subjects compared to normal-weight subjects and later in females compared to males. Also, the lag-phase and half-emptying time were shorter in obese females than in normal females. This study shows an association between different gastric emptying rates and obesity and gender. Therefore, body mass index and gender have to be accounted for when interpreting results of scintigraphic gastric emptying studies. (orig.). With 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. A role for pancreatic polypeptide in the regulation of gastric emptying and short-term metabolic control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, P T; Näslund, E; Grybäck, P;

    2005-01-01

    synthetic human PP to study gastric emptying rates of a solid meal and postprandial hormone secretion and glucose disposal as well as the gastric emptying rate of water. DESIGN: This was a single-blind study. SETTING: The study was performed at a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Fourteen healthy adult...

  10. Method for the quantitation of gastric emptying time of gel test meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, J; Bass, P

    1984-09-01

    Isotopic markers were developed to allow measurement of the gastric emptying times of homogeneous and nonhomogeneous gel meals. Meals containing the dietary fibers psyllium and guar gum presented as homogeneous, viscous gels while meals containing the synthetic polymer polycarbophil presented as discrete gel particle-water mixtures. Fiber meals were labeled differently than polycarbophil meals. Fiber meals were labeled with 51Cr-CM-Sephadex. The marker was uniformly suspended in meals containing at least 1% guar or 2% psyllium. In contrast, polycarbophil particles were labeled by hydrating the dried granules with saline in which Na2(51)CrO4 had been dissolved. Use of the markers to measure gastric emptying was demonstrated in dogs fitted with duodenal cannulas. Half of the fiber meals emptied from the stomach in about 40 min without significant dilution by secretions. In contrast, only 8% of the polycarbophil particles emptied by 90 min. Particle-specific labeling of polycarbophil was important because the meal effluent was diluted extensively by secretions. We conclude that 51Cr-CM-Sephadex and soluble Cr-51 may be used as meal markers for estimation of the gastric emptying times of certain homogeneous and nonhomogeneous gel-type meals, respectively.

  11. Effect of apple cider vinegar on delayed gastric emptying in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous studies on healthy people show that vinegar delays gastric emptying and lowers postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of apple cider vinegar on delayed gastric emptying rate on diabetes mellitus patients. Methods Ten patients with type 1 diabetes and diabetic gastroparesis, including one patient who had undergone vagotomy, were included and completed the investigator blinded crossover trial. The gastric e...

  12. Peripheral administration of GLP-2 to humans has no effect on gastric emptying or satiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, P T; Näslund, E; Grybäck, P

    2003-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) are secreted in parallel to the circulation after a meal. Intravenous (IV) GLP-1 has an inhibitory effect on gastric emptying, hunger and food intake in man. In rodents, central administration of GLP-2 increases satiety similar...

  13. Influence of regular exercise on gastric emptying in healthy men: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Juntaro; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Masaoka, Tatsuhiro; Tanaka, Kentaro; Mori, Hideki; Kanai, Takanori

    2016-01-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), including functional dyspepsia (FD), are common chronic disorders even in the younger population. Physical activity is advocated for patients with FGIDs, although the evidence is insufficient. We investigated the association between the intensity of regular exercise and gastric emptying to determine the effect of physical activity on dyspeptic symptoms. Thirty healthy individuals were selected and divided into three groups (low, moderate, and high) using the index of total exercise intensity in a week. Gastric emptying was evaluated by the 13C-acetate breath test. Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms, dyspeptic symptoms, stool forms, scores of anxiety and depression, and scores of sleep quality were also compared. Baseline scores of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms, anxiety, depression, and sleep quality were not different among the three groups. Gastric emptying was significantly faster in low-intensity exercise group than the moderate-intensity exercise group. Although the presence of loose stool and alcohol consumption were also associated with the intensity of regular exercise, these variables were not confounders. In conclusion, the intensity of regular exercise was independently associated with gastric emptying in healthy individuals. These baseline data would be useful for consideration of an optimal exercise intervention for the treatment of FD.

  14. Effect of carob bean on gastric emptying time in Thai infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivatvakin, Boosba; Buachum, Vacharee

    2003-01-01

    Thickening agents, such as carob bean gum or galactomannan, have been successfully administered for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux in infants. To study the effect of carob bean gum on gastric emptying and to symptoms of regurgitation, we recruited 20 full term Thai infants (mean age=13.4+/-7 week; mean body weight=4943+/-1272gm) without pathological gastroesophageal reflux. Initially, we determined half time gastric emptying (T 1/2 GET) by Tc99m radioscintigraphy method (mean T 1/2 GET=116.1+/-72 min) in infants consuming standard infant cow's milk formula for 2 weeks. Afterwards, carob bean infant formula was given for 2-4 weeks and weight gain, vomiting symptoms, night cough, colic, flatus, defaecation character and T 1/2 GET were assessed. There were statistically significant improvements in symptoms of vomiting (a smaller quantity Pcarob bean formula. However, there was no significance difference in gastric emptying half time (GET1=116.1+72, GET2=148.5+130.9; P=0.154). In conclusion, carob bean gum, as a thickening agent, improves the clinical symptoms of regurgitating infants, but does not significantly alter the gastric emptying physiology.

  15. Supplementing monosodium glutamate to partial enteral nutrition slows gastric emptying in preterm pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerging evidence suggests that free glutamate may play a functional role in modulating gastroduodenal motor function. We hypothesized that supplementing monosodium glutamate (MSG) to partial enteral nutrition stimulates gastric emptying in preterm pigs. Ten-day-old preterm, parenterally fed pigs re...

  16. Supplementing glutamate to partial enteral nutrition slows gastric emptying rate in preterm pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premature infants frequently present with gastroduodenal motor dysfunction, which is manifest clinically as feeding intolerance resulting from slow gastric emptying. Glutamate (GLU) is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the body and multiple GLU receptors and transporters have been found in th...

  17. Gastric emptying scintigraphy results in children are affected by age, anthropometric factors, and study duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    A standardized 4-hour adult-based gastric emptying scintigraphy (GES) protocol is increasingly being used in children to evaluate for gastroparesis. We sought to determine the effect of age, anthropometrics, and study duration on GES results using this protocol in children. Retrospective review of c...

  18. Oral versus intubated feeding and the effect on glycaemic and insulinaemic responses, gastric emptying and satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, S; Shafat, A; Clegg, M E

    2016-01-01

    Cephalic phase responses (CPR) are important in early initiation of digestion and maximal absorption of nutrients prior to ingestion. Bypassing CPR has been shown to have consequences on metabolic responses that may influence satiety. The aim of this study was to investigate if using gastric intubation to bypass oro-pharyngeal and oesophageal exposure would reduce CPR including insulin and blood glucose and whether these impact on gastric emptying and satiety. Ten male subjects were tested on 2 occasions, 3-7 days apart after an overnight fast, in randomized order. Subjects were cannulated and intubated with a gastric tube for both tests. For test one, subjects ate 400 ml soup with a spoon and for test two the soup was infused into the stomach at an equivalent rate. Subsequently measurements of glycaemic (GR) and insulinaemic responses (IR) from cannula samples, breath samples for measurement of gastric emptying using the [(13)C] sodium acetate breath test and visual analogue scales (VAS) for satiety were taken over 180 min. There were differences in IR over the first 15 min (Oral: 169.0 ± 22.1; Gastric 124.1 ± 18.8; t(9) = 2.67; p = 0.028) but no difference in GR. There were differences in gastric emptying half time (Oral: 85.0 ± 2.7; Gastric 79.4 ± 3.3; t(9) = 2.40; p = 0.04) and ascension time (Oral: 68.2 ± 2.2; Gastric 64.0 ± 2.2; t(9) = 2.57; p = 0.03) with food taking longer to empty from the stomach on the Oral test day than on the Gastric test day. There was no significant difference in the satiety ratings. This study demonstrated that bypassing oro-pharyngeal and oesophageal exposure decreases the normal physiological CPR with detriment to IR and gastric emptying.

  19. Food reward in active compared to inactive men: Roles for gastric emptying and body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Katy M; Finlayson, Graham; Byrne, Nuala M; King, Neil A

    2016-06-01

    Habitual exercise could contribute to weight management by altering processes of food reward via the gut-brain axis. We investigated hedonic processes of food reward in active and inactive men and characterised relationships with gastric emptying and body fat. Forty-four men (active: n=22; inactive: n=22, BMI range 21-36kg/m(2); percent fat mass range 9-42%) were studied. Participants were provided with a standardised fixed breakfast and an ad libitum lunch meal 5h later. Explicit liking, implicit wanting and preference among high-fat, low-fat, sweet and savoury food items were assessed immediately post-breakfast (fed state) and again pre-lunch (hungry state) using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire. Gastric emptying was assessed by (13)C-octanoic acid breath test. Active individuals exhibited a lower liking for foods overall and a greater implicit wanting for low-fat savoury foods in the fed state, compared to inactive men. Differences in the fed state remained significant after adjusting for percent fat mass. Active men also had a greater increase in liking for savoury foods in the interval between breakfast and lunch. Faster gastric emptying was associated with liking for savoury foods and with an increase in liking for savoury foods in the postprandial interval. In contrast, greater implicit wanting for high-fat foods was associated with slower gastric emptying. These associations were independent of each other, activity status and body fat. In conclusion, active and inactive men differ in processes of food reward. The rate of gastric emptying may play a role in the association between physical activity status and food reward, via the gut-brain axis.

  20. Esophageal reconstruction surgery in oncologic patients. Determination of gastric emptying time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, L.; Maliska, C.M [Instituto Nacional de Cancer, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Rio de Janeiro, Univ. Federal, Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Sector de Medicina Nuclear, Dept. de Radiologia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Cruz, M.G.A. [Rio de Janeiro, Univ. Federal, Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Sector de Medicina Nuclear, Dept. de Radiologia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Castro, L. [Instituto Nacional de Cancer, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Gutfilen, B. [Rio de Janeiro, Univ. do Estado, Hospital Universitario Pedro Ernesto, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2000-06-01

    All parts of the gastrointestinal tract are accessible for study using nuclear medicine techniques. It has been studied the effect of esophageal reconstruction surgery, in different periods of time, after surgical procedure. Oncologic patients (19) were evaluated after esophageal reconstruction surgery with gastric (group II-14 patients) or colonic tube (group III - 5 patients) and they were compared with 15 healthy volunteers (group I). Gastric emptying was performed in the same subjects using solid food (egg sandwich) labeled with 99mTc-phytate. In emptying gastric studies, the mean (T1/2) of the patients was much faster than those of the control (p<0.05) when 1/3 distal tube was considered as stomach. However, there was no difference between the T1/2 of group II and group III. It could be concluded that this nuclear medicine method could be useful in the monitoring the surgical reconstruction of the esophagus.

  1. Expression of 5-HT3 receptors by extrinsic duodenal afferents contribute to intestinal inhibition of gastric emptying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybould, Helen E; Glatzle, Jorg; Robin, Carla; Meyer, James H; Phan, Thomas; Wong, Helen; Sternini, Catia

    2003-03-01

    Intestinal perfusion with carbohydrates inhibits gastric emptying via vagal and spinal capsaicin-sensitive afferent pathways. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of 1) 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(3) receptors (5-HT(3)R) in mediating glucose-induced inhibition of gastric emptying and 2) 5-HT(3)R expression in vagal and spinal afferents in innervating the duodenum. In awake rats fitted with gastric and duodenal cannulas, perfusion of the duodenum with glucose (50 and 100 mg) inhibited gastric emptying. Intestinal perfusion of mannitol inhibited gastric emptying only at the highest concentration (990 mosm/kgH(2)O). Pretreatment with the 5-HT(3)R antagonist tropisetron abolished both glucose- and mannitol-induced inhibition of gastric emptying. Retrograde labeling of visceral afferents by injection of dextran-conjugated Texas Red into the duodenal wall was used to identify extrinsic primary afferents. Immunoreactivity for 5-HT(3)R, visualized with an antibody directed to the COOH terminus of the rat 5-HT(3)R, was found in >80% of duodenal vagal and spinal afferents. These results show that duodenal extrinsic afferents express 5-HT(3)R and that the receptor mediates specific glucose-induced inhibition of gastric emptying. These findings support the hypothesis that enterochromaffin cells in the intestinal mucosa release 5-HT in response to glucose, which activates 5-HT(3)R on afferent nerve terminals to evoke reflex changes in gastric motility. The primary glucose sensors of the intestine may be mucosal enterochromaffin cells.

  2. Gastric emptying time (GET) with Tc-99m-labeled semisolid meal in diabetic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tada, Akira; Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Aburano, Tamio; Bunko, Hisashi; Tonami, Norihisa (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1984-01-01

    Measurement of gastric emptying in diabetic gastroenteropathy is of interest because of the gastric atony that may produce signs and symptoms of visceral neuropathy. The purpose of this study is to present the result of GET measurements in diabetic patients. The correlation between GET and complications, fasting blood sugar (FBS), duration of disease, age, sex, and HbAlc was evaluated. Included in this study were 21 diabetic patients. Fourteen patients had diabetic complications such as peripheral neuropathy, autonomic neuropathy, nephropathy and retinopathy. Following an overnight fast, semisolid test meal mixed with 200 uCi of Tc-99m Sn-colloid was ingested by the patients. In nine normal volunteers, the GET range previously established by this method in our institution was from 47 to 78 minutes (mean 62.5 +- 7.7). In the patients with diabetic complication, particulary with triopathy, GET was significantly prolonged compared to those of normal subjects and diabetic patients without complication. On the contrary, four out of seven patients without complications, showed rapid emptying than normal subjects. This rapid emptying may reveal the early stage of pathophysiological change in diabetics. No correlation between GET and FBS, duration of disease, age, sex and HbAlc was seen. This test of radiolabeled semisolid meal was found to provide a convenient, safe and effective diagnostic tool to examine gastric emptying function in diabetic patients.

  3. Measuring of Gastric Emptying in Egyptian Pediatric Patients with Portal Hypertension by Using Real-time Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmy, Mona E.; Osman, Mahmoud A.; Mahmoud, Rehab A.; Mohamed, Lamiaa K.; Seif-elnasr, Khaled I.; Eskander, Ayman E.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aim: Among the various methods for evaluating gastric emptying, the real-time ultrasound is safe, does not require intubation, or rely on either radiologic or radionuclide technique. The aim of our work was to measure the gastric emptying in pediatric patients with portal hypertension by using the real-time ultrasound. Patients and Methods: Forty patients with portal hypertension with mean age 7 ± 2.8 years and 20 healthy children as a control group underwent gastric emptying study by using real-time ultrasound. The cross-sectional area of the gastric antrum was measured in the fasting state and then each subject was allowed to drink tap water then calculated by using formula area (π longitudinal × anteroposterior diameter/4). The intragastric volume was assumed to be directly proportional to the cross-sectional area of the antrum. Results: The mean gastric emptying half-time volume was significantly delayed in portal hypertension patients (40 ± 6.8 min) compared with the control subjects (27.1 ± 3.6) min (P<0.05). Patients with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction had significant delayed gastric emptying in comparison to patients with portal hypertension due to other etiologies (36.14 ± 4.9 vs 44.41 ± 6.04 min; P<0.01). Conclusion: Ultrasound is a noninvasive and a reliable method for measuring gastric emptying in pediatric patients. Gastric emptying was significantly delayed in patients with portal hypertension. Etiology of portal hypertension may influence gastric emptying time in patients with chronic liver disease. PMID:22249091

  4. Semimechanistic model describing gastric emptying and glucose absorption in healthy subjects and patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alskär, Oskar; Bagger, Jonatan I; Røge, Rikke M;

    2015-01-01

    of small intestinal transit time, glucose inhibition of gastric emptying, and saturable absorption of glucose over the epithelium to improve the description of gastric emptying and glucose absorption in the IGI model. Duodenal glucose was found to inhibit gastric emptying. The performance of the saturable......The integrated glucose-insulin (IGI) model is a previously published semimechanistic model that describes plasma glucose and insulin concentrations after glucose challenges. The aim of this work was to use knowledge of physiology to improve the IGI model's description of glucose absorption...... glucose absorption was superior to linear absorption regardless of the gastric emptying model applied. The semiphysiological model developed performed better than previously published empirical models and allows better understanding of the mechanisms underlying glucose absorption. In conclusion, our new...

  5. Centrally administered urocortin 3 inhibits food intake and gastric emptying in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushikai, Miharu; Asakawa, Akihiro; Sakoguchi, Takeo; Tanaka, Chie; Inui, Akio

    2011-04-01

    Urocortin 3 (Ucn3) is recognized as a member of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family, which plays an important role in regulating food intake. We investigated the effects of centrally administered Ucn3 on food intake and gastric emptying in mice. Intracerebroventricular (ICV)administration of Ucn3 (0.1–1 nmol per mouse) decreased food intake in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect of Ucn3 on food intake was less potent than that of centrally administered CRF and Urocortin 1. ICV administration of Ucn3 (0.1–1 nmol per mouse) decreased the gastric emptying rate in a dose-dependent manner. Ucn3 decreased food intake in high-fat diet-fed obese mice as well as in lean mice. These results indicated that Ucn3 influences feeding behavior and gut motility, and may be a promising therapeutic target in the treatment of eating and functional gastrointestinal disorders.

  6. Intracerebroventricular administration of neuronostatin delays gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shu-Fang; Yang, Ai-Min; Yang, Shao-Bin; Wang, Ning-Bo; Lu, Song-Song; Wang, Hui-Hui; Chen, Qiang

    2012-05-01

    Neuronostatin is a 13-amino acid amidated peptide widely distributed in various organs including gastrointestinal tract. However, the effect of neuronostatin on gastrointestinal motility has not been well characterized. In the present work, effects of central administration of neuronostatin on gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit were investigated. The results indicated that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of neuronostatin (1, 5, 10 or 20nmol/mouse) delayed gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit in a dose-related manner in mice. The effects were significantly reversed by melanocortin 3/4 receptor antagonist SHU9119 or classical opioid receptor antagonist naloxone, suggesting that the central melanocortin system and opioid system may be involved in the gastrointestinal effects elicited by i.c.v. administration of neuronostatin. In addition, we found that C-terminal amidation modification of neuronostatin is essential to exert its gastrointestinal effects. These results indicated that neuronostatin may play an important role in regulating gastrointestinal function.

  7. Serum levels of ghrelin and obestatin in children with symptoms suggestive of delayed gastric emptying of unclear etiology

    OpenAIRE

    Saliakellis, Efstratios; Karatzas, Nikolaos; Iakovou, Ioannis; Farmaki, Evangelia; Varlamis, Georgios; Fotoulaki, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background Ghrelin and obestatin are peptides of the gut-brain axis affecting appetite and gastrointestinal motility. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, case-control study to determine pre- and postprandial serum levels of total ghrelin and obestatin along with gastric emptying scintigraphy in children with symptoms suggestive of delayed gastric emptying time (GET), not attributable to any identifiable cause. Results Twenty children with symptoms suggestive of delayed GET, of whom 9 had ...

  8. Effect of commercial rye whole-meal bread on postprandial blood glucose and gastric emptying in healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Darwich Gassan; Björgell Ola; Lindstedt Sandra; Jönsson Jenny; Hlebowicz Joanna; Almér Lars-Olof

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The intake of dietary fibre has been shown to reduce the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of commercial rye whole-meal bread containing whole kernels and white wheat bread on the rate of gastric emptying and postprandial glucose response in healthy subjects. Methods Ten healthy subjects took part in a blinded crossover trial. Blood glucose level and gastric emptying rate (GER) were determined after the ingestion of 150 ...

  9. Effect of sildenafil on gastric emptying and postprandial frequency of antral contractions in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J L; Søndergaard, S B; Fuglsang, S

    2004-01-01

    . METHODS: Ten healthy male volunteers (21-28 years) participated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over study. In random order and on two separate days each volunteer ingested either 50 mg sildenafil (Viagra, Pfizer, New York, N.Y., USA) or placebo. A gamma camera technique was used to measure......: A single dose of 50 mg sildenafil does not change gastric emptying or postprandial frequency of antral contractions in healthy volunteers....

  10. Mechanisms of Gastric Emptying Disturbances in Chronic and Acute Inflammation of the Distal Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Jutta; Beglinger, Christoph; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2009-01-01

    in such patients. Methods: 13 healthy subjects (CON), 13 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), 10 with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 7 with diverticulitis (DIV) underwent a standardized (13)C-octanoic acid gastric emptying breath test. Plasma glucose, cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1...... be a pathophysiological link between decreased GLP-1 release, postprandial hyperglycemia and delayed GE. These explorative data encourage further studies in larger patient groups. Key words: inflammatory bowel disease, diverticulitis, motility, hormonal regulation....

  11. Prevalence and determinants of delayed gastric emptying in hospitalised Type 2 diabetic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vladimir Kojecloy; Jaromir Bernatek; Michael Horowitz; Stanislav Zemek; Jiri Bakala; Ales Hep

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To determine the prevalence of delayed gastric emptying (GE) in older patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.METHODS:One hundred and forty seven patients with Type 2 diabetes,of whom 140 had been hospitalised,mean age 62.3±8.0 years,HbA1c 9.1%±1.9%,treated with either oral hypoglycemic drugs or insulin were studied.GE of a solid meal(scintigraphy),autonomic nerve function,upper gastrointestinal symptoms,acute and chronic glycemic control were evaluated.Gastric emptying results were compared to a control range of hospitalised patients who did not have diabetes.RESULTS:Gastric emptying was delayed(T50>85 min)in 17.7% patients.Mean gastric emptying was slower in females(T50 72.1±72.1 rain vs 56.9±68.1 min,P=0.02)and in those reporting nausea(112.3±67.3 vs 62.7±70.0 min,P<0.01)and early satiety(114.0±135.2vs 61.1±62.6 min,P=0.02).There was no correlation between GE with age,body weight,duration of diabetes,neuropathy,current glycemia or the total score for upper gastrointestinal symptoms.CONCLUSION:Prolonged GE occurs in about 20% of hospitalisecl elderly patients with Type 2 diabetes when compared to hospitalised patients who do not have diabetes.Female gender,nausea and early satiety are associated with higher probability of delayed GE.

  12. Paracetamol as a Post Prandial Marker for Gastric Emptying, A Food-Drug Interaction on Absorption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Bartholomé

    Full Text Available The use of paracetamol as tool to determine gastric emptying was evaluated in a cross over study. Twelve healthy volunteers were included and each of them consumed two low and two high caloric meals. Paracetamol was mixed with a liquid meal and administered by a nasogastric feeding tube. The post prandial paracetamol plasma concentration time curve in all participants and the paracetamol concentration in the stomach content in six participants were determined. It was found that after paracetamol has left the stomach, based on analysis of the stomach content, there was still a substantial rise in the plasma paracetamol concentration time curve. Moreover, the difference in gastric emptying between high and low caloric meals was missed using the plasma paracetamol concentration time curve. The latter curves indicate that (i part of the paracetamol may leave the stomach much quicker than the meal and (ii part of the paracetamol may be relatively slowly absorbed in the duodenum. This can be explained by the partition of the homogenous paracetamol-meal mixture in the stomach in an aqueous phase and a solid bolus. The aqueous phase leaves the stomach quickly and the paracetamol in this phase is quickly absorbed in the duodenum, giving rise to the relatively steep increase of the paracetamol concentration in the plasma. The bolus leaves the stomach relatively slowly, and encapsulation by the bolus results in relatively slow uptake of paracetamol from the bolus in the duodenum. These findings implicate that paracetamol is not an accurate post prandial marker for gastric emptying. The paracetamol concentration time curve rather illustrates the food-drug interaction on absorption, which is not only governed by gastric emptying.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01335503 Nederlands Trial Register NTR2780.

  13. Effects of escins Ia, Ib, IIa, and IIb from horse chestnuts on gastric emptying in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, H; Li, Y; Murakami, T; Yamahara, J; Yoshikawa, M

    1999-03-05

    Inhibitory effects of the saponin fraction and its principal constituents, escins Ia, Ib, IIa, and IIb, from horse chestnuts on gastric emptying were investigated in mice loaded with a non-nutrient or nutrient meal. The saponin fraction and escins Ia-IIb inhibited gastric emptying of a 1.5% carboxymethyl cellulose sodium salt (CMC-Na) meal by 11.1-54.2% (12.5-200 mg/kg). Escins Ia-IIb (50 mg/kg) also inhibited gastric emptying of a 40% glucose meal by 21.1-23.5% except for escin Ia, a milk meal by 18.4-33.1%, and a 30% ethanol meal by 13.5-15.9%. The effects of escins Ia-IIb on gastric emptying of the CMC-Na meal were attenuated by pretreatment with streptozotocin (100 mg/kg, i.v.), capsaicin (75 mg/kg in total, s.c.), or insulin (1 U/kg, s.c.). The effect of insulin was reduced by glucose (2 g/kg, i.v.) which can directly nourish the brain, but not by fructose (2 g/kg, i.v.) which cannot be utilized by the brain. The effects of escins Ia-IIb (50 mg/kg) were overridden in 60% ethanol-loaded mice, in which the central nervous system was suppressed by ethanol. These results suggest that capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves and central nervous system partly participate in the effects of escins Ia-IIb.

  14. Effects of peripherally administered urocortin 3 on feeding behavior and gastric emptying in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashi, Mutsumi; Asakawa, Akihiro; Cheng, Kai-Chun; Koyama, Ken-Ichiro; Chaolu, Huke; Ushikai, Miharu; Inui, Akio

    2011-03-01

    Human and mouse urocortin 3 (Ucn3) were first identified in 2001. Ucn3 binds selectively to corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 (CRF-R2). Previous studies have shown that centrally administered Ucn3 decreases food intake in rats. However, the role of Ucn3 in the regulation of gut motility remains to be determined. In the present study, we investigated the effects of peripherally administered Ucn3 on food intake and gastric emptying in mice. After intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of Ucn3, food intake was measured in the light and dark phases, and the rate of gastric emptying was determined. We found that i.p. administration of Ucn3 significantly inhibited feeding behavior in mice, and significantly delayed gastric emptying 1-2 h after administration in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that Ucn3 contributes to the modulation of feeding behavior and gut motility. Thus, Ucn3 and CRF-R2 may be involved in the pathogenesis of functional gastrointestinal and eating disorders.

  15. Gastric emptying of water in children with severe functional fecal retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P.I. Fernandes

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate gastric emptying (GE in pediatric patients with functional constipation. GE delay has been reported in adults with functional constipation. Gastric emptying studies were performed in 22 children with chronic constipation, fecal retention and fecal incontinence, while presenting fecal retention and after resuming regular bowel movements. Patients (18 boys, median age: 10 years; range: 7.2 to 12.7 years were evaluated in a tertiary pediatric gastroenterology clinic. Gastric half-emptying time of water (reference range: 12 ± 3 min was measured using a radionuclide technique immediately after first patient evaluation, when they presented fecal impaction (GE1, and when they achieved regular bowel movements (GE2, 12 ± 5 weeks after GE1. At study admission, 21 patients had reported dyspeptic symptoms, which were completely relieved after resuming regular bowel movements. Medians (and interquartile ranges for GE1 and GE2 were not significantly different [27.0 (16 and 27.5 (21 min, respectively (P = 0.10]. Delayed GE seems to be a common feature among children with chronic constipation and fecal retention. Resuming satisfactory bowel function and improvement in dyspeptic symptoms did not result in normalization of GE data.

  16. A Mechanistic Model of Intermittent Gastric Emptying and Glucose-Insulin Dynamics following a Meal Containing Milk Components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priska Stahel

    Full Text Available To support decision-making around diet selection choices to manage glycemia following a meal, a novel mechanistic model of intermittent gastric emptying and plasma glucose-insulin dynamics was developed. Model development was guided by postprandial timecourses of plasma glucose, insulin and the gastric emptying marker acetaminophen in infant calves fed meals of 2 or 4 L milk replacer. Assigning a fast, slow or zero first-order gastric emptying rate to each interval between plasma samples fit acetaminophen curves with prediction errors equal to 9% of the mean observed acetaminophen concentration. Those gastric emptying parameters were applied to glucose appearance in conjunction with minimal models of glucose disposal and insulin dynamics to describe postprandial glycemia and insulinemia. The final model contains 20 parameters, 8 of which can be obtained by direct measurement and 12 by fitting to observations. The minimal model of intestinal glucose delivery contains 2 gastric emptying parameters and a third parameter describing the time lag between emptying and appearance of glucose in plasma. Sensitivity analysis of the aggregate model revealed that gastric emptying rate influences area under the plasma insulin curve but has little effect on area under the plasma glucose curve. This result indicates that pancreatic responsiveness is influenced by gastric emptying rate as a consequence of the quasi-exponential relationship between plasma glucose concentration and pancreatic insulin release. The fitted aggregate model was able to reproduce the multiple postprandial rises and falls in plasma glucose concentration observed in calves consuming a normal-sized meal containing milk components.

  17. Role of delayed gastric emptying in the pathogenesis of cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1982-01-01

    Cysteamine is a potent duodenal ulcerogen in rats. It has been demonstrated to inhibit gastric empyting, whose role in ulcer formation is unknown. In the present study the effect of cysteamine on gastric motility and emptying rate in rats was studied by direct fluoroscopic observation. The delaye...

  18. Effects of progesterone on gastric emptying and intestinal transit in male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan-Yong Liu; Lian-Bi Chen; Pei-Yi Liu; Dong-Ping Xie; Paulus S. Wang

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To study the dose-dependent of progesterone (P) effect and the interaction between the oxytocin (OT) and Pon gastrointestinal motility.METHODS: In order to monitor the gastric emptying andintestinal transit, the SD male rats were intubated via acatheter with normal saline (3 mi/kg) containing Na251 CrO4(0.5 μCi/ml) and 10 % charcoal.OT was dissolved intonormal saline and P was dissolved into 75 % alcohol.RESULTS: Low does of P (1 mg/kg, i. p. ) enhanced thegastric emptying (75 ± 3 %, P< 0.05) and high dose of P (5mg/kg, i.p. ) inhibit it (42± 11.2 %, P< 0.01). P (1 rog/kg)increased the intestinal transit (4.2 ± 0. 3, P < 0.05) whilethe higher dose ( 10-20 mg/kg) had no effect. OT (0.8 mg/kg, i.p. ) inhibited the gastric emptying (23.5 ± 9.8 %, P <0.01). The inhibitory effects of P (20 mg/kg) (32± 9.7 %, P< 0.05) and OT (0.8 mg/kg) on gastric emptying enhancedeach other when the two chemicals were administratedsimultaneously ( 17 ± 9.4 %, P < 0.01).CONCLUSION: Low dose of P increased Gl motility whilehigh dose of P decreased it. During the later period ofpregnancy, elevated plasma level of OT may also participatein the gastrointestinal inhibition.

  19. The relationship between gut hormone secretion and gastric emptying in different phases of the migrating motor complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, L; Oster-Jørgensen, E; Qvist, N;

    1996-01-01

    a higher incremental integrated postprandial motilin response in phase I than in phase II (998 pmol/l*30 min (495 to 2010) versus 210 pmol/l*30 min (-270 to 2323), p total integrated motilin response and solid emptying at 120 min in phase I (Rs = 0.58; p......BACKGROUND: No studies are available on the relationship between the response of gut hormones and gastric emptying in different phases of the migrating motor complex. This study examined whether basal gut hormone concentrations in plasma before food ingestion are predictors of emptying...... total integrated area of cholecystokinin and solid emptying at 120 min was demonstrated (Rs = 0.62; p

  20. Effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide on gastric emptying of liquids in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F. Collares

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present investigation were 1 to study the effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS on rat gastric emptying (GE and 2 to investigate a possible involvement of the vagus nerve in the gastric action of LPS. Endotoxin from E. coli (strain 055:B5 was administered sc, ip or iv to male Wistar rats (220-280 g body weight at a maximum dose of 50 µg/kg animal weight. Control animals received an equivalent volume of sterile saline solution. At a given time period after LPS administration, GE was evaluated by measuring gastric retention 10 min after the orogastric infusion of a test meal (2 ml/100 g animal weight, which consisted of 0.9% NaCl plus the marker phenol red (6 mg/dl. One group of animals was subjected to bilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy or sham operation 15 days before the test. A significant delay in GE of the test meal was observed 5 h after iv administration of the endotoxin at the dose of 50 µg/kg animal weight. The LPS-induced delay of GE was detected as early as 30 min and up to 8 h after endotoxin administration. The use of different doses of LPS ranging from 5 to 50 µg/kg animal weight showed that the alteration of GE was dose dependent. In addition, vagotomized animals receiving LPS displayed a GE that was not significantly different from that of the sham control group. However, a participation of the vagus nerve in LPS-induced delay in GE could not be clearly demonstrated by these experiments since vagotomy itself induced changes in this gastric parameter. The present study provides a suitable model for identifying the mechanisms underlying the effects of LPS on gastric emptying

  1. Gastric emptying patterns of a liquid meal in newborn infants, measured by epigastric impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Aksel; Funch-Jensen, Peter; Thommesen, Peter;

    1997-01-01

      Epigastric impedance was used to measure patterns of the gastric emptying of a liquid non-caloric meal (5 ml water/kg) in newborn infants. The emptying patterns consisted of two components, theemptying signal - the DC component - and a phasic 3 cycle per minutes (CPM) signal - the AC component....... Phasic 3 CPM signal was also seen during the fasting state. Measurements were erformed in thirty healthy infants. Twenty-six mature infants were examined in the first eight days of life, and four preterm infants were examined within 6 weeks after birth. For the emptying signal the median half emptying.......A periodic change of the impedance signal, the phasic 3 CPM signal, was observed after a meal in 24 of the infants. The median frequency was 3.03 CPM in 20 mature and 2.93 CPM in 4 preterminfants. In 9 infants a phasic 3 CPM signal was observed during fasting state. The median frequency was 2.9 CPM...

  2. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), a cofactor for nNOS, restores gastric emptying and nNOS expression in female diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangula, Pandu R R; Mukhopadhyay, Sutapa; Ravella, Kalpana; Cai, Shijie; Channon, Keith M; Garfield, Robert E; Pasricha, Pankaj J

    2010-05-01

    Gastroparesis is a debilitating disease predominantly affecting young women. Recently, dysregulation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in myenteric plexus neurons has been implicated for delayed solid gastric emptying/gastroparesis in diabetic patients. In this study, we have explored the role of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), a major cofactor for nNOS activity and NO synthesis in diabetic gastroparesis. Diabetes was induced with single injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg body wt, ip) in female rats, with experiments performed on week 3 or 9 following induction, with or without 3-wk BH4 supplementation. Gastric pyloric BH4 levels were significantly decreased in diabetic female rats compared with control (18.6 +/- 1.45 vs. 31.0 +/- 2.31 pmol/mg protein). In vitro studies showed that 2,4-diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine (DAHP), an inhibitor of BH4 synthesis, significantly decreased gastric NO release and nitrergic relaxation. Three-week dietary supplementation of BH4 either from day 1 or week 6 significantly attenuated diabetes-induced delayed gastric emptying for solids (3 wk: BH4, 67 +/- 6.7 vs. diabetic, 36.05 +/- 7.09; 9 wk: BH4, 57 +/- 8.45 vs. diabetic, 33 +/- 9.91) and diabetes-induced reduction in pyloric nNOS-alpha protein expression in female rats. Supplementation of BH4 significantly restored gastric nNOS-alpha dimerization in 9-wk-old diabetic female rats. In addition, BH4 treatment reversed (17.23 +/- 5.81 vs. 42.0 +/- 2.70 mmHg x s) the diabetes-induced changes in intragastric pressures (IGP) and gastric pyloric nitrergic relaxation (-0.62 +/- 0.01 vs. -0.22 +/- 0.07). BH4 deficiency plays a critical role in diabetes-induced alterations including delayed solid gastric emptying, increased IGP, reduced pyloric nitrergic relaxation, and nNOS-alpha expression in female rats. Supplementation of BH4 accelerates gastric emptying by restoring nitrergic system in diabetic female rats. Therefore, BH4 supplementation is a potential therapeutic option for female

  3. Temperature effect on gastric emptying time of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus spp.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, Moumita; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd. [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Das, Simon K. [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia and Marine Ecosystem Research Centre (EKOMAR), Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Knowledge of fish gastric emptying time is a necessary component for understanding the fish feeding rates, energy budgets and commercial production of fishes in aquaculture. The hybrid grouper Epinephelus spp. is getting popular as a culture species in Malaysia for their faster growth rate compared to commonly cultured grouper species (giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus and tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus). There are data suggests that elevated sea water temperature affects gastric emptying time (GET) of fishes. Hence, this study aims to study the GET of hybrid grouper at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) in laboratory condition with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times (GETs) at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO{sub 4}) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-6 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (13 h) was obsereved in the 30°C group, whereas the longest (17 h) GET was seen in 22°C group fed with artificial diet pellet. Not much differences in GET were recorded between the 26 and 34°C groups as 34°C groups fed lesser amount compared to 26°C groups. Nevertheless a substantial delay in GET was observed in the 22°C group. The findings of this study suggest to culture hybrid grouper between 26 to 30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges proliferate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commerical important fish species. Overall, these findings may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of hybrid grouper.

  4. Effect of apple cider vinegar on delayed gastric emptying in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björgell Ola

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies on healthy people show that vinegar delays gastric emptying and lowers postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of apple cider vinegar on delayed gastric emptying rate on diabetes mellitus patients. Methods Ten patients with type 1 diabetes and diabetic gastroparesis, including one patient who had undergone vagotomy, were included and completed the investigator blinded crossover trial. The gastric emptying rate (GER was measured using standardized real-time ultrasonography. The GER was calculated as the percentage change in the antral cross-sectional area 15 and 90 minutes after ingestion of 300 g rice pudding and 200 ml water (GER1, or 300 g rice pudding and 200 ml water with 30 ml apple cider vinegar (GER2. The subjects drank 200 ml water daily before breakfast one week before the measurement of GER1. The same subjects drank 200 ml water with 30 ml vinegar daily before breakfast for two weeks before the measurement of GER2. Results The median values of GER1 and GER2 were 27% and 17%, respectively. The effect of vinegar on the rate of gastric emptying was statistically significant (p Conclusion This study shows that vinegar affects insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients with diabetic gastroparesis by reducing the gastric emptying rate even further, and this might be a disadvantage regarding to their glycaemic control. Trial registration number ISRCTN33841495.

  5. Gastric Emptying and Curding of Pasteurized Donor Human Milk and Mother's Own Milk in Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrella, Sharon L; Hepworth, Anna R; Gridneva, Zoya; Simmer, Karen N; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated the effects of fortification and composition on gastric emptying and curding in un/fortified pairs of mother's own milk (MOM, n = 17) and pasteurized donor human milk (PDHM, n = 15) in preterm infants. Retained meal proportions (%) and curding were determined from sonography. Immediate and subsequent postprandial % were higher for PDHM (23%, P = 0.026; 15%, P = 0.006) and fortified meals (31.5%; 8.8%, both P lactose concentrations were associated with lower immediate postprandial % (all P intolerance.

  6. Effects of peripherally administered urocortin 3 on feeding behavior and gastric emptying in mice

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Human and mouse urocortin 3 (Ucn3) were first identified in 2001. Ucn3 binds selectively to corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 (CRF-R2). Previous studies have shown that centrally administered Ucn3 decreases food intake in rats. However, the role of Ucn3 in the regulation of gut motility remains to be determined. In the present study, we investigated the effects of peripherally administered Ucn3 on food intake and gastric emptying in mice. After intraperitoneal (i.p.) administrati...

  7. A conveniently prepared Tc-99m resin for semisolid gastric emptying studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, N.; Swanson, D.; Shapiro, B.; Nakajo, M.; Coffey, J.L.; Eckhauser, F.; Owyang, C.

    1983-06-01

    A polystyrene resin, suitable for semi-solid gastric emptying studies, was rapidly (less than 20 min) and conveniently prepared using commercially available reagents. Using the outlined procedure, Chelex-100 resin bound Tc-99m with greater than 98% labeling efficiency. The resulting Tc-99m Chelex-100 resin demonstrated excellent in vitro and in vivo stability. The clinical application of Tc-99m Chelex-100 resin, mixed with oatmeal, was tested in normal subjects and in various patient groups, including diabetic autonomic neuropathy, pyloric obstruction, postoperative dumping syndrome, and morbidly obese patients before and after gastroplasty.

  8. Conveniently prepared Tc-99m resin for semisolid gastric emptying studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, N. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor); Shapiro, B.; Nakajo, M.; Coffey, J.L.; Eckhauser, F.; Owyang, C.

    1983-06-01

    A polystyrene resin, suitable for semi-solid gastric emptying studies, was rapidly (<20 min) and coveniently prepared using commercially available reagents. Using the outlined procedure, Chelex-100 resin bound Tc-99m with greater than 98% labeling efficiency. The resulting Tc-99m Chelex-100 resin demonstrated excellent in vitro and in vivo stability. The clinical application of Tc-99m Chelex-100 resin, mixed with oatmeal, was tested in normal subjects and in various patient groups, including diabetic autonomic neuropathy, pyloric obstruction, postoperative dumping syndrome, and morbidly obese patients before and after gastroplasty.

  9. Inhibition of gastric emptying and intestinal transit in anesthetized rats by a Tityus serrulatus scorpion toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troncon L.E.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of a fraction (T1 of Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom prepared by gel filtration on gastric emptying and small intestinal transit were investigated in male Wistar rats. Fasted animals were anesthetized with urethane, submitted to tracheal intubation and right jugular vein cannulation. Scorpion toxin (250 µg/kg or saline was injected iv and 1 h later a bolus of saline (1.0 ml/100 g labeled with 99m technetium-phytate (10 MBq was administered by gavage. After 15 min, animals were sacrificed and the radioactivity remaining in the stomach was determined. Intestinal transit was evaluated by instillation of a technetium-labeled saline bolus (1.0 ml through a cannula previously implanted in the duodenum. After 60 min, the progression of the marker throughout 7 consecutive gut segments was estimated by the geometric center method. Gastric retention of the liquid test meal in rats injected with scorpion toxin (median: 88%; range: 52-95% was significantly higher (P<0.02 than in controls (54%; 21-76%, an effect which was not modified by gastric secretion blockade with ranitidine. The progression of the isotope marker throughout the small intestine was significantly slower (P<0.05 in rats treated with toxin (1.2; 1.0-2.5 than in control animals (2.3; 1.0-3.2. Inhibition of both gastric emptying and intestinal transit in rats injected with scorpion toxin suggests an increased resistance to aboral flow, which might be caused by abnormal neurotransmitter release or by the local effects of venom on smooth muscle cells.

  10. Neural Mechanisms and Delayed Gastric Emptying of Liquid Induced Through Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, Wilson Ranu Ramirez; Ozaki, Michiko Regina; Vinagre, Adriana Mendes; Collares, Edgard Ferro; Almeida, Eros Antonio de, E-mail: erosaa@cardiol.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2015-02-15

    In pathological situations, such as acute myocardial infarction, disorders of motility of the proximal gut can trigger symptoms like nausea and vomiting. Acute myocardial infarction delays gastric emptying (GE) of liquid in rats. Investigate the involvement of the vagus nerve, α 1-adrenoceptors, central nervous system GABA{sub B} receptors and also participation of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus in GE and gastric compliance (GC) in infarcted rats. Wistar rats, N = 8-15 in each group, were divided as INF group and sham (SH) group and subdivided. The infarction was performed through ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. GC was estimated with pressure-volume curves. Vagotomy was performed by sectioning the dorsal and ventral branches. To verify the action of GABA{sub B} receptors, baclofen was injected via icv (intracerebroventricular). Intravenous prazosin was used to produce chemical sympathectomy. The lesion in the PVN of the hypothalamus was performed using a 1mA/10s electrical current and GE was determined by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (% GR) of a saline meal. No significant differences were observed regarding GC between groups; vagotomy significantly reduced % GR in INF group; icv treatment with baclofen significantly reduced %GR. GABA{sub B} receptors were not conclusively involved in delaying GE; intravenous treatment with prazosin significantly reduced GR% in INF group. PVN lesion abolished the effect of myocardial infarction on GE. Gastric emptying of liquids induced through acute myocardial infarction in rats showed the involvement of the vagus nerve, alpha1- adrenergic receptors and PVN.

  11. Neural Mechanisms and Delayed Gastric Emptying of Liquid Induced Through Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Ranu Ramirez Nunez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In pathological situations, such as acute myocardial infarction, disorders of motility of the proximal gut can trigger symptoms like nausea and vomiting. Acute myocardial infarction delays gastric emptying (GE of liquid in rats. Objective: Investigate the involvement of the vagus nerve, α 1-adrenoceptors, central nervous system GABAB receptors and also participation of paraventricular nucleus (PVN of the hypothalamus in GE and gastric compliance (GC in infarcted rats. Methods: Wistar rats, N = 8-15 in each group, were divided as INF group and sham (SH group and subdivided. The infarction was performed through ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. GC was estimated with pressure-volume curves. Vagotomy was performed by sectioning the dorsal and ventral branches. To verify the action of GABAB receptors, baclofen was injected via icv (intracerebroventricular. Intravenous prazosin was used to produce chemical sympathectomy. The lesion in the PVN of the hypothalamus was performed using a 1mA/10s electrical current and GE was determined by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (% GR of a saline meal. Results: No significant differences were observed regarding GC between groups; vagotomy significantly reduced % GR in INF group; icv treatment with baclofen significantly reduced %GR. GABAB receptors were not conclusively involved in delaying GE; intravenous treatment with prazosin significantly reduced GR% in INF group. PVN lesion abolished the effect of myocardial infarction on GE. Conclusion: Gastric emptying of liquids induced through acute myocardial infarction in rats showed the involvement of the vagus nerve, alpha1- adrenergic receptors and PVN.

  12. Effect of guar gum and fiber-enriched wheat bran on gastric emptying of a semisolid meal in healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydning, A.; Berstad, A.; Berstad, T.; Hertzenberg, L.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of physiological doses of guar gum (Guarem), 5 g, and fiber-enriched wheat bran (Fiberform), 10.5 g, on gastric emptying was studied by two different methods in healthy subjects: by a simple isotope localization monitor placed over the upper part of the abdomen, and by gamma camera. The fiber preparations were added to a semisolid meal consisting of wheatmeal porridge and juice, using technetium-99 DTPA as a marker. The gamma camera showed no effect of fiber on gastric emptying. The isotope localization monitor, however, indicated that Fiberform prevented postprandial accumulation of the meal within the upper part of stomach. The simple isotope localization monitor cannot be recommended for measurements of gastric emptying.

  13. Chronic lactose intake modifies the gastric emptying of monosaccharides but not of disaccharides in weanling rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da-Costa-Pinto E.A.L.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Ninety-six weanling male Wistar rats were fed for four weeks one of two different chows: a normal rat chow containing 55.5% (w/w starch (control group, N = 48 or a rat chow in which starch was partially replaced by lactose, in such a way that the experimental group (N = 48 received 35.5% (w/w starch and 20% (w/w lactose. The gastric emptying of fluid was then studied by measuring the gastric retention of four test meals containing lactose (5% or 10%, w/v or glucose + galactose (5% or 10%, w/v. Homogenates of the small intestine were assayed for lactase activity. The gastric retention values were obtained 15 min after orogastric infusion of the liquid meals. The median values for gastric retention of the 5% lactose solutions were 37.7% for the control group and 37.0% for the experimental group (P>0.02. For the 10% lactose solution the median values were 51.2% and 47.9% (P>0.02 for the control and experimental groups, respectively. However, for the 2.5% glucose + 2.5% galactose meal the median gastric retention was lower (P<0.02 in the group fed a lactose-enriched chow (38.5% than in the control group (41.6%. For the 5% glucose + 5% galactose solution the median values were not statistically different between groups, 65.0% for the control group and 58.8% for the experimental group. The median values of the specific lactase activity in the small intestine homogenate was 0.74 U/g in the control group and 0.91 U/g in the experimental group. These values were not statistically different (P>0.05. These results suggest that the prolonged ingestion of lactose by young adult rats changes the gastric emptying of a solution containing 5% monosaccharides. This adaptation may reflect the desensitization of intestinal nutrient receptors, possibly by an osmotic effect of lactose present in the chow.

  14. Gastric emptying rate in subjects with malocclusion examined by [(13) C] breath test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, S; Sujino, T; Ohmori, H; Shimazaki, K; Fukuyama, E; Kanai, T; Hibi, T; Ono, T

    2013-08-01

    Masticatory function is significantly lower in individuals with malocclusion than in those with normal occlusion. Although several studies suggest that masticatory function influences gastrointestinal digestive function, the relationship between malocclusion and gastrointestinal symptoms has not been studied extensively. We hypothesised that insufficient masticatory function would increase the functional burden of the stomach and have some influence on the gastrointestinal system. The purpose of this study was to investigate masticatory function and gastric emptying rate in subjects with malocclusion. Eleven healthy dentate female volunteers and eleven female patients with maloc-clusion underwent a (13) C-acetate breath test with a liquid meal. Maximum (13) CO2 exhalation time (Tmax ) was compared statistically between both groups. Masticatory function was assessed by colour-changeable chewing gum. In addition, the frequency scale for the symptoms of gastroeso-phageal reflux disease (FSSG) and questionnaires on food intake were given to both groups. The mean Tmax of the malocclusion group was significantly longer than that of the normal occlusion group (P = 0·007). Masticatory performance, measured by colour-changeable gum and questionnaires, was significantly lower in the malocclusion group than in the normal occlusion group (P = 0·023, P = 0·003). There was no significant difference in the FSSG results between the two groups (P = 0·262). This study suggested that there was a correlation between malocclusion and gastric emptying function in women.

  15. Energy and macronutrient composition of breakfast affect gastric emptying of lunch and subsequent food intake, satiety and satiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Miriam; Shafat, Amir

    2010-06-01

    Satiety and food intake are closely related to gastrointestinal transit and specifically gastric emptying. High-fat (HF) meals empty more slowly from the stomach yet are less satiating than isoenergetic low-fat (LF) meals. The current study examines how gastric emptying and satiety at lunch are affected by energy and macronutrient content of breakfast. Nine male volunteers consumed either (1) a HF breakfast, (2) a LF breakfast isoenergetic to HF (LFE) or (3) a LF breakfast of equal mass to HF (LFM). Gastric emptying half time measured using the sodium [(13)C] acetate breath test was delayed after HF compared to LF meals (HF: 102 + or - 11, LFE: 96 + or - 13, LFM: 95 + or - 13 min, mean + or - SD). Fullness increased and desire to eat decreased following the LFE breakfast measured using visual analogue scales. Eating a HF breakfast increased the energy, fat and protein from an ad libitum buffet meal given 4h after lunch. In conclusion, eating a HF breakfast delayed gastric emptying of lunch and increased food intake 7 h later compared to a LFM breakfast. These data suggest both mass and energy content of food regulate subsequent appetite and feeding and demonstrate the hyperphagic effect of a single HF meal.

  16. Effect of 4-aminoantipyrine on gastric compliance and liquid emptying in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Vinagre

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Dipyrone (Dp delays gastric emptying (GE in rats. There is no information about whether 4-aminoantipyrine (AA, one of its metabolites, has the same effect. The objectives of the present study were to assess the effects of AA and Dp on GE when administered intravenously (iv and intracerebroventricularly (icv (240 µmol/kg and 4 µmol/animal, respectively and on gastric compliance when administered iv (240 µmol/kg. GE was determined in male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g (5-10 per group after icv or iv injection of the drug by measuring percent gastric retention (GR of a saline meal labeled with phenol red 10 min after administration by gavage. Gastric compliance was estimated in anesthetized rats (10-11 per group, with the construction of volume-pressure curves during intragastric infusion of a saline meal. Compliance was significantly greater in animals receiving Dp (mean ± SEM = 0.26 ± 0.009 mL/mmHg and AA (0.24 ± 0.012 mL/mmHg than in controls (0.19 ± 0.009 mL/mmHg. AA and Dp administered iv significantly increased GR (64.4 ± 2.5 and 54.3 ± 3.8%, respectively compared to control (34 ± 2.2%, a phenomenon observed only with Dp after icv administration. Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy reduced the effect of AA (GR = 31.4 ± 1.5% compared to sham-treated animals. Baclofen, a GABA B receptor agonist, administered icv significantly reduced the effect of AA (GR = 28.1 ± 1.3%. We conclude that Dp and AA increased gastric compliance and AA delayed GE, with the participation of the vagus nerve, through a pathway that does not involve a direct action of the drug on the central nervous system.

  17. Gastric emptying, gastric secretion and enterogastrone response after administration of milk proteins or their peptide hydrolysates in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, Jose A L; Holst, Jens Juul

    2004-01-01

    absorption and enterogastrone response, after the intragastric administration of complete cow milk proteins or their respective peptide hydrolysates in man. METHODS: Six healthy males were randomized to receive one of the following four solutions: whey whole protein (W), casein whole protein (C), whey......-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) plasma responses were elicited by the four solutions. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of gastric emptying and the plasma GLP-1 and PYY responses to feeding with cow milk protein solutions in humans are independent of the degree of protein fractionation and are not altered...... by small differences in the amino acid composition or protein solubility. In contrast, the GIP response is accentuated when milk proteins are delivered as peptide hydrolysates....

  18. Natural sweetener agave inhibits gastric emptying in rats by a cholecystokinin-2- and glucagon like peptide-1 receptor-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihter Gürler, E; Özbeyli, Dilek; Buzcu, Hülya; Bayraktar, Sezin; Carus, İrem; Dağ, Beyza; Geriş, Yasemin; Jeral, Seda; Yeğen, Berrak Ç

    2017-02-22

    Low-calorie sweeteners are considered to be beneficial in calorie control, but the impact of these sweeteners on gastric emptying is not well described. The purpose of this study was to compare the gastric emptying rate of agave nectar with those of glucose and fructose, and to evaluate the interaction of cholecystokinin (CCK)-1, CCK-2 and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors in agave-induced alterations in gastric emptying. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fitted with gastric cannulas. Following the recovery, the gastric emptying rates of glucose, fructose and agave at 12.5%, 15% or 50% concentrations were measured and compared with that of saline. GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin fragment 9-39 (30 μg kg(-1)), CCK-1 receptor antagonist devazepide (1 mg kg(-1)) or gastrin/CCK-2 receptor antagonist YM022 (1 mg kg(-1)) was injected subcutaneously 1 min before the emptying of glucose, fructose or agave at their 50% concentrations. When compared with saline emptying, gastric emptying of glucose was significantly delayed at its 25% and 50% concentrations, but the emptying of 12.5% glucose was not different from that of saline. Agave emptying, which was delayed with respect to saline emptying, was not altered by CCK-1 receptor blockade; but agave emptied from the stomach as rapidly as saline following the blockade of either CCK-2 or GLP-1 receptors. The findings demonstrate that the inhibitory effect of agave on gastric emptying is mediated by both CCK-2 and GLP-1 receptors, suggesting that natural sweeteners including agave may have satiating effects through the inhibition of gastric motility via enteroendocrine mechanisms.

  19. Influence of the menstrual cycle and of menopause on the gastric emptying rate of solids in female volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mones, J. (Dept. of Gastroenterology, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)); Carrio, I. (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)); Calabuig, R. (Dept. of Gastroenterology, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)); Estorch, M. (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)); Sainz, S. (Dept. of Gastroenterology, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)); Berna, L. (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)); Vilardell, F. (Dept. of Gastroenterology, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain))

    1993-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the normal menstrual cycle and of menopause on the gastric emptying rate of solids. Gastric emptying was studied in 15 premenopausal and ten postmenopausal women with an isotopic technique after the ingestion of a radiolabelled test meal. Premenopausal women were studied twice: Within 1 week prior to menses and again 1 week after onset of menses. Postmenopausal women were studied only once. The emptying curves of the solid component of the meal fitted a linear model. The half-emptying time was 78[+-]5 min during the follicular phase, 75[+-]7 min during the luteal phase and 76[+-]6 min in postmenopausal women (differences not statistically significant). The mean percentages of the meal retained in the stomach at different time intervals were also similar in the three groups. These results suggest that the menstrual cycle does not influence the gastric emptying rate of solids, which remains unchanged in relation to the follicular phase or after menopause. (orig.)

  20. Gastric emptying of glucose solution and associated plasma concentrations of GLP-1, GIP, and PYY before and after fundoplication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miholic, J; Hoffmann, M; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was designed to assess the relationship between gastric emptying of glucose solution and the ensuing plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) in patients having undergone fundoplicatio...

  1. Gut hormone secretion, gastric emptying, and glycemic responses to erythritol and xylitol in lean and obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wölnerhanssen, Bettina K; Cajacob, Lucian; Keller, Nino

    2016-01-01

    satiation, reduce gastric emptying (GE), and modulate glucose homeostasis. Although glucose ingestion stimulates sweet taste receptors in the gut and leads to incretin and gastrointestinal hormone release, the effects of xylitol and erythritol have not been well studied. Ten lean and 10 obese volunteers...

  2. Gastric emptying in rats following administration of a range of different fats measured as acetaminophen concentration in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsgaard, Trine; Straarup, Ellen Marie; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2003-01-01

    an indirect measure of gastric emptying. Emulsified fats with added acetaminophen were fed by gavage to rats, and the plasma concentration of acetaminophen was followed for 3 h by repeated blood sampling from the carotid artery. The fats administered included rapeseed, corn, and fish oils, lard, and cocoa...

  3. Ultrasonographic study of postcibal gastro-esophageal reflux and gastric emptying in infants with recurrent respiratory disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Agostino Di Ciaula; Piero Portincasa; Leonardo Di Terlizzi; Domenico Paternostro; Giuseppe Palasciano

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To check the utility of postcibal ultrasonography for the evaluation of reflux in relation to gastric emptying in infants with recurrent respiratory symptoms and to link imaging with clinical data.METHODS: Esophageal reflux (hyperechoic retrograde filling) and gastric emptying (antral areas) were quantified before and after ingestion of a standard formula in 35 untreated infants (13 with chronic cough,22 with recurrent bronchitis) and in 31 controls.RESULTS: The prevalence of abnormal (≥8 episodes)postcibal refluxes was 74% in patients and 3% in controls. Number, duration of the longest episode and extent of refluxes were significantly higher in patients compared to controls. Number of refluxes was higher in patients with symptomatic refluxes than in those without.Infants with recurrent bronchitis had more refluxes than those with chronic cough and controls. Extent and timing of gastric emptying were similar in patients and controls.CONCLUSION: Esophageal ultrasonography is a useful and physiological test in infants with recurrent respiratory diseases, which have a high prevalence of abnormal postcibal esophageal reflux and a gastric emptying similar to that of normal controls. Esophageal reflux is more severe in subjects with recurrent bronchitis than in those with chronic cough.

  4. Evaluation of gastrectomy in patients with delayed gastric emptying after antireflux surgery or large hiatal hernia repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, A.; Furnee, E.J.B.; Gooszen, H.G.; Wondergem, M.; Hazebroek, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Revision antireflux surgery and large hiatal hernia repair require extensive dissection at the gastroesophageal junction. This may lead to troublesome symptoms due to delayed gastric emptying, eventually requiring gastrectomy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of gastrect

  5. Pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy : Influence of a Billroth I versus a Billroth II type of reconstruction on gastric emptying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goei, TH; Henegouwen, MIV; Slooff, MJH; van Gulik, TM; Gouma, DJ; Eddes, EH

    2001-01-01

    Background/Aim: Delayed gastric emptying (DGE) is a frequent problem after pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy. Important risk factors are the presence of intra-abdominal complications. Searching for other causes, this study evaluates the influence of the type of reconstruction after a pancreat

  6. Differential incretin effects of GIP and GLP-1 on gastric emptying, appetite, and insulin-glucose homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edholm, T; Degerblad, M; Grybäck, P

    2010-01-01

    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are major incretins with important effects on glucoregulatory functions. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of GIP and GLP-1 on gastric emptying and appetite after a mixed meal, and effects on ins...

  7. Intragastric layering of lipids delays lipid absorption and increases plasma CCK but has minor effects on gastric emptying and appetite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foltz, Martin; Maljaars, Jeroen; Schuring, Ewoud A. H.; van der Wal, Robert J. P.; Boer, Theo; Duchateau, Guus S. M.; Peters, Harry P. F.; Stellaard, Frans; Masclee, Ad A.

    2009-01-01

    Foltz M, Maljaars J, Schuring EA, van der Wal RJ, Boer T, Duchateau GS, Peters HP, Stellaard F, Masclee AA. Intragastric layering of lipids delays lipid absorption and increases plasma CCK but has minor effects on gastric emptying and appetite. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 296: G982-G991,

  8. Effect of sustained-release isosorbide dinitrate on post-prandial gastric emptying and gastroduodenal motility in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J L; Rasmussen, S L; Linnet, J;

    2004-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter released by non-adrenergic and non-cholinergic neurons that innervate the smooth muscles of the gastrointestinal tract. We examined whether NO, derived from a sustained-release preparation of isosorbide dinitrate, influenced gastric emptying and...

  9. Longer Oral Exposure with Modified Sham Feeding Does Not Slow Down Gastric Emptying of Low- and High-Energy-Dense Gastric Loads in Healthy Young Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlens, G.M.; Erkner, A.; Mars, M.; Graaf, de C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A long oral exposure to food and a high-energy density of food are shown to increase satiety feelings. The effect of energy density is predominantly caused by an inhibition of gastric emptying. It is hypothesized that prolonging oral exposure may have an additional effect on this inhibit

  10. The relationship between Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis or ulcer disease and gastric emptying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao Chiahung (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China)); Wang Shyhjen (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China)); Chen Granhum (Div. of Gastroenterology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China)); Yeh Shinhwa (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China))

    1994-03-01

    Forty-five patients with Helicobacter pylori (HP)-associated gastritis or ulcer disease were included in this study. Radionuclide-labelled solid meals were used to calculate gastric emptying times (GETs) and carbon-14 urea breath tests ([sup 14]C UBTs) were used to measure the HP colonies quantitatively. The patients were assessed according to the following two criteria: (a) the HP colony number (i.e. high or low) and (b) the recorded duration of the GET (i.e. long or short). There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of abnormal GET between high and low [sup 14]C UBT patients or in the incidence of abnormal [sup 14]C UBT between long and short GET cases. In conclusion, no significant relationship between HP-associated gastritis or ulcer disease and GET was found in this study. (orig.)

  11. Diaphragmatic suture with tubular stomach to prevent early delayed gastric emptying after esophagectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Sun; Weiping Shi; Yusheng Shu; Hongcan Shi; Shichun Lu; Kang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical ef icacy of a diaphragmatic suture with tubular stomach to prevent delayed gastric emptying (DGE) after esophagectomy through the cervico-tho-racoabdominal approach. Methods A total of 980 patients with esophageal cancer undergoing esophagectomy through the cer-vico-thoracoabdominal approach were retrospectively included in this study and divided into two groups. Al patients underwent tubular stomach creation (group A; n = 530) or a diaphragmatic suture and tubular stomach creation (group B; n = 450). The incidence of early DGE was observed. Results The incidence of early DGE in group A was significantly higher than that in group B (P Conclusion This observation study suggests that the use of a diaphragmatic suture with tubular stomach through the cervico-thoracoabdominal approach can decrease the incidence of early DGE after esopha-gectomy.

  12. Estimation of gastric emptying time (GET) in clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) using X-radiography technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Khoo Mei; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd. [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    This study examines the movement of food item and the estimation of gastric emptying time using the X-radiography techniques, in the clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) fed in captivity. Fishes were voluntarily fed to satiation after being deprived of food for 72 hours, using pellets that were tampered with barium sulphate (BaSO{sub 4}). The movement of food item was monitored over different time of feeding. As a result, a total of 36 hours were needed for the food items to be evacuated completely from the stomach. Results on the modeling of meal satiation were also discussed. The size of satiation meal to body weight relationship was allometric, with the power value equal to 1.28.

  13. Effect of drink carbohydrate content on postexercise gastric emptying, rehydration, and the calculation of net fluid balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, David J; Evans, Gethin H; James, Lewis J

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the gastric emptying and rehydration effects of hypotonic and hypertonic glucose-electrolyte drinks after exercise-induced dehydration. Eight healthy males lost ~1.8% body mass by intermittent cycling and rehydrated (150% of body mass loss) with a hypotonic 2% (2% trial) or a hypertonic 10% (10% trial) glucose-electrolyte drink over 60 min. Blood and urine samples were taken at preexercise, postexercise, and 60, 120, 180, and 240 min postexercise. Gastric and test drink volume were determined 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min postexercise. At the end of the gastric sampling period 0.3% (2% trial) and 42.1% (10% trial; p drinks remained in the stomach. Plasma volume was lower (p drinks were retained. Net fluid balance was greater from 120 min during the 10% trial (p rehydration drink might be mediated by a slower rate of gastric emptying, but the slow gastric emptying of such solutions makes rehydration efficiency difficult to determine in the hours immediately after drinking, compromising the calculation of net fluid balance.

  14. The effect of pylorus removal on delayed gastric emptying after pancreaticoduodenectomy: a meta-analysis of 2,599 patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenming Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Delayed gastric emptying is a serious complication of pancreaticoduodenectomy. The effect of pylorus removal on delayed gastric emptying has not been well evaluated. STUDY DESIGN: We searched five databases (PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Scopus and Web of Science up to July 2014. The meta-regression analysis was performed to evaluate any factors accountable for the heterogeneity. Publication bias was assessed by Egger's test, and corrected by Duval's trim and fill method. Subgroup analyses were conducted for different surgical techniques of pyloric removal. Other intraoperative and postoperative parameters were compared between two groups. RESULTS: We included 27 studies involving 2,599 patients, with a moderate-high heterogeneity for primary outcome (I(2 = 63%. Meta-regression analysis showed that four variables primarily contributed to the heterogeneity, namely nasogastric tube intubation time, solid food start time, preoperative diabetes percentage and the number of patients in pylorus-preserving group. After excluding four studies, the remaining twenty-three studies showed reduced heterogeneity (I(2 = 51%. Then we used Duval's trim and fill method to correct publication bias. The corrected MH odds ratio was 0.78 (95% CI: 0.52-1.17. A subgroup analysis showed that pylorus removal tends to reduce delayed gastric emptying incidence for subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy or pylorus-resecting pancreaticoduodenectomy, compared with pylorus-preserving group. However, standard Whipple procedure failed to show any significant reduction of DGE compared with pylorus-removal group. No significant differences were observed in terms of length of hospital stay, infection and pancreatic fistula; however, pylorus removal resulted in longer operation time, more blood loss and higher mortality. CONCLUSION: The pylorus removal does not significantly reduce the overall incidence of delayed

  15. Gastric emptying and intestinal absorption of ingested water and saline by hypovolemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Edward M; Bykowski, Michael R; Hossler, Carrie A Smith; Curtis, Kathleen S; Smith, James C

    2009-12-01

    Recent experiments showed that in a one-bottle test conducted 16h after sc injection of polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution, hypovolemic rats consumed water or 0.30 M NaCl in an initial drinking episode but did not empty the ingested fluid from the stomach or absorb it from the small intestine very rapidly, certainly not as rapidly as when 0.15M NaCl was consumed (Smith et al., Am J Physiol 292: R2089-R2099, 2007). The present experiments examined the patterns of water and 0.30 M NaCl ingestion and the movement of consumed fluid through the gastrointestinal tract when PEG-treated rats were given a two-bottle delayed-access test. We found that both fluids always were consumed in the first drinking episode, that the fluid mixture ingested was equivalent to 0.10-0.15M NaCl, and that gastric emptying rate and net fluid absorption from the small intestine usually were much faster than when PEG-treated rats drank either water or hypertonic saline alone. Thus, ingestion of water and 0.30 M NaCl by hypovolemic rats in the same episode adaptively facilitated the movement into the circulation of a near-isotonic fluid that is ideal for restoring plasma volume deficits.

  16. Impaired gastric emptying of a solid test meal in patients with Parkinson's disease using 13C-sodium octanoate breath test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetze, Oliver; Wieczorek, Joerg; Mueller, Thomas; Przuntek, Horst; Schmidt, Wolfgang E; Woitalla, Dirk

    2005-03-03

    Up to now gastric emptying in patients with Parkinson's disease was determined by radioscintigraphy. The 13C-sodium octanoate breath test (OBT) has been established for the non-invasive evaluation of gastric emptying with a solid test meal. The aim of the study was to evaluate the OBT in patients with Parkinson's disease and to investigate the prevalence of delayed gastric emptying for solids in PD and the relationship to clinical staging patterns. Twenty-two healthy subjects and 36 patients with different clinical stages of PD classified using Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) were studied. Each fasting control and patient received a solid test meal (241 kcal) labelled with 100 mg of 13C-sodium octanoate. Breath samples were obtained before substrate administration and then in 15-min intervals over 4 h. The 13CO2/12CO2 ratio was determined in each breath sample as delta over baseline. Time to peak (t(peak)), gastric half emptying time (t1/2b), lag phase (t(lagb)) and gastric emptying coefficient (GEC) were calculated. Significant differences in t(peak), t1/2b, t(lagb) and GEC were found between patients and healthy volunteers (p<0.0001), with a 60% delay in gastric half emptying time in the patient group. Gastric half emptying time was different between clinical disease groups (H&Y 0-2 versus H&Y 2.5-5, p=0.001; UPDRS 0-30 versus UPDRS 61-92, p<0.05). The OBT detects a significant delay in gastric emptying of a solid test meal in patients with PD. Delayed gastric emptying for solids is associated with disease severity.

  17. The glycemic response to fibre rich foods and their relationship with gastric emptying and motor functions: an MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopirajah, R; Raichurkar, Keshav Prakash; Wadhwa, Rajkumar; Anandharamakrishnan, C

    2016-09-14

    The chief motor functions of human stomach, namely receiving, storing, mixing and emptying, influence the absorption of ingested food and hence determine the glycemic response to the meal. However, among these functions, the gastric emptying pattern of the stomach is essentially regulated by the meal characteristics such as particle size, volume, nutrient composition and viscosity. Understanding the complex relationship between the stomach motor functions and the physicochemical characteristics of meal on glycemic control needs more attention in the formulation of functional foods. Hence, the objective of this study is to employ the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique in ten healthy human volunteers to elucidate the relationship between the motor functions of the stomach and the glycemic response to fibre rich foods. For this, wheat and oat based breakfast meals were selected as fibre rich foods with low (0.042 Pa s) and high (0.266 Pa s) viscosity, respectively. Although wheat meal had a lower viscosity compared to oatmeal, the gastric emptying was found to be delayed for the former due to its high caloric density. This was reflected in the glycemic response as well, with wheat meal having a lower area under the curve (AUC) value than oatmeal. The antral contraction frequency is significantly reduced (P < 0.05) with delayed gastric emptying in the case of high nutrient wheat meal. Overall, the study demonstrated the synergistic effect of gastric emptying, stomach motor functions and physicochemical characteristics of food on the glycemic response to a meal. This information will aid in the development of functional foods with specific end applications.

  18. Phenylpyrazolone derivatives inhibit gastric emptying in rats by a capsaicin-sensitive afferent pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Vinagre

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Dipyrone (Dp, 4-aminoantipyrine (AA and antipyrine (At administered iv and Dp administered icv delay gastric emptying (GE in rats. The participation of capsaicin (Cps-sensitive afferent fibers in this phenomenon was evaluated. Male Wistar rats were pretreated sc with Cps (50 mg/kg or vehicle between the first and second day of life and both groups were submitted to the eye-wiping test. GE was determined in these animals at the age of 8/9 weeks (weight: 200-300 g. Ten minutes before the study, the animals of both groups were treated iv with Dp, AA or At (240 μmol/kg, or saline; or treated icv with Dp (4 μmol/animal or saline. GE was determined 10 min after treatment by measuring % gastric retention (GR of saline labeled with phenol red 10 min after orogastric administration. Percent GR (mean ± SEM, N = 8 in animals pretreated with Cps and treated with Dp, AA or At (35.8 ± 3.2, 35.4 ± 2.2, and 35.6 ± 2%, respectively did not differ from the GR of saline-treated animals pretreated with vehicle (36.8 ± 2.8% and was significantly lower than in animals pretreated with vehicle and treated with the drugs (52.1 ± 2.8, 66.2 ± 4, and 55.8 ± 3%, respectively. The effect of icv administration of Dp (N = 6 was not modified by pretreatment with Cps (63.3 ± 5.7% compared to Dp-treated animals pretreated with vehicle (62.3 ± 2.4%. The results suggest the participation of capsaicin-sensitive afferent fibers in the delayed GE induced by iv administration of Dp, AA and At, but not of icv Dp.

  19. Effect of the GABA B agonist baclofen on dipyrone-induced delayed gastric emptying in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F. Collares

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Dipyrone administered intravenously (iv or intracerebroventricularly (icv delays gastric emptying (GE in rats. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA is the most potent inhibitory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of icv baclofen, a GABA B receptor agonist, on delayed GE induced by dipyrone. Adult male Wistar rats received a saline test meal containing phenol red as a marker. GE was indirectly evaluated by determining the percent of gastric retention (%GR of the meal 10 min after orogastric administration. In the first experiment, the animals were injected iv with vehicle (Civ or 80 mg/kg (240 µmol/kg dipyrone (Dp iv, followed by icv injection of 10 µl vehicle (bac0, or 0.5 (bac0.5, 1 (bac1 or 2 µg (bac2 baclofen. In the second experiment, the animals were injected icv with 5 µl vehicle (Cicv or an equal volume of a solution containing 4 µmol (1333.2 µg dipyrone (Dp icv, followed by 5 µl vehicle (bac0 or 1 µg baclofen (bac1. GE was determined 10 min after icv injection. There was no significant difference between control animals from one experiment to another concerning GR values. Baclofen at the doses of 1 and 2 µg significantly reduced mean %GR induced by iv dipyrone (Dp iv bac1 = 35.9% and Dp iv bac2 = 26.9% vs Dp iv bac0 = 51.8%. Similarly, baclofen significantly reduced the effect of dipyrone injected icv (mean %GR: Dp icv bac1 = 30.4% vs Dp icv bac0 = 54.2%. The present results suggest that dipyrone induces delayed GE through a route in the central nervous system that is blocked by the activation of GABA B receptors.

  20. Effects of oleic acid and olive oil on gastric emptying, gut hormone secretion and appetite in lean and overweight or obese males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Morten; Graff, Jesper; Fuglsang, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    lean subjects, free fatty acid (FFA) promotes gut hormone release, delays gastric emptying, and reduces appetite and energy intake more than an isocaloric load of triglyceride (TG). In obesity, the gastrointestinal sensitivity to lipids may be reduced. Therefore, we compared the effects of the FF...... oleic acid and the TG olive oil on gut hormone secretion, gastric emptying, appetite, and energy intake in lean and overweight/obese subjects....

  1. Biologic gastric emptying time in diabetic patients, using Tc-99m-labeled resin-oatmeal with and without metoclopramide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domstad, P A; Kim, E E; Coupal, J J; Beihn, R; Yonts, S; Choy, Y C; Mandelstam, P; DeLand, F H

    1980-11-01

    Biologic gastric emptying time (BGET) was measured in 24 patients with severe diabetes mellitus complicated by vascular damage and peripheral or sensory neuropathy. This population had a BGET of 192 +/- 32.9 min (mean +/- s.e.m. normal 40-85 min). Patients with diabetic gastroenteropathy had prolongation of BGET to 295 +/- 45 (p oatmeal test meal used as described in this study provides a reliable measure of BGET and of the response to metoclopramide.

  2. Gastro intestinal tracking and gastric emptying of solid dosage forms in rats using X-ray imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saphier, Sigal; Rosner, Amir; Brandeis, Rachel; Karton, Yishai

    2010-03-30

    The aim of this research was to study the gastrointestinal transit and gastric emptying of non-disintegrating solid dosage forms in rats using X-ray imaging. Commercial gelatin minicapsules were filled with barium sulfate and enterically coated using Eudragit S100. The capsules were administered orally to rats followed by a solution of iodine based contrast agent iopromide. Images were obtained using a standard X-ray camera and digital film processing. Capsules were followed through the GI tract from the stomach to the small intestine, cecum and large intestine and the capsule location could be easily identified. Gastric emptying of different sized capsules was studied. The effect of fasting and time of administration on gastric retention was also studied. It was found that shortened capsules of 3.5 and 4.8mm length were emptied from the stomach whereas the commercial length 7.18mm capsules were retained. Surprisingly, 2.5h post administration more rats retained the capsules in the stomach in the fasted state than in the fed state. We found that X-ray imaging can be used for simple visualization and localization of solid dosage forms in rats in the fed state using shortened commercial minicapsules on rats.

  3. Effect of commercial rye whole-meal bread on postprandial blood glucose and gastric emptying in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwich Gassan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The intake of dietary fibre has been shown to reduce the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of commercial rye whole-meal bread containing whole kernels and white wheat bread on the rate of gastric emptying and postprandial glucose response in healthy subjects. Methods Ten healthy subjects took part in a blinded crossover trial. Blood glucose level and gastric emptying rate (GER were determined after the ingestion of 150 g white wheat bread or 150 g whole-meal rye bread on two different occasions after fasting overnight. The GER was measured using real-time ultrasonography, and was calculated as the percentage change in antral cross-sectional area 15 and 90 minutes after completing the meal. Results No statistically significant difference was found between the GER values or the blood glucose levels following the two meals when evaluated with the Wilcoxon signed rank sum test. Conclusion The present study revealed no difference in postprandial blood glucose response or gastric emptying after the ingestion of rye whole-meal bread compared with white wheat bread. Trial registration NCT00779298

  4. Delayed gastric emptying and Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with chronic renal failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao Chiahung [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China)]|[Yang-Ming Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China); Hsu Yuehhan [Division of Nephrology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China); Wang Shyhjen [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China)]|[Yang-Ming Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1995-11-01

    Forty patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) were enrolled in this study. Twelve of the 40 patients had upper gastrointestinal symptoms or signs (GI Sx). Twenty of the 40 patients had been receiving regular haemodialysis (HD) for at least 1 year prior to the study. Radionuclide-labelled solid metals were used to calculate gastric emptying times (GETs). The carbon-14 urea breath test ({sup 14}C4-UBT) was used to diagnose Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection. Among the 40 patients, 35 (88%) had an abnormal HP infection. There were no statistically significant differences in the incidence of abnormal GET among patients with HP infection and patients without HP infection. There were also no significant differences in the incidence of HP infection among patients with abnormal and normal GETs. In addition, the incidences of abnormal GET in patients with and without upper GI Sx were 83% and 89% respectively. The incidences of HP infection in patients with and without upper GI Sx were 58% and 54%, respectively. The incidences of abnormal GET in HD and non-HD patients were 95% and 80%, respectively. The incidences of HP infection in HD and non-HD patients were 45% and 65%, respectively. The differences in the incidences of abnormal GET and HP infection among HD and non-HD patients, as well as among patients with and without upper GI Sx, were not statistically significant. (orig.)

  5. Influence of hippophae rhamnoides on two appetite factors, gastric emptying and metabolic parameters, in children with functional dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Mantian; Qiu, Xiaoshan; Yue, Dianchao; Cai, Yongyi; Mo, Qingping

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to explore in children with functional dyspepsia the effect of hippophae rhamnoides on the levels of plasma appetite factors and on their gastrointestinal motility. A hundred and twenty children with functional dyspepsia were randomly divided into three groups: Group I (treated with hippophae rhamnoides), Group II (treated with domperidone), and Group III (treated with hippophae rhamnoides plus domperidone). The treatment lasted for eight weeks. The levels of plasma leptin (LP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) were measured before and after treatment. All patients underwent a gastric emptying (GE) test by ultrasound (US) to measure the rate of postprandial gastric antrum residual, at 30min, 60min, 90min and 120min. The average value of subcutaneous fat, body fat percentage, upper arm girth and body mass index (BMI) were also measured. To compare the US with the radionuclide GE test 14 healthy adults volunteers were tested by both GE techniques. We found that the levels of LP and NPY in plasma were markedly higher after treatment in Groups I and III than in Group II. The postprandial gastric antrum remains at 60min, 90min and 120min in Groups I and III fell greatly and the thickness of skin fold (SF), body fat percentage and arm girth increased (P0.05). In conclusion, in children's functional dyspepsia, our study showed that hippophae rhamnoides increases the levels of appetite factors, leptin and neuropeptide Y, increases gastric emptying and gastrointestinal digestive function, children's growth and development.

  6. Optimizing the diagnostic power with gastric emptying scintigraphy at multiple time points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajewski Byron J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastric Emptying Scintigraphy (GES at intervals over 4 hours after a standardized radio-labeled meal is commonly regarded as the gold standard for diagnosing gastroparesis. The objectives of this study were: 1 to investigate the best time point and the best combination of multiple time points for diagnosing gastroparesis with repeated GES measures, and 2 to contrast and cross-validate Fisher's Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA, a rank based Distribution Free (DF approach, and the Classification And Regression Tree (CART model. Methods A total of 320 patients with GES measures at 1, 2, 3, and 4 hour (h after a standard meal using a standardized method were retrospectively collected. Area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve and the rate of false classification through jackknife cross-validation were used for model comparison. Results Due to strong correlation and an abnormality in data distribution, no substantial improvement in diagnostic power was found with the best linear combination by LDA approach even with data transformation. With DF method, the linear combination of 4-h and 3-h increased the Area Under the Curve (AUC and decreased the number of false classifications (0.87; 15.0% over individual time points (0.83, 0.82; 15.6%, 25.3%, for 4-h and 3-h, respectively at a higher sensitivity level (sensitivity = 0.9. The CART model using 4 hourly GES measurements along with patient's age was the most accurate diagnostic tool (AUC = 0.88, false classification = 13.8%. Patients having a 4-h gastric retention value >10% were 5 times more likely to have gastroparesis (179/207 = 86.5% than those with ≤10% (18/113 = 15.9%. Conclusions With a mixed group of patients either referred with suspected gastroparesis or investigated for other reasons, the CART model is more robust than the LDA and DF approaches, capable of accommodating covariate effects and can be generalized for cross institutional applications, but

  7. Diunsaturated Aldehyde, trans,trans-2,4-Decadienal in the Intestinal Lumen Suppresses Gastric Emptying through Serotonin Signaling in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hira, Tohru; Yahagi, Asuka; Nishimura, Saki; Sakaino, Masayoshi; Yamashita, Takatoshi; Hara, Hiroshi

    2015-09-23

    We recently demonstrated that a diunsaturated aldehyde, trans,trans-2,4-decadienal (2,4-decadienal), potently stimulated secretion of cholecystokinin in the enteroendocrine cell line. Gut hormones such as cholecystokinin and serotonin play critical roles in reducing postprandial gastric emptying. In the present study, we first demonstrated that oral administration of 2,4-decadienal (50-100 mg/kg) reduced gastric emptying rate in rats, assessed by both the acetaminophen absorption test and the phenol red recovery method. In contrast, saturated aldehyde, alcohol, and fatty acids having the same chain length as 2,4-decadienal did not affect the gastric emptying rate. Duodenal administration of 2,4-decadienal potently reduced gastric emptying rate, but intraperitoneal administration did not. Furthermore, the gastric inhibitory effect of 2,4-decadienal was attenuated by treatment with a serotonin receptor antagonist. These results demonstrated that 2,4-decadienal in the small intestinal lumen has a potent inhibitory effect on gastric emptying, possibly through stimulation of the serotonin-producing enteroendocrine cells.

  8. Vincristine delays gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit of liquid in awake rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Peixoto Júnior

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effects of vincristine on the gastrointestinal (GI motility of awake rats and correlated them with the course of vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy. Vincristine or saline was injected into the tail vein of male Wistar rats (180-250 g on alternate days: 50 µg/kg (5 doses, N = 10, 100 µg/kg (2, 3, 4 and 5 doses, N = 49 or 150 µg/kg (1, 2, or 5 doses, N = 37. Weight and stool output were measured daily for each animal. One day after completing the vincristine treatment, the animals were fasted for 24 h, gavage-fed with a test meal and sacrificed 10 min later to measure gastric emptying (GE, GI transit and colon weight. Sensory peripheral neuropathy was evaluated by hot plate testing. Chronic vincristine treatments with total cumulative doses of at least 250 µg/kg significantly decreased GE by 31-59% and GI transit by 55-93%. The effect of 5 doses of vincristine (150 µg/kg on GE did not persist for more than 1 week. Colon weight increased after 2 and 5 doses of vincristine (150 µg/kg. Fecal output decreased up to 48 h after the fifth dose of vincristine (150 µg/kg. Vincristine decreased the heat pain threshold 1 day after 5 doses of 50-100 µg/kg or after 3-5 doses of 150 µg/kg. This effect lasted for at least 2 weeks after the fifth dose. Chronic intravenous vincristine treatment delayed GE and GI transit of liquid. This effect correlated with the peak increase in colon weight but not with the pain threshold changes.

  9. A novel dynamic scintigraphic technique for assessing duodenal contractions during gastric emptying in humans: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Tadeu T A; Moraes, Eder R; Secaf, Marie; Troncon, Luiz E A

    2015-01-01

    Duodenal contractions are thought to play a role in the control of gastric emptying. Although noninvasive techniques, such as ultrasonography and MRI, have been proposed for studying duodenal contractile activity in humans, there are no reports on the use of scintigraphy for this purpose. This work aimed to describe a novel scintigraphic technique for assessing duodenal contractility during gastric emptying in humans, and to present preliminary data on the frequency and amplitude of contractions detected in three different duodenal segments. Fasted young healthy volunteers (N=12) were given either a liquid or a solid test meal of similar calorie content (400 kcal) labeled with 99mTc-phytate. Static images were collected to determine gastric emptying. Dynamic images of the anterior aspect of the abdomen (1 frame/s) were also acquired periodically in a standard position for 256 s at 15-30 min intervals. 'Activity versus time' curves were generated for regions of interest corresponding to the proximal, middle, and distal duodenal segments. Curves were digitally filtered and processed to estimate both dominant frequency (fast Fourier transform) and amplitude (mean ejection fraction) of postprandial duodenal contractions. There were no significant differences regarding dominant frequency among proximal, middle, and distal duodenal regions of interest. In addition, there were no significant differences between the liquid and the solid meal in terms of either frequency or amplitude of duodenal contractions. Characterization of duodenal contractions in humans using scintigraphy is feasible and yields consistent data for both the frequency and the amplitude of postprandial contractions, which seems to be rather independent of meal consistency.

  10. Effect of cinnamon on gastric emptying, arterial stiffness, postprandial lipemia, glycemia, and appetite responses to high-fat breakfast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinick Tom R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cinnamon has been shown to delay gastric emptying of a high-carbohydrate meal and reduce postprandial glycemia in healthy adults. However, it is dietary fat which is implicated in the etiology and is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the effect of 3 g cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum on GE, postprandial lipemic and glycemic responses, oxidative stress, arterial stiffness, as well as appetite sensations and subsequent food intake following a high-fat meal. Methods A single-blind randomized crossover study assessed nine healthy, young subjects. GE rate of a high-fat meal supplemented with 3 g cinnamon or placebo was determined using the 13C octanoic acid breath test. Breath, blood samples and subjective appetite ratings were collected in the fasted and during the 360 min postprandial period, followed by an ad libitum buffet meal. Gastric emptying and 1-day fatty acid intake relationships were also examined. Results Cinnamon did not change gastric emptying parameters, postprandial triacylglycerol or glucose concentrations, oxidative stress, arterial function or appetite (p half and 1-day palmitoleic acid (r = -0.78, eiconsenoic acid (r = -0.84 and total omega-3 intake (r = -0.72. The ingestion of 3 g cinnamon had no effect on GE, arterial stiffness and oxidative stress following a HF meal. Conclusions 3 g cinnamon did not alter the postprandial response to a high-fat test meal. We find no evidence to support the use of 3 g cinnamon supplementation for the prevention or treatment of metabolic disease. Dietary fatty acid intake requires consideration in future gastrointestinal studies. Trial registration Trial registration number: at http://www.clinicaltrial.gov: NCT01350284

  11. Effect of cinnamon on gastric emptying, arterial stiffness, postprandial lipemia, glycemia, and appetite responses to high-fat breakfast

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Markey, Oonagh

    2011-09-07

    Abstract Background Cinnamon has been shown to delay gastric emptying of a high-carbohydrate meal and reduce postprandial glycemia in healthy adults. However, it is dietary fat which is implicated in the etiology and is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the effect of 3 g cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) on GE, postprandial lipemic and glycemic responses, oxidative stress, arterial stiffness, as well as appetite sensations and subsequent food intake following a high-fat meal. Methods A single-blind randomized crossover study assessed nine healthy, young subjects. GE rate of a high-fat meal supplemented with 3 g cinnamon or placebo was determined using the 13C octanoic acid breath test. Breath, blood samples and subjective appetite ratings were collected in the fasted and during the 360 min postprandial period, followed by an ad libitum buffet meal. Gastric emptying and 1-day fatty acid intake relationships were also examined. Results Cinnamon did not change gastric emptying parameters, postprandial triacylglycerol or glucose concentrations, oxidative stress, arterial function or appetite (p < 0.05). Strong relationships were evident (p < 0.05) between GE Thalf and 1-day palmitoleic acid (r = -0.78), eiconsenoic acid (r = -0.84) and total omega-3 intake (r = -0.72). The ingestion of 3 g cinnamon had no effect on GE, arterial stiffness and oxidative stress following a HF meal. Conclusions 3 g cinnamon did not alter the postprandial response to a high-fat test meal. We find no evidence to support the use of 3 g cinnamon supplementation for the prevention or treatment of metabolic disease. Dietary fatty acid intake requires consideration in future gastrointestinal studies. Trial registration Trial registration number: at http:\\/\\/www.clinicaltrial.gov: NCT01350284

  12. Some Observations on Gastric Emptying in the Black Sea Whiting, Merlangius merlangus euxinus, (N. 1840) Fed on Natural Prey

    OpenAIRE

    SEYHAN, Kadir; BAŞÇINAR, N. Selda; Düzgüneş(2), Ertug

    1998-01-01

    In this study a new perspective on the feeding physiology of whiting, Merlangius merlangus euxinus, N. 1840 was investigated. The effects of the skin of the prey, double feeding and prey type on the gastric emptying rate (GER) of whiting fed on natural prey, namely anchovy ( Engraulis encrasicholus) and mussels ( Mytilus galloprovincialis), were investigated. Return of appetite was also studied. It was found that in laboratory conditions, whiting (48.0±8.30 g, n=12) had consumed about 10.2...

  13. Biologic gastric emptying time in diabetic patients, using Tc-99m-labeled resin-oatmeal with and without metoclopramide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domstad, P.A.; Kim, E.E.; Coupal, J.J.; Beihn, R.; Yonts, S.; Choy, Y.C.; Mandelstam, P.; DeLand, F.H.

    1980-11-01

    Biologic gastric emptying time (BGET) was measured in 24 patients with severe diabetes mellitus complicated by vascular damage and peripheral or sensory neuropathy. This population had a BGET of 192 +- 32.9 min (mean +- s.e.m. normal 40 to 85 min). Patients with diabetic gastroenteropathy had prolongation of BGET to 295 +- 45 (p < 0.05). Metoclopramide significantly shortened BGET in this subgroup to 101 +- 40 min, with return to normal values in eight of the 12 patients given the drug. The Tc-99m-labeled resin-oatmeal test meal used as described in this study provides a reliable measure of BGET and of the response to metoclopramide.

  14. Evaluation of standard haemodynamic tests of autonomic function and HbA1c as predictors of delayed gastric emptying in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lydon, A

    2012-02-03

    We examined the relation between chronic glycaemic control (using glycosylated haemoglobin), haemodynamic autonomic function and rate of gastric emptying in 16 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Gastric emptying was measured using a paracetamol absorption technique. Parameters of gastric emptying include area under the plasma paracetamol concentration time curve. Patients were classified as diabetic autonomic neuropathy positive or negative using five standardized haemodynamic reflex tests. Area under the plasma paracetamol concentration time curve in the neuropathy positive (10.36 (4.5) mmol.-1. min) and negative (9.84 (3.0) mmol.-1. min) groups were similar (.P.=0.42) using unpaired Student\\'s.t. -tests. Glycosylated haemoglobin concentration and area under the plasma paracetamol concentration time curve (.n.=16) demonstrated a Pearson\\'s correlation co-efficient of 0.24. Neither tests of haemodynamic autonomic function, nor concentration of glycosylated haemoglobin, are predictive of diabetic gastroparesis.

  15. Effects of a Protein Preload on Gastric Emptying, Glycemia, and Gut Hormones After a Carbohydrate Meal in Diet-Controlled Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Jing; Stevens, Julie E.; Cukier, Kimberly; Maddox, Anne F.; Wishart, Judith M.; Jones, Karen L.; Clifton, Peter M.; Horowitz, Michael; Rayner, Christopher K.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We evaluated whether a whey preload could slow gastric emptying, stimulate incretin hormones, and attenuate postprandial glycemia in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Eight type 2 diabetic patients ingested 350 ml beef soup 30 min before a potato meal; 55 g whey was added to either the soup (whey preload) or potato (whey in meal) or no whey was given. RESULTS Gastric emptying was slowest after the whey preload (P < 0.0005). The incremental area under the blood glucose cur...

  16. Coffee for morning hunger pangs. An examination of coffee and caffeine on appetite, gastric emptying, and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Matthew M; Grant, Gary; Horner, Katy; King, Neil; Leveritt, Michael; Sabapathy, Surendran; Desbrow, Ben

    2014-12-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and has a number of potential health benefits. Coffee may influence energy expenditure and energy intake, which in turn may affect body weight. However, the influence of coffee and its constituents - particularly caffeine - on appetite remains largely unexplored. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of coffee consumption (with and without caffeine) on appetite sensations, energy intake, gastric emptying, and plasma glucose between breakfast and lunch meals. In a double-blind, randomised crossover design. Participants (n = 12, 9 women; Mean ± SD age and BMI: 26.3 ± 6.3 y and 22.7 ± 2.2 kg•m⁻²) completed 4 trials: placebo (PLA), decaffeinated coffee (DECAF), caffeine (CAF), and caffeine with decaffeinated coffee (COF). Participants were given a standardised breakfast labelled with ¹³C-octanoic acid and 225 mL of treatment beverage and a capsule containing either caffeine or placebo. Two hours later, another 225 mL of the treatment beverage and capsule was administered. Four and a half hours after breakfast, participants were given access to an ad libitum meal for determination of energy intake. Between meals, participants provided exhaled breath samples for determination of gastric emptying; venous blood and appetite sensations. Energy intake was not significantly different between the trials (Means ± SD, p> 0.05; Placebo: 2118 ± 663 kJ; Decaf: 2128 ± 739 kJ; Caffeine: 2287 ± 649 kJ; Coffee: 2016 ± 750 kJ); Other than main effects of time (p  0.05). Gastric emptying was not significantly different across trials (p > 0.05). No significant effects of decaffeinated coffee, caffeine or their combination were detected. However, the consumption of caffeine and/or coffee for regulation of energy balance over longer periods of time warrant further investigation.

  17. The glucagon-like peptide-1 metabolite GLP-1-(9-36) amide reduces postprandial glycemia independently of gastric emptying and insulin secretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Gethmann, Arnica; Nauck, Michael A;

    2006-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) lowers glycemia by modulating gastric emptying and endocrine pancreatic secretion. Rapidly after its secretion, GLP-1-(7-36) amide is degraded to the metabolite GLP-1-(9-36) amide. The effects of GLP-1-(9-36) amide in humans are less well characterized. Fourteen he...

  18. Gastric emptying of orally administered glucose solutions and incretin hormone responses are unaffected by laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usinger, Lotte; Hansen, Katrine B; Kristiansen, Viggo B

    2011-01-01

    Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) provides weight loss in obese individuals and is associated with improved glucose homeostasis and resolution of type 2 diabetes. However, in most available reports, potentially inappropriate methodology has been applied when measuring the impact of L...

  19. A double-blind placebo-controlled study on the effects of omeprazole on gut hormone secretion and gastric emptying rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, L; Qvist, N; Oster-Jørgensen, E;

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The present study was designed to investigate whether an effect of omeprazole on gastric emptying is related to changes in the secretion of selected gut hormones. METHODS: The studies were performed in healthy men after 10 days' treatment with 40 mg omeprazole daily/placebo. Food...... ingestion took place in a duodenal phase, I and the meal consisted of an omelette labelled with technetium Tc 99m, followed by 150 ml water labelled with indium In 111. Plasma concentrations of gastrin, cholecystokinin (CCK), and motilin were measured. RESULTS: Pretreatment with omeprazole reduced gastric...... emptying rates. This applied to all variables and was most pronounced with regard to amounts of solid (median (95% confidence interval)) emptied at 180 min (71% (48 - 86) for omeprazole versus 96% (87 - 100) for placebo; P omeprazole...

  20. Erythromycin antagonizes the deceleration of gastric emptying by glucagon-like peptide 1 and unmasks its insulinotropic effect in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Kemmeries, Guido; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    , we aimed to antagonize the deceleration of gastric emptying by GLP-1 to study its effects on insulin secretion after a meal. Nine healthy male volunteers (age 25 +/- 4 years, BMI 25.0 +/- 4.9 kg/m2) were studied with an infusion of GLP-1 (0.8 pmol.kg(-1).min(-1) from -30 to 240 min) or placebo...

  1. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), a cofactor for nNOS, restores gastric emptying and nNOS expression in female diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Gastroparesis is a debilitating disease predominantly affecting young women. Recently, dysregulation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in myenteric plexus neurons has been implicated for delayed solid gastric emptying/gastroparesis in diabetic patients. In this study, we have explored the role of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), a major cofactor for nNOS activity and NO synthesis in diabetic gastroparesis. Diabetes was induced with single injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg body wt, ip) in...

  2. [Bouveret's syndrome: biliary ileus manifested by acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and impaired gastric emptying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonek, J; Lischke, R; Drábek, J; Pafko, P

    2002-05-01

    The authors present a very rare case of impaired gastric evacuation, known as Bouveret's syndrome, caused by a large biliary concrement wedged in the duodenum as a result of the development of a cholecystoduodenal fistula in a 77-year-old man. The condition was manifested clinically by developed high ileus and subsequent haemorrhage into the upper GIT. The diagnosis was established on the background of the clinical picture, passage through the upper GIT and endoscopy. As the attempt to remove the concrement endoscopically failed, laparotomy had to be used. In the conclusion of this case-record the authors discuss the method of assessment of the correct diagnosis endoscopically and possibilities of therapeutic strategy.

  3. The relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric emptying in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao Chiahung [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China); Pan Dahyou [Div. of Gastroenterology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China); Wang Shyhjen [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China); Chen Granhum [Div. of Gastroenterology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1995-02-01

    Forty-four patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) were included in this study. Radionuclide-labelled solid meals were used to calculate gastric emptying times (GETs). The carbon-14 urea breath test ({sup 14}C-UBT) was used to diagnose Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection. The patients were separated into groups according to the following two criteria: (1) HP infection was diagnosed on the basis of a {sup 14}C-UBT value of {>=}1.5; (2) the GET was defined as abnormal when it was {>=}117.1 min. The results showed that 61% (27/44) of the NIDDM patients had an HP infection, and 59% (26/44) had an abnormal GET. The incidence of abnormal GET in positive {sup 14}C-UBT patients (62%) was higher than that in negative {sup 14}C-UBT patients (56%). Similarly, the incidence of positive {sup 14}C-UBT in abnormal GET cases (62%) was higher than that in normal GET cases (56%). However, according to chi-square tests the differences were not significant. In conclusion, no significant relationship between HP infection and GET was found in patients with NIDDM. (orig.)

  4. Itopride hydrochloride efficacy in the management of delayed gastric emptying in type 1 diabetis mellitus patients in the presence of autonomic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Yur’evna Budennaya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AimEvaluation of the itopride (Ganaton®, Abbot therapy efficacy in the management of gastrointestinal (GI symptoms and gastric motor function (GMF in type 1 diabetis mellitus (T1DM patients (pts in the presence of GMF dysfunction and other forms of diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN.Materials and MethodsThe total of 34 patients with T1DM, GMF dysfunction and DAN were selected for randomized, prospective, open-label, comparative study. The duration of the study was 6 weeks. The study group (17 pts received itopride 150 mg total daily. The control group (17 pts did not receive any treatment for GMF. А questionnaire was used for the assessment of gastrointestinal (GI symptoms. Gastric emptying velocity was evaluated with 13C-octanoate breath test.ResultsAs a result of itopride therapy there was a statistically significant decrease in the amount of time (T1/2 needed for the gastric emptying. The median amount of time decreased from 89.0 [82.3; 101.0] min to 53.0 [82.3; 101.0] min (p<0.001; decrease of the incidents of gastroesophageal reflux (p=0.013 and symptoms of intestinal dyspepsia (p=0.005. In control group there was no change in parameters. There was no positive dynamics of glycaemic control parameters (fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, fructosamine, and no reduction in the frequency of hypoglycaemic episodes during the test in any of the groups.ConclusionsItopride therapy in T1DM patients with GMF dysfunction and DAN in the total daily dose of 150 mg improves gastric emptying velocity. This therapy also improves symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux and intestinal dyspepsia. Improvement GMF doesn’t lead to positive dynamics of glycaemic control parameters.

  5. 止吐药物对大鼠实验性晕动病模型产生的胃排空抑制的影响%Effect of antiemetic drugs on decrease in gastric emptying in experimental model of motion sickness in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gupta YK; Chaudhary G

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of pretreatment with different antiemetic drugs on the motion sickness-induced inhibitionin gastric emptying. METHODS: The rats were rotated for a period of 45 min at the rate of 30 rotations per min.RESULTS: Rotating the rats caused a significant decrease in gastric emptying as compared to the non-rotatedgroup. Pretreatment with scopolamine (5 mg/kg, ip) did not reverse the delay in gastric emptying, while it per secaused inhibition of gastric emptying in the non-rotated group. Similarly other drugs mepyramine, cisapride, andgranisetron did not have any effect on delay in gastric emptying caused by rotation. However beta blocker propra-nolol could partially but significantly reverse the decrease in gastric emptying. CONCLUSION: The present studydemonstrated the potential use of propranolol as adjuvant with conventional antiemetics for motion sickness tocombat associated secondary symptoms.

  6. Acute effect of alginate-based preload on satiety feelings, energy intake, and gastric emptying rate in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georg Jensen, Morten; Kristensen, Mette; Belza, Anita; Knudsen, Jes C; Astrup, Arne

    2012-09-01

    Viscous dietary fibers such as sodium alginate extracted from brown seaweed have received much attention lately for their potential role in energy regulation through the inhibition of energy intake and increase of satiety feelings. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect on postprandial satiety feelings, energy intake, and gastric emptying rate (GER), by the paracetamol method, of two different volumes of an alginate-based preload in normal-weight subjects. In a four-way placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial, 20 subjects (age: 25.9 ± 3.4 years; BMI: 23.5 ± 1.7 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to receive a 3% preload concentration of either low volume (LV; 9.9 g alginate in 330 ml) or high volume (HV; 15.0 g alginate in 500 ml) alginate-based beverage, or an iso-volume placebo beverage. The preloads were ingested 30 min before a fixed breakfast and again before an ad libitum lunch. Consumption of LV-alginate preload induced a significantly lower (8.0%) energy intake than the placebo beverage (P = 0.040) at the following lunch meal, without differences in satiety feelings or paracetamol concentrations. The HV alginate significantly increased satiety feelings (P = 0.038), reduced hunger (P = 0.042) and the feeling of prospective food consumption (P = 0.027), and reduced area under the curve (iAUC) paracetamol concentrations compared to the placebo (P = 0.05). However, only a 5.5% reduction in energy intake was observed for HV alginate (P = 0.20). Although they are somewhat contradictory, our results suggest that alginate consumption does affect satiety feelings and energy intake. However, further investigation on the volume of alginate administered is needed before inferring that this fiber has a possible role in short-term energy regulation.

  7. Bitter taste receptors and α-gustducin regulate the secretion of ghrelin with functional effects on food intake and gastric emptying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Sara; Laermans, Jorien; Verhulst, Pieter-Jan; Thijs, Theo; Tack, Jan; Depoortere, Inge

    2011-02-01

    Ghrelin is a hunger hormone with gastroprokinetic properties but the factors controlling ghrelin secretion from the stomach are unknown. Bitter taste receptors (T2R) and the gustatory G proteins, α-gustducin (gust) and α-transducin, are expressed in the gut and are involved in the chemosensation of nutrients. This study aimed to investigate whether T2R-agonists affect (i) ghrelin release via α-gustducin and (ii) food intake and gastric emptying via the release of ghrelin. The mouse stomach contains two ghrelin cell populations: cells containing octanoyl and desoctanoyl ghrelin, which were colocalized with α-gustducin and α-transducin, and cells staining for desoctanoyl ghrelin. Gavage of T2R-agonists increased plasma octanoyl ghrelin levels in WT mice but the effect was partially blunted in gust(-/-) mice. Intragastric administration of T2R-agonists increased food intake during the first 30 min in WT but not in gust(-/-) and ghrelin receptor knockout mice. This increase was accompanied by an increase in the mRNA expression of agouti-related peptide in the hypothalamus of WT but not of gust(-/-) mice. The temporary increase in food intake was followed by a prolonged decrease (next 4 h), which correlated with an inhibition of gastric emptying. The delay in emptying, which was partially counteracted by ghrelin, was not mediated by cholecystokinin and GLP-1 but involved a direct inhibitory effect of T2R-agonists on gastric contractility. This study is unique in providing functional evidence that activation of bitter taste receptors stimulates ghrelin secretion. Modulation of endogenous ghrelin levels by tastants may provide novel therapeutic applications for the treatment of weight -and gastrointestinal motility disorders.

  8. Body Position Modulates Gastric Emptying and Affects the Post-Prandial Rise in Plasma Amino Acid Concentrations Following Protein Ingestion in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Holwerda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary protein digestion and amino acid absorption kinetics determine the post-prandial muscle protein synthetic response. Body position may affect gastrointestinal function and modulate the post-prandial rise in plasma amino acid availability. We aimed to assess the impact of body position on gastric emptying rate and the post-prandial rise in plasma amino acid concentrations following ingestion of a single, meal-like amount of protein. In a randomized, cross-over design, eight healthy males (25 ± 2 years, 23.9 ± 0.8 kg·m−2 ingested 22 g protein and 1.5 g paracetamol (acetaminophen in an upright seated position (control and in a −20° head-down tilted position (inversion. Blood samples were collected during a 240-min post-prandial period and analyzed for paracetamol and plasma amino acid concentrations to assess gastric emptying rate and post-prandial amino acid availability, respectively. Peak plasma leucine concentrations were lower in the inversion compared with the control treatment (177 ± 15 vs. 236 ± 15 mmol·L−1, p < 0.05, which was accompanied by a lower plasma essential amino acid (EAA response over 240 min (31,956 ± 6441 vs. 50,351 ± 4015 AU; p < 0.05. Peak plasma paracetamol concentrations were lower in the inversion vs. control treatment (5.8 ± 1.1 vs. 10.0 ± 0.6 mg·L−1, p < 0.05. Gastric emptying rate and post-prandial plasma amino acid availability are significantly decreased after protein ingestion in a head-down tilted position. Therefore, upright body positioning should be considered when aiming to augment post-prandial muscle protein accretion in both health and disease.

  9. Associations between meal size, gastric emptying and post-prandial plasma glucose, insulin and lactate concentrations in meal-fed cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coradini, M; Rand, J S; Filippich, L J; Morton, J M; O'Leary, C A

    2015-08-01

    Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations are increased for 12-24 h in healthy cats following moderate- to high-carbohydrate meals. This study investigated associations between gastric emptying time and post-prandial plasma glucose, insulin and lactate concentrations in cats fed an extruded dry, high-carbohydrate, moderate-fat, low-protein diet (51, 28, 21% metabolizable energy, respectively) once daily by varying meal volume. Eleven healthy, non-obese, neutered adult cats were enrolled in a prospective study and fed to maintain body weight. Ultrasound examinations were performed for up to 26 h, and blood collections over 24 h after eating meals containing approximately 100% and 50% of the cats' daily caloric intake (209 and 105 kJ/kg BW, respectively). Gastric emptying time was increased after a meal of 209 kJ/kg BW compared with 105 kJ/kg BW (median gastric emptying times 24 and 14 h, respectively; p = 0.03). Time for glucose to return to fasting was longer after the 209 kJ/kg BW meal (median 20 h; 25th and 75th percentiles 15 and 23 h, respectively) than the 105 kJ/kg BW meal (13, 12 and 14 h; p cats meal fed a high-carbohydrate, low-protein, dry diet and fasting times for cats' meal-fed diets of similar composition should be 14-26 h, depending on meal size.

  10. Delayed gastric emptying rate as a potential mechanism for lowered glycemia after eating sourdough bread: studies in humans and rats using test products with added organic acids or an organic salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljeberg, H G; Björck, I M

    1996-12-01

    The possible effects of organic acids or an organic salt on the rate of gastric emptying was studied to identify the cause for reduced postmeal responses of blood glucose and insulin to foods containing such components, eg, sourdough bread. Paracetamol was included in bread products with added lactic acid or sodium propionate and used as a marker for the rate of gastric emptying in healthy subjects. In parallel, postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, and satiety were evaluated. The influence of lactic acid, propionic acid, and sodium propionate was also studied in rats after they were tube-fed with glucose solutions. The bread products with lactic acid or sodium propionate both lowered blood glucose and insulin responses. The bread with sodium propionate also prolonged satiety. The reason for the lowered metabolic responses with sodium propionate was probably a lowered gastric emptying rate, as judged from reduced blood paracetamol concentrations; there was no such effect observed with bread with added lactic acid. A similar amount of lactic acid in solution tube-fed to rats did not affect the disappearance of glucose from the stomach. In contrast with the finding in humans, sodium propionate had no effect on the rate of gastric emptying in rats whereas an equimolar solution of propionic acid reduced gastric emptying rate in rats. Possibly, less of this acid was produced in the gastric contents after a bolus load of a sodium propionate solution (in rats) than in an eating situation. Also, the pH and/or the osmolarity may be important, and when provided in excessive amounts, lactic acid reduced the gastric emptying rate in rats. A hydrochloric acid solution of similar pH was much less effective in this respect.

  11. Relationship between postprandial changes in cardiac left ventricular function, glucose and insulin concentrations, gastric emptying, and satiety in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björgell Ola

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The digestion of food is known to alter the hemodynamics of the body significantly. The purpose of this study was to study the postprandial changes in stroke volume (SV, cardiac output (CO and left ventricular (LV longitudinal systolic and diastolic functions measured with tissue Doppler imaging, in relation to gastric emptying rate (GER, satiety, and glucose and insulin concentrations in healthy subjects. Methods Twenty-three healthy subjects were included in this study. The fasting and postprandial changes at 30 min and 110 min in CO, heart rate (HR and blood pressure were measured. Moreover, tissue Doppler imaging systolic (S', early (E' and late (A' mitral annular diastolic velocities were measured in the septal (s and lateral (l walls. Glucose and insulin concentrations, and satiety were measured before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after the start of the meal. The GER was calculated as the percentage change in the antral cross-sectional area 15-90 min after ingestion of the meal. Results This study show that both CO, systolic longitudinal ventricular velocity of the septum (S's and lateral wall (S'l, the early diastolic longitudinal ventricular velocity of the lateral wall (E'l, the late diastolic longitudinal ventricular velocity of the septum (A's and lateral wall (A'l increase significantly, and were concomitant with increased satiety, antral area, glucose and insulin levels. The CO, HR and SV at 30 min were significantly higher, and the diastolic blood pressure was significantly lower, than the fasting. The satiety was correlated to HR and diastolic blood pressure. The insulin level was correlated to HR. Conclusions This study shows that postprandial CO, HR, SV and LV longitudinal systolic and diastolic functions increase concomitantly with increased satiety, antral area, and glucose and insulin levels. Therefore, patients should not eat prior to, or during, cardiac evaluation as the effects of a meal may

  12. Relationship between ghrelin and gastric emptying in diabetic rats at different stages%糖尿病大鼠不同阶段Ghrelin变化与胃排空关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹红; 张喜娟; 严祥; 陈明; 刘纯

    2014-01-01

    group (NC-20w group). Type 2 diabetes model was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of a low dose of streptozotocin plus long-term high fat and high caloric laboratory chow. The gastric emptying half time (GET1/2) and 50 min residual rate were mea-sured by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), the level of ghrelin in plasma was detected by En-zyme-linked immunosorbent test (ELISA) and ghrelin immunoreactive positive cells were observed in gastric tissue at 2 weeks, 8 weeks or 20 weeks, respectively before the rats were sacrificed. Those data were compared between the control and model groups. Results (1) The GET1/2 in DM-2w group was significantly faster than that in NC-2w group [(22.99 ± 2.53) min vs (48.76 ± 22.06) min, P0.05). The GET1/2 in DM-20w group was significantly lower than that in NC-20w group [(84.02±27.54) min vs (47.79±13.22) min, P0.05). There were significant differences between DM-20w group and NC-20w group and DM-2w group (P>0.05). (3)There was a negative correlation between plasma ghrelin level and gastric half-emptying time. Conclusion (1) The changes of gastric motility varied at different stages of diabetes. In early stage, it presented accelerates gastric motility. With the progression of diabetes, gastric emptying gradually slowed down. (2) With the changes of gastric motility, ghrelin in plasma showed a similar trending with gastric motility. (3) There was a negative correlation between plasma ghrelin level and gastric half-emptying time.

  13. Differential actions of peripheral corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), urocortin II, and urocortin III on gastric emptying and colonic transit in mice: role of CRF receptor subtypes 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Vicente; Wang, Lixin; Rivier, Jean E; Vale, Wylie; Taché, Yvette

    2002-05-01

    Peripheral CRF inhibits gastric emptying and stimulates colonic motor function in rats. We investigated the role of CRF(1) and CRF(2) receptors in i.p. CRF-induced alterations of gut transit in conscious mice using selective CRF(1) and CRF(2) ligands injected i.p. Gastric emptying 2 h after ingestion of a solid chow meal and colonic transit (time to expel a bead inserted into the distal colon) were determined simultaneously. Rat/human (r/h)CRF, which has CRF(1) > CRF(2) binding affinity, decreased distal colonic transit time at lower doses (6-12 microg/kg) than those inhibiting gastric emptying (20-60 microg/kg). Ovine CRF, a preferential CRF(1) receptor agonist (6-60 microg/kg), reduced significantly the colonic transit time without altering gastric emptying, whereas the selective CRF(2) receptor agonists mouse urocortin II (20-60 microg/kg) and urocortin III (120 microg/kg) inhibited significantly gastric emptying without modifying colonic transit. The CRF(1)/CRF(2) receptor antagonist, astressin (30-120 microg/kg), dose dependently prevented r/hCRF (20 microg/kg)-induced inhibition of gastric emptying and reduction of colonic transit time. The selective CRF(1) receptor antagonists, NBI-27914 (C(18)H(20)Cl(4)N(4)C(7)H(8)O(3)S) and CP-154,526 (butyl-[2,5-dimethyl-7-(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl]ethylamine) (5-30 mg/kg), dose dependently blocked r/hCRF action on the colon without influencing the gastric response, whereas the CRF(2) receptor antagonist, antisauvagine-30 (30-100 microg/kg), dose dependently abolished r/hCRF-induced delayed gastric emptying and had no effect on colonic response. These data show that i.p. r/hCRF-induced opposite actions on upper and lower gut transit in conscious mice are mediated by different CRF receptor subtypes: the activation of CRF(1) receptors stimulates colonic propulsive activity, whereas activation of CRF(2) receptors inhibits gastric emptying.

  14. The effects of temperature on gastric emptying time of malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus, Bloch & Schneider 1801) using X-radiography technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazumder, Sabuj Kanti, E-mail: sabujsau@gmail.com [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd., E-mail: magfish05@yahoo.com [Marine Ecosystem Research Centre (EKOMAR), Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Institute of Tropical Aquaculture, University of Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Terengganu (Malaysia); Das, Simon Kumar, E-mail: skdas-maa@yahoo.com [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Marine Ecosystem Research Centre (EKOMAR), Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    Water temperature can influence the metabolic rate of ectothermal animal such as, fish. This study aims to investigate the gastric emptying time (GET) of malabar blood snapper (L. malabaricus) at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) fed with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO{sub 4}) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-8 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (18 h) was obsereved at 30°C, whereas the longest (28 h) GET was seen at 22°C. GET was increased with increasing temperature up to 30°C whereas decreased at extreme (34°C) and stress temperature (22°C). The findings of this study suggest to culture L. malabaricus at 26-30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges escalate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commercially important fish species. Overall, the data obtained from this study may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of malabar blood snapper.

  15. Randomized study to compare nasojejunal with nasogastric nutrition in critically ill patients without prior evidence of altered gastric emptying

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Friedman; Cecilia Lopes Flávia Couto; Maicon Becker

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Studies comparing jejunal and gastric nutrition show inconsistent results regarding pneumonia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of pneumonia comparing gastric with jejunal nutrition. Secondarily, we evaluated 28 th day Intensive Care Unit (ICU) mortality rate and other complications related to enteral feeding. Subjects: Age >18 years; need for enteral nutrition without contraindication for placement of an enteral tube, duration of ICU stay > than 48 h. ...

  16. Fast pouch emptying, delayed small intestinal transit, and exaggerated gut hormone responses after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirksen, C; Damgaard, M; Bojsen-Møller, K N;

    2013-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) causes extensive changes in gastrointestinal anatomy and leads to reduced appetite and large weight loss, which partly is due to an exaggerated release of anorexigenic gut hormones.......Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) causes extensive changes in gastrointestinal anatomy and leads to reduced appetite and large weight loss, which partly is due to an exaggerated release of anorexigenic gut hormones....

  17. Whey Protein Delays Gastric Emptying and Suppresses Plasma Fatty Acids and Their Metabolites Compared to Casein, Gluten, and Fish Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanstrup, Jan; Schou, Simon S; Holmer-Jensen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Whey protein has been demonstrated to improve fasting lipid and insulin response in overweight and obese individuals. To establish new hypotheses for this effect and to investigate the impact of stomach emptying, we compared plasma profiles after intake of whey isolate (WI), casein, gluten (GLU...

  18. Efeito do tratamento da depressão sobre o esvaziamento gástrico Treatment of depression effect on the gastric emptying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Navas Demetrio

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available O esvaziamento gástrico foi medido por meio de refeição sólida marcada com 99mTc em 11 pacientes que atendiam os critérios de "depressão maior" do DSM-III-R antes e após o tratamento com fluoxetina (20 a 40mg por dia durante nove semanas. Após o tratamento não se observou redução no tempo para o esvaziamento gástrico de metade da refeição de prova (T1/2 em relação a antes do tratamento. Pode-se, no entanto, separar os pacientes em dois subgrupos: 1 Os que exibiram resposta ao antidepressivo (redução do escore da Escala de Depressão de Hamilton >50% e apresentaram redução significativa do T1/2 (p0,10. Concluímos que a alteração da velocidade do esvaziamento gástrico pode estar correlacionada à resposta ao tratamento antidepressivo e que sua redução ou aumento não pode ser atribuída à ação farmacológica da fluoxetina sobre o estômago, mas antes ao efeito da melhoria da depressão sobre a motilidade gástrica.The gastric emptying was evaluated with 99mTc-labeled solidphase meal in 11 patients who met DSM-III-R criteria for Major Depression, before and after treatment with fluoxetine (20 to 40mg/day for nine weeks. After teatment the patients did not show increased velocity to reduction of half probe meal radioactivity in gastric area (T1/2. On the other hand, we observed two groups of patients: 1 The group that responded to antidepressant (Hamilton Depression Scale score reduction >50%, that showed a significant decrease of T1/2 (p0,10. We conclude that the modification in the gastric emptying velocity is related to the degree of response to antidepressant teatment, and velocity reduction or increase cannot be attributed to fluoxetine pharmachological activity over stomach but in fact to the impact of depression relief on gastric motility.

  19. Effect of temperature and diet on growth and gastric emptying time of the hybrid, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus ♀ × E. lanceolatus ♂

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moumita De

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of temperatures (22, 26, 30 and 34 °C and diets (commercial pellet and shrimp on the growth properties and gastric emptying time (GET of the tiger grouper × giant grouper (TGGG hybrid were analyzed over a 30 day experimental period under controlled laboratory conditions. Food consumption (FC, food conversion rate (FCR, specific growth rate (SGR and GET were significantly influenced by temperature and diet type. The highest mean SGR (1.00% BM day−1, p  0.05 were observed between any of the groups at 22 and 34 °C fed on either the shrimp or the pellet diet. The lowest statistically significant (p < 0.05 FC was observed at 22 °C on both diets. The highest FCR (1.208, p < 0.05 was observed in the 22 °C + shrimp and 22 °C + pellet groups. The fastest GETs were observed at 30 °C, 12 h for fish on the shrimp diet and 13 h for fish on the pellet diet. A significant delay in gastric emptying (16 h was observed at 22 °C in the group fed the commercial pellet diet (16 h. The best growth performances and digestion rates were observed at 30 °C followed by 26, 34 and 22 °C regardless of diet. The results suggest that 26 and 30 °C are optimum water temperatures for the aquaculture of this newly developed fish species fed on either a shrimp or pellet diet.

  20. Randomized study to compare nasojejunal with nasogastric nutrition in critically ill patients without prior evidence of altered gastric emptying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Friedman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Studies comparing jejunal and gastric nutrition show inconsistent results regarding pneumonia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of pneumonia comparing gastric with jejunal nutrition. Secondarily, we evaluated 28 th day Intensive Care Unit (ICU mortality rate and other complications related to enteral feeding. Subjects: Age >18 years; need for enteral nutrition without contraindication for placement of an enteral tube, duration of ICU stay > than 48 h. Methods: Patients were randomly assigned to receive enteral feed via a gastric or jejunal tube. Jejunal tubes were inserted at bedside and placement was confirmed radiographically. Results: A total of 115 patients were enrolled, with 61 patients into the gastric tube group and 54 patients into the jejunal group tube. Baseline characteristics were similar. There was no difference in pneumonia or ICU mortality rates, ICU length of stay and ventilator days. Complications rates were similar. Conclusions: We conclude that the enteral nutrition through a jejunal tube does not reduce the rate of pneumonia in comparison to a gastric tube. In addition, we did not observe differences in rates of gastrointestinal complications or ICU mortality. The routine placement of a jejunal tube in critically ill-patients cannot be recommended.

  1. JTT-130, a novel intestine-specific inhibitor of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, suppresses food intake and gastric emptying with the elevation of plasma peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide-1 in a dietary fat-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Takahiro; Mera, Yasuko; Ishii, Yukihito; Tadaki, Hironobu; Tomimoto, Daisuke; Kuroki, Yukiharu; Kawai, Takashi; Ohta, Takeshi; Kakutani, Makoto

    2011-03-01

    The microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) takes part in the mobilization and secretion of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins from enterocytes and hepatocytes. In this study, we investigated the effects of diethyl-2-({3-dimethylcarbamoyl-4-[(4'-trifluoromethylbiphenyl-2-carbonyl) amino] phenyl}acetyloxymethyl)-2-phenylmalonate (JTT-130), a novel intestine-specific MTP inhibitor, on food intake, gastric emptying, and gut peptides using Sprague-Dawley rats fed 3.1% fat, 13% fat, or 35% fat diets. JTT-130 treatment suppressed cumulative food intake and gastric emptying in rats fed a 35% fat diet, but not a 3.1% fat diet. In rats fed a 13% fat diet, JTT-130 treatment decreased cumulative food intake but not gastric emptying. In addition, treatment with orlistat, a lipase inhibitor, completely abolished the reduction of food intake and gastric emptying by JTT-130 in rats fed a 35% fat diet. On the other hand, JTT-130 treatment increased the plasma concentrations of gut peptides, peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) but not cholecystokinin, in the portal vein in rats fed a 35% fat diet. These elevations in PYY and GLP-1 were also abolished by treatment with orlistat. Furthermore, JTT-130 treatment in rats fed a 35% fat diet increased the contents of triglycerides and free fatty acids in the intestinal lumen, which might contribute to the elevation of PYY and GLP-1 levels. The present findings indicate that JTT-130 causes satiety responses, decreased food intake, and gastric emptying in a dietary fat-dependent manner, with enhanced production of gut peptides such as PYY and GLP-1 from the intestine.

  2. 功能性消化不良胃排空及食物分布与症状的关系%Relationship between gastric emptying and intragastric distribution and dyspepsia symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秋月; 严祥; 马苏美

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨功能性消化不良(FD)患者不同胃区胃排空及胃内食物分布与症状之间的关系。方法采用实时超声检测73例FD患者和27例正常对照组胃排空功能,并调查73例FD患者的症状。结果 FD患者各胃区半排空时间均较正常对照组延长(P<0.05),胃排空延迟率明显增加(P<0.01);远端胃半排空时间与早饱、体重指数呈正相关(P<0.05);全胃半排空时间与年龄呈负相关(P<0.05);分别对各胃区排空情况与症状进行Logistic回归分析,仅早饱与远端胃排空延迟相关(P<0.05);20 min、40 min近端胃面积,40 min全胃面积与上腹部烧灼感呈负相关(P<0.05);20 min、40 min远端胃面积与早饱呈负相关(P<0.05)。结论 FD患者存在胃排空异常,远端胃排空情况与早饱存在相关性。%Objective To study relationship between gastric emptying on proximal stomach, distal stomach, total stomach and intragastric distribution and dyspepsia symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). Methods A real-time ultrasonography was performed in 73 cases of FD patients and 27 healthy controls (HC). Dyspepsia symptoms were investigated by using a questionnaire. Results As compared with that in HC group, the half time of gastric emptying on proximal stomach (pT1/2), half time of gastric emptying on distal stomach (dT1/2) and gastric emptying half-time on total stomach (GT1/2) was prolonged significantly in FD (P<0.05).The delay rate of proximal stomach, distal stomach and total gastric was significantly increased (P<0.01). In FD patients, dT1/2 and early satiety, body mass index were related (P<0.05);GT1/2 was negative correlated with age (P<0.05). Taking gastric emptying and symptoms for logistic regression analysis, the only relationship was between delayed distal gastric emptying and early satiety (P<0.05). There were negative correlations between proximal gastric area at 20, 40 min

  3. Effect of sustained-release isosorbide dinitrate on post-prandial gastric emptying and gastroduodenal motility in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Rasmussen, S L; Linnet, J;

    2004-01-01

    measured using scintigraphic and manometric techniques. Isosorbide dinitrate did not change the area under the curve of gastric retention versus time, and did not influence the frequency of antral contractions as assessed at 15-min intervals or the integrated duodenal motility index, as recorded over...

  4. Gastric motor effects of ghrelin and growth hormone releasing peptide 6 in diabetic mice with gastroparesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Cai Qiu; Zhi-Gang Wang; Wei-Gang Wang; Jun Yan; Qi Zheng

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the potential therapeutic significance of ghrelin and growth hormone releasing peptide 6(GHRP-6) in diabetic mice with gastric motility disorders.METHODS:A diabetic mouse model was established by intraperitoneal (ip) injection of alloxan.Diabetic mice were injected ip with ghrelin or GHRP-6 (20-200 μg/kg),and the effects on gastric emptying were measured after intragastric application of phenol red.The effect of atropine,NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) or D-Lys3-GHRP-6 (a growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) antagonist) on the gastroprokinetic effect of ghrelin or GHRP-6 (100 μg/kg)was also investigated.The effects of ghrelin or GHRP-6(0.01-10 μmol/L) on spontaneous or carbachol-induced contractile amplitude were also investigated in vitro,in gastric fundic circular strips taken from diabetic mice.The presence of growth hormone secretagogue receptor la transcripts in the fundic strips of diabetic mice was detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).RESULTS:We established a diabetic mouse model with delayed gastric emptying.Ghrelin and GHRP-6accelerated gastric emptying in diabetic mice with gastroparesis.In the presence of atropine or L-NAME,which delayed gastric emptying,ghrelin and GHRP-6(100 μg/kg) failed to accelerate gastric emptying.D-Lys3-GHRP-6 also delayed gastric emptying induced by the GHS-R agonist.Ghrelin and GHRP-6 increased the carbachol-induced contractile amplitude in gastric fundic strips taken from diabetic mice.RT-PCR confirmed the presence of GHS-R mRNA in the strip preparations.CONCLUSION:Ghrelin and GHRP-6 increase gastric emptying in diabetic mice with gastroparesis,perhaps by activating peripheral cholinergic pathways in the enteric nervous system.

  5. Evidence for the involvement of peripheral β-adrenoceptors in delayed liquid gastric emptying induced by dipyrone, 4-aminoantipyrine, and antipyrine in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinagre, A.M. [Núcleo de Medicina e Cirurgia Experimental, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Collares, E.F. [Departamento de Pediatria, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Núcleo de Medicina e Cirurgia Experimental, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2013-09-27

    Dipyrone (Dp), 4-aminoantipyrine (AA), and antipyrine (At) delay liquid gastric emptying (GE) in rats. We evaluated adrenergic participation in this phenomenon in a study in male Wistar rats (250-300 g) pretreated subcutaneously with guanethidine (GUA), 100 mg·kg{sup −1}·day{sup −1}, or vehicle (V) for 2 days before experimental treatments. Other groups of animals were pretreated intravenously (iv) 15 min before treatment with V, prazosin (PRA; 1 mg/kg), yohimbine (YOH; 3 mg/kg), or propranolol (PRO; 4 mg/kg), or with intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of 25 µg PRO or V. The groups were treated iv with saline or with 240 µmol/kg Dp, AA, or At. GE was determined 10 min later by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (%GR) of saline labeled with phenol red 10 min after gavage. %GR (mean±SE, n=8) indicated that GUA abolished the effect of Dp (GUA vs V=31.7±1.6 vs 47.1±2.3%) and of At (33.2±2.3 vs 54.7±3.6%) on GE and significantly reduced the effect of AA (48.1±3.2 vs 67.2±3.1%). PRA and YOH did not modify the effect of the drugs. %GR (mean±SE, n=8) indicated that iv, but not icv, PRO abolished the effect of Dp (PRO vs V=29.1±1.7 vs 46.9±2.7%) and At (30.5±1.7 vs 49±3.2%) and significantly reduced the effect of AA (48.4±2.6 vs 59.5±3.1%). These data suggest activation of peripheral β-adrenoceptors in the delayed GE induced by phenylpyrazolone derivatives.

  6. Evidence for the involvement of peripheral β-adrenoceptors in delayed liquid gastric emptying induced by dipyrone, 4-aminoantipyrine, and antipyrine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinagre, A M; Collares, E F

    2013-09-01

    Dipyrone (Dp), 4-aminoantipyrine (AA), and antipyrine (At) delay liquid gastric emptying (GE) in rats. We evaluated adrenergic participation in this phenomenon in a study in male Wistar rats (250-300 g) pretreated subcutaneously with guanethidine (GUA), 100 mg·kg-1·day-1, or vehicle (V) for 2 days before experimental treatments. Other groups of animals were pretreated intravenously (iv) 15 min before treatment with V, prazosin (PRA; 1 mg/kg), yohimbine (YOH; 3 mg/kg), or propranolol (PRO; 4 mg/kg), or with intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of 25 µg PRO or V. The groups were treated iv with saline or with 240 µmol/kg Dp, AA, or At. GE was determined 10 min later by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (%GR) of saline labeled with phenol red 10 min after gavage. %GR (mean ± SE, n=8) indicated that GUA abolished the effect of Dp (GUA vs V=31.7 ± 1.6 vs 47.1 ± 2.3%) and of At (33.2 ± 2.3 vs 54.7 ± 3.6%) on GE and significantly reduced the effect of AA (48.1 ± 3.2 vs 67.2 ± 3.1%). PRA and YOH did not modify the effect of the drugs. %GR (mean ± SE, n=8) indicated that iv, but not icv, PRO abolished the effect of Dp (PRO vs V=29.1 ± 1.7 vs 46.9 ± 2.7%) and At (30.5 ± 1.7 vs 49 ± 3.2%) and significantly reduced the effect of AA (48.4 ± 2.6 vs 59.5 ± 3.1%). These data suggest activation of peripheral β-adrenoceptors in the delayed GE induced by phenylpyrazolone derivatives.

  7. Evidence of the effect of dipyrone on the central nervous system as a determinant of delayed gastric emptying observed in rats after its administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collares E.F.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Dipyrone administered intravenously (iv delays gastric emptying (GE in rats. The objectives of the present study were to assess: 1 the effect of the dose of dipyrone and time after its iv administration on GE in rats, 2 the effect of subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (VgX and bilateral electrolytic lesion of the paraventricular nucleus (PVNX on the delayed GE induced by the drug, and 3 the intracerebroventricular (icv action of dipyrone and of one of its metabolites, 4-aminoantipyrine on GE. Male Wistar rats received saline labeled with phenol red intragastrically as a test meal. GE was indirectly assessed by the determination of percent gastric retention (GR of the test meal 10 min after administration by gavage. Dipyrone delays GE in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Thirty minutes after the iv administration of 80 mg/kg dipyrone, the animals showed significantly higher GR (mean = 62.6% compared to those receiving vehicle (31.5%. VgX and PVNX significantly reduced the iv effect of 80 mg/kg dipyrone (mean %GR: VgX = 28.3 vs Sham = 55.5 and PVNX = 34.5 vs Sham = 52.2. Icv administration of 4 µmol dipyrone caused a significant increase in GR (54.1% of the test meal 10 min later, whereas administration of 4 µmol 4-aminoantipyrine had no effect (34.4%. Although the dipyrone dose administered icv was 16 times lower than that applied iv, for the same time of action (10 min, the GR of animals that received the drug icv (54.1% or iv (54.5% did not differ significantly. In conclusion, the present results suggest that the effect of dipyrone in delaying GE is due to the action of the drug on the central nervous system, with the participation of the PVN and of the vagus nerve.

  8. Feasibility of measuring gastric emptying time, with a wireless motility device, after subjects consume fiber-matched liquid and solid breakfasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Holly J; Thomas, William; Willis, David J; Slavin, Joanne L

    2011-08-01

    To explore the feasibility and sensitivity of a new technology for measuring gastric emptying time (GET) in appetite research, and also to compare appetite after subjects consumed macronutrient- and fiber-matched liquid and solid meals. Fourteen women (BMI of 21.2 ± 0.3) participated in this randomized, crossover study. On two separate days, fasted subjects consumed liquid (fruit juices and skim milk) and solid (oatmeal, blueberries, and apples) breakfasts. Both meals had 10 g of fiber and 410 kcal. GET was assessed with the SmartPill GI Motility System®, appetite was assessed with visual analog scales, and food intake was measured at lunch. Despite the same amount of fiber, GET was about 1h longer after the oatmeal than after the liquids. Subjects were less hungry after the oatmeal than after the liquids. Satisfaction and fullness were marginally improved with the oatmeal compared to the liquids. There was a negative association between GET and hunger. Lunchtime food and beverage intake did not differ between treatments. The SmartPill appears feasible and sensitive in appetite research, but has limitations. A solid meal with naturally occurring fiber from oatmeal and whole fruits increased GET and decreased hunger more than a liquid meal with added fiber.

  9. Effect of Human Milk Appetite Hormones, Macronutrients, and Infant Characteristics on Gastric Emptying and Breastfeeding Patterns of Term Fully Breastfed Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridneva, Zoya; Kugananthan, Sambavi; Hepworth, Anna R; Tie, Wan J; Lai, Ching T; Ward, Leigh C; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T

    2016-12-28

    Human milk (HM) components influence infant feeding patterns and nutrient intake, yet it is unclear how they influence gastric emptying (GE), a key component of appetite regulation. This study analyzed GE of a single breastfeed, HM appetite hormones/macronutrients and demographics/anthropometrics/body composition of term fully breastfed infants (n = 41, 2 and/or 5 mo). Stomach volumes (SV) were calculated from pre-/post-feed ultrasound scans, then repeatedly until the next feed. Feed volume (FV) was measured by the test-weigh method. HM samples were analyzed for adiponectin, leptin, fat, lactose, total carbohydrate, lysozyme, and total/whey/casein protein. Linear regression/mixed effect models were used to determine associations between GE/feed variables and HM components/infant anthropometrics/adiposity. Higher FVs were associated with faster (-0.07 [-0.10, -0.03], p whey protein concentration was associated with higher post-feed SVs (4.99 [0.84, 9.13], p = 0.023). Longer GE time was associated with higher adiponectin concentration (2.29 [0.92, 3.66], p = 0.002) and dose (0.02 [0.01, 0.03], p = 0.005), and lower casein:whey ratio (-65.89 [-107.13, -2.66], p = 0.003). FV and HM composition influence GE and breastfeeding patterns in term breastfed infants.

  10. Anti-obesity and anti-hyperglycemic effects of cinnamaldehyde via altered ghrelin secretion and functional impact on food intake and gastric emptying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Susana; Michlig, Stephanie; de Senarclens-Bezençon, Carole; Meylan, Jenny; Meystre, Julie; Pezzoli, Maurizio; Markram, Henry; le Coutre, Johannes

    2015-01-21

    Cinnamon extract is associated to different health benefits but the active ingredients or pathways are unknown. Cinnamaldehyde (CIN) imparts the characteristic flavor to cinnamon and is known to be the main agonist of transient receptor potential-ankyrin receptor 1 (TRPA1). Here, expression of TRPA1 in epithelial mouse stomach cells is described. After receiving a single-dose of CIN, mice significantly reduce cumulative food intake and gastric emptying rates. Co-localization of TRPA1 and ghrelin in enteroendocrine cells of the duodenum is observed both in vivo and in the MGN3-1 cell line, a ghrelin secreting cell model, where incubation with CIN up-regulates expression of TRPA1 and Insulin receptor genes. Ghrelin secreted in the culture medium was quantified following CIN stimulation and we observe that octanoyl and total ghrelin are significantly lower than in control conditions. Additionally, obese mice fed for five weeks with CIN-containing diet significantly reduce their cumulative body weight gain and improve glucose tolerance without detectable modification of insulin secretion. Finally, in adipose tissue up-regulation of genes related to fatty acid oxidation was observed. Taken together, the results confirm anti-hyperglycemic and anti-obesity effects of CIN opening a new approach to investigate how certain spice derived compounds regulate endogenous ghrelin release for therapeutic intervention.

  11. Delayed gastric emptying is associated with pylorus-preserving but not classical Whipple pancreaticoduodenectomy: A review of the literature and critical reappraisal of the implicated pathomechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kosmas I Paraskevas; Costas Avgerinos; Costas Manes; Dimitris Lytras; Christos Dervenis

    2006-01-01

    Pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD)is nowadays considered the treatment of choice for periampullary tumors, namely carcinoma of the head,neck, or uncinate process of the pancreas, the ampulla of Vater, distal common bile duct or carcinoma of the peri-Vaterian duodenum. Delayed gastric emptying (DGE)comprises one of the most troublesome complications of this procedure. A search of the literature using Pubmed/Medline was performed to identify clinical trials examining the incidence rate of DGE following standard Whipple pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) vs PPPD. Additionally we performed a thorough in-depth analysis of the implicated pathomechanism underlying the occurrence of DGE after PPPD. In contrast to early studies, the majority of recently performed clinical trials demonstrated no significant association between the occurrence of DGE with either PD or PPPD. PD and PPPD procedures are equally effective operations regarding the postoperative occurrence of DGE. Further randomized trials are required to investigate the efficacy of a recently reported (but not yet tested in largescale studies) modification, that is, PPPD with antecolic duodenojejunostomy.(C) 2006 The WJG Press. All rights reserved.

  12. In vivo transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells accelerates repair of injured gastric mucosa in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Qing; YAN Li; WANG Chang-zheng; ZHANG Wen-hui; HU Ya-zhuo; WU Ben-yan

    2012-01-01

    Background Adult stem cells provide a promising alternative for the treatment of injured tissues.We aimed to investigate the effect of in vivo transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) on injured gastric mucosa in rats.Methods The gastric ulcer in rats was induced by indomethacin.BMMSCs from male rats,labeled with the fluorescent cell linker 5,6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFDA SE),were transplanted into the female rats via tail vein injection.The healing process of gastric ulcers was monitored by HE staining.The protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in the injured gastric mucosa were determined by immunohistochemistry.Results At 48 and 72 hours after BMMSCs transplantation,the CFDA SE labeled cells were found scattered in the injured gastric mucosa,but not in the gastric mucosa of control rats.At 72 hours after BMMSCs transplantation,the mean ulcer index was 12.67±2.16 in the BMMSCs transplanted group and 17.33±1.97 in vehicle-treated controls (P <0.01).Both VEGF and EGFR protein expression levels were significantly higher in the gastric section from the rats that received BMMSCs transplantation as compared to rats without BMMSCs transplantation.Conclusion Autologous BMMSCs transplantation can accelerate gastric ulcer healing in injured gastric mucosa in a rodent model.

  13. Central nesfatin-1 reduces dark-phase food intake and gastric emptying in rats: differential role of corticotropin-releasing factor2 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Andreas; Goebel, Miriam; Wang, Lixin; Rivier, Jean; Kobelt, Peter; Mönnikes, Hubert; Lambrecht, Nils W G; Taché, Yvette

    2009-11-01

    Nesfatin-1, derived from nucleobindin2, is expressed in the hypothalamus and reported in one study to reduce food intake (FI) in rats. To characterize the central anorexigenic action of nesfatin-1 and whether gastric emptying (GE) is altered, we injected nesfatin-1 into the lateral brain ventricle (intracerebroventricular, icv) or fourth ventricle (4v) in chronically cannulated rats or into the cisterna magna (intracisternal, ic) under short anesthesia and compared with ip injection. Nesfatin-1 (0.05 microg/rat, icv) decreased 2-3 h and 3-6 h dark-phase FI by 87 and 45%, respectively, whereas ip administration (2 microg/rat) had no effect. The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)(1)/CRF(2) antagonist astressin-B or the CRF(2) antagonist astressin(2)-B abolished icv nesfatin-1's anorexigenic action, whereas an astressin(2)-B analog, devoid of CRF-receptor binding affinity, did not. Nesfatin-1 icv induced a dose-dependent reduction of GE by 26 and 43% that was not modified by icv astressin(2)-B. Nesfatin-1 into the 4v (0.05 microg/rat) or ic (0.5 microg/rat) decreased cumulative dark-phase FI by 29 and 60% at 1 h and by 41 and 37% between 3 and 5 h, respectively. This effect was neither altered by ic astressin(2)-B nor associated with changes in GE. Cholecystokinin (ip) induced Fos expression in 43% of nesfatin-1 neurons in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus and 24% of those in the nucleus tractus solitarius. These data indicate that nesfatin-1 acts centrally to reduce dark phase FI through CRF(2)-receptor-dependent pathways after forebrain injection and CRF(2)-receptor-independent pathways after hindbrain injection. Activation of nesfatin-1 neurons by cholecystokinin at sites regulating food intake may suggest a role in gut peptide satiation effect.

  14. [The effect of calcium antagonists on the rate of gastric emptying in patients with duodenal peptic ulcer and the dumping syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saakian, A G

    1990-10-01

    Comparative evaluation of single-dose finoptin, corinfar and falicor by effect on gastric evacuation was conducted in 33 peptic ulcer and 48 postgastrectomy dumping syndrome patients. Finoptin was found to prolong the evacuation in contrast to corinfar which stimulated it. Nonsignificant delay in gastric evacuation occurred in falicor administration. When designing therapy of cardiovascular diseases associated with gastric evacuation, due consideration should be given to pharmacokinetic action of calcium antagonists and functional status of gastric evacuation. Finoptin is preferable in dumping syndrome, corinfar in slow gastric evacuation. In view of the above corinfar treatment is undesirable in postgastrectomy patients, otherwise they could develop rapid gastric stump evacuation and dumping syndrome.

  15. Accelerated protein digestion and amino acid absorption after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N; Jacobsen, Siv H; Dirksen, Carsten;

    2015-01-01

    . CONCLUSIONS: RYGB accelerates caseinate digestion and amino acid absorption, resulting in faster and higher but more transient postprandial elevation of plasma amino acids. Changes are likely mediated by accelerated intestinal nutrient entry and clearly demonstrate that protein digestion is not impaired after......BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) involves exclusion of major parts of the stomach and changes in admixture of gastro-pancreatic enzymes, which could have a major impact on protein digestion and amino acid absorption. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of RYGB on amino acid appearance...... in the systemic circulation from orally ingested protein and from endogenous release. DESIGN: Nine obese glucose-tolerant subjects, with a mean body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 39.2 (95% CI: 35.2, 43.3) and mean glycated hemoglobin of 5.3% (95% CI: 4.9%, 5.6%), were studied before and 3 mo after RYGB. Leucine...

  16. The antagonistic metabolite of GLP-1, GLP-1 (9-36)amide, does not influence gastric emptying and hunger sensations in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagell, Carl Frederic; Pedersen, Jan F; Holst, Jens Juul

    2007-01-01

    and antral emptying of a meal. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six healthy volunteers were tested in a double-blind, placebo-controlled fashion. Antral emptying of a liquid meal and hunger ratings were determined using ultrasound technology and visual analogue scale scoring during infusions of saline or GLP-1 (9...

  17. Empty calories and phantom fullness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camps, Guido; Mars, Monica; Graaf, De Cees; Smeets, Paul A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stomach fullness is a determinant of satiety. Although both the viscosity and energy content have been shown to delay gastric emptying, their relative importance is not well understood. Objective: We compared the relative effects of and interactions between the viscosity and energy de

  18. 胃肠超声造影对糖尿病胃轻瘫患者胃排空功能的评价%The assessment of gastric emptying function of diabetic gastroparesis by gastroenteric contrastenhanced ultrasonography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴俊; 赵志军; 赵改萍; 胡玉藏; 侯晓东

    2014-01-01

    目的 应用胃肠超声造影技术检测糖尿病胃轻瘫(DGP)患者胃排空功能,为DGP患者的诊断与治疗提供依据.方法 采用胃肠超声造影技术检测35例DGP患者(DGP组)及35例健康体检者(对照组)胃的排空功能,观察DGP组患者饮用胃肠超声造影剂后胃排空率(GER)和胃排空时间(ET),并与对照组比较.结果 DGP组GER显著低于对照组[(27.05±11.32)%比(45.38±15.08)%],ET显著长于对照组[(102.43±15.76) min比(75.31±11.52) min],差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 胃肠超声造影检查是一种简单、可重复进行的实时评估DGP患者胃动力学改变的方法,并不影响胃肠道的正常功能,可作为临床检测DGP患者胃排空功能的一种可靠的无创检查手段.%Objective To detect the changes of gastric emptying function by gastroenteric contrastenhanced ultrasonography and to offer the evidence for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetic gastroparesis.Methods The gastric emptying function was measured by gastroenteric contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in 35 cases of diabetic gastroparesis (DGP,DGP group) and 35 volunteers (control group).The gastric emptying rate(GER) and emptying time(ET) after taking orally gastroenteric ultrasound developer in DGP group were observed and compared with control group.Results The GER in DGP group was lower than that in control group [(27.05 ± 11.32)% vs.(45.38 ± 15.08) %] (P < 0.05).The ET in DGP group was longer than that in control group[(102.43 ± 15.76) min vs.(75.31 ± 11.52) min] (P < 0.05).Conclusions The method of gastroenteric contrast-enhanced ultrasonography is a simple,and repeatable imaging method,which can be used to make a real-time assessment on the gastric dynamic changes,but don't influence gastroenteric function and can provide a dependent and noninvasive examine means for clinical physician to test the gastric emptying function in DGP.

  19. Short- and medium-term reproducibility of gastric emptying of a solid meal determined by a low dose of 13C-octanoic acid and nondispersive isotope-selective infrared spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna Kasicka-Jonderko; Magdalena Kami(n)ska; Krzysztof Jonderko; Olga Setera; Barbara B(l)o(n)ska-Fajfrowska

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the reproducibility of a modified 13C breath test-based measurement of solid phase gastric emptying (GE) within the frames of a simple-repeated measure study protocol.METHODS: Twelve healthy subjects (6 females and 6 males, mean age 24.9±0.7 years) were recruited to undergo three identical GE examinations. In six subjects the first two examinations were performed 2 d apart,and the third session was carried out at a median interval of 19.5 d (range 18 - 20 d) from the second one.In another six subjects the first two measurements were taken 20 d apart (median, range: 17-23 d), whereas the third session took place 2 d after the second one.Probes of expiratory air collected before and during six hours after intake of a solid meal (378 kcal) labelled with 75 μL (68 mg) 13C-octanoic acid, were measured for 13CO2 enrichment with the nondispersive isotopeselective infrared spectrometry NDIRS apparatus.RESULTS: Taking coefficients of variation for paired examinations into account, the short-term reproducibility of the GE measurement was slightly but not significantly better than the medium-term one: 7.7% and 11.2% for the lag phase (T-Lag), 7.3% and 10.9% for the gastric half emptying time (T1/2). The least differences in GE parameters detectable at P= 0.05 level in the 12 paired examinations were 9.6 and 15.6 min for T-Lag, 11.6 and 19.7 min for T1/2 by a two-day or two to three-week time gap, respectively.CONCLUSION: The low-cost modification of the breath test involving a lower dose of 13C-octanoic acid and NDIRS, renders good short- and medium-term reproducibility, as well as sensitivity of the measurement of gastric emptying of solids.

  20. Effect of two-channel gastric electrical stimulation with trains of pulses on gastric motility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Yang; Xiao-Hua Hou; Geng-Qing Song; Jin-Song Liu; Jiande DZ Chen

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of two-channel gastric electrical stimulation (GES) with trains of pulses on gastric emptying and slow waves. METHODS: Seven dogs implanted with four pairs of electrodes and equipped with a duodenal cannula were involved in this study. Two experiments were performed. The first experiment included a series of sessions in the fasting state with trains of short or long pulses, each lasted 10 min. A 5-min recording without pacing was made between two sessions. The second experiment was performed in three sessions (control, single-channel GES, and two-channel GES). The stimulus was applied via the 1st pair of electrodes for single-channel GES (GES via one pair of electrodes located at 14 cm above the pylorus), and simultaneously via the 1st and 3rd channels for two-channel GES (GES via two pairs of electrodes located at 6 and 14 cm above the pylorus). Gastric liquid emptying was collected every 15 min via the cannula for 90 min. RESULTS: GES with trains of pulses at a pulse width of 4 ms or higher was able to entrain gastric slow waves. Two-channel GES was about 50% more efficient than single-channel GES in entraining gastric slow waves. Two channel but not single-channel GES with trains of pulses was capable of accelerating gastric emptying in healthy dogs. Compared with the control session, two-channel GES significantly increased gastric emptying of liquids at 15 min (79.0% ± 6.4% vs 61.3% ± 6.1%, P < 0.01), 30 min (83.2% ± 6.3 % vs 68.2% ± 6.9%, P < 0.01),60 min (86.9% ± 5.5 % vs 74.1% ± 5.9%, P < 0.01),and 90 min (91.0% ± 3.4% vs 76.5% ± 5.9%, P < 0.01).CONCLUSION: Two-channel GES with trains of pulses accelerates gastric emptying in healthy dogs and may have a therapeutic potential for the treatment of gastric motility disorders.

  1. Effect of Wenwei Huashi Tang on acute diarrhea and gastric empty in mice%温胃化湿汤对小鼠急性腹泻及胃排空作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨正腾

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察温胃化湿汤对番泻叶所致的腹泻模型作用及胃排空作用的影响,探讨其作用机制.方法 采用番泻叶煎剂致小鼠腹泻模型,连续4d观察温胃化湿汤给药后3h内的腹泻指数,并观察小鼠小肠墨汁推进率;采用甲基橙为标志物,观察温胃化湿汤对新斯的明致小鼠胃排空亢进的影响.结果 温胃化湿汤各组均能明显降低小鼠腹泻指数,减慢小鼠小肠推进速度,与模型组比较有显著性差异(P<0.05),与香连丸组比较,高、中剂量组有显著性差异(P<0.05);溘温化湿汤各组能增加新斯的明致胃排空亢进小鼠的胃残留率,与模型组比较有显著性差异(P<0.05),与香连丸组比较,高、中剂量组有显著性差异(P<0.05).结论 温胃化湿汤对小鼠腹泻和胃排空亢进有较好的防治作用,其作用优于香连丸.%Objective To observe the effect of Wenwei Huashi Tang on diarrhea induced by sennae folium and gastric empty in mice and investigate the mechanism. Methods The acute diarrhea models were induced by giving senna decoction, and then Wenwei Huashi Tang and positive control drug were fed for 3 h to compare the diarrhea index. We observed the diarrhea index, and the advance rate of ink in the small intestine of the mice for 4 d. Gastric residual rate of methyl orange method was used for gastric emptying in mice pretreated with neostigmine. Results Compared with the model group, each dosage group of Wenwei Huashi Tang significantly decreased the diarrhea index and slowed down the advance rate of ink in the small intestine in the mice (P <0. 05). Compared with Xianglian Wan group, the high- and middle-dose Wenwei Huashi Tang groups significantly decreased the diarrhea index in the mice (P <0. 05). Compared with the model group, each dosage group of Wenwei Huashi Tang significantly increased the gastric residual rate in the gastrointestinal hyperfunctional model of hyperactivity (P <0. 05). Compared with

  2. [Effects of a series of food substances on motor and emptying function of the gastric stump and diverting intestinal loop after stomach resection and truncal vagotomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loranskaia, T I; Khoromskiĭ, L N; Benedikt, V V

    1986-01-01

    Altogether 253 patients operated on for peptic ulcer were examined for the action of 30 foods on motor and evacuatory function of the gastric stump and efferent intestinal loop. 213 patients were subjected to gastric resection after Hofmeister-Finsterer and 40 patients to antrum resection and truncal vagotomy. Proceeding from the action on motor function of the gastric stump and efferent intestinal loop the foods were distributed into three groups: with a stimulation, inhibitory of weak effects on the function. The first group included beef and fish broths, boiled meat, rye bread, cabbage, tomato, apple, cherry and black currant juices, rhubarb infusion, fresh kefir, carrot and pumpkin purees. The group of foods producing an inhibitory action comprised milk and milk whey, cottage cheese, sugar, butter, sunflower oil, lard, rice and oat decoctions, mashed potatoes and potato juice, buckwheat porridge and semolina, wheat bread, raw eggs, and honey. The action of the same foods was found to be different as regards the effect on the gastric stump and efferent intestinal loop, on tonic and contractile functions of the organs. The dietetic management of patients undergoing gastric operations should be carried out on a strictly individualized basis with allowance made for the functions of the gastric stump and intestinal loop and for the action of foods on the organs.

  3. O esvaziamento gástrico e a insuficiência renal crônica Vaciamiento gástrico y la insuficiencia renal crónica Gastric emptying and chronic renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Sizue Hirata

    2007-08-01

    confirmando esa observación. La importancia del EG en anestesia puede ser resumida un uno de sus aspectos principales, el ayuno preoperatorio. El retardo en el vaciamiento puede causar estasis y aumentar el riesgo de vómito y aspiración pulmonar. La posibilidad de existir retardo del vaciamiento en urémicos nos atrae. Quejas dispépticas son comunes en estos pacientes y podrían ser explicadas por la dificultad de vaciamiento gástrico. A pesar de las evidencias, la literatura es muy controvertida en este aspecto. No existe un consenso en cuanto a los resultados obtenidos. Diferencias en el método de estudio utilizado podrían explicar esos resultados, observados en estudios clínicos y experimentales. El objetivo de este estudio fue ver nuevamente algunos aspectos importantes del síndrome dispéptico en pacientes con insuficiencia renal crónica (IRC terminal, con énfasis en el retardo del EG. CONTENIDO: Se abordarán los aspectos básicos relacionados a la fisiología del EG, los métodos más empleados para el estudio del EG, el síndrome dispéptico y la uremia y el vaciamiento gástrico en la insuficiencia renal crónica. CONCLUSIONES: El EG es un proceso fisiológico complejo de transferencia del alimento del estómago para el duodeno, cuyos mecanismos todavía no se conocen bien. La cintilografía, utilizando comidas con radio fármacos, es el examen más utilizado para el estudio del EG. Un porcentaje expresivo de pacientes con IRC terminal presenta retardo en el EG. Posiblemente otros mecanismos, además de la uremia, involucrando la función motora gástrica, están involucrados en esta disfunción.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The first reference to delayed gastric emptying (GE was made by Grodstein in 1979. Other studies have since been published, not always confirming his work. The importance of GE in anesthesia can be resumed by one of its main aspects, preoperative fasting. Delayed gastric emptying can lead to stasis and increase the risk of vomiting and

  4. Effects of 1 and 3 g cinnamon on gastric emptying, satiety, and postprandial blood glucose, insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide 1, and ghrelin concentrations in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hlebowicz, Joanna; Hlebowicz, Anna; Lindstedt, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A previous study of healthy subjects showed that intake of 6 g cinnamon with rice pudding reduced postprandial blood glucose and the gastric emptying rate (GER) without affecting satiety. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the effect of 1 and 3 g cinnamon on GER, postprandial blood...... glucose, plasma concentrations of insulin and incretin hormones [glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)], the ghrelin response, and satiety in healthy subjects. DESIGN: GER was measured by using real-time ultrasonography after ingestion of rice pudding...... with and without 1 or 3 g cinnamon. Fifteen healthy subjects were assessed in a crossover trial. RESULTS: The addition of 1 or 3 g cinnamon had no significant effect on GER, satiety, glucose, GIP, or the ghrelin response. The insulin response at 60 min and the area under the curve (AUC) at 120 min were...

  5. Effect of selective β-adrenoceptor blockade and surgical resection of the celiac-superior mesenteric ganglion complex on delayed liquid gastric emptying induced by dipyrone, 4-aminoantipyrine, and antipyrine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinagre, A M; Collares, E F

    2016-03-01

    There is evidence for participation of peripheral β-adrenoceptors in delayed liquid gastric emptying (GE) induced in rats by dipyrone (Dp), 4-aminoantipyrine (AA), and antipyrine (At). The present study aimed to determine whether β-adrenoceptors are involved in delayed GE induced by phenylpyrazole derivatives and the role of the prevertebral sympathetic nervous system in this condition. Male Wistar rats weighing 220-280 g were used in the study. In the first experiment rats were intravenously pretreated with vehicle (V), atenolol 30 mg/kg (ATE, β1-adrenergic antagonist), or butoxamine 25 mg/kg (BUT, β2-adrenergic antagonist). In the second experiment, rats were pretreated with V or SR59230A 2 mg/kg (SRA, β3-adrenergic antagonist). In the third experiment, rats were subjected to surgical resection of the celiac-superior mesenteric ganglion complex or to sham surgery. The groups were intravenously treated with saline (S), 240 µmol/kg Dp, AA, or At, 15 min after pretreatment with the antagonists or V and nine days after surgery. GE was determined 10 min later by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (%GR) of saline labeled with phenol red 10 min after gavage. The %GR (means±SE, n=6) values indicated that BUT abolished the effect of Dp (BUT+Dp vs V+Dp: 35.0%±5.1% vs 56.4%±2.7%) and At (BUT+At vs V+At: 33.5%±4.7% vs 52.9%±2.6%) on GE, and significantly reduced (P<0.05) the effect of AA (BUT+AA vs V+AA: 48.0%±5.0% vs 65.2%±3.8%). ATE, SRA, and sympathectomy did not modify the effects of treatments. These results suggest that β2-adrenoceptor activation occurred in delayed liquid gastric emptying induced by the phenylpyrazole derivatives dipyrone, 4-aminoantipyrine, and antipyrine. Additionally, the released neurotransmitter did not originate in the celiac-superior mesenteric ganglion complex.

  6. Human urocortin II, a new CRF-related peptide, displays selective CRF(2)-mediated action on gastric transit in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Million, Mulugeta; Maillot, Céline; Saunders, Paul; Rivier, Jean; Vale, Wylie; Taché, Yvette

    2002-01-01

    Human urocortin (hUcn) II is a new member of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family that selectively binds to the CRF(2) receptor. We investigated the CRF receptors involved in mediating the effects of hUcn II and human/rat CRF (h/rCRF) on gut transit. Gastric emptying, 4 h after a solid meal, and distal colonic transit (bead expulsion time) were monitored simultaneously in conscious rats. CRF antagonists were given subcutaneously 30 min before intravenous injection of peptides or partial restraint (for 90 min). hUcn II (3 or 10 microg/kg i.v.) inhibited gastric emptying (by 45% and 55%, respectively) and did not influence distal colonic transit. The CRF(2) peptide antagonist astressin(2)-B blocked hUcn II action. h/rCRF, rat Ucn, and restraint delayed gastric emptying while accelerating distal colonic transit. The gastric response to intravenous h/rCRF and restraint was blocked by the CRF(2) antagonist but not by the CRF(1) antagonist CP-154,526, whereas the colonic response was blocked only by CP-154,526. None of the CRF antagonists influenced postprandial gut transit. These data show that intravenous h/rCRF and restraint stress-induced delayed gastric emptying involve CRF(2) whereas stimulation of distal colonic transit involves CRF(1). The distinct profile of hUcn II, only on gastric transit, is linked to its CRF(2) selectivity.

  7. Gastric emptying scintigraphy: choice by in vitro test, of a new {sup 99m}Tc marker to label solid phase and further analysis with the better radiopharmaceuticals; Radiomarquage au {sup 99m}Tc de la phase solide pour la vidange gastrique: stabilite de 5 radiopharmaceutiques par test in vitro et analyse complementaire sur les 2 plus stables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, F

    2005-05-15

    The study of gastric emptying by isotopic method occurs regularly in Brest nuclear medicine department. It consists in eating radiolabelled omelette with rhenium sulphide macro-colloid and in drinking radiolabelled water with {sup 111}In-DTPA. The two phases are followed in stomach with gamma-camera. Rhenium sulphide macro-colloid have been taken off the market in january 2004 and no radiopharmaceutical has replaced them. in vitro test permitted us to test solid phase radiolabeling stability with 5 {sup 99m}Tc-vectors used in nuclear medicine. Two of them are suitable for gastric emptying solid phase labelling: the tin fluoride colloids and the sodium phytate but tin fluoride colloids give better labelling stability than sodium phytate. In order to define solid phase marker properties, studies of medium composition by X fluorescence, size by laser granulometry, structure by NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance), TLC (thin layer chromatography) and by centrifugation are done either with the two vectors or only with sodium phytate. Structural properties of tin fluoride colloids are known. Results of this study indicate that phytates can be colloids. Finally, the good gastric emptying solid phase marker must be a colloid with a size of about 200 nm. (author)

  8. 胃切除术后排空障碍的高危因素与治疗%Risk factors for and management of delayed gastric emptying after gastrectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜海; 欧阳莒玺; 董旋; 丁映钦

    2001-01-01

    Objective  To investigate risk factors for and management of delayed gastric emptying (DGE) after gastrectomy.  Method  A retrospective analysis was made from 482 patients undergoing gastric resection.  Result  DGE occurred in 41 of 482 patients (8.5%), risk factors of DGE were diabetes (19%),malnutrition (10%), peritonitis(17%),age(≥60)(14%),gastrointestinal hemorrhage(15%), anastomotic leakage(33%). Subphrenic abscess (39%), pancratobiliary fistula(83%).  Conclusion  DGE is paticularly common in patients with diabetes、malnutrition with an age≥60. Postoperative risk factors include peritonitis、gastrointestinal hemorrhage、anastomotic leakage、subphrenic abcess, and pancreatobiliary fistula. Gastric motility resumed in 4 weeks in most patients. Need for reoperation for DGE is rare, total gastrectomy in this case is recommended.%目的探讨胃切除术后排空障碍的高危因素及治疗方法。方法对482例胃切除术病例进行回顾性分析。结果本组482例中有41例出现胃排空障碍,发生率为8.5%。胃切除术后排空障碍的高危因素有糖尿病(19%)、营养不良(10%)、腹膜炎(17%)、高龄(≥60岁)(14%)以及术后消化道出血(15%)、吻合口漏(33%)、膈下感染、脓肿形成(39%)、胆胰漏(83%)等。结论术前及术后存在的高危因素可能是胃切除术后排空障碍的原因。胃动力常在4周内恢复。如需再次手术,以全胃切除为宜。

  9. Effect of baclofen on liquid and solid gastric emptying in rats Efeito do baclofen no esvaziamento gástrico de líquido e de sólidos em rato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard Ferro Collares

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA is a potent inhibitory neurotransmitter. There is evidence that GABA B receptors located in the dorsal complex and in afferent fibers of the vagus nerve participate in the control of gastrointestinal motility. OBJECTIVE: To assess the intracerebroventricularly (ICV and intravenously (IV effect of baclofen, a GABA B receptor agonist, on liquid and solid gastric emptying in rats. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g (n = 6-8 animals were used. Gastric emptying of liquid test meals labeled with phenol red was evaluated by the determination of percent gastric retention (%GR 10 and 15 min after orogastric administration of saline and 10% glucose meals, respectively. Baclofen was injected ICV (1 and 2 µg/animal through a tube implanted into the lateral ventricle of the brain and was injected IV (1 and 2 mg/kg into a tail vein. The gastric emptying of liquid was determined 10 or 30 min after ICV and IV baclofen administration, respectively. The gastric emptying of the solid meal was assessed by the determination of percent gastric retention 2 h after the beginning of the ingestion of the habitual ratio by the animal, consumed over a period of 30 min. Baclofen was administered ICV (1 and 2 µg/animal or IV (1 and 2 mg/kg immediately after the end of the ingestion of the solid meal. The control groups received vehicle (sterile saline solution ICV or IV. RESULTS: The group of animals receiving baclofen ICV (2 mg/animal presented a significantly lower (PCONTEXTO: O ácido gama-aminobutírico (GABA é um potente neurotransmissor inibitório. Há evidências que receptores GABA>B localizados no complexo dorsal do vago e em fibras aferentes do nervo vago participam no controle da motricidade gastrointestinal. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito intracerebroventricular (ICV e intravenoso (IV do baclofen, um agonista para receptores GABA B, sobre o esvaziamento gástrico de líquidos e de sólidos em ratos. M

  10. Effect of acute retrograde gastric electrical stimulation on gastric accommodation, emptying and gastrointestinal hormones releasing in obese patients%急性逆行胃电刺激对肥胖患者胃容受性、胃排空和胃肠激素释放的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房龙; 杜时雨; 姚树坤; 张艳丽; 李艳梅

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of acute retrograde gastric electrical stimulation (RGES) on gastric accommodation,emptying and gastrointestinal hormones releasing in obese patients. Methods Sixteen obese patients were examined. On the first day,a pair of mucosal gastric electrodes was placed under endoscope. The liquid meal load test and the standard solid meal gastric emptying test were carried out on the second day. RGES was performed starting at 30 minutes before each test and through the whole testing process. The serum leptin,ghrelin,resistin and peptide YY were examined before and after the standard solid meal gastric emptying test. On the third day,sham stimulation was given. The effect of acute RGES on related index was compared by self-control.Results BMI of the 16 patients was (32. 90±2. 99) kg/m2. Acute RGES significantly reduced the liquid meal volume of fullness [(460±148) ml and (630±219) ml,t=-7. 200,P<0. 01] and the maximal tolerable meal volume [(699±215) ml and (926±295) ml,t=- 5. 390,P<0. 01]. The effects of RGES and sham RGES on half-emptying time of standard solid meal was (109±26) min and (103±31) min (t=1. 009,P= 0. 329);on the retention rate of standard solid meal at one hour and two hour was (63. 37±9. 75)% and (59. 73±12.87)% (t=1. 834,P= 0. 087),(42.22±13.97)%and (38. 33±16. 87)% (t= 1.780,P= 0. 095),respectively. The ratio of gastrointestinal hormones after and before the stimulation also of the sham stimulation,leptin was 1. 03±0. 34 and 1. 08±0. 38(t=-0.386,P=0. 705),ghrelin was 0. 99±0. 11 and 0. 98±0. 12 (t= 0. 413,P=0.685),resistin was 1. 11±0. 25 and 0. 99±0. 24 (t= 1. 753,P= 0. 100),and peptide YY was 1. 56±0. 71 and 1. 33±0. 61 (t=1. 402,P= 0. 181). Conclusions In obese patients,acute RGES significantly reduce the liquid meal volume by lower gastric accommodation,to certain extent which will delay gastric emptying. There is no significant influence on gastrointestinal hormones releasing.%目的 观察急

  11. Surgical approaches to treatment of gastroparesis: gastric electrical stimulation, pyloroplasty, total gastrectomy and enteral feeding tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarosiek, Irene; Davis, Brian; Eichler, Evelin; McCallum, Richard W

    2015-03-01

    Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) is neurostimulation; its mechanism of action is affecting central control of nausea and vomiting and enhancing vagal function. GES is a powerful antiemetic available for patients with refractory symptoms of nausea and vomiting from gastroparesis of idiopathic and diabetic causes. GES is not indicated as a way of reducing abdominal pain in gastroparetic patients. The need for introducing a jejunal feeding tube means intensive medical therapies are failing, and is an indication for the implantation of the GES system, which should always be accompanied by a pyloroplasty to guarantee accelerated gastric emptying.

  12. Cosmological Acceleration from Gravitational Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Marochnik, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that the classical gravitational waves of super-horizon wavelengths are able to form the de Sitter accelerated expansion of the empty (with no matter fields) Universe. The contemporary Universe is about 70% empty and asymptotically is going to become completely empty, so the effect caused by emptiness should be already very noticeable. It could manifest itself as the dark energy.

  13. Gallbladder emptying and cholecystokinin response to fish oil and trioleate ingestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, C; Hojgaard, L; Madsen, J L

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare gallbladder emptying, gastric emptying and release of cholecystokinin (CCK), gastrin and secretin after intragastric administration of fish oil and trioleate. After intravenous injection of 99mTc-HIDA, 30 ml of a lipid labelled with 111In was administered...

  14. Efeito do lipopolissacarídio bacteriano sobre o esvaziamento gástrico de ratos: avaliação do pré-tratamento com Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME The effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide on the gastric emptying of rats: a pretreatment evaluation using Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard Ferro Collares

    2006-09-01

    é-tratados com as mesmas doses do inibidor das óxido nítrico-sintetases e tratados com veículo (40,5% e 38,7%, respectivamente e àqueles pré-tratados com veículo e tratados com a mesma toxina. CONCLUSÃO: O pré-tratamento com Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester numa dose baixa (1 mg/kg determinou redução discreta no efeito de retardo do esvaziamento gástrico determinado pelo lipopolissacarídio in vivo e aumento significativo do retardo com doses mais elevadas (2,5 e 5 mg/kg, doses estas que, per se, não interferem no esvaziamento.BACKGROUND: There is evidence that nitric oxide plays a role in the decrease in gastric emptying induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide. AIM: To evaluate the effect of pretreatment with Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl to ester, one competitive inhibitor of the nitric oxide syntases, on the gastric emptying delay induced by lipopolysaccharide. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats, SPF, were used after 24 h fast and 1 h-water withdrawn. The pretreatment was done intravenously with vehicle (saline or Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl to ester in the doses of 0.5, 1, 2.5 e 5 mg/kg. After 10 min, the animals were treated iv with lipopolysaccharide (50 mg/kg or received vehicle (saline. The gastric emptying was evaluated 1 h after the lipopolysaccharide administration. A saline solution containing phenol red was used as the test meal. The gastric emptying was indirectly assessed by the determination of percent gastric retention of the test meal 10 min after orogastric administration. RESULTS: The animals pretreated with vehicle and treatment with lipopolysaccharide have significant rise of the gastric retention (average = 57% in comparison with the controls receiving only vehicle (38.1%. The pretreatment with the different doses of Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl to ester did not modify per se the gastric retention in comparison with the animals pretreated with vehicle. Pretreatment with Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl to ester with the dose of 1 mg/kg determined a

  15. 舒胃汤对功能性消化不良大鼠胃排空、血清干细胞因子、一氧化氮的影响%Influenction of Shuwei Decoction on Gastric Emptying, Serum Stem Cell Factors and Nitric Oxide in Functional Indigestion Raton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    弭艳红; 郭璇; 王小娟; 徐寅; 刘红; 张鑫; 饶文娟; 郭蕾蕾; 李永静

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To observe the influences and mechanism of Shuwei decoction on gastric emptying and the content of serum nitric oxide (NO) , stem cell factors (SCF) in functional dyspepsia ( FD) rats. Method; The rats were randomly divided into control group, model group, Muxiang Shunqi pill group, mosapride group, Shuwei decoction high dose group, shuwei decoction low dose group, 10 rats in each group. The model of FD was established by clasping their tails, 4 times each day, lated 7 days. After 3 days,except control and model groups, the rats were given corresponding drugs for 14 days. The gastric emptying, the content of serum NO and SCF were observed. Result; Compared with control group, gastric emptying was delayed in the model group rats(P <0. 05) , serum SCF level was decreased ( P < 0. 05 ) , serum NO level was increased ( P < 0. 05 ) . Compared with model group corresponding drug groups ( Muxiang Shunqi pill group, mosapride group, Shuwei decoction low dose group , Shuwei decoction high dose group) improved gastric emptying [(58.35 ± 8. 71 )% , (78. 16 ± 10.74)% , (60. 39 ±3.47)% , (76. 80 ±6. 96)% vs (48. 20 ± 10. 17 )% , equal P < 0.05)]; obviously increased on serum SCF( μmol·L-1) [(19.78 ±2.83), (26. 13 ±4. 91), (19.48 ±1.74), (24. 19 ±3.40) vs (14.96 ± 2. 60) , equal P< 0.05] , decreased on serum NO ( μmol·L-1) [ (0. 18 ± 0. 01 ) , (0.16 ±0.01), (0.18 ± 0. 01) , ( 0. 16 ± 0. 01 ) vs ( 0. 22 ± 0. 01 ) , equal P < 0. 05 ] , and structure change of ICC in gastric antrum improved. Compared with Chinese patent medicine group and Shuwei decoction low dose group, the gastric emptying was improved (P < 0. 05) , serum NO was decreased (P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion; Shuwei decoction can recovery the function of gastrointestinal motility by regulating the level of serum NO, SCF, promoting the gastric emptying.%目的:观察舒胃汤对功能性消化不良(FD)大鼠胃排空、血清一氧化氮(NO)、干细胞因子(SCF)的影响,探讨其可能的作

  16. Relevância da temperatura e do esvaziamento gástrico de líquidos consumidos por praticantes de atividade física Relevance of temperature and gastric emptying of liquids consumed by individuals who practice physical activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pires da Silva

    2009-10-01

    effects on performance and possibly on health if the body liquids lost by sweating are not completely replaced. Hydration efficiency also depends on gastric emptying, which is affected by several factors, including the temperature of the ingested liquid. The objective of this study was to critically assess the fluid replacement practices used by individuals who practice physical activities and discuss how the effect of liquid temperature on gastric emptying influences this hydrating behavior. Studies on the theme have found contradicting results, probably due to the different methods used. The studies that investigate liquid temperature in the gastrointestinal tract during exercise are limited. Considering the total gastric emptying time during rest, extreme liquid temperatures have no significant effect on the total gastric emptying time, since the temperature inside the stomach normalizes quickly after ingestion of the liquid. However, there are clear scientific evidences that the ingestion of ice-cold liquids increases gastric emptying in the first minutes after ingestion. This fact needs to be better investigated when it is associated with other pre-competition factors, such as the psychological state of the athlete. However, low temperatures improve the palatability of the drink, implying in greater consumption by the athletes and reducing the risk of dehydration. The effects of low temperature on gastric emptying are not decisive, since fluid replacement has intervention factors that are more relevant than temperature.

  17. Stomach emptiness in fishes: Sources of variation and study design implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, M.R.; Angradi, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    This study summarizes fish stomach content data from 369,000 fish from 402 species in 1,096 collections and reports on the percentage of individuals with empty stomachs. The mean percentage of individuals with empty stomachs among all species, locations, habitats, seasons, regions, and collection methods was 26.4%. Mean percentage of individuals with empty stomachs varied significantly among fish collection gear types, taxonomic orders, trophic groups, feeding behaviors, and habitats, and with species length at maturity. Most of the variation in percentage of individuals with empty stomachs was explained by species length at maturity, fish collection gear type, and two autecological factors: trophic group (piscivore percentage of individuals with empty stomachs > non-piscivore percentage of individuals with empty stomachs) and feeding habitat (water column feeder percentage of individuals with empty stomachs > benthic feeder percentage of individuals with empty stomachs). After accounting for variation with fish length, the percentage of individuals with empty stomachs did not vary with the stomach removal collection method (dissection vs. gastric lavage), feeding time (diurnal or nocturnal), or time of collection (day or night). The percentage of individuals with empty stomachs was similar between fresh and saltwater fish, but differed within finer habitat classifications and appeared to follow a general prey availability or productivity gradient: percentage of individuals with empty stomachs of open ocean collections > estuary collections, lentic > lotic, and pelagic > littoral. Gear type (active or passive) was the most influential factor affecting the occurrence of empty stomachs that can be readily controlled by researchers.

  18. A Comparison between Accelerated Failure-time and Cox Pro-portional Hazard Models in Analyzing the Survival of Gastric Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali ZARE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastric cancer is the one of the most prevalent reason of cancer-related death in the world. Survival of patients after surgery involves identifying risk factors. There are various models to detect the effect of risk factors on patients’ survival. The present study aims at evaluating these models.Methods: Data from 330 gastric cancer patients diagnosed at the Iran cancer institute during 1995-99 and followed up the end of 2011 were analyzed. The survival status of these patients in 2011 was determined by reopening the files as well as phone calls and the effect of various factors such as demographic, clinical, treatment, and post-surgical on pa-tients’ survival was studied. To compare various models of survival, Akaike Information Criterion and Cox-Snell Re-siduals were used. STATA 11 was used for data analyses.Results: Based on Cox-Snell Residuals and Akaike Information Criterion, the exponential (AIC=969.14 and Gom-pertz (AIC=970.70 models were more efficient than other accelerated failure-time models. Results of Cox propor-tional hazard model as well as the analysis of accelerated failure-time models showed that variables such as age (at di-agnosis, marital status, relapse, number of supplementary treatments, disease stage, and type of surgery were among factors affecting survival (P<0.05.Conclusion: Although most cancer researchers tend to use proportional hazard model, accelerated failure-time mod-els in analogous conditions — as they do not require proportional hazards assumption and consider a parametric sta-tistical distribution for survival time— will be credible alternatives to proportional hazard model.

  19. Gastroscopic evaluation of gastric ulcer syndrome in sport horses with poor performance

    OpenAIRE

    ÇETİNKAYA, Mehmet Alper; DEMİRUTKU, Alper; KAYA, Mahir

    2014-01-01

    Gastric ulceration is common in performance horses. More than 90% of thoroughbred horses in the training season and approximately 60% of racing horses from other disciplines have gastric ulcers. Excessive secretion of gastric acid, impairment of gastric mucosal blood flow, weakening of prostaglandin E or the gastric mucus/bicarbonate layer, and gastric emptying disorders are important factors in the onset of ulceration. In this study, 12 horses with poor performance were evaluated using gastr...

  20. A prospective randomized controlled study of erythromycin on gastric and small intestinal distention: Implications for MR enterography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharucha, Adil E., E-mail: bharucha.adil@mayo.edu [Clinical Enteric Neuroscience Translational and Epidemiological Research (C.E.N.T.E.R.) Program, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St. S.W., Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Fidler, Jeff L., E-mail: fidler.jeff@mayo.edu [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St. S.W., Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Huprich, James E., E-mail: huprich@mayo.edu [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St. S.W., Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Ratuapli, Shiva K., E-mail: ratuapli.shiva@mayo.edu [Clinical Enteric Neuroscience Translational and Epidemiological Research (C.E.N.T.E.R.) Program, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St. S.W., Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Holmes, David R., E-mail: holmes.david3@mayo.edu [Biomedical Imaging Resource, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St. S.W., Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Riederer, Stephen J., E-mail: riederer@mayo.edu [MR Research Laboratory, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St. S.W., Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Zinsmeister, Alan R., E-mail: zinsmeis@mayo.edu [Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St. S.W., Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Suboptimal small intestinal distention limits jejunal visualization during MRI. • In this controlled study, erythromycin increased gastric emptying measured with MRI. • However, effects on small intestinal dimensions were variable. - Abstract: Objectives: To assess if erythromycin increases gastric emptying and hence improves small intestinal distention during MR enterography. Methods: Gastric, small intestinal, and large intestinal volumes were assessed with MR after neutral oral contrast (1350 ml in 45 min) and balanced randomization to erythromycin (200 mg i.v., age 31 ± 3y, 13 females), or placebo (37 ± 3y, 13 females) in 40 healthy asymptomatic volunteers. Fat-suppressed T2-weighted MR images of the abdomen were acquired on a 1.5 T magnet at standard delay times for enterography. Gastric, small, and large intestinal volumes were measured by specialized software. In addition, two radiologists manually measured diameters and percentage distention of jejunal and ileal loops. Treatment effects were evaluated by an ITT analysis based on ANCOVA models. Results: All subjects tolerated erythromycin. MRI scans of the stomach and intestine were obtained at 62 ± 2 (mean ± SEM) and 74 ± 2 min respectively after starting oral contrast. Gastric volumes were lower (P < 0.0001) after erythromycin (260 ± 49 ml) than placebo (688 ± 63 ml) but jejunal, ileal, and colonic volumes were not significantly different. However, maximum (76–100%) jejunal distention was more frequently observed (P = 0.03) after erythromycin (8/20 subjects [40%]) than placebo (2/20 subjects [10%]). The diameter of a representative ileal loop was greater (P = 0.001) after erythromycin (18.8 ± 4.3 mm) than placebo (17.3 ± 2.8 mm) infusion. Conclusions: After ingestion of oral contrast, erythromycin accelerated gastric emptying but effects on small intestinal dimensions were variable. In balance, erythromycin did not substantially enhance small intestinal distention during

  1. Effect of a selective chloride channel activator, lubiprostone, on gastrointestinal transit, gastric sensory, and motor functions in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Michael; Bharucha, Adil E; Ueno, Ryuji; Burton, Duane; Thomforde, George M; Baxter, Kari; McKinzie, Sanna; Zinsmeister, Alan R

    2006-05-01

    Chloride channels modulate gastrointestinal neuromuscular functions in vitro. Lubiprostone, a selective type 2 chloride channel (ClC-2) activator, induces intestinal secretion and has been shown to relieve constipation in clinical trials; however, the effects of lubiprostone on gastric function and whole gut transit in humans are unclear. Our aim was to compare the effects of the selective ClC-2 activator lubiprostone on maximum tolerated volume (MTV) of a meal, postprandial symptoms, gastric volumes, and gastrointestinal and colonic transit in humans. We performed a randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating the effects of lubiprostone (24 microg bid) in 30 healthy volunteers. Validated methods were used: scintigraphic gastrointestinal and colonic transit, SPECT to measure gastric volumes, and the nutrient drink ("satiation") test to measure MTV and postprandial symptoms. Lubiprostone accelerated small bowel and colonic transit, increased fasting gastric volume, and retarded gastric emptying. MTV values were reduced compared with placebo; however, the MTV was within the normal range for healthy adults in 13 of 14 participants, and there was no significant change compared with baseline measurements. Lubiprostone had no significant effect on postprandial gastric volume or aggregate symptoms but did decrease fullness 30 min after the fully satiating meal. Thus the ClC-2 activator lubiprostone accelerates small intestinal and colonic transit, which confers potential in the treatment of constipation.

  2. Inhibition of fatty acid synthase by Orlistat accelerates gastric tumor cell apoptosis in culture and increases survival rates in gastric tumor bearing mice in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Shawn; Cox, James; Cenedella, Richard J

    2009-06-01

    Orlistat, an anti-obesity drug, is a potent inhibitor of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and tumor cell viability. It can also induce apoptotic cancer cell death. We examined the effects of Orlistat on cultured NUGC-3 gastric cancer cells. We identified that inhibition of FAS via Orlistat exposure results in rapid cellular damage preceded by a direct but short-lived autophagic response. The Orlistat induced damage can be reversed through the addition of lipid containing media in a process that normally leads to cell death. By limiting exogenous lipid availability and inhibiting FAS using Orlistat, we demonstrated both a greater sensitivity and amplified cancer cell death by activation of apoptosis. We have identified "windows of opportunity" at which time apoptosis can be aborted and cells can be reversed from the death pathway. However, when challenged beyond the window of recovery, cell death becomes all but certain as the ability to be rescued decreases considerably. In vivo examination of Orlistat's ability to inhibit gastrointestinal cancer was examined using heterozygous male C57BL/6J APC-Min mice, which spontaneously develop a fatal gastrointestinal cancer. Mice were fed either a high fat (11%) or low fat (1.2%) diet containing no Orlistat or 0.5 mg Orlistat/g of chow. Orlistat treated mice fed the high fat, but not low fat diet, survived 7-10% longer than the untreated controls.

  3. Emptiness Formation Probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Nicholas; Ng, Stephen; Starr, Shannon

    2016-08-01

    We present rigorous upper and lower bounds on the emptiness formation probability for the ground state of a spin-1/2 Heisenberg XXZ quantum spin system. For a d-dimensional system we find a rate of decay of the order {exp(-c L^{d+1})} where L is the sidelength of the box in which we ask for the emptiness formation event to occur. In the {d=1} case this confirms previous predictions made in the integrable systems community, though our bounds do not achieve the precision predicted by Bethe ansatz calculations. On the other hand, our bounds in the case {d ≥ 2} are new. The main tools we use are reflection positivity and a rigorous path integral expansion, which is a variation on those previously introduced by Toth, Aizenman-Nachtergaele and Ueltschi.

  4. Estudo do esvaziamento gástrico e da distribuição intragástrica de uma dieta sólida através da cintilografia: diferenças entre os sexos Scintigraphic study of gastric emptying and intragastric distribution of a solid meal: gender differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Letícia Silva LORENA

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Ainda existem controvérsias quanto a possíveis diferenças de esvaziamento gástrico entre os sexos. Os objetivos deste estudo são: confirmar se homens e mulheres realmente diferem no esvaziamento gástrico de uma dieta sólida e investigar se esta diferença está relacionada com diferentes padrões de distribuição da dieta entre os compartimentos proximal e distal do estômago. Dezoito voluntários assintomáticos (nove do sexo masculino, com idade média de 35 ± 9 anos e nove do sexo feminino, com idade média de 41 ± 11 anos foram estudados pela manhã, após ingestão da dieta sólida padronizada (omelete marcada com 185MBq de enxofre coloidal-99mTc. Imagens simultâneas do estômago nas projeções anterior e posterior foram adquiridas imediatamente após a ingestão da dieta e a cada 10 minutos, durante 120 minutos. Curvas de tempo versus contagem radioativa foram obtidas para o estômago total, proximal e distal. O T½ do esvaziamento gástrico foi maior para as mulheres (96,1 ± 17,2 minutos do que para os homens (79,9 ± 17,8 minutos; P = 0,02. A análise da distribuição intragástrica da dieta mostrou que não houve diferenças entre os sexos quanto ao esvaziamento gástrico proximal, mas as mulheres apresentaram maior retenção da dieta na porção distal do estômago (P = 0,04. Nossos resultados mostram que o esvaziamento gástrico de sólidos é mais lento nas mulheres não-menopausadas assintomáticas, do que nos homens de faixa etária semelhante, provavelmente devido a maior retenção da dieta na região distal do estômago. Este fato deve ser levado em conta nos estudos de esvaziamento gástrico pela cintilografia para evitar diagnósticos errôneos de gastroparesias nas pacientes do sexo feminino.Gender-related differences in gastric emptying are still controversial. The aims of this study were: to confirm the sex-related difference in gastric emptying of a solid meal and to investigate its association with

  5. Sluggish gallbladder emptying and gastrointestinal transit after intake of common alcoholic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasicka-Jonderko, A; Jonderko, K; Gajek, E; Piekielniak, A; Zawislan, R

    2014-02-01

    To study the movement along the gut and the effect upon the gallbladder volume of alcoholic beverages taken in the interdigestive state. The study comprised three research blocks attended by 12 healthy subjects each. Within a given research block volunteers underwent three examination sessions held on separate days, being offered an alcoholic beverage, or an aqueous ethanol solution of an identical proof, or a corresponding volume of isotonic glucose solution; the order of administration of the drinks was randomized. The beverages tested were: beer (4.7% vol, 400 ml), red wine (13.7% vol, 200 ml), whisky (43.5% vol, 100 ml) within the "Beer", "Wine", and "Whisky" research block, respectively. Gastric myoelectrical activity was examined electrogastrographically, gastric emptying with ¹³C-sodium acetate breath test, orocaecal transit with lactulose H₂ breath test, gallbladder emptying with ultrasonography, breath ethanol with alcotest. The study showed that alcoholic beverages were emptied from the stomach significantly slower than isotonic glucose. Alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation only (beer, red wine) were emptied from the stomach more slowly than ethanol solutions of identical proof, while gastric evacuation of whisky (distillation product) and matching alcohol solution was similar. The slower gastric evacuation of alcoholic beverages and ethanol solutions could not be ascribed to a disorganization of the gastric myoelectrical activity. The orocaecal transit of beer and red wine did not differ from that of isotonic glucose, whereas the orocaecal transit of whisky and high proof ethanol was markedly prolonged. Red wine and whisky, and to a similar extent control ethanol solutions caused an inhibition and delay of gallbladder emptying. We concluded that alcoholic beverages taken on an empty stomach exert a suppressive effect upon the transport function of the digestive tract and gallbladder emptying. The extent of this action depends on the type of a

  6. Emptiness in agoraphobia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milrod, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    In light of new research findings about the efficacy of psychodynamic treatment for panic disorder and agoraphobia, it seems a prudent time to carefully address psychoanalytic thinking about the treatment of agoraphobia. The literature has highlighted oedipal contributions to its genesis and clinical unraveling in psychoanalysis. While those contributions are indeed central to the disorder, structural deficits in the self-representation often become a central focus of treatment once symptomatic remission has been achieved in psychoanalytic treatment. This aspect of the clinical presentation of agoraphobia has not yet been specifically addressed in the psychiatric literature. Some aspects of the phenomenon have been described by psychoanalysts. It is more difficult to treat this "emptiness" than the overt symptoms of agoraphobia, as described in DSM-IV. Nonetheless, this phenomenon may be one of the contributors to the chronicity of the disorder. Two clinical cases illustrate these points.

  7. Laparoscopic gastric partitioning gastrojejunostomy for an unresectable duodenal malignant tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsumoto Toshifumi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available As a palliative bypass for unresectable gastric or periampullary cancer, gastrojejunostomy (GJ is sometimes associated with postoperative delayed gastric emptying. We report the successful laparoscopic application of this procedure in a 78-year-old man with duodenal obstruction. Computed tomography revealed a mass in the duodenum along with multiple masses in the liver. A radiological image showed an ulcerative tumour in the third portion of the duodenum occluding the lumen. He was diagnosed as having an unresectable duodenal cancer with multiple liver metastases. He needed palliative bypass surgery. Laparoscopically, the stomach was partially divided using an endoscopic autosuture device, and end-to-side GJ was performed successfully. He was given a normal diet on the fourth postoperative day, and there was no delayed gastric emptying. Laparoscopic gastric partitioning GJ is a feasible and safe procedure to prevent postoperative delayed gastric emptying in case of malignant duodenal obstruction.

  8. Involvement of endogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 in regulation of gastric motility and pancreatic endocrine secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witte, Anne-Barbara; Grybäck, Per; Jacobsson, Hans;

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To study the role of endogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) on gastric emptying rates of a solid meal as well as postprandial hormone secretion and glucose disposal. Material and methods. In nine healthy subjects, gastric emptying of a 310-kcal radio-labelled solid meal and plasma...

  9. Empty sella syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Anne M; Root, Allen W

    2012-08-01

    An empty sella (ES) develops when cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fills the sella turcica and compresses pituitary tissue until it lines the sellar floor and walls. Primary ES occurs when CSF enters the sella through a rent in the sellar diaphragm that may or may not be associated with increased intracranial pressure. Secondary ES is a result of an injury to the pituitary itself (e.g., pituitary apoplexy) or the consequence of surgical or radiation treatment. In adults, ES is most commonly found in older, obese, hypertensive, multiparous women and may be asymptomatic. In children, however, ES is more likely to be associated with clinical symptoms and endocrinopathies, particularly growth hormone deficiency, hypogonadotropism, or multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies. The incidence of ES in children varies greatly depending on the population surveyed, ranging from 1.2% (children without endocrine symptoms) to 68% (children with known endocrinopathy). Children with a finding of ES require endocrinologic and ophthalmologic evaluation. Treatment of ES includes replacement of hormone deficiencies and occasionally surgical measures to relieve obstructive intracranial lesions.

  10. Hyperprolactinaemia and the empty sella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwin, M; Brophy, B P

    2012-04-01

    Hyperprolactinaemia is an endocrine abnormality seen not infrequently in the population with empty sella; a radiological and anatomical diagnosis of a deformed and enlarged sella turcica. Often there is no associated pathology within the pituitary gland itself, lending to the hypothesis that the empty sella syndrome per se has a yet-to-be defined role in hyperprolactinemia. We report a patient who presented initially with non-specific symptoms of meningeal irritation and viral illness on a long background of galactorrhoea. The patient demonstrated elevated serum prolactin, and a diagnosis of empty sella was made on the basis of MRI findings.

  11. Effects of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide on gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit of liquid in rats%重组人脑利钠肽对大鼠液体胃排空和小肠传输功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世雄; 严祥; 王晶; 赵丽

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨重组人脑利钠肽对大鼠液体胃排空和小肠传输的影响.方法 将72只健康雄性Wistar大鼠随机分为治疗组和对照组,分别每日腹腔注射1次重组人脑利钠肽和生理盐水,1周后用葡萄糖酚红溶液灌胃,分别于灌胃后10、20、30 min处死大鼠,切取胃和小肠近、中、远各段留取内容物后,使用分光光度计测定胃肠各段酚红残留率.取治疗组和对照组大鼠各5只在灌胃前2h分别腹腔注射奥美拉唑,灌胃后10 min处死大鼠,测定胃内酚红残留率.结果 灌胃后10、20、30 min治疗组胃内酚红残留率分别为59.4%±1.9%、42.2%±1.7%和36.9%±2.7%,对照组为50.2%±2.0%、29.8%±1.1%和21.7%±1.3%,治疗组胃内酚红残留率高于对照组(P<0.05);治疗组和对照组小肠近段与中段酚红残留率差异无统计学意义;治疗组远段小肠酚红残留率分别为0.2%±0.2%、0.4%±0.1%和2.1%±1.9%,对照组分别为2.7%±0.6%、5.9%±1.4%和7.8%±2.1%,两组比较治疗组酚红残留率低于对照组(P<0.05);奥美拉唑预处理灌胃后10 min治疗组较对照组胃内酚红残留率增多,分别为60.7%±8.1%和49.8%±6.4%(P<0.05),与未给予奥美拉唑预处理组比较,差异无统计学意义.结论 重组人脑利钠肽可使大鼠液体胃排空减慢,小肠传输延迟.%Objective To assess the effects of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide (rhB-NP) on gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit of liquid in rats. Methods The male Wistar rats were randomly divided into rhBNP treatment group and control group. The rats in treatment group received intraperitoneal injection of rhBNP (15 /μg/kg, once daily), while the rats of control group only received an equal volume saline. They were gavage fed (1.5 mL) next week with phenol red in 5% glucose solution and sacrificed 10, 20, 30 min later. Dye recovery in the stomach, proximal, mid, and distal small

  12. Effects of the Drug Pair of Coptidis Rhizoma and Zingiberis Rhizoma on Gastric Emptying and Serum Gastrin in Rats with Functional Dyspepsia%黄连干姜药对对功能性消化不良大鼠胃排空和血清胃泌素的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史琪荣; 于少云; 孙晓迪; 闫荟; 孙世光; 谢予朋; 张京

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the combination laws of drug pair of rhizoma coptidis-zingiberis. METHODS Functional dyspepsia models were induced by stimulating rats on tails with forceps clip. In the experiment,wistar rats were divided into ten groups, namely,normal control group,model group,motilium group,coptidis rhizoma group,zingiberis rhizoma group,drug pair I group (coptidis rhizoma - zingiberis rhizoma = 1:3), drug pair II group (coptidis rhizome- zingiberis rhizoma = 1:1), drug pair III group (coptidis rhi-zoma-zingiberis rhizoma = 3:1), polar constituents of zingiberis rhizoma group, essential oil of zingiberis rhizoma group, and were given orally corresponding materials. Relative residue rate of gastric pigment,percentage of intestinal propulsion and serum gastrin in all the groups were detected after 7 d treatment RESULTS Compared with model group,relative residue rate of gastric pigment decreased significantly in polar constituents of zingiberis rhizoma group and essential oil of zingiberis rhizome group ( P < 0. 05), relative residue rate of gastric pigment increased significantly in coptidis rhizoma group (P < 0.05 ). Percentage of intestinal propulsion increased significantly in coptidis rhizoma group,zingiberis rhizoma group,drug pair I group,drug pair II group,drug pair III group,polar constituents of zingiberis rhizoma group and essential oil ai zingiberis rhizoma group ( P < 0. 05, P < 0. 01). The content of serum gastin decreased significantly in essential oil of zingiberis rhizoma group (P <0. 01). CONCLUSION It could be inferred that coptidis rhizoma could inhibite gastric emptying significantly,and promote intentional propulsion significantly. The different polar parts of zingiberis rhizoma could promote both gastric emptying and intentional propulsion significantly. Drug pairs of different proportion of coptidis rhizoma and zingiberis rhizoma could promote intentional propulsion significantly.%目的 研究黄连干姜药对的配伍规律.方法 用

  13. Prolonged idiopathic gastric dilatation following revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauci, Julia L; Stoven, Samantha; Szarka, Lawrence; Papadakis, Konstantinos A

    2014-01-01

    A 71-year-old female presented with nausea, emesis, early satiety, and abdominal distension following revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia. Computed tomography angiogram showed gastric dilatation. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, small bowel follow through, and paraneoplastic panel were negative. Gastric emptying was delayed. Despite conservative management, she required a percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy. The development of a prolonged gastroparetic state has not been previously described.

  14. Glucagon-like peptide-2 inhibits antral emptying in man, but is not as potent as glucagon-like peptide-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagell, C F; Wettergren, A; Pedersen, J F

    2004-01-01

    with GLP-1 inhibits gastric emptying and the sensation of hunger in man. METHODS: Eight healthy volunteers were tested in a double-blind, placebo-controlled fashion. Antral emptying of a liquid meal and hunger ratings were determined using ultrasound technology and visual analogue scales scoring during...

  15. CT diagnosis of empty sella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machida, T.; Maehara, T. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1981-02-01

    The CT diagnosis of an empty sella was discussed, using coronal and reconstructed sagittal planes after the intrathecal injection of metrizamide. Results: 1) The diagnosis of an empty sella should be made by noninvasive radiological examination, if possible. Computed Tomography is the most appropriate procedure for the diagnosis of an empty sella. 2) Coronal and reconstructed sagittal CT are of more diagnostic use than axial CT in the diagnosis of an empty sella. 3) At present, we should use metrizamide to eliminate a low-density mass in sella turcica. 4) In the near future, we will be able to make a diagnosis of an empty sella by plain CT alone, using a thinner slice and a higher resolution for low attenuation values. 5) We cannot detect pituitary microadenoma itself by CT in most cases of pituitary adenomas with a coexisting partially empty sella. We should, therefore, use other, detailed neuroradiological investigations if the endocrinologic evaluation of a patient supports the possibility of pituitary adenoma.

  16. The relationship between gastric motility and nausea: gastric prokinetic agents as treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Gareth J; Broad, John; Andrews, Paul L R

    2013-09-05

    Nausea is one of a cluster of symptoms described subjectively by patients with delayed gastric emptying. The mechanisms and treatments are unclear (anti-emetic drugs are not fully effective against nausea). Can nausea be relieved by stimulating gastric emptying? Physostigmine (together with atropine) has been shown experimentally to stimulate gastric motility, relieve nausea and restore normal gastric motility. Is this mimicked by gastric prokinetic drugs? The answer is complicated by mixed pharmacology. Metoclopramide increases gastric motility by activating myenteric 5-HT4 receptors but also directly inhibits vomiting via D2 and 5-HT3 receptor antagonism; relationships between increased gastric motility and relief from nausea are therefore unclear. Similarly, the D2 receptor antagonist domperidone has direct anti-emetic activity. Nevertheless, more selective 5-HT4 and motilin receptor agonists (erythromycin, directly stimulating gastric motility) inhibit vomiting in animals; low doses of erythromycin can also relieve symptoms in patients with gastroparesis. Ghrelin stimulates gastric motility and appetite mostly via vagus-dependent pathways, and inhibits vomiting in animals. To date, ghrelin receptor activation has failed to consistently improve gastric emptying or symptoms in patients with gastroparesis. We conclude that nausea can be relieved by gastric prokinetic drugs, but more clinical studies are needed using drugs with selective activity. Other mechanisms (e.g. ghrelin, vagal and central pathways, influencing a mechanistic continuum between appetite and nausea) also require exploration. These and other issues will be further explored in a forthcoming special issue of the European Journal of Pharmacology, which focusses on mechanisms of nausea and vomiting.

  17. The role of microRNA-1274a in the tumorigenesis of gastric cancer: Accelerating cancer cell proliferation and migration via directly targeting FOXO4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guo-Jun, E-mail: wwangguojun@163.com; Liu, Guang-Hui; Ye, Yan-Wei; Fu, Yang; Zhang, Xie-Fu

    2015-04-17

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a series of 18–25 nucleotides length non-coding RNAs, which play critical roles in tumorigenesis. Previous study has shown that microRNA-1274a (miR-1274a) is upregulated in human gastric cancer. However, its role in gastric cancer progression remains poorly understood. Therefore, the current study was aimed to examine the effect of miR-1274a on gastric cancer cells. We found that miR-1274a was overexpressed in gastric cancer tissues or gastric cancer cells including HGC27, MGC803, AGS, and SGC-7901 by qRT-PCR analysis. Transfection of miR-1274a markedly promoted gastric cancer cells proliferation and migration as well as induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells. Our further examination identified FOXO4 as a target of miR-1274a, which did not influence FOXO4 mRNA expression but significantly inhibited FOXO4 protein expression. Moreover, miR-1274a overexpression activated PI3K/Akt signaling and upregulated cyclin D1, MMP-2 and MMP-9 expressions. With tumor xenografts in mice models, we also showed that miR-1274a promoted tumorigenesis of gastric cancer in vivo. In all, our study demonstrated that miR-1274a prompted gastric cancer cells growth and migration through dampening FOXO4 expression thus provided a potential target for human gastric cancer therapy. - Highlights: • MiR-1274a expression was augmented in gastric cancer. • MiR-1274a promoted proliferation, migration and induced EMT in cancer cells. • MiR-1274a directly targeted FOXO4 expression. • MiR-1274a triggered PI3K/Akt signaling in cancer cells. • MiR-1274a significantly increased tumor xenografts growth.

  18. Ethanolic extract of roots from Arctium lappa L. accelerates the healing of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer in rats: Involvement of the antioxidant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Luisa Mota; Allemand, Alexandra; Mendes, Daniel Augusto G B; Dos Santos, Ana Cristina; André, Eunice; de Souza, Lauro Mera; Cipriani, Thales Ricardo; Dartora, Nessana; Marques, Maria Consuelo Andrade; Baggio, Cristiane Hatsuko; Werner, Maria Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the curative efficacy of the ethanolic extract (EET) of roots from Arctium lappa (bardana) in healing of chronic gastric ulcers induced by 80% acetic acid in rats and additionally studies the possible mechanisms underlying this action. Oral administration of EET (1, 3, 10 and 30mg/kg) reduced the gastric lesion area in 29.2%, 41.4%, 59.3% and 38.5%, respectively, and at 10mg/kg promoted significant regeneration of the gastric mucosa, which was confirmed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry. EET (10mg/kg) treatment did not increase the gastric mucus content but restored the superoxide dismutase activity, prevented the reduction of glutathione levels, reduced lipid hydroperoxides levels, inhibited the myeloperoxidase activity and reduced the microvascular permeability. In addition, EET reduced the free radical generation and increased scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals in vitro. Furthermore, intraduodenal EET (10 and 30mg/kg) decreased volume and acidity of gastric secretion. Total phenolic compounds were high in EET (Folin-Ciocalteau assay) and the analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that the main compounds present in EET were a serie of hydroxycinnamoylquinic acid isomers. In conclusion, these data reveal that EET promotes regeneration of damaged gastric mucosa, probably through its antisecretory and antioxidative mechanisms.

  19. Effect of on phenyl pyrazolones derivatives on gastric emptying of liquid emptying in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Mendes Vinagre

    2011-01-01

    Resumo: O esvaziamento gástrico (EG) é um processo de transferência do conteúdo gástrico para o intestino delgado, resultante da ação de mecanismos inibidores e estimuladores que controlam a atividade motora do estômago, piloro e duodeno. A dipirona, um derivado da fenilpirazolona, por via intravenosa (iv) e intra-cérebro-ventricular (icv), em ratos, retarda o esvaziamento gástrico (EG) de uma refeição líquida (salina). Quando administrada por via iv, o fenômeno foi abolido pela vagotomia sub...

  20. Neuromedin U inhibits food intake partly by inhibiting gastric emptying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalbøge, Louise S; Pedersen, Søren L; Secher, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    after the first dose. No effects were observed after seven days BID. In rats, the analog induced only a minor effect on food intake. NMU mRNA was detected in the enteric nervous system throughout the gut, whereas NMUR1 was confined to the lamina propria. NMUR2 was detected in the paraventricular (PVN...... the use of a NMU analog as drug candidate for treatment of obesity and diabetes. Finally mRNA expression of NMU and NMUR1 in the gut and NMUR2 in the hypothalamus was investigated using a novel chromogen-based in situ hybridization (ISH) assay. Effects on food intake (6 and 18h post dosing) were addressed...

  1. EP4 agonist alleviates indomethacin-induced gastric lesions and promotes chronic gastric ulcer healing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Liang Jiang; Wha Bin Im; Yariv Donde; Larry A Wheeler

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate EP4-selective agonist effect on indomethacin-induced gastric lesions and on the spontaneous healing of chronic gastric ulcers. METHODS: In a mouse model of gastric bleeding with high dose of indomethacin (20 mg/kg), an EP4-selective agonist was administered orally. Stomach lesions and gastric mucous regeneration were monitored. In a mouse model of chronic gastric ulcer induced by acetic acid, EP4 agonist effect on the healing of chronic gastric ulcer was evaluated in the presence or absence of low dose indomethacin (3 mg/kg). In cultured human gastric mucous cells, EP4 agonist effect on indomethacininduced apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: The EP4-selective agonist reduced high dose indomethacin-induced acute hemorrhagic damage and promoted mucous epithelial regeneration. Low-dose indomethacin aggravated ulcer bleeding and inflammation, and delayed the healing of the established chronic gastric ulcer. The EP4 agonist, when applied locally, not only offset indomethacin-induced gastric bleeding and inflammation, but also accelerated ulcer healing. In the absence of indomethacin, the EP4 agonist even accelerated chronic gastric ulcer healing and suppressed inflammatory cell infiltration in the granulation tissue. In vitro , the EP4 agonist protected human gastric mucous cells from indomethacin-induced apoptosis. CONCLUSION: EP4-selective agonist may prevent indomethacin-induced gastric lesions and promote healing of existing and indomethacin-aggravated gastric ulcers, via promoting proliferation and survival of mucous epithelial cells.

  2. Effects of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy for oesophago-gastric cancer on neuro-muscular gastric function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, E Z H; Arasaradnam, R P; Jarvie, E M; James, S; Goodyear, S J; Borman, R A; Snead, D; Sanger, G J; Nwokolo, C U

    2012-12-01

    Delayed gastric emptying symptoms are often reported after chemotherapy. This study aims to characterise the effects of chemotherapy on gastric neuro-muscular function. Patients undergoing elective surgery for oesophago-gastric cancer were recruited. Acetylcholinesterase, nNOS, ghrelin receptor and motilin expressions were studied in gastric sections from patients receiving no chemotherapy (n = 3) or oesophageal (n = 2) or gastric (n = 2) chemotherapy. A scoring system quantified staining intensity (0-3; no staining to strong). Stomach sections were separately suspended in tissue baths for electrical field stimulation (EFS) and exposure to erythromycin or carbachol; three patients had no chemotherapy; four completed cisplatin-based chemotherapy within 6 weeks prior to surgery. AChE expression was markedly decreased after chemotherapy (scores 2.3 ± 0.7, 0.5 ± 0.2 and 0 ± 0 in non-chemotherapy, oesophageal- and gastric-chemotherapy groups (p gastric function.

  3. Influence of hippophae rhamnoides on neuropeptide Y,gastric emptying and body fat in children with func-tional dyspepsia%沙棘对功能性消化不良患儿神经肽 Y、胃动力及体脂的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖满田; 丘小汕; 蔡泳仪

    2014-01-01

    simple random sampled divided into the three groups :Group Ⅰ( treated with hippophae rhamnoides ) ,Group Ⅱ( treated with domperidone ) , and Group Ⅲ( treated with hippophae rhamnoides plus domperidone ) .The treatment lasted for eight weeks .The level of plasma neuropeptide Y ( NPY) were measured before and after treatment .All patients underwent a gastric emptying ( GE) test by ultrasound ( US) to measure the rate of postprandial gastric antrum residual ,at 30min,60min,90min and 120min.The average value of subcutaneous fat,body fat percentage,upper arm girth,weight and height were also measured .Results There were no statistical difference between the level of NPY in plasma of groupⅠ,ⅡandⅢbefore treatment,which were (107.52 ±24.12)ng/L, (114.63 ±17.95)ng/L and(114.56 ±25.10)ng/L(F=1.307,P>0.05).After treatment,there were statistical difference between the level of NPY in plasma of groupⅠ,ⅡandⅢ,which were (137.38 ±29.86) ng/L,(121.43 ± 13.78)ng/L and (149.27 ±31.9)ng/L.The level of NPY in plasma of groupⅠandⅢwere markedly increased after treatment(t=4.95,5.40,all P0.05). Conclusion In children′s functional dyspepsia ,the hippophae rhamnoides increases the level of appetite factor neu-ropeptide Y,The child′s body fat increases markedly and physical growth also has obvious improvement .

  4. Therapeutic effect of cisapride on gastric injury following hemorrhagic shock resuscitation in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lian-yang; WANG Zheng-guo; ZHU Pei-fang; XU Yan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the therapeutic effect of cisapride on gastric injury following hemorrhagic shock resuscitation.Methods: 108 Wistar rats weighing (200 g±30 g) were randomly divided into a sham shock (SS) group (n=36), a hemorrhagic shock resuscitation (HS) group (n=36) and a hemorrhagic shock cisapride treated (HSC) group (n=36). Sampling at 1, 2 and 4 hours after resuscitation was done and 6 samples for each observation item were taken. The gastric blood flow volume was measured by isotope label biological microglobulin. Gastric pHi, gastric emptying, MDA and Na+-K+-ATPase of gastric mucosa were measured.Results: In the HSC group, the relative residual rate of gastric pigment decreased significantly, the gastric blood flow volume elevated; gastric pHi increased significantly at 2 hours; the level of mucosal MDA decreased at 4 hours, the activity of Na+-K+-ATPase increased and the lactic acid level in the portal vein decreased significantly compared to the HS group.Conclusions: After hemorrhagic shock resuscitation, cisapride contained the following functions,1) promoting gastric emptying, 2) increasing the blood flow of gastric blood flow volume and gastric pHi, 3) depressing the lactic acid concentration of the portal vein and improving MDA volume and Na+-K+ -ATPase activity of gastric mucosa. It suggests that after comple menting effective circulating blood volume for hemorrhagic shock resuscitation, early use of cisapride for gastric motility is helpful for an improvement of lasting ischemia and hypoxia in stomach.

  5. Gastric digestion of raw and roasted almonds in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Roman, Maxine J; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Burri, Betty J; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, R Paul

    2013-11-01

    Almonds are an important dietary source of lipids, protein, and α-tocopherol. It has been demonstrated that the physical form of almond kernels influences their digestion and absorption, but the role of thermal processes on the digestion of almonds has received little attention. The objectives of this study were to examine the gastric emptying and nutrient composition of gastric chyme from pigs (used as a model for the adult human) fed a single meal of either raw or roasted almonds over a 12-h postprandial period (72 pigs total, 6 pigs at each diet-time combination). Concentrations of glucose, triacylglycerols, and α-tocopherol in peripheral plasma during the 12-h postprandial period were determined. For dry matter and lipid, the gastric emptying profile was not different between raw and roasted almonds. Roasting almonds also did not influence gastric pH, or plasma glucose or triacylglycerols levels. In contrast, the gastric emptying of protein was more rapid for raw almonds compared to roasted almonds (P < 0.01) and intragastric protein content exhibited segregation (P < 0.001) throughout the stomach, with raw almonds having a higher level of segregation compared to roasted almonds. Postprandial plasma α-tocopherol levels were, on average 33% greater (P < 0.001) after consumption of raw almonds, most likely as a result of the higher concentration of α-tocopherol in raw almonds compared to roasted almonds. Roasting of almonds did not influence the overall gastric emptying process, but did lead to differences in the distribution of protein in the stomach and to the gastric emptying of protein.

  6. Mouse Models of Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy C. Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models have greatly enriched our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of numerous types of cancers. Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, with a poor prognosis and high incidence of drug-resistance. However, most inbred strains of mice have proven resistant to gastric carcinogenesis. To establish useful models which mimic human gastric cancer phenotypes, investigators have utilized animals infected with Helicobacter species and treated with carcinogens. In addition, by exploiting genetic engineering, a variety of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have emerged, such as INS-GAS mice and TFF1 knockout mice. Investigators have used the combination of carcinogens and gene alteration to accelerate gastric cancer development, but rarely do mouse models show an aggressive and metastatic gastric cancer phenotype that could be relevant to preclinical studies, which may require more specific targeting of gastric progenitor cells. Here, we review current gastric carcinogenesis mouse models and provide our future perspectives on this field.

  7. Effect of mepacrine on gastric motility in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minker, E; Matejka, Z

    1979-01-01

    Mepacrine given orally to rats inhibits gastric motility; its blocking effect is comparable to that of chloroquine, papaverine, and drotaverine, but less expressed than that of bencyclane. Similarly as the delayed gastric emptying induced by chloroquine, the effect of mepacrine is antagonized by acetyl-beta-methylcholine in a dose-related fashion, while that of papaverine, drotaverine, and bencyclane remains unchanged after treatment with the cholinomimetic drug.

  8. Gastric carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ismail Gomceli; Baris Demiriz; Mesut Tez

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide and the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths.Despite complete resection of gastric cancer and lymph node dissection,as well as improvements in chemotherapy and radiotherapy,there are still 700 000 gastric cancer-related deaths per year worldwide and more than 80% of patients with advanced gastric cancer die of the disease or recurrent disease within 1 year after diagnosis.None of the treatment modalities we have been applying today can influence the overall survival rates:at present,the overall 5-year relative survival rate for gastric cancer is about 28%.Cellular metaplasia due to chronic inflammation,injury and repair are the most documented processes for neoplasia.It appears that chronic inflammation stimulates tumor development and plays a critical role in initiating,sustaining and advancing tumor growth.It is also evident that not all inflammation is tumorigenic.Additional mutations can be acquired,and this leads to the cancer cell gaining a further growth advantage and acquiring a more malignant phenotype.Intestinalization of gastric units,which is called "intestinal metaplasia";phenotypic antralization of fundic units,which is called "spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia"; and the development directly from the stem/progenitor cell zone are three pathways that have been described for gastric carcinogenesis.Also,an important factor for the development of gastrointestinal cancers is peritumoral stroma.However,the initiating cellular event in gastric metaplasia is still controversial.Understanding gastric carcinogenesis and its precursor lesions has been under intense investigation,and our paper attempts to high-light recent progress in this field of cancer research.

  9. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Request Permissions Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 11/2015 What is hereditary diffuse gastric cancer? Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is an inherited ...

  10. Gastric sensitivity and reflexes: basic mechanisms underlying clinical problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azpiroz, Fernando; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Grundy, David; Tack, Jan

    2014-02-01

    Both reflex and sensory mechanisms control the function of the stomach, and disturbances in these mechanisms may explain the pathophysiology of disorders of gastric function. The objective of this report is to perform a literature-based critical analysis of new, relevant or conflicting information on gastric sensitivity and reflexes, with particular emphasis on the comprehensive integration of basic and clinical research data. The stomach exerts both phasic and tonic muscular (contractile and relaxatory) activity. Gastric tone determines the capacity of the stomach and mediates both gastric accommodation to a meal as well as gastric emptying, by partial relaxation or progressive recontraction, respectively. Perception and reflex afferent pathways from the stomach are activated independently by specific stimuli, suggesting that the terminal nerve endings operate as specialized receptors. Particularly, perception appears to be related to stimulation of tension receptors, while the existence of volume receptors in the stomach is uncertain. Reliable techniques have been developed to measure gastric perception and reflexes both in experimental and clinical conditions, and have facilitated the identification of abnormal responses in patients with gastric disorders. Gastroparesis is characterised by impaired gastric tone and contractility, whereas patients with functional dyspepsia have impaired accommodation, associated with antral distention and increased gastric sensitivity. An integrated view of fragmented knowledge allows the design of pathophysiological models in an attempt to explain disorders of gastric function, and may facilitate the development of mechanistically orientated treatments.

  11. Endoluminal Revision (OverStitch (TM) , Apollo Endosurgery) of the Dilated Gastroenterostomy in Patients with Late Dumping Syndrome After Proximal Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stier, Christine; Chiappetta, Sonja

    2016-08-01

    Dumping syndrome is a long-term postoperative complication of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedures. Morphologically, dumping syndrome usually correlates with a dilatation of the gastroenterostomy with accelerated pouch emptying. Conservative therapy includes diet changes, complementary pharmacotherapy and, if symptoms persist, surgical revision. Surgical options include endoscopic, endoluminal surgery to constrict the gastrojejunostomy using a novel endoscopic suturing device (OverStitch(TM), Apollo). In our study, we aimed to assess the viability, safety and efficacy of this procedure in patients with late dumping; 14 patients who had developed late dumping syndrome underwent surgery using an endoscopic suturing technique (OverStitch(TM), Apollo). Late dumping was confirmed by Sigstad score and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Prior to surgery, objective analysis of pouch emptying speed was assessed by gastric scintigraphy. Surgery was performed under general anaesthesia. None of the 14 patients suffered intra- or postoperative complications. No postsurgical increase in inflammation parameters was observed. The postinterventional pain scale (visual analogue scale) showed a mean score of 0.5 (range 0-10). In 13 of the 14 patients, no dumping was observed 1-month postsurgery. The postoperative Sigstad score (3.07 ± 2.06; range 1-9) showed an impressive reduction compared with the preoperative score (12.71 ± 4.18; range 7-24) (p dumping syndrome involving minimal trauma and offering rapid reconvalescence.

  12. Adult Health: Worried About Empty Nest Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clinical diagnosis. Instead, empty nest syndrome is a phenomenon in which parents experience feelings of sadness and loss when the last child leaves home. Although you might actively encourage your ...

  13. PREDICTING RELEVANT EMPTY SPOTS IN SOCIAL INTERACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshiharu MAENO; Yukio OHSAWA

    2008-01-01

    An empty spot refers to an empty hard-to-fill space which can be found in the records of the social interaction, and is the clue to the persons in the underlying social network who do not appear in the records. This contribution addresses a problem to predict relevant empty spots in social interaction. Homogeneous and inhomogeneous networks are studied as a model underlying the social interaction. A heuristic predictor function method is presented as a new method to address the problem. Simulation experiment is demonstrated over a homogeneous network. A test data set in the form of market baskets is generated from the simulated communication. Precision to predict the empty spots is calculated to demonstrate the performance of the presented method.

  14. Brain-gut interactions between central vagal activation and abdominal surgery to influence gastric myenteric ganglia Fos expression in rats

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    We previously showed that medullary thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) or the stable TRH agonist, RX-77368 administered intracisternally induces vagal-dependent activation of gastric myenteric neurons and prevents post surgery-induced delayed gastric emptying in rats. We investigated whether abdominal surgery alters intracisternal (ic) RX-77368 (50 ng)-induced gastric myenteric neuron activation. Under 10 min enflurane anesthesia, rats underwent an ic injection of saline or RX-77368 followed...

  15. [Gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belén Fraile, M; Serra Bartual, M; Segarra Sánchez, J; Richart Rufino, M J

    1991-11-01

    Gastric cancer represents a disorder which incidence has come down last years. Its etiology is unknown, but diet is the principal determinant risk of suffering it. Clinic history is not much useful, because in the early stage symptoms can fail and in the late stage are inespecific. Election diagnosis is endoscopy. Surgery is the only curative treatment. By these features, it would be useful to left under vigilance to: a) patients 40 years older with dispepsia; b) patients following gastric operations; c) patients with disorders presenting aclorhidria. The authors report a clinic case that can be of frequent presentation in primary assistance.

  16. The Inhibitory Effects of Nesfatin-1 in Ventromedial Hypothalamus on Gastric Function and Its Regulation by Nucleus Accumbens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shengli; Guo, Feifei; Sun, Xiangrong; Zhang, Nana; Gong, Yanling; Xu, Luo

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nesfatin-1 signaling in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) on gastric functions, as well as the regulation of these effects by nucleus accumbens (NAc) projections to VMH. Methods: The expression of c-fos in nesfatinergic VMH neurons induced by gastric distension (GD) was measured using the double fluoro-immunohistochemical staining. The firing rates of neurons were monitored with single-unit extracellular electric discharge recording. The projection of nesfatinergic neurons from NAc to VMH was observed by fluorogold retrograde tracer combined with fluoro-immunohistochemical staining. The effect of nesfatin-1 in VMH or electric stimulation in NAc on gastric function was studied by measuring food intake, gastric acid output, gastric motility, and gastric emptying, and the ability of the melanocortin-3/4 receptor antagonist SHU9119 or the anti-nesfatin-1 antibody to block nesfatin-1 in the VMH was assessed. Results: Expression of c-fos was observed in VMH nesfatinergic neurons following GD in rats. Further, nesfatin-1 delivery to single GD-responsive neurons changed the firing rates of these neurons in the VMH. In awake, behaving rats, intra-VMH administration of nesfatin-1 inhibited food intake, gastric acid output, gastric motility, and gastric emptying. These effects were abolished by SHU9119. Fluorogold retrograde tracing showed nesfatinergic neural projection from the NAc to the VMH. Electrical stimulation of NAc modified the firing rates of the VMH neurons and inhibited food intake and gastric functions. The pretreatment with an anti-nesfatin-1 antibody in the VMH reversed the effects of NAc electrical stimulation on the VMH neuronal firing rates and gastric function. Conclusions: Nesfatin-1 in the VMH inhibited food intake, gastric acid output, gastric motility, and gastric emptying. A nesfatinergic pathway between NAc and VMH transmitted metabolism-regulating signals. PMID:28105016

  17. Afferent signalling from the acid-challenged rat stomach is inhibited and gastric acid elimination is enhanced by lafutidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holzer Peter

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lafutidine is a histamine H2 receptor antagonist, the gastroprotective effect of which is related to its antisecretory activity and its ability to activate a sensory neuron-dependent mechanism of defence. The present study investigated whether intragastric administration of lafutidine (10 and 30 mg/kg modifies vagal afferent signalling, mucosal injury, intragastric acidity and gastric emptying after gastric acid challenge. Methods Adult rats were treated with vehicle, lafutidine (10 – 30 mg/kg or cimetidine (10 mg/kg, and 30 min later their stomachs were exposed to exogenous HCl (0.25 M. During the period of 2 h post-HCl, intragastric pH, gastric volume, gastric acidity and extent of macroscopic gastric mucosal injury were determined and the activation of neurons in the brainstem was visualized by c-Fos immunocytochemistry. Results Gastric acid challenge enhanced the expression of c-Fos in the nucleus tractus solitarii but caused only minimal damage to the gastric mucosa. Lafutidine reduced the HCl-evoked expression of c-Fos in the NTS and elevated the intragastric pH following intragastric administration of excess HCl. Further analysis showed that the gastroprotective effect of lafutidine against excess acid was delayed and went in parallel with facilitation of gastric emptying, measured indirectly via gastric volume changes, and a reduction of gastric acidity. The H2 receptor antagonist cimetidine had similar but weaker effects. Conclusion These observations indicate that lafutidine inhibits the vagal afferent signalling of a gastric acid insult, which may reflect an inhibitory action on acid-induced gastric pain. The ability of lafutidine to decrease intragastric acidity following exposure to excess HCl cannot be explained by its antisecretory activity but appears to reflect dilution and/or emptying of the acid load into the duodenum. This profile of actions emphasizes the notion that H2 receptor antagonists can protect

  18. Gastric lipoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zameer M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 12-year-old-boy with gastric lipoma. Upper gastrointestinal (GI endoscopy with biopsy and abdominal computed tomogram (CT scan revealed the diagnosis. Open surgical excision of the mass with stomach preservation was done. The clinical presentation and management are discussed and the literature reviewed here. This is the sixth pediatric case reported in the English literature.

  19. Analysis of empty ATLAS pilot jobs

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00006364; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In this analysis we quantify the wallclock time used by short empty pilot jobs on a number of WLCG compute resources. Pilot factory logs and site batch logs are used to provide independent accounts of the usage. Results show a wide variation of wallclock time used by short jobs depending on the site and queue, and changing with time. For a reference dataset of all jobs in August 2016, the fraction of wallclock time used by empty jobs per studied site ranged from 0.1% to 0.8%. The variation in wallclock usage may be explained by different workloads for each resource with a greater fraction when the workload is low. Aside from the wall time used by empty pilots, we also looked at how many pilots were empty as a fraction of all pilots sent. Binning the August dataset into days, empty fractions between 2% and 90% were observed.  The higher fractions correlate well with periods of few actual payloads being sent to the site.

  20. Effect of ginger on gastric motility and symptoms of functional dyspepsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Luen Hu; Christophan K Rayner; Keng-Liang Wu; Seng-Kee Chuah; Wei-Chen Tai; Yeh-Pin Chou; Yi-Chun Chiu; King-Wah Chiu; Tsung-Hui Hu

    2011-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the effects of ginger on gastric motility and emptying,abdominal symptoms,and hormones that influence motility in dyspepsia.METHODS:Eleven patients with functional dyspepsia were studied twice in a randomized double-blind manner.After an 8-h fast,the patients ingested three capsules that contained ginger(total 1.2 g)or placebo,followed after 1 h by 500 mL low-nutrient soup.Antral area,fundus area and diameter,and the frequency of antral contractions were measured using ultrasound at frequent intervals,and the gastric half-emptying time was calculated from the change in antral area.Gastrointestinal sensations and appetite were scored using visual analog questionnaires,and blood was taken for measurement of plasma glucagon-like peptide-1(GLP-1),motilin and ghrelin concentrations,at intervals throughout the study.RESULTS:Gastric emptying was more rapid after ginger than placebo [median(range)half-emptying time 12.3(8.5-17.0)min after ginger,16.1(8.3-22.6)min after placebo,P ≤ 0.05].There was a trend for more antral contractions(P = 0.06),but fundus dimensions and gastrointestinal symptoms did not differ,nor did serum concentrations of GLP-1,motilin and ghrelin.CONCLUSION:Ginger stimulated gastric emptying and antral contractions in patients with functional dyspepsia,but had no impact on gastrointestinal symptoms or gut peptides.

  1. Gastric Sleeve Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Gastric Sleeve Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > Gastric Sleeve Surgery Print A ... buying healthy food ) continue Preparing for Gastric Sleeve Surgery Preparing for this major operation takes months of ...

  2. Optimizing Empty Containers Distribution among Ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Hajeeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Empty containers are an essential part of the logistics of the movement, repositioning and distribution of containers. Optimizing the allocation and transportation of empty containers contributes significantly in reducing cost. Approach: A mathematical model is formulated with the objective of finding an optimal sequence of ships movement among ports in order to satisfy demands at the ports with minimum total cost. Results: Several numerical examples are used to compare the performance of the developed optimization model with well known standard models available in the literature. Conclusion/Recommendation: It was observed that the solution obtained by the developed method to be either as good as or better than the solution provided by other standard models. Future work should consider contribution of full containers in meeting demand for empty containers.

  3. An Inefficient Representation of the Empty Word

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, P.R.J.; Tromp, J.T.

    1996-01-01

    We show that Post's system of tag with alphabet $\\{0,1\\}$, deletion number 3, productions $0\\rightarrow 00$ and $1\\rightarrow 1101$, and initial string $111\\cdots 1$ (330 times) converges to the empty word after a very large number of rewriting steps.

  4. Analysis of empty ATLAS pilot jobs

    CERN Document Server

    Love, Peter; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The pilot model used by the ATLAS production system has been in use for many years. The model has proven to be a success with many advantages over push models. However one of the negative side-effects of using a pilot model is the presence of 'empty pilots' running on sites which consume a small amount of walltime and not running a useful payload job. The impact on a site can be significant with previous studies showing a total 0.5% walltime usage with no benefit to either the site or to ATLAS. Another impact is the number of empty pilots being processed by a site's Compute Element and batch system which can be 5% of the total number of pilots being handled. In this paper we review the latest statistics using both ATLAS and site data and highlight edge cases where the number of empty pilots dominate. We also study the effect of tuning the pilot factories to reduce the number of empty pilots.

  5. Encouraging Classroom Participation with Empty Extrinsic Rewards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinee, William

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about how to encourage classroom participation with empty extrinsic rewards. He uses "bonus points" in awarding students for particularly interesting or well thought-out contributions to the class discussion. These bonus points have absolutely no effect on the student's course grade. But the students respond…

  6. Role of CRF in stress-related alterations of gastric and colonic motor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taché, Y; Mönnikes, H; Bonaz, B; Rivier, J

    1993-10-29

    Major advances have been made in the understanding of the pathophysiology of stress-related alteration of gut function. A wealth of information indicates that CRF is involved in the central mechanisms by which stress inhibits gastric emptying while stimulating colonic motor function. CRF acts in the PVN to trigger both the inhibition of gastric emptying and the stimulation of colonic motor function in response to stress, in addition to previously established endocrine and behavioral responses. Preliminary evidence exists that CRF acts in the locus coeruleus to induce a selective stimulation of colonic transit without influencing gastric emptying. The central actions of CRF to alter gastric and colonic motor function are conveyed by autonomic pathways and are unrelated to the associated stimulation of pituitary hormone secretion. The demonstration that central CRF plays a role in mediating gastric stasis resulting from surgery, peritonitis or high levels of central interleukin-1 provides new insight into the mechanisms involved in gastric ileus induced postoperatively or by infectious disease. Likewise, the demonstration that CRF in the PVN and locus coeruleus induce the anxiogenic and colonic motor responses to stress and that colonic distention activates neurons in the locus coeruleus opens new avenues for the understanding of the pathogenesis of a subset of IBS patients with colonic hypersensitivity associated with psychopathological disturbance and diarrhea-predominant symptoms.

  7. Gastric infarction following gastric bypass surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Patrick H; Kang, Young S; Cahill, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Gastric infarction is an extremely rare occurrence owing to the stomach’s extensive vascular supply. We report an unusual case of gastric infarction following gastric bypass surgery. We describe the imaging findings and discuss possible causes of this condition. PMID:27200168

  8. Scintigraphic Methods to Evaluate Alterations of Gastric and Esophageal Functions in Female Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Ömür

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Altered gastrointestinal function has frequently been observed in obese patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER and to determine the alterations of gastric emptying and esophageal transit by scintigraphic methods in obese patients. Methods: Scintigraphic studies of 50 obese female non-diabetic patients who had not received any treatment for weight control were retrospectively reviewed. Mean Body Mass Index (BMI was 34.96±3.04 kg/m² (range:32-39 kg/m². All subjects were submitted to scintigraphic evaluation of esophageal transit, gastro-esophageal reflux, gastric emptying and presence of Helicobacter pylori infection. The data of obese patients were compared with those of sex-age matched 30 non-obese cases who were selected from our clinical archive. Results: In obese group, seventeen (34% patients were found to be GER positive scintigraphically; mean gastric emptying time (t½ was 59.18±30.8 min and the mean esophageal transit time was 8.9±7.2 s. Frequency of positive GER scintigraphy and the mean value of esophageal transit time were significantly higher in obese patients than non-obese control subjects. Gastric emptying time and esophageal transit time values were significantly longer in GER positive obese patients than GER negative ones. There was no statistically significant difference in the frequency of positive C14 urea breath test between obese and non-obese subjects and there were also no statistically significant correlations between BMI, GER, esophageal transit time and gastric emptying time. Conclusion: In our study, 42 of the 50 obese patients had esophago-gastric motility alterations. The significance of these alterations in obesity is not fully understood, but it is believed that these changes could be because of potential contributing factors in the development or maintenance of obesity or changes in eating habits

  9. Gastric electromechanical dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krygowska-Wajs, A; Lorens, K; Thor, P; Szczudlik, A; Konturek, S

    2000-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate gastric myoelectrical and mechanical activities in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) patients. Twenty patients with IPD (14 male and 6 female, mean age 42 +/- 9 years) were studied. Patients were divided into two groups: group A--early stage of disease (no. = 6) and group B--advanced IPD (no. = 14). Electrogastrography (EGG) was performed in fasting and postprandial conditions (Synectics system). The cross-sectional area of the gastric antrum was measured by sonography (Hitachi EUB-240). The antral area in fasting conditions was 2.1 +/- 0.4 and 4.2 +/- 1.2 cm2 and gastric emptying was 75 +/- 5 and 125 +/- 12 min in groups A and B respectively. EGG showed dysrhythmias (range 1-6 cycles per minute) in about 75% of both groups of IPD patients without increase in signal amplitude after a meal. Our results suggest that gastric motility is particularly impaired in patients with advanced IPD. It may be caused by the primary degenerative process in the autonomic nervous system of the gut.

  10. Participation of microbiota in the development of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Li; Yu, Xin-Juan; Zhan, Shu-Hui; Jia, Sheng-Jiao; Tian, Zi-Bin; Dong, Quan-Jiang

    2014-05-07

    There are a large number of bacteria inhabiting the human body, which provide benefits for the health. Alterations of microbiota participate in the pathogenesis of diseases. The gastric microbiota consists of bacteria from seven to eleven phyla, predominantly Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria. Intrusion by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) does not remarkably interrupt the composition and structure of the gastric microbiota. Absence of bacterial commensal from the stomach delays the onset of H. pylori-induced gastric cancer, while presence of artificial microbiota accelerates the carcinogenesis. Altered gastric microbiota may increase the production of N-nitroso compounds, promoting the development of gastric cancer. Further investigation of the carcinogenic mechanisms of microbiota would benefit for the prevention and management of gastric cancer.

  11. Dumping syndrome after esophageal, gastric or bariatric surgery : pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, A P; Emous, M; Laville, M; Tack, J

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dumping syndrome, a common complication of esophageal, gastric or bariatric surgery, includes early and late dumping symptoms. Early dumping occurs within 1 h after eating, when rapid emptying of food into the small intestine triggers rapid fluid shifts into the intestinal lumen and rele

  12. Effect of DA-9701 on Gastric Motor Function Assessed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Healthy Volunteers: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Won Min

    Full Text Available Improving gastric accommodation and gastric emptying is an attractive physiological treatment target in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD. We evaluated the effect of DA-9701, a new drug for FD, on gastric motor function after a meal in healthy volunteers using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI.Forty healthy volunteers were randomly allocated to receive either DA-9701 or placebo. After 5 days of treatment, subjects underwent gastric MRI (60 min before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after a liquid test meal. Gastric volume was measured through 3-dimensional reconstruction from MRI data. We analyzed 4 outcome variables including changes in total gastric volume (TGV, proximal TGV, and proximal to distal TGV ratio after a meal and gastric emptying rates after adjusting values at the pre-test meal.Changes in TGV and proximal TGV after a meal did not differ between the DA-9701 and placebo groups (difference between groups -25.9 mL, 95% confidence interval [CI] -54.0 to 2.3 mL, P = 0.070 and -2.9 mL, 95% CI -30.3 to 24.5 mL, P = 0.832, respectively. However, pre-treatment with DA-9701 increased postprandial proximal to distal TGV ratio more than placebo (difference between groups 0.93, 95% CI 0.08 to 1.79, P = 0.034. In addition, pre-treatment with DA-9701 significantly increased gastric emptying as compared with placebo (mean difference between groups 3.41%, 95% CI 0.54% to 6.29%, P = 0.021, by mixed model for repeated measures.Our results suggested that DA-9701 enhances gastric emptying and does not significantly affect gastric accommodation in healthy volunteers. Further studies to confirm whether DA-9701 enhances these gastric motor functions in patients with FD are warranted.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02091635.

  13. Fire exposure of empty 30B cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziehlke, K.T. [MJB Technical Associates, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Cylinders for UF{sub 6} handling, transport, and storage are designed and built as unfired pressure vessels under ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code criteria and standards. They are normally filled and emptied while UF{sub 6} is in its liquid phase. Transport cylinders such as the Model 30B are designed for service at 200 psi and 250{degrees}F, to sustain the process conditions which prevail during filling or emptying operations. While in transport, however, at ambient temperature the UF{sub 6} is solid, and the cylinder interior is well below atmospheric pressure. When the cylinders contain isotopically enriched product (above 1.0 percent U-235), they are transported in protective overpacks which function to guard the cylinders and their contents against thermal or mechanical damage in the event of possible transport accidents. Two bare Model 30B cylinders were accidentally exposed to a storage warehouse fire in which a considerable amount of damage was sustained by stored materials and the building structure, as well as by the cylinder valves and valve protectors. The cylinders were about six years old, and had been cleaned, inspected, hydrotested, and re-certified for service, but were still empty at the time of the fire. The privately-owned cylinders were transferred to DOE for testing and evaluation of the fire damage.

  14. Emptiness of the Universe as a Cause of Inflation and Dark Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Marochnik, Leonid

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that in a homogeneous isotropic empty (with no matter fields) Lorentzian space of the Universe gravitons and classical gravitational waves can be tunneled into Euclidean space of imaginary time through a topologically impenetrable barrier. They are damped here, giving their energy on the formation of the self-consistent de Sitter state, which is invariant with respect to Wick rotation. The latter suggests that it is formed in the Lorentzian space of real time too, and its appearance here can be considered as "tunneling from nothing". The present Universe is already ~70% empty, and it is going to become completely empty with decreasing of the energy density of non-relativistic matter in the process of cosmological expansion. The inflation is most likely had to start from the vacuum state also. De Sitter accelerated expansion of the empty Universe naturally explains the origin of dark energy and inflation because at the start (inflation) and by the end (dark energy)of its evolution the Universe is e...

  15. Gastric and masticatory performances in full-arch immediate loading rehabilitated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, P; Menini, M; Furnari, M; Pera, F; Tealdo, T; Pera, P

    2015-09-01

    Full-arch immediate loading implant rehabilitations provide patients with compromised dentition an effective treatment to improve their aesthetic and function. Aim of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the correlation between masticatory ability and gastric emptying rates among these patients. Ten subjects (five men and five women) with compromised dentition were tested in two occasions: before treatment and 30 days after the immediate loading rehabilitation. Masticatory ability was evaluated using the sieves test, and the gastric half emptying time (T(1/2)) was assessed by means of the 13C-octanoic acid breath test. A statistically significant increment (P rehabilitated with full-arch immediate implant prostheses present a significant improvement of the gastric process.

  16. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... has stayed about the same since 2005. Stomach (gastric) cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells ...

  17. Identification of HRAS as cancer-promoting gene in gastric carcinoma cell aggressiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao Yu; Liu, Wen Tao; Wu, Zhen Feng; Chen, Che; Liu, Jia Yun; Wu, Guan Nan; Yao, Xue Quan; Liu, Fu Kun; Li, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Gastric carcinoma is one of the most lethal malignancies of cancers and its prognosis remains dismal due to the paucity of effective therapeutic targets. Herein, we showed that HRAS is markedly up-regulated in gastric carcinoma. Prognostic analysis indicated that HRAS expression might be a prognostic indicator for the survival of patients with gastric carcinoma. Ectopic expression of HRAS in gastric carcinoma cells accelerated proliferation, migration, invasion, angiogenesis, and clone formation ability of gastric carcinoma cells in vitro. Furthermore, HRAS over-expressing significantly promoted the tumorigenicity of gastric carcinoma cells in vivo whereas silencing endogenous HRAS caused opposite outcomes. Moreover, we demonstrated that HRAS enhanced gastric carcinoma aggressiveness by activating VEGFA/PI3K/AKT pathway and Raf-1 signaling. Together, our results provide new evidence that HRAS overexpression promotes the progression of gastric carcinoma and might represent a novel therapeutic target for its treatment. PMID:27725900

  18. Tetrodotoxin-dependent effects of menthol on mouse gastric motor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Antonella; Baldassano, Sara; Serio, Rosa; Mulè, Flavia

    2013-10-15

    Menthol, the main active constituent of peppermint oil, exerts gut spasmolytic effects, although its mechanism of action remains unclear. We investigated the effects of menthol on gastric emptying and spontaneous- or evoked- mechanical activity of whole murine stomach. Gastric emptying was calculated after i.p. administration of menthol (50mg/Kg). Responses induced by menthol on gastric intraluminal pressure and evoked-cholinergic contractions were analyzed in vitro. Menthol decreased the gastric emptying rate. In vitro, menthol (0.3-30 mM) produced a concentration-dependent relaxation of whole stomach, that was significantly reduced by tetrodotoxin or ω-conotoxin GVIA. The gastric relaxant responses were not affected by Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, inhibitor of nitric oxide-synthase, apamin or [Lys1,Pro2,5,Arg3,4,Tyr6] vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)(7-28), a VIP receptor antagonist, but they were significantly antagonized by atropine or guanethidine, a blocker of adrenergic neurotransmission. The joint application of atropine and guanethidine did not produce any additive effects on menthol effects. Phentolamine, an α-adrenoceptor antagonist, but not propranolol, a β-adrenoceptor antagonist, significantly reduced menthol responses and the contemporary administration of both adrenergic antagonists did not produce additive effects. Menthol (1-100 μM) produced a reduction of the electrically-evoked cholinergic contractions, which was prevented by guanethidine. Menthol did not affect the contractions induced by carbachol. In conclusion, menthol in mouse, is able to reduce the rate of gastric emptying and to relax the stomach in vitro. The latter effect appears due, almost in part, to neural mechanisms, with involvement of α-adrenoceptors leading to reduction of tonic ongoing release of acetylcholine.

  19. Running on Empty? The Compensatory Reserve Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Running on empty? The compensatory reserve index Steven L. Moulton, MD, Jane Mulligan , PhD, Greg Z. Grudic, PhD, and Victor A. Convertino, PhD, San...reserve index. 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Moulton S. L., Mulligan J., Grudic G. Z., Convertino V...2003;196:679Y684. 25. Convertino VA, Grudic GZ, Mulligan J, Moulton S. Estimation of individual-specific progression to cardiovascular instability using

  20. Gastric lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sravani Padala

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal lymphomas represent 5-20% of extra nodal lymphomas and mainly occur in the stomach and small intestine. Clinical findings are not specific, thus often determining a delay in the diagnosis. Imaging features at conventional and cross-sectional imaging must be known by the radiologist since he/she plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis and disease assessment, thus assisting in the choice of the optimal treatment to patients. This review focuses on the wide variety of imaging presentation of esophageal, gastric, and small and large bowel lymphoma presenting their main imaging appearances at conventional and cross-sectional imaging, mainly focusing on computed tomography and magnetic resonance, helping in the choice of the best imaging technique for the disease characterization and assessment and the recognition of potential complications. Gastrointestinal tract is the most common extra nodal site involved by lymphoma. Although lymphoma can involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract .The most frequent sites in order of its occurrence are the stomach followed by small intestine and ileocecal region. Gastrointestinal tract lymphoma is usually secondary to the widespread nodal diseases and primary gastrointestinal tract lymphoma is relatively rare. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 2481-2486

  1. Diet-induced obesity has neuroprotective effects in murine gastric enteric nervous system: involvement of leptin and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudry, Charlotte; Reichardt, François; Marchix, Justine; Bado, André; Schemann, Michael; des Varannes, Stanislas Bruley; Neunlist, Michel; Moriez, Raphaël

    2012-02-01

    Nutritional factors can induce profound neuroplastic changes in the enteric nervous system (ENS), responsible for changes in gastrointestinal (GI) motility. However, long-term effects of a nutritional imbalance leading to obesity, such as Western diet (WD), upon ENS phenotype and control of GI motility remain unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effects of WD-induced obesity (DIO) on ENS phenotype and function as well as factors involved in functional plasticity. Mice were fed with normal diet (ND) or WD for 12 weeks. GI motility was assessed in vivo and ex vivo. Myenteric neurons and glia were analysed with immunohistochemical methods using antibodies against Hu, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), Sox-10 and with calcium imaging techniques. Leptin and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) were studied using immunohistochemical, biochemical or PCR methods in mice and primary culture of ENS. DIO prevented the age-associated decrease in antral nitrergic neurons observed in ND mice. Nerve stimulation evoked a stronger neuronal Ca(2+) response in WD compared to ND mice. DIO induced an NO-dependent increase in gastric emptying and neuromuscular transmission in the antrum without any change in small intestinal transit. During WD but not ND, a time-dependent increase in leptin and GDNF occurred in the antrum. Finally, we showed that leptin increased GDNF production in the ENS and induced neuroprotective effects mediated in part by GDNF. These results demonstrate that DIO induces neuroplastic changes in the antrum leading to an NO-dependent acceleration of gastric emptying. In addition, DIO induced neuroplasticity in the ENS is likely to involve leptin and GDNF.

  2. Agoraphobia and Melancholia: Thoughts on Milrod's "Emptiness in Agoraphobia Patients".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Sheena

    2015-08-01

    Milrod (2007) identifies persistent emptiness in agoraphobic patients whose symptoms of anxiety and avoidance have remitted. To this important identification, a number of critical considerations may be raised regarding the meanings of emptiness in the psychoanalytic clinic. Milrod's admonishment to distinguish between an emptiness that indicates a deficit in the structure and stability of self-representation, and an emptiness that is strictly defensive, is a case in point. While much of the literature supports an interpretation of emptiness as a defense against overwhelming rage, these patients' assertions and experiences of emptiness can be better explained by the presence of traumatic, unmourned losses. Several explanations are offered as to why agoraphobic patients, in particular, defend unconsciously against mourning.

  3. Allocating Freight Empty Cars in Railway Networks with Dynamic Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ce Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the freight empty cars allocation problem in railway networks with dynamic demands, in which the storage cost, unit transportation cost, and demand in each stage are taken into consideration. Under the constraints of capacity and demand, a stage-based optimization model for allocating freight empty cars in railway networks is formulated. The objective of this model is to minimize the total cost incurred by transferring and storing empty cars in different stages. Moreover, a genetic algorithm is designed to obtain the optimal empty cars distribution strategies in railway networks. Finally, numerical experiments are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed model and algorithm.

  4. A novel protein mixture containing vegetable proteins renders enteral nutrition products non-coagulating after in vitro gastric digestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, van den C.C.M.; Klebach, M.; Abrahamse, E.; Minor, M.; Knol, J.; Hofman, Z.; Ludwig, T.

    2013-01-01

    Background & aims: Non-coagulation of protein from enteral nutrition (EN) in the stomach is considered to improve gastric emptying and may result in reduced upper gastrointestinal complications such as reflux and aspiration pneumonia. For the development of a new EN protein mixture with reduced

  5. Empty Tissue Boxes: Considering Poverty in Diversity Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthrell, Kristen; Ledford, Carolyn; Stapleton, Joy

    2007-01-01

    A preservice teacher doing her internship overhears some of her students asking a classmate why he regularly takes home empty tissue boxes. The boy replies that he builds cities and bridges with his empty boxes. His classmates then ask why he does not just build a city with Legos or building blocks. The preservice teacher listens intently as the…

  6. Pouch emptying of solid foods after gastroplasty for morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Pedersen, B H; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl;

    1985-01-01

    To obtain information on possible determinants of weight loss after horizontal gastroplasty, pouch emptying was prospectively investigated in 27 morbidly obese patients. A scintigraphic method was used. Examinations were carried out every 6 months until 2 years after surgery. Pouch emptying was d...

  7. Double unification of particles with fields and electricity with gravity in non-empty space of continuous complex energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulyzhenkov, Igor E.

    2016-11-01

    Non-empty space reading of Maxwell equations as local energy identities explains why a Coulomb field is carried rigidly by electrons in experiments. The analytical solution of the Poisson equation defines the sharp radial shape of charged elementary densities which are proportional to continuous densities of electric self-energy. Both Coulomb field and radial charge densities are free from energy divergences. Non-empty space of electrically charged mass-energy can be described by complex analytical densities resulting in real values for volume mass integrals and in imaginary values for volume charge integrals. Imaginary electric charges in the Newton gravitational law comply with real Coulomb forces. Unification of forces through complex charges rids them of radiation self-acceleration. Strong gravitational fields repeal probe bodies that might explainthe accelerated expansion of the dense Metagalaxy. Outward and inward spherical waves form the standing wave process within the radial carrier of complex energy.

  8. Emptiness is not so empty: The meaning of the Russian prefix вы- in the natural perfective verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Pozolotina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the meaning of the so-called "empty" prefix вы- (‘out-' of natural perfective verbs in the Russian language. It is argued that the prefix is not semantically empty, but displays meanings that can be analyzed as a radial category.

  9. Gastric syphilis - Case report*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Tais Ferreira; Novis, Camila Freitas Lobo; Bottino, Caroline Bertolini; D'Acri, Antonio Macedo; Lima, Ricardo Barbosa; Martins, Carlos José

    2016-01-01

    Gastric syphilis is an uncommon extracutaneous manifestation of syphilis, occurring in less than 1% of patients, presenting nonspecific clinical manifestations. In general, it occurs on secondary stage. The critical point is the recognition of the syphilitic gastric involvement, without which there may be incorrect diagnosis of malignancy of the digestive tract. In this report, a case of secondary syphilis with gastric involvement that had complete remission with benzathine penicillin will be described. PMID:27828649

  10. Gastrin and Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldum, Helge L.; Sagatun, Liv; Mjønes, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer although occurring in reduced frequency is still an important disease, partly because of the bad prognosis when occurring in western countries. This decline in occurrence may mainly be due to the reduced prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection, which is the most important cause of gastric cancer. There exist many different pathological classifications of gastric carcinomas, but the most useful seems to be the one by Lauren into intestinal and diffuse types since these types seldom transform into the other and also have different epidemiology. During the nearly 30 years that have passed since the groundbreaking description of Hp as the cause of gastritis and gastric cancer, a continuous search for the mechanism by which Hp infection causes gastric cancer has been done. Interestingly, it is mainly atrophic gastritis of the oxyntic mucosa that predisposes to gastric cancer possibly by inducing hypoacidity and hypergastrinemia. There are many arguments in favor of an important role of gastrin and its target cell, the enterochromaffin-like cell, in gastric carcinogenesis. The role of gastrin in gastric carcinogenesis implies caution in the long-term treatment with inhibitors of gastric acid secretion inducing secondary hypergastrinemia, in a common disease like gastroesophageal reflux disease. PMID:28144230

  11. Rank-1 accelerated illumination recovery in scanning diffractive imaging by transparency estimation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hau-Tieng

    2014-08-07

    Illumination retrieval in scanning diffractive imaging a.k.a. ptychography is challenging when the specimen is weakly scattering or surrounded by empty space. We describe a rank-1 acceleration method for weakly scattering or piecewise smooth specimens.

  12. Development of an in vitro system simulating bucco-gastric digestion to assess the physical and chemical changes of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoebler, C; Lecannu, G; Belleville, C; Devaux, M-F; Popineau, Y; Barry, J-L

    2002-09-01

    The release of nutrients from solid food depends on the physical and chemical characteristics of substrates, and on dynamic physiological events including pH, gastric emptying and enzymatic secretion. Our laboratory has developed an in vitro digestive system mimicking mouth and stomach processes to determine physical and chemical changes of bread during digestion. To simulate oral-phase digestion, bread was minced and subjected to in vitro amylase digestion, releasing 219 +/- 11 g oligosaccharides/kg total carbohydrate. During the gastric phase, bread proteins, which are converted into insoluble aggregated proteins during breadmaking, were emptied in various states of peptic digestion: undigested aggregated proteins and degraded proteins of intermediate and low molecular weight. The mean particle size of ground bread decreased progressively to the end of the gastric digestion (from 292 to 109 microm). The in vitro digestive system proved to be a useful tool for understanding the dynamic digestion of various food components held within the structure of a food matrix.

  13. Empty sella syndrome - beyond being an incidental finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrant Ghatnatti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Empty sella is characterized by the herniation of the subarachnoid space within the sella, which is often associated with some degree of flattening of the pituitary gland. This study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical and hormonal profile in patients with empty sella. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the clinical and hormonal profile of the patients with an empty sella. Materials and Methods: Patients undergoing a CT/MRI at our center, for various reasons but with the finding of the empty sella were included in this study. A detailed history and clinical examination was done. Apart from routine tests, hormonal evaluation included serum thyroid stimulating hormone, T4, cortisol (8 am, prolactin, total testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone, leutinizing hormone, and fasting Insulin like Growth factor 1 (IGF 1 were done. Results: A total of 34 patients, diagnosed radiologically to have empty sella, were evaluated and of them 24 had primary empty sella (PES and 10 had secondary empty sella (SES. In subjects with PES, 12 out of 24 (50% had endocrine dysfunction. The most common endocrine dysfunction noted was hyperprolactinemia, which was seen in 5 (20.8% patients and the most common hormonal deficiency was isolated GH deficiency seen in four patients (12.5%. Conclusion: The high incidence of endocrine abnormalities in patients with PES mandates that these patients should routinely be subjected to endocrine evaluation to detect these deficiencies early, and appropriate replacement instituted where necessary, thus ensuring them of a better quality of life.

  14. Relationship between Empty Sella Syndrome and Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İdris Kuzu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: It is not clear if Hashimoto’s thyroiditis leads to Empty sella syndrome. In the present study, we aimed to investigate if Hashimoto’s thyroiditis was associated with Empty sella syndrome, and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis was a secondary cause od some cases of primary Empty sella syndrome. Material and Method: Eighty-one patients who were diagnosed with primary Empty sella syndrome were included in the study. All patients underwent thyroid ultrasonography and biochemical tests for thyroid-stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, anti thyroid peroxidase, anti thyroglobulin, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, 17 β estradiol, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor 1, adrenocorticotropic hormone and total testosterone for Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and pituitary hormone deficiency. Results: Out of 81 patients, thyroid disease was diagnosed in 34 (42% patients; 18 of them had Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (22.2% and 16 (19.8% had central hypothyroidism. Among Hashimoto’s thyroiditis patients, 11 (13.6% had hypothyroidism and 7 (8.6% were euthyroid. Discussion: In conclusion, it is possible that some cases of primary Empty sella syndrome are caused by Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. It is recommended that the presence of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis should be investigated in patients with primary Empty sella syndrome. Further studies investigating anti-pituitary antibody in patients with primary Empty sella syndrome, are needed to further declare this relationship.

  15. Empty follicle syndrome-Still an enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Krishna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Empty follicle syndrome (EFS, although rare with an incidence of 0.2-7%, is a frustrating condition where no oocytes are retrieved in in vitro fertilization (IVF, even though ultrasound and estradiol measurements show the presence of many potential follicles. It is a complex phenomenon that cannot be explained by low bioavailability of human chorionic gonadotrophin alone; neither can it be reliably diagnosed by the measurement of serum beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (bhCG on the day of oocyte retrieval (OR, except possibly when the bhCG concentration is very low. Here we report a case who underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI for her partner′s severe oligoasthenozoospermia. Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH was done in her first cycle of ICSI, using a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonist long protocol with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and human menopausal gonadotrophin (HMG. However, as we were unable to retrieve any oocytes, her COH protocol was changed in the subsequent cycle with a successful outcome.

  16. Changing urban dynamics: Empty building spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Van Zutphen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Netherlands are facing a problem of vacant buildings or building spaces. The present study focuses on vacant office building spaces and their possible solutions. The transformation or reuse of the building has not been very successful as the available space is way too large or does not meet the requirement fully. The study focuses on the possible transformation based on area, location and feasibility. The study has analysed and suggested multiple feasible solutions to the empty spaces in Amsterdam as per the current scenario. The environmental impact by these transformations has been calculated in terms of Carbon Equivalent, making it a sustainable approach towards development of future. Then the Carbon Equivalent has been converted to carbon credits to evaluate the benefits of the transformation in financial terms. Last but not the least, the study has analysed the current scenario in developing countries like Saudi Arabia and India and suggested to take required steps at present to avoid problems in future.

  17. Emptiness in psychological science and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintino-Aires J.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychology is now one of the most popular sciences for young students. But whether academic production or professional practice, it is still in crisis. When we look together at two different approaches we realize the enormous amount of syncretism. They are not only two different approaches to the same science. They are more than that, they are different areas of knowledge, with very different practical implications. Discussion of psychology with the other sciences researching the same "objects" is nonexistent. So when it comes to practice, many of young psychologists leave the profession. This article is an invitation to colleagues for a "look inside" this interesting science that can make a significant contribution to human sciences and the better life of human beings in the 21st century. This call is supported by a re-reading of the text by Lev S. Vygotsky The historical meaning of the crisis in psychology written in 1927. The article is structured in four subtopics: the problem of general science (in Psychology, the problem of terminology, the problem of difficulty in recognizing the crisis and the problem of emptiness. Being a call, of course, it is not a complete and finished analysis. It is rather a desire that, engaging some colleagues, we can continue the dialogue with Vygotsky on this topic started by him ninety years ago.

  18. REVIEW ON FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS: AN APPROACH TO ORAL CONTROLLED DRUG DELIVERY VIA GASTRIC RETENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadam Shashikant M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Controlled release (CR dosage forms have been extensively used to improve therapy with many important drugs. Several approaches are currently utilized in prolongation of gastric residence time, including floating drug delivery system, swelling and expanding system, polymeric bioadhesive system, modified shape system, high density system and other delayed gastric emptying devices. However, the development processes are faced with several physiological difficulties such as the inability to restrain and localize the system within the desired region of the gastrointestinal tract and the highly variable nature of the gastric emptying process. On the other hand, incorporation of the drug in a controlled release gastroretentive dosage forms (CR-GRDF which can remain in the gastric region for several hours would significantly prolong the gastric residence time of drugs and improve bioavailability, reduce drug waste, and enhance the solubility of drugs that are less soluble in high pH environment. Gastroretention would also facilitate local drug delivery to the stomach and proximal small intestine. Thus, gastroretention could help to provide greater availability of new products and consequently improved therapeutic activity and substantial benefits to patients. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent literature and current technology used in the development of gastroretentive dosage forms.

  19. Effects of Ranitidine on Insulin and Lime - Induced Gastric Secretion in Albinowistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    E.O. Nwaichi; Gwotmut, M. D; Ossai, J

    2013-01-01

    Purpose:To study the possible effect (s) of a relative H2-receptor blocker, ranitidine on lime and insulin-induced gastric secretion in male and female albino rats. Methods: The rats were divided into 3 groups of lime juice, insulin and control in triplicates after 24hr starvation to empty the stomachand were canulated (oesophageal, tracheal and gastric) using Gosh and Schild method. Using N saline, the acid content of the effluentwas recorded. The 1st group of rats was perf...

  20. Gastric bypass surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Roux-en-Y; Weight-loss surgery - gastric bypass; Obesity surgery - gastric bypass ... bypass surgery is not a quick fix for obesity. It will greatly change your lifestyle. After this surgery, you must eat healthy foods, control portion sizes of ...

  1. Epidemiology of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katherine D Crew; Alfred I Neugut

    2006-01-01

    The incidence and mortality of gastric cancer have fallen dramatically in US and elsewhere over the past several decades. Nonetheless, gastric cancer remains a major public health issue as the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Demographic trends differ by tumor location and histology. While there has been a marked decline in distal, intestinal type gastric cancers, the incidence of proximal, diffuse type adenocarcinomas of the gastric cardia has been increasing, particularly in the Western countries. Incidence by tumor sub-site also varies widely based on geographic location, race, and socioeconomic status. Distal gastric cancer predominates in developing countries, among blacks, and in lower socioeconomic groups, whereas proximal tumors are more common in developed countries, among whites, and in higher socio-economic classes. Diverging trends in the incidence of gastric cancer by tumor location suggest that they may represent two diseases with different etiologies. The main risk factors for distal gastric cancer include Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection and dietary factors, whereas gastroesophageal reflux disease and obesity play important roles in the development of proximal stomach cancer. The purpose of this review is to examine the epidemiology and risk factors of gastric cancer, and to discuss strategies for primary prevention.

  2. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gastric Cancer Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... from the . There is no standard or routine screening test for stomach cancer. Several types of screening tests have been ...

  3. Gastric exocrine and endocrine cell morphology under prolonged acid inhibition therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiocca, R; Mastracci, L; Attwood, S E;

    2012-01-01

    Sustained acid inhibition with PPI stimulates gastrin secretion, exerting a proliferative drive on enterochromaffin-like cells (ECL cells) of the oxyntic mucosa. It may also accelerate development of gastric gland atrophy in Helicobacter pylori-infected individuals.......Sustained acid inhibition with PPI stimulates gastrin secretion, exerting a proliferative drive on enterochromaffin-like cells (ECL cells) of the oxyntic mucosa. It may also accelerate development of gastric gland atrophy in Helicobacter pylori-infected individuals....

  4. [Standardization of gastric emptying scintigraphy with egg white labeled with 99mTc-sulfur colloid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Contreras, Keren; Villanueva-Pérez, Rosa María; Menez-Díaz, Diana Graciela; Iwasaki-Otake, Laura Elena; González-Díaz, Jorge Iván; Mendoza-Vásquez, Raúl Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la gammagrafía de vaciamiento gástrico (VG) es el estándar de oro para determinar el porcentaje de VG. La estandarización del método permite la obtención de resultados reproducibles. La dieta estandarizada se compone de un sándwich de albúmina de huevo en polvo reconstituida y marcada con 99mTc sulfuro coloidal (SC). El objetivo fue estandarizar y determinar el porcentaje de vaciamiento gástrico tras la ingesta del sándwich de albúmina de huevo y compararlo con el porcentaje de ingesta de una hamburguesa, ambos marcados con 99mTc sulfuro coloidal. Método: se incluyeron 30 pacientes a los que se les realizó estudio de gammagrafía de vaciamiento gástrico con las dos dietas propuestas. Resultados: los porcentajes de vaciamiento y retención con ambos tipos de alimentos fueron similares a la hora y a las dos horas; sin embargo, hubo diferencias significativas a las tres horas con un valor de p = 0.26, calculado mediante t de Student para muestras independientes. Conclusiones: los tiempos de vaciamiento gástrico con ambas dietas estuvieron dentro de rangos normales. La dieta estandarizada con albúmina de huevo reconstituida aporta ventajas en cuanto al estudio de las posibles alteraciones de la motilidad gástrica, como sus características organolépticas y de volumen.

  5. Impact of the reconstruction method on delayed gastric emptying after pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamandl, Dietmar; Sahora, Klaus; Prucker, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    criteria on postoperative day (POD) 10. A paracetamol absorption test was also administered with a liquid meal, and serial plasma levels of intestinal peptides were measured. RESULTS: Overall, 64 patients were amenable for analysis: 36 in the antecolic group and 28 in the retrocolic group. The incidences......–6) days; p = 0.353], or morbidity (52.9 vs. 50.0 %; p = 0.777). The median length of nasogastric tube decompression was similar in the two groups [4 (3–7) vs. 3 (3–5) days; p = 0.600]. Levels of paracetamol and glucagon-like peptide-1 were markedly decreased in patients with DGE. CONCLUSIONS: Antecolic...

  6. Effect of gastric emptying and entero-hepatic circulation on bioequivalence assessment of ranitidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrenova, J; Durisova, M; Mircioiu, C; Dedik, L

    2010-01-01

    The aim of study was to compare the bioavailability of ranitidine obtained from either Ranitidine (300 mg tablet; LPH® S.C. LaborMed Pharma S.A. Romania: the test formulation) and Zantac® (300 mg tablet; GlaxoSmithKline, Austria: the reference formulation). Twelve, Romanian, healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. An open-label, two-period, crossover, randomized design was used. Plasma levels of ranitidine were determined using the validated, high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The physiologically motivated time-delayed model was used for the data evaluation and a paired Student's t-test and Schuirmann's two one-sided tests were carried out to compare parameters. Nonmodeling parameters (AUC(t), AUC, C(max), T(max)) were tested by the paired Student's t-test and the 90 confidence intervals of the geometric mean ratios were determined by Schuirmann's tests. Paired Student's t-test showed no significant differences between nonmodeling and modeling parameters. The results of the Schuirmann's tests however indicated significant statistical differences with reference to AUC(t), AUC, C(max), T(max) and other modeling parameters, especially MT(c) and τ(c). Schuirmann's tests revealed significant bioequivalence between ranitidine formulations using the modeling parameters MRT and n. The presented model can be useful as an additional tool to assess drug bioequivalence, by screening for disruptive parameters.

  7. [Study of paracetamol levels in serum samples as predictive indicator of gastric emptying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Acosta, María Victoria; González Correa, José Antonio; Moreno Fontiveros, Maria Ángeles; Benítez, José Antonio

    2015-06-01

    Introducción: la iniciación temprana de la nutrición en pacientes intervenidos quirúrgicamente es fundamental. Objetivos: analizar las técnicas disponibles para evaluar el vaciado gástrico de los pacientes críticos sometidos a cirugía, y que apoyan la decisión de introducirles un tipo de alimentación u otro. Resultados: los test estándar son la medida del volumen residual gástrico y la auscultación, pero no han demostrado gran eficacia. El test de paracetamol parece una buena herramienta predictiva. Permitiría en una hora saber si el vaciado gástrico es adecuado y con ello seleccionar el tipo de nutrición más conveniente (enteral, parenteral) o evaluar el uso de procinéticos. Discusión: el test de paracetamol es una alternativa económica de alto valor predictivo. Existen estudios cuyo objetivo final es valorar el test como indicador de la tolerancia de la nutrición enteral, pero es necesario ampliar y estandarizar su uso para poder incluirlo en los protocolos de actuación hospitalarios.

  8. A new flexible plug and play scheme for modeling, simulating, and predicting gastric emptying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishnan, S.; Avesaat, M. van; Troost, F.J.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Graaf, A.A. de

    2014-01-01

    In-silico models that attempt to capture and describe the physiological behavior of biological organisms, including humans, are intrinsically complex and time consuming to build and simulate in a computing environment. The level of detail of description incorporated in the model depends on the knowl

  9. Effect of sildenafil on gastric emptying and postprandial frequency of antral contractions in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Søndergaard, S B; Fuglsang, Stefan;

    2004-01-01

    . METHODS: Ten healthy male volunteers (21-28 years) participated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over study. In random order and on two separate days each volunteer ingested either 50 mg sildenafil (Viagra, Pfizer, New York, N.Y., USA) or placebo. A gamma camera technique was used to measure...

  10. Gastric Emptying During Exercise: Effects of Acute Heat Stress, Acclimation and Hypohydration,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    rehydration proceedures to be employed by athletes, workers and military personnel engaged in physical activity. Methods Subjects. Ten males volunteered for...ingested and the process repeated with each subject completing a total of three i5 min exercise bouts per experiment. The reliability of this method for...analyzed in triplicate for hemoglobin (Hemoglobinometer, Coulter Electronics), hematocrit (micro-centrifugation), plasma protein ( refractometry , American

  11. Approximate Range Emptiness in Constant Time and Optimal Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goswami, Mayank; Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the \\emph{ε-approximate range emptiness} problem, where the task is to represent a set S of n points from {0,…,U−1} and answer emptiness queries of the form "[a;b]∩S≠∅ ?" with a probability of \\emph{false positives} allowed. This generalizes the functionality of \\emph{Bloom fil......This paper studies the \\emph{ε-approximate range emptiness} problem, where the task is to represent a set S of n points from {0,…,U−1} and answer emptiness queries of the form "[a;b]∩S≠∅ ?" with a probability of \\emph{false positives} allowed. This generalizes the functionality of \\emph...

  12. Acute gastric dilatation in a patient with anorexia nervosa binge/purge subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweed-Kent, Ailis M; Fagenholz, Peter J; Alam, Hasan B

    2010-10-01

    Acute gastric dilatation is a rare complication of anorexia nervosa binge/purge subtype that results from gastrointestinal abnormalities, including decreased gastric motility and delayed gastric emptying. Early diagnosis and intervention is critical since delay may result in gastric necrosis, perforation, shock, and death. We report a 26-year-old female with anorexia nervosa binge/purge subtype, who presented with abdominal pain and nausea after a binge episode. Abdominal radiography and computed tomography showed a grossly dilated stomach measuring 32 cm × 17.9 cm consistent with acute gastric dilatation. She underwent exploratory laparotomy with gastrotomy and gastric decompression, and recovered uneventfully. Initially, the patient denied the binge episode, as many patients with eating disorders do, but later revealed an extensive history of anorexia nervosa binge/purge subtype. This case stresses the importance of obtaining a thorough history of eating disorders and maintaining a high index of suspicion for acute gastric dilatation in young women who present with abdominal pain and distention.

  13. Epigastric electrical impedance for the quantitative determination of the gastric acidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giouvanoudi, A C; Spyrou, N M

    2008-11-01

    Electrical impedance measurements have been used by scientists since the 1980s to investigate the gastric function. In this work, these measurements were carried out using the epigastrograph, a device generating alternating current of 32 kHz and injecting it in the gastric area of the human body with surface electrodes, located around the abdominal area. Although the method has been used for about three decades the physiological interpretation of these measurements is still under research. This work states that the electrical impedance measurements from the gastric area depend on the conductivity of the gastric lumen, due mainly to gastric acid secretions and to the conductivity and chemical form of the ingested meal. By choosing the proper test meal the gastric acidity in the empty, healthy stomach was also estimated. The estimated value is in accordance with the literature. The method is non-invasive, relatively inexpensive, simple to medical technologists and subjects, and involves no radiation risk. The method may form the basis for the development of a non-invasive gastric pH meter.

  14. Spatial games with cyclic interactions: the response of empty sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Bart; Pleimling, Michel

    2015-03-01

    Predator-prey models of the May-Leonard family employ empty sites in a spatial setting as an intermediate step in the reproduction process. This requirement makes the number and arrangement of empty sites important to the formation of space-time patterns. We study the density of empty sites in a stochastic predator-prey model in which the species compete in a cyclic way in two dimensions. In some cases systems of this type quickly form domains of neutral species after which all predation, and therefore, reproduction occur near the interface of competing domains. Using Monte Carlo simulations we investigate the relationship of this density of empty sites to the time-dependent domain length. We further explore the dynamics by introducing perturbations to the interaction rates of the system after which we measure the perturbed density, i.e. the response of empty sites, as the system relaxes. A dynamical scaling behavior is observed in the response of empty sites. This work is supported by the US National Science Foundation through Grant DMR-1205309.

  15. Gastric-tube versus whole-stomach esophagectomy for esophageal cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenxiong; Yu, Dongliang; Peng, Jinhua; Xu, Jianjun; Wei, Yiping

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing the gastric-tube vs. whole-stomach for esophageal cancer in order to determine the optimal surgical technique of esophagectomy. Methods A comprehensive literature search was performed using PubMed, EMBASE, ScienceDirect, Ovid MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Scopus. Clinical trials that compared the gastric-tube versus whole-stomach for esophageal cancer were selected. The clinical endpoints included anastomotic leakage, anastomotic stenosis, reflux esophagitis, pneumonia, delayed gastric emptying, and thoracic stomach syndrome. Results A total of 6 articles (1571 patients) were included. Compared to the whole-stomach approach, the gastric-tube approach was associated with a lower incidence of reflux esophagitis (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.16 to 0.81, p = 0.01) and thoracic stomach syndrome (95% CI: 0.17 to 0.55, p < 0.0001). The rates of anastomotic leakage, anastomotic stenosis, pneumonia, and delayed gastric emptying did not significantly differ between the two groups. Conclusions The gastric-tube esophagectomy is superior to the whole-stomach approach, as it is associated with a lower incidence of postoperative reflux esophagitis and thoracic stomach syndrome. Our findings must be validated in large-scale randomized controlled trials. PMID:28267808

  16. Genomic dysregulation in gastric tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjigian, Yelena Y; Kelsen, David P

    2013-03-01

    Gastric cancer is among the most common human malignancies and the second leading cause of cancer-related death. The different epidemiologic and histopathology of subtypes of gastric cancer are associated with different genomic patterns. Data suggests that gene expression patterns of proximal, distal gastric cancers-intestinal type, and diffuse/signet cell are well separated. This review summarizes the genetic and epigenetic changes thought to drive gastric cancer and the emerging paradigm of gastric cancer as three unique disease subtypes.

  17. Influence of Mongolian Medicine Hari Gabur-10 Flavor Tablets on Gastric Secretion and Pepsin Activity in Rats and Gastrointestinal Motility in Mice%蒙药哈日嘎布日-10味片对大鼠胃液分泌、胃蛋白酶活性及小鼠胃肠运动的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包勒朝鲁; 乌兰图雅; 那生桑

    2012-01-01

    Objective; The evaluate the efficacy of the Hari Gabur-10 flavor tablets on digest. Method; The impact of the tablets ( 1. 52, 0. 76, 0. 38 g o kg"1 ) on pepsin activity and gastric secretion in rats was investigated by titration method and protein glass capillary method. The influence of the tablets (three doses) on gastric emptiness and intestinal propulsion was evaluated in mice through colorimetry and intestinal propulsion method. Result; Hari Gabur-10 flavored tablets could significantly promote gastric juice secretion in rats, increase gastric total acidity and pepsin activity; and accelerate the gastric emptying rate ( P < 0. 05 ) . It showed a certain role in propulsion of small intestine (P < 0. 05 ) . Conclusion; Mongolian medicine Hari Gabur-10 flavor tablets has the effect of promoting digestion.%目的:评价哈日嘎布日-10味片对消化功能的影响.方法:采用滴定法、蛋白毛细玻管法测定哈日嘎布日-10味片高、中、低剂量组(1.52,0.76,0.38 g·kg-1)对大鼠胃液分泌、胃蛋白酶活性的影响;采用比色法、固体排空法测定哈H嘎布日-10味片高、中、低剂量组对小鼠胃排空、小肠推进的影响.结果:哈日嘎布日-10味片高、中剂量组对大鼠胃液量、胃总酸度和胃蛋白酶活性及小鼠胃排空率均有显著的促进作用(P<0.05);哈日嘎布日-10味片高剂量组对小鼠小肠推进率有显著的促进作用(P<0.05).结论:蒙药哈日嘎布日-10味片具有良好的消食、助消化作用.

  18. Electrogastrography: A Noninvasive Technique to Evaluate Gastric Electrical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia P Sanmiguel

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrogastrography (EGG is the recording of gastric electrical activity (GEA from the body surface. The cutaneous signal is low in amplitude and consequently must be amplified considerably. The resultant signal is heavily contaminated with noise, and visual analysis alone of an EGG signal is inadequate. Consequently, EGG recordings require special methodology for acquisition, processing and analysis. Essential components of this methodology involve an adequate system of digital filtering, amplification and analysis, along with minimization of the sources of external noise (random motions of the patient, electrode-skin interface impedance, electrode bending, obesity, etc and a quantitative interpretation of the recordings. There is a close relationship between GEA and gastric motility. Although it has been demonstrated that EGG satisfactorily reflects internal GEA frequency, there is not acceptable correlation with gastric contractions or gastric emptying. Many attempts have been made to relate EGG 'abnormalities' with clinical syndromes and diseases; however, the diagnostic and clinical value of EGG is still very much in question.

  19. Familial gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bresciani Cláudio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Familial aggregation of gastric cancer has pointed out to a possible hereditary and genetic factor involved in the carcinogenesis of this disease. The diffuse type gastric cancer patients are frequently younger and the tumor has locally infiltrative growth pattern early in its development. Observation of families with frequent early onset gastric cancer has led to the identification of a novel gene implicated in gastric cancer susceptibility: CDH1/E-cadherin. Diffuse familiar gastric cancer is defined as any family presenting: two first-degree relatives with diffuse gastric cancer, one of them with age under 50 years or at least 3 first-degree relatives irrespective age of onset. CASE REPORT: The family reported by us does not fit in any of the classification proposed. The precise identification of these families by clinical and molecular tools is of great importance. The case reported is an example of a family that probably is a form of hereditary gastric cancer not yet fully understood. CONCLUSION: Soon there will be new criteria, possibly including genetic and molecular characteristics.

  20. Gastric conduit perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Nilesh; Kaushal, Arvind; Jain, Amit; Saluja, Sundeep Singh; Mishra, Pramod Kumar

    2014-08-16

    As patients with carcinoma of the esophagus live longer, complications associated with the use of a gastric conduit are increasing. Ulcers form in the gastric conduit in 6.6% to 19.4% of patients. There are a few reports of perforation of a gastric conduit in the English literature. Almost all of these were associated with serious complications. We report a patient who developed a tension pneumothorax consequent to spontaneous perforation of an ulcer in the gastric conduit 7 years after the index surgery in a patient with carcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction. He responded well to conservative management. Complications related to a gastric conduit can be because of multiple factors. Periodic endoscopic surveillance of gastric conduits should be considered as these are at a higher risk of ulcer formation than a normal stomach. Long term treatment with proton pump inhibitors may decrease complications. There are no guidelines for the treatment of a perforated gastric conduit ulcer and the management should be individualized.

  1. The botanical integrity of wheat products influences the gastric distention and satiety in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almér Lars-Olof

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maintenance of the botanical integrity of cereal kernels and the addition of acetic acid (as vinegar in the product or meal has been shown to lower the postprandial blood glucose and insulin response and to increase satiety. However, the mechanism behind the benefits of acetic acid on blood glucose and satiety is not clear. We hypothesized that the gastric emptying rate could be involved. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the possible influence of maintained botanical integrity of cereals and the presence of acetic acid (vinegar on gastric emptying rate (GER, postprandial blood glucose and satiety. Methods Fifteen healthy subjects were included in a blinded crossover trial, and thirteen of the subjects completed the study. Equicarbohydrate amounts of the following wheat-based meals were studied: white wheat bread, whole-kernel wheat bread or wholemeal wheat bread served with white wine vinegar. The results were compared with a reference meal consisting of white wheat bread without vinegar. The GER was measured with standardized real-time ultrasonography using normal fasting blood glucose Results The whole-kernel wheat bread with vinegar resulted in significantly higher ( Conclusion The present study shows higher satiety after a whole-kernel wheat bread meal with vinegar. This may be explained by increased antral distension after ingestion of intact cereal kernels but, in this study, not by a lower gastric emptying rate or higher postprandial blood glucose response. Trial registration NTR1116

  2. Empty seeds are not always bad: simultaneous effect of seed emptiness and masting on animal seed predation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Perea

    Full Text Available Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis. In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P. Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed.

  3. Empty seeds are not always bad: simultaneous effect of seed emptiness and masting on animal seed predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Ramón; Venturas, Martin; Gil, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal) and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered) to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis). In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P). Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds) was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds) did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators) consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed.

  4. Gastric Duplication Cyst Causing Gastric Outlet Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muna Al Shehi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This is a case report of a newborn baby with gastric duplication cyst presented with non-bilious vomiting and upper abdominal distension. The diagnosis was suspected clinically and established by ultrasonography and computed tomography. The cyst was completely excised with uneventful recovery.

  5. Effect of ranitidine on healing of experimentally induced gastric ulcers in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAllister, C G; Sangiah, S

    1993-07-01

    Thirty young ponies were examined endoscopically for evidence of gastric ulceration. Seven ponies had noninduced gastric ulcers present at the initial examination and were eliminated from the study. In an attempt to induce gastric ulcers experimentally, flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg of body weight, IM, q 8 h) was administered for 7 days to the 23 ponies with endoscopically normal gastric mucosa. During the 7 days of flunixin administration, 11 ponies developed gastric ulcers that were appropriate for study. The 11 ponies were randomly allotted to 2 groups. Group-A (n = 5) and group-B (n = 6) ponies received ranitidine (4.4 mg/kg, PO, q 8 h) and corn syrup, respectively, until ulcers healed or for a maximum of 40 days. General anesthesia was induced every 3 to 5 days for visual evaluation of ulcer healing by use of a video endoscope. The earliest complete healing of gastric lesions observed in a corn syrup-treated pony was at 17 days. At 40 days, 3 of 5 and 3 of 6 ponies of the ranitidine and corn syrup-treated groups, respectively, had healed ulcers. Results of this study indicate that: noninduced gastric ulcers may be common in young ponies, flunixin meglumine may be effective in inducing gastric ulcers for gastric healing studies in young ponies, and ranitidine (4.4 mg/kg, q 8 h) is not significantly effective in accelerating healing of experimentally induced gastric ulcers in ponies under conditions of this study.

  6. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Post, Rachel S; Vogelaar, Ingrid P; Carneiro, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Germline CDH1 mutations confer a high lifetime risk of developing diffuse gastric (DGC) and lobular breast cancer (LBC). A multidisciplinary workshop was organised to discuss genetic testing, surgery, surveillance strategies, pathology reporting and the patient's perspective on multiple aspects...

  7. Diet after gastric banding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... helps people who have a gastric band stay satisfied longer. This includes things like salad with grilled ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  8. Gastric volvulus in childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karande T

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastric volvulus is an uncommon condition more so in the paediatric age group. The cause of gastric volvulus may be idiopathic or secondary to various congenital or acquired conditions. In this short series of three patients, one had volvulus which was due to ligamentous laxity and mobile spleen, second had congenital postero-lateral diaphragmatic defect and the third had hiatus hernia.

  9. CT of Gastric Emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guniganti, Preethi; Bradenham, Courtney H; Raptis, Constantine; Menias, Christine O; Mellnick, Vincent M

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting are common presenting symptoms among adult patients seeking care in the emergency department, and, with the increased use of computed tomography (CT) to image patients with these complaints, radiologists will more frequently encounter a variety of emergent gastric pathologic conditions on CT studies. Familiarity with the CT appearance of emergent gastric conditions is important, as the clinical presentation is often nonspecific and the radiologist may be the first to recognize gastric disease as the cause of a patient's symptoms. Although endoscopy and barium fluoroscopy remain important tools for evaluating patients with suspected gastric disease in the outpatient setting, compared with CT these modalities enable less comprehensive evaluation of patients with nonspecific complaints and are less readily available in the acute setting. Endoscopy is also more invasive than CT and has greater potential risks. Although the mucosal detail of CT is relatively poor compared with barium fluoroscopy or endoscopy, CT can be used with the appropriate imaging protocols to identify inflammatory conditions of the stomach ranging from gastritis to peptic ulcer disease. In addition, CT can readily demonstrate the various complications of gastric disease, including perforation, obstruction, and hemorrhage, which may direct further clinical, endoscopic, or surgical management. We will review the normal anatomy of the stomach and discuss emergent gastric disease with a focus on the usual clinical presentation, typical imaging appearance, and differentiating features, as well as potential imaging pitfalls.

  10. Why the self is empty. Toward a historically situated psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, P

    1990-05-01

    This article presents a contextualized treatment of the current configuration of self, some of the pathologies that plague it, and the technologies that attempt to heal it. Of particular interest is the historical shift from the Victorian, sexually restricted self to the post-World War II empty self. The empty self is soothed and made cohesive by becoming "filled up" with food, consumer products, and celebrities. Its historical antecedents, economic constituents, and political consequences are the focus of this article. The two professions most responsible for healing the empty self, advertising and psychotherapy, find themselves in a bind: They must treat a psychological symptom without being able to address its historical causes. Both circumvent the bind by employing the life-style solution, a strategy that attempts to heal by covertly filling the empty self with the accoutrements, values, and mannerisms of idealized figures. This strategy solves an old problem but creates new ones, including an opportunity for abuse by exploitive therapists, cult leaders, and politicians. Psychology's role in constructing the empty self, and thus reproducing the current hierarchy of power and privilege, is examined.

  11. Gastric Adenocarcinoma Presenting with Gastric Outlet Obstruction in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Al-Hussaini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric carcinoma is extremely rare in children representing only 0.05% of all gastrointestinal malignancies. Here, we report the first pediatric case of gastric cancer presenting with gastric outlet obstruction. Upper endoscopy revealed a markedly thickened antral mucosa occluding the pylorus and a clean base ulcer 1.5 cm × 2 cm at the lesser curvature of the stomach. The narrowed antrum and pylorus underwent balloon dilation, and biopsy from the antrum showed evidence of Helicobacter pylori gastritis. The biopsy taken from the edge of the gastric ulcer demonstrated signet-ring-cell type infiltrate consistent with gastric adenocarcinoma. At laparotomy, there were metastases to the liver, head of pancreas, and mesenteric lymph nodes. Therefore, the gastric carcinoma was deemed unresectable. The patient died few months after initiation of chemotherapy due to advanced malignancy. In conclusion, this case report underscores the possibility of gastric adenocarcinoma occurring in children and presenting with gastric outlet obstruction.

  12. Separation of empty microcapsules after microencapsulation of porcine neonatal islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Soojeong; Yoo, Young Je

    2013-12-01

    Pancreatic islet transplantation is used to treat diabetes mellitus that has minimal complications and avoids hypoglycemic shock. Conformal microencapsulation of pancreatic islets improves their function by blocking immunogenic molecules while protecting fragile islets. However, production of empty alginate capsules during microencapsulation causes enlargement of the transplantation volume of the encapsulated islets and interferes with efficient transfer of nutrients and insulin. In this study, empty alginate capsules were separated after microencapsulation of neonatal porcine islet-like cell clusters (NPCC) using density-gradient centrifugation. Densities of NPCC and alginate capsules were determined using Percoll. Encapsulation products following alginate removal were 97 % of products, with less than 10 % of the capsules remaining empty. The viability of this process compared with manually-selected encapsulated islets indicates the separation process does not harm islets.

  13. Future accelerators (?)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Womersley

    2003-08-21

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  14. Proximal gastric motility in critically ill patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nam Q Nguyen; Robert J Fraser; Laura K Bryant; Marianne Chapman; Richard H Holloway

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the proximal gastric motor response to duodenal nutrients in critically ill patients with longstanding type 2 diabetes mellitus.METHODS: Proximal gastric motility was assessed (using a barostat) in 10 critically ill patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (59 ± 3 years) during two 60-min duodenal infusions of Ensure(R) (1 and 2 kcal/min), in random order,separated by 2h fasting. Data were compared with 15 non-diabetic critically ill patients (48 ± 5 years) and 10 healthy volunteers (28 ± 3 years).RESULTS: Baseline proximal gastric volumes were similar between the three groups. In diabetic patients,proximal gastric relaxation during 1 kcal/min nutrient infusion was similar to non-diabetic patients and healthy controls. In contrast, relaxation during 2 kcal/min infusion was initially reduced in diabetic patients (P < 0.05) but increased to a level similar to healthy humans, unlike non-diabetic patients where relaxation was impaired throughout the infusion. Duodenal nutrient stimulation reduced the fundic wave frequency in a dose-dependent fashion in both the critically ill diabetic patients and healthy subjects, but not in critically ill patients without diabetes. Fundic wave frequency in diabetic patients and healthy subjects was greater than in non-diabetic patients.CONCLUSION: In patients with diabetes mellitus,proximal gastric motility is less disturbed than nondiabetic patients during critical illness, suggesting that these patients may not be at greater risk of delayed gastric emptying.

  15. Effects of the Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Alchornea triplinervia on Healing Gastric Ulcer in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clélia A. Hiruma-Lima

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Alchornea triplinervia (Spreng. Muell. Arg (Euphorbiaceae is a medicinal plant commonly used by people living in the Cerrado region of Brazil to treat gastrointestinal ulcers. We previously described the gastroprotective action of methanolic extract (ME of Alchornea triplinervia and the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF in increasing of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 gastric levels in the mucosa. In this work we evaluated the effect of EAF in promoting the healing process in rats with acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers. In addition, toxicity was investigated during treatment with EAF. After 14 days of treatment with EAF, the potent stimulator of gastric cell proliferation contributed to the acceleration of gastric ulcer healing. Upon immunohistochemical analysis, we observed a pronounced expression of COX-2, mainly in the submucosal layer. The 14-day EAF treatment also significantly increased the number of neutrophils in the gastric mucosa regeneration area. The EAF induced angiogenesis on gastric mucosa, observed as an increase of the number of blood vessels supplying the stomach in rats treated with EAF. Oral administration for 14 days of the ethyl acetate fraction from Alchornea triplinervia accelerated the healing of gastric ulcers in rats by promoting epithelial cell proliferation, increasing the number of neutrophils and stimulation of mucus production. This fraction, which contained mainly phenolic compounds, contributed to gastric mucosa healing.

  16. Adhesions due to peritoneal carcinomatosis caused by a renal carcinoma leading to mechanical gastric outlet obstruction: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruttadauria Salvatore

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Gastric outlet obstruction is a clinical syndrome caused by a variety of mechanical obstructions. Peptic ulcer disease used to be responsible for most gastric outlet obstruction, but in the last 40 years the prevalence of malignant tumors has risen significantly. Adhesive disease is an infrequent and insidious cause of mechanical gastric outlet obstruction. Case presentation We report the case of a 78-year-old Caucasian man who had a clinical history of a right nephrectomy for malignancy three years earlier and who was admitted for a severe gastric outlet obstruction (score of 1 confirmed both by an upper endoscopy and by a fluoroscopic view after contrast injection. A computed tomography scan and a laparotomy, with omental biopsies, showed a peritoneal carcinomatosis with the development of abdominal adhesions that prompted an abnormal gastric rotation around the perpendicular axis of his antrum with a dislocation in the empty space of his right kidney. Symptoms disappeared after surgical bypass through a gastrojejunostomy. Conclusions Our patient experienced a very rare complication characterized by the development of adhesions due to peritoneal carcinomatosis caused by a renal carcinoma treated with nephrectomy. These adhesions prompted an abnormal dislocation of his antrum, as an internal hernia, in the empty space of his right kidney.

  17. "Gastric cytoprotection" is still relevant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Sandor

    2014-12-01

    Although Andre Robert's historic article on "gastric cytoprotection" in 1979 introduced this new name and concept, gastroprotective drugs (e.g. sofalcone, sucralfate), which prevent and/or accelerate healing of gastric ulcers without inhibiting acid secretion, were known in Japan before or around that time. But since Robert's studies were solely focused on prostaglandins (PG), they became the center of gastrointestinal research for more than 30 years. As endogenous products, PG were implicated in mediating the gastroprotective effect of other drugs such as sofalcone and sucralfate, despite that the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin diminished but never abolished gastroprotection by other drugs. Another group of endogenous substances, that is, sulfhydryls (SH), investigated in parallel with PG, also seem to play a mechanistic role in gastroprotection, especially since SH alkylators like N-ethylmaleimide counteract virtually any form of gastroprotection. In Robert's terms of "prevention of chemically induced acute mucosal lesions," so far no single mechanism could explain the beneficial effects of diverse protective agents, but I argue that these two endogenous substances (i.e. PG, SH), in addition to histamine, are the main mechanistic mediators of acute gastroprotection: PG and histamine, because as mediators of acute inflammation, they increase vascular permeability (VP), and SH scavenge free radicals. This is contrary to the search for a single mechanism of action, long focused on enhanced secretion of mucus and/or bicarbonate that may contribute but cannot explain all forms of gastroprotection. Nevertheless, based on research work of the last 30 years, in part from our lab, a new mechanistic explanation of gastroprotection may be formulated: it's a complex but orderly and evolution-based physiologic response of the gastric mucosa under pathologic conditions. Namely, one of the first physiologic defense responses of any organ is inflammation that starts with

  18. Looking for empty topological whormhole spacetimes in $F(R)$-modified gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Di Criscienzo, R; Sebastiani, L

    2013-01-01

    Much attention has been recently devoted to modified theories of gravity in the attempt to efficiently describe both early inflation and late-time acceleration of our universe without referring to the cosmological constant or other ad hoc kinds of fluids. The simplest models overcome General Relativity simply by replacing $R$ with $F(R)$ in the Einstein--Hilbert action. Unfortunately, such models typically lack most of the beautiful solutions discovered in Einstein's gravity. Nonetheless, in $F(R)$ gravity, it has been possible to get at least few black holes, but still we do not know any empty wormhole-like spacetime solution. The present paper aims to explain why it is so hard to get such solutions (given that they exist!). Few solutions are derived in the simplest cases while only an implicit form has been obtained in the non-trivial case.

  19. Empty forest or empty rivers? A century of commercial hunting in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, André P; Fewster, Rachel M; Venticinque, Eduardo M; Peres, Carlos A; Levi, Taal; Rohe, Fabio; Shepard, Glenn H

    2016-10-01

    The Amazon basin is the largest and most species-rich tropical forest and river system in the world, playing a pivotal role in global climate regulation and harboring hundreds of traditional and indigenous cultures. It is a matter of intense debate whether the ecosystem is threatened by hunting practices, whereby an "empty forest" loses critical ecological functions. Strikingly, no previous study has examined Amazonian ecosystem resilience through the perspective of the massive 20th century international trade in furs and skins. We present the first historical account of the scale and impacts of this trade and show that whereas aquatic species suffered basin-wide population collapse, terrestrial species did not. We link this differential resilience to the persistence of adequate spatial refuges for terrestrial species, enabling populations to be sustained through source-sink dynamics, contrasting with unremitting hunting pressure on more accessible aquatic habitats. Our findings attest the high vulnerability of aquatic fauna to unregulated hunting, particularly during years of severe drought. We propose that the relative resilience of terrestrial species suggests a marked opportunity for managing, rather than criminalizing, contemporary traditional subsistence hunting in Amazonia, through both the engagement of local people in community-based comanagement programs and science-led conservation governance.

  20. Empty forest or empty rivers? A century of commercial hunting in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, André P.; Fewster, Rachel M.; Venticinque, Eduardo M.; Peres, Carlos A.; Levi, Taal; Rohe, Fabio; Shepard, Glenn H.

    2016-01-01

    The Amazon basin is the largest and most species-rich tropical forest and river system in the world, playing a pivotal role in global climate regulation and harboring hundreds of traditional and indigenous cultures. It is a matter of intense debate whether the ecosystem is threatened by hunting practices, whereby an “empty forest” loses critical ecological functions. Strikingly, no previous study has examined Amazonian ecosystem resilience through the perspective of the massive 20th century international trade in furs and skins. We present the first historical account of the scale and impacts of this trade and show that whereas aquatic species suffered basin-wide population collapse, terrestrial species did not. We link this differential resilience to the persistence of adequate spatial refuges for terrestrial species, enabling populations to be sustained through source-sink dynamics, contrasting with unremitting hunting pressure on more accessible aquatic habitats. Our findings attest the high vulnerability of aquatic fauna to unregulated hunting, particularly during years of severe drought. We propose that the relative resilience of terrestrial species suggests a marked opportunity for managing, rather than criminalizing, contemporary traditional subsistence hunting in Amazonia, through both the engagement of local people in community-based comanagement programs and science-led conservation governance. PMID:27757421

  1. Gastric cancer: basic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Carlos; Thiel, Alexandra; Machado, José C; Ristimäki, Ari

    2011-09-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a world health burden, ranging as the second cause of cancer death worldwide. Etiologically, GC arises not only from the combined effects of environmental factors and susceptible genetic variants but also from the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations. In the last years, molecular oncobiology studies brought to light a number of genes that are implicated in gastric carcinogenesis. This review is intended to focus on the recently described basic aspects that play key roles in the process of gastric carcinogenesis. Genetic variants of the genes IL-10, IL-17, MUC1, MUC6, DNMT3B, SMAD4, and SERPINE1 have been reported to modify the risk of developing GC. Several genes have been newly associated with gastric carcinogenesis, both through oncogenic activation (GSK3β, CD133, DSC2, P-Cadherin, CDH17, CD168, CD44, metalloproteinases MMP7 and MMP11, and a subset of miRNAs) and through tumor suppressor gene inactivation mechanisms (TFF1, PDX1, BCL2L10, XRCC, psiTPTE-HERV, HAI-2, GRIK2, and RUNX3). It also addressed the role of the inflammatory mediator cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the process of gastric carcinogenesis and its importance as a potential molecular target for therapy.

  2. The gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelayo Correa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer ranks fourth in incidence and second in mortality among all cancers worldwide. Despite the decrease in incidencein some regions of the world, gastric cancer continues to present a major clinical challenge due to most cases beingdiagnosed in advanced stages with poor prognosis and limited treatment options. The development of gastric cancer is acomplex and multi-factored process involving a number of etiological factors and multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations.Among the predisposing factors are: Helicobacter pylori infection, high salt intake, smoking, and, in a small percentage ofpatients, a family genetic component. More than 90% of stomach cancers are adenocarcinomas, which are classified intotwo major histological groups: intestinal and diffuse. Intestinal adenocarcinoma is preceded by a sequence of gastric lesionsknown as Correa´s cascade. According to the anatomical position, adenocarcinomas are classified as proximal (originatingin the cardia and distal (originating in the body and antrum. This is a classification that recognizes two different clinicalentities. In general, the only possible cure for the disease is resection of the tumor in an early stage for which the identificationand monitoring of at-risk patients play a significant role. With the exception of Japan, no effective early detection programsexist. Anti-H. pylori has been shown to be an effective measure in the prevention of gastric cancer.

  3. ANTIGEN MG7 IN GASTRIC CANCER AND GASTRIC PRECANCEROUS LESIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭冬丽; 宁佩芳; 袁媛

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the dynamic change and its diagnostic significance of MG7 expression in the process of gastric cancer development. Methods: The expression level of antigen MG7 was determined by immunohistochemistry method in 406 cases of gastric mucosa. The classification of intestinal metaplasia of gastric mucosa was determined by histochemistry method in 82 cases. Results: The positive rate of MG7 expression in normal gastric mucosa, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia of gastric mucosa and gastric cancer were increased gradually (P<0.01). The positive rate of MG7 expression in superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer were increased on sequence (P<0.01). The positive rate of antigen MG7 expression in type Ⅲ intestinal metaplasia of gastric mucosa had significant difference,compared with that in type Ⅰ an Ⅱ intestinal metaplasia (P<0.05). Conclusion: MG7 antigen had close relationship with gastric cancer. Type Ⅲ intestinal metaplasia, atrophic gastritis and dysplasia should be followed up in order to improve the early detection of gastric cancer. MG7 antigen had great clinical value in the dynamic follow-up of gastric precursors.

  4. The Empty Nest Syndrome: Ways to Enhance Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dianbing; Yang, Xinxiao; Aagard, Steve Dale

    2012-01-01

    Empty nest syndrome occurs as a result of urbanization and loosened relationships among family members. It may threaten the life quality of older adults and stability of society as a whole. This survey was designed to investigate the situation and factors that influence the life quality of a sample of older adults in a western state. Thirty-five…

  5. Accelerating Value Creation with Accelerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Eythor Ivar

    2015-01-01

    accelerator programs. Microsoft runs accelerators in seven different countries. Accelerators have grown out of the infancy stage and are now an accepted approach to develop new ventures based on cutting-edge technology like the internet of things, mobile technology, big data and virtual reality. It is also...... with the traditional audit and legal universes and industries are examples of emerging potentials both from a research and business point of view to exploit and explore further. The accelerator approach may therefore be an Idea Watch to consider, no matter which industry you are in, because in essence accelerators...

  6. Immunotherapy in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsueda, Satoko; Graham, David Y

    2014-02-21

    Gastric cancer is the second most common of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In the majority of cases gastric cancer is advanced at diagnosis and although medical and surgical treatments have improved, survival rates remain poor. Cancer immunotherapy has emerged as a powerful and promising clinical approach for treatment of cancer and has shown major success in breast cancer, prostate cancer and melanoma. Here, we provide an overview of concepts of modern cancer immunotherapy including the theory, current approaches, remaining hurdles to be overcome, and the future prospect of cancer immunotherapy in the treatment of gastric cancer. Adaptive cell therapies, cancer vaccines, gene therapies, monoclonal antibody therapies have all been used with some initial successes in gastric cancer. However, to date the results in gastric cancer have been disappointing as current approaches often do not stimulate immunity efficiently allowing tumors continue to grow despite the presence of a measurable immune response. Here, we discuss the identification of targets for immunotherapy and the role of biomarkers in prospectively identifying appropriate subjects or immunotherapy. We also discuss the molecular mechanisms by which tumor cells escape host immunosurveillance and produce an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. We show how advances have provided tools for overcoming the mechanisms of immunosuppression including the use of monoclonal antibodies to block negative regulators normally expressed on the surface of T cells which limit activation and proliferation of cytotoxic T cells. Immunotherapy has greatly improved and is becoming an important factor in such fields as medical care and welfare for human being. Progress has been rapid ensuring that the future of immunotherapy for gastric cancer is bright.

  7. Comparative evaluation of gastric secretory response to banana and porridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadoo, R C; Khatri, H L; Singla, S

    1995-01-01

    Unripe Banana (Plantain) is used in South India as a bland diet for peptic ulcer patients. Flour made of plantain is quite often prescribed in dyspepsia in this part of the country. This has led to the belief that ripe banana may also be a bland fruit. However, it was observed by the Senior Author that ripe banana does produce symptoms of hyperacidity. Hence a study was undertaken to assess whether ripe banana is a bland food or not. A total of 115 patients entered the study. 89 individuals had no GIT symptoms, 15 patients had proved peptic ulcer while 11 patients had non-ulcer acid dyspepsia. The gastric residue was emptied by a nasogastric tube after a night fast. Patients were then given 80 gms. of banana or porridge on two different days. Then consecutive 15 minute samples of gastric juice were collected and submitted for estimation of acid output in mEq/l. It was observed that gastric acid values were higher following banana as compared to porridge and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). It was was thus concluded that ripe banana is not a bland food. It should not be recommended as a part of bland diet for patients of acid peptic disease.

  8. Expression of MTLC gene in gastric carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Bin Qiu; Li-Guo Gong; Dong-Mei Hao; Zhi-Hong Zhen; Kai-Lai Sun

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of c-myc target from laryngeal cancer cells (MTLC) gene in gastric carcinoma (GC)tissues and the effect of MTLC over-expression on gastric carcinoma cell line BGC823.METHODS: RT-PCR was performed to determine the expression of MTLC mRNA in GC and matched control tissues.BGC823 cells were transfected with an expression vector pcDNA3.1-MTLC by liposome and screened by G418. Growth of cells expressing MTLC was observed daily by manual counting. Apoptotic cells were determined by TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay.RESULTS: The expression of MTLC mRNAs was downregulated in 9(60%) of 15 cases of GC tissues. The growth rates of the BGC823 cells expressing MTLC were indistinguishable from that of control cells. A marked acceleration of apoptosis was observed in MTLC-expressing cells.CONCLUSION: MTLC was down-regulated in the majority of GC tissues and could promote apoptosis of GC cell lines,which suggests that MTLC may play an important role in the carcinogenesis of gastric carcinoma.

  9. Accelerating Value Creation with Accelerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Eythor Ivar

    2015-01-01

    Accelerators can help to accelerate value creation. Accelerators are short-term programs that have the objective of creating innovative and fast growing ventures. They have gained attraction as larger corporations like Microsoft, Barclays bank and Nordea bank have initiated and sponsored accelera......Accelerators can help to accelerate value creation. Accelerators are short-term programs that have the objective of creating innovative and fast growing ventures. They have gained attraction as larger corporations like Microsoft, Barclays bank and Nordea bank have initiated and sponsored...... an approach to facilitate implementation and realization of business ideas and is a lucrative approach to transform research into ventures and to revitalize regions and industries in transition. Investors have noticed that the accelerator approach is a way to increase the possibility of success by funnelling...

  10. Pharmacokinetics, absorption, and excretion of radiolabeled revexepride: a Phase I clinical trial using a microtracer and accelerator mass spectrometry-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flach S

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stephen Flach,1 Marie Croft,2 Jie Ding,1 Ron Budhram,3 Todd Pankratz,2 Mike Pennick,3 Graeme Scarfe,3 Steven Troy,4 Jay Getsy4 1Covance Laboratories Inc., Madison, WI, USA; 2Xceleron Inc., Germantown, MD, USA; 3Shire, Basingstoke, UK; 4Shire, Lexington, MA, USA Purpose: Gastroesophageal reflux disease involves the reflux of gastric and/or duodenal content into the esophagus. Prokinetic therapies, such as the selective 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 4 agonist revexepride, may aid gastric emptying. This Phase I study evaluated the pharmacokinetics and excretion pathways of [14C]revexepride in healthy individuals using a microtracer approach with accelerator mass spectrometry. Participants and methods: Six healthy men received a single oral dose of 2 mg [14C]revexepride containing ~200 nCi of radioactivity; blood, urine, and fecal samples were collected over a 10-day period. Results: Almost 100% of 14C was recovered: 38.2%±10.3% (mean ± standard deviation was recovered in urine, and 57.3%±0.4% was recovered in feces. Blood cell uptake was low, based on the blood plasma total radioactivity ratio of 0.8. The mean revexepride renal clearance was 8.6 L/h, which was slightly higher than the typical glomerular filtration rate in healthy individuals. Time to reach maximal concentration was 1.75±1.17 hours (mean ± standard deviation. No safety signals were identified. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that revexepride had rapid and moderate-to-good oral absorption. Excretion of radioactivity was completed with significant amounts in feces and urine. Renal clearance slightly exceeded the typical glomerular filtration rate, suggesting the involvement of active transportation in the renal tubules. Keywords: accelerator mass spectrometry, gastroesophageal reflux disease, pharmacokinetics, revexepride, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 4 agonist

  11. MYC and gastric adenocarcinoma carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danielle Queiroz Calcagno; Mariana Ferreira Leal; Paulo Pimentel Assumpcao; Marilia de Arruda Cardoso Smith; Rommel Rodriguez Burbano

    2008-01-01

    MYC is an oncogene involved in cell cycle regulation, cell growth arrest, cell adhesion, metabolism, ribosome biogenesis, protein synthesis, and mitochondrial function. It has been described as a key element of several carcinogenesis processes in humans. Many studies have shown an association between MYC deregulation and gastric cancer. MYC deregulation is also seen in gastric preneoplastic lesions and thus it may have a role in early gastric carcinogenesis. Several studies have suggested that amplification is the main mechanism of MYC deregulation in gastric cancer. In the present review, we focus on the deregulation of the MYC oncogene in gastric adenocarcinoma carcinogenesis, including its association with Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) and clinical applications.

  12. On the Empty Essential Spectrum for Markov Processes in Dimension One

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Hua MAO

    2006-01-01

    This paper gives characterizations for diffusion processes on the line and birth-death processes whose generators admit the empty essential spectra. Some equivalent conditions for empty essential spectra for general Markov generators are also discussed.

  13. Gastric and non-gastric signals in electrogastrography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiho, T; Shimoyama, I; Nakajima, Y; Ochiai, T

    2000-02-14

    Electrogastrography (EGG) is the cutaneous recording of gastric myoelectrical activity, and the dominant frequency reflects the rhythm of the gastric slow wave. Ambulatory EGG is contaminated with a large amount of motion artifacts, and it is unclear how much of the signals comprising the dominant frequency originates from non-gastric sources. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pattern of gastric and non-gastric signals in the dominant frequency histogram (DFH) obtained from long-term ambulatory EGG recordings. Ten normal controls and five post-gastrectomy patients participated in the present study. Twenty-four hour ambulatory EGG was recorded under normal daily conditions. The DFH of normal controls showed two distinctive peaks, and that of the post-gastrectomy patients, a single peak. The common peak at approximately 1.5 cpm was seen in both DFHs, and the peak at 3 cpm was seen only in the DFH of normal controls. Thus, the common peak was thought to be a product of non-gastric origin. In conclusion, the dominant frequency consists of gastric and non-gastric components which have a specific distribution pattern in the DFH. These findings quantified the contribution of gastric and non-gastric signals to the dominant frequencies in long-term ambulatory EGG.

  14. Gastric Calcifying Fibrous Tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Attila

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Intramucosal gastric tumours are most commonly found to be gastrointestinal stromal tumours or leiomyomas (smooth muscle tumours; however, a variety of other uncommon mesenchymal tumours can occur in the stomach wall. A rare benign calcifying fibrous tumour is reported and the endoscopic appearance, ultrasound findings and morphology are documented. A review of the literature found only two similar cases.

  15. LIBO accelerates

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The prototype module of LIBO, a linear accelerator project designed for cancer therapy, has passed its first proton-beam acceleration test. In parallel a new version - LIBO-30 - is being developed, which promises to open up even more interesting avenues.

  16. RECIRCULATING ACCELERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERG,J.S.; GARREN,A.A.; JOHNSTONE,C.

    2000-04-07

    This paper compares various types of recirculating accelerators, outlining the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches. The accelerators are characterized according to the types of arcs they use: whether there is a single arc for the entire recirculator or there are multiple arcs, and whether the arc(s) are isochronous or non-isochronous.

  17. Host pathogen interactions in Helicobacter pylori related gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiela, Magdalena; Karwowska, Zuzanna; Gonciarz, Weronika; Allushi, Bujana; Stączek, Paweł

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), discovered in 1982, is a microaerophilic, spiral-shaped gram-negative bacterium that is able to colonize the human stomach. Nearly half of the world's population is infected by this pathogen. Its ability to induce gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma has been confirmed. The susceptibility of an individual to these clinical outcomes is multifactorial and depends on H. pylori virulence, environmental factors, the genetic susceptibility of the host and the reactivity of the host immune system. Despite the host immune response, H. pylori infection can be difficult to eradicate. H. pylori is categorized as a group I carcinogen since this bacterium is responsible for the highest rate of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Early detection of cancer can be lifesaving. The 5-year survival rate for gastric cancer patients diagnosed in the early stages is nearly 90%. Gastric cancer is asymptomatic in the early stages but always progresses over time and begins to cause symptoms when untreated. In 97% of stomach cancer cases, cancer cells metastasize to other organs. H. pylori infection is responsible for nearly 60% of the intestinal-type gastric cancer cases but also influences the development of diffuse gastric cancer. The host genetic susceptibility depends on polymorphisms of genes involved in H. pylori-related inflammation and the cytokine response of gastric epithelial and immune cells. H. pylori strains differ in their ability to induce a deleterious inflammatory response. H. pylori-driven cytokines accelerate the inflammatory response and promote malignancy. Chronic H. pylori infection induces genetic instability in gastric epithelial cells and affects the DNA damage repair systems. Therefore, H. pylori infection should always be considered a pro-cancerous factor. PMID:28321154

  18. A CLINICAL STUDY ON GASTRIC OUTLET OBSTRUCTION IN A SOUTH INDIAN TEACHING HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailaja

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Gastric outlet obstruction is defined as a clinical and patho - physiological consequence of any disease process that produces a mechanical impediment to gastric emptying which may be extrinsic or intrinsic. Gastric outlet obstruction can be a diagnostic and treatment dilemma. Endoscopy of upper gastrointestinal tract has been a sensitive and specific investigation to study the status of gastric outlet - the pylorus and has enabled early detection of lesions of both stomach a nd duodenum. We undertook a prospective clinical study regarding incidence, etiology, investigation and management of cases of Gastric outlet obstruction in adults in a period of three years. In our study the m ost common cause of GOO is Carcinoma stomach a ntral region 46.6% , duodenal ulcer 33.3% , corrosive acid ingestion sequel 8.3%, peri ampullary carcinoma 6.6%, Ca pancreas 3.3%% , cholangio Carcinoma 1.6%. Males are more commonly involved in a ratio of M: F=3:1. Surgical procedures done varied from defini tive resections to palliative bypass or feeding jejunostomy for enteral feeding

  19. Fed-state gastric media and drug analysis techniques: Current status and points to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxevanis, Fotios; Kuiper, Jesse; Fotaki, Nikoletta

    2016-10-01

    Gastric fed state conditions can have a significant effect on drug dissolution and absorption. In vitro dissolution tests with simple aqueous media cannot usually predict drugs' in vivo response, as several factors such as the meal content, the gastric emptying and possible interactions between food and drug formulations can affect drug's pharmacokinetics. Good understanding of the effect of the in vivo fed gastric conditions on the drug is essential for the development of biorelevant dissolution media simulating the gastric environment after the administration of the standard high fat meal proposed by the FDA and the EMA in bioavailability/bioequivalence (BA/BE) studies. The analysis of drugs in fed state media can be quite challenging as most analytical protocols currently employed are time consuming and labour intensive. In this review, an overview of the in vivo gastric conditions and the biorelevant media used for their in vitro simulation are described. Furthermore an analysis of the physicochemical properties of the drugs and the formulations related to food effect is given. In terms of drug analysis, the protocols currently used for the fed state media sample treatment and analysis and the analytical challenges and needs emerging for more efficient and time saving techniques for a broad spectrum of compounds are being discussed.

  20. Particle size distribution of brown and white rice during gastric digestion measured by image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Kostlan, Kevin; Singh, R Paul

    2013-09-01

    The particle size distribution of foods during gastric digestion indicates the amount of physical breakdown that occurred due to the peristaltic movement of the stomach walls in addition to the breakdown that initially occurred during oral processing. The objective of this study was to present an image analysis technique that was rapid, simple, and could distinguish between food components (that is, rice kernel and bran layer in brown rice). The technique was used to quantify particle breakdown of brown and white rice during gastric digestion in growing pigs (used as a model for an adult human) over 480 min of digestion. The particle area distributions were fit to a Rosin-Rammler distribution function. Brown and white rice exhibited considerable breakdown as the number of particles per image decreased over time. The median particle area (x(50)) increased during digestion, suggesting a gastric sieving phenomenon, where small particles were emptied and larger particles were retained for additional breakdown. Brown rice breakdown was further quantified by an examination of the bran layer fragments and rice grain pieces. The percentage of total particle area composed of bran layer fragments was greater in the distal stomach than the proximal stomach in the first 120 min of digestion. The results of this study showed that image analysis may be used to quantify particle breakdown of a soft food product during gastric digestion, discriminate between different food components, and help to clarify the role of food structure and processing in food breakdown during gastric digestion.

  1. The Liquid Sustainer Build-up Time Impact on the Emptying Spacecraft Fuel Tank in Free Orbiting Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Sapozhnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trouble-free operation of liquid rocket engines (LRE depends, among other factors, on the nonstop supply of liquid rocket fuel components in the fuel tank feed line with continuous flow.This condition becomes especially relevant for the aerial vehicles (AV in orbital (suborbital environment. With a little filled fuel tanks discontinuity of flow may occur because of pressurizing gas blow-by in the feed line as a result of the funnel generation (with or without vortex formation and so-called phenomenon of dynamic failure of the interface "liquid-gas”.The paper presents a mathematical model of the process of emptying tank initially a little filled and having a reduced level of the gravity acceleration. Using the developed mathematical model a parametric study has been conducted to find how stabilization rate of liquid flow effects on the volume of drained liquid. The computational experiment defines gas blow-by points in the feed line and propellant residuals, depending on the flow rate, physical properties of the fuel components, residual value of the acceleration, and diameter of the feed line.As a result, an effect is discovered that previously has been never mentioned in publications on research of the emptying processes of the aircraft fuel tanks, namely: with abrupt bootstrap of the flow rate a blow-by of gas occurs at the initial stage of emptying tank. In this case, to ensure LRE trouble-free operation there is a need in a special inner-tank device to prevent premature blow-by of pressurizing gas in the tank feed line.

  2. Language Emptiness of Continuous-Time Parametric Timed Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benes, Nikola; Bezdek, Peter; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2015-01-01

    Parametric timed automata extend the standard timed automata with the possibility to use parameters in the clock guards. In general, if the parameters are real-valued, the problem of language emptiness of such automata is undecidable even for various restricted subclasses. We thus focus on the case...... of these clocks is compared with (an arbitrary number of) parameters, we show that the parametric language emptiness is decidable. The undecidability result tightens the bounds of a previous result which assumed six parameters, while the decidability result extends the existing approaches that deal with discrete......-time semantics only. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first positive result in the case of continuous-time and unbounded integer parameters, except for the rather simple case of single-clock automata....

  3. Torrefaction of Pelletized Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches

    CERN Document Server

    Nyakuma, Bemgba Bevan; Johari, Anwar; Abdullah, Tuan Amran Tuan; Oladokun, Olagoke

    2015-01-01

    The torrefaction of oil palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) briquettes was examined in this study. The results indicate that temperature significantly influenced the mass yield, energy yield and heating value of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) briquettes during torrefaction. The solid uniform compact nature of EFB briquettes ensured a slow rate of pyrolysis or devolatization which enhanced torrefaction. The mass yield decreased from 79.70 % to 43.03 %, energy yield from 89.44 % to 64.27 % during torrefaction from 250 {\\deg}C to 300 {\\deg}C. The heating value (HHV) of OPEFB briquettes improved significantly from 17.57 MJ/kg to 26.24 MJ/kg after torrefaction at 300 {\\deg}C for 1 hour. Fundamentally, the study has highlighted the effects of pelletization and torrefaction on solid fuel properties of oil palm EFB briquettes and its potential as a solid fuel for future thermal applications.

  4. A Brief Analysis on Empty Categories in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Shao-li

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to give a brief analysis on the Empty Categories in Chinese. It will first illustrate Chomsky ’s classifica-tion of EC as well as the constraints the subject to briefly, then basing on this classification the author will state some of Chinese scholars’study and research including Xu Liejiong , Huang Zhengde and Hu Jianjun. Finally, the author will compare these clas-sic frameworks and attempt to.

  5. Reducing Aerodynamic Drag on Empty Open Cargo Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, James C.; Storms, Bruce L.; Dzoan, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Some simple structural modifications have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing aerodynamic drag on vehicles that have empty open cargo bays. The basic idea is to break up the airflow in a large open cargo bay by inserting panels to divide the bay into a series of smaller bays. In the case of a coal car, this involves inserting a small number (typically between two and four) of vertical full-depth or partial-depth panels.

  6. Empty sky : 9/11 and performing regenerative violence

    OpenAIRE

    Genna, Raimondo

    2010-01-01

    "Empty Sky: 9/11 and Performing Regenerative Violence" explores theatrical depictions of violence and trauma following the events of 11 September 2001 and their relationships to American myth and identity. In the aftermath of the terrorist attack of 9/11, many in the media, from politicians and pundits to journalists and fictional characters in popular television, discussed the epistemological rupture of the event, stating that the world had changed forever and that everything was now differe...

  7. Primary hypothyroidism associated with empty sella turcica and hypopituitarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Maja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Empty sella syndrome is a rather frequent neuroradiological finding in the general population and can be associated with hypopituitarism. Examinations reveal low pituitary hormone levels and lack of response to stimuli. Most patients suffer from central hypothyroidism as part of pituitary insufficiency. Primary hypothyreoidism is a rare finding in these patients. Case report We present 3 patients: one female and two male, suffering from complete hypopituitarism, as part of the empty sella syndrome diagnosed due to low concentrations of all pituitary hormones, elevated TSH and low thyroid hormones. TRH, LHRH, ACTH and ITT tests, as well as IGF1 have confirmed hypopituitarism and primary hypothyroidism. CT and NMR in all three patients showed empty sella without a tumor in it. The diagnosis of primary hypothyrodism in the first patient was made before hypopituitarism has taken place, or at the same time in the second patient, whereas in the third patient it was diagnosed twenty years later. In two patients anti-TPO and anti-Tg antibody levels were high, and in the third patient they were not elevated. It can be assumed that the etiology of primary hypothyrodism in all three patients was of autoimmune origin, which caused thyroid hypofunction. High level of TSH in all three patients and especially in the patient whose hypopituitarism was diagnosed twenty years later, showed presence of thyrotrophic cells in the pituitary. Evaluation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis was carried out during the complete substitution therapy of hypopituitarism. Conclusion Diagnosing primary hypothyrodism associated with hypopituitarism helps improving the knowledge on empty sella syndrome and points to different clinical syndromes characterized by lack of mixoedema, although approach to therapy is the same for both primary and central hypothyroidism.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions hereditary diffuse gastric cancer hereditary diffuse gastric cancer Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is an inherited disorder that greatly increases ...

  9. Prolapsing Gastric Polyp Causing Intermittent Gastric Outlet Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosai, Nik Ritza; Gendeh, Hardip Singh; Norfaezan, Abdul Rashid; Razman, Jamin; Sutton, Paul Anthony; Das, Srijit

    2015-06-01

    Gastric polyps are often an incidental finding on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with an incidence up to 5%. The majority of gastric polyps are asymptomatic, occurring secondary to inflammation. Prior reviews discussed Helicobacter pylori (H pylori)-associated singular gastric polyposis; however, we present a rare and unusual case of recurrent multiple benign gastric polyposis post H pylori eradication resulting in intermittent gastric outlet obstruction. A 70-year-old independent male, Chinese in ethnicity, with a background of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and a simple renal cyst presented with a combination of melena, anemia, and intermittent vomiting of partially digested food after meals. Initial gastroscopy was positive for H pylori; thus he was treated with H pylori eradication and proton pump inhibitors. Serial gastroscopy demonstrated multiple sessile gastric antral polyps, the largest measuring 4 cm. Histopathologic examination confirmed a benign hyperplastic lesion. Computed tomography identified a pyloric mass with absent surrounding infiltration or metastasis. A distal gastrectomy was performed, whereby multiple small pyloric polyps were found, the largest prolapsing into the pyloric opening, thus explaining the intermittent nature of gastric outlet obstruction. Such polyps often develop from gastric ulcers and, if left untreated, may undergo neoplasia to form malignant cells. A distal gastrectomy was an effective choice of treatment, taking into account the polyp size, quantity, and potential for malignancy as opposed to an endoscopic approach, which may not guarantee a complete removal of safer margins and depth. Therefore, surgical excision is favorable for multiple large gastric polyps with risk of malignancy.

  10. Stabilization of Empty Fruit Bunch derived Bio-oil using Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Loong Yiin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this research was to select the ideal condition for accelerated aging of bio-oil and the consequences of additive in stabilizing the bio-oil. The bio-oil was produced from the catalytic pyrolysis of empty fruit bunch. The optimum reaction conditions applied to obtain the utmost bio-oil yield were 5 wt% of H-Y catalyst at reaction temperature of 500 °C and nitrogen flow rate of 100 ml/min. A 10 wt% of solvents including acetone, ethanol, and ethyl acetate were used to study the bio-oil’s stability. All the test samples were subjected to accelerated aging at temperature of 80 oC for 7 days. The properties of samples used as the indicator of aging were viscosity and water content. The effectiveness of solvents increased in the following order: acetone, ethyl acetate, and 95 vol% ethanol. Based on the result of Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, it could impede the chain of polymerization by converting the active units in the oligomer chain to inactive units. The solvent reacted to form low molecular weight products which resulted in lower viscosity and lessen the water content in bio-oil. Addition of 95 vol% ethanol also inhibited phase separation.

  11. Epidemiological characteristics of gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Šipetić Sandra B.; Tomić-Kundaković Slađana; Vlajinac Hristina D.; Maksimović Nataša; Knežević Anita; Kisić Darija

    2005-01-01

    Introduction. Gastric cancer was the third most common cancer worldwide in 2000, accounting for approximately 876 000 new cases or 9% of the global cancer burden. Epidemiological characteristics As a result of changes in diet, the incidence of gastric cancer has decreased in most countries. Now days, consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits is increasing in regard to canned food. In addition to unhealthy diet, the main risk factors for gastric cancer are H. pylori infection, alcohol consump...

  12. Gene therapy for gastric diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Fumoto, Shintaro; Nishi, Junya; Nakamura, Junzo; Nishida, Koyo

    2008-01-01

    Gene therapy for gastric cancer and gastric ulcer is a rationalized strategy since various genes correlate with these diseases. Since gene expressions in non-target tissues/cells cause side effects, a selective gene delivery system targeted to the stomach and/or cancer must be developed. The route of vector transfer (direct injection, systemic, intraperitoneal, gastric serosal surface and oral administration) is an important issue which can determine efficacy and safety. Strategies for cancer...

  13. Mathematical Modeling of the Thermal Shell State of the Cylindrical Cryogenic Tank During Filling and Emptying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Zarubin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid hydrogen and oxygen are used as the oxidizer and fuel for liquid rocket engines. Liquefied natural gas, which is based on methane, is seen as a promising motor fuel for internal combustion engines. One of the technical problems arising from the use of said cryogenic liquid is to provide containers for storage, transport and use in the propulsion system. In the design and operation of such vessels it is necessary to have reliable information about their temperature condition, on which depend the loss of cryogenic fluids due to evaporation and the stress-strain state of the structural elements of the containers.Uneven temperature distribution along the generatrix of the cylindrical thin-walled shell of rocket cryogenic tanks, in a localized zone of cryogenic liquid level leads to a curvature of the shell and reduce the permissible axle load in a hazard shell buckling in the preparation for the start of the missile in flight with an increasing acceleration. Moving the level of the cryogenic liquid during filling or emptying the tank at a certain combination of parameters results in an increase of the local temperature distribution nonuniformity.Along with experimental study of the shell temperature state of the cryogenic container, methods of mathematical modeling allow to have information needed for designing and testing the construction of cryogenic tanks. In this study a mathematical model is built taking into account features of heat transfer in a cryogenic container, including the boiling cryogenic liquid in the inner surface of the container. This mathematical model describes the temperature state of the thin-walled shell of cylindrical cryogenic tank during filling and emptying. The work also presents a quantitative analysis of this model in case of fixed liquid level, its movement at a constant speed, and harmonic oscillations relative to a middle position. The quantitative analysis of this model has allowed to find the limit options

  14. Triangulation Algorithm Based on Empty Convex Set Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klyachin Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to generalization of Delaunay triangulation. We suggest to consider empty condition for special convex sets. For given finite set P ⊂ Rn we shall say that empty condition for convex set B ⊂ Rn is fullfiled if P ∩ B = P ∩ ∂B. Let Φ = Φα, α ∈ A be a family of compact convex sets with non empty inner. Consider some nondegenerate simplex S ⊂ Rn with vertexes p0,...,pn. We define the girth set B(S ∈ Φ if qi ∈ ∂B(S, i = 0, 1, ..., n. We suppose that the family Φ has the property: for arbitrary nondegenerate simplex S there is only one the girth set B(S. We prove the following main result. Theorem 1. If the family Φ = Φα, α ∈ A of convex sets have the pointed above property then for the girth sets it is true: 1. The set B(S is uniquely determined by any simplex with vertexes on ∂B(S. 2. Let S1, S2 be two nondegenerate simplexes such that B(S1 ≠ B(S2. If the intersection B(S1 ∩ B(S2 is not empty, then the intersection of boundaries B(S1, B(S2 is (n − 2-dimensional convex surface, lying in some hyperplane. 3. If two simplexes S1 and S2 don’t intersect by inner points and have common (n − 1-dimensional face G and A, B are vertexes don’t belong to face G and vertex B of simplex B(S2 such that B ∉ B(S1 then B(S2 does not contain the vertex A of simplex S1. These statements allow us to define Φ-triangulation correctly by the following way. The given triangulation T of finite set P ⊂ Rn is called Φ-triangulation if for all simlex S ∈ T the girth set B(S ∈ Φ is empty. In the paper we give algorithm for construct Φ-triangulation arbitrary finite set P ⊂ Rn. Besides we describe examples of families Φ for which we prove the existence and uniqueness of girth set B(S for arbitrary nondegenerate simplex S.

  15. Effect of Jianweiyuyang granule on gastric ulcer recurrence and expression of VEGF mRNA in the healing process of gastric ulcer in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing-Ping Dai; Jia-Bang Li; Zhao-Qian Liu; Xiang Ding; Cheng-Hui Huang; Bing Zhou

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of Jianweiyuyang (JWYY)granule on gastric ulcer recurrence and its mechanism in the treatment of gastric ulcer in rats.METHODS: Gastric ulcer in rats was induced according to Okeba's method with minor modification and the recurrence model was induced by IL-1β. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA (VEGF mRNA) was examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in gastric ulcer and microvessel density (MVD) adjacent to the ulcer margin was examined by immunohistochemistry.RESULTS: MVD was higher in the JWYY treatment group (14.0±2.62) compared with the normal, model and ranitidine treatment groups (2.2±0.84, 8.8±0.97, 10.4±0.97) in rats (P<0.01). The expression level of VEGF mRNA in gastric tissues during the healing process of JWYY treatment group rats significantly increased compared with other groups (normal group: 0.190±0.019, model group: 0.642±0.034,ranitidine group: 0.790±0.037, P<0.01).CONCLUSION: JWYY granules can stimulate angiogenesis and enhance the expression of VEGF mRNA in gastric ulcer rats. This might be the mechanism for JWYY accelerating the ulcer healing, and preventing the recurrence of gastric ulcer.

  16. Horizontal Accelerator

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Horizontal Accelerator (HA) Facility is a versatile research tool available for use on projects requiring simulation of the crash environment. The HA Facility is...

  17. Brain-gut interactions between central vagal activation and abdominal surgery to influence gastric myenteric ganglia Fos expression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miampamba, Marcel; Million, Mulugeta; Taché, Yvette

    2011-05-01

    We previously showed that medullary thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) or the stable TRH agonist, RX-77368 administered intracisternally induces vagal-dependent activation of gastric myenteric neurons and prevents post surgery-induced delayed gastric emptying in rats. We investigated whether abdominal surgery alters intracisternal (ic) RX-77368 (50 ng)-induced gastric myenteric neuron activation. Under 10 min enflurane anesthesia, rats underwent an ic injection of saline or RX-77368 followed by a laparotomy and a 1-min cecal palpation, or no surgery and were euthanized 90 min later. Longitudinal muscle/myenteric plexus whole-mount preparations of gastric corpus and antrum were processed for immunohistochemical detection of Fos alone or double labeled with protein gene-product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). In the non surgery groups, ic RX-77368 induced a 17 fold increase in Fos-expression in both gastric antrum and corpus myenteric neurons compared to saline injected rats. PGP 9.5 ascertained the neuronal identity of myenteric cells expressing Fos. In the abdominal surgery groups, ic RX-77368 induced a significant increase in Fos-expression in both the corpus and antrum myenteric ganglia compared with ic saline injected rats which has no Fos in the gastric myenteric ganglia. However, the response was reduced by 73-78% compared with that induced by ic RX 77368 without surgery. Abundant VAChT positive nerve fibers were present around Fos positive neurons. These results indicate a bidirectional interaction between central vagal stimulation of gastric myenteric neurons and abdominal surgery. The modulation of gastric vagus-myenteric neuron activity could play an important role in the recovery phase of postoperative gastric ileus.

  18. Rett syndrome and gastric perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Malay B; Bittner, James G; Edwards, Michael A

    2008-04-01

    Rett Syndrome is associated with decreased peristaltic esophageal waves and gastric dysmotility, resulting in swallowing difficulties and gastric dilation. Rarely, gastric necrosis and perforation occur. Our case represents the third reported case of gastric necrosis and perforation associated with Rett Syndrome. A 31-year-old female after 11 hours of intermittent emesis and constant, sharp abdominal pain presented with evidence of multiorgan system failure including hypovolemic shock, metabolic acidosis, coagulopathy, and hepatorenal failure. A chest radiograph revealed intra-abdominal free air necessitating emergent laparotomy. During exploration, a severely dilated, thin-walled stomach with an area of necrosis and gross perforation was noted. Wedge resection of the necrotic tissue and primary closure were performed. Despite aggressive perioperative resuscitation and ventilation support, the patient died 3 hours postoperatively secondary to refractory shock and hypoxemia. Severe gastric dilation can occur with Rett Syndrome and may cause gastric necrosis and perforation. Prolonged elevated gastric pressures can decrease perfusion and may contribute to perforation. Timely decompression via percutaneous endoscopic or surgical gastrostomy could decrease the risk of perforation particularly when significant gastric distention is present. Consideration of gastric necrosis and perforation in patients with Rett Syndrome may lead to earlier intervention and decreased mortality.

  19. Helicobacter pylori in gastric carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyo; Jun; Ahn; Dong; Soo; Lee

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer still is a major concern as the third most common cancer worldwide, despite declining rates of incidence in many Western countries. Helicobacter pylori(H. pylori) is the major cause of gastric carcinogenesis, and its infection insults gastric mucosa leading to theoccurrence of atrophic gastritis which progress to intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, early gastric cancer, and advanced gastric cancer consequently. This review focuses on multiple factors including microbial virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors, which can heighten the chance of occurrence of gastric adenocarcinoma due to H. pylori infection. Bacterial virulence factors are key components in controlling the immune response associated with the induction of carcinogenesis, and cag A and vac A are the most well-known pathogenic factors. Host genetic polymorphisms contribute to regulating the inflammatory response to H. pylori and will become increasingly important with advancing techniques. Environmental factors such as high salt and smoking may also play a role in gastric carcinogenesis. It is important to understand the virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors interacting in the multistep process of gastric carcinogenesis. To conclude, prevention via H. pylori eradication and controlling environmental factors such as diet, smoking, and alcohol is an important strategy to avoid H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis.

  20. Epigenetic alterations in gastric carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    In-Seon CHOI; Tsung-Teh WU

    2005-01-01

    Gastric cancer is believed to result in part from the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations leading to oncogene overexpression and tumor suppressor loss. Epigenetic alterations as a distinct and crucial mechanism to silence a variety of methylated tissue-specific and imprinted genes, have been extensively studied in gastric carcinoma and play important roles in gastric carcinogenesis. This review will briefly discuss the basic aspects of DNA methylation and CpG island methylation, in particular the epigenetic alterations of certain critical genes implicated in gastric carcinogenesis and its relevance of clinical implications.

  1. Nutrition and Gastric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Carlo La Vecchia; Silvia Franceschi

    2000-01-01

    The reasons for the worldwide decline in stomach cancer incidence and mortality rates are not fully understood, but dietary changes are clearly implicated. While the possible mechanisms of gastric carcinogenesis and the impact of Helicobacter pylori eradication remain open to debate, at least two practical recommendations – to increase fruit and vegetable intake, and to reduce consumption of salt – are already supported by epidemiological evidence. These dietary recommend...

  2. Diet and gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šipetić Sandra B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this case-control study, conducted in Serbia during the period 1998-2000, was to investigate whether diet was associated with the development of gastric cancer. The case group consisted of 131 patients with histologically confirmed gastric cancer, and the control group of 131 patients with orthopedics diseases and injuries. Cases and controls were individually matched by age (±± 2 years, gender, and place of residence. On the basis of multivariate logistic regression analysis, following factors were found as independent risk factors for gastric cancer: more frequent consumption of high-fat milk [Odds ratio (OR =1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.99-2.16]; mutton, lamb and/or calf meat (OR = 2.46, 95% CI = 1.11-5.47, sugar (OR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.43-3.18, semi-white bread (OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.25-3.50, and salting food (OR = 5.72, 95% CI = 2.63-12.42. Factors found as protective were: more frequent consumption of margarine (OR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.25-0.69, „other“ cheeses (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.29 - 0.77, and fish (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.19-0.76.

  3. Chemotherapy for gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javier Sastre; Jose Angel García-Saenz; Eduardo Díaz-Rubio

    2006-01-01

    Metastatic gastric cancer remains a non-curative disease.Palliative chemotherapy has been demonstrated to prolong survival without quality of life compromise. Many single-agents and combinations have been confirmed to be active in the treatment of metastatic disease. Objective response rates ranged from 10-30% for single-agent therapy and 30-60% for polychemotherapy. Results of phase Ⅱ and Ⅲ studies are reviewed in this paper as well as the potential efficacy of new drugs. For patients with localized disease, the role of adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy is discussed.Most studies on adjuvant chemotherapy failed to demonstrate a survival advantage, and therefore, it is not considered as standard treatment in most centres. Adjuvant immunochemotherapy has been developed fundamentally in Korea and Japan. A meta-analysis of phase Ⅲ trials with OK-432 suggested that immunochemotherapy may improve survival of patients with curatively resected gastric cancer. Based on the results of US Intergroup 0116study, postoperative chemoradiation has been Accepted as standard care in patients with resected gastric cancer in North America. However, the results are somewhat confounded by the fact that patients underwent less than a recommended D1 lymph node dissection and the pattern of recurrence suggested a positive effect derived from local radiotherapy without any effect on micrometastatic disease.Neoadjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiation therapy remains experimental, but several phase Ⅱstudies are showing promising results. Phase Ⅲ trials are needed.

  4. Catastrophic health expenditure: a comparative analysis of empty-nest and non-empty-nest households with seniors in Shandong, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingting; Chu, Jie; Zhou, Chengchao; Medina, Alexis; Li, Cuicui; Jiang, Shan; Zheng, Wengui; Sun, Liyuan; Liu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare the catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) prevalence and its determinants between empty-nest and non-empty-nest elderly households. Setting Shandong province of China. Participants A total of 2761 elderly households are included in the analysis. Results CHE incidence among elderly households was 44.9%. The CHE incidence of empty-nest singles (59.3%, p=0.000, OR=3.19) and empty-nest couples (52.9%, p=0.000, OR=2.45) are both statistically higher than that of non-empty-nest elderly households (31.4%). An inverse association was observed between CHE incidence and income level in all elderly household types. Factors including 1 or more household elderly members with non-communicable chronic diseases in the past 6 months, 1 or more elderly household members being hospitalised in the past year and lower household income, are significant risk factors for CHE in all 3 household types (p<0.05). Health insurance status was found to be a significant determinant of CHE among empty-nest singles and non-empty-nest households (p<0.05). Conclusions CHE incidence among elderly households is high in China. Empty-nest households are at higher risk for CHE than non-empty-nest households. Based on these findings, we suggest that special insurance be developed to broaden the coverage of health services and heighten the reimbursement rate for empty-nest elderly in the existing health insurance schemes. Financial and social protection interventions are also essential for identified at-risk subgroups among different types of elderly households. PMID:27381206

  5. MYCOPLASMA HYORHINIS IN GASTRIC CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季加孚; 张霁; 寿成超; 王怡; 徐光炜

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of Mycoplasma hyorhinis in archived paraffin-embedded gastric cancer tissue. Methods: The antigen recognized by anti-tumor monoclonal antibody PD4 was identified as P40 (a specific Mycoplasma hyorhinis protein). We constructed a tissue-microarray of high density containing 105 gastric cancer samples, 101 non-tumor margin samples and 62 benign gastric disease samples for detecting Mycoplasma hyorhinis using Immunohistochemistry. Results: The infection rate of M. hyorhinis was 54.1%(53/98) in gastric cancer samples, 51.7%(45/87) in non-tumor margin samples and 15.8%(9/57) in benign disease samples. The difference in infection rate between gastric cancer and benign gastric disease has statistical significance (P=0.001). Highly differentiated adenocarcinomas have a greater chance (84.6%) to be infected with M. hyorhinis than poorly differentiated ones (45.5%)(P<0.05. Conclusion: The infection rate of M. yorhinis was higher in gastric cancer than in other tastric diseases, which suggests the association between Mycoplasma infection and gastric cancer. Whether M. hyorhinis has oncogenic potential needs to be elucidated.

  6. Approximate Range Emptiness in Constant Time and Optimal Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goswami, Mayank; Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green;

    2015-01-01

    that the query time can be improved greatly, to constant time, while matching our space lower bound up to a lower order additive term. This result is achieved through a succinct data structure for (non-approximate 1d) range emptiness/reporting queries, which may be of independent interest.......{Bloom filters} from single point queries to any interval length L. Setting the false positive rate to ε/L and performing L queries, Bloom filters yield a solution to this problem with space O(nlg(L/ε)) bits, false positive probability bounded by ε for intervals of length up to L, using query time O...

  7. The empty carriage: lessons in leadership from Florence Nightingale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegge, Marge

    2011-01-01

    Florence Nightingale made a profound statement about leadership when she returned from the Crimean War without the fanfare offered to her. Promoters paraded her empty carriage around the city of Southampton England to applaud her accomplishments in the war. Her absence signaled a new leadership, one of quiet determination, humility, and political strategy to improve quality of life. The lessons to be learned for today's nurse leaders revolve around mindfulness, clarity of purpose, reverence for human life, collaborative partnerships, co-evolution, engagement, keeping up with a world in motion, and making meaning.

  8. Mechanical Properties of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, Fergyanto E.; Homma, Hiroomi; Brodjonegoro, Satryo S.; Hudin, Afzer Bin Baseri; Zainuddin, Aryanti Binti

    In tropical countries such as Indonesia and Malaysia, the empty fruit bunches are wastes of the oil palm industry. The wastes are abundantly available and has reached a level that severely threats the environment. Therefore, it is a great need to find useful applications of those waste materials; but firstly, the mechanical properties of the EFB fiber should be quantified. In this work, a small tensile test machine is manufactured, and the tensile test is performed on the EFB fibers. The results show that the strength of the EFB fiber is strongly affected by the fiber diameter; however, the fiber strength is relatively low in comparison to other natural fibers.

  9. Protective Effect of Flos Lonicerae against Experimental Gastric Ulcers in Rats: Mechanisms of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Woo Kang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flos Lonicerae is one of the oldest and most commonly prescribed herbs in Eastern traditional medicine to treat various inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Flos Lonicerae (GC-7101 on experimental gastric ulcer models and its mechanisms of action in gastric ulcer healing. The pharmacological activity of GC-7101 was investigated in rats on HCl/EtOH, indomethacin, water immersion restraint stress induced acute gastric ulcer, and acetic-acid-induced subchronic gastric ulcer. To determine its gastroprotective mechanisms, gastric wall mucus secretion, mucosal PGE2, mucosal NO content, nuclear translocation of NF-κB, mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines, lipid peroxidation and glutathione content, and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were measured. GC-7101 significantly attenuated development of acute gastric ulcer and accelerated the healing of acetic-acid-induced subchronic gastric ulcer. In HCl/EtOH-induced gastric ulcer, GC-7101 markedly enhanced gastric wall mucus content which was accompanied by increased mucosal PGE2 and NO production. Furthermore, treatment of GC-7101 exhibited anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities as evidenced by decreased myeloperoxidase activity, NF-κB translocation, inflammatory cytokines mRNA expression, and lipid peroxidation and increased glutathione content and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. These results demonstrated that GC-7101 possesses strong antiulcerogenic effect by modulating oxidative stress and proinflammatory mediators.

  10. Epidemiological characteristics of gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šipetić Sandra B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Gastric cancer was the third most common cancer worldwide in 2000, accounting for approximately 876 000 new cases or 9% of the global cancer burden. Epidemiological characteristics As a result of changes in diet, the incidence of gastric cancer has decreased in most countries. Now days, consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits is increasing in regard to canned food. In addition to unhealthy diet, the main risk factors for gastric cancer are H. pylori infection, alcohol consumption, smoking, gastritis, stomach ulcer, gastrectomy, stomach polyposis, positive family history for gastric cancer, pernicious anemia and blood type A. Diet rich in vegetables and fruits, and reduced salt intake can prevent 65-75% of gastric cancer cases among nonsmokers. Prevention of Helicobacter pylori infection can also reduce the incidence of this malignant disease. .

  11. Epigenetic mechanisms in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigek, Carolina Oliveira; Chen, Elizabeth Suchi; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Wisnieski, Fernanda; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; Smith, Marilia Arruda Cardoso

    2012-06-01

    Cancer is considered one of the major health issues worldwide, and gastric cancer accounted for 8% of total cases and 10% of total deaths in 2008. Gastric cancer is considered an age-related disease, and the total number of newly diagnosed cases has been increasing as a result of the higher life expectancy. Therefore, the basic mechanisms underlying gastric tumorigenesis is worth investigation. This review provides an overview of the epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling complex and miRNA, involved in gastric cancer. As the studies in gastric cancer continue, the mapping of an epigenome code is not far for this disease. In conclusion, an epigenetic therapy might appear in the not too distant future.

  12. Pathology and Genetics of Syndromic Gastric Polyps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brosens, Lodewijk A A; Wood, Laura D; Offerhaus, G Johan; Arnold, Christina A; Lam-Himlin, Dora; Giardiello, Francis M; Montgomery, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Gastric polyps are found in 1% to 4% of patients undergoing gastroscopy. The vast majority are sporadic, but some gastric polyps indicate an underlying syndrome. Gastric polyps can manifest in each of the gastrointestinal polyposis syndromes, including the recently described gastric adenocarcinoma a

  13. Accelerated Unification

    OpenAIRE

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Cohen, Andrew; Georgi, Howard

    2001-01-01

    We construct four dimensional gauge theories in which the successful supersymmetric unification of gauge couplings is preserved but accelerated by N-fold replication of the MSSM gauge and Higgs structure. This results in a low unification scale of $10^{13/N}$ TeV.

  14. Higher-dimensional perfect fluids and empty singular boundaries

    CERN Document Server

    Saravi, Ricardo E Gamboa

    2012-01-01

    In order to find out whether empty singular boundaries can arise in higher dimensional Gravity, we study the solution of Einstein's equations consisting in a ($N+2$)-dimensional static and hyperplane symmetric perfect fluid satisfying the equation of state $\\rho=\\eta\\, p$, being $\\rho$ an arbitrary constant and $N\\geq2$. We show that this spacetime has some weird properties. In particular, in the case $\\eta>-1$, it has an empty (without matter) repulsive singular boundary. We also study the behavior of geodesics and the Cauchy problem for the propagation of massless scalar field in this spacetime. For $\\eta>1$, we find that only vertical null geodesics touch the boundary and bounce, and all of them start and finish at $z=\\infty$; whereas non-vertical null as well as all time-like ones are bounded between two planes determined by initial conditions. We obtain that the Cauchy problem for the propagation of a massless scalar field is well-posed and waves are completely reflected at the singularity, if we only de...

  15. Higher-dimensional perfect fluids and empty singular boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa Saraví, Ricardo E.

    2012-07-01

    In order to find out whether empty singular boundaries can arise in higher dimensional Gravity, we study the solution of Einstein's equations consisting in a ( N + 2)-dimensional static and hyperplane symmetric perfect fluid satisfying the equation of state ρ = ηp, being η an arbitrary constant and N ≥ 2. We show that this spacetime has some weird properties. In particular, in the case η > -1, it has an empty (without matter) repulsive singular boundary. We also study the behavior of geodesics and the Cauchy problem for the propagation of massless scalar field in this spacetime. For η > 1, we find that only vertical null geodesics touch the boundary and bounce, and all of them start and finish at z = ∞; whereas non-vertical null as well as all time-like ones are bounded between two planes determined by initial conditions. We obtain that the Cauchy problem for the propagation of a massless scalar field is well-posed and waves are completely reflected at the singularity, if we only demand the waves to have finite energy, although no boundary condition is required.

  16. Gallbladder emptying in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karouk Said; Nick Edsborg; Nils Albiin; Annika Bergquist

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To assess gallbladder emptying and its association with cholecystitis and abdominal pain in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). METHODS: Twenty patients with PSC and ten healthy subjects were investigated. Gallbladder fasting volume, ejection fraction and residual volume after ingestion of a test meal were compared in patients with PSC and healthy controls using magnetic resonance imaging. Symptoms, thickness and contrast enhancement of the gallbladder wall and the presence of cystic duct strictures were also assessed. RESULTS: Median fasting gallbladder volume in patients with PSC [67 (19-348) mL] was twice that in healthy controls [32 (16-55) mL] ( P < 0.05). The median postprandial gallbladder volume in patients with PSC was significantly larger than that in healthy controls ( P < 0.05). There was no difference in ejection fraction, gallbladder emptying volume or mean thickness of the gallbladder wall between PSC patients and controls. Contrast enhancement of the gallbladder wall in PSC patients was higher than that in controls; (69% ± 32%) and (42% ± 21%) ( P < 0.05). No significant association was found between the gallbladder volumes and occurrence of abdominal pain in patients and controls. CONCLUSION: Patients with PSC have increased fasting gallbladder volume. Gallbladder Mucosal dysfunction secondary to chronic cholecystitis, may be a possible mechanism for increased gallbladder.

  17. Largest Empty Circle Centered on a Query Line

    CERN Document Server

    Augustine, John; Roy, Sasanka

    2008-01-01

    The Largest Empty Circle problem seeks the largest circle centered within the convex hull of a set $P$ of $n$ points in $\\mathbb{R}^2$ and devoid of points from $P$. In this paper, we introduce a query version of this well-studied problem. In our query version, we are required to preprocess $P$ so that when given a query line $Q$, we can quickly compute the largest empty circle centered at some point on $Q$ and within the convex hull of $P$. We present solutions for two special cases and the general case; all our queries run in $O(\\log n)$ time. We restrict the query line to be horizontal in the first special case, which we preprocess in $O(n \\alpha(n) \\log n)$ time and space, where $\\alpha(n)$ is the slow growing inverse of the Ackermann's function. When the query line is restricted to pass through a fixed point, the second special case, our preprocessing takes $O(n \\alpha(n)^{O(\\alpha(n))} \\log n)$ time and space. We use insights from the two special cases to solve the general version of the problem with pr...

  18. [Role of animal gastric Helicobacter species in human gastric pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdeev, O K; Pozdeeva, A O; Pozdnyak, A O; Saifutdinov, R G

    2015-01-01

    Animal Helicobacter species other than Helicobacter pylori are also able to cause human gastritis, gastric ulcers, and MALT lymphomas. Animal Helicobacter species are presented with typical spiral fastidious microorganisms colonizing the gastric mucosa of different animals. Bacteria initially received their provisional name Helicobacter heilmannii, and out of them at least five species colonizing the gastric mucosa of pigs, cats, and dogs were isolated later on. A high proportion of these diseases are shown to be zoonotic. Transmission of pathogens occurs by contact. The factors of bacterial pathogenicity remain little studied.

  19. Gastric Antiulcerogenic and Hypokinetic Activities of Terminalia fagifolia Mart. & Zucc. (Combretaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Humberto M. Nunes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute toxicity, the antioxidant activity, and the pharmacological activity on the gastrointestinal tract of rodents of the ethanolic extract (TFEE from the bark of Terminalia fagifolia Mart. & Zucc. (Combretaceae and of its aqueous (TFAqF, hydroalcoholic (TFHAF, and hexanic (TFHEXF partition fractions have been evaluated. TFEE presented low acute toxicity, antioxidant, and antiulcerogenic activity against ethanol-induced ulcers, which was partially blocked by pretreatment with L-NAME and indomethacin. It reduced the total acidity and raised the pH of gastric secretion. Additionally, TFEE delayed gastric emptying and slightly inhibited the small intestinal transit and also presented a weakly antidiarrheal activity. The antiulcerogenic and antioxidant activity were also detected in TFAqF and TFHAF but not in TFHEXF. The antisecretory and gastroprotective activity of TFEE partially involve the nitric oxide and prostaglandin participation. Nevertheless, TFEE, TFAqF, and TFHAF drastically reduced the mucus layer adhered to the gastric wall of rats treated with ethanol or indomethacin. Complementary studies are required in order to clarify the paradox of the presence of a gastroprotector activity in this plant that, at the same time, reduces the mucus layer adhered to the gastric wall.

  20. Updates on gastric electrical stimulation to treat obesity: Systematic review and future perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ryan; Cha; Jacques; Marescaux; Michele; Diana

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the current state-of-the-art of gastric electrical stimulation to treat obesity. METHODS: Systematic reviews of all studies have been conducted to evaluate the effect of different types of gastric electrical stimulation(GES) on obesity.RESULTS: Thirty-one studies consisting of a total of 33 different trials were included in the systematic review for data analysis. Weight loss was achieved in most studies, especially during the first 12 mo, but only very few studies had a follow-up period longer than 1 year. Among those that had a longer follow-up period, many were from the Transcend(Implantable Gastric Stimulation) device group and maintained significant weight loss. Other significant results included changes in appetite/satiety, gastric emptying rate, blood pressure and neurohormone levels or biochemical markers such as ghrelin or HbA1 c respectively. CONCLUSION: GES holds great promises to be an effective obesity treatment. However, stronger evidence is required through more studies with a standardized way of carrying out trials and reporting outcomes, to determine the long-term effect of GES on obesity.

  1. Gastric Ulcers Syndrome in Donkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abelardo Morales Briceño

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe gastric ulcer in donkeys. 10 donkeys (Equus asinus were studied in Bodonal de la Sierra, Badajoz-Extremadura, Spain. They were referred for necropsy and dead due to non-digestive causes. 4 males and 6 females were examined. The ages were classified of 4-16 years old. The stomach and gastric mucosa was evaluated for classified Merrit, 2003. Samples of gastric tissue were collected. The samples fixed in formalin were processed by conventional histological techniques and examined by histopathology. None of the donkeys presented clinical signs for gastric ulcers syndrome. Of the 10 donkeys studied, 10% had Grade 0; 30% Grade 1; 40% Grade 2; 10% Grade 3; and 10% Grade 4. In 30% (3/10 parasites such as Gasterophilus sp. were observed. The histological slices revealed severe damage on the gastric mucosa, a loss of continuity of the gastric mucosa with corium exposure, and subchorionic edema with parakeratotic hyperkeratosis, together with a mixed lymphoplasmocytic mononuclear infiltrate. In conclusion, we reported gastric ulcers syndrome in donkeys in Spain.

  2. Photodynamic therapy of gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharnas, Sergey S.; Kuzin, N. M.; Zavodnov, Victor Y.; Sclyanskaya, Olga A.; Linkov, Kirill G.; Loschenov, Victor B.; Meerovich, Gennadii A.; Torshina, Nadezgda L.; Stratonnikov, Alexander A.; Steiner, Rudolf W.

    1996-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with the use of laser endoscopic spectrum analyzer (LESA-5), the spectral-analyzing video-imaging system, Kr laser and various types of catheters for different tumor localizations, and Phthalocyanine aluminum photosensitizers in patients with gastric cancer was discussed. PDT was carried out in fifteen patients with gastric cancer. There were the following indications for PDT: early gastric cancer (3 patients), malignant stenosis of the cardia or pyloric portion of the stomach (4 patients), cancer of gastric stump with stenosis of gastrojejunal anastomosis (1 patient), preoperative treatment of patients with large but probably resectable gastric tumor size (7 patients). Usually we used 3 - 4 seances of laser treatment 10 - 30 minutes long. Concentration of photosensitizer in normal and malignant tissue was controlled by LESA-5. Treatment was monitored by spectral-analyzing video- imaging system in fluorescent light. The results show high efficiency of PDT especially in patients with early gastric cancer (necrosis of all tumor mass, i.e. complete regression of tumor). For all other patients we obtained partial regression of gastric cancer.

  3. [Melatonin as a therapeutic factor in gastric ulcer healing under experimental diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magierowski, Marcin; Jasnos, Katarzyna; Brzozowska, Iwona; Drozdowicz, Danuta; Sliwowski, Zbigniew; Nawrot, Elizbieta; Szczyrk, Urszula; Kwiecień, Sławomir

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a hormon secreted mostly by the pineal gland in the brain which maintains the body's circadian rhythm. Interestingly, this indol derivative is produced by enterochromaffin-like cells (ECL) in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in amount about 400 fold greater than detected in the pinealocytes. Previous studies revealed that melatonin exerts beneficial action against acute gastric damage induced by stress ethanol, aspirin and ischemia-reperfusion. Hyperglycemia, which is the main symptom of diabetes mellitus, is known to induce mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress, both promoting the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS were shown to exhibit higher activity than molecular oxygen under basal conditions due to unpaired electron in its outermost shell of electrons. ROS lead to damage of cellular proteins, nucleic acids and membrane polyunsaturated fatty lipids. In this study, we induced diabetes mellitus by the application of strep. tozocin in presence of gastric ulcers. Male Wistar rats were used in this model. 9 days after gastric ulcers and diabetes mellitus induction, groups of rats were treated with saline or melatonin (20 mg/kg i.g.). At the termination of the experiment, rats were anesthetized, abdomen was opened and gastric blood flow (GBF) was measured. Stomachs were removed for determination of gastric ulcers area by planimetry. Tissue samples were collected for biochemical assays. We demonstrated that melatonin significantly accelerates gastric ulcers healing with and without coexistence of diabetes mellitus. This effect was accompanied by increase of GBF level. Moreover, we observed an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and an decrease in lipid peroxidation products concentration within gastric tissue homogenates of animals treated with melatonin, as compared with control group. Melatonin application accelerates gastric ulcers healing with and without presence of

  4. Particle Accelerators in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuang; Fang, Shouxian

    As the special machines that can accelerate charged particle beams to high energy by using electromagnetic fields, particle accelerators have been widely applied in scientific research and various areas of society. The development of particle accelerators in China started in the early 1950s. After a brief review of the history of accelerators, this article describes in the following sections: particle colliders, heavy-ion accelerators, high-intensity proton accelerators, accelerator-based light sources, pulsed power accelerators, small scale accelerators, accelerators for applications, accelerator technology development and advanced accelerator concepts. The prospects of particle accelerators in China are also presented.

  5. Importance of luminal and mucosal zinc in the mechanism of experimental gastric ulcer healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opoka, W; Adamek, D; Plonka, M; Reczynski, W; Bas, B; Drozdowicz, D; Jagielski, P; Sliwowski, Z; Adamski, P; Brzozowski, T

    2010-10-01

    induction (day 0) and at day 3 but then it rose significantly at day 7 after ulcer induction. Treatment with zinc hydroaspartate (65 mg/kg-d i.g.), which significantly raised the gastric luminal and mucosal levels of Zn(2+), significantly accelerated ulcer healing at day 7 upon ulcer induction. The GBF, which reached a significantly higher value at the ulcer margin than the ulcer bed, was significantly increased in rats treated with zinc hydroaspartate compared with vehicle-controls. The gastric acid output was significantly inhibited in GF rats with gastric ulcer at day 3 then restored at day 14 followed by a significant rise in the plasma gastrin levels. Treatment with zinc hydroaspartate significantly inhibited gastric secretion and also significantly raised the plasma gastrin level when compared to vehicle-control rats. We concluded that 1) trace micronutrients such as Zn(2+) could be successfully measured in the gastric juice and gastric mucosa during ulcer healing; 2) compounds chelating of Zn(2+) can exert a beneficial influence on the ulcer healing via Zn(2+) mediated increase in gastric microcirculation, antisecretory activity and gastrin release, which may enhance the cell proliferation and differentiation during ulcer healing, ultimately exerting a trophic action on the ulcerated gastric mucosa.

  6. MUON ACCELERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERG,S.J.

    2003-11-18

    One of the major motivations driving recent interest in FFAGs is their use for the cost-effective acceleration of muons. This paper summarizes the progress in this area that was achieved leading up to and at the FFAG workshop at KEK from July 7-12, 2003. Much of the relevant background and references are also given here, to give a context to the progress we have made.

  7. Laser acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, T.; Nakajima, K.; Mourou, G.

    2017-02-01

    The fundamental idea of Laser Wakefield Acceleration (LWFA) is reviewed. An ultrafast intense laser pulse drives coherent wakefield with a relativistic amplitude robustly supported by the plasma. While the large amplitude of wakefields involves collective resonant oscillations of the eigenmode of the entire plasma electrons, the wake phase velocity ˜ c and ultrafastness of the laser pulse introduce the wake stability and rigidity. A large number of worldwide experiments show a rapid progress of this concept realization toward both the high-energy accelerator prospect and broad applications. The strong interest in this has been spurring and stimulating novel laser technologies, including the Chirped Pulse Amplification, the Thin Film Compression, the Coherent Amplification Network, and the Relativistic Mirror Compression. These in turn have created a conglomerate of novel science and technology with LWFA to form a new genre of high field science with many parameters of merit in this field increasing exponentially lately. This science has triggered a number of worldwide research centers and initiatives. Associated physics of ion acceleration, X-ray generation, and astrophysical processes of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are reviewed. Applications such as X-ray free electron laser, cancer therapy, and radioisotope production etc. are considered. A new avenue of LWFA using nanomaterials is also emerging.

  8. Serological assessment of gastric mucosal atrophy in gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bornschein Jan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-invasive tools for gastric cancer screening and diagnosis are lacking. Serological testing with the detection of pepsinogen 1 (PG1, pepsinogen 2 (PG2 and gastrin 17 (G17 offers the possibility to detect preneoplastic gastric mucosal conditions. Aim of this study was to assess the performance of these serological tests in the presence of gastric neoplasia. Methods Histological and serological samples of 118 patients with gastric cancer have been assessed for tumor specific characteristics (Laurén type, localisation, degree of mucosal abnormalities (intestinal metaplasia, atrophy and serological parameters (PG1, PG2, PG1/2-ratio, G17, H. pylori IgG, CagA status. Association of the general factors to the different serological values have been statistically analyzed. Results Patients with intestinal type gastric cancer had lower PG1 levels and a lower PG1/2-ratio compared to those with diffuse type cancer (p = 0.003. The serum levels of PG2 itself and G17 were not significantly altered. H. pylori infection in general had no influence on the levels of PG1, PG2 and G17 in the serum of gastric cancer patients. There was a trend towards lower PG1 levels in case of positive CagA-status (p = 0.058. The degree of both intestinal metaplasia and atrophy correlated inversely with serum levels for PG1 and the PG1/2-ratio (p Conclusions Glandular atrophy and a positive CagA status are determinant factors for decreased pepsinogen 1 levels in the serum of patients with gastric cancer. The serological assessment of gastric atrophy by analysis of serum pepsinogen is only adequate for patients with intestinal type cancer.

  9. What gastric cancer proteomic studies show about gastric carcinogenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Wisnieski, Fernanda; de Oliveira Gigek, Carolina; do Santos, Leonardo Caires; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; Smith, Marilia Cardoso

    2016-08-01

    Gastric cancer is a complex, heterogeneous, and multistep disease. Over the past decades, several studies have aimed to determine the molecular factors that lead to gastric cancer development and progression. After completing the human genome sequencing, proteomic technologies have presented rapid progress. Differently from the relative static state of genome, the cell proteome is dynamic and changes in pathologic conditions. Proteomic approaches have been used to determine proteome profiles and identify differentially expressed proteins between groups of samples, such as neoplastic and nonneoplastic samples or between samples of different cancer subtypes or stages. Therefore, proteomic technologies are a useful tool toward improving the knowledge of gastric cancer molecular pathogenesis and the understanding of tumor heterogeneity. This review aimed to summarize the proteins or protein families that are frequently identified by using high-throughput screening methods and which thus may have a key role in gastric carcinogenesis. The increased knowledge of gastric carcinogenesis will clearly help in the development of new anticancer treatments. Although the studies are still in their infancy, the reviewed proteins may be useful for gastric cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and patient management.

  10. Gastric metastasis from primary lung adenocarcinomamimicking primary gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Ji Kim; Ji Hyung Hong; Eun Su Park; Jae Ho Byun

    2015-01-01

    Gastric metastases from lung adenocarcinoma arerare. Because gastric metastasis grossly resemblesadvanced gastric cancer, it is difficult to diagnose gastricmetastasis especially when the histology of the primarylung cancer is adenocarcinoma. We describe a case ofgastric metastasis from primary lung adenocarcinomamimicking Borrmann type Ⅳ primary gastric cancer.A 68-year-old man with known lung adenocarcinomawith multiple bone metastases had been experiencingprogressive epigastric pain and dyspepsia over one year.Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed linitis plasticalikelesions in the fundus of the stomach. Pathologicexamination revealed a moderately differentiatedadenocarcinoma with submucosal infiltration. Positiveimmunohistochemical staining for thyroid transcriptionfactor-1 (TTF-1) and napsin A (Nap-A) confirmed thatthe metastasis was pulmonary in origin. The patienthad been treated with palliative chemotherapy for thelung cancer and had lived for over fifteen months afterthe diagnosis of gastric metastasis. Clinicians should beaware of the possibility of gastric metastasis in patientswith primary lung adenocarcinoma, and additionalimmunohistochemical staining for Nap-A as well as TTF-1may help in differentiating its origin.

  11. GASTRIC RESIDUAL VOLUME BY MAGNETIC RESSONANCE AFTER INTAKE OF MALTODEXTRIN AND GLUTAMINE: a randomized double-blind, crossover study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi R BRIANEZ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Context The addition of glutamine in preoperative drinks may enhance the benefits of carbohydrate alone. Objectives To evaluate the gastric residual volume after the intake of a beverage containing carbohydrate plus glutamine. Methods Eleven healthy volunteers (24-30 years-old were randomized in a crossover fashion to intake 400 mL (4h before and 200 mL (2h before of a beverage containing either 12.5% maltodextrin (carbohydrate group or 12.5% maltodextrin plus 15 g of glutamine (glutamine group in two different moments 7 days apart. Magnetic ressonance was performed to measure the gastric residual volume (mL 120 and 180 minutes after the last ingestion. Results Gastric residual volume similar to basal condition was found after 2h and 3h of the intake of beverages. There was no difference in the mean ±SD GRV (mL found at 120 minutes (carbohydrate group: 22.9±16.6 and glutamine group: 19.7±10.7 and at 180 minutes (carbohydrate group: 21.5±24.1 and glutamine group: 15.1±10.1 between the two drinks. Conclusions Gastric emptying is efficient, and occurs in up to two hours after the intake of a beverage containing either carbohydrate alone or carbohydrate associated with glutamine. The addition of glutamine to carbohydrate-enriched drink seems to be safe for the use up to 2h before an operation. HEADINGS - Gastric emptying. Preoperative care. Carbohydrates. Glutamine. Magnetic resonance imaging.

  12. Nerve growth factor injected into the gastric ulcer base incorporates into endothelial, neuronal, glial and epithelial cells: implications for angiogenesis, mucosal regeneration and ulcer healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigawa, T; Ahluwalia, A; Watanabe, T; Arakawa, T; Tarnawski, A S

    2015-08-01

    A previous study has demonstrated that locally administered growth factors such as epidermal growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor can accelerate healing of experimental gastric ulcers in rats. That study indicates that locally administered growth factors can exert potent biological effects resulting in enhanced gastric ulcers healing. However, the fate of injected growth factors, their retention and localization to specific cellular compartments have not been examined. In our preliminary study, we demonstrated that local injection of nerve growth factor to the base of experimental gastric ulcers dramatically accelerates ulcer healing, increases angiogenesis - new blood vessel formation, and improves the quality of vascular and epithelial regeneration. Before embarking on larger, definitive and time sequence studies, we wished to determine whether locally injected nerve growth factor is retained in gastric ulcer's tissues and taken up by specific cells during gastric ulcer healing. Gastric ulcers were induced in anesthetized rats by local application of acetic acid using standard methods; and, 60 min later fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled nerve growth factor was injected locally to the ulcer base. Rats were euthanized 2, 5 and 10 days later. Gastric specimens were obtained and processed for histology. Unstained paraffin sections were examined under a fluorescence microscope, and the incorporation of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled nerve growth factor into various gastric tissue cells was determined and quantified. In addition, we performed immunostaining for S100β protein that is expressed in neural components. Five and ten days after ulcer induction labeled nerve growth factor (injected to the gastric ulcer base) was incorporated into endothelial cells of blood vessels, neuronal, glial and epithelial cells, myofibroblasts and muscle cells. This study demonstrates for the first time that during gastric ulcer healing

  13. Summertime blues: August foraging leaves honey bees empty-handed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvillon, Margaret J; Fensome, Katherine A; Quah, Shaun Kl; Schürch, Roger

    2014-01-01

    A successful honey bee forager tells her nestmates the location of good nectar and pollen with the waggle dance, a symbolic language that communicates a distance and direction. Because bees are adept at scouting out profitable forage and are very sensitive to energetic reward, we can use the distance that bees communicate via waggle dances as a proxy for forage availability, where the further the bees fly, the less forage can be found locally. Previously we demonstrated that bees fly furthest in the summer compared with spring or autumn to bring back forage that is not necessarily of better quality. Here we show that August is also the month when significantly more foragers return with empty crops (P = 7.63e-06). This provides additional support that summer may represent a seasonal foraging challenge for honey bees.

  14. The Empty Niche -notes for an Idea of Man-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Leongómez Herrera

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main thesis in this essay is the idea that, having entered into a new era marked by the use of nuclear energy and the detonation of the atomic bombs in 1945 in Japan, the human species went into an evolutionary crisis which -among other expressions- takes shape as an identity crisis whose main evidence is the absence of an Idea of Man. So to fill this empty niche -the compass without which every education attempt proves vain- it is necessary to search for possible connections between the various theories and knowledge facts directly addressing the structure of human consciousness: linguistic sign and conditioned reflex, perception and relativity theory, evolution and complexity.

  15. Postprandial gallbladder emptying in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, David P; Rehfeld, Jens F; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2014-01-01

    : In a randomised design, 15 patients with long-standing T2DM and 15 healthy age-, gender- and BMI-matched control subjects were studied during 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and three isocaloric (500 kcal) and isovolaemic (350 ml) liquid meals: i) 2.5 g fat, 107 g carbohydrate and 13 g protein; ii) 10 g...... secretion was similar after both OGTT and meals. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, patients with T2DM exhibited normal gallbladder emptying to meals with a wide range of fat content. Incretin responses were similar to that in controls, and an association with postprandial gallbladder contraction could...

  16. Covalent container compound: Empty, endohedral, and exohedral C28 complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, Mark R.; Laouini, Nozha

    1993-07-01

    Results from quasidynamical local-density simulations on a small fullerene complex (C28), three endohedral complexes (C28BC, C28BZr, and C28BTi), a C atom bound to the corner of the C28 molecule, and C28H4 are presented. This molecule forms spontaneously from a 29-atom diamond crystallite and, under proper circumstances, is a covalent container compound. Upon encapsulation of a Zr atom, 12.6 eV of energy is liberated leading to an unreactive closed-shell C28Zr molecule. The open-shell structure of the empty molecule leads to a reactive yet relatively stable building block which might be useful for synthesis of new metastable forms of carbon-based materials. Electronic structures, ionization energies, electron affinities, equilibrium geometries, and bare Hubbard U parameters are presented.

  17. Radiation levels on empty cylinders containing heel material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shockley, C.W. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Paducah, KY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Empty UF{sub 6} cylinders containing heel material were found to emit radiation levels in excess of 200 mr/hr, the maximum amount stated in ORO-651. The radiation levels were as high as 335 mr/hr for thick wall (48X and 48Y) cylinders and 1050 mr/hr for thin wall (48G and 48H) cylinders. The high readings were found only on the bottom of the cylinders. These radiation levels exceeded the maximum levels established in DOT 49 CFR, Part 173.441 for shipment of cylinders. Holding periods of four weeks for thick-wall cylinders and ten weeks for thin-wall cylinders were established to allow the radiation levels to decay prior to shipment.

  18. Signatures of the primordial Universe from its emptiness

    CERN Document Server

    Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Liang, Yu; Zhao, Cheng; Tao, Charling; Rodriguez-Torres, Sergio; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Gil-Marin, Hector; Kneib, Jean-Paul; McBride, Cameron; Percival, Will; Ross, Ashley J; Sanchez, Ariel G; Tinker, Jeremy; Tojeiro, Rita; Vargas-Magana, Mariana; Zhao, Gong-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Sound waves from the primordial fluctuations of the Universe imprinted in the large-scale structure, called baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs), can be used as standard rulers to measure the scale of the Universe. These oscillations have already been detected in the distribution of galaxies. Here we propose to measure BAOs from the troughs (minima) of the density field. Based on two sets of accurate mock halo catalogues with and without BAOs in the seed initial conditions, we demonstrate that the BAO signal cannot be obtained from the clustering of classical disjoint voids, but is clearly detected from overlapping voids. The latter represent an estimate of all troughs of the density field. We compute them from the empty circumspheres centres constrained by tetrahedra of galaxies using Delaunay triangulation. Our theoretical models based on an unprecedented large set of detailed simulated void catalogues are remarkably well confirmed by observational data. We use the largest recently publicly available sample ...

  19. STEAM EXPLOSION PULPING OF OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH FIBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwen Wang,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Steam explosion pulping was evaluated for oil palm empty fruit bunches fiber. The fiber morphology was observed by SEM and TEM. Results indicated that lignin was molten and the cell wall damaged after the steam explosion pulping and that the fiber was partly separated at the same time. The results of handsheet tests showed that the steam exploded pulp had a high yield (78.2%, good physical properties (especially for ring crush 8.6 N•m/g, and low effluent load (SS=910 mg/L; BOD5=3952 mg/L; CODCr=8140 mg/L. The SEP pulp from oil palm EFB fiber was very suitable for packaging paper when combined with American OCC pulp.

  20. Paradoxical form of filled/empty optical illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackermann, Jiri; Kastner, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    The filled/empty illusion (Oppel-Kundt) is one of the oldest geometrical-optical illusions, but the determinants of the illusion are not yet sufficiently understood. We studied magnitude of the illusory effect as a function of the height of vertical strokes subdividing a spatial extension of fixed length, using the psychophysical standard-variable matching paradigm. For vertical strokes shorter than, or of the same height as strokes delimiting the standard, the length was over-reproduced consistently with earlier studies of the illusion. However, for vertical strokes three times longer than the delimiters, the illusory effect paradoxically decreased, and attained negative values in two of six subjects. The magnitude of the effect thus depends on the patterning of the space between the delimiters, not merely on the number of subdividing elements.

  1. Hydrothermal pretreatment of palm oil empty fruit bunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanungkalit, Sabar Pangihutan; Mansur, Dieni; Nurhakim, Boby; Agustin, Astrid; Rinaldi, Nino; Muryanto, Fitriady, Muhammad Ariffudin

    2017-01-01

    Hydrothermal pretreatment methods in 2nd generation bioethanol production more profitable to be developed, since the conventional pretreatment, by using acids or alkalis, is associated with the serious economic and environmental constraints. The current studies investigate hydrothermal pretreatment of palm oil empty fruit bunch (EFB) in a batch tube reactor system with temperature and time range from 160 to 240 C and 15 to 30 min, respectively. The EFB were grinded and separated into 3 different particles sizes i.e. 10 mesh, 18 mesh and 40 mesh, prior to hydrothermal pretreatment. Solid yield and pH of the treated EFB slurries changed over treatment severities. The chemical composition of EFB was greatly affected by the hydrothermal pretreatment especially hemicellulose which decreased at higher severity factor as determined by HPLC. Both partial removal of hemicellulose and migration of lignin during hydrothermal pretreatment caused negatively affect for enzymatic hydrolysis. This studies provided important factors for maximizing hydrothermal pretreatment of EFB.

  2. Conjugate conduction-convection analysis of empty freezers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haldar, S.C.; Manohar, K.; Kochhar, G.S. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, (Trinidad and Tobago)

    2008-04-15

    This article reports a study on the numerical solution of simultaneous free convection inside empty freezer enclosures with four vertical surfaces as cold isothermal and conduction in the insulation around six faces of the enclosure. The air in the enclosure comes down along the four vertical cold surfaces and rises through a smaller volume away from the vertical walls. The air temperature increases with the distance from the cold surfaces, and at the central region of the freezer, the temperature may be undesirably high, especially for freezers with lower height. Freezers with lower height have a higher average temperature in the storage space and also experiences higher heat loads. Significant temperature variation exists in the vertical direction too, and the upper part of the freezer has a relatively higher temperature. (author)

  3. [Primary empty sella. Clinico-radiologic considerations in 18 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, A; Jachetti, M; Carapella, C M; Crecco, M; Gaudino, G; Isabella, F; Mastrostefano, R

    1985-01-28

    18 patients with "primary empty sella" were reviewed for this study. In 3 of them the sellar enlargement was discovered occasionally by performing skull radiographs for other reasons. The galattorrhea-dismenorrhea or amenorrhea syndrome and obesity were the most common clinical features. Endocrinological tests were normal in ten patients and abnormal in eight. Slight elevation of serum PRL was the most common record. 12 patients had enlarging of the sella turcica; in 4, only the floor was asymmetric and in 2 the sella was quite normal. In 5 patients C.T. without intra-thecal contrast was sufficient to discover the E.S. In 13 patients we performed C.T. cysternography by injecting in the lumbar subarachnoid space 8-10 ml of Iopamidolo 200. This is an excellent and safe technique to perform C.T. cysternography.

  4. Characterization of cellulose extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisak, Muhammad Asri Abdul; Daik, Rusli; Ramli, Suria

    2015-09-01

    Recently, cellulose has been studied by many researchers due to its promising properties such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, hydrophilicity and robustness. Due to that it is applied in many fields such as paper, film, drug delivery, membranes, etc. Cellulose can be extracted from various plants while oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) is the one of its sources. In this study, cellulose was extracted by chemical treatments which involved the use of formic acid and hydrogen peroxide to remove hemicellulose and lignin components. Maximum yield was 43.22%. Based on the FT-IR spectra, the peak of wax (1735 cm-1), hemicellulose (1375 cm-1) and lignin (1248 cm-1 and 1037 cm-1) were not observed in extracted cellulose. TGA analysis showed that the extracted cellulose starts to thermally degrade at 340 °C. The SEM analysis suggested that the cellulose extracted from OPEFB was not much different from commercial cellulose.

  5. The effect of consuming small volumes of beer on gastric motility and the involvement of gene polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Tomoyuki; Yamashita, Hiromi; Kawamura, Tomohiko; Jodai, Yasutaka; Omori, Takafumi; Sumi, Kazuya; Ichikawa, Yuichiro; Okubo, Masaaki; Ishizuka, Takamitsu; Tahara, Tomomitsu; Nagasaka, Mitsuo; Nakagawa, Yoshihito; Hirata, Ichiro; Ohmiya, Naoki; Nakao, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of consuming small amounts of beer or a nonalcoholic beer taste beverage (non-beer) on gastric emptying and the polymorphisms in alcohol metabolism-related enzyme-encoding genes. Twenty male healthy volunteers were questioned regarding their alcohol consumption status, and body measurement was performed. The genetic polymorphisms in ADH1B (rs1229984, Arg47His) and ALDH2 (rs671 Glu487Lys) were analyzed. The subjects consumed 150 mL of beer or non-beer once per week, followed by the ingestion of 200 kcal of the test nutrient containing (13)C-acetate 15 min later, after which the subjects' exhalations were collected up to 120 min. The concentration peak of (13)C was measured as Tmax. Diamine oxidase (DAO) activity for the marker of small intestinal function activity was also measured the day after the test. Gastric emptying was significantly slower in the group that consumed a small amount of beer, and in daily beer consumption group, and also in the ADH1B *2/*2, ALDH2 *1/*2 genotypes compared to non-beer drinking group. DAO values were not significantly changed between beer and non-beer group. The consumption of even a small amount of beer and the polymorphisms in ADH1B / ALDH2 affects gastric motility.

  6. Retrograde Jejuno-gastric Intussusception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumitoj Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Retrograde jejuno-gastric intussusception is a rare complication following gastric surgery. We present a case of retrograde jejuno-gastric intussusception in a 42-year-old female who presented with upper abdominal pain, vomiting and swelling in left hypochondruim. Intussusception was suspected on ultrasound of the abdomen and later confirmed with computed tomography scan. At laparotomy, efferent loop was intussuscepting into stomach. This was reduced and fixed to the abdominal wall and transverse mesocolon. It should be suspected in a patient with the previous history of gastric surgery as it is a rare complication. Early diagnosis and management can prevent further complications like bowel gangrene and its associated morbidity and mortality.

  7. Gastric tissue biopsy and culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... results may be due to: Stomach (gastric) cancer Gastritis , when the lining of the stomach becomes inflamed ... Saunders; 2012:chap 3. Feldman M, Lee EL. Gastritis. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. ...

  8. VISCOSITY ANALYSIS OF EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH (EFB BIO-OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.S. Nazirah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Empty fruit bunches (EFB are one of the solid wastes produced by the palm oil industry, which is increasing rapidly. The aim of this paper is to analyse the viscosity of empty fruit bunch (EFB bio-oil that can be extracted from all solid waste EFB as a sample, and a few processes were executed. The samples underwent two processes, which were pre-treatment and pyrolysis. The pre-treatment involved three processes, namely, cutting, shredding and sieving, which were necessary in order to prepare EFB into a particle size suitable for the reactor. After that, the samples were fed into the feedback reactor as feedstock for the pyrolysis process to produce bio-oil. Once the bio-oil was produced, its viscosity was tested using the Brookfield Viscometer in two conditions: before and after the chemical reaction. The bio-oil was treated by adding 10 ml and 20 ml of acetone respectively through the chemical reaction. The viscosity test was carried out at different temperatures, which were 25°C, 30°C, 35°C, 40°C, 45°C and 50°C respectively. The observed viscosity of the EFB bio-oil varied and was higher as the temperature decreased. In addition, the viscosity of the EFB bio-oil was higher when it reacted chemically with the acetone added. Therefore, the results showed that the chemical reaction with acetone has the potential to increase the viscosity of EFB bio-oil.

  9. Relations between Phlegm and Generation and Development of Gastric Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Pinkang; Xu Ling; Sun Dazhi; Shi Jun; Qin Zhifeng; Lu Ye; Duan Shumin

    2008-01-01

    @@ In terms of various therapies for gastric cancer seriously affecting the human health,the therapeutic effect of chemotherapy should be further evaluated and radiotherapy is more applicable to the operation,and it is still difficult to evaluate the effects of various immunotherapies.With its advantages in treating tumor,TCM can accelerate post-operational recovery,decrease toxic side effects of radiochemotherapies,strengthen the sensitivity of tumor to radiotherapy and chemotherapy,increase immune function,reduce relapse and metastasis,and enhance survival quality and long-term therapeutic effects.Some purified anti-cancer Chinese drugs can play an important role in fighting against cancer.Theory and researches on gastric cancer dealt with phlegm are expounded as follows.

  10. [Ocular metastasis heralding gastric adenocarcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekrine, T; Tawfiq, N; Bouchbika, Z; Benchakroun, N; Jouhadi, H; Sahraoui, S; Benider, A

    2010-10-01

    Ocular metastasis is a rare presenting feature of gastric adenocarcinoma. We report a 48-year-old woman who presented with a decrease in visual acuity of the right eye leading to the discovery of an ocular metastasis. Diagnostic work-up identified a gastric adenocarcinoma with pulmonary metastases. She received four cycles of chemotherapy combining epirubicin, cisplatin and fluorouracil. The patient died 6 months after the diagnosis of respiratory failure.

  11. Accelerators and the Accelerator Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process.

  12. Epigenetic silencing of BTB and CNC homology 2 and concerted promoter CpG methylation in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haam, Keeok; Kim, Hee-Jin; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Mirang; Kim, Seon-Young; Noh, Seung-Moo; Song, Kyu-Sang; Kim, Yong Sung

    2014-09-01

    BTB and CNC homology 2 (BACH2) is a lymphoid-specific transcription factor with a prominent role in B-cell development. Genetic polymorphisms within a single locus encoding BACH2 are associated with various autoimmune diseases and allergies. In this study, restriction landmark genomic scanning revealed methylation at a NotI site in a CpG island covering the BACH2 promoter in gastric cancer cell lines and primary gastric tumors. Increased methylation of the BACH2 promoter was observed in 52% (43/83) of primary gastric tumors, and BACH2 hypermethylation was significantly associated with decreased gene expression. Treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and/or trichostatin. A restored BACH2 expression in BACH2-silenced gastric cancer cell lines, and knockdown of BACH2 using short hairpin RNA (i.e. RNA interference) increased cell proliferation in gastric cancer cells. Clinicopathologic data showed that decreased BACH2 expression occurred significantly more frequently in intestinal-type (27/44, 61%) compared with diffuse-type (13/50, 26%) gastric cancers (P<0.001). Furthermore, BACH2 promoter methylation paralleled that of previously identified targets, such as LRRC3B, LIMS2, PRKD1 and POPDC3, in a given set of gastric tumors. We propose that concerted methylation in many promoters plays a role in accelerating gastric tumor formation and that methylated promoter loci may be targets for therapeutic treatment, such as the recently introduced technique of epigenetic editing.

  13. Reversing gastric mucosal alterations during ethanol-induced chronic gastritis in rats by oral administration of Opuntia ficus- indica mucilage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ricardo Vázquez-Ramírez; Marisela Olguín-Martínez; Carlos Kubli-Garfias; Rolando Hernández-Mu(n)oz

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of mucilage obtained from cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae) on the healing of ethanol-induced gastritis in rats.METHODS: Chronic gastric mucosa injury was treated with mucilage (5 mg/kg per day) after it was induced by ethanol. Lipid composition, activity of 5'-nucleotidase (a membrane-associated ectoenzyme) and cytosolic activities of lactate and alcohol dehydrogenases in the plasma membrane of gastric mucosa were determined.Histological studies of gastric samples from the experimental groups were included.RESULTS: Ethanol elicited the histological profile of gastritis characterized by loss of the surface epithelium and infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Phosphatidylcholine (PC) decreased and cholesterol content increased in plasma membranes of the gastric mucosa. In addition, cytosolic activity increased while the activity of alcohol dehydrogenases decreased. The administration of mucilage promptly corrected these enzymatic changes. In fact, mucilage readily accelerated restoration of the ethanol-induced histological alterations and the disturbances in plasma membranes of gastric mucosa, showing a univocal anti-inflammatory effect.The activity of 5'-nucleotidase correlated with the changes in lipid composition and the fluidity of gastric mucosal plasma membranes.CONCLUSION: The beneficial action of mucilage seems correlated with stabilization of plasma membranes of damaged gastric mucosa. Molecular interactions between mucilage monosaccharides and membrane phospholipids,mainly PC and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), may be the relevant features responsible for changing activities of membrane-attached proteins during the healing process after chronic gastric mucosal damage.

  14. 14 CFR 29.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. 29.29 Section 29.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... weight and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity...

  15. 14 CFR 27.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. 27.29 Section 27.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity must...

  16. 14 CFR 25.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. 25.29 Section 25.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity must...

  17. 14 CFR 23.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... gravity. 23.29 Section 23.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Flight General § 23.29 Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity must be determined by weighing the airplane with— (1) Fixed ballast;...

  18. 49 CFR 173.428 - Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.428 Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging. A packaging which previously contained Class 7...

  19. Expression and function of the empty spiracles gene in olfactory sense organ development of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Sonia; Hartmann, Beate; Reichert, Heinrich; Rodrigues, Veronica

    2010-11-01

    In Drosophila, the cephalic gap gene empty spiracles plays key roles in embryonic patterning of the peripheral and central nervous system. During postembryonic development, it is involved in the development of central olfactory circuitry in the antennal lobe of the adult. However, its possible role in the postembryonic development of peripheral olfactory sense organs has not been investigated. Here, we show that empty spiracles acts in a subset of precursors that generate the olfactory sense organs of the adult antenna. All empty spiracles-expressing precursor cells co-express the proneural gene amos and the early patterning gene lozenge. Moreover, the expression of empty spiracles in these precursor cells is dependent on both amos and lozenge. Functional analysis reveals two distinct roles of empty spiracles in the development of olfactory sense organs. Genetic interaction studies in a lozenge-sensitized background uncover a requirement of empty spiracles in the formation of trichoid and basiconic olfactory sensilla. MARCM-based clonal mutant analysis reveals an additional role during axonal targeting of olfactory sensory neurons to glomeruli within the antennal lobe. Our findings on empty spiracles action in olfactory sense organ development complement previous studies that demonstrate its requirement in olfactory interneurons and, taken together with studies on the murine homologs of empty spiracles, suggest that conserved molecular genetic programs might be responsible for the formation of both peripheral and central olfactory circuitry in insects and mammals.

  20. Defining filled and empty space: reassessing the filled space illusion for active touch and vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Elizabeth S; Lawson, Rebecca

    2016-09-01

    In the filled space illusion, an extent filled with gratings is estimated as longer than an equivalent extent that is apparently empty. However, researchers do not seem to have carefully considered the terms filled and empty when describing this illusion. Specifically, for active touch, smooth, solid surfaces have typically been used to represent empty space. Thus, it is not known whether comparing gratings to truly empty space (air) during active exploration by touch elicits the same illusionary effect. In Experiments 1 and 2, gratings were estimated as longer if they were compared to smooth, solid surfaces rather than being compared to truly empty space. Consistent with this, Experiment 3 showed that empty space was perceived as longer than solid surfaces when the two were compared directly. Together these results are consistent with the hypothesis that, for touch, the standard filled space illusion only occurs if gratings are compared to smooth, solid surfaces and that it may reverse if gratings are compared to empty space. Finally, Experiment 4 showed that gratings were estimated as longer than both solid and empty extents in vision, so the direction of the filled space illusion in vision was not affected by the nature of the comparator. These results are discussed in relation to the dual nature of active touch.

  1. Effectiveness of MRI for the diagnosis and clinical significance of empty sella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inagaki, Takayuki; Yamanouchi, Yasuo; Takahara, Nobuhiko; Matsumura, Hiroshi; Katoh, Tsutomu; Sawada, Satoshi; Tanaka, Takamasa

    1989-02-01

    There have been many reported cases of empty sella since the report by Busch. It has been said that, conventionally, the diagnosis of empty sella has been made from the morphological changes of the sella turcica on plain skull film and pneumoencephalograms; however, more precise and non-invasive examination such as high resolution CT or metrizamide CT cisternography (MCTC) has been established since the introduction of CT scanner. MRI is considered to be an effective diagnostic method for this disease because three dimensional presentation of the anatomical structure is obtainable with this without bone artifact. Here we presented 6 male and 10 female cases of primary empty sella from 1986 to 1987 which were confirmed by MRI and discussed the effectiveness of MRI. According to Kaufman, the incidence of empty sella is not so low and it can be found even in normal state. Some says that empty sella is a mere anatomical variation. With the development of diagnostic systems such as CT or MRI, the number of the cases of empty sella is increasing which is found on an eventual MRI, regardless of the presence of symptoms. From our results of MRI that there were only few cases in which empty sella was responsible for the manifestation of clinical symptoms, it might be said that most of the cases of primary empty sella can be included in normal variation having no clinical meanings.

  2. Evaluation of a simple non-invasive 13C breath test to evaluate diet effects on gastric emptying in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2010-01-01

    to feeding (15.5 h after the previous meal) on the day when the 5 h sample was taken. In the breath test four pregnant sows were placed in respiration chambers and the 13C marker was added in the morning meal and air samples were collected up to 18 h at the outlet from the chambers and detected on an infra...

  3. Review article: the role of gastrointestinal hormones in the treatment of delayed gastric emptying in critically ill patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttikhold, J.; Ruijter, de F.M.; Norren, van K.; Diamant, M.; Witkamp, R.F.; Leeuwen, P.A.M.; Vermeulen, M.A.R.

    2013-01-01

    Background The role of diet in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is supported by migration studies and increasing incidences in line with Westernisation. Aim To give a complete overview of studies associating habitual diet with the onset or relapses in ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD).

  4. DBGC: A Database of Human Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Jun; Cai, Mingdeng; Zhu, Zhenggang; Gu, Wenjie; Yu, Yingyan; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    The Database of Human Gastric Cancer (DBGC) is a comprehensive database that integrates various human gastric cancer-related data resources. Human gastric cancer-related transcriptomics projects, proteomics projects, mutations, biomarkers and drug-sensitive genes from different sources were collected and unified in this database. Moreover, epidemiological statistics of gastric cancer patients in China and clinicopathological information annotated with gastric cancer cases were also integrated into the DBGC. We believe that this database will greatly facilitate research regarding human gastric cancer in many fields. DBGC is freely available at http://bminfor.tongji.edu.cn/dbgc/index.do.

  5. accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    On the inside of the cavitytThere is a layer of niobium. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment.

  6. Impact accelerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongierke, H. E.; Brinkley, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    The degree to which impact acceleration is an important factor in space flight environments depends primarily upon the technology of capsule landing deceleration and the weight permissible for the associated hardware: parachutes or deceleration rockets, inflatable air bags, or other impact attenuation systems. The problem most specific to space medicine is the potential change of impact tolerance due to reduced bone mass and muscle strength caused by prolonged weightlessness and physical inactivity. Impact hazards, tolerance limits, and human impact tolerance related to space missions are described.

  7. Analysis on Endowment of Empty Nesters in Tulu Village of Hunchun City in Jilin Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuji; JIN; Meina; JIANG

    2015-01-01

    with expansion of rural empty nesters,endowment of empty nesters has become a hot spot of the society. By means of questionnaire survey and interview,this paper analyzed basic situations of empty nesters in Tulu Village of Hunchun City in Jilin Province,including economic level,physical health,life care,and spirit situations. Next,it discussed major problems in endowment problem of empty nesters,including limited economic support,unoptimistic physical health,low ability of life care,and feeling of loneliness. Finally,it came up with pertinent recommendations on the basis of the analysis,including strengthening family endowment ability and improving socialized endowment service,strengthening practical living ability,improving life care ability with family endowment as primary and community endowment as auxiliary part,and expanding amusement and recreation ways of empty nesters.

  8. Effects of wheat protein in milk replacers on abomasal emptying rate in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittek, T; Ernstberger, M; Muckenhuber, M; Flöck, M

    2016-04-01

    Diarrhoea is a condition with tremendous impact on calf health. Infectious agents play a dominant role; however, non-infective factors may also contribute to pathogenesis of diarrhoea. One factor, the abomasal emptying rate, is mainly influenced by the composition of feed. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of different protein sources in milk replacers on abomasal emptying rate and clinical parameters. The effect of increasing age of the calves on abomasal emptying was also evaluated. The study compared abomasal emptying rates and clinical parameters in calves, which were fed either milk replacer containing only whey protein or one which partially contained wheat protein. Abomasal emptying rate was estimated by ultrasonography. Ten calves were used in the study over 18 days, and each calf was fed 3 periods of 3 days length using different milk replacers in an alternating crossover design. The abomasum was emptied significantly faster when the wheat protein containing milk replacer was fed (half-emptying time wheat protein 49.1 ± 4.1 min, half-emptying time milk protein 59.1 ± 7.4 min); however, clinical parameters and weight gain did not differ between the feeding regimes. Age did not significantly influence abomasal emptying rate. As milk replacers containing wheat proteins increased abomasal emptying rate, they may have a higher potential to initiate diarrhoea, especially if high volumes are fed. Thus, the feeding regimes are likely to be even more important when such milk replacers are used.

  9. Gastric cytoprotection beyond prostaglandins: cellular and molecular mechanisms of gastroprotective and ulcer healing actions of antacids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnawski, Andrzej; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Jones, Michael K

    2013-01-01

    This article updates current views on gastric mucosal defense, injury, protection and ulcer healing with a focus on mucosal protective and ulcer healing actions of antacids. The gastric mucosa is continuously exposed to a variety of noxious factors, both endogenous such as: 0.1N hydrochloric acid, pepsin, bile acids, lysolecithin, H. pylori toxins and exogenous such as NSAIDs, ethanol and others. Gastric mucosal integrity is maintained by pre-epithelial, epithelial and post-epithelial defense mechanisms permitting the mucosa to withstand exposure to the above damaging factors. When mucosal defense is weakened or overwhelmed by injurious factors, injury develops in the form of erosions or ulcers. In the late 1970s Andre Robert and coworkers discovered that microgram amounts of a prostaglandin E2 analog protects the gastric mucosa against a variety of ulcerogenic and necrotizing agents - even such strong inducers of injury as 100% ethanol and boiling water. They proposed a new concept of cytoprotection. Subsequently, other compounds, such as sulfhydryls, sucralfate and epidermal growth factor were shown to exert protective action on gastric mucosa. Additionally, some antacids have been shown to exert a potent mucosal protective action against a variety of injurious factors and accelerate healing of erosions and gastric ulcers. These actions of antacids, especially hydrotalcite - the newest and the most extensively studied antacid - are due to activation of prostaglandin synthesis; binding to and inactivation of pepsin, bile acids and H. pylori toxins; induction of heat shock proteins; and, activation of genes encoding growth factors and their receptors.

  10. Gastric electrical stimulation for treatment of clinically severe gastroparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naga Venkatesh G Jayanthi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Severe, drug-resistant gastroparesis is a debilitating condition. Several, but not all, patients can get significant relief from nausea and vomiting by gastric electrical stimulation (GES. A trial of temporary, endoscopically delivered GES may be of predictive value to select patients for laparoscopic-implantation of a permanent GES device. Materials and Methods: We conducted a clinical audit of consecutive gastroparesis patients, who had been selected for GES, from May 2008 to January 2012. Delayed gastric emptying was diagnosed by scintigraphy of ≥50% global improvement in symptom-severity and well-being was a good response. Results: There were 71 patients (51 women, 72% with a median age of 42 years (range: 14-69. The aetiology of gastroparesis was idiopathic (43 patients, 61%, diabetes (15, 21%, or post-surgical (anti-reflux surgery, 6 patients; Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, 3; subtotal gastrectomy, 1; cardiomyotomy, 1; other gastric surgery, 2 (18%. At presentation, oral nutrition was supplemented by naso-jejunal tube feeding in 7 patients, surgical jejunostomy in 8, or parenterally in 1 (total 16 patients; 22%. Previous intervention included endoscopic injection of botulinum toxin (botox into the pylorus in 16 patients (22%, pyloroplasty in 2, distal gastrectomy in 1, and gastrojejunostomy in 1. It was decided to directly proceed with permanent GES in 4 patients. Of the remaining, 51 patients have currently completed a trial of temporary stimulation and 39 (77% had a good response and were selected for permanent GES, which has been completed in 35 patients. Outcome data are currently available for 31 patients (idiopathic, 21 patients; diabetes, 3; post-surgical, 7 with a median follow-up period of 10 months (1-28; 22 patients (71% had a good response to permanent GES, these included 14 (68% with idiopathic, 5 (71% with post-surgical, and remaining 3 with diabetic gastroparesis. Conclusions: Overall, 71% of well-selected patients

  11. Epstein-Barr virus in gastric carcinomas and gastric stump carcinomas: a late event in gastric carcinogenesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hausen, A zur; Rees, van B.P.; Beek, van J.; Craanen, M.E.; Bloemena, E.; Offerhaus, GJ; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Brule, van den AJ

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To determine at what stage during gastric carcinogenesis Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) enters the gastric epithelial cells, the presence of EBV was investigated in two pathogenetically related but distinct forms of adenocarcinoma of the stomach-gastric carcinoma of the intact stomach (GCIS) a

  12. Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Cyramza (Ramucirumab) Docetaxel Doxorubicin Hydrochloride 5-FU (Fluorouracil ...

  13. Your diet after gastric bypass surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastric bypass surgery - your diet; Obesity - diet after bypass; Weight loss - diet after bypass ... You had gastric bypass surgery. This surgery made your stomach smaller by closing off most of your stomach with staples. It changed the way your ...

  14. Treatment Options by Stage (Gastric Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Gastric Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Gastric Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  15. Screening and Spectral Summing of LANL Empty Waste Drums - 13226

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruetzmacher, Kathleen M.; Bustos, Roland M.; Ferran, Scott G.; Gallegos, Lucas E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Lucero, Randy P. [Pajarito Scientific Corporation, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Empty 55-gallon drums that formerly held transuranic (TRU) waste (often over-packed in 85- gallon drums) are generated at LANL and require radiological characterization for disposition. These drums are typically measured and analyzed individually using high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma detectors. This approach can be resource and time intensive. For a project requiring several hundred drums to be characterized in a short time frame, an alternative approach was developed. The approach utilizes a combination of field screening and spectral summing that was required to be technically defensible and meet the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). In the screening phase of the operation, the drums were counted for 300 seconds (compared to 600 seconds for the typical approach) and checked against Low Level (LL)/TRU thresholds established for each drum configuration and detector. Multiple TRU nuclides and multiple gamma rays for each nuclide were evaluated using an automated spreadsheet utility that can process data from up to 42 drums at a time. Screening results were reviewed by an expert analyst to confirm the field LL/TRU determination. The spectral summing analysis technique combines spectral data (channel-by-channel) associated with a group of individual waste containers producing a composite spectrum. The grouped drums must meet specific similarity criteria. Another automated spreadsheet utility was used to spectral sum data from an unlimited number of similar drums grouped together. The composite spectrum represents a virtual combined drum for the group of drums and was analyzed using the SNAP{sup TM}/Radioassay Data Sheet (RDS)/Batch Data Report (BDR) method. The activity results for a composite virtual drum were divided equally amongst the individual drums to generate characterization results for each individual drum in the group. An initial batch of approximately 500 drums were measured and analyzed in less than 2 months in 2011

  16. Gastric Lipase Secretion in Children with Gastritis

    OpenAIRE

    Krystyna Sztefko; Krzysztof Fyderek; Andrzej Zając; Andrzej Wędrychowicz; Iwona Rogatko; Tomasik, Przemyslaw J

    2013-01-01

    Gastric lipase is one of the prepancreatic lipases found in some mammalian species and in humans. Our knowledge of the hormonal regulation of gastric lipase secretion in children and adolescents is still very limited. The aim of this study was to compare the activity of human gastric lipase (HGL) in gastric juice in healthy adolescents and in patients with gastritis. The adolescents were allocated to three groups: the first including patients with Helicobacter pylori gastritis (HPG; n = 10), ...

  17. Multifactorial etiology of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabaleta, Jovanny

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of gastric cancer is associated with several factors including geographical location, diet, and genetic background of the host. However, it is evident that infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is crucial for the development of the disease. Virulence of the bacteria is also important in modulating the risk of the disease. After infection, H. pylori gains access to the gastric mucosa and triggers the production of cytokines that promote recruitment of inflammatory cells, probably involved in tissue damage. Once the infection is established, a cascade of inflammatory steps associated with changes in the gastric epithelia that may lead to cancer is triggered. H. pylori-induced gastritis and H. pylori-associated gastric cancer have been the focus of extensive research aiming to discover the underlying mechanisms of gastric tissue damage. This research has led to the association of host genetic components with the risk of the disease. Among these is the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in several genes, including cytokine genes, which are able to differentially modulate the production of inflammatory cytokines and then modulate the risk of gastric cancer. Interestingly, the frequency of some of these SNPs is different among populations and may serve as a predictive factor for gastric cancer risk within that specific population. However, the role played by other genetic modifications should not be minimized. Methylation of gene promoters has been recognized as a major mechanism of gene expression regulation without changing the primary structure of the DNA. Most DNA methylation occurs in cytosine residues in CpG dinucleotide, but it can also be found in other DNA bases. DNA methyltransferases add methyl groups to the CpG dinucleotide, and when this methylation level is too high, the gene expression is turned off. In H. pylori infection as well as in gastric cancer, hypermethylation of promoters of genes involved in cell cycle

  18. CFD simulation in emptying tanks for calculating submergence in the case of storage tanks, the CFD simulation is based on the modeling of the suction nozzle which affects the study and final part of the storage tank; Aplicacion de simulacion CFD en el analisis del vaciado de tanques de almacenamiento para determinacion del nivel de sumergencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arranz Iglesias, J.; Gavilan Moreno, C.; Sarti Fernandez, F.

    2014-07-01

    The study consists in simulating the emptying of the tank when the water level is near the level of the suction nozzle. The objective pursued is to detect the harmful phenomena that may occur in aspiration, ranging from the appearance of vortices and bubble formation to excessive fluid accelerations. (Author)

  19. Embolotherapy for Gastric Variceal Bleeding from Pseudoaneurysm of Short Gastric Artery: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae Han; Kim, Young Dae; Kim, Dong Hyun [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    The complications of pancreatitis, such as pseudocyst or abscesses, are well known to radiologists. Yet formation of a pseudoaneurysm of the short gastric artery is an uncommon complication of acute pancreatitis. It is also very rare for a psuedoaneurysm of the short gastric artery to cause splenic vein occlusion and the final result is gastric varices. We report here on a case that showed the dramatic effect of embolotherapy for a pseudoaneurysm of the short gastric artery that caused gastric variceal bleeding

  20. Endoscopic Aspects of Gastric Syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Souza Varella Frazão

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Considered as a rare event, gastric syphilis (GS is reported as an organic form of involvement. Low incidence of GS emphasizes the importance of histopathological analysis. Objective. We aim to characterize GS endoscopic aspects in an immunocompetent patient. Case Report. A 23-year-old man presented with epigastric pain associated with nausea, anorexia, generalized malaise and 11 kg weight loss that started 1 month prior to his clinical consultation. Physical examination was normal except for mild abdominal tenderness in epigastrium. Endoscopy observed diminished gastric expandability and diffuse mucosal lesions, from cardia to pylorus. Gastric mucosa was thickened, friable, with nodular aspect, and associated with ulcers lesions. Gastric biopsies were performed, and histopathological analysis resulted in dense inflammatory infiltration rich in plasmocytes. Syphilis serologies were positive for VDRL and Treponema pallidum reagents. Immunohistochemical tests were positive for Treponema pallidum and CD138. The patient was treated with penicillin, leading to resolution of his clinical complaints and endoscopic findings. Conclusion. Diagnosis suspicion of GS is important in view of its nonspecific presentation. Patients with gastric symptoms that mimic neoplastic disease should be investigated thoroughly based on the fact that clinical, endoscopic, and histological findings can easily be mistaken for lymphoma or plastic linitis.

  1. Protective effects of pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on gastric ulcer in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Chang Xue; Yong-Jie Wu; Ming-Tang Gao; Wen-Guang Li; Ning Zhao; Zeng-Lu Wang; Chun-Jie Bao; Zhen Yan; Ying-Qi Zhang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the protective effects of gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on acute and chronic gastric ulcers in rats and to compare the results in therapy of human gastric ulcers by different administration methods.METHODS: Gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 was administered (initial single or continuous administration) into rats either intragastrically or intramuscularly before (induced acute gastric ulcer) or after (induced chronic gastric ulcer) the applications of inducing agents, and each animal was sacrificed to observe the protective effects of BPC 157 on gastric ulcers.RESULTS: Both intramuscular (im) and intragastric (ig) administration of BPC 157 could apparently reduce the ulcer area and accelerate the healing of induced ulcer in different models and the effect of im administered BPC 157 was better than that of ig. The rats treated with higher dosages (400 ng/kg, 800 ng/kg) of BPC 157 (im and ig) showed significantly less lesion (P<0.01 vs excipient or saline control), the inhibition ratio of ulcer formation varied between 45.7% and 65.6%, from all measurements except 400 ng/kg BPC 157 in pylorus ligation induced model (P<0.05),in which the inhibition rate was 54.2%. When im administered (800 ng/kg BPC 157) in three models, the inhibition ratio of ulcer formation was 65.5%, 65.6% and 59.9%, respectively, which was better than that of famotidine (its inhibition rate was 60.8%, 57.2% and 34.3%,respectively). Continuous application of BPC 157 (in chronic acetate induced gastric ulcer) could accelerate rebuilding of glandular epithelium and formation of granulation tissue (P<0.05 at 200 ng/kg and P<0.01 at 400 ng/kg and 800 ng/kg vs excipient or saline control).CONCLUSION: Both im and ig administered gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 can apparently ameliorate acute gastric ulcer in rats and antagonize the protracted effect of acetate challenge on chronic ulcer. The effect of im administration of BPC 157 is better than that of ig, and the effective

  2. Gene therapy for gastric cancer: A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Zhang; Zhan-Kui Liu

    2003-01-01

    Gastric cancer is common in China, and its early diagnosis and treatment are difficult. In recent years great progress has been achieved in gene therapy, and a wide array of gene therapy systems for gastric cancer has been investigated. The present article deals with the general principles of gene therapy and then focuses on how these principles may be applied to gastric cancer.

  3. Worldwide practice in gastric cancer surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenkman, Hylke Jf; Haverkamp, Leonie; Ruurda, Jelle P; van Hillegersberg, Richard

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the current status of gastric cancer surgery worldwide. METHODS: An international cross-sectional survey on gastric cancer surgery was performed amongst international upper gastro-intestinal surgeons. All surgical members of the International Gastric Cancer Association were invited

  4. Computed tomography findings of acute gastric volvulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millet, Ingrid; Orliac, Celine; Alili, Chakib; Taourel, Patrice [Hopital Lapeyronie, Department of Radiology, Montpellier (France); Guillon, Francoise [University Hospital of Montpellier, Department of Surgery, Montpellier (France)

    2014-12-15

    To assess the diagnostic performance of CT signs of gastric volvulus in both confirmed cases and control subjects. We retrospectively reviewed CT findings in 10 patients with surgically confirmed acute gastric volvulus and 20 control subjects with gastric distension. Two radiologists independently evaluated CT images for risk factors of gastric volvulus, direct findings of gastric volvulus by assessing gastric dilatation, the presence of an antropyloric transition point, the respective position of the different stomach segments and of the greater and lesser curvatures, stenosis of the gastric segments through the oesophageal hiatus and for findings of gastric ischemia. The sensitivity and specificity of each finding were calculated. The most sensitive direct signs of gastric volvulus were an antropyloric transition point without any abnormality at the transition zone and the antrum at the same level or higher than the fundus. The presence of both these two findings as diagnostic criteria of gastric volvulus had 100 % sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of gastric volvulus. There was no association between CT signs of ischemia and final bowel ischemia at pathology. CT is both highly sensitive and specific for diagnosing acute gastric volvulus. (orig.)

  5. Primary empty sella and GH deficiency: prevalence and clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Poggi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary empty sella (PES is a particular anatomical condition characterized by the herniation of liquor within the sella turcica. The pathogenesis of this alteration, frequently observed in general population, is not yet completely understood. Recently reports demonstrated, in these patients, that hormonal pituitary dysfunctions, specially growth hormone (GH/insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I axis ones, could be relevant. The aim of this paper is to evaluate GH/IGF-I axis in a group of adult patients affected by PES and to verify its clinical relevance. We studied a population of 28 patients with a diagnosis of PES. In each patient we performed a basal study of thyroid, adrenal and gonadal - pituitary axis and a dynamic evaluation of GH/IGF-I after GH-releasing hormone (GHRH plus arginine stimulation test. To evaluate the clinical significance of GH/IGF-I axis dysfunction we performed a metabolic and bone status evaluation in every patients. We found the presence of GH deficit in 11 patients (39.2 %. The group that displayed a GH/IGF-I axis dysfunction showed an impairment in metabolic profile and bone densitometry. This study confirms the necessity to screen the pituitary function in patients affected by PES and above all GH/IGF-I axis. Moreover the presence of GH deficiency could be clinically significant.

  6. Empty Follicle Syndrome: The Possible Cause of Occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Madani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Empty follicle syndrome (EFS, although rare, is a disappointing condition in which no oocytes are retrieved from mature follicle after ovulation induction in in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and factors associated with EFS. Methods: All cycles resulting in EFS from May 2012 to September 2013 were retrospectively identified at a tertiary referral infertility center. Among the 3,356 cycles performed, 58 (1.7% women who underwent their first IVF cycle and had no oocyte retrieval were enrolled in the study. Three different stimulation protocols (long, antagonist, and miniflare were mainly used for induction of follicular growth. Data relating to the age, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH level, anti-Müllerain hormone (AMH level, and the number of ampules and follicles for each patient was obtained. Results: Out of 58 individuals, 10 (17.2% showed false type and 48 (82.8% showed genuine EFS. The most frequent findings in our study were diminished ovarian reserve, low anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH; ≤0.5 ng/mL, and less than four mature follicles, indicating EFS in 1.7% of the patients. Conclusion: Low serum AMH levels and a small number of follicles after ovarian stimulation is the manifestation of diminished ovarian reserve. Thus, we suggest that EFS could be a manifestation of low ovarian reserve.

  7. Tool Wear Characteristics of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Particleboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnasingam, Jegatheswaran; Chew Tek, Tee; Farrokhpayam, Saied Reza

    A series of machining experiments on the Oil-Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) particleboard were carried out using a CNC router, to evaluate the tool wearing properties of the composite in comparison to the conventional wood-material particleboard. A single-fluted tungsten-carbide router bit (12 mm φ, 18 000 rpm), with a rake angle of 15° was used in this experiment, in which the depth of cut was 1.5 mm and feed speed was 4.5 m min-1. The router bit machined the edge of the board, moving along the full length before returning to repeat the cycle. The tool was examined for the extent of wear after complete failure had occurred. The result found that the wear pattern was similar in the oil-palm based particleboard and the wood-based particleboard, but the former was twice more abrasive compared to the latter. Microscopic examination of the cutter edge revealed greater incidence of micro-fracture when cutting the oil-palm based particleboard, indicating the presence of hard impurities in the composite. From an economic perspective, the tooling cost for machining oil-palm based particleboard is estimated to be twice of the cost for machining wood-based particleboard. This study shows that the machining properties of oil-palm based particleboard will be a primary concern, if the board is to find widespread application as a potential substitute for wood-based particleboard.

  8. Interaction between the solitary bee Chelostoma florisomne and its nest parasite Sapyga clavicornis-empty cells reduce the impact of parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munster-Swendsen, Mikael; Calabuig, Isabel

    2000-01-01

    Chelostoma, empty cells, interaction, mortality, nest architecture, nest parasite, protection, Sapyga, solitary bee......Chelostoma, empty cells, interaction, mortality, nest architecture, nest parasite, protection, Sapyga, solitary bee...

  9. Multiple Small Coronary Artery Fistulas Emptying into the Left Ventricle: A Rare but Challenging Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahaly, Omar

    2016-01-01

    A coronary artery fistula (CAF) is an abnormal communication between a coronary artery and a cardiac chamber or a great vessel. CAFs are rare based on coronary arteriography and when found they most often empty into the right ventricle and atrium and less often into the high pressure, low compliance left ventricle (LV). A patient who presented with atypical chest pain and was found to have multiple small CAFs originating from the ramus intermedius coronary artery and emptying into the LV is presented. This case highlights the challenges in providing an appropriate therapy for multiple small CAFs emptying into the LV. PMID:27525009

  10. An Empirical Investigation of Rural Empty-nesters in Chongqing and a Construction of Service System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiheng; TIAN; Chuanhui; MENG

    2013-01-01

    Based on field investigation, the rural empty-nesters in Chongqing were comprehensively analyzed from their family conditions, economic conditions, concept of old-age care and needs. As is indicated by the research, there is a high proportion of rural empty-nesters who have low income and live alone at home. The situation of empty-nesters has brought about a series of problems, which propose new challenges to the old-age services system. In this paper, related solutions were proposed from both macro and micro perspectives.

  11. Gastric atrophy, diagnosing and staging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hala MT El-Zimaity

    2006-01-01

    H pylori is now accepted as the cause of gastritis and gastritis-associated diseases, such as duodenal ulcer,gastric ulcer, gastric carcinoma, and gastric MALT lymphoma. The natural history of H pylori gastritis includes inflammation progressing from the antrum into the adjacent corpus resulting in an atrophic front of advancing injury leading to a reduction in acid secretion and eventual loss of parietal cells and development of atrophy. Sub-typing intestinal metaplasia has no clinical value to the patient, the pathologist, or the endoscopist.The pattern, extent, and severity of atrophy, with or without intestinal metaplasia, is a far more important predictor than is intestinal metaplasia subtype. The challenge remains to identify a reliable marker that relates to pre-malignant potential.

  12. Ghrelin and gastric acid secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakabi, Koji; Kawashima, Junichi; Kato, Shingo

    2008-11-07

    Ghrelin, a novel growth hormone-releasing peptide, was originally isolated from rat and human stomach. Ghrelin has been known to increase the secretion of growth hormone (GH), food intake, and body weight gain when administered peripherally or centrally. Ghrelin is also known to stimulate the gastric motility and the secretion of gastric acid. In the previous studies, the action of ghrelin on acid secretion was shown to be as strong as that of histamine and gastrin in in-vivo experiment. In the studies, the mechanism for the action of ghrelin was also investigated. It was shown that vagotomy completely inhibited the action of ghrelin on the secretion of gastric acid suggesting that vagal nerve is involved in the mechanism for the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. As famotidine did not inhibit ghrelin-induced acid secretion in the study by Masuda et al, they concluded that histamine was not involved in the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. However, we have shown that famotidine completely inhibited ghrelin-induced acid secretion and histidine decarboxylase (HDC) mRNA was increased in gastric mucosa by ghrelin injection which is inhibited by vagotomy Our results indicate that histamine is involved in the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. Furthermore synergistic action of gastrin and ghrelin on gastric acid secretion was shown. Although gastrin has important roles in postprandial secretion of gastric acid, ghrelin may be related to acid secretion during fasting period or at night. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the physiological role of ghrelin in acid secretion.

  13. Ghrelin and gastric acid secretion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Koji Yakabi; Junichi Kawashima; Shingo Kato

    2008-01-01

    Ghrelin, a novel growth hormone-releasing peptide, was originally isolated from rat and human stomach. Ghrelin has been known to increase the secretion of growth hormone (GH), food intake, and body weight gain when administered peripherally or centrally. Ghrelin is also known to stimulate the gastric motility and the secretion of gastric acid. In the previous studies, the action of ghrelin on acid secretion was shown to be as strong as that of histamine and gastrin in-vivo experiment. In the studies, the mechanism for the action of ghrelin was also investigated. It was shown that vagotomy completely inhibited the action of ghrelin on the secretion of gastric acid suggesting that vagal nerve is involved in the mechanism for the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. As famotidine did not inhibit ghrelin-in-duced acid secretion in the study by Masuda et al, they concluded that histamine was not involved in the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. However, we have shown that famotidine completely inhibited ghrelin-induced acid secretion and histidine decarboxylase (HDC) mRNA was increased in gastric mucosa by ghrelin injection which is inhibited by vagotomy Our results indicate that histamine is involved in the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. Furthermore synergistic action of gastrin and ghrelin on gastric add secretion was shown. Although gastrin has important roles in postprandial secretion of gastric acid, ghrelin may be related to acid secretion during fasting period or at night. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the physiological role of ghrelin in acid secretion.

  14. Ghrelin and gastric acid secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Yakabi, Koji; Kawashima, Junichi; Kato, Shingo

    2008-01-01

    Ghrelin, a novel growth hormone-releasing peptide, was originally isolated from rat and human stomach. Ghrelin has been known to increase the secretion of growth hormone (GH), food intake, and body weight gain when administered peripherally or centrally. Ghrelin is also known to stimulate the gastric motility and the secretion of gastric acid. In the previous studies, the action of ghrelin on acid secretion was shown to be as strong as that of histamine and gastrin in in-vivo experiment. In t...

  15. Vesical metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto A. Antunes

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic vesical tumors are rare, and constitute approximately 1% of all neoplasias affecting this organ. The authors report the case of a 63-year old woman with vesical metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma. Patient presented signs of cachexia and complained of left lumbar pain and dysuria unresponsive to antibiotic therapy for approximately 5 months. She reported a previous partial gastrectomy due to ulcerative undifferentiated gastric adenocarcinoma 1 year and 9 months before. Cystoscopy revealed an extensive vegetative lesion in bladder, occupying its entire mucosal surface. The biopsy revealed metastatic signet-ring cell adenocarcinoma.

  16. Loss of Kitlow progenitors, reduced stem cell factor and high oxidative stress underlie gastric dysfunction in progeric mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izbeki, Ferenc; Asuzu, David T; Lorincz, Andrea; Bardsley, Michael R; Popko, Laura N; Choi, Kyoung Moo; Young, David L; Hayashi, Yujiro; Linden, David R; Kuro-o, Makoto; Farrugia, Gianrico; Ordog, Tamas

    2010-08-15

    Gastrointestinal functions decline with ageing leading to impaired quality of life, and increased morbidity and mortality. Neurodegeneration is believed to underlie ageing-associated dysmotilities but the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. We used progeric mice deficient in the anti-ageing peptide Klotho to investigate the contribution of key cell types of the gastric musculature to ageing-associated changes in stomach function and the underlying mechanisms. Klotho expression, enteric neurons, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), smooth muscle cells and electrical activity were assessed by immunofluorescence, confocal microscopy, 3-dimensional reconstruction, flow cytometry, quantitative RT-PCR, Western immunoblotting and intracellular recordings. Gastric emptying of solids was analysed by the [13C]octanoic acid breath test. Circulating and tissue trophic factors were measured by enzyme immunoassays and quantitative RT-PCR. The role of oxidative stress was investigated in organotypic cultures. Klotho expression was detected in gastric glands, myenteric neurons and smooth muscle cells. Progeric Klotho-deficient mice had profound loss of ICC and ICC stem cells without a significant decrease in neuron counts, expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase or smooth muscle myosin. Slow wave amplitude and nitrergic inhibitory junction potentials were reduced while solid emptying was unchanged. Klotho-deficient mice were marantic and had low insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I and membrane-bound stem cell factor. Klotho deficiency accentuated oxidative stress and ICC loss. We conclude that Klotho-deficient, progeric mice display a gastric phenotype resembling human ageing and involving profound ICC loss. Klotho protects ICC by preserving their precursors, limiting oxidative stress, and maintaining nutritional status and normal levels of trophic factors important for ICC differentiation.

  17. Obesity and gastric balloon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed I Yasawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The obesity epidemic, which is among the most common nutritional disorders, is rising rapidly worldwide. It leads to several health problems such as metabolic disorders, stroke, and even cancer. Efforts to control obesity with exercise and diet have a limited value in obese patients and different approaches to do this have been tried. In this paper, we share our experience with bioenteric intragastric balloon (BIB in treating obesity: Its safety, tolerability, and its efficacy in weight reduction. Materials and Methods: From January 2009 to September 2012, a total of 190 gastric balloons was inserted on patients at the endoscopy unit in King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar. This is an evaluation of the first 100 patients. All the patients had a body mass index of over 30 kg/m 2 and were within the age range of 17-55 with a mean age of 32 years. After consent, preballoon investigation tests and anesthesia evaluation, BIB was inserted under monitored anesthesia care sedation in the endoscopy suite. The balloon was filled with 500-700 mls of stained saline. All patients′ were given an analgesic and antiemetic for a week and antisecretory proton pump inhibitor′s for 6 months. Diet and the importance of the exercise were part of the preballoon insertion phase and protocol. The balloon was removed after 6-12 months. Results: The weight loss response to BIB in the 100 patients are classified into four groups: In the uncooperative, noncompliant patients - the maximum weight loss was 7 kg, while in the most compliant patients the weight loss reached up to 39 kg. In addition, there was significant improvement into diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and fatty liveras. Its safety and tolerability were extremely acceptable. Conclusion: Our data indicates that in well-selected patients, BIB is an effective device, which with minimum complications helps to achieve body weight loss and resolve many obesity related

  18. A method for establishing human primary gastric epithelial cell culture from fresh surgical gastric tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Faisal; Yang, Xuesong; Wen, Qingping; Yan, Qiu

    2015-08-01

    At present, biopsy specimens, cancer cell lines and tissues obtained by gastric surgery are used in the study and analysis of gastric cancer, including the molecular mechanisms and proteomics. However, fibroblasts and other tissue components may interfere with these techniques. Therefore, the present study aimed to develop a procedure for the isolation of viable human gastric epithelial cells from gastric surgical tissues. A method was developed to culture human gastric epithelial cells using fresh, surgically excised tissues and was evaluated using immunocytochemistry, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining and cell viability assays. Low cell growth was observed surrounding the gastric tissue on the seventh day of tissue explant culture. Cell growth subsequently increased, and at 12 days post-explant a high number of pure epithelial cells were detected. The gastric cancer cells exhibited rapid growth with a doubling time of 13-52 h, as compared to normal cells, which had a doubling time of 20-53 h. Immunocytochemical analyses of primary gastric cells revealed positive staining for cytokeratin 18 and 19, which indicated that the culture was comprised of pure epithelial cells and contained no fibroblasts. Furthermore, PAS staining demonstrated that the cultured gastric cells produced neutral mucin. Granulin and carbohydrate antigen 724 staining confirmed the purity of gastric cancer and normal cells in culture. This method of cell culture indicated that the gastric cells in primary culture consisted of mucin-secreting gastric epithelial cells, which may be useful for the study of gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer.

  19. Spherical nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) from oil palm empty fruit bunch pulp via ultrasound assisted hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zianor Azrina, Z A; Beg, M Dalour H; Rosli, M Y; Ramli, Ridzuan; Junadi, Norhafzan; Alam, A K M Moshiul

    2017-04-15

    Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) was isolated from oil palm empty fruit bunch pulp (EFBP) using ultrasound assisted acid hydrolysis. The obtained NCC was analysed using FESEM, XRD, FTIR, and TGA, and compared with raw empty fruit bunch fibre (REFB), empty fruit bunch pulp (EFBP), and treated empty fruit bunch pulp (TEFBP). Based on FESEM analysis, it was found that NCC has a spherical shaped after acid hydrolysis with the assistance of ultrasound. This situation was different compared to previous studies that obtained rod-like shaped of NCC. Furthermore, the crystallinity of NCC is higher compared to REFB and EFBP. According to thermal stability, the NCC obtained shows remarkable sign of high thermal stability compared to REFB and EFBP.

  20. Effect of temperature on pyrolysis product of empty fruit bunches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Aizuddin Abdul; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Abdullah, Nurhayati [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Pyrolysis of empty fruit bunches (EFB) was performed in a fixed bed reactor equipped with liquid collecting system. Pyrolysis process was conducted by varying the terminal pyrolysis temperature from 300 to 500°C under heating rate of 10°C/min for at least 2 hours. Char yield was obtained highest at 300°C around 55.88 wt%, and started to decrease as temperature increase. The maximum yield of pyrolysis liquid was obtained around 54.75 wt% as pyrolysis temperature reach 450°C. For gas yield percentage, the yield gained as temperature was increased from 300 to 500°C, within the range between 8.44 to 19.32 wt%. The char obtained at 400°C has great potential as an alternative solid fuel, due to its high heating value of 23.37 MJ/kg, low in volatile matter and ash content which are approximately around 40.32 and 11.12 wt%, respectively. The collected pyrolysis liquid within this temperature range found to have high water content of around 16.15 to 18.20 wt%. The high aqueous fraction seemed to cause the pyrolysis liquid to have low HHV which only ranging from 10.81 to 12.94 MJ/kg. These trends of results showed that necessary enhancement should be employ either on the raw biomass or pyrolysis products in order to approach at least the minimum quality of common hydrocarbon solid or liquid fuel. For energy production, both produced bio-char and pyrolysis liquid are considered as sustainable sources of bio-energy since they contained low amounts of nitrogen and sulphur, which are considered as environmental friendly solid and liquid fuel.

  1. Effect of temperature on pyrolysis product of empty fruit bunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Aizuddin Abdul; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Abdullah, Nurhayati

    2015-04-01

    Pyrolysis of empty fruit bunches (EFB) was performed in a fixed bed reactor equipped with liquid collecting system. Pyrolysis process was conducted by varying the terminal pyrolysis temperature from 300 to 500°C under heating rate of 10°C/min for at least 2 hours. Char yield was obtained highest at 300°C around 55.88 wt%, and started to decrease as temperature increase. The maximum yield of pyrolysis liquid was obtained around 54.75 wt% as pyrolysis temperature reach 450°C. For gas yield percentage, the yield gained as temperature was increased from 300 to 500°C, within the range between 8.44 to 19.32 wt%. The char obtained at 400°C has great potential as an alternative solid fuel, due to its high heating value of 23.37 MJ/kg, low in volatile matter and ash content which are approximately around 40.32 and 11.12 wt%, respectively. The collected pyrolysis liquid within this temperature range found to have high water content of around 16.15 to 18.20 wt%. The high aqueous fraction seemed to cause the pyrolysis liquid to have low HHV which only ranging from 10.81 to 12.94 MJ/kg. These trends of results showed that necessary enhancement should be employ either on the raw biomass or pyrolysis products in order to approach at least the minimum quality of common hydrocarbon solid or liquid fuel. For energy production, both produced bio-char and pyrolysis liquid are considered as sustainable sources of bio-energy since they contained low amounts of nitrogen and sulphur, which are considered as environmental friendly solid and liquid fuel.

  2. Primary empty sella (PES): a review of 175 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitelman, M; Garcia Basavilbaso, Natalia; Vitale, M; Chervin, A; Katz, D; Miragaya, K; Herrera, J; Cornalo, D; Servidio, M; Boero, L; Manavela, M; Danilowicz, K; Alfieri, A; Stalldecker, G; Glerean, M; Fainstein Day, P; Ballarino, C; Mallea Gil, Maria Susana; Rogozinski, A

    2013-06-01

    The term primary empty sella (PES) makes reference to the herniation of the subarachnoid space within the sella turcica in patients with no history of pituitary tumor, surgery or radiotherapy. To retrospectively assess clinical features, radiological findings and the biochemical endocrine function from the records of 175 patients with a diagnosis of PES. One hundred seventy-five patients (150 females) were studied. The mean age at diagnosis was 48.2 ± 14 year. Most diagnoses were made by magnetic resonance imaging (n = 172). In most patients, the pituitary function was assessed by basal pituitary hormones measurements. Pituitary scans were ordered for different reasons: headache (33.1 %), endocrine disorders (30.6 %), neurological symptoms (12.5 %), visual disturbances (8.75 %), abnormalities on sella turcica radiograph (8.75 %) and others (6.25 %). Multiple pregnancies were observed in 58.3 % of women; headaches, obesity, and hypertension were found in 59.4, 49.5, and 27.3 % of the studied population, respectively. Mild hyperprolactinemia (<50 ng/ml) was present in 11.6 % of women and 17.3 % of men. Twenty-eight percent of our patients had some degree of hypopituitarism. In the male population, hypopituitarism represented 64 % of cases, whereas it accounted for 22 % of all females. PES seems to be more commonly found in middle-aged women, with a history of multiple pregnancies. In most patients, PES was discovered as an incidental finding on imaging studies, while in almost a quarter of patients PES was found during the diagnostic evaluation of anterior pituitary deficiency, which was more common in men.

  3. High fat diet induced changes in gastric vagal afferent response to adiponectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentish, Stephen J; Ratcliff, Kyle; Li, Hui; Wittert, Gary A; Page, Amanda J

    2015-12-01

    Food intake is regulated by vagal afferent signals from the stomach. Adiponectin, secreted primarily from adipocytes, also has a role in regulating food intake. However, the involvement of vagal afferents in this effect remains to be established. We aimed to determine if adiponectin can modulate gastric vagal afferent (GVA) satiety signals and further whether this is altered in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Female C57BL/6J mice were fed either a standard laboratory diet (SLD) or a HFD for 12weeks. Plasma adiponectin levels were assayed, and the expression of adiponectin in the gastric mucosa was assessed using real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The location of adiponectin protein within the gastric mucosa was determined by immunohistochemistry. To evaluate the direct effect of adiponectin on vagal afferent endings we determined adiponectin receptor expression in whole nodose ganglia (NDG) and also specifically in GVA neurons using retrograde tracing and qRT-PCR. An in vitro preparation was used to determine the effect of adiponectin on GVA response to mechanical stimulation. HFD mice exhibited an increased body weight and adiposity and showed delayed gastric emptying relative to SLD mice. Plasma adiponectin levels were not significantly different in HFD compared to SLD mice. Adiponectin mRNA was detected in the gastric mucosa of both SLD and HFD mice and presence of protein was confirmed immunohistochemically by the detection of adiponectin immunoreactive cells in the mucosal layer of the stomach. Adiponectin receptor 1 (ADIPOR1) and 2 (ADIPOR2) mRNA was present in both the SLD and HFD whole NDG and also specifically traced gastric mucosal and muscular neurons. There was a reduction in ADIPOR1 mRNA in the mucosal afferents of the HFD mice relative to the SLD mice. In HFD mice adiponectin potentiated gastric mucosal afferent responses to mucosal stroking, an effect not observed in SLD mice. Adiponectin reduced

  4. W-026, acceptance test report TRU empty drum compactor (submittal{number_sign}634)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, T.L.

    1997-06-18

    On 10/19/96 and 10/21/96, the 06/04/96 version of the Empty Drum Compactor Acceptance Test Procedure was used to perform tests by INET Corporation at the Hanford WRAP facility. The INET compaction components were installed in the Diversified glovebox. The Diversified glovebox and cart and the INET compaction components, EDC HPU and drum centering device constitute the Empty Drum Compactor.

  5. The roads not taken: empty waves, wavefunction collapse and protective measurement in quantum theory

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Within the class of ontological interpretations of quantum theory where a physical system comprises a particle and a field (wavefunction) guiding it, an empty wave is a segment of the wavefunction not containing the particle. We examine the impact of this concept on the debate between the epistemological and ontological viewpoints. The theoretical merits of the empty wave in avoiding the wavefunction collapse hypothesis, and in supplying conceptual precision in the application of quantum mech...

  6. Feasibility of producing insulation boards from oil palm fronds and empty Fruit bunches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanasri Sihabut

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on the feasibility of producing insulation boards made from oil palm fronds and empty fruit bunches via the wet forming process. Results confirmed no difference in the visual appearance between both board types. Both displayed low thermal conductivity, offering evidence of being good insulators. Boards made from empty fruit bunch weighed less than boards made from oil palm fronds. Other properties such as fire retardant, water absorption and strength still need to be investigated.

  7. Isolated ACTH deficiency in a patient with empty sella as revealed by severe hyponatremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroftei, Nicoleta Alina; de Rudder, Catherine; de Visscher, Nathalie; Hanon, Francois

    2016-12-01

    Hyponatremia due to isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency is difficult to diagnose as it is usually indistinguishable from non-endocrine syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). We present a case secondary to empty sella. Most patients with empty sella remain asymptomatic throughout life and require no treatment; however, in cases involving the development of isolated ACTH deficiency, corticosteroid treatment should be enforced to avoid fatal consequences.

  8. Pit Latrine Emptying Behavior and Demand for Sanitation Services in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion W. Jenkins

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pit latrines are the main form of sanitation in unplanned areas in many rapidly growing developing cities. Understanding demand for pit latrine fecal sludge management (FSM services in these communities is important for designing demand-responsive sanitation services and policies to improve public health. We examine latrine emptying knowledge, attitudes, behavior, trends and rates of safe/unsafe emptying, and measure demand for a new hygienic latrine emptying service in unplanned communities in Dar Es Salaam (Dar, Tanzania, using data from a cross-sectional survey at 662 residential properties in 35 unplanned sub-wards across Dar, where 97% had pit latrines. A picture emerges of expensive and poor FSM service options for latrine owners, resulting in widespread fecal sludge exposure that is likely to increase unless addressed. Households delay emptying as long as possible, use full pits beyond what is safe, face high costs even for unhygienic emptying, and resort to unsafe practices like ‘flooding out’. We measured strong interest in and willingness to pay (WTP for the new pit emptying service at 96% of residences; 57% were WTP ≥U.S. $17 to remove ≥200 L of sludge. Emerging policy recommendations for safe FSM in unplanned urban communities in Dar and elsewhere are discussed.

  9. The psyche and gastric functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Gerardo; Compare, Debora

    2014-01-01

    Although the idea that gastric problems are in some way related to mental activity dates back to the beginning of the last century, until now it has received scant attention by physiologists, general practitioners and gastroenterologists. The major breakthrough in understanding the interactions between the central nervous system and the gut was the discovery of the enteric nervous system (ENS) in the 19th century. ENS (also called 'little brain') plays a crucial role in the regulation of the physiological gut functions. Furthermore, the identification of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and the development of specific CRF receptor antagonists have permitted to characterize the neurochemical basis of the stress response. The neurobiological response to stress in mammals involves three key mechanisms: (1) stress is perceived and processed by higher brain centers; (2) the brain mounts a neuroendocrine response by way of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and the autonomic nervous system (ANS), and (3) the brain triggers feedback mechanisms by HPA and ANS stimulation to restore homeostasis. Various stressors such as anger, fear, painful stimuli, as well as life or social learning experiences affect both the individual's physiologic and gastric function, revealing a two-way interaction between brain and stomach. There is overwhelming experimental and clinical evidence that stress influences gastric function, thereby outlining the pathogenesis of gastric diseases such as functional dyspepsia, gastroesophageal reflux disease and peptic ulcer disease. A better understanding of the role of pathological stressors in the modulation of disease activity may have important pathogenetic and therapeutic implications.

  10. Gastric schwannoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayfa Romdhane

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are generally benign, slow growing tumors. They are rarely observed in the gastrointestinal tract with the most common site being the stomach. These tumors are usually asymptomatic. The preoperative diagnosis via endoscopy is a challenging issue due to the difficulty of differentiation from other submucosal tumors. A 54-year-old woman presented with epigastric pain persisting for the last 10 months. Upper endoscopy revealed an elevated submucosal mass of the gastric antrum. The overlying mucosa was normal. Biopsy specimens yielded only unspecific signs of mild inactive chronic inflammation. Endoscopic ultrasound examination noted a hypoechoic homogeneous mass lesion located in the gastric antrum. The mass appeared to arise from the muscularis propria, and there was no perigastric lymphadenopathy. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan identified a homogeneous round mass and arising from the antrum of the stomach. Submucosal tumor was suspected and surgical intervention was recommended. The patient underwent an elective laparoscopic partial gastrectomy. The histopathologic features and immunohistochemical-staining pattern were consistent with a benign gastric schwannoma. Our patient shows no recurrence with a follow-up of one year. The definitive diagnosis of gastric schwannomas requires immunohistochemical studies. Complete margin negative surgical resection, as in this case, is the curative treatment of choice. The clinical course is generally benign.

  11. Gastric stimulation for weight loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meir Mizrahi; Ami Ben Ya'acov; Yaron Ilan

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is growing to epidemic proportions,and there is clearly a need for minimally invasive therapies with few adverse effects that allow for sustained weight loss.Behavior and lifestyle therapy are safe treatments for obesity in the short term,but the durability of the weight loss is limited.Although promising obesity drugs are in development,the currently available drugs lack efficacy or have unacceptable side effects.Surgery leads to long-term weight loss,but it is associated with morbidity and mortality.Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) has received increasing attention as a potential tool for treating obesity and gastrointestinal dysmotility disorders.GES is a promising,minimally invasive,safe,and effective method for treating obesity.External gastric pacing is aimed at alteration of the motility of the gastrointestinal tract in a way that will alter absorption due to alteration of transit time.In addition,data from animal models and preliminary data from human trials suggest a role for the gut-brain axis in the mechanism of GES.This may involve alteration of secretion of hormones associated with hunger or satiety.Patient selection for gastric stimulation therapy seems to be an important determinant of the treatment's outcome.Here,we review the current status,potential mechanisms of action,and possible future applications of gastric stimulation for obesity.

  12. Genetic Determinants of Gastric Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Boccia (Stefania)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractResults show that gastric cancer risk is increased by the inheritance of the variant alleles of the metabolic genes SULT1A1 and CYP2E1 *6, especially among smokers and drinkers, respectively. An additional increased risk is conferred by the inheritance of GSTT1 null variant, especially i

  13. Gastric asthma : a pathophysiological entity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, FTM; Kleibeuker, JH; Postma, DS

    1998-01-01

    Background: Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is manifested by typical reflux symptoms and atypical extra-oesophageal symptoms. Important in this respect are respiratory conditions. Gastric asthma is a prominent example of these extra-oesophageal manifestations of GORD. There is, however, muc

  14. Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia: Prevalence, Clinical Presentation, Endoscopic and Histological Features

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim: Gastric intestinal metaplasia represents a risk factor for intestinal type of gastric cancer. Gastric intestinal metaplasia seems to be associated with Helicobacter pilory infection in relatives of patients with gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, clinical, endoscopic and histological features of gastric intestinal metaplasia.

  15. Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia: Prevalence, Clinical Presentation, Endoscopic and Histological Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drasovean Silvia Cosmina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Gastric intestinal metaplasia represents a risk factor for intestinal type of gastric cancer. Gastric intestinal metaplasia seems to be associated with Helicobacter pilory infection in relatives of patients with gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, clinical, endoscopic and histological features of gastric intestinal metaplasia.

  16. Gastrin and gastric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabri, P J; McGuigan, J E

    1976-01-01

    data are present. These differential tests are of value in identifying the Zollinger-Ellison patient who has borderline serum gastrin levels and in differentiation from the syndrome of the retained antrum. 6. In a patient with a recurrent ulcer following surgery in whom a drug-induced ulcer can be excluded and gastric outlet obstruction cannot be demonstrated, a serum gastrin level may be indicated. A serum gastrin value greater than 300 pg. per ml. (normal less than 200 pg. per ml.) in a fasting morning serum sample is significantly elevated, even after vagotomy, and warrants further investigation. Provocative testing of the gastrin response to calcium and secretin should elucidate the etiology of the recurrent ulceration in this type of patient.

  17. [Photodynamic therapy for gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, S; Narahara, H; Uehara, H; Otani, T; Okuda, S

    1996-01-01

    In this article, we first present our clinical data on PDT for the treatment of gastric cancer and make a comparison between a continuous wave laser and a pulsed laser. The reasons for PDT failure in certain cases are also discussed. In the fifteen years from 1981 to 1995, we have treated a total of 76 gastric cancer lesions (73 cases), which was consist of 69 early gastric cancer lesions (66 cases) and seven advanced gastric cancer lesions (seven cases) by PDT. From 1981 to 1990, we used an argon dye laser (ADL, Models 171-08 and 375-03, Spectra-Physics, Mountain View, Calif., US) as an excitation light source for PDT with HpD (Photofrin I), DHE (Photofrin II) or PHE (freeze-dried Photofrin II). From analysis of the results in terms of the depth of cancer invasion in these 44 lesions (41 cases), the rate of cure for mucosal carcinomas was 57% (13/23), that of submucosal carcinomas was 53% (10/19), and that of carcinomas invading more than the muscularis propria was 0% (0/2). These data can be interpreted to indicate that the ADL laser beam could not penetrate and supply sufficient energy to activate HpD not only in the submoucosal layer but also in the mucosal layer. In 1990, therefore, we investigated an excimer dye laser (EDL, Hamamatsu Photonics, Hamamatsu, Japan), because its pulsed beam with extremely high peak power was expected to be more efficient at exciting HpD than continuous wave lasers such as ADL and high frequency pulsed lasers such as cooper vapor dye laser (Cu VDL). From 1990 to 1995, twenty-seven early gastric cancer lesions (27 cases) and five advanced gastric cancer lesions (five cases) were treated by PDT with EDL and PHE. Of these 32 lesions, the rate of cure for mucosal carcinomas was 100% (15/15), that of submucosal carcinomas was 75% (9/12), and that of carcinomas invading more than the muscularis propria was 20% (1/5). For the purpose of determining how much energy was required for a complete cure in early gastric cancer, and to compare

  18. Telomere length shortening in gastric mucosa is a field effect associated with increased risk of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Tomomitsu; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Kawamura, Tomohiko; Horiguchi, Noriyuki; Okubo, Masaaki; Nakano, Naoko; Ishizuka, Takamitsu; Nagasaka, Mitsuo; Nakagawa, Yoshihito; Ohmiya, Naoki

    2016-07-01

    Telomere shortening occurs in many organs and tissues and is accelerated by oxidative injury and rapid cell turnover. Short telomeres initiate chromosomal instability and may eventually contribute to tumorigenesis. To evaluate telomere length as potential biomarker for gastric cancer (GC) risk, we measured average telomere length using quantitative real-time PCR in GC tissues and in non-neoplastic mucosa from patients with GC and without GC. We obtained of 217 GC patients matched biopsies from the GC and adjacent tissues as well as gastric biopsies of 102 subjects without GC. Relative telomere length was measured in genomic DNA by real-time PCR. Relative telomere length decreased gradually in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) negative and positive gastric mucosa of GC free subjects compared with adjacent mucosa and cancer tissue from GC patients (4.03 ± 0.3 vs. 2.82 ± 0.19 vs. 0.82 ± 0.07 vs. 0.29 ± 0.09, P telomeres were found significantly more often than in that of GC free subjects (age, sex, and H. pylori adjusted odds ratio = 7.81, 95 % confidence interval = 4.71-12.9, P Telomere shortening in non-neoplastic mucosa was associated with chronic inflammation (P = 0.0018) and intestinal metaplasia (P telomere length and clinicopathological features of GC and overall survival. Telomere shortening in gastric mucosa reflects a field effect in an early stage of carcinogenesis and is associated with an increased risk of GC. Telomere length in GC is not associated with clinicopathological features or prognosis.

  19. Expression of ATP7B in human gastric cardiac carcinomas in comparison with distal gastric carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-Long Wu; Hui-Xing Yi; Feng-Ying Sui; Xiao-Hong Jiang; Xiao-Ming Jiang; Ying-Ying Zhao

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To analyze expression of ATP7B in gastric cardiac adenocarcinomas, its clinicopathologic significance, in comparison with distal gastric adenocarcinomas.METHODS: Immunohistochemical avidin-biotin peroxidase complex method was applied to detect the expression of ATP7B in 49 cases of cardiac carcinomas,the corresponding adjacent non-neoplastic epithelium and 55 cases of distal gastric carcinomas.RESULTS: The proportion of ATP7B positive samples in gastric cardiac carcinomas (51.0%, 25 of 49) was significantly higher than that in the corresponding adjacent non-neoplastic epithelium (22.4%, 11 of 49)(P = 0.003). ATP7B expression in poorly differentiated gastric cardiac carcinomas was significantly higher than that in well/moderately differentiated gastric cardiac carcinomas (P = 0.030). ATP7B expression in gastric cardiac carcinomas was independent of age, tumor size, nodal stage and metastasis status. ATP7B protein was detected in 30.9% (17/55 cases) of distal gastric carcinomas, markedly lower than that in gastric cardiac carcinomas (P = 0.037).CONCLUSION: ATP7B protein is frequently overexpressed in gastric cardiac carcinomas, and correlated with the differentiation of cardiac carcinoma. ATP7B expression in gastric cardiac carcinomas is significantly higher than that in distal gastric carcinomas, which might partially explain the difference of chemotherapy response and prognosis between these two gastric carcinomas.

  20. Genetic Screening for Familial Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Carla

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Approximately 10% of gastric cancer cases show familial clustering but only 1-3% of gastric carcinomas arise as a result of inherited gastric cancer predisposition syndromes. Direct proof that Hereditary Gastric Cancer a genetic disease with a germline gene defect has come from the demonstration of co-segregation of germline E-cadherin (CDH1 mutations with early onset diffuse gastric cancer in families with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance (HDGC. E-cadherin is a transmembrane calcium-dependent cell-adhesion molecule involved in cell-junction formation and the maintenance of epithelial integrity. In this review, we describe frequency and type of CDH1 mutations in sporadic and familial gastric cancer. Further we demonstrate the functional significance of some CDH1 germline missense mutations found in HDGC. We also discuss the CDH1 polymorphisms that have been associated to gastric cancer. We report other types of malignancies associated to HDGC, besides diffuse gastric cancer. Moreover, we review the data available on putative alternative candidate genes screened in familial gastric cancer. Finally, we briefly discuss the role of low-penetrance genes and Helicobacter pylori in gastric cancer. This knowledge is a fundamental step towards accurate genetic counselling, in which a highly specialised pre-symptomatic therapeutic intervention should be offered.