WorldWideScience

Sample records for accelerated solvent extraction

  1. Sequential accelerated solvent extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with different solvents: performance and implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoxuan; Ran, Yong; Gong, Jian; Chen, Diyun

    2010-01-01

    Sixteen USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) extracted by Soxhlet extraction (S-PAHs) with dichloromethane and routine accelerated solvent extraction (A-PAHs) with 1:1 toluene/methanol, respectively, were investigated in 24 soil samples from two cities in the center of the Pearl River Delta, South China. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, methylphenanthrene and perylene, in two soils, two sediments, and an immature oil shale were also sequentially extracted by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with each of four different organic solvents for three times. The A-PAHs' concentrations are 2.41 times the S-PAHs' concentrations. For sequential three ASEs, PAHs in the first extract account for 56 to 67% of their total concentrations in the sequential three extractions and toluene displays the best extraction performance among the four solvents. Diagnostic ratios of PAHs in Soxhlet extraction, routine ASE, and sequential ASE with each solvent for a given sample are very similar, suggesting their identical petrogenic and pyrogenic sources in the soils and sediments. But the PAH ratios for the shale have an obvious petrogenic origin. The perylene/5-ring PAH ratios indicate a diagenetic source, especially in the shale and sediments. The correlation analysis shows that A-PAHs/S-PAHs is better associated with the contents of total organic carbon (TOC) than those of black carbon (BC). The above results indicate the significant petrogenic origin of PAHs and the important effect of organic matter on their extraction and distribution in the investigated field soils/sediments. PMID:21284305

  2. Extraction of Organochlorine Pesticides in Sediments Using Soxhlet, Ultrasonic and Accelerated Solvent Extraction Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LANG Yinhai; CAO Zhengmei; NIE Xinhua

    2005-01-01

    The application of soxhlet, ultrasonic and accelerated solvent extraction techniques to the analysis of six organochlorine pesticides (α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, o, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDT and p, p'-DDE) in Taihu Lake sediment samples is described. It was found that the limits of quantification ranged from 0.002 μg g-1 to 0.004 μg g-1, and the recoveries of organochlorine pesticides with the three extraction techniques were acceptable (> 80.7%). With a mass selective detector,better results were obtained by accelerated solvent extraction using hexane-acetone (1: 1) as compared with soxhlet and ultrasonic extraction. It was shown that the accelerated solvent extraction was the optimum technique for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides in sediments. The general features of the three extraction techniques are also presented.

  3. The applicability of Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) to extract lipid biomarkers from soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Jansen; K.G.J. Nierop; M.C. Kotte; P. de Voogt; J.M. Verstraten

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the ability of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) to extract selected lipid biomarkers (C-19=C-34 n-alkanes, n-alcohols and n-fatty acids as well as dehydroabietic acid and P-sitosterol) from a sandy soil profile under Corsican pine. Two organic layers (moss and F1) as well as two

  4. Effects of cyclohexane/acetone ratio on bixin extraction yield by accelerated solvent extraction method

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmalia, Winda; Fabre, Jean-François; Mouloungui, Zephirin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) was applied to the quantitative extraction of bixin. The effects of cyclohexane/ acetone ratios on bixin extraction yield were evaluated. Acetone was used in the process of pigment extraction and also played a major role in its analysis by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Pure cis-bixin isolated by flash chromatography and characterized by Fourier Transform Infra Red spectrometry was used as a bixin standard for qualitative and quantitative analysi...

  5. Response Surface Modeling and Optimization of Accelerated Solvent Extraction of Four Lignans from Fructus Schisandrae

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Liang; Qian-Li Tang; Wei Li; Geng-Liang Yang; Xin Deng; Ying He; Li-Chun Zhao

    2012-01-01

    A new method based on accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) combined with response surface methodology (RSM) modeling and optimization has been developed for the extraction of four lignans in Fructus Schisandrae (the fruits of Schisandra chinensis Baill). The RSM method, based on a three level and three variable Box-Behnken design (BBD), was employed to obtain the optimal combination of extraction condition. In brief, the lignans schizandrin, schisandrol B, deoxyschizandrin and schisandrin B w...

  6. Comparison of extraction techniques and modeling of accelerated solvent extraction for the authentication of natural vanilla flavors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Esmeralda; Chaintreau, Alain

    2009-06-01

    Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of vanilla beans has been optimized using ethanol as a solvent. A theoretical model is proposed to account for this multistep extraction. This allows the determination, for the first time, of the total amount of analytes initially present in the beans and thus the calculation of recoveries using ASE or any other extraction technique. As a result, ASE and Soxhlet extractions have been determined to be efficient methods, whereas recoveries are modest for maceration techniques and depend on the solvent used. Because industrial extracts are obtained by many different procedures, including maceration in various solvents, authenticating vanilla extracts using quantitative ratios between the amounts of vanilla flavor constituents appears to be unreliable. When authentication techniques based on isotopic ratios are used, ASE is a valid sample preparation technique because it does not induce isotopic fractionation.

  7. Optimization by response surface methodology of lutein recovery from paprika leaves using accelerated solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Suna; Moon, BoKyung

    2016-08-15

    In this study, we used response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize the extraction conditions for recovering lutein from paprika leaves using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The lutein content was quantitatively analyzed using a UPLC equipped with a BEH C18 column. A central composite design (CCD) was employed for experimental design to obtain the optimized combination of extraction temperature (°C), static time (min), and solvent (EtOH, %). The experimental data obtained from a twenty sample set were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis. The adjusted coefficient of determination (R(2)) for the lutein extraction model was 0.9518, and the probability value (p=0.0000) demonstrated a high significance for the regression model. The optimum extraction conditions for lutein were temperature: 93.26°C, static time: 5 min, and solvent: 79.63% EtOH. Under these conditions, the predicted extraction yield of lutein was 232.60 μg/g. PMID:27006224

  8. Response Surface Modeling and Optimization of Accelerated Solvent Extraction of Four Lignans from Fructus Schisandrae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A new method based on accelerated solvent extraction (ASE combined with response surface methodology (RSM modeling and optimization has been developed for the extraction of four lignans in Fructus Schisandrae (the fruits of Schisandra chinensis Baill. The RSM method, based on a three level and three variable Box-Behnken design (BBD, was employed to obtain the optimal combination of extraction condition. In brief, the lignans schizandrin, schisandrol B, deoxyschizandrin and schisandrin B were optimally extracted with 87% ethanol as extraction solvent, extraction temperature of 160 °C, static extraction time of 10 min, extraction pressure of 1,500 psi, flush volume of 60% and one extraction cycle. The 3D response surface plot and the contour plot derived from the mathematical models were applied to determine the optimal conditions. Under the above conditions, the experimental value of four lignans was 14.72 mg/g, which is in close agreement with the value predicted by the model.

  9. Compound Specific Extraction of Camptothecin from Nothapodytes nimmoniana and Piperine from Piper nigrum Using Accelerated Solvent Extractor

    OpenAIRE

    Vinayak Upadhya; Pai, Sandeep R.; Sharma, Ajay K.; Hegde, Harsha V; Kholkute, Sanjiva D; Joshi, Rajesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Effects of varying temperatures with constant pressure of solvent on extraction efficiency of two chemically different alkaloids were studied. Camptothecin (CPT) from stem of Nothapodytes nimmoniana (Grah.) Mabb. and piperine from the fruits of Piper nigrum L. were extracted using Accelerated Solvent Extractor (ASE). Three cycles of extraction for a particular sample cell at a given temperature assured complete extraction. CPT and piperine were determined and quantified by using a simple and ...

  10. Determination of pharmaceuticals in biosolids using accelerated solvent extraction and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yunjie; Zhang, Weihao; Gu, Cheng; Xagoraraki, Irene; Li, Hui

    2011-01-01

    An analytical method was developed to quantitatively determine pharmaceuticals in biosolid (treated sewage sludge) from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The collected biosolid samples were initially freeze dried, and grounded to obtain relatively homogenized powders. Pharmaceuticals were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) under the optimized conditions. The optimal operation parameters, including extraction solvent, temperature, pressure, extraction time and cycles, were identified to be acetonitrile/water mixture (v/v 7:3) as extraction solvent with 3 extraction cycles (15 min for each cycle) at 100 °C and 100 bars. The extracts were cleaned up using solid-phase extraction followed by determination by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. For the 15 target pharmaceuticals commonly found in the environment, the overall method recoveries ranged from 49% to 68% for tetracyclines, 64% to 95% for sulfonamides, and 77% to 88% for other pharmaceuticals (i.e. acetaminophen, caffeine, carbamazepine, erythromycin, lincomycin and tylosin). The developed method was successfully validated and applied to the biosolid samples collected from WWTPs located in six cities in Michigan. Among the 15 target pharmaceuticals, 14 pharmaceuticals were detected in the collected biosolid samples. The average concentrations ranged from 2.6 μg/kg for lincomycin to 743.6 μg/kg for oxytetracycline. These results indicated that pharmaceuticals could survive wastewater treatment processes, and accumulate in sewage sludge and biosolids. Subsequent land application of the contaminated biosolids could lead to the dissemination of pharmaceuticals in soil and water environment, which poses potential threats to at-risk populations in the receiving ecosystems. PMID:21112593

  11. Screening for gestagens in kidney fat using accelerated solvent extraction and liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijerink, H.; Bennekom, van E.O.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2003-01-01

    A screening method has been developed for the determination of various anabolic steroids in kidney fat. Fat samples are extracted and steroids are trapped "on-line" during accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). Following this initial extraction samples are further purified with C18 solid-phase extrac

  12. Response surface methodology to optimise Accelerated Solvent Extraction of steviol glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentzer, Jean-Baptiste; Alignan, Marion; Vaca-Garcia, Carlos; Rigal, Luc; Vilarem, Gérard

    2015-01-01

    Following the approval of steviol glycosides as a food additive in Europe in December 2011, large-scale stevia cultivation will have to be developed within the EU. Thus there is a need to increase the efficiency of stevia evaluation through germplasm enhancement and agronomic improvement programs. To address the need for faster and reproducible sample throughput, conditions for automated extraction of dried stevia leaves using Accelerated Solvent Extraction were optimised. A response surface methodology was used to investigate the influence of three factors: extraction temperature, static time and cycle number on the stevioside and rebaudioside A extraction yields. The model showed that all the factors had an individual influence on the yield. Optimum extraction conditions were set at 100 °C, 4 min and 1 cycle, which yielded 91.8% ± 3.4% of total extractable steviol glycosides analysed. An additional optimisation was achieved by reducing the grind size of the leaves giving a final yield of 100.8% ± 3.3%. PMID:25053094

  13. Response surface methodology to optimise Accelerated Solvent Extraction of steviol glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentzer, Jean-Baptiste; Alignan, Marion; Vaca-Garcia, Carlos; Rigal, Luc; Vilarem, Gérard

    2015-01-01

    Following the approval of steviol glycosides as a food additive in Europe in December 2011, large-scale stevia cultivation will have to be developed within the EU. Thus there is a need to increase the efficiency of stevia evaluation through germplasm enhancement and agronomic improvement programs. To address the need for faster and reproducible sample throughput, conditions for automated extraction of dried stevia leaves using Accelerated Solvent Extraction were optimised. A response surface methodology was used to investigate the influence of three factors: extraction temperature, static time and cycle number on the stevioside and rebaudioside A extraction yields. The model showed that all the factors had an individual influence on the yield. Optimum extraction conditions were set at 100 °C, 4 min and 1 cycle, which yielded 91.8% ± 3.4% of total extractable steviol glycosides analysed. An additional optimisation was achieved by reducing the grind size of the leaves giving a final yield of 100.8% ± 3.3%.

  14. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) for purification and extraction of silicone passive samplers used for the monitoring of organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmeyer, Berit; Kraus, Uta R; Theobald, Norbert

    2015-12-01

    Silicone passive samplers have gained an increasing attention as single-phased, practical and robust samplers for monitoring of organic contaminants in the aquatic environment in recent years. However, analytical challenges arise in routine application during the extraction of analytes as silicone oligomers are co-extracted and interfere severely during chemical analyses (e.g. gas chromatographic techniques). In this study, we present a fast, practical pre-cleaning method for silicone passive samplers applying accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) for the removal of silicone oligomers prior to the water deployment (hexane/dichloromethane, 100 °C, 70 min). ASE was also shown to be a very fast (10 min) and efficient extraction method for non-polar contaminants (non-exposed PRC recoveries 66-101 %) sampled by the silicone membrane. For both applications, temperature, extraction time and the solvent used for ASE have been optimized. Purification of the ASE extract was carried out by silica gel and high-pressure liquid size exclusion chromatography (HPLC-SEC). The silicone oligomer content was checked by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (TXRF) in order to confirm the absence of the silicone oligomers prior to analysis of passive sampler extracts. The established method was applied on real silicone samplers from the North- and Baltic Sea and showed no matrix effects during analysis of organic pollutants. Internal laboratory standard recoveries were in the same range for laboratory, transport and exposed samplers (85-126 %). PMID:26289330

  15. Accelerated solvent extraction of vitamin K1 in medical foods in conjunction with matrix solid-phase dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, G W; Thompson, B

    2000-01-01

    An extraction technique is described for vitamin K1 in medical foods, using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) in conjunction with matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD). The medical food sample is treated as it would be with MSPD extraction, followed by ASE for a hands-free automated extraction. The vitamin K1 in the ASE extract is then quantitated by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The chromatography specifications are identical to those in previous work that used MSPD only, with a limit of detection of 6.6 pg and a limit of quantitation of 22 pg on column. Recoveries, which were determined for an analyte-fortified zero control reference material for medical foods, averaged 97.6% (n = 25) for vitamin K1. The method provides a rapid, automatic, specific, and easily controlled assay for vitamin K1 in fortified medical foods with minimal solvent usage. PMID:10772179

  16. RP-HPTLC densitometric determination and validation of vanillin and related phenolic compounds in accelerated solvent extract of Vanilla planifolia*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Upendra Kumar; Sharma, Nandini; Gupta, Ajai Prakash; Kumar, Vinod; Sinha, Arun Kumar

    2007-12-01

    A simple, fast and sensitive RP-HPTLC method is developed for simultaneous quantitative determination of vanillin and related phenolic compounds in ethanolic extracts of Vanilla planifolia pods. In addition to this, the applicability of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) as an alternative to microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and Soxhlet extraction was also explored for the rapid extraction of phenolic compounds in vanilla pods. Good separation was achieved on aluminium plates precoated with silica gel RP-18 F(254S) in the mobile phase of methanol/water/isopropanol/acetic acid (30:65:2:3, by volume). The method showed good linearity, high precision and good recovery of compounds of interest. ASE showed good extraction efficiency in less time as compared to other techniques for all the phenolic compounds. The present method would be useful for analytical research and for routine analysis of vanilla extracts for their quality control.

  17. Comparison of microwave, ultrasound and accelerated-assisted solvent extraction for recovery of polyphenols from Citrus sinensis peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Balunkeswar; Dahmoune, Farid; Moussi, Kamal; Remini, Hocine; Dairi, Sofiane; Aoun, Omar; Khodir, Madani

    2015-11-15

    Peel of Citrus sinensis contains significant amounts of bioactive polyphenols that could be used as ingredients for a number of value-added products with health benefits. Extraction of polyphenols from the peels was performed using a microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique. The effects of aqueous acetone concentration, microwave power, extraction time and solvent-to-solid ratio on the total phenolic content (TPC), total antioxidant activity (TAA) (using DPPH and ORAC-values) and individual phenolic acids (IPA) were investigated using a response surface method. The TPC, TAA and IPA of peel extracts using MAE was compared with conventional, ultrasound-assisted and accelerated solvent extraction. The maximum predicted TPC under the optimal MAE conditions (51% acetone concentration in water (v/v), 500 W microwave power, 122 s extraction time and 25 mL g(-1) solvent to solid ratio), was 12.20 mg GAE g(-1) DW. The TPC and TAA in MAE extracts were higher than the other three extracts.

  18. Optimization of in-cell accelerated solvent extraction technique for the determination of organochlorine pesticides in river sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duodu, Godfred Odame; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Ayoko, Godwin A

    2016-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants with adverse impacts on aquatic biota, wildlife and human health even at low concentrations. However, conventional methods for their determination in river sediments are resource intensive. This paper presents an approach that is rapid and also reliable for the detection of OCPs. Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) with in-cell silica gel clean-up followed by Triple Quadrupole Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometry (GCMS/MS) was used to recover OCPs from sediment samples. Variables such as temperature, solvent ratio, adsorbent mass and extraction cycle were evaluated and optimized for the extraction. With the exception of Aldrin, which was unaffected by any of the variables evaluated, the recovery of OCPs from sediment samples was largely influenced by solvent ratio and adsorbent mass and, to some extent, the number of cycles and temperature. The optimized conditions for OCPs extraction in sediment with good recoveries were determined to be 4 cycles, 4.5 g of silica gel, 105 °C, and 4:3 v/v DCM: hexane mixture. With the exception of two compounds (α-BHC and Aldrin) whose recoveries were low (59.73 and 47.66% respectively), the recovery of the other pesticides were in the range 85.35-117.97% with precision solvent used, matrix interference, and is highly sensitive and selective. PMID:26838409

  19. Predispersed solvent extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Rodarte, Alma Isabel Marín

    1988-01-01

    A new solvent extraction method has been developed for the extraction of metal and organic ions from very dilute aqueous solutions. The new method, which has been named Predispersed Solvent Extraction (POSE), is based on the principle that 1 there is no need to comminute both phases. All that is necessary is to comminute the solvent phase prior to contacting it with the feed. This is done by converting the solvent into aphrons, which are micron-sized globules encapsulated in a ...

  20. Evaluating the performances of accelerated-solvent extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and ultrasonic-assisted extraction for determining PCBs, HCHs and DDTs in sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Peng; GE Linke; ZHOU Chuanguang; YAOZiwei

    2011-01-01

    Three extraction techniques have been recently used for the quantitative extraction of semi-volatile organic pollutants in sediments,i.e.accelerated solvent extraction (ASE),microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE).However,their extraction efficiencies have rarely been quantitatively compared using rigorous mathematical methods.In this paper,one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to evaluate the performance of ASE,MAE and UAE in the overall extraction of PCBs,DDTs and HCHs by analysis of their recoveries from the Standard Reference Material IAEA-417,a sediment sample certified by many international laboratories.Conclusions were drawn at a significance level of P≤0.05.No significant differences were found among the mean values for method recoveries using ASE,MAE and UAE.The mean values for real recoveries using ASE and MAE were nearly identical,but the real recovery using UAE was much lower.The concentrations of all PCBs,DDTs and HCHs except for CB52 and o,p'-DDT using UAE were the lowest.Comparing the results obtained using ASE with MAE,the concentrations of CB28,CB52,CB138,α-HCH,β-HCH,p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD were nearly identical,while the concentrations of other compounds were significantly different.Based on the low recoveries,it was concluded that UAE is a relatively inefficient extraction method,while ASE and MAE are equivalent methods.Taking into consideration the relative standard deviation (RSD)values,solvent volume,extraction time,and purchasing costs of the apparatus,MAE was considered superior to ASE for extraction of PCBs,DDTs and HCHs.

  1. Compound Specific Extraction of Camptothecin from Nothapodytes nimmoniana and Piperine from Piper nigrum Using Accelerated Solvent Extractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak Upadhya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of varying temperatures with constant pressure of solvent on extraction efficiency of two chemically different alkaloids were studied. Camptothecin (CPT from stem of Nothapodytes nimmoniana (Grah. Mabb. and piperine from the fruits of Piper nigrum L. were extracted using Accelerated Solvent Extractor (ASE. Three cycles of extraction for a particular sample cell at a given temperature assured complete extraction. CPT and piperine were determined and quantified by using a simple and efficient UFLC-PDA (245 and 343 nm method. Temperature increased efficiency of extraction to yield higher amount of CPT, whereas temperature had diminutive effect on yield of piperine. Maximum yield for CPT was achieved at 80∘C and for piperine at 40∘C. Thus, the study determines compound specific extraction of CPT from N. nimmoniana and piperine from P. nigrum using ASE method. The present study indicates the use of this method for simple, fast, and accurate extraction of the compound of interest.

  2. Accelerated solvent extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction before gas chromatography with mass spectrometry for the sensitive determination of phenols in soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Han-Zhu; Wang, Xia; Chen, Xiang-Feng; Wang, Ming-Lin; Zhao, Ru-Song

    2015-05-01

    A method combining accelerated solvent extraction with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was developed for the first time as a sample pretreatment for the rapid analysis of phenols (including phenol, m-cresol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol) in soil samples. In the accelerated solvent extraction procedure, water was used as an extraction solvent, and phenols were extracted from soil samples into water. The dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction technique was then performed on the obtained aqueous solution. Important accelerated solvent extraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction parameters were investigated and optimized. Under optimized conditions, the new method provided wide linearity (6.1-3080 ng/g), low limits of detection (0.06-1.83 ng/g), and excellent reproducibility (liquid-liquid microextraction as a sample pretreatment procedure coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry is an excellent method for the rapid analysis of trace levels of phenols in environmental soil samples.

  3. Determination of persistent organic pollutants in solid environmental samples using accelerated solvent extraction and supercritical fluid extraction. Exhaustive extraction and sorption/desorption studies of PCBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerklund, E.

    1998-10-01

    Human activity is constantly causing environmental problems due to production and release of numerous chemicals. A group of compounds of special concern is persistent organic pollutants (POP). These toxic, lipophilic chemicals have a high chemical and biological stability, and tend to accumulate in the lipid phase of living organisms. A major sink for POPs are sediments, and consequently these are important for the distribution of POPs in the aquatic environment. Traditionally, determination of POPs relay on exhaustive extraction using liquid extraction techniques (e.g. Soxhlet extraction developed in the late 19th century) followed by gas chromatographic analysis. Since liquid-solid extraction normally requires large volumes of organic solvents in combination with long extraction times and extract clean-up, there has been an increasing demand for improved technology. This should result in reduced organic solvent consumption and sample preparation time, at the same time improving the environment and cutting costs for POP monitoring. In this thesis two modern techniques with capability of fulfilling at least one of these goals have been investigated: (1) Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE), and (2) Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE). Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were chosen as model compounds in all experiments performed on environmental matrices, since they cover a relatively large range of physiochemical parameters. Important parameters influencing the overall extraction efficiency in ASE and SFE, are discussed and illustrated for a large number of sediments. It was demonstrated that, by careful consideration of the experimental parameters, both techniques are capable of replacing old methods such as Soxhlet extraction. ASE is somewhat faster than SFE, but the extracts generated in SFE are much cleaner and can be analyzed without sample clean-up. Consequently the overall sample preparation time may be substantially lower using SFE. However, ASE is important

  4. Influence of Accelerated Solvent Extraction and Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction on the Anthocyanin Profile of Different Vaccinium Species in the Context of Statistical Models for Authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffels, Peter; Weber, Fabian; Schieber, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Anthocyanins are frequently discussed as marker compounds for fruit product authenticity. Proper analysis including sample preparation for the determination of anthocyanin concentrations is crucial for the comparability of authenticity data. The present study determined the influence of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), using two different solvent compositions on the anthocyanin profile of bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), lowbush blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.), and American cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.). Besides differences in total anthocyanin concentrations in the extracts, significant deviations (p ≤ 0.05) in the individual anthocyanin concentration were observed, resulting in differing anthocyanin proportions. Linear discriminant analysis comparing the differences caused by the extraction method to the natural differences within a set of 26 bilberry and lowbush blueberry samples of different origins was conducted. It revealed that profile variations induced by the extraction methods are in a similar scale to profile variations as a result of geographic and climatic differences. PMID:26330254

  5. Effect of the drying process on the intensification of phenolic compounds recovery from grape pomace using accelerated solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajha, Hiba N; Ziegler, Walter; Louka, Nicolas; Hobaika, Zeina; Vorobiev, Eugene; Boechzelt, Herbert G; Maroun, Richard G

    2014-01-01

    In light of their environmental and economic interests, food byproducts have been increasingly exploited and valorized for their richness in dietary fibers and antioxidants. Phenolic compounds are antioxidant bioactive molecules highly present in grape byproducts. Herein, the accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of phenolic compounds from wet and dried grape pomace, at 45 °C, was conducted and the highest phenolic compounds yield (PCY) for wet (16.2 g GAE/100 g DM) and dry (7.28 g GAE/100 g DM) grape pomace extracts were obtained with 70% ethanol/water solvent at 140 °C. The PCY obtained from wet pomace was up to two times better compared to the dry byproduct and up to 15 times better compared to the same food matrices treated with conventional methods. With regard to Resveratrol, the corresponding dry pomace extract had a better free radical scavenging activity (49.12%) than the wet extract (39.8%). The drying pretreatment process seems to ameliorate the antiradical activity, especially when the extraction by ASE is performed at temperatures above 100 °C. HPLC-DAD analysis showed that the diversity of the flavonoid and the non-flavonoid compounds found in the extracts was seriously affected by the extraction temperature and the pretreatment of the raw material. This diversity seems to play a key role in the scavenging activity demonstrated by the extracts. Our results emphasize on ASE usage as a promising method for the preparation of highly concentrated and bioactive phenolic extracts that could be used in several industrial applications.

  6. Supercritical solvent coal extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Yields of soluble organic extract are increased up to about 50% by the supercritical extraction of particulate coal at a temperature below the polymerization temperature for coal extract fragments (450 C.) and a pressure from 500 psig to 5,000 psig by the conjoint use of a solvent mixture containing a low volatility, high critical temperature coal dissolution catalyst such as phenanthrene and a high volatility, low critical temperature solvent such as toluene.

  7. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF RUTHENIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, H.H.; Leader, G.R.

    1959-07-14

    The separation of rathenium from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction is described. According to the invention, a nitrite selected from the group consisting of alkali nitrite and alkaline earth nitrite in an equimolecular quantity with regard to the quantity of rathenium present is added to an aqueous solution containing ruthenium tetrantrate to form a ruthenium complex. Adding an organic solvent such as ethyl ether to the resulting mixture selectively extracts the rathenium complex.

  8. [Determination of diflubenzuron and triflumuron residues in greasy wool by accelerated solvent extraction technique and high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yuanmu; Huang, Shaotang; Yu, Xuejun; Gu, Xiaojun; Qiu, Yajun; Chen, Shubing; Fang, Keteng; Chen, Jun

    2009-07-01

    A method for the determination of diflubenzuron and triflumuron residues in greasy wool was developed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The diflubenzuron and triflumuron residues were extracted with acetonitrile saturated with n-hexane at 80 degrees C and 10.34 MPa. The extract was pretreated by a series of procedures such as freezing-lipid filtration, concentration and purification by solid-phase extraction prior to the determination with HPLC. The target analytes were separated on a Waters Atlants dC18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm), gradiently eluted with acetonitrile and water as the mobile phases and detected by a photodiode array detector (DAD) at 254 nm. The linear ranges were 0.1 - 10.0 mg/L. There were good linearity between the peak areas and concentrations in the linear range for the analytes, and the correlation coefficients of diflubenzuron and triflumuron were higher than 0.9999. The limits of quantification for diflubenzuron and triflumuron were 0.05 and 0.04 mg/kg (S/N > or = 10), respectively. The method is simple, rapid, sensitive and suitable for preliminary screening of diflubenzuron and triflumuron residues in greasy wool. PMID:19938504

  9. Accelerated solvent extraction followed by on-line solid-phase extraction coupled to ion trap LC/MS/MS for analysis of benzalkonium chlorides in sediment samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, I.; Furlong, E.T.

    2002-01-01

    Benzalkonium chlorides (BACs) were successfully extracted from sediment samples using a new methodology based on accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) followed by an on-line cleanup step. The BACs were detected by liquid chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry (LC/MS) or tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using an electrospray interface operated in the positive ion mode. This methodology combines the high efficiency of extraction provided by a pressurized fluid and the high sensitivity offered by the ion trap MS/MS. The effects of solvent type and ASE operational variables, such as temperature and pressure, were evaluated. After optimization, a mixture of acetonitrile/water (6:4 or 7:3) was found to be most efficient for extracting BACs from the sediment samples. Extraction recoveries ranged from 95 to 105% for C12 and C14 homologues, respectively. Total method recoveries from fortified sediment samples, using a cleanup step followed by ASE, were 85% for C12BAC and 79% for C14-BAC. The methodology developed in this work provides detection limits in the subnanogram per gram range. Concentrations of BAC homologues ranged from 22 to 206 ??g/kg in sediment samples from different river sites downstream from wastewater treatment plants. The high affinity of BACs for soil suggests that BACs preferentially concentrate in sediment rather than in water.

  10. Ultrasonic or accelerated solvent extraction followed by U-HPLC-high mass accuracy MS for screening of pharmaceuticals and fungicides in soil and plant samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitescu, Carmen Lidia; Oosterink, Efraim; de Jong, Jacob; Stolker, Alida Adriana Maria Linda

    2012-01-15

    Different veterinary pharmaceuticals are used in agricultural livestock becoming a source of environment contamination. Furthermore, no regulation exists for the concentration limits of pharmaceuticals in soil or water. Monitoring programs for environment contamination with pharmaceuticals are needed, requiring new sensitive and selective screening methods. The present study focuses on developing a method for the simultaneous scanning of forty-two compounds (pharmaceuticals, azole biocides and fungicides) in soil and plant material samples. For extraction purposes the use of ultrasonic assisted and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) were compared. The extract was purified and concentrated by applying a solid phase extraction step followed by ultra-high-performance-chromatographic separation and accurate-mass spectrometric detection using Exacte Orbitrap technology (FWHM 50,000). The effects of the different extraction solvents and conditions on the extraction efficiency were tested. Although both extraction approaches are applicable the optimal extraction efficiency was obtained by applying accelerated solvent extraction using solvent mixtures containing acetone for soil and methanol for plant samples. An ASE process has been validated for the determination of selected pharmaceuticals and fungicides in soil and in plant material. The recoveries from soil samples were >70% for more than 68% of the compounds. The levels of detection were ≤10 μg kg(-1) for 93% of the compounds tested. The recoveries from plant material were >70% for 64% of the compounds tested. The levels of detection were ≤10 μg kg(-1) for 66% of the compounds. The developed method was used to screen soil and plant material collected throughout the Netherlands and oxytetracycline residues were detected. PMID:22265554

  11. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) for purification and extraction of silicone passive samplers used for the monitoring of organic pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Brockmeyer, Berit; Kraus, Uta R.; Theobald, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Silicone passive samplers have gained an increasing attention as single-phased, practical and robust samplers for monitoring of organic contaminants in the aquatic environment in recent years. However, analytical challenges arise in routine application during the extraction of analytes as silicone oligomers are co-extracted and interfere severely during chemical analyses (e.g. gas chromatographic techniques). In this study, we present a fast, practical pre-cleaning method for silicone passive...

  12. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF URANIUM VALUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, H.M.; Ader, M.; Ross, L.E.

    1959-02-01

    A process is presented for extracting uranium salt from aqueous acidic solutions by organic solvent extraction. It consists in contacting the uranium bearing solution with a water immiscible dialkylacetamide having at least 8 carbon atoms in the molecule. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dibutylacetamide. The organic solvent is usually used with a diluent such as kerosene or CCl/sub 4/.

  13. Supercritical multicomponent solvent coal extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, W. H.; Fong, W. S.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P. C. F.; Lawson, D. D. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The yield of organic extract from the supercritical extraction of coal with larger diameter organic solvents such as toluene is increased by use of a minor amount of from 0.1 to 10% by weight of a second solvent such as methanol having a molecular diameter significantly smaller than the average pore diameter of the coal.

  14. Accelerated solvent extraction and analysis of tea polyphenols%茶多酚的加速溶剂萃取与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵敏; 唐美华; 张之翼; 吕凤兰; 陈国松

    2012-01-01

    以毛尖茶叶为原料,用加速溶剂萃取法提取茶多酚粗品.用单因素试验研究和正交试验考察乙醇体积分数、温度和循环次数对萃取率的影响.用二极管阵列-高效液相色谱( DAD - HPLC)对照测定加速溶剂萃取的萘多酚粗品、微波辅助提取的萘多酚粗品和商品荼多酚.结果表明:茶多酚粗品的制备最佳条件为萃取温度160℃、乙醇体积分数60%、循环萃取2次.高温加速溶剂萃取法对茶多酚的粗提率较高,但其中儿茶素的总量却显著下降.降低提取温度,则茶多酚中的主要功能成分儿茶素的含量显著高于微波辅助提取法.%The gross tea polyphenols were extracted from Maojian tea by the accelerated solvent method. Single factor test and orthogonal design were used to explore the effects of ethanol volume fraction, temperature and cycle times on the extraction ratio. The comparison of gross polyphenols got from accelerated solvent extraction, microwave-assisted extraction and commodity was made by diode array detector-high performance liquid chromatography (DAD-HPLC) analysis. Results showed that the optimum operation conditions for gross polyphenlos extraction are 160 ℃ , 2 times, and 60% ethanol. The accelerated solvent extraction ratio at a high temperature was higher for the gross tea polyphenols and lower for the cate-chin. If the extraction temperature was dropped down to 40℃, the content of catechin was much higher than that from microwave-assisted extraction.

  15. Rapid dioxin analysis using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), multi-column sample cleanup and Rtx-Dioxin2 gas chromatography column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, C.; Blow, P. [Australian Laboratory Services, Brisbane (Australia); Dorman, F. [Restek Corporation, Bellefonte, PA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    One of the main aims of many dioxin analysis laboratories is to reduce sample turnaround times to the absolute minimum. Often shorter times between sample receipt and reporting of results can attract a premium price for the analysis. It is generally accepted that the GC-MS portion of dioxin/PCB analysis is not the rate determining step in the overall scheme. Therefore, sample extraction and clean up is the obvious step to investigate for time-saving purposes. The use of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and multi column cleanup has been investigated for soil, sediment, air sampling media (XAD-2 resin) and fly-ash samples. For water samples the ASE step is replaced with a liquid/liquid separatory funnel extraction. Environmental analyses regularly require the use of two GC-MS runs to produce dioxin results that may be relied upon. The use of the classical 5MS type column coupled with the more polar 2331 type to produce final results is typical. The innovative capillary GC column, Rtx-Dioxin2, has offered the possibility of performing a dioxin analysis in a single GC-MS run. The analysis of the WHO-12 PCB (PCBs 77, 81, 105, 114, 118, 123, 126, 156, 157, 167, 169 and 189) congeners has also been investigated using this column.

  16. Optimization of an accelerated solvent extraction dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method for the separation and determination of essential oil from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Sun, Qiushi; Hu, Zhiyan; Liu, Hua; Zhou, Tingting; Fan, Guorong

    2015-10-01

    In this study, an accelerated solvent extraction dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry was established and employed for the extraction, concentration and analysis of essential oil constituents from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. Response surface methodology was performed to optimize the key parameters in accelerated solvent extraction on the extraction efficiency, and key parameters in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction were discussed as well. Two representative constituents in Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort, (Z)-ligustilide and n-butylphthalide, were quantitatively analyzed. It was shown that the qualitative result of the accelerated solvent extraction dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction approach was in good agreement with that of hydro-distillation, whereas the proposed approach took far less extraction time (30 min), consumed less plant material (usually <1 g, 0.01 g for this study) and solvent (<20 mL) than the conventional system. To sum up, the proposed method could be recommended as a new approach in the extraction and analysis of essential oil.

  17. Accelerated solvent extraction -gas chromatography to the residue of pesticides measurement%加速溶剂萃取-气相色谱法对土壤中农药残留的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙志伟

    2015-01-01

    文章论述了加速溶剂萃取-气相色谱法对土壤中农药残留的测定方法.%This paper introduced the accelerated solvent extraction -gas chromatography to the residue of pesticides measurement.

  18. Investigation of six bioactive anthraquinones in slimming tea by accelerated solvent extraction and high performance capillary electrophoresis with diode-array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Su, Ming; Liang, Shuxuan; Sun, Hanwen

    2016-05-15

    A rapid and effective method for effective separation and rapid simultaneous determination of six bioactive anthraquinones by capillary zone electrophoresis was developed. An accelerated solvent extraction procedure was used for the extraction of anthraquinones from slimming tea. Under the optimized conditions, the effective separation of six anthraquinones was achieved within 8 min. Good linearity was achieved, with a correlation coefficient (r) of ⩾ 0.999. The limit of detection ranged from 0.33 to 1.40 μg mL(-1). The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviation (RSD) of the six analytes was in the range of 2.3-3.9% and 3.2-4.9%, respectively. The average recovery of the six analytes from real tea samples was in the range of 86.15-98.30% with the RSD of 1.04-4.99%. The developed and validated method has speediness, high sensitivity, recovery and precision, and can be applied for the quality control of slimming tea.

  19. Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Leonard, R.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems are a series of novel solvent extraction (SX) processes that will remove and recover all of the major radioisotopes from acidic-dissolved sludge or other acidic high-level wastes. The major focus of this effort during the last 2 years has been the development of a combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process, the Combined CSEX-SREX Process. The Combined CSEX-SREX Process relies on a mixture of a strontium-selective macrocyclic polyether and a novel cesium-selective extractant based on dibenzo 18-crown-6. The process offers several potential advantages over possible alternatives in a chemical processing scheme for high-level waste treatment. First, if the process is applied as the first step in chemical pretreatment, the radiation level for all subsequent processing steps (e.g., transuranic extraction/recovery, or TRUEX) will be significantly reduced. Thus, less costly shielding would be required. The second advantage of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process is that the recovered Cs-Sr fraction is non-transuranic, and therefore will decay to low-level waste after only a few hundred years. Finally, combining individual processes into a single process will reduce the amount of equipment required to pretreat the waste and therefore reduce the size and cost of the waste processing facility. In an ongoing collaboration with Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO), the authors have successfully tested various segments of the Advanced Integrated Solvent Extraction Systems. Eichrom Industries, Inc. (Darien, IL) synthesizes and markets the Sr extractant and can supply the Cs extractant on a limited basis. Plans are under way to perform a test of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process with real waste at LMITCO in the near future.

  20. Evaluation of micro-colorimetric lipid determination method with samples prepared using sonication and accelerated solvent extraction methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two common laboratory extraction techniques were evaluated for routine use with the micro-colorimetric lipid determination method developed by Van Handel (1985) [E. Van Handel, J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 1(1985) 302] and recently validated for small samples by Inouye and Lotufo ...

  1. 加速溶剂萃取-气相色谱-质谱法分析土壤中多氯联苯%Analysis of PCBs in Soil by Accelerate Solvent Extraction Coupled With Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤桦; 陈大舟; 邵明武; 戴新华; 王覃

    2004-01-01

    An effective method for determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in contaminated soil by means of accelerate solvent extraction (ASE) followed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was studied. The reliability and efficiency of ASE for extracting PCBs from contaminated soil has been investigated by comparing with soxhlet extraction. The influence of extract parameters such as temperature, static cycle were discussed. RSD was 1.8%-9.3% .The detection limits is in the range of 0.33-1.33μg/kg. The result showed the method was rapid, sensitive and economic.

  2. Analysis of intracellular and extracellular microcystin variants in sediments and pore waters by accelerated solvent extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • First analytical method for intracellular microcystins (MCs) in sediment. • Includes a suite of variants (LR, 7dmLR, RR, YR, WR, LA, LF, LY, LW) and nodularin. • Reports the first measurements of MCs in sediment pore waters. • MCs detected in >100 year old lake sediments suggesting long-term preservation. • Sediment-pore water distribution (Kd) differed between variants suggesting differences in environmental fate. - Abstract: The fate and persistence of microcystin cyanotoxins in aquatic ecosystems remains poorly understood in part due to the lack of analytical methods for microcystins in sediments. Existing methods have been limited to the extraction of a few extracellular microcystins of similar chemistry. We developed a single analytical method, consisting of accelerated solvent extraction, hydrophilic–lipophilic balance solid phase extraction, and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, suitable for the extraction and quantitation of both intracellular and extracellular cyanotoxins in sediments as well as pore waters. Recoveries of nine microcystins, representing the chemical diversity of microcystins, and nodularin (a marine analogue) ranged between 75 and 98% with one, microcystin-RR (MC-RR), at 50%. Chromatographic separation of these analytes was achieved within 7.5 min and the method detection limits were between 1.1 and 2.5 ng g−1 dry weight (dw). The robustness of the method was demonstrated on sediment cores collected from seven Canadian lakes of diverse geography and trophic states. Individual microcystin variants reached a maximum concentration of 829 ng g−1 dw on sediment particles and 132 ng mL−1 in pore waters and could be detected in sediments as deep as 41 cm (>100 years in age). MC-LR, -RR, and -LA were more often detected while MC-YR, -LY, -LF, and -LW were less common. The analytical method enabled us to estimate sediment-pore water distribution coefficients (Kd), MC

  3. Analysis of intracellular and extracellular microcystin variants in sediments and pore waters by accelerated solvent extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zastepa, Arthur, E-mail: arthur.zastepa@gmail.com; Pick, Frances R.; Blais, Jules M.; Saleem, Ammar

    2015-05-04

    Highlights: • First analytical method for intracellular microcystins (MCs) in sediment. • Includes a suite of variants (LR, {sup 7dm}LR, RR, YR, WR, LA, LF, LY, LW) and nodularin. • Reports the first measurements of MCs in sediment pore waters. • MCs detected in >100 year old lake sediments suggesting long-term preservation. • Sediment-pore water distribution (K{sub d}) differed between variants suggesting differences in environmental fate. - Abstract: The fate and persistence of microcystin cyanotoxins in aquatic ecosystems remains poorly understood in part due to the lack of analytical methods for microcystins in sediments. Existing methods have been limited to the extraction of a few extracellular microcystins of similar chemistry. We developed a single analytical method, consisting of accelerated solvent extraction, hydrophilic–lipophilic balance solid phase extraction, and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, suitable for the extraction and quantitation of both intracellular and extracellular cyanotoxins in sediments as well as pore waters. Recoveries of nine microcystins, representing the chemical diversity of microcystins, and nodularin (a marine analogue) ranged between 75 and 98% with one, microcystin-RR (MC-RR), at 50%. Chromatographic separation of these analytes was achieved within 7.5 min and the method detection limits were between 1.1 and 2.5 ng g{sup −1} dry weight (dw). The robustness of the method was demonstrated on sediment cores collected from seven Canadian lakes of diverse geography and trophic states. Individual microcystin variants reached a maximum concentration of 829 ng g{sup −1} dw on sediment particles and 132 ng mL{sup −1} in pore waters and could be detected in sediments as deep as 41 cm (>100 years in age). MC-LR, -RR, and -LA were more often detected while MC-YR, -LY, -LF, and -LW were less common. The analytical method enabled us to estimate sediment-pore water

  4. Comparison of Extraction Techniques with Different Solvents for DDT Analogues in Sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LANG Yin-Hai; JIANG Xin; D. MARTENS; ZHAO Qi-Guo

    2005-01-01

    Four techniques, Soxhlet extraction (SOX), ultrasonic extraction (USE), fluidized-bed extraction (FBE) and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with different solvents (methanol, hexane/acetone and acetonitrile) were used for the extraction of DDT analogues in sediments. Results revealed that the four extraction techniques had high recoveries (>86.0%) with low standard deviations (< 12.0%) for most of DDT analogues, meaning that they could all successfully extract DDT analogues in sediments. Accelerated solvent extraction using methanol and hexane/acetone (1:1), fluidized-bed extraction using hexane/acetone (1:1) and the ultrasonic extraction using hexane/acetone (1:1) were comparable or better than Soxhlet extraction using hexane/acetone (1:1). Considering solvent- and time-consumption, level of automation,and environmental risk, accelerated solvent extraction with hexane/acetone (1:1) was better than the other extraction techniques.

  5. Improved Supercritical-Solvent Extraction of Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, L.

    1982-01-01

    Raw coal upgraded by supercritical-solvent extraction system that uses two materials instead of one. System achieved extraction yields of 20 to 49 weight percent. Single-solvent yields are about 25 weight percent. Experimental results show extraction yields may be timedependent. Observed decreases in weight of coal agreed well with increases in ash content of residue.

  6. A new procedure combining GC-MS with accelerated solvent extraction for the analysis of phthalic acid esters in contaminated soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tingting MA; Ying TENG; Peter CHRISTIE; Yongming LUO; Yongshan CHEN; Mao YE

    2013-01-01

    An optimized procedure based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combined with accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) is developed for the analysis of six phthalic acid esters (PAEs), which are priority soil pollutants nominated by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Quantification of PAEs in soil employs ultrasonic extraction (UE) (USEPA 3550) and ASE (USEPA 3545), followed by clean up procedures involving three different chromatography columns and two combined elution methods. GC-MS conditions under selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode are described and quality assurance and quality control (QA/ QC) criteria with high accuracy and sensitivity for target analytes were achieved. Method reliability is assured with the use of an isotopically labeled PAE, di-n-butyl phthalate-d4 (DnBP-D4), as a surrogate, and benzyl benzoate (BB) as an internal standard, and with the analysis of certified reference materials (CRM). QA/QC for the developed procedure was tested in four PAE-spiked soils and one PAE-contaminated soil. The four spiked soils were originated from typical Chinese agricultural fields and the contaminated soil was obtained from an electronic waste dismantling area. Instrument detection limits (IDLs) for the six PAEs ranged 0.10-0.31 μg·L-1 and method detection limits (MDLs) of the four spiked soils varied from a range of 20-70 μg· kg -1 to a range of 90-290 μg· kg-1. Lineal-iVy of response between 20 μg· L-1 and 2mg.L~ was also established and the correlation coefficients (R) were a11〉0.998. Spiked soil matrix showed relative recovery rates between 75 and 120% for the six target compounds and about 93% for the surrogate substance. The developed procedure is anticipated to be highly applicable for field surveys of soil PAE pollution in China.

  7. Solvent Extraction of Furfural From Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, M. F.

    1984-01-01

    Solvent-extraction method reduces energy required to remove furfural produced during acid hydrolysis of biomass. Acid hydrolysis performed in vessel containing both solvents and reacting ingredients. With intimate contact between solvents and aqueous hydrolyis liqour, furfural removed form liquor almost as fast as it forms.

  8. Extractive Distillation with Salt in Solvent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Extractive distillation with salt in solvent is a new process for producing anhydrous ethanol by combining the principle of "salt effect" and some traditional extractive distillation methods. Compared with the common extractive distillation the performance of solvent is improved, the recycling amount of solvent is reduced to 1/4-1/5, and the number of theoretical plates is reduced to 1/3. Energy consumption and cost of equipment are also reduced and continuous production is realized. High efficiency and low solvent wastage make this technique feasible.

  9. REMEDIATING PESTICIDE CONTAMINATED SOILS USING SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bench-scale solvent extraction studies were performed on soil samples obtained from a Superfund site contaminated with high levels of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD,, p,p'-DDE and toxaphene. The effectiveness of the solvent extraction process was assessed using methanol and 2-propanol as sol...

  10. Improved efficiency of extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material Diesel Particulate Matter (SRM 2975) using accelerated solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masala, Silvia; Ahmed, Trifa; Bergvall, Christoffer; Westerholm, Roger

    2011-12-01

    The efficiency of extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with molecular masses of 252, 276, 278, 300, and 302 Da from standard reference material diesel particulate matter (SRM 2975) has been investigated using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with dichloromethane, toluene, methanol, and mixtures of toluene and methanol. Extraction of SRM 2975 using toluene/methanol (9:1, v/v) at maximum instrumental settings (200 °C, 20.7 MPa, and five extraction cycles) with 30-min extraction times resulted in the following elevations of the measured concentration when compared with the certified and reference concentrations reported by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST): benzo[b]fluoranthene, 46%; benzo[k]fluoranthene, 137%; benzo[e]pyrene, 103%; benzo[a]pyrene, 1,570%; perylene, 37%; indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, 41%; benzo[ghi]perylene, 163%; and coronene, 361%. The concentrations of the following PAHs were comparable to the reference values assigned by NIST: indeno[1,2,3-cd]fluoranthene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, and picene. The measured concentration of dibenzo[a,e]-pyrene was lower than the information value reported by the NIST. The measured concentrations of other highly carcinogenic PAHs (dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene, and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene) in SRM 2975 are also reported. Comparison of measurements using the optimized ASE method and using similar conditions to those applied by the NIST for the assignment of PAH concentrations in SRM 2975 indicated that the higher values obtained in the present study were associated with more complete extraction of PAHs from the diesel particulate material. Re-extraction of the particulate samples demonstrated that the deuterated internal standards were more readily recovered than the native PAHs, which may explain the lower values reported by the NIST. The analytical results obtained in the study demonstrated that the efficient extraction of PAHs from SRM 2975 is a critical requirement for the

  11. Supercritical-Multiple-Solvent Extraction From Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, W.; Fong, W.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P.; Lawson, D.

    1983-01-01

    Large and small molecules dissolve different constituents. Experimental apparatus used to test supercritical extraction of hydrogen rich compounds from coal in various organic solvents. In decreasing order of importance, relevant process parameters were found to be temperature, solvent type, pressure, and residence time.

  12. Solvent Extraction Developments in Southern Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The largest solvent-extraction plant in the world at the time, the Nchanga Copper Operation, was in Zambia. The first commercial process using solvent extraction for the refining of the platinum-group metals was in South Africa. More recently, the Southern African region has seen the implementation of solvent extraction for other base metals, precious metals, and specialty metals. These include the world firsts of primary production of zinc at Skorpion Zinc in Namibia and the large-scale refining of gold by Harmony Gold in South Africa. Several other flowsheets that use solvent-extraction technology are currently under commissioning, development, or feasibility study for implementation in this part of the world, including those for the recovery of copper, cobalt, nickel, tantalum, and niobium.

  13. Full scale solvent extraction remedial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevenson Extraction Technology, Inc. has completed the development of the Soil Restoration Unit (initially developed by Terra-Kleen Corporation), a mobile, totally enclosed solvent extraction treatment facility for the removal of organic contaminated media is greater by a closed loop, counter current process that recycles all solvents. The solvents used are selected for the individual site dependant upon the contaminants, such as PCB's, oil, etc. and the soil conditions. A mixture of up to fourteen non-toxic solvents can be used for complicated sites. The full scale unit has been used to treat one superfund site, the Traband Site in Tulsa, Oklahoma, and is currently treating another superfund site, the Pinette's Salvage Yard Site in Washburn, Maine. The full scale Soil Restoration Unit has also been used at a non-superfund site, as part of a TSCA Research and Development permit. The results from these sites will be discussed in brief herein, and in more detail in the full paper

  14. 加速溶剂萃取-高效液相色谱串联质谱法测定土壤中农药残留%Determination of Pesticides in Soil by Accelerated Solvent Extraction-Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫蕊; 邵明媛; 鞠福龙; 宋大千; 张寒琦; 于爱民

    2013-01-01

    A rapid and accurate method based on accelerated solvent extraction liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry ( LC-MS/MS) was developed for the determination of 9 kinds of pesticides in soil. The analytes were extracted by accelerated sol?vent extraction using acetonitrile as the extraction solvent. The extract was concentrated by evaporation. Qualitative and quantita?tive analysis for the analytes was carried out by the multiple reaction monitoring mode after the chromatographic separation using acetonitrile-water solution as mobile phase. The linear range of detection for nine pesticides was between 0. 5-500 μg/kg, and the limits of detection were between 0. 2-2.0 μg/kg. The recoveries and relative standard deviations were 90.0% -105.0% and 1.0% -5. 9% , respectively. This method is rapid, sensitive and suitable to the determination of pesticides in soil.

  15. Application of accelerated solvent extraction in analysis of aromatic compounds in tobacco%加速溶剂萃取法在烟草香气分析中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓兰; 黄兰; 李盼盼; 高芸; 杨俊

    2011-01-01

    The accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) was used to extract aromatic compounds in tobacco, and more than 10 aldehydes and ketones were identified and determined by gas chromatography/mass spec-trometry. The optimum conditions for ASE (heating time? Solvent volume and extraction time) were investigated with orthogonal array design. The results of ASE and simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) were compared. The results indicate that the ASE is simple, rapid and easy-to -operate, its repeatability is satisfactory, and the recoveries are in the range of 80. 3%~106. 4%. The ASE is a little better than SDE.%通过加速溶剂萃取法分离烟草中的香味物质,对烟草中10多种醛酮类香味物质用GC/MS进行定性分析,并用内标法进行定量分析,采用正交实验方案探讨了加速溶剂萃取分离烟草香味物质的优化条件,比较了该方法与同时蒸馏萃取对分析结果的影响.结果显示:加速溶剂萃取简便、快速,易于操作,重复性令人满意,回收率范围是80.3%~106.4%,比同时蒸馏萃取法略好.

  16. Diluent effects in solvent extraction. The Effects of Diluents in Solvent Extraction - a literature study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fact that the choice of organic diluent is important for a solvent extraction process goes without saying. Several factors, such as e.g. price, flash point, viscosity, polarity etc. each have their place in the planning of a solvent extraction system. This high number of variables makes the lack of compilations concerning diluent effects to an interesting topic. Often the interest for the research concerning a specific extraction system focuses on the extractant used and the complexes built up during an extraction. The diluents used are often classical ones, even if it has been shown that choice of diluent can affect extraction as well as separation in an extraction system. An attempt to point out important steps in the understanding of diluent effects in solvent extraction is here presented. This large field is, of course, not summarized in this article, but an attempt is made to present important steps in the understanding of diluents effects in solvent extraction. Trying to make the information concerning diluent effects and applications more easily accessible this review offers a selected summarizing of literature concerning diluents effects in solvent extraction. (authors)

  17. Thermal extraction of bamboo with various solvents

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Junghee

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is to describe the potential of improvement by liquefaction with various solvents in pyrolysis in terms of conversion of bamboo to gas and liquid and quality of the bio-oils and residues produced. Fluidised sand bath and pressure gauge reactor were used for pyrolysis. The reactor was coupled with bamboo and a solvent and after 1 hour of pyrolysis and liquefaction at 410°C, the gas produced was collected in gas bag. To extract compounds uniformly from the chemically decomposed...

  18. Accelerating DSMC data extraction.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallis, Michail A.; Piekos, Edward Stanley

    2006-10-01

    In many direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) simulations, the majority of computation time is consumed after the flowfield reaches a steady state. This situation occurs when the desired output quantities are small compared to the background fluctuations. For example, gas flows in many microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have mean speeds more than two orders of magnitude smaller than the thermal speeds of the molecules themselves. The current solution to this problem is to collect sufficient samples to achieve the desired resolution. This can be an arduous process because the error is inversely proportional to the square root of the number of samples so we must, for example, quadruple the samples to cut the error in half. This work is intended to improve this situation by employing more advanced techniques, from fields other than solely statistics, for determining the output quantities. Our strategy centers on exploiting information neglected by current techniques, which collect moments in each cell without regard to one another, values in neighboring cells, nor their evolution in time. Unlike many previous acceleration techniques that modify the method itself, the techniques examined in this work strictly post-process so they may be applied to any DSMC code without affecting its fidelity or generality. Many potential methods are drawn from successful applications in a diverse range of areas, from ultrasound imaging to financial market analysis. The most promising methods exploit relationships between variables in space, which always exist in DSMC due to the absence of shocks. Disparate techniques were shown to produce similar error reductions, suggesting that the results shown in this report may be typical of what is possible using these methods. Sample count reduction factors of approximately three to five were found to be typical, although factors exceeding ten were shown on some variables under some techniques.

  19. Solvent induced track sensitization. Extraction of oligomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, P.; Angert, N.; Brüchle, W.; Hermann, H.; Kampschulte, U.; Klein, P.; Kravets, L. I.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Remmert, G.; Spohr, R.; Steckenreiter, T.; Trautmann, C.; Vetter, J.

    1994-04-01

    Oligomer extraction from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) irradiated by xenon ions of 11.4 MeV/u is investigated using UV spectrophotometry and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The cyclic trimer is identified as the predominant diffusing species removed during extraction by dimethyl formamide (DMF). Extraction dynamics is modeled by a rapid (time constant ≈ 2 min) and a slow (time constant ≈ 100 min) diffusion process attributed to the latent ion tracks and to the virgin material, respectively. Thereby latent tracks act simultaneously as irrigation and drainage pipes for the transfer of the solvent into and the extraction of oligomers from the polymer matrix. Thus tracks help to release osmotic pressure differences and to avoid blistering of the unirradiated polymer during solvent exchange. The total extracted mass per track shows a characteristic decrease with increasing ion fluence interpreted as oxygen effect, due to the decreasing supply of oxygen in the sample during irradiation. The extractable mass corresponds to an equivalent track diameter of initially around 10 nm contracting with increasing ion fluence to an asymptotic value around 3 nm.

  20. Method of accelerated solvent extraction of petroleum hydrocarbon in marine shellfish%加速溶剂萃取法提取海洋贝类体中石油烃的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏炳训; 宁璇璇; 姜军成; 曲琳; 吴翠翠

    2013-01-01

    An accelerated solvent extraction(ASE) method for the extraction of petroleum hydrocarbon in marine shellfish was developed. The main factors,which affect the extraction yield,such as extraction solvent,temperature,pressure,static time and cycle times etc. were discussed. The optimum parameters for petroleum hydrocarbon extraction from shellfish were:the petroleum ether as an ex-tractant,temperature of 125 ℃ ,pressure of 10. 34 MPa,static time of 5 minutes and 1 cycle. Under this condition,the satisfactory result was obtained with recovery rate of 92. 0% -101.3% and precision of 2. 1 % RSD( n = 6 ) . While using the pretreatment method in GB 17378. 6-2007 ,the recovery rate ranged from 88.0% to 95. 3% and the precision was 3. 7% RSD(n = 6). The Paired t-test proved that there was no significant difference between these two methods. Consequently, ASE method is fit for the extraction of petroleum hydrocarbon in marine shellfish.%建立了用加速溶剂萃取技术提取海洋贝类体中石油烃的方法.从萃取溶剂、温度、压力、静态时间、循环次数等方面对提取条件进行了优化:萃取剂为石油醚,萃取温度125℃,压力10.34 MPa,静态提取时间5 min,循环1次.在确定的条件下,对ASE方法的回收率和精密度进行了验证,并与国标GB17378.6-2007中的方法进行比较.结果显示,ASE法的回收率为92.0% ~ 101.3%,相对标准偏差为2.1%;国标法的回收率为88.0%~95.3%,相对标准偏差为3.7%.t-检验表明ASE法与国标法之间不存在显著性差异,ASE法适合于贝类体内石油烃的提取.

  1. Solvent extraction for remediation of manufactured gas plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of an initial assessment of the feasibility of solvent extraction for removing coal tar from the subsurface or for treating contaminated soil excavated at manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites. In situ solvent extraction would involve injection, recovery, and reclamation for reinjection of an environmentally-benign, water-miscible solvent. Accelerated dissolution and removal of coaltar from the subsurface might be desirable as a remedial approach if excavation is not practical (e.g., the site underlies facilities in current use), direct pumping of coal tar is ineffective, and bioremediation is not feasible because of the presence of high concentrations of coal tar. Both laboratory experiments and engineering evaluations were performed to provide a basis for the initial feasibility assessment. Laboratory work included identification and evaluation of promising solvents, measurement of fundamental properties of coal tar-solvent-water systems, and measurement of rates of dissolution of coal tar in porous media into flowing solvent-water solutions. Engineering evaluations involved identification of common hydrogeologic features and contaminant distributions at MGP sites, and identification and evaluation of possible injection-recovery well deployment schemes. A coupled flow-chemistry model was developed for simulation of the in situ process and evaluation of the well deployment schemes. Results indicate that in situsolvent extraction may be able to recover a significant amount of coal tar from the subsurface within a reasonable time frame (on the order of one year or so) provided that subsurface conditions are conducive to process implementation. Some important implementation issues remain to be addressed

  2. Organic compounds of different extractability in total solvent extracts from soils of contrasting water repellency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanassova, Irena; Doerr, Stefan H.

    2010-05-01

    Previous studies examining organic compounds that may cause water-repellent behaviour of soils have typically focussed on analysing only the lipophilic fraction of extracted material. This study aimed to provide a more comprehensive examination by applying single- and sequential-accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), separation and analysis by GC/MS of the total solvent extracts of three soils taken from under eucalypt vegetation with different levels of water repellency. Water repellency increased in all the soils after extraction with DCM:MeOH (95:5), but was eliminated with iso-propanol/ammonia (95:5). Quantities of major lipid compound classes varied between solvents and soils. Iso-propanol/ammonia (95:5) solvent released saccharides, glycerol, aromatic acids and other polar organic compounds, which were more abundant in fractionated extracts from the single extraction and the third step sequential ASE extraction, than in the extracts from the DCM:MeOH ASE solvent. Dominant compounds extracted from all soils were long-chain alkanols (>C22), palmitic acid, C29 alkane, β-sitosterol, terpenes, terpenoids and other polar compounds. The soil with smallest repellency lacked >C18 fatty acids and had smallest concentrations of alkanols (C26, C28 and C30) and alkanes (C29, C31), but a greater abundance of more complex polar compounds than the more repellent soils. We therefore speculate that the above compounds play an important role in determining the water repellency of the soils tested. The results suggest that one-stage and sequential ASE extractions with iso-propanol:ammonia and subsequent fractionation of extracts are a useful approach in providing a comprehensive assessment of the potential compounds involved in causing soil water repellency.

  3. Rapid analysis of multi-pesticides in Morinda officinalis by GC-ECD with accelerated solvent extraction assisted matrix solid phase dispersion and positive confirmation by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongmei; Kong, Weijun; Gong, Bao; Miao, Qing; Qi, Yun; Yang, Meihua

    2015-01-01

    In this work, 33 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 9 pyrethroid pesticides (PYPs) in Morinda officinalis were effectively and selectively extracted and cleaned up by accelerated solvent extraction assisted matrix solid phase dispersion (ASE/MSPD) method, followed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). Carbophenothion was selected as the internal standard and added into the final extracts to improve the precision and accuracy of the method. Parameters for ASE/MSPD procedure including ratio of acetone to n-hexane, temperature and amount of Florisil were optimized to improve the performance of the method through orthogonal experimental design. Under the optimized conditions, the average recoveries (six replicates) for all pesticides (spiked at 0.05, 0.5 and 1.0 mg kg(-1)) ranged from 69.3% to 112% with RSD less than 14.14%. A wide linear range of 10-1000 ng mL(-1) was observed with r values of 0.9963-0.9999. Meanwhile, the method gave high selectivity and sensitivity (LODs<3 μg kg(-1) and LOQs<8.0 μg kg (-1)), good repeatability (RSD of 9.64%, on average) and precision (RSD of 5.48%, averagely) and excellent stability (RSD <9.47%). The feasibility of the proposed method was demonstrated by applying it for preconcentration and determination of OCPs and PYPs in 40 batches of real samples. Four kinds of pesticides (beta-endosulfan, tecnazene, hexachlorobenzene and alpha-BHC) were detected in three batches of samples, which were successfully confirmed by GC-MS. The results indicated that ASE/MSPD is a reliable and half-automated extraction and purification technique, with many advantages over traditional techniques. The combination of ASE/MSPD and GC-ECD could be especially useful for trace analysis of pesticide residues in complex matrices. PMID:25463199

  4. Solvent extraction: the coordination chemistry behind extractive metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A Matthew; Bailey, Phillip J; Tasker, Peter A; Turkington, Jennifer R; Grant, Richard A; Love, Jason B

    2014-01-01

    The modes of action of the commercial solvent extractants used in extractive hydrometallurgy are classified according to whether the recovery process involves the transport of metal cations, M(n+), metalate anions, MXx(n-), or metal salts, MXx into a water-immiscible solvent. Well-established principles of coordination chemistry provide an explanation for the remarkable strengths and selectivities shown by most of these extractants. Reagents which achieve high selectivity when transporting metal cations or metal salts into a water-immiscible solvent usually operate in the inner coordination sphere of the metal and provide donor atom types or dispositions which favour the formation of particularly stable neutral complexes that have high solubility in the hydrocarbons commonly used in recovery processes. In the extraction of metalates, the structures of the neutral assemblies formed in the water-immiscible phase are usually not well defined and the cationic reagents can be assumed to operate in the outer coordination spheres. The formation of secondary bonds in the outer sphere using, for example, electrostatic or H-bonding interactions are favoured by the low polarity of the water-immiscible solvents.

  5. Improvement of Soybean Oil Solvent Extraction through Enzymatic Pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. V. Grasso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate multienzyme hydrolysis as a pretreatment option to improve soybean oil solvent extraction and its eventual adaptation to conventional processes. Enzymatic action causes the degradation of the cell structures that contain oil. Improvements in terms of extraction, yield, and extraction rate are expected to be achieved. Soybean flakes and collets were used as materials and hexane was used as a solvent. Temperature, pH, and incubation time were optimized and diffusion coefficients were estimated for each solid. Extractions were carried out in a column, oil content was determined according to time, and a mathematical model was developed to describe the system. The optimum conditions obtained were pH 5.4, 38°C, and 9.7 h, and pH 5.8, 44°C, and 5.8h of treatment for flakes and collets, respectively. Hydrolyzed solids exhibited a higher yield. Diffusion coefficients were estimated between 10-11 and 10-10. The highest diffusion coefficient was obtained for hydrolyzed collets. 0.73 g oil/mL and 0.7 g oil/mL were obtained at 240 s in a column for collets and flakes, respectively. Hydrolyzed solids exhibited a higher yield. The enzymatic incubation accelerates the extraction rate and allows for higher yield. The proposed model proved to be appropriate.

  6. PULSED MIXER-SETTLER SOLVENT EXTRACTION CONTACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figg, W.S.

    1958-08-12

    A mixer-settler extractor is described for contacting immiscible liquids having different specific gravities in order to withdraw one or more components from one liquid with the aid of the other liquid. The extractor consists of a hollow column, a rotary drive shafi extending : through the column with a number of impellers spaced thereon, an equal nunnber of separator plate sets each consisting of one fluorothene and one stainless steel plate with peripheral recesses and flow slots mounted on the column, and a pulse generator. This apparatus is particularly useful in solvent extraction processes for recovering plutonium from aqueous acidic solutions of irradiated uranium.

  7. 加速溶剂提取气-质联用分析土壤中的多环芳烃%Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils Using Accelerated Solvent Extraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新成; 赵金; 赵汝松; 程传格

    2014-01-01

    Based on accelerated solvent extraction, gel permeation chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, a novel method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil samples. The limits of detection and the limits of quantitation were 1. 1-12 μg/kg and 3. 7-40 μg/kg for 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, respectively. The average recoveries of all the compounds were 76. 6%-96. 8%, and relative standard deviations were 2. 9%-9. 5%. This method was fast, simple and easy to operate. The method has been used to determine 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in real soil samples with satisfactory results. It can be applied in routine soil analysis.%建立了加速溶剂提取-凝胶渗透色谱净化和气相色谱-质谱联用快速分析土壤中16种多环芳烃的新方法。方法的检出限、定量限分别为1.1~12μg/kg、3.7~40μg/kg。16种 PAHs 的回收率为76.6%~96.8%,相对标准偏差为2.9%~9.5%。应用于多个环境样品的分析测试,结果满意。

  8. Solvent extraction of Southern US tar sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penney, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas, in association with Diversified Petroleum Recovery, Inc. (DPR) of Little Rock, Arkansas, has been developing a solvent extraction process for the recovery of bitumen from tar sands for the past five years. The unique feature of the process is that the bitumen is recovered from the solvent by contacting with a co-solvent, which causes the bitumen to precipitate. The overall purpose of this project is to study both the technical and economic feasibility of applying this technology for recovery of bitumen from tar sands by (1) investigating the socioeconmic factors which affect (a) plant siting and (b) the market value of recovered bitumen; (2) operating a process demonstration unit at the rate of 1 lb/hr recovered bitumen while producing clean sand and recyclable solvents; and (3) determine the economic conditions which will make a bitumen recovery project economical. DPR has analyzed the historical trends of domestic production, consumption, discoveries and reserves of crude oil. They have started an investigation of the volatility in the price of crude oil and of gasoline prices and of the differential between gasoline and crude oil. DPR continues to analyze the geographical movement and demand for asphalt products. Utah does not appear economically attractive as a site for a bitumen from tar sands asphalt plant. Oklahoma sites are now being studied. This report also contains the quarterly progress report from a University of Nevada study to determine bitumen composition, oxygen uptake rates, and viscosities of Alabama and Utah bitumens. Both reports have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  9. Non-Ideal Behavior in Solvent Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Zalupski

    2011-09-01

    This report presents a summary of the work performed to meet FCR&D level 3 milestone M31SW050801, 'Complete the year-end report summarizing FY11 experimental and modeling activities.' This work was carried out under the auspices of the Non-Ideality in Solvent Extraction Systems FCR&D work package. The report summarizes our initial considerations of potential influences that non-ideal chemistry may impose on computational prediction of outcomes in solvent extraction systems. The report is packaged into three separate test cases where a robustness of the prediction by SXFIT program is under scrutiny. The computational exercises presented here emphasize the importance of accurate representation of both an aqueous and organic mixtures when modeling liquid-liquid distribution systems. Case No.1 demonstrates that non-ideal behavior of HDEHP in aliphatic diluents, such as n-dodecane, interferes with the computation. Cases No.2 and No.3 focus on the chemical complexity of aqueous electrolyte mixtures. Both exercises stress the need for an improved thermodynamic model of an aqueous environment present in the europium distribution experiments. Our efforts for year 2 of this project will focus on the improvements of aqueous and non-aqueous solution models using fundamental physical properties of mixtures acquired experimentally in our laboratories.

  10. Selection and evaluation of alternative solvents for caprolactam extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delden, van Mathijs L.; Kuipers, Norbert J.M.; Haan, de André B.

    2006-01-01

    Because of the strict legislation for currently applied solvents in the industrial extraction of caprolactam, being benzene, toluene and chlorinated hydrocarbons, a need exists for alternative, environmentally benign solvents. An experimental screening procedure consisting of several steps was used

  11. Re-Refining of Waste Lubricating Oil by Solvent Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Ali Durrani; Muhammed Ibrahim Panhwar; Rafique Akthar Kazi

    2011-01-01

    Re-refining of waste lubricating oil by solvent extraction is one of the potential techniques. The advantages of solvent extraction technique practically offers from environmental and economic points of view have received due attention. In this paper selection of composite solvent and technique to upgrade the used lubricant oil into base oil has been made. The composite solvent 2-propanol, 1-butanol and butanone have two alcohols that make a binary system reasonably effective. ...

  12. Proceedings of ISEC 2008, International Solvent Extraction Conference - Solvent Extraction: Fundamentals to Industrial Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The North American industry has employed major solvent-extraction processes to support a wide range of separations including but not limited to chemical, metallurgical, nuclear, biochemical, pharmaceutical, and petroleum applications. The knowledge enabling these separations has been obtained through fundamental studies in academe, government and industry. The International Solvent Extraction Conferences have been and continue to be a major gathering of scientists, engineers, operators, and vendors from around the world, who present new findings since the last meeting, exchange ideas, make business contacts, and conduct collegial discussions. The ISEC 2008 program emphasizes fundamentals to industrial applications of solvent extraction, particularly how this broad spectrum of activities is interconnected and has led to the implementation of novel processes. The oral and poster sessions have been organized into seven topics: Fundamentals; Novel Reagents, Materials and Techniques; Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing; Hydrometallurgy and Metals Extraction; Analytical and Preparative Applications; Biotechnology, Pharmaceuticals, Life-Science Products, and Organic Products; and Process Chemistry and Engineering. Over 350 abstracts were received, resulting in more than 260 manuscripts published in these proceedings. Five outstanding plenary presentations have been identified, with five parallel sessions for oral presentations and posters. In recognition of the major role solvent extraction (SX) plays in the hydrometallurgical and nuclear industries, these proceedings begin with sections focusing on hydrometallurgy, process chemistry, and engineering. More fundamental topics follow, including sections on novel reagents, materials, and techniques, featuring novel applications in analytical and biotechnology areas. Despite the diversity of topics and ideas represented, however, the primary focus of the ISEC community continues to be metals extraction. Four papers from these

  13. Solvent Extraction in Hydrometallurgy: Present and Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    During the past 10 years, there have been incremental advances in the application of solvent extraction to process hydrometallurgy. The most cited areas in the literature include chemistry, chemical engineering, pilot plants, and plant operation. Within these areas, there were considerable interest in synergism,diluents, degradation, contactors, surfactants, hydrometallurgical applications, environmental and secondary applications, and health and safety. The summary to the present is followed by a prediction for the future in the above areas of interest. These include the use of speciation; improved understanding of the role of surfactants on the system; optimization through modelling, pilot plants, and contactor selection; improvements in plant operation; further new applications; and plant safety. The review has indicated that considerable knowledge is now available to optimize and improve on process design and plant applications.

  14. The effect of solvent choice on plutonium extraction with TTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the relative plutonium extraction rate from 1M nitric acid with thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) dissolved in several different solvents. The marked differences in extraction rate are discussed in terms of the extraction mechanism. Experiments with varied phase mixing conditions, and with varied TTA or nitrate concentrations, have been performed to help clarify the mechanisms and explain the differences in extraction rate. The results show that in several solvents, plutonium is extracted as a mixed nitrate-TTA complex. The suitability of the various solvents for differing applications was also examined. Methyl benzoate is an ideal solvent when preparing counting sources from the solvent phase. Chloroform is preferable as solvent when the plutonium is to be backwashed into nitric acid. (author)

  15. ASE-GC法测定速冻饺子中有机磷农药残留%Determination of Organophosphrous Pesticides in Frozen Dumplings with Accelerated Solvent Extraction and Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟辉; 汤淳

    2014-01-01

    建立了加速溶剂萃取( ASE)-在线净化-GC法测定速冻饺子中有机磷农药残留量的检测方法。该方法快速、稳定、可靠、操作简便,15种有机磷农药在0.05~0.50μg/mL范围内线性良好,相关系数均大于0.9985,最低检测限为0.006~0.050 mg/kg ,样品添加回收率在84.88%~107.10%之间,相对标准偏差(RSD)为1.92%~14.0%,适用于速冻馅类食品中有机磷农药残留的检测与确定。%A accelerated solvent extraction ( ASE ) and online purification method to determine the organo-phosphrous pesticide residues in frozen dumplings was established .With high speed , stability , reliability and easy operation, this method obtained good linearity for determining 15 pesticides with concentration between 0.05-0.5μg/mL (the correlation coefficients (r) were all greater than 0.998 5).The detection limits ranged from 0.006 mg/kg to 0.05mg/kg.The average recoveries of organophosphrous pesticides were between 84.88%and 107.1%. The relative standard deviations for 15 organophosphrous pesticides were between 1.92%and 1.40%.

  16. Solvent Extraction of Chemical Attribution Signature Compounds from Painted Wall Board: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, Jon H.; Colburn, Heather A.

    2009-10-29

    This report summarizes work that developed a robust solvent extraction procedure for recovery of chemical attribution signature (CAS) compound dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP) (as well as diethyl methyl phosphonate (DEMP), diethyl methyl phosphonothioate (DEMPT), and diisopropyl methyl phosphonate (DIMP)) from painted wall board (PWB), which was selected previously as the exposed media by the chemical attribution scientific working group (CASWG). An accelerated solvent extraction approach was examined to determine the most effective method of extraction from PWB. Three different solvent systems were examined, which varied in solvent strength and polarity (i.e., 1:1 dichloromethane : acetone,100% methanol, and 1% isopropanol in pentane) with a 1:1 methylene chloride : acetone mixture having the most robust and consistent extraction for four original target organophosphorus compounds. The optimum extraction solvent was determined based on the extraction efficiency of the target analytes from spiked painted wallboard as determined by gas chromatography x gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS) analysis of the extract. An average extraction efficiency of approximately 60% was obtained for these four compounds. The extraction approach was further demonstrated by extracting and detecting the chemical impurities present in neat DMMP that was vapor-deposited onto painted wallboard tickets.

  17. Uranium extraction from colofanite via organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes the use of pure or combined extractants dissolved in organic solvents for quantitative uranium recovery from colofanite, a fluoroapatite ore, from Itataia, Santa Quiteria, Ceara, Brazil. This ore contains the highest brazilian uranium reserve. The metal is associated to phosphate species. The ore is digested with sulfuric acid (wet process), producing phosphoric acid, which is used for manufacturing of fertilizers and animal food. >From the acid leaching, some systems for uranium recovery were tested. Among them, PC88A (2-ethyl-hexyl phosphonic acid, mono-2-ethyl-hexyl ester) 40% vol. and DEHPA (di(2-ethyl-hexyl)phosphoric acid) 40% vol. in kerosene presented the highest values for the distribution coefficient (D) for uranium. When synergistic systems were employed, the best results were obtained for DEHPA 40%vol. + PC88A 40%vol. and DEHPA 40% vol. + TOPO (trioctylphosphine oxide) 5% vol. in kerosene. 15% wt/v sodium carbonate was the best medium for uranium stripping and separation from iron, the main interfering element. Uranium was precipitated as sodium diuranate by adding sodium hydroxide (5,0 mol L-1). Thorium in the raffinate was extracted by TOPO (0,1% vol.) in cyclohexane. The radioactivity level of the final aqueous waste is similar to natural background, according to CNEN-NE 6.05 Norm. After neutralization, the solid can be co-processed, according to the Directory 264 from the National Brazilian Environmental Council (CONAMA), whereas the treated effluent can be discarded according to the Directory 357 from CONAMA. (author)

  18. The use of environmentally sustainable bio-derived solvents in solvent extraction applications-A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Li; Kathryn H. Smith; Geoffrey W. Stevens

    2016-01-01

    Replacement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by greener or more environmental y sustainable solvents is becoming increasingly important due to the increasing health and environmental concerns as wel as economic pressures associated with VOCs. Solvents that are derived from biomass, namely bio-derived solvents, are a type of green solvent that have attracted intensive investigations in recent years because of their advantages over con-ventional VOCs, such as low toxicity, biodegradability and renewability. This review aims to summarize the use of bio-derived solvents in solvent extraction applications, with special emphasis given to utilization of biodiesels and terpenes. Compared with the conventional VOCs, the overall performance of these bio-derived solvents is comparable in terms of extraction yields and selectivity for natural product extraction and no difference was found for metal extraction. To date most researchers have focused on laboratory scale thermodynamics studies. Future work is required to develop and test new bio-derived solvents and understand the kinetic performance as well as solvent extraction pilot plant studies.

  19. Solid-liquid solvent extraction of metal ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Peng; Haiyan Fan; Jinzhang Gao

    2003-01-01

    An overview of extraction of some trace metal ions using molten solvent (low melting substance) during last two decadesis presented. The development of this technique since its inception is briefly traced. The comparison of extraction efficiency, thermo-dynamics and kinetics mainly involving extraction of rare earth ions between molten solvent extraction at high temperature and usualliquid-liquid extraction at room temperature are discussed in detail. The various parameters obtained from the previous and presentstudies such as equilibrium extraction constant Kex, pH1/2, thermodynamic and kinetic data are displayed in tabular form. Finally, thecurrent demands, disadvantages and future prospects are also evaluated.

  20. Separation of Quercentin by Pre-dispersed Solvent Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡伟; 孙瑛; 叶汝强; 吴树森; 刘洪来

    2003-01-01

    Pre-dispersed solvent extraction (PDSE) was used to extract quercentin from its diluted solution. The influences of temperature, phase volume ratio (PVR), concentration of sodium Dodecyl benzene sulphonate and pH value etc. on the extraction efficiency were examined. It is found that, compared with traditional extraction techniques under the same condition, a higher extraction productivity can be obtained by PDSE. The stability of colloidal liquid aphrons plays an important role in this process. In a certain scope, the extraction efficiency increases with PVR. Excessive amount of solvent is not much helpful. A new analytical method by using ultraviolet spectrometer to determine the concentration of quercentin is established.

  1. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Hibiscus cannabinus L. Seed Extracts after Sequential Solvent Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Shahid Iqbal; Maznah Ismail; Noordin Mohd Yusri; Kim Wei Chan

    2012-01-01

    A sequential solvent extraction scheme was employed for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds. Yield of extracts varied widely among the solvents and was the highest for hexane extract (16.6% based on dry weight basis), while water extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (18.78 mg GAE/g extract), total flavonoid content (2.49 mg RE/g extract), and antioxidant activities (p < 0.05). DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging, β...

  2. Recycling of solvent used in a solvent extraction of petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil.

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Guozhong; Li, XinGang; Coulon, Frederic; LI Hong; Lian, Jingyan; Sui, Hong

    2011-01-01

    The application of water washing technology for recycling an organic composite solvent consisting of hexane and pentane (4:1; TU-A solvent) was investigated for extracting total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) from contaminated soil. The effects of water volume, water temperature, washing time and initial concentration of solvent were evaluated using orthogonal experiments followed by single factor experiments. Our results showed that the water volume was a statistically signif...

  3. Removal of Phenol from Dilute Solutions by Predispersed Solvent Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Predispersed solvent extraction (PDSE) is a new method for separating solutes from aqueous solution by solvent extraction and one which has shown promise for extraction from extremely dilute solution very efficient and very quick. The use of colloidal liquid aphrons in predispersed solvent extraction may ameliorate the problems such as emulsion formation, reduction of interfacial mass transfer and low interfacial mass transfer areas in solvent extraction process. In present paper, colloidal liquid aphrons are successfully generated using kerosene as a solvent, tributyl phosphate(TBP) as an extractant, sodium dodecyl benzene sulphate(SDBS) as surfactant in aqueous phase and Tween-80 in oil phase. Extraction of phenol from dilute solution was studied by using colloidal liquid aphrons and colloidal gas aphrons in a semi-batch extraction column. It has been found that the PDSE process is more suitable for extraction of dilute solutions. It has also been discovered that the PDSE process has a great advantage over traditional single-stage extraction process.

  4. Process modifications of obtaining Tc-99m by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a modification in the process to obtaining Tc-99m by the extraction method of solvent from Mo-99 produced by irradiation. Tc-99m is considered an ideal radionuclide for medical and biological applications

  5. Next Generation Solvent Performance in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Process - 15495

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Tara E. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Scherman, Carl [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Martin, David [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Suggs, Patricia [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-01-14

    Changes to the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) flow-sheet were implemented in the facility. Implementation included changing the scrub and strip chemicals and concentrations, modifying the O/A ratios for the strip, scrub, and extraction contactor banks, and blending the current BoBCalixC6 extractant-based solvent in MCU with clean MaxCalix extractant-based solvent. During the successful demonstration period, the MCU process was subject to rigorous oversight to ensure hydraulic stability and chemical/radionuclide analysis of the key process tanks (caustic wash tank, solvent hold tank, strip effluent hold tank, and decontaminated salt solution hold tank) to evaluate solvent carryover to downstream facilities and the effectiveness of cesium removal from the liquid salt waste. Results indicated the extraction of cesium was significantly more effective with an average Decontamination Factor (DF) of 1,129 (range was 107 to 1,824) and that stripping was effective. The contactor hydraulic performance was stable and satisfactory, as indicated by contactor vibration, contactor rotational speed, and flow stability; all of which remained at or near target values. Furthermore, the Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) level and specific gravity was as expected, indicating that solvent integrity and organic hydraulic stability were maintained. The coalescer performances were in the range of processing results under the BOBCalixC6 flow sheet, indicating negligible adverse impact of NGS deployment. After the Demonstration period, MCU began processing via routine operations. Results to date reiterate the enhanced cesium extraction and stripping capability of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) flow sheet. This paper presents process performance results of the NGS Demonstration and continued operations of MCU utilizing the blended BobCalixC6-MaxCalix solvent under the NGS flowsheet.

  6. Affinity Solvents for Intensified Organics Extraction: Development Challenges and Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In most organics extraction processes, the commonly used solvents employ solely physical interactions. Therefore, for the recovery and purification of products from complex mixtures, the selectivity and/or capacity of classical solvents towards the desired solutes is usually insufficient, enforcing the need for complex and thus expensive separation schemes. Significant simplification and cost-reduction can be achieved when affinity solvents would be available that are able to recognize the solutes of interest by their molecular structure. The main development challenges to establish such affinity solvents are: Selection and incorporation of molecular recognition and complexation capabilities; Evaluation of extraction capabilities; Efficient recovery and recycling of the affinity solvents; Implementation in industrial extraction equipment. This paper presents how these development challenges are addressed at the University of Twente, going all the way from affinity solvent design and synthesis, via high throughput screening and characterization up to pilot plant evaluation. Essential in the successful development of affinity solvents are structural cooperations with molecular chemists and custom synthesis companies for their design and synthesis. The various aspects are illustrated by several examples where newly developed environmentally benign affinity solvents appeared able to create major breakthroughs. The applications addressed involve oxygenates, sugars, and pharmaceutical ingredients, such as optical isomers and biomolecules.

  7. Ultrasound induced green solvent extraction of oil from oleaginous seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Abert Vian, Maryline; Fine, Frédéric; Carré, Patrick; Tostain, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction of rapeseed oil was investigated and compared with conventional extraction for energy efficiency, throughput time, extraction yield, cleanness, processing cost and product quality. A multivariate study enabled us to define optimal parameters (7.7 W/cm2 for ultrasonic power intensity, 40 °C for processing temperature, and a solid/liquid ratio of 1/15) for ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil from oilseeds to maximize lipid yield while reducing solvent consumptio...

  8. Compound forming extractants, solvating solvents and inert solvents IUPAC chemical data series

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Y; Kertes, A S

    2013-01-01

    Equilibrium Constants of Liquid-Liquid Distribution Reactions, Part III: Compound Forming Extractants, Solvating Solvents, and Inert Solvents focuses on the compilation of equilibrium constants of various compounds, such as acids, ions, salts, and aqueous solutions. The manuscript presents tables that show the distribution reactions of carboxylic and sulfonic acid extractants and their dimerization and other reactions in the organic phase and extraction reactions of metal ions from aqueous solutions. The book also states that the inorganic anions in these solutions are irrelevant, since they d

  9. 加速溶剂萃取凝胶渗透色谱/固相萃取净化气相色谱质谱法测定咸鱼中有机磷农药残留%Determination of Organophosphate Pesticide Residues in Salt Fish Using Accelerated Solvent Extraction and Gel Permeation Chromatography/Solid Phase Extraction with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王耀; 刘少彬; 谢翠美; 张汉霞; 卢伟华

    2011-01-01

    建立了咸鱼中有机磷农药残留的分析方法.乙腈为溶剂,样品经ASE萃取,提取液用凝胶渗透色谱除去脂类、蛋白质和大部分的色素,再经Carb/PSA小柱净化.采用GC-MS定性分析,GC-FPD定量分析.加标水平为0.05~0.20mg/kg时,农药的回收率为64.5%~98.6%,相对标准偏差2.7%~14.7%.方法的检出限为0.6~9.0μg/kg(以3倍性噪比计).本方法具有提取效率高,净化效果好,回收率高,准确灵敏等优点,适用于咸鱼中农药残留检测实际工作的需要.%A novel method for the determination organophosphrous pesticides residues in salt fish was established. The target anslytes were extracted by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) using acetonitrile as the extraction solvent. The gel permeation chromatography was used to remove the grease,protein and pigment and then, the small molecule compounds in the extracted solution were purified by the Carb/PSA solid phase extraction. The qualitative analysis were performed by using mass spectrometric detection GC-MSD(SIM) and quantitative analysis by GC-flame photometry detector(FPD) method. The average recoveries of organophosphrous pesticides were 64.5%-98.6%, spiked at 0.05 -0.20mg/kg levels. The relative standard deviations for all the compounds were 2.7%-14. 7%.The detection limit of the method varied between 0. 0006-0. 0090 mg/kg. The method is rapid, precise, sensitive, high efficient. It can be applied to the routine analysis for organophosphrous pesicide resdues in salt fish.

  10. Antimicrobial potentials of different solvent extracted samples from Physalis ixocarpa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Wajid; Bakht, Jehan; Shafi, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    The present study investigates the antimicrobial activities of different solvent extracted samples isolated from different parts of Physalis ixocarpa through disc diffusion assay using three different concentrations. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that different parts of the plant showed varying degree of inhibition against different bacteria at different concentrations. Different solvent extracted samples from the calyx showed inhibitory activity against most of the bacteria under study. Extracts from leaf and fruit samples showed activity against S. aureus and K. pneumoniae and extracts from the stem tissues were effective to control the growth of E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Crude methanolic extract from the stem and n-butanol extracted samples from fruit exhibited strong inhibitory activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae at highest concentrations. Antifungal activity was observed only in crude methanol extract from the leaf against Rhizopus stolinifer, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum. PMID:27087074

  11. CHEMICAL STABILITY OF POLYPHENYLENE SULFIDE IN THE NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT FOR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2011-12-08

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. For simplicity, this solvent is referred to as the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The technical effort is collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Argonne National Laboratory. The initial deployment target envisioned for the technology was within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), the polymer used in the coalescers within MCU. This report provides the data from exposing PPS polymer to NGS. The test was conducted over a three month period. PPS is remarkably stable in the presence of the next generation solvent. Testing showed no indication of swelling or significant leaching. Preferential sorption of the Modifier on PPS was observed but the same behavior occurs with the baseline solvent. Therefore, PPS coalescers exposed to the NGS are expected to perform comparably to those in contact with the baseline solvent.

  12. Solvent-free extraction of food and natural products

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Vian, Maryline; Allaf, Tamara; Vorobiev, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    This review presents useful and green techniques of solvent-free extraction used in ancient times, such as extraction of olive oil and citrus essential oil, and innovative techniques, such as pulsed electric field, microwave, instantaneous controlled pressure drop, and extrusion. We discuss the devices, their applications, mechanisms, and parameters influencing sample preparation prior to analysis of natural products.

  13. Solvent extraction of zinc(II) with sulphoxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a theoretical method for analyzing the behaviour of 65Zn during solvent extraction from ammonium thiocyanate solutions with dialkyl sulphoxides. The influence of the metal concentration, temperature and the diluent on the extraction of Zn(II) was investigated. (author) 12 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  14. Deacidification of Soybean Oil Combining Solvent Extraction and Membrane Technology

    OpenAIRE

    M. L. Fornasero; Marenchino, R. N.; Pagliero, C. L.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the removal of free fatty acids (FFAs) from soybean oil, combining solvent extraction (liquid-liquid) for the separation of FFAs from the oil and membrane technology to recover the solvent through nanofiltration (NF). Degummed soybean oil containing 1.05 ± 0.10% w/w FFAs was deacidified by extraction with ethanol. Results obtained in the experiences of FFAs extraction from oil show that the optimal operating conditions are the following: 1.8 : 1 w : w ethanol...

  15. A new model for solvent extraction in columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, R.A.; Regalbuto, M.C.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1989-12-08

    A new model was developed for analyzing solvent extraction processes carried out in columns. Each column is treated as a series of well-defined equilibrium stages where the backmixing (other-phase carryover) between stages can be large. By including all mass transfer effects in the backmixing value, the same number of stages can be used for all extracted components no matter what their distribution coefficients. This greatly simplifies the calculations required when modeling multicomponent solvent extraction processes. Initial testing shows the new model to be better than either the Height of an Equivalent Theoretical Plate (HETP) or the Height of a Transfer Unit (HTU) method.

  16. Mechanism of crud formation in copper solvent extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳建设; 蓝卓越; 邱冠周; 王淀佐

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigated the mechanism of crud formation in copper solvent extraction. It is indicated that pH value of solution and the phase ratio (O/A) are the main factors affecting crud formation in solvent extraction. The amount of crud extraction increases with aqueous pH value increase, and reduces with the increase of the phase ratio. Fe3+, Mg2+, fine air bubble and suspended particulates in leaching solution contribute to crud formation. One case is that a series of reactions of hydrolization and polymerization occurs for Fe3+, while pH>2.5, polyhydric complex or Fe-SO4 complex are formed. Then the complex-ions of FeOH2+, Fe2(OH)4+2 cause poly-reaction, which is likely to lead emulsion. The study on Zeta potential indicates the repulsion between electriferous droplets in solvent extraction prevents phase coalescence, which is one of the major reasons for emulsion.

  17. Development of novel contactor for nuclear solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For current designs of radiochemical plants, solvent-extraction contactors with no periodic maintenance like pulse column are the first choice. In addition, as costs of specialty solvents for nuclear extraction are quite high, there is a demand for operation at extreme phase ratios. Recently a novel mixer-settler was visualized and developed for this kind of service. The mixer of the novel contactor is based on rotated helical tubes and does not involve any mechanical moving part. Mass-transfer runs were carried out with aqueous nitric acid and 30% TBP solvent at A/O of 0.25-200 (in extraction) and A/O of 0.25-10 (in back-extraction mode). The developed contactor exhibited nearly 100% efficiency for all the cases. (authors)

  18. Ultrasound Energy Effect on Solvent Extraction of Amaranth Seed Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won Il; Chung, Ki Won; Lee, Seung Bum; Hong, In Kwon [Department of Chemical Engineering, Dankook University, Seoul (Korea); Park, Kyung Ai [Seoul Metropolitan Government Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-05-01

    Ultrasonic energy has been widely applied to cleaning, medical appliances, extraction, etc. And ultrasonic energy can be applied to solvent extraction of plant oil from amaranth seed. Amaranth seed oil contains small amount of squalene. Squalene is polyunsaturated branched hydrocarbon, which is an essential part of the human body. In this study, the seed oil was extracted from amaranth seed by ultrasonic solvent extraction process. Ultrasonic irradiation time was 1, 3 ,5, 10, 20 and 30 min and extraction temperature was 20, 30, and 40 degree C. And ultrasonic power was 390 W and 520 W. The extracted amounts of amaranth seed oil and squalene were increased with the increase of ultrasonic power and irradiation time. Using ultrasonic energy in solvent extraction, extraction time was very shorten. The optimum extraction temperature was 30 degree C, it was caused that ultrasonic energy effects were increased in the matters of low temperature. The maximum extracted amount of amaranth seed oil was 0.746 g and squalene was 37.54 mg per 10 g amaranth seed at 30 degree C. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  19. COBALT SALTS PRODUCTION BY USING SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila V. Dyakova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the extracting cobalt salts by using mixtures on the basis of tertiary amine from multicomponent solutions from the process of hydrochloride leaching of cobalt concentrate. The optimal composition for the extraction mixture, the relationship between the cobalt distribution coefficients and modifier’s nature and concentration, and the saltingout agent type have been determined. A hydrochloride extraction technology of cobalt concentrate yielding a purified concentrated cobalt solution for the production of pure cobalt salts has been developed and introduced at Severonikel combine.

  20. Oil recovery from petroleum sludge through ultrasonic assisted solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guangji; Li, Jianbing; Huang, Shuhui; Li, Yubao

    2016-09-18

    The effect of ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) process on oil recovery from refinery oily sludge was examined in this study. Two types of UAE treatment including UAE probe (UAEP) system and UAE bath (UAEB) system were investigated. Their oil recovery efficiencies were compared to that of mechanical shaking extraction (MSE). Three solvents including cyclohexane (CHX), ethyl acetate (EA), and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) were examined as the extraction solvents. The influence of experimental factors on oil and solvent recovery was investigated using an orthogonal experimental design. Results indicated that solvent type, solvent-to-sludge (S/S) ratio, and treatment duration could have significant effects on oil recovery in UAE treatment. Under the optimum conditions, UAEP treatment can obtain an oil recovery of 68.8% within 20 s, which was higher than that (i.e., 62.0%) by MSE treatment after 60 min' extraction. UAEB treatment can also obtain a promising oil recovery within shorter extraction duration (i.e., 15 min) than MSE. UAE was thus illustrated as an effective and improved approach for oily sludge recycling. PMID:27294566

  1. SPIRAL CONTACTOR FOR SOLVENT EXTRACTION COLUMN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, C.R.

    1961-06-13

    The patented extraction apparatus includes a column, perforated plates extending across the column, liquid pulse means connected to the column, and an imperforate spiral ribbon along the length of the column.

  2. Characterization of solvents containing CyMe4-BTPhen in selected cyclohexanone-based diluents after irradiation by accelerated electrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Distler Petr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiation stability of CyMe4-BTPhen was examined in systems with three selected cyclohexanone-based diluents. Accelerated electrons were used as a source of ionizing radiation. The CyMe4-BTPhen radiation degradation identification and characterization of the degradation products were performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and mass spectrometry (MS analyses. Residual concentrations of tested ligand were determined. Moreover, extraction properties of the solvents irradiated at two different doses were compared with the extraction properties of non-irradiated solvents to estimate the influence of the presence of degradation products in the organic phase.

  3. Synergistic solvent extraction of Lutetium(III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synergism in the extraction of Lu(III) from thiocyanate solutions has been investigated using mixtures of bis-2-ethylhexyl sulfoxide (B2EHSO) and 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (HTTA) or di-n-octyl sulfoxide (DOSO) or tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in benzene. For comparison, the synergistic extraction of Lu(III) from perchlorate solutions has also been investigated with a mixture of B2EHSO and HTTA. These extraction data have been analyzed theoretically with the aid of a computer by taking into account complexation of the metal in the aqueous phase by inorganic ligands and plausible complexation in the organic phase. The equilibrium constant of the various product species have been deduced by non-linear regression analysis. (author) 18 refs.; 6 figs.; 5 tabs

  4. Estimation of Extract Yield and Mass Transfer Coefficient in Solvent Extraction of Lubricating Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain K. Hussain

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was conducted to suggest relations for estimating yield and properties of the improved light lubricating oil fraction produced from furfural extraction process by using specified regression.Mass transfer in mixer-settler has been studied. Mass transfer coefficient of continuous phase, mass transfer coefficient of dispersed phase and the overall mass transfer coefficient extraction of light lubes oil distillate fraction by furfural are calculated in addition to all physical properties of individual components and the extraction mixtures.The effect of extraction variables were studied such as extraction temperature which ranges from 70 to 110°C and solvent to oil ratio which ranges from 1:1 to 4:1 (wt/wt were studied.The results of this investigation show that the extract yield E decreased with decreasing solvent to oil ratio in extract layer and increased with increasing temperature. The fraction of total solvent in the raffinate phase decreased with increasing oil to solvent ratio in raffinate layer and increased with increasing temperature. Solvent to oil ratio in extract layer decreased with increasing temperature and increased with increasing solvent to charge oil ratio at constant temperature. Oil to solvent ratio in raffinate decreased with increasing temperature and increased with increasing solvent to charge oil ratio at constant temperature.Estimated functions are the best modeling function for prediction extraction data at various operating conditions. Mass transfer coefficient of continuous phase kc and mass transfer coefficient of dispersed phase kd are increased with increasing temperature and solvent charge to oil ratio at constant temperature. The over all mass transfer coefficient Kod is increased with increasing temperature and solvent to charge oil ratio; while Kod a is increased with temperature and decreased with solvent to charge oil ratio.

  5. A Study for Extraction Kinetics of Β-Carotene from Oven Dried Carrot by Solvent Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Sudipta Das; Saikat Mazumder

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this work was to study the kinetics of the extraction of β-carotene by solvent (ethanol) extraction from carrots dried at 50ºC in an oven. The moisture content after drying was 11±1.5% (dry weight basis). Extraction time was 5 hours and extraction process was carried out at 30ºC. The ratio of Carrot (gm): ethanol (ml) of 1:60 was maintained throughout the extraction process. The experimental data of extracted β- Carotene yield during solvent extraction were mode...

  6. Deacidification of Soybean Oil Combining Solvent Extraction and Membrane Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Fornasero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the removal of free fatty acids (FFAs from soybean oil, combining solvent extraction (liquid-liquid for the separation of FFAs from the oil and membrane technology to recover the solvent through nanofiltration (NF. Degummed soybean oil containing 1.05 ± 0.10% w/w FFAs was deacidified by extraction with ethanol. Results obtained in the experiences of FFAs extraction from oil show that the optimal operating conditions are the following: 1.8 : 1 w : w ethanol/oil ratio, 30 minutes extraction time and high speed of agitation and 30 minutes repose time after extraction at ambient temperature. As a result of these operations two phases are obtained: deacidified oil phase and ethanol phase (containing the FFAs. The oil from the first extraction is subjected to a second extraction under the same conditions, reducing the FFA concentration in oil to 0.09%. Solvent recovery from the ethanol phase is performed using nanofiltration technology with a commercially available polymeric NF membrane (NF-99-HF, Alfa Laval. From the analysis of the results we can conclude that the optimal operating conditions are pressure of 20 bar and temperature of 35°C, allowing better separation performance: permeate flux of 28.3 L/m2·h and FFA retention of 70%.

  7. A Fluorous Biphasic Solvent Extraction System for Lanthanides with a Fluorophilic β-Diketone Type Extractant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Etsuko; Hiruta, Yuki; Watanabe, Takafumi; Iwasawa, Naoko; Citterio, Daniel; Suzuki, Koji

    2015-01-01

    The properties of a fluorous solvent extraction system for trivalent lanthanide metal ions are reported. A fluorinated extractant, 4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,9,9,9-tridecafluoro-1-(2-thienyl)-1,3-nonanedione, and HFE-7200 (C4F9OC2H5) as the extraction solvent were chosen. With this fluorous extractant/solvent combination, higher extraction ratios and separation factors compared to a conventional organic solvent system (thenoyltrifluoroacetone in CHCl3) were achieved for 5 heavy lanthanide ions (Lu, Yb, Tm, Er and Ho). On the other hand, light lanthanide ions (Nd, Pr, Ce and La) are hardly extracted, therefore enabling the mutual separation of light lanthanides from middle or heavy lanthanide ions. PMID:26353959

  8. Determination of terpenoid content in pine by organic solvent extraction and fast-GC analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Elizabeth Harman-Ware

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Terpenoids, naturally occurring compounds derived from isoprene units present in pine oleoresin, are a valuable source of chemicals used in solvents, fragrances, flavors and have shown potential use as a biofuel. This paper describes a method to extract and analyze the terpenoids present in loblolly pine saplings and pine lighter wood. Various extraction solvents were tested over different times and temperatures. Samples were analyzed by pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectrometry before and after extractions to monitor the extraction efficiency. The pyrolysis studies indicated that the optimal extraction method used a 1:1 hexane/acetone solvent system at 22°C for 1 h. Extracts from the hexane/acetone experiments were analyzed using a low thermal mass modular accelerated column heater for fast-GC/FID analysis. The most abundant terpenoids from the pine samples were quantified, using standard curves, and included the monoterpenes, α- and β- pinene, camphene and δ-carene. Sesquiterpenes analyzed included caryophyllene, humulene and α-bisabolene. Diterpenoid resin acids were quantified in derivatized extractions, including pimaric, isopimaric, levopimaric, palustric, dehydroabietic, abietic and neoabietic acids.

  9. Thorex solvent extraction studies with irradiated HTGR fuel: series I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamb, C.E.; Mitchell, A.D.; Vaughen, V.C.A.; Shannon, R.J.

    1980-10-01

    A series of solvent extraction experiments to test the first-cycle fuel reprocessing flowsheet, proposed by the General Atomic Company for the Hot Engineering Test Facility, was completed. Using irradiated fuel, the experiments were designed to test the extraction, partition, partition-scrub, and strip operations. Each experiment utilized crosscurrent batch extractions and consecutive stages. Each stage was tested in duplicate. Experimental procedures were developed with synthetic feeds and then were used in a hot cell with radioactive solutions of dissolved irradiated fuel. The analytical measurements for thorium and acid compared favorably with the values predicted by the computer program for solvent extraction processes having interacting solutes (SEPHIS-MOD4). The SEPHIS-MOD4 program was valuable in interpreting this first set of experiments with irradiated fuels. Significant problems were experienced in the analysis for uranium in irradiated solutions. These problems emphasize the need for continued development of new or improved procedures for analyzing highly radioactive materials.

  10. Fuel grade ethanol by solvent extraction: Final subcontract report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedder, D.W.

    1987-04-01

    This report summarizes final results for ethanol recovery by solvent extraction and extractive distillation. At conclusion this work can be summarized as ethanol dehydration and recovery dilute fermentates is feasible using liquid/liquid extraction and extractive distillation. Compared to distillation, the economics are more attractive for less than 5 wt % ethanol. However, an economic bias in favor of SEED appears to exist even for 10 wt % feeds. It is of particular interest to consider the group extraction of ethanol and acetic acid followed by conversion to a mixture of ethanol and ethyl acetate. The latter species is a more valuable commodity and group extraction of inhibitory species is one feature of liquid/liquid extraction that is not easily accomodated using distillation. Upflow immobilized reactors offer the possibility of achieving high substrate conversion while also maintaining low metabolite concentrations. However, many questions remain to be answered with such a concept. 135 refs., 42 figs., 61 tabs.

  11. Technology of extraction by solvent in pulsed columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since its creation, the CEA (Commissariat a l'energie atomique) has produced several separation processes for natural or enriched uranium treatment and the treatment of spent fuels coming from nuclear reactors. Among these technologies, extraction by solvent is broadly used for separation and purification of nuclear matters. This technology can be used for other applications as hydrometallurgy, chemistry, pharmaceutics, depollution, agro-industry

  12. Solvent extraction studies using tetracycline as complexing agent Pt. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the separation of uranium from Se, Br, Mo, Sb, Ba, Ta, W, Au and Hg is presented. Separations were carried out by solvent extraction technique using tetracycline as complexing agent and benzyl alcohol as organic phase. Masking agents (e.g. EDTA) were required for some of the separations: e.g. Hg, Ba. (T.I.)

  13. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: TERRA-KLEEN SOLVENT EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remediation of PCBs in soils has been difficult to implement on a full-scale, cost-effective basis. The Terra-Kleen solvent extraction system has overcome many of the soil handling, contaminant removal, and regulatory restrictions that have made it difficult to implement a cost-e...

  14. Pressurized solvent extraction of pure food grade starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    A commercial pressurized solvent extractor was used to remove lipid and non-lipid material from cornstarch using n-propanol/water and ethanol/water mixtures. Yields and chemical composition of the extract fractions were determined. Cornstarch samples were characterized using pasting properties and...

  15. Stability of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Process Solvent: Effect of High Nitrite on Solvent Nitration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnesen, P.V.

    2002-06-26

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether nitrated organic compounds could be formed during operation of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process, and whether such compounds would present a safety concern. The CSSX process was developed to remove cesium from alkaline high-level salt waste stored at the US Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS). The solvent is composed of the cesium extractant calix[4]arene-bis-(4-tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6), a fluorinated alcohol phase modifier, tri-n-octylamine (TOA), and an isoparaffinic diluent (Iospar{reg_sign}). During the CSSX process, the solvent is expected to be exposed to high concentrations of nitrate and nitrite dissolved in the alkaline waste feed. The solvent will also be exposed to dilute (50 mM) nitric acid solutions containing low concentrations of nitrite during scrubbing, followed by stripping with 1 mM nitric acid. The solvent is expected to last for one year of plant operation, and the temperatures the solvent may experience during the process could range from as low as 15 C to as high as 35 C. Excursions from standard process conditions could result in the solvent experiencing higher temperatures, as well as concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, and most importantly nitric acid, that exceed normal operating conditions. Accordingly, conditions may exist where nitration reactions involving the solvent components, possibly leading to other chemical reactions stemming from nitration reactions, could occur. To model such nitration reactions, the solvent was exposed to the types of nitrate- and nitrite-containing solutions that might be expected to be encountered during the process (even under off-normal conditions), as a function of time, temperature, and concentration of nitrate, nitrite, and nitric acid. The experiments conducted as part of this report were designed to examine the more specific effect that high nitrite concentrations could have on forming nitrated

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF SOLVENT EXTRACTION APPROACH TO RECYCLE ENRICHED MOLYBDENUM MATERIAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkac, Peter; Brown, M. Alex; Sen, Sujat; Bowers, Delbert L.; Wardle, Kent; Copple, Jacqueline M.; Pupek, Krzysztof Z.; Dzwiniel, Trevor L.; Pereira, Candido; Krumdick, Gregory K.; Vandegrift, George F.

    2016-06-01

    Argonne National Laboratory, in cooperation with Oak Ridge National Laboratory and NorthStar Medical Technologies, LLC, is developing a recycling process for a solution containing valuable Mo-100 or Mo-98 enriched material. Previously, Argonne had developed a recycle process using a precipitation technique. However, this process is labor intensive and can lead to production of large volumes of highly corrosive waste. This report discusses an alternative process to recover enriched Mo in the form of ammonium heptamolybdate by using solvent extraction. Small-scale experiments determined the optimal conditions for effective extraction of high Mo concentrations. Methods were developed for removal of ammonium chloride from the molybdenum product of the solvent extraction process. In large-scale experiments, very good purification from potassium and other elements was observed with very high recovery yields (~98%).

  17. Development of Solvent Extraction Approach to Recycle Enriched Molybdenum Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkac, Peter [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Brown, M. Alex [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Sen, Sujat [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Bowers, Delbert L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Wardle, Kent [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Copple, Jacqueline M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Pupek, Krzysztof Z. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Dzwiniel, Trevor L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Pereira, Candido [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Krumdick, Gregory K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2016-06-01

    Argonne National Laboratory, in cooperation with Oak Ridge National Laboratory and NorthStar Medical Technologies, LLC, is developing a recycling process for a solution containing valuable Mo-100 or Mo-98 enriched material. Previously, Argonne had developed a recycle process using a precipitation technique. However, this process is labor intensive and can lead to production of large volumes of highly corrosive waste. This report discusses an alternative process to recover enriched Mo in the form of ammonium heptamolybdate by using solvent extraction. Small-scale experiments determined the optimal conditions for effective extraction of high Mo concentrations. Methods were developed for removal of ammonium chloride from the molybdenum product of the solvent extraction process. In large-scale experiments, very good purification from potassium and other elements was observed with very high recovery yields (~98%).

  18. Microfluidic Extraction of Biomarkers using Water as Solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amashukeli, Xenia; Manohara, Harish; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Mehdi, Imran

    2009-01-01

    A proposed device, denoted a miniature microfluidic biomarker extractor (mu-EX), would extract trace amounts of chemicals of interest from samples, such as soils and rocks. Traditionally, such extractions are performed on a large scale with hazardous organic solvents; each solvent capable of dissolving only those molecules lying within narrow ranges of specific chemical and physical characteristics that notably include volatility, electric charge, and polarity. In contrast, in the mu-EX, extractions could be performed by use of small amounts (typically between 0.1 and 100 L) of water as a universal solvent. As a rule of thumb, in order to enable solvation and extraction of molecules, it is necessary to use solvents that have polarity sufficiently close to the polarity of the target molecules. The mu-EX would make selection of specific organic solvents unnecessary, because mu-EX would exploit a unique property of liquid water: the possibility of tuning its polarity to match the polarity of organic solvents appropriate for extraction of molecules of interest. The change of the permittivity of water would be achieved by exploiting interactions between the translational states of water molecules and an imposed electromagnetic field in the frequency range of 300 to 600 GHz. On a molecular level, these interactions would result in disruption of the three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding network among liquid-water molecules and subsequent solvation and hydrolysis of target molecules. The mu-EX is expected to be an efficient means of hydrolyzing chemical bonds in complex macromolecules as well and, thus, enabling analysis of the building blocks of these complex chemical systems. The mu-EX device would include a microfluidic channel, part of which would lie within a waveguide coupled to an electronically tuned source of broad-band electromagnetic radiation in the frequency range from 300 to 600 GHz (see figure). The part of the microfluidic channel lying in the waveguide would

  19. Next Generation Solvent (NGS): Development for Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction of Cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the FY 2010 and 2011 accomplishments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in developing the Next Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NG-CSSX) process, referred to commonly as the Next Generation Solvent (NGS), under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM), Office of Technology Innovation and Development. The primary product of this effort is a process solvent and preliminary flowsheet capable of meeting a target decontamination factor (DF) of 40,000 for worst-case Savannah River Site (SRS) waste with a concentration factor of 15 or higher in the 18-stage equipment configuration of the SRS Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). In addition, the NG-CSSX process may be readily adapted for use in the SRS Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) or in supplemental tank-waste treatment at Hanford upon appropriate solvent or flowsheet modifications. Efforts in FY 2010 focused on developing a solvent composition and process flowsheet for MCU implementation. In FY 2011 accomplishments at ORNL involved a wide array of chemical-development activities and testing up through single-stage hydraulic and mass-transfer tests in 5-cm centrifugal contactors. Under subcontract from ORNL, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) designed a preliminary flowsheet using ORNL cesium distribution data, and Tennessee Technological University confirmed a chemical model for cesium distribution ratios (DCs) as a function of feed composition. Interlaboratory efforts were coordinated with complementary engineering tests carried out (and reported separately) by personnel at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Savannah River Remediation (SRR) with helpful advice by Parsons Engineering and General Atomics on aspects of possible SWPF implementation.

  20. Next Generation Solvent Development for Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction of Cesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Bruce A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Birdwell, Joseph F. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bonnesen, Peter V. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bruffey, Stephanie [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-03-01

    This report summarizes the FY 2010 and 2011 accomplishments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in developing the Next Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NG-CSSX) process, referred to commonly as the Next Generation Solvent (NGS), under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM), Office of Technology Innovation and Development. The primary product of this effort is a process solvent and preliminary flowsheet capable of meeting a target decontamination factor (DF) of 40,000 for worst-case Savannah River Site (SRS) waste with a concentration factor of 15 or higher in the 18-stage equipment configuration of the SRS Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). In addition, the NG-CSSX process may be readily adapted for use in the SRS Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) or in supplemental tank-waste treatment at Hanford upon appropriate solvent or flowsheet modifications. Efforts in FY 2010 focused on developing a solvent composition and process flowsheet for MCU implementation. In FY 2011 accomplishments at ORNL involved a wide array of chemical-development activities and testing up through single-stage hydraulic and mass-transfer tests in 5-cm centrifugal contactors. Under subcontract from ORNL, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) designed a preliminary flowsheet using ORNL cesium distribution data, and Tennessee Technological University confirmed a chemical model for cesium distribution ratios (DCs) as a function of feed composition. Inter laboratory efforts were coordinated with complementary engineering tests carried out (and reported separately) by personnel at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Savannah River Remediation (SRR) with helpful advice by Parsons Engineering and General Atomics on aspects of possible SWPF implementation.

  1. Next Generation Solvent (NGS): Development for Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction of Cesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Bruce A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Birdwell, Jr, Joseph F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bonnesen, Peter V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bruffey, Stephanie H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Delmau, Laetitia Helene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Duncan, Nathan C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ensor, Dale [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States); Hill, Talon G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lee, Denise L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rajbanshi, Arbin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Roach, Benjamin D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Szczygiel, Patricia L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sloop, Jr., Frederick V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stoner, Erica L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Neil J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-03-01

    This report summarizes the FY 2010 and 2011 accomplishments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in developing the Next Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NG-CSSX) process, referred to commonly as the Next Generation Solvent (NGS), under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM), Office of Technology Innovation and Development. The primary product of this effort is a process solvent and preliminary flowsheet capable of meeting a target decontamination factor (DF) of 40,000 for worst-case Savannah River Site (SRS) waste with a concentration factor of 15 or higher in the 18-stage equipment configuration of the SRS Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). In addition, the NG-CSSX process may be readily adapted for use in the SRS Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) or in supplemental tank-waste treatment at Hanford upon appropriate solvent or flowsheet modifications. Efforts in FY 2010 focused on developing a solvent composition and process flowsheet for MCU implementation. In FY 2011 accomplishments at ORNL involved a wide array of chemical-development activities and testing up through single-stage hydraulic and mass-transfer tests in 5-cm centrifugal contactors. Under subcontract from ORNL, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) designed a preliminary flowsheet using ORNL cesium distribution data, and Tennessee Technological University confirmed a chemical model for cesium distribution ratios (DCs) as a function of feed composition. Interlaboratory efforts were coordinated with complementary engineering tests carried out (and reported separately) by personnel at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Savannah River Remediation (SRR) with helpful advice by Parsons Engineering and General Atomics on aspects of possible SWPF implementation.

  2. Acceleration of Automated HI Source Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenhorst, S. J.; Blyth, S.; Kuttel, M. M.

    2013-10-01

    We aim to enable fast automated extraction of neutral hydrogen (HI) sources from large survey data sets. This requires both handling the large files (>5 TB) to be produced by next-generation interferometers and acceleration of the source extraction algorithm. We develop an efficient multithreaded implementation of the A'Trous wavelet reconstruction algorithm, which we evaluate against the serial implementation in the DUCHAMP package. We also evaluate three memory management libraries (Mmap, Boost and Stxxl) that enable processing of data files too large to fit into main memory, to establish which provides the best performance.

  3. Screening Investigations of Novel Nitrogen Donor Ligands for Solvent Extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important to have a concept on how to take care of spent nuclear fuel. Several options exist, such as the once-through cycle or reprocessing. Both these methods produce a residue that must be disposed of and isolated for a very long time. Transmutation of the spent nuclear fuel is a technique that may reduce the amount and the storage time of the spent nuclear fuel by converting the long lived radionuclides into short lived or stable nuclides. Successful transmutation must be accompanied with an effective separation, or partitioning, of the elements in the spent fuel since only a few elements are the target for transmutation. Solvent extraction is one of the preferred techniques for this partitioning. Special consideration is given to the separation of trivalent actinides and trivalent lanthanides in the waste since these groups of elements have similar chemical properties and hence may be difficult to separate. This work is focused on the separation of actinides from lanthanides using novel nitrogen containing extracting reagents for solvent extraction. These nitrogen bearing reagents has been investigated using mainly solvent extraction techniques to find chemical and extraction properties for these reagents and to optimize the system in order to use these reagents in a future process. Methods for making screening test of these ligands are discussed where certain properties of the reagents are investigated, such as solubility, radiolytic and hydrolytic stability and extraction capacity. The ligands were found to be able to specifically separate actinides from lanthanides. Further on, a model based on Hansen's solubility parameter concept, which can predict the outcome of an extraction experiment is presented. The model was found to work quite well

  4. Effect of solvent type and ratio on betacyanins and antioxidant activity of extracts from Hylocereus polyrhizus flesh and peel by supercritical fluid extraction and solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathordoobady, Farahnaz; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Selamat, Jinap; Manap, Mohd Yazid Abd

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of solvent type and ratio as well as the extraction techniques (i.e. supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and conventional solvent extraction) on betacyanins and antioxidant activity of the peel and fresh extract from the red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus). The peel and flesh extracts obtained by SFE at 25MPa pressure and 10% EtOH/water (v/v) mixture as a co-solvent contained 24.58 and 91.27mg/100ml total betacyanin, respectively; while the most desirable solvent extraction process resulted in a relatively higher total betacyanin in the peel and flesh extracts (28.44 and 120.28mg/100ml, respectively). The major betacyanins identified in the pitaya peel and flesh extracts were betanin, isobetanin, phyllocactin, butyrylbetanin, isophyllocactin and iso-butyrylbetanin. The flesh extract had the stronger antioxidant activity than the peel extract when the higher proportion of ethanol to water (E/W) was applied for the extraction. PMID:26920267

  5. Solvent extraction of radionuclides from aqueous tank waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnesen, P.; Sachleben, R.; Moyer, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop an efficient solvent-extraction and stripping process to remove the fission products {sup 99}Tc, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs from alkaline tank waste, such as those stored at Hanford and Oak Ridge. As such, this task expands on FY 1995`s successful development of a solvent-extraction and stripping process for technetium separation from alkaline tank-waste solutions. This process now includes the capability of removing both technetium and strontium simultaneously. In this form, the process has been named SRTALK and will be developed further in this program as a prelude to developing a system capable of removing technetium, strontium, and cesium.

  6. Effect of solvent extraction on Tunisian esparto wax composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saâd Inès

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The increase of needs for renewable and vegetable based materials will help to drive the market growth of vegetable waxes. Because of their highly variable composition and physicochemical properties, plant waxes have found numerous applications in the: food, cosmetic, candle, coating, polish etc... The aim of this project is to determine the effect of solvent extraction (petroleum ether and ethanol on Tunisian esparto wax composition. The GC-MS was applied in order to determine the waxes compositions. Then, physicochemical parameters of these two samples of waxes: acid value, saponification value, iodine value and melting point were measured in order to deduct their properties and possible fields of uses. Results showed that esparto wax composition depended on the solvent extraction and that major components of the two samples of waxes were: alkanes, esters of fatty acids and phenols. Furthermore, esparto waxes were characterized by an antioxidant and antibacterial activities but the potential of these activities depended on the solvent of wax extraction.

  7. Supercritical water oxidation of spent extraction solvent simulants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王帅; 秦强; 陈土方方; 夏晓彬; 马洪军; 乔延波; 何柳斌

    2015-01-01

    The rapid development of nuclear technology has led to more liquid organic radioactive wastes. Different from the regular aqueous radioactive wastes, these liquids possess a higher hazard potential and cannot be disposed through the conventional methods due to their radioactivity and chemical nature. Spent extraction solvent is a kind of common liquid organic radioactive wastes. In this work, tri-butyl phosphate (TBP), which is more difficult to degrade in the spent extraction solvent, was used as the model compound. Influences of reaction conditions on total organic carbon (TOC) removal and the volume percentage of each gas component under supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) were studied. The SCWO behaviors of spent extraction solvent simulants were studied under the optimal conditions derived from the TBP experiment. The SCWO experiments were studied at 400–550◦C, oxidant stoichiometric ratio of 0–200%, feed concentration of 1.5%–4%and pressure of 25 MPa for 15–75 s. The results show that the TOC removal of the simulants was greater than 99.7%and CH4, H2 and CO were not detected at 550◦C, 25 MPa, oxidant stoichiometric ratio of 150%, feed concentration of 3%, and residence time of 30 s.

  8. A prototype study with solvent extraction on industrial scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for uranium purification has generated the study of different methods in order for purification to be achieved, having had excellent results in the laboratory with ionic exchange methods, extraction by means of solvents and chromatography. Pilot experiments of the ionic exchange method have been performed, using as experimentation equipment the columns of ionic exchange, attaining some results without concreting the objectives. Likewise several experiments in mixer-settlers have been performed for the purification of uranium by the solvent extraction method, where there were serious problems with the formation of a third incontrollable phase, and also, due to the later, low purification of the uranium when distributing from one phase to the other. Knowing these problems brought on by the performed experiments in mixer-setters by groups of researchers interested in this part of the nuclear fuel, the task of designing a prototype of extraction with solvents of the mixer-settler type was undertaken in the project 'Models and simulation of equipment and processes of the refinement and conversion department'. The purification of uranium as uranyl nitrate [UO2(NO3)2] was developed, establishing the conditions for the equipment operation, concluding that, with some relatively simple adjustements, it is possible to apply in different areas, taking note of the specific needs of mining, cosmetics, perfume and pharmaceutical areas. (Author)

  9. Ultrasound induced green solvent extraction of oil from oleaginous seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Vian, Maryline Abert; Fine, Frédéric; Carré, Patrick; Tostain, Sylvain; Chemat, Farid

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction of rapeseed oil was investigated and compared with conventional extraction for energy efficiency, throughput time, extraction yield, cleanness, processing cost and product quality. A multivariate study enabled us to define optimal parameters (7.7 W/cm(2) for ultrasonic power intensity, 40 °C for processing temperature, and a solid/liquid ratio of 1/15) for ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil from oilseeds to maximize lipid yield while reducing solvent consumption and extraction time using response surface methodology (RSM) with a three-variable central composite design (CCD). A significant difference in oil quality was noted under the conditions of the initial ultrasound extraction, which was later avoided using ultrasound in the absence of oxygen. Three concepts of multistage cross-current extraction were investigated and compared: conventional multistage maceration, ultrasound-assisted maceration and a combination, to assess the positive impact of using ultrasound on the seed oil extraction process. The study concludes that ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil is likely to reduce both economic and ecological impacts of the process in the fat and oil industry. PMID:26964955

  10. Insight of solvent extraction process: Reassessment of trace level determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramouleeswaran, S; Ramkumar, Jayshree; Basu, M

    2016-09-28

    Solvent extraction is hoary yet modern technique with great scope of research due to the various intriguing phenomena in the system. Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) is a well known extractant which has been extensively used for separation of uranium matrix prior to elemental profiling. In this paper, one of the impurities namely Fe is being considered as it posed a challenge to the separation due to its co-extraction with TBP along with uranium. In these studies, for the first time, the existence of cation-cation inner sphere complexes between the UO2(2+)and Fe(3+) ions in both aqueous and organic phases have been establisted in addition to the selective separation of iron from uranium sample matrix using only TBP. The data from both spectrophotometric and thermophysical studies corroborated one another confirming the presence of cation-cation interactions (CCIs). The developed solvent extraction with only TBP showed almost no interferences on the iron extraction from matrix uranium and other co-ions like aluminum and copper. This has been the first time application of pure TBP for selective removal of iron from uranium samples. The procedure possessed excellent reproducibility and robustness. PMID:27619094

  11. Solvent extraction for cleaning phosphoric acid in fertilizer production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphorites of sedimentary origin utilized in manufacturing of fertilizer contain uranium, thorium, products of their radioactive decay, as well as heals-endangering compounds of cadmium, arsenic, fluoride. Some part of them may transit into phosphoric acid, when breaking down the phosphorites with sulphuric acid, and then into fertilizer. The chief purpose of the phosphoric acid cleaning is its decontamination from uranium and thorium as well as the removal of toxic cadmium. The above task can be achieved by a world-recognized technology - solvent extraction. The report presents the investigation results on extraction of uranium and cadmium from phosphoric acid using polyalkyl phosphasene and trioctyl amine, respectively. The studies concerned the extraction kinetics, equilibrium distribution of uranium and cadmium within the phases, the effect extractants concentration and temperature of the process. The technological schemes for cleaning phosphoric acid from uranium and cadmium are given in the paper. (authors)

  12. EVALUATION OF EXTRACTION TECHNIQUES WITH VARIOUS SOLVENTS TO DETERMINE EXTRACTION EFFICIENCY OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Patil et al

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Herbal drugs play an important role in health care dynamics especially in developing countries. The key step in isolation of biologically active compounds is extraction, which is expressed as total extractive yield, yields of metabolites of interest or intensity of biological activity. Extraction of phytoconstituents from plant materials has been of tremendous interest and potential. Extractive value of the crude drug also indicates the quality as well as purity of the drug. For most extractions, relatively simple techniques, such as percolation and maceration are effective and economical. Some specific applications however, require more sophisticated and costly extraction techniques using specialized equipments. It is often possible to select the specific solvent to maximize the yields on the basis of different techniques, varying in cost and level of complexity. Therefore the objective of the present study was to compare different extraction techniques with various solvents for determination of extractive values. The plants selected for the present research work were Averrrhoa carambola L. fruits (Oxalidaceae, Lagenaria vulgaris Ser. fruits (Cucurbitaceae and Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. rhizomes (Hypoxidaceae. The maximum percentage of extractive value for L. vulgaris Ser. fruit extract was found to be 76.26±0.46 in water using reflux for extraction, whereas A. carambola L. fruit extract and C. orchioides Gaertn. rhizome extract, the maximum percentage of extractive values were found to be 88.40±0.80 and 54.00±0.80 respectively in water using ultrasound extraction method.

  13. Solvent extraction studies with high-burnup Fast Flux Test Facility fuel in the Solvent Extraction Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benker, D.E.; Bigelow, J.E.; Bond, W.D.; Chattin, F.R.; King, L.J.; Kitts, F.G.; Ross, R.G.; Stacy, R.G.

    1986-10-01

    A batch of high-burnup fuel from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) was processed in the Solvent Extraction Test Facility (SETF) during Campaign 9. The fuel had a burnup of {similar_to}0 MWd/kg and a cooling time of {similar_to} year. Two runs were made with this fuel; in the first, the solvent contained 30% tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and partitioning of the uranium and plutonium was effected by reducing the plutonium with hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN); in the second, the solvent contained 10% TBP and a low operating temperature was used in an attempt to partition without reducing the plutonium valence. The plutonium reoxidation problem, which was present in previous runs that used HAN, may have been solved by lowering the temperature and acidity in the partition contactor. An automatic control system was used to maintain high loadings of heavy metals in the coextraction-coscrub contactor in order to increase its efficiency while maintaining low losses of uranium and plutonium to the aqueous raffinate. An in-line photometer system was used to measure the plutonium concentration in an intermediate extraction stage; and based on this data, a computer algorithm determined the appropriate adjustments in the addition rate of the extractant. The control system was successfully demonstrated in a preliminary run with purified uranium. However, a variety of equipment and start up problems prevented an extended demonstration from being accomplished during the runs with the FFTF fuel.

  14. Advanced integrated solvent extraction and ion exchange systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horwitz, P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction (SX) and ion exchange (IX) systems are a series of novel SX and IX processes that extract and recover uranium and transuranics (TRUs) (neptunium, plutonium, americium) and fission products {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 137}Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste and that sorb and recover {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 137}Cs from alkaline supernatant high-level waste. Each system is based on the use of new selective liquid extractants or chromatographic materials. The purpose of the integrated SX and IX processes is to minimize the quantity of waste that must be vitrified and buried in a deep geologic repository by producing raffinates (from SX) and effluent streams (from IX) that will meet the specifications of Class A low-level waste.

  15. Solvent extraction studies using tetracycline as complexing agent Pt.7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separation of uranium from rare-earth elements and scandium has been accomplished by a solvent extraction technique using tetracycline as a complexing agent and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid as a masking agent for scandium and rare earths. Benzyl alcohol was used as the organic solvent and ionic strength in the aqueous phase was kept constant at 0.10M by addition of NaClO4. Radioisotopes (Sc-46, La-140, Eu-152-154, Tm-170) of the elements were obtained by the irradiation of oxides in a thermal neutron flux of 5x1012ncm-2sec-1 for 8 hours. Samples were counted using a well-type NaI(Tl) coupled to a single channel γ-ray analyser or a Ge-Li detector and a 4096-channel analyser. Concentration of uranium in both phases was determined by activation analysis with epithermal neutrons. (T.I.)

  16. A short review of headspace extraction and ultrasonic solvent extraction for honey volatiles fingerprinting

    OpenAIRE

    Jerković, I.; Marijanović, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Honey volatiles exhibit a potential role in distinguishing honeys as a function of botanical origin, but heating of honey generates artefacts such as compounds of Strecker degradation and Maillard reaction products. This short review is focused on the most recently applied methods for honey volatiles fingerprinting (without generation of thermal artefacts): headspace extraction (dynamic headspace extraction (DHE), headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME)) and ultrasonic solvent extract...

  17. Determining an Efficient Solvent Extraction Parameters for Re-Refining of Waste Lubricating Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Ali Durrani; Muhammed Ibrahim Panhwar; Rafique Akthar Kazi

    2012-01-01

    Re-refining of vehicle waste lubricating oil by solvent extraction is one of the efficient and cheapest methods. Three extracting solvents MEK (Methyl-Ethyl-Ketone), 1-butanol, 2-propanol were determined experimentally for their performance based on the parameters i.e. solvent type, solvent oil ratio and extraction temperature. From the experimental results it was observed the MEK performance was highest based on the lowest oil percent losses and highest sludge removal. Further, w...

  18. Microwave accelerated solvent-free synthesis of flavanones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagrera, Gabriel J. [Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias. Dept. de Quimica Organica]. E-mail: gseoane@fq.edu.uy; Seoane, Gustavo A. [Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay). Facultad de Quimica

    2005-07-15

    Microwave irradiation of chalcones under solvent-free conditions resulted in a 'green-chemistry' procedure for the preparation of flavanones in very good yields. Using an unmodified household microwave oven, different mineral supports and catalysts were tested. By irradiation of chalcones with 30% TFA over silica gel, eleven known flavanones and five new compounds were prepared in high yields. (author)

  19. Final Report - Energy Reduction and Advanced Water Removal via Membrane Solvent Extraction Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, John; Fanselow, Dan; Abbas, Charles; Sammons, Rhea; Kinchin, Christopher

    2014-08-06

    3M and Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) collaborated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and demonstrate a novel membrane solvent extraction (MSE) process that can substantially reduce energy and water consumption in ethanol production, and accelerate the fermentation process. A cross-flow membrane module was developed, using porous membrane manufactured by 3M. A pilot process was developed that integrates fermentation, MSE and vacuum distillation. Extended experiments of 48-72 hours each were conducted to develop the process, verify its performance and begin establishing commercial viability.

  20. Effect of Extraction Solvent/Technique on the Antioxidant Activity of Selected Medicinal Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushra Sultana

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Theeffects of four extracting solvents [absolute ethanol, absolute methanol, aqueous ethanol (ethanol: water, 80:20 v/v and aqueous methanol (methanol: water, 80:20 v/v] and two extraction techniques (shaking and reflux on the antioxidant activity of extracts of barks of Azadirachta indica, Acacia nilotica, Eugenia jambolana, Terminalia arjuna, leaves and roots of Moringa oleifera, fruit of Ficus religiosa,and leaves of Aloe barbadensis were investigated. The tested plant materials contained appreciable amounts of total phenolic contents (0.31-16.5 g GAE /100g DW, total flavonoid (2.63-8.66 g CE/100g DW; reducing power at 10 mg/mL extract concentration (1.36-2.91, DPPH. scavenging capacity (37.2-86.6%, and percent inhibition of linoleic acid (66.0-90.6%. Generally higher extract yields, phenolic contents and plant material antioxidant activity were obtained using aqueous organic solvents, as compared to the respective absolute organic solvents. Although higher extract yields were obtained by the refluxing extraction technique, in general higher amounts of total phenolic contents and better antioxidant activity were found in the extracts prepared using a shaker.

  1. Effect of extraction solvent/technique on the antioxidant activity of selected medicinal plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Bushra; Anwar, Farooq; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2009-01-01

    Theeffects of four extracting solvents [absolute ethanol, absolute methanol, aqueous ethanol (ethanol: water, 80:20 v/v) and aqueous methanol (methanol: water, 80:20 v/v)] and two extraction techniques (shaking and reflux) on the antioxidant activity of extracts of barks of Azadirachta indica, Acacia nilotica, Eugenia jambolana, Terminalia arjuna, leaves and roots of Moringa oleifera, fruit of Ficus religiosa,and leaves of Aloe barbadensis were investigated. The tested plant materials contained appreciable amounts of total phenolic contents (0.31-16.5 g GAE /100g DW), total flavonoid (2.63-8.66 g CE/100g DW); reducing power at 10 mg/mL extract concentration (1.36-2.91), DPPH(.) scavenging capacity (37.2-86.6%), and percent inhibition of linoleic acid (66.0-90.6%). Generally higher extract yields, phenolic contents and plant material antioxidant activity were obtained using aqueous organic solvents, as compared to the respective absolute organic solvents. Although higher extract yields were obtained by the refluxing extraction technique, in general higher amounts of total phenolic contents and better antioxidant activity were found in the extracts prepared using a shaker. PMID:19553890

  2. Terra-Kleen Response Group, Inc. Solvent Extraction Technology Rapid Commercialization Initiative Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra-Kleen Response Group Inc. (Terra-Kleen), has commercialized a solvent extraction technology that uses a proprietary extraction solvent to transfer organic constituents from soil to a liquid phase in a batch process at ambient temperatures. The proprietary solvent has a rel...

  3. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) and Solvent Extraction of Papaya Seed Oil: Yield, Fatty Acid Composition and Triacylglycerol Profile

    OpenAIRE

    Hasanah Mohd Ghazali; Chin Ping Tan; Hamed Mirhosseini; Shadi Samaram

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE) and solvent extraction (SE)). In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (...

  4. Solvent extraction studies using tetracycline as complexing agent Pt. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separation of scandium from zinc is acomplished by solvent extraction technique using benzyl alcohol-tetracycline solution as organic phase. The radioisotopes Sc-46 and Zn-65 were obtained by irradiation of powdered metallic zinc and of Sc2O3. Extraction took place at 25 +- 0.5 deg C and the separatory funnels were mechanically shaken for 30 min at that temperature. Concentration of NaClO4 in the aqueous phase was equal to 0.10 M and of tetracycline in the organic phase, 0.01 M. Activities of Sc-46 and Zn-65 were measured in a well type NaI(Tl) detector coupled to a single channel analyser. (T.I.)

  5. Investigation of aggregation in solvent extraction of lanthanides by acidic extractants (organophosphorus and naphthenic acid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, N.; Wu, J.; Yu, Z.; Neuman, R.D.; Wang, D.; Xu, G.

    1997-01-01

    Three acidic extractants (I) di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP), (II) 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEHPEHE) and (III) naphthenic acid were employed in preparing the samples for the characterization of the coordination structure of lanthanide-extractant complexes and the physicochemical nature of aggregates formed in the organic diluent of the solvent extraction systems. Photo correlation spectroscopy (PCS) results on the aggregates formed by the partially saponified HDEHP in n-heptane showed that the hydrodynamic radius of the aggregates was comparable to the molecular dimensions of HDEHP. The addition of 2-octanol into the diluent, by which the mixed solvent was formed, increased the dimensions of the corresponding aggregates. Aggregates formed from the lanthanide ions and HDEHP in the organic phase of the extraction systems were found very unstable. In the case of naphthenic acid, PCS data showed the formation of w/o microemulsion from the saponified naphthenic acid in the mixed solvent. The extraction of lanthanides by the saponified naphthenic acid in the mixed solvent under the given experimental conditions was a process of destruction of the w/o microemulsion. A possible mechanism of the breakdown of the w/o microemulsion droplets is discussed.

  6. 21 CFR 173.280 - Solvent extraction process for citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Solvent extraction process for citric acid. 173.280... extraction process for citric acid. A solvent extraction process for recovery of citric acid from conventional Aspergillus niger fermentation liquor may be safely used to produce food-grade citric acid...

  7. Preliminary phytochemicals evaluation of different solvent extracts of Gynura procumbens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytochemicals are natural bioactive compounds found in plants, such as vegetables, fruits, medicinal plants, flowers, leaves and roots that work with nutrients and fibers to protect against various human diseases. Gynura procumbens or locally known as Sambung Nyawa is a plant species widely planted in many warmer regions. It is a perennial plant of the Asteraceae family, which may grow to 100 cm high with oval-shaped, leaves to 10 cm long and have a rather fleshy feel. Gynura procumbens has been used for the treatment of eruptive fevers, rash and kidney disease. The leaves of this plant continue to be used as folk medicine to control diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidaemia. The aim of this research was to evaluate the presence of phytochemicals constituents in different solvent extracts of Gynura procumbens leaves. Qualitative phytochemicals screening of hexane, chloroform, methanol and water extracts were carried out for the detection of terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, steroids, lipids, coumarin, cardiac glycosides and anthraquinones. The phytochemicals screening showed positive results for terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, lipids, coumarin and anthraquinones in methanol and water extracts of Gynura procumbens. The diversity of phytochemicals present suggests that Gynura procumbens leaves could serve as a source of useful drugs. (author)

  8. Solvent Extraction of Alkaline Earth Metals with Alkylphosphorus Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUXin; ZHUTun

    2002-01-01

    Solvent extraction equiliria of four main alkaline earth metals (magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium) with di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (DEHPA), 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-(2-ethylhexyl) ester, di(2,4,4-tri-methylpentyl) phosphinic acid and IR spectra of the extracts have been studied. The selectivity order is dependent of the e/r value and hydration energy of the metal ions. The minor shift of the P→O in IR absorption of the alkaline earth metal extracts indicates that the interaction between the metal ions and P→O is much weaker for alkaline earth metals than for transitional metals. The distribution of the four alkaline earth elements between aqueous solutions and solutions of DEHPA and neutral organophosphorus compunds, tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) or tri-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) in kerosene have been determined at varying ratio of TBP or TOPO to DEHPA and the positive synergism is observed. The synergic effects is explained by using IR spectra of the loaded organic phase.

  9. Polyhydroxyflavones as extractants. Communication 7. Solvent extraction of europrium complexes with morin from alkaline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper studies the analytical application of europium (III)-morin complex which is formed in alkaline medium and has an intense color. The extent of europium extraction was determined by adding to the extract a morin solution in isoamyl alcohol in a 50-100-fold excess with respect to europium. The dependence of the optical density of the extracts on the ph in the system europium (III)-morin-water-organic solvent for different excesses of the reagent is shown: this indicates formation of two extractable complexes, one being dominant in the pH range 4-7, the other at pH greater than or equal to 8.5. The extraction of the europium (III)-morin complex from alkaline solution is used for direct extraction-photometric determination of europium(III) in compounds of elements having amphoteric properties or forming amines (Zns, Mo03)

  10. Green extraction of grape skin phenolics by using deep eutectic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvjetko Bubalo, Marina; Ćurko, Natka; Tomašević, Marina; Kovačević Ganić, Karin; Radojčić Redovniković, Ivana

    2016-06-01

    Conventional extraction techniques for plant phenolics are usually associated with high organic solvent consumption and long extraction times. In order to establish an environmentally friendly extraction method for grape skin phenolics, deep eutectic solvents (DES) as a green alternative to conventional solvents coupled with highly efficient microwave-assisted and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods (MAE and UAE, respectively) have been considered. Initially, screening of five different DES for proposed extraction was performed and choline chloride-based DES containing oxalic acid as a hydrogen bond donor with 25% of water was selected as the most promising one, resulting in more effective extraction of grape skin phenolic compounds compared to conventional solvents. Additionally, in our study, UAE proved to be the best extraction method with extraction efficiency superior to both MAE and conventional extraction method. The knowledge acquired in this study will contribute to further DES implementation in extraction of biologically active compounds from various plant sources. PMID:26830574

  11. Non-polar Solvent Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Volatile Constituents from Dried Zingiber Officinale Rosc.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yong; WANG Zi-Ming; WANG Yu-Tang; LI Tie-Chun; CHENG Jian-Hua; LIU Zhong-Ying; ZHANG Han-Qi

    2007-01-01

    A new method, non-polar solvent microwave-assisted extraction (NPSMAE), was applied to the extraction of essential oil from Zingiber officinale Rosc. in closed-vessel system. By adding microwave absorption mediumcarbonyl iron powders (CIP) into extraction system, the essential oil was extracted by the non-polar solvent (ether)which can be heated by CIP. The constituents of essential oil obtained by NPSMAE were comparable with those obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) by GC-MS analysis, which indicates that NPSMAE is a feasible way to extract essential oil from dried plant materials. The NPSMAE took much less extraction time (5 min) than HD (180 min),and its extraction efficiency was much higher than that of conventional polar solvent microwave-assisted extraction (PSMAE) and mixed solvent microwave-assisted extraction (MSMAE). It can be a good alternative for the extraction of volatile constituents from dried plant samples.

  12. Sharp Interface Tracking in Rotating Microflows of Solvent Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glimm, James [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Almeida, Valmor de [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jiao, Xiangmin [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Sims, Brett [City Univ. (CUNY), NY (United States). Borough of Manhattan Community College; Li, Xaiolin [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2013-01-08

    The objective of this project is to develop a specialized sharp interface tracking simulation capability for predicting interaction of micron-sized drops and bubbles in rotating flows relevant to optimized design of contactor devices used in solvent extraction processes of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. The primary outcomes of this project include the capability to resolve drops and bubbles micro-hydrodynamics in solvent extraction contactors, determining from first principles continuum fluid mechanics how micro-drops and bubbles interact with each other and the surrounding shearing fluid for realistic flows. In the near term, this effort will play a central role in providing parameters and insight into the flow dynamics of models that average over coarser scales, say at the millimeter unit length. In the longer term, it will prove to be the platform to conduct full-device, detailed simulations as parallel computing power reaches the exaflop level. The team will develop an accurate simulation tool for flows containing interacting droplets and bubbles with sharp interfaces under conditions that mimic those found in realistic contactor operations. The main objective is to create an off-line simulation capability to model drop and bubble interactions in a domain representative of the averaged length scale. The technical approach is to combine robust interface tracking software, subgrid modeling, validation quality experiments, powerful computational hardware, and a team with simulation modeling, physical modeling and technology integration experience. Simulations will then fully resolve the microflow of drops and bubbles at the microsecond time scale. This approach is computationally intensive but very accurate in treating important coupled physical phenomena in the vicinity of interfaces. The method makes it possible to resolve spatial scales smaller than the typical distance between bubbles and to model some non-equilibrium thermodynamic features such as finite

  13. Sharp Interface Tracking in Rotating Microflows of Solvent Extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this project is to develop a specialized sharp interface tracking simulation capability for predicting interaction of micron-sized drops and bubbles in rotating flows relevant to optimized design of contactor devices used in solvent extraction processes of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. The primary outcomes of this project include the capability to resolve drops and bubbles micro-hydrodynamics in solvent extraction contactors, determining from first principles continuum fluid mechanics how micro-drops and bubbles interact with each other and the surrounding shearing fluid for realistic flows. In the near term, this effort will play a central role in providing parameters and insight into the flow dynamics of models that average over coarser scales, say at the millimeter unit length. In the longer term, it will prove to be the platform to conduct full-device, detailed simulations as parallel computing power reaches the exaflop level. The team will develop an accurate simulation tool for flows containing interacting droplets and bubbles with sharp interfaces under conditions that mimic those found in realistic contactor operations. The main objective is to create an off-line simulation capability to model drop and bubble interactions in a domain representative of the averaged length scale. The technical approach is to combine robust interface tracking software, subgrid modeling, validation quality experiments, powerful computational hardware, and a team with simulation modeling, physical modeling and technology integration experience. Simulations will then fully resolve the microflow of drops and bubbles at the microsecond time scale. This approach is computationally intensive but very accurate in treating important coupled physical phenomena in the vicinity of interfaces. The method makes it possible to resolve spatial scales smaller than the typical distance between bubbles and to model some non-equilibrium thermodynamic features such as finite

  14. Antibacterial activity of sequentially extracted organic solvent extracts of fruits, flowers and leaves of Lawsonia inermis L. from Jaffna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Christy Jeyaseelan

    2012-10-01

    Conclusion: The study demonstrated that the ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of fruit and flower of L. inermis are potentially better source of antibacterial agents compared to leaf extracts of respective solvents.

  15. Safety confirmation study of TRUEX solvent by accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to confirm the engineering safety on the TRUEX solvent (mixed solvent of CMPO/TBP/n-dodecane) for separating the transuranics from high-level activity liquid waste in advanced nuclear fuel recycling technological R and D, thermal behavior and pressure behavior in heating PUREX solvent (mixed solvent of 30% TBP-n-dodecane), TRUEX solvent and in the exothermic reaction of TRUEX solvent etc. and nitric acid in sealed adiabatic system which was severer condition than actual plant were measured by using accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC). The Arrhenius parameters (activation energy and frequency factor) which are necessary for the evaluation of reaction rate was examined from the measurement data in ARC. Analytical method and analysis condition of reaction products were examined in order to clarify chemical form of reaction products in exothermic reaction between solvent and nitric acid in ARC, and the qualitative evaluation was carried out. Main results are shown in the following. 1) TBP, CMPO, n-dodecane and 10 M nitric acid hardly exothermed in the simple substance. 2) On the solvent phase after the solvent contacted with 10 M nitric acid and the equilibrium has been attained (single-phase sample), the heat quantity per unit sample weight of the TRUEX solvent tended to be bigger than that of the PUREX solvent when heat quantity was evaluated in ARC. However, on the mixed sample of solvent and 10 M nitric acid enclosed in a sample container simultaneously (two phase system sample), the heat quantity per unit solvent weight was almost equivalent for PUREX solvent and TRUEX solvent. 3) The kinetic analysis was carried out, and on the TBP-10 M nitric acid single-phase sample, the activation energy of the reaction was evaluated to be 118 kJ/mol. Its activation energy was approximately equal to 112 kJ/mol by Nichols. The reaction rate constant was calculated, and it was shown that reaction rate constants of PUREX solvent-10 M nitric acid single-phase sample and

  16. Determining an Efficient Solvent Extraction Parameters for Re-Refining of Waste Lubricating Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ali Durrani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Re-refining of vehicle waste lubricating oil by solvent extraction is one of the efficient and cheapest methods. Three extracting solvents MEK (Methyl-Ethyl-Ketone, 1-butanol, 2-propanol were determined experimentally for their performance based on the parameters i.e. solvent type, solvent oil ratio and extraction temperature. From the experimental results it was observed the MEK performance was highest based on the lowest oil percent losses and highest sludge removal. Further, when temperature of extraction increased the oil losses percent also decreased. This is due to the solvent ability that dissolves the base oil in waste lubricating oil and determines the best SOR (Solvent Oil Ratio and extraction temperatures.

  17. A Comparative Study of Recycling of Used Engine Oil Using Extraction by Composite Solvent, Single Solvent, and Acid Treatment Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Abro, Rashid; Chen, Xiaochun; Harijan, Khanji; Dhakan, Zulifqar A.; Ammar, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Engine oils are made from crude oil and its derivatives by mixing of certain other chemicals (additives) for improving their certain properties. Lubricating oil is used to lubricate moving parts of engine, reducing friction, protecting against wear, and removing contaminants from the engine, act as a cleaning agent, and act as an anticorrosion and cooling agent. This research effort focuses on comparative study of re-refined engine oils by extraction of composite solvent, single solvent, and ...

  18. 用加速溶剂萃取及制备型高效液相色谱法从烟梗中制取多酚对照品%Preparation of Polyphenol Reference Substance from Peduncle of Tobacco by Accelerated Solvent Extraction and Pre-HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金诚; 刘汗青; 田孟华; 曹鑫

    2013-01-01

    提出用加速溶剂萃取及制备型高效液相色谱方法从烟梗中提取、制备多酚对照品的方法.样品粉碎后以乙醇(80+-20)溶液为萃取溶剂经加速溶剂萃取仪在110℃静态萃取10 min,提取液氮气吹扫60 s后过MCI树脂和Sephadex LH 20凝胶净化,流出液用丙酮定容后,先通过制备型高效液相色谱初步分离,再通过半制备高效液相色谱进一步分离,得到5个多酚类化合物,经核磁共振波谱法鉴定分别为芸香苷、绿原酸、槲皮素、柚皮素和咖啡酸甲酯.5个多酚类化合物的纯度均大于99%,故可用作多酚对照品.%A method for the extraction and preparation of polyphenol reference substances from peduncle of tobacco by accelerated solvent extraction and pre-HPLC was proposed.The sample was crushed and extracted with ethanol (80+-20) solution under static condition at 110 C for 10 min,and the extract was swept for 60 s by N2-blowing and purified by MCI resin and Sephadex LH 20 gel.The eluate collected was taken up with acetone and used for preliminary separation by pre-HPLC,and for further separation by semi Pre-HPLC,and five polyphenols were obtained,which were identified by NMR to be rutin,chlorogenic acid,quercetin,naringenin and methyl caffeate.The purity of the 5 polyphenols were more than 99%,which could be used as reference materials.

  19. Deep eutectic solvents as efficient solvent system for the extraction of κ-carrageenan from Kappaphycus alvarezii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arun Kumar; Sharma, Mukesh; Mondal, Dibyendu; Prasad, Kamalesh

    2016-01-20

    Three different deep eutectic solvents (DESs) prepared by the complexation of choline chloride with urea, ethylene glycol and glycerol along with their hydrated counterparts were used for the selective extraction of κ-carrageenan from Kappaphycus alvarezii. Upon comparison of the quality of the polysaccharide with the one obtained using water as extraction media as well as the one extracted using widely practiced conventional method, it was found that, the physicochemical as well as rheological properties of κ-carrageenan obtained using DESs as solvents was at par to the one obtained using conventional method and was superior in quality when compared to κ-carrageenan obtained using water as solvent. Considering the tedious nature of the extraction method employed in conventional extraction process, the DESs can be considered as suitable alternative solvents for the facile extraction of the polysaccharide directly from the seaweed. However, among the hydrated and non-hydrated DESs, the hydrated ones were found to be more effective in comparison to their non-hydrated counterparts. PMID:26572431

  20. Clean recovery of antioxidant flavonoids from onions: Optimising solvent free microwave extraction method

    OpenAIRE

    Zill-e-Huma; Vian, Maryline; Maingonnat, Jean Francois; Chemat, Farid

    2009-01-01

     A solvent free microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity extraction (MHG) of flavonol content from onion (Allium cepa L.) was studied. Effectiveness of this innovative method in extraction of onion total phenolic content, total quercetin (TQ), quercetin aglycon (QA), quercetin-3,4′-diglucoside (QDG), quercetin-4′-monoglucoside (Q4G), quercetin-3-monoglucoside (Q3G), kaempferol (KMF) and myricetin (MRT) have been evaluated and compared with conventional solvent extraction. Microwave extraction off...

  1. Selective Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Permanent Magnet Scraps with Membrane Solvent Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daejin; Powell, Lawrence E; Delmau, Lætitia H; Peterson, Eric S; Herchenroeder, Jim; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2015-08-18

    The rare earth elements (REEs) such as neodymium, praseodymium, and dysprosium were successfully recovered from commercial NdFeB magnets and industrial scrap magnets via membrane assisted solvent extraction (MSX). A hollow fiber membrane system was evaluated to extract REEs in a single step with the feed and strip solutions circulating continuously through the MSX system. The effects of several experimental variables on REE extraction such as flow rate, concentration of REEs in the feed solution, membrane configuration, and composition of acids were investigated with the MSX system. A multimembrane module configuration with REEs dissolved in aqueous nitric acid solutions showed high selectivity for REE extraction with no coextraction of non-REEs, whereas the use of aqueous hydrochloric acid solution resulted in coextraction of non-REEs due to the formation of chloroanions of non-REEs. The REE oxides were recovered from the strip solution through precipitation, drying, and annealing steps. The resulting REE oxides were characterized with XRD, SEM-EDX, and ICP-OES, demonstrating that the membrane assisted solvent extraction is capable of selectively recovering pure REEs from the industrial scrap magnets.

  2. Selective Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Permanent Magnet Scraps with Membrane Solvent Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daejin; Powell, Lawrence E; Delmau, Lætitia H; Peterson, Eric S; Herchenroeder, Jim; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2015-08-18

    The rare earth elements (REEs) such as neodymium, praseodymium, and dysprosium were successfully recovered from commercial NdFeB magnets and industrial scrap magnets via membrane assisted solvent extraction (MSX). A hollow fiber membrane system was evaluated to extract REEs in a single step with the feed and strip solutions circulating continuously through the MSX system. The effects of several experimental variables on REE extraction such as flow rate, concentration of REEs in the feed solution, membrane configuration, and composition of acids were investigated with the MSX system. A multimembrane module configuration with REEs dissolved in aqueous nitric acid solutions showed high selectivity for REE extraction with no coextraction of non-REEs, whereas the use of aqueous hydrochloric acid solution resulted in coextraction of non-REEs due to the formation of chloroanions of non-REEs. The REE oxides were recovered from the strip solution through precipitation, drying, and annealing steps. The resulting REE oxides were characterized with XRD, SEM-EDX, and ICP-OES, demonstrating that the membrane assisted solvent extraction is capable of selectively recovering pure REEs from the industrial scrap magnets. PMID:26107531

  3. Radiation chemistry in solvent extraction: FY2010 Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce J. Mincher; Leigh R. Martin; Stephen P. Mezyk

    2010-09-01

    This report summarizes work accomplished under the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) program in the area of radiation chemistry during FY 2010. The tasks assigned during FY 2010 included: • Development of techniques to measure free radical reaction kinetics in the organic phase. • Initiation of an alpha-radiolysis program • Initiation of an effort to understand dose rate effects in radiation chemistry • Continued work to characterize TALSPEAK radiation chemistry Progress made on each of these tasks is reported here. Briefly, a method was developed and used to measure the kinetics of the reactions of the •NO3 radical with solvent extraction ligands in organic solution, and the method to measure •OH radical reactions under the same conditions has been designed. Rate constants for the CMPO and DMDOHEMA reaction with •NO3 radical in organic solution are reported. Alpha-radiolysis was initiated on samples of DMDOHEMA in alkane solution using He ion beam irradiation and 211At isotope irradiation. The samples are currently being analyzed for comparison to DMDOHEMA ?-irradiations using a custom-developed mass spectrometric method. Results are also reported for the radiolytic generation of nitrous acid, in ?-irradiated nitric acid. It is shown that the yield of nitrous acid is unaffected by an order-of-magnitude change in dose rate. Finally, recent results for TALSPEAK radiolysis are reported, summarizing the effects on solvent extraction efficiency due to HDEHP irradiation, and the stable products of lactic acid and DTPA irradiation. In addition, results representing increased scope are presented for the radiation chemistry program. These include an investigation of the effect of metal complexation on radical reaction kinetics using DTPA as an example, and the production of a manuscript reporting the mechanism of Cs-7SB radiolysis. The Cs-7SB work takes advantage of recent results from a current LDRD program to understand the fundamental chemistry

  4. Solvent-free microwave extraction of bioactive compounds provides a tool for green analytical chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Ying LI; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Vian, Maryline; Chemat, Farid

    2013-01-01

    We present an overview on solvent-free microwave-extraction techniques of bioactive compounds from natural products. This new technique is based on the concept of green analytical chemistry. It has proved to be an alternative to other techniques with the advantages of reducing extraction times, energy consumption, solvent use and CO2 emissions.

  5. Liquid-liquid equilibrium extraction of ethanol with mixed solvent for bioethanol concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroaki Habaki; Haihao Hu; Ryuichi Egashira

    2016-01-01

    The extraction of ethanol with the solvents of aldehydes mixed with m-xylene was studied for the bioethanol concentration process. Furfural and benzaldehyde were selected as extraction solvents, with which the solubility of water is smal , expecting large distribution coefficient of ethanol. The liquid–liquid two-phase region was the largest with m-xylene solvent, followed by benzaldehyde and furfural. The region of two liquid–liquid phase be-came larger with the mixed solvent of m-xylene and furfural than that with furfural solvent. The NRTL model was applied to the ethanol–water–furfural–m-xylene system, and the model could well express the liquid–liquid equilibrium of the system. For any solvent used in this study, the separation selectivity of ethanol relative to water decreased as the distribution coefficient of ethanol increased. The separation selectivity with m-xylene was the largest among the employed solvents, but the distribution coefficient was the smal est. The solvent mix-ture of furfural and m-xylene showed relatively high distribution coefficient of ethanol and separation selectivity, even in the higher mass fraction of m-xylene in the solvent phase. The ethanol extraction with a countercurrent multistage extractor by a continuous operation was simulated to evaluate the extraction performance. The ethanol content could be concentrated in the extract phase with relatively small number of extraction stages but low yield of ethanol was obtained.

  6. Water-enhanced solubility of carboxylic acids in organic solvents and its applications to extraction processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starr, J.N.; King, C.J.

    1991-11-01

    The solubilities of carboxylic acids in certain organic solvents increase remarkably with an increasing amount of water in the organic phase. This phenomenon leads to a novel extract regeneration process in which the co-extracted water is selectively removed from an extract, and the carboxylic acid precipitates. This approach is potentially advantageous compared to other regeneration processes because it removes a minor component of the extract in order to achieve a large recovery of acid from the extract. Carboxylic acids of interest include adipic acid, fumaric acid, and succinic acid because of their low to moderate solubilities in organic solvents. Solvents were screened for an increase in acid solubility with increased water concentration in the organic phase. Most Lewis-base solvents were found to exhibit this increased solubility phenomena. Solvents that have a carbonyl functional group showed a very large increase in acid solubility. 71 refs., 52 figs., 38 tabs.

  7. Determination of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Chinese Herbal Tea Granule by Accelerated Solvent Extraction Combined with Gas Chromatography Negative Chemical Ionization- Mass Spectrometry%加速溶剂萃取/气相色谱-负化学电离质谱法对广东凉茶冲剂中有机氯杀虫剂残留的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓洁薇; 李娜; 杨运云

    2011-01-01

    建立了加速溶剂萃取/气相色谱-负化学电离质谱法( ASE/GC - NCI - MS)测定广东凉茶颗粒冲剂中有机氯杀虫剂(OcPs)含量的方法.采用ASE萃取冲剂中的OCPs,萃取溶剂为正己烷-二氯甲烷(1:1),萃取温度100℃,萃取压力10 MPa,萃取时间10 min×3.萃取液经SPE净化,浓缩定容后,经色谱柱DB-IMS(30 m×0.25 mm×0.1μm)分离,采用GC-NCI-MS测定其中OCPs的含量.25种OCPs的线性范围为1~500Pg,相关系数(r)均大于0.999,方法的检出限为1.0~34.4 pg/g,定量下限为3.4~114.6 pg/g,回收率为86%~105%.将该方法用于分析不同厂家和批次的凉茶颗粒冲剂样品,25种OCPs均未检出.该方法快速、灵敏,是广东凉茶中有机氯杀虫剂残留检测的有效手段.%A method was developed for the determination of organochlorine pesticide residues in Chinese herbal tea granule by accelerated solvent extraction combined with gas chromatography - negative chemical ionization - mass spectrometry ( ASE/GC - NCI - MS ). The samples were extracted with ASE for 10 min × 3 times using hexane - dichloromethane (1 : 1) as solvent at temperature of 100 ℃ and pressure of 10 Mpa. The extracts were purified by solid phase extraction using a SampliQ Silica column, concentrated with a gentle stream of nitrogen, and then separated on a DB-1MS column(30 m × 0. 25 mm × 0.1 μm). The quantitative analysis of 25 organochlorine pesticides was carried out by GC -NCI - MS under selected ion monitoring mode. The calibration curves of 25 organochlorine pesticides were linear in the range of 1 -500 pg, with correlation coefficients more than 0.999. The limits of detection and limits of quantitation were in the ranges of 1. 0 -34. 4 pg/g and 3.4 - 114. 6 pg/g, respectively. The spiked recoveries ranged from 86% to 105% . The method was applied in the determination of the Chinese herbal tea granule samples with different batches from different manufactures, and none of the 25 organochlorine

  8. Presidential Rapid Commercialization Initiative for mixed waste solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) has made some major steps in mixed waste treatment which have taken it closer to meeting final remediation goals. However, one major hurdle remains for the FEMP mixed waste treatment program, and that hurdle is tri-mixed waste. Tri-mixed is a term coined to describe low-level waste containing RCRA hazardous constituents along with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). The prescribed method for disposal of PCBs is incineration. In mixed waste treatment plans developed by the FEMP with public input, the FEMP committed to pursue non-thermal treatment methods and avoid the use of incineration. Through the SITE Program, the FEMP identified a non-thermal treatment technology which uses solvents to extract PCBs. The technology belongs to a small company called Terra-Kleen Response Group, Inc. A question arose as to how can this new and innovative technology be implemented by a small company at a Department of Energy (DOE) facility. The answer came in the form of the Rapid Commercialization Initiative (RCI) and the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). RCI is a program sponsored by the Department of commerce (DOC), DOE, Department of Defense (DOD), US EPA and various state agencies to aid companies to market new and innovative technologies

  9. Extraction of functional ingredients from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) using liquid solvent and supercritical CO2 extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime, Laura; Vázquez, Erika; Fornari, Tiziana; López-Hazas, María Del Carmen; García-Risco, Mónica R.; Santoyo, Susana; Reglero, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    This is the accepted version of the following article: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 94 (2014), which has been published in final form at http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.6788 In this work three different techniques were applied to extract dry leaves of spinach (Spinacia oleracea): solid-liquid extraction (SLE), pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to investigate the influence of extraction solvent and technique on extracts composition...

  10. 加速溶剂萃取技术分析谷物中的油脂含量综合研究型实验%A comprehensive experiment of analysing oil content in soy food based on accelerated solvent extraction technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶佳; 杭义萍; 龚华清

    2016-01-01

    从研究型教学的理念出发,开设了“加速溶剂萃取技术分析谷物中的油脂含量”综合研究型实验。阐述了实验选题的目的和意义、实验设计的原理、内容以及实验结果。该实验选题新颖、具有较强的实用性,学生的参与热情较高,能够帮助学生全方位学习实际样品的前处理的原理与分析方法,拓宽学生的视野,培养学生的工程意识。该实验样品成本较低、安全性较高,可作为大学综合化学实验进行推广。%Considering the requirements of high quality food in modern life and the concept of research‐based teaching ,this paper proposes a comprehensive research experiment focused on “The analysis of oil content in soy food based on the accelerated solvent extraction technique ,” the designed mechanism ,content and results are discussed in detail . The teaching practice shows that this novel experiments have not only a strong practicability ,but also a great appeal for students .This lesson could assist the students in studying the pre‐treatment of real samples ,analytical methods and data processing software comprehensively .In addition ,it could broaden students’ horizons and cultivates the students’ engineering consciousness . The sample in experiments is low cost and high safety ,it is suitable to be used as the teaching content of comprehensive analytical chemistry experiment .

  11. STUDY ON EXTRACTION PROCESS OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) DRY WASTES USING DIFFERENT SOLVENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Morarescu; Marina Grinco; Ion Dragalin; Veaceslav Kulciţki; Nicon Ungur

    2013-01-01

    The content of known tetra- and pentacyclic diterpenoids in extracts of sunfl ower (Helianthus annuus L.) dry wastes has been studied using different solvents for extraction. It was established that the largest extracted quantity of ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid is obtained when ethanol and diethyl ether are used for extraction of the plant material.

  12. STUDY ON EXTRACTION PROCESS OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L. DRY WASTES USING DIFFERENT SOLVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Morarescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The content of known tetra- and pentacyclic diterpenoids in extracts of sunfl ower (Helianthus annuus L. dry wastes has been studied using different solvents for extraction. It was established that the largest extracted quantity of ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid is obtained when ethanol and diethyl ether are used for extraction of the plant material.

  13. Demonstration of Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction with Optimized Solvent in the 2-cm Centrifugal Contactor Apparatus Using Dissolved Salt Cake from Tank 37H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norato, M.A.

    2002-10-21

    A solvent extraction process for removal of cesium from alkaline solutions has been developed utilizing a novel solvent invented at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This solvent consists of a calix[4]arene-crown-6 extractant (BOBCalix) dissolved in an inert hydrocarbon matrix (Isopar(R) L). An alkylphenoxy alcohol modifier added to the solvent enhances the extraction power of the calixarene and prevents the formation of a third phase. An additional additive, trioctylamine (TOA), improves stripping performance and mitigates the effects of any surfactants present in the feed stream. The solvent extraction process was successfully demonstrated with actual SRS HLW supernate during testing performed at SRTC in FY-2001. However, the solvent system has recently been optimized to enhance extractant solubility in the diluent and increase suppressor concentration. The results of the optimized solvent performance in tests using the same SRS composite waste supernate as was used FY-20 01 are described in another report.

  14. Remediation of soils, sediments and sludges by extraction with organic solvents

    OpenAIRE

    Noordkamp, E.

    1999-01-01

    Remediation of contaminated soils, sediments and sludges by extraction with organic solvents is still in the initial stages of development. So far hardly any scientific research has been carried out into this approach. Therefore, the main objective of the present investigation was to study the effect of several process parameters on the efficiency of the extraction step of a solvent extraction process for soils, sediments and sludges (generally indicated as solids) contaminated with polycycli...

  15. Knowledge based system for runtime controlling of multiscale model of ion-exchange solvent extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macioł, Piotr; Gotfryd, Leszek; Macioł, Andrzej

    2012-09-01

    The hereby paper concerns the issue of solution of runtime controlling of multiscale model of ion-exchange solvent extraction. It is based on cooperation of a framework applying Agile Multiscale Modeling Methodology (AM3), and the REBIT Knowledge Based System. Ion-exchange solvent extraction has been shortly introduced. Design assumptions of AM3 and theoretical basis of REBIT have been described. Designed workflows and rules for simple laminar/ turbulent flow and extraction processes have been shown.

  16. Extraction of Betulin, Trimyristin, Eugenol and Carnosic Acid Using Water-Organic Solvent Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Lugemwa, Fulgentius N.

    2012-01-01

    A solvent system consisting of ethyl acetate, ethyl alcohol and water, in the volume ratio of 4.5:4.5:1, was developed and used to extract, at room temperature, betulin from white birch bark and antioxidants from spices (rosemary, thyme, sage, and oregano) and white oak chips. In addition, under reflux conditions, trimyristin was extracted from nutmeg using the same solvent system, and eugenol from olives was extracted using a mixture of salt water and ethyl acetate. The protocol demonstrates...

  17. Antioxidant Activity of Centella asiatica (Linn.) Urban: Impact of Extraction Solvent Polarity

    OpenAIRE

    Asiqur Rahaman; Shahdat Hossain; Taslima Nahar

    2013-01-01

    In vitro antioxidant activity of Centella asiatica (Linn.) and the impact of extraction solvent polarity on the antioxidant potential were investigated in the present study. 100% ethanol, 50% ethanol and water were chosen as extraction solvent due to arithmetic progression of their polarity. Total polyphenol, flavonoid, β-carotene, tannin and vitamin C content of three extracts were estimated while antioxidant potential was assayed by total reducing power assay and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydra...

  18. The extraction of aromatic amino acids with binary and ternary mixtures of hydrophilic solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokshina, N. Ya.; Pakhomova, O. A.; Niftaliev, S. I.

    2007-11-01

    The extraction of tyrosine and phenylalanine with binary and ternary mixtures of hydrophilic solvents from aqueous salt solutions was studied, and several tendencies were observed. Simplex-lattice planning of experiment was used for the optimization of the composition of solvent mixtures. It was shown that the extraction systems developed could be employed for the almost complete extraction of tyrosine and phenylalanine from aqueous solutions.

  19. Water at Room Temperature as a Solvent for the Extraction of Apple Pomace Phenolic Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, Sofia; Rai, Dilip; Abu-Ghannam, Nissreen

    2012-01-01

    A fractionation method was used for the extraction of phenolic compounds from apple pomace (AP) involving a first extraction with water and subsequent extractions of the same residue with two different organic solvents. The water extracts obtained presented high amounts of phenolic compounds with high antioxidant capacity however, the second and third extractions of the same residue still extracted considerable amounts of remaining phenolic compounds with significant antioxidant capacities. L...

  20. Metal ion extractant in microemulsions: where solvent extraction and surfactant science meet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presented work describes the supramolecular structure of mixtures of a hydrophilic surfactant n-octyl-beta-glucoside (C8G1), and the hydrophobic metal ion extractant tributylphosphate (TBP) in n-dodecane/water as well as in the presence of salts. In the first part, basic solvent extraction system, composed of water, oil and extractant, will be introduced. The focus, however, lies on the extraction of multivalent metal ions from the aqueous phase. During this extraction process and in the following thermodynamic equilibrium, aggregation and phase transition in supramolecular assemblies occur, which are already described in literature. Notably, these reports rest on individual studies and specific conclusions, while a general concept is still missing. We therefore suggest the use of generalized phase diagrams to present the physico-chemical behaviour of (amphiphilic) extractant systems. These phase diagrams facilitated the development of a thermodynamic model based on molecular geometry and packing of the extractant molecules in the oil phase. As a result, we are now in the position to predict size and water content of extractant aggregates and, thus, verify the experimental results by calculation.Consequently, the second part presents a systematic study of the aqueous and organic phase of water/C8G1 and water/oil/TBP mixtures. The focus lies on understanding the interaction between metal ions and both amphiphilic molecules by means of small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. We confirmed the assumption that extraction of metal ions is driven by TBP, while C8G1 remains passive. In the third and last part, microemulsions of C8G1, TBP, water (and salt) and n-dodecane are characterized by small angle neutron scattering (SANS), and chemical analytics (Karl Fischer, total organic carbon, ICP-OES,...). The co-surfactant behaviour of TBP was highlighted by comparison to the classical n-alcohol (4≤n≤8) co

  1. Time Motion Study for Modular Caustic Solvent Extraction Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Defense Waste Processing Facilities (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is used to process high-level radioactive waste from the Tank Farm into borosilicate glass to reduce the mobility of the radionuclides and has processed and vitrified nuclear wastes into canisters for long-term disposal since FY96. All wastes vitrified to date in DWPF are ''sludge only'' wastes. The old salt waste processing technology, ITP, was suspended in FY98 due to benzene build-up inside the tank. The new selected technologies for treating the salt waste are Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and Caustic Side Solvent Extraction process (CSSX). The Modular CSSX Unit (MCU) is a cesium removal process that will be operated downstream of the ARP. The MCU is a short-term method for cesium removal, which uses the same technology as the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Once the SWPF becomes operational, the MCU will be shut down. The modeling request is from the MCU project to verify the validity of its Concept Design Package. The modeling task is not typical because there are five different facilities/projects/processes involved, i.e., Tank Farm, ARP, MCU, Saltstone, and DWPF. Each facility, project, and process has their own management team and organization, with its own fiscal responsibility and performance accountability. In addition, from a task cost perspective, MCU desires to minimize modeling not directly associated with their facility. The balancing of comprehensive analysis with limited granularity is challenging. The customer expectation is the model should be small and delivered within weeks. Modeling a stand-alone MCU will not yield overall meaningful results because it can be expected that most problems will occur at interfaces with other facilities. This paper discusses how we set out our modeling strategy, overcame obstacles, avoided touchy issues, and delivered the modeling result on time and on budget

  2. Effects of Ultrasound Power, Temperature and Flow Rate of Solvent on Decontamination of Sensitive Equipment by Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Andrle; František Opluštil; Josef Čáslavský

    2014-01-01

    The solvent extraction process is regarded amongst other known methods to be applicable for decontamination of sensitive equipment components, especially in cases the components are contaminated in-depth with chemical warfare agents. Viability of the solvent extraction method was evaluated on coupons of butadiene rubber contaminated by sulphur mustard before decontamination by the solvent extraction. The contaminated coupons were extracted in a flow cell, which the solvent (ethoxynonafluorobu...

  3. Ultrasonication-Assisted Solvent Extraction of Quercetin Glycosides from ‘Idared’ Apple Peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendolyn M. Huber

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Quercetin and quercetin glycosides are physiologically active flavonol molecules that have been attributed numerous health benefits. Recovery of such molecules from plant matrices depends on a variety of factors including polarity of the extraction solvent. Among the solvents of a wide range of dielectric constants, methanol recovered the most quercetin and its glycosides from dehydrated ‘Idared’ apple peels. When ultra-sonication was employed to facilitate the extraction, exposure of 15 min of ultrasound wavelengths of dehydrated apple peel powder in 80% to 100% (v/v methanol in 1:50 (w:v solid to solvent ratio provided the optimum extraction conditions for quercetin and its glycosides. Acidification of extraction solvent with 0.1% (v/v or higher concentrations of HCl led to hydrolysis of naturally occurring quercetin glycosides into the aglycone as an extraction artifact.

  4. Basic research on solvent extraction of actinide cations with diamide compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Yuji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-11-01

    Newly synthesized 4 diamide compounds were tested for solvent extraction of actinide cations. It is obvious that N,N`-dimethyl-N,N`-dihexyl-3-oxapentanediamide (DMDHOPDA) can extract Eu(III), Th(IV), U(VI), Np(V), and Am(III) into organic solvent. Other 3 diamides hardly extract actinide ions, which is supposed that the reasons come from the difference of their chemical structures. In the synergistic extraction with a diamide and thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA), all diamides work as a extractant. Furthermore, by examining extracted species, it was confirmed that there are 4 kinds of chemical species of actinides with diamide and TTA. Finally, the mutual separation method of actinide (III), (IV), (V) and (VI) ions by solvent extraction using DMDHOPDA and TTA were developed. (author). 147 refs.

  5. Effect of different format-solvent rosemary extracts (Rosmarinus officinalis) on frozen chicken nuggets quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocío Teruel, M; Garrido, M Dolores; Espinosa, Miriam C; Linares, M Belén

    2015-04-01

    Three kinds of Rosmarinus officinalis extract (powder-acetone, liquid-methanol, liquid-acetone) were used to examine the effects of format-solvent on the active compounds extracted (total phenolic, carnosol and carnosic acid content) and antioxidant activity (FRAP, ABTS). The results showed that both, as the format but also the solvent used, had significant effect on the parameters analyzed (p extract followed by the liquid methanol and liquid acetone extracts (p extracts on the physical-chemical and sensory quality of frozen chicken nuggets was evaluated. At the dose proposed by the European Union Directive 2010/69/EU for the carnosic and carnosol compounds [150 ppm (mg/kg fat basic)], the format-solvent combination of the rosemary extracts used did not modify the chicken nuggets quality characteristics (pH, colour, sensory quality) and still underlines the effectiveness of these extracts. PMID:25442521

  6. Chemical Composition of Artemisia annua L. Leaves and Antioxidant Potential of Extracts as a Function of Extraction Solvents

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Shahid; Younas, Umer; Chan, Kim Wei; Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the chemical and nutritional composition of Artemisia annua leaves in addition to determination of antioxidant potential of their extracts prepared in different solvents. Chemical composition was determined by quantifying fat, protein, carbohydrate, fiber, tocopherol, phytate, and tannin contents. Extraction of A. annua leaves, for antioxidant potential evaluation, was carried out using five solvents of different polarities, i.e., hexane, chloroform, et...

  7. Design of a solvent extraction process for PAH-contaminated sediments : The WAU-acetone process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulkens, W.H.; Bruning, H.; Hasselt, H.J. van; Rienks, J.; Veen, H.J. van; Terlingen, J.P.M.

    1998-01-01

    Solvent extraction is one of the possibilities to clean-up polluted sediments. It is especially attractive when the sediment mainly consists of clay particles polluted with contaminants which are not, or not easily, biodegradable. Using acetone as extracting agent the extraction process has been inv

  8. Desulfurization of diesel by oxidation/extraction scheme. Influence of the extraction solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Verduzco, L.F.; Torres-Garcia, E.; Gomez-Quintana, R.; Gonzalez-Pena, V.; Murrieta-Guevara, F. [Programa de Tratamiento de Crudo Maya, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, CP 07730 Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2004-11-24

    Due to the future specifications for sulfur content in middle distillate like diesel, a lot of research work has been done to develop alternative methods for desulfurization. This work presents the results for the desulfurization of diesel by an oxidation and extraction (O/E) scheme. This process can be considered like a post-treatment to the traditional hydrodesulfurization. A diesel with 320ppmw of total sulfur was employed to evaluate the elimination of sulfur compounds. The oxidation reaction was carried out with hydrogen peroxide at 30wt.%, in a heterogeneous system with a WO{sub x}/ZrO{sub 2} catalyst at 15wt.% of W; the extraction was performed with four polar solvents. The experiments were done in a batch reactor at 333K and atmospheric pressure. As an average, the sulfur content in the diesel after treatment was 90ppmw. A speciation of the sulfur compounds before and after O/E scheme was also included. Additionally, solubility data of dibenzothiophene sulfone in the polar solvents as a function of temperature were obtained.

  9. Influence of green solvent extraction on carotenoid yield from shrimp (Pandalus borealis) processing waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; El-Houri, Rime Bahij; Fretté, Xavier;

    2015-01-01

    In this work, sunflower oil (SF) and methyl ester of sunflower oil (ME-SF) were introduced as two green solvents for extracting astaxanthin (ASX) from shrimp processing waste. The effects of temperature (25, 45, 70 °C), solvent to waste ratio (3, 6, 9), waste particle size (0.6 and 2.5 mm) and mo...

  10. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: TERRA KLEEN SOLVENT EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY - TERRA-KLEEN RESPONSE GROUP, INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Terra-Kleen Solvent Extraction Technology was developed by Terra-Kleen Response Group, Inc., to remove polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and other organic constituents from contaminated soil. This batch process system uses a proprietary solvent at ambient temperatures to treat ...

  11. Solvent effects on focused microwave assisted extraction of polyphenolic acids from Eucommia ulmodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Chen, Bo; Nie, Lihua; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2004-01-01

    An open microwave-assisted extraction system was used to extract gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid from Eucommia ulmodies. The effect of extraction variables, especially solvent, on the recoveries of these polyphenolic compounds was investigated using factorial design. As extracting solvent for these compounds, methanol produced a higher recovery than pure water. For straight chain alcohol solvents, the lower the carbon number, the higher the recoveries of the polyphenolic acids. The optimal ratio of methanol:water:glacial acetic acid in the solvent mixture used in microwave-assisted extraction was 2:8:0.3 (v/v) and this solvent could be directly used as the mobile phase in HPLC separation without additional intermittent treatment as reported in literature. The extraction under the condition of 50% microwave power and 30 s irradiation at a solvent:sample ratio of 10 (mL/g) was found to be the most advantageous. The repeatability test of extraction and chromatographic analysis was satisfactory for the analysis of these polyphenolic compounds. PMID:15508835

  12. Application of natural deep eutectic solvents to the extraction of anthocyanins from Catharanthus roseus with high extractability and stability replacing conventional organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yuntao; Rozema, Evelien; Verpoorte, Robert; Choi, Young Hae

    2016-02-19

    Natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) have attracted a great deal of attention in recent times as promising green media. They are generally composed of neutral, acidic or basic compounds that form liquids of high viscosity when mixed in certain molar ratio. Despite their potential, viscosity and acid or basic nature of some ingredients may affect the extraction capacity and stabilizing ability of the target compounds. To investigate these effects, extraction with a series of NADES was employed for the analysis of anthocyanins in flower petals of Catharanthus roseus in combination with HPLC-DAD-based metabolic profiling. Along with the extraction yields of anthocyanins their stability in NADES was also studied. Multivariate data analysis indicates that the lactic acid-glucose (LGH), and 1,2-propanediol-choline chloride (PCH) NADES present a similar extraction power for anthocyanins as conventional organic solvents. Furthermore, among the NADES employed, LGH exhibits an at least three times higher stabilizing capacity for cyanidins than acidified ethanol, which facilitates their extraction and analysis process. Comparing NADES to the conventional organic solvents, in addition to their reduced environmental impact, they proved to provide higher stability for anthocyanins, and therefore have a great potential as possible alternatives to those organic solvents in health related areas such as food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. PMID:26822320

  13. Interfacial Phenomena in Solvent Extraction and Its Influence on Process Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Solvent extraction is now finding applications in a broader range of fields than the past. Many of these applications require process equipment with shorter contact times, and in some cases to the point where the traditional equilibrium stage approach is not a good model for predicting performance. In addition,feed streams are becoming lower in concentration of the solute. This means greater feed to solvent flow ratios are being used and so loss of organics as entrainment in the feed is more of a concern both economically and environmentally. These trends mean that a greater emphasis is being placed on the kinetics of extraction and stripping in models to predict performance and on formation and coalescence of drops to control entrainment. This paper reviews recent advances in the tools for investigating kinetics and coalescence in solvent extraction processes and some of the insights that are being uncovered in these fundamental processes in solvent extraction technology.

  14. Semiautomated solid-phase extraction manifold with a solvent-level sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, R M; Rath, S; Rohwedder, J J R

    2013-11-15

    A semiautomated solid-phase extraction manifold for multiple extractions is presented. The manifold utilizes commercial solid-phase syringe cartridges and automatically introduces and elutes all the solvents during the extraction, reducing the typical workload and stress of the analyst. The manifold consists of a peristaltic pump with solenoid valves in a flow circuit that contains transmissive photomicrosensors. The photomicrosensors were used to control the solvent dispenser and the solvent level inside the cartridge. As solvent-level sensors, the photomicrosensors determined the exact time the solvent reached the top frit to avoid sorbent drying and accurately perform the solvent exchange. The repeatability of the manifold to introduce a particular volume of solvent into the cartridges was measured, and the precisions were between 0.05 and 2.89% (RSD). To evaluate the manifold, the amount of two fluoroquinolones in a fortified blank milk sample was determined. The results of the intra- and inter-day precision of multiple extractions from the fortified milk samples resulted in precisions better than 9.0% (RSD) and confirmed that the arrangement of the semiautomated manifold could adequately be used in solid-phase extraction with commercial cartridges. PMID:24148370

  15. Separation of nickel, cobalt and copper by solvent extraction with P204

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Nickel, cobalt and copper were separated by solvent extraction with P204. The experimental results show that [Co(NH3)6]3+ is an inert complex in extraction kinetics, therefore cobalt can be separated from nickel and copper by non-equilibrium solvent extraction. Under the conditions of temperature 25℃, contact time of two phases 10 min, phase ratio 1:1, aqueous pH 10.10 and concentration of P204 20 %, [ Co(NH3 )6 3+ is hardly extracted by P204, while the percentage extractions of nickel and copper are 79.3 % and 93.9 % respectively. Nickel and copper are separated by equi librium solvent extraction with P204. Under the conditions of temperature 25 ℃, contact time of two phases 1 min, phase ratio 1:1, equilibrium pH 4.01 and concentration of P204 20%, the separation factor of copper and nickel is 216.

  16. DBC solvent extraction of U(VI) from thiocyanate medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The extraction behavior of uranium(VI) from thiocyanate medium with dibenzo-18-crown-6 (DBC) in nitrobenzene and the effects of alkali cations on the extraction were investigated. The results showed that the uranium (VI) can be effectively extracted in the presence of potassium cation, uranium (VI) is extracted as complex anionic species UO2(SCN)-3, and the stoichiometry of the extracted complex is KUO2(SCN)32DBC(o).

  17. Development of 99mTc extraction-recovery by solvent extraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    99mTc is used as a radiopharmaceutical in the medical field for the diagnosis, and manufactured from 99Mo, the parent nuclide. In this study, the solvent extraction with MEK was selected, and preliminary experiments were carried out using Re instead of 99mTc. Two tests were carried out in the experiments; the one is the Re extraction test with MEK from Re-Mo solution, the other is the Re recovery test from the Re-MEK. As to the Re extraction test, and it was clear that the Re extraction yield was more than 90%. Two kinds of Re recovery tests, which are an evaporation method using the evaporator and an adsorption/elution method using the alumina column, were carried out. As to the evaporation method, the Re concentration in the collected solution increased more than 150 times. As to the adsorption/elution method, the Re concentration increased in the eluted solution more than 20 times. (author)

  18. Ionic Liquid Technology in Metal Refining: Dissolution of Metal Oxides and Separation by Solvent Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Wellens, Sil

    2014-01-01

    Ionic liquids form a relatively new class of solvents entirely composed by ions that have specific properties such as low volatility, low flammability, large electrochemical window, broad liquidus range and a high thermal stability. These properties make ionic liquids very attractive for applications in a wide variety of fields. In the field of metal processing, ionic liquids have been used as extraction media in solvent extraction and promising results have already been reported. Nevertheles...

  19. Temperature effect on the solvent extraction of some lanthanides with thenoyltrifluoroacetone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solvent extraction of Pr, Gd and Yb with thenoyltrifluoroacetone solutions in C6H6, CHCl3 and CCl4 at 288 K, 298 K, 308 K and 318 K has been investigated. The values of the equilibrium constant have been calculated as well as the values of the thermodynamic parameters ΛH, ΛS and ΛG. The temperature effect on the solvent extraction of lanthanides with thenoyltrifluoroacetone is discussed. (Author)

  20. Ultrasonication-Assisted Solvent Extraction of Quercetin Glycosides from ‘Idared’ Apple Peels

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, Gwendolyn M.; H. P. Vasantha Rupasinghe; Priya Kathirvel

    2011-01-01

    Quercetin and quercetin glycosides are physiologically active flavonol molecules that have been attributed numerous health benefits. Recovery of such molecules from plant matrices depends on a variety of factors including polarity of the extraction solvent. Among the solvents of a wide range of dielectric constants, methanol recovered the most quercetin and its glycosides from dehydrated ‘Idared’ apple peels. When ultra-sonication was employed to facilitate the extraction, exposure of 15 min ...

  1. Effect of solvent and extraction time on the antioxidant properties of Citrus macroptera

    OpenAIRE

    Partha Sarathi Gope; Alak Kanti Dutta; Sukh Makhnoon; Subrata Banik; Muhammad Ali Siddiquee; Yearul Kabir

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of solvents and different time intervals on the extractions of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of the pulp of the Citrus macroptera. The pulp of the fruit was extracted for one and two hours separately with four types of solvent namely- methanol, ethanol, acetone and water. Total phenolic content was determined by using Folin-Ceucalteu method, while ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), 1,1- diphenyl-2-picryl...

  2. SOLVENT EFFECT ON EXTRACTION OF GALLIC ACID FROM AMALAKI CHURNA (EMBLICA OFFICINALIS Gaertn. TO REDUCE MATRIX EFFECT USING HPTLC AND UV-SPECTROSCOPY WITH 12 DIFFERENT NATURE SOLVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukla V.J.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Standardization of Ayurvedic formulations is an important aspect for research in Indian medicine. In this era every Pharma company prefer to use pure extract of component for production of best product in short period of time. The literature survey reveals that no work has been reported for solvent selection of extraction of Ayurvedic drugs. Amalaki is one of the most useable ayurveda drug. So, the present study was selected with an aim to select solvent for extraction of component of interest. Standard for evaluating quality of Amalaki churna by employing various physico-chemical parameters. For solvent selection 12 different nature solvents are selected for extraction. Polar solvent selected are Water, Di methylsulfoxide (DMSO, Ethylene glycol, Acetonitrile, Di methyl formeamide (DMF and Methanol. Non polar solvents are Acetone, Acetic acid, Ethyl acetate, Chloroform, Di ethylether and Toluene. Extraction was done by maceration method. Results are taken by chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods. In observation component was easily extracted with less interfering component in non polar solvent. Gallic acid is component of interest for Amalaki and it is well extracted in Di ethyl ether as per result of chromatography and spectroscopy. Conclusion is that selection of solvent for extraction as per their component of interest from material.

  3. Septum magnet for proton extraction system at the IHEP accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper gives a description of the suptum magnet SM for proton slow extraction from the IHEP synchrotron. The SM excitation coil and magnetic core are assembled outside the accelerator vacuum system. The SM is reliable in operation, can be adjusted with a high accuracy with respect to the accelerated beam, moreover it has a low outgassing in the vacuum under residual gas pressure Up to 1.35 10-8. The SM has operated 8 105 cycles

  4. Extraction of Betulin, Trimyristin, Eugenol and Carnosic Acid Using Water-Organic Solvent Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulgentius N. Lugemwa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A solvent system consisting of ethyl acetate, ethyl alcohol and water, in the volume ratio of 4.5:4.5:1, was developed and used to extract, at room temperature, betulin from white birch bark and antioxidants from spices (rosemary, thyme, sage, and oregano and white oak chips. In addition, under reflux conditions, trimyristin was extracted from nutmeg using the same solvent system, and eugenol from olives was extracted using a mixture of salt water and ethyl acetate. The protocol demonstrates the use of water in organic solvents to extract natural products from plants. Measurement of the free-radical scavenging activity using by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH indicated that the extraction of plant material using ethyl acetate, ethyl alcohol and water (4.5:4.5:1, v/v/v was exhaustive when carried out at room temperature for 96 h.

  5. Use of aqueous and solvent extraction to assess risk and bioavailability of contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contaminated media at Superfund sites typically consist of complex mixtures of organic and inorganic chemicals. These mixtures are difficult to characterize, both analytically and toxicologically, especially the complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The current approach to risk assessment assumes that all contaminants in the soil are available for human exposure. EPA protocol uses solvent extraction to remove chemicals from the soil as a basis for estimating risk to the human population. However, contaminants that can be recovered with a solvent extract may not represent chemicals that are available for exposure. A system using aqueous extraction provides a more realistic picture of what chemicals are bioavailable through leaching and ingestion. A study was conducted with coal tar contaminated soil spiked with benzo(a)pyrene, and trinitrotoluene. Samples were extracted with hexane:acetone and water titrated to pH 2 and pH 7. HPLC analysis demonstrated up to 35% and 29% recovery of contaminants from aqueous extracts with an estimated cancer risk one order of magnitude less than that for solvent extracts. Analysis using the Salmonella/microsome assay showed that solvent extracts were genotoxic with metabolic activation while aqueous extracts showed no genotoxicity. These results suggest that aqueous extraction may be useful in determining what contaminants are available for human exposure, as well as what compounds may pose a risk to human health

  6. Use of aqueous and solvent extraction to assess risk and bioavailability of contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordelon, N.; Huebner, H.; Washburn, K.; Donnelly, K.C.

    1995-12-31

    Contaminated media at Superfund sites typically consist of complex mixtures of organic and inorganic chemicals. These mixtures are difficult to characterize, both analytically and toxicologically, especially the complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The current approach to risk assessment assumes that all contaminants in the soil are available for human exposure. EPA protocol uses solvent extraction to remove chemicals from the soil as a basis for estimating risk to the human population. However, contaminants that can be recovered with a solvent extract may not represent chemicals that are available for exposure. A system using aqueous extraction provides a more realistic picture of what chemicals are bioavailable through leaching and ingestion. A study was conducted with coal tar contaminated soil spiked with benzo(a)pyrene, and trinitrotoluene. Samples were extracted with hexane:acetone and water titrated to pH 2 and pH 7. HPLC analysis demonstrated up to 35% and 29% recovery of contaminants from aqueous extracts with an estimated cancer risk one order of magnitude less than that for solvent extracts. Analysis using the Salmonella/microsome assay showed that solvent extracts were genotoxic with metabolic activation while aqueous extracts showed no genotoxicity. These results suggest that aqueous extraction may be useful in determining what contaminants are available for human exposure, as well as what compounds may pose a risk to human health.

  7. Antibacterial activity of sequentially extracted organic solvent extracts of fruits, flowers and leaves of Lawsonia inermis L. from Jaffna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E Christy Jeyaseelan; S Jenothiny; MK Pathmanathan; JP Jeyadevan

    2012-01-01

    To reveal the antibacterial activity of sequentially extracted different cold organic solvent extracts of fruits, flowers and leaves of Lawsonia inermis (L. against) some pathogenic bacteria. Methods: Powders of fruits, flowers and leaves of L. inermis were continuously extracted with dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate and ethanol at ambient temperature. The dried extracts were prepared into different concentrations and tested for antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion method, and also the extracts were tested to determine the available phytochemicals.Results:Except DCM extract of flower all other test extracts revealed inhibitory effect on all tested bacteria and their inhibitory effect differed significantly (P<0.05). The highest inhibitory effect was showed by ethyl acetate extract of flower against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), and ethyl acetate extract of fruit on Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis). The ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of flower, fruit and leaf expressed inhibition even at 1 mg/ 100 μl against all test bacteria. Among the tested phytochemicals flavonoids were detected in all test extracts except DCM extract of flower.Conclusions:The study demonstrated that the ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of fruit and flower of L. inermis are potentially better source of antibacterial agents compared to leaf extracts of respective solvents.

  8. A green deep eutectic solvent-based aqueous two-phase system for protein extracting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Kaijia; Wang, Yuzhi, E-mail: wyzss@hnu.edu.cn; Huang, Yanhua; Li, Na; Wen, Qian

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • A strategy for the protein purification with a deep eutectic solvent(DES)-based aqueous two-phase system. • Choline chloride-glycerin DES was selected as the extraction solvent. • Bovine serum albumin and trypsin were used as the analytes. • Aggregation phenomenon was detected in the mechanism research. - Abstract: As a new type of green solvent, deep eutectic solvent (DES) has been applied for the extraction of proteins with an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) in this work. Four kinds of choline chloride (ChCl)-based DESs were synthesized to extract bovine serum albumin (BSA), and ChCl-glycerol was selected as the suitable extraction solvent. Single factor experiments have been done to investigate the effects of the extraction process, including the amount of DES, the concentration of salt, the mass of protein, the shaking time, the temperature and PH value. Experimental results show 98.16% of the BSA could be extracted into the DES-rich phase in a single-step extraction under the optimized conditions. A high extraction efficiency of 94.36% was achieved, while the conditions were applied to the extraction of trypsin (Try). Precision, repeatability and stability experiments were studied and the relative standard deviations (RSD) of the extraction efficiency were 0.4246% (n = 3), 1.6057% (n = 3) and 1.6132% (n = 3), respectively. Conformation of BSA was not changed during the extraction process according to the investigation of UV–vis spectra, FT-IR spectra and CD spectra of BSA. The conductivity, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to explore the mechanism of the extraction. It turned out that the formation of DES–protein aggregates play a significant role in the separation process. All the results suggest that ChCl-based DES-ATPS are supposed to have the potential to provide new possibilities in the separation of proteins.

  9. A green deep eutectic solvent-based aqueous two-phase system for protein extracting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A strategy for the protein purification with a deep eutectic solvent(DES)-based aqueous two-phase system. • Choline chloride-glycerin DES was selected as the extraction solvent. • Bovine serum albumin and trypsin were used as the analytes. • Aggregation phenomenon was detected in the mechanism research. - Abstract: As a new type of green solvent, deep eutectic solvent (DES) has been applied for the extraction of proteins with an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) in this work. Four kinds of choline chloride (ChCl)-based DESs were synthesized to extract bovine serum albumin (BSA), and ChCl-glycerol was selected as the suitable extraction solvent. Single factor experiments have been done to investigate the effects of the extraction process, including the amount of DES, the concentration of salt, the mass of protein, the shaking time, the temperature and PH value. Experimental results show 98.16% of the BSA could be extracted into the DES-rich phase in a single-step extraction under the optimized conditions. A high extraction efficiency of 94.36% was achieved, while the conditions were applied to the extraction of trypsin (Try). Precision, repeatability and stability experiments were studied and the relative standard deviations (RSD) of the extraction efficiency were 0.4246% (n = 3), 1.6057% (n = 3) and 1.6132% (n = 3), respectively. Conformation of BSA was not changed during the extraction process according to the investigation of UV–vis spectra, FT-IR spectra and CD spectra of BSA. The conductivity, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to explore the mechanism of the extraction. It turned out that the formation of DES–protein aggregates play a significant role in the separation process. All the results suggest that ChCl-based DES-ATPS are supposed to have the potential to provide new possibilities in the separation of proteins

  10. Phase Equilibria for extraction processes with designer solvents

    OpenAIRE

    Lago García de Dios, Sara

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing concern about the effects of toxic chemicals in the environment. In response to this concern, there is a growing impetus to develop chemical manufacturing processes which can reduce or eliminate the use or generation of hazardous substances. Within this aspect of green chemistry, in this Thesis, Ionic Liquids (ILs) and Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs) have been tested as greener alternatives in different chemical processes. In a ...

  11. Sample Results From The Extraction, Scrub, And Strip Test For The Blended NGS Solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results of the extraction, scrub, and strip testing for the September 2013 sampling of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) Blended solvent from the Modular Caustic Side-Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Solvent Hold Tank. MCU is in the process of transitioning from the BOBCalixC6 solvent to the NGS Blend solvent. As part of that transition, MCU has intentionally created a blended solvent to be processed using the Salt Batch program. This sample represents the first sample received from that blended solvent. There were two ESS tests performed where NGS blended solvent performance was assessed using either the Tank 21 material utilized in the Salt Batch 7 analyses or a simulant waste material used in the V-5/V-10 contactor testing. This report tabulates the temperature corrected cesium distribution, or DCs values, step recovery percentage, and actual temperatures recorded during the experiment. This report also identifies the sample receipt date, preparation method, and analysis performed in the accumulation of the listed values. The calculated extraction DCs values using the Tank 21H material and simulant are 59.4 and 53.8, respectively. The DCs values for two scrub and three strip processes for the Tank 21 material are 4.58, 2.91, 0.00184, 0.0252, and 0.00575, respectively. The D-values for two scrub and three strip processes for the simulant are 3.47, 2.18, 0.00468, 0.00057, and 0.00572, respectively. These values are similar to previous measurements of Salt Batch 7 feed with lab-prepared blended solvent. These numbers are considered compatible to allow simulant testing to be completed in place of actual waste due to the limited availability of feed material

  12. Sample Results From The Extraction, Scrub, And Strip Test For The Blended NGS Solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, A. L. II; Peters, T. B.

    2014-03-03

    This report summarizes the results of the extraction, scrub, and strip testing for the September 2013 sampling of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) Blended solvent from the Modular Caustic Side-Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Solvent Hold Tank. MCU is in the process of transitioning from the BOBCalixC6 solvent to the NGS Blend solvent. As part of that transition, MCU has intentionally created a blended solvent to be processed using the Salt Batch program. This sample represents the first sample received from that blended solvent. There were two ESS tests performed where NGS blended solvent performance was assessed using either the Tank 21 material utilized in the Salt Batch 7 analyses or a simulant waste material used in the V-5/V-10 contactor testing. This report tabulates the temperature corrected cesium distribution, or DCs values, step recovery percentage, and actual temperatures recorded during the experiment. This report also identifies the sample receipt date, preparation method, and analysis performed in the accumulation of the listed values. The calculated extraction DCs values using the Tank 21H material and simulant are 59.4 and 53.8, respectively. The DCs values for two scrub and three strip processes for the Tank 21 material are 4.58, 2.91, 0.00184, 0.0252, and 0.00575, respectively. The D-values for two scrub and three strip processes for the simulant are 3.47, 2.18, 0.00468, 0.00057, and 0.00572, respectively. These values are similar to previous measurements of Salt Batch 7 feed with lab-prepared blended solvent. These numbers are considered compatible to allow simulant testing to be completed in place of actual waste due to the limited availability of feed material.

  13. Influence of solvents on extraction of U(Ⅵ) by N,N'-didecanoylpiperazine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Extraction behavior of N, N'-didecanoylpiperazine (DDPEZ) for U(Ⅵ)in a series of solvents from aqueous nitric acid media was investigated for the first time.The dependence of distribution ratios on the concentration of aqueous nitric acid.extractant and temperature has been discussed. The increasing sequence of extractiveability of DDPEZ is given: chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, dimethylbenzene, toluene,benzene.``

  14. Growth and Decay: An Experiment Demonstrating Radioactivity Relationships and Chelate Solvent Extraction Separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, D. M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The separation of lead and bismuth by chelate solvent extraction is of interest because of the simplicity which the use of radiotracers allows in its demonstration. Theoretical background information, procedures, materials needed, and typical results are provided for an experiment involving the extraction. (JN)

  15. Chetoui olive leaf extracts: influence of the solvent type on the phenolics and antioxidant activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abaza, L.; Ben Youssef, N.; Manai, H.; Haddada, F.M.; Methenni, K.; Zarrouk, M.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the solvent type on the extraction of phenolics and the antioxidant properties of the extracts obtained from Chetoui olive leaves. Extraction was conducted at room temperature using four solvents: deionized water (ddH2O), 80% methanol (80% MeOH), 70% ethanol (70% EtOH), and 80% acetone. Total phenols and total flavonoids were measured using the Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminum chloride colorimetric methods, respectively. The antioxidant properties have been determined by two scavenging activity methods, DPPH and ABTS. (Author).

  16. Solvent extraction of silver(I) from dilute cyanide solutions with 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone thiosemicarbazone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solvent extraction of silver(I) was carried out in 0.5M nitric acid in the presence of cyanide by 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone thiosemicarbazone (DATS). Ethyl acetate was used as a solvent and quantitative recovery was possible with 12.5-fold excess of the reagent in a single extraction. In this medium silver(I) forms a 2:2 complex (metal:ligand) with DATS. The effect of diverse ions on the extraction of silver(I) was investigated. (author)

  17. Solvent extraction of silver(I) with 2,4-dihydroxy-acetophenone thiosemicarbazone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solvent extraction of silver(I) is carried out in acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer solution at pH 5.0 by 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone thiosemicarbazone (DATS). Ethyl acetate was used as a solvent. It is found that single extraction is sufficient to remove silver(I) completely from the aqueous phase. Silver(I) forms 1:1 complex (metal:reagent) with DATS. The effect of diverse ions on the extraction of silver(I) was investigated. (author)

  18. Solvent extraction of silver(I) with 2,4-dihydroxy-acetophenone thiosemicarbazone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, A.V.; Reddy, Y.K. (Sri Venkateswara Univ., Tirupati (India). Dept. of Chemistry); Reddy, G.S. (Sri Venkateswara Univ. Post-Graduate Centre, Cuddapah (India). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1985-03-01

    The solvent extraction of silver(I) is carried out in acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer solution at pH 5.0 by 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone thiosemicarbazone (DATS). Ethyl acetate was used as a solvent. It is found that single extraction is sufficient to remove silver(I) completely from the aqueous phase. Silver(I) forms 1:1 complex (metal:reagent) with DATS. The effect of diverse ions on the extraction of silver(I) was investigated.

  19. Chetoui olive leaf extracts: influence of the solvent type on the phenolics and antioxidant activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the solvent type on the extraction of phenolics and the antioxidant properties of the extracts obtained from Chetoui olive leaves. Extraction was conducted at room temperature using four solvents: deionized water (ddH2O), 80% methanol (80% MeOH), 70% ethanol (70% EtOH), and 80% acetone. Total phenols and total flavonoids were measured using the Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminum chloride colorimetric methods, respectively. The antioxidant properties have been determined by two scavenging activity methods, DPPH and ABTS. (Author).

  20. Extraction of pesticides in soil using supercritical carbon dioxide co-solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, three organic solvents (ethyl acetate, methanol and acetone) were used as co solvent in supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of a mixture of pesticides with different physical and chemical properties present in soil. These pesticides were determined by gas chromatography with electronic micro capture detector μECD and nitrogen-phosphorus detector (NPD), coupled in parallel. The extractions were performed on spiked soil samples using supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2 SC) as the extracting phase to 35 celsius degrade and 14 MPa, using 10 mL of each co solvent and it was found that methanol offers the greatest efficiency in the extraction process obtaining recovery values between 51.24 and 123.50%.

  1. Recovery of zinc from low-grade zinc oxide ores by solvent extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃文庆; 蓝卓越; 黎维中

    2003-01-01

    The recovery of zinc from low-grade zinc oxide ores with solvent extraction-electrowinning technique was investigated by using D2EHPA as extractant and 260# kerosene as diluent. The results show that it is possible to selectively leach zinc from the ores by heap leaching. The zinc concentration of leach solution in the first leaching cycle is 32.57 g/L, and in the sixteenth cycle the zinc concentration is 8.27g/L after solvent extraction. The leaching solution is subjected to solvent extraction, scrubbing and selective stripping for enrichment of zinc and removal of impurities. The pregnant zinc sulfate solution produced from the stripping cycle is suitable for zinc electrowinning.Extra-pure zinc metal was obtained in the electrowinning test under conventional conditions.

  2. Energy requirements for wet solvent extraction of lipids from microalgal biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gregory J O

    2016-04-01

    Biofuel production from microalgae requires energy efficient processes for extracting and converting triacylglyceride lipids to fuel, compatible with coproduction of protein feeds and nutraceuticals. Wet solvent extraction involves mechanical cell rupture, lipid extraction via solvent contacting, physical phase separation, thermal solvent recovery, and transesterification. A detailed analysis of the effect of key process parameters on the parasitic energy demand of this process was performed. On a well-to-pump basis, between 16% and 320% of the resultant biodiesel energy was consumed depending solely on the process parameters. Highly positive energy balances can be achieved, but only if a correctly designed process is used. This requires processing concentrated biomass (ca 25%w/w) with a high triacylglyceride content (ca 30%w/w), and an efficient extraction process employing a non-polar solvent, low solvent-to-paste ratio, and efficient energy recovery. These requirements preclude many laboratory scale processes and polar co-solvents as viable options for large-scale biofuel production. PMID:26802186

  3. Solvent extraction of vanadium from sulfuric acid solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Mingyu; ZHANG Guiqing; WANG Xuewen; ZHANG Jialiang

    2009-01-01

    The behaviour of vanadium(V) extracted from sulfuric acid solution was investigated using Cyanex 923 as an cxtractant. The effects of the concentration of Cyanex 923 and the pH of the solution were studied. The extraction of vanadium(V) increases with the increase of Cyanex 923 concentration and shaking time. Cyanex 923 can extract vanadium(V) fi'om sulfuric acid solution at low pH conditions, and the best pH conditions for exuaction of vanadium(V) are at pH 1.0-2.0. The species extracted into the organic phase is VO2HSO4 with one molecule of Cyanex 923. Equilibrium studies were used to assess the extraction efficiency of vanadium(V) recovery from the sulfuric acid solution.

  4. Minimum amount of extracting solvent of AB/BC countercurrent extraction separation using organic feed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程福祥; 吴声; 张玻; 刘艳; 王嵩龄; 廖春生; 严纯华

    2014-01-01

    For an AB/BC countercurrent extraction separation using organic feed, the conditions to have minimum amount of ex-tracting solvent (Smin) and minimum amount of scrubbing agent solution (Wmin) were discussed, and the formulae of bothSmin and Wmin were deduced. It was shown that only when the ratio of flowrate of central component B leaving aqueous outlet to that leaving organic outlet took a certain optimal value, the AB/BC separation could have Smin as well asWmin, and this optimal ratio was decided by the separation factors between the three components but independent of feed composition.Smin was only relative to the separation factor of A/C pair but regardless of the separation factors of other pairs as well as feed composition, whereasWmin was determined by the separation factors between the components together with feed composition. Meanwhile it was also found that the organic stream out of feed stage was same composition as the initial organic feed when the separation system was given by the two minimum amounts and its steady state was achieved. Finally the results above were used to design a LuYb/YbTm separation case and the stage-wise compositions of each component in both the organic and the aqueous phase at steady state were given by computer simulation.

  5. Effectivity of Beta vulgaris L. Extract with various Solvent Fractions to Aedes aegypti Larval Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutiara Widawati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue vector control is mostly done by using plant-based insecticides. Insecticides from the vegetable and fruit extracts of the leaves of plants that contain compounds alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins, triterpenoids, and polyphenols can be used as an alternative to naturally control Ae. aegypti. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the B. vulgaris L. extract larvacide against larvae of Ae. aegypti. The materials that been used was B. vulgaris L. fruit parts which was milled and dried to become a powder form. 800 g of dry powder was extracted by 70% methanol by percolation method with occasional stirring for 3 days. The extract was concentrated using an evaporator. 60 g remaining residue was dissolved in distilled water and re-extracted with diethyl ether, chloroform, and ethyl acetate. Each fraction extract was dried with anhydrous sodium sulfate and the solvent was distilled. The extract was tested qualitatively to determine the content of secondary metabolites. Larvacide test performed by dissolving each extracts in dimetilsulphoxide (DMSO at concentrations of 0.1, 0.5 and 1%. The larvae used was larval of Ae. aegypti age of seven days. Death larvae counted every day for seven days to determine the effect of the contact. Tests carried out at a temperature of 27±1°C by immersing 25 larvae at each concentration of the extract with 50 mL volume and three replications was performed. The data obtained were analyzed further with different test. The results showed that fruit extract contains flavonoids, alkoloid, sterols, triterpenes, saponins and tannins. Highest mortality happened which was 82.5% and the lowest mortality happened with a concentration of 0.1% diethyl ether extract fraction. The extracts that are dissolved in various solvent fractions have not been effective as a larvacide until the highest concentration which was 1%. Methanol and polar solvent extracts of the fruit has a larvacide potency a bit

  6. POLY(AMINOMETHYLENEPHOSPHONIC ACID FOR SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF METAL IONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M’hamed Kaid

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Diaminododecyltetramethylenetetraphosphonic acid (DADTMTPA has been investigated in liquid - liquid extraction of Zn (II and Cu (II in acetate media. The extraction of both cations was carried out in different media with the addition of CH3COONa, CH3COOH, HCl and H2SO4 at different pH values. The maximum extraction yield for copper is 70% after addition of 10 mg of sodium acetate and for zinc is 30% after addition of acetic acid at pHi = 5.5, in one step.

  7. Options for the recovery of cerium by solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soldenhoff, K.H. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    This paper reports the results of an experimental program to examine the use of various commercial reagents for the extraction of cerium (IV) from sulphate solutions. Extractants tested include organophosphorus esters (TOPO, Cyanex 923 and Cyanex 925), organophosphorus acids (DEHPA, lonquest 801 and Cyanex 272) and high molecular weight amine, Alamine 336. The suitability of reagents is assessed in terms of process relevant criteria such as extraction dependence on acidity, selectivity over other rare earths and thorium, stability of reagent towards oxidation and loading characteristics. (author) 15 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  8. Bidentate organophosphorus solvent extraction process for actinide recovery and partition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Wallace W.

    1976-01-01

    A liquid-liquid extraction process for the recovery and partitioning of actinide values from acidic nuclear waste aqueous solutions, the actinide values including trivalent, tetravalent and hexavalent oxidation states is provided and includes the steps of contacting the aqueous solution with a bidentate organophosphorous extractant to extract essentially all of the actinide values into the organic phase. Thereafter the respective actinide fractions are selectively partitioned into separate aqueous solutions by contact with dilute nitric or nitric-hydrofluoric acid solutions. The hexavalent uranium is finally removed from the organic phase by contact with a dilute sodium carbonate solution.

  9. NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT-MATERIALS COMPATIBILITY WITH POLYMER COMPONENTS WITHIN MODULAR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT (FINAL REPORT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F.; Peters, T.; Fink, S.

    2012-01-17

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Argonne National Laboratory. The first deployment target for the technology is within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with organic polymers used in the facility. This report provides the data from exposing these polymers to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The test was conducted over six months. An assessment of the dimensional stability of polymers present in MCU (i.e., PEEK, Grafoil, Tefzel and Isolast) in the modified NGS (where the concentration of LIX{reg_sign}79 and MaxCalix was varied systematically) showed that LIX{reg_sign}79 selectively affected Tefzel and its different grades (by an increase in size and lowering its density). The copolymer structure of Tefzel and possibly its porosity allows for the easier diffusion of LIX{reg_sign}79. Tefzel is used as the seat material in some of the valves at MCU. Long term exposure to LIX{reg_sign}79, may make the valves hard to operate over time due to the seat material (Tefzel) increasing in size. However, since the physical changes of Tefzel in the improved solvent are comparable to the changes in the CSSX baseline solvent, no design changes are needed with respect to the Tefzel seating material. PEEK, Grafoil and Isolast were not affected by LIX{reg_sign}79 and MaxCalix within six months of exposure. The initial rapid weight gain observed in every polymer is assigned to the finite and

  10. Solvent extraction of the lanthanide elements, scandium, uranium and thorium using tetracycline as complexing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scope of the work is to extend the study of the solvent extraction behaviour to all the 15 lanthanide elements as well as to uranium and thorium and to study the application of the system tetracycline-benzyl alcohol for the separation of the mentioned elements. pH dependence of the extraction have been determined. The effect of the presence of a supporting electrolyte (NaCl) on the extraction as well as the effect of ageing of the extractant solution on its extractant properties were studied. The variation of distribution ratio with metal concentration was examined in order to verify whether or not polynuclear complexes were present in the conditions under which the work was performed. In the first case discontinuous counter-current technique was used. In the second case a single step solvent extraction procedure was applied. (T.G.)

  11. Influence of solvents on the composition of condensed tannins in grape pomace seed extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosso, Antonella; Guaita, Massimo; Petrozziello, Maurizio

    2016-09-15

    The extracting effectiveness of some solvents (water, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate), used as pure or in binary and ternary mixtures, was studied for the extraction of seeds from the fermented pomace of Nebbiolo cv. The aqueous mixtures of acetone provided the highest extraction yields in total polyphenols and total flavonoids. Polyphenolic extracts were also obtained with aqueous mixtures of ethanol or acetone at variable concentrations, and the condensed tannins were quantified with the phloroglucinolysis method. The aqueous mixtures of acetone were more effective than the corresponding aqueous mixtures of ethanol. The solvent influenced the extraction yield and the composition of the extracts: with the increase of the yield, the mean degree of polymerization (mDP) of the condensed tannins increased. A significant correlation was noticed between mDP and the molar percentages of (+)-catechin as terminal unit (negative correlation), and of (-)-epicatechin and (-)-epicatechin-3O-gallate as extension units (positive correlation). PMID:27080893

  12. Optimization of solvent extraction of shea butter (Vitellaria paradoxa) using response surface methodology and its characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajala, E O; Aberuagba, F; Olaniyan, A M; Onifade, K R

    2016-01-01

    Shea butter (SB) was extracted from its kernel by using n-hexane as solvent in an optimization study. This was to determine the optima operating variables that would give optimum yield of SB and to study the effect of solvent on the physico-chemical properties and chemical composition of SB extracted using n-hexane. A Box-behnken response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the optimization study while statistical analysis using ANOVA was used to test the significance of the variables for the process. The variables considered for this study were: sample weight (g), solvent volume (ml) and extraction time (min). The physico-chemical properties of SB extracted were determined using standard methods and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) for the chemical composition. The results of RSM analysis showed that the three variables investigated have significant effect (p butter extracted using traditional method (SBT) showed that it is a more suitable raw material for food, biodiesel production, cosmetics, medicinal and pharmaceutical purposes than shea butter extracted using solvent extraction method (SBS). Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) results obtained for the two samples were similar to what was obtainable from other vegetable oil.

  13. Substitution of carcinogenic solvent dichloromethane for the extraction of volatile compounds in a fat-free model food system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayot, Nathalie; Lafarge, Céline; Bou-Maroun, Elias; Cayot, Philippe

    2016-07-22

    Dichloromethane is known as a very efficient solvent, but, as other halogenated solvents, is recognized as a hazardous product (CMR substance). The objective of the present work is to propose substitution solvent for the extraction of volatile compounds. The most important physico-chemical parameters in the choice of an appropriate extraction solvent of volatile compounds are reviewed. Various solvents are selected on this basis and on their hazard characteristics. The selected solvents, safer than dichloromethane, are compared using the extraction efficiency of volatile compounds from a model food product able to interact with volatile compounds. Volatile compounds with different hydrophobicity are used. High extraction yields were positively correlated with high boiling points and high Log Kow values of volatile compounds. Mixtures of solvents such as azeotrope propan-2-one/cyclopentane, azeotrope ethyl acetate/ethanol, and mixture ethyl acetate/ethanol (3:1, v/v) gave higher extraction yields than those obtained with dichloromethane.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Quentin C. Berg; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Jason C. Hissam; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Abha Saddawi; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2006-03-07

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of carbon electrodes for Direct Carbon Fuel Cells (DCFC), and on carbon foam composites used in ballistic armor, as well as the hydrotreatment of solvents used in the basic solvent extraction process. A major goal is the production of 1500 pounds of binder pitch, corresponding to about 3000 pounds of hydrotreated solvent.

  15. Solvent extraction of molybdophosphoric acid with high-molecular alkylamines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extraction of dodecamolibdophosphoric acid H3PMo12O40 by nitrates of some high molecular amines (di-(2-ethylene-hexyl)-amine, diponylamine, diisoamyloctylamine) dichlorthane solution has been studied. The composition of associates in the organic phase may be presented as (BH3)PMo12O40, where BH+ is the protonized form of the amine. The overall conventional equilibrium constant of complex formation and extraction equals (1.51+-0.35)x1011

  16. Energy compensation of slow extracted beams with RF acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Tetsuya; Souda, Hikaru; Torikoshi, Masami; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Yamada, Satoru; Noda, Koji

    2016-03-01

    In a conventional carbon-ion radiotherapy facility, a carbon-ion beam is typically accelerated up to an optimum energy, slowly extracted from a synchrotron ring by a resonant slow extraction method, and ultimately delivered to a patient through a beam-delivery system. At Japan's Gunma University, a method employing slow-beam extraction along with beam-acceleration has been adopted. This method slightly alters the extracted-beam's energy owing to the acceleration component of the process, which subsequently results in a residual-range variation of approximately 2 mm in water-equivalent length. However, this range variation does not disturb a distal dose distribution with broad-beam methods such as the single beam-wobbling method. With the pencil-beam 3D scanning method, however, such a range variation disturbs a distal dose distribution because the variation is comparable to slice thickness. Therefore, for pencil-beam 3D scanning, an energy compensation method for a slow extracted beam is proposed in this paper. This method can compensate for the aforementioned energy variances by controlling net energy losses through a rotatable energy absorber set fixed between the synchrotron exit channel and the isocenter. Experimental results demonstrate that beam energies can be maintained constant, as originally hypothesized. Moreover, energy-absorber positions were found to be significantly enhanced by optimizing beam optics for reducing beam-size growth by implementation of the multiple-scattering effect option.

  17. Chemical profiling of Centella asiatica under different extraction solvents and its antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity

    OpenAIRE

    Supawan Rattanakom; Patchanee Yasurin

    2015-01-01

    Centella asiatica (L) urban, synonym Hydrocotyle asiatica, is found almost all over the world. This plant is famous in Ayurvedic medicine and used in the management of central nervous system, skin and gastrointestinal disorder. Thus this research had been done to evaluate the effect of solvent extraction (Ethanol, Chloroform and Hexane) of C. asiatica on chemical profile, antioxidant activity and antibacterial activity against some foodborne pathogens. The result showed that all solvents (et...

  18. Research and Application Progress in Countercurrent Solvent Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾江涛; 吴声; 廖春生; 严纯华

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the recent progress made by Peking University is briefly introduced. Based on Theory of Countercurrent Extraction established by Prof. Guangxian Xu, the static equilibrium and dynamic process for two- and three-outlet countercurrent extractions, and designed the optimized parameters for the real cascades to separate different rare earth minerals, which can be scaled-up to the industrial process without any further experimental verification were systematically investigated. In order to stabilize the quality of products and improve the capability of automation for extraction process, we have also established an 241Am stimulated X-ray fluorescent energy dispersive method to detect the elemental composition in both organic and aqueous phases, which can be used as an on-line analysis method in practice. Furthermore, the expert system and the control software with open- and close-loop models have been set up. Combined with the detected data from on-line analysis, the flow-rates of extracting, feeding, scrubbing and stripping solutions can be controlled in an optimum status for the industrial cascades. In addition, we have developed a new multi-input and multi-output countercurrent extraction process for separating multi-component rare earth mixture with lower chemical cost and pollution.

  19. Solvent extraction of uranium(Ⅵ)and europium(Ⅲ)from nitrate media by picolinamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Bo-Rong; CHENG Qian; CAO Wei-Guo; XIANG Qun; LI Yu; ZHAO Yu-Jia

    2005-01-01

    The solvent extraction of uranium(Ⅵ) and europium(Ⅲ) from nitric acid solution was studied with picolinamide dissolved in ethylene dichloride. The distribution ratios of U(Ⅵ) and Eu(Ⅲ) as a function of aqueous HNO3 concentration, extractant concentration in organic phase and temperature as well as the salting-out agent concentration have been measured. The experiment results show that picolinamide has higher extractability for U(Ⅵ1)than for Eu(Ⅲ). The composition of extracted species, equilibrium constants and enthalpies of extraction reaction have also been presented.

  20. PURIFICATION OF COBALT ANOLYTE USING THE NOVEL SOLVENT EXTRACTION SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.F. Shen; W.Y. Xue; W. Y. Niu

    2003-01-01

    In present research, a novel extractant system (D2EHPA + naphthenic acid +pyridine-ester) was used to purify cobalt anolyte and a simulated industrial produc-tion were carried out. This novel extraction system can extract Cu and/or Ni againstCo from chloride medium solutions at pH range of 2.5-4.5. About 2g/l nickel and0.2g/l copper were removed from the cobalt chloride anolyte containing about 100g/lcobalt and 200g/l chloride ions respectively, the raffinate contains nickel and copperless than 0.03g/l and 0. 0003g/l respectively and can be used to electrolyze high-puritycobalt. About 5.5t cobalt anolyte was purified in the simulation industrial experimentand kilogram quantities of cobalt of 99.98% purity and about 95% recovery have beenproduced.

  1. Solvent extraction using tetracycline as complexing agent Pt. 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of tetracycline as an extracting agent for Sr, I, Ba, Mo, Tc, Zr, Nb, Cs, Ru, Te and U was studied and the influence of the acidity of the aqueous phase upon extraction of the elements mentioned was examined. Experiments were made to determine whether the species extracted into the organic phase is the complex formed between tetracycline and the elements considered and to determine the time of shaking necessary so that the equilibrium between the phases is attained. As a practical application, the possibility of using the tetracycline-benzyl alcohol system for separating the fission products sup(137)Cs, sup(140)La, sup(141)Ce, sup(103)Ru, sup(95)Nb from each other and from uranium is presented. The same study was made for sup(131)I, sup(99m)Tc, sup(99)Mo, sup(132)Te, sup(239)Np and uranium and the steps necassary for the separation of these elements are proposed. (author)

  2. Predictive model for ionic liquid extraction solvents for rare earth elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabda, Mariusz; Oleszek, Sylwia; Panigrahi, Mrutyunjay; Kozak, Dmytro; Eckert, Franck; Shibata, Etsuro; Nakamura, Takashi

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of our study was to select the most effective ionic liquid extraction solvents for dysprosium (III) fluoride using a theoretical approach. Conductor-like Screening Model for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS), based on quantum chemistry and the statistical thermodynamics of predefined DyF3-ionic liquid systems, was applied to reach the target. Chemical potentials of the salt were predicted in 4,400 different ionic liquids. On the base of these predictions set of ionic liquids' ions, manifesting significant decrease of the chemical potentials, were selected. Considering the calculated physicochemical properties (hydrophobicity, viscosity) of the ionic liquids containing these specific ions, the most effective extraction solvents for liquid-liquid extraction of DyF3 were proposed. The obtained results indicate that the COSMO-RS approach can be applied to quickly screen the affinity of any rare earth element for a large number of ionic liquid systems, before extensive experimental tests.

  3. Effects of solvent-extraction contactor selection on flowsheet and facility design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The notion is developed that the selection of a solvent extraction contactor is part of a more general development of principles and philosophy guiding the overall plant design. Specifically, the requirements and constraints placed on the plant by the solvent extraction system must be consistent with those imposed by the other operations, which generally are more expensive and more complicated. Were a conservative philosophy employed throughout the plant, the choice of pulsed columns seem correct. Were the plant intended to employ modern techniques and state-of-the-art technology, particularly in remote maintenance and process control, the selection of centrifugal contactors seems appropriate. The process improvements attainable from employing more stages in a more tightly controlled solvent extraction system seem marginal at present when applied to conventional flowsheets, although the cost-benefit may be attractive in a modern plant. The potential for improvement through major flowsheet modification can not presently be assessed quantitatively

  4. Predictive model for ionic liquid extraction solvents for rare earth elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabda, Mariusz; Oleszek, Sylwia [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM), Tohoku University, 2,1-Katahira, 2-Chome, 980-8577 Sendai (Japan); Institute of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. M. Sklodowskiej-Curie 34, 41-819, Zabrze (Poland); Panigrahi, Mrutyunjay; Kozak, Dmytro; Shibata, Etsuro; Nakamura, Takashi [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM), Tohoku University, 2,1-Katahira, 2-Chome, 980-8577 Sendai (Japan); Eckert, Franck [COSMOlogic GmbH & Co KG, Imbacher Weg 46, 50379 Leverkusen (Germany)

    2015-12-31

    The purpose of our study was to select the most effective ionic liquid extraction solvents for dysprosium (III) fluoride using a theoretical approach. Conductor-like Screening Model for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS), based on quantum chemistry and the statistical thermodynamics of predefined DyF{sub 3}-ionic liquid systems, was applied to reach the target. Chemical potentials of the salt were predicted in 4,400 different ionic liquids. On the base of these predictions set of ionic liquids’ ions, manifesting significant decrease of the chemical potentials, were selected. Considering the calculated physicochemical properties (hydrophobicity, viscosity) of the ionic liquids containing these specific ions, the most effective extraction solvents for liquid-liquid extraction of DyF{sub 3} were proposed. The obtained results indicate that the COSMO-RS approach can be applied to quickly screen the affinity of any rare earth element for a large number of ionic liquid systems, before extensive experimental tests.

  5. Efficient solvent extraction of antioxidant-rich extract from a tropical diatom,Chaetoceros calcitrans (Paulsen) Takano 1968简

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su; Chern; Foo; Fatimah; Md.Yusoff; Maznah; Ismail; Mahiran; Basri; Nicholas; Mun; Hoe; Khong; Kim; Wei; Chan; Sook; Kun; Yau

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the in vitro antioxidant capacity of a diatom, Chaetoceros calcitrans(C. calcitrans) extracted using six types of solvents.Methods: Each extract was evaluated in terms of extraction yield, total carotenoid,fucoxanthin content, total phenolic and antioxidant capacities(DPPH and ABTS +scavenging activity and iron chelating activity).Results: The methanol extract exhibited the highest yield [(22.71 ± 0.96) g/100 g dry weight(DW)], total carotenoid [(4.46 ± 0.36) mg/g DW], total phenolic [(2.49 ± 0.08) mg gallic acid equivalents/g DW] and second highest fucoxanthin content [(2.08 ± 0.03) mg fucoxanthin/g DW] as compared to other solvent extracts. Methanolic extract also exhibited significantly higher(P < 0.05) scavenging(DPPH, ABTS +) and iron chelating activities.Conclusions: Methanol was the recommended solvent for the production of antioxidant rich extract from C. calcitrans. Both carotenoids and phenolic acids were found to be positively correlated to the antioxidant capacities of C. calcitrans. Lead bioactives confirmed by subsequent high performance liquid chromatography studies were fucoxanthin, gallic acid and protocatechuic acid.

  6. Efficient solvent extraction of antioxidant-rich extract from a tropical diatom,Chaetoceros calcitrans (Paulsen) Takano 1968

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Chern Foo; Fatimah Md Yusoff; Maznah Ismail; Mahiran Basri; Nicholas Mun Hoe Khong; Kim Wei Chan; Sook Kun Yau

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To compare thein vitro antioxidant capacity of a diatom,Chaetoceros calcitrans (C. calcitrans) extracted using six types of solvents. Methods:Each extract was evaluated in terms of extraction yield, total carotenoid, fucoxanthin content, total phenolic and antioxidant capacities (DPPH• andABTS•+ scavenging activity and iron chelating activity). Results: The methanol extract exhibited the highest yield [(22.71 ± 0.96) g/100 g dry weight (DW)], total carotenoid [(4.46 ± 0.36) mg/g DW], total phenolic [(2.49 ± 0.08) mg gallic acid equivalents/g DW] and second highest fucoxanthin content [(2.08 ± 0.03) mg fucoxanthin/g DW] as compared to other solvent extracts. Methanolic extract also exhibited significantly higher (P Conclusions: Methanol was the recommended solvent for the production of antioxidant rich extract fromC. calcitrans. Both carotenoids and phenolic acids were found to be positively correlated to the antioxidant capacities ofC. calcitrans. Lead bioactives confirmed by subsequent high performance liquid chromatography studies were fucoxanthin, gallic acid and protocatechuic acid.

  7. Extracting Time-Accurate Acceleration Vectors From Nontrivial Accelerometer Arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Jennifer A; Blume, Janet; Crisco, Joseph J; Franck, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Sports-related concussions are of significant concern in many impact sports, and their detection relies on accurate measurements of the head kinematics during impact. Among the most prevalent recording technologies are videography, and more recently, the use of single-axis accelerometers mounted in a helmet, such as the HIT system. Successful extraction of the linear and angular impact accelerations depends on an accurate analysis methodology governed by the equations of motion. Current algorithms are able to estimate the magnitude of acceleration and hit location, but make assumptions about the hit orientation and are often limited in the position and/or orientation of the accelerometers. The newly formulated algorithm presented in this manuscript accurately extracts the full linear and rotational acceleration vectors from a broad arrangement of six single-axis accelerometers directly from the governing set of kinematic equations. The new formulation linearizes the nonlinear centripetal acceleration term with a finite-difference approximation and provides a fast and accurate solution for all six components of acceleration over long time periods (>250 ms). The approximation of the nonlinear centripetal acceleration term provides an accurate computation of the rotational velocity as a function of time and allows for reconstruction of a multiple-impact signal. Furthermore, the algorithm determines the impact location and orientation and can distinguish between glancing, high rotational velocity impacts, or direct impacts through the center of mass. Results are shown for ten simulated impact locations on a headform geometry computed with three different accelerometer configurations in varying degrees of signal noise. Since the algorithm does not require simplifications of the actual impacted geometry, the impact vector, or a specific arrangement of accelerometer orientations, it can be easily applied to many impact investigations in which accurate kinematics need to

  8. Mechanism of gold solvent extraction from aurocyanide solution by quaternary amines: models of extracting species based on hydrogen bonding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The mechanism of gold solvent extraction from KAu(CN)2 solution was investigated by means of FTIR, EXAFS, ICP and radioactive tracer methods. Two extraction systems were studied, namely N263-tributyl phosphate(TBP)-n-dodecane and N263-iso-octanol-n-dodecane. High-reso- lution FT IR spectroscopy indicated that the CN stretching vibrations of the two extraction systems differred greatly. In order to interpret the significant difference in CN stretching vibrations, two extracting species models are proposed supramolecular structures based on the formation of hydrogen bonds between Au(CN)2- and modifiers such as TBP and iso-octanol.

  9. FIELD EVALUATION OF SOLVENT EXTRACTION RESIDUAL BIOTREATMENT (SERB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory and pilot-scale studies have demonstrated that cosolvent-enhanced in situ extraction can remove residual and free-phase nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL), but may leave levels of contaminants in the ground water and subsurface formations in excess of the regulatory requir...

  10. Extractant selection strategy for solvent-impregnated resins in fermentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, C. van den; Roelands, C.P.M.; Bussmann, P.J.Th.; Goetheer, E.L.V.; Verdoes, D.; Wielen, L. van der

    2008-01-01

    The application of extractants in whole-cell biocatalysis can have a positive impact on industrial fermentations, in terms of productivity, total amount of product produced, and cell growth. When a product is continuously removed from the microorganism surroundings, product inhibition will be dimini

  11. Isotope effects of hafnium in solvent extraction using crown ethers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Toshiyuki; Moriyama, Hirotake [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Hirata, Takafumi [Laboratory for Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Nishizawa, Kazushige [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    Hafnium isotopes were fractionated in a liquid-liquid extraction system by using seven types of crown ethers, tributyl phosphate, or {omicron}-diethoxybenzene. The largest isotope effect was observed in the isotope pair of {sup 177}Hf-{sup 179}Hf with dibenzo-24-crown-8; the isotope enrichment factor was observed to be 0.0129{+-}0.0032. (author)

  12. Tailoring and recycling of deep eutectic solvents as sustainable and efficient extraction media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyung Min; Lee, Min Sang; Nam, Min Woo; Zhao, Jing; Jin, Yan; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kwon, Sung Won; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Lee, Jeongmi

    2015-12-11

    The present study demonstrates that deep eutectic solvents (DESs) with the highest extractability can be designed by combining effective DES components from screening diverse DESs. The extraction of polar ginseng saponins from white ginseng was used as a way to demonstrate the tuneability as well as recyclability of DESs. A newly designed ternary DES (GPS-5) composed of glycerol, l-proline, and sucrose at 9:4:1 was used as a sustainable and efficient extraction medium. Based on the anti-tumor activity on HCT-116 cancer cells, it was confirmed that GPS-5 was merely an extraction solvent with no influence of the bioactivity of the ginsenosides extracted. Excellent recovery of the extracted saponins was easily achieved through solid-phase extraction (SPE). Recycling of the DES was accomplished by simple freeze-drying of the washed solutions from the SPE. The extraction efficiencies of the DESs recycled once, twice, and thrice were 92%, 85%, and 83% of that of the freshly synthesized solvent. PMID:26585205

  13. Turn-By Beam Extraction during Acceleration in a Synchrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoupas, Nicholaos; Trbojevic, Dejan

    2014-02-01

    A synchrotron to accelerate protons or carbon ions for medical applications is being designed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Single beam bunches with maximum beam energy of 1.18 GeV and 400 MeV/u for protons and carbon ions respectively will be extracted from the synchrotron at 15 Hz. For protons, the maximum required energy for irradiating a tumor is ˜206 MeV. A pencil-like proton beam containing ˜5.4×107 p/bunch delivers a therapeutic dose of 2.5 Gy in ˜1.5 minutes to treat a tumor of 1 liter volume. It will take ˜80 minutes with bunches containing 4.5×104 ions/bunch to deliver the same dose of 2.5 Gy with a 400 MeV/u pencil-like carbon beam. This extended treatment time when using carbon ions is not acceptable. In addition, the synchrotron cannot be controlled with a beam bunch containing such a low number of carbon ions. To overcome these two problems of the extended treatment time and the low bunch intensity required for the treatment when carbon ions are used, we have devised a method to “peel” the required 4.5×104 carbon-ions/bunch from the accelerating carbon beam bunch containing ˜108 ions/bunch and deliver them to the tumor on a “turn-by-turn” basis. Unlike other methods of beam extraction from a synchrotron, such as resonance extraction, this method does not allow for any beam losses during the extraction and the carbon beam can be peeled off in less than 15 ms during the acceleration or deceleration cycle of the synchrotron. Thus, this turn-by-turn beam extraction method provides beam with variable energy and precisely controlled beam current during the 30 ms acceleration or deceleration time.

  14. Stable Isotope-Assisted Evaluation of Different Extraction Solvents for Untargeted Metabolomics of Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doppler, Maria; Kluger, Bernhard; Bueschl, Christoph; Schneider, Christina; Krska, Rudolf; Delcambre, Sylvie; Hiller, Karsten; Lemmens, Marc; Schuhmacher, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of extraction protocols for untargeted metabolomics approaches is still difficult. We have applied a novel stable isotope-assisted workflow for untargeted LC-HRMS-based plant metabolomics , which allows for the first time every detected feature to be considered for method evaluation. The efficiency and complementarity of commonly used extraction solvents, namely 1 + 3 (v/v) mixtures of water and selected organic solvents (methanol, acetonitrile or methanol/acetonitrile 1 + 1 (v/v)), with and without the addition of 0.1% (v/v) formic acid were compared. Four different wheat organs were sampled, extracted and analysed by LC-HRMS. Data evaluation was performed with the in-house-developed MetExtract II software and R. With all tested solvents a total of 871 metabolites were extracted in ear, 785 in stem, 733 in leaf and 517 in root samples, respectively. Between 48% (stem) and 57% (ear) of the metabolites detected in a particular organ were found with all extraction mixtures, and 127 of 996 metabolites were consistently shared between all extraction agent/organ combinations. In aqueous methanol, acidification with formic acid led to pronounced pH dependency regarding the precision of metabolite abundance and the number of detectable metabolites, whereas extracts of acetonitrile-containing mixtures were less affected. Moreover, methanol and acetonitrile have been found to be complementary with respect to extraction efficiency. Interestingly, the beneficial properties of both solvents can be combined by the use of a water-methanol-acetonitrile mixture for global metabolite extraction instead of aqueous methanol or aqueous acetonitrile alone. PMID:27367667

  15. Stable Isotope-Assisted Evaluation of Different Extraction Solvents for Untargeted Metabolomics of Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Doppler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of extraction protocols for untargeted metabolomics approaches is still difficult. We have applied a novel stable isotope-assisted workflow for untargeted LC-HRMS-based plant metabolomics , which allows for the first time every detected feature to be considered for method evaluation. The efficiency and complementarity of commonly used extraction solvents, namely 1 + 3 (v/v mixtures of water and selected organic solvents (methanol, acetonitrile or methanol/acetonitrile 1 + 1 (v/v, with and without the addition of 0.1% (v/v formic acid were compared. Four different wheat organs were sampled, extracted and analysed by LC-HRMS. Data evaluation was performed with the in-house-developed MetExtract II software and R. With all tested solvents a total of 871 metabolites were extracted in ear, 785 in stem, 733 in leaf and 517 in root samples, respectively. Between 48% (stem and 57% (ear of the metabolites detected in a particular organ were found with all extraction mixtures, and 127 of 996 metabolites were consistently shared between all extraction agent/organ combinations. In aqueous methanol, acidification with formic acid led to pronounced pH dependency regarding the precision of metabolite abundance and the number of detectable metabolites, whereas extracts of acetonitrile-containing mixtures were less affected. Moreover, methanol and acetonitrile have been found to be complementary with respect to extraction efficiency. Interestingly, the beneficial properties of both solvents can be combined by the use of a water-methanol-acetonitrile mixture for global metabolite extraction instead of aqueous methanol or aqueous acetonitrile alone.

  16. Ionic liquid solutions as extractive solvents for value-added compounds from biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Passos, Helena; Freire, Mara G.; Coutinho, João A. P.

    2014-01-01

    In the past few years, the number of studies regarding the application of ionic liquids (ILs) as alternative solvents to extract value-added compounds from biomass has been growing. Based on an extended compilation and analysis of the data hitherto reported, the main objective of this review is to provide an overview on the use of ILs and their mixtures with molecular solvents for the extraction of value-added compounds present in natural sources. The ILs (or IL solutions) investigated as sol...

  17. Removal of VOCs from groundwater using membrane-assisted solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A membrane-assisted solvent extraction (MASX) system coupled to a membrane-assisted distillation stripping (MADS) system for use in decontaminating groundwater is discussed. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are extracted in the MASX using a sunflower oil solvent. In the MADS, VOCs are stripped from the sunflower oil, and the oil is recycled to the MASX. Thermodynamic data for the sunflower oil-water-VOCs system were experimentally collected. Published membrane-mass transfer results along with these data were used to design the MASX and MADS modules

  18. Determination of Technetium-99 in Environmental Samples by Solvent Extraction at Controlled Valence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Q.J.; Aarkrog, A.; Dahlgaard, H.;

    1989-01-01

    Distribution coefficients of technetium and ruthenium are determined under different conditions with CCl4, cyclohexanone, and 5% tri-isooctylamine (TIOA)/xylene. A method for analyzing 99Tc in environmental samples has been developed by solvent extraction in which the valences of technetium...... are subsequently separated by solvent extraction with cyclohexanone and 5% TIOA/xylene. The decontamination of the procedure is 1.35 .cntdot. 105 for 103Ru and 1.66 .cntdot. 105 for 110mAg. The chemical yield of technetium-99 is 55%....

  19. Solvent extraction of scandium from lateritic nickel- cobalt ores using different organic reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferizoğlu Ece

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scandium is the most important and strategic metal that can be recovered as a by-product from lateritic nickel-cobalt ores. In this research, different extractants were investigated in order to extract scandium from a sulfate medium by a using a solvent extraction method. Generally, the organic extractants are classified as acidic, neutral and basic organophosphorus compounds. However, in solvent extraction of scandium, the acidic and neutral organophosphorus compounds are preferred due to their higher extraction efficiencies. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare the scandium extraction efficiencies of some acidic and neutral organic reagents. For this reason, Ionquest 290 (Bis(2,4,4-trimethylpenthyl phosphonic acid, DEHPA (Di(2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid, Cyanex 272 ((Bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid which are acidic organophosphorus compounds, and Cyanex 923 (Trialkylphosphine oxide, which is a neutral organophosphorus compound, were used. The extraction capacities of these organics were studied with respect to the extractant concentration at same pH and phase ratio. As a result of the study, DEHPA was found to have higher scandium extraction efficiency with lower iron extraction at pH = 0.55 at a phase ratio of 10:1 = A:O.

  20. Solvent Extraction of Oil from Soursop Oilseeds & its Quality Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Adepoju, T. F; Olawale, O; Ojediran, O. J; Olatunji, E. M

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on optimization of oil extraction from Soursop oilseeds using Box-Behnken design an allied of Response Surface Methodology (RSM), it also examine the physicochemical properties and fatty acid profile of the oil. Based on the design, 17 experimental runs were conducted to investigate the effects of variables and their reciprocal interactions on the oil yield. A quadratic polynomial and the ANOVA test showed the model to be remarkably significant (p

  1. A theoretical study of plutonium diketone complexes for solvent extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Gagliardi, Laura; Handy, Nicholas C.; Skylaris, Chris-Kriton; Willetts, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    We present a relativistic density functional study on some plutonium compounds with thenoyltrifluoroacetone and similar ligands which can be used in the extraction of plutonium. The method of effective core potentials is used on plutonium. The binding energies of the complexes of plutonium in the formal oxidation states II, IV and VI have been determined and the geometries of some of the complexes have been fully optimized. The stability of the compounds in the different oxidation states and ...

  2. Review on aggregation of acid extractants in solvent extraction of metal ions: remark on the general model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The aggregation behavior of various acid extractants in the solvent extraction systems of metal ions is re-examined and explained according to knowledge obtained in recent work. The conclusions are as follows. (1) Complexes formed by the extractants and metal ions can form reversed micelles in organic diluents, depending on the microstructures of the complexes. The dimers of the acid extractant cannot percolate to the metal-extractant aggregates, and the acid-salt complexes are always formed in the aggregates. The reversed micelles or the W/O microemulsions formed by different species cannot be associated with each other to form a unified aggregate. (2) In solvent extraction systems, hydration of the extractants and metal ions can be considered as the driving force of forming reversed micelles. (3) Information of the first approach to the insight of the bicontinuous microemulsion of NaDEHP shows that various components in the aqueous phase behave confined and very similar to the typical AOT/n-heptane W/O microemulsions. (4) In the extraction of lanthanide ions by the W/O microemulsion of sodium naphthenate, the saponification is a process of forming reversed micelle or W/O microemulsion, while the extraction step is a process of destroying reversed micelles or W/O microemulsion droplets.

  3. Transuranic decontamination of nitric acid solutions by the TRUEX solvent extraction process: preliminary development studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the work that has been performed to date at Argonne National Laboratory on the development of the TRUEX process, a solvent extraction process employing a bifunctional organophosphorous reagent in a PUREX process solvent (tributyl phosphate-normal paraffinic hydrocarbons). The purpose of this extraction process is to separate and concentrate transuranic (TRU) elements from nuclear waste. Assessments were made of the use of two TRUEX solvents: one incorporating the well-studied dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate (DHDECMP) and a second incorporating an extractant with superior properties for a 1M HNO3 acid feed, octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (O/sub phi/D[IB]CMPO). In this report, conceptual flowsheets for the removal of soluble TRUs from high-level nuclear wastes using these two TRUEX proces solvents are presented, and flowsheet features are discussed in detail. The conceptual flowsheet for TRU-element removal from a PUREX waste by the O/sub phi/D[IB]CMPO-TRUEX process solvent was tested in a bench-scale countercurrent experiment, and results of that experiment are presented and discussed. The conclusion of this study is that the TRUEX process is able to separate TRUs from high-level wastes so that the major portion of the solid waste (approx. 99%) can be classified as non-TRU. Areas where more experimentation is needed are listed at the end of the report. 45 references, 17 figures, 56 tables

  4. Studies on antimicrobial activities of solvent extracts of different spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Dilek; Toroglu, Sevil

    2011-03-01

    The antimicrobial activities of the ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extract of 12 plant species were studied. The extract of Capsicum annuum (red pepper) (fruit) Zingiber officinale (ginger) (root), Cuminum cyminum (cumin), Alpinia ficinarum (galingale), Coriandrum sativum (coriander), Cinnamomun zeylanicum Nees (cinnamomun), Origanum onites L. (thyme), Folium sennae (senna), Eugenia caryophyllata (cloves), Flos tiliae (lime), Folium menthae crispae (peppermint) and Piper nigrum (blackpepper) were tested in vitro against 2 fungi and 8 bacterial species by the disc diffusion method. Klebsiella pneumonia 13883, Bacillus megaterium NRS, Pseudomonas aeroginosa ATCC 27859, Staphylococcus aureus 6538 P, Escherichia coil ATCC 8739, Enterobacter cloaca ATCC 13047, Corynebacterium xerosis UC 9165, Streptococcus faecalis DC 74, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Rhodotorula rubra were used in this investigation. The results indicated that extracts of different spices has shown antibacterial activity in the range of 7-24 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibition zone Eugenia caryophyllata (clove), 7-20 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Capsicum annum (red pepper) and Cinnamomun zeylanicum (cinnamon) bark, 7-18 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Folium sennae (senna) leaves, 7-16 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibition zone Zingiber officinale (ginger) root, 7-15 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Cuminum cyminum (cumin) seed, 7-14 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibition zone Folium menthae crispae (peppermint), Origanum onites (thyme) leaves and Alpinia ficinarum (galingale) root, 7-12 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibiton zone Piper nigrum (blackpepper), 7-11 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Flos tiliae (lime) leaves, 7-8 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Coriandrum sativum (coriander) to the microorganisms tested.

  5. Solvent extraction in the treatment of acidic high-level liquid waste : where do we stand?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last 15 years, a number of solvent extraction/recovery processes have been developed for the removal of the transuranic elements, 90Sr and 137Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste. These processes are based on the use of a variety of both acidic and neutral extractants. This chapter will present an overview and analysis of the various extractants and flowsheets developed to treat acidic high-level liquid waste streams. The advantages and disadvantages of each extractant along with comparisons of the individual systems are discussed

  6. Solvent extraction in the treatment of acidic high-level liquid waste : where do we stand?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horwitz, E. P.; Schulz, W. W.

    1998-06-18

    During the last 15 years, a number of solvent extraction/recovery processes have been developed for the removal of the transuranic elements, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste. These processes are based on the use of a variety of both acidic and neutral extractants. This chapter will present an overview and analysis of the various extractants and flowsheets developed to treat acidic high-level liquid waste streams. The advantages and disadvantages of each extractant along with comparisons of the individual systems are discussed.

  7. Solvent extraction of lanthanide ions with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazolone-5 (HPMBP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solvent extraction of Er(3), Yb(3) and Lu(3) by 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazolone-5(HPMBP or HL) in carbon tetrachloride has been studied as a function of the pH of the aqueous phase and the concentration of the extractant in the organic phase. The equation for the extraction reaction has been suggested as: Ln3++3HL(0) rightleftdblarrow LnL3(0)+3H+(Ln3+ = Er, Yb, Lu). The extraction equilibrium constants (Kex) and two-phase stability constants (β3x) for the LnL3 complexes have been evaluated. (Author)

  8. Separation of zirconium and hafnium by solvent extraction using mixture of TBP and Cyanex 923

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taghizadeh, M., E-mail: mtaghizadeh@aeoi.org.ir [Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, End of North Karegar Ave., P.O. Box 14395-836, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghanadi, M.; Zolfonoun, E. [Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, End of North Karegar Ave., P.O. Box 14395-836, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-05-31

    In this study, a new Zr/Hf separation procedure by solvent extraction is proposed. The method is based on using the mixture of TBP and Cyanex 923 as extractant in the organic phase. Several parameters including; TBP/Cyanex 923 volume ratio, extractant concentration in the organic phase, nitric acid and NaNO{sub 3} concentration in aqueous phase have been investigated. The results demonstrate better condition respect to traditional TBP/HNO{sub 3} process. Lower required acid concentration and more zirconium extraction are some advantages of the new separation process.

  9. Separation of zirconium and hafnium by solvent extraction using mixture of TBP and Cyanex 923

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, M.; Ghanadi, M.; Zolfonoun, E.

    2011-05-01

    In this study, a new Zr/Hf separation procedure by solvent extraction is proposed. The method is based on using the mixture of TBP and Cyanex 923 as extractant in the organic phase. Several parameters including; TBP/Cyanex 923 volume ratio, extractant concentration in the organic phase, nitric acid and NaNO 3 concentration in aqueous phase have been investigated. The results demonstrate better condition respect to traditional TBP/HNO 3 process. Lower required acid concentration and more zirconium extraction are some advantages of the new separation process.

  10. Solvent extraction equipment evaluation study. Part 3. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, L.M.; Geier, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    This document reviews the available literature on the types of liquid-liquid extraction contactors used to perform radiochemical separations. Also included are comparisons between the types of contactors. The summarization of each of the approximately 130 papers reviewed contains a description of the equipment tested, the chemical system used to test it, and the results obtained. Conclusions drawn by the original authors have not been altered. A bibliography has been included which has been numbered to cross-reference the summaries to the proper references.

  11. Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts from purple basil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeşiloğlu, Yeşim; Şit, Latifşah

    2012-09-01

    Water, ethanol and acetone extracts from leaves and flowers of purple basil, one of the most popular spices consumed in the Thrace region of Turkey, were tested in vitro for their ability to inhibit peroxidation of lipids, to scavenge DPPH, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion, to reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II) and to chelate Fe(II) ions. The results showed that purple basil contained naturally occurring antioxidant components and possessed antioxidant activity which may be attributed to its lipid peroxidation inhibitory, radical scavenging and metal chelating activities. It was concluded that purple basil might be a potential source of antioxidants.

  12. Metals separation using solvent extractants on magnetic microparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetically assisted chemical separation program was initially funded by DOE EM-50 to develop processes for the efficient separation of radionuclides and other hazardous metals. This process has simulated the partnership between industry and ANL for many applications related to hazardous metal problems in industry. In-tank or near-tank hazardous metals separation using magnetic particles promises simple, compact processing at very low costs and employs mature chemical separations technologies to remove and recover hazardous metals from aqueous solutions. The selective chemical extractants are attached to inexpensive magnetic carrier particles. Surfaces of small particles composed of rare earths or ferromagnetic materials are treated to retain chemical extractants (e.g., TBP, CMPO, quaternary amines, carboxylic acid). After selective partitioning of contaminants to the surface layer, magnets are used to collect the loaded particles from the tank. The particles can be regenerated by stripping the contaminants and the selective metals can be recovered and recycled from the strip solution. This process and its related equipment are simple enough to be used for recovery/recycling and waste minimization activities at many industrial sites. Both the development of the process for hazardous and radioactive waste and the transfer of the technology will be discussed

  13. Recombinant human proinsulin from transgenic corn endosperm: solvent screening and extraction studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Farinas

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant pharmaceutical proteins are being produced in different systems such as bacteria and mammalian cell cultures. The use of transgenic plants as bioreactors has recently arisen as an alternative system offering many practical and economic advantages. However, finding an optimum strategy for the downstream processing (DSP of recombinant proteins from plants still remains a challenge. In this work, we studied the extraction of recombinant human proinsulin (rhProinsulin produced in the endosperm of transgenic corn seeds. An efficient extraction solvent was selected and the effects of temperature, solvent-to-solid ratio, time, and impeller rotational speed on the extraction were evaluated using an experimental design. After an extraction kinetics study, temperature was further evaluated to maximize rhProinsulin concentration in the extracts and to minimize the native corn components carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, and proteins. A high efficiency condition for extracting rhProinsulin with the selected solvent - 50 mM sodium bicarbonate buffer pH 10.0 and 5 mM DTT - was an extraction time of 2 h at a solvent-to-solid ratio of 10:1 and 25º C. The maximum rhProinsulin concentration in the extracts at that condition was 18.87 mg l-1 or 0.42% of the total soluble protein. These values are within the range in which the production of pharmaceutical proteins in plants can be competitive with other expression systems. The results presented provide information for the development of an additional production platform for the hormone insulin.

  14. Solvent extraction as additional purification method for postconsumer plastic packaging waste

    OpenAIRE

    Thoden Van Velzen, E.U.; M. Jansen

    2011-01-01

    An existing solvent extraction process currently used to convert lightly polluted post-industrial packaging waste into high quality re-granulates was tested under laboratory conditions with highly polluted post-consumer packaging waste originating from municipal solid refuse waste. The objective was to study the technical feasibility of using this extraction technology and to study the quality of the produced cleaned plastic flakes. Two types of dirty plastic flakes from household waste were ...

  15. A comparison of five lipid extraction solvent systems for lipidomic studies of human LDL[S

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, Ana; Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Blackburn, Gavin J.; Fauzi, Norsyahida Mohd; Pitt, Andrew R.; Spickett, Corinne M.

    2013-01-01

    Lipidome profile of fluids and tissues is a growing field as the role of lipids as signaling molecules is increasingly understood, relying on an effective and representative extraction of the lipids present. A number of solvent systems suitable for lipid extraction are commonly in use, though no comprehensive investigation of their effectiveness across multiple lipid classes has been carried out. To address this, human LDL from normolipidemic volunteers was used to evaluate five different sol...

  16. Solvent extraction of nickel, iron and calcium from magnesium containing acid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabra, G.

    1987-02-01

    The extraction of magnesium hydrogen sulfite by a mixture of DEHP/Kelex 100/Kerosene has been investigated from aqueous solutions containing Fe, Ca and Ni. The best results were obtained with DEHP: Kelex 100: Kerosen in the ratio 5/1/94 or 5/2/93. Based on the McCabe - Thiele reprentation of data. A three stage solvent extraction process has been developed for separation and recovery of Mg salts from aqueous leach solution.

  17. Effect of Solvents on the Extractability of Phenolic Constituents and their Antioxidant Capacity from Irish Seaweed

    OpenAIRE

    Rajauria, Gaurav; Jaiswal, Amit; Abu-Ghannam, Nissreen

    2012-01-01

    Seaweeds are being used for human consumption in the Orient and help them live longer with low levels of hypertension, cancer and other ailments. The study aimed at extraction of principle constituents using a wide range of solvents and their mixtures on the basis of polarity, from Irish brown seaweeds namely Himanthalia elongata, Laminaria saccharina and Laminaria digitata. All the extracts were screened for total phenolic content (TPC) and their potential antioxidant capacity, using 2, 2´-d...

  18. Effects of Ultrasound Power, Temperature and Flow Rate of Solvent on Decontamination of Sensitive Equipment by Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Andrle

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The solvent extraction process is regarded amongst other known methods to be applicable for decontamination of sensitive equipment components, especially in cases the components are contaminated in-depth with chemical warfare agents. Viability of the solvent extraction method was evaluated on coupons of butadiene rubber contaminated by sulphur mustard before decontamination by the solvent extraction. The contaminated coupons were extracted in a flow cell, which the solvent (ethoxynonafluorobutane passed through. Three following specific operational factors, namely the temperature, the flow rate, and the power of ultrasound bath, were assessed for the extent of influencing upon the respective observed extraction efficiencies. The paper describes the results of the evaluation of the solvent extraction effectiveness.Defence Science Journal, 2014, 64(2, pp. 168-172. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.64.3887

  19. Solvent extraction as additional purification method for postconsumer plastic packaging waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoden van Velzen, E.U.; Jansen, M.

    2011-01-01

    An existing solvent extraction process currently used to convert lightly polluted post-industrial packaging waste into high quality re-granulates was tested under laboratory conditions with highly polluted post-consumer packaging waste originating from municipal solid refuse waste. The objective was

  20. TERRA-KLEEN RESPONSE GROUP, INC. SOLVENT EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY: INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the results of a field demonstration conducted under the SITE program. The technology which was demonstrated was a solvent extraction technology developed by Terra-Kleen Response Group. Inc. to remove organic contaminants from soil. The technology employs...

  1. Extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soot and sediment : solvent selection and implications for sorption mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.T.O.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Soot contains high levels of toxic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Extraction of PAHs from soot for quantitative analysis is difficult because the compounds are extremely tightly bound to the sorbent matrix. This study was designed to investigate the effect of solvent type

  2. Remediation of soils, sediments and sludges by extraction with organic solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordkamp, E.

    1999-01-01

    Remediation of contaminated soils, sediments and sludges by extraction with organic solvents is still in the initial stages of development. So far hardly any scientific research has been carried out into this approach. Therefore, the main objective of the present investigation was to study the effec

  3. Development of a micro-mixer-settler for nuclear solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear solvent extraction was traditionally performed with packed columns, pulse columns, mixer-settlers and centrifugal extractors. However for rapid separations at micro-flow level, micro mixer-settlers were desired and in the past, few of them were actually designed and operated in nuclear solvent extraction research. In the current era of micro-reactor and microchannel devices, there is a renewed interest for micro-mixer-settlers for costly solvents and specialty solutes where small flow-rate is not an issue. In this article, development of a simple but effective micro-mixer-settler for nuclear solvent extraction is reported. The developed unit was tested with 30% TBP/n-dodecane/nitric acid system and in both the regimes of mass transfer c → d (mass transfer from continuous phase to dispersed phase, also written as c → d) and d → c (mass transfer from dispersed phase to continuous phase, also written as d → c) nearly 100% efficiency was observed in extraction as well as stripping modes of operation. (author)

  4. Impurity Distribution Behavior in Caprolactam Extraction with Environmentally Benign Mixed Solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delden, van M.L.; Drumm, C.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; Haan, de A.B.

    2006-01-01

    In a previous study a solvent mixture of heptane containing 40 mass % heptanol was selected as an alternative in the industrial extraction of caprolactam to replace benzene, toluene, or chlorinated hydrocarbons. This work reports the equilibrium distribution ratio of caprolactam and four model impur

  5. Mechanism of gold solvent extraction from aurocyanide solution by quaternary amines: models of extracting species based on hydrogen bonding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马刚; 闫文飞; 陈景; 严纯华; 高宏成; 周维金; 施鼐; 吴谨光; 徐光宪; 黄昆; 余建民; 崔宁

    2000-01-01

    The mechanism of gold solvent extraction from KAu(CN)2 solution was investigated by means of FTIR, EXAFS, ICP and radioactive tracer methods. Two extraction systems were studied, namely N263-tributyl phosphate(TBP)-n-dodecane and N263-iso-octanol-n-dodecane. High-resolution FT IR spectroscopy indicated that the CN stretching vibrations of the two extraction systems differred greatly. In order to interpret the significant difference in CN stretching vibrations, twoextracting species models are proposed——supramolecular structures based on the formation ofhydrogen bonds between Au(CN)2- and modifiers such as TBP and iso-octanol.

  6. Influence of the amine salt anion on the synergic solvent extraction of praseodymium with mixtures of chelating extractants and tridodecylamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dukov, I.L.; Jordanov, V.M. [Higher Inst. of Chemical Technology, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-11-01

    The solvent extraction of Pr with thenoyltrifluoroacetone, (HTTA) or 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazol-5-one(HP) and tridodecylammonium salt (TDAHA,A{sup -} = Cl{sup -},NO{sub 3}{sup -}, ClO{sub 4}{sup -}) in C{sub 6}H{sub 6} has been studied. The composition of the extracted species has been determined as Pr(TTA){sub 3} TDAHA and TDAH{sup +}[PrP{sub 4}]{sup -}. The values of the equilibrium constants, have been calculated. The extraction mechanism has been discussed on the basis of the experimental data. 34 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Supercritical fluid extraction of natural antioxidants from rosemary:  comparison with liquid solvent sonication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tena, M T; Valcárcel, M; Hidalgo, P J; Ubera, J L

    1997-02-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and liquid solvent sonication, in combination with two different sample treatments, were compared for the extraction of natural antioxidants from rosemary leaves. Dried, ground, and sieved rosemary leaves (20 mg) were subjected to SFE with CO(2) at 355 bar at 100 °C (CO(2) density 0.72 g/mL) for 20 min at a liquid flow rate of 4 mL/min. The analytes were concentrated on an ODS trap and subsequently eluted with acetone. Antioxidants in the SF and liquid solvent extract were analyzed by HPLC. Compounds of known antioxidant activity such as carnosol, carnosic acid, and methyl carnosate were identified by mass spectrometry of the HPLC fractions collected. Freezing and grinding the samples in liquid nitrogen resulted in decreased carnosic acid recoveries. Supercritical CO(2) extraction provided the highest recovery of carnosic acid from rosemary leaves (35.7 mg/g), the lowest relative standard deviation (4.4%), and the cleanest extract [Formula: see text] no cleanup prior to HPLC was required. Among the liquid solvents studies, only acetone provided comparable results (73% recovery relative to SC-CO(2) extraction); however, it required decoloration with active carbon prior to HPLC analysis. PMID:21639201

  8. Ohmic heating as a pre-treatment in solvent extraction of rice bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Gopu Raveendran; Divya, V R; Prasannan, Liji; Habeeba, V; Prince, M V; Raghavan, G S V

    2014-10-01

    Rice bran, which is one of the major by products of paddy contain high quality proteins and edible oil apart from fibre, ash and NFE (nitrogen free extract). The existing solvent extraction method employs n-hexane as the most viable solvent for the extraction of oil from rice bran. But the high cost and scarce availability of n-hexane resulted in uneconomical extraction of rice bran oil. In this study, rice bran was ohmically heated for different time periods(1, 2 and 3 min) with different current values (5, 15 and 20 A) and with different concentration of sodium chloride (1 M, 0.1 M and 0.01 M) as conducting medium. The ohmically heated rice bran was subjected to extraction studies. Ohmic heating of rice bran of paddy varieties Red Triveni and Basmati reduced the extraction time by nearly 75 % and 70 % respectively and gave a maximum quantity of oil extracted when compared to bran, which was not ohmically heated. From the experiments with varying concentrations, residence time of ohmic heating and currents, it was found that ohmically heating the rice bran with 1 M sodium chloride solution and with a current value of 20 A for 3 min gave maximum oil extraction with minimum extraction time. PMID:25328213

  9. The use of a solvent extraction technique for the analysis of trace metal pollutants in estuarine water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solvent extraction technique, based on metal carbamate complex formation is investigated for its usefulness in the analysis of estuarine water samples. Preliminary results indicate an extraction efficiency over 90% and a good precision. (author)

  10. Flavonoid compositions and antioxidant activity of calamondin extracts prepared using different solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyi-Neng Lou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Calamondin has been demonstrated to exhibit antioxidant function and tyrosinase inhibitory activity, which might be attributed to its flavonoid compounds. To improve their application, the flavonoid compositions and antioxidant activity of calamondin extracts, prepared by different solvents, were investigated. The results showed that total phenolic and flavonoid contents of extracts from peel of calamondin were higher than that from pulp, except the flavonoid content in hot water extract. The flavonoids found in extracts of calamondin were 3′,5′-di-C-β-glucopyranosylphloretin (DGPP, naringin, hesperidin, nobiletin, tangeretin, and diosmin. DGPP exhibited the highest quantity, while naringin and hesperidin were the other two major flavonoids. The content of DGPP in hot water extract of peel was higher than in extracts of organic solvents, however, the contents of nobiletin and tangeretin were found only in extracts of organic solvents. The highest levels of total flavonoids and DGPP were obtained in hot water extract from peel at 90°C. The extracts of hot water and ethyl acetate showed higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging potency than that of ethanol and methanol. A positive relationship existed between total phenolic contents and DPPH scavenging potency (p < 0.01, while total flavonoid compositions also showed correlation (p < 0.05. Thus, DGPP, naringin, and hesperidin might contribute to antioxidant activity. Collectively, the hot water extract of calamondin peel might have potential for health food and cosmetic applications due to its good antioxidant activity and high level of DGPP.

  11. MEASUREMENT OF PYRETHROID RESIDUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL AND FOOD SAMPLES BY ENHANCED SOLVENT EXTRACTION/SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION COUPLED WITH GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The abstract summarizes pyrethorid methods development research. It provides a summary of sample preparation and analytical techniques such as supercritical fluid extraction, enhance solvent extraction, gas chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

  12. [Growth inhibition of the four species of red tide microalgae by extracts from Enteromorpha prolifera extracted with the five solvents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying-Ying; Liu, Xiao-Xiao; Wang, Chang-Hai

    2010-06-01

    To study the effects of extracts of Enteromorpha prolifera on the growth of the four species of red tide microalgae (Amphidinium hoefleri, Karenia mikimitoi, Alexandrium tamarense and Skeletonema costatum), the extracts were extracted with five solvents (methanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, chloroform and petroleum ether), respectively. Based on the observation of algal morphology and the measurement of algal density, cell size and the contents of physiological indicators (chlorophyll, protein and polysaccharide), the results showed methanol extracts of E. prolifera had the strongest action. The inhibitory effects of A. hoefleri, K. mikimitoi, A. tamarense and S. costatum by the methanol extracts were 54.0%, 48.1%, 44.0% and 37.5% in day 10, respectively. The extracts of E. prolifera extracted with methanol, acetone and ethyl acetate caused cavities, pieces and pigment reduction in cells, and those with chloroform and petroleum ether caused goffers on cells. The extracts of E. prolifera extracted with all the five solvents decreased athletic ability of the cells, among which those extracted with ethyl acetate, chloroform and petroleum ether decreased cell size of test microalgae. The further investigation found that the methanol extracts significantly decreased contents of chlorophyll, protein and polysaccharide in the cells of those microalgae. The inhibitory effect of chlorophyll, protein and polysaccharide contents of four species of microalgae by the methanol extracts was about 51%. On the basis of the above experiments, dry powder of E. prolifera were extracts with methanol, and extracts were obtained. The methanol extracts were partitioned to petroleum ether phase, ethyl acetate phase, n-butanol phase and distilled water phase by liquid-liquid fractionation, and those with petroleum ether and ethyl acetate significantly inhibited the growth of all test microalgae, and the inhibitory effect of four species of microalgae by those two extracts was above 25% in day

  13. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Chemical and Physical Properties Progress in FY 2000 and FY 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, BA

    2002-04-17

    The purpose of this work was to provide chemical- and physical-property data addressing the technical risks of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process as applied specifically to the removal of cesium from alkaline high-level salt waste stored at the US Department of Energy Savannah River Site. As part of the overall Salt Processing Project, this effort supported decision-making in regards to selecting a preferred technology among three alternatives: (1) CSSX, (2) nonelutable ion-exchange with an inorganic silicotitanate material and (3) precipitation with tetraphenylborate. High risks, innate to CSSX, that needed specific attention included: (1) chemical stability of the solvent matrix, (2) radiolytic stability of the solvent matrix, (3) proof-of-concept performance of the proposed process flowsheet with simulated waste, and (4) performance of the CSSX flowsheet with actual SRS high-level waste. This body of work directly addressed the chemical-stability risk and additionally provided supporting information that served to plan, carry out, and evaluate experiments conducted by other CSSX investigators addressing the other high risks. Information on cesium distribution in extraction, scrubbing, and stripping served as input for flowsheet design, provided a baseline for evaluating solvent performance under numerous stresses, and contributed to a broad understanding of the effects of expected process variables. In parallel, other measurements were directed toward learning how other system components distribute in the flowsheet. Such components include the solvent components themselves, constituents of the waste, and solvent-degradation products. Upon understanding which components influence flowsheet performance, it was then possible to address in a rational fashion how to clean up the solvent and maintain its stable function.

  14. Effects of Extraction Solvents on the Extraction Efficiencies of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans, and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Reference Materials

    OpenAIRE

    KIGUCHI, Osamu; Kobayashi, Takashi; SAITOH, Katsumi

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the extraction efficiency of a couple of different extraction solvents for Certified Reference Materials of soil and sediment that include Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans and Coplanar Polychlorinated Biphenyls using Soxhlet and Pressurized Liquid extraction (PLE). n-Hexane, toluene, acetone, acetone/n-hexane and acetone/toluene (1:1, v/v) as solvents were examined. Unsatisfactory results for Soxhlet extraction were obtained using n-hexane alone. For...

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF TIME AND TYPE OF SOLVENT ON EFFICIENCY OF THE EXTRACTION OF POLYPHENOLS FROM GREEN TEA AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OBTAINED EXTRACTS

    OpenAIRE

    Beata Drużyńska; Agnieszka Stępniewska; Rafał Wołosiak

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of the type of solvent and time on efficiency of the extraction of polyphenols and antioxidant properties extracts obtained from green tea. Extraction was conducted at room temperature using four solvents: water and 80% ethanol, 80% methanol and 80% acetone (water solutions, v/v) at 15, 30 and 60 minutes. Extracts were analysed for contents of polyphenols and catechins. The antioxidant properties have been determined by two methods: scaven...

  16. Purification of rare earths nitrate solution yielded from Bangka's monazite ore processing using solvent extraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monazite Bangka ore processing has several steps i.e. ore preparation, decomposition, dissolution, purification, and drying. The experiment has done on residue dissolution of base decomposition of Bangka's monazite decomposition using nitric acid to produce rare earths nitrate with the solvent condition HNO3 14 N H2O2 20 cc/50 gram, time one hour, feed and solvent ratio = 1:1 (volume) and at room temperature. The experiment goal is to find optimal condition of rare earth nitrate purification from and Th using solvent extraction. The parameters are diluents feed (normal feed), ratio aqueous and organic (A/O), TBP/Kerosene content and extraction time. The results are the optimal extraction condition: feed extraction RE (NO3)3 7 N or none diluents, ratio A/O = 1:1, TBP / Kerosene content 40%, extraction time 5 minutes and at room temperature with U recovery = 93.13 %, h = 86.04 %, RE2O3 = 4.05 %, PO4 = can not be detected

  17. Choice of solvent extraction technique affects fatty acid composition of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolshahi, Anna; Majd, Mojtaba Heydari; Rad, Javad Sharifi; Taheri, Mehrdad; Shabani, Aliakbar; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2015-04-01

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil has important nutritional and therapeutic properties because of its high concentration of essential fatty acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw material is critical for product quality, in particular to protect nutritional value. This study compared the fatty acid composition of pistachio oil extracted by two conventional procedures, Soxhlet extraction and maceration, analyzed by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Four solvents with different polarities were tested: n-hexane (Hx), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtAc) and ethanol (EtOH). The highest unsaturated fatty acid content (88.493 %) was obtained by Soxhlet extraction with EtAc. The Soxhlet method extracted the most oleic and linolenic acids (51.99 % and 0.385 %, respectively) although a higher concentration (36.32 %) of linoleic acid was extracted by maceration.

  18. Determination of fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of oils from palm fruits using solvent extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmin, Hasimah; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Awang, Roila

    2015-09-01

    Palm oil contains about 45% of saturated palmitic acid and 39% of mono-unsaturated oleic acid. Investigations made in the past to trace the fatty acid composition in palm revealed that ripeness of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) affect oil composition. However, there is no evidence that processing operations affect oil composition, although different stage of processing does affect the quality of oil extracted. An improved method for sterilizing the oil palm fruits by dry heating, followed by oil extraction has been studied. This method eliminates the use of water, thus, increasing the extraction of lipid soluble. The objective of this study is to determine the possibility production of palm oil with different fatty acid composition (FAC) as well as the changes in quality from conventional milling. The unripe and ripe FFB were collected, sterilized and extracted using different method of solvent extraction. Preliminary data have shown that variation in FAC will also alter the physical and chemical properties of the oil extracted.

  19. Choice of solvent extraction technique affects fatty acid composition of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolshahi, Anna; Majd, Mojtaba Heydari; Rad, Javad Sharifi; Taheri, Mehrdad; Shabani, Aliakbar; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2015-04-01

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil has important nutritional and therapeutic properties because of its high concentration of essential fatty acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw material is critical for product quality, in particular to protect nutritional value. This study compared the fatty acid composition of pistachio oil extracted by two conventional procedures, Soxhlet extraction and maceration, analyzed by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Four solvents with different polarities were tested: n-hexane (Hx), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtAc) and ethanol (EtOH). The highest unsaturated fatty acid content (88.493 %) was obtained by Soxhlet extraction with EtAc. The Soxhlet method extracted the most oleic and linolenic acids (51.99 % and 0.385 %, respectively) although a higher concentration (36.32 %) of linoleic acid was extracted by maceration. PMID:25829628

  20. Efficient Extraction of Astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma with Polar and Non-polar Solvents after Acid Washing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Chunhua; YANG Shuzhen; LIU Xiaolu; YAN Hai

    2013-01-01

    method of extracting astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma with various solvents after acid washing was investigated.The extraction efficiency was distinctly increased after acid washing of P.rhodozyma cells.When the concentration of HCl was 0.4 mol·L-,the highest extraction efficiency of astaxanthin was achieved which was about three times higher than the control.Acetone or benzene as single polar or non-polar solvent was the most effective solvent in our research.With a combination of isopropanol and n-hexane (volume ratio of 2 ∶ 1),the maximal extraction efficiency was achieved,approximately 60% higher than that obtained with a single solvent.The liquid-solid ratio and the extracting time were also optimized.Under the optimum extraction conditions,the extraction yield of astaxanthin exceeded 98%.

  1. Combining Solvent Extraction and Bioremediation for Removing Weathered Petroleum from Contaminated Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Guo-Zhong; F.COULON; YANG Yue-Wei; LI Hong; SUI Hong

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy,practicality and sustainability of a combined approach based on solvent extraction and biodegradation to remediate the soils contaminated with high levels of weathered petroleum hydrocarbons.The soils used in this study were obtained from the Shengli Oilfield in China,which had a long history of contamination with high concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons.The contaminated soils were washed using a composite organic solvent consisting of hexane and pentane (4:1,v/v) and then bioremediated in microcosms which were bioaugmentated with Bacillus subtilis FQ06 strains and/or rhamnolipid.The optimal solvent extraction conditions were determined as extraction for 20 min at 25 ℃ with solvent-soil ratio of 6:1 (v/w).On this basis,total petroleum hydrocarbon was decreased from 140000 to 14000 mg kg-1,which was further reduced to < 4000 mg kg-1 by subsequent bioremediation for 132 d.Sustainability assessment of this integrated technology showed its good performance for both short-and long-term effectiveness.Overall the results encouraged its application for remediating contaminated sites especially with high concentration weathered hydrocarbons.

  2. Efficacy of extracting solvents to chemical components of kava (Piper methysticum) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Tran Dang; Fukuta, Masakazu; Wei, Ao Chang; Elzaawely, Abdelnaser Abdelghany; Khanh, Tran Dang; Tawata, Shinkichi

    2008-04-01

    The chemical composition of kava (Piper methysticum) lactones and various phytochemicals obtained following the sonication of ground kava roots extracted in the solvents hexane, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, methanol and water, respectively, was analyzed. Eighteen kava lactones, cinnamic acid bornyl ester and 5,7-dimethoxy-flavanone, known to be present in kava roots, were identified, and seven compounds, including 2,5,8-trimethyl-1-naphthol, 5-methyl-1-phenylhexen-3-yn-5-ol, 8,11-octadecadienoic acid-methyl ester, 5,7-(OH)(2)-4'-one-6,8-dimethylflavanone, pinostrobin chalcone and 7-dimethoxyflavanone-5-hydroxy-4', were identified for the first time. Glutathione (26.3 mg/g) was found in the water extract. Dihydro-5,6-dehydrokavain (DDK) was present at a higher level than methysticin and desmethoxyyagonin, indicating that DDK is also a major constituent of kava roots. Acetone was the most effective solvent in terms of maximum yield and types of kava lactones isolated, followed by water and chloroform, whereas hexane, methanol, and ethanol were less effective as solvents. Total phenolic and antioxidant activity varied among the extracting solvents, with acetone and chloroform producing the highest effects, followed by water, while methanol, ethanol and hexane were less effective. PMID:18404321

  3. Antimicrobial Activity of Organic Solvent Extracts of Three Marine Macroalgae From Chilika Lake, Orissa, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patra, J. K.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro study of antibacterial activity of organic solvent extracts of three marine macroalgae viz., Chaetomorpha linum (Mell Kuetzing, Enteromorpha compressa (L Greville and Polysiphonia subtilissima Mont. showed specific activity in inhibiting the growth of three Gram-negative bacteria (Shigella flexneri, Vibrio cholerae and Escherichia coli and two Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus brevis. The results revealed that the chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts were active against most of the pathogens whereas methanol and ethanol extracts were active only against S. flexneri.

  4. Phase separation kinetic studies for uranium recovery from phosphoric acid by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wet process phosphoric acid (WPA) contains uranium in the range 80-120 mg/LU3O8 while in the Merchant Grade Acid (MGA) it is in the range 220-240 mg/L .Based on the experimental work, a two cycle solvent extraction process for uranium separation from phosphoric acid has been developed at REDS and patented. While the equilibrium extraction behaviour and reaction mechanisms have been studied, the kinetic aspect of uranium extraction from phosphoric acid with particular reference to rate of mass transfer and phase disengagement time has not been studied

  5. Coprocessing solvent-extraction flowsheet studies for LWR and FBR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coprocessing solvent extraction studies using irradiated LWR and FBR fuels have indicated the need for an efficient feed clarification. A potentially useful filtration method for fulfilling this need has been demonstrated. Conditions necessary for the satisfactory use of unstabilized hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) or nitrous acid as the reducing agent for Pu(IV) during reductive stripping operations have been defined. Both partial partitioning and total costripping operations have been demonstrated. In addition, solvent degradation product measurements have been made, and the effect of the presence of DBP during uranium-plutonium stripping operations has been determined

  6. Combination pulsed electric field with ethanol solvent for Nannochloropsis sp. extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafis, Ghazy Ammar; Mumpuni, Perwitasari Yekti; Indarto, Budiman, Arief

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, energy is one of human basic needs. As the human population increased, energy consumption also increased. This condition causes energy depletion. In case of the situation, alternative energy is needed to replace existing energy. Microalgae is chosen to become one of renewable energy resource, especially biodiesel, because it contains high amount of lipid instead of other feedstock which usually used. Fortunately, Indonesia has large area of water and high intensity of sunlight so microalgae cultivation becomes easier. Nannochloropsis sp., one of microalgae species, becomes the main focus because of its high lipid content. Many ways to break the cell wall of microalgae so the lipid content inside the microalgae will be released, for example conventional extraction, ultrasonic wave extraction, pressing, and electrical method. The most effective way for extraction is electrical method such as pulsed electric field method (PEF). The principal work of this method is by draining the electrical current into parallel plate. Parallel plate will generate the electrical field to break microalgae cell wall and the lipid will be released. The aim of this work is to evaluate two-stage procedure for extraction of useful components from microalgae Nannochloropsis sp. The first stage of this procedure includes pre-treatment of microalgae by ethanol solvent extraction and the second stage applies the PEF extraction using a binary mixture of water and ethanol solvent. Ethanol is chosen as solvent because it's safer to be used and easier to be handled than other solvent. Some variables that used to study the most effective operation conditions are frequency and duty cycle for microalgae. The optimum condition based on this research are at frequency 1 Hz and duty cycle 13%.

  7. Magnetic solid-phase extraction of protein with deep eutectic solvent immobilized magnetic graphene oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kaijia; Wang, Yuzhi; Ding, Xueqin; Huang, Yanhua; Li, Na; Wen, Qian

    2016-02-01

    As a new type of green solvent, four kinds of choline chloride (ChCl)-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been synthesized, and then a core-shell structure magnetic graphene oxide (Fe3O4-NH2@GO) nanoparticles have been prepared and coated with the ChCl-based DESs. Magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) based Fe3O4-NH2@GO@DES was studied for the first time for the extraction of proteins. The characteristic results of vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) indicated the successful preparation of Fe3O4-NH2@GO@DES. The concentrations of proteins in studies were determined by a UV-vis spectrophotometer. The advantages of Fe3O4-NH2@GO@DES in protein extraction were compared with Fe3O4-NH2@GO and Fe3O4-NH2, and Fe3O4-NH2@GO@ChCl-glycerol was selected as the suitable extraction solvent. The influence factors of the extraction process such as the pH value, the temperature, the extraction time, the concentration of protein and the amount of Fe3O4-NH2@GO@ChCl-glycerol were evaluated. Desorption experimental result showed 98.73% of BSA could be eluted from the solid extractant with 0.1 mol/L Na2HPO4 solution contained 1 mol/L NaCl. Besides, the conformation of BSA was not changed during the elution by the investigation of circular dichromism (CD) spectra. Furthermore, the analysis of real sample demonstrated that the prepared magnetic nanoparticles did have extraction ability on proteins in bovine whole blood. PMID:26653436

  8. A comparative study on phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of legumes as affected by extraction solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, B J; Chang, S K C

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how 6 commonly used solvent systems affected the yields of phenolic substances and the antioxidant capacity of extracts from 8 major classes of food legumes. Several antioxidant-related phytochemical compositions, namely, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoids content (TFC), and condensed tannins content (CTC), were investigated. In addition, antioxidant activities were tested using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). The results showed that the 50% acetone extracts exhibited the highest TPC for yellow pea, green pea, chickpea, and yellow soybean. Acidic 70% acetone (+0.5% acetic acid) extracts exhibited the highest TPC, TFC, and FRAP values for black bean, lentil, black soybean, and red kidney bean. The 80% acetone extracts exhibited the highest TFC, CTC, and DPPH-free radical scavenging activity for yellow pea, green pea, chickpea, and yellow soybean. The 70% ethanol extracts exhibited the greatest ORAC value for all selected legumes. These results indicated that solvents with different polarity had significant effects on total phenolic contents, extracted components, and antioxidant activities. High correlations between phenolic compositions and antioxidant activities of legume extracts were observed. The information is of interest to the nutraceutical food/ingredient industries since legumes are a rich source of antioxidants. PMID:17995858

  9. Evaluation of antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of solvent extracts of Anacyclus pyrethrum L., from Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed El Amine Dib

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, solvent extracts from aerial parts of Anacyclus pyrethrum L. were assessed for their total phenol content, antimicrobial and antioxidant (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging and ferric-ion reducing power activities. The amounts of total phenolics and flavonoids in the solvent extracts were determined spectrometrically. (310.78 mg GA/g extract and antioxidant activity (IC50 = 0.056 mg/mL. Increasing the concentration of the extracts resulted in increased ferric reducing antioxidant power for both extracts tested. The methanolic extract exhibited the best antimicrobial activity against three gram-positive bacterium (Listeria monocytogenes: 100%, Bacillus. cereus: 69% and Staphylococcus aureus: 66%, as well as against Candida albicans (81%. Finally, a relationship was observed between the biological activities potential and total phenolic and flavonoid levels of the extract. The results of this study provided an alternative of utilising Anacyclus pyrethrumaerial parts as readily accessible source of natural antioxidant in food cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry

  10. Separation of uranium from thorium in monazite by alamine solvent extraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research of monazite processing have obtained the process to recover 62% of rare earth elements (REE) from following steps, such as decomposition, partial dissolution, precipitation at pH 6,3 and precipitation at pH 9,8. There was an increased efficiency of the process in 2009, when ion exchange is used in process development, and the REE recovery became 85%. Besides REE, monazite processing also produce uranium and thorium, but they not separated individually yet. The research of the U from Th separation from pH 6,3 precipitate dissolution by H2SO4, is carried out using solvent extraction method, which the extractant consist of Alamine-336, kerosene and isodecanol. This research is purposed to obtain the optimum condition of separation uranium from thorium with solvent extraction, where U separated from Th as best as it could. The research's parameters are feed pH, O/A ratio, and extraction time. And the result showed that the optimum condition were 1,5 of pH, 5 of O/A ratio, and 5 minutes of extraction time, and the percentage of U extracted was 100%, but 32,44% of Th also extracted. From the result, it has a conclusion that 67,56% of Th could be separated from U. (author)

  11. Solvent extraction of copper and zinc from bioleaching solutions with LIX984 and D2EHPA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Zhuo-yue; HU Yue-hua; LIU Jian-she; WANG Jun

    2005-01-01

    The solvent extraction of copper and zinc from the bioleaching solutions of low-grade sulfide ores with LIX984 and D2EHPA was investigated. The influences of extractant content, aqueous pH value, phase ratio and equilibration time on metals extraction were studied. The results show that LIX984 has a higher selectivity for copper than for iron, zinc and other metals, and has the copper extraction rate above 97%,while the zinc and iron extraction rate is less than 1.6% respectively. Zinc extraction is carried out following the copper extraction from the raffinate. The zinc extraction with di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid(D2EHPA) is low due to its poor cation exchange. A sodium salt of D2EHPA is used and the zinc extraction rate is enhanced to above 98%. Though iron (Ⅲ) is strongly extracted before the extraction of zinc by D2EHPA, it is difficult to strip iron from the organic phase by sulfuric acid. The zinc stripping rate is above 99% with 100 g/L sulfuric acid, while that of iron is 0.16%. Hence, the separation of zinc from iron can be achieved by the selective stripping.

  12. Study of the separation of zirconium and hafnium from nitric solutions by solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Janubia Cristina B.S.; Rocha, Laura R.T.; Morais, Carlos Antonio de, E-mail: jcbsa@cdtn.br, E-mail: lrtr@cdtn.br, E-mail: cmorais@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, BH (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the study of the separation of Zr and Hf in nitric and hydrochloric media by solvent extraction technique. As aqueous phase, solutions prepared from the Zr and Hf hydroxides and the liquor generated from the product of the alkaline fusion of the zircon were used. The content of Zr and Hf in these solutions were 15 g/L and 0.6 g/L Hf respectively, and its acidity was varied between 1.0 and 10 mol/L. The effect of the acid extractants (DEHPA, IONQUEST®801 and CYANEX®272), solvating extractants (TBP and CYANEX®923) and basic extractants (PRIMENE®JTM, ALAMINE®336 and ALIQUAT®336), all of them diluted in dodecane, was investigated. In the solutions of the basic extractants, 5.0% of tridecanol was added as a modifier agent. Among the extractants investigated, the TBP in a nitric medium showed the best performance in the separation of the Zr/Hf. For acid extractants a high extraction was observed, however, with low selectivity. With the basic extractants no metals extraction was observed under the conditions investigated. The best results were obtained with the liquor generated from the product of alkaline fusion of zircon at acidity 7.0 mol/L and nitrate concentration of 9.2 mol/L. Under these conditions an extraction percentage of 91.6% for Zr and of 12.1% for Hf and a separation factor of Zr/Hf of 79.3 was obtained. (author)

  13. Synergistic solvent extraction of Eu(III) and Tb(III) with mixtures of various organophosphorus extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synergistic solvent extraction of Eu(III) and Tb(III) from thiocyanate solutions with mixtures of 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (EHPNA) and di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (DEHPA) or tributyl phosphate (TBP) or trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) or triphenylphosphine oxide (TPhPO) in benzene has been studied. The mechanism of extraction can be explained by a simple chemically based model. The equilibrium constants of the mixed-ligand species of the various neutral donors have been determined by non-linear regression analysis. (author) 13 refs.; 9 figs.; 2 tabs

  14. Effect of solvent addition sequence on lycopene extraction efficiency from membrane neutralized caustic peeled tomato waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinney, David M; Frelka, John C; Cooperstone, Jessica L; Schwartz, Steven J; Heldman, Dennis R

    2017-01-15

    Lycopene is a high value nutraceutical and its isolation from waste streams is often desirable to maximize profits. This research investigated solvent addition order and composition on lycopene extraction efficiency from a commercial tomato waste stream (pH 12.5, solids ∼5%) that was neutralized using membrane filtration. Constant volume dilution (CVD) was used to desalinate the caustic salt to neutralize the waste. Acetone, ethanol and hexane were used as direct or blended additions. Extraction efficiency was defined as the amount of lycopene extracted divided by the total lycopene in the sample. The CVD operation reduced the active alkali of the waste from 0.66 to Extraction efficiency varied from 32.5% to 94.5%. This study demonstrates a lab scale feasibility to extract lycopene efficiently from tomato processing byproducts. PMID:27542486

  15. Demonstration of Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction with Optimized Solvent in the 2-cm Centrifugal Contactor Apparatus Using Dissolved Salt Cake from Tank 37H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norato, M.A.

    2003-01-06

    Researchers successfully demonstrated the chemistry of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) flow sheet with optimized solvent. This represents the third such process demonstration using actual Savannah River Site (SRS) high level waste (HLW). The present test differed from previous studies in the use of radioactive waste derived from Tank 37H dissolved salt cake, as opposed to supernate solutions used in previous demonstrations.

  16. Antifungal activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves prepared by different solvents and extraction techniques against dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximillan Leite Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different solvents and extraction techniques upon the phytochemical profile and anti-Trichophyton activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves were evaluated. Extract done by maceration method with ethanol has higher content of sesquiterpenes and antifungal activity. This extract may be useful as an alternative treatment for dermatophytosis.

  17. Antifungal activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves prepared by different solvents and extraction techniques against dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maximillan Leite; Magalhães, Chaiana Froés; da Rosa, Marcelo Barcellos; de Assis Santos, Daniel; Brasileiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; de Carvalho, Leandro Machado; da Silva, Marcelo Barreto; Zani, Carlos Leomar; de Siqueira, Ezequias Pessoa; Peres, Rodrigo Loreto; Andrade, Anderson Assunção

    2013-12-01

    The effects of different solvents and extraction techniques upon the phytochemical profile and anti-Trichophyton activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves were evaluated. Extract done by maceration method with ethanol has higher content of sesquiterpenes and antifungal activity. This extract may be useful as an alternative treatment for dermatophytosis. PMID:24688522

  18. Antifungal activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves prepared by different solvents and extraction techniques against dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale

    OpenAIRE

    Maximillan Leite Santos; Chaiana Froés Magalhães; Marcelo Barcellos da Rosa; Daniel Assis Santos; Beatriz Gonçalves Brasileiro; Leandro Machado de Carvalho; Marcelo Barreto da Silva; Carlos Leomar Zani; Ezequias Pessoa de Siqueira; Rodrigo Loreto Peres; Anderson Assunção Andrade

    2014-01-01

    The effects of different solvents and extraction techniques upon the phytochemical profile and anti-Trichophyton activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves were evaluated. Extract done by maceration method with ethanol has higher content of sesquiterpenes and antifungal activity. This extract may be useful as an alternative treatment for dermatophytosis.

  19. Highly efficient extraction of anthocyanins from grape skin using deep eutectic solvents as green and tunable media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyung Min; Zhao, Jing; Jin, Yan; Heo, Seong Rok; Han, Se Young; Yoo, Da Eun; Lee, Jeongmi

    2015-12-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were investigated as tunable, environmentally benign, yet superior extraction media to enhance the extraction of anthocyanins from grape skin, which is usually discarded as waste. Ten DESs containing choline chloride as hydrogen bond acceptor combined with different hydrogen bond donors were screened for high extraction efficiencies based on the anthocyanin extraction yields. As a result, citric acid, D-(+)-maltose, and fructose were selected as the effective DES components, and the newly designed DES, CM-6 that is composed of citric acid and D-(+)-maltose at 4:1 molar ratio, exhibited significantly higher levels of anthocyanin extraction yields than conventional extraction solvents such as 80% aqueous methanol. The final extraction method was established based on the ultrasound-assisted extraction under conditions optimized using response surface methodology. Its extraction yields were double or even higher than those of conventional methods that are time-consuming and use volatile organic solvents. Our method is truly a green method for anthocyanin extraction with great extraction efficiency using a minimal amount of time and solvent. Moreover, this study suggested that grape skin, the by-products of grape juice processing, could serve as a valuable source for safe, natural colorants or antioxidants by use of the eco-friendly extraction solvent, CM-6. PMID:26534763

  20. Extraction of phenolic compounds from virgin olive oil by deep eutectic solvents (DESs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Aránzazu; Rodríguez-Juan, Elisa; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Guillermo; Rios, José Julian; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan

    2016-04-15

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are "green" solvents, applied in this study for the extraction of phenolic compounds from virgin olive oil (VOO). Different combinations of DES consisting of choline chloride (ChCl) in various mixing ratios with sugars, alcohols, organic acids, and urea, as well as a mixture of three sugars were used. The yields of the DES extractions were compared with those from conventional 80% (v/v) methanol/water. DES showed a good solubility of phenolic compounds with different polarities. The two most abundant secoiridoid derivatives in olive oil, oleacein and oleocanthal, extracted with ChCl/xylitol and ChCl/1,2-propanediol showed an increase of 20-33% and 67.9-68.3% with respect to conventional extraction, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first time that phenolic compounds have been extracted from VOO oil using DES. Our results suggest that DES offers an efficient, safe, sustainable, and cost effective alternative to methanol for extraction of bioactive compounds from VOO. PMID:26616988

  1. Effect of solvent on the extraction of lanthanides with picrolonic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, A.; Saeed, M.M. [Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), Islamabad (Pakistan). Chemistry Div.; Rehman, H. [Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), Islamabad (Pakistan). Central Analytical Facility Div.; Anwar, J. [Punjab Univ., Lahore (Pakistan). Inst. of Chemistry

    2010-07-01

    Extraction of Eu(III), Tb(III) and Lu(III), as representatives of lanthanides, has been studied with picrolonic acid [1-p-nitrophenyl-3-methyl-4-nitro-5-pyrazolone (HPA)] as extractant in various solvents such as acetylacetone (ACAC), 1-octanol (ONL), n-hexanol (HNL), 1-butanol (nBNL), 2-butanol (iBNL), cyclohexanone (CHN), n-butyl ether (BE), di(1,2-dichloroethyl)ether (DCEE), diisobutylketone (DIBK), benzene and toluene from aqueous solution of pH 1-2, having ionic strength of 0.01 mol dm{sup -3} (K{sup +}/H{sup +}, Cl{sup -}). The composition of the extracted adduct has been determined as M(PA){sub 3} except in DCEE where it is M(PA){sub 3}.(HPA). Extraction constants (log K{sub ex}) were calculated and on the basis of log K{sub ex}, the role of diluents in the extraction process has been discussed. The solvents with respect to their extractability of the rare earth metal ions can be arranged in the order ACAC > DIBK > BE> DCEE > ONL > HNL > CHN. (orig.)

  2. Recommended Guanidine Suppressor for the Next-Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Bruce A [ORNL; Delmau, Laetitia Helene [ORNL; Duncan, Nathan C [ORNL; Ensor, Dale [Tennessee Technological University; Hill, Talon G [ORNL; Lee, Denise L [ORNL; Roach, Benjamin D [ORNL; Sloop Jr, Frederick {Fred} V [ORNL; Williams, Neil J [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The guanidine recommended for the Next-Generation Caustic-Side is N,N ,N -tris(3,7-dimethyloctyl)guanidine (TiDG). Systematic testing has shown that it is significantly more lipophilic than the previously recommended guanidine DCiTG, the active extractant in the commercial guanidine product LIX -79, while not otherwise changing the solvent performance. Previous testing indicated that the extent of partitioning of the DCiTG suppressor to the aqueous strip solution is significantly greater than expected, potentially leading to rapid depletion of the suppressor from the solvent and unwanted organic concentrations in process effluents. Five candidate guanidines were tested as potential replacements for DCiTG. The tests included batch extraction with simulated waste and flowsheet solutions, third-phase formation, emulsion formation, and partition ratios of the guanidine between the solvent and aqueous strip solution. Preliminary results of a thermal stability test of the TiDG solvent at one month duration indicated performance approximately equivalent to DCiTG. Two of the guanidines proved adequate in all respects, and the choice of TiDG was deemed slightly preferable vs the next best guanidine BiTABG.

  3. Influences of solid particles on the formation of the third phase crud during solvent extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Qi; RUAN Renman; WEN Jiankang; SONG Yongsheng; DONG Qinghai; WU Minglin; YAO Guocheng

    2007-01-01

    The influences of solid particles in leach solution on the formation of the third phase crud during solvent extraction of copper were studied.Analyzed from the point of view of pH value and surface tension,the study results showed that the solid particle is one of the most important contributors for the formation of the third phase crud. During solvent extraction,if the pH value was greater than 2.30,the number of solid particles in the mother solution increased,in which case the possibility of forming the third phase crud could also increase,and the interface tension value might grow in pace with the quantity of the third phase crud.

  4. Solvent extraction of methane from simulated geopressured-geothermal fluids: sub-pilot test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quong, R.; Otsuki, H.H.; Locke, F.E.

    1982-01-14

    The extraction of methane dissolved in 15 wt % sodium chloride solution at 150/sup 0/C and 1000 psi has been demonstrated using n-hexadecane as the solvent in a sub-pilot scale extraction column operated in a continuous, countercurrent flow mode. Greater than 90% recovery of methane was obtained with solvent/brine mass flow ratios in the range of .040 to .045. The height of an ideal stage in this experimental Elgin-type spray column is estimated to be 1.5 ft. Application of this process on actual geopressured fluids is technically feasible, and when combined with direct drive injection disposal is economically attractive. Design and operation of a methane saturated-brine supply system to provide simulated geopressured fluid continuously at 150/sup 0/C and 1000 psi are also described.

  5. Comparative study on sulphur reduction from heavy petroleum - Solvent extraction and microwave irradiation approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Dyadya Mohammed, Abubakar Garba Isah, Musa Umaru, Shehu Ahmed, Yababa Nma Abdullahi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulphur- containing compounds in heavy crude oils are undesirable in refining process as they affect the quality of the final product, cause catalyst poisoning and deactivation in catalytic converters as well as causing corrosion problems in oil pipelines, pumps and refining equipment aside environmental pollution from their combustion and high processing cost. Sulphur reduction has being studied using microwave irradiation set at 300W for 10 and 15minutes and oxidative- solvent extraction method using n- heptane and methanol by 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 crude- solvent ratios after being oxidized with hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 oxidants. Percentage sulphur removal with n- heptane solvent by 1:1 and 1:2 are 81.73 and 85.47%; but extraction using methanol by different observed ratios gave less sulphur reduction. Indeed when microwave irradiated at 300W for 10 and 15minutes, 53.68 and 78.45% reduction were achieved. This indicates that microwave irradiation had caused oxidation by air in the oven cavity and results to formation of alkyl radicals and sulphoxide from sulphur compound in the petroleum. The prevailing sulphur found in the crude going by FT-IR results is sulphides which oxidized to sulphoxide or sulphones. It is clear that sulphur extraction with heptane is more efficient than microwave irradiation but economically due to demands for solvent and its industrial usage microwave irradiation can serve as alternative substitute for sulphur reduction in petroleum. Sulphur reduction by microwave radiation should be up- scaled from laboratory to a pilot plant without involving extraction column in the refining.

  6. Comparative study on sulphur reduction from heavy petroleum - Solvent extraction and microwave irradiation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, Abdullahi Dyadya; Isah, Abubakar Garba; Umaru, Musa; Ahmed, Shehu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 65, Minna (Nigeria); Abdullahi, Yababa Nma [National Petroleum Investment Management Services (Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation), Lagos (Nigeria)

    2012-07-01

    Sulphur- containing compounds in heavy crude oils are undesirable in refining process as they affect the quality of the final product, cause catalyst poisoning and deactivation in catalytic converters as well as causing corrosion problems in oil pipelines, pumps and refining equipment aside environmental pollution from their combustion and high processing cost. Sulphur reduction has being studied using microwave irradiation set at 300W for 10 and 15minutes and oxidative- solvent extraction method using n- heptane and methanol by 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 crude- solvent ratios after being oxidized with hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 oxidants. Percentage sulphur removal with n- heptane solvent by 1:1 and 1:2 are 81.73 and 85.47%; but extraction using methanol by different observed ratios gave less sulphur reduction. Indeed when microwave irradiated at 300W for 10 and 15minutes, 53.68 and 78.45% reduction were achieved. This indicates that microwave irradiation had caused oxidation by air in the oven cavity and results to formation of alkyl radicals and sulphoxide from sulphur compound in the petroleum. The prevailing sulphur found in the crude going by FT-IR results is sulphides which oxidized to sulphoxide or sulphones. It is clear that sulphur extraction with heptane is more efficient than microwave irradiation but economically due to demands for solvent and its industrial usage microwave irradiation can serve as alternative substitute for sulphur reduction in petroleum. Sulphur reduction by microwave radiation should be up- scaled from laboratory to a pilot plant without involving extraction column in the refining.

  7. Extraction of oil from pequi fruit (Caryocar Brasiliense, Camb. using several solvents and their mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoniassi, R.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the oil extraction process from pequi pulp using different solvents (hexane, acetone and ethyl alcohol and their mixtures was investigated, using a simplex-centroid design. The extraction occurred at 50°C, under stirring (22 Hz, for 16 hours. The solid-liquid ratio used was 1:10 (w/w. Higher yield values were obtained for extractions with acetone and hexane, especially their mixtures with ethanol. Iodine value, saponification value and refractive index did not differ significantly among the treatments. A higher acid value was obtained for the extraction with ethyl alcohol. Higher carotenoid contents were obtained for the extraction with acetone and ethyl alcohol as pure solvents. The fatty acid profile in the oil fraction of the extracts did not vary among the different types of solvents and their mixtures.En este trabajo fue estudiado el proceso de extracción de aceite de la pulpa de pequi utilizando diferentes disolventes (n-hexano, acetona y etanol y sus mezclas, empleando diseño central simplex. Las extracciones fueron realizadas a 50°C, durante 16 horas de agitación (22 Hz. La proporción sólido:líquido empleada fue 1:10 (p/p. Los mayores rendimientos fueron obtenidos para las extracciones con acetona y con hexano, especialmente cuando fueron mezclados con etanol. El índice de yodo, el índice de saponificación y el índice de refracción no difirieron significativamente entre los tratamientos. Los mayores valores de acidez se obtuvieron en la extracción con etanol. Los mayores contenidos en carotenoides se obtuvieron en las extracciones con acetona y etanol como disolventes puros. El perfil de los ácidos grasos en las fracciones de aceite de los extractos no presentó variación entre los diferentes tipos de disolventes y sus mezclas.

  8. Ethanol as a solvent and hot extraction technique preserved the antioxidant properties of tamarind (Tamarindus indica seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nushrat Yeasmen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of two extraction solvents (ethanol and acetone and two extraction techniques i.e., hot extraction at 400C and cold extraction at 260C were investigated on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica seed. The antioxidant activity of T. indica was determined by evaluating 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity, ferric reducing power assay (FRAP and ascorbic acid equivalent content (AAC. The tested sample showed appreciable amounts of total phenolic contents (51.45-71.68 mg GAE/gm of dry extract, DPPH scavenging capacity (61.18-71.17%, IC50 values (98.30-248.60, reducing power (0.6377-0.7702 and total antioxidant capacity (22.75-43.80 AAE/gm at different solvents and techniques. Current study data shown higher extract yields, phenolic contents, scavenging activity, reducing power and antioxidant activity using ethanol solvent compared to the respective acetone solvent. In addition, higher extract yields and other properties were obtained by hot extraction at 400C compared to the cold extraction at 260C. Present study suggests that ethanol as a solvent and hot extraction technique could be better to preserve the antioxidant properties of tamarind seed. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 332-337

  9. Comparative bioactivity of dhaman grass root extracts in different polar solvents against plant and human pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premlata Singariya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cenchrus ciliaris L. (Poaceae is a very suitable and highly nutritive grass for environmental conditions of the desert; yet, no antimicrobial work has been done on this grass. Aim: To estimate in vitro the antibiotic activity of root extracts of C. ciliaris in various polar solvents to use the grass as a possible source for new antimicrobial compounds against important plant and human pathogens. Settings and Design: The antibiotic activity of C. ciliaris root extracts were evaluated against a few medically important pathogens including Gram-negative bacteria Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and the fungi, Aspergillus niger. Materials and Methods: Dried, powdered, and weighted root material was successively extracted with different polar solvents [hexane, petroleum ether, toluene, benzene, isopropyl alcohol, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, glacial acetic acid (GAA, and water] using a Soxhlet assembly. Antibiotic activity was performed by using disc diffusion assay followed by determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations by broth dilution method, against sensitive bacteria (with good inhibition zone. Most of the extracts, at higher concentrations, showed varying degrees of inhibitory activity against selected bacteria. Statistical Analysis: Mean value and standard deviation were calculated for the test bacteria and fungi. Data were analysed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and P values were considered significant at P<0.05. Results and Conclusions: Results revealed that the highest antibiotic activity was exhibited by the water and GAA extracts against P. mirabilis, followed by isopropyl alcohol extract against K. pneumoniae and A. tumefaciens. Water extract was observed to be the most active extract with maximum zone of inhibition against A. tumefaciens (plant pathogen as compared to all other extracts.

  10. Coupling a transient solvent extraction module with the separations and safeguards performance model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaoli, David W. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Birdwell, Joseph F. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Gauld, Ian C. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Cipiti, Benjamin B.; de Almeida, Valmor F. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN)

    2009-10-01

    A number of codes have been developed in the past for safeguards analysis, but many are dated, and no single code is able to cover all aspects of materials accountancy, process monitoring, and diversion scenario analysis. The purpose of this work was to integrate a transient solvent extraction simulation module developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with the Separations and Safeguards Performance Model (SSPM), developed at Sandia National Laboratory, as a first step toward creating a more versatile design and evaluation tool. The SSPM was designed for materials accountancy and process monitoring analyses, but previous versions of the code have included limited detail on the chemical processes, including chemical separations. The transient solvent extraction model is based on the ORNL SEPHIS code approach to consider solute build up in a bank of contactors in the PUREX process. Combined, these capabilities yield a more robust transient separations and safeguards model for evaluating safeguards system design. This coupling and initial results are presented. In addition, some observations toward further enhancement of separations and safeguards modeling based on this effort are provided, including: items to be addressed in integrating legacy codes, additional improvements needed for a fully functional solvent extraction module, and recommendations for future integration of other chemical process modules.

  11. Coupling a Transient Solvent Extraction Module with the Separations and Safeguards Performance Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Almeida, Valmor F [ORNL; Birdwell Jr, Joseph F [ORNL; DePaoli, David W [ORNL; Gauld, Ian C [ORNL

    2009-10-01

    A past difficulty in safeguards design for reprocessing plants is that no code existed for analysis and evaluation of the design. A number of codes have been developed in the past, but many are dated, and no single code is able to cover all aspects of materials accountancy, process monitoring, and diversion scenario analysis. The purpose of this work was to integrate a transient solvent extraction simulation module developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with the SSPM Separations and Safeguards Performance Model, developed at Sandia National Laboratory, as a first step toward creating a more versatile design and evaluation tool. The SSPM was designed for materials accountancy and process monitoring analyses, but previous versions of the code have included limited detail on the chemical processes, including chemical separations. The transient solvent extraction model is based on the ORNL SEPHIS code approach to consider solute build up in a bank of contactors in the PUREX process. Combined, these capabilities yield a much more robust transient separations and safeguards model for evaluating safeguards system design. This coupling and the initial results are presented. In addition, some observations toward further enhancement of separations and safeguards modeling based on this effort are provided, including: items to be addressed in integrating legacy codes, additional improvements needed for a fully functional solvent extraction module, and recommendations for future integration of other chemical process modules.

  12. Antimicrobial potential of Ricinus communis leaf extracts in different solvents against pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rabia Naz; Asghari Bano

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activities of the leaf extract in different solvents viz., methanol, ethanol and water extracts of the selected plant Ricinus communis. Methods:Agar well diffusion method and agar tube dilution method were carried out to perform the antibacterial and antifungal activity of methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts. Results:Methanol leaf extracts were found to be more active against Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis: ATCC 6059 and Staphylococcus aureus: ATCC 6538) as well as Gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa: ATCC 7221 and Klebsiella pneumoniae) than ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts. Antifungal activity of methanol and aqueous leaf extracts were also carried out against selected fungal strains as Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. Methanolic as well as aqueous leaf extracts of Ricinus communis were effective in inhibiting the fungal growth. Conclusions: The efficient antibacterial and antifungal activity of Ricinus communis from the present investigation revealed that the methanol leaf extracts of the selected plant have significant potential to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains than ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts.

  13. Separation schemes of high level nuclear effluents (HLW) by solvent extraction: HDEHP and TBP processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two schemes of actinide separation from high-level effluents by solvent extraction were developed using as extractants HDEHP or TBP respectively. The separation methods were defined by experimental study of simulated and real high-level waste solutions. Decontamination factors better than 103 have been obtained. Separation factors between trivalent actinides and rare earths better than 900 for Eu and 5000 for Ce allow subsequent transmutation of americium and curium. Performances are limited by actinide retention in precipitates produced during storage and acidity lowering. Nevertheless in some cases with acetic acid and noble metals an almost quantitative solubilization of adsorbed actinides and even a plutonium depolymerization are possible. Experimental results are discussed

  14. Investigation of aggregation in solvent extraction of lanthanides by acidic extractants (organo-phosphorus and naphthenic acid)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周乃扶; 吴瑾光; 俞致健; 王笃金; 徐光宪

    1997-01-01

    Three acidic extractants (Ⅰ) di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP),(Ⅱ) 2-ethylhexyl phos-phonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (KEHPEHE) and (Ⅲ) naphthenic acid were employed in preparing the samples for the characterization of the coordination structure of lanthanlde-extractant complexes and the physicochemical nature of aggregates formed in the organic diluent of the solvent extraction systems.Photo correlation spectroscopy (PCS) re-suits on the aggregates formed by the partially saponified HDEHP in n -heptane showed that the hydrodynamic radius of the aggregates was comparable to the molecular dimensions of HDEHP.The addition of 2-octanol into the diluent,by which the mixed solvent was formed,increased the dimensions of the corresponding aggregates.Aggregates formed from the ianthamde ions and HDEHP in the organic phase of the extraction systems were found very unstable.In the case of naphthenic acid,PCS data showed the formation of w/o microemulsion from the saponified naphthenic acid in the mix

  15. Study to find the best extraction solvent for use with guava leaves (Psidium guajava L.) for high antioxidant efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jongkwon; Lee, Soojung; Elam, Marcus L; Johnson, Sarah A; Kang, Jonghoon; Arjmandi, Bahram H

    2014-03-01

    The effects of guava leaves extracted using solvents of water, ethanol, methanol, and different concentrations of hydroethanolic solvents on phenolic compounds and flavonoids, and antioxidant properties have been investigated. The antioxidant capability was assessed based on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical-scavenging abilities, reducing power, and nitric oxide-and nitrate-scavenging activities. The results demonstrated that the antioxidant ability of guava leaf extracts has a strong relationship with phenolic compound content rather than flavonoid content. Phenolic compound content of water extracted guava leaves was higher compared to pure ethanol and methanol extracts. However, phenolic compound content extracted using hydroethanolic solvent was higher than water, whereas 50% hydroethanolic was observed to be the most effective solvent showing high antioxidant ability.

  16. Separation of cobalt and nickel by non-equilibrium solvent extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The separation of cobalt and nickel in the ammoniacal sulfate solution by non-equilibrium solvent extraction with a phosphate (P303) as extractant was studied. In the experiment, the effects of equilibrium pH value in aqueous phase, contact time of the two phases, the air-blowing time for feed liquor in the open beaker on percentage extraction of cobalt and nickel and percentage reextraction of nickel from the loaded organic phase with dilute H2SO4. etc were studied. The results showed that: Co(Ⅱ) can be oxidized to Co(Ⅲ)-ammino-complex by adding (NH4)2S2O8 or blowing air to the aqueous phase, and Co(Ⅲ)-ammino-complex is a kind of kinetically inert complex. Its extractive speed is very slow, while the nickel′s is much faster than that of cobalt. By controlling the contact time of the two phases, nickel can be separated from cobalt by non-equilibrium solvent extraction. Then nickel was reextracted from the loaded organic phase with dilute H2SO4.

  17. Solvent Extraction of La3+ withEthylenediamine-N,N'-ditetradecyl-N,N'-diacetic Acid(EDDAT) in Dichloromethane

    OpenAIRE

    YURDAKOÇ, Mürüvvet; HOŞGÖREN, Halil

    1998-01-01

    Ethylenediamine-N,N'-ditetradecyl-N,N'-diacetic acid (EDDAT) was synthesized for the solvent extraction of La3+. EDDAT was prepared from ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid (EDDA) and tetradecyl bromide in a basic n-amylalcohol-ethanol-water solvent system. The structure of this new extracting reagent was identified according to spectroscopic data, i.e. 13C NMR, 1H NMR, and elemental analysis results. The solvent extraction of La3+ with EDDAT in dichloromethane was studied as a ...

  18. Improved Production of Paclitaxel from Suspension Culture of Taxus chinensis var.mairei by in situ Extraction with Organic Solvents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    未作君; 元英进; 吴兆亮; 吴金川

    2003-01-01

    The production of paclitaxel from suspension culture of Taxus chinensis var,mairei was improved by in situ extraction with organic solvents to avoid feedback repression and product degradation.Oleic acid and dibutyl phthalate were proved to be suitable solvents .The optimal volumetric percentage of organic solvents in the culture medium was found to be around 8%,and the favorable time for their introduction was at the exponential phase of cell growth,Paclitaxel production with the in situ extraction was ca 3-fold of that without extraction.

  19. The EED [Emergencies Engineering Division] solvent extraction process for the removal of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research was conducted to investigate the ability of hexane and natural gas condensate (NGC) to extract three different types of hydrocarbon contaminant (light crude oil, diesel fuel, and bunker C oil) from three types of soil (sand, peat, and clay). A separate but related study determined the efficiency of solvent extraction (using hexane and five other solvents but not NGC) for removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from contaminated soil. The process developed for this research includes stages of mixing, extraction, separation, and solvent recovery, for eventual implementation as a mobile solvent extraction unit. In experiments on samples created in the laboratory, extraction efficiencies of hydrocarbons often rose above 95%. On samples from a petroleum contaminated site, average extraction efficiency was ca 82%. Sandy soils contaminated in the laboratory were effectively cleaned of all hydrocarbons tested but only diesel fuel was successfully extracted from peat soils. No significant differences were observed in the effectiveness of hexane and NGC for contamination levels above 3%. Below this number, NGC seems more effective at removing oil from peat while hexane is slightly more effective on clay soils. Sand is equally cleaned by both solvents at all contamination levels. Safety considerations, odor, extra care needed to deal with light ends and aromatics, and the fact that only 26% of the solvent is actually usable make NGC an unfeasible option in spite of its significantly lower cost compared to hexane. For extracting PCBs, a hexane/acetone mixture proved to have the best removal efficiency. 14 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs

  20. Unraveling Entropic Rate Acceleration Induced by Solvent Dynamics in Membrane Enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Kürten, Charlotte; Syrén, Per-Olof

    2016-01-01

    Enzyme catalysis evolved in an aqueous environment. The influence of solvent dynamics on catalysis is, however, currently poorly understood and usually neglected. The study of water dynamics in enzymes and the associated thermodynamical consequences is highly complex and has involved computer simulations, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments, and calorimetry. Water tunnels that connect the active site with the surrounding solvent are key to solvent displacement and dynamics. The proto...

  1. Application of 2k Full Factorial Design in Optimization of Solvent-Free Microwave Extraction of Ginger Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaj Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from ginger was optimized using a 23 full factorial design in terms of oil yield to determine the optimum extraction conditions. Sixteen experiments were carried out with three varying parameters, extraction time, microwave power, and type of sample for two levels of each. A first order regression equation best fits the experimental data. The predicted values calculated by the regression model were in good agreement with the experimental values. The results showed that the extraction time is the most prominent factor followed by microwave power level and sample type for extraction process. An average of 0.25% of ginger oil can be extracted using current setup. The optimum conditions for the ginger oil extraction using SFME were the extraction time 30 minutes, microwave power level 640 watts, and sample type, crushed sample. Solvent-free microwave extraction proves a green and promising technique for essential oil extraction.

  2. Chemical profiling of Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. rhizome using different techniques of solvent extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sanimah; Simoh; Alizah; Zainal

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the possible phytochemical constituents of Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb.(C. aeruginosa) rhizome using two different techniques of direct solvent extraction. Methods: Two different techniques of direct solvent extractions, i.e. methyl tert-butyl ether(MTBE) extraction and two-phase methanol/chloroform(M/C) system, were used in this study. The analysis of the phytochemical constituents in MTBE and M/C extracts was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. The mass spectra of the compounds was matched with the NIST 08 mass spectral library. Results: The present study revealed that the extraction using two-phase M/C have resulted in higher metabolite coverage compared to the extraction with MTBE. Direct solvent extraction using MTBE revealed the presence of 27 compounds; whereas, M/C allowed the extraction of 18 and 36 compounds in polar(methanol) and nonpolar(chloroform) fractions respectively. The major compounds detected in the MTBE extract that based on the peak area percentage were methenolone(16.64%), cycloisolongifolene, 8,9-dehydro-9-formyl-(15.93%), labd-13-en-15-oic acid,8,12-epoxy-12-hydroxy-γ-lactone(10.77%), propiolic acid, 3-(1-hydroxy)-2 isopropyl-1,5-methylcyclohexyl)(7.84%), 4-oxo-β-isodamascol(5.17%), velleral(3.11%) and Z-α-farnesene(2.00%). The most prevailing major compounds identified in the polar fraction of the M/C extraction were α-D glucopyranoside, 1,3,4,6 tetrakis-O-(TMS)(trimethylsilyl)-β-D-fructofuranosyl 2,3,4,6-tetrakis-O-(TMS)-(38.08%), d-glucose, 2,3,4,5,6-pentakis-O-(TMS)-, O-methyloxime(14.61%), D-fructose, 1,3,4,5,6-pentakis-O-(TMS)-, O-methyloxime(5.28%), isocitric acid(TMS)(3.06%), oxalic acid, bis(TMS) ester(2.96%), hexadecanoic acid, TMS ester(2.16%), citric acid, ethyl ester, tri-TMS(1.91%) and butanedioic acid, [(TMS) oxy]-, bis(TMS) ester(1.14%); whereas in the nonpolar extract, among the major compounds detected were cycloisolongifolene, 8, 9-dehydro-9-formyl(15

  3. Ethanol as a solvent and hot extraction technique preserved the antioxidant properties of tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seed

    OpenAIRE

    Nushrat Yeasmen; Md Nazrul Islam

    2015-01-01

    The influence of two extraction solvents (ethanol and acetone) and two extraction techniques i.e., hot extraction at 400C and cold extraction at 260C were investigated on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica seed. The antioxidant activity of T. indica was determined by evaluating 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, ferric reducing power assay (FRAP) and ascorbic acid equivalent content (AAC). The tested sample showed appreciabl...

  4. Alternative Bio-Based Solvents for Extraction of Fat and Oils: Solubility Prediction, Global Yield, Extraction Kinetics, Chemical Composition and Cost of Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Gaëlle Sicaire

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the performance of alternative bio-based solvents, more especially 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, obtained from crop’s byproducts for the substitution of petroleum solvents such as hexane in the extraction of fat and oils for food (edible oil and non-food (bio fuel applications. First a solvent selection as well as an evaluation of the performance was made with Hansen Solubility Parameters and the COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Realistic Solvation (COSMO-RS simulations. Experiments were performed on rapeseed oil extraction at laboratory and pilot plant scale for the determination of lipid yields, extraction kinetics, diffusion modeling, and complete lipid composition in term of fatty acids and micronutrients (sterols, tocopherols and tocotrienols. Finally, economic and energetic evaluations of the process were conducted to estimate the cost of manufacturing using 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF as alternative solvent compared to hexane as petroleum solvent.

  5. Pyrolysates of raw vitrinites and their residues after CS2-NMP solvent extraction and its significance for petroleum geology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, D.Y.; Peng, P.A. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China)

    2006-09-15

    Binary solvent (CS2-NMP) has extreme high extraction ability to coals, and it can extract most bitumens out of coals and vitrinites. And large amount of messages on side chains and their distribution character in vitrinites should be acquired through flash pyrolysis before and after binary solvent (CS2-NMP) extraction. A few low maturated coals have been selected and vitrinites are handpicked from coals. Then vitrinites have been extracted using different solvents in the order of polarity. Flash pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass spectrum has been applied to samples. The result shows that CS2-NMP is efficient for the extraction of vitrinites, giving much higher extraction yield than common solvents. Production ratio of liquid hydrocarbons in pyrolysates of vitrinites extracted with CS2-NMP is lower than that of raw vitrinites. And relative ratio of each component in pyrolysates has changed apparently. Production ratio of aliphatic hydrocarbons, especially those long chain aliphatics have decreased much after mixed solvent extraction. It shows that bitumens extracted with CS2-NMP have largely contributed to pyrolysates, especially those aliphatics in pyrolysates.

  6. Pyrolysates of raw vitrinites and their residues after CS2-NMP solvent extraction and its significance for petroleum geology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dayong; PENG Ping'an

    2006-01-01

    Binary solvent (CS2-NMP) has extreme high extraction ability to coals, and it can extract most bitumens out of coals and vitrinites. And large amount of messages on side chains and their distribution character in vitrinites should be acquired through flash pyrolysis before and after binary solvent (CS2-NMP) extraction. A few low maturated coals have been selected and vitrinites are handpicked from coals. Then vitrinites have been extracted using different solvents in the order of polarity. Flash pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass spectrum has been applied to samples. The result shows that CS2-NMP is efficient for the extraction of vitirnites, giving much higher extraction yield than common solvents. Production ratio of liquid hydrocarbons in pyrolysates of vitrinites extracted with CS2-NMP is lower than that of raw vitrinites. And relative ratio of each component in pyrolysates has changed apparently. Production ratio of aliphatic hydrocarbons, especially those long chain aliphatics have decreased much after mixed solvent extraction. It shows that bitumens extracted with CS2-NMP have largely contributed to pyrolysates, especially those aliphatics in pyrolysates.

  7. Ethanol extraction from its azeotropic mixture with hexane employing different ionic liquids as solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Several ionic liquids were investigated as solvents to extract ethanol from hexane. ► Determination of LLE for the ternary systems was carried out at T = 298.15 K. ► Structural influence of the ionic liquids on the extraction process was analyzed. ► Experimental LLE data were correlated by means of the NRTL and UNIQUAC models. - Abstract: In this work, the ionic liquids 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [EMim][NTf2], 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [BMim][NTf2], 1-butyl-3-methylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [BMpy][NTf2], 1-butyl-3-methylpyridinium trifluoromethanesulfonate, [BMpy][TfO], have been investigated for their use as solvents in extraction processes for the ethanol removal from its azeotropic mixture with hexane. Therefore, the experimental determination of the liquid + liquid equilibrium for the ternary systems {hexane (1) + ethanol (2) + [EMim][NTf2] (3)}, {hexane (1) + ethanol (2) + [BMim][NTf2] (3)}, {hexane (1) + ethanol (2) + [BMpy][NTf2] (3)} and {hexane (1) + ethanol (2) + [BMpy][TfO] (3)} was carried out at T = 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure. Classical parameters such as selectivity and solute distribution ratio, derived from the tie-line data, were calculated and afterwards, the structural influence of the ionic liquids on the extraction process was analyzed. Finally, the experimental LLE data were correlated by means of the NRTL and UNIQUAC models.

  8. Efficient separation of Cu-64 from Ga-67 waste product by solvent extraction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, K. S.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, J. S.; Park, H. [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    {sup 64}Cu is one of the most useful versatile radio-copper isotope in the nuclear medicine owing to its multiple decay scheme, EC(41%), {sup -}(40%), {sup +}(19%) and has an intermediate half-life for radiopharmaceutical synthesis of many compounds. Several production methods, {sup 64}Ni(p, n){sup 64}Cu, {sup 64}Ni(d, 2n){sup 64}Cu, and {sup 68}Zn(p, n){sup 64}Cu have been reported. Among them, {sup 68}Zn(p, n){sup 64}Cu is the most economical although its production yield is lower than others methods because {sup 64}Cu can be separated from {sup 67}Ga waste product by solvent extraction using 0.01 % dithizone HCl and anion exchange resin. All reagents used for production were of analytical grade. Enriched {sup 68}Zn(isotopic purity 98%) was purchased from Isoflex, Russia. The {sup 67}Ga waste product was collected from {sup 68}Zn recovery system eluting 2N HCl on anion resin column. The gamma-ray and radioactivity of radioisotopes in {sup 67}Ga waste were measured with HPGe detector coupled with MCA and comparison of NIST standards sources. For solvent extraction of {sup 64}Cu from {sup 67}Ga waste, the pH was adjusted to 3 with c-NaOH and DM water was added to adjust the normality of Ga waste to 2N. The solvent extraction was performed with 0.01% dithizone in CCI4. The extracted {sup 64}Cu was back extracted to aqueous phase with 7.2 N HCl and the anion chromatography was applied to purify and reduce the volume. The radionuclides contained in Ga waste were Cu-64, Cu-67, Ga-67, Ni-57, Co-55 and Co-57 and the radioactivities of Cu-64 and Cu-67 were 1, 200mCi and 6mCi at EOB. The total processing time and the separation yield of Cu from Ga waste were about 2hrs and more than 90%. The radio-copper purity was almost 100%. The efficient separation method using solvent extraction followed by ion chromatography was developed for Cu-64 from Ga-67 waste product.

  9. Solvent-extraction methods applied to the chemical analysis of uranium. III. Study of the extraction with inert solvents; Metodos de extraccion con disolventes aplicados al analisis quimico del uranio. III. Estudio de la extraccion con disolvente inertes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera Palomino, J.; Palomares Delgado, F.; Petrement Eguiluz, J. C.

    1964-07-01

    The extraction of uranium on the trace level is studied by using tributylphosphate as active agent under conditions aiming the attainment of quantitative extraction by means of a single step process using a number of salting-out agents and keeping inside the general lines as reported in two precedent papers. Two inert solvents were investigated, benzene and cyclohexane, which allowed to derive the corresponding empirical equations describing the extraction process and the results obtained were compared with those previously reported for solvents which, like ethyl acetate and methylisobuthylketone, favour to a more or less extend the extraction of uranium. (Author) 4 refs.

  10. Separation of ethanol and water by extractive distillation with salt and solvent as entrainer: process simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Gil

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to simulate and analyze an extractive distillation process for azeotropic ethanol dehydration with ethylene glycol and calcium chloride mixture as entrainer. The work was developed with Aspen Plus® simulator version 11.1. Calculation of the activity coefficients employed to describe vapor liquid equilibrium of ethanol - water - ethylene glycol - calcium chloride system was done with the NRTL-E equation and they were validated with experimental data. The dehydration process used two columns: the main extractive column and the recovery column. The solvent to feed molar ratio S/F=0.3, molar reflux ratio RR=0.35, number of theoretical stages Ns=18, feed stage Sf=12, feed solvent stage SS=3, and feed solvent temperature TS=80 ºC, were determined to obtain a distillate with at least 99.5 % mole of ethanol. A substantial reduction in the energy consumption, compared with the conventional processes, was predicted by using ethylene glycol and calcium chloride as entrainer.

  11. Studies on the phase separation kinetics in solvent extraction for uranium recovery in DNPPA + TOPO/MGA system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process was developed to recover uranium from wet process phosphoric acid (WPA) as well as merchant grade acid (MGA 12 M) by solvent extraction using 0.6 M di-nonyl phenyl phosphoric acid (DNPPA) + 0.3 M tri octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO). Merchant grade acid (MGA 12 M) is the concentrated form of WPA (6M). Solvent extraction process essentially involves the study of the mass transfer in the mixer compartment and phase separation in settler compartment of the mixer settler cascade. Phase separation kinetics in solvent extraction plays an important role in deciding the settler dimensions and solvent inventry in mixer settler cascades. The effect of experimental variables such as extractant concentration, acid concentration of the aqueous phase, temperature, phase ratio (A/O), stirring speed on phase disengagement kinetics was investigated in the present paper

  12. Development of partitioning method. Back-extraction of uranium from DIDPA solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A partitioning method has been developed under the concepts of separation of elements in high level liquid waste generated from nuclear fuel reprocessing according to their half lives and radiological toxicity and of disposal of them by suitable methods. In the partitioning process developed in JAERI solvent, extraction with DIDPA (di-isodecyl phosphoric acid) was adopted for actinide separation. The present paper describes the results of study on back-extraction of hexavalent uranium from DIDPA. Most experiments were carried out to select a suitable reagent for back-extraction of U (VI) extracted from 0.5M nitric acid with DIDPA. The experimental results show that distribution ratios of U (VI) is less than 0.1 in the back-extractions with 1.5M sodium carbonate-15 vol% alcohol or 20wt% hydrazine carbonate-10 vol% alcohol. Uranium in the sodium carbonate solution were recovered by anion-exchange with strong-base resins and eluted by NH4NO3 and other reagents. The results of the present study confirm the validity of the DIDPA extraction process; U, Pu, Np, Am and Cm in HLW are extracted simultaneously with DIDPA, and they are recovered from DIDPA with various reagent: nitric acid for Am and Cm, oxalic acid for Np and Pu, and sodium carbonate or hydrazine carbonate for U. (author)

  13. Solvent extraction of palladium with di-n-hexyl sulfide from hydrochloric acid media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae-Chun; Jeong, Jin-Ki; Park, Jin-Tae [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejeon (Korea); Kim, Weol-Jung; Rhim, Ji-Won [Hannam University, Taejeon(Korea)

    2000-06-30

    The solvent extraction of palladium from aqueous chloride media was carried out using di-n-hexyl sulfide(DHS) known as a selective extractant for palladium. The effects of the concentrations of extractant, palladium, Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, and HCl on the palladium extraction were investigated. Also, The effects of NH{sub 4}OH concentration, contact time, and the addition of NH{sub 4}Cl were examined in the stripping of palladium from the organic phase with NH{sub 4}OH solution. The result shows that palladium was extracted as PdCl{sub 2}{center_dot}2DHS. The initial rates of palladium extraction decreased with the increase of HCl and NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentrations in the aqueous phase. The extraction of palladium with DHS was endothermic with {delta}H{sup o} of -65.6 kJ/mol which the distribution coefficient increased with temperature. Palladium in the organic phase was completely stripped with NH{sub 4}OH solution. (author). 13 refs., 11 figs.

  14. Solvent Extraction Batch Distribution Coefficients with Savannah River Site Dissolved Salt Cake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.D.

    2002-03-07

    Researchers characterized high-level waste derived from dissolved salt cake from the Savannah River Site (SRS) tank farm and measured the cesium distribution coefficients (DCs) for extraction, scrub, and stripping steps of the caustic-side solvent extraction (CSSX) flowsheet. The measurements used two SRS high-level waste samples derived entirely or in part from salt cake. The chemical compositions of both samples are reported. Dissolved salt cake waste contained less Cs-137 and more dianions than is typical of supernate samples. Extraction and scrub DCs values for both samples exceeded process requirements and agreed well with model predictions. Strip DCs values for the Tank 46F sample also met process requirements. However, strip DCs values could not be calculated for the Tank 38H sample due to the poor material balance for Cs-137. Potential explanations for the poor material balance are discussed and additional work to determine the cause is described.

  15. Solvent Extraction Batch Distribution Coefficients with Savannah River Site Dissolved Salt Cake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.D.

    2002-05-22

    Researchers characterized high-level waste derived from dissolved salt cake from the Savannah River Site (SRS) tank farm and measured the cesium distribution coefficients (DCs) for extraction, scrub, and stripping steps of the caustic-side solvent extraction (CSSX) flowsheet. The measurements used two SRS high-level waste samples derived entirely or in part from salt cake. The chemical compositions of both samples are reported. Dissolved salt cake waste contained less Cs-137 and more dianions than is typical of supernate samples. Extraction, scrub, and strip DCs values for both samples exceeded process requirements and agreed well with model predictions. The results indicate no significant problems processing dissolved salt cake compared to supernate. During the course of testing, researchers observed sorption of cesium on glass sample vials containing strip solutions. The problem was detected in the material balance calculated for each organic/aqueous contact. Methods and recommendations for avoiding this problem are discussed.

  16. Purification of wet process phosphoric acid by solvent extraction with long-chain aliphatic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purification of phosphoric acid by solvent extraction with long-chain aliphatic amines is investigated. Extraction of cadmium is extensively examined regarding the importance of the aqueous phase, the diluent and the amine. The solubility of tri-n-octyl-amine is determined in water and phosphoric acid solutions. Properties of valuable constituent such as uranium and yttrium are screened. Modelling of the system is performed by adapting Bromley's model for electrolytes to the different dissociation/association equilibria in the aqueous phase. In the organic phase simple expressions are used for the non-ideal behaviour. Amine-acid equilibria are investigated for all acids present in industrial phosphoric acid. New extraction constants are calculated for phosphoric and hydro- fluosilic acid. Calculations are compared with experiments both from binary and multicomponent acid mixtures

  17. A solvent extraction study of molybdenum chloride and molybdenum thiocyanate complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenland, L.P.; Lillie, E.G.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of reducing agents on molybdenum(VI) solutions in hydrochloric acid was studied by a solvent extraction technique to elucidate the composition of the colored molybdenum thiocyanate complex. Neither copper(I) chloride nor ascorbic acid have any effect on the extraction of MoO2Cl2; it is inferred that tin(II) chloride reduces Mo(VI) stepwise to a polynuclear Mo(V)??Mo(VI) complex and then to Mo(V). The colored thiocyanate complex produced by copper(I) and by ascorbic acid differs only slightly in extraction characteristics from the uncolored Mo(VI) complex. It is suggested that the color may be produced by an isomerization reaction of MoO2(SCN)2, and thus that the colored species may be a hexavalent rather than pentavalent molybdenum complex. ?? 1974.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dady B. Dadyburjor; Mark E. Heavner; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; J. Joshua Maybury; Alfred H. Stiller; Joseph M. Stoffa; John W. Zondlo

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, and porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, hydrotreatment of solvent was completed in preparation for pitch fabrication for graphite electrodes. Coal digestion has lagged but is expected to be complete by next quarter. Studies are reported on coal dissolution, pitch production, foam synthesis using physical blowing agents, and alternate coking techniques.

  19. Estimation of Extract Yield and Mass Transfer Coefficient in Solvent Extraction of Lubricating Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain K. Hussain

    2010-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to suggest relations for estimating yield and properties of the improved light lubricating oil fraction produced from furfural extraction process by using specified regression.Mass transfer in mixer-settler has been studied. Mass transfer coefficient of continuous phase, mass transfer coefficient of dispersed phase and the overall mass transfer coefficient extraction of light lubes oil distillate fraction by furfural are calculated in addition to all physical pr...

  20. Effect of Solvent extraction on Phenolic content, Antioxidant and - Amylase Inhibition activities of Swertia chirata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alak Kanti Dutta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Swertia chirata is an indigenous medicinal plant of temperate Himalaya which has been widely used in herbal and folk medicine. The study aimed to evaluate the phenolic content, antioxidant and andiabetic potential of S. chirata in different solvents. The edible portion (stem of the plant was extracted with distilled water and different concentrations of methanol, ethanol and acetone to determine total phenolic content (TPC, antioxidant properties by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, DPPH free radical scavenging activities and antidiabetic property by inhibition of %-amylase. All the extracts showed antioxidant and antidiabetic properties although they varied significantly (P<0.05 among the different extractions. TPC varied between 20 ± 2 mg GAE/100g (ethanol 100% to 221 ± 12 mg GAE/100g (water extracts, FRAP ranged between 18 ± 4 mg AAE/100g (acetone 100% to 162 ± 4 mg AAE/100g (water extracts and TAC ranged between 139 ± 17 mg AAE/100g (acetone 100% to 707 ± 71 mg AAE/100g (acetone 50%. DPPH radical scavenging and alpha amylase inhibition activities were determined in dose dependent manner ranging between 3-15 mg/mL and 7-21 mg/mL respectively. Acetone 50% showed the most prominent dose dependent scavenging of DPPH radical while alpha amylase inhibition by ethanol 100%, methanol 100% and acetone 100% were comparable with each other. The study revealed the influence of solvent extraction on phenolic compound, antioxidant and %-amylase inhibition activities of S. chirata. These findings support the use of the plant as a traditional and folk medicine.

  1. Catalytic hydrocracking of primary maceral concentrate extracts prepared in a flowing solvent reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begon, V.; Suelves, I.; Li, W.; Lazaro, M.-J.; Herod, A.A.; Kandiyoti, R. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology

    2002-01-01

    Differences between the behaviour of coal macerals during liquefaction and catalytic hydrocracking were investigated. The liquefaction experiments were carried out in tetralin, using a flowing solvent reactor. The extracts were catalytically hydrocracked in a micro-bomb reactor, using a commercial catalyst. Conversions of the vitrinite and the liptinite concentrates during liquefaction were high ({approximately} 89%), while inertinite samples yielded a little over 20% extract. For inertinite, the emerging picture was consistent with high cross-link density. Liptinite was extracted less completely at lower temperatures and more slowly at high temperatures compared to corresponding vitrinites and vitrinitic coals. Long chain aliphatics released from the liptinite concentrate between 340 and 390{sup o}C appeared likely to have originated in lower molecular mass material occluded in the sample matrix and dissolving in tetralin prior to the onset of massive covalent bond scission. SEC chromatograms showed material of larger MMs in liptinite and vitrinite extracts than in the inertinite extract. The molecular mass distributions broadened with increasing extraction temperature. Catalytic hydrocracking experiments were carried out in a micro-bomb reactor for 10 and 120 min at 440{sup o}C, under 190 bar of hydrogen. In hydrocracking, the liptinite was the slowest extract to react at short reaction times ({approximately} 10 min). However, at longer reaction times, its products showed the smallest MM-distribution. Smaller differences were observed between the chromatograms of the 10 and 120 min hydrocracked products of the inertinite extract. Differences between spectra of the three extracts would strongly suggest the presence of larger (and apparently irreducible) polycyclic aromatic ring systems, in the hydrocracked products of the inertinite extract. 52 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Efficiency of solvent extraction methods for the determination of methyl mercury in forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, J; Skyllberg, U; Tu, Q; Bleam, W F; Frech, W

    2000-07-01

    Methyl mercury was determined by gas chromatography, microwave induced plasma, atomic emission spectrometry (GC-MIP-AES) using two different methods. One was based on extraction of mercury species into toluene, pre-concentration by evaporation and butylation of methyl mercury with a Grignard reagent followed by determination. With the other, methyl mercury was extracted into dichloromethane and back extracted into water followed by in situ ethylation, collection of ethylated mercury species on Tenax and determination. The accuracy of the entire procedure based on butylation was validated for the individual steps involved in the method. Methyl mercury added to various types of soil samples showed an overall average recovery of 87.5%. Reduced recovery was only caused by losses of methyl mercury during extraction into toluene and during pre-concentration by evaporation. The extraction of methyl mercury added to the soil was therefore quantitative. Since it is not possible to directly determine the extraction efficiency of incipient methyl mercury, the extraction efficiency of total mercury with an acidified solution containing CuSO4 and KBr was compared with high-pressure microwave acid digestion. The solvent extraction efficiency was 93%. For the IAEA 356 sediment certified reference material, mercury was less efficiently extracted and determined methyl mercury concentrations were below the certified value. Incomplete extraction could be explained by the presence of a large part of inorganic sulfides, as determined by x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (XANES). Analyses of sediment reference material CRM 580 gave results in agreement with the certified value. The butylation method gave a detection limit for methyl mercury of 0.1 ng g(-1), calculated as three times the standard deviation for repeated analysis of soil samples. Lower values were obtained with the ethylation method. The precision, expressed as RSD for concentrations 20 times above the

  3. Biological Activity of Tannins from Acacia mangium Bark Extracted by Different Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Wina

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mangium bark is abundant byproduct of wood industry in Indonesia. It is underutilized and mainly used as fire wood for the wood industry. The bark contains high level of tannin but the tannin has not been extracted or produced commercially. Tannin isolate can be used for several purposes such as tanning agent for leather, adhesive for plywood or particle board, etc. In ruminant, tannin can be detrimental but can also be beneficial. This experiment was aimed of getting the highest yield of tannin extract with the highest biological activity in rumen fermentation. Nine different solvents at different temperatures were used to extract tannin from A. mangium bark. The extracts were analyzed for their tannin contents and biological activities. Tannin content was analyzed using folin ciocalteau and butanol-HCl methods. Biological activity was described as a percentage of an increase in gas production in the in vitro rumen-buffer fermentation, with and without addition of PEG. The results show that Na2SO3 solution extracted more tannin than other solutions and the higher the concentration of Na2SO3 solution, the higher the yield of tannin extract. The solution of 6% sodium sulphite gave the highest yield of tannin extract (31.2% of original bark sample and the highest concentration of tannin (18.26% but produced a negative effect on in vitro fermentation (% increase of gas production = 2.70%. Extraction with 50% acetone gave a high yield of extract (22.28% of original bark which contained 12.98% of tannin and showed the highest biological response (% increase of gas production = 216%. In conclusion, sodium sulphite solution is not recommended for tannin extraction if the tannin will be used as feed additive in ruminant feed; on the other hand, the aqueous acetone (50% acetone solution is a better choice to be used.

  4. Extraction of Tetra-oxo Anions into a Hydrophobic, Ionic Liquid-Based Solvent Without Concomitant Ion Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrophobic ionic liquids (IL) have the potential to simplify certain separations by serving as both an extraction solvent and an electrolyte for subsequent electrochemical reductions. While IL-based solvents are known to be efficient media for metal ion extraction, separations employing these solvents are frequently complicated by the loss of constituent IL ions to the aqueous phase, resulting in deteriorating performance. In this study, we have examined the extraction of pertechnetate and related tetra-oxo anions from aqueous solutions into IL-based solvents incorporating tetraalkylphosphonium bis((trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)imide and a crown ether. In contrast to various previously studied IL-based cation extraction systems, facile anion extraction without significant transfer of the IL ions to the aqueous phase has been observed. In addition, the solvents exhibit high distribution ratios (100-500 for pertechnetate), significant electrical conductivity (>100 (micro)S/cm), and a wide (∼4 V) electrochemical window. The results suggest that these solvents may provide the basis for improved approaches to the extraction and recovery of a variety of anions.

  5. Synergistic extraction and separation of Co(II)/Ni(II) by solvent extraction technique using TIOA/TOPO as carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okatan, Ahmet; Eyüpoǧlu, Volkan; Kumbasar, Recep Ali; Turgut, Halil Ibrahim

    2016-04-01

    Cobalt and its compounds have wide range applications in some industrial and technological fields. These metals show excellent resistance to oxidation and corrosion under extreme conditions. However, these metals found together within metal ores in nature. This situation makes their separation difficult from each other. They have very similar physical and chemical properties making them very hard to be purified with using traditional separation pathways. Moreover, increasing supply-demand gap between them and decreasing valuable ores because of limited deposit in earth crust have been limited the sources of them. Under the light of this knowledge, one of the practical solutions should be produced to recycle cobalt and nickel from solid and liquid waste containing trace amounts of them. In this study, we investigated the selective and the synergistic cobalt extraction from acidic aqueous solutions by solvent extraction using tri-iso-octylamine (TIOA) and Tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) as carriers. The effective parameters on the extraction and the stripping of the cobalt were investigated, and optimum synergistic extraction and stripping conditions were identified. The cobalt extraction from aqueous Co/Ni solutions in various molar concentrations was examined in the optimum conditions to determine the synergism between TIOA and TOPO.

  6. Chemical Composition of Artemisia annua L. Leaves and Antioxidant Potential of Extracts as a Function of Extraction Solvents

    OpenAIRE

    Maznah Ismail; Shahid Iqbal; Umer Younas; Kim Wei Chan; Muhammad Zia-Ul-Haq

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the chemical and nutritional composition of Artemisia annua leaves in addition to determination of antioxidant potential of their extracts prepared in different solvents. Chemical composition was determined by quantifying fat, protein, carbohydrate, fiber, tocopherol, phytate, and tannin contents. Extraction of A. annua leaves, for antioxidant potential evaluation, was carried out using five solvents of differen...

  7. Uranium from phosphoric acid: kinetics studies of the solvent extraction processes for separation based on statistical data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium is recovered from wet process phosphoric acid, an important secondary source, by solvent extraction technique. Kinetics of the mass transfer processes involved in extraction, scrubbing and stripping, solvent recovery operations are important for process equipment design. In this investigation we have reported results on the kinetics of separation of entrained solvent by diluent washing. The effect of stirring speed, O/A ratio and temperature has been studied. Experiments at elevated temperature (45 deg C) were carried out by preheating the WPA and Petrofin and then mixing the required volume before stirring for different time periods. (author)

  8. Solvent Extraction and QSPR of Catecholamines with a Bis(2-ethlhexyl) Hydrogen Phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizuka, Kazuharu.; Fujimoto, Yuko.; Ota, Keisuke.; Inoue, Katsutoshi. [Saga University, Saga (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    1999-02-01

    In order to develop an effective separation recess for catecholamine (CA), a basic investigation on solvent extraction of dopamine (DA), adrenaline (Ad) and noradrenaline (NA) from hydrochloric acid solution and their stripping is conducted at 30 degree C employing bis(2-ethylhexyl) hydrogen phosphate (D2EHPA) in chloroform, n-hexane and toluene as the organic diluents. From the dependencies of the distribution ratios on the concentrations of reactant species, i.e. CA, hydrogen ion and D2EHPA, it is elucidated that CA (RNH{sub 2}) is extracted with D2EHPA (HR`) according to the ion exchange mechanism, as the complex type, RNH{sub 3}R` (HR`){sub 3}, and the equilibrium constants (K{sub ex,CA}) for the extraction reactions are also evaluated. The quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR) of K{sub ex,CA} values for each organic diluent is discussed using molecular modeling with semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations considering the solvent effect. (author)

  9. Purification Lanthanum of Solvent Extraction Hollow Fiber Supported Liquid Membrane by Using Potassium Hydroxide Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The objective of this research is to purify extracted lanthanum by hollow fiber supported liquid membrane. The liquid membrane was fabricated from a solution of D2EHPA dissolved in kerosene solvent before embedded in the microstructure of porous hollow fibers. In the experiment, ammonia was used to precipitate contaminates before liquid membrane extraction. Feed solution is prepared by digesting mixed rare earth with nitric acid and precipitated contaminates with ammonia solution (pH 7.6). Nitric acid solution, used as reagent strip was passed through the outside of the hollow fiber with the flow rate of 100 ml/min, whereas the feed was flow inside the hollow fiber. Results showed that the feed solution could reduce unwanted elements up to 79.3%, resulting in lanthanum with purity over 90.8 percent. Moreover, the solvents that are extracted using supported liquid membrane module with hollow fibers were found to have high purity of lanthanum to 95.3 percent

  10. Removal of endotoxins from bacteriophage preparations by extraction with organic solvents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Szermer-Olearnik

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin, pyrogen constitutes a very troubling contaminant of crude phage lysates produced in Gram-negative bacteria. Toxicity of LPS depends on the strong innate immunity response including the cytokines. Therefore, its removal is important for bacteriophage applications. In this paper, we present a procedure for extractive removal of endotoxin from bacteriophage preparations with water immiscible solvents (1-octanol or 1-butanol. During extraction most of the phage lytic activity is retained in the aqueous phase, while endotoxin accumulates in the organic solvent. The levels of endotoxin (expressed as endotoxin units, EU in the aqueous bacteriophage-containing fraction determined by limulus amebocyte lysate or EndoLISA assay were exceptionally low. While the initial endotoxin levels in the crude phage lysates ranged between 10(3 and 10(5 EU/ml the average level after organic extraction remaining in the aqueous fraction was 5.3 EU/ml. These values when related to phage titers decreased from 10(3-10(5 EU/10(9 PFU (plaque forming units down to an average of 2.8 EU/10(9 PFU. The purification procedure is scalable, efficient and applicable to all the bacteriophages tested: T4, HAP1 (E. coli and F8 (P. aeruginosa.

  11. Use of Organic Solvents to Extract Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) from Aged Contaminated Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Mao; JIN Xin; JIANG Xin; YANG Xing-Lun; SUN Ming-Ming; BIAN Yong-Rong; WANG Fang; GU Cheng-Gang; WEI Hai-Jiang; SONG Yang; WANG Lei

    2013-01-01

    Problems associated with organochlorine pesticide (OCP)-contaminated sites in China have received wide attention.To solve such problems,innovative ex-situ methods of site remediation are urgently needed.We investigated the feasibility of the extraction method with different organic solvents,ethanol,1-propanol,and three fractions of petroleum ether,using a soil collected from Wujiang (WJ),China,a region with long-term contamination of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs).We evaluated different influential factors,including organic solvent concentration,washing time,mixing speed,solution-to-soil ratio,and washing temperature,on the removal of DDTs from the WJ soil.A set of relatively better parameters were selected for extraction with 100 mL L-1 petroleum ether (60-90 ℃):washing time of 180 min,mixing speed of 100 r min-1,solution-to-soil ratio of 10:1,and washing temperature of 50 ℃.These selected parameters were also applied on three other seriously OCP-polluted soils.Results demonstrated their broad-spectrum effectiveness and excellent OCP extraction performance on the contaminated soils with different characteristics.

  12. Dispersion-free solvent extraction of Cr(VI) from acidic solutions using hollow fiber contactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguacil, Francisco J; Alonso, Manuel; Lopez, Félix A; Lopez-Delgado, Aurora; Padilla, Isabel

    2009-10-15

    The use of dispersión-free solvent extraction, through microporous hydrophobic membrane has been investigated. The hollow fiber contactor, with surface area of 1.4 m2 was used to extract Cr(VI) (0.005-0.12 g/L from aqueous sulphuric acidic media (pH 2.5-4.2 +/- 0.05). Several parameters such as extractant concentration, feed acidity and metal concentration in the initial aqueous solution were investigated. Results revealed that 15% v/v Cyanex 923 in Exxsol D-100 as organic phase and feed in the 2.5 pH range, gave optimum extraction (exceeding 95%) of Cr(VI) and it was possible to strip using 10 g/L hydrazine sulfate (also with recoveries exceeding 95%). In this step, Cr(VI) is immediately reduced to the less hazardous Cr(III) state. Results also showed that under the various experimental conditions, chromium(VI) extraction was rate-controlled by the interfacial reaction on the membrane surface. Typical overall mass transfer coefficients values are 4.2 x 10(-5) and 3.6 x 10(-6) cm/s for extraction and stripping operations, respectively.

  13. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil and solvent extracts of Mentha pulegium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palić Ivan R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the total phenolic (TPC; expressed as gallic acid equivalents, GAE, per milligram of dry extract weight and the total flavonoid contents (TFC; expressed as quercetin equivalents, QE, per milligram of dry extract weight and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and hexane, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Mentha pulegium L. (Lamiaceae collected in Serbia. The total phenolic content was in the range of 129.43-388.29 μg GAE/mg, while TFC ranged from 57.81 to 160.94 QE/mg; the highest TPC and TFC were found in the methanol extract. The antimicrobial activity (against five bacteria and two fungi species of the essential oil and solvent extracts was assessed using disc-diffusion method. However, the studied samples demonstrated a poor antimicrobial potential. The antioxidant activity was screened using five different tests: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay (DPPH, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid radical cation decolorization assay (ABTS, total reducing power (TRP, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity assay (CUPRAC; the methanol extract showed the strongest antioxidant potential. The results of the different antioxidant assays were correlated mutually and with the total flavonoid and total phenolic contents (regression analysis and agglomerative hierarchical clustering. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172047

  14. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Properties and Phenolics of Different Solvent Extracts from Bark, Leaves and Seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid M Alkharfy; Anwarul-Hassan Gilani; Ghulam Rasul; Ghulam Shabir; Farooq Anwar; Zahid Iqbal Sajid

    2012-01-01

    This study appraises the antioxidant and antimicrobial attributes of various solvent extracts (absolute methanol, aqueous methanol, absolute ethanol, aqueous ethanol, absolute acetone, aqueous acetone, and deionized water) from bark, leaves and seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre. Maximum extraction yield of antioxidant components from bark (16.31%), leaves (11.42%) and seeds (21.51%) of P. pinnata was obtained using aqueous methanol (20:80). Of the extracts tested, the bark extract, obtain...

  15. Effect of Various Polar Solvents to The Improvement of Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Bacterial Quinones from Activated Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    ., Irvan

    2010-01-01

    Extraction and identification of bacterial quinones is becoming increasingly important. The main purpose of this research is to investigate the possibility of extracting quinones from activated sludge using supercritical fluid extraction and also to investigate the effect of various polar solvents in order to improve the yield. A ± 0.1 g freeze-dried activated sludge sample was extracted at 35o C, 20 Mpa using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). This technique was able to extra...

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-08-11

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the facility modifications for continuous hydrotreating, as well as developing improved protocols for producing synthetic pitches.

  17. Blotting Assisted by Heating and Solvent Extraction for DESI-MS Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Elaine C.; Mirabelli, Mario F.; Perez, Consuelo J.; Ifa, Demian R.

    2013-06-01

    Imprints of potato sprout ( Solanum tuberosum L.), gingko leaves (Gingko biloba L. ) and strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. ) were successfully imaged by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) on TLC plates through blotting assisted by heating and/or solvent extraction. Ion images showing the distribution of significant compounds such as glycoalkaloid toxins in potato sprout, ginkgolic acids and flavonoids in ginkgo leaves, and sugars and anthocyanidin in strawberry were obtained. Practical implications of this work include analysis of a wide range of irregular or soft materials by different imprinting conditions without requiring the addition of matrices or use of specific kinds of surfaces.

  18. Demonstration of Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction with Savannah River Site High Level Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.D.

    2001-08-27

    Researchers successfully demonstrated the chemistry and process equipment of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) flowsheet for the decontamination of high level waste using a 33-stage, 2-cm centrifugal contactor apparatus at the Savannah River Technology Center. This represents the first CSSX process demonstration using Savannah River Site (SRS) high level waste. Three tests lasting 6, 12, and 48 hours processed simulated average SRS waste, simulated Tank 37H/44F composite waste, and Tank 37H/44F high level waste, respectively.

  19. A solvent extraction flowsheet for a large-scale LWR fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1974 a 'Mark I' solvent extraction flowsheet for a German large-scale LWR fuel reprocessing plant has been designed under the guidance of Gesellschaft fuer Kernforschung (GfK). Since then, several improved procedures have been developed, and have step by step been adopted into the original flow-sheet. In preparing the GfK flowsheet, specific attention has been paid to safety and reliability of operation, to the minimization of liquid medium-level wastes, and to the minimization of environmental releases. This paper discuss several of the specific features of the present version of the GfK flowsheet. (orig.) 891 RSH/orig. 892 AMO

  20. The Extraction Process of Trimethyl Xanthina in Vitro Culture of Callus Camellia Sinensis with ethyl Acetate Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trimethyl xanthina is one of the compounds contained bioactive culture in vitro Cammelia sinensis callus which is widely used in the field of food, beverage, agriculture and health industries. The presence of trimethyl xanthina on food, beverages and health is needed in a certain amount depending on the use which is achieved by the user. To get a certain amount of trimethyl xanthina from callus culture of Cammelia sinensis, the extraction process is performed on the water solvent, as well as non-solvent water / organic solvent such as ethyl acetate. The purpose of this study was to obtain profile of trimethyl xanthina in the extraction of Cammelia sinensis callus. The experimental methods used consisted of dissolution, filtration, extraction with water solvent and ethyl acetate, then followed by identification of trimethyl xanthina using HPLC. The results shows the profile form of trimethyl xanthina of Cammelia sinensis callus have similarities with the standard form of trimethyl xanthina.

  1. Solvent Extraction of Copper: An Extractive Metallurgy Exercise for Undergraduate Teaching Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smellie, Iain A.; Forgan, Ross S.; Brodie, Claire; Gavine, Jack S.; Harris, Leanne; Houston, Daniel; Hoyland, Andrew D.; McCaughan, Rory P.; Miller, Andrew J.; Wilson, Liam; Woodhall, Fiona M.

    2016-01-01

    A multidisciplinary experiment for advanced undergraduate students has been developed in the context of extractive metallurgy. The experiment serves as a model of an important modern industrial process that combines aspects of organic/inorganic synthesis and analysis. Students are tasked to prepare a salicylaldoxime ligand and samples of the…

  2. Research On The Purification Of Zirconium From Zirconium Dioxide By Liquid-Liquid Extraction Method With Tributyl Phosphate Solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of hafnium separation from zirconium and purification of zirconium by liquid-liquid solvent extraction method bases on the selective extraction, capacity and high stability of tributyl phosphate solvent (TBP). Technical grade ZrO2 powder, imported product (about 2% Hf content), is mixed with NaOH by 1:6 mole ratio, baked at 700oC in 2 hours. The mixture of zirconate and hafnate Na2Zr(Hf)O3 was dissolved in water, acidified by HNO3 to transfer to Zr(Hf)O(NO3)2. The obtained solution is used for the hafnium separation and purification of zirconium investigation. The influence of acid concentration (HNO3) in initial solution (feed solution) on the efficiency of zirconium extraction, the effect of the extraction solvent concentration (TBP) to zirconium distribution ratio and the effect of concentrations of mixture of components (Zr and Hf) in initial solution on zirconium extraction performance and also effect of the ratio between organic and aqueous phase to zirconium distribution coefficient were carried out in this paper. Established optimum conditions of the interruptive solvent extraction in experimental scale including metal contents in initial solution CHf/Zr is 30 g/L; TBP concentration in kerosene is 60% by volume; the acid (HNO3) concentration in initial solution [H+] = 6 M; and organic : aqueous phases rate equal by 1:1. Conditions of the extracted scrubbing and extracted tripping also the continuous extraction process were studied as a first step. (author)

  3. Supercritical fluid extraction: spectroscopic study of interactions comparison to solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rustenholtz Farawila, A

    2005-06-15

    Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SF-CO{sub 2}) was chosen to study Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) of cesium and uranium. At first, crown ethers were considered as chelating agents for the SFE of cesium. The role of water and its interaction with crown ethers were especially studied using Fourier-Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR) spectroscopy in SF-CO{sub 2}. A sandwich configuration between two crown ethers and a water molecule was observed in the SF-CO{sub 2} phase for the first time. The equilibrium between the single and the bridge configurations was defined. The enthalpy of the hydrogen bond formation was also calculated. These results were then compared to the one in different mixtures of chloroform and carbon tetra-chloride using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). To conclude this first part and in order to understand the whole picture of the recovery of cesium, I studied the role of water in the equilibrium between the cesium and the di-cyclo-hexano18-crown-6.In a second part, the supercritical fluid extraction of uranium was studied in SF-CO{sub 2}. For this purpose, different complexes of Tributyl Phosphate (TBP), nitric acid and water were used as chelating and oxidizing agents. I first used FT-IR to study the TBP-water interaction in SF-CO{sub 2}. These results were then compared to the one obtained with NMR in chloroform. NMR spectroscopy was also used to understand the TBP-nitric acid-water interaction first alone and then in chloroform. To conclude my research work, I succeeded to improve the efficiency of uranium extraction and stripping into water for a pilot-plant where enriched uranium is extracted from incinerated waste coming from nuclear fuel fabrication. TBP-nitric acid complexes were used in SF-CO{sub 2} for the extraction of uranium from ash. (author)

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Philip L. Biedler; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-04-13

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. A process has been developed which results in high quality binder pitch suitable for use in graphite electrodes or carbon anodes. A detailed description of the protocol is given by Clendenin. Briefly, aromatic heavy oils are hydro-treated under mild conditions in order to increase their ability to dissolve coal. An example of an aromatic heavy oil is Koppers Carbon Black Base (CBB) oil. CBB oil has been found to be an effective solvent and acceptably low cost (i.e., significantly below the market price for binder pitch, or about $280 per ton at the time of this writing). It is also possible to use solvents derived from hydrotreated coal and avoid reliance on coke oven recovery products completely if so desired.

  5. Life extension program for the modular caustic side solvent extraction unit at Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samadi-Dezfouli, Azadeh

    2012-11-14

    Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) is currently used at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) for removal of cesium from the high-level salt-wastes stored in underground tanks. At SRS, the CSSX process is deployed in the Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). The CSSX technology utilizes a multi-component organic solvent and annular centrifugal contactors to extract cesium from alkaline salt waste. Coalescers and decanters process the Decontaminated Salt Solution (DSS) and Strip Effluent (SE) streams to allow recovery and reuse of the organic solvent and to limit the quantity of solvent transferred to the downstream facilities. MCU is operated in series with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) which removes strontium and actinides from salt waste utilizing monosodium titanate. ARP and MCU were developed and implemented as interim salt processing until future processing technology, the CSSX-based Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), is operational. SWPF is slated to come on-line in October 2014. The three year design life of the ARP/MCU process, however, was reached in April 2011. Nevertheless, most of the individual process components are capable of operating longer. An evaluation determined ARP/MCU can operate until 2015 before major equipment failure is expected. The three year design life of the ARP/MCU Life Extension (ARP/MCU LE) program will bridge the gap between current ARP/MCU operations and the start of SWPF operation. The ARP/MCU LE program introduces no new technologies. As a portion of this program, a Next Generation Solvent (NGS) and corresponding flowsheet are being developed to provide a major performance enhancement at MCU. This paper discusses all the modifications performed in the facility to support the ARP/MCU Life Extension. It will also discuss the next generation chemistry, including NGS and new stripping chemistry, which will increase cesium removal efficiency in MCU. Possible implementation of the NGS chemistry in MCU

  6. Solvent extraction studies on rare earths using di-nonyl phenyl phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The separation of rare earths is generally accomplished by solvent extraction or ion exchange by taking the advantage of differential basicities of rare earth ions. There are several references on the separation of rare earth using 2-ethylhexyl 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid (EHEHPA) and di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid (D2EHPA). Di-nonyl phenyl phosphoric acid (DNPPA) is a liquid cation exchanger and a close analogue of D2EHPA. Its higher acidic strength due to the presence of two phenyl groups attached to phosphoryl group (> P = O) makes it a better extractant compared to D2EHPA for the extraction of metal ions from acidic solutions. DNPPA was explored to recover rare earths from phosphate media such as wet process phosphoric acid and merchant grade acid. However, there is no information available in literature on DNPPA for rare earths extraction from chloride medium. Therefore, an attempt has been made in the present study to investigate the feasibility of using DNPPA for extraction of rare earths from chloride medium

  7. A solvent-free approach to extract the lipid fraction from sewer grease for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Qingshi; Wang, Jingjing; Lu, Mingming; Brougham, Andrew; Lu, Ting

    2016-08-01

    Fats, oils and greases (FOG) are the number one cause of sewer pipe blockage and have been mostly disposed of as a waste until recently. This study investigated a low cost and environmentally friendly approach to extract the lipid fraction (fatty acids and glycerides for biodiesel production) from sewer grease (SG), i.e., FOGs obtained from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The lipid fraction of the sewer grease was primarily in the form of free fatty acid (FFA), at 20.7wt%. An innovative solvent-free extraction approach was developed using waste cooking oil (WCO) to overcome the challenges of emulsion, impurities and high moisture content of the sewer grease. A 95% extraction yield of sewer grease was achieved under the optimum operating condition of 3.2:1 WCO-SG ratio (wt/wt), 70°C and 240min. In addition, the reusability of the WCO was also investigated. WCO can be used two to three times for sewer grease extraction with more than 90% extraction efficiency. PMID:27256783

  8. Nickel solvent extraction from cold purification filter cakes of Angouran mine concentrate using LIX984N

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AA Balesini; A Zakeri; H Razavizadeh; A Khani

    2013-01-01

    Cold purification filter cakes generated in the hydrometallurgical processing of Angouran mine zinc concentrate commonly contain significant amounts of Zn, Cd, and Ni ions and thus are valuable resources for metal recovery. In this research, a nickel containing solution that was obtained from sulfuric acid leaching of the filter cake following cadmium and zinc removal was subjected to solvent extraction experiments using 10vol%LIX984N diluted in kerosene. Under optimum experimental conditions (pH 5.3, volume ratio of organic/aqueous (O:A) = 2:1, and contact time = 5 min), more than 97.1% of nickel was extracted. Nickel was stripped from the loaded organic by contacting with a 200 g/L sulfuric acid solution, from which 77.7% of nickel was recovered in a single contact at the optimum conditions (pH 1-1.5, O:A = 5:1, and contact time=15 min).

  9. Molecular Characteristics of Kraft-AQ Pulping Lignin Fractionated by Sequential Organic Solvent Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Wang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Kraft-AQ pulping lignin was sequentially fractionated by organic solvent extractions and the molecular properties of each fraction were characterized by chemical degradation, GPC, UV, FT-IR, 13C-NMR and thermal analysis. The average molecular weight and polydispersity of each lignin fraction increased with its hydrogen-bonding capacity (Hildebrand solubility parameter. In addition, the ratio of the non-condensed guaiacyl/syringyl units and the content of β-O-4 linkages increased with the increment of the lignin fractions extracted successively with hexane, diethylether, methylene chloride, methanol, and dioxane. Furthermore, the presence of the condensation reaction products was contributed to the higher thermal stability of the larger molecules.

  10. Extraction of Cs-137 by alcohol-water solvents from plants containing cardiac glycosides

    CERN Document Server

    Dzyubak, S N; Dzyubak, O P; Sorokin, P V; Popov, V F; Orlov, A A; Krasnov, V P; Gubin, Yu.I.

    2001-01-01

    As a result of nuclear power plant accidents, large areas receive radioactive inputs of Cs-137. This cesium accumulates in herbs growing in such territories. The problem is whether the herbs contaminated by radiocesium may be used as a raw material for medicine. The answer depends on the amount of Cs-137 transfered from the contaminated raw material to the medicine. We have presented new results of the transfer of Cs-137 from contaminated Digitalis grandiflora Mill. and Convallaria majalis L. to medicine. We found that the extraction of Cs-137 depends strongly on the hydrophilicity of the solvent. For example 96.5%(vol.) ethyl alcohol extracts less Cs-137 (11.6%) than 40%(vol.) ethyl alcohol or pure water (66.2%). The solubility of the cardiac glycosides is inverse to the solubility of cesium, which may be of use in the technological processes for manufacturing ecologically pure herbal medicine.

  11. Solvent extraction of rare earth metal ions with 1-(2-Pyridylazo)-2-Naphthol (PAN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation of the Tm(3) complex with 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN or HL) in aqueous-methanol mixtures (50 and 75% v/v) was studied by a spectrophotometric method. The equilibrium constant for the complexing reaction and the stability constant of the complex TmL2+ were calculated. The solvent extraction of Tm(3) by PAN in carbon tetrachloride from aqueous and aqueous-methanol phase was investigated. The extraction equilibrium constants and two-phase stability constants for the TmL3 and the TmL3(MeOH)3 complexes were evaluated. It was confirmed that the addition of methanol to the aqueous phase (above 25% v/v) causes a synergistic effect. (Author)

  12. Sequential solvent extraction for forms of antimony in five selected coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, C.; Liu, Gaisheng; Kong, Y.; Chou, C.-L.; Wang, R.

    2008-01-01

    Abundance of antimony in bulk samples has been determined in five selected coals, three coals from Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui, China, and two from the Illinois Basin in the United States. The Sb abundance in these samples is in the range of 0.11-0.43 ??g/g. The forms of Sb in coals were studied by sequential solvent extraction. The six forms of Sb are water soluble, ion changeable, organic matter bound, carbonate bound, silicate bound, and sulfide bound. Results of sequential extraction show that silicate-bound Sb is the most abundant form in these coals. Silicate- plus sulfide-bound Sb accounts for more than half of the total Sb in all coals. Bituminous coals are higher in organic matterbound Sb than anthracite and natural coke, indicating that the Sb in the organic matter may be incorporated into silicate and sulfide minerals during metamorphism. ?? 2008 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  13. SOLVENT EXTRACTION RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE U.S. FUEL CYCLE PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry A. Todd

    2011-10-01

    Treatment or processing of used nuclear fuel to recycle uranium and plutonium has historically been accomplished using the well known PUREX process. The PUREX process has been used on an industrial scale for over 60 years in the nuclear industry. Research is underway to develop advanced separation methods for the recovery of other used fuel components, such as the minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm) for possible transmutation in fast spectrum reactors, or other constituents (e.g. Cs, Sr, transition metals, lanthanides) to help facilitate effective waste management options. This paper will provide an overview of new solvent extraction processes developed for advanced nuclear fuel cycles, and summarize recent experimental results. This will include the utilization of new extractants for selective separation of target metals and new processes developed to selectively recover one or more elements from used fuel.

  14. Caustic-Side Solvent-Extraction Modeling for Hanford Interim Pretreatment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, B.A.; Birdwell, J.F.; Delmau, L. H.; McFarlane, J.

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this work is to examine the applicability of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process for the removal of cesium from Hanford tank-waste supernatant solutions in support of the Hanford Interim Pretreatment System (IPS). The Hanford waste types are more challenging than those at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in that they contain significantly higher levels of potassium, the chief competing ion in the extraction of cesium. It was confirmed by use of the CSSX model that the higher levels of potassium depress the cesium distribution ratio (DCs), as validated by measurement of DCs values for four of eight specified Hanford waste-simulant compositions. The model predictions were good to an apparent standard error of ±11%. It is concluded from batch distribution experiments, physical-property measurements, equilibrium modeling, flowsheet calculations, and contactor sizing that the CSSX process as currently employed for cesium removal from alkaline salt waste at the SRS is capable of treating similar Hanford tank feeds. For the most challenging waste composition, 41 stages would be required to provide a cesium decontamination factor (DF) of 5000 and a concentration factor (CF) of 5. Commercial contacting equipment with rotor diameters of 10 in. for extraction and 5 in. for stripping should have the capacity to meet throughput requirements, but testing will be required to confirm that the needed efficiency and hydraulic performance are actually obtainable. Markedly improved flowsheet performance was calculated for a new solvent formulation employing the more soluble cesium extractant BEHBCalixC6 used with alternative scrub and strip solutions, respectively 0.1 M NaOH and 10 mM boric acid. The improved system can meet minimum requirements (DF = 5000 and CF = 5) with 17 stages or more ambitious goals (DF = 40,000 and CF = 15) with 19 stages. Potential benefits of further research and development are identified that would lead to reduced costs, greater

  15. Caustic-Side Solvent-Extraction Modeling for Hanford Interim Pretreatment System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to examine the applicability of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process for the removal of cesium from Hanford tank-waste supernatant solutions in support of the Hanford Interim Pretreatment System (IPS). The Hanford waste types are more challenging than those at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in that they contain significantly higher levels of potassium, the chief competing ion in the extraction of cesium. It was confirmed by use of the CSSX model that the higher levels of potassium depress the cesium distribution ratio (DCs), as validated by measurement of DCs values for four of eight specified Hanford waste-simulant compositions. The model predictions were good to an apparent standard error of ±11%. It is concluded from batch distribution experiments, physical-property measurements, equilibrium modeling, flowsheet calculations, and contactor sizing that the CSSX process as currently employed for cesium removal from alkaline salt waste at the SRS is capable of treating similar Hanford tank feeds. For the most challenging waste composition, 41 stages would be required to provide a cesium decontamination factor (DF) of 5000 and a concentration factor (CF) of 5. Commercial contacting equipment with rotor diameters of 10 in. for extraction and 5 in. for stripping should have the capacity to meet throughput requirements, but testing will be required to confirm that the needed efficiency and hydraulic performance are actually obtainable. Markedly improved flowsheet performance was calculated for a new solvent formulation employing the more soluble cesium extractant BEHBCalixC6 used with alternative scrub and strip solutions, respectively 0.1 M NaOH and 10 mM boric acid. The improved system can meet minimum requirements (DF = 5000 and CF = 5) with 17 stages or more ambitious goals (DF = 40,000 and CF = 15) with 19 stages. Potential benefits of further research and development are identified that would lead to reduced costs, greater

  16. Solvent extraction of jojoba oil from pre-pressed jojoba meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Haron, Dalia E.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The solvent extraction process of jojoba oil from the meal cake obtained after the mechanical pressing of jojoba seeds was studied. Commercial hexane and petroleum ether were used as solvents and the extraction was carried out at temperatures ranging from 30 to 55 °C using solvent-to-solid ratios, R between 2 and 15 L/kg. The equilibrium compositions of the solvent and solid phases were determined. Based on the equilibrium data, the partition coefficient or distribution ratio, D of the oil between both phases was estimated. Also, the number of extraction stages necessary to achieve a certain degree of oil recovery has been determined using different hexane-to-meal ratios. Jojoba oil was also tested for its physical and chemical properties including chemical composition, percentage fatty acid, peroxide value, flash point, fire point, pour point, refractive index, saponification and iodine values. The stability of jojoba oil during storage at room temperature and during heat treatment was also studied.Se ha estudiado el proceso de extracción con disolventes del aceite contenido en la harina residual del prensado mecánico de las semillas de jojoba. Como disolventes se han utilizado hexano técnico y éter de petróleo, habiéndose efectuado extracciones a temperaturas comprendidas entre 30 ºC y 55 ºC , con relaciones de disolvente a sólido, R, de entre 12 y 15 L/kg. Se han determinado las composiciones del extracto y del residuo sólido en el equilibrio y a partir de los datos de equilibrio, se ha estimado el coeficiente de partición o cociente de distribución, D, del aceite entre ambas fases. Asimismo, se ha determinado el número de etapas de extracción necesarias para conseguir un cierto grado de recuperación del aceite, utilizando diferentes relaciones entre hexano y harina. También se han determinado las propiedades físicas y químicas del aceite de jojoba, incluyendo la composición química, el porcentaje de ácidos grasos

  17. Magnetic ionic liquids as non-conventional extraction solvents for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Rodríguez, María J; Nacham, Omprakash; Clark, Kevin D; Pino, Verónica; Anderson, Jared L; Ayala, Juan H; Afonso, Ana M

    2016-08-31

    This work describes the applicability of magnetic ionic liquids (MILs) in the analytical determination of a group of heavy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Three different MILs, namely, benzyltrioctylammonium bromotrichloroferrate (III) (MIL A), methoxybenzyltrioctylammonium bromotrichloroferrate (III) (MIL B), and 1,12-di(3-benzylbenzimidazolium) dodecane bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)]imide bromotrichloroferrate (III) (MIL C), were designed to exhibit hydrophobic properties, and their performance examined in a microextraction method for hydrophobic analytes. The magnet-assisted approach with these MILs was performed in combination with high performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. The study of the extraction performance showed that MIL A was the most suitable solvent for the extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and under optimum conditions the fast extraction step required ∼20 μL of MIL A for 10 mL of aqueous sample, 24 mmol L(-1) NaOH, high ionic strength content of NaCl (25% (w/v)), 500 μL of acetone as dispersive solvent, and 5 min of vortex. The desorption step required the aid of an external magnetic field with a strong NdFeB magnet (the separation requires few seconds), two back-extraction steps for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons retained in the MIL droplet with n-hexane, evaporation and reconstitution with acetonitrile. The overall method presented limits of detection down to 5 ng L(-1), relative recoveries ranging from 91.5 to 119%, and inter-day reproducibility values (expressed as relative standard derivation) lower than 16.4% for a spiked level of 0.4 μg L(-1) (n = 9). The method was also applied for the analysis of real samples, including tap water, wastewater, and tea infusion. PMID:27506350

  18. CERN Accelerator School - Beam injection, extraction and transfer

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Registration is now open for the CERN Accelerator School’s specialised course to be held in Erice, Italy, from 10 to 19 March, 2017.   The course will be of interest to staff and students in accelerator laboratories, university departments and companies manufacturing accelerator who wish to learn about accelerator science and technology. Further information can be found at: http://indico.cern.ch/event/451905/ http://cas.web.cern.ch/cas/IET2017/IET-advert.html

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; R. Michael Bergen; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Alfred H. Stiller; W. Morgan Summers; John W. Zondlo

    2006-05-12

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, coking and composite fabrication continued using coal-derived samples. These samples were tested in direct carbon fuel cells. Methodology was refined for determining the aromatic character of hydro treated liquid, based on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). Tests at GrafTech International showed that binder pitches produced using the WVU solvent extraction protocol can result in acceptable graphite electrodes for use in arc furnaces. These tests were made at the pilot scale.

  20. Speciation of iron (II) and (III) by using solvent extraction and flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaman, Mehmet [Department of Chemistry, Science and Arts Faculty, Firat University, Elazig (Turkey)]. E-mail: myaman@firat.edu.tr; Kaya, Gokce [Department of Chemistry, Science and Arts Faculty, Firat University, Elazig (Turkey)

    2005-05-17

    A method for speciation, preconcentration and separation of Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} in different matrices was developed using solvent extraction and flame atomic absorption spectrometry. PAN as complexing reagent for Fe{sup 2+} and chloroform as organic solvent were used. The complex of Fe{sup 2+}-PAN was extracted into chloroform phase in the pH range of 0.75-4.0 and Fe{sup 3+} remains in water phase in the pH range 0.75-1.25. The optimum conditions for maximum recovery of Fe{sup 2+} and minimum recovery of Fe{sup 3+} were determined as pH = 1, the stirring time of 20 min, the PAN amount of 0.5 mg and chloroform volume of 8 mL. The developed method was applied to the determination of Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} in tea infusion, fruit juice, cola and pekmez. It is seen that there is high bioavailable iron (Fe{sup 2+}) in pekmez. The developed method is sensitive, simple and need the shorter time in comparison with other similar studies.

  1. MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT GAMMA MONITORS SYSTEM FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casella, V

    2007-06-25

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, the liquid Waste Organization (LWO) plans to process a portion of dissolved saltcake waste through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). This work was derived from Technical Task Request SP-TTR-2004-00013, ''Gamma Monitor for MCU.'' The deliverables for this task are the hardware and software for the gamma monitors and a report summarizing the testing and acceptance of this equipment for use in the MCU. Revision of this report is a deliverable in Technical Task Report SP-TTR-2006-00010, ''NaI Shield Box Testing.'' Gamma-ray monitors were developed to: {lg_bullet} Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution before entering the DSS (Decontaminated Salt Solution) Hold Tank, {lg_bullet} Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent before entering the Strip Effluent Hold Tank, {lg_bullet} Verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process (The DSS Hold Tank Cs-137 concentration will be very low and the Cs-137 concentration in the Strip Effluent Hold Tank will be approximately fifteen times higher than the Cs-137 concentration in the Feed Tank.)

  2. Recovery of nickel, cobalt, copper and zinc in sulphate and chloride solutions using synergistic solvent extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chu Yong Cheng; Keith R. Barnard; Wensheng Zhang; Zhaowu Zhu; Yoko Pranolo

    2016-01-01

    A number of synergistic solvent extraction (SSX) systems have been developed to recover nickel, cobalt, zinc and copper from sulphuric and chloride leach solutions by the solvent extraction team of CSIRO, Australia. These in-clude (1) Versatic 10/CLX50 system for the separation of Ni from Ca in sulphate solutions, (2) Versatic 10/4PC system for the separation of Ni and Co from Mn/Mg/Ca in sulphate solutions, (3) Cyanex 471X/HRJ-4277 system for the separation of Zn from Cd in sulphate solutions, (4) Versatic 10/LIX63 system for the separation of Co from Mn/Mg/Ca in sulphate solutions, (5) Versatic 10/LIX63/TBP system for separation of Ni and Co from Mn/Mg/Ca in sulphate solutions, (6) Versatic 10/LIX63 system for the separation of cobalt from nickel in sulphate solutions by difference in kinetics, (7) Cyanex 272/LIX84 system for the separation of Cu/Fe/Zn from Ni/Co in sulphate solutions, (8) Versatic 10/LIX63/TBP system to recover Cu/Ni from strong chloride solutions, and (9) Versatic 10/LIX63 system to separate Cu from Fe in strong chloride solutions. The synergistic effect on metal separation and efficiency is presented and possible industrial applications are demonstrated. The chemical stability of selected SSX systems is also reported.

  3. A high-throughput platform for low-volume high-temperature/pressure sealed vessel solvent extractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damm, Markus [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Microwave Chemistry (CDLMC) and Institute of Chemistry, Karl-Franzens-University Graz, Heinrichstrasse 28, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Kappe, C. Oliver, E-mail: oliver.kappe@uni-graz.at [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Microwave Chemistry (CDLMC) and Institute of Chemistry, Karl-Franzens-University Graz, Heinrichstrasse 28, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Parallel low-volume coffee extractions in sealed-vessel HPLC/GC vials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extractions are performed at high temperatures and pressures (200 Degree-Sign C/20 bar). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rapid caffeine determination from the liquid phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Headspace analysis of volatiles using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). - Abstract: A high-throughput platform for performing parallel solvent extractions in sealed HPLC/GC vials inside a microwave reactor is described. The system consist of a strongly microwave-absorbing silicon carbide plate with 20 cylindrical wells of appropriate dimensions to be fitted with standard HPLC/GC autosampler vials serving as extraction vessels. Due to the possibility of heating up to four heating platforms simultaneously (80 vials), efficient parallel analytical-scale solvent extractions can be performed using volumes of 0.5-1.5 mL at a maximum temperature/pressure limit of 200 Degree-Sign C/20 bar. Since the extraction and subsequent analysis by either gas chromatography or liquid chromatography coupled with mass detection (GC-MS or LC-MS) is performed directly from the autosampler vial, errors caused by sample transfer can be minimized. The platform was evaluated for the extraction and quantification of caffeine from commercial coffee powders assessing different solvent types, extraction temperatures and times. For example, 141 {+-} 11 {mu}g caffeine (5 mg coffee powder) were extracted during a single extraction cycle using methanol as extraction solvent, whereas only 90 {+-} 11 were obtained performing the extraction in methylene chloride, applying the same reaction conditions (90 Degree-Sign C, 10 min). In multiple extraction experiments a total of {approx}150 {mu}g caffeine was extracted from 5 mg commercial coffee powder. In addition to the quantitative caffeine determination, a comparative qualitative analysis of the liquid phase coffee

  4. Towards green analysis of virgin olive oil phenolic compounds: Extraction by a natural deep eutectic solvent and direct spectrophotometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Vito Michele; Clemente, Antonia; Summo, Carmine; Pasqualone, Antonella; Caponio, Francesco

    2016-12-01

    The determination of phenolic compounds in extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) by means of rapid, low-cost, environment-free methods would be a desirable achievement. A natural deep eutectic solvent (DES) based on glucose and lactic acid was considered as extraction solvent for phenolic compounds in EVOO. DESs are green solvents characterized by high availability, biodegradability, safety, and low cost. The spectrophotometric characteristics of DES extracts of 65 EVOO samples were related to the total phenolic content of the oils, assessed by methanol-water extraction coupled to the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. A regression model (ncalibration=45, nvalidation=20), including the absorbance at two wavelengths (257, 324nm), was obtained, with an adjusted R(2)=0.762. Therefore the DES could provide a promising and viable approach for a green screening method of phenolic compounds in EVOO, by means of simple spectrophotometric measurements of extracts, even for on-field analysis (for example in olive mills). PMID:27374504

  5. Hydrometallurgical recovery of copper from leach liquor of polymetallic nodules in solvent extraction process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Pospiech

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Purpose of this paper is to present the possibilities of copper(II recovery from the synthetic sulphate leach liquor containing cobalt(II, nickel(II and manganese(II.Design/methodology/approach: The investigations have been undertaken in order to determine the influence of major parameters on the extraction process of copper(II from the leach liquor of polymetallic manganese nodules. Copper(II ions were extracted with Kelex 100 and LIX 70 in kerosene. The effect of different parameters such as pH of aqueous phase, extractants concentration in the organic phase, concentration of sulphuric acid as the stripping reagent were investigated.Findings: The optimal conditions of metal ions selectivity extraction have been determined. Over 99% of Cu(II can be effectively extracted with 5% Kelex 100 and 10% LIX 70 at pH of 2.0 from model leach liquor in the presence of Co(II, Ni(II and Mn(II, while less than 10% of the other metals is transported to the organic phase. The selectivity of Cu(II extraction over Co(II, Ni(II and Mn(II with Kelex 100 depended upon the acidity of aqueous solution and the selectivity increased with decreasing of pH in the feed solution. Separation of Cu(II from these metal ions is very effective. Cu(II can be recovered successfully from the loaded organic phase with Kelex 100 through stripping with 2.0 M H2SO4.Practical implications: The results can be used during the hydrometallurgical recovery of metals from nodules on the industrial scale.Originality/value: The study on the solvent extraction of Cu(II using LIX 70 and Kelex 100 from leach liquor of polymetallic manganese nodules has not been reported yet. Conducting this research is therefore the most reasonable and necessary.

  6. Development of the Next-Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NG-CSSX) Process for Cesium Removal from High-Level Tank Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the chemical performance of the Next-Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NG-CSSX) process in its current state of development for removal of cesium from the alkaline high-level tank wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the US Department of Energy (USDOE) complex. Overall, motivation for seeking a major enhancement in performance for the currently deployed CSSX process stems from needs for accelerating the cleanup schedule and reducing the cost of salt-waste disposition. The primary target of the NG-CSSX development campaign in the past year has been to formulate a solvent system and to design a corresponding flowsheet that boosts the performance of the SRS Modular CSSX Unit (MCU) from a current minimum decontamination factor of 12 to 40,000. The chemical approach entails use of a more soluble calixarene-crown ether, called MaxCalix, allowing the attainment of much higher cesium distribution ratios (DCs) on extraction. Concurrently decreasing the Cs-7SB modifier concentration is anticipated to promote better hydraulics. A new stripping chemistry has been devised using a vitrification-friendly aqueous boric acid strip solution and a guanidine suppressor in the solvent, resulting in sharply decreased DCs on stripping. Results are reported herein on solvent phase behavior and batch Cs distribution for waste simulants and real waste together with a preliminary flowsheet applicable for implementation in the MCU. The new solvent will enable MCU to process a much wider range of salt feeds and thereby extend its service lifetime beyond its design life of three years. Other potential benefits of NG-CSSX include increased throughput of the SRS Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), currently under construction, and an alternative modular near-tank application at Hanford.

  7. Interfacial chemistry in solvent extraction systems: Progress report for period April 1, 1985-March 31, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interfacial behavior of extractant molecules and their interaction with metal ions has been investigated. Consideration was also given to the question of microscopic interfaces, i.e., those associated with reversed micelles as well as microemulsions. NMR spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, quasi-elastic light scattering, vapor pressure osmometry, and Karl-Fischer titrimetry provided support for findings obtained from interfacial tension experiments that reversed micelles are formed, under certain conditions, in the system di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP)/ n-hexane/CaCl2 solution. These techniques were further extended to include different organophosphorus acids (PC 88A and CYANEX 272), diluent (benzene), and metal ions (Co2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+) to determine whether reversed micellization occurs in solvent extraction systems which employ organophosphorus acids. A preliminary general model of the aggregation mechanism for metal-extractant complexes has been proposed. Also various laser techniques have been used to investigate the structure and dynamics of extractant films. A laser fluorescence apparatus for probing interfacial dynamics is under construction. 64 refs., 29 figs

  8. Unraveling Entropic Rate Acceleration Induced by Solvent Dynamics in Membrane Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kürten, Charlotte; Syrén, Per-Olof

    2016-01-01

    Enzyme catalysis evolved in an aqueous environment. The influence of solvent dynamics on catalysis is, however, currently poorly understood and usually neglected. The study of water dynamics in enzymes and the associated thermodynamical consequences is highly complex and has involved computer simulations, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments, and calorimetry. Water tunnels that connect the active site with the surrounding solvent are key to solvent displacement and dynamics. The protocol herein allows for the engineering of these motifs for water transport, which affects specificity, activity and thermodynamics. By providing a biophysical framework founded on theory and experiments, the method presented herein can be used by researchers without previous expertise in computer modeling or biophysical chemistry. The method will advance our understanding of enzyme catalysis on the molecular level by measuring the enthalpic and entropic changes associated with catalysis by enzyme variants with obstructed water tunnels. The protocol can be used for the study of membrane-bound enzymes and other complex systems. This will enhance our understanding of the importance of solvent reorganization in catalysis as well as provide new catalytic strategies in protein design and engineering. PMID:26862836

  9. Extraction of phenolic compounds from extra virgin olive oil by a natural deep eutectic solvent: Data on UV absorption of the extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Vito Michele; Clemente, Antonia; Summo, Carmine; Pasqualone, Antonella; Caponio, Francesco

    2016-09-01

    This data article refers to the paper "Towards green analysis of virgin olive oil phenolic compounds: extraction by a natural deep eutectic solvent and direct spectrophotometric detection" [1]. A deep eutectic solvent (DES) based on lactic acid and glucose was used as green solvent for phenolic compounds. Eight standard phenolic compounds were solubilized in the DES. Then, a set of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) samples (n=65) were submitted to liquid-liquid extraction by the DES. The standard solutions and the extracts were analyzed by UV spectrophotometry. This article reports the spectral data of both the standard solutions and the 65 extracts, as well as the total phenolic content of the corresponding oils, assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. PMID:27504478

  10. Separation of baicalein from baicalin by means of solvent extraction; Yobai chushutsuho ni yoru baicalein /baicalin no bunri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitazaki, H.; Ishimaru, M. [Tsumura and Co., Ibaraki (Japan); Inoue, K.; Yoshida, K. [Saga University, Saga (Japan)

    1996-03-10

    In this work, solvent extraction behaviors of some commercial extractants such as tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO), Cyanex 923 and Cyanex 925 for baicalein and baicalin decocted from Suctellaria root, which is a crude drug, were examined to elucidate their mutual separation by solvent extraction. Baicalein was extracted selectively by trialkylphosphine oxides over baicalin. From analyses of the extraction mechanism the equilibrium constant of extraction reaction and enthalpy change were evaluated. A porous resin impregnated with Cyanex 923 in XAD-7 was prepared to remove baicalein from baicalin by using a column packed with the resin. Baicalein was able to be completely removed by this column operation. 10 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Deep Eutectic Solvent-Based Microwave-Assisted Method for Extraction of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Components from Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Deep eutectic solvents (DESs have attracted significant attention as a promising green media. In this work, twenty-five kinds of benign choline chloride-based DESs with microwave-assisted methods were applied to quickly extract active components from Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae. The extraction factors, including temperature, time, power of microwave, and solid/liquid ratio, were investigated systematically by response surface methodology. The hydrophilic and hydrophobic ingredients were extracted simultaneously under the optimized conditions: 20 vol% of water in choline chloride/1,2-propanediol (1:1, molar ratio as solvent, microwave power of 800 W, temperature at 70 °C, time at 11.11 min, and solid/liquid ratio of 0.007 g·mL−1. The extraction yield was comparable to, or even better than, conventional methods with organic solvents. The microstructure alteration of samples before and after extraction was also investigated. The method validation was tested as the linearity of analytes (r2 > 0.9997 over two orders of magnitude, precision (intra-day relative standard deviation (RSD < 2.49 and inter-day RSD < 2.96, and accuracy (recoveries ranging from 95.04% to 99.93%. The proposed DESs combined with the microwave-assisted method provided a prominent advantage for fast and efficient extraction of active components, and DESs could be extended as solvents to extract and analyze complex environmental and pharmaceutical samples.

  12. Ternary diagram of extract proteins / solvent systems: Sesame, soybean and lupine proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed, S. S.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Solvent extraction as a method of extracting protein from oilseed meals offers the advantage of higher efficiency. Unfortunately, the published literature points to the gap in the work concerned with the necessary equilibrium diagram to design due process equipment for such extracts. Initiated by this lack of basic knowledge, the present study has been undertaken to provide the equilibrium data for three different ternary systems, namely: sesame protein / sodium hydroxide solution system, soybean protein / sodium hydroxide solution system and lupine protein / sodium hydroxide solution system. These oilseed meals were selected because of their high protein content (53.4 %, 46.2 % and 42.3 % protein, respectively. The study also concentrated on the evaluation of the major parameters affecting the extraction process, i.e. the normality of the sodium hydroxide solution used as extracting solvent and the initial oilseed solvent to meal feeding ratio. The results obtained indicate that the best normality of sodium hydroxide solution used for extracting soybean and lupine protein is 0.02N, while 0.04N solution is required for extracting sesame protein. Also, operating at a liquid to solid feed ratio of 30:1 and 50:1 for soybean, sesame and lupine, respectively, is enough to reach a high protein extract. Correlations were presented for each locus of under flow compositions, graphically acquired, and the data are compared with those calculated by analytical solutions.La extracción con disolventes es un método de extracción de proteínas de las harinas de semillas oleaginosas que ofrece la ventaja de su elevada eficacia. Desafortunadamente, la bibliografía coincide en el vacío existente con respecto a los diagramas de equilibrio necesarios para el diseño de los equipos adecuados. Debido a esta falta de conocimientos, el presente estudio se ha llevado a cabo para obtener datos de tres sistemas ternarios: sistema proteína de sésamo / disolución de

  13. Antibacterial activity of sequentially extracted organic solvent extracts of fruits,flowers and leaves of Lawsonia inermis L.from Jaffna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E; Christy; Jeyaseelan; S; Jenothiny; MK; Pathmanathan; JP; Jeyadevan

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To reveal the antibacterial activity of sequentially extracted different cold organic solvent extracts of fruits,flowers and leaves of Lawsonia inermis(L against)some pathogenic bacteria.Methods:Powders of fruits,flowers and leaves of L inermis were continuously extracted with dichloromethane(DCM),ethyl acetate and ethanol at ambient temperature.The dried extracts were prepared into different concentrations and tested for antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion method,and also the extracts were tested to detennine the available phytochemicals.Results:Except DCM extract of flower all other test extracts revealed inhibitory effect on all tested bacteria and their inhibitory effect differed significantly(P<0.05).The highest inhibitory effect was showed by ethyl acetate extract of flower against Staphylococcus aureus(S.aureus)and Pseudomonas aeruginosa(P.aeruginosa),and ethyl acetate extract of fruit on Escherichia coli(E.coli)and Bacillus subtilis(6.subtilis).The ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of flower,fruit and leaf expressed inhibition even at 1 mg/100μl against all test bacteria.Among the tested phytochemicals flavonoids were detected in all test extracts except DCM extract of flower.Conclusions:The study demonstrated that the ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of fruit and flower of L inermis are potentially better source of antibacterial agents compared to leaf extracts of respective solvents.

  14. Application of 2k Full Factorial Design in Optimization of Solvent-Free Microwave Extraction of Ginger Essential Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Mumtaj Shah; Garg, S K

    2014-01-01

    The solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from ginger was optimized using a 23 full factorial design in terms of oil yield to determine the optimum extraction conditions. Sixteen experiments were carried out with three varying parameters, extraction time, microwave power, and type of sample for two levels of each. A first order regression equation best fits the experimental data. The predicted values calculated by the regression model were in good agreement with the experimental ...

  15. Study to find the best extraction solvent for use with guava leaves (Psidium guajava L.) for high antioxidant efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Jongkwon; Lee, Soojung; Elam, Marcus L; Sarah A Johnson; Kang, Jonghoon; Bahram H. Arjmandi

    2014-01-01

    The effects of guava leaves extracted using solvents of water, ethanol, methanol, and different concentrations of hydroethanolic solvents on phenolic compounds and flavonoids, and antioxidant properties have been investigated. The antioxidant capability was assessed based on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical-scavenging abilities, reducing power, and nitric oxide-and nitrate-scavenging activities. The results demonstrated t...

  16. Preliminary phytochemical investigation and in vitro anthelmintic activities ofMaesa lanceolata solvent extracts againstLymnatis nilotica (aquatic leech)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wondu Dagnaw; Alemayehu Mekonnen

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate phytochemicals constituents and check the anthelmintic activities of Maesa lanceolata (M. lanceolata) solvent extracts against aquatic leech. Methods: Several phytochemicals were tested and screened from petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts ofM. lanceolata extracts and their anthelmintic activities were done based on the standard procedure against aquatic leech. Piperazine citrate (20 mg/mL) was used as a reference standard while distilled water was used as a control. Results:Qualitative phytochemical analysis of different solvent (petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol) extracts ofM. lanceolata revealed the presence of flavonoids and alkaloids in chloroform extracts and alkaloids in methanol extracts. In addition to the qualitative analysis of the plant extracts, the anthelmintic effects were also evaluated against aquatic leech (Lymnatis nilotica). Accordingly, various concentrations (10, 20, 40 and 60 mg/mL) of each solvent (petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol) extracts and 20 mg/mL of standard drug were prepared and tested against the selected leech. All the tested concentrations showed anthelmintic activities in a dose-dependent manner. From petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts, chloroform extracts with 60 mg/mL concentration was effective with the paralytic time of (29.00 ± 1.06) min and death time of (65.00 ± 2.00) min in gradient extraction method. But in the case of extraction without gradient method, methanol extracts with 60 mg/mL concentration showed effective paralysis and death time (26.00 ± 1.73) and (56.00 ± 1.56) min, respectively, against the selected aquatic leech. Conclusions:The present study revealed thatM. lanceolata extracts have magic anthelmintic activities which are helpful to treat aquatic leeches (Lymnatis nilotica) which are associated with the nasal cavities of animals and human beings.

  17. Solvent extraction separation of copper and zinc from MSWI fly ash leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jinfeng; Steenari, Britt-Marie

    2015-10-01

    Fly ash from combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) contains significant amounts of metals, some of which are valuable and some of which are potentially toxic. This type of ash is most often stabilized and landfilled which means that the metals will be difficult to reclaim at a later stage. In recent years efforts have been made to develop feasible methods to recover selected metals, such as Zn, from MSW fly ash. If this would be possible, a significant amount of valuable metals could be re-inserted in the industrial material loops. This paper describes the development and evaluation of a process for recovery of Cu and Zn from MSW combustion fly ash based on hydrochloric acid leaching followed by two solvent extraction processes, one for each metal. The separation of Cu from the acid leachate was done using an aldoxime extractant, LIX860N-I, in kerosene and a mixture of phosphine oxides, Cyanex 923, also in kerosene, was used for extraction of Zn from the Cu-depleted aqueous phase. The extraction of Cu was selective, but a significant amount of other metals, such as Fe and Pb, were co-extracted together with Zn. It was shown that it is possible to decrease the contamination of Fe by using a suitable concentration of nitric acid solution for stripping or by removing the contaminating metals through cementation. The suggested process was tested for two MSW combustion fly ashes in laboratory scale experiments and gave Cu yields of 69-87% and Zn yields of 75-80% based on the contents in the ash. PMID:26227183

  18. Solvent extraction separation of copper and zinc from MSWI fly ash leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jinfeng; Steenari, Britt-Marie

    2015-10-01

    Fly ash from combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) contains significant amounts of metals, some of which are valuable and some of which are potentially toxic. This type of ash is most often stabilized and landfilled which means that the metals will be difficult to reclaim at a later stage. In recent years efforts have been made to develop feasible methods to recover selected metals, such as Zn, from MSW fly ash. If this would be possible, a significant amount of valuable metals could be re-inserted in the industrial material loops. This paper describes the development and evaluation of a process for recovery of Cu and Zn from MSW combustion fly ash based on hydrochloric acid leaching followed by two solvent extraction processes, one for each metal. The separation of Cu from the acid leachate was done using an aldoxime extractant, LIX860N-I, in kerosene and a mixture of phosphine oxides, Cyanex 923, also in kerosene, was used for extraction of Zn from the Cu-depleted aqueous phase. The extraction of Cu was selective, but a significant amount of other metals, such as Fe and Pb, were co-extracted together with Zn. It was shown that it is possible to decrease the contamination of Fe by using a suitable concentration of nitric acid solution for stripping or by removing the contaminating metals through cementation. The suggested process was tested for two MSW combustion fly ashes in laboratory scale experiments and gave Cu yields of 69-87% and Zn yields of 75-80% based on the contents in the ash.

  19. A predictive model of reverse micelles solubilizing water for solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bley, Michael; Siboulet, Bertrand; Karmakar, Anwesa; Zemb, Thomas; Dufrêche, Jean-François

    2016-10-01

    Herein, a minimal model for the common case of W/O solubilization of badly soluble compounds present in an excess phase by reverse micellar aggregates in chemical equilibrium with its single compounds is introduced. A simple model of such liquid-liquid extractions is crucial for obtaining predictive parameter for the modelling of nuclear waste management and hydrometallurgic recycling strategies. The standard Gibbs free energy of aggregation and the concentration of the corresponding aggregate is calculated within a multiple-equilibria approach for a set of aggregate compositions of solute and amphiphilic extractant molecules. This minimal model provides potential surfaces estimating the stability of different aggregate compositions with 6.2kJmol(-1) as a generalized bending constant. The complete concentrations of free and aggregated extractant species as well as the favored aggregation numbers, the polydispersity, the activity of the organic solvent, and the critical concentrations are captured by this thermodynamic model. An increase of the apparent critical micelle concentration for an increasing solute content in the aqueous phase is detected by this method. PMID:27376975

  20. Solvent optimization for anthocyanin extraction from Syzygium cumini L. Skeels using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Bratati; Mukhopadhyay, Kunal

    2013-05-01

    Anthocyanins are plant pigments that are potential candidates for use as natural food colourant. In this study, Syzygium cumini fruit skin has been used as anthocyanin source. All the six major types of anthocyanins were identified in the sample by ultra performance liquid chromatography studies, and the antioxidant activity was found to be 4.34 ± 0.26 Fe(2+)g(- 1) in the sample with highest anthocyanin content. Optimization of conditions for extracting high amounts of anthocyanin from the fruit peels was investigated by response surface methodology. The results suggested that highest anthocyanin yield (763.80 mg; 100 ml(- 1)), highest chroma and hue angle in the red colour range could be obtained when 20% ethanol was used in combination with 1% acetic acid. Methanol was replaced with ethanol for the extraction of pigments due to its less toxicity and being safe for human consumption. The optimized solvent can be used to extract anthocyanins from the S. cumini fruits and used as natural colourants in the food industries. PMID:23121325

  1. An investigation of influence of solvent on the degradation kinetics of carotenoids in oil extracts of Calendula officinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEJAN BEZBRADICA

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The stability of carotenoids was studied in marigold oil extracts prepared with following solvents: Myritol 312®, paraffin oil, almond oil, olive oil, sunflower oil, grape seed oil, and soybean oil. The concentration of the carotenoids was determined by spectroscopic measurement at 450 nm. Degradation rate showed a first order dependence on the concentration of carotenoids with a faster first stage (which lasted 35–50 days, depending on the solvent and a slower second stage. The highest degradation rates were observed in extracts prepared with linoleic acid rich solvents (sunflower oil, soybean oil and grape seed oil, while the lowest were found in oil with saturated fatty acids (Myritol 312® and paraffin oil. These results confirm the connection between the degradation of carotenoids and lipid autoxidation, and suggest that the influence of the oil solvents on the stability of oil extracts of Calendula officinalis is a factor that must be considered when selecting a solvent for the production of marigold oil extracts.

  2. Effects of extraction solvent mixtures on antioxidant activity evaluation and their extraction capacity and selectivity for free phenolic compounds in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haifeng; Dong, Jianjun; Lu, Jian; Chen, Jian; Li, Yin; Shan, Lianju; Lin, Yan; Fan, Wei; Gu, Guoxian

    2006-09-20

    Four kinds of solvent extracts from three Chinese barley varieties (Ken-3, KA4B, and Gan-3) were used to examine the effects of extraction solvent mixtures on antioxidant activity evaluation and their extraction capacity and selectivity for free phenolic compounds in barley through free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and metal chelating activity, and individual and total phenolic contents. Results showed that extraction solvent mixtures had significant impacts on antioxidant activity estimation, as well as different extraction capacity and selectivity for free phenolic compounds in barley. The highest DPPH* and ABTS*+ scavenging activities and reducing power were found in 80% acetone extracts, whereas the strongest *OH scavenging activity, O2*- scavenging activity, and metal chelating activity were found in 80% ethanol, 80% methanol, and water extracts, respectively. Additionally, 80% acetone showed the highest extraction capacity for (+)-catechin and ferulic, caffeic, vanillic, and p-coumaric acids, 80% methanol for (-)-epicatechin and syringic acid, and water for protocatechuic and gallic acids. Furthermore, correlations analysis revealed that TPC, reducing power, DPPH* and ABTS*+ scavenging activities were well positively correlated with each other (p extract free phenolic compounds from barley. DPPH* scavenging activity and ABTS*+ scavenging activity or reducing power could be used to assess barley antioxidant activity. PMID:16968094

  3. LPS-induced NO inhibition and antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts and their solvent partitioned fractions from four brown seaweeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Myoung Lae; Lee, Dong-Jin; Lee, Hyi-Seung; Lee, Yeon-Ju; You, Sang Guan

    2013-12-01

    The nitric oxide inhibitory (NOI) and antioxidant (ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging effects with reducing power) activities of the ethanol (EtOH) extracts and solvent partitioned fractions from Scytosiphon lomentaria, Chorda filum, Agarum cribrosum, and Desmarestia viridis were investigated, and the correlation between biological activity and total phenolic (TP) and phlorotannin (TPT) content was determined by PCA analysis. The yield of EtOH extracts from four brown seaweeds ranged from 2.6 to 6.6% with the highest yield from D. viridis, and the predominant compounds in their solvent partitioned fractions had medium and/or less polarity. The TP and TPT content of the EtOH extracts were in the ranges of 25.0-44.1 mg GAE/g sample and 0.2-4.6 mg PG/g sample, respectively, which were mostly included in the organic solvent partitioned fractions. Strong NOI activity was observed in the EtOH extracts and their solvent partitioned fractions from D. viridis and C. filum. In addition, the EtOH extract and its solvent partitioned fractions of D. viridis exhibited little cytotoxicity to Raw 264.7 cells. The most potent ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging capacity was shown in the EtOH extracts and their solvent partitioned fractions from S. lomentaria and C. filum, and both also exhibited strong reducing ability. In the PCA analysis the content of TPT had a good correlation with DPPH ( r = 0.62), ABTS ( r = 0.69) and reducing power ( r = 0.65), however, an unfair correlation was observed between the contents of TP and TPT and NOI, suggesting that the phlorotannins might be responsible for the DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities.

  4. Solvent extraction equipment evaluation study. Part 1. Review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, R.G.; Browne, L.M. (comps.)

    1977-01-01

    This is Part 1 of a three-part document that reviews the solvent extraction contactors available for use in radiochemical reprocessing plants. The three parts are: Part 1: A Review of the Literature, Part 2: Workshop Proceedings, Part 3: A Summary. The main objective of the document is to provide an information base to aid in contactor selection and design of future reprocessing plants. The Literature Review (Part 1) brings together scattered data on all major contactors in use today. It contains an annotated bibliography of the citations used in the review and a complete listing of all the citations screened prior to the review. These bibliographies should aid in determining which reports would be most useful if additional information is desired.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-07-13

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. The Hydrotreatment Facility is being prepared for trials with coal liquids. Raw coal tar distillate trials have been carried out by heating coal tar in the holding tank in the Hydrotreatment Facility. The liquids are centrifuged to warm the system up in preparation for the coal liquids. The coal tar distillate is then recycled to keep the centrifuge hot. In this way, the product has been distilled such that a softening point of approximately 110 C is reached. Then an ash test is conducted.

  6. Carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen isotopes in solvent-extractable organic matter from carbonaceous chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, R. H.; Epstein, S.

    1982-01-01

    CCl4 and CH3OH solvent extractions were performed on the Murray, Murchison, Orgueil and Renazzo carbonaceous chondrites. Delta-D values of +300-+500% are found in the case of the CH3OH-soluble organic matter. The combined C, H and N isotope data makes it unlikely that the CH3OH-soluble components are derivable from, or simply related to, the insoluble organic polymer found in the same meteorites. A relation between the event that formed hydrous minerals in CI1 and CM2 meteorites and the introduction of water- and methanol-soluble organic compounds is suggested. Organic matter soluble in CCl4 has no N, and delta-C-13 values are lower than for CH3OH-soluble phases. It is concluded that there either are large isotopic fractionations for carbon and hydrogen between different soluble organic phases, or the less polar components are partially of terrestrial origin.

  7. Investigating the solvent extraction of technetium(7) from alkaline sodium nitrate solution by crown ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schemes under development for treatment and long-term disposal of radioactive defense wastes in the United States include steps for the removal of key fission products before vitrification of the waste. A need to remove the long-lived radionuclide technetium has been identified, but prior technology has been less than satisfactory. An analysis of anion-exchange principles in combination with the chemistry of crown ethers has led us to propose a new process for separating technetium from tank waste. The basis of selectivity in this system is similar to that of classical anion exchange, but the process can be readily reversed with a water strip. Candidate extraction solvents have been identified, and a process cycle has been tested. (authors)

  8. An absorbing microwave micro-solid-phase extraction device used in non-polar solvent microwave-assisted extraction for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Ziming, E-mail: wangziming@jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); College of Environment and Resources, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Zhao Xin; Xu Xu; Wu Lijie; Su Rui; Zhao Yajing; Jiang Chengfei; Zhang Hanqi [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Ma Qiang [Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine, Beijing 100123 (China); Lu Chunmei [College of Technology Center, Jilin Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, Changchun 130062 (China); Dong Deming [College of Environment and Resources, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2013-01-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An absorbing microwave {mu}-SPE device packed with activated carbon was used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absorbing microwave {mu}-SPE device was made and used to enrich the analytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absorbing microwave {mu}-SPE device was made and used to heat samples directly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAE-{mu}-SPE was applied to the extraction of OPPs with non-polar solvent only. - Abstract: A single-step extraction-cleanup method, including microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and micro-solid-phase extraction ({mu}-SPE), was developed for the extraction of ten organophosphorus pesticides in vegetable and fruit samples. Without adding any polar solvent, only one kind of non-polar solvent (hexane) was used as extraction solvent in the whole extraction step. Absorbing microwave {mu}-SPE device, was prepared by packing activated carbon with microporous polypropylene membrane envelope, and used as not only the sorbent in {mu}-SPE, but also the microwave absorption medium. Some experimental parameters effecting on extraction efficiency was investigated and optimized. 1.0 g of sample, 8 mL of hexane and three absorbing microwave {mu}-SPE devices were added in the microwave extraction vessel, the extraction was carried out under 400 W irradiation power at 60 Degree-Sign C for 10 min. The extracts obtained by MAE-{mu}-SPE were directly analyzed by GC-MS without any clean-up process. The recoveries were in the range of 93.5-104.6%, and the relative standard deviations were lower than 8.7%.

  9. Solvent extraction of boron complex with H-resorcinol and diphenylguanidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conditions have been studied for the formation of a complex of boron with H-resorcinol (2.4-dihydroxybenzene-azo-8-hydroxynaphthalene-3.6-disulphoric acid) and diphenylguanidine (DPG) which is extracted into higher alcohols (pentanols). The component ratio in the complex is B:HR:DPG=1:1:2. The reaction between boron and H-resorcinol is significantly accelerated in the presence of DPG that makes it possible to apply the reaction to extraction-photometric determination of boron. The infrared studies have confirmed the quinone-hydrazone form of H-resorcinol in the complex with boron. The method allows to determine 1x10-4 - 5x10-2% of boron

  10. Supercritical CO2 extraction of Schinus molle L with co-solvents: mathematical modeling and antimicrobial applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Scopel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the antimicrobial activity of the Schinus molle L. leaves extracts obtained under supercritical conditions using carbon dioxide and co-solvents. Antimicrobial qualitative evaluation was carried out through the bioautography technique and the microorganisms studied were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosas, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, and Salmonella choleraesuis. The supercritical fluid extraction was carried out in a pilot scale equipment using carbon dioxide modified by the addition of co-solvents, such as ethanol and water at 150 bar and 333 K. A mathematical modeling of the process was also performed.

  11. Study of variables affecting extraction of organic solvents from solid sorbent sampling media using supercritical carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaser, R.A. [Dept. of Health and Human Services, U.S. Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Div. of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Shulman, S.A. [Dept. of Health and Human Services, U.S. Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Div. of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The extraction of our solvents from three sorbents, using supercritical carbon dioxide was studied. Toluene and isooctane were extracted from Anasorb 747{sup R}, a synthetic carbon; 1-butanol from silica gel; and 2-nitropropane from Anasorb 727{sup R}, a porous organic polymer. Preliminary experiments indicated that dynamic extraction was required; these experiments also fixed the duration of extraction of the analytes. All extractions were performed at 1.0 mL min{sup -1}. The temperature and density of the supercritical extraction fluid were then varied, according to a fractional factorial statistical design. The amounts remaining on the sorbent were determined via solvent desorption of the analytes and gas chromatography of the eluents. The fraction extracted data were modeled as a function of temperature and density according to a thermodynamic approach that permitted computation of constant-density enthalpies of desorption. This study indicates a significant temperature- and density-dependence for quantitative extraction of isooctane and toluene from Anasorb 747{sup R} and 1-butanol from silica gel, with no measurable temperature- or density-dependence for extraction of 2-nitropropane from Anasorb 727{sup R}. The extracted analytes were also collected via cryotrapping; only higher level masses of 1-butanol were quantitativley recovered. The dependence of the extraction efficiency on the thimble volumes passed over the matrix is discussed. (orig.)

  12. Fast Determination of Essential Oil from Dried Menthol Mint and Orange Peel by Solvent Free Microwave Extraction Using Carbonyl Iron Powder as the Microwave Absorption Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zi-Ming; DING Lan; WANG Lu; FENG Jin; LI Tie-Chun; ZHOU Xin; ZHANG Han-Qi

    2006-01-01

    An improved solvent free microwave extraction, in which a kind of microwave absorption medium (carbonyl iron powder) was used, was applied to the extraction of essential oil from dried menthol mint and orange peel without addition of any solvent and pretreatment. It took much less time of extraction (30 min) than microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (90 min) and conventional hydrodistillation (180 min). The kinds of chemical compositions in essential oil extracted by different methods were almost the same and such improved solvent free microwave extraction can be a feasible way in extraction of essential oil from dried plant materials.

  13. Solvent extraction of nitrogen heterocyclic compounds contained in coal tar absorption oil fraction - Improvement of separation performance by addition of aluminum chloride to solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egashira, R.; Salim, C. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of International Development Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering

    2001-05-01

    The liquid-liquid equilibrium properties between the coal tar absorption oil fraction feed and the solvent (aqueous solution of methanol and aluminum chloride) were experimentally measured for nitrogen heterocyclic compounds (2,3-benzopyridine (quinoline), 3,4-benzopyridine (isoquinoline), and 2,3-benzopyrrole (indole)), homocyclic compounds (aromatics), and oxygen heterocyclic compounds. Nitrogen compounds were, extracted preferentially to the other compounds, and no oxygen compound was detected in the extract under all conditions. The distribution ratios of nitrogen compounds and aromatics increased with a larger mass fraction of AlCl{sub 3} in the extract. This increase in the distribution ratio was especially large for quinoline and isoquinoline, and the maximum ratios of quinoline and isoquinoline were 26 and 85 times larger, respectively, than in the cases without AlCl{sub 3} in the solvent. The separation selectivities for quinoline and isoquinoline relative to aromatics increased considerably with the mass fraction of AlCl{sub 3} in the extract, and the maximum ratios were 5 and 17 times higher than in the cases without AlCl{sub 3}. The separation selectivity for indole was apparently not affected by the addition of AlCl{sub 3}.

  14. Quality assessment of Moringa concanensis seed oil extracted through solvent and aqueous-enzymatic techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar, Farooq

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The composition and quality of the M. concanensis seed oil extracted through an aqueous-enzyme-assisted technique, using three commercial enzyme-mixtures (Natuzyme, Kemzyme, and Feedzyme was compared to those of the control-, (without enzymes and solvent-extracted oils. Aqueous enzyme-extracted M.concanensis seed oil content ranged from 23.54 to 27.46% and was significantly (P 0.05 variation in the contents of fiber and ash within the three extraction methods. However, the protein content of the meal obtained through the aqueous-enzyme and control methods was significantly (P M. concanensis seed oils extracted using the three methods. The specific extinctions at 232 and 270 nm, peroxide value, p-anisidine, free fatty acid contents and color values of the aqueous-enzyme-extracted oil were found to be lower than that of solvent-extracted oil and thus revealed good quality. The oils extracted through the three methods exhibited no significant (P En este estudio se compara la composición y la calidad del aceite de semilla de M. concanensis extraído mediante enzimas, utilizando tres enzimas comerciales (Natuzyme, Kemzyme, y Feedzyme con las de un control extraído sin enzimas y con las del aceite extraído con disolvente. El contenido en aceites de las semilla extraídas con enzimas osciló entre 23,54 a 27,46% y fue significativamente más elevado (P 0,05 en el contenido de fibra y ceniza para los tres métodos de la extracción. Sin embargo, el contenido proteínico de la harina obtenido por métodos enzimáticos y el control sin enzimas fue significativamente menor (P < 0,05 que el de la harina obtenida después de la extracción por disolvente. Las diferencias en el índice de yodo (67.1-68.0 g /100 g of oil, densidad en 24 °C (0,865-0,866 g/mL, índice de refracción a 40 °C (1,4622-1,4627 y fracción insaponificable (0,69-0,76 % no fueron significativamente diferentes para ninguna de las técnicas de extracción. Las extinciones espec

  15. Thermal And Spectroscopic Analyses Of Next Generation Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Solvent Contacted With 3, 8, And 16 Molar Nitric Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F.; Fink, S. D.

    2011-12-07

    A new solvent system referred to as Next Generation Solvent or NGS, has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the removal of cesium from alkaline solutions in the Caustic Side Solvent Extraction process. The NGS is proposed for deployment at MCU{sup a} and at the Salt Waste Processing Facility. This work investigated the chemical compatibility between NGS and 16 M, 8 M, and 3 M nitric acid from contact that may occur in handling of analytical samples from MCU or, for 3 M acid, which may occur during contactor cleaning operations at MCU. This work shows that reactions occurred between NGS components and the high molarity nitric acid. Reaction rates are much faster in 8 M and 16 M nitric acid than in 3 M nitric acid. In the case of 16 M and 8 M nitric acid, the nitric acid reacts with the extractant to produce initially organo-nitrate species. The reaction also releases soluble fluorinated alcohols such as tetrafluoropropanol. With longer contact time, the modifier reacts to produce a tarry substance with evolved gases (NO{sub x} and possibly CO). Calorimetric analysis of the reaction product mixtures revealed that the organo-nitrates reaction products are not explosive and will not deflagrate.

  16. Determination of fenvalerate in tomato by ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirsaheb, Meghdad; Ahmadi-Jouibari, Toraj; Fattahi, Nazir; Shamsipur, Mojtaba

    2014-09-01

    Ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction (UASE) combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on the solidification of floating organic drop (DLLME-SFO) has been developed for extraction and determination of fenvalerate from tomato samples. Fenvalerate was determined by high-performance liquid-liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detector. Effects of parameters such as type and volume of extraction solvent in the UASE stage, sonication time, type and volume of extraction solvent and disperser solvent in the DLLME-SFO stage, salt addition and pH effect on extraction were studied and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration graph was linear in the range of 5-500 µg kg(-1) with a detection limit of 0.6 µg kg(-1). The relative standard deviation for five replicate measurements of 100 µg kg(-1) of fenvalerate was 6.5%. The relative recovery of fenvalerate in different tomato samples at a spiking level of 10, 20 and 50 µg kg(-1) is in the range of 93.5-108%. The obtained results show that UASE-DLLME-SFO is a sensitive, fast and simple method for the determination of fenvalerate in tomato samples. PMID:24025187

  17. Equilibrium Copper Strip Points as a Function of Temperature and Other Operating Parameters: Implications for Commercial Copper Solvent Extraction Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The development of pressure and bioleaching processes for high grade copper ores and concentrates will result in copper solvent extraction plants treating solutions with high copper and acid concentrations at temperatures up to 45C and these copper solvent extraction plants will run with reagent concentrations up to 40 vol.%. There is also a trend to use copper stripping solutions with less acid than typically used in recent years. Cognis has developed a model that accurately predicts the copper strip point for virtually any copper solvent extraction reagent or combination of reagents under a wide variety of conditions. The equilibrium strip points for several well known commercial copper solvent extraction reagents are given as a function of reagent concentration, the copper and acid concentration of the strip aqueous, and the temperature. It is shown that the equilibrium strip point is not a straight line function of reagent concentration and that the equilibrium strip point increases with an increase in temperature. Copper extraction also increases as the temperature increases.

  18. Study on Gold(Ⅰ) Solvent Extraction from Alkaline Cyanide Solution by TBP with Addition of Surfactant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The new solvent extraction system for gold(Ⅰ) from alkaline cyanide solution by TBP with addition of surfactant in aqueous phase was studied. The effect of various factors, such as equilibrium pH, constitution of organic phase, molar ratio of CPB∶Au(CN)2-, extraction time, aqueous/organic phase ratio, different initial gold concentration, equilibrium temperature, different diluent, different types of extractants and surfactants etc., was inspected. The results show that gold(Ⅰ) can be extracted quantitatively by controlling the quantity of surfactant (CPB); both the equilibrium pH and diluent hardly influence percent extraction. Gold(Ⅰ) percent extraction reaches more than 98% under the optimal experimental conditions. 30% vol TBP diluted by sulphonating kerosene can load gold(Ⅰ) to rather high levels. Loading capacity is in excess of 38 g/L. The extraction mechanism is discussed and the overall extraction reaction is deduced.

  19. Indium recovery from acidic aqueous solutions by solvent extraction with D2EHPA: a statistical approach to the experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortes M.C.B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This experimental work presents the optimization results of obtaining a high indium concentration solution and minimum iron poisoning by solvent extraction with D2EHPA solubilized in isoparaffin and exxsol. The variables studied in the extraction step were D2EHPA concentration, acidity of the aqueous phase and time of contact between phases. Different hydrochloric and sulfuric acid concentrations were studied for the stripping step. The optimum experimental conditions resulted in a solution with 99% indium extraction and less than 4% iron. The construction of a McCabe-Thiele diagram indicated two theoretical countercurrent stages for indium extraction and at least six stages for indium stripping. Finally, the influence of associated metals found in typical sulfate leach liquors from zinc plants was studied. Under the experimental conditions for maximum indium extraction, 96% indium extraction was obtained, iron extraction was about 4% and no Ga, Cu and Zn were co-extracted.

  20. Fractionation of commercial hexane and use of its fractions as extracting solvent of cottonseed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megahed, Ola A.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of producing off-graded cottonseed oil using locally produced commercial hexane as extracting solvent has explored this research. It was aimed in this work to investigate whether this problem can be solved by controlling the boiling range of the extracting solvent. Four different hexane fractions of different boiling ranges were prepared from commercial hexane. The boiling range of commercial hexane was 62-68ºC while the boiling ranges of the four fractions were 62- 64, 64-65, 65-66 and 66-68ºC. Commercial hexane and the prepared four hexane fractions were then used to extract cottonseed oil from a fixed seed sample. The five crude oil samples were then refined and bleached and their colours were measured. The results have shown that the heaviest hexane fraction ( b.r 66-68ºC produced the lightest coloured oils. The colour index of the bleached oil using this heavy cut was 190 compared to 350 using the original commercial hexane. However, the production of a commercial hexane cut having a narrow boiling range will be costly. Therefore, this research has been extended to investigate the suitability of a heavy petroleum cut which has a boiling range as wide as that of commercial hexane to extract cottonseed oil. The boiling range of this cut was 66-72ºC. The obtained results proved that the extraction of cottonseed oil using that heavy petroleum fraction produces much lighter oil than the use of conventional hexane solvent.En esta investigación se ha examinado el problema de producir aceite de semilla de algodón sin-clasificar usando hexano comercial producido localmente como disolvente. El objetivo de este trabajo fue investigar si este problema puede ser solucionado controlando el rango de ebullición del disolvente extractante. Cuatro fracciones diferentes de hexano de diversos rangos de ebullición fueron preparadas del hexano comercial. El rango al que ebullía el hexano comercial era 62-68ºC mientras que los

  1. Solvent extraction of rubidium from gold waste using conventional SX and new CFE methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Reza Tavakoli Mohammadi; Seyed Mohammad Javad Koleini; Sepideh Javanshir; Hossein Abolghasemi; Mahmoud Abdollahy

    2015-01-01

    Solvent extraction (SX) of rubidium (Rb) from leaching filtrate of gold waste (GW) in Mouteh Processing Plant by 18-crown-6 (18C6) was studied.High potential of new column flotoextraction (CFE) method in extraction of Rb from dilute solutions was also demonstrated.First,the factors affecting SX of Rb from a synthetic rubidium sulfate solution (containing 100 mg·L-1 Rb) were identified.0.05 mol·L-1 18C6 in kerosene,0.02 mol·L-1 picric acid in aqueous phase,aqueous to organic (A/O) ratio of 1,pH 7 and mixing time of 15 min are the optimum values for affective factors.The three-stage precipitation with sodium carbonate,pH adjustment with sulfuric acid and two-stage evaporation and crystallization were conducted to purify the leaching from impurities such as Fe,Al,Mn,Ca and especially competing cations of K and Na.Almost complete extraction of Rb and K from final filtrate containing 0.08 mol·L-1 picric acid was performed using 0.2 mol·L-1 18C6 in kerosene.The Rb and K strippings of 99.12 % and 9.93 %,respectively,are obtained with 2 mol·L-1 nitric acid with A/O ratio of 2.Finally,the performance comparison of the CFE and SX methods in similar conditions shows increased extraction of K and Rb by 16 % and 5 %,respectively,using CFE method.

  2. Recovery of Vanadium from H2SO4-HF Acidic Leaching Solution of Black Shale by Solvent Extraction and Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingbin Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The recovery of vanadium from sulfuric and hydrofluoric mixed acid solutions generated by the direct leaching of black shale was investigated using solvent extraction and precipitation methods. The process consisted of reduction, solvent extraction, and stripping, followed by precipitation and calcination to yield vanadium pentoxide. The influence of various operating parameters on the extraction and recovery of vanadium was studied. Vanadium (IV was selectively extracted using a mixture of 10% (v/v di(2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid and 5% (v/v tri-n-butylphosphate in sulfonated kerosene. Using six extraction and five stripping stages, the extraction efficiency for vanadium was 96.7% and the stripping efficiency was 99.7%. V2O5 with a purity of 99.52% was obtained by oxidation of the loaded strip solution and precipitation of ammonium polyvanadate at pH 1.8 to 2.2, followed by calcination of the dried precipitate at 550 °C for 2 h. It was concluded that the combination of solvent extraction and precipitation is an efficient method for the recovery of vanadium from a multi-element leach solution generated from black shale.

  3. POLAR AND NON POLAR SOLVENT EXTRACTION AND PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF FOUR DIFFERENT PARTS FROM BRASSICA NIGRA (KOCH. PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sujatha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Profound research has been done on the medicinal value of Brassica nigra (BN seeds, and the leaves of the plant have been investigated in this study. The methanol extracts of the leaves were subjected to several in vitro studies. Among the four parts of this experimental plant seed extracts, which showed better antimicrobial activity in the initial screening test, were selected for further investigations. Though a floral extract with chloroform solvent showed refusal activity against five tested bacteria. However, maximum zone of inhibition observed in seed extract with polar and non polar solvents such as Pet. Ether, Chloroform and methanol against S. aureus (17.90 ± 2.1, P. mirabilis (17.8±4.02, E. aerogens (15.71.4±0.2, P. vulgaris (14.7±2.8, E. coli (11.47±3.3. Comparison of the antimicrobial activities of the fractions with that of the crude extract indicated that the non-polar fractions in many cases are stronger in activity at the two concentration levels than the crude extract. Results of the present study indicated that seed extracts with polar and nonpolar solvents can be exploited for future antimicrobial drugs against selected pathogenic bacterial strain.

  4. Fast environment-friendly ball mill-assisted deep eutectic solvent-based extraction of natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man; Wang, Jiaqin; Zhang, Yue; Xia, Qian; Bi, Wentao; Yang, Xiaodi; Chen, David Da Yong

    2016-04-22

    A fast environment-friendly extraction method, ball mill-assisted deep eutectic solvent-based extraction, was used for the extraction of natural products from plants. In this study, tanshinones were selected as target compounds to evaluate the efficiency of the developed extraction method. Under the optimized experimental conditions, cryptotanshinone (0.176mg/g), tanshinone I (0.181mg/g), and tanshinone II A (0.421mg/g) were extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, and the developed method was found to be greener, more efficient, and faster than conventional, environmentally harmful extraction methods such as methanol-based ultrasound-assisted extraction and heat reflux extraction. The analytical performances including recovery, reproducibility (RSD, n=5), correlation of determination (r(2)), and the limit of detection, with the ranges of 96.1-103.9%, 1.6-1.9%, 0.9973-0.9984, and 5-8ng/mL, were respectively obtained. Application of ball mill-assisted deep eutectic solvent-based extraction may fundamentally shape the future development of extraction methods. PMID:27033981

  5. High anti-inflammatory activity of harpagoside-enriched extracts obtained from solvent-modified super- and subcritical carbon dioxide extractions of the roots of Harpagophytum procumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, M; Laufer, S; Schmidt, P C

    2006-01-01

    Solvent-modified carbon dioxide extractions of the roots of Harpagophytum procumbens have been investigated with respect to extraction efficiency and content of harpagoside, and compared with a conventional extract. The effects of pressure, temperature, type and concentration of the modifier have been examined. Two extraction steps were necessary in order to achievehigh anti-inflammatory harpagoside-enriched extracts. The first extraction step was carried out in the supercritical state using carbon dioxide modified with n-propanol to remove undesired lipophilic substances. The main extraction was performed either in the supercritical or in the subcritical state with carbon dioxide modified with ethanol. The supercritical fluid extraction resulted in extracts containing up to 30% harpagoside. The subcritical extracts showed a harpagoside content of ca. 20%, but the extraction yield was nearly three times greater compared with supercritical conditions. The total harpagoside recovery resulting from the sum of the extract and the crude drug residue was greater than 99% in all experiments. The conventional extract and two carbon dioxide extracts were tested for in-vitro inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase or cyclooxygenase-2 biosynthesis. Both carbon dioxide extracts showed total inhibition on 5-lipoxygenase biosynthesis at a concentration of 51.8 mg/L. In contrast, the conventional extract failed to show any inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase biosynthesis. PMID:16454469

  6. A SAXS study of aggregation in the synergistic TBP-HDBP solvent extraction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Ross J; Anderson, Timothy L; Antonio, Mark R; Braatz, Alex; Nilsson, Mikael

    2013-05-16

    The macroscopic phase behaviors of a solvent system containing two extractants, tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and di-n-butyl phosphoric acid (HDBP) in n-dodecane, were investigated through use of liquid-liquid extraction and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments. Five organic solutions, each containing a total extractant concentration (TBP + HDBP) of 1 M in varying molar ratios (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 [TBP]:[TBP + HDBP]), were contacted with 0.2 M HNO3 aqueous solutions without and with dysprosium(III) at a concentration of 10(-4) M. An enhancement of the extraction of Dy(3+)--due to effects of synergism arising from the binary combination of extractants--was observed. SAXS data were collected for all solution compositions from 0 to 1 mol-fraction end ratios of TBP after contact with the acidic aqueous solutions both in the absence and presence of Dy as well as for the organic phases before aqueous contact. In the precontacted solutions, no notable changes in the SAXS data were observed upon combining the extractants so that the scattering intensity (I) measured at zero angle (Q = 0 Å(-1))--parameter I(0)--the experimental radius of gyration (R(g)), and the maximum linear extent (MLE) of the extractant aggregates were arithmetic averages of the two end members, 1 M HDBP, on the one hand, and 1 M TBP, on the other. In contrast, after contact with the aqueous phases with and without Dy(3+), a significant reorganization occurs with larger aggregates apparent in the extractant mixtures and smaller in the two end member solutions. In particular, the maximum values of the metrical parameters (I(0), R(g), and MLE) correlate with the apparent optimal synergistic extraction mole ratio of 0.25. The SAXS data were further analyzed using the recently developed generalized indirect Fourier transformation (GIFT) method to provide pair-distance distribution functions with real-space information on aggregate morphology. Before aqueous contact, the organic phases show

  7. Solvent extraction method for rapid separation of strontium-90 in milk and food samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solvent extraction method, using tributyl phosphate, for rapid separation of strontium-90 in milk and other food samples has been presented in this report in view of large number of samples recieved after Chernobyl accident for checking radioactive contamination. The earlier nitration method in use for the determination of 90Sr through its daughter 90Y takes over two weeks for analysis of a sample. While by this extraction method it takes only 4 to 5 hours for sample analysis. Complete estimation including initial counting can be done in a single day. The chemical recovery varies between 80-90% compared to nitration method which is 65-80%. The purity of the method has been established by following the decay of yttrium-90 separated. Some of the results obtained by adopting this chemical method for food analysis are included. The method is, thus, found to be rapid and convenient for accurate estimation of strontium-90 in milk and food samples. (author). 2 tabs., 1 fig

  8. Gold in natural water: A method of determination by solvent extraction and electrothermal atomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    A method has been developed using electrothermal atomization to effectively determine the amount of gold in natural water within the nanogram range. The method has four basic steps: (1) evaporating a 1-L sample; (2) putting it in hydrobromic acid-bromine solution; (3) extracting the sample with methyl-isobutyl-ketone; and (4) determining the amount of gold using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The limit of detection is 0.001 ??g gold per liter. Results from three studies indicate, respectively, that the method is precise, effective, and free of interference. Specifically, a precision study indicates that the method has a relative standard deviation of 16-18%; a recovery study indicates that the method recovers gold at an average of 93%; and an interference study indicates that the interference effects are eliminated with solvent extraction and background correction techniques. Application of the method to water samples collected from 41 sites throughout the Western United States and Alaska shows a gold concentration range of < 0.001 to 0.036 ??g gold per liter, with an average of 0.005 ??g/L. ?? 1984.

  9. Quantitative Analysis of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Soils: Comparison between Reflectance Spectroscopy and Solvent Extraction by 3 Certified Laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Schwartz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The commonly used analytic method for assessing total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH in soil, EPA method 418.1, is usually based on extraction with 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon 113 and FTIR spectroscopy of the extracted solvent. This method is widely used for initial site investigation, due to the relative low price per sample. It is known that the extraction efficiency varies depending on the extracting solvent and other sample properties. This study’s main goal was to evaluate reflectance spectroscopy as a tool for TPH assessment, as compared with three commercial certified laboratories using traditional methods. Large variations were found between the results of the three commercial laboratories, both internally (average deviation up to 20%, and between laboratories (average deviation up to 103%. Reflectance spectroscopy method was found be as good as the commercial laboratories in terms of accuracy and could be a viable field-screening tool that is rapid, environmental friendly, and cost effective.

  10. Influence of extraction solvents on the recovery of antioxidant phenolic compounds from brewer’s spent grains

    OpenAIRE

    Meneses, Nuno G. T.; Martins, Sílvia; J. A. Teixeira; Mussatto, Solange I.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of different solvents (methanol, ethanol, acetone, hexane, ethyl acetate, water, methanol:water mixtures, ethanol:water mixtures, and acetone:water mixtures) for extracting antioxidant phenolic compounds from brewer’s spent grains (BSGs). The extracts were characterized regarding the contents of total phenols, flavonoids, proteins and reducing sugars. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical, and the ferric ...

  11. Comparative Evaluation of Different Extraction Techniques and Solvents for the Assay of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity of Hashemi Rice Bran

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Ghasemzadeh; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Abdul Shukor Juraimi; Amin Tayebi-Meigooni

    2015-01-01

    Secondary metabolite contents (total phenolic, flavonoid, tocopherol, and tocotrienol) and antioxidant activities of Hashemi rice bran extracts obtained by ultrasound-assisted and traditional solvent (ethanol and 50:50 (v/v) ethanol-water) extraction techniques were compared. Phenolic and, flavonoid compounds were identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and method validation was performed. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed among the different extractio...

  12. FI/SI on-line solvent extraction/back extraction preconcentration coupled to direct injection nebulization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for determination of copper and lead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2002-01-01

    An automated sequential injection on-line preconcentration procedure for determination of trace levels of copper and lead via solvent extraction/back extraction coupled to ICP-MS is described. In citrate buffer of pH 3, neutral complexes between the analytes and the chelating reagent, ammonium...... pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC), are extracted into isobutyl methyl ketone (IBMK). The organic phase is separated from the aqueous one by means of a dual-conical gravitational phase separator, and stored in a PTFE holding coil. Afterwards, the organic phase is propelled and mixed with an aqueous back extractant of nitric...

  13. Survey of Solvent type and drying of biomass effects on lipid extraction from Nannochloropsis Oculata for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Malakootian

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: The use of lyophilized method for dewatering and drying of biomass and diethyl ether as solvent for the extraction of lipids from biomass yielded more compared with other methods studied in this paper and would be more efficient in research works related to the production of biodiesel from microalgae’s lipid.

  14. 21 CFR 182.40 - Natural extractives (solvent-free) used in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings. 182.40 Section 182.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings. Natural extractives (solvent-free) used in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings that are generally recognized as safe for their...

  15. INIBIÇÃO DE SALMONELLA POR EXTRATO DE ALECRIM (Rosmarinus officinalis: OBTENÇÃO DE EXTRATOS DE ALECRIM EM SOLVENTES ORGÂNICOS INHIBITION OF Salmonella BY ROSEMARY (Rosmarinus officinalis EXTRACTS: ORGANIC SOLVENTS ROSEMARY EXTRACT OBTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Célia Lopes Torres

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Com o objetivo de se obter um extrato de alecrim em solvente orgânico, a ser utilizado na inibição de Salmonella, em alimentos, foram testados quatro tipos de solventes, a saber: metanol, etanol, acetona e hexano. Na obtenção dos extratos foi adotada a técnica recomendada para determinação de lipídeos, conforme as NORMAS ANALÍTICAS DO INSTITUTO ADOLFO LUTZ (1976. A análise dos resultados evidenciou um excelente desempenho do metanol, não sendo contudo recomendada a utilização em produtos alimentares em virtude da sua toxidez. Também o etanol apresentou elevados índices de extração, sem os inconvenientes associados ao uso do metanol, sendo por isto o solvente indicado para a continuidade do estudo proposto.

    Aiming to obtain a rosemary extract in organic solvent to be used in Salmonella inhibition, in food, were tested four kinds of solvents, namely: methane alcohol, ethyl alcohol, acetone and hexane. It was used the recommended technique for lipids determination in extracts determination according to the analytic rules used by Instituto Adolfo Lutz. Analysis results showed an excellent performance for methane alcohol, but its use is not recommended in feed products due to its toxicity. Ethyl alcohol presented also elevated extraction indexes without inconvenients associated to methane alcohol use, by this reason being a solvent indicated for continuity to the proposed study.

  16. Recovery of Acetic Acid from An Ethanol Fermentation Broth by Liquid-Liquid Extraction (LLE) Using Various Solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Thi Thu Huong; Kim, Tae Hyun [Kongju National University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Um, Byung Hwan [Hankyong National University, Anseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) using various solvents was studied for recovery of acetic acid from a synthetic ethanol fermentation broth. The microbial fermentation of sugars presented in hydrolyzate gives rise to acetic acid as a byproduct. In order to obtain pure ethanol for use as a biofuel, fermentation broth should be subjected to acetic acid removal step and the recovered acetic acid can be put to industrial use. Herein, batch LLE experiments were carried out at 25°C using a synthetic fermentation broth comprising 20.0 g l{sup -1} acetic acid and 5.0 g l{sup -1} ethanol. Ethyl acetate (EtOAc), tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO), tri-n-octylamine (TOA), and tri-n-alkylphosphine oxide (TAPO) were utilized as solvents, and the extraction potential of each solvent was evaluated by varying the organic phase-to-aqueous phase ratios as 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0. The highest acetic acid extraction yield was achieved with TAPO; however, the lowest ethanol-to-acetic acid extraction ratio was obtained using TOPO. In a single-stage batch extraction, 97.0 % and 92.4 % of acetic acid could be extracted using TAPO and TOPO when the ratio of organic-to-aqueous phases is 4:1 respectively. A higher solvent-to-feed ratio resulted in an increase in the ethanol-to-acetic acid ratio, which decreased both acetic acid purity and acetic acid extraction yield.

  17. Chemical Composition of Artemisia annua L. Leaves and Antioxidant Potential of Extracts as a Function of Extraction Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maznah Ismail

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the chemical and nutritional composition of Artemisia annua leaves in addition to determination of antioxidant potential of their extracts prepared in different solvents. Chemical composition was determined by quantifying fat, protein, carbohydrate, fiber, tocopherol, phytate, and tannin contents. Extraction of A. annua leaves, for antioxidant potential evaluation, was carried out using five solvents of different polarities, i.e., hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Antioxidant potential was evaluated by estimating total phenolic (TPC, flavonoid (TFC contents, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, DPPH radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation. Efficiency of different solvents was compared for the yield of antioxidant extracts from leaf samples and a clear variation was observed. The highest TPC, TFC, TEAC, DPPH radical scavenging and lowest lipid peroxidation were observed in MeOH extracts, whereas aqueous extract exhibited high ferric reducing antioxidant power; suggesting MeOH to be the most favorable extractant.

  18. Mathematical modeling of cadmium(II) solvent extraction from neutral and acidic chloride media using Cyanex 923 extractant as a metal carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, A A; Coll, M T; Fortuny, A; Rathore, N S; Sastre, A M

    2010-10-15

    This paper describes experimental work and the mathematical modeling of solvent extraction of cadmium(II) from neutral and acidic aqueous chloride media with a Cyanex 923 extractant in Exxol D-100. Solvent extraction experiments were carried out to analyze the influence of variations in the composition of the aqueous and organic phases on the efficiency of cadmium(II) extraction. In neutral and acidic chloride conditions, the extraction of cadmium(II) by the organophosphorous extractant Cyanex 923 (L) is based on the solvation mechanism of neutral H(n)CdCl((2+n)) species and the formation of H(n)CdCl((2+n))L(q) complexes in the organic phase, where n=0, 1, 2 and q=1, 2. The mathematical model of cadmium(II) extraction was derived from the mass balances and chemical equilibria involved in the separation system. The model was computed with the Matlab software. The equilibrium parameters for metal extraction, i.e. the stability constants of the aqueous Cd-Cl complexes, the formation constants of the acidic Cd-Cl species and the metal equilibrium extraction constants, were proposed. The optimized constants were appropriate, as there was good agreement when the model was fitted to the experimental data for each of the experiments.

  19. Mathematical modeling of cadmium(II) solvent extraction from neutral and acidic chloride media using Cyanex 923 extractant as a metal carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leopold, A.A., E-mail: agnieszka.leopold@upc.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, EPSEVG, Av. Victor Balaguer s/n, 08800 Vilanova i la Geltru (Spain); Coll, M.T.; Fortuny, A.; Rathore, N.S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, EPSEVG, Av. Victor Balaguer s/n, 08800 Vilanova i la Geltru (Spain); Sastre, A.M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, ETSEIB, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    This paper describes experimental work and the mathematical modeling of solvent extraction of cadmium(II) from neutral and acidic aqueous chloride media with a Cyanex 923 extractant in Exxol D-100. Solvent extraction experiments were carried out to analyze the influence of variations in the composition of the aqueous and organic phases on the efficiency of cadmium(II) extraction. In neutral and acidic chloride conditions, the extraction of cadmium(II) by the organophosphorous extractant Cyanex 923 (L) is based on the solvation mechanism of neutral H{sub n}CdCl{sub (2+n)} species and the formation of H{sub n}CdCl{sub (2+n)}L{sub q} complexes in the organic phase, where n = 0, 1, 2 and q = 1, 2. The mathematical model of cadmium(II) extraction was derived from the mass balances and chemical equilibria involved in the separation system. The model was computed with the Matlab software. The equilibrium parameters for metal extraction, i.e. the stability constants of the aqueous Cd-Cl complexes, the formation constants of the acidic Cd-Cl species and the metal equilibrium extraction constants, were proposed. The optimized constants were appropriate, as there was good agreement when the model was fitted to the experimental data for each of the experiments.

  20. MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT (MCU) GAMMA MONITORS SYSTEM FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casella, V

    2005-12-15

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, the Closure Business Unit (CBU) plans to process a portion of dissolved saltcake waste through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). This work was derived from Technical Task Request SP-TTR-2004-00013, ''Gamma Monitor for MCU''. The deliverables for this task are the hardware and software for the gamma monitors and a report summarizing the testing and acceptance of this equipment for use in the MCU. Gamma-ray monitors are required to: (1) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution before entering the DSS (Decontaminated Salt Solution) Hold Tank, (2) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent before entering the Strip Effluent Hold Tank, (3) Verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process (The DSS Hold Tank Cs-137 concentration will be very low and the Cs-137 concentration in the Strip Effluent Hold Tank will be fifteen times higher than the Cs-137 concentration in the Feed Tank.) Sodium iodide monitors are used to measure the Cs-137 concentration in the piping before the DSS Hold tank, while GM monitors are used for Cs-137 measurements before the Strip Effluent Hold Tank. Tungsten shields were designed using Monte Carlo calculations and fabricated to reduce the process background radiation at the detector positions. These monitors were calibrated with NIST traceable standards that were specially made to be the same as the piping being monitored. Since this gamma ray monitoring system is unique, specially designed software was written and acceptance tested by Savannah River National Laboratory personnel. The software is a LabView-based application that serves as a unified

  1. Solvent-enhanced headspace sorptive extraction in the analysis of the volatile fraction of matrices of vegetable origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgorbini, Barbara; Budziak, Dilma; Cordero, Chiara; Liberto, Erica; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Sandra, Pat; Bicchi, Carlo

    2010-07-01

    The solvent-enhanced headspace sorptive extraction technique aims at modifying PDMS polarity using a solvent to increase its concentration capability. In solvent-enhanced headspace sorptive extraction, a PDMS tubing closed at both ends by small glass stoppers and filled with an organic solvent is suspended in the sample headspace for a fixed time. After sampling, the sampled analytes are recovered from the PDMS tubing by thermal desorption and online transferred to a GC-flame ionization detector or GC-MS system for analysis. Cyclohexane, iso-octane, ethyl acetate, acetone, acetonitrile and methanol were tested as PDMS modifiers to sample the volatile fractions of sage (Salvia lavandulifolia Vahl.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and roasted coffee. Ethyl acetate was found to be the most effective PDMS modifier for all matrices investigated; although to a lesser extent, cyclohexane also increased component recoveries with sage and thyme. Acetone, acetonitrile and methanol did not increase PDMS recovery, while isooctane was excluded because of its interaction with the polymer. The results show that solvent-modified PDMS extends the range of sampled headspace components with different polarities, increases the recovery of many of them, improves sensitivity in trace analysis, speeds up recovery and gives repeatability comparable with that of unmodified PDMS. PMID:20549665

  2. Development of green betaine-based deep eutectic solvent aqueous two-phase system for the extraction of protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Wang, Yuzhi; Xu, Kaijia; Huang, Yanhua; Wen, Qian; Ding, Xueqin

    2016-05-15

    Six kinds of new type of green betaine-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been synthesized. Deep eutectic solvent aqueous two-phase systems (DES-ATPS) were established and successfully applied in the extraction of protein. Betaine-urea (Be-U) was selected as the suitable extractant. Single factor experiments were carried out to determine the optimum conditions of the extraction process, such as the salt concentration, the mass of DES, the separation time, the amount of protein, the temperature and the pH value. The extraction efficiency could achieve to 99.82% under the optimum conditions. Mixed sample and practical sample analysis were discussed. The back extraction experiment was implemented and the back extraction efficiency could reach to 32.66%. The precision experiment, repeatability experiment and stability experiment were investigated. UV-vis, FT-IR and circular dichroism (CD) spectra confirmed that the conformation of protein was not changed during the process of extraction. The mechanisms of extraction were researched by dynamic light scattering (DLS), the measurement of the conductivity and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). DES-protein aggregates and embraces phenomenon play considerable roles in the separation process. All of these results indicated that betaine-based DES-ATPS may provide a potential substitute new method for the separation of proteins. PMID:26992491

  3. Preparation of chromatographic and solid-solvent extraction 99mTc generators using gel-type targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied two types of targets zirconium-molybdate (ZrMo) and titanium-molybdate (TiMo) prepared by precipitating reaction between ammonium-molybdate and zirconium-chloride or titanium-chloride solutions, respectively. Other types of targets were also prepared by co-precipitating ZrMo or TiMo with hydrous manganese-dioxide, hydrous silica, and hydrous titanium-dioxide or by impregnated ZrMo or TiMo with Iodate anions. The results on extraction of Tc-99m from neutron irradiated TiMo solid phase using solvents such as MEK, aceton, ethylic ether, chloroform, etc showed that separation yield (SY) of Tc-99m in case of aceton extraction was from 70% to 80% and in other cases non higher than 40%. The Tc-99m elution curves and column kinetic in case of aceton extraction (after evaporation of aceton and recovery of Tc-99m in 0,9% NaCl solution) was superior than in case chromatographic generator using saline eluant. As result obtained, two types of generators were successfully prepared and put into use: Chromatographic generator using titanium-molybdate target as packing material and saline as eluant. Solid-solvent extraction 99mTc generator using titanium-molybdate target (as solid phase) and aceton as extracting solvent. (author)

  4. Preparation of chromatographic and solid-solvent extraction {sup 99m}Tc generators using gel-type targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Van So [Radioisotope Department, Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    2000-10-01

    We have studied two types of targets zirconium-molybdate (ZrMo) and titanium-molybdate (TiMo) prepared by precipitating reaction between ammonium-molybdate and zirconium-chloride or titanium-chloride solutions, respectively. Other types of targets were also prepared by co-precipitating ZrMo or TiMo with hydrous manganese-dioxide, hydrous silica, and hydrous titanium-dioxide or by impregnated ZrMo or TiMo with Iodate anions. The results on extraction of Tc-99m from neutron irradiated TiMo solid phase using solvents such as MEK, aceton, ethylic ether, chloroform, etc showed that separation yield (SY) of Tc-99m in case of aceton extraction was from 70% to 80% and in other cases non higher than 40%. The Tc-99m elution curves and column kinetic in case of aceton extraction (after evaporation of aceton and recovery of Tc-99m in 0,9% NaCl solution) was superior than in case chromatographic generator using saline eluant. As result obtained, two types of generators were successfully prepared and put into use: Chromatographic generator using titanium-molybdate target as packing material and saline as eluant. Solid-solvent extraction {sup 99m}Tc generator using titanium-molybdate target (as solid phase) and aceton as extracting solvent. (author)

  5. Regeneration strategies of polymers employed in ex-situ remediation of contaminated soil: Bioregeneration versus solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca Angelucci, Domenica; Tomei, M Concetta

    2015-08-15

    In this study we evaluated the feasibility of two regeneration strategies of contaminated polymers employed for ex-situ soil remediation in a two-step process. Soil decontamination is achieved by sorption of the pollutants on the polymer beads, which are regenerated in a subsequent step. Tested soil was contaminated with a mixture of 4-chlorophenol and pentachlorophenol, and a commercial polymer, Hytrel, has been employed for extraction. Removal efficiencies of the polymer-soil extraction are in the range of 51-97% for a contact time ≤ 24 h. Two polymer regeneration strategies, solvent extraction and biological regeneration (realized in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor), were tested and compared. Performance was assessed in terms of removal rates and efficiencies and an economic analysis based on the operating costs has been performed. Results demonstrated the feasibility of both regeneration strategies, but the bioregeneration was advantageous in that provided the biodegradation of the contaminants desorbed from the polymer. Practically complete removal for 4-chlorophenol and up to 85% biodegradation efficiency for pentachlorophenol were achieved. Instead, in the solvent extraction, a relevant production (184-831 L kg(pol)(-1)) of a highly polluted stream to be treated or disposed of is observed. The cost analysis of the two strategies showed that the bioregeneration is much more convenient with operating costs of ∼12 €/kg(pol) i.e. more than one order of magnitude lower in comparison to ∼233 €/kg(pol) of the solvent extraction. PMID:26074469

  6. Conception and estimation of new zirconium/hafnium separation process: nano-filtration-complexation, solvent extraction and ions-exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High purity zirconium is used as fuel cladding material in nuclear power plant. Zirconium does not absorb much neutrons, contrary to hafnium. These elements coexist in nature (3% hafnium in zircon). So they must be separated. This Ph.D. deal with the separation of zirconium from hafnium by using different techniques. In nano-filtration-complexation, zirconium/hafnium nitrates mixture is separated by using amino-carboxylate ligands through nano-filtration membranes. In solvent extraction, zirconium is extracted in high hydrochloric acid concentration media. Zirconium/hafnium separation is studied by using ion-exchangers resins in batch-wise and elution from ion-exchangers resins. Liquid-liquid and solid-liquid Systems characterization is carried out with the aim of modelling. Free hafnium zirconium and free zirconium hafnium are obtained by solvent extraction and ion exchangers. (author)

  7. Development of a novel mixer-settler with in-line static mixer as mixer for nuclear solvent extraction applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As costs of specialty solvents for nuclear extraction are quite high, there is a demand of solvent extraction operations at extreme O/A and A/O ratios. Recently at RR and DD, a novel mixer-settler was visualized and developed for this kind of service. The mixer of the novel contactor is based on an in-line static mixer and does not involve any mechanical moving part. This mixer-settler was realized in a single stage prototype and tested for hydrodynamics in non-mass transfer region as well as mass transfer region. Non-mass transfer runs were carried out with pre-equilibrated 30%TBP/kerosene/0.01N acid/water biphasic system. Drop population sizes were measured with a laser drop-size analyzer. Mass transfer runs were carried out with aqueous nitric acid in extraction mode and mass transfer efficiency was estimated. (author)

  8. Extraction Techniques for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, E. V.; Gan, S.; Ng, H.K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a review of the analytical extraction techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils. The extraction technologies described here include Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic and mechanical agitation, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical and subcritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid phase extraction and microextraction, thermal desorption and flash pyrolysis, as well as fluidised-bed extraction. The influencing factors in ...

  9. Enhanced extraction yields and mobile phase separations by solvent mixtures for the analysis of metabolites in Annona muricata L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro de Souza, Eloana Benassi; da Silva, Renata Reis; Afonso, Sabrina; Scarminio, Ieda Spacino

    2009-12-01

    The effects of five extraction solvents and their mixtures on the yield of metabolites in crude and fractionated extracts of Annona muricata L. leaves were investigated by direct comparison. Extraction media were prepared using simplex centroid mixtures of ethanol, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, acetone, and chloroform. The effects of the mobile phase solvent strength and the analysis wavelength on the chromatographic separation were also investigated. Solvent mixtures rather than pure solvents were found to be the most efficient extractors for the different fractions. The results indicated that the mobile phase composed of methanol/acetonitrile/water (26:27:47 v/v/v) was most suitable for the basic fraction analysis at 254 nm, whereas the mobile phase composed of methanol/acetonitrile/water (35:35:30 v/v/v) was the most adequate for the organic fraction analysis at 254 nm. The results indicated that the chromatographic profiles and number of peaks were affected by the mobile phase strength and analysis wavelength.

  10. Comparative non-dispersive solvent extraction of uranium and thorium using a hollow fiber contactor containing TBP/DHOA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-dispersive solvent extraction of Uranium and Thorium was carried out from nitric acid medium using hollow fiber contactor containing TBP and DHOA as the carrier extractants. The effect of flow rate was studied while carrying out the extraction studies in counter current mode using 10 g/L solutions of the metal ions in 3 M HNO3 and 50 mL/minute was found to be most suitable for better separation efficiency. Stripping studies were also carried out using deionized water as the strippant for both the metal ions. (author)

  11. Quality assessment of Moringa concanensis seed oil extracted through solvent and aqueous-enzymatic techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Anwar, Farooq; Latif, Sajid

    2008-01-01

    The composition and quality of the M. concanensis seed oil extracted through an aqueous-enzyme-assisted technique, using three commercial enzyme-mixtures (Natuzyme, Kemzyme, and Feedzyme) was compared to those of the control-, (without enzymes) and solvent-extracted oils. Aqueous enzyme-extracted M.concanensis seed oil content ranged from 23.54 to 27.46% and was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of the control (15.41%). Analyses of the oilseed residues (meals) revealed no significant ...

  12. In vitro anti-oxidative activities and GC-MS analysis of various solvent extracts of Cassia singueana parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohammed Auwal; Koorbanally, Neil Anthony; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the anti-oxidative activities of different solvent extracts of Cassia singueana parts. Our results indicate that all the extracts have reducing power (Fe3+ --> Fe2+) and DPPH radical scavenging abilities. However, the ethyl acetate extract of the stem bark has the highest total reducing power whilst the ethanol extract of the stem bark has more potent free radical scavenging activity than all the other extracts. The ethyl acetate extract of the stem bark exhibited more powerful hydroxyl radical scavenging activity than other extracts whilst the aqueous extract of the leaves displayed more potent nitric oxide inhibition activity than other extracts. The GC-MS analysis of the ethyl acetate extract of the stem bark and the ethanol extract of the root and leaves indicated that several aromatic compounds, including phenolics, fatty acids, amino acids and triterpenoids were present in these extracts. Data from this study suggest that the parts of C. singueana possessed anti-oxidative activities and can be used as a potential alternative medicine for oxidative stress related non-communicable chronic diseases. Further experimental and clinical studies in this regard are warranted.

  13. Solvent-extractable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in biochar: influence of pyrolysis temperature and feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiluweit, Marco; Kleber, Markus; Sparrow, Margaret A; Simoneit, Bernd R T; Prahl, Fredrick G

    2012-09-01

    Despite the increasing agricultural use of biochar as a way of combining the utilization of biomass for energy production with the removal of CO(2) from the atmosphere, it is not known how variations in pyrolysis temperature and feedstock type affect concentration and composition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that inevitably form and associate with biochar. To close this knowledge gap, we quantified 11 unsubstituted three- to five-ring PAHs as well as alkylated forms of phenanthrene and anthracene in grass and wood chars produced in 100 °C increments across a temperature range (100 to 700 °C). Our results show that solvent-extractable PAH concentrations in biochars produced at heat treatment temperatures (HTTs) of 400 and 500 °C greatly exceed those observed at higher and lower temperature, supporting a low HTT solid-phase formation mechanism operable at temperatures commonly used for industrial biochar production. The maximum extractable yield of 'pyrolytic' unsubstituted PAHs for grass (22 μg g(-1) at HTT = 500 °C) greatly exceeds the value for wood (5.9 μg g(-1)). Moreover, PAH signatures (e.g., total monomethylphenanthrene to phenanthrene ratios, MP/P ~2-3) at intermediate temperatures (400 °C) resemble those of fossil oils rather than that commonly attributed to pyrolytic products. Further research is needed to characterize the PAH evolution in modern pyrolysis reactors and assess the fate of biochar-bound PAHs in soils and sediments. Various commonly applied PAH ratios and indicator compounds show promise as markers for specific feedstock materials and pyrolysis conditions of biochars in environmental systems.

  14. Recovery by solvent extraction of vanadium from spent catalysts leaching solutions using Primene 81R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano, L. J.

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Recovery of vanadium contained in solutions coming from spent catalysts leaching process by means of solvent extraction techniques using primary amine Primene 81R, has been studied in this work, resulting in an industrial multistage process for the treatment of these effluents. Results obtained allows to propose an extraction mechanism for vanadium(V with this amine in acidic media, verifying the great influence of pH on the process and fix adequate ranges for variables: O/A ratio, organic phase composition, pH, stirring speed and phase separation speed. These values were simulated in industrial conditions. Vanadium is finally recovered by means of precipitation as ammonium metavanadate and later calcination to obtain vanadium pentoxide of commercial grade.

    En el presente trabajo se ha estudiado la recuperación del vanadio contenido en soluciones procedentes del proceso de lixiviación de catalizadores agotados, por medio de la técnica de extracción con disolventes, empleando la amina primaria PRIMENE 81R, planteando un proceso industrial multietapa para el tratamiento de estos efluentes. Los resultados obtenidos permiten proponer un mecanismo de extracción para el vanadio(V, con esta amina en medio ácido, verificando la gran influencia del pH en el proceso y Ajando los rangos adecuados para las siguientes variables: relación O/A, composición de la fase orgánica, pH, velocidad de agitación y velocidad de separación de fases. Esos valores se simularon en condiciones industriales. El vanadio se recupera finalmente precipitándolo como metavanadato amónico y posterior calcinación para obtener pentóxido de vanadio de calidad comercial.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Philip L. Biedler; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-06-23

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. There are a number of parameters which are important for the production of acceptable cokes, including purity, structure, density, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity etc. From the standpoint of a manufacturer of graphite electrodes such as GrafTech, one of the most important parameters is coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Because GrafTech material is usually fully graphitized (i.e., heat treated at 3100 C), very high purity is automatically achieved. The degree of graphitization controls properties such as CTE, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity, and density. Thus it is usually possible to correlate these properties using a single parameter. CTE has proven to be a useful index for the quality of coke. Pure graphite actually has a slightly negative coefficient of thermal expansion, whereas more disordered carbon has a positive coefficient.

  16. Studies into new solvent extraction reagents for the separation of trivalent minor actinides from trivalent lanthanides

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, M L

    2000-01-01

    Ligands, suitable for the separation of minor actinide(lll) cations from lanthanide(lll) cations from acidic aqueous media, have been synthesised. Two oligopyridine ligands, 4', 4''-(bis (4-tolyl))-2, 2': 6', 2'': 6'', 2'''-quaterpyridine and 4',4'''-(bis(4-heptyloxyphenyl))-2,2':6',2'':6'',2''':6''',2'''' -quinquepyridi= ne, have been synthesised and tested by solvent extraction experiments. The ability of the ligands to separate minor actinide from lanthanide has been attributed to the number of pyridyl rings present. A series of terpyridine analogues based on sym-triazine have been prepared, via the cyclisation of aromatic carbonitriles with guanidine. New lipophilic derivatives of 2-amino-bis(4,6(2-pyridyl))-1,3,5-triazine, 2-amino-bis(4,6(2-pyrazinyl)-1,3,5-triazine, 2-amino-bis(4,6(2-isoquinolinyl)-1,3,5-triazine, 2-amino-bis(4,6(2-(4-methyl)pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine, 2-amino-bis(4,6(4-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine, 2-amino-bis(4,6(2-thiophenyl)-1,3,5-triazine and 2-amino-bis(4,6(2-quinolinyl)-1,3,5-triazine ha...

  17. Influence of different solvents in extraction of phenolic compounds from vegetable residues and their evaluation as natural sources of antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbar, Neha; Oberoi, Harinder Singh; Sandhu, Simranjeet Kaur; Bhargav, Vinod Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Dried residues from four different vegetables, viz. pea pod (pp), cauliflower waste (CW), potato peel (PP) and tomato peel (TP) were extracted using four solvents i.e., hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol. Among the four solvents, methanolic extracts showed the highest total phenolic content (TPC) for all the four vegetable residues. Methanolic extracts were evaluated for antioxidant activities using diphenylpicryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and reducing power assay. Tomato peel extract showed highest phenolic content of 21.0 mg GAE/g-dw and 80.8 % DPPH free radical scavenging ability, whereas potato peel extract had a low phenolic content, and it also showed the least antioxidant activity among the residues examined in this study. Total phenolic content and DPPH free radical scavenging activity in pea pods and cauliflower waste were 13.6 mg GAE/g-dw and 72 % and 9.2 mg GAE/g-dw and 70.7 %, respectively. The coefficient of determination (r(2)) for correlation between TPC and reducing power, DPPH and TPC, DPPH and reducing power for all extracts was 0.85, 0.91and 0.87, respectively, suggesting an important role of phenolics in imparting antioxidant ability. Extracts from vegetables residues therefore represent a significant source of phenolic antioxidants for use as nutraceuticals or biopreservatives. PMID:25328197

  18. Demonstration Plant Equipment Design and Scale-Up from Pilot Plant of a Leaching and Solvent Extraction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Arroyo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Germanium recovery from coal fly ash by hydrometallurgical procedures was studied at the pilot scale (5 kg of fly ash/h. Results were used to design the equipment of a demonstration-sized plant (200 kg of fly ash/h. The process is based on hydrometallurgical operations: firstly a germanium extraction from fly ash by leaching and a consequent Ge separation from the other elements present in the solution by solvent extraction procedures. Based on the experimental results, mass balances and McCabe-Thiele diagrams were applied to determine the number of steps of the solvent extraction stage. Different arrangements have been studied and a countercurrent process with three steps in extraction and six steps in elution was defined. A residence time of 5 min was fixed in both the extraction and elution stages. Volumetric ratios in extraction and stripping were: aqueous phase/organic phase = 5 and organic phase/stripping phase = 5, so a concentration factor of 25 is achieved. Mixers and decanters were completely defined. The maximum extracted and eluted germanium was estimated and a global efficiency of 94% was achieved. The cost-effectiveness of the equipment was estimated using the Lang factors.

  19. A solvent extraction approach to recover acetic acid from mixed waste acids produced during semiconductor wafer process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Ju-Yup; Kim, Jun-Young; Kim, Hyun-Sang; Lee, Hyang-Sook; Mohapatra, Debasish; Ahn, Jae-Woo; Ahn, Jong-Gwan; Bae, Wookeun

    2009-03-15

    Recovery of acetic acid (HAc) from the waste etching solution discharged from silicon wafer manufacturing process has been attempted by using solvent extraction process. For this purpose 2-ethylhexyl alcohol (EHA) was used as organic solvent. In the pre-treatment stage >99% silicon and hydrofluoric acid was removed from the solution by precipitation. The synthesized product, Na(2)SiF(6) having 98.2% purity was considered of commercial grade having good market value. The waste solution containing 279 g/L acetic acid, 513 g/L nitric acid, 0.9 g/L hydrofluoric acid and 0.030 g/L silicon was used for solvent extraction study. From the batch test results equilibrium conditions for HAc recovery were optimized and found to be 4 stages of extraction at an organic:aqueous (O:A) ratio of 3, 4 stages of scrubbing and 4 stages of stripping at an O:A ratio of 1. Deionized water (DW) was used as stripping agent to elute HAc from organic phase. In the whole batch process 96.3% acetic acid recovery was achieved. Continuous operations were successfully conducted for 100 h using a mixer-settler to examine the feasibility of the extraction system for its possible commercial application. Finally, a complete process flowsheet with material balance for the separation and recovery of HAc has been proposed.

  20. 植物油浸出技术研究进展%Research Progress on Solvent Extraction of Vegetable Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 黄耀江

    2012-01-01

    分别介绍了植物油浸出技术中的有机溶剂浸出工艺、水浸出制油技术、酶法浸出工艺和超临界二氧化碳浸出工艺的最新研究进展及各自的优缺点,旨在为今后油脂工业的发展提供参考.%The paper introduced the research advances, advantages and disadvantages of several vegetahle oil extraction techniques, including solvent extraction, water extraction, enzymatic extraction and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, aiming to provide references for the future development of oil industry.

  1. Solvent extraction behavior of several elements with long chain amines in the presence of thiourea as a complexing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solvent estraction behaviour of U, Fe, Cd, In, Zn, Cu, Co, Ni, Mn, Cr, Ag, Bi, Pb, Tl, Ru, Rh, Pd, Pt, Ir, Os, Au, Hg, Sn, and Sb with tri-n-octylamine diluted with benzene, xylene, varsol and methyl-isobutyl-cetone from HCl, HNO3, H2SO4 and HI is investigated. The effect of thiourea as a complexing ligand, giving rise to unextracted cationic species of several metallic ions and its consequence in the extraction by the amine is described. The effect of an acidified thiourea solution for scribbing the organic phase is studied as well. It is demonstrated that the stable cationic metal-thiourea complexes are not extracted. The study confirms that the extraction mechanisms is an ion exchange association between the protonated amine and the extracted anionic species. Special emphasis is given to the uranium extraction and its decontamination from several elements. Applications of the new technique are described

  2. Development of an automated sequential injection on-line solvent extraction-back extraction procedure as demonstrated for the determination of cadmium with detection by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2002-01-01

    An automated sequential injection (SI) on-line solvent extraction-back extraction separation/preconcentration procedure is described. Demonstrated for the assay of cadmium by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS), the analyte is initially complexed with ammonium...

  3. Qualitative analysis of phytochemicals, and comparative superoxide radical scavenging along with reducing potency of Solanum nigrum using various solvent extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Thenmozhi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made to screen the phytochemicals, comparative superoxide radical scavenging and reducing potency of Solanum nigrum using various solvent extracts. The herbal powder obtained from plant part-dry leaves were extracted with various solvents. The extracts were analysed for phytochemicals and antioxidants-carotenoids, ascorbic acid, tocopherol, total phenol, proteins, reducing sugars and sterols. Free radical scavenging capacity was analysed in terms of superoxide radial scavenging assay and reducing power assay. Phytochemical characterization of the different extracts revealed the presence of the phytochemicals-alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, sterol, saponin glycosides, reducing sugars, proteins, cardio active aglycones and cardinolides. Excellent Superoxide Radical scavenging ability found in almost all extracts of S. nigrum. In the present study superoxide radical reduces nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT to a blue coloured formazan that is measured at 560 nm. Antioxidant activity has been reported to be concomitant with development of reducing power. This shows that extracts might contain reductones like ascorbic acid, reducing sugar, thiol group containing protein which could react with free radicals to stabilize and terminate radical chain reaction. These findings suggest that the promising phytonutrients of the plant could be exploited against oxidative stress, cancer, ageing, Ischemic heart disease in dissolving thrombus, microbial infections and hormone replacement therapy (HRT justifying their use in traditional medicine as nutraceuticals.

  4. PAHs concentration and toxicity in organic solvent extracts of atmospheric particulate matter and sea sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Noriatsu; Takeuchi, Shin-ya; Kojima, Keisuke; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Komatsu, Toshiko; Fukushima, Takehiko

    2012-01-01

    The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the toxicity to marine bacteria (Vibrio fischeri) were measured for the organic solvent extracts of sea sediments collected from an urban watershed area (Hiroshima Bay) of Japan and compared with the concentrations and toxicity of atmospheric particulate matter (PM). In atmospheric PM, the PAHs concentration was highest in fine particulate matter (FPM) collected during cold seasons. The concentrations of sea sediments were 0.01-0.001 times those of atmospheric PM. 1/EC50 was 1-10 L g(-1) PM for atmospheric PM and 0.1-1 L g(-1) dry solids for sea sediments. These results imply that toxic substances from atmospheric PM are diluted several tens or hundreds of times in sea sediments. The ratio of the 1/EC50 to PAHs concentration ((1/EC50)/16PAHs) was stable for all sea sediments (0.1-1 L μg(-1) 16PAHs) and was the same order of magnitude as that of FPM and coarse particulate matter (CPM). The ratio of sediments collected from the west was more similar to that of CPM while that from the east was more similar to FPM, possibly because of hydraulic differences among water bodies. The PAHs concentration pattern analyses (principal component analysis and isomer ratio analysis) were conducted and the results showed that the PAHs pattern in sea sediments was quite different to that of FPM and CPM. Comparison with previously conducted PAHs analyses suggested that biomass burning residues comprised a major portion of these other sources. PMID:22797225

  5. An europium(III) diglycolamide complex: insights into the coordination chemistry of lanthanides in solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Mark R; McAlister, Daniel R; Horwitz, E Philip

    2015-01-14

    The synthesis, stoichiometry, and structural characterization of a homoleptic, cationic europium(III) complex with three neutral tetraalkyldiglycolamide ligands are reported. The tri(bismuth tetrachloride)tris(N,N,N',N'-tetra-n-octyldiglycolamide)Eu salt, [Eu(TODGA)3][(BiCl4)3] obtained from methanol was examined by Eu L3-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to reveal an inner-sphere coordination of Eu(3+) that arises from 9 O atoms and two next-nearest coordination spheres that arise from 6 carbon atoms each. A structural model is proposed in which each TODGA ligand with its O=Ca-Cb-O-Cb-Ca=O backbone acts as a tridentate O donor, where the two carbonyl O atoms and the one ether O atom bond to Eu(3+). Given the structural rigidity of the tridentate coordination motif in [Eu(TODGA)3](3+) with six 5-membered chelate rings, the six Eu-Ca and six Eu-Cb interactions are readily resolved in the EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure) spectrum. The three charge balancing [BiCl4](-) anions are beyond the cationic [Eu(TODGA)3](3+) cluster in an outer sphere environment that is too distant to be detected by XAS. Despite their sizeable length and propensity for entanglement, the four n-octyl groups of each TODGA (for a total of twelve) do not perturb the Eu(3+) coordination environment over that seen from previously reported single-crystal structures of tripositive lanthanide (Ln(3+)) complexes with tetraalkyldiglycolamide ligands (of the same 1:3 metal-to-ligand ratio stoichiometry) but having shorter i-propyl and i-butyl groups. The present results set the foundation for understanding advanced solvent extraction processes for the separation of the minor, tripositive actinides (Am, Cm) from the Ln(3+) ions in terms of the local structure of Eu(3+) in a solid state coordination complex with TODGA.

  6. Use of a density meter for analysis of process streams obtained during solvent extraction of bitumen from Athabasca oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, J.R.; Kumar, A.; Sparks, B.D.; Kotlyar, L.S.

    A fast and accurate densimetry method has been developed that allows analysis of concentrated solutions of bitumen in diluents (such as naptha, varsol, etc.) used in solvent extraction processes. By means of an equation described in this paper, densimetry can also be applied to the determination of diluent occluded in agglomerated sand in the presence of bitumen. In this case a prior determination of bitumen content by some other method is required for complete determination.

  7. Survey of Solvent type and drying of biomass effects on lipid extraction from Nannochloropsis Oculata for biodiesel production

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Malakootian; Behnam Hatami; Shidvash dolatshahi; Ahmad Rajabzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: As a green fuel and environmentally friendly energy, biodiesel has recently attracted much attention and efforts are ongoing to optimizing biodiesel production from microalgae’s. The aim of this study was to determine the appropriate method of dewatering and drying biomass and selecting a suitable organic solvent for extraction lipids from biomass. Materials and Methods: After culturing Nannochloropsis Oculata in Gillard F/2 medium and reaching at the end of ...

  8. Transport of neodymium from nitric acid solution by non-dispersive solvent extraction using a hollow fiber contactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transport behaviour of neodymium from nitric acid medium was investigated using hollow fiber non-dispersive extraction technique employing a mixture of di-nonyl phenyl phosphoric acid (DNPPA) and tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in petrofin as the solvent. The effect of feed acidity and Nd concentration was studied in counter current mode at a feed as well as organic phase flow rate of 100 mL/min. (author)

  9. Magnetic graphene oxide modified with choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvent for the solid-phase extraction of protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A strategy for extraction of protein based on DES-coated magnetic graphene oxide. • The deep eutectic solvents were based on choline chloride. • Bovine serum albumin was used as the analyte. • The material prepared works for the acidic but not the basic or the neutral proteins. - Abstract: Four kinds of green deep eutectic solvents (DESs) based on choline chloride (ChCl) have been synthesized and coated on the surface of magnetic graphene oxide (Fe3O4@GO) to form Fe3O4@GO-DES for the magnetic solid-phase extraction of protein. X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were employed to characterize Fe3O4@GO-DES, and the results indicated the successful preparation of Fe3O4@GO-DES. The UV–vis spectrophotometer was used to measure the concentration of protein after extraction. Single factor experiments proved that the extraction amount was influenced by the types of DESs, solution temperature, solution ionic strength, extraction time, protein concentration and the amount of Fe3O4@GO-DES. Comparison of Fe3O4@GO and Fe3O4@GO-DES was carried out by extracting bovine serum albumin, ovalbumin, bovine hemoglobin and lysozyme. The experimental results showed that the proposed Fe3O4@GO-DES performs better than Fe3O4@GO in the extraction of acidic protein. Desorption of protein was carried out by eluting the solid extractant with 0.005 mol L−1 Na2HPO4 contained 1 mol L−1 NaCl. The obtained elution efficiency was about 90.9%. Attributed to the convenient magnetic separation, the solid extractant could be easily recycled

  10. Surface tension of a coal extract in an organic solvent; Sekitan chushutsu seibun no kaigo to hyomen choryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, T.; Hayasaka, K.; Takanohashi, T.; Iino, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-10-28

    The behavior and properties of associated bodies were studied through measurement of surface tension considering acetone-soluble fraction relatively light among various solvent extracts of coal. In experiment, the acetone-soluble fraction was extracted from the substances extracted from Upper Freeport coal as standard specimen using the mixed solvent of carbon disulfide (CS2) and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP), and it was dissolved into NMP after drying. Surface tension was measured by Wilhelmy method. The experimental results are as follows. Equilibrium surface tension is equal to the surface tension of pure solvent in a low concentration range of solution, and decreases with an increase in concentration approaching a fixed value at 0 in log concentration, nearly showing an S curve. Adsorption of species with non-polar aromatic ring of the acetone-soluble fraction on a solution surface probably decreases surface tension. Change with time in surface tension is observed which suggests fast initial reaction and slow subsequent reaction. 4 figs.

  11. A mechanism for solvent extraction of first row transition metals from chloride media with the ionic liquid tetraoctylammonium oleate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmentier, Dries; Vander Hoogerstraete, Tom; Banerjee, Dipanjan; Valia, Yash A; Metz, Sybrand J; Binnemans, Koen; Kroon, Maaike C

    2016-06-21

    Aqueous waste streams of the metallurgical industry often contain considerable concentrations of metal salts. Previous research showed that the metal chloride salts of zinc(ii), manganese(ii) and iron(iii) can be recovered by solvent extraction using a sustainable and renewable fatty acid based ionic liquid as the extractant. In this paper, the extraction mechanism of Zn(ii), Co(ii) and Ni(ii) from chloride media has been studied systematically. The metal extraction performances of the precursors, sodium oleate and tetraoctylammonium chloride, were compared to the extraction performance of the ionic liquid tetraoctylammonium oleate. Slope analysis experiments were performed to determine the number of ionic liquid molecules involved in the extraction. The experimental data showed that Co(ii) and Ni(ii) were extracted in the pH range from 6 to 8 by the formation of negatively charged metal carboxylate complexes with tetraalkylammonium counter ions. In contrast, Zn(ii) gets extracted as a mixed metal chloride carboxylate anionic complex with tetraalkylammonium counter ions. This extraction mechanism was supported by EXAFS measurements.

  12. Effects of Surfactant on Zinc Recovery by Solvent Extraction during Leaching in HCl—FeCl3 Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LULizhu; KANGXiaobong; 等

    2002-01-01

    The effects of surfactant on the solvent extraction in leaching sphalerite were investigated. It is found that sodium dodecyl sulfonate is the effective surfactant in improving the zinc recovery from sphalerite in the aqueous FeCl3-HCl-tetrachloroethylene system. Through the measurements of surface tension and viscosity of the sphalerite slurry modified with different surfactants, it is concluded that sodium dodecyl sulfonate in the concentration range of 0.05 to 0.2g·L-1 can improve the viscosity of sphalerite slurry in the water, decrease the surface tension of leaching solution, prevent the aggregation of ore particles, and give very high zinc extraction.

  13. Some regularities in formation and solvent extraction of complexes in metal-salicylic acid or its derivative- organic base systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of concentrations of the reagents, pH and solvent on the conditions for the formation and extraction of Sc, Ti, Zr, Hf, Th complexes has been examined in salicylic acid (H2Sal)-heterocyclic amine systems. The extraction chemism and factors, which affect the reactions between the metal ions and the ligands, are discussed. It has been shown that Zr, Hf, Ti form species of ion associate type, Sc and Th form different-ligand complexes under conditions for interphase equilibrium in a Me-H2Sal-heterocyclic amine system

  14. Energy extraction and particle acceleration around a rotating black hole in Horava-Lifshitz gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Penrose process on rotational energy extraction of the black hole in the original nonprojectable Horava-Lifshitz gravity is studied. The strong dependence of the extracted energy from the special range of parameters of the Horava-Lifshitz gravity, such as parameter ΛW and specific angular momentum a, has been found. Particle acceleration near the rotating black hole in Horava-Lifshitz gravity has been studied. It is shown that the fundamental parameter of the Horava-Lifshitz gravity can impose a limitation on the energy of the accelerating particles preventing them from the infinite value.

  15. Continuous flow solvent extraction system for the determination of trace amounts of uranium in nuclear waste reprocessing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system is described for the continuous flow solvent extraction of uranium using isobutyl methyl ketone (IBMK) in the presence of a salting-out solution. This is used as a pre-step to spectrophotometric determination with 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-(diethylamino)phenol (Br-PADAP) in methanol. The method utilises an on-line solvent extraction unit, interfaced to a spectrophotometric flow injection analysis (FIA) detection system. The extraction unit can be operated in two ways. In the first, 0.6 ml of a sample was loaded (injected) and then the separated organic phase was mixed directly with the reagent. This permits the handling of 20 samples per hour and a limit of determination of 0.2 p.p.m. of uranium. In the second method, a continuously pumped sample was brought into contact with a fixed volume of the organic phase, which was recirculated in a closed loop. Recirculation results in the extraction of more analyte with the same volume of the organic phase present in the loop. For a sample loading volume of 3 ml, an enrichment factor of 4 was obtained. The determination of uranium at the 50 p.p.b. level can be achieved using this automated liquid - liquid extraction system. Lower concentrations of uranium can also be measured by further increasing the sample volume. This method was tested on a synthetic nuclear waste solution. (author)

  16. Continuous flow solvent extraction system for the determination of trace amounts of uranium in nuclear waste reprocessing solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atallah, R.H.; Christian, G.D.; Hartenstein, S.D.

    1988-03-01

    A system is described for the continuous flow solvent extraction of uranium using isobutyl methyl ketone (IBMK) in the presence of a salting-out solution. This is used as a pre-step to spectrophotometric determination with 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-(diethylamino)phenol (Br-PADAP) in methanol. The method utilises an on-line solvent extraction unit, interfaced to a spectrophotometric flow injection analysis (FIA) detection system. The extraction unit can be operated in two ways. In the first, 0.6 ml of a sample was loaded (injected) and then the separated organic phase was mixed directly with the reagent. This permits the handling of 20 samples per hour and a limit of determination of 0.2 p.p.m. of uranium. In the second method, a continuously pumped sample was brought into contact with a fixed volume of the organic phase, which was recirculated in a closed loop. Recirculation results in the extraction of more analyte with the same volume of the organic phase present in the loop. For a sample loading volume of 3 ml, an enrichment factor of 4 was obtained. The determination of uranium at the 50 p.p.b. level can be achieved using this automated liquid - liquid extraction system. Lower concentrations of uranium can also be measured by further increasing the sample volume. This method was tested on a synthetic nuclear waste solution.

  17. Composition of Sulla (Hedysarum coronarium L. Honey Solvent Extractives Determined by GC/MS: Norisoprenoids and Other Volatile Organic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Bubalo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Samples of unifloral sulla (Hedysarum coronarum L. honey from Sardinia (Italy were analysed. To investigate the chemical composition of the honey volatiles two solvent systems were used for ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE: 1 a 1:2 (v/v pentane and diethyl ether mixture and 2 dichloromethane. All the extracts were analysed by GC and GC/MS. These procedures have permitted the identification of 56 compounds that include norisoprenoids, benzene derivatives, aliphatic compounds and Maillard reaction products. Norisoprenoids were the major compounds in both extracts, dominated by vomifoliol (5.3-11.2%; 9.6-14.0% followed by minor percentages of other norisoprenoids such as α-isophorone, 4-ketoisophorone, 3-oxo-α-ionol or 3-oxo-α-ionone. Other abundant single compounds in the extracts were 3-hydroxy-4-phenylbutan-2-one (0.8-5.4%; 0.6-5.7% and methyl syringate (3.0-5.7%; 2.2-4.1%. The composition of the volatiles and semi-volatiles in the obtained extracts suggests that sulla honey is quite distinctive relative to the other honeys that have been chemically studied by GC/MS, but no specific markers of the honey botanical origin were found.

  18. Separation of middle rare earths by solvent extraction using 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester as an extractant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danilo; Fontana; Loris; Pietrelli

    2009-01-01

    The extraction of the trivalent middle rare earths from chloride media by kerosene solutions of 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester as an extractant was studied. The separation factors between the elements using solution simulating wastes from NiMH spent batteries have been evaluated: the order of the extractive ability of extractant can be confirmed in ThGdEuSm.

  19. Methods for determination and analysis of gold, silver, and palladium on the basis of solvent extraction with organic sulfides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of previously published and new data on the use of solvent extraction by organic sulfides in analytical chemistry of gold, silver and palladium is given. The consideration is made on the basis of close relation between ways of preliminary concentration of the element and peculiarities of the instrumental method of analysis used. Advantages of organic sulfides as extractants of gold, silver and palladium complexes, permitting to increase-considerably the factor of extraction purification from other metals without noticeable loss of the elements isolated, are pointed out. Comparison of metrological characteristics (the range of the contents determined, determination limit and relative standard deviation) of atomic-absorption, atomic-emission and neutron-activation methods of gold, silver and palladium determination with their preliminary extraction concentrating by organic sulfides is made. 70 refs.; 3 figs.; 7 tabs

  20. Determination of antimicrobial potentialities of different solvent extracts of the medicinal plant: Phyllanthus amarus Schum. and Thonn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antara Sen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial efficiency of Phyllanthus amarus Schum. and Thonn., medicinal plants (leaf extracts, was examined using Methanol, Ethanol, Petroleum ether. and water, as solvents and tested against eight human pathogens like Bacteria: Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Fungi: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium oxisporum, and Rhizopus stolonifer, using the agar well-diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration. All the plants showed significant activity against all pathogens, but the alcoholic extract of P. amarus showed the maximum zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration against all the microorganisms. The minimum zone of inhibition and comparatively greater inhibitory concentration were determined in petroleum ether, and the aqueous extract of P. amarus showed less antimicrobial activity against all the experimental strains. The alcoholic extracts of these plants could be a possible source of obtaining new and effective herbal medicines to treat infections, hence, it justified the ethnic use of P. amarus against various infectious diseases.