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Sample records for accelerated partial-breast irradiation

  1. Accelerated partial breast irradiation. Techniques and clinical implementation. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wazer, David E. [Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Arthur, Douglas W. [Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond, VA (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Vicini, Frank, A. (eds.) [William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2009-07-01

    Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is being rapidly introduced into the clinical management of early breast cancer. APBI, in fact, encompasses a number of different techniques and approaches that include brachytherapy, intraoperative, and external beam techniques. There is currently no single source that describes these techniques and their clinical implementation. This text is a concise handbook designed to assist the clinician in the implementation of APBI. This includes a review of the principles that underlie APBI, a practical and detailed description of each technique for APBI, a review of current clinical results of APBI, and a review of the incidence and management of treatment related complications. (orig.)

  2. Accelerated partial breast irradiation:advances and controversies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mani Akhtari; Bin S Teh

    2016-01-01

    The management of localized breast cancer has changed dramatically over the past three to four decades. Breast-conserving therapy, which involved lumpectomy followed by adjuvant irradiation, is now widely considered the standard of care in women with early-stage breast cancer. Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI), which involves focal irradiation of the lumpectomy cavity over a short period of time, has developed over the past two decades as an alternative to whole breast irradiation (WBI). Multiple APBI modalities have been developed including brachytherapy, external beam irradiation, and intraoperative irradiation. These new techniques have provided early-stage breast can-cer patients with shorter treatment duration and more focused irradiation, delivering very high biological doses to the region at a high risk of failures over a much shorter treatment course as compared with conventional radiotherapy. However, the advantages of APBI over conventional radiotherapy are controversial, including a higher risk of compli-cations reported in retrospective literature and shorter follow-up duration in the intraoperative APBI trials. Neverthe-less, APBI presents a valuable alternative to WBI for a selected population of women with early-stage breast cancer.

  3. Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation with Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Is Feasible for Chinese Breast Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    He, Zhenyu; Wu, Sangang; Zhou, Juan; Li, Fengyan; Sun, Jiayan; Lin, Qin; Lin, Huanxin; Guan, Xunxing

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Several accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) techniques are being investigated in patients with early-stage breast cancer. The present study evaluated the feasibility, early toxicity, initial efficacy, and cosmetic outcomes of accelerated partial breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for Chinese female patients with early-stage breast cancer after breast-conserving surgery. Methods A total of 38 patients met the inclusion criteria and an accelerated partial breast in...

  4. Accelerated partial breast irradiation using 3D conformal radiotherapy: initial clinical experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatti, M.; Madeddu, A.; Malinverni, G.; Delmastro, E.; Bona, C.; Gabriele, P. [IRCC-Radiotherapy, Candiolo, TO (Italy); Baiotto, B.; Stasi, M. [IRCC-Medical Physics, Candiolo, TO (Italy); Ponzone, R.; Siatis, D. [IRCC-Surgery, Candiolo, TO (Italy)

    2006-11-15

    Accelerated partial breast irradiation using 3D-C.R.T. is technically sophisticate but feasible and acute toxicity to date has been minimal. A C.T.V.-to-P.T.V. margin of 10 mm seems to provide coverage for analyzed patients. However, more patients and additional studies will be needed to validate the accuracy of this margin, and longer follow-up will be needed to assess acute and chronic toxicity, tumor control, and cosmetic results. (author)

  5. Determination of exit skin dose for 192Ir intracavitary accelerated partial breast irradiation with thermoluminescent dosimeters

    OpenAIRE

    Raffi, Julie A.; Stephen D. Davis; Hammer, Cliff G.; Micka, John A.; Kunugi, Keith A.; Musgrove, Jana E.; Winston, John W.; Ricci-Ott, Terresa J.; DeWerd, Larry A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Intracavitary accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) has become a popular treatment for early stage breast cancer in recent years due to its shortened course of treatment and simplified treatment planning compared to traditional external beam breast conservation therapy. However, the exit dose to the skin is a major concern and can be a limiting factor for these treatments. Most treatment planning systems (TPSs) currently used for high dose-rate (HDR) 192Ir brachytherapy overe...

  6. Radiation recall secondary to adjuvant docetaxel after balloon-catheter based accelerated partial breast irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Nathan W. [Summer Intern, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Wong, William W., E-mail: wong.william@mayo.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Arizona, 13400 E. Shea Boulevard, Scottsdale, AZ 85259 (United States); Karlin, Nina J. [Division of Oncology, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Gray, Richard J. [Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)

    2010-08-15

    For early stage breast cancer, wide local excision and post-operative whole breast irradiation is a standard treatment. If adjuvant chemotherapy is recommended, radiation is usually given after completion of chemotherapy. In recent years, accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) with balloon-cathetered based brachytherapy has become an option for selected patients. For these patients, adjuvant chemotherapy would have to be administered after radiation. The sequence of treatment with radiation followed by chemotherapy results in increased risk of radiation recall reaction (RRD) in these patients. Docetaxel is becoming a more commonly used drug as adjuvant treatment for breast cancer. Here we report a case of docetaxel induced RRD after APBI with balloon-cathetered based brachytherapy. Such reaction would have an adverse impact on the cosmetic outcome and quality of life of the patient. For patients who develop an intense skin reaction after the administration of docetaxel following APBI, RRD should be considered in the differential diagnosis.

  7. Toxicity and cosmetic outcome of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for accelerated partial breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Purpose.- To analyse the incidence and severity of acute and late normal tissue toxicity and cosmetic outcome using three - dimensional conformal radiotherapy to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation. Patients and Methods.- 70 patients with stage I disease were treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for accelerated partial breast irradiation, in an approved protocol. The prescribed dose was 34 Gy in all patients delivered in 10 fractions over 5 consecutive days. On all CT scans gross tumor volume (GTV ) was defined around surgical clips. A 1.5 cm margin was added in order to account for clinical target volume (CTV) . A margin of 1 cm was added to CTI to define the planning target volume (PTV). The dose-volume constraints were followed in accordance with the specifications as dictated in the NSABP/RTOG protocol. After treatment, patients underwent a clinical and cosmetic evaluation every 3 months. Late toxicity was evaluated according to the RTOG grading schema. The cosmetic assessment was performed by the physicians using the controlateral untreated breast as the reference (Harvard scale). Results.- Median patient age was 66 years (range 51-80). Median follow-up was 15 months (range 6-46). Tumor size was 2 cm in 4(6%). The mean value of the ratio between the PTV and the whole ipsilateral breast volume was 38 % and the median percentage whole breast volume that received 95 % of prescribed dose was 34% (range 16%-55%). The rate of G1 and G2 acute skin toxicity was 28% and 2% respectively and the late toxicity was 17% (G1). G2 or greater toxicities were not observed. The most pronounced G1 late toxicity was subcutaneous fibrosis, developed in 3 patients. The cosmetic outcome was excellent in 83% and good in 17%. Conclusion.- Accelerated partial breast irradiation using three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy is technically feasible with very low acute and late toxicity. Long-term results are needed to assess

  8. Toxicity and cosmetic outcome of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for accelerated partial breast irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatti, M.; Bresciani, S.; Ponzone, R.; Panaia, R.; Salatino, A.; Stasi, M.; Gabriele, P. [IRCC, Candiolo (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    Full text of publication follows: Purpose.- To analyse the incidence and severity of acute and late normal tissue toxicity and cosmetic outcome using three - dimensional conformal radiotherapy to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation. Patients and Methods.- 70 patients with stage I disease were treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for accelerated partial breast irradiation, in an approved protocol. The prescribed dose was 34 Gy in all patients delivered in 10 fractions over 5 consecutive days. On all CT scans gross tumor volume (GTV ) was defined around surgical clips. A 1.5 cm margin was added in order to account for clinical target volume (CTV) . A margin of 1 cm was added to CTI to define the planning target volume (PTV). The dose-volume constraints were followed in accordance with the specifications as dictated in the NSABP/RTOG protocol. After treatment, patients underwent a clinical and cosmetic evaluation every 3 months. Late toxicity was evaluated according to the RTOG grading schema. The cosmetic assessment was performed by the physicians using the controlateral untreated breast as the reference (Harvard scale). Results.- Median patient age was 66 years (range 51-80). Median follow-up was 15 months (range 6-46). Tumor size was < 10 mm in 33 patients (53%) and > 2 cm in 4(6%). The mean value of the ratio between the PTV and the whole ipsilateral breast volume was 38 % and the median percentage whole breast volume that received 95 % of prescribed dose was 34% (range 16%-55%). The rate of G1 and G2 acute skin toxicity was 28% and 2% respectively and the late toxicity was 17% (G1). G2 or greater toxicities were not observed. The most pronounced G1 late toxicity was subcutaneous fibrosis, developed in 3 patients. The cosmetic outcome was excellent in 83% and good in 17%. Conclusion.- Accelerated partial breast irradiation using three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy is technically feasible with very low acute and late toxicity. Long

  9. Accelerated partial breast irradiation using 3D conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: We present a novel three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) technique to treat the lumpectomy cavity, plus a 1.5-cm margin, in patients with early-stage breast cancer and study its clinical feasibility. Methods and Materials: A 3D-CRT technique for partial-breast irradiation was developed using archived CT scans from 7 patients who underwent an active breathing control study. The clinical feasibility of this technique was then assessed in 9 patients who were prospectively enrolled on an Investigational Review Board-approved protocol of partial-breast irradiation. The prescribed dose was 34 Gy in 5 patients and 38.5 Gy in 4 patients, delivered in 10 fractions twice daily over 5 consecutive days. The impact of both breathing motion and patient setup uncertainty on clinical target volume (CTV) coverage was studied, and an appropriate CTV-to-PTV (planning target volume) margin was calculated. Results: By adding a CTV-to-PTV 'breathing-only' margin of 5 mm, 98%-100% of the CTV remained covered by the 95% isodose surface at the extremes of normal inhalation and normal exhalation. The 'total' CTV-to-PTV margin employed to accommodate organ motion and setup error (10 mm) was found to be sufficient to accommodate the observed uncertainty in the delivery precision. Patient tolerance was excellent, and acute toxicity was minimal. No skin changes were noted during treatment, and at the initial 4-8-week follow-up visit, only mild localized hyperpigmentation and/or erythema was observed. No instances of symptomatic radiation pneumonitis have occurred. Conclusions: Accelerated partial-breast irradiation using 3D-CRT is technically feasible, and acute toxicity to date has been minimal. A CTV-to-PTV margin of 10 mm seems to provide coverage for most patients. However, more patients and additional studies will be needed to validate the accuracy of this margin, and longer follow-up will be needed to assess acute and chronic toxicity, tumor control, and cosmetic

  10. Accelerated partial breast irradiation using robotic radiotherapy: a dosimetric comparison with tomotherapy and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Rault, Erwann; Lacornerie, Thomas; Dang, Hong-Phuong; Crop, Frederik; Lartigau, Eric; Reynaert, Nick; Pasquier, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is a new breast treatment modality aiming to reduce treatment time using hypo fractionation. Compared to conventional whole breast irradiation that takes 5 to 6 weeks, APBI is reported to induce worse cosmetic outcomes both when using three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). These late normal tissue effects may be attributed to the dose volume effect because a large portion of the no...

  11. Predictors of Local Recurrence Following Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation: A Pooled Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Chirag; Wilkinson, John Ben [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Cancer Institute, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Lyden, Maureen [Biostat Inc., Tampa, Florida (United States); Beitsch, Peter [Dallas Breast Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Vicini, Frank A., E-mail: fvicini@pol.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Cancer Institute, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To analyze a pooled set of nearly 2,000 patients treated on the American Society of Breast Surgeons (ASBS) Mammosite Registry Trial and at William Beaumont Hospital (WBH) to identify factors associated with local recurrence following accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Methods and Materials: A total of 1,961 women underwent partial breast irradiation between April 1993 and November 2010 as part of the ASBS Registry Trial or at WBH. Rates of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), regional recurrence (RR), distant metastases (DM), disease-free survival (DFS), cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) were analyzed for each group and for the pooled cohort. Clinical, pathologic, and treatment-related variables were analyzed including age, tumor stage/size, estrogen receptor status, surgical margins, and lymph node status to determine their association with IBTR. Results: The two groups weres similar, but WBH patients were more frequently node positive, had positive margins, and were less likely to be within the American Society for Radiation Oncology-unsuitable group. At 5 years, the rates of IBTR, RR, DM, DFS, CSS, and OS for the pooled group of patients were 2.9%, 0.5%, 2.4%, 89.1%, 98.5%, and 91.8%, respectively. The 5-year rate of true recurrence/marginal miss was 0.8%. Univariate analysis of IBTR found that negative estrogen receptor status (odds ratio [OR], 2.83, 95% confidence interval 1.55-5.13, p = 0.0007) was the only factor significantly associated with IBTR, while a trend was seen for age less than 50 (OR 1.80, 95% confidence interval 0.90-3.58, p = 0.10). Conclusions: Excellent 5-year outcomes were seen following APBI in over 1,900 patients. Estrogen receptor negativity was the only factor associated with IBTR, while a trend for age less than 50 was noted. Significant differences in factors associated with IBTR were noted between cohorts, suggesting that factors driving IBTR may be predicated based on the risk

  12. Impact of residual and intrafractional errors on strategy of correction for image-guided accelerated partial breast irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Guo Xiao-Mao; Yang Zhao-Zhi; Pan Zi-Qiang; Yu Xiao-Li; Chen Jia-Yi; Hu Wei-Gang; Cai Gang; Shao Zhi-Min; Jiang Guo-Liang

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The cone beam CT (CBCT) guided radiation can reduce the systematic and random setup errors as compared to the skin-mark setup. However, the residual and intrafractional (RAIF) errors are still unknown. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the magnitude of RAIF errors and correction action levels needed in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) guided accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Methods Ten patients were enrolled in the prospective study of CBCT guid...

  13. Dosimetric comparison of three dimensional conformal radiation therapy versus intensity modulated radiation therapy in accelerated partial breast irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Moorthy, S; H S Elhateer; SKD Majumdar; Mohammed, S; Patnaik, R; Narayanamurty

    2016-01-01

    Aim of Study: Breast conserving surgery (BCS) is the standard treatment for stage I and II breast cancer. Multiple studies have shown that recurrences after lumpectomy occur mainly in or near the tumor bed. Use of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) allows for significant reduction in the overall treatment time that results in increasing patient compliance and decreasing healthcare costs. We conducted a treatment planning study to evaluate the role of intensity modulated radiation t...

  14. Potential of using cerium oxide nanoparticles for protecting healthy tissue during accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Zi; Mainali, Madan Kumar; Sinha, Neeharika; Strack, Guinevere; Altundal, Yucel; Hao, Yao; Winningham, Thomas Andrew; Sajo, Erno; Celli, Jonathan; Ngwa, Wilfred

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using cerium oxide nanoparticles (CONPs) as radical scavengers during accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) to protect normal tissue. We hypothesize that CONPs can be slowly released from the routinely used APBI balloon applicators-via a degradable coating-and protect the normal tissue on the border of the lumpectomy cavity over the duration of APBI. To assess the feasibility of this approach, we analytically calculated the initial concentration of CONPs required to protect normal breast tissue from reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the time required for the particles to diffuse to various distances from the lumpectomy wall. Given that cerium has a high atomic number, we took into account the possible inadvertent dose enhancement that could occur due to the photoelectric interactions with radiotherapy photons. To protect against a typical MammoSite treatment fraction of 3.4Gy, 5ng·g(-1) of CONPs is required to scavenge hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide. Using 2nm sized NPs, with an initial concentration of 1mg·g(-1), we found that 2-10days of diffusion is required to obtain desired concentrations of CONPs in regions 1-2cm away from the lumpectomy wall. The resultant dose enhancement factor (DEF) is less than 1.01 under such conditions. Our results predict that CONPs can be employed for radioprotection during APBI using a new design in which balloon applicators are coated with the NPs for sustained/controlled in-situ release from within the lumpectomy cavity. PMID:27053452

  15. Outcomes After Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation in Patients With ASTRO Consensus Statement Cautionary Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate outcomes among women with American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) consensus statement cautionary features treated with brachytherapy-based accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Methods and Materials: Between March 2001 and June 2006, 322 consecutive patients were treated with high-dose-rate (HDR) APBI at the University of Wisconsin. A total of 136 patients were identified who met the ASTRO cautionary criteria. Thirty-eight (27.9%) patients possessed multiple cautionary factors. All patients received 32 to 34 Gy in 8 to 10 twice-daily fractions using multicatheter (93.4%) or Mammosite balloon (6.6%) brachytherapy. Results: With a median follow-up of 60 months, there were 5 ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences (IBTR), three local, and two loco-regional. The 5-year actuarial rate of IBTR was 4.8% ± 4.1%. The 5-year disease-free survival was 89.6%, with a cause-specific survival and overall survival of 97.6% and 95.3%, respectively. There were no IBTRs among 32 patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) vs. 6.1% for patients with invasive carcinoma (p = 0.24). Among 104 patients with Stage I or II invasive carcinoma, the IBTR rate for patients considered cautionary because of age alone was 0% vs. 12.7% in those deemed cautionary due to histopathologic factors (p = 0.018). Conclusions: Overall, we observed few local recurrences among patients with cautionary features. Women with DCIS and patients 50 to 59 years of age with Stage I/II disease who otherwise meet the criteria for suitability appear to be at a low risk of IBTR. Patients with tumor-related cautionary features will benefit from careful patient selection.

  16. Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation With Interstitial Implants: Risk Factors Associated With Increased Local Recurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To analyze patient, disease, and treatment-related factors regarding their impact on local control after interstitial multicatheter accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Methods and Materials: Between November 2000 and April 2005, 274 patients with early breast cancer were recruited for the German-Austrian APBI Phase II trial ( (ClinicalTrials.gov) identifier: NCT00392184). In all, 64% (175/274) of the patients received pulsed-dose-rate (PDR) brachytherapy and 36% (99/274) received high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Prescribed reference dose for HDR brachytherapy was 32 Gy in eight fractions of 4 Gy, twice daily. Prescribed reference dose in PDR brachytherapy was 49.8 Gy in 83 consecutive fractions of 0.6 Gy each hour. Total treatment time was 3 to 4 days. Results: The median follow-up time was 64 months (range, 9-110). The actuarial 5-year local recurrence free survival rate (5-year LRFS) was 97.7%. Comparing patients with an age <50 years (49/274) vs. ≥50 years (225/274), the 5-year LRFS resulted in 92.5% and 98.9% (exact p = 0.030; 99% confidence interval, 0.029-0.032), respectively. Antihormonal treatment (AHT) was not applied in 9% (24/274) of the study population. The 5-year LRFS was 99% and 84.9% (exact p = 0.0087; 99% confidence interval, 0.0079-0.0094) in favor of the patients who received AHT. Lobular histology (45/274) was not associated with worse local control compared with all other histologies (229/274). The 5-year LRFS rates were 97.6% and 97.8%, respectively. Conclusions: Local control at 5 years is excellent and comparable to therapeutic successes reported from corresponding whole-breast irradiation trials. Our data indicate that patients <50 years of age ought to be excluded from APBI protocols, and that patients with hormone-sensitive breast cancer should definitely receive adjuvant AHT when interstitial multicatheter APBI is performed. Lobular histology need not be an exclusion criterion for future APBI trials.

  17. Accelerated partial-breast irradiation with interstitial implants. Analysis of factors affecting cosmetic outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, Oliver J.; Lotter, Michael; Fietkau, Rainer; Strnad, Vratislav [University Hospital Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: To analyze patient-, disease-, and treatment-related factors for their impact on cosmetic outcome (CO) after interstitial multicatheter accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI). Patients and Methods: Between April 2001 and January 2005, 171 patients with early breast cancer were recruited in Erlangen for this subanalysis of the German-Austrian APBI phase II-trial. 58% (99/171) of the patients received pulsed-dose-rate (PDR), and 42% (72/171) high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Prescribed reference dose for HDR brachytherapy was 32 Gy in eight fractions of 4 Gy, twice daily. Prescribed reference dose in PDR brachytherapy was 49.8 Gy in 83 consecutive fractions of 0.6 Gy each hour. Total treatment time was 3-4 days. Endpoint of this evaluation was the CO, graded as excellent, good, fair, or poor. Patients were divided in two groups with an excellent (n = 102) or nonexcellent (n = 69) cosmetic result. Various factors were analyzed for their impact on excellent CO. Results: The median follow-up time was 52 months (range: 21-91 months). Cosmetic results were rated as excellent in 59.6% (102/171), good in 29.8% (51/171), fair in 9.9% (17/171), and poor in 0.6% (1/171). The initial cosmetic status was significantly worse for the nonexcellent CO group (p = 0.000). The percentage of patients who received PDR brachytherapy APBI was higher in the nonexcellent CO group (68.1% vs. 51%; p = 0.026). Acute toxicity was higher in the nonexcellent CO group (24.6% vs. 12.7%; p = 0.045). Furthermore, the presence of any late toxicity was found to be associated with a worse cosmetic result (65.2% vs. 18.6%; p = 0.000). In detail, the appearance of skin hyperpigmentation (p = 0.034), breast tissue fibrosis (p = 0.000), and telangiectasia (p = 0.000) had a negative impact on CO. Conclusion: The initial, surgery-associated cosmetic status, brachytherapy modality, and the presence of acute and late toxicities were found to have an impact on overall CO. Our data have proven

  18. Impact of Lymph Node Status on Clinical Outcomes After Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Chirag; Wilkinson, J. Ben; Shaitelman, Simona [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Grills, Inga S.; Chen, Peter Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Dekhne, Nayana [Breast Care Center, Beaumont Health System, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Jaiyesimi, Ishmael [Department of Medical Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Wallace, Michelle; Mitchell, Christina K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Vicini, Frank A., E-mail: fvicini@beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To compare outcomes after accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) between node-negative and node-positive patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 534 patients with early-stage breast cancer received APBI including 39 node-positive (N+) cases. Clinical, pathologic, and treatment-related factors were compared between node-negative (N-) and N+ cohorts. Local recurrence (LR), regional recurrence (RR), axillary failure (AF), distant metastases (DM), disease-free survival (DFS), cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. Results: N+ patients were younger (p = 0.04), had larger tumors (p < 0.001), and were more likely to receive chemotherapy (p < 0.001). Mean follow-up was 7.8 years for N+ patients and 6.3 years for N- patients (p = 0.06). No differences were seen in 5-year actuarial rates of LR (2.2% vs. 2.6%, p = 0.86), AF (0% vs. 0%, p = 0.69), DFS (90.0% vs. 88.0%, p = 0.79), or OS (91.0 vs. 84.0%, p = 0.65) between the two groups, whereas higher rates of RR (0% vs. 6.1%, p < 0.001) and DM (2.2% vs. 8.9%, p = 0.005) were noted in N+ patients. A trend for improved CSS (p = 0.06), was seen in N- patients. Age, tumor size, receptor status, T-stage, chemotherapy, APBI technique, and nodal status (p = 0.86) were not associated with LR, while a trend for an association with LR was noted with close/positive margins, (p = 0.07), and failure to receive adjuvant hormonal therapy (p = 0.06). Conclusions: No differences were seen in the rates of LR or AF between N- and N+ patients after APBI. These results support the continued enrollment of node-positive patients in Phase III trials evaluating the efficacy of APBI including the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project-B39/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0413.

  19. Comparative dosimetric findings using accelerated partial breast irradiation across five catheter subtypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) with balloon and strut adjusted volume implants (SAVI) show promising results with excellent tumor control and minimal toxicity. Knowing the factors that contribute to a high skin dose, rib dose, and D95 coverage may reduce toxicity, improve tumor control, and help properly predict patient outcomes following APBI. A retrospective analysis of 594 patients treated with brachytherapy based APBI at a single institution from May 2008 to September 2014 was grouped by applicator subtype. Patients were treated to a total of 34 Gy (3.4 Gy x 10 fractions over 5 days delivered BID) targeting a planning target volume (PTV) 1.0 cm beyond the lumpectomy cavity using a high dose rate source. SAVI devices had the lowest statistically significant values of DmaxSkin (81.00 ± 29.83), highest values of D90 (101.50 ± 3.66), and D95 (96.09 ± 4.55). SAVI-mini devices had the lowest statistically significant values of DmaxRib (77.66 ± 32.92) and smallest V150 (18.01 ± 3.39). Multi-lumen balloons were able to obtain the smallest V200 (5.89 ± 2.21). Strut-based applicators were more likely to achieve a DmaxSkin and a DmaxRib less than or equal to 100 %. The effect of PTV on V150 showed a strong positive relationship (p < .001). PTV and DmaxSkin showed a weak negative relationship in multi-lumen applicators (p = .016) and SAVI-mini devices (p < .001). PTV and DmaxRib showed a weak negative relationship in multi-lumen applicators (p = .009), SAVI devices (p < .001), and SAVI-mini devices (p < .001). PTV volume is strongly correlated with V150 in all devices and V200 in strut based devices. Larger PTV volumes result in greater V150 and V200, which could help predict potential risks for hotspots and resulting toxicities in these devices. PTV volume is also weakly negatively correlated with max skin dose and max rib dose, meaning that as the PTV volumes increase one can expect slightly smaller max skin and rib doses. Strut based applicators are

  20. Accelerated partial-breast irradiation with interstitial implants. Analysis of factors affecting cosmetic outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To analyze patient-, disease-, and treatment-related factors for their impact on cosmetic outcome (CO) after interstitial multicatheter accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI). Patients and Methods: Between April 2001 and January 2005, 171 patients with early breast cancer were recruited in Erlangen for this subanalysis of the German-Austrian APBI phase II-trial. 58% (99/171) of the patients received pulsed-dose-rate (PDR), and 42% (72/171) high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Prescribed reference dose for HDR brachytherapy was 32 Gy in eight fractions of 4 Gy, twice daily. Prescribed reference dose in PDR brachytherapy was 49.8 Gy in 83 consecutive fractions of 0.6 Gy each hour. Total treatment time was 3-4 days. Endpoint of this evaluation was the CO, graded as excellent, good, fair, or poor. Patients were divided in two groups with an excellent (n = 102) or nonexcellent (n = 69) cosmetic result. Various factors were analyzed for their impact on excellent CO. Results: The median follow-up time was 52 months (range: 21-91 months). Cosmetic results were rated as excellent in 59.6% (102/171), good in 29.8% (51/171), fair in 9.9% (17/171), and poor in 0.6% (1/171). The initial cosmetic status was significantly worse for the nonexcellent CO group (p = 0.000). The percentage of patients who received PDR brachytherapy APBI was higher in the nonexcellent CO group (68.1% vs. 51%; p = 0.026). Acute toxicity was higher in the nonexcellent CO group (24.6% vs. 12.7%; p = 0.045). Furthermore, the presence of any late toxicity was found to be associated with a worse cosmetic result (65.2% vs. 18.6%; p = 0.000). In detail, the appearance of skin hyperpigmentation (p 0.034), breast tissue fibrosis (p = 0.000), and telangiectasia (p = 0.000) had a negative impact on CO. Conclusion: The initial, surgery-associated cosmetic status, brachytherapy modality, and the presence of acute and late toxicities were found to have an impact on overall CO. Our data have proven that

  1. Persistent seroma after intraoperative placement of MammoSite for accelerated partial breast irradiation: Incidence, pathologic anatomy, and contributing factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence of, and possible factors associated with, seroma formation after intraoperative placement of the MammoSite catheter for accelerated partial breast irradiation. Methods and Materials: This study evaluated 38 patients who had undergone intraoperative MammoSite catheter placement at lumpectomy or reexcision followed by accelerated partial breast irradiation with 34 Gy in 10 fractions. Data were collected regarding dosimetric parameters, including the volume of tissue enclosed by the 100%, 150%, and 200% isodose shells, dose homogeneity index, and maximal dose at the surface of the applicator. Clinical and treatment-related factors were analyzed, including patient age, patient weight, history of diabetes and smoking, use of reexcision, interval between surgery and radiotherapy, total duration of catheter placement, total excised specimen volume, and presence or absence of postprocedural infection. Seroma was verified by clinical examination, mammography, and/or ultrasonography. Persistent seroma was defined as seroma that was clinically detectable >6 months after radiotherapy completion. Results: After a median follow-up of 17 months, the overall rate of any detectable seroma was 76.3%. Persistent seroma (>6 months) occurred in 26 (68.4%) of 38 patients, of whom 46% experienced at least modest discomfort at some point during follow-up. Of these symptomatic patients, 3 required biopsy or complete cavity excision, revealing squamous metaplasia, foreign body giant cell reaction, fibroblasts, and active collagen deposition. Of the analyzed dosimetric, clinical, and treatment-related variables, only body weight correlated positively with the risk of seroma formation (p = 0.04). Postprocedural infection correlated significantly (p = 0.05) with a reduced risk of seroma formation. Seroma was associated with a suboptimal cosmetic outcome, because excellent scores were achieved in 61.5% of women with seroma compared with 83% without seroma

  2. Stereotactic Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Rationale, Feasibility, and Early Experience Using the CyberKnife Radiosurgery Delivery Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Obayomi-Davies, Olusola; Kole, Thomas P.; Oppong, Bridget; Rudra, Sonali; Makariou, Erini V.; Lloyd D Campbell; Hozaifa M Anjum; Sean P Collins; Unger, Keith; WILLEY, SHAWNA; Tousimis, Eleni; Collins, Brian T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The efficacy of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) utilizing brachytherapy or conventional external beam radiation has been studied in early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery. Data regarding stereotactic treatment approaches are emerging. The CyberKnife linear accelerator enables excellent dose conformality to target structures while adjusting for target and patient motion. We report our institutional experience on the technical feasibility and rati...

  3. Stereotactic Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (SAPBI) for Early Stage Breast Cancer: Rationale, Feasibility and Early Experience using the CyberKnife Radiosurgery Delivery Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Olusola eOBAYOMI-DAVIES; Kole, Thomas P.; Bridget eOppong; Sonali eRudra; Erini eMakariou; Lloyd D Campbell; Hozaifa M Anjum; Sean P Collins; Keith eUnger; Willey, Shawna C.; Eleni A Tousimis; Brian Timothy Collins

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The efficacy of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) utilizing brachytherapy or conventional external beam radiation has been studied in early stage breast cancer treated with breast conserving surgery. Data regarding stereotactic treatment approaches are emerging. The CyberKnife linear accelerator enables excellent dose conformality to target structures while adjusting for target and patient motion. We report our institutional experience on the technical feasibility and rat...

  4. Dosimetric comparison of 3D conformal, IMRT, and V-MAT techniques for accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Jian-Jian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai (China); Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Chang, Zheng; Horton, Janet K.; Wu, Qing-Rong Jackie; Yoo, Sua [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Yin, Fang-Fang, E-mail: fangfang.yin@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The purpose is to dosimetrically compare the following 3 delivery techniques: 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMRT), and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (V-MAT) in the treatment of accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI). Overall, 16 patients with T1/2N0 breast cancer were treated with 3D-CRT (multiple, noncoplanar photon fields) on the RTOG 0413 partial-breast trial. These cases were subsequently replanned using static gantry IMRT and V-MAT technology to understand dosimetric differences among these 3 techniques. Several dosimetric parameters were used in plan quality evaluation, including dose conformity index (CI) and dose-volume histogram analysis of normal tissue coverage. Quality assurance studies including gamma analysis were performed to compare the measured and calculated dose distributions. The IMRT and V-MAT plans gave more conformal target dose distributions than the 3D-CRT plans (p < 0.05 in CI). The volume of ipsilateral breast receiving 5 and 10 Gy was significantly less using the V-MAT technique than with either 3D-CRT or IMRT (p < 0.05). The maximum lung dose and the ipsilateral lung volume receiving 10 (V{sub 10}) or 20 Gy (V{sub 20}) were significantly less with both V-MAT and IMRT (p < 0.05). The IMRT technique was superior to 3D-CRT and V-MAT of low dose distributions in ipsilateral lung (p < 0.05 in V{sub 5} and D{sub 5}). The total mean monitor units (MUs) for V-MAT (621.0 ± 111.9) were 12.2% less than those for 3D-CRT (707.3 ± 130.9) and 46.5% less than those for IMRT (1161.4 ± 315.6) (p < 0.05). The average machine delivery time was 1.5 ± 0.2 minutes for the V-MAT plans, 7.0 ± 1.6 minutes for the 3D-CRT plans, and 11.5 ± 1.9 minutes for the IMRT plans, demonstrating much less delivery time for V-MAT. Based on this preliminary study, V-MAT and IMRT techniques offer improved dose conformity as compared with 3D-CRT techniques without increasing dose to the ipsilateral lung. In

  5. 早期乳腺癌部分乳腺加速放疗%Accelerated partial breast irradiation for early breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秋宁; 王小虎

    2011-01-01

    随着乳腺癌术后复发模式的研究进展,部分乳腺照射方法 成为乳腺癌放疗的热点.组织间插植、球囊近距离治疗、术中放疗及三维适形放疗和调强放疗等部分乳腺加速放疗已进入临床研究.其局部控制率和安全性与全乳腺照射比较相当,同时具有治疗周期短、方便患者等优势.部分乳腺加速放疗在部分患者有望代替全乳腺放疗,成为早期乳腺癌保乳术后放疗的标准治疗之一.%With a view to patterns of local recurrence after breast conserving surgery, whole breast irradiation(WBI) after surgery is controversial and partial-breast irradiation(PBI) came up. Many clinical trials related with accelerated partial-breast irradiation using a variety of radiotherapeutic techniques such as interstitial brachytherapy (IBT), MammoSite Radiation Therapy System, intraoperative radiotherapy(IORT), threedimensional conformal radiotherapy(3-DCRT)and intensity modulated radiation therapy(IMRT) in selected patients have been carried out. Accelerated partial-breast irradiation that provides faster, more convenient treat-ment demonstrates local control rate and safety comparable to that of whole breast irradiation. Partial breast irradiation may be an alternative way to whole breast radiotherapy and will be one of the standard treatments in women with early breast cancer seeking breast conservation.

  6. External beam accelerated partial breast irradiation (EB-APBI yields favorable outcomes in patients with prior breast augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Yi-Feng Lei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report outcomes in breast cancer patients with prior breast augmentation treated with external beam accelerated partial breast irradiation (EB-APBI utilizing intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT or 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT, both with image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT.Methods and Materials: 16 stage 0/I breast cancer patients with previous elective bilateral augmentation were treated post-lumpectomy on institutional EB-APBI trials (01185132 and 01185145 on clinicaltrials.gov. Patients received 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions over 5 consecutive days. Breast/chest wall pain and cosmesis were rated by patient; cosmesis was additionally evaluated by physician per RTOG criteria.Results: The median follow-up from APBI completion was 18.0 months (range, 1.2-58.6. Little to no change in cosmesis or pain from baseline was reported. Cosmetic outcomes at last follow-up were judged by patients as excellent/good in 93.8% (15/16, and by physicians as excellent/good in 100% (16/16. Eight patients (50.0% reported no breast/chest wall pain, and the remaining 8 patients (50.0% reported mild pain. All patients remain disease free at last follow-up. The median ipsilateral breast, planning target volume (PTV, and implant volumes were 614 cc, 57 cc, and 333 cc. The median ratios of PTV/ipsilateral breast volume (implant excluded and PTV/total volume (implant included were 9% and 6%. Conclusions: These 16 breast cancer cases with prior bilateral breast augmentation treated with external beam APBI demonstrate favorable clinical outcomes. Further exploration of external beam APBI as a treatment option for this patient po

  7. Results With Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation in Terms of Estrogen Receptor, Progesterone Receptor, and Human Growth Factor Receptor 2 Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To report our results with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) in terms of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2/neu) status. Methods and Materials: Between February 2003 and June 2009, 209 women with early-stage breast carcinomas were treated with APBI using multicatheter, MammoSite, or Contura brachytherapy to 34 Gy in 10 fractions twice daily over 5-7 days. Three patient groups were defined by receptor status: Group 1: ER or PR (+) and HER-2/neu (-) (n = 180), Group 2: ER and PR (-) and HER-2/neu (+) (n = 10), and Group 3: ER, PR, and HER-2/neu (-) (triple negative breast cancer, n = 19). Median follow-up was 22 months. Results: Group 3 patients had significantly higher Scarff-Bloom-Richardson scores (p < 0.001). The 3-year ipsilateral breast tumor control rates for Groups 1, 2, and 3 were 99%, 100%, and 100%, respectively (p = 0.15). Group 3 patients tended to experience relapse in distant sites earlier than did non-Group 3 patients. The 3-year relapse-free survival rates for Groups 1, 2, and 3 were 100%, 100%, and 81%, respectively (p = 0.046). The 3-year cause-specific and overall survival rates for Groups 1, 2, and 3 were 100%, 100%, and 89%, respectively (p = 0.002). Conclusions: Triple negative breast cancer patients typically have high-grade tumors with significantly worse relapse-free, cause-specific, and overall survival. Longer follow-up will help to determine whether these patients also have a higher risk of ipsilateral breast tumor relapse.

  8. Nomogram for Predicting the Risk of Locoregional Recurrence in Patients Treated With Accelerated Partial-Breast Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop a nomogram taking into account clinicopathologic features to predict locoregional recurrence (LRR) in patients treated with accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI) for early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 2000 breasts (1990 women) were treated with APBI at William Beaumont Hospital (n=551) or on the American Society of Breast Surgeons MammoSite Registry Trial (n=1449). Techniques included multiplanar interstitial catheters (n=98), balloon-based brachytherapy (n=1689), and 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (n=213). Clinicopathologic variables were gathered prospectively. A nomogram was formulated utilizing the Cox proportional hazards regression model to predict for LRR. This was validated by generating a bias-corrected index and cross-validated with a concordance index. Results: Median follow-up was 5.5 years (range, 0.9-18.3 years). Of the 2000 cases, 435 were excluded because of missing data. Univariate analysis found that age <50 years, pre-/perimenopausal status, close/positive margins, estrogen receptor negativity, and high grade were associated with a higher frequency of LRR. These 5 independent covariates were used to create adjusted estimates, weighting each on a scale of 0-100. The total score is identified on a points scale to obtain the probability of an LRR over the study period. The model demonstrated good concordance for predicting LRR, with a concordance index of 0.641. Conclusions: The formulation of a practical, easy-to-use nomogram for calculating the risk of LRR in patients undergoing APBI will help guide the appropriate selection of patients for off-protocol utilization of APBI

  9. Nomogram for Predicting the Risk of Locoregional Recurrence in Patients Treated With Accelerated Partial-Breast Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wobb, Jessica L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Chen, Peter Y., E-mail: PChen@beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Shah, Chirag [Department of Radiation Oncology, Summa Health System, Akron, Ohio (United States); Moran, Meena S. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, Norwich, Connecticut (United States); Shaitelman, Simona F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Vicini, Frank A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Michigan Healthcare Professionals/21st Century Oncology, Farmington, Michigan (United States); Mbah, Alfred K.; Lyden, Maureen [Biostat International Inc, Tampa, Florida (United States); Beitsch, Peter [Department of Surgery, Dallas Breast Center, Dallas, Texas (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: To develop a nomogram taking into account clinicopathologic features to predict locoregional recurrence (LRR) in patients treated with accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI) for early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 2000 breasts (1990 women) were treated with APBI at William Beaumont Hospital (n=551) or on the American Society of Breast Surgeons MammoSite Registry Trial (n=1449). Techniques included multiplanar interstitial catheters (n=98), balloon-based brachytherapy (n=1689), and 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (n=213). Clinicopathologic variables were gathered prospectively. A nomogram was formulated utilizing the Cox proportional hazards regression model to predict for LRR. This was validated by generating a bias-corrected index and cross-validated with a concordance index. Results: Median follow-up was 5.5 years (range, 0.9-18.3 years). Of the 2000 cases, 435 were excluded because of missing data. Univariate analysis found that age <50 years, pre-/perimenopausal status, close/positive margins, estrogen receptor negativity, and high grade were associated with a higher frequency of LRR. These 5 independent covariates were used to create adjusted estimates, weighting each on a scale of 0-100. The total score is identified on a points scale to obtain the probability of an LRR over the study period. The model demonstrated good concordance for predicting LRR, with a concordance index of 0.641. Conclusions: The formulation of a practical, easy-to-use nomogram for calculating the risk of LRR in patients undergoing APBI will help guide the appropriate selection of patients for off-protocol utilization of APBI.

  10. Impact of the Number of Cautionary and/or Unsuitable Risk Factors on Outcomes After Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To examine clinical outcomes of accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI) stratified by the number of American Society for Radiation Oncology consensus statement cautionary/unsuitable risk factors (RFs) present. Methods and Materials: A total of 692 patients were treated with APBI at a single institution between April 1993 and January 2012 using interstitial (n=195), balloon (n=292), and 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (n=205) techniques. Clinical outcomes were evaluated by risk group and number of RFs. Results: Median follow-up was 5.2 years (range, 0-18.3 years). Most patients were classified as suitable (n=240, 34%) or cautionary (n=343, 50%) risk, whereas 16% (n=109) were unsuitable. In patients with increasing total RFs (1 RF, 2 RF, 3+ RF), higher rates of grade 3 histology (10% vs 18% vs 32%, P<.001), estrogen receptor negativity (0 vs 12% vs 29%, P<.001), close/positive margins (0 vs 6% vs 17%, P<.001), and use of adjuvant chemotherapy (3% vs 12% vs 33%, P<.001) were noted. When pooling cautionary and unsuitable patients, increased ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence/regional recurrence was most notable for patients with 3 or more combined RFs versus 2 or fewer combined RFs (P<.001). Conclusions: Patients with 3 or more cautionary or unsuitable RFs may be at risk for higher local, regional, and distant recurrence after breast-conserving therapy using APBI. Patients with 2 or fewer total RFs have 98% locoregional control at 5 years. Inclusion of total number of RFs in future risk stratification schemes for APBI may be warranted

  11. Combined modulated electron and photon beams planned by a Monte-Carlo-based optimization procedure for accelerated partial breast irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atriana Palma, Bianey; Ureba Sánchez, Ana; Salguero, Francisco Javier; Arráns, Rafael; Míguez Sánchez, Carlos; Walls Zurita, Amadeo; Romero Hermida, María Isabel; Leal, Antonio

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to present a Monte-Carlo (MC)-based optimization procedure to improve conventional treatment plans for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using modulated electron beams alone or combined with modulated photon beams, to be delivered by a single collimation device, i.e. a photon multi-leaf collimator (xMLC) already installed in a standard hospital. Five left-sided breast cases were retrospectively planned using modulated photon and/or electron beams with an in-house treatment planning system (TPS), called CARMEN, and based on MC simulations. For comparison, the same cases were also planned by a PINNACLE TPS using conventional inverse intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Normal tissue complication probability for pericarditis, pneumonitis and breast fibrosis was calculated. CARMEN plans showed similar acceptable planning target volume (PTV) coverage as conventional IMRT plans with 90% of PTV volume covered by the prescribed dose (Dp). Heart and ipsilateral lung receiving 5% Dp and 15% Dp, respectively, was 3.2-3.6 times lower for CARMEN plans. Ipsilateral breast receiving 50% Dp and 100% Dp was an average of 1.4-1.7 times lower for CARMEN plans. Skin and whole body low-dose volume was also reduced. Modulated photon and/or electron beams planned by the CARMEN TPS improve APBI treatments by increasing normal tissue sparing maintaining the same PTV coverage achieved by other techniques. The use of the xMLC, already installed in the linac, to collimate photon and electron beams favors the clinical implementation of APBI with the highest efficiency.

  12. Dosimetric comparison of three dimensional conformal radiation therapy versus intensity modulated radiation therapy in accelerated partial breast irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Moorthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of Study: Breast conserving surgery (BCS is the standard treatment for stage I and II breast cancer. Multiple studies have shown that recurrences after lumpectomy occur mainly in or near the tumor bed. Use of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI allows for significant reduction in the overall treatment time that results in increasing patient compliance and decreasing healthcare costs. We conducted a treatment planning study to evaluate the role of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT with regards to three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT in APBI. Materials and Methods: Computed tomography planning data sets of 33 patients (20 right sided and 13 left sided with tumor size less than 3 cm and negative axillary lymph nodes were used for our study. Tumor location was upper outer, upper inner, central, lower inner, and lower outer quadrants in 10, 10, 5, 4 and 4 patients, respectively. Multiple 3DCRT and IMRT plans were created for each patient. Total dose of 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions were planned. Dosimetric analysis was done for the best 3DCRT and IMRT plans. Results: The target coverage has been achieved by both the methods but IMRT provided better coverage (P = 0.04 with improved conformity index (P = 0.01. Maximum doses were well controlled in IMRT to below 108% (P < 0.01. Heart V2 Gy (P < 0.01, lung V5 Gy (P = 0.01, lung V10 Gy (P = 0.02, contralateral breast V1 Gy (P < 0.01, contralateral lung V2 Gy (P < 0.01, and ipsilateral uninvolved breast (P < 0.01 doses were higher with 3DCRT compared to IMRT. Conclusion: Dosimetrically, IMRT–APBI provided best target coverage with less dose to normal tissues compared with 3DCRT-APBI.

  13. Accelerated partial-breast irradiation using high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy: 12-year update of a prospective clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: To report the 12-year updated results of accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI) using multicatheter interstitial high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy (BT). Patients and methods: Forty-five prospectively selected patients with T1N0-N1mi, nonlobular breast cancer without the presence of an extensive intraductal component and with negative surgical margins were treated with APBI after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) using interstitial HDR BT. A total dose of 30.3 Gy (n = 8) and 36.4 Gy (n = 37) in seven fractions within 4 days was delivered to the tumour bed plus a 1-2 cm margin. The median follow-up time was 133 months for surviving patients. Local and regional control, disease-free (DFS), cancer-specific (CSS), and overall survival (OS), as well as late side effects, and cosmetic results were assessed. Results: Four (8.9%) ipsilateral breast tumour recurrences were observed, for a 5-, 10-, and 12-year actuarial rate of 4.4%, 9.3%, and 9.3%, respectively. A total of two regional nodal failures were observed for a 12-year actuarial rate of 4.4%. The 12-year DFS, CSS, and OS was 75.3%, 91.1%, and 88.9%, respectively. Grade 3 fibrosis was observed in one patient (2.2%). No patient developed grade 3 teleangiectasia. Fat necrosis requiring surgical intervention occurred in one woman (2.2%). Cosmetic results were rated excellent or good in 35 patients (77.8%). Conclusions: Twelve-year results with APBI using HDR multicatheter interstitial implants continue to demonstrate excellent long-term local tumour control, survival, and cosmetic results with a low-rate of late side effects.

  14. Update on DCIS Outcomes from the American Society of Breast Surgeons Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Registry Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeruss, Jacqueline S.; Kuerer, Henry M.; Beitsch, Peter D.; Vicini, Frank A.; Keisch, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Background Since the initial reports on use of MammoSite accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) for treatment of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), additional follow-up data were collected. We hypothesized that APBI delivered via MammoSite would continue to be well tolerated, associated with a good cosmetic outcome, and carry a low risk for recurrence in patients with DCIS. Materials and Methods From 2002–2004, 194 patients with DCIS were enrolled in a registry trial to assess the MammoSite. Follow-up data were available for all 194 patients. Median follow-up was 54.4 months; 63 patients had at least 5 years of follow-up. Data obtained included patient-, tumor-, and treatment-related factors, and recurrence incidence. Results Of the 194 patients, 87 (45%) had the MammoSite placed at lumpectomy; 107 patients (55%) had the device placed postlumpectomy. In the first year of followup, 16 patients developed a breast infection, though the method of device placement was not associated with infection risk. Also, 46 patients developed a seroma that was associated with applicator placement at the time of lumpectomy (P = 0.001). For patients with at least 5 years of follow-up, 92% had favorable cosmetic results. There were 6 patients (3.1%) who had an ipsilateral breast recurrence, with 1 (0.5%) experiencing recurrence in the breast and axilla, for a 5-year actuarial local recurrence rate of 3.39%. Conclusions During an extended follow-up period, APBI delivered via MammoSite continued to be well tolerated for patients with DCIS. Use of this device may make lumpectomy possible for patients who would otherwise choose mastectomy because of barriers associated with standard radiation therapy. PMID:20577822

  15. Three-Year Outcomes of a Canadian Multicenter Study of Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using Conformal Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrang, Tanya S., E-mail: tberrang@bccancer.bc.ca [British Columbia Cancer Agency-Vancouver Island, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, BC (Canada); Olivotto, Ivo [British Columbia Cancer Agency-Vancouver Island, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, BC (Canada); Kim, Do-Hoon [Juravinski Cancer Centre, Ontario (Canada); McMaster University, Ontario (Canada); Nichol, Alan [British Columbia Cancer Agency-Vancouver Centre, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, BC (Canada); Cho, B.C. John [Princess Margaret Hospital, Ontario (Canada); University of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Mohamed, Islam G. [British Columbia Cancer Agency-Southern Interior, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, BC (Canada); Parhar, Tarnjit [British Columbia Cancer Agency-Vancouver Centre, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, BC (Canada); Wright, J.R. [Juravinski Cancer Centre, Ontario (Canada); McMaster University, Ontario (Canada); Truong, Pauline [British Columbia Cancer Agency-Vancouver Island, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, BC (Canada); Tyldesley, Scott [British Columbia Cancer Agency-Vancouver Centre, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, BC (Canada); Sussman, Jonathan [Juravinski Cancer Centre, Ontario (Canada); McMaster University, Ontario (Canada); Wai, Elaine [British Columbia Cancer Agency-Vancouver Island, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, BC (Canada); Whelan, Tim [Juravinski Cancer Centre, Ontario (Canada); McMaster University, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To report 3-year toxicity, cosmesis, and efficacy of a multicenter study of external beam, accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) for early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Between March 2005 and August 2006, 127 women aged {>=}40 years with ductal carcinoma in situ or node-negative invasive breast cancer {<=}3 cm in diameter, treated with breast-conserving surgery achieving negative margins, were accrued to a prospective study involving five Canadian cancer centers. Women meeting predefined dose constraints were treated with APBI using 3 to 5 photon beams, delivering 35 to 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions, twice a day, over 1 week. Patients were assessed for treatment-related toxicities, cosmesis, and efficacy before APBI and at specified time points for as long as 3 years after APBI. Results: 104 women had planning computed tomography scans showing visible seromas, met dosimetric constraints, and were treated with APBI to doses of 35 Gy (n = 9), 36 Gy (n = 33), or 38.5 Gy (n = 62). Eighty-seven patients were evaluated with minimum 3-year follow-up after APBI. Radiation dermatitis, breast edema, breast induration, and fatigue decreased from baseline levels or stabilized by the 3-year follow-up. Hypopigmentation, hyperpigmentation, breast pain, and telangiectasia slightly increased from baseline levels. Most toxicities at 3 years were Grade 1. Only 1 patient had a Grade 3 toxicity with telangiectasia in a skin fold inside the 95% isodose. Cosmesis was good to excellent in 86% (89/104) of women at baseline and 82% (70/85) at 3 years. The 3-year disease-free survival was 97%, with only one local recurrence that occurred in a different quadrant away from the treated site and two distant recurrences. Conclusions: At 3 years, toxicity and cosmesis were acceptable, and local control and disease-free survival were excellent, supporting continued accrual to randomized APBI trials.

  16. Impact of the Number of Cautionary and/or Unsuitable Risk Factors on Outcomes After Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wobb, Jessica; Wilkinson, J. Ben [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Cancer Institute, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Shah, Chirag [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Mitchell, Christina; Wallace, Michelle; Ye, Hong; Stromberg, Jannifer; Grills, Inga [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Cancer Institute, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Chen, Peter Y., E-mail: PChen@beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Cancer Institute, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To examine clinical outcomes of accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI) stratified by the number of American Society for Radiation Oncology consensus statement cautionary/unsuitable risk factors (RFs) present. Methods and Materials: A total of 692 patients were treated with APBI at a single institution between April 1993 and January 2012 using interstitial (n=195), balloon (n=292), and 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (n=205) techniques. Clinical outcomes were evaluated by risk group and number of RFs. Results: Median follow-up was 5.2 years (range, 0-18.3 years). Most patients were classified as suitable (n=240, 34%) or cautionary (n=343, 50%) risk, whereas 16% (n=109) were unsuitable. In patients with increasing total RFs (1 RF, 2 RF, 3+ RF), higher rates of grade 3 histology (10% vs 18% vs 32%, P<.001), estrogen receptor negativity (0 vs 12% vs 29%, P<.001), close/positive margins (0 vs 6% vs 17%, P<.001), and use of adjuvant chemotherapy (3% vs 12% vs 33%, P<.001) were noted. When pooling cautionary and unsuitable patients, increased ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence/regional recurrence was most notable for patients with 3 or more combined RFs versus 2 or fewer combined RFs (P<.001). Conclusions: Patients with 3 or more cautionary or unsuitable RFs may be at risk for higher local, regional, and distant recurrence after breast-conserving therapy using APBI. Patients with 2 or fewer total RFs have 98% locoregional control at 5 years. Inclusion of total number of RFs in future risk stratification schemes for APBI may be warranted.

  17. Accelerated partial breast irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Whole breast radiotherapy afier tumor lumpectomy is based on the premise that that the breast cancer recurrence rate is reduced through the elimination of residual cancer foci in the remaining tissue immediately adjacent to the lumpectomy site and occult multicentric areas of in situ or infiltrating cancer in remote areas of the breast. The relevance of remote foci to ipsilateral breast failure rates after breast conserving treatment is debatable, because 65%~100% of recurrences develop in the same quadrant as the initial tumor. This has led several investigators to question whether radiotherapy must be administered to the entire breast.

  18. Accelerated partial breast irradiation using once-daily fractionation: analysis of 312 cases with four years median follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Arif Y

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are limited data on accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI using external beam techniques. Moreover, there are recent reports of increased fibrosis and unacceptable cosmesis with APBI using external beam with BID fractionation. We adopted a once daily regimen of APBI with fractionation similar to that shown to be effective in a Canadian randomized trial of whole breast irradiation. It is unclear whether patients with DCIS or invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC are suitable for APBI. Methods The retrospective cohort included 310 patients with 312 tumors of T1-T2N0-N1micM0 invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC, ILC, or Tis (DCIS treated with APBI via external beam. Most patients were treated using IMRT with 16 daily fractions of 270 cGy to a dose of 4320 cGy. The target volume included the lumpectomy cavity plus 1.0 cm to account for microscopic disease and an additional 0.5 to 1.0 cm for setup uncertainty and breathing motion. Ipsilateral breast failure (IBF was pathologically confirmed as a local failure (LF or an elsewhere failure (EF. Results Median follow-up was 49 months. Among the 312 cases, 213 were IDC, 31 ILC, and 68 DCIS. Median tumor size was 1.0 cm. There were 9 IBFs (2.9% including 5 LFs and 4 EFs. The IBF rates among patients with IDC, ILC, and DCIS were 2.4%, 3.2%, and 4.4%, respectively, with no significant difference between histologies. When patients were analyzed by the ASTRO APBI consensus statement risk groups, 32% of treated cases were considered suitable, 50% cautionary, and 18% unsuitable. The IBF rates among suitable, cautionary, and unsuitable patients were 4.0%, 2.6%, and 1.8%, respectively, with no significant difference between risk groups. Acute skin reactions were rare and long-term cosmetic outcome was very good to excellent. Conclusions External beam APBI with once daily fractionation has a low rate of IBF consistent with other published APBI studies. The ASTRO risk stratification did not

  19. Identifying Patients Who Are Unsuitable for Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using Three-dimensional External Beam Conformal Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shikama, Naoto, E-mail: nshikama0525@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Saitama (Japan); Nakamura, Naoki; Kunishima, Naoaki; Hatanaka, Shogo; Sekiguchi, Kenji [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke' s International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: Several recent studies reported that severe late toxicities including soft-tissue fibrosis and fat necrosis are present in patients treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) and that these toxicities are associated with the large volume of tissue targeted by high-dose irradiation. The present study was performed to clarify which patients are unsuitable for APBI to avoid late severe toxicities. Methods and Materials: Study subjects comprised 50 consecutive patients with Stage 0-II unilateral breast cancer who underwent breast-conserving surgery, and in whom five or six surgical clips were placed during surgery. All patients were subsequently replanned using three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) APBI techniques according to the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) B-39 and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0413 protocol. The beam arrangements included mainly noncoplanar four- or five-field beams using 6-MV photons alone. Results: Dose-volume histogram (DVH) constraints for normal tissues according to the NSABP/RTOG protocol were satisfied in 39 patients (78%). Multivariate analysis revealed that only long craniocaudal clip distance (CCD) was correlated with nonoptimal DVH constraints (p = 0.02), but that pathological T stage, anteroposterior clip distance (APD), site of ipsilateral breast (IB) (right/left), location of the tumor (medial/lateral), and IB reference volume were not. DVH constraints were satisfied in 20% of patients with a long CCD ({>=}5.5 cm) and 92% of those with a short CCD (p < 0.0001). Median IB reference volume receiving {>=}50% of the prescribed dose (IB-V{sub 50}) of all patients was 49.0% (range, 31.4-68.6). Multivariate analysis revealed that only a long CCD was correlated with large IB-V{sub 50} (p < 0.0001), but other factors were not. Conclusion: Patients with long CCDs ({>=}5.5 cm) might be unsuitable for 3D-CRT APBI because of nonoptimal DVH constraints and large IB

  20. Accelerated partial-breast irradiation with interstitial implants. The clinical relevance of the calculation of skin doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, O.J.; Lotter, M.; Sauer, R.; Strnad, V. [University Hospital Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2007-08-15

    Purpose: To describe relative skin dose estimations and their impact on cosmetic outcome in interstitial multicatheter accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI). Patients and Methods: Between April 2001 and January 2005, 105 consecutive patients with early breast cancer were recruited in Erlangen, Germany, for this substudy of the German-Austrian APBI phase II trial. 51% (54/105) received pulsed-dose-rate (PDR), and 49% (51/105) high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Prescribed reference dose for HDR brachytherapy was 32 Gy in eight fractions of 4 Gy, twice daily. Prescribed reference dose in PDR brachytherapy was 49.8 Gy in 83 consecutive fractions of 0.6 Gy every hour. Total treatment time was 3-4 days. With a wire cross on the skin surface during the brachytherapy-planning procedure the minimal, mean and maximal relative skin doses (SD{sub min%}, SD{sub max%}, SD{sub mean%}) were recorded. Endpoint of this evaluation was the cosmetic outcome in relation to the relative skin doses. Results: Median follow-up time was 38 months (range, 19-65 months). Cosmetic results for all patients were excellent in 57% (60/105), good in 36% (38/105), and fair in 7% (7/105). The SD{sub min%} (27.0% vs. 31.7%; p = 0.032), SD{sub mean%} (34.2% vs. 38.1%; p = 0.008), and SD{sub max%} (38.2% vs. 46.4%; p = 0.003) were significantly lower for patients with excellent cosmetic outcome compared to patients with a suboptimal outcome. SD{sub mean%} (37.6% vs. 34.2%; p = 0.026) and SD{sub max%} (45.4% vs. 38.2%; p = 0.008) were significantly higher for patients with good cosmetic outcome compared with the patients with excellent results. Conclusion: The appraisal of skin doses has been shown to be relevant to the achievement of excellent cosmetic outcome. Further investigations are necessary, especially on the basis of CT-based brachytherapy planning, to further improve the treatment results of multicatheter APBI. (orig.)

  1. Accelerated partial breast irradiation in an Asian population: dosimetric findings and preliminary results of a multicatheter interstitial program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh YV

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Yaling Vicky Koh,1 Poh Wee Tan,1 Shaik Ahmad Buhari,2 Philip Iau,2 Ching Wan Chan,2 Liang Shen,3 Sing Huang Tan,4 Johann I-Hsiung Tang1 1Department of Radiation Oncology, National University Cancer Institute Singapore, 2Department of Surgery, National University Hospital, 3Department of Medicine, Biostatistics Unit, National University of Singapore, 4Department of Medical Oncology, National University Cancer Institute Singapore, Singapore Introduction: Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI using the multicatheter method has excellent cosmesis and low rates of long-term toxicity. However, there are few studies looking at the feasibility of this procedure and the outcomes in an Asian population. This study aims to look at outcomes at our hospital.Methods: We identified 121 patients treated with APBI at our center between 2008 and 2014. The median follow-up for our patient group was 30 months (range 3.7–66.5. The prescribed dose per fraction was 3.4 Gy in 10 fractions. In this study population, 71% of the patients were Chinese while 15% (n=19 were of other Asian ethnicity.Results: In this study, the median breast volume was 850 cc (range 216–2,108 with 59.5% (n=72 patients with a breast volume of <1,000 cc. The average planning target volume was 134 cc (range 28–324. The number of catheters used ranged from 8 to 25 with an average of 18 catheters used per patient. We achieved an average dose homogeneity index of 0.76 in our patients. The average D90(% was 105% and the average D90(Gy was 3.6 Gy per fraction. The median volume receiving 100% of the prescribed dose (V100 was 161.7 cc (range 33.9–330.1, 150% of the prescribed dose (V150 and 200% of the prescribed dose (V200 was 39.4 cc (range 14.6–69.6 and 14.72 cc (range 6.48–22.25, respectively. Our dosimetric outcomes were excellent even in patients with breast volume under 1,000 cc. There were no cases of grade 3 skin toxicity or acute pneumonitis. Two patients had a

  2. Impact of residual and intrafractional errors on strategy of correction for image-guided accelerated partial breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cone beam CT (CBCT) guided radiation can reduce the systematic and random setup errors as compared to the skin-mark setup. However, the residual and intrafractional (RAIF) errors are still unknown. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the magnitude of RAIF errors and correction action levels needed in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) guided accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Ten patients were enrolled in the prospective study of CBCT guided APBI. The postoperative tumor bed was irradiated with 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions over 5 days. Two cone-beam CT data sets were obtained with one before and one after the treatment delivery. The CBCT images were registered online to the planning CT images using the automatic algorithm followed by a fine manual adjustment. An action level of 3 mm, meaning that corrections were performed for translations exceeding 3 mm, was implemented in clinical treatments. Based on the acquired data, different correction action levels were simulated, and random RAIF errors, systematic RAIF errors and related margins before and after the treatments were determined for varying correction action levels. A total of 75 pairs of CBCT data sets were analyzed. The systematic and random setup errors based on skin-mark setup prior to treatment delivery were 2.1 mm and 1.8 mm in the lateral (LR), 3.1 mm and 2.3 mm in the superior-inferior (SI), and 2.3 mm and 2.0 mm in the anterior-posterior (AP) directions. With the 3 mm correction action level, the systematic and random RAIF errors were 2.5 mm and 2.3 mm in the LR direction, 2.3 mm and 2.3 mm in the SI direction, and 2.3 mm and 2.2 mm in the AP direction after treatments delivery. Accordingly, the margins for correction action levels of 3 mm, 4 mm, 5 mm, 6 mm and no correction were 7.9 mm, 8.0 mm, 8.0 mm, 7.9 mm and 8.0 mm in the LR direction; 6.4 mm, 7.1 mm, 7.9 mm, 9.2 mm and 10.5 mm in the SI direction; 7.6 mm, 7.9 mm, 9.4 mm, 10.1 mm and 12.7 mm in the AP direction

  3. Three-year outcomes of a once daily fractionation scheme for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using 3-D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to report 3-year outcomes of toxicity, cosmesis, and local control using a once daily fractionation scheme (49.95 Gy in 3.33 Gy once daily fractions) for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Between July 2008 and August 2010, women aged ≥40 years with ductal carcinoma in situ or node-negative invasive breast cancer ≤3 cm in diameter, treated with breast-conserving surgery achieving negative margins, were accrued to a prospective study. Women were treated with APBI using 3–5 photon beams, delivering 49.95 Gy over 15 once daily fractions over 3 weeks. Patients were assessed for toxicities, cosmesis, and local control rates before APBI and at specified time points. Thirty-four patients (mean age 60 years) with Tis 0 (n = 9) and T1N0 (n = 25) breast cancer were treated and followed up for an average of 39 months. Only 3% (1/34) patients experienced a grade 3 subcutaneous fibrosis and breast edema and 97% of the patients had good/excellent cosmetic outcome at 3 years. The 3-year rate of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) was 0% while the rate of contralateral breast events was 6%. The 3-year disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) was 94%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. Our novel accelerated partial breast fractionation scheme of 15 once daily fractions of 3.33 Gy (49.95 Gy total) is a remarkably well-tolerated regimen of 3D-CRT-based APBI. A larger cohort of patients is needed to further ascertain the toxicity of this accelerated partial breast regimen

  4. Identifying Patients Who May Be Candidates for a Clinical Trial of Salvage Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation after Previous Whole Breast Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linna Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI has been proposed as an alternative to salvage mastectomy for patients with ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR after prior breast conservation. We studied factors that are associated with a more favorable local recurrence profile that could make certain patients eligible for APBI. Methods. Between 1980 and 2005, 157 Stage 0–II breast cancer patients had an IBTR treated by mastectomy. Clinical and pathological features were analyzed to identify factors associated with favorable IBTR defined as unifocal DCIS or T1 ≤ 2 cm, without skin involvement, and >2 year interval from initial treatment. Results. Median followup was 140 months and time to recurrence was 73 months. Clinical stage distribution at recurrence was DCIS in 32 pts (20%, T1 in 90 pts (57%, T2 in 14 pts (9%, T3 in 4 pts (3%, and T4 in 9 pts (6%. IBTR was classified as favorable in 71%. Clinical stage of IBTR predicted for pathologic stage –95% of patients with clinical T1 IBTR had pathologic T1 disease at salvage mastectomy . Conclusions. Clinical stage at presentation strongly correlated with pathologic stage at mastectomy. More than 70% of recurrences were favorable and may be appropriate candidates for salvage APBI trials.

  5. Stereotactic Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (SAPBI for Early Stage Breast Cancer: Rationale, Feasibility and Early Experience using the CyberKnife Radiosurgery Delivery Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola eOBAYOMI-DAVIES

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The efficacy of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI utilizing brachytherapy or conventional external beam radiation has been studied in early stage breast cancer treated with breast conserving surgery. Data regarding stereotactic treatment approaches are emerging. The CyberKnife linear accelerator enables excellent dose conformality to target structures while adjusting for target and patient motion. We report our institutional experience on the technical feasibility and rationale for SAPBI delivery using the CyberKnife radiosurgery system.Methods: Ten patients completed CyberKnife SAPBI in 2013 at Georgetown University Hospital. Four gold fiducials were implanted around the lumpectomy cavity prior to treatment under ultrasound guidance. The synchrony system tracked intrafraction motion of the fiducials. The clinical target volume (CTV was defined on contrast enhanced CT scans using surgical clips and post-operative changes. A 5 mm expansion was added to create the planning treatment volume (PTV. A total dose of 30 Gy was delivered to the PTV in 5 consecutive fractions. Target and critical structure doses were assessed as per the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-39 study.Results: At least 3 fiducials were tracked in 100% of cases. The Mean treated PTV was 70 cm3 and the mean prescription isodose line was 80%. Mean dose to target volumes and constraints are as follows: 100% of the PTV received the prescription dose (PTV30. The volume of the ipsilateral breast receiving 30 Gy (V30 and above 15 Gy (V>15 was 14% and 31% respectively. The ipsilateral lung volume receiving 9 Gy (V9 was 3% and the contralateral lung volume receiving 1.5 Gy (V1.5 was 8%. For left sided breast cancers, the volume of heart receiving 1.5 Gy (V1.5 was 31%. Maximum skin dose was 36 Gy. At a median follow up of 1.3 years, all patients have experienced excellent/good breast cosmesis outcomes, and no breast events have been recorded

  6. Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation With Low-Dose-Rate Interstitial Implant Brachytherapy After Wide Local Excision: 12-Year Outcomes From a Prospective Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattangadi, Jona A. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, MA (United States); Powell, Simon N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); MacDonald, Shannon M.; Mauceri, Thomas; Ancukiewicz, Marek [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Freer, Phoebe [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Lawenda, Brian [21st Century Oncology, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Alm El-Din, Mohamed A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Department of Clinical Oncology, Tanta University Hospital, Tanta (Egypt); Gadd, Michele A.; Smith, Barbara L. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Taghian, Alphonse G., E-mail: ataghian@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term toxicity, cosmesis, and local control of accelerated partial breast irradiation with implant brachytherapy after wide local excision for Stage T1N0 breast cancer (BCa). Materials and Methods: Between 1997 and 2001, 50 patients with Stage T1N0M0 BCa were treated in a Phase I-II protocol using low-dose-rate accelerated partial breast irradiation with implant brachytherapy after wide local excision and lymph node surgery. The total dose was escalated in three groups: 50 Gy (n = 20), 55 Gy (n = 17), and 60 Gy (n = 13). Patient- and physician-assessed breast cosmesis, patient satisfaction, toxicity, mammographic abnormalities, repeat biopsies, and disease status were prospectively evaluated at each visit. Kendall's tau ({tau}{sub {beta}}) and logistic regression analyses were used to correlate outcomes with dose, implant volume, patient age, and systemic therapy. Results: The median follow-up period was 11.2 years (range, 4-14). The patient satisfaction rate was 67%, 67% reported good-excellent cosmesis, and 54% had moderate-severe fibrosis. Higher dose was correlated with worse cosmetic outcome ({tau}{sub {beta}} 0.6, p < .0001), lower patient satisfaction ({tau}{sub {beta}} 0.5, p < .001), and worse fibrosis ({tau}{sub {beta}} 0.4, p = .0024). Of the 50 patients, 35% had fat necrosis and 34% developed telangiectasias {>=}1 cm{sup 2}. Grade 3-4 late skin and subcutaneous toxicities were seen in 4 patients (9%) and 6 patients (13%), respectively, and both correlated with higher dose ({tau}{sub {beta}} 0.3-0.5, p {<=} .01). One patient had Grade 4 skin ulceration and fat necrosis requiring surgery. Mammographic abnormalities were seen in 32% of the patients, and 30% underwent repeat biopsy, of which 73% were benign. Six patients had ipsilateral breast recurrence: five elsewhere in the breast, and one at the implant site. One patient died of metastatic BCa after recurrence. The 12-year actuarial local control, recurrence

  7. Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation With Low-Dose-Rate Interstitial Implant Brachytherapy After Wide Local Excision: 12-Year Outcomes From a Prospective Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term toxicity, cosmesis, and local control of accelerated partial breast irradiation with implant brachytherapy after wide local excision for Stage T1N0 breast cancer (BCa). Materials and Methods: Between 1997 and 2001, 50 patients with Stage T1N0M0 BCa were treated in a Phase I-II protocol using low-dose-rate accelerated partial breast irradiation with implant brachytherapy after wide local excision and lymph node surgery. The total dose was escalated in three groups: 50 Gy (n = 20), 55 Gy (n = 17), and 60 Gy (n = 13). Patient- and physician-assessed breast cosmesis, patient satisfaction, toxicity, mammographic abnormalities, repeat biopsies, and disease status were prospectively evaluated at each visit. Kendall’s tau (τβ) and logistic regression analyses were used to correlate outcomes with dose, implant volume, patient age, and systemic therapy. Results: The median follow-up period was 11.2 years (range, 4–14). The patient satisfaction rate was 67%, 67% reported good-excellent cosmesis, and 54% had moderate-severe fibrosis. Higher dose was correlated with worse cosmetic outcome (τβ 0.6, p β 0.5, p β 0.4, p = .0024). Of the 50 patients, 35% had fat necrosis and 34% developed telangiectasias ≥1 cm2. Grade 3–4 late skin and subcutaneous toxicities were seen in 4 patients (9%) and 6 patients (13%), respectively, and both correlated with higher dose (τβ 0.3–0.5, p ≤ .01). One patient had Grade 4 skin ulceration and fat necrosis requiring surgery. Mammographic abnormalities were seen in 32% of the patients, and 30% underwent repeat biopsy, of which 73% were benign. Six patients had ipsilateral breast recurrence: five elsewhere in the breast, and one at the implant site. One patient died of metastatic BCa after recurrence. The 12-year actuarial local control, recurrence-free survival, and overall survival rate was 85% (95% confidence interval, 70–97%), 72% (95% confidence interval, 54–86%), and 87% (95% confidence

  8. Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation: 5-Year Results of the German-Austrian Multicenter Phase II Trial Using Interstitial Multicatheter Brachytherapy Alone After Breast-Conserving Surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of accelerated partial breast irradiation on local control, side effects, and cosmesis using multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy as the sole method for the adjuvant local treatment of patients with low-risk breast cancer. Methods and Materials: 274 patients with low-risk breast cancer were treated on protocol. Patients were eligible for the study if the tumor size was 35 years, hormone receptors were positive, and histologic grades were 1 or 2. Of the 274 patients, 175 (64%) received pulse-dose-rate brachytherapy (Dref = 50 Gy). and 99 (36%) received high-dose-rate brachytherapy (Dref = 32.0 Gy). Results: Median follow-up was 63 months (range, 9-103). Only 8 of 274 (2.9%) patients developed an ipsilateral in-breast tumor recurrence at the time of analysis. The 5-year actuarial local recurrence-free survival probability was 98%. The 5- year overall and disease-free survival probabilities of all patients were 97% and 96%, respectively. Contralateral in-breast malignancies were detected in 2 of 274 (0.7%) patients, and distant metastases occurred in 6 of 274 (2.2%). Late side effects ≥Grade 3 (i.e., breast tissue fibrosis and telangiectasia) occurred in 1 patient (0.4%, 95%CI:0.0-2.0%) and 6 patients (2.2%, 95%CI:0.8-4.7%), respectively. Cosmetic results were good to excellent in 245 of 274 patients (90%). Conclusions: The long-term results of this prospective Phase II trial confirm that the efficacy of accelerated partial breast irradiation using multicatheter brachytherapy is comparable with that of whole breast irradiation and that late side effects are negligible.

  9. Monte Carlo-derived TLD cross-calibration factors for treatment verification and measurement of skin dose in accelerated partial breast irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnica-Garza, H M [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional Unidad Monterrey, VIa del Conocimiento 201 Parque de Investigacion e Innovacion Tecnologica, Apodaca NL C.P. 66600 (Mexico)], E-mail: hgarnica@cinvestav.mx

    2009-03-21

    Monte Carlo simulation was employed to calculate the response of TLD-100 chips under irradiation conditions such as those found during accelerated partial breast irradiation with the MammoSite radiation therapy system. The absorbed dose versus radius in the last 0.5 cm of the treated volume was also calculated, employing a resolution of 20 {mu}m, and a function that fits the observed data was determined. Several clinically relevant irradiation conditions were simulated for different combinations of balloon size, balloon-to-surface distance and contents of the contrast solution used to fill the balloon. The thermoluminescent dosemeter (TLD) cross-calibration factors were derived assuming that the calibration of the dosemeters was carried out using a Cobalt 60 beam, and in such a way that they provide a set of parameters that reproduce the function that describes the behavior of the absorbed dose versus radius curve. Such factors may also prove to be useful for those standardized laboratories that provide postal dosimetry services.

  10. Accelerated partial breast irradiation using intensity-modulated radiotherapy technique compared to whole breast irradiation for patients aged 70 years or older: subgroup analysis from a randomized phase 3 trial

    OpenAIRE

    Meattini, Icro; Saieva, Calogero; Marrazzo, Livia; Di Brina, Lucia; Pallotta, Stefania; Mangoni, Monica; Meacci, Fiammetta; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Francolini, Giulio; Desideri, Isacco; De Luca Cardillo, Carla; Scotti, Vieri; Furfaro, Ilaria Francesca; Rossi, Francesca; Greto, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the efficacy and the safety profile on the subset of selected early breast cancer (BC) patients aged 70 years or older from a single-center phase 3 trial comparing whole breast irradiation (WBI) to accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using intensity-modulated radiation therapy technique. Between 2005 and 2013, 520 patients aged more than 40 years old were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive either WBI or APBI in a 1:1 ratio. Eligible pat...

  11. Breast conserving therapy with accelerated partial breast versus external beam whole breast irradiation: comparison of imaging sequela and complications in a matched population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monticciolo, Debra L; Biggs, Kelly; Gist, Ashley K; Sincleair, Spencer T; Hajdik, Rodney L; Nipper, Michael L; Schnitker, James B

    2011-01-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate and compare the imaging sequela and complications of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) with those occurring in patients treated with standard external beam therapy. Patient selection included those who met the criteria for possible ABPI: age 45 or older; cancer stage T1N0M0 or ductal carcinoma in situ 3 cm or less, and negative surgical margins. One hundred and ninety seven had complete records and films available for review. Ninety-seven (49%) were treated with APBI (MammoSite) and 100(51%) were treated with external beam. Image findings for APBI versus external beam were: distortion 90(93%) versus 83(83%), seroma 67(69%) versus 7(7%), skin edema 52(54%) versus 47(47%), increased stroma 75(77%) versus 66(66%), calcifications 10(10%) versus 6(6%), and fat necrosis 12(12%) versus 6(6%). For APBI, skin and stromal edema was more commonly focal. At imaging, the seroma rate was statistically and significantly different between the two treatment modes (p < 0.0001). For patients treated with APBI, seroma formation was not related to balloon size and only weakly related to lumpectomy cavity size. The complication rate was significantly higher for those treated with APBI (36 versus 20%) and the types and treatment of complications differed. There were three recurrences among the APBI group and none among those treated with external beam radiation. PMID:21306469

  12. A Japanese prospective multi-institutional feasibility study on accelerated partial breast irradiation using interstitial brachytherapy: treatment planning and quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, breast-conserving surgery with closed cavity has generally been performed for breast cancer patients, and accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is considered difficult because Asian females generally have smaller breast sizes than Western females. Therefore, common identification of target and treatment plan method in APBI is required. A prospective multicenter study was conducted in Japan to determine institutional compliance with APBI using high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (ISBT) designed for Japanese female patients. For this study, 46 patients were recruited at eight institutions from January 2009 to December 2011. The reproducibility of the ISBT–APBI plan was evaluated using three criteria: (1) minimum clinical target volume dose with a clip dose ≥ 6 Gy/fraction, (2) irradiated volume constraint of 40-150 cm3, and (3) uniformity of dose distribution, expressed as the dose non-uniformity ratio (DNR, V150/V100) < 0.35. The ISBT–APBI plan for each patient was considered reproducible when all three criteria were met. When the number of non-reproducible patients was ≤ 4 at study completion, APBI at this institution was considered statistically reproducible. Half of the patients (52 %) had a small bra size (A/B cup). The mean values of the dose-constrained parameters were as follows: Vref, 117 cm3 (range, 40-282), DNR, 0.30 (range, 0.22-0.51), and clip dose, 784 cGy (range, 469-3146). A total of 43/46 treatment plans were judged to be compliant and ISBT–APBI was concluded to be reproducible. This study showed that multi-institutional ISBT–APBI treatment plan was reproducible for small breast patient with closed cavity

  13. Five-Year Outcomes, Cosmesis, and Toxicity With 3-Dimensional Conformal External Beam Radiation Therapy to Deliver Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To report the interim results from a study comparing the efficacy, toxicity, and cosmesis of breast-conserving treatment with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) or whole breast irradiation (WBI) using 3-dimensional conformal external beam radiation therapy (3D-CRT). Methods and Materials: 102 patients with early-stage breast cancer who underwent breast-conserving surgery were randomized to receive either WBI (n=51) or APBI (n=51). In the WBI arm, 48 Gy was delivered to the whole breast in daily fractions of 2 Gy, with or without additional 10 Gy to the tumor bed. In the APBI arm, patients received 37.5 Gy in 3.75 Gy per fraction delivered twice daily. Toxicity results were scored according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Common Toxicity Criteria. Skin elasticity was measured using a dedicated device (Multi-Skin-Test-Center MC-750-B2, CKelectronic-GmbH). Cosmetic results were assessed by the physician and the patients as good/excellent, regular, or poor. Results: The median follow-up time was 5 years. No local recurrences were observed. No significant differences in survival rates were found. APBI reduced acute side effects and radiation doses to healthy tissues compared with WBI (P75% of patients in the APBI arm had excellent or good cosmesis, and these outcomes appear to be stable over time. The percentage of patients with excellent/good cosmetic results was similar in both groups. Conclusions: APBI delivered by 3D-CRT to the tumor bed for a selected group of early-stage breast cancer patients produces 5-year results similar to those achieved with conventional WBI

  14. Dose volume histogram analysis of normal structures associated with accelerated partial breast irradiation delivered by high dose rate brachytherapy and comparison with whole breast external beam radiotherapy fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutyala Subhakar

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To assess the radiation dose delivered to the heart and ipsilateral lung during accelerated partial breast brachytherapy using a MammoSite™ applicator and compare to those produced by whole breast external beam radiotherapy (WBRT. Materials and methods Dosimetric analysis was conducted on patients receiving MammoSite breast brachytherapy following conservative surgery for invasive ductal carcinoma. Cardiac dose was evaluated for patients with left breast tumors with a CT scan encompassing the entire heart. Lung dose was evaluated for patients in whom the entire lung was scanned. The prescription dose of 3400 cGy was 1 cm from the balloon surface. MammoSite dosimetry was compared to simulated WBRT fields with and without radiobiological correction for the effects of dose and fractionation. Dose parameters such as the volume of the structure receiving 10 Gy or more (V10 and the dose received by 20 cc of the structure (D20, were calculated as well as the maximum and mean doses received. Results Fifteen patients were studied, five had complete lung data and six had left-sided tumors with complete cardiac data. Ipsilateral lung volumes ranged from 925–1380 cc. Cardiac volumes ranged from 337–551 cc. MammoSite resulted in a significantly lower percentage lung V30 and lung and cardiac V20 than the WBRT fields, with and without radiobiological correction. Conclusion This study gives low values for incidental radiation received by the heart and ipsilateral lung using the MammoSite applicator. The volume of heart and lung irradiated to clinically significant levels was significantly lower with the MammoSite applicator than using simulated WBRT fields of the same CT data sets. Trial registration Dana Farber Trial Registry number 03-179

  15. External Beam Accelerated Partial-Breast Irradiation Using 32 Gy in 8 Twice-Daily Fractions: 5-Year Results of a Prospective Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashtan, Itai M. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Recht, Abram [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ancukiewicz, Marek [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Brachtel, Elena [Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Abi-Raad, Rita F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); D' Alessandro, Helen A. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Levy, Antonin; Wo, Jennifer Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hirsch, Ariel E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kachnic, Lisa A. [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Goldberg, Saveli [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Specht, Michelle; Gadd, Michelle; Smith, Barbara L. [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Powell, Simon N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Taghian, Alphonse G., E-mail: ataghian@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: External beam accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is an increasingly popular technique for treatment of patients with early stage breast cancer following breast-conserving surgery. Here we present 5-year results of a prospective trial. Methods and Materials: From October 2003 through November 2005, 98 evaluable patients with stage I breast cancer were enrolled in the first dose step (32 Gy delivered in 8 twice-daily fractions) of a prospective, multi-institutional, dose escalation clinical trial of 3-dimensional conformal external beam APBI (3D-APBI). Median age was 61 years; median tumor size was 0.8 cm; 89% of tumors were estrogen receptor positive; 10% had a triple-negative phenotype; and 1% had a HER-2-positive subtype. Median follow-up was 71 months (range, 2-88 months; interquartile range, 64-75 months). Results: Five patients developed ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), for a 5-year actuarial IBTR rate of 5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1%-10%). Three of these cases occurred in patients with triple-negative disease and 2 in non-triple-negative patients, for 5-year actuarial IBTR rates of 33% (95% CI, 0%-57%) and 2% (95% CI, 0%-6%; P<.0001), respectively. On multivariable analysis, triple-negative phenotype was the only predictor of IBTR, with borderline statistical significance after adjusting for tumor grade (P=.0537). Conclusions: Overall outcomes were excellent, particularly for patients with estrogen receptor-positive disease. Patients in this study with triple-negative breast cancer had a significantly higher IBTR rate than patients with other receptor phenotypes when treated with 3D-APBI. Larger, prospective 3D-APBI clinical trials should continue to evaluate the effect of hormone receptor phenotype on IBTR rates.

  16. Factors Associated With Optimal Long-Term Cosmetic Results in Patients Treated With Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using Balloon-Based Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate factors associated with optimal cosmetic results at 72 months for early-stage breast cancer patients treated with Mammosite balloon-based accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Methods and Materials: A total of 1,440 patients (1,449 cases) with early-stage breast cancer undergoing breast-conserving therapy were treated with balloon-based brachytherapy to deliver APBI (34 Gy in 3.4-Gy fractions). Cosmetic outcome was evaluated at each follow-up visit and dichotomized as excellent/good (E/G) or fair/poor (F/P). Follow-up was evaluated at 36 and 72 months to establish long-term cosmesis, stability of cosmesis, and factors associated with optimal results. Results: The percentage of evaluable patients with excellent/good (E/G) cosmetic results at 36 months and more than 72 months were 93.3% (n = 708/759) and 90.4% (n = 235/260). Factors associated with optimal cosmetic results at 72 months included: larger skin spacing (p = 0.04) and T1 tumors (p = 0.02). Using multiple regression analysis, the only factors predictive of worse cosmetic outcome at 72 months were smaller skin spacing (odds ratio [OR], 0.89; confidence interval [CI], 0.80–0.99) and tumors greater than 2 cm (OR, 4.96, CI, 1.53–16.07). In all, 227 patients had both a 36-month and a 72-month cosmetic evaluation. The number of patients with E/G cosmetic results decreased only slightly from 93.4% at 3 years to 90.8% (p = 0.13) at 6 years, respectively. Conclusions: APBI delivered with balloon-based brachytherapy produced E/G cosmetic results in 90.4% of cases at 6 years. Larger tumors (T2) and smaller skin spacing were found to be the two most important independent predictors of cosmesis.

  17. Long-term Cosmetic Outcomes and Toxicities of Proton Beam Therapy Compared With Photon-Based 3-Dimensional Conformal Accelerated Partial-Breast Irradiation: A Phase 1 Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To present long-term outcomes of a prospective feasibility trial using either protons or 3-dimensional conformal photon-based (accelerated partial-breast irradiation [APBI]) techniques. Methods and Materials: From October 2003 to April 2006, 98 evaluable patients with stage I breast cancer were treated with APBI (32 Gy in 8 fractions given twice daily) on a prospective clinical trial: 19 with proton beam therapy (PBT) and 79 with photons or mixed photons/electrons. Median follow-up was 82.5 months (range, 2-104 months). Toxicity and patient satisfaction evaluations were performed at each visit. Results: At 7 years, the physician rating of overall cosmesis was good or excellent for 62% of PBT patients, compared with 94% for photon patients (P=.03). Skin toxicities were more common for the PBT group: telangiectasia, 69% and 16% (P=.0013); pigmentation changes, 54% and 22% (P=.02); and other late skin toxicities, 62% and 18% (P=.029) for PBT and photons, respectively. There were no significant differences between the groups in the incidences of breast pain, edema, fibrosis, fat necrosis, skin desquamation, and rib pain or fracture. Patient-reported cosmetic outcomes at 7 years were good or excellent for 92% and 96% of PBT and photon patients, respectively (P=.95). Overall patient satisfaction was 93% for the entire cohort. The 7-year local failure rate for all patients was 6%, with 3 local recurrences in the PBT group (7-year rate, 11%) and 2 in photon-treated patients (4%) (P=.22). Conclusions: Local failure rates of 3-dimensional APBI and PBT were similar in this study. However, PBT, as delivered in this study, led to higher rates of long-term telangiectasia, skin color changes, and skin toxicities. We recommend the use of multiple fields and treatment of all fields per treatment session or the use of scanning techniques to minimize skin toxicity

  18. Accelerated partial breast irradiation with external beam three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. Five-year results of a prospective phase II clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to report the 5-year results of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using external beam three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Between 2006 and 2011, 44 patients with low-risk, stage I-II breast cancer underwent breast-conserving surgery. Postoperative APBI was given by means of 3D-CRT using three to five non-coplanar fields. The total dose of APBI was 36.9 Gy (nine fractions of 4.1 Gy b.i.d.). The mean follow-up time was 58.2 months for surviving patients. Survival results, side effects, and cosmetic results were assessed. One (2.3 %) local recurrence was observed, for a 5-year actuarial rate of 3.7 %. Neither regional nor distant failure was observed. Two patients died of internal disease. The 5-year disease-free, cancer-specific, and overall survival rates were 96.3, 100, and 95.1 %, respectively. Acute side effects included grade 1 (G1) erythema in 75 %, G1 parenchymal induration in 46 %, and G1 pain in 46 % of patients. No G2 or higher acute side effect occurred. Late side effects included G1, G2, and G3 fibrosis in 44, 7, and 2 % of patients, respectively, G1 skin pigmentation in 12 %, and G1 pain in 2 %. Asymptomatic fat necrosis occurred in 14 %. Cosmetic results were rated excellent or good in 86 % of cases by the patients themselves and 84 % by the physicians. The 5-year local tumor control, toxicity profile, and cosmetic results of APBI delivered with external beam 3D-CRT are encouraging and comparable to other APBI series. (orig.)

  19. Long-term Cosmetic Outcomes and Toxicities of Proton Beam Therapy Compared With Photon-Based 3-Dimensional Conformal Accelerated Partial-Breast Irradiation: A Phase 1 Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galland-Girodet, Sigolène; Pashtan, Itai; MacDonald, Shannon M.; Ancukiewicz, Marek [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hirsch, Ariel E.; Kachnic, Lisa A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Specht, Michelle; Gadd, Michele; Smith, Barbara L. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Powell, Simon N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Recht, Abram [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Taghian, Alphonse G., E-mail: ataghian@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To present long-term outcomes of a prospective feasibility trial using either protons or 3-dimensional conformal photon-based (accelerated partial-breast irradiation [APBI]) techniques. Methods and Materials: From October 2003 to April 2006, 98 evaluable patients with stage I breast cancer were treated with APBI (32 Gy in 8 fractions given twice daily) on a prospective clinical trial: 19 with proton beam therapy (PBT) and 79 with photons or mixed photons/electrons. Median follow-up was 82.5 months (range, 2-104 months). Toxicity and patient satisfaction evaluations were performed at each visit. Results: At 7 years, the physician rating of overall cosmesis was good or excellent for 62% of PBT patients, compared with 94% for photon patients (P=.03). Skin toxicities were more common for the PBT group: telangiectasia, 69% and 16% (P=.0013); pigmentation changes, 54% and 22% (P=.02); and other late skin toxicities, 62% and 18% (P=.029) for PBT and photons, respectively. There were no significant differences between the groups in the incidences of breast pain, edema, fibrosis, fat necrosis, skin desquamation, and rib pain or fracture. Patient-reported cosmetic outcomes at 7 years were good or excellent for 92% and 96% of PBT and photon patients, respectively (P=.95). Overall patient satisfaction was 93% for the entire cohort. The 7-year local failure rate for all patients was 6%, with 3 local recurrences in the PBT group (7-year rate, 11%) and 2 in photon-treated patients (4%) (P=.22). Conclusions: Local failure rates of 3-dimensional APBI and PBT were similar in this study. However, PBT, as delivered in this study, led to higher rates of long-term telangiectasia, skin color changes, and skin toxicities. We recommend the use of multiple fields and treatment of all fields per treatment session or the use of scanning techniques to minimize skin toxicity.

  20. Improvement of registration accuracy in accelerated partial breast irradiation using the point-based rigid-body registration algorithm for patients with implanted fiducial markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Minoru; Yoshimura, Michio, E-mail: myossy@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Sato, Sayaka; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Yamada, Masahiro; Hirata, Kimiko; Ogura, Masakazu; Hiraoka, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-Applied Therapy, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Sasaki, Makoto; Fujimoto, Takahiro [Division of Clinical Radiology Service, Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: To investigate image-registration errors when using fiducial markers with a manual method and the point-based rigid-body registration (PRBR) algorithm in accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) patients, with accompanying fiducial deviations. Methods: Twenty-two consecutive patients were enrolled in a prospective trial examining 10-fraction APBI. Titanium clips were implanted intraoperatively around the seroma in all patients. For image-registration, the positions of the clips in daily kV x-ray images were matched to those in the planning digitally reconstructed radiographs. Fiducial and gravity registration errors (FREs and GREs, respectively), representing resulting misalignments of the edge and center of the target, respectively, were compared between the manual and algorithm-based methods. Results: In total, 218 fractions were evaluated. Although the mean FRE/GRE values for the manual and algorithm-based methods were within 3 mm (2.3/1.7 and 1.3/0.4 mm, respectively), the percentages of fractions where FRE/GRE exceeded 3 mm using the manual and algorithm-based methods were 18.8%/7.3% and 0%/0%, respectively. Manual registration resulted in 18.6% of patients with fractions of FRE/GRE exceeding 5 mm. The patients with larger clip deviation had significantly more fractions showing large FRE/GRE using manual registration. Conclusions: For image-registration using fiducial markers in APBI, the manual registration results in more fractions with considerable registration error due to loss of fiducial objectivity resulting from their deviation. The authors recommend the PRBR algorithm as a safe and effective strategy for accurate, image-guided registration and PTV margin reduction.

  1. Accelerated partial breast irradiation with iridium-192 multicatheter PDR/HDR brachytherapy. Preliminary results of the German-Austrian multicenter trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    that accelerated partial breast irradiation with iridium-192 interstitial multicatheter PDR/HDR implants is feasible with low perioperative morbidity, low acute and mild late toxicity, and does not significantly affect cosmetic results at a median follow-up of 24 months. (orig.)

  2. Accelerated partial breast irradiation with iridium-192 multicatheter PDR/HDR brachytherapy. Preliminary results of the German-Austrian multicenter trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, O.J.; Lotter, M.; Sauer, R.; Strnad, V. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Poetter, R.; Resch, A. [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiobiology, Univ. Hospital AKH Wien, Vienna (Austria); Hammer, J. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Barmherzige Schwestern Hospital Linz, Linz (Austria); Hildebrandt, G. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. Hospital Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Poehls, U.; Beckmann, M.W. [Dept. of Gynecology, Univ. Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany)

    2004-10-01

    : this analysis indicates that accelerated partial breast irradiation with iridium-192 interstitial multicatheter PDR/HDR implants is feasible with low perioperative morbidity, low acute and mild late toxicity, and does not significantly affect cosmetic results at a median follow-up of 24 months. (orig.)

  3. TH-C-12A-09: Planning and Delivery of the Fully Dynamic Trajectory Modulated Arc Therapy: Application to Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, J; Atwood, T; Fahimian, B; Chin, E; Hristov, D [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, CA (United States); Otto, K [Department of Physics, University of British Columbia, BC (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: A novel trajectory modulated arc therapy (TMAT) system was developed that uses source motion trajectory involving synchronized gantry rotation with translational and rotational couch movement. MLC motion and dose rate were fully optimized for dynamic beam delivery. This work presents a platform for planning deliverable TMAT on a collision free coronal trajectory and evaluates its benefit for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) in a prone position. Methods: The TMAT algorithm was built on VMAT with modifications (physical properties on couch movement were defined) and enhancements (pencil beam dose calculation engine to support extended SSDs) to make it feasible for TMAT delivery. A Matlab software environment for TMAT optimization and dose calculation was created to allow any user specified motion axis. TMAT delivery was implemented on Varian TrueBeamTM STx via XML scripts. 10 prone breast irradiation cases were evaluated in VMAT and compared with a 6- field non-coplanar IMRT plan. Patient selection/exclusion criteria and structure contouring followed the guidelines of NSABP B-39/RTOG 0413 protocol. Results: TMAT delivery time was ∼4.5 minutes. 251.5°±7.88° of non-isocentric couch arc was achieved by the optimized trajectory with 180– 210 control points at 1°–2° couch increments. The improved dose distribution by TMAT was most clearly observed by the marked reduction in the volume of irradiated normal breast tissue in the high dose region. The ratios of the normal breast tissue volume receiving more than 50%, 80% and 100% of the prescription dose for TMAT versus IMRT were: V50%(TMAT/IMRT) = 78.38%±13.03%, V80%(TMAT/IMRT) = 44.19%±9.04% and V100% (TMAT/IMRT) = 9.96%±7.55%, all p≤0.01. Conclusion: The study is the first demonstration of planning and delivery implementation of a fully dynamic APBI TMAT system with continuous couch motion. TMAT achieved significantly improved dosimetry over noncoplanar IMRT on dose volume parameters

  4. Five-Year Outcomes, Cosmesis, and Toxicity With 3-Dimensional Conformal External Beam Radiation Therapy to Deliver Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

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    Rodríguez, Núria, E-mail: nrodriguez@parcdesalutmar.cat [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de la Esperanza, Parc de Salut MAR, Barcelona (Spain); Universidad Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Sanz, Xavier [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de la Esperanza, Parc de Salut MAR, Barcelona (Spain); Universidad Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Dengra, Josefa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de la Esperanza, Parc de Salut MAR, Barcelona (Spain); Foro, Palmira [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de la Esperanza, Parc de Salut MAR, Barcelona (Spain); Universidad Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Membrive, Ismael; Reig, Anna [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de la Esperanza, Parc de Salut MAR, Barcelona (Spain); Quera, Jaume [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de la Esperanza, Parc de Salut MAR, Barcelona (Spain); Universidad Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Fernández-Velilla, Enric; Pera, Óscar; Lio, Jackson; Lozano, Joan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de la Esperanza, Parc de Salut MAR, Barcelona (Spain); Algara, Manuel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de la Esperanza, Parc de Salut MAR, Barcelona (Spain); Universidad Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To report the interim results from a study comparing the efficacy, toxicity, and cosmesis of breast-conserving treatment with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) or whole breast irradiation (WBI) using 3-dimensional conformal external beam radiation therapy (3D-CRT). Methods and Materials: 102 patients with early-stage breast cancer who underwent breast-conserving surgery were randomized to receive either WBI (n=51) or APBI (n=51). In the WBI arm, 48 Gy was delivered to the whole breast in daily fractions of 2 Gy, with or without additional 10 Gy to the tumor bed. In the APBI arm, patients received 37.5 Gy in 3.75 Gy per fraction delivered twice daily. Toxicity results were scored according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Common Toxicity Criteria. Skin elasticity was measured using a dedicated device (Multi-Skin-Test-Center MC-750-B2, CKelectronic-GmbH). Cosmetic results were assessed by the physician and the patients as good/excellent, regular, or poor. Results: The median follow-up time was 5 years. No local recurrences were observed. No significant differences in survival rates were found. APBI reduced acute side effects and radiation doses to healthy tissues compared with WBI (P<.01). Late skin toxicity was no worse than grade 2 in either group, without significant differences between the 2 groups. In the ipsilateral breast, the areas that received the highest doses (ie, the boost or quadrant) showed the greatest loss of elasticity. WBI resulted in a greater loss of elasticity in the high-dose area compared with APBI (P<.05). Physician assessment showed that >75% of patients in the APBI arm had excellent or good cosmesis, and these outcomes appear to be stable over time. The percentage of patients with excellent/good cosmetic results was similar in both groups. Conclusions: APBI delivered by 3D-CRT to the tumor bed for a selected group of early-stage breast cancer patients produces 5-year results similar to those achieved with

  5. Tracking the dynamic seroma cavity using fiducial markers in patients treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation using 3D conformal radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Ning J.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Goyal, Sharad [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, UMDNJ/Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903 (United States); Kearney, Thomas; Kirstein, Laurie [Division of Surgical Oncology, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, UMDNJ/Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903 (United States); Chen Sining [Department of Biostatistics, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, UMDNJ/School of Public Health, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to perform an analysis of the changes in the dynamic seroma cavity based on fiducial markers in early stage breast cancer patients treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using three-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Methods: A prospective, single arm trial was designed to investigate the utility of gold fiducial markers in image guided APBI using 3D-CRT. At the time of lumpectomy, four to six suture-type gold fiducial markers were sutured to the walls of the cavity. Patients were treated with a fractionation scheme consisting of 15 fractions with a fractional dose of 333 cGy. Treatment design and planning followed NSABP/RTOG B-39 guidelines. During radiation treatment, daily kV imaging was performed and the markers were localized and tracked. The change in distance between fiducial markers was analyzed based on the planning CT and daily kV images. Results: Thirty-four patients were simulated at an average of 28 days after surgery, and started the treatment on an average of 39 days after surgery. The average intermarker distance (AiMD) between fiducial markers was strongly correlated to seroma volume. The average reduction in AiMD was 19.1% (range 0.0%-41.4%) and 10.8% (range 0.0%-35.6%) for all the patients between simulation and completion of radiotherapy, and between simulation and beginning of radiotherapy, respectively. The change of AiMD fits an exponential function with a half-life of seroma shrinkage. The average half-life for seroma shrinkage was 15 days. After accounting for the reduction which started to occur after surgery through CT simulation and treatment, radiation was found to have minimal impact on the distance change over the treatment course. Conclusions: Using the marker distance change as a surrogate for seroma volume, it appears that the seroma cavity experiences an exponential reduction in size. The change in seroma size has implications in the size of

  6. WE-G-BRE-09: Targeted Radiotherapy Enhancement During Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (ABPI) Using Controlled Release of Gold Nanoparticles (GNPs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cifter, G; Ngwa, W [University of Massachusetts (United States); Harvard Medical School, Dana Farber Cancer Institute (United States); Chin, J; Cifter, F; Sajo, E [University of Massachusetts (United States); Sinha, N [Wentworth Institute of Technology, Boston, MA (United States); Bellon, J [Harvard Medical School, Dana Farber Cancer Institute (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Several studies have demonstrated low rates of local recurrence with brachytherapy-based accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). However, long-term outcomes on toxicity (e.g. telangiectasia), and cosmesis remain a major concern. The purpose of this study is to investigate the dosimetric feasibility of using targeted non-toxic radiosensitizing gold nanoparticles (GNPs) for localized dose enhancement to the planning target volume (PTV) during APBI while reducing dose to normal tissue. Methods: Two approaches for administering the GNPs were considered. In one approach, GNPs are assumed to be incorporated in a micrometer-thick polymer film on the surface of routinely used mammosite balloon applicators, for sustained controlled in-situ release, and subsequent treatment using 50-kVp Xoft devices. In case two, GNPs are administered directly into the lumpectomy cavity e.g. via injection or using fiducials coated with the GNP-loaded polymer film. Recent studies have validated the use of fiducials for reducing the PTV margin during APBI with 6 MV beams. An experimentally determined diffusion coefficient was used to determine space-time customizable distribution of GNPs for feasible in-vivo concentrations of 43 mg/g. An analytic calculational approach from previously published work was employed to estimate the dose enhancement due to GNPs (2 and 10 nm) as a function of distance up to 1 cm from lumpectomy cavity. Results: Dose enhancement due to GNP was found to be about 130% for 50-kVp x-rays, and 110% for 6-MV external beam radiotherapy, 1 cm away from the lumpectomy cavity wall. Higher customizable dose enhancement could be achieved at other distances as a function of nanoparticle size. Conclusion: Our preliminary results suggest that significant dose enhancement can be achieved to residual tumor cells targeted with GNPs during APBI with electronic brachytherapy or external beam therapy. The findings provide a useful basis for developing nanoparticle

  7. Accelerated partial breast irradiation: Using the CyberKnife as the radiation delivery platform in the treatment of early breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra eVermeulen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the CyberKnife (Accuray, Incorporated, Sunnyvale, CA for non-invasive delivery of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI in early breast cancer patients. Between 6/2009 and 5/2011, 9 patients were treated with CyberKnife APBI. Normal tissue constraints were imposed as outlined in the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-39/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0413 (NSABP/RTOG Protocol (Vicini and White, 2007. Patients received a total dose of 30 Gy in 5 fractions (group 1, n=2 or 34 Gy in 10 fractions (group 2, n=7 delivered to the planning treatment volume (PTV defined as the clinical target volume (CTV + 2 mm. The CTV was defined as either the lumpectomy cavity plus 10 mm (n=2 or 15 mm (n=7. The cavity was defined by a T2-weighted non-contrast breast MRI fused to a planning non-contrast thoracic CT. The CyberKnife Synchrony system tracked gold fiducials sutured into the cavity wall during lumpectomy. Treatments started 4-5 weeks after lumpectomy. The mean PTV was 100 cm3 (range, 92-108 cm3 and 105 cm3 (range, 49-241 cm3 and the mean PTV isodose prescription line was 70% for groups 1 and 2, respectively. The mean percent of whole breast reference volume receiving 100% and 50% of the dose (V100 and V50 for group 1 was 11% (range, 8-13% and 23% (range, 16-30% and for group 2 was 11% (range, 7-14% and 26% (range, 21- 35.0% , respectively. At a median 7 months follow-up (range, 4-26 months, no acute toxicities were seen. Acute cosmetic outcomes were excellent or good in all patients; for those patients with more than 12 months follow-up the late cosmesis outcomes were excellent or good. In conclusion, the lack of observable acute side effects and current excellent/good cosmetic outcomes is promising. We believe this suggests the CyberKnife is a suitable non-invasive radiation platform for delivering APBI with achievable normal tissue constraints.

  8. Extended (5-year) Outcomes of Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using MammoSite Balloon Brachytherapy: Patterns of Failure, Patient Selection, and Dosimetric Correlates for Late Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargo, John A.; Verma, Vivek; Kim, Hayeon; Kalash, Ronny; Heron, Dwight E.; Johnson, Ronald; Beriwal, Sushil, E-mail: beriwals@upmc.edu

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) with balloon and catheter-based brachytherapy has gained increasing popularity in recent years and is the subject of ongoing phase III trials. Initial data suggest promising local control and cosmetic results in appropriately selected patients. Long-term data continue to evolve but are limited outside of the context of the American Society of Breast Surgeons Registry Trial. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review of 157 patients completing APBI after breast-conserving surgery and axillary staging via high-dose-rate {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy from June 2002 to December 2007 was made. APBI was delivered with a single-lumen MammoSite balloon-based applicator to a median dose of 34 Gy in 10 fractions over a 5-day period. Tumor coverage and critical organ dosimetry were retrospectively collected on the basis of computed tomography completed for conformance and symmetry. Results: At a median follow-up time of 5.5 years (range, 0-10.0 years), the 5-year and 7-year actuarial incidences of ipsilateral breast control were 98%/98%, of nodal control 99%/98%, and of distant control 99%/99%, respectively. The crude rate of ipsilateral breast recurrence was 2.5% (n=4); of nodal failure, 1.9% (n=3); and of distant failure, 0.6% (n=1). The 5-year and 7-year actuarial overall survival rates were 89%/86%, with breast cancer–specific survival of 100%/99%, respectively. Good to excellent cosmetic outcomes were achieved in 93.4% of patients. Telangiectasia developed in 27% of patients, with 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year actuarial incidence of 7%/24%/33%; skin dose >100% significantly predicted for the development of telangiectasia (50% vs 14%, P<.0001). Conclusions: Long-term single-institution outcomes suggest excellent tumor control, breast cosmesis, and minimal late toxicity. Skin toxicity is a function of skin dose, which may be ameliorated with dosimetric optimization afforded by newer multicatheter brachytherapy

  9. The Effect of Dose-Volume Parameters and Interfraction Interval on Cosmetic Outcome and Toxicity After 3-Dimensional Conformal Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Kara Lynne, E-mail: karalynne.kerr@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hepel, Jaroslaw T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Warren Alpert School of Medicine of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island (United States); Hiatt, Jessica R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Warren Alpert School of Medicine of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island (United States); Dipetrillo, Thomas A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Warren Alpert School of Medicine of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island (United States); Price, Lori Lyn [Department of Biostatistics Research Center, Institute of Clinical Research and Health Policy Studies, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Wazer, David E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Warren Alpert School of Medicine of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate dose-volume parameters and the interfraction interval (IFI) as they relate to cosmetic outcome and normal tissue effects of 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Methods and Materials: Eighty patients were treated by the use of 3D-CRT to deliver APBI at our institutions from 2003-2010 in strict accordance with the specified dose-volume constraints outlined in the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B39/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0413 (NSABP-B39/RTOG 0413) protocol. The prescribed dose was 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions delivered twice daily. Patients underwent follow-up with assessment for recurrence, late toxicity, and overall cosmetic outcome. Tests for association between toxicity endpoints and dosimetric parameters were performed with the chi-square test. Univariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of interfraction interval (IFI) with these outcomes. Results: At a median follow-up time of 32 months, grade 2-4 and grade 3-4 subcutaneous fibrosis occurred in 31% and 7.5% of patients, respectively. Subcutaneous fibrosis improved in 5 patients (6%) with extended follow-up. Fat necrosis developed in 11% of women, and cosmetic outcome was fair/poor in 19%. The relative volume of breast tissue receiving 5%, 20%, 50%, 80%, and 100% (V5-V100) of the prescribed dose was associated with risk of subcutaneous fibrosis, and the volume receiving 50%, 80%, and 100% (V50-V100) was associated with fair/poor cosmesis. The mean IFI was 6.9 hours, and the minimum IFI was 6.2 hours. The mean and minimum IFI values were not significantly associated with late toxicity. Conclusions: The incidence of moderate to severe late toxicity, particularly subcutaneous fibrosis and fat necrosis and resulting fair/poor cosmesis, remains high with continued follow-up. These toxicity endpoints are associated with several dose-volume parameters. Minimum and mean IFI values were

  10. Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Is Safe and Effective Using Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy in Selected Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewin, Alan A., E-mail: alanl@baptisthealth.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, Baptist Hospital of Miami, Miami, FL (United States); Derhagopian, Robert [Department of Surgery, Baptist Hospital of Miami, Miami, FL (United States); Saigal, Kunal; Panoff, Joseph E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States); Abitbol, Andre; Wieczorek, D. Jay; Mishra, Vivek [Department of Radiation Oncology, Baptist Hospital of Miami, Miami, FL (United States); Reis, Isildinha; Ferrell, Annapoorna [Division of Biostatistics, University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States); Moreno, Lourdes [Department of Radiation Oncology, Baptist Hospital of Miami, Miami, FL (United States); Takita, Cristiane [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To report the feasibility, toxicity, cosmesis, and efficacy of using intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with respiratory gating to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) in selected Stage I/II breast cancer after breast-conserving surgery. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients with node-negative Stage I/II breast cancer were prospectively enrolled in an institutional review board approved protocol to receive APBI using IMRT after breast-conserving surgery. The target volume was treated at 3.8 Gy/fraction twice daily for 5 days, to a total dose of 38 Gy. Results: Thirty-six patients were enrolled for a median follow-up time of 44.8 months. The median tumor size was 0.98 cm (range, 0.08-3 cm). The median clinical target volume (CTV) treated was 71.4 cc (range, 19-231 cc), with the mean dose to the CTV being 38.96 Gy. Acute toxicities included Grade 1 erythema in 44% of patients and Grade 2 in 6%, Grade 1 hyperpigmentation in 31% of patients and Grade 2 in 3%, and Grade 1 breast/chest wall tenderness in 14% of patients. No Grade 3/4 acute toxicities were observed. Grade 1 and 2 late toxicities as edema, fibrosis, and residual hyperpigmentation occurred in 14% and 11% of patients, respectively; Grade 3 telangiectasis was observed in 3% of patients. The overall cosmetic outcome was considered 'excellent' or 'good' by 94% of patients and 97% when rated by the physician, respectively. The local control rate was 97%; 1 patient died of a non-cancer-related cause. Conclusions: APBI can be safely and effectively administered using IMRT. In retrospective analysis, IMRT enabled the achievement of normal tissue dose constraints as outlined by Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 04-13/NSABP B-13 while providing excellent conformality for the CTV. Local control and cosmesis have remained excellent at current follow-up, with acceptable rates of acute/late toxicities. Our data suggest that cosmesis is dependent on target volume

  11. Decline of Cosmetic Outcomes Following Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy: Results of a Single-Institution Prospective Clinical Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liss, Adam L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Ben-David, Merav A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan (Israel); Jagsi, Reshma; Hayman, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Griffith, Kent A. [Biostatistics Unit, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Moran, Jean M.; Marsh, Robin B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Pierce, Lori J., E-mail: ljpierce@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To report the final cosmetic results from a single-arm prospective clinical trial evaluating accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with active-breathing control (ABC). Methods and Materials: Women older than 40 with breast cancer stages 0-I who received breast-conserving surgery were enrolled in an institutional review board-approved prospective study evaluating APBI using IMRT administered with deep inspiration breath-hold. Patients received 38.5 Gy in 3.85-Gy fractions given twice daily over 5 consecutive days. The planning target volume was defined as the lumpectomy cavity with a 1.5-cm margin. Cosmesis was scored on a 4-category scale by the treating physician. Toxicity was scored according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE version 3.0). We report the cosmetic and toxicity results at a median follow-up of 5 years. Results: A total of 34 patients were enrolled. Two patients were excluded because of fair baseline cosmesis. The trial was terminated early because fair/poor cosmesis developed in 7 of 32 women at a median follow-up of 2.5 years. At a median follow-up of 5 years, further decline in the cosmetic outcome was observed in 5 women. Cosmesis at the time of last assessment was 43.3% excellent, 30% good, 20% fair, and 6.7% poor. Fibrosis according to CTCAE at last assessment was 3.3% grade 2 toxicity and 0% grade 3 toxicity. There was no correlation of CTCAE grade 2 or greater fibrosis with cosmesis. The 5-year rate of local control was 97% for all 34 patients initially enrolled. Conclusions: In this prospective trial with 5-year median follow-up, we observed an excellent rate of tumor control using IMRT-planned APBI. Cosmetic outcomes, however, continued to decline, with 26.7% of women having a fair to poor cosmetic result. These results underscore the need for continued cosmetic assessment for patients treated with APBI by technique.

  12. The Effect of Dose-Volume Parameters and Interfraction Interval on Cosmetic Outcome and Toxicity After 3-Dimensional Conformal Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate dose-volume parameters and the interfraction interval (IFI) as they relate to cosmetic outcome and normal tissue effects of 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Methods and Materials: Eighty patients were treated by the use of 3D-CRT to deliver APBI at our institutions from 2003-2010 in strict accordance with the specified dose-volume constraints outlined in the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B39/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0413 (NSABP-B39/RTOG 0413) protocol. The prescribed dose was 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions delivered twice daily. Patients underwent follow-up with assessment for recurrence, late toxicity, and overall cosmetic outcome. Tests for association between toxicity endpoints and dosimetric parameters were performed with the chi-square test. Univariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of interfraction interval (IFI) with these outcomes. Results: At a median follow-up time of 32 months, grade 2-4 and grade 3-4 subcutaneous fibrosis occurred in 31% and 7.5% of patients, respectively. Subcutaneous fibrosis improved in 5 patients (6%) with extended follow-up. Fat necrosis developed in 11% of women, and cosmetic outcome was fair/poor in 19%. The relative volume of breast tissue receiving 5%, 20%, 50%, 80%, and 100% (V5-V100) of the prescribed dose was associated with risk of subcutaneous fibrosis, and the volume receiving 50%, 80%, and 100% (V50-V100) was associated with fair/poor cosmesis. The mean IFI was 6.9 hours, and the minimum IFI was 6.2 hours. The mean and minimum IFI values were not significantly associated with late toxicity. Conclusions: The incidence of moderate to severe late toxicity, particularly subcutaneous fibrosis and fat necrosis and resulting fair/poor cosmesis, remains high with continued follow-up. These toxicity endpoints are associated with several dose-volume parameters. Minimum and mean IFI values were

  13. Decline of Cosmetic Outcomes Following Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy: Results of a Single-Institution Prospective Clinical Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To report the final cosmetic results from a single-arm prospective clinical trial evaluating accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with active-breathing control (ABC). Methods and Materials: Women older than 40 with breast cancer stages 0-I who received breast-conserving surgery were enrolled in an institutional review board-approved prospective study evaluating APBI using IMRT administered with deep inspiration breath-hold. Patients received 38.5 Gy in 3.85-Gy fractions given twice daily over 5 consecutive days. The planning target volume was defined as the lumpectomy cavity with a 1.5-cm margin. Cosmesis was scored on a 4-category scale by the treating physician. Toxicity was scored according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE version 3.0). We report the cosmetic and toxicity results at a median follow-up of 5 years. Results: A total of 34 patients were enrolled. Two patients were excluded because of fair baseline cosmesis. The trial was terminated early because fair/poor cosmesis developed in 7 of 32 women at a median follow-up of 2.5 years. At a median follow-up of 5 years, further decline in the cosmetic outcome was observed in 5 women. Cosmesis at the time of last assessment was 43.3% excellent, 30% good, 20% fair, and 6.7% poor. Fibrosis according to CTCAE at last assessment was 3.3% grade 2 toxicity and 0% grade 3 toxicity. There was no correlation of CTCAE grade 2 or greater fibrosis with cosmesis. The 5-year rate of local control was 97% for all 34 patients initially enrolled. Conclusions: In this prospective trial with 5-year median follow-up, we observed an excellent rate of tumor control using IMRT-planned APBI. Cosmetic outcomes, however, continued to decline, with 26.7% of women having a fair to poor cosmetic result. These results underscore the need for continued cosmetic assessment for patients treated with APBI by technique

  14. Applications of tissue heterogeneity corrections and biologically effective dose volume histograms in assessing the doses for accelerated partial breast irradiation using an electronic brachytherapy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Chengyu; Guo Bingqi; Eng, Tony; Papanikolaou, Nikos [Cancer Therapy and Research Center, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX 78229 (United States); Cheng, Chih-Yao, E-mail: shic@uthscsa.ed [Radiation Oncology Department, Oklahoma University Health Science Center, Oklahoma, OK 73104 (United States)

    2010-09-21

    A low-energy electronic brachytherapy source (EBS), the model S700 Axxent(TM) x-ray device developed by Xoft Inc., has been used in high dose rate (HDR) intracavitary accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) as an alternative to an Ir-192 source. The prescription dose and delivery schema of the electronic brachytherapy APBI plan are the same as the Ir-192 plan. However, due to its lower mean energy than the Ir-192 source, an EBS plan has dosimetric and biological features different from an Ir-192 source plan. Current brachytherapy treatment planning methods may have large errors in treatment outcome prediction for an EBS plan. Two main factors contribute to the errors: the dosimetric influence of tissue heterogeneities and the enhancement of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of electronic brachytherapy. This study quantified the effects of these two factors and revisited the plan quality of electronic brachytherapy APBI. The influence of tissue heterogeneities is studied by a Monte Carlo method and heterogeneous 'virtual patient' phantoms created from CT images and structure contours; the effect of RBE enhancement in the treatment outcome was estimated by biologically effective dose (BED) distribution. Ten electronic brachytherapy APBI cases were studied. The results showed that, for electronic brachytherapy cases, tissue heterogeneities and patient boundary effect decreased dose to the target and skin but increased dose to the bones. On average, the target dose coverage PTV V{sub 100} reduced from 95.0% in water phantoms (planned) to only 66.7% in virtual patient phantoms (actual). The actual maximum dose to the ribs is 3.3 times higher than the planned dose; the actual mean dose to the ipsilateral breast and maximum dose to the skin were reduced by 22% and 17%, respectively. Combining the effect of tissue heterogeneities and RBE enhancement, BED coverage of the target was 89.9% in virtual patient phantoms with RBE enhancement (actual BED) as

  15. Accelerated partial breast irradiation: An analysis of variables associated with late toxicity and long-term cosmetic outcome after high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To perform a detailed analysis of variables associated with late tissue effects of high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) in a large cohort of patients with prolonged follow-up. Methods and Materials: Beginning in 1995, 75 women with Stage I/II breast cancer were enrolled in identical institutional trials evaluating APBI as monotherapy after lumpectomy. Patients eligible included those with T1-2, N0-1 (≤3 nodes positive), M0 tumors of nonlobular histology with negative surgical margins, no extracapsular nodal extension, and negative results on postexcision mammogram. All patients underwent surgical excision and postoperative irradiation with HDR interstitial brachytherapy. The planning target volume was defined as the excision cavity plus a 2-cm margin. Treatment was delivered with a high-activity Ir-192 source at 3.4 Gy per fraction twice daily for 5 days to a total dose of 34 Gy. Dosimetric analyses were performed with three-dimensional postimplant dose and volume reconstructions. All patients were evaluated at 3-6-month intervals and assessed with a standardized cosmetic rating scale and according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group late normal tissue toxicity scoring criteria. Clinical and therapy-related features were analyzed for their relationship to cosmetic outcome and toxicity rating. Clinical features analyzed included age, volume of resection, history of diabetes or hypertension, extent of axillary surgery, and systemic therapies. Therapy-related features analyzed included volume of tissue encompassed by the 100%, 150%, and 200% isodose lines (V100, V150, and V200, respectively), the dose homogeneity index (DHI), number of source dwell positions, and planar separation. Results: The median follow-up of all patients was 73 months (range, 43-118 months). The cosmetic outcome at last follow-up was rated as excellent, good, and fair/poor in 67%, 24%, and 9% of patients, respectively

  16. Partial breast irradiation with interstitial high dose-rate brachytherapy: acute and late toxicities and cosmetic results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerated partial breast irradiation aims at decreasing the overall treatment time and reducing toxicity. The study we report is for early stage breast cancer and is a multicentre clinical investigation of partial breast irradiation achieved by interstitial high dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy with intraoperative placement of catheters. We have been able to conclude from the initial data that an interstitial perioperative brachytherapy implant is a feasible method of treatment with good tolerance and good cosmetic results. (author)

  17. A case report on bilateral partial breast irradiation using SAVI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gloi, Aime M., E-mail: agloi@stvgb.org [Radiation Oncology, St. Vincent Hospital, Green Bay, WI (United States); Buchanan, Robert [Southeast Alabama Medical Center, Radiation Oncology Department, Dothan, AL 36301 (United States); Nuskind, Jeff; Zuge, Corrie; Goettler, Anndrea [Radiation Oncology, St. Vincent Hospital, Green Bay, WI (United States)

    2012-07-01

    To assess dosimetric parameters in a case study where bilateral accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is delivered using a strut-adjusted volume implant (SAVI) device. A 59-year-old female received APBI in both breasts over 5 days, with fractions of 3.4 Gy twice daily. A Vac-lok system was used for immobilization, and a C-arm was used for daily imaging. We generated dose-volume histograms (DVHs) for the brachytherapy plans to derive several important biologic factors. We calculated the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), equivalent uniform dose (EUD), and tumor control probability (TCP) using the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model parameters {alpha} = 0.3 Gy{sup -1}, {alpha}/{beta} = 4 Gy, n = 0.1, and m = 0.3. In addition, we assessed the dose homogeneity index (DHI), overdose index, and dose nonuniformity ratio. D95 was >95% and V150 was <50 mL for both breasts. The DHIs were 0.469 and 0.512 for the left and right breasts, respectively. The EUDs (normalized to 3.4 Gy b.i.d.) were 33.53 and 29.10 Gy. The TCPs were estimated at 99.2% and 99.9%, whereas the NTCP values were 4.2% and 2.57%. In this clinical case, we were able to quantify the dosimetric parameters of an APBI treatment performed with a SAVI device.

  18. Accelerated partial breast irradiation with external beam three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. Five-year results of a prospective phase II clinical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozsa, Emoeke [National Institute of Oncology, Centre of Radiotherapy, Budapest (Hungary); Landesklinikum Wiener Neustadt, Department of Radiooncology and Radiotherapy, Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Meszaros, Norbert; Major, Tibor; Froehlich, Georgina; Stelczer, Gabor; Fodor, Janos; Polgar, Csaba [National Institute of Oncology, Centre of Radiotherapy, Budapest (Hungary); Sulyok, Zoltan [National Institute of Oncology, Centre of Surgery, Budapest (Hungary)

    2014-05-15

    The aim of this study was to report the 5-year results of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using external beam three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Between 2006 and 2011, 44 patients with low-risk, stage I-II breast cancer underwent breast-conserving surgery. Postoperative APBI was given by means of 3D-CRT using three to five non-coplanar fields. The total dose of APBI was 36.9 Gy (nine fractions of 4.1 Gy b.i.d.). The mean follow-up time was 58.2 months for surviving patients. Survival results, side effects, and cosmetic results were assessed. One (2.3 %) local recurrence was observed, for a 5-year actuarial rate of 3.7 %. Neither regional nor distant failure was observed. Two patients died of internal disease. The 5-year disease-free, cancer-specific, and overall survival rates were 96.3, 100, and 95.1 %, respectively. Acute side effects included grade 1 (G1) erythema in 75 %, G1 parenchymal induration in 46 %, and G1 pain in 46 % of patients. No G2 or higher acute side effect occurred. Late side effects included G1, G2, and G3 fibrosis in 44, 7, and 2 % of patients, respectively, G1 skin pigmentation in 12 %, and G1 pain in 2 %. Asymptomatic fat necrosis occurred in 14 %. Cosmetic results were rated excellent or good in 86 % of cases by the patients themselves and 84 % by the physicians. The 5-year local tumor control, toxicity profile, and cosmetic results of APBI delivered with external beam 3D-CRT are encouraging and comparable to other APBI series. (orig.) [German] Evaluation der 5-Jahres-Ergebnisse bezueglich Ueberleben, Tumorkontrolle, Nebenwirkungen und Kosmetik nach Teilbrustbestrahlung (APBI) mittels 3-D-konformaler, akzelerierter Radiotherapie (3D-CRT). Zwischen 2006 und 2011 wurden 44 Patienten mit Brustkrebs im Stadium I-II und niedrigem Risikoprofil brusterhaltend operiert. Die adjuvante, 3-D-konformale APBI wurde mittels 3-5 nonkoplanarer Feldern durchgefuehrt. Die Gesamtdosis betrug 36,9 Gy bei 9 -mal 4,1 Gy b.i.d.. Nach

  19. Accelerated partial breast irradiation using intensity-modulated radiotherapy technique compared to whole breast irradiation for patients aged 70 years or older: subgroup analysis from a randomized phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meattini, Icro; Saieva, Calogero; Marrazzo, Livia; Di Brina, Lucia; Pallotta, Stefania; Mangoni, Monica; Meacci, Fiammetta; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Francolini, Giulio; Desideri, Isacco; De Luca Cardillo, Carla; Scotti, Vieri; Furfaro, Ilaria Francesca; Rossi, Francesca; Greto, Daniela; Bonomo, Pierluigi; Casella, Donato; Bernini, Marco; Sanchez, Luis; Orzalesi, Lorenzo; Simoncini, Roberta; Nori, Jacopo; Bianchi, Simonetta; Livi, Lorenzo

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the efficacy and the safety profile on the subset of selected early breast cancer (BC) patients aged 70 years or older from a single-center phase 3 trial comparing whole breast irradiation (WBI) to accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using intensity-modulated radiation therapy technique. Between 2005 and 2013, 520 patients aged more than 40 years old were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive either WBI or APBI in a 1:1 ratio. Eligible patients were women with early BC (maximum diameter 2.5 cm) suitable for breast conserving surgery. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02104895. A total of 117 patients aged 70 years or more were analyzed (58 in the WBI arm, 59 in the APBI arm). At a median follow-up of 5-years (range 3.4-7.0), the ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) rate was 1.9 % in both groups. No significant difference between the two groups was identified (log-rank test p = 0.96). The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates in the WBI group and APBI group were 6.1 and 1.9 %, respectively (p = 0.33). The APBI group presented significantly better results in terms of acute skin toxicity, considering both any grade (p = 0.0001) and grade 2 or higher (p = 0.0001). Our subgroup analyses showed a very low rate and no significant difference in terms of IBTR, using both WBI and APBI. A significant impact on patients compliance in terms of acute and early late toxicity was shown, which could translate in a consistent improvement of overall quality of life. PMID:26350524

  20. Recommendations from GEC ESTRO Breast Cancer Working Group (I): Target definition and target delineation for accelerated or boost Partial Breast Irradiation using multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy after breast conserving closed cavity surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The aim was to develop a delineation guideline for target definition for APBI or boost by consensus of the Breast Working Group of GEC-ESTRO. Proposed recommendations: Appropriate delineation of CTV (PTV) with low inter- and intra-observer variability in clinical practice is complex and needs various steps as: (1) Detailed knowledge of primary surgical procedure, of all details of pathology, as well as of preoperative imaging. (2) Definition of tumour localization before breast conserving surgery inside the breast and translation of this information in the postoperative CT imaging data set. (3) Calculation of the size of total safety margins. The size should be at least 2 cm. (4) Definition of the target. (5) Delineation of the target according to defined rules. Conclusion: Providing guidelines based on the consensus of a group of experts should make it possible to achieve a reproducible and consistent definition of CTV (PTV) for Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI) or boost irradiation after breast conserving closed cavity surgery, and helps to define it after selected cases of oncoplastic surgery

  1. Accelerated partial breast irradiation with multi-catheter brachytherapy: Local control, side effects and cosmetic outcome for 274 patients. Results of the German-Austrian multi-centre trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) with multi-catheter brachytherapy. Patients and methods: Between 11/2000 and 04/2005, 274 patients participated. Patients were eligible for APBI if they had histologically confirmed breast cancer, a tumour diameter ≤3 cm, complete resection with clear margins ≥2 mm, negative axillary lymph nodes or singular nodal micro-metastasis, no distant metastases, hormone receptor-positive tumours, and were ≥35 years. Patients were excluded if mammographically they showed a multicentric invasive growth pattern, poorly differentiated tumours, residual diffuse micro-calcifications, extensive intraductal component, or vessel invasion. Median follow-up was 32 months (range; 8-68). Results: The local control rate was 99.3% (272/274), the 3 year-local-recurrence-free survival probability, 99.6%. Peri-operative complications occurred in 5.5% (15/274): 9 (3.3%) experienced implant infection and 6 (2.2%) hematoma. Acute toxicity (Grade 1/2 radio-dermatitis) was seen in 6.6% (18/274). Late side effects ≥ Grade 3 (fibrosis, telangiectasia) occurred in 1.8% (4/274). Cosmetic results were excellent/good in 94% (253/274). Conclusions: This analysis underlined the safety and effectiveness of APBI in a carefully selected subgroup with favourable disease characteristics. Of course, longer follow-up and randomised trials are necessary to conclusively assess the potential of APBI

  2. Trajectory Modulated Arc Therapy: A Fully Dynamic Delivery With Synchronized Couch and Gantry Motion Significantly Improves Dosimetric Indices Correlated With Poor Cosmesis in Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Jieming; Atwood, Todd; Eyben, Rie von; Fahimian, Benjamin; Chin, Erika; Horst, Kathleen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, California (United States); Otto, Karl [Department of Physics, University of British Columbia, British Columbia (Canada); Hristov, Dimitre, E-mail: dimitre.hristov@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, California (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: To develop planning and delivery capabilities for linear accelerator–based nonisocentric trajectory modulated arc therapy (TMAT) and to evaluate the benefit of TMAT for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) with the patient in prone position. Methods and Materials: An optimization algorithm for volumetrically modulated arc therapy (VMAT) was generalized to allow for user-defined nonisocentric TMAT trajectories combining couch rotations and translations. After optimization, XML scripts were automatically generated to program and subsequently deliver the TMAT plans. For 10 breast patients in the prone position, TMAT and 6-field noncoplanar intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans were generated under equivalent objectives and constraints. These plans were compared with regard to whole breast tissue volume receiving more than 100%, 80%, 50%, and 20% of the prescription dose. Results: For TMAT APBI, nonisocentric collision-free horizontal arcs with large angular span (251.5 ± 7.9°) were optimized and delivered with delivery time of ∼4.5 minutes. Percentage changes of whole breast tissue volume receiving more than 100%, 80%, 50%, and 20% of the prescription dose for TMAT relative to IMRT were −10.81% ± 6.91%, −27.81% ± 7.39%, −14.82% ± 9.67%, and 39.40% ± 10.53% (P≤.01). Conclusions: This is a first demonstration of end-to-end planning and delivery implementation of a fully dynamic APBI TMAT. Compared with IMRT, TMAT resulted in marked reduction of the breast tissue volume irradiated at high doses.

  3. Accelerated partial breast irradiation: Bi-fractionated 40 Gy in one week. A French pilot phase II study; Etude pilote francaise de phase 2 d'irradiation partielle acceleree du sein conformationnelle tridimensionnelle bi-fractionnee hebdomadaire de 40 Gy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgier, C.; Heymann, S.; Bourhis, J.; Marsiglia, H. [Departement d' oncologie-radiotherapie, institut Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France); Pichenot, C.; Verstraet, R.; Biron, B. [Departement de physique, institut Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France); Balleyguier, C. [Departement de radiologie, institut Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France); Delalogen, S. [Departement d' oncologie medicale, institut Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France); Mathieu, M.C. [Departement d' anatomie-pathologie, institut Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France); Uzan, C.; Garbay, J.R.; Marsiglia, H. [Departement de chirurgie-senologie, institut Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France); Taghian, A. [Departement d' oncologie-radiotherapie, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts (United States); Bourgier, C.; Pichenot, C.; Verstraet, R.; Heymann, S.; Biron, B.; Balleyguier, C.; Delalogen, S.; Mathieu, M.C.; Uzan, C.; Garbay, J.R.; Bourhis, J.; Taghian, A.; Marsiglia, H. [Universite de Florence, Firenze (Italy)

    2010-12-15

    Purpose: Since 2009, accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) in North America has been allowed to be used for selected group of patients outside a clinical trial according to the ASTRO consensus statement. In France, accelerated partial breast irradiation is still considered investigational, several clinical trials have been conducted using either intraoperative (Montpellier) or Mammosite{sup R} (Lille) or brachytherapy modality (PAC GERICO/FNCLCC). Here, we report the original dosimetric results of this technique. Patients and methods: Since October 2007, Institut Gustave-Roussy has initiated a phase II trial using 3D-conformal accelerated partial breast irradiation (40 Gy in 10 fractions BID in 1 week). Twenty-five patients with pT1N0 breast cancer were enrolled and were treated by two mini-tangent photons beams (6 MV) and an 'en face' electron beam (6-22 MeV). Results: The mean clinical target volume and planning target volume were respectively 15.1 cm{sup 3} (range: 5.2-28.7 cm{sup 3}) and 117 cm{sup 3} (range: 52-185 cm{sup 3}). The planning target volume coverage was adequate with at least a mean of 99% of the volume encompassed by the isodose 40 Gy. The mean dose to the planning target volume was 41.8 Gy (range: 41-42.4 Gy). Dose inhomogeneity did not exceed 5%. Mean doses to the ipsilateral lung and heart were 1.6 Gy (range: 1.0-2.3 Gy) and 1.2 Gy (range: 1.0-1.6 Gy), respectively. Conclusion: The 3D conformal accelerated partial breast irradiation using two mini-tangent and 'en face' electron beams using a total dose of 40 Gy in 10 fractions BID over 5 days achieves appropriate planning target volume coverage and offers significant normal-tissue sparing (heart, lung). Longer follow-up is needed to evaluate the tissue tolerance to this radiation dose. (authors)

  4. Objective and Longitudinal Assessment of Dermatitis After Postoperative Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using High-Dose-Rate Interstitial Brachytherapy in Patients With Breast Cancer Treated With Breast Conserving Therapy: Reduction of Moisture Deterioration by APBI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Eiichi [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Hospital Organization, Osaka National Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Yamazaki, Hideya, E-mail: hideya10@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Yoshida, Ken; Takenaka, Tadashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Hospital Organization, Osaka National Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Masuda, Norikazu [Department of Surgery and Breast Oncology, National Hospital Organization, Osaka National Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Kotsuma, Tadayuki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Inoue, Takehiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To objectively evaluate the radiation dermatitis caused by accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy. Patients and Methods: The skin color and moisture changes were examined using a newly installed spectrophotometer and corneometer in 22 patients who had undergone APBI using open cavity implant high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (36 Gy in six fractions) and compared with the corresponding values for 44 patients in an external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) control group (50-60 Gy in 25-30 fractions within 5-6 weeks) after breast conserving surgery. Results: All values changed significantly as a result of APBI. The extent of elevation in a Asterisk-Operator (reddish) and reduction in L Asterisk-Operator (black) values caused by APBI were similar to those for EBRT, with slightly delayed recovery for 6-12 months after treatment owing to the surgical procedure. In contrast, only APBI caused a change in the b Asterisk-Operator values, and EBRT did not, demonstrating that the reduction in b Asterisk-Operator values (yellowish) depends largely on the surgical procedure. The changes in moisture were less severe after APBI than after EBRT, and the recovery was more rapid. The toxicity assessment using the Common Toxicity Criteria, version 3, showed that all dermatitis caused by APBI was Grade 2 or less. Conclusion: An objective analysis can quantify the effects of APBI procedures on color and moisture cosmesis. The radiation dermatitis caused by APBI using the present schedule showed an equivalent effect on skin color and a less severe effect on moisture than the effects caused by standard EBRT.

  5. Five-Year Analysis of Treatment Efficacy and Cosmesis by the American Society of Breast Surgeons MammoSite Breast Brachytherapy Registry Trial in Patients Treated With Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To present 5-year data on treatment efficacy, cosmetic results, and toxicities for patients enrolled on the American Society of Breast Surgeons MammoSite breast brachytherapy registry trial. Methods and Materials: A total of 1440 patients (1449 cases) with early-stage breast cancer receiving breast-conserving therapy were treated with the MammoSite device to deliver accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI) (34 Gy in 3.4-Gy fractions). Of 1449 cases, 1255 (87%) had invasive breast cancer (IBC) (median size, 10 mm) and 194 (13%) had ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) (median size, 8 mm). Median follow-up was 54 months. Results: Thirty-seven cases (2.6%) developed an ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), for a 5-year actuarial rate of 3.80% (3.86% for IBC and 3.39% for DCIS). Negative estrogen receptor status (p = 0.0011) was the only clinical, pathologic, or treatment-related variable associated with IBTR for patients with IBC and young age (<50 years; p = 0.0096) and positive margin status (p = 0.0126) in those with DCIS. The percentage of breasts with good/excellent cosmetic results at 60 months (n = 371) was 90.6%. Symptomatic breast seromas were reported in 13.0% of cases, and 2.3% developed fat necrosis. A subset analysis of the first 400 consecutive cases enrolled was performed (352 with IBC, 48 DCIS). With a median follow-up of 60.5 months, the 5-year actuarial rate of IBTR was 3.04%. Conclusion: Treatment efficacy, cosmesis, and toxicity 5 years after treatment with APBI using the MammoSite device are good and similar to those reported with other forms of APBI with similar follow-up.

  6. Late Toxicity and Patient Self-Assessment of Breast Appearance/Satisfaction on RTOG 0319: A Phase 2 Trial of 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy-Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Following Lumpectomy for Stages I and II Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Late toxicities and cosmetic analyses of patients treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) on RTOG 0319 are presented. Methods and Materials: Patients with stages I to II breast cancer ≤3 cm, negative margins, and ≤3 positive nodes were eligible. Patients received three-dimensional conformal external beam radiation therapy (3D-CRT; 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions twice daily over 5 days). Toxicity and cosmesis were assessed by the patient (P), the radiation oncologist (RO), and the surgical oncologist (SO) at 3, 6, and 12 months from the completion of treatment and then annually. National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0, was used to grade toxicity. Results: Fifty-two patients were evaluable. Median follow-up was 5.3 years (range, 1.7-6.4 years). Eighty-two percent of patients rated their cosmesis as good/excellent at 1 year, with rates of 64% at 3 years. At 3 years, 31 patients were satisfied with the treatment, 5 were not satisfied but would choose 3D-CRT again, and none would choose standard radiation therapy. The worst adverse event (AE) per patient reported as definitely, probably, or possibly related to radiation therapy was 36.5% grade 1, 50% grade 2, and 5.8% grade 3 events. Grade 3 AEs were all skin or musculoskeletal-related. Treatment-related factors were evaluated to potentially establish an association with observed toxicity. Surgical bed volume, target volume, the number of beams used, and the use of bolus were not associated with late cosmesis. Conclusions: Most patients enrolled in RTOG 0319 were satisfied with their treatment, and all would choose to have the 3D-CRT APBI again

  7. Interim Cosmetic Results and Toxicity Using 3D Conformal External Beam Radiotherapy to Deliver Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation in Patients With Early-Stage Breast Cancer Treated With Breast-Conserving Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: We present our ongoing clinical experience utilizing three-dimensional (3D)-conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) in patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy. Methods and Materials: Ninety-one consecutive patients were treated with APBI using our previously reported 3D-CRT technique. The clinical target volume consisted of the lumpectomy cavity plus a 10- to 15 -mm margin. The prescribed dose was 34 or 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions given over 5 consecutive days. The median follow-up was 24 months. Twelve patients have been followed for ≥4 years, 20 for ≥3.5 years, 29 for >3.0 years, 33 for ≥2.5 years, and 46 for ≥2.0 years. Results: No local recurrences developed. Cosmetic results were rated as good/excellent in 100% of evaluable patients at ≥ 6 months (n = 47), 93% at 1 year (n = 43), 91% at 2 years (n = 21), and in 90% at ≥3 years (n = 10). Erythema, hyperpigmentation, breast edema, breast pain, telangiectasias, fibrosis, and fat necrosis were evaluated at 6, 24, and 36 months after treatment. All factors stabilized by 3 years posttreatment with grade I or II rates of 0%, 0%, 0%, 0%, 9%, 18%, and 9%, respectively. Only 2 patients (3%) developed grade III toxicity (breast pain), which resolved with time. Conclusions: Delivery of APBI with 3D-CRT resulted in minimal chronic (≥6 months) toxicity to date with good/excellent cosmetic results. Additional follow-up is needed to assess the long-term efficacy of this form of APBI

  8. Transforming Growth Factor β-1 (TGF-β1) Is a Serum Biomarker of Radiation Induced Fibrosis in Patients Treated With Intracavitary Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation: Preliminary Results of a Prospective Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To examine a relationship between serum transforming growth factor β -1 (TGF-β1) values and radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF). Methods and Materials: We conducted a prospective analysis of the development of RIF in 39 women with American Joint Committee on Cancer stage 0-I breast cancer treated with lumpectomy and accelerated partial breast irradiation via intracavitary brachytherapy (IBAPBI). An enzyme-linked immunoassay (Quantikine, R and D, Minneapolis, MN) was used to measure serum TGF-β1 before surgery, before IBAPBI, and during IBAPBI. Blood samples for TGF-β1 were also collected from 15 healthy, nontreated women (controls). The previously validated tissue compliance meter (TCM) was used to objectively assess RIF. Results: The median time to follow-up for 39 patients was 44 months (range, 5-59 months). RIF was graded by the TCM scale as 0, 1, 2, and 3 in 5 of 20 patients (25%), 6 of 20 patients (30%), 5 of 20 patients (25%), and 4 of 20 patients (20%), respectively. The mean serum TGF-β1 values were significantly higher in patients before surgery than in disease-free controls, as follows: all cancer patients (30,201 ± 5889 pg/mL, P=.02); patients with any type of RIF (32,273 ± 5016 pg/mL, PROC of 0.867 (95% confidence interval 0.700-1.000). The TGF-β1 threshold cutoff was determined to be 31,000 pg/mL, with associated sensitivity and specificity of 77.8% and 90.0%, respectively. Conclusions: TGF-β1 levels correlate with the development of moderate to severe RIF. The pre-IBAPBI mean TGF-β1 levels can serve as an early biomarker for the development of moderate to severe RIF after IBAPBI

  9. Late Toxicity and Patient Self-Assessment of Breast Appearance/Satisfaction on RTOG 0319: A Phase 2 Trial of 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy-Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Following Lumpectomy for Stages I and II Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chafe, Susan, E-mail: susan.chafe@albertahealthservices.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute-University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Moughan, Jennifer [Department of Radiation Oncology, RTOG Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); McCormick, Beryl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Wong, John [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Pass, Helen [Womens' Breast Center, Stamford Hospital, Stamford, Connecticut (United States); Rabinovitch, Rachel [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Arthur, Douglas W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Petersen, Ivy [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); White, Julia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Vicini, Frank A. [Michigan Healthcare Professionals/21st Century Oncology, Farmington Hills, Michigan (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: Late toxicities and cosmetic analyses of patients treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) on RTOG 0319 are presented. Methods and Materials: Patients with stages I to II breast cancer ≤3 cm, negative margins, and ≤3 positive nodes were eligible. Patients received three-dimensional conformal external beam radiation therapy (3D-CRT; 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions twice daily over 5 days). Toxicity and cosmesis were assessed by the patient (P), the radiation oncologist (RO), and the surgical oncologist (SO) at 3, 6, and 12 months from the completion of treatment and then annually. National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0, was used to grade toxicity. Results: Fifty-two patients were evaluable. Median follow-up was 5.3 years (range, 1.7-6.4 years). Eighty-two percent of patients rated their cosmesis as good/excellent at 1 year, with rates of 64% at 3 years. At 3 years, 31 patients were satisfied with the treatment, 5 were not satisfied but would choose 3D-CRT again, and none would choose standard radiation therapy. The worst adverse event (AE) per patient reported as definitely, probably, or possibly related to radiation therapy was 36.5% grade 1, 50% grade 2, and 5.8% grade 3 events. Grade 3 AEs were all skin or musculoskeletal-related. Treatment-related factors were evaluated to potentially establish an association with observed toxicity. Surgical bed volume, target volume, the number of beams used, and the use of bolus were not associated with late cosmesis. Conclusions: Most patients enrolled in RTOG 0319 were satisfied with their treatment, and all would choose to have the 3D-CRT APBI again.

  10. Higher toxicity with 42 Gy in 10 fractions as a total dose for 3D-conformal accelerated partial breast irradiation: results from a dose escalation phase II trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent recommendations regarding indications of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) have been put forward for selected breast cancer (BC) patients. However, some treatment planning parameters, such as total dose, are not yet well defined. The Institut Gustave Roussy has initiated a dose escalation trial at the 40 Gy/10 fractions/5 days and at a further step of total dose (TD) of 42 Gy/10 fractions/ 5 days. Here, we report early results of the latest step compared with the 40 Gy dose level. From October 2007 to March 2010, a total of 48 pT1N0 BC patients were enrolled within this clinical trial: 17 patients at a TD of 42 Gy/10f/5d and 31 at a TD of 40 Gy/10f/5d. Median follow-up was 19 months (min-max, 12–26). All the patients were treated by APBI using a technique with 2 minitangents and an “enface” electrons delivering 20% of the total dose. Toxicities were systematically assessed at 1; 2; 6 months and then every 6 months. Patients’ recruitment of 42 Gy step was ended owing to persistent grade 3 toxicity 6 months after APBI completion (n = 1). Early toxicities were statistically higher after a total dose of 42 Gy regarding grade ≥2 dry (p = 0.01) and moist (p = 0.05) skin desquamation. Breast pain was also statistically higher in the 42 Gy step compared to 40 Gy step (p = 0.02). Other late toxicities (grade ≥2 fibrosis and telangectasia) were not statistically different between 42 Gy and 40 Gy. Early toxicities were more severe and higher rates of late toxicities were observed after 42 Gy/10 fractions/5 days when compared to 40 Gy/10 fractions/5 days. This data suggest that 40 Gy/10 fractions/ 5 days could potentially be the maximum tolerance for PBI although longer follow-up is warranted to better assess late toxicities

  11. Cosmetic Outcomes for Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Before Surgical Excision of Early-Stage Breast Cancer Using Single-Dose Intraoperative Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Determine cosmetic outcome and toxicity profile of intraoperative radiation delivered before tumor excision for patients with early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients age 48 or older with ultrasound-visible invasive ductal cancers <3 cm and clinically negative lymph nodes were eligible for treatment on this institutional review board-approved Phase II clinical trial. Treatment planning ultrasound was used to select an electron energy and cone size sufficient to cover the tumor plus a 1.5- to 2.0-cm circumferential margin laterally and a 1-cm-deep margin with the 90% isodose line. The dose was prescribed to a nominal 15 Gy and delivered using a Mobetron electron irradiator before tumor excision by segmental mastectomy. Physician- and patient-assessed cosmetic outcome and patient satisfaction were determined by questionnaire. Results: From March 2003 to July 2007, 71 patients were treated with intraoperative radiation therapy. Of those, 56 patients were evaluable, with a median follow-up of 3.1 years (minimum 1 year). Physician and patient assessment of cosmesis was 'good or excellent' (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group cosmesis scale) in 45/56 (80%) and 32/42 (76%) of all patients, respectively. Eleven patients who received additional whole breast radiation had similar rates of good or excellent cosmesis: 40/48 (83%) and 29/36 (81%), respectively). Grade 1 or 2 acute toxicities were seen in 4/71 (6%) patients. No Grade 3 or 4 toxicities or serious adverse events have been seen. Conclusion: Intraoperative radiotherapy delivered to an in situ tumor is feasible with acceptable acute tolerance. Patient and physician assessment of the cosmetic outcome is good to excellent.

  12. Prospective Multicenter Trial Evaluating Balloon-Catheter Partial-Breast Irradiation for Ductal Carcinoma in Situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, Andrea M.; Portschy, Pamela R. [Division of Surgical Oncology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Lee, Chung [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Le, Chap T. [Division of Biostatistics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Han, Linda K. [Department of Surgery, Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States); Washington, Tara [Vantage Oncology, Redhawk and Wildomar Centers California, Wildomar, California (United States); Kinney, Michael [Center for Advanced Breast Care, Arlington Heights, Illinois (United States); Bretzke, Margit [Surgical Specialists of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Tuttle, Todd M., E-mail: tuttl006@umn.edu [Division of Surgical Oncology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To determine outcomes of accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI) with MammoSite in the treatment of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) after breast-conserving surgery. Methods and Materials: We conducted a prospective, multicenter trial between 2003 and 2009. Inclusion criteria included age >18 years, core needle biopsy diagnosis of DCIS, and no prior breast cancer history. Patients underwent breast-conserving surgery plus MammoSite placement. Radiation was given twice daily for 5 days for a total of 34 Gy. Patients were evaluated for development of toxicities, cosmetic outcome, and ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR). Results: A total of 41 patients (42 breasts) completed treatment in the study, with a median follow up of 5.3 years. Overall, 28 patients (68.3%) experienced an adverse event. Skin changes and pain were the most common adverse events. Cosmetic outcome at 6 months was judged excellent/good by 100% of physicians and by 96.8% of patients. At 12 months, 86.7% of physicians and 92.3% of patients rated the cosmetic outcome as excellent/good. Overall, 4 patients (9.8%) developed an IBTR (all DCIS), with a 5-year actuarial rate of 11.3%. All IBTRs were outside the treatment field. Among patients with IBTRs, the mean time to recurrence was 3.2 years. Conclusions: Accelerated partial-breast irradiation using MammoSite seems to provide a safe and cosmetically acceptable outcome; however, the 9.8% IBTR rate with median follow-up of 5.3 years is concerning. Prospective randomized trials are necessary before routine use of APBI for DCIS can be recommended.

  13. Prospective Multicenter Trial Evaluating Balloon-Catheter Partial-Breast Irradiation for Ductal Carcinoma in Situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine outcomes of accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI) with MammoSite in the treatment of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) after breast-conserving surgery. Methods and Materials: We conducted a prospective, multicenter trial between 2003 and 2009. Inclusion criteria included age >18 years, core needle biopsy diagnosis of DCIS, and no prior breast cancer history. Patients underwent breast-conserving surgery plus MammoSite placement. Radiation was given twice daily for 5 days for a total of 34 Gy. Patients were evaluated for development of toxicities, cosmetic outcome, and ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR). Results: A total of 41 patients (42 breasts) completed treatment in the study, with a median follow up of 5.3 years. Overall, 28 patients (68.3%) experienced an adverse event. Skin changes and pain were the most common adverse events. Cosmetic outcome at 6 months was judged excellent/good by 100% of physicians and by 96.8% of patients. At 12 months, 86.7% of physicians and 92.3% of patients rated the cosmetic outcome as excellent/good. Overall, 4 patients (9.8%) developed an IBTR (all DCIS), with a 5-year actuarial rate of 11.3%. All IBTRs were outside the treatment field. Among patients with IBTRs, the mean time to recurrence was 3.2 years. Conclusions: Accelerated partial-breast irradiation using MammoSite seems to provide a safe and cosmetically acceptable outcome; however, the 9.8% IBTR rate with median follow-up of 5.3 years is concerning. Prospective randomized trials are necessary before routine use of APBI for DCIS can be recommended

  14. Partial breast irradiation for early breast cancer: 3-year results of the German-Austrian phase II-trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: to evaluate perioperative morbidity, toxicity and cosmetic outcome in patients treated with interstitial brachytherapy to the tumor bed as the sole radiation modality after breast conserving surgery. Materials and methods: from 11/2000 to 11/2004, 240 women with early stage breast cancer participated in a protocol of tumor bed irradiation alone using pulsed dose rate (PDR) or high dose rate (HDR) interstitial multi-catheter implants (partial breast irradiation). Perioperative morbidity, acute and late toxicity as well as cosmetic outcome were assessed. Of the first 51 patients treated in this multicenter trial, we present interim findings after a median follow-up of 36 months. Results: perioperative Morbidity: Bacterial infection of the implant: 2% (1/51). Acute toxicity: radiodermatitis grade 1: 4% (2/51). Late toxicity: breast pain grade 1: 8% (4/51), grade 2: 2% (1/51); dyspigmentation grade 1: 8% (4/51); fibrosis grade 1: 4% (2/51), grade 2: 8% (4/51); telangiectasia grade 1: 10% (5/51), grade 2: 4% (2/51). Cosmetic results: Excellent and good in 94% (48/51) of the patients. Conclusion: this analysis indicates that accelerated partial breast irradiation with 192-iridium interstitial multicatheter PDR-/HDR-implants (partial breast irradiation) is feasible with low perioperative morbidity, low acute and mild late toxicity at a median follow-up of 36 months. The cosmetic result is not significantly affected. (orig.)

  15. 乳腺癌保乳术后加速部分乳腺照射研究进展%Accelerated partial breast irradiation after breast conserving surgery:a review of techniques and progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇乾; 王雅棣

    2013-01-01

    Breast-conserving surgery with postoperative whole-breast irradiation (WBI) has become one of the standard treat-ments for early breast cancer. However, traditional WBI has a large radiation field and lengthy course of treatment. Accelerated par-tial-breast irradiation (APBI) has been recognized as an alternative treatment to WBI. Three main techniques constitute APBI: intraoper-ative radiation therapy, external radiation therapy, and brachytherapy. Intraoperative radiation therapy involves the application of thera-peutic levels of radiation during surgery. This technique allows for the exact delivery of radiation beams to the tumor bed; strict preci-sion is observed for equipment in this technique. External radiation therapy is performed by radiotherapists and physicists. This tech-nique is easy to implement. Furthermore, the target dose distribution can be achieved because of the implementation of a treatment plan-ning system. Brachytherapy includes multi-catheter interstitial brachytherapy and mammosite therapy. Presently, mammosite therapy is widely used because of its facile procedure. However, clinical follow-up data are limited because of the short duration of APBI therapy. The selection of appropriate patients and optimal dosimetric distribution is needed before APBI application to reduce the risk of breast cancer recurrence.%  保乳手术加术后全乳腺放疗(whole breast irradiation,WBI)已成为早期乳腺癌的标准治疗模式之一,但是传统的WBI照射范围大,疗程长.近年来,缩小照射范围、缩短总疗程的加速部分乳腺照射(accelerated partial breast irradiation,APBI)作为保乳术后WBI的替代治疗方法,得到了广泛的认同.APBI常用的治疗方式有术中放疗、外照射和近距离放疗三种.术中放疗为保乳手术中给予一次性照射,照射范围准确,但是对设备的要求较高.外照射由专业的放疗科医师和物理师执行,相对容易实现,而且可以通过治疗计划系

  16. Evaluation of Current Consensus Statement Recommendations for Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation: A Pooled Analysis of William Beaumont Hospital and American Society of Breast Surgeon MammoSite Registry Trial Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine whether the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Consensus Statement (CS) recommendations for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) are associated with significantly different outcomes in a pooled analysis from William Beaumont Hospital (WBH) and the American Society of Breast Surgeons (ASBrS) MammoSite® Registry Trial. Methods and Materials: APBI was used to treat 2127 cases of early-stage breast cancer (WBH, n=678; ASBrS, n=1449). Three forms of APBI were used at WBH (interstitial, n=221; balloon-based, n=255; or 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, n=206), whereas all Registry Trial patients received balloon-based brachytherapy. Patients were divided according to the ASTRO CS into suitable (n=661, 36.5%), cautionary (n=850, 46.9%), and unsuitable (n=302, 16.7%) categories. Tumor characteristics and clinical outcomes were analyzed according to CS group. Results: The median age was 65 years (range, 32-94 years), and the median tumor size was 10.0 mm (range, 0-45 mm). The median follow-up time was 60.6 months. The WBH cohort had more node-positive disease (6.9% vs 2.6%, P<.01) and cautionary patients (49.5% vs 41.8%, P=.06). The 5-year actuarial ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), regional nodal failure (RNF), and distant metastasis (DM) for the whole cohort were 2.8%, 0.6%, 1.6%. The rate of IBTR was not statistically higher between suitable (2.5%), cautionary (3.3%), or unsuitable (4.6%) patients (P=.20). The nonsignificant increase in IBTR for the cautionary and unsuitable categories was due to increased elsewhere failures and new primaries (P=.04), not tumor bed recurrence (P=.93). Conclusions: Excellent outcomes after breast-conserving surgery and APBI were seen in our pooled analysis. The current ASTRO CS guidelines did not adequately differentiate patients at an increased risk of IBTR or tumor bed failure in this large patient cohort

  17. Transforming Growth Factor β-1 (TGF-β1) Is a Serum Biomarker of Radiation Induced Fibrosis in Patients Treated With Intracavitary Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation: Preliminary Results of a Prospective Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boothe, Dustin L. [Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York (United States); Coplowitz, Shana [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stich Radiation Center, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York (United States); Greenwood, Eleni [Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York (United States); Barney, Christian L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Christos, Paul J. [Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York (United States); Parashar, Bhupesh; Nori, Dattatreyudu; Chao, K. S. Clifford [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stich Radiation Center, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York (United States); Wernicke, A. Gabriella, E-mail: gaw9008@med.cornell.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stich Radiation Center, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To examine a relationship between serum transforming growth factor β -1 (TGF-β1) values and radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF). Methods and Materials: We conducted a prospective analysis of the development of RIF in 39 women with American Joint Committee on Cancer stage 0-I breast cancer treated with lumpectomy and accelerated partial breast irradiation via intracavitary brachytherapy (IBAPBI). An enzyme-linked immunoassay (Quantikine, R and D, Minneapolis, MN) was used to measure serum TGF-β1 before surgery, before IBAPBI, and during IBAPBI. Blood samples for TGF-β1 were also collected from 15 healthy, nontreated women (controls). The previously validated tissue compliance meter (TCM) was used to objectively assess RIF. Results: The median time to follow-up for 39 patients was 44 months (range, 5-59 months). RIF was graded by the TCM scale as 0, 1, 2, and 3 in 5 of 20 patients (25%), 6 of 20 patients (30%), 5 of 20 patients (25%), and 4 of 20 patients (20%), respectively. The mean serum TGF-β1 values were significantly higher in patients before surgery than in disease-free controls, as follows: all cancer patients (30,201 ± 5889 pg/mL, P=.02); patients with any type of RIF (32,273 ± 5016 pg/mL, P<.0001); and women with moderate to severe RIF (34,462 ± 4713 pg/mL, P<0.0001). Patients with moderate to severe RIF had significantly elevated TGF-β1 levels when compared with those with none to mild RIF before surgery (P=.0014) during IBAPBI (P≤0001), and the elevation persisted at 6 months (P≤.001), 12 months (P≤.001), 18 months (P≤.001), and 24 months (P=.12). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of TGF-β1 values predicting moderate to severe RIF was generated with an area under the curve (AUC){sub ROC} of 0.867 (95% confidence interval 0.700-1.000). The TGF-β1 threshold cutoff was determined to be 31,000 pg/mL, with associated sensitivity and specificity of 77.8% and 90.0%, respectively. Conclusions: TGF-β1 levels correlate with

  18. Feasibility and acute toxicity of 3-dimensional conformal external-beam accelerated partial-breast irradiation for early-stage breast cancer after breast-conserving surgery in Chinese female patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Feng-yan; HE Zhen-yu; XUE Ming; CHEN Li-xin; WU San-gang; GUAN Xun-xing

    2011-01-01

    Background A growing number of studies worldwide have advocated the replacement of whole-breast irradiation with accelerated partial breast irradiation using three-dimensional conformal external-beam radiation (APBI-3DCRr) for early-stage breast cancer. But APBI can be only used in selected population of patients with early-staged breast cancer. It is not replacing the whole breast radiotherapy. This study aimed to examine the feasibility and acute normal tissue toxicity of the APBI-3DCRT technique in Chinese female patients who generally have smaller breasts compared to their Western counterparts.Methods From May 2006 to December 2009, a total of 48 Chinese female patients (with early-stage breast cancer who met the inclusion criteria) received APBI-3DCRT after breast-conserving surgery at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center. The total dosage from APBI-3DCRT was 34 Gy, delivered in 3.4 Gy per fractions, twice per day at intervals of at least six hours. The radiation dose, volume of the target area and volume of irradiated normal tissues were calculated.Acute toxicity was evaluated according to the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) 3.0.Results Among the 48 patients, the planning target volume for evaluation (PTVE) was (90.42±9.26) cm3, the ipsilateral breast volume (IBV) was (421.74±28.53) cm3, and the ratio between the two was (20.74±5.86)%. Evaluation of the dosimetric characteristics of the PTVE revealed excellent dosimetric results in 14 patients and acceptable results in 34 patients. The dose delivered to the PTVE ranged from 93% to 110% of the prescribed dose. The average ratio of the volume of PTVE receiving 95% of the prescription dose (V95) was (99.26±0.37)%. The habituation index (HI) and the conformity index (CI) were 1.08±0.01 and 0.72±0.02, respectively, suggesting good homogeneity and conformity of the dose delivered to the target field. The radiation dose to normal tissues and organs was within the dose limitation.Subjects experienced mild acute

  19. Dosimetric comparison of three techniques in treatment of accelerated partial breast irradiation%乳腺癌保乳术后部分乳腺三种放疗计划的剂量学比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚晖; 邱健健; 王芸; 徐志勇

    2014-01-01

    Objective To dosimetrically compare three delivery techniques of VMAT,IMRT and 3D-CRT in the treatment of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI).Methods Twenty patients with T1/2N0M0breast cancer were treated with VMAT.These cases were subsequently re-planned using static gantry IMRT and 3D-CRT technology to evaluate dosimetric differences.Dosimetric parameters including dose conformity index (CI),dose volume histogram (DVH) analysis of normal tissue coverage,dose parameters of PTV and normal tissues were evaluated,the delivery parameters including MU and delivery time were also analyzed.Results The IMRT and VMAT plans provided lower maximum dose,better mean dose and more conformal target dose distributions than the 3D-CRT plans (F =14.86,8.57,18.23,P <0.05).The volume of ipsilateral breast receiving 5 Gy for VMAT technique was significantly less than that of3D-CRTor IMRT(F=5.83,P<0.05).The ipsilateral lung volume receiving 20 Gy (V20),5 Gy(V5) and the 5% volume dose (D5) of IMRT were superior to those of 3D-CRT and VMAT(F =16.39,3.62,4.81,P < 0.05).The low volume dose distributions of D5 in contralateral lung for IMRT was better than that of VMAT and 3D-CRT(F =3.99,3.43,P < 0.05).The total mean MUs for VMAT,3D-CRT and IMRT were 621.0 ± 111.9,707.3 ± 130.9 and 1161.4 ± 315.6,respectively (F =31.30,P < 0.05).The average machine delivery time was(1.5 ± 0.2)min for the VMAT plans,(7.0 ± 1.6)min for the 3D-CRT plans and (11.5 ± 1.9)min for the IMRT plans.Conclusions VMAT and IMRT techniques offer improved dose conformity as compared with 3D-CRT techniques without increasing dose to the ipsilateral lung.In terms of MU and delivery time,VMAT is more efficient for APBI than conventional 3D-CRT and static beam IMRT.%目的 比较容积弧形调强(VMAT)、固定野动态调强(IMRT)及三维适形放疗(3D-CRT)技术对乳腺癌保乳术后采用部分乳腺放疗的剂量学差异.方法 选取20例临床分期为T1-2N0M0的早期乳腺癌保乳

  20. Dosimetry evaluation of SAVI-based HDR brachytherapy for partial breast irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoharan Sivasubramanian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI with high dose rate (HDR brachytherapy offers an excellent compact course of radiation due to its limited number of fractions for early-stage carcinoma of breast. One of the recent devices is SAVI (strut-adjusted volume implant, which has 6, 8 or 10 peripheral source channels with one center channel. Each channel can be differentially loaded. This paper focuses on the treatment planning, dosimetry and quality assurance aspects of HDR brachytherapy implant with GammaMed Plus HDR afterloader unit. The accelerated PBI balloon devices normally inflate above 35 cc range, and hence these balloon type devices cannot be accommodated in small lumpectomy cavity sizes. CT images were obtained and 3-D dosimetric plans were done with Brachyvision planning system. The 3-D treatment planning and dosimetric data were evaluated with planning target volume (PTV_eval V90, V95, V150, V200 skin dose and minimum distance to skin. With the use of the SAVI 6-1 mini device, we were able to accomplish an excellent coverage - V90, V95, V150 and V200 to 98%, 95%, 37 cc (<50 cc volume and 16 cc (<20 cc volume, respectively. Maximum skin dose was between 73% and 90%, much below the prescribed dose of 34 Gy. The minimum skin distance achieved was 5 to 11 mm. The volume that received 50% of the prescribed radiation dose was found to be lower with SAVI. The multi-channel SAVI-based implants reduced the maximum skin dose to markedly lower levels as compared to other modalities, simultaneously achieving best dose coverage to target volume. Differential-source dwell-loading allows modulation of the radiation dose distribution in symmetric or asymmetric opening of the catheter shapes and is also advantageous in cavities close to chest wall.

  1. Target volume delineation in external beam partial breast irradiation: less inter-observer variation with preoperative- compared to postoperative delineation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leij, F. van der; Elkhuizen, P.H.M.; Janssen, T.M.; Poortmans, P.M.P.; Sangen, M. van der; Scholten, A.N.; Vliet-Vroegindeweij, C. van; Boersma, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    The challenge of adequate target volume definition in external beam partial breast irradiation (PBI) could be overcome with preoperative irradiation, due to less inter-observer variation. We compared the target volume delineation for external beam PBI on preoperative versus postoperative CT scans of

  2. Treatment of partial breast irradiation using modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT) in combination with IMRT; Tratamiento de irradiacion parcial de mama usando radioterapia de electrones modulados (MERT) en combinacion con IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, B. A.; Urba, A.; Leal, A.

    2011-07-01

    Techniques accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is currently being investigated as an alternative to total breast irradiation (WBI). APBI technique involves irradiation of the tumor bed, in a short period of time, based on evidence of local recurrences occur near the primary tumor. The aim of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of APBI treatment plan using the techniques MERT or MERT+IMRT with a scheduler based on Monte Carlo methods (CARMEN).

  3. SU-E-T-528: Robustness Evaluation for Fiducial-Based Accelerated Partial Breast Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, L; Rana, S; Zheng, Y [Procure Proton Therapy Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the robustness of the proton treatment plans in the presence of rotational setup error when patient is aligned with implanted fiducials. Methods: Five Stage I invasive breast cancer patients treated with the APBP protocol (PCG BRE007-12) were studied. The rotational setup errors were simulated by rotating the original CT images around the body center clockwise and counterclockwise 5 degrees (5CW and 5CCW). Manual translational registration was then performed to match the implanted fiducials on the rotated images to the original dataset. Patient contours were copied to the newly created CT set. The original treatment plan was applied to the new CT dataset with the beam isocenter placed at the geometrical center of PTV. The dose distribution was recalculated for dosimetric parameters comparison. Results: CTV and PTV (D95 and V95) coverages were not significantly different between the two simulated plans (5CW and 5CCW) and the original plan. PTV D95 and CTV D95 absolute difference among the three plans were relatively small, with maximum changes of 0.28 CGE and 0.15 CGE, respectively. PTV V95 and CTV V95 absolute differences were 0.79% and 0.48%. The dosage to the thyroid, heart, contralateral breast and lung remained zero for all three plans. The Dmax and Dmean to the volume of ipsilateral breast excluding CTV were compared, with maximum difference values of 1.02 CGE for Dmax and 3.56 CGE for Dmean. Ipsilateral lung Dmean maintained no significant changes through the three plan comparison, with the largest value 0.32 CGE. Ipsilateral lung Dmax was the most sensitive parameter to this simulation study, with a maximum difference at 20.2 CGE. Conclusion: Our study suggests that fiducial-based Accelerated Partial Breast Proton Therapy is robust with respect to +/− 5 degree patient setup rotational errors, as long as the internal fiducial markers are used for patient alignment.

  4. Three-dimensional conformal partial breast external-beam irradiation after conservative surgery of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the methods, dosimetric features and short-term effects of partial breast irradiation carried out by three-dimensional external-beam irradiation (3DCPBI) assisted by active breathing control (ABC). Methods: Computed tomography (CT) simulation assisted by active breathing control (ABC) was carried out for each patient and intended to get CT images in condition of 75% deepest inspiration named moderate deep inspiration breath hold (mDIBH). The extent labeled by the silver slips located in the cavity was delineated as gross target volume (GTV), GTV plus the margin of 15 mm was defined as planning target volume (PTV). 6 MV X-ray was selected as the radiation source and noncoplanar radiation with four three-dimensional conformal fields was used, the described dose was 34 Gy/10f/5d. The volume of GTV, PTV, the affected whole breast, and the percentage of PTV accounted for the affected whole breast, the percentages of PTV included by 100%, 95% and 90% isodose curve, the percentage of volume of the affected breast irradiated by 34.0, 27.2, 20.4, 13.6 and 6.8 Gy , and Dmean, D5, V20 of the lungs and heart were calculated respectively. Acute radiation skin response was recorded and the cosmetic effect of the breast after radiotherapy were appraised, with the local tumor control and survival rate followed. Results: The mean of volume ratio of PTV and affected whole breast was 14.88%; the mean of the volume covered by 90% isodose curve accounted for 92.54% of the PTV; the volume irradiated by 34 Gy (100% of described dose) accounted for 17.23% (mean) of the whole breast and 6.8 Gy (20% of described dose) for 46.11%, in other words, the volume covered by 20% of described dose was less than 50% of the whole breast. The Dmean, D5, V20 for the affected lateral lung were 1.97, 9.25 Gy and 1.58%, it was 0.20, 0.87 Gy, and 0% for the unaffected lateral lung. The Dmean, D5, V20 for the heart was 0.65 Gy, 2.82 Gy, and 0.85%. Zero grade of acute radiation skin

  5. Phase II investigation: partial breast irradiation with high-dose brachytherapy using intratissue multicatheter implant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local control, side-effects, and cosmetic results were analyzed in patients with early-stage breast cancer after organpreserving surgery and adjuvant partial accelerated irradiation of the breast using high dose rate brachytherapy and intratissue multicatheter implant. The patients over 50 with solitary tumors < 3 cm invasive ductal carcinoma, differentiation grade I-III, resection R0, N0 (axillary dissection or investigation of signal lymph node) were included in the study. The irradiation was performed twice a day with a 6-hour interval at a single dose of 4 Gy. Total focal dose of 32 Gy was delivered with 8 fractions. With a mean observation period of 31 months (13-46), a local relapse was diagnosed in one patient (1.7 %). Cosmetic results were assessed as good and excellent. Immediate complications of the treatment were minimal. The method can be indicated in a selected group of patients and cannot be a standard of treatment at present.

  6. Partial breast irradiation for early breast cancer: 3-year results of the German-Austrian phase II-trial; Teilbrustbestrahlung beim Mammakarzinom mit guenstigen prognostischen Faktoren: 3-Jahres-Ergebnisse der deutschoesterreichischen Phase II-Studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, O.J.; Lotter, M.; Sauer, R.; Strnad, V. [Strahlenklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Erlangen (Germany); Poetter, R. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Strahlenbiologie, AKH Wien (Austria); Hildebrandt, G. [Strahlenklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig (Germany); Hammer, J. [Abt. fuer Strahlentherapie, KH Barmherzige Schwestern Linz (Austria); Beckmann, M.W. [Frauenklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Erlangen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: to evaluate perioperative morbidity, toxicity and cosmetic outcome in patients treated with interstitial brachytherapy to the tumor bed as the sole radiation modality after breast conserving surgery. Materials and methods: from 11/2000 to 11/2004, 240 women with early stage breast cancer participated in a protocol of tumor bed irradiation alone using pulsed dose rate (PDR) or high dose rate (HDR) interstitial multi-catheter implants (partial breast irradiation). Perioperative morbidity, acute and late toxicity as well as cosmetic outcome were assessed. Of the first 51 patients treated in this multicenter trial, we present interim findings after a median follow-up of 36 months. Results: perioperative Morbidity: Bacterial infection of the implant: 2% (1/51). Acute toxicity: radiodermatitis grade 1: 4% (2/51). Late toxicity: breast pain grade 1: 8% (4/51), grade 2: 2% (1/51); dyspigmentation grade 1: 8% (4/51); fibrosis grade 1: 4% (2/51), grade 2: 8% (4/51); telangiectasia grade 1: 10% (5/51), grade 2: 4% (2/51). Cosmetic results: Excellent and good in 94% (48/51) of the patients. Conclusion: this analysis indicates that accelerated partial breast irradiation with 192-iridium interstitial multicatheter PDR-/HDR-implants (partial breast irradiation) is feasible with low perioperative morbidity, low acute and mild late toxicity at a median follow-up of 36 months. The cosmetic result is not significantly affected. (orig.)

  7. Can We Predict Plan Quality for External Beam Partial Breast Irradiation: Results of a Multicenter Feasibility Study (Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group Study 06.02)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kron, Tomas, E-mail: Tomas.Kron@petermac.org [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Departments of Radiation Oncology, Physical Sciences and Radiation Therapy, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); School of Science, Engineering and Technology, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Willis, David; Link, Emma [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Departments of Radiation Oncology, Physical Sciences and Radiation Therapy, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Lehman, Margot [Princess Alexandra Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Campbell, Gillian [Auckland City Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Auckland (New Zealand); O' Brien, Peter [Newcastle Calvary Mater Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Chua, Boon [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Departments of Radiation Oncology, Physical Sciences and Radiation Therapy, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Partial breast irradiation (PBI) after lumpectomy may be an option for selected patients with early breast cancer. A feasibility study of accelerated PBI delivered using external beam 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (RT) was undertaken at 8 Australasian centers. The present study evaluated the impact of patient, tumor, and RT technique-related factors on the quality of RT plans as determined by the dose–volume parameters of organs at risk. Methods and Materials: Forty-eight patients were enrolled in the study. All RT plans were centrally reviewed using predefined dosimetric criteria before commencement and after completion of protocol therapy. The RT plans of 47 patients met the dose–volume constraints, and all 47 patients received PBI to a prescribed dose of 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions. The RT plan quality was determined by volumes of the ipsilateral whole breast, lung, and heart that received 50% and 95%; 30%; and 5% of the prescribed dose, respectively. Patient, tumor, and RT technique-related factors were investigated for association with the parameters of RT plan quality. Results: The ratio of the planning target volume to the ipsilateral whole-breast volume was significantly associated with the ipsilateral breast doses on multiple variable analyses. The distance of the postlumpectomy surgical cavity from the heart and lung were predictive for heart and lung doses, respectively. A distance between surgical cavity and heart of >4 cm typically resulted in <1% of the heart volume receiving 5 Gy or less. It was more difficult to meet the heart dose constraint for left-sided and medially located tumors. Conclusions: Partial breast irradiation using 3-dimensional conformal RT was feasible within the study constraints. The ratio of planning target volume to ipsilateral whole-breast volume and the distance of surgical cavity from the heart were significant predictors of the quality of treatment plan for external beam PBI.

  8. Sci—Thur PM: Planning and Delivery — 04: Respiratory margin derivation and verification in partial breast irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirk, S [Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Conroy, L [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Smith, WL [Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    Partial breast irradiation (PBI) following breast-conserving surgery is emerging as an effective means to achieve local control and reduce irradiated breast volume. Patients are planned on a static CT image; however, treatment is delivered while the patient is free-breathing. Respiratory motion can degrade plan quality by reducing target coverage and/or dose homogeneity. A variety of methods can be used to determine the required margin for respiratory motion in PBI. We derive geometric and dosimetric respiratory 1D margin. We also verify the adequacy of the typical 5 mm respiratory margin in 3D by evaluating plan quality for increasing respiratory amplitudes (2–20 mm). Ten PBI plans were used for dosimetric evaluation. A database of volunteer respiratory data, with similar characteristics to breast cancer patients, was used for this study. We derived a geometric 95%-margin of 3 mm from the population respiratory data. We derived a dosimetric 95%-margin of 2 mm by convolving 1D dose profiles with respiratory probability density functions. The 5 mm respiratory margin is possibly too large when 1D coverage is assessed and could lead to unnecessary normal tissue irradiation. Assessing margins only for coverage may be insufficient; 3D dosimetric assessment revealed degradation in dose homogeneity is the limiting factor, not target coverage. Hotspots increased even for the smallest respiratory amplitudes, while target coverage only degraded at amplitudes greater than 10 mm. The 5 mm respiratory margin is adequate for coverage, but due to plan quality degradation, respiratory management is recommended for patients with respiratory amplitudes greater than 10 mm.

  9. Implementation of the technique of partial irradiation accelerated the breast with high doses (HDR) brachytherapy; Puesta en marcha de la tecnica de irradiacion parcial acelerada de la mama con braquterapia de alta tasa de dosis (HDR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina Lopez, M. Y.; Pardo Perez, E.; Castro Novais, J.; Martinez Ortega, J.; Ruiz Maqueda, S.; Cerro Penalver, E. del

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this work is presents procedure carried out in our Centre for the implementation of the accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI, accelerated partial-breast irradiation) with high-rate brachytherapy (HDR), using plastic tubes as applicators. Carried out measures, the evaluation of the dosimetric parameters analyzing and presenting the results. (Author)

  10. Classification System for Identifying Women at Risk for Altered Partial Breast Irradiation Recommendations After Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalchik, Kristin V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Vallow, Laura A., E-mail: vallow.laura@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); McDonough, Michelle [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Thomas, Colleen S.; Heckman, Michael G. [Section of Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Peterson, Jennifer L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Adkisson, Cameron D. [Department of General Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Serago, Christopher [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); McLaughlin, Sarah A. [Department of General Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To study the utility of preoperative breast MRI for partial breast irradiation (PBI) patient selection, using multivariable analysis of significant risk factors to create a classification rule. Methods and Materials: Between 2002 and 2009, 712 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer underwent preoperative bilateral breast MRI at Mayo Clinic Florida. Of this cohort, 566 were retrospectively deemed eligible for PBI according to the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Protocol B-39 inclusion criteria using physical examination, mammogram, and/or ultrasound. Magnetic resonance images were then reviewed to determine their impact on patient eligibility. The patient and tumor characteristics were evaluated to determine risk factors for altered PBI eligibility after MRI and to create a classification rule. Results: Of the 566 patients initially eligible for PBI, 141 (25%) were found ineligible because of pathologically proven MRI findings. Magnetic resonance imaging detected additional ipsilateral breast cancer in 118 (21%). Of these, 62 (11%) had more extensive disease than originally noted before MRI, and 64 (11%) had multicentric disease. Contralateral breast cancer was detected in 28 (5%). Four characteristics were found to be significantly associated with PBI ineligibility after MRI on multivariable analysis: premenopausal status (P=.021), detection by palpation (P<.001), first-degree relative with a history of breast cancer (P=.033), and lobular histology (P=.002). Risk factors were assigned a score of 0-2. The risk of altered PBI eligibility from MRI based on number of risk factors was 0:18%; 1:22%; 2:42%; 3:65%. Conclusions: Preoperative bilateral breast MRI altered the PBI recommendations for 25% of women. Women who may undergo PBI should be considered for breast MRI, especially those with lobular histology or with 2 or more of the following risk factors: premenopausal, detection by palpation, and first-degree relative with a history of

  11. Classification System for Identifying Women at Risk for Altered Partial Breast Irradiation Recommendations After Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To study the utility of preoperative breast MRI for partial breast irradiation (PBI) patient selection, using multivariable analysis of significant risk factors to create a classification rule. Methods and Materials: Between 2002 and 2009, 712 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer underwent preoperative bilateral breast MRI at Mayo Clinic Florida. Of this cohort, 566 were retrospectively deemed eligible for PBI according to the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Protocol B-39 inclusion criteria using physical examination, mammogram, and/or ultrasound. Magnetic resonance images were then reviewed to determine their impact on patient eligibility. The patient and tumor characteristics were evaluated to determine risk factors for altered PBI eligibility after MRI and to create a classification rule. Results: Of the 566 patients initially eligible for PBI, 141 (25%) were found ineligible because of pathologically proven MRI findings. Magnetic resonance imaging detected additional ipsilateral breast cancer in 118 (21%). Of these, 62 (11%) had more extensive disease than originally noted before MRI, and 64 (11%) had multicentric disease. Contralateral breast cancer was detected in 28 (5%). Four characteristics were found to be significantly associated with PBI ineligibility after MRI on multivariable analysis: premenopausal status (P=.021), detection by palpation (P<.001), first-degree relative with a history of breast cancer (P=.033), and lobular histology (P=.002). Risk factors were assigned a score of 0-2. The risk of altered PBI eligibility from MRI based on number of risk factors was 0:18%; 1:22%; 2:42%; 3:65%. Conclusions: Preoperative bilateral breast MRI altered the PBI recommendations for 25% of women. Women who may undergo PBI should be considered for breast MRI, especially those with lobular histology or with 2 or more of the following risk factors: premenopausal, detection by palpation, and first-degree relative with a history of

  12. Investigation of variability in image acquisition and contouring during 3D ultrasound guidance for partial breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three-dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) at simulation compared to 3DUS at treatment is an image guidance option for partial breast irradiation (PBI). This study assessed if user dependence in acquiring and contouring 3DUS (operator variability) contributed to variation in seroma shifts calculated for breast IGRT. Eligible patients met breast criteria for current randomized PBI studies. 5 Operators participated in this study. For each patient, 3 operators were involved in scan acquisitions and 5 were involved in contouring. At CT simulation (CT1), a 3DUS (US1) was performed by a single radiation therapist (RT). 7 to 14 days after CT1 a second CT (CT2) and 3 sequential 3DUS scans (US2a,b,c) were acquired by each of 3 RTs. Seroma shifts, between US1 and US2 scans were calculated by comparing geometric centers of the seromas (centroids). Operator contouring variability was determined by comparing 5 RT’s contours for a single image set. Scanning variability was assessed by comparing shifts between multiple scans acquired at the same time point (US1-US2a,b,c). Shifts in seromas contoured on CT (CT1-CT2) were compared to US data. From an initial 28 patients, 15 had CT visible seromas, met PBI dosimetric constraints, had complete US data, and were analyzed. Operator variability contributed more to the overall variability in seroma localization than the variability associated with multiple scan acquisitions (95% confidence mean uncertainty of 6.2 mm vs. 1.1 mm). The mean standard deviation in seroma shift was user dependent and ranged from 1.7 to 2.9 mm. Mean seroma shifts from simulation to treatment were comparable to CT. Variability in shifts due to different users acquiring and contouring 3DUS for PBI guidance were comparable to CT shifts. Substantial inter-observer effect needs to be considered during clinical implementation of 3DUS IGRT

  13. A Prospective Study of the Utility of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Determining Candidacy for Partial Breast Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorn, Paige L.; Al-Hallaq, Hania A.; Haq, Farah; Goldberg, Mira [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Abe, Hiroyuki [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Hasan, Yasmin [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Chmura, Steven J., E-mail: schmura@radonc.uchicago.edu [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: Retrospective data have demonstrated that breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may change a patient's eligibility for partial breast irradiation (PBI) by identifying multicentric, multifocal, or contralateral disease. The objective of the current study was to prospectively determine the frequency with which MRI identifies occult disease and to establish clinical factors associated with a higher likelihood of MRI prompting changes in PBI eligibility. Methods and Materials: At The University of Chicago, women with breast cancer uniformly undergo MRI in addition to mammography and ultrasonography. From June 2009 through May 2011, all patients were screened prospectively in a multidisciplinary conference for PBI eligibility based on standard imaging, and the impact of MRI on PBI eligibility according to National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project protocol B-39/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 0413 entry criteria was recorded. Univariable analysis was performed using clinical characteristics in both the prospective cohort and in a separate cohort of retrospectively identified patients. Pooled analysis was used to derive a scoring index predictive of the risk that MRI would identify additional disease. Results: A total of 521 patients were screened for PBI eligibility, and 124 (23.8%) patients were deemed eligible for PBI based on standard imaging. MRI findings changed PBI eligibility in 12.9% of patients. In the pooled univariable analysis, tumor size ≥2 cm on mammography or ultrasonography (P=.02), age <50 years (P=.01), invasive lobular histology (P=.01), and HER-2/neu amplification (P=.01) were associated with a higher likelihood of MRI changing PBI eligibility. A predictive score was generated by summing the number of significant risk factors. Patients with a score of 0, 1, 2, and 3 had changes to eligibility based on MRI findings in 2.8%, 13.2%, 38.1%, and 100%, respectively (P<.0001). Conclusions: MRI identified additional

  14. Multi-catheter interstitial brachytherapy for partial breast irradiation: an audit of implant quality based on dosimetric evaluation comparing intra-operative versus post-operative placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurram, Lavanya; Joshi, Kishor; Phurailatpam, Reena; Paul, Siji; Sarin, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The use of multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy (MIB) for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) in early breast cancer (EBC) patients outside the trial setting has increased. Hence, there is a need to critically evaluate implant quality. Moreover, there is a scarcity of reports using an open cavity technique. We report the dosimetric indices of open and closed cavity MIB techniques. Material and methods The dosimetric parameters of 60 EBC patients treated with MIB (open and closed cavity) who underwent three dimensional, computerized tomography (CT) based planning for APBI from November 2011 to July 2015 were evaluated. Coverage Index (CI), Dose Homogeneity Index (DHI), Conformity Index (COIN), Plan Quality Index (PQI), and Dose Non-uniformity Index (DNR) were assessed. Results Forty-one patients underwent open cavity and 19 patients underwent closed cavity placement of brachytherapy catheters. The median number of planes was 4 and median number of needles was 20. Median dose was 34 Gy with dose per fraction of 3.4 Gy, given twice a day, 6 hours apart. The D90 of the cavity and clinical target volume (CTV) were 105% and 89%, respectively. The median doses to the surgical clips were greater than 100%. The median CI of the cavity and CTV was 0.96 and 0.82, respectively. The DHI and COIN index of the CTV was 0.73 and 0.67. There were no significant differences in the dosimetric parameters based on whether the technique was done open or closed. Conclusions Critical evaluation of the dosimetric parameters of MIB-APBI is important for optimal results. While the open and closed techniques have similar dosimetry, our institutional preference is for an open technique which eases the procedure due to direct visualization of the tumor cavity. PMID:27257415

  15. Vertical mammaplasty associated with accelerated partial breast radiotherapy: how oncoplastic surgery techniques associated with modern techniques of radiotherapy can improve the aesthetic outcome in selected patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is the second most common type of cancer in the world, being the most common among women, responsible for 22% of new cases each year. It's surgical and radiation treatment evolved from radical procedures (Halsted radical mastectomy and total external breast radiotherapy) to less radical and more conservative procedures. With the use of modern oncoplastic surgery techniques and accelerated partial breast radiotherapy, selected patients can benefit with better aesthetic results, fewer side effects, and more comfortable and brief treatments. (author)

  16. Vertical mammaplasty associated with accelerated partial breast radiotherapy: how oncoplastic surgery techniques associated with modern techniques of radiotherapy can improve the aesthetic outcome in selected patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couto, Henrique Lima, E-mail: enriquecouto@hotmail.com [Santa Fe Women' s and Maternity Hospital, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Amorim, Washington Cancado; Guimaraes, Rodrigo [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Hospital Geral; Ramires, Leandro Cruz; Castilho, Marcus Simoes [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina; Dominguez, Lorena Lima Coto [Universidade Estacio de Sa (UNESA), Rio de Janeiro, EJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    Breast cancer is the second most common type of cancer in the world, being the most common among women, responsible for 22% of new cases each year. It's surgical and radiation treatment evolved from radical procedures (Halsted radical mastectomy and total external breast radiotherapy) to less radical and more conservative procedures. With the use of modern oncoplastic surgery techniques and accelerated partial breast radiotherapy, selected patients can benefit with better aesthetic results, fewer side effects, and more comfortable and brief treatments. (author)

  17. Outcome of a phase II prospective study on partial breast irradiation with interstitial multi-catheter high-dose-rate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Partial breast irradiation (PBI) is an alternative to whole-breast irradiation after breast-conserving surgery in selected patients. Until the results of randomized phase III studies are available, phase II studies inform about PBI. We report the 5 year results of a phase II prospective study with PBI using interstitial multi-catheter high-dose-rate brachytherapy (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: (NCT00499057)). Methods: Hundred patients received PBI (4 Gy, twice a day for 4 days, until 32 Gy). Inclusion criteria were: age ⩾40 years, infiltrating carcinoma without lobular histology, ductal in situ carcinoma, tumor size ⩽2.5 cm, negative surgical margins and axillary lymph nodes. Results: At a median follow-up of 60 months late toxicity occurred in 25 patients; the 5-year probability of freedom from late toxicity was 72.6% (95% CI: 63.7–81.7). Tamoxifen was the only significant risk factor for late toxicity. Cosmetic results, judged by physicians and patients, were good/excellent in 98 patients. Three local relapses (1 true, 2 elsewhere) and 1 regional relapse occurred. The 5-year probability of local or regional relapse-free survival was 97.7% (95% CI: 91.1–99.4) and 99.0% (95% CI: 92.9–99.8), respectively. Conclusion: PBI with interstitial multi-catheter brachytherapy is associated with low relapse and late toxicity rates

  18. A comparison of dosimetric variance for external-beam partial breast irradiation using three-dimensional and four-dimensional computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo B

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bing Guo,1,2 Jian-Bin Li,2 Wei Wang,2 Min Xu,2 Yan-Kang Li,2,3 Tong-Hai Liu21School of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Jinan-Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital & Institute, Jinan, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China; 3School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of ChinaPurpose: To investigate the potential dosimetric benefits from four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT compared with three-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT in radiotherapy treatment planning for external-beam partial breast irradiation (EB-PBI.Patients and methods: 3DCT and 4DCT scan sets were acquired for 20 patients who underwent EB-PBI. The volume of the tumor bed (TB was determined based on seroma or surgical clips on 3DCT images (defined as TB3D and the end inhalation (EI and end exhalation (EE phases of 4DCT images (defined as TBEI and TBEE, respectively. The clinical target volume (CTV consisted of the TB plus a 1.0 cm margin. The planning target volume (PTV was the CTV plus 0.5 cm (defined as PTV3D, PTVEI, and PTVEE. For each patient, a conventional 3D conformal plan (3D-CRT was generated (defined as EB-PBI3D, EB-PBIEI, and EB-PBIEE.Results: The PTV3D, PTVEI, and PTVEE were similar (P=0.549, but the PTV coverage of EB-PBI3D was significantly less than that of EB-PBIEI or EB-PBIEE (P=0.001 and P=0.025, respectively. There were no significant differences in the homogeneity or conformity indexes between the three treatment plans (P=0.125 and P=0.536, respectively. The EB-PBI3D plan resulted in the largest organs at risk dose.Conclusion: There was a significant benefit for patients when using 3D-CRT based on 4DCT for EB-PBI with regard to reducing nontarget organ exposure. Respiratory motion did not affect the dosimetric distribution during free breathing, but might result in poor dose

  19. The Role of Preoperative Bilateral Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patient Selection for Partial Breast Irradiation in Ductal Carcinoma In Situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin V. Kowalchik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS are often candidates for breast-conserving therapy, and one option for radiation treatment is partial breast irradiation (PBI. This study evaluates the use of preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI for PBI selection in DCIS patients. Methods. Between 2002 and 2009, 136 women with newly diagnosed DCIS underwent a preoperative bilateral breast MRI at Mayo Clinic in Florida. One hundred seventeen women were deemed eligible for PBI by the NSABP B-39 (National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project, Protocol B-39 inclusion criteria using physical examination, mammogram, and/or ultrasound. MRIs were reviewed for their impact on patient eligibility, and findings were pathologically confirmed. Results. Of the 117 patients, 23 (20% were found ineligible because of pathologically proven MRI findings. MRI detected additional ipsilateral breast cancer in 21 (18% patients. Of these women, 15 (13% had more extensive disease than originally noted before MRI, and 6 (5% had multicentric disease in the ipsilateral breast. In addition, contralateral breast cancer was detected in 4 (4%. Conclusions. Preoperative breast MRI altered the PBI recommendations for 20% of women. Bilateral breast MRI should be an integral part of the preoperative evaluation of all patients with DCIS being considered for PBI.

  20. Dosimetric validation of planning system Eclipse 10 in partial breast irradiation treatments with IMRT; Validacion dosimetrica del sistema de planeacion Eclipse 10 en tratamientos de irradiacion parcial de mama con IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez T, J. J.; Gutierrez M, J. G.; Ortiz A, C. S.; Chagoya G, A.; Gutierrez C, J. G., E-mail: jvelaesfm@gmail.com [Centro Medico Nacional Siglo XXI, Hospital de Oncologia, Departamentos de Fisica Medica y Radioterapia, Av. Cuauhtemoc 330, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Partial breast irradiation is a new type of external radiation therapy to treat breast cancer in early clinical stages. Consist of administering to the channel surgical high doses of radiation in few treatment sessions. In this paper the dose calculations of the planning system Eclipse version 10 for a treatment of partial breast irradiation with X-rays beams (6 MV) intensity modulated were compared against the measurements made with OSL dosimeters and radio-chromic dye film. An anthropomorphic mannequin was used in which OSL dosimeters were collocated near the surface, an inside the radio-chromic dye film one plate; with this latest one dimensional dose distribution was measured. Previously dosimeters were calibrated irradiating them with a beam of X-rays 6 MV under the conditions specified in the IAEA-398 protocol. The OSL dosimeters were read in the Micro star Landauer equipment, the radio-chromic dye films were read with a scanner Epson 10000-Xl and analyzed with FilmCal and PTW Verisoft programs. The differences between measured and calculated dose were as follows: 3.6±1% for the OSL dosimeter and 96.3±1% of the analyzed points approved the gamma index criterion (3%, 3m m) when comparing the matrices of calculated dose and measured with the radio-chromic dye film. These results confirm the good dosimetric performance of planning system used under specific conditions used in the partial breast irradiation technique. (Author)

  1. Feasibility, efficacy and cosmetic effect of three-dimensional conformal external bean partial breast irradiation for the selected early stage breast cancer patients after breast-conserving surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the feasibility, efficacy and cosmetic effect of three-dimensional conformal external beam partial breast irradiation (EB-PBI) after breast-conserving surgery for the selected Chinese early stage breast cancer patients. Methods: From June 2003 to December 2010, Forty-four early stage breast cancer patients underwent underwent EB-PBI after breast-conserving surgery. Twenty patients had CT simulation scan in moderate deep inspiration breathing hold, and twenty-four patients in free breathing. EB-PBI was planned and delivered by three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) with four non-coplanar beams. The prescribed dose was 3.40 Gy per fraction in thirty-nine patients and 3.85 Gy per fraction in five patients, twice per day at an interval of at least six hours, in five consecutive days. Results: The number of patients with follow up time of 2, 3 and 5 years were 39, 31 and 16, Grade 1 acute radiation-induced dermatitis was observed in 17 patients (39%) at three months. Cosmesis was good or excellent in all cases at six months after radiotherapy and in 95% cases at two years after radiotherapy. The 2-, 3- and 5- year local control rates were 100%, 99% and 94%, respectively. The 2-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were all 100% and no metastases occurred. Conclusions: EB-PBI delivered by 3DCRT is feasible for selected Chinese early stage breast cancer patients after breast-conserving surgery. The cosmetic effect, local control rate and long-term survival rate are satisfactory, and acute radiation toxicity is very low. (authors)

  2. SU-E-J-37: Feasibility of Utilizing Carbon Fiducials to Increase Localization Accuracy of Lumpectomy Cavity for Partial Breast Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y; Hieken, T; Mutter, R; Park, S; Yan, E; Brinkmann, D; Pafundi, D [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose To investigate the feasibility of utilizing carbon fiducials to increase localization accuracy of lumpectomy cavity for partial breast irradiation (PBI). Methods Carbon fiducials were placed intraoperatively in the lumpectomy cavity following resection of breast cancer in 11 patients. The patients were scheduled to receive whole breast irradiation (WBI) with a boost or 3D-conformal PBI. WBI patients were initially setup to skin tattoos using lasers, followed by orthogonal kV on-board-imaging (OBI) matching to bone per clinical practice. Cone beam CT (CBCT) was acquired weekly for offline review. For the boost component of WBI and PBI, patients were setup with lasers, followed by OBI matching to fiducials, with final alignment by CBCT matching to fiducials. Using carbon fiducials as a surrogate for the lumpectomy cavity and CBCT matching to fiducials as the gold standard, setup uncertainties to lasers, OBI bone, OBI fiducials, and CBCT breast were compared. Results Minimal imaging artifacts were introduced by fiducials on the planning CT and CBCT. The fiducials were sufficiently visible on OBI for online localization. The mean magnitude and standard deviation of setup errors were 8.4mm ± 5.3 mm (n=84), 7.3mm ± 3.7mm (n=87), 2.2mm ± 1.6mm (n=40) and 4.8mm ± 2.6mm (n=87), for lasers, OBI bone, OBI fiducials and CBCT breast tissue, respectively. Significant migration occurred in one of 39 implanted fiducials in a patient with a large postoperative seroma. Conclusion OBI carbon fiducial-based setup can improve localization accuracy with minimal imaging artifacts. With increased localization accuracy, setup uncertainties can be reduced from 8mm using OBI bone matching to 3mm using OBI fiducial matching for PBI treatment. This work demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing carbon fiducials to increase localization accuracy to the lumpectomy cavity for PBI. This may be particularly attractive for localization in the setting of proton therapy and other scenarios

  3. SU-E-J-37: Feasibility of Utilizing Carbon Fiducials to Increase Localization Accuracy of Lumpectomy Cavity for Partial Breast Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose To investigate the feasibility of utilizing carbon fiducials to increase localization accuracy of lumpectomy cavity for partial breast irradiation (PBI). Methods Carbon fiducials were placed intraoperatively in the lumpectomy cavity following resection of breast cancer in 11 patients. The patients were scheduled to receive whole breast irradiation (WBI) with a boost or 3D-conformal PBI. WBI patients were initially setup to skin tattoos using lasers, followed by orthogonal kV on-board-imaging (OBI) matching to bone per clinical practice. Cone beam CT (CBCT) was acquired weekly for offline review. For the boost component of WBI and PBI, patients were setup with lasers, followed by OBI matching to fiducials, with final alignment by CBCT matching to fiducials. Using carbon fiducials as a surrogate for the lumpectomy cavity and CBCT matching to fiducials as the gold standard, setup uncertainties to lasers, OBI bone, OBI fiducials, and CBCT breast were compared. Results Minimal imaging artifacts were introduced by fiducials on the planning CT and CBCT. The fiducials were sufficiently visible on OBI for online localization. The mean magnitude and standard deviation of setup errors were 8.4mm ± 5.3 mm (n=84), 7.3mm ± 3.7mm (n=87), 2.2mm ± 1.6mm (n=40) and 4.8mm ± 2.6mm (n=87), for lasers, OBI bone, OBI fiducials and CBCT breast tissue, respectively. Significant migration occurred in one of 39 implanted fiducials in a patient with a large postoperative seroma. Conclusion OBI carbon fiducial-based setup can improve localization accuracy with minimal imaging artifacts. With increased localization accuracy, setup uncertainties can be reduced from 8mm using OBI bone matching to 3mm using OBI fiducial matching for PBI treatment. This work demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing carbon fiducials to increase localization accuracy to the lumpectomy cavity for PBI. This may be particularly attractive for localization in the setting of proton therapy and other scenarios

  4. Partial breast irradiation for locally recurrent breast cancer within a second breast conserving treatment: Alternative to mastectomy? Results from a prospective trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the outcome of multi-catheter pulse dose rate (PDR) brachytherapy of re-irradiation for local ipsilateral breast tumour recurrence (IBTR) in regard to local control, survival, morbidity and quality of life (QoL). Patients and methods: Between 1999 and 2006, 39 patients were included with histologically confirmed IBTR, Karnofsky index ⩾80% and refusal of mastectomy. Exclusion criteria were multicentric invasive growth pattern, unclear surgical margins, distant metastasis and a postoperative breast not suitable for interstitial brachytherapy. Primary endpoint was local tumour control. Morbidity, cosmetic outcome and QoL were assessed in 24/39 patients. Results: The five year actuarial local control rate was 93% after a mean follow up of 57 (±30) months with two second local relapses. Overall survival and disease free survival, both at 5 years, were 87% and 77%, respectively. Late side effects Grade 1–2 were observed in 20/24 patients after a mean follow-up of 30 (±18) months. Late side effects ⩾Grade 3 occurred in 4/24 patients. Cosmetic outcome was excellent to fair in 76% of women. Overall QoL was comparable to a healthy control group. Mean scores of scales and items of QLQ-BR23 were comparable to primary breast conserving therapy. Conclusions: Accelerated PDR-brachytherapy following breast conserving surgery (BCS) for local IBTR results in local tumour control comparable to mastectomy. Morbidity is moderate; the cosmetic outcome is good and hardly any impairment on QoL is observed.

  5. Intensity Modulated Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Before Surgery in Treating Older Patients With Hormone Responsive Stage 0-I Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-04

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Predominant Intraductal Component; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  6. A Phase I Trial of Preoperative Partial Breast Radiotherapy: Patient Selection, Target Delineation, and Dose Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitzblau, Rachel C.; Arya, Ritu; Yoo, Sua; Baker, Jay A.; Chang, Zheng; Palta, Manisha; Duffy, Eileen; Horton, Janet K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Diffusion of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) into clinical practice is limited by the need for specialized equipment and training. The accessible external beam technique yields unacceptable complication rates, likely due to large post-operative target volumes. We designed a phase I trial evaluating preoperative radiotherapy to the intact tumor utilizing widely available technology. Methods Patients received 15, 18, or 21Gy in a single fraction to the breast tumor plus margin. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used in conjunction with standard computed tomography (CT)-based planning to identify contrast enhancing tumor. Skin markers and an intra-tumor biopsy marker were utilized for verification during treatment. Results MRI imaging was critical for target delineation as not all breast tumors were reliably identified on CT scan. Breast shape differences were consistently seen between CT and MRI but did not impede image registration or tumor identification. Target volumes were markedly smaller than historical post-operative volumes and normal tissue constraints were easily met. A biopsy marker within the breast proved sufficient for set up localization. Conclusions This single fraction linear-accelerator based ABPI approach can be easily incorporated at most treatment centers. In vivo targeting may improve accuracy and can reduce the dose to normal tissues. PMID:25834942

  7. Image guided Brachytherapy: The paradigm of Gynecologic and Partial Breast HDR Brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantopoulos, S.; Kantemiris, I.; Konidari, A.; Zaverdinos, P.

    2015-09-01

    High dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy uses high strength radioactive sources and temporary interstitial implants to conform the dose to target and minimize the treatment time. The advances of imaging technology enable accurate reconstruction of the implant and exact delineation of high-risk CTV and the surrounding critical structures. Furthermore, with sophisticated treatment planning systems, applicator devices and stepping source afterloaders, brachytherapy evolved to a more precise, safe and individualized treatment. At the Radiation Oncology Department of Metropolitan Hospital Athens, MRI guided HDR gynecologic (GYN) brachytherapy and accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) with brachytherapy are performed routinely. Contouring and treatment planning are based on the recommendations of the GEC - ESTRO Working group. The task of this presentation is to reveal the advantages of 3D image guided brachytherapy over 2D brachytherapy. Thus, two patients treated at our department (one GYN and one APBI) will be presented. The advantage of having adequate dose coverage of the high risk CTV and simultaneous low doses to the OARs when using 3D image- based brachytherapy will be presented. The treatment techniques, equipment issues, as well as implantation, imaging and treatment planning procedures will be described. Quality assurance checks will be treated separately.

  8. Control System for Multi-energy Electron Irradiation Accelerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Li-feng; LIU; Bao-jie

    2012-01-01

    <正>Multi-energy electron irradiation accelerator has a wide range of applications in areas such as industrial irradiation. Accelerator is operated under control system with accelerator subsystems, in which new technologies are involved, such as fiber-based network communication technology and PLC technology. The control system integrates pulse modulator systems,

  9. Use of electron accelerators in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preservation of food by ionizing radiations involves controlled application of energy of radiation to agricultural commodities, foods and food ingredients, for improving storage life, hygiene and safety. Insects and microbes cause major economic losses to stored crops. Many of our food products are contaminated with diseases causing germs and toxin producing molds. Without improvement in microbial quality and getting properly treated to overcome quarantine barriers our agricultural products cannot get international markets. In this respect electron accelerators have immense potential in commercial radiation processing of foods. Both low and high dose applications with increased process rates can be achieved using accelerators to cover a wide spectrum of food commodities approved for commercial radiation processing as per the recent gazette notification under Atomic Energy (Radiation Processing of Food and Allied Products) Rule, 2012. The effectiveness of processing of food by ionizing radiation depends on proper delivery of absorbed dose and its reliable measurement. For food destined for international trade, it is important that the dosimetry used for dose determination is carried out accurately and that the process is monitored in accordance with the internationally accepted procedures. Experiments using alanine-EPR system were carried out to optimize the process parameters of 10 MeV electron beam for commercial irradiation of food. Different food commodities namely, mango, potato and rawa (semolina) were irradiated to measure the absorbed dose distribution. The actual depth dose profile in food products and useful scan width of the electron beam were determined for commercial radiation processing of food using electron beam. (author)

  10. Preoperative Single Fraction Partial Breast Radiotherapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palta, Manisha; Yoo, Sua; Adamson, Justus D.; Prosnitz, Leonard R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Horton, Janet K., E-mail: janet.horton@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Several recent series evaluating external beam accelerated partial breast irradiation (PBI) have reported adverse cosmetic outcomes, possibly related to large volumes of normal tissue receiving near-prescription doses. We hypothesized that delivery of external beam PBI in a single fraction to the preoperative tumor volume would be feasible and result in a decreased dose to the uninvolved breast compared with institutional postoperative PBI historical controls. Methods and Materials: A total of 17 patients with unifocal Stage T1 breast cancer were identified. Contrast-enhanced subtraction magnetic resonance images were loaded into an Eclipse treatment planning system and used to define the target volumes. A 'virtual plan' was created using four photon beams in a noncoplanar beam arrangement and optimized to deliver 15 Gy to the planning target volume. Results: The median breast volume was 1,713 cm{sup 3} (range: 1,014-2,140), and the median clinical target volume was 44 cm{sup 3} (range: 26-73). In all cases, 100% of the prescription dose covered 95% of the clinical target volume. The median conformity index was 0.86 (range: 0.70-1.12). The median percentage of the ipsilateral breast volume receiving 100% and 50% of the prescribed dose was 3.8% (range: 2.2-6.9) and 13.3% (range: 7.5-20.8) compared with 18% (range: 3-42) and 53% (range: 24-65) in the institutional historical controls treated with postoperative external beam PBI (p = .002). The median maximum skin dose was 9 Gy. The median dose to 1 and 10 cm{sup 3} of skin was 6.7 and 4.9 Gy. The doses to the heart and ipsilateral lung were negligible. Conclusion: Preoperative PBI resulted in a substantial reduction in ipsilateral breast tissue dose compared with postoperative PBI. The skin dose appeared reasonable, given the small volumes. A prospective Phase I trial evaluating this technique is ongoing.

  11. Irradiation application of electronic beam accelerator NBL-1010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of electronic beam accelerator NBL-1010 in semiconductor denature, gem coloring, waster treatment, chemical synthesize of radiation, degrading of agricultural waster, sterilization of one-off medical treatment, sterilization of herbs, food preservation, crystal coloring and preservation of commodities was studied for its effects equaled with cobalt gamma irradiation

  12. Toxicity and cosmetic result of partial breast high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for conservatively operated early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Objective To study the method, side effects and cosmetic outcome of high- dose-rate (HDR) accelerated partial breast interstitial irradiation (APBI) alone in early stage breast cancer' after conservative surgery. Methods: From February 2002 to June 2003,47 breast cancer lesions from 46 patients suffering from stage I/II breast cancer were treated with HDR 192Ir APBI after conservative surgery. All patients were over 40 year-old, with T1-2N0-1 (≤3 lymph nodes positive), surgical margin > 1-2 mm, but those having lobular or inflammatory breast cancer were excluded. HDR brachytherapy with 34 Gy, 10 fractions/5 days was used after surgery, toxic reaction and cosmetic outcome were observed in one month, 6 and 12 months respectively. Results: Follow up of 1846 months, 34 months was carried out for the whole group. During the treatment, acute reactions including: erythema, edema, tenderness and infection, all under I-II grade, none of III-IV grade were observed in 21 patients(46%); late toxicity reactions: skin fibrosis, breast tenderness, fat necrosis, and telangiectasia, totally 20 patients (43%) were observed: 2 patients in III grade but one patient received 6 cycle chemotherapy. The result of cosmetic outcome evaluation was excellent or good, at 6 months 95% and 12 months 98%, respectively, but there was no recurfence. Conclusions: Excellent and favorable cosmetic results are noted after APBI by interstitial alone. Acute and late reactions are few. Long term observation is necessary for the rate of' local control. (authors)

  13. Irradiation-Accelerated Corrosion of Reactor Core Materials. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Zhujie [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Was, Gary [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Bartels, David [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    2015-04-02

    This project aims to understand how radiation accelerates corrosion of reactor core materials. The combination of high temperature, chemically aggressive coolants, a high radiation flux and mechanical stress poses a major challenge for the life extension of current light water reactors, as well as the success of most all GenIV concepts. Of these four drivers, the combination of radiation and corrosion places the most severe demands on materials, for which an understanding of the fundamental science is simply absent. Only a few experiments have been conducted to understand how corrosion occurs under irradiation, yet the limited data indicates that the effect is large; irradiation causes order of magnitude increases in corrosion rates. Without a firm understanding of the mechanisms by which radiation and corrosion interact in film formation, growth, breakdown and repair, the extension of the current LWR fleet beyond 60 years and the success of advanced nuclear energy systems are questionable. The proposed work will address the process of irradiation-accelerated corrosion that is important to all current and advanced reactor designs, but remains very poorly understood. An improved understanding of the role of irradiation in the corrosion process will provide the community with the tools to develop predictive models for in-reactor corrosion, and to address specific, important forms of corrosion such as irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking.

  14. Strain acceleration of the low temperature irradiated zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strain of a Zr-0,06 at.% 235U specimen irradiated during 4800 h in the RA-3 at a temperature near 40 C degrees is presented. An equivalent neutron fluence of 3.1 x 1026 n m-2 was achieved by means of the generation of fission fragment within the material. The experimental conditions are described and a sudden strain acceleration independent of the neutron flux variations occurred during irradiation is shown. This behavior is compared with previous data obtained at different temperatures. (author)

  15. Accelerated oxygen precipitation in fast neutron irradiated Czochralski silicon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Qiao-Yun; Li Yang-Xian; Chen Gui-Feng; Yang Shuai; Liu Li-Li; Niu Ping-Juan; Chen Dong-Feng; Li Hong-Tao

    2005-01-01

    Annealing effect of the oxygen precipitation and the induced defects have been investigated on the fast neutron irradiated Czochralski silicon (CZ-Si) by infrared absorption spectrum and the optical microscopy. It is found that the fast neutron irradiation greatly accelerates the oxygen precipitation that leads to a sharp decrease of the interstitial oxygen with the annealing time. At room temperature (RT), the 1107cm-1 infrared absorption band of interstitial oxygen becomes weak and broadens to low energy side. At low temperature, the infrared absorption peaks appear at 1078cm-1, 1096cm-1, and 1182cm-1, related to different shapes of the oxygen precipitates. The bulk microdefects,including stacking faults, dislocations and dislocation loops, were observed by the optical microscopy. New or large stacking faults grow up when the silicon self-interstitial atoms are created and aggregate with oxygen precipitation.

  16. Radiation doses inside industrial irradiation installation with linear electron accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Alexandre R., E-mail: alexandre.lima@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pelegrineli, Samuel Q.; Alo, Gabriel F., E-mail: samuelfisica@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: gabriel.alo@aceletron.com.br [Aceletron Irradiacao Industrial, Aceletrica Comercio e Representacoes Ltda, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Francisco C.A. Da, E-mail: dasilva@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Aceletron Industrial Irradiation Company is the unique installation in South America to provide industrial irradiation service using two linear electron accelerators of 18 kW and 10 MeV energy. The electron beam technology allows using electrons to irradiate many goods and materials, such as hospital and medical equipment, cosmetics, herbal products, polymers, peat, gemstones and food. Aceletron Company uses a concrete bunker with 3.66 m of thickness to provide the necessary occupational and environmental radiation protection of X-rays produced. The bunker is divided in main four areas: irradiation room, maze, tower and pit. Inside the irradiation room the x-rays radiation rates are measured in two ways: direct beam and 90 deg C. The rates produced in the conveyor system using 10 MeV energy are 500 Gy/min/mA and 15 Gy/min/mA, respectively. For a 1.8 mA current, the rates produced are 900 Gy/min and 27 Gy/min, respectively. Outside the bunker the radiation rate is at background level, but in the tower door and modulation room the radiation rate is 10 μSv/h. In 2014, during a routine operation, an effective dose of 30.90 mSv was recorded in a monthly individual dosimeter. After the investigation, it was concluded that the dose was only in the dosimeter because it felt inside the irradiation room. As Aceletron Company follows the principles of safety culture, it was decided to perform the radiation isodose curves, inside the four areas of the installation, to know exactly the hotspots positions, exposure times and radiation doses. Five hotspots were chosen taking into account worker's routes and possible operational places. The first experiment was done using a package with three TLD and OSLD dosimeters to obtain better statistical results. The first results for the five hotspots near the accelerator machine showed that the radiation dose rates were between 26 Gy/h and 31 Gy/h. The final measurements were performed using a package with one TLD and one OSLD

  17. 2 MeV, 60 kW dual-beam type electron accelerator irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specification of new irradiation facility which has been constructed from 1978 through 1981 as the replacement of 1st Accelerator of JAERI, TRCRE are described. The accelerator is the Cockcroft-Walton type and both vertical and horizontal accelerating tubes are arranged on a single high voltage generator. Transferring of the high voltage to the horizontal accelerating tube is performed with the high voltage changing system in the pressure vessel. The output ratings of the accelerator are 2 MV of acceleration voltage and 30 mA of beam current. By providing the dual beam system, two irradiation rooms, one for vertical and the other for horizontal beam, are independently operationable. Persons can enter the horizontal irradiation room for experimental setting even when the vertical irradiation room is in operation. The specification of the buildings, the exhaust air treatment system, the irradiation conveyor and the safety observation system are also described. (author)

  18. Linear-accelerator-based stereotactic irradiation for metastatic brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takemoto, Mitsuhiro; Katsui, Kuniaki; Yoshida, Atsushi [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine] [and others

    2003-05-01

    To assess the safety and availability of stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for metastatic brain tumors, we reviewed 54 consecutive cases with a total of 118 brain metastases treated with linear-accelerator-based stereotactic irradiation (STI). Nineteen patients with a total of 27 brain tumors that were larger than 3 cm or close to critical normal tissues were treated with SRT. The marginal dose of SRT was 15-21 Gy (median 21 Gy) in 3 fractions for 3 days. The median marginal dose of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) was 20 Gy. Effective rates of imaging studies were 72.7% and 94.4%, and those of clinical symptoms were 46.7% and 55.6% for SRT and SRS, respectively. One-year and two-year survival rates of SRT were 40.9% and 17.6%, respectively, and the median follow-up period was 6.4 months. The one-year survival rate of SRS was 32.7%, with a median follow-up of 4.6 months. Fourteen cases (7 cases each) had recurrent tumors at STI sites. Early complications were observed in one case of SRT and 8 cases of SRS, and late complications occurred in 3 cases of SRS. There were no significant differences among effective rates, survival rates, median follow-up times, recurrence rates, and complications between SRT and SRS. We concluded that SRT is a safe, effective therapy for large or eloquent area metastases. (author)

  19. Development of Grid Control Electron Gun for Multi-energy Irradiation Accelerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN; Guang-wen; ZHU; Zhi-bin; WANG; Shu-xian

    2012-01-01

    <正>In the project of multi-energy electron irradiation accelerator, It is necessary to adjust the electron beam pulse inject to the accelerating tube. Under the same conditions of the injection energy, the grid controlled electron gun was used in the accelerator. Using cathode-grid assembly, after the simulation of electron optics program design, we manufactured focus electrode, the anode, and built an experiment

  20. Evaluation of some commercial grade polymers as possible dosimeters for technological irradiations in electron accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Bryl-Sandelewska, T

    2002-01-01

    Dosimetric properties of two kinds of clear polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)and one kind of polystyrene (PS) sheets in technological accelerator irradiations, are presented. Absorbance of the sheets and its dependence on the dose have been measured at a suitable wavelength using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer. Both kind PMMA can be used for technological dose measurements but each of them in the different range of the doses (approx 3 to approx 30 kGy and approx 30 to above 200 kGy). Heating the samples after irradiation accelerates the stabilization of the absorbance, which change slowly during the storage of the samples if not heated.Absorbance of clear PS sheets decreases very much during the storage after irradiation, and heating of the samples does not accelerate the stabilization of the value. It can be said that the Ps investigated is not suitable for technological dose measurements in accelerator i radiations.

  1. Particle Accelerator Applications: Ion and Electron Irradiation in Materials Science, Biology and Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Fernández, Luis

    2010-09-01

    Although the developments of particle accelerators are devoted to basic study of matter constituents, since the beginning these machines have been applied with different purposes in many areas also. Today particle accelerators are essential instruments for science and technology. This work presents an overview of the main application for direct particle irradiation with accelerator in material science, biology and medicine. They are used for material synthesis by ion implantation and charged particle irradiation; to make coatings and micromachining; to characterize broad kind of samples by ion beam analysis techniques; as mass spectrometers for atomic isotopes determination. In biomedicine the accelerators are applied for the study of effects by charged particles on cells. In medicine the radiotherapy by electron irradiation is widely used, while hadrontherapy is still under development. Also, they are necessary for short life radioisotopes production required in radiodiagnostic.

  2. Particle Accelerator Applications: Ion and Electron Irradiation in Materials Science, Biology and Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the developments of particle accelerators are devoted to basic study of matter constituents, since the beginning these machines have been applied with different purposes in many areas also. Today particle accelerators are essential instruments for science and technology. This work presents an overview of the main application for direct particle irradiation with accelerator in material science, biology and medicine. They are used for material synthesis by ion implantation and charged particle irradiation; to make coatings and micromachining; to characterize broad kind of samples by ion beam analysis techniques; as mass spectrometers for atomic isotopes determination. In biomedicine the accelerators are applied for the study of effects by charged particles on cells. In medicine the radiotherapy by electron irradiation is widely used, while hadrontherapy is still under development. Also, they are necessary for short life radioisotopes production required in radiodiagnostic.

  3. Partial Breast Radiation Therapy With Proton Beam: 5-Year Results With Cosmetic Outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: We updated our previous report of a phase 2 trial using proton beam radiation therapy to deliver partial breast irradiation (PBI) in patients with early stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Eligible subjects had invasive nonlobular carcinoma with a maximal dimension of 3 cm. Patients underwent partial mastectomy with negative margins; axillary lymph nodes were negative on sampling. Subjects received postoperative proton beam radiation therapy to the surgical bed. The dose delivered was 40 Gy in 10 fractions, once daily over 2 weeks. Multiple fields were treated daily, and skin-sparing techniques were used. Following treatment, patients were evaluated with clinical assessments and annual mammograms to monitor toxicity, tumor recurrence, and cosmesis. Results: One hundred subjects were enrolled and treated. All patients completed the assigned treatment and were available for post-treatment analysis. The median follow-up was 60 months. Patients had a mean age of 63 years; 90% had ductal histology; the average tumor size was 1.3 cm. Actuarial data at 5 years included ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence-free survival of 97% (95% confidence interval: 100%-93%); disease-free survival of 94%; and overall survival of 95%. There were no cases of grade 3 or higher acute skin reactions, and late skin reactions included 7 cases of grade 1 telangiectasia. Patient- and physician-reported cosmesis was good to excellent in 90% of responses, was not changed from baseline measurements, and was well maintained throughout the entire 5-year follow-up period. Conclusions: Proton beam radiation therapy for PBI produced excellent ipsilateral breast recurrence-free survival with minimal toxicity. The treatment proved to be adaptable to all breast sizes and lumpectomy cavity configurations. Cosmetic results appear to be excellent and unchanged from baseline out to 5 years following treatment. Cosmetic results may be improved over those reported with photon

  4. Partial Breast Radiation Therapy With Proton Beam: 5-Year Results With Cosmetic Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, David A., E-mail: dbush@llu.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Do, Sharon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Lum, Sharon; Garberoglio, Carlos [Department of Surgical Oncology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Mirshahidi, Hamid [Department of Medical Oncology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Patyal, Baldev; Grove, Roger; Slater, Jerry D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: We updated our previous report of a phase 2 trial using proton beam radiation therapy to deliver partial breast irradiation (PBI) in patients with early stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Eligible subjects had invasive nonlobular carcinoma with a maximal dimension of 3 cm. Patients underwent partial mastectomy with negative margins; axillary lymph nodes were negative on sampling. Subjects received postoperative proton beam radiation therapy to the surgical bed. The dose delivered was 40 Gy in 10 fractions, once daily over 2 weeks. Multiple fields were treated daily, and skin-sparing techniques were used. Following treatment, patients were evaluated with clinical assessments and annual mammograms to monitor toxicity, tumor recurrence, and cosmesis. Results: One hundred subjects were enrolled and treated. All patients completed the assigned treatment and were available for post-treatment analysis. The median follow-up was 60 months. Patients had a mean age of 63 years; 90% had ductal histology; the average tumor size was 1.3 cm. Actuarial data at 5 years included ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence-free survival of 97% (95% confidence interval: 100%-93%); disease-free survival of 94%; and overall survival of 95%. There were no cases of grade 3 or higher acute skin reactions, and late skin reactions included 7 cases of grade 1 telangiectasia. Patient- and physician-reported cosmesis was good to excellent in 90% of responses, was not changed from baseline measurements, and was well maintained throughout the entire 5-year follow-up period. Conclusions: Proton beam radiation therapy for PBI produced excellent ipsilateral breast recurrence-free survival with minimal toxicity. The treatment proved to be adaptable to all breast sizes and lumpectomy cavity configurations. Cosmetic results appear to be excellent and unchanged from baseline out to 5 years following treatment. Cosmetic results may be improved over those reported with photon

  5. Radiation stability of iron nanoparticles irradiated with accelerated iron ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uglov, V.V., E-mail: uglov@bsu.by [Belarusian State University, Nezavisimosty ave., 4, Minsk 220030 (Belarus); Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenina ave., 2a, Tomsk 634028 (Russian Federation); Remnev, G.E., E-mail: remnev06@mail.ru [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenina ave., 2a, Tomsk 634028 (Russian Federation); Kvasov, N.T.; Safronov, I.V.; Shymanski, V.I. [Belarusian State University, Nezavisimosty ave., 4, Minsk 220030 (Belarus)

    2015-07-01

    Highlights: • Dynamic processes in nanoparticles after ion irradiation were studied. • The mechanism of the enhanced radiation stability of nanoparticles was showed. • The criteria of the enhanced radiation stability of nanoparticles was proposed. - Abstract: In the present work the dynamic processes occurring in a nanoscale iron particle exposed to irradiation with iron ions of different energies are studied in detailed. It is shown that the elastic and thermoelastic crystal lattice responses to irradiation form force factors affecting the evolution of defect-impurity system, which, in turn, leads to a decrease in the number of structural defects. Quantitative estimations of the spatial distribution of defects resulting in their migration to the surface were obtained. Such self-organization of nanoparticles exposed to ionizing radiation can be used as a basis for the production of radiation-resistant nanostructured materials capable of sustaining a long-term radiation influence.

  6. The 10-Year Local Recurrence and Partial Breast Radiotherapy for Early Breast Cancer Treated by Conservative Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhizhen Wang; Ruiying Li

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the local recurrence and the role of whole breast radiotherapy for early breast cancer treated by conservative surgery.METHODS From April 1990 to December 2000, 49 patients with early primary breast cancer were treated by conservative surgery in our hospital. The cases were comprised of Stage 0, 1; Stage Ⅰ, 31; and Stage Ⅱa,17. Forty cases underwent quadrantectomy plus axillary lymph node dissection, and the other 9 cases had lumpectomy alone. Irradiation, which was received by 39 patients, was administered by using low tangential half fields with 6 MV X-ray to decrease the pulmonary irradiative volume.The dose to the whole breast was 45 Gy/22~23f/4.5W, then a 15 Gy boost dose was delivered to the tumor bed by an electron beam. The other patients underwent an irradiated regional field according to postoperative pathology.RESULTS All patients were followed-up for 10 years or more. The 10year local recurrence rates, distant metastasis rates and survival rates were 6.1%, 4.1% and 98.0% respectively. All of the 3 patients who had a local recurrence had infiltrative carcinomas and negative lymph nodes.The 10-year local recurrence rate was higher (2.6% vs. 20.0%) with nonpostoperative whole breast radiotherapy, but the statistical difference was not marked because of the low number of cases. All of the recurrent lesions localized within 3 cm of the primary lesion.CONCLUSION Original recurrence of the tumor was the main type of local recurrence. Radiotherapy after conservative surgery is very essential.After conservative surgery it is feasible that irradiation can be delivered alone to the neighboring region of the tumor bed. Partial breast radiotherapy can substitute for whole breast radiotherapy.

  7. Volume and location of lumpectomy cavity delineated by metal clips and/or seroma on 4DCT for external-beam partial breast irradiation:a comparative study%四维CT测得部分乳腺外照射者基于金属夹与血清肿确定术腔体积及位置关系比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁昀; 李建彬; 王玮; 马志芳; 徐敏; 范廷勇; 邵倩; 梁超前

    2013-01-01

    目的 比较部分乳腺外照射患者四维CT (4DCT)测得的基于金属夹与血清肿所确定的术腔体积及位置关系.方法 在15例乳腺癌患者4DCT图像上分别基于术腔各边界金属夹、血清肿、结合金属夹和血清肿勾画大体肿瘤体积并定义为GTVC、GTVS和GTVC+S.测定GTVC、GTVS和GTVC+S的体积、适形指数(CI)及三者间包含度(DI).三者间体积、CI值比较行方差分析,DI值比较采用配对t检验,DI、CI值与靶区中心间距相关分析用Pearson法.结果 GTVC、GTVS和GTVC+S的体积分别为23.15、19.27 cm3和24.60 cm3 (P=0.000).GTVC与GTVS、GTVC与GTVC+S、GTVS与GTVC+S间的CI分别为0.36、0.60、0.53(P =0.000).DI显示GTVS对GTVC的优于GTVC对GTVS的(0.67比0.48,P=0.000),GTVC对GTVC+S的优于GTVC+S对GTVC的(0.82比0.71,P=0.000),GTVS对GTVC+S的优于GTVC+S对GTVS的(0.91比0.52,P=0.000).DI、CI值与靶区中心间距均呈负相关(所有P =0.000).结论 基于金属夹与血清肿及结合金属夹和血清肿勾画术腔靶区既存在体积差异又存在空间错位.%Objective To conduct a comparative study of the volume and location of the lumpectomy cavity delineated by metal clips and/or seroma on four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) for external-beam partial breast irradiation.Methods On 10 respiratory phases of 4DCT images with 15 breast cancer patients,gross tumor volumes (GTVs) were delineated based on the metal clips at the boundaries of surgical cavity,seroma,and metal clips plus seroma to obtain GTVC,GTVS,and GTVC+S,respectively.The volumes of GTVC,GTVS,and GTVC+S were measured,and the conformity index (CI),degree of inclusion (DI),and centroid distance between each two GTVS were calculated.One-way analysis of variance was used to compare volume and CI between GTVC,GTVS,and GTVC+S ;the paired t-test was used for comparison of DI;the Pearson correlation test was used to investigate the relationship of CI and DI with centroid distance.Results The volumes of GTVC

  8. Innovative combination of therapeutic mammoplasty and expandable-implant breast augmentation for immediate partial breast reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.H. Choo

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: A “novel” oncoplastic technique herein termed “augmentation-therapeutic mastopexy” is described for partial breast reconstruction during the treatment of a patient with bilateral breast cancer. It enabled adequate treatment of her cancer while reshaping the breast and achieving the desired larger breast size. It should be considered in selected breast-conservation patients who wish to maintain or increase their breast size.

  9. L-positioned Perforator Propeller Flap for Partial Breast Reconstruction with Axillary Dead Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Mao; Shimizu, Daisuke; Yokoyama, Akiko; Ito, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Partial breast reconstruction using perforator flaps harvested from the lateral chest wall has become a well-established surgical technique recently. In the case of a partial mastectomy with an axillary lymph node dissection, there are 2 main defects; one is a partial breast defect and the other is an axillary dead space. To reconstruct the 2 separate defects with local flaps, basically 2 different flaps are needed, and usually, it is rather difficult to harvest 2 different local flaps in the adjacent area. To resolve this problem, we introduce the L-positioned perforator propeller flap (PPF). We used an L-positioned PPF on 2 female patients, aged 46 and 47 years old, who were suffering from breast cancer in the upper outer quadrant. The concept of this flap design is as follows: the partial breast defect is reconstructed with the longer lobe of the L-positioned PPF and the axillary defect is filled with the smaller lobe of the L-positioned PPF at the same time. The reconstruction time was 2 hours and 0 minutes and 1 hour and 46 minutes in each case. The patients were successfully provided with aesthetically acceptable breast reconstruction without postoperative complications. Moreover, both patients had consecutive postoperative radiotherapy on the reconstructed area without complications. With this flap design, it is possible for patients to have safe and aesthetic reconstruction with only 1 local flap and fewer invasive procedures.

  10. L-positioned Perforator Propeller Flap for Partial Breast Reconstruction with Axillary Dead Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Mao; Yano, Tomoyuki; Shimizu, Daisuke; Yokoyama, Akiko; Ito, Osamu

    2016-06-01

    Partial breast reconstruction using perforator flaps harvested from the lateral chest wall has become a well-established surgical technique recently. In the case of a partial mastectomy with an axillary lymph node dissection, there are 2 main defects; one is a partial breast defect and the other is an axillary dead space. To reconstruct the 2 separate defects with local flaps, basically 2 different flaps are needed, and usually, it is rather difficult to harvest 2 different local flaps in the adjacent area. To resolve this problem, we introduce the L-positioned perforator propeller flap (PPF). We used an L-positioned PPF on 2 female patients, aged 46 and 47 years old, who were suffering from breast cancer in the upper outer quadrant. The concept of this flap design is as follows: the partial breast defect is reconstructed with the longer lobe of the L-positioned PPF and the axillary defect is filled with the smaller lobe of the L-positioned PPF at the same time. The reconstruction time was 2 hours and 0 minutes and 1 hour and 46 minutes in each case. The patients were successfully provided with aesthetically acceptable breast reconstruction without postoperative complications. Moreover, both patients had consecutive postoperative radiotherapy on the reconstructed area without complications. With this flap design, it is possible for patients to have safe and aesthetic reconstruction with only 1 local flap and fewer invasive procedures. PMID:27482501

  11. Induction of the Tn10 Precise Excision in E. coli Cells after Accelerated Heavy Ions Irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuravel, D V

    2003-01-01

    The influence of the irradiation of different kinds on the indication of the structural mutations in the bacteria Escherichia coli is considered. The regularities of the Tn10 precise excision after accelerated ^{4}He and ^{12}C ions irradiations with different linear energy transfer (LET) were investigated. Dose dependences of the survival and relative frequency of the Tn10 precise excision were obtained. It was shown, that the relative frequency of the Tn10 precise excision is the exponential function from the irradiation dose. Relative biological efficiency (RBE), and relative genetic efficiency (RGE) were calculated, and were treated as the function of the LET.

  12. Change in surface of polymer materials upon irradiation of accelerated micro-particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudo, Hisaaki [Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan)]. E-mail: hkudo@utnl.jp; Tadokoro, Masashi [Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Narita, Shintaro [Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Matsuoka, Leo [Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Muroya, Yusa [Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Katsumura, Yosuke [Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    As a new method of use of a particle accelerator (ionizing radiation generator), we irradiated accelerated micro-particles of silver (Ag) onto polymer materials such as polyimides, glass, ceramics and semi-conductors. The particles can be generated at a Van de Graaff electrostatic accelerator operating at 1-3 MV. The velocity was around 1-10 km/s, size of diameter was about 1-10 {mu}m and charge was about 1-2 {mu}C. We investigated the change in surface of materials upon irradiation, by using laser microscope, atomic force microscope and scanning electron microscope. Crater-shaped irradiation spots having limb structure were found, and their diameter and depth were evaluated, ranging in a few micrometers. The planar distribution of the projectile around the irradiation spot was examined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Correlation between size of the irradiation spots and kinetic energy of the accelerated micro-particles was investigated, and compared with an empirical formula and molecular dynamics study. Numerical simulation dealing with dynamic behaviour of elastic structure was carried out based on SPH (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics) method, a kind of (virtual) particle method. The simulation also found that a crater-shaped spot having limb structure is formed upon collision of the accelerated projectile with the target-materials. The results of simulation were compared with the experimental observations. These experiment and simulation are important for the evaluation of damages and resistance of polymer materials used in the space, such as the thermal control material, and cover glass of solar cells etc., towards space debris and dusts. It would be complement the on-ground radiation resistant tests on the materials conducted by using electron and ion beam accelerators.

  13. Preoperative Single-Fraction Partial Breast Radiation Therapy: A Novel Phase 1, Dose-Escalation Protocol With Radiation Response Biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, Janet K., E-mail: janet.horton@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Blitzblau, Rachel C.; Yoo, Sua [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Geradts, Joseph [Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Chang, Zheng [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Baker, Jay A. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Georgiade, Gregory S. [Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Chen, Wei [Department of Bioinformatics: Duke Cancer Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Siamakpour-Reihani, Sharareh; Wang, Chunhao [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Broadwater, Gloria [Department of Biostatistics: Duke Cancer Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Groth, Jeff [Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Palta, Manisha; Dewhirst, Mark [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Barry, William T. [Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Duffy, Eileen A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); and others

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Women with biologically favorable early-stage breast cancer are increasingly treated with accelerated partial breast radiation (PBI). However, treatment-related morbidities have been linked to the large postoperative treatment volumes required for external beam PBI. Relative to external beam delivery, alternative PBI techniques require equipment that is not universally available. To address these issues, we designed a phase 1 trial utilizing widely available technology to 1) evaluate the safety of a single radiation treatment delivered preoperatively to the small-volume, intact breast tumor and 2) identify imaging and genomic markers of radiation response. Methods and Materials: Women aged ≥55 years with clinically node-negative, estrogen receptor–positive, and/or progesterone receptor–positive HER2−, T1 invasive carcinomas, or low- to intermediate-grade in situ disease ≤2 cm were enrolled (n=32). Intensity modulated radiation therapy was used to deliver 15 Gy (n=8), 18 Gy (n=8), or 21 Gy (n=16) to the tumor with a 1.5-cm margin. Lumpectomy was performed within 10 days. Paired pre- and postradiation magnetic resonance images and patient tumor samples were analyzed. Results: No dose-limiting toxicity was observed. At a median follow-up of 23 months, there have been no recurrences. Physician-rated cosmetic outcomes were good/excellent, and chronic toxicities were grade 1 to 2 (fibrosis, hyperpigmentation) in patients receiving preoperative radiation only. Evidence of dose-dependent changes in vascular permeability, cell density, and expression of genes regulating immunity and cell death were seen in response to radiation. Conclusions: Preoperative single-dose radiation therapy to intact breast tumors is well tolerated. Radiation response is marked by early indicators of cell death in this biologically favorable patient cohort. This study represents a first step toward a novel partial breast radiation approach. Preoperative radiation should

  14. Preoperative Single-Fraction Partial Breast Radiation Therapy: A Novel Phase 1, Dose-Escalation Protocol With Radiation Response Biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Women with biologically favorable early-stage breast cancer are increasingly treated with accelerated partial breast radiation (PBI). However, treatment-related morbidities have been linked to the large postoperative treatment volumes required for external beam PBI. Relative to external beam delivery, alternative PBI techniques require equipment that is not universally available. To address these issues, we designed a phase 1 trial utilizing widely available technology to 1) evaluate the safety of a single radiation treatment delivered preoperatively to the small-volume, intact breast tumor and 2) identify imaging and genomic markers of radiation response. Methods and Materials: Women aged ≥55 years with clinically node-negative, estrogen receptor–positive, and/or progesterone receptor–positive HER2−, T1 invasive carcinomas, or low- to intermediate-grade in situ disease ≤2 cm were enrolled (n=32). Intensity modulated radiation therapy was used to deliver 15 Gy (n=8), 18 Gy (n=8), or 21 Gy (n=16) to the tumor with a 1.5-cm margin. Lumpectomy was performed within 10 days. Paired pre- and postradiation magnetic resonance images and patient tumor samples were analyzed. Results: No dose-limiting toxicity was observed. At a median follow-up of 23 months, there have been no recurrences. Physician-rated cosmetic outcomes were good/excellent, and chronic toxicities were grade 1 to 2 (fibrosis, hyperpigmentation) in patients receiving preoperative radiation only. Evidence of dose-dependent changes in vascular permeability, cell density, and expression of genes regulating immunity and cell death were seen in response to radiation. Conclusions: Preoperative single-dose radiation therapy to intact breast tumors is well tolerated. Radiation response is marked by early indicators of cell death in this biologically favorable patient cohort. This study represents a first step toward a novel partial breast radiation approach. Preoperative radiation should

  15. Study on radiation damage to high energy accelerator components by irradiation in a nuclear reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Schönbacher, Helmut; Casta, J; Van de Voorde, M H

    1975-01-01

    The structural and other components used in high energy accelerators are continuously exposed to a wide spectrum of high energy particles and electromagnetic radiation. The resulting radiation damage may severely influence the functional capability of accelerator facilities. In order to arrive at an estimate of the service life of various materials in the radiation field, simulating experiments have to be carried out in a nuclear reactor. A large number of organic and inorganic materials, electronic components, metals, etc., intended specifically for use in 400 GeV proton synchrotron of CERN near Geneva, were irradiated in the ASTRA reactor in Seibersdorf near Vienna. The paper reports on the irradiation facilities available in this reactor for this purpose, on the dosimetry methods used, on the most important materials irradiated and on the results obtained in these experiments. (14 refs).

  16. A compact biological cell irradiation system with a Van de Graaff accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the development of a compact microcell irradiation system in the 3 MV KN Van de Graaff accelerator in the Accelerator Laboratory of National Tsing Hua University (NTHU). The main feature of this system is backscattering, a technique whereby a 100 nm gold scattering foil is placed in the center of a scattering chamber, instead of a 90° bending magnet. The incident particles produced by the accelerator bombard the scattering foil and scatter isotropically. A set of micro pinholes was installed above the scattering foil and directed the 90° scattering particles to irradiate the cell target. This innovation simplifies the system design and massively reduces the cost and space requirements for system construction

  17. Dosimetric Evaluation of Three Partial Breast Irradiation Devices and the Dosimetric Effect of Tissue Thickness Surrounding a Multi-Lumen Partial Breast Applicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detwiler, Jordyn Ashle

    Many High Dose Rate treatment planning systems that are in use fail to correct for heterogeneities. If the treatment planning system does not correct for heterogeneities, it would assume that the patient is receiving full scatter when in reality, the patient will possibly be underdosed. A 1cm diameter planning target volume for a lumpectomy cavity could extend beyond the skin or chest wall for the patient and could be a great problem when it comes to treatment with the MammoSiteRTM single lumen breast applicator. A previous Monte Carlo study tested 3 MammoSiteRTM balloon sizes at various depths beyond the planning target volume to see how much tissue would be needed to achieve full scatter. The results showed that on average, if there was no tissue beyond the prescription line of 1cm there would be a 10% dose reduction for the breast -- skin interface. The purpose of this study is to use the Strut Adjusted Volume Implant (SAVI) multi-lumen breast applicator to re-create the measurements done with the MammoSiteRTM balloon and expand these measurements to include tissue thicknesses less than the PTV. Previous simulations with the MammoSiteRTM were done using Monte Carlo, with tissue thicknesses beyond the planning target volume of 0 -- 10cm. This study will re-create these measurements using Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFETs) and also take measurements below the prescription line of 1cm due to the ability of the SAVI applicator to adjust dose to the skin.

  18. Toxicity and cosmesis outcomes after single fraction partial breast irradiation in early stage breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinnarò Paola

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report the clinical outcome after a Single Shot 3D-CRT PBI (SSPBI in breast cancer patients after conservative surgery (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01316328. Methods A dose of 18Gy (in the first 4 patients and 21Gy (in the remaining 60 patients was prescribed in a single session and delivered to the index area (i.e. the area of breast including the primary tumor bed and the surrounding tissue using 3D-CRT with patients in prone position. Acute and late toxicity was assessed using the National Cancer Institute's CTC for Adverse Events. Cosmesis was defined based on modified Harvard criteria. Differences between dosimetric or clinical parameters of patients with/without G2 or more late toxicity or unsatisfactory (poor or fair cosmetic outcome were evaluated with the Mann-Whitney test. Odds ratios and 95% confidence interval were calculated for cosmesis and fibrosis. Univariate and multivariate analyses(UVA/MVA were used to determine covariates associated with an increase in fibrosis or fat necrosis rate. Results Sixty four patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 3 years, G2 and G3 subcutaneous fibrosis was detected in 20(31% and in 8(13% patients, and ≥G2 fat necrosis was observed in 2(3% patients. Good to excellent, fair and poor cosmesis was observed in 38(59%, 23(36% and 3(5% patients, respectively. Based on UVA, the breast volume receiving more than 21Gy (V21Gy was found to be a predictor of the ≥G1 or ≥G2 fibrosis/fat necrosis. Based on MVA, V21Gy was confirmed as a predictor for ≥G1 fibrosis/fat necrosis, the results correlated as a trend for ≥G2. Cosmesis was correlated with whole breast (WB mean dose (p = 0.030. Conclusion Our choice of a single dose of 21Gy significantly increased the treatment related toxicity. However, this should not discourage novel SSPBI approaches with lower equivalent doses.

  19. 7.5 MeV High Average Power Linear Accelerator System for Food Irradiation Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In December 2004 the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of 7.5 MeV X-rays for irradiation of food products. The increased efficiency for treatment at 7.5 MeV (versus the previous maximum allowable X-ray energy of 5 MeV) will have a significant impact on processing rates and, therefore, reduce the per-package cost of irradiation using X-rays. Titan Pulse Sciences Division is developing a new food irradiation system based on this ruling. The irradiation system incorporates a 7.5 MeV electron linear accelerator (linac) that is capable of 100 kW average power. A tantalum converter is positioned close to the exit window of the scan horn. The linac is an RF standing waveguide structure based on a 5 MeV accelerator that is used for X-ray processing of food products. The linac is powered by a 1300 MHz (L-Band) klystron tube. The electrical drive for the klystron is a solid state modulator that uses inductive energy store and solid-state opening switches. The system is designed to operate 7000 hours per year. Keywords: Rf Accelerator, Solid state modulator, X-ray processing

  20. Defocusing beam line design for an irradiation facility at the TAEA SANAEM Proton Accelerator Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencer, A.; Demirköz, B.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Yiğitoğlu, M.

    2016-07-01

    Electronic components must be tested to ensure reliable performance in high radiation environments such as Hi-Limu LHC and space. We propose a defocusing beam line to perform proton irradiation tests in Turkey. The Turkish Atomic Energy Authority SANAEM Proton Accelerator Facility was inaugurated in May 2012 for radioisotope production. The facility has also an R&D room for research purposes. The accelerator produces protons with 30 MeV kinetic energy and the beam current is variable between 10 μA and 1.2 mA. The beam kinetic energy is suitable for irradiation tests, however the beam current is high and therefore the flux must be lowered. We plan to build a defocusing beam line (DBL) in order to enlarge the beam size, reduce the flux to match the required specifications for the irradiation tests. Current design includes the beam transport and the final focusing magnets to blow up the beam. Scattering foils and a collimator is placed for the reduction of the beam flux. The DBL is designed to provide fluxes between 107 p /cm2 / s and 109 p /cm2 / s for performing irradiation tests in an area of 15.4 cm × 21.5 cm. The facility will be the first irradiation facility of its kind in Turkey.

  1. Laboratory installation for cleaning of exhausted gases by irradiation with accelerated electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laboratory installation for the cleaning of exhaust gas containing NOx and SO2, using electron beams generated by the linear accelerator ALIN-10 (6.23 MeV) was developed in the Electron Accelerator Laboratory, Institute of Laser Plasma and Radiation Physics. The aim of this method is to obtain simultaneous removal by precipitation with ammonia of NOx and SO2 exhaust gases from fossil-fuel power plants and iron steel industry. The main successive stages of this process are: obtaining of gaseous mixture, heating of dry gaseous mixture, evaporation of ammonia, irradiation with electron beams and filtration. (author) 2 Figs.; 2 Tabs.; 5 Refs

  2. A dosimetric system for quantitative cell irradiation experiments with laser-accelerated protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An integrated dosimetry and cell irradiation system (IDOCIS) with laser-accelerated proton beams was developed, characterized, calibrated and successfully used for systematic in vitro experiments. Due to the broad exponentially shaped energy spectrum, the low-energy range of the protons (<20 MeV) and the high pulse dose, the absolute dosimetry for this beam quality is challenging. Therefore, a dedicated Faraday cup is used as an energy and dose rate independent absolute dosimeter that has been calibrated consistently with three independent methods. A transmission ionization chamber providing online relative dose information is cross-calibrated against the Faraday cup. Providing both online and absolute dose information, the IDOCIS allows for quantitative dosimetric and radiobiological studies at current low-energy laser-accelerated proton beams. Finally, first dosimetric characterizations of a laser-accelerated proton beam with the IDOCIS are presented.

  3. Shielding Aspects of Accelerators, Targets and Irradiation Facilities - SATIF-11 Workshop Proceedings Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle accelerators have evolved over the last decades from simple devices to powerful machines. In recent years, new technological and research applications have helped to define requirements while the number of accelerator facilities in operation, being commissioned, designed or planned has grown significantly. Their parameters, which include the beam energy, currents and intensities, and target composition, can vary widely, giving rise to new radiation shielding issues and challenges. Particle accelerators must be operated in safe ways to protect operators, the public and the environment. As the design and use of these facilities evolve, so must the analytical methods used in the safety analyses. These workshop proceedings review the state of the art in radiation shielding of accelerator facilities and irradiation targets. They also evaluate progress in the development of modelling methods used to assess the effectiveness of such shielding as part of safety analyses. The transport of radiation through shielding materials is a major consideration in the safety design studies of nuclear power plants, and the modelling techniques used may be applied to many other types of scientific and technological facilities. Accelerator and irradiation facilities represent a key capability in R and D, medical and industrial infrastructures, and they can be used in a wide range of scientific, medical and industrial applications. High-energy ion accelerators, for example, are now used not only in fundamental research, such as the search for new super-heavy nuclei, but also for therapy as part of cancer treatment. While the energy of the incident particles on the shielding of these facilities may be much higher than those found in nuclear power plants, much of the physics associated with the behaviour of the secondary particles produced is similar, as are the computer modelling techniques used to quantify key safety design parameters, such as radiation dose and activation levels

  4. An Economic Study for Establishment GAMMA Irradiation and Electron Beam Accelerator Facilities for Sterilization of Arabic Sudan Gum Export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to discuss the economic analysis for using gamma irradiation and electron beam accelerators facilities to develop the marketing abilities of exported Arabic Sudan gum by radiation sterilization. This study included the technical marketing aspects and financial analysis for the projects of irradiated Arabic gum.

  5. Cellular and molecular effects for mutation induction in normal human cells irradiated with accelerated neon ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masao; Tsuruoka, Chizuru; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Kato, Takeshi; Yatagai, Fumio; Watanabe, Masami

    2006-02-22

    We investigated the linear energy transfer (LET) dependence of mutation induction on the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) locus in normal human fibroblast-like cells irradiated with accelerated neon-ion beams. The cells were irradiated with neon-ion beams at various LETs ranging from 63 to 335 keV/microm. Neon-ion beams were accelerated by the Riken Ring Cyclotron at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in Japan. Mutation induction at the HPRT locus was detected to measure 6-thioguanine-resistant clones. The mutation spectrum of the deletion pattern of exons of mutants was analyzed using the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The dose-response curves increased steeply up to 0.5 Gy and leveled off or decreased between 0.5 and 1.0 Gy, compared to the response to (137)Cs gamma-rays. The mutation frequency increased up to 105 keV/microm and then there was a downward trend with increasing LET values. The deletion pattern of exons was non-specific. About 75-100% of the mutants produced using LETs ranging from 63 to 335 keV/mum showed all or partial deletions of exons, while among gamma-ray-induced mutants 30% showed no deletions, 30% partial deletions and 40% complete deletions. These results suggested that the dose-response curves of neon-ion-induced mutations were dependent upon LET values, but the deletion pattern of DNA was not.

  6. Effects of Prenatal Irradiation with an Accelerated Heavy-Ion Beam on Postnatal Development in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Murakami, M.; Eguchi-Kasai, K.; Nojima, K.; Shang, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Fujita, K.; Coffigny, H.; Hayata, I.

    Effects on postnatal neurophysiological development in offspring were studied following exposure of pregnant Wistar rats to accelerated neon-ion beams with a LET value of about 30 keV mu m at a dose range from 0 1 Gy to 2 0Gy on the 15th day of gestation The age at which four physiologic markers appeared and five reflexes were acquired was examined prior to weaning Gain in body weight was monitored until the offspring were 3 months old Male offspring were evaluated as young adults using two behavioral tests The effects of X-rays at 200 kVp measured for the same biological end points were studied for comparison Our previous study on carbon-ion beams with a LET value of about 13 keV mu m was also cited to elucidate a possible LET-related effect For most of the endpoints at early age significant alteration was even observed in offspring prenatally received 0 1 Gy of accelerated neon ions while neither X rays nor carbon-ions under the same dose resulted in such a significant alteration compared to that from the sham-irradiated dams All offspring whose mothers received 2 0 Gy died prior to weaning Offspring from dams irradiated with accelerated neon ions generally showed higher incidences of prenatal death and preweaning mortality markedly delayed accomplishment in their physiological markers and reflexes and gain in body weight compared to those exposed to X-rays or carbon ions at doses of 0 1 to 1 5 Gy Significantly reduced ratios of main organ weight to body weight at postnatal ages of 30 60 and 90 days were also observed

  7. Evolution of structure and properties of VVER-1000 RPV steels under accelerated irradiation up to beyond design fluences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurovich, B.; Kuleshova, E.; Shtrombakh, Ya.; Fedotova, S.; Maltsev, D.; Frolov, A.; Zabusov, O.; Erak, D.; Zhurko, D.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper comprehensive studies of structure and properties of VVER-1000 RPV steels after the accelerated irradiation to fluences corresponding to extended lifetime up to 60 years or more as well as comparative studies of materials irradiated with different fluxes were carried out. The significant flux effect is confirmed for the weld metal (nickel concentration ⩾1.35%) which is mainly due to development of reversible temper brittleness. The rate of radiation embrittlement of VVER-1000 RPV steels under operation up to 60 years and more (based on the results of accelerated irradiation considering flux effect for weld metal) is expected not to differ significantly from the observed rate under irradiation within surveillance specimens.

  8. Characterization of solvents containing CyMe4-BTPhen in selected cyclohexanone-based diluents after irradiation by accelerated electrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Distler Petr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiation stability of CyMe4-BTPhen was examined in systems with three selected cyclohexanone-based diluents. Accelerated electrons were used as a source of ionizing radiation. The CyMe4-BTPhen radiation degradation identification and characterization of the degradation products were performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and mass spectrometry (MS analyses. Residual concentrations of tested ligand were determined. Moreover, extraction properties of the solvents irradiated at two different doses were compared with the extraction properties of non-irradiated solvents to estimate the influence of the presence of degradation products in the organic phase.

  9. Enhanced collimated GeV monoenergetic ion acceleration from a shaped foil target irradiated by a circularly polarized laser pulse

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, M; Yu, T P; Sheng, Z M

    2009-01-01

    Using multi-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations we study ion acceleration from a foil irradiated by a circularly polarized laser pulse at 1022W/cm^2 intensity. When the foil is shaped initially in the transverse direction to match the laser intensity profile, the center part of the target can be uniformly accelerated for a longer time compared to a usual flat target. Target deformation and undesirable plasma heating are effectively suppressed. The final energy spectrum of the accelerated ion beam is improved dramatically. Collimated GeV quasi-mono-energetic ion beams carrying as much as 18% of the laser energy are observed in multi-dimensional simulations. Radiation damping effects are also checked in the simulations.

  10. Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention claims equipment for stabilizing the position of the front covers of the accelerator chamber in cyclic accelerators which significantly increases accelerator reliability. For stabilizing, it uses hydraulic cushions placed between the electromagnet pole pieces and the front chamber covers. The top and the bottom cushions are hydraulically connected. The cushions are disconnected and removed from the hydraulic line using valves. (J.P.)

  11. Accelerated recovery of hematopoiesis following sub-lethal whole body irradiation with recombinant murine interleukin-1 (IL-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This communication reports the results of studies designed to investigate the ability of recombinant murine interleukin-1 (rIL-1) to enhance the recovery of hematopoiesis following administration of sub-lethal whole body irradiation (2 Gy). Mice were administered rIL-1 (100 and 500 units) i.p. Twenty-four hours later these mice were administered 2 Gy radiation. Irradiated control mice were given only phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Animals were then serially sacrificed (on days 1, 2, 4, 7, 9, and 12 following irradiation) and their peripheral blood was analyzed for indices (packed red cell volume, WBC, platelets, and differential). Femoral bone marrow was harvested and assayed for their stem cell content--erythroid (CFU-E, BFU-E), granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM), and megakaryocyte (CFU-MEG). Irradiated mice pretreated with rIL-1 demonstrated accelerated hematopoietic recovery as measured by higher WBC, platelets and femoral stem cell content than PBS-treated irradiated controls. These results indicate IL-1 may be an effective radioprotective agent against the hematotoxicity induced by ionizing radiation

  12. SNPs in DNA repair or oxidative stress genes and late subcutaneous fibrosis in patients following single shot partial breast irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Falvo Elisabetta; Strigari Lidia; Citro Gennaro; Giordano Carolina; Boboc Genoveva; Fabretti Fabiana; Bruzzaniti Vicente; Bellesi Luca; Muti Paola; Blandino Giovanni; Pinnarò Paola

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential association between single nucleotide polymorphisms related response to radiotherapy injury, such as genes related to DNA repair or enzymes involved in anti-oxidative activities. The paper aims to identify marker genes able to predict an increased risk of late toxicity studying our group of patients who underwent a Single Shot 3D-CRT PBI (SSPBI) after BCS (breast conserving surgery). Methods A total of 57 breast cancer pa...

  13. SNPs in DNA repair or oxidative stress genes and late subcutaneous fibrosis in patients following single shot partial breast irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falvo Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential association between single nucleotide polymorphisms related response to radiotherapy injury, such as genes related to DNA repair or enzymes involved in anti-oxidative activities. The paper aims to identify marker genes able to predict an increased risk of late toxicity studying our group of patients who underwent a Single Shot 3D-CRT PBI (SSPBI after BCS (breast conserving surgery. Methods A total of 57 breast cancer patients who underwent SSPBI were genotyped for SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms in XRCC1, XRCC3, GST and RAD51 by Pyrosequencing technology. Univariate analysis (ORs and 95% CI was performed to correlate SNPs with the risk of developing ≥ G2 fibrosis or fat necrosis. Results A higher significant risk of developing ≥ G2 fibrosis or fat necrosis in patients with: polymorphic variant GSTP1 (Ile105Val (OR = 2.9; 95%CI, 0.88-10.14, p = 0.047. Conclusions The presence of some SNPs involved in DNA repair or response to oxidative stress seem to be able to predict late toxicity. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01316328

  14. Cell killing and chromatid damage in primary human bronchial epithelial cells irradiated with accelerated 56Fe ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, M.; Piao, C.; Hall, E. J.; Hei, T. K.

    2001-01-01

    We examined cell killing and chromatid damage in primary human bronchial epithelial cells irradiated with high-energy 56Fe ions. Cells were irradiated with graded doses of 56Fe ions (1 GeV/nucleon) accelerated with the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The survival curves for cells plated 1 h after irradiation (immediate plating) showed little or no shoulder. However, the survival curves for cells plated 24 h after irradiation (delayed plating) had a small initial shoulder. The RBE for 56Fe ions compared to 137Cs gamma rays was 1.99 for immediate plating and 2.73 for delayed plating at the D10. The repair ratio (delayed plating/immediate plating) was 1.67 for 137Cs gamma rays and 1.22 for 56Fe ions. The dose-response curves for initially measured and residual chromatid fragments detected by the Calyculin A-mediated premature chromosome condensation technique showed a linear response. The results indicated that the induction frequency for initially measured fragments was the same for 137Cs gamma rays and 56Fe ions. On the other hand, approximately 85% of the fragments induced by 137Cs gamma rays had rejoined after 24 h of postirradiation incubation; the corresponding amount for 56Fe ions was 37%. Furthermore, the frequency of chromatid exchanges induced by gamma rays measured 24 h after irradiation was higher than that induced by 56Fe ions. No difference in the amount of chromatid damage induced by the two types of radiations was detected when assayed 1 h after irradiation. The results suggest that high-energy 56Fe ions induce a higher frequency of complex, unrepairable damage at both the cellular and chromosomal levels than 137Cs gamma rays in the target cells for radiation-induced lung cancers.

  15. Studies on chemical radioprotectors against X-irradiation used by soft X-ray accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinoda, Masato [Hoshi Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences

    1995-01-01

    This review describes the modes of mice radiation injuries induced by soft X-irradiation under various conditions and the protective effects of several kinds of substances on these injuries. The models of radiation injuries in this study were bone marrow death after lethal irradiation, skin damage induced by irradiation with long length soft X-ray and leukocytopenia in the peripheral blood after sublethal irradiation. Two bioassay methods were established for the survival effect on the lethal irradiation and protective potency on the skin damage induced by soft X-irradiation. The protective potencies of various sulfur compounds, related compounds of ferulic acid, nucleic acid constitutional compounds, crude drugs and chinese traditional medicines were determined and then many effective drugs were recognized. Effective components in the methanol extracts of Cnidii Rhizoma and Aloe arborescens recognized as radioprotectable were fractionated. As a result of these studies, it was observed that the active principles in Cnidii Rhizoma were identified as ferulic acid and adenosine. The scavenge action of active oxygens, a protective effect on the damages of deoxyribonucleic acid and superoxide dismutase by in vitro soft X-irradiation were evaluated as radiation protective mechanisms. (author).

  16. [Studies on chemical radioprotectors against X-irradiation used by soft X-ray accelerator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, M

    1995-01-01

    This review describes the modes of mice radiation injuries induced by soft X-irradiation under various conditions and the protective effects of several kinds of substances on these injuries. The models of radiation injuries in this study were bone marrow death after lethal irradiation, skin damage induced by irradiation with long length soft X-ray and leukocytopenia in the peripheral blood after sublethal irradiation. Two bioassay methods were established for the survival effect on the lethal irradiation and protective potency on the skin damage induced by soft X-irradiation. The protective potencies of various sulfur compounds, related compounds of ferulic acid, nucleic acid constitutional compounds, crude drugs and chinese traditional medicines were determined and then many effective drugs were recognized. Effective components in the methanol extracts of Cnidii Rhizoma and Aloe arborescens recognized as radioprotectable were fractionated. As a result of these studies, it was observed that the active principles in Cnidii Rhizoma were identified as ferulic acid and adenosine. The scavenge action of active oxygens, a protective effect on the damages of deoxyribonucleic acid and superoxide dismutase by in vitro soft X-irradiation were evaluated as radiation protective mechanisms. PMID:7699579

  17. Protein oxidation and aggregation in UVA-irradiated Escherichia coli cells as signs of accelerated cellular senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosshard, Franziska; Riedel, Kathrin; Schneider, Thomas; Geiser, Carina; Bucheli, Margarete; Egli, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    Solar disinfection (SODIS) is a simple drinking water treatment method that improves microbiological water quality where other means are unavailable. It makes use of the deleterious effect of solar irradiation on pathogenic microbes and viruses. A positive impact on health has been documented in several epidemiological studies. However, the molecular mechanisms damaging cells during this simple treatment are not yet fully understood. Here we show that protein damage is crucial in the process of inactivation by sunlight. Protein damages in UVA-irradiated Escherichia coli cells have been evaluated by an immunoblot method for carbonylated proteins and an aggregation assay based on semi-quantitative proteomics. A wide spectrum of structural and enzymatic proteins within the cell is affected by carbonylation and aggregation. Vital cellular functions like the transcription and translation apparatus, transport systems, amino acid synthesis and degradation, respiration, ATP synthesis, glycolysis, the TCA cycle, chaperone functions and catalase are targeted by UVA irradiation. The protein damage pattern caused by SODIS strongly resembles the pattern caused by reactive oxygen stress. Hence, sunlight probably accelerates cellular senescence and leads to the inactivation and finally death of UVA-irradiated cells.

  18. Study of irradiation induced restructuring of high burnup fuel - Use of computer and accelerator for fuel science and engineering -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sataka, M.; Ishikawa, N.; Chimn, Y.; Nakamura, J.; Amaya, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka Gun (Japan); Iwasawa, M.; Ohnuma, T.; Sonoda, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Kinoshita, M.; Geng, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Kaneta, Y. [The Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Yasunaga, K.; Matsumura, S.; Yasuda, K. [Kyushu Univ., Motooka (Japan); Iwase [Osaka Prefecture Univ., Osaka (Japan); Ichinomiya, T.; Nishiuran, Y. [Hokkaido Univ., Kitaku (Japan); Matzke, HJ. [Academy of Ceramics, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    In order to develop advanced fuel for future LWR reactors, trials were made to simulate the high burnup restructuring of the ceramics fuel, using accelerator irradiation out of pile and with computer simulation. The target is to reproduce the principal complex process as a whole. The reproduction of the grain subdivision (sub grain formation) was successful at experiments with sequential combined irradiation. It was made by recovery process of the accumulated dislocations, making cells and sub-boundaries at grain boundaries and pore surfaces. Details of the grain sub division mechanism is now in front of us outside of the reactor. Extensive computer science studies, first principle and molecular dynamics gave behavior of fission gas atoms and interstitial oxygen, assisting the high burnup restructuring.

  19. Study of irradiation induced restructuring of high burnup fuel - Use of computer and accelerator for fuel science and engineering -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to develop advanced fuel for future LWR reactors, trials were made to simulate the high burnup restructuring of the ceramics fuel, using accelerator irradiation out of pile and with computer simulation. The target is to reproduce the principal complex process as a whole. The reproduction of the grain subdivision (sub grain formation) was successful at experiments with sequential combined irradiation. It was made by recovery process of the accumulated dislocations, making cells and sub-boundaries at grain boundaries and pore surfaces. Details of the grain sub division mechanism is now in front of us outside of the reactor. Extensive computer science studies, first principle and molecular dynamics gave behavior of fission gas atoms and interstitial oxygen, assisting the high burnup restructuring

  20. Fast electron generation and transport in solid matter irradiated at relativistic intensities. Evidence of vxB acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baton, S. D.; Santos, J. J.; Amiranoff, F.; Popescu, H.; Gremillet, L.; Koenig, M.; Martinolli, E.; Rousseaux, C.; Rabec-Le-Gloahec, M.; Hall, T. A.; Batani, D.; Perelli, E.; Scianitti, F.; Cowan, T. E.

    2002-11-01

    In the context of the fast electron transport in solid matter and the fast ignitor scheme,we report on measurements of second harmonic of the laser light observed on the rear side of solid targets irradiated by the 100 TW laser at LULI. This emission can be explained by the acceleration of short bunches of electrons in the front of the target by the vxB force. The observations indicate that, in our conditions, the minimum fraction of the laser energy transferred to these electron bunches is of the order of 1 °.

  1. Curcumin Mitigates Accelerated Aging after Irradiation in Drosophila by Reducing Oxidative Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Ki Moon Seong; Mira Yu; Kyu-Sun Lee; Sunhoo Park; Young Woo Jin; Kyung-Jin Min

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin, belonging to a class of natural phenol compounds, has been extensively studied due to its antioxidative, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antineurodegenerative effects. Recently, it has been shown to exert dual activities after irradiation, radioprotection, and radiosensitization. Here, we investigated the protective effect of curcumin against radiation damage using D. melanogaster. Pretreatment with curcumin (100 μM) recovered the shortened lifespan caused by irradiation and incr...

  2. Investigation of longitudinal proton acceleration in exploded targets irradiated by intense short-pulse laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthier, M. [LULI, École Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); CEA, DAM, DIF, 91297 Arpajon (France); Lévy, A. [LULI, École Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC, Paris 06, CNRS, INSP, UMR 7588, F-75005, Paris (France); D' Humières, E.; Beaucourt, C.; Breil, J.; Feugeas, J. L.; Nicolaï, P.; Tikhonchuk, V. [Univ. Bordeaux, CNRS, CEA, UMR 5107, F-33400 Talence (France); Glesser, M. [LULI, École Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); INRS-EMT, Varennes, PQ J3X 1S2 (Canada); Albertazzi, B. [LULI, École Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Univ. Bordeaux, CNRS, CEA, UMR 5107, F-33400 Talence (France); Chen, S. N.; Dervieux, V.; Fuchs, J. [LULI, École Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Pépin, H. [INRS-EMT, Varennes, PQ J3X 1S2 (Canada); Antici, P. [LULI, École Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); INRS-EMT, Varennes, PQ J3X 1S2 (Canada); Dipartimento SBAI, Universita di Roma “Sapienza,” Via A. Scarpa 16, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2014-01-15

    It was recently shown that a promising way to accelerate protons in the forward direction to high energies is to use under-dense or near-critical density targets instead of solids. Simulations have revealed that the acceleration process depends on the density gradients of the plasma target. Indeed, under certain conditions, the most energetic protons are predicted to be accelerated by a collisionless shock mechanism that significantly increases their energy. We report here the results of a recent experiment dedicated to the study of longitudinal ion acceleration in partially exploded foils using a high intensity (∼5 × 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}) picosecond laser pulse. We show that protons accelerated using targets having moderate front and rear plasma gradients (up to ∼8 μm gradient length) exhibit similar maximum proton energy and number compared to proton beams that are produced, in similar laser conditions, from solid targets, in the well-known target normal sheath acceleration regime. Particle-In-Cell simulations, performed in the same conditions as the experiment and consistent with the measurements, allow laying a path for further improvement of this acceleration scheme.

  3. Acceleration of astrocytic differentiation in neural stem cells surviving X-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, Ayumi; Suzuki, Keiji; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Ozawa, Hiroki; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2012-03-28

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are highly susceptible to DNA double-strand breaks; however, little is known about the effects of radiation in cells surviving radiation. Although the nestin-positive NSCs predominantly became glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive in differentiation-permissive medium, little or no cells were GFAP positive in proliferation-permissive medium. We found that more than half of the cells surviving X-rays became GFAP positive in proliferation-permissive medium. Moreover, localized irradiation stimulated differentiation of cells outside the irradiated area. These results indicate for the first time that ionizing radiation is able to stimulate astrocyte-specific differentiation of surviving NSCs, whose process is mediated both by the direct activation of nuclear factor-κB and by the indirect bystander effect induced by X-irradiation.

  4. Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Shelf-Life and Sensory Scores of Squid Sundae under Accelerated Storage Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of gamma irradiation on the shelf-life and sensory scores of squid Sundae under accelerated storage conditions. Squid Sundae was stored at 37°C for 35 days following gamma irradiation at doses of 0, 10, and 20 kGy. For total viable cell counts, control and gamma-irradiated (GI) (10 kGy) squid Sundae were already spoiled in 4 days, whereas GI (20 kGy) squid Sundae showed complete suppression of bacterial growth during storage. There were no significant changes in pH values compared to the control. The VBN and TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance) values of GI (20 kGy) squid Sundae were significantly lower than those of the control. In addition, the induction period of GI (20 kGy) squid Sundae as measured by a Rancimat showed a higher level compared to that of the control. In the sensory evaluation, there were no significant changes between the control and GI samples. These results suggest that a dose of 20 kGy is the optimum and effective dose for preservation of squid Sundae. (author)

  5. Local heart irradiation of ApoE−/− mice induces microvascular and endocardial damage and accelerates coronary atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Radiotherapy of thoracic and chest-wall tumors increases the long-term risk of radiation-induced heart disease, like a myocardial infarct. Cancer patients commonly have additional risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as hypercholesterolemia. The goal of this study is to define the interaction of irradiation with such cardiovascular risk factors in radiation-induced damage to the heart and coronary arteries. Material and methods: Hypercholesterolemic and atherosclerosis-prone ApoE−/− mice received local heart irradiation with a single dose of 0, 2, 8 or 16 Gy. Histopathological changes, microvascular damage and functional alterations were assessed after 20 and 40 weeks. Results: Inflammatory cells were significantly increased in the left ventricular myocardium at 20 and 40 weeks after 8 and 16 Gy. Microvascular density decreased at both follow-up time-points after 8 and 16 Gy. Remaining vessels had decreased alkaline phosphatase activity (2–16 Gy) and increased von Willebrand Factor expression (16 Gy), indicative of endothelial cell damage. The endocardium was extensively damaged after 16 Gy, with foam cell accumulations at 20 weeks, and fibrosis and protein leakage at 40 weeks. Despite an accelerated coronary atherosclerotic lesion development at 20 weeks after 16 Gy, gated SPECT and ultrasound measurements showed only minor changes in functional cardiac parameters at 20 weeks. Conclusions: The combination of hypercholesterolemia and local cardiac irradiation induced an inflammatory response, microvascular and endocardial damage, and accelerated the development of coronary atherosclerosis. Despite these pronounced effects, cardiac function of ApoE−/− mice was maintained.

  6. Fluence Uniformity Measurements in an Electron Accelerator Used for Irradiation of Extended Area Solar Cells and Electronic Circuits for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Roberto M.; Filppi, Ed; Zhang, Shubo

    2007-01-01

    It is common to have liquid crystal displays and electronic circuit boards with area sizes of the order of 20x20 sq cm on board of satellites and space vehicles. Usually irradiating them at different fluence values assesses the radiation damage in these types of devices. As a result, there is a need for a radiation source with large spatial fluence uniformity for the study of the damage by radiation from space in those devices. Kent State University s Program on Electron Beam Technology has access to an electron accelerator used for both research and industrial applications. The electron accelerator produces electrons with energies in the interval from 1 to 5 MeV and a maximum beam power of 150 kW. At such high power levels, the electron beam is continuously scanned back and forth in one dimension in order to provide uniform irradiation and to prevent damage to the sample. This allows for the uniform irradiation of samples with an area of up to 1.32 sq m. This accelerator has been used in the past for the study of radiation damage in solar cells (1). However in order to irradiate extended area solar cells there was a need to measure the uniformity of the irradiation zone in terms of fluence. In this paper the methodology to measure the fluence uniformity on a sample handling system (linear motion system), used for the irradiation of research samples, along the irradiation zone of the above-mentioned facility is described and the results presented. We also illustrate the use of the electron accelerator for the irradiation of large area solar cells (of the order of 156 sq cm) and include in this paper the electrical characterization of these types of solar cells irradiated with 5 MeV electrons to a total fluence of 2.6 x 10(exp 15) e/sq cm.

  7. Accelerating complex for intraoperation irradiations and traditional electron and gamma therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A project of the microtron based complex for intraoperation irradiations and traditional electron and gamma therapy, is described. Two surgical rooms are foreseen for these aims. Project of a microtron with the beam, energy of which changes from 2 to 22 MeV, is developed. Prototype of the microtron during two years is successfully used in a free electron laser

  8. Curcumin Mitigates Accelerated Aging after Irradiation in Drosophila by Reducing Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Moon Seong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin, belonging to a class of natural phenol compounds, has been extensively studied due to its antioxidative, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antineurodegenerative effects. Recently, it has been shown to exert dual activities after irradiation, radioprotection, and radiosensitization. Here, we investigated the protective effect of curcumin against radiation damage using D. melanogaster. Pretreatment with curcumin (100 μM recovered the shortened lifespan caused by irradiation and increased eclosion rate. Flies subjected to high-dose irradiation showed a mutant phenotype of outstretched wings, whereas curcumin pretreatment reduced incidence of the mutant phenotype. Protein carbonylation and formation of γH2Ax foci both increased following high-dose irradiation most likely due to generation of reactive oxygen species. Curcumin pretreatment reduced the amount of protein carbonylation as well as formation of γH2Ax foci. Therefore, we suggest that curcumin acts as an oxidative stress reducer as well as an effective protective agent against radiation damage.

  9. Void swelling and defect processes in ti-modified steels using accelerator irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The void swelling behaviour of (15Ni-14Cr)-O.25Ti and (15Ni-14Cr)-O.15Ti steels are studied using heavy ion irradiation for understanding the influence of titanium in the void swelling resistance of these D9 alloys. The cold worked samples have been pre-implanted with a uniform helium concentration of 30 appm spanning a width of about 640 nm. This was followed by a 5-MeV nickel ion irradiation to create a peak damage of ∼ 100 dpa at a damage rate of 7 x 10-3 dpa/s at various irradiation temperatures between 700 and 970 K. The gross swelling in the implanted range is measured by step height measurements. It is found that the peak swelling temperatures and the magnitude of swelling for the alloys are different. The difference in void swelling behaviour with variation in titanium concentration in these two alloys is discussed on the basis of the role of titanium on the vacancy migration and TiC precipitate formation. Isochronal annealing study of the positron lifetime in the un-irradiated alloys reveals different TiC precipitates formation behaviour in the two alloys. Ab initio calculations of positron lifetime, using large super-cells, show that C vacancies at the TiC/austenite interface are the predominant positron trapping centres in these alloys. (authors)

  10. Accelerated large volume irradiation with dynamic Jaw/Dynamic Couch Helical Tomotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krause Sonja

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helical Tomotherapy (HT has unique capacities for the radiotherapy of large and complicated target volumes. Next generation Dynamic Jaw/Dynamic Couch HT delivery promises faster treatments and reduced exposure of organs at risk due to a reduced dose penumbra. Methods Three challenging clinical situations were chosen for comparison between Regular HT delivery with a field width of 2.5 cm (Reg 2.5 and 5.0 cm (Reg 5.0 and DJDC delivery with a maximum field width of 5.0 cm (DJDC 5.0: Hemithoracic Irradiation, Whole Abdominal Irradiation (WAI and Total Marrow Irradiation (TMI. For each setting, five CT data sets were chosen, and target coverage, conformity, integral dose, dose exposure of organs at risk (OAR and treatment time were calculated. Results Both Reg 5.0 and DJDC 5.0 achieved a substantial reduction in treatment time while maintaining similar dose coverage. Treatment time could be reduced from 10:57 min to 3:42 min / 5:10 min (Reg 5.0 / DJDC 5.0 for Hemithoracic Irradiation, from 18:03 min to 8:02 min / 8:03 min for WAI and to 18:25 min / 18:03 min for TMI. In Hemithoracic Irradiation, OAR exposure was identical in all modalities. For WAI, Reg 2.5 resulted in lower exposure of liver and bone. DJDC plans showed a small but significant increase of ∼ 1 Gy to the kidneys, the parotid glans and the thyroid gland. While Reg 5.0 and DJDC were identical in terms of OAR exposure, integral dose was substantially lower with DJDC, caused by a smaller dose penumbra. Conclusions Although not clinically available yet, next generation DJDC HT technique is efficient in improving the treatment time while maintaining comparable plan quality.

  11. CLINICAL STUDY IN ACCELERATED HYPERFRACTIONATED IRRADIATION IN THE TREATMENT OF LOCAL ADVANCED NON-SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚原; 吴国华; 陆冬青; 蒋马伟; 邬国琴; 翁霞

    2001-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of accelerated hyperfractionated irradiation ( AHFI ) and conventional fractionated irradiation (CFI) for local advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods The patients of AHFI group were irradiated to large-field target volume by a daily fraction of 2Gy , and small-field target volume by a daily fraction of 1Gy with more than 6h interval. The total dose of largefield target volume was 50Gy /25Fx/5W and of small-field target volume was 75Gy /50Fx/5W. The patients in CFI group were irradiated by a daily fraction of 2Gy to the total dose of 66Gy /33Fx/6. 6W. After 3 months of radiotherapy, the tumor response rates of complete recovery ( CR ), partial recovery ( PR ), and no change ( NC ) and 1- and 2- year survival rate in the two groups were observed. Results The tumor response rates of CR, PR, NC in AHFI group and CFI group were 22.9% (8/35), 60.0% (21/35), 17.1% (6/35) and 11.4% (4/35), 51.4% (18/35), 37.2% (13/35) respectively (P>0.05). All patients were followed up 2 years or more. The 1- and 2- year survival rates in AHFI group and CFI group were 62.9% (22/35 ), 31.4 % ( 11/35) and 42.9% (15/35) , 17.1% (6/35) respectively (P0.05). Conclusion In comparison with CFI, AHFI may increase 1- and 2- year survival rate after treatment of local advanced non-small cell lung cancer, while the radio-reactions, either early or late, did not increase significantly.

  12. Tree-code simulations of proton acceleration from laser-irradiated wire targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent experiments using Terawatt lasers to accelerate protons deposited on thin wire targets are modeled with a new type of gridless plasma simulation code. In contrast to conventional mesh-based methods, this technique offers a unique capability in emulating the complex geometry and open-ended boundary conditions characteristic of contemporary experimental conditions. Comparisons of ion acceleration are made between the tree code and standard particle-in-cell simulations for a typical collisionless 'hole boring' scenario in slab geometry. The utility of the gridless approach is emphasized by a series of simulations in 'wire' geometry, in which electrons are permitted to circulate around the target at arbitrary distances from the focal region. The simulations reveal a number of features in common with recent experimental observations, including a disclike emission pattern of the MeV protons accelerated away from the wire

  13. Authors reply

    OpenAIRE

    Meattini, Icro; Saieva, Calogero; Livi, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Comment on In regard to Livi et al. "Accelerated partial breast irradiation using intensity-modulated radiotherapy versus whole breast irradiation: 5 year survival analysis of a phase 3 randomised controlled trial". [Eur J Cancer. 2015] Accelerated partial breast irradiation using intensity-modulated radiotherapy versus whole breast irradiation: 5-year survival analysis of a phase 3 randomised controlled trial. [Eur J Cancer. 2015

  14. Polyurethanes irradiation by accelerated electrons: molecular and supramolecular evolution, incidence on the extractable and biomedical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Face to the development of radiosterilization and polymers medical devices it was wished to study the behavior of polyurethanes under accelerated electrons in oxidizing atmosphere. This study has been made to reveal the physico chemical and organisational modifications of polyurethanes for a medical use. (N.C.)

  15. Novel Ways of Heat Removal from Highly Irradiated Superconducting Windings in Accelerator Magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bielert, Erwin R.; Verweij, Arjan P.; Kate, ten Herman H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Novel ideas of heat removal from superconducting windings in accelerator type magnets are investigated with the help of a recently developed and validated thermal model of a magnet cold mass implemented in COMSOL Multiphysics. Here the focus is on how to improve heat removal from the midplane of a s

  16. The Influence of Irradiation and Accelerated Aging on the Mechanical and Tribological Properties of the Graphene Oxide/Ultra-High-Molecular-Weight Polyethylene Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene oxide/ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (GO/UHMWPE nanocomposite is a potential and promising candidate for artificial joint applications. However, after irradiation and accelerated aging, the mechanical and tribological behaviors of the nanocomposites are still unclear and require further investigation. GO/UHMWPE nanocomposites were successfully fabricated using ultrasonication dispersion, ball-milling, and hot-pressing process. Then, the nanocomposites were irradiated by gamma ray at doses of 100 kGy. Finally, GO/UHMWPE nanocomposites underwent accelerated aging at 80°C for 21 days in air. The mechanical and tribological properties of GO/UHMWPE nanocomposites have been evaluated after irradiation and accelerated aging. The results indicated that the incorporation of GO could enhance the mechanical, wear, and antiscratch properties of UHMWPE. After irradiation, these properties could be further enhanced, compared to unirradiated ones. After accelerated aging, however, these properties have been significantly reduced when compared to unirradiated ones. Moreover, GO and irradiation can synergistically enhance these properties.

  17. Irradiated shocks in the W28 A2 massive star-forming region: a site for cosmic rays acceleration?

    CERN Document Server

    Gusdorf, A; Gerin, M; Guesten, R

    2015-01-01

    The formation of massive stars play a crucial role in galaxies from numerous points of view. The protostar generates a strong ultraviolet radiation field that ionizes its surroundings, and it drives powerful shock waves in the neighbouring medium in the form of jets and bipolar outflows, whose structure can be partially organized by local, strong magnetic field. Such an ejection activity locally modifies the interstellar chemistry, contributing to the cycle of matter. It also significantly participates to the energetic balance of galaxies. In the latter stages of massive star formation, the protostar is surrounded by an ultra-compact HII region, and irradiates its bipolar outflows, where an intrinsically strong magnetic field structure is associated to the generally high densities. In the HII region, or in the bipolar outflows, the question of in situ cosmic rays acceleration can then be raised by the simultaneous presence of strong magnetic fields, significant ionization of the matter, and mechanical energy ...

  18. Novel Ways of Heat Removal from Highly Irradiated Superconducting Windings in Accelerator Magnets

    OpenAIRE

    Bielert, Erwin R.; Verweij, Arjan P.; Kate, ten, Herman H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Novel ideas of heat removal from superconducting windings in accelerator type magnets are investigated with the help of a recently developed and validated thermal model of a magnet cold mass implemented in COMSOL Multiphysics. Here the focus is on how to improve heat removal from the midplane of a superconducting quadrupole magnet, the area exposed to the highest radiation heat load. In addition, this part of the coil windings has the longest thermal path towards the heat sink and several the...

  19. Relative biological effectiveness in canine osteosarcoma cells irradiated with accelerated charged particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Junko; Cartwright, Ian M.; Haskins, Jeremy S.; Fujii, Yoshihiro; Fujisawa, Hiroshi; Hirakawa, Hirokazu; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Kitamura, Hisashi; Fujimori, Akira; Thamm, Douglas H.; Kato, Takamitsu A.

    2016-01-01

    Heavy ions, characterized by high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, have advantages compared with low LET protons and photons in their biological effects. The application of heavy ions within veterinary clinics requires additional background information to determine heavy ion efficacy. In the present study, comparison of the cell-killing effects of photons, protons and heavy ions was investigated in canine osteosarcoma (OSA) cells in vitro. A total of four canine OSA cell lines with various radiosensitivities were irradiated with 137Cs gamma-rays, monoenergetic proton beams, 50 keV/µm carbon ion spread out Bragg peak beams and 200 keV/µm iron ion monoenergetic beams. Clonogenic survival was examined using colony-forming as says, and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values were calculated relative to gamma-rays using the D10 value, which is determined as the dose (Gy) resulting in 10% survival. For proton irradiation, the RBE values for all four cell lines were 1.0–1.1. For all four cell lines, exposure to carbon ions yielded a decreased cell survival compared with gamma-rays, with the RBE values ranging from 1.56–2.10. Iron ions yielded the lowest cell survival among tested radiation types, with RBE values ranging from 3.51–3.69 observed in the three radioresistant cell lines. The radiosensitive cell line investigated demonstrated similar cell survival for carbon and iron ion irradiation. The results of the present study suggest that heavy ions are more effective for killing radioresistant canine OSA cells when compared with gamma-rays and protons. This markedly increased efficiency of cell killing is an attractive reason for utilizing heavy ions for radioresistant canine OSA. PMID:27446477

  20. Combined modality treatment of the rhabdomyosarcoma R1H of the rat: tumor and normal tissue response after cisplatin and conventional or accelerated irradiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To test the importance of the sequence of cisplatin and irradiation, either conventional or accelerated fractionated. Methods and Materials: 30 fractions of 2 Gy were given in 6 or 3 weeks preceded or followed by (time interval between cisplatin and radiotherapy: 3 days) a single IP dose of 5 mg/kg cisplatin in the rhabdomyosarcoma R1H of the rat. Survival curves were generated, and comparisons were made by the log-rank test. Results: After 60 Gy in 6 weeks, no local tumor controls were observed. If cisplatin was injected 3 days before start of 60 Gy/6 weeks, 11 ± 10% (mean ± SE) of the tumors were controlled. Cisplatin after radiotherapy resulted in 50 ± 14% local controls. The difference was significant (p 0.01) for cisplatin after radiotherapy in comparison to radiotherapy alone where no local controls were observed. After accelerated fractionation, 57 ± 19% of the animals were cured with or without cisplatin before radiotherapy. If the drug was injected after end of 60 Gy/3 weeks, 86 ± 13% survived recurrence free. The difference to accelerated radiotherapy alone was not significant. Accelerated radiotherapy produced significantly higher control rates than conventional radiotherapy (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Accelerated radiotherapy resulted in higher local tumor control rates as compared to conventional fractionated irradiation. Cisplatin combined with radiotherapy showed significantly better results if given after but not before irradiation, either conventional or accelerated fractionated

  1. Ion acceleration in shell cylinders irradiated by a short intense laser pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, A. [Max-Born Institute, Berlin (Germany); ELI-ALPS, Szeged (Hungary); Platonov, K. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Sharma, A. [ELI-ALPS, Szeged (Hungary); Murakami, M. [ILE, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    2015-09-15

    The interaction of a short high intensity laser pulse with homo and heterogeneous shell cylinders has been analyzed using particle-in-cell simulations and analytical modeling. We show that the shell cylinder is proficient of accelerating and focusing ions in a narrow region. In the case of shell cylinder, the ion energy exceeds the ion energy for a flat target of the same thickness. The constructed model enables the evaluation of the ion energy and the number of ions in the focusing region.

  2. A simple and accurate measurement method of current density of an electron accelerator for irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For simple and accurate measurement of the current distribution in a broad beam from electron accelerators, a method for detecting the charge absorbed in a graphite target exposed to the air has been examined. The present report means to solve several fundamental problems. The effective incidence area of the absorber is strictly defined by the design of the geometrical arrangement of the absorber assembly. Electron backscattering from the absorber is corrected with backscattering coefficients in consideration of oblique incidence on the absorber. The influence of ionic charge produced in air is ascribed to the contact potential between the absorber and the guard, and correction methods are proposed. (orig.)

  3. Ion acceleration with a narrow energy spectrum by nanosecond laser-irradiation of solid target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altana, C., E-mail: altana@lns.infn.it [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Lanzalone, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Università degli Studi di Enna “Kore,” Via delle Olimpiadi, 94100 Enna (Italy); Mascali, D.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Tudisco, S. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Muoio, A. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Messina, Viale F. D’Alcontres 31, 98166 Messina (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    In laser-driven plasma, ion acceleration of aluminum with the production of a quasi-monoenergetic beam has occurred. A useful device to analyze the ions is the Thomson parabolas spectrometer, a well-known diagnostic that is able to obtain information on charge-to-mass ratio and energy distribution of the charged particles. At the LENS (Laser Energy for Nuclear Science) laboratory of INFN-LNS in Catania, experimental measures were carried out; the features of LENS are: Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with 2 J laser energy, 1064 nm fundamental wavelengths, and 6 ns pulse duration.

  4. Strategy Selection of Film Irradiation by Accelerated ^{40}Ar^{8+} Ions for Manufacturing of Track Membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Denisov, Yu N; Kalinichenko, V V; Karamysheva, G A; Fedorenko, S B

    2004-01-01

    The industrial cyclotron CYTRACK is dedicated to the production of the track membranes. It is the basic instrument for the industry of membrane products to be consumed in medicine, biotechnology, pharmacology, microelectronics and many other industries. The cyclotron CYTRACK started working in the August of 2002. Argon ions were accelerated to a project energy of 2.4 MeV/nucleon, the extracted beam intensity was about 200 nA, the extraction efficiency totaled \\sim 50 %. In starting up operation the film was exposed in various controlled ways to charged particles with a view to achieving the values of parameters required for production of "Rosa" membranous plasmafilters. The pore uniformity in transverse direction was provided by beam scanning with a scanning magnet voltage of 73 V, the one in the longitudinal direction was provided by constancy of the film motion rate and stability of beam intensity during all the time of exposition.

  5. Co-targeting Deoxyribonucleic Acid–Dependent Protein Kinase and Poly(Adenosine Diphosphate-Ribose) Polymerase-1 Promotes Accelerated Senescence of Irradiated Cancer Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azad, Arun, E-mail: arun.azad@bccancer.bc.ca [Division of Cancer Research, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Department of Pathology, St. Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Bukczynska, Patricia; Jackson, Susan [Division of Cancer Research, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Haput, Ygal; Cullinane, Carleen [Division of Cancer Research, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); McArthur, Grant A.; Solomon, Benjamin [Division of Cancer Research, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Division of Cancer Medicine, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Department of Medicine, St. Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia)

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: To examine the effects of combined blockade of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) and poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) on accelerated senescence in irradiated H460 and A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells. Methods and Materials: The effects of KU5788 and AG014699 (inhibitors of DNA-PK and PARP-1, respectively) on clonogenic survival, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), apoptosis, mitotic catastrophe, and accelerated senescence in irradiated cells were examined in vitro. For in vivo experiments, H460 xenografts established in athymic nude mice were treated with BEZ235 (a DNA-PK, ATM, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor) and AG014699 to determine effects on proliferation, DNA DSBs, and accelerated senescence after radiation. Results: Compared with either inhibitor alone, combination treatment with KU57788 and AG014699 reduced postradiation clonogenic survival and significantly increased persistence of Gamma-H2AX (γH2AX) foci in irradiated H460 and A549 cells. Notably, these effects coincided with the induction of accelerated senescence in irradiated cells as reflected by positive β-galactosidase staining, G2-M cell-cycle arrest, enlarged and flattened cellular morphology, increased p21 expression, and senescence-associated cytokine secretion. In irradiated H460 xenografts, concurrent therapy with BEZ235 and AG014699 resulted in sustained Gamma-H2AX (γH2AX) staining and prominent β-galactosidase activity. Conclusion: Combined DNA-PK and PARP-1 blockade increased tumor cell radiosensitivity and enhanced the prosenescent properties of ionizing radiation in vitro and in vivo. These data provide a rationale for further preclinical and clinical testing of this therapeutic combination.

  6. Shielding design of a treatment room for an accelerator-based epithermal neutron irradiation facility for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protecting the facility personnel and the general public from radiation exposure is a primary safety concern of an accelerator-based epithermal neutron irradiation facility. This work makes an attempt at answering the questions open-quotes How much?close quotes and open-quotes What kind?close quotes of shielding will meet the occupational limits of such a facility. Shielding effectiveness is compared for ordinary and barytes concretes in combination with and without borated polyethylene. A calculational model was developed of a treatment room, patient open-quotes scatterer,close quotes and the epithermal neutron beam. The Monte Carlo code, MCNP, was used to compute the total effective dose equivalent rates at specific points of interest outside of the treatment room. A conservative occupational effective dose rate limit of 0.01 mSv h-1 was the guideline for this study. Conservative Monte Carlo calculations show that constructing the treatment room walls with 1.5 m of ordinary concrete, 1.2 m of barytes concrete, 1.0 m of ordinary concrete preceded by 10 cm of 5% boron-polyethylene, or 0.8 m of barytes concrete preceded by 10 cm of 5% boron-polyethylene will adequately protect facility personnel. 20 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Technique in linear accelerator total body irradiation%直线加速器全身照射技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张九堂; 伍志红; 鲁旭蔚; 何金莲

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the physical, technical, and dosimetric aspects of total body irradiation (TBI) that was carried out by using 6MV X-Ray from Varian 2300 C/D Linear Accelerator at a distance of 450 cm from target to the treatment table and at a gantry angle of 270°.The dose to lung tissue was limit by setting the individual lead compensators customized before, and using DPD-510 to monitor the absorbed dose of the reference point the absorbed dose in depth of half of body will be (Din+Dout)/2 after taking treatment in both AP position and PA position.%本文介绍了在直线加速器上实行全身照射的方法,包括治疗床的设计、测量装置的制作、实验参数的测定和照射方法。SSD=450 cm,机架角为270度,患者取侧卧位,前后野和后前野对穿照射,采用分段肺屏蔽办法控制肺的吸收剂量。用多通道半导体剂量仪进行剂量全程监测作为质量控制手段进行质量控制和实现质量保证,用入射表面剂量Din与出射表面剂量Dout之和的一半即(Din+Dout)/2作为对应入射方向上体中层面的吸收剂量。

  8. The affect of erbium hydride on the conversion efficience to accelerated protons from ultra-shsort pulse laser irradiated foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offermann, Dustin Theodore [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This thesis work explores, experimentally, the potential gains in the conversion efficiency from ultra-intense laser light to proton beams using erbium hydride coatings. For years, it has been known that contaminants at the rear surface of an ultra-intense laser irradiated thin foil will be accelerated to multi-MeV. Inertial Confinement Fusion fast ignition using proton beams as the igniter source requires of about 1016 protons with an average energy of about 3MeV. This is far more than the 1012 protons available in the contaminant layer. Target designs must include some form of a hydrogen rich coating that can be made thick enough to support the beam requirements of fast ignition. Work with computer simulations of thin foils suggest the atomic mass of the non-hydrogen atoms in the surface layer has a strong affect on the conversion efficiency to protons. For example, the 167amu erbium atoms will take less energy away from the proton beam than a coating using carbon with a mass of 12amu. A pure hydrogen coating would be ideal, but technologically is not feasible at this time. In the experiments performed for my thesis, ErH3 coatings on 5 μm gold foils are compared with typical contaminants which are approximately equivalent to CH1.7. It will be shown that there was a factor of 1.25 ± 0.19 improvement in the conversion efficiency for protons above 3MeV using erbium hydride using the Callisto laser. Callisto is a 10J per pulse, 800nm wavelength laser with a pulse duration of 200fs and can be focused to a peak intensity of about 5 x 1019W/cm2. The total number of protons from either target type was on the order of 1010. Furthermore, the same experiment was performed on the Titan laser, which has a 500fs pulse duration, 150J of energy and can be focused to about 3 x 1020 W/cm2. In this experiment 1012 protons were seen from both erbium hydride and

  9. High power pulsed/microwave technologies for electron accelerators vis a vis 10MeV, 10kW electron LINAC for food irradiation at CAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of electron accelerators for irradiation of food items is gathering momentum in India. The various technologies for powering the electron LINAC were needed to be developed in the country due to embargo situations as well as reservations of the developers worldwide to share the information related to this development. Centre for Advanced Technology, CAT, Indore, is engaged in the development of particle accelerators for medical industrial and scientific applications. Amongst other electron accelerators developed in CAT, a 10MeV, 10kW LINAC for irradiation of food items has been commissioned and tested for full rated 10kW beam power. The high power pulsed microwave driver for the LINAC was designed, developed and commissioned with full indigenous efforts, and is right now operational at CAT. It consists of a 6MW, 25kW S-band pulsed klystron, 15MW peak power pulse modulator system for the klystron, microwave driver amplifier chain, stabilized generator, protection and control electronics, waveguide system to handle the high peak and average power, gun modulator electronics, grid electronics etc. The present paper highlights various technologies like the pulsed power systems and components, microwave circuits and systems etc. Also the performance results of the high power microwave driver for the 10MeV LINAC at CAT are discussed. Future strategies for developing the state of art technologies are highlighted. (author)

  10. Partial breast irradiation as sole therapy for low risk breast carcinoma: Early toxicity, cosmesis and quality of life results of a MammoSite brachytherapy phase II study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The MammoSite is a device that was developed with the goal of making breast-conserving surgery (BCT) more widely available. Our objective was to evaluate the MammoSite device performances after an open cavity placement procedure and quality of life in highly selected patients with early-stage breast cancer. Methods and materials: From March 2003 to March 2005, 43 patients with T1 breast cancer were enrolled in a phase II study. The median age was 72 years. Twenty-five (58%) patients were treated with high-dose rate brachytherapy using the MammoSite applicator to deliver 34 Gy in 10 fractions. The main disqualifying factor was pathologic sentinel node involvement (10/43; 23%). There were no device malfunctions, migration or rupture of the balloon. Results: After a median follow-up of 13 months, there were no local recurrences and one contralateral lobular carcinoma. Seventeen (68%), 13 (52%), 8 (32%), 5 (20%) and 2 (8%) patients had erythema, seroma, inflammation, hematoma and sever infection, respectively. Only 2 patients developed telangiectasia. At 1 year the rate of 'good to excellent' cosmetic results was 84%. Significant changes in QoL were observed for emotional and social well-being between 3 and 12 months. At 24 months, only emotional well-being subscore changes were statistically significant (p = 0.015). Conclusions: Our data in patients older than 60 years support the previously published data. Histologic features were the main disqualifying criteria. With higher skin spacing levels we observed very low incidence of telangiectasia. QoL evaluation indicates that baseline scores were satisfactory. Changes concerned emotional and social well-being

  11. Effects of prenatal irradiation with an accelerated heavy-ion beam on postnatal development in rats: II. Further study on neurophysiologic alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Murakami, M.; Eguchi-Kasai, K.; Nojima, K.; Shang, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Watanabe, K.; Fujita, K.; Moreno, S. G.; Coffigny, H.; Hayata, I.

    Organogenesis is a highly radiosensitive period, study of prenatal exposure to high LET heavy ion beams on postnatal development is important for clarifying the radiation risk in space and promoting the evidence-based mechanism research. The effects from heavy ion irradiations are not well studied as those for low LET radiations such as X-rays in this field, even the ground-based investigations remain to be addressed. Using the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) and Wistar rats, postnatal neurophysiological development in offspring was investigated following exposure of pregnant rats to accelerated neon-ion beams with a LET value of about 30 keV/μm at a dose range from 0.1 to 2.0 Gy on the 15th day of gestation. The age for appearance of four physiologic markers and attainment of five neonatal reflexes, and gain in body weight were monitored. Male offspring were evaluated as young adults using two behavioral tests including open field and hole-board dipping tests. The effects of X-rays at 200 kVp measured for the same biological end points were studied for comparison. For most of the endpoints at early age, significant neurophysiological alteration was observed even in offspring receiving 0.1 Gy of accelerated neon ions but not X-rays. All offspring receiving 2.0 Gy of accelerated neon ions died prior to weaning. Offspring prenatally irradiated with neon ions generally showed higher incidences of prenatal death, increased preweaning mortality, markedly delayed accomplishment in physiological markers and reflexes, significantly lower body weight and reduced ratios of main organ weight to body weight, and altered behavior compared to those exposed to X-rays at doses of 0.1 1.5 Gy. These findings indicate that irradiations with neon ions at 0.1 1.5 Gy on day 15 of gestation caused varied developmental alterations in offspring, and efficient dose leading to the detrimental effects seemed to be lower than that of X-rays.

  12. Polyurethanes irradiation by accelerated electrons: molecular and supramolecular evolution, incidence on the extractable and biomedical implications; Irradiation de polyurethannes par electrons acceleres: evolution moleculaire et supramoleculaire, incidence sur les extractibles et implications biomedicales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guignot, C

    2002-11-15

    Face to the development of radiosterilization and polymers medical devices it was wished to study the behavior of polyurethanes under accelerated electrons in oxidizing atmosphere. This study has been made to reveal the physico chemical and organisational modifications of polyurethanes for a medical use. (N.C.)

  13. Randomized clinical trial on seven-day-per-week continuous accelerated irradiation for patients with esophageal carcinoma:Preliminary report on tumor response and acute toxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-Ping Sun; Ya-Zhou Liu; Tao Ye; Wen Zhang; Wen-Bin Shen; Jing-Lei Shi; Hai-Ting Xu; Wei-Dong Wang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: Tumor response and normal tissue toxicity of seven-day-per-week continuous accelerated irradiation (CAIR) for patients with esophageal carcinoma were evaluated and compared to conventional irradiation (CR).METHODS: Sixty patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus were randomized into two groups:the CAIR group (30 patients) and the CR group (30 pa(RT) with 2 Gy/fraction per day at 7 d/wk with a total dose of 50-70 Gy (average dose 64.2 Gy). The overall time of irradiation was 3.6-5.0 wk (average 4.6 wk). RT in the CR group was 2 Gy/fraction per day at 5 d/wk with a total dose of 40-70 Gy (average dose 61.7 Gy).The overall time of irradiation was 4.0-7.0 wk (average 6.4wk).RESULTS: The data showed that the immediate tumor response to RT was better in the CAIR group than in the CR group. Efficiency rates (CR plus PR) were 82.8%(24/29) and 58.6% (17/29), respectively (P = 0.047). In both groups the incidences of esophagitis and tracheitis were insignificant (P = 0.376, 0.959), and no patient received toxicity that could not be tolerated.CONCLUSION: CAIR shortens overall treatment time and is well tolerated by patients. It may be superior to CR in enhancing the local response of tumor, but its remote effect for esophageal carcinoma awaits further follow-up.

  14. Ionization and acceleration of heavy ions in high-Z solid target irradiated by high intensity laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahito, D.; Kishimoto, Y.

    2016-05-01

    In the interaction between high intensity laser and solid film, an ionization dynamics inside the solid is dominated by fast time scale convective propagation of the internal sheath field and the slow one by impact ionization due to heated high energy electrons coupled with nonlocal heat transport. Furthermore, ionization and acceleration due to the localized external sheath field which co- propagates with Al ions constituting the high energy front in the vacuum region. Through this process, the maximum charge state and then q/A increase in the rear side, so that ions near the front are further accelerated to high energy.

  15. Evaluation of a dispersion medium for the irradiation of blood products in a electron linear accelerator; Evaluacion de un medio dispersor para la irradiacion de hemoderivados en un acelerador lineal de electrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordiales, J. M.; Falero, B.; Vazquez, M.; Alvarez, F. J.

    2013-07-01

    The use of bags of rice as dispersion medium in irradiation of blood products for medical use is less effective than the immersion from the point of view dosimetric water. However, given the wide range of dose values for a valid result and once subjected to quality control procedure, the method provides the necessary work for the irradiation of blood products in a linear electron accelerator. (Author)

  16. SU-E-T-226: Junction Free Craniospinal Irradiation in Linear Accelerator Using Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy : A Novel Technique Using Dose Tapering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Spatially separated fields are required for craniospinal irradiation due to field size limitation in linear accelerator. Field junction shits are conventionally done to avoid hot or cold spots. Our study was aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of junction free irradiation plan of craniospinal irradiation (CSI) for Meduloblastoma cases treated in linear accelerator using Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) technique. Methods: VMAT was planned using multiple isocenters in Monaco V 3.3.0 and delivered in Elekta Synergy linear accelerator. A full arc brain and 40° posterior arc spine fields were planned using two isocentre for short (<1.3 meter height ) and 3 isocentres for taller patients. Unrestricted jaw movement was used in superior-inferior direction. Prescribed dose to PTV was achieved by partial contribution from adjacent beams. A very low dose gradient was generated to taper the isodoses over a long length (>10 cm) at the conventional field junction. Results: In this primary study five patients were planned and three patients were delivered using this novel technique. As the dose contribution from the adjacent beams were varied (gradient) to create a complete dose distribution, therefore there is no specific junction exists in the plan. The junction were extended from 10–14 cm depending on treatment plan. Dose gradient were 9.6±2.3% per cm for brain and 7.9±1.7 % per cm for spine field respectively. Dose delivery error due to positional inaccuracy was calculated for brain and spine field for ±1mm, ±2mm, ±3mm and ±5 mm were 1%–0.8%, 2%–1.6%, 2.8%–2.4% and 4.3%–4% respectively. Conclusion: Dose tapering in junction free CSI do not require a junction shift. Therefore daily imaging for all the field is also not essential. Due to inverse planning dose to organ at risk like thyroid kidney, heart and testis can be reduced significantly. VMAT gives a quicker delivery than Step and shoot or dynamic IMRT

  17. Application of an ultraminiature thermal neutron monitor for irradiation field study of accelerator-based neutron capture therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, Masayori; Tanaka, Kenichi; Endo, Satrou; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    Phantom experiments to evaluate thermal neutron flux distribution were performed using the Scintillator with Optical Fiber (SOF) detector, which was developed as a thermal neutron monitor during boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) irradiation. Compared with the gold wire activation method and Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) calculations, it was confirmed that the SOF detector is capable of measuring thermal neutron flux as low as 105 n/cm2/s with sufficient accuracy. The SOF detector will be u...

  18. Application of an ultraminiature thermal neutron monitor for irradiation field study of accelerator-based neutron capture therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, Masayori; Tanaka, Kenichi; Endo, Satrou; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    Phantom experiments to evaluate thermal neutron flux distribution were performed using the Scintillator with Optical Fiber (SOF) detector, which was developed as a thermal neutron monitor during boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) irradiation. Compared with the gold wire activation method and Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) calculations, it was confirmed that the SOF detector is capable of measuring thermal neutron flux as low as 105 n/cm2/s with sufficient accuracy. The SOF detector ...

  19. Accelerated hyperfractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy for recurrent/unresectable rectal cancer in patients with previous pelvic irradiation: results of a phase II study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to investigate the local effects and toxicity of accelerated hyperfractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy for recurrent/unresectable rectal cancer in patients with previous pelvic irradiation. Twenty-two patients with recurrent/unresectable rectal cancer who previously received pelvic irradiation were enrolled in our single-center trial between January 2007 and August 2012. Reirradiation was scheduled for up to 39 Gy in 30 fractions using intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans. The dose was delivered via a hyperfractionation schedule of 1.3 Gy twice daily. Patient follow-up was performed by clinical examination, CT/MRI, or PET/CT every 3 months for the first 2 years and every 6 months thereafter. Tumor response was evaluated 1 month after reirradiation by CT/MRI based on the RECIST criteria. Adverse events were assessed using the National Cancer Institute (NCI) common toxicity criteria (version 3.0). The median time from the end of the initial radiation therapy to reirradiation was 30 months (range, 18-93 months). Overall local responses were observed in 9 patients (40.9%). None of the patients achieved a complete response (CR), and 9 patients (40.9%) had a partial response (PR). Thirteen patients failed to achieve a clinical response: 12 (54.5%) presented with stable disease (SD) and 1 (4.5%) with progressive disease (PD). Among all the patients who underwent reirradiation, partial or complete symptomatic relief was achieved in 6 patients (27.3%) and 13 patients (59.1%), respectively. Grade 4 acute toxicity and treatment-related deaths were not observed. The following grade 3 acute toxicities were observed: diarrhea (2 patients, 9.1%), cystitis (1 patient, 4.5%), dermatitis (1 patient, 4.5%), and intestinal obstruction (1 patient, 4.5%). Late toxicity was infrequent. Chronic severe diarrhea, small bowel obstruction, and dysuria were observed in 2 (9.1%), 1 (4.5%) and 2 (9.1%) of the patients, respectively. This study showed that

  20. Effects of prenatal irradiation with accelerated heavy-ion beams on postnatal development in rats: III. Testicular development and breeding activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Murakami, M.; Eguchi-Kasai, K.; Nojima, K.; Shang, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Watanabe, K.; Fujita, K.; Moreno, S. G.; Coffigny, H.; Hayata, I.

    With a significant increase in human activities dealing with space missions, potential teratogenic effects on the mammalian reproductive system from prenatal exposure to space radiation have become a hot topic that needs to be addressed. However, even for the ground experiments, such effects from exposure to high LET ionizing radiation are not as well studied as those for low LET ionizing radiations such as X-rays. Using the Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) and Wistar rats, effects on gonads in prenatal male fetuses, on postnatal testicular development and on breeding activity of male offspring were studied following exposure of the pregnant animals to either accelerated carbon-ion beams with a LET value of about 13 keV/μm or neon-ion beams with a LET value of about 30 keV/μm at a dose range from 0.1 to 2.0 Gy on gestation day 15. The effects of X-rays at 200 kVp estimated for the same biological end points were studied for comparison. A significantly dose-dependent increase of apoptosis in gonocytes appeared 6 h after irradiations with a dose of 0.5 Gy or more. Measured delayed testis descent and malformed testicular seminiferous tubules were observed to be significantly different from the control animals at a dose of 0.5 Gy. These effects are observed to be dose- and LET-dependent. Markedly reduced testicular weight and testicular weight to body weight ratio were scored at postnatal day 30 even in the offspring that were prenatally irradiated with neon-ions at a dose of 0.1 Gy. A dose of 0.5 Gy from neon-ion beams induced a marked decrease in breeding activity in the prenatally irradiated male rats, while for the carbon-ion beams or X-rays, the significantly reduced breeding activity was observed only when the prenatal dose was at 1.0 Gy or more. These findings indicated that prenatal irradiations with heavy-ion beams on gestation day 15 generally induced markedly detrimental effects on prenatal gonads, postnatal testicular development and male

  1. Mitigation of solid waste and reuse of effluent from paint and varnish automotive and industrial treated by irradiation at electron beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most representative industrial segments is the polymeric coatings for house paint, automotive, industrial, marine, maintenance, and repainting markets. The general consumption of paint market in 2010 was 438,364 103 gallons of paint, in Brazil. However, when produce paints and varnishes, various kinds of solid wastes and liquid effluent are generated. The present research focus on the effluent from resins, water base paint and paint for electrophoresis, automotive industry, and general industrial coatings. The goal of this study is to use ionizing radiation to destroy the pollutants allowing the use of part of effluent as reuse water, and the rest discarded within the specified requirements. Actual industrial effluent samples were irradiated at Electron beam Accelerator applying absorbed doses of 10 kGy, 30 kGy and 50 kGy. The results, in this preliminary stage, showed a reduction of organic compounds and suspended solids. (author)

  2. Decursin was Accelerated Human Lung Cancer Cell Death Caused by Proton Beam Irradiation via Blocking the p42/44 MAPK pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Myung Hwan; Ra, Se Jin; Kim, Kye Ryung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Decursin, which is one of the extract of Angelica gigas Nakai root, has been traditionally used in Korean folk medicine as a tonic and for treatment of anemia and other common diseases. There are some reports about the pharmacological properties of decursin showing anti-bacterial and anti-amnestic effect, depression of cardiac contraction, antitumor and anti-angiogenic activity. Cell death induced by proton beam is identified as apoptosis. The study investigated that genes involved in apoptosis are checked by RT-PCR and used LET instead of SPBP of proton beam. Apoptosis is the tight regulated by multi-protein action in physiological cell death program. Proton therapy is an attractive approach for the treatment of deep-seated tumor. Recently, many researchers tried to new therapeutic strategy, combination of proton therapy and chemotherapy, in order to increase therapeutic effect. In this study, we investigate whether decursin can accelerate effect of human lung cell apoptosis in proton irradiated cancer cells

  3. Exposure to 56Fe irradiation accelerates normal brain aging and produces deficits in spatial learning and memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Casadesus, Gemma; Carey, Amanda N.; Rabin, Bernard M.; Joseph, James A.

    Previous studies have shown that radiation exposure, particularly to particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles) such as 56Fe, produces deficits in spatial learning and memory. These adverse behavioral effects are similar to those seen in aged animals. It is possible that these shared effects may be produced by the same mechanism. For example, an increased release of reactive oxygen species, and the subsequent oxidative stress and inflammatory damage caused to the central nervous system, is likely responsible for the deficits seen in aging and following irradiation. Therefore, dietary antioxidants, such as those found in fruits and vegetables, could be used as countermeasures to prevent the behavioral changes seen in these conditions. Both aged and irradiated rats display cognitive impairment in tests of spatial learning and memory such as the Morris water maze and the radial arm maze. These rats have decrements in the ability to build spatial representations of the environment, and they utilize non-spatial strategies to solve tasks. Furthermore, they show a lack of spatial preference, due to a decline in the ability to process or retain place (position of a goal with reference to a “map” provided by the configuration of numerous cues in the environment) information. These declines in spatial memory occur in measures dependent on both reference and working memory, and in the flexibility to reset mental images. These results show that irradiation with 56Fe high-energy particles produces age-like decrements in cognitive behavior that may impair the ability of astronauts, particularly middle-aged ones, to perform critical tasks during long-term space travel beyond the magnetosphere.

  4. Research of irradiation effects on chicken feet with pickled peppers by 10 MeV linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electronic accelerator has small investment and low production cost, it has no requirement of additional radioactive source, moreover there is no radiation after shutdown and its high dose rate and production speediness, so it has obvious advantages on price and economic in the market of radiation sterilization nowadays. Using high-energy electronic 10 MeV accelerator, we researched the radiation processing of chicken feet with pickled peppers. According to the dose test, we found that the absorption radiation dose of chicken feet packages (thickness is 149-millimeters), is almost uniform (the unevenness <2) after full power and two-side radiation with 10 MeV electron beam. After microbial detection, we found that the 10 kGy dose treatment can primly meet the sterilized requirement. However the one-side radiation process cannot meet the requirement, because we found that the dose of chicken feet in the 4th layer (the pack age has 6 layers) already had decreased for 10% and the downtrend of dose is more sharp in the 5th and the 6th layers after the dose test. (authors)

  5. A Prospective Pathologic Study to Define the Clinical Target Volume for Partial Breast Radiation Therapy in Women With Early Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Brandon T., E-mail: Brandon.Nguyen@act.gov.au [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Canberra Hospital, Radiation Oncology Department, Garran, ACT (Australia); Deb, Siddhartha [Department of Anatomical Pathology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Victorian Cancer Biobank, Cancer Council of Victoria, Carlton, Victoria (Australia); Fox, Stephen [Department of Anatomical Pathology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Hill, Prudence [Department of Anatomical Pathology, St. Vincent' s Hospital Melbourne, Fitzroy, Victoria (Australia); Collins, Marnie [Centre for Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Chua, Boon H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To determine an appropriate clinical target volume for partial breast radiation therapy (PBRT) based on the spatial distribution of residual invasive and in situ carcinoma after wide local excision (WLE) for early breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Methods and Materials: We performed a prospective pathologic study of women potentially eligible for PBRT who had re-excision and/or completion mastectomy after WLE for early breast cancer or DCIS. A pathologic assessment protocol was used to determine the maximum radial extension (MRE) of residual carcinoma from the margin of the initial surgical cavity. Women were stratified by the closest initial radial margin width: negative (>1 mm), close (>0 mm and {<=}1 mm), or involved. Results: The study population was composed of 133 women with a median age of 59 years (range, 27-82 years) and the following stage groups: 0 (13.5%), I (40.6%), II (38.3%), and III (7.5%). The histologic subtypes of the primary tumor were invasive ductal carcinoma (74.4%), invasive lobular carcinoma (12.0%), and DCIS alone (13.5%). Residual carcinoma was present in the re-excision and completion mastectomy specimens in 55.4%, 14.3%, and 7.2% of women with an involved, close, and negative margin, respectively. In the 77 women with a noninvolved radial margin, the MRE of residual disease, if present, was {<=}10 mm in 97.4% (95% confidence interval 91.6-99.5) of cases. Larger MRE measurements were significantly associated with an involved margin (P<.001), tumor size >30 mm (P=.03), premenopausal status (P=.03), and negative progesterone receptor status (P=.05). Conclusions: A clinical target volume margin of 10 mm would encompass microscopic residual disease in >90% of women potentially eligible for PBRT after WLE with noninvolved resection margins.

  6. Chitosan Dermal Substitute and Chitosan Skin Substitute Contribute to Accelerated Full-Thickness Wound Healing in Irradiated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar Mohd Hilmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wounds with full-thickness skin loss are commonly managed by skin grafting. In the absence of a graft, reepithelialization is imperfect and leads to increased scar formation. Biomaterials can alter wound healing so that it produces more regenerative tissue and fewer scars. This current study use the new chitosan based biomaterial in full-thickness wound with impaired healing on rat model. Wounds were evaluated after being treated with a chitosan dermal substitute, a chitosan skin substitute, or duoderm CGF. Wounds treated with the chitosan skin substitute showed the most re-epithelialization (33.2 ± 2.8%, longest epithelial tongue (1.62 ± 0.13 mm, and shortest migratory tongue distance (7.11 ± 0.25 mm. The scar size of wounds treated with the chitosan dermal substitute (0.13 ± 0.02 cm and chitosan skin substitute (0.16 ± 0.05 cm were significantly decreased (P<0.05 compared with duoderm (0.45 ± 0.11 cm. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA expression on days 7, 14, and 21 revealed the presence of human hair follicle stem cells and fibroblasts that were incorporated into and surviving in the irradiated wound. We have proven that a chitosan dermal substitute and chitosan skin substitute are suitable for wound healing in full-thickness wounds that are impaired due to radiation.

  7. Optimal moderator materials at various proton energies considering photon dose rate after irradiation for an accelerator-driven ⁹Be(p, n) boron neutron capture therapy neutron source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Y; Hiraga, F; Kiyanagi, Y

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated the accelerator beam power and the neutron-induced radioactivity of (9)Be(p, n) boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) neutron sources having a MgF2, CaF2, or AlF3 moderator and driven by protons with energy from 8 MeV to 30 MeV. The optimal moderator materials were found to be MgF2 for proton energies less than 10 MeV because of lower required accelerator beam power and CaF2 for higher proton energies because of lower photon dose rate at the treatment position after neutron irradiation.

  8. Irradiation of goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The necessary dose and the dosage limits to be observed depend on the kind of product and the purpose of irradiation. Product density and density distribution, product dimensions, but also packaging, transport and storage conditions are specific parameters influencing the conditions of irradiation. The kind of irradiation plant - electron accelerator or gamma plant - , its capacity, transport system and geometric arrangement of the radiation field are factors influencing the irradiation conditions as well. This is exemplified by the irradiation of 3 different products, onions, deep-frozen chicken and high-protein feed. Feasibilities and limits of the irradiation technology are demonstrated. (orig.)

  9. Preliminary simulation of implants breast through the accelerated partial irradiation technique: coverage rates and homogeneity; Simulacion previa de implates de mama mediante la tecnica de irradiacion parcial acelerada: indices de cubrimiento y homegeneidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moral Sanchez, S. C.; Paula Carranza, B. de; Erzibengoa, M.; Bragado Alvarez, L.; Guisasola Berasetegui, A.

    2013-07-01

    In this work we present and evaluate the process of pre-simulation we have drawn up when it comes to treatments of accelerated partial irradiation of breast. Previous simulation that we will allow you to have greater control over the location of catheters with respect to the area to radiate. The goodness of this procedure is evaluated through representative quality indexes of the implant. (Author)

  10. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and The World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19 MeV, 1 kW) and industrial unit Electronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for irradiation for; spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables. (author)

  11. 北京大学4.5 MV静电加速器核材料辐照系统%Nuclear Material Irradiation System of 4.5 MV Electrostatic Accelerator at Peking University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高原; 王建勇; 杨向军; 龚建华; 路祥臣

    2015-01-01

    Understanding nuclear materials response in extreme environments, such as intense irradiation and high temperature in fusion reactors and advanced fission reactors, is significant in designing advanced nuclear energy systems. Recently, a nuclear material irradiation system has been installed and in service on the beam line of 4.5 MV electrostatic accelerator. The energy range of proton or helium ion accelerated will be from 0.7∼3.5 MeV, and the ion current will be up to 10 µA. The system will consist of a vacuum chamber combined with heating controlling, which can achieve the irradiation under 1 000 ℃. In addition, by coupling 2 × 6 MV tandem accelerator and 4.5 MV single end electrostatic accelerator, a double beam irradiation system has been assembledand tested to study the synergistic effects of displacement damage, helium or hydrogen irradiation effects on microstructural changes of materials, as the experimental simulation of irradiation damage in reactors.%随着我国核电事业的发展,新一代核能系统对材料性能的更高要求已经成为材料科学领域新的挑战,为适应这一需求,为高性能抗辐照核材料的研究和测试提供平台,北京大学4.5 MV静电加速器组在核物理与核技术国家重点实验室的支持下,在原有束线基础上新增设质子/氦温控辐照系统并投入使用。该系统可进行能量范围在0.7∼3.5 MeV内的质子或氦离子辐照,离子流强最高10µA,并可进行最高1000℃的加热辐照,特别适合开展核能材料的初级快速筛选。此外,4.5 MV加速器与2×6 MV串列加速器联合建设的双束共靶辐照系统也已经整体调试完成,可为材料辐照效应的进一步研究提供良好的实验平台。

  12. Weekly bi-fractionated 40 Gy three-dimensional conformational accelerated partial irradiation of breast: results of a phase II French pilot study; Irradiation partielle acceleree du sein tridimensionnelle conformationnelle de 40Gy bifractionnee hebdomadaire: resultats d'une etude pilote francaise de phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgier, C.; Pichenot, C.; Verstraet, R.; Heymann, S.; Biron, B.; Delaloge, S.; Garbay, J.R.; Marsiglia, H.; Bourhis, J. [Intitut Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France); Taghian, A. [Massachusetts General Hospital-Harvard, Boston (United States); Marsiglia, H. [Universite Florence (Italy)

    2010-10-15

    The authors report the first French experience of three-dimensional conformational and accelerated partial irradiation of breast. Twenty five patients have been concerned by this phase II trial. The prescribed total dose was 40 Gy, was delivered over 5 days in two daily fractions. Irradiation was performed with two 6 MV tangential mini-beams and a 6-22 MeV front electron beams. The planning target volume coverage was very good. Toxicity has been assessed. Healthy tissues (heart, lungs) are considerably protected. The acute and late toxicity is correct. Short communication

  13. Stereotactic Irradiation of the Postoperative Resection Cavity for Brain Metastasis: A Frameless Linear Accelerator-Based Case Series and Review of the Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) is the standard of care after resection of a brain metastasis. However, concern regarding possible neurocognitive effects and the lack of survival benefit with this approach has led to the use of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) to the resection cavity in place of WBRT. We report our initial experience using an image-guided linear accelerator-based frameless stereotactic system and review the technical issues in applying this technique. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the setup accuracy, treatment outcome, and patterns of failure of the first 18 consecutive cases treated at Brigham and Women’s Hospital. The target volume was the resection cavity without a margin excluding the surgical track. Results: The median number of brain metastases per patient was 1 (range, 1–3). The median planning target volume was 3.49 mL. The median prescribed dose was 18 Gy (range, 15–18 Gy) with normalization ranging from 68% to 85%. In all cases, 99% of the planning target volume was covered by the prescribed dose. The median conformity index was 1.6 (range, 1.41–1.92). The SRS was delivered with submillimeter accuracy. At a median follow-up of 12.7 months, local control was achieved in 16/18 cavities treated. True local recurrence occurred in 2 patients. No marginal failures occurred. Distant recurrence occurred in 6/17 patients. Median time to any failure was 7.4 months. No Grade 3 or higher toxicity was recorded. A long interval between initial cancer diagnosis and the development of brain metastasis was the only factor that trended toward a significant association with the absence of recurrence (local or distant) (log-rank p = 0.097). Conclusions: Frameless stereotactic irradiation of the resection cavity after surgery for a brain metastasis is a safe and accurate technique that offers durable local control and defers the use of WBRT in select patients. This technique should be tested in larger prospective

  14. Stereotactic Irradiation of the Postoperative Resection Cavity for Brain Metastasis: A Frameless Linear Accelerator-Based Case Series and Review of the Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Paul J., E-mail: pkelly@lroc.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States); Lin Yijie Brittany; Yu, Alvin Y. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Alexander, Brian M.; Hacker, Fred; Marcus, Karen J.; Weiss, Stephanie E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) is the standard of care after resection of a brain metastasis. However, concern regarding possible neurocognitive effects and the lack of survival benefit with this approach has led to the use of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) to the resection cavity in place of WBRT. We report our initial experience using an image-guided linear accelerator-based frameless stereotactic system and review the technical issues in applying this technique. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the setup accuracy, treatment outcome, and patterns of failure of the first 18 consecutive cases treated at Brigham and Women's Hospital. The target volume was the resection cavity without a margin excluding the surgical track. Results: The median number of brain metastases per patient was 1 (range, 1-3). The median planning target volume was 3.49 mL. The median prescribed dose was 18 Gy (range, 15-18 Gy) with normalization ranging from 68% to 85%. In all cases, 99% of the planning target volume was covered by the prescribed dose. The median conformity index was 1.6 (range, 1.41-1.92). The SRS was delivered with submillimeter accuracy. At a median follow-up of 12.7 months, local control was achieved in 16/18 cavities treated. True local recurrence occurred in 2 patients. No marginal failures occurred. Distant recurrence occurred in 6/17 patients. Median time to any failure was 7.4 months. No Grade 3 or higher toxicity was recorded. A long interval between initial cancer diagnosis and the development of brain metastasis was the only factor that trended toward a significant association with the absence of recurrence (local or distant) (log-rank p = 0.097). Conclusions: Frameless stereotactic irradiation of the resection cavity after surgery for a brain metastasis is a safe and accurate technique that offers durable local control and defers the use of WBRT in select patients. This technique should be tested in larger prospective studies.

  15. Measurement of mean cardiac dose for various breast irradiation techniques and corresponding risk of major cardiovascular event.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Rodrigo Merino Lara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available After breast conserving surgery, early stage breast cancer patients are currently treated with a wide range of radiation techniques including whole breast irradiation (WBI, accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI using high dose rate (HDR brachytherapy, or 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT. This study compares the mean heart’s doses for a left breast irradiated with different breast techniques.An anthropomorphic Rando phantom was modified with gelatin-based breast of different sizes and tumors located medially or laterally. The breasts were treated with WBI, 3D-CRT or HDR APBI. The heart’s mean doses were measured with Gafchromic films and controlled with optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLDs. Following the model reported by Darby (16, major cardiac were estimated assuming a linear risk increase with the mean dose to the heart of 7.4% per gray.Whole breast irradiation lead to the highest mean heart dose (2.99 Gy compared to 3D-CRT APBI, (0.51 Gy, multicatheter (1.58 Gy and balloon HDR (2.17 Gy for a medially located tumor. This translated into long-term coronary event increases of 22%, 3.8%, 11.7%, and 16% respectively. The sensitivity analysis showed that the tumor location had almost no effect on the mean heart dose for 3D-CRT APBI and a minimal impact for HDR APBI. For WBI large breast size and set-up errors lead to sharp increases of the mean heart dose. Its value reached 10.79 Gy for women with large breast and a set-up error of 1.5 cm. Such a high value could increase the risk of having long-term coronary events by 80%.Comparison among different irradiation techniques demonstrates that 3D-CRT APBI appears the safest one with less probability of having cardiovascular events in the future. A sensitivity analysis showed that WBI is the most challenging technique for patients with large breasts or when significant set-up errors are anticipated. In those cases additional heart shielding techniques are required.

  16. Structural and electrical properties of polycrystalline CdSe thin films, before and after irradiation with 6 MeV accelerated electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structural and electrical properties of polycrystalline CdSe thin films irradiated with high-energy electrons are analyzed. The samples were prepared by vacuum deposition of CdSe powder onto optical glass substrate. Their structure and the temperature dependence of the electrical resistance were determined, both before and after irradiation with 6 MeV electrons at fluencies up to 1016 electrons/cm2. There were no measurable changes in the crystalline structure of the films after irradiation. Electrical properties are controlled by the defect level of donor type, possibly a selenium vacancy, with two ionizing states having ionization energies of about 0.40 eV and 0.22 eV, respectively. The major effect of the irradiation is to increase significantly the concentration of these defects. (authors)

  17. Brazilian green propolis water extract up-regulates the early expression level of HO-1 and accelerates Nrf2 after UVA irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    SAITO,Yuichi; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Ichihara, Kenji; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Hara, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation is the major cause of human skin aging. Suppression of UVA irradiation-induced skin fibroblast cell damage protects the skin against aging. An oxidative stress response transcription factor nuclear factor-(erythroid-derived 2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has an important role as a cytoprotective system against oxidative stress in the human skin and other organs. Propolis has been commonly used as a traditional medicine since ancient times. Th...

  18. Acceleration of mitotic cycle in meristem cells of seedlings roots by gamma irradiation of pea and maize seeds at stimulating doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seeds were irradiated with 500 or 1,000 rads of 60Co γ-rays and laid on filter paper for germination. After 2-3 d the seedlings were placed for 30 min. into a nutrient solution containing 3H-thymidine. Afterwards the seedlings were placed in a non-radioactive nutrient solution and every 2 h the root tip was fixed and prepared for autoradiography for determination of cell division. Irradiation of both the pea and maize seeds resulted in a reduction of the duration of the mitotic cycle, the individual phases being shortened to a different extent. Stimulating radiation doses increased the activity of cell division. (MG)

  19. Economics of food irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitch, J

    1982-01-01

    This article examines the cost competitiveness of the food irradiation process. An analysis of the principal factors--the product, physical plant, irradiation source, and financing--that impact on cost is made. Equations are developed and used to calculate the size of the source for planned product throughput, efficiency factors, power requirements, and operating costs of sources, radionuclides, and accelerators. Methods of financing and capital investment are discussed. A series of tables show cost breakdowns of sources, buildings, equipment, and essential support facilities for both a cobalt-60 and a 10-MeV electron accelerator facility. Additional tables present irradiation costs as functions of a number of parameters--power input, source size, dose, and hours of annual operation. The use of the numbers in the tables are explained by examples of calculations of the irradiation costs for disinfestation of grains and radicidation of feed. PMID:6759046

  20. Craniospinal irradiation using Rapid Arc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fandino, J. M.; Silva, M. C.; Marino, A.; Candal, A.; Diaz, I.; Fernandez, C.; Gesto, C.; Izquierdo, P.; Losada, C.; Poncet, M.; Soto, M.; Triana, G.

    2013-07-01

    Cranio-Spinal Irradiation is technically very challenging, historically field edge matching is needed because of the mechanical limitations of standard linear accelerators. The purpose of this study is to assess the Volumetric Arc Therapy as a competitive technique for Cranio-Spinal Irradiation compared to the conventional 3D Conformal Radiotherapy technique. (Author)

  1. Linear Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Vretenar, M

    2014-01-01

    The main features of radio-frequency linear accelerators are introduced, reviewing the different types of accelerating structures and presenting the main characteristics aspects of linac beam dynamics.

  2. Evaluation of two intracavitary high-dose-rate brachytherapy devices for irradiating additional and irregularly shaped volumes of breast tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Sharon M., E-mail: sharonlu@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Center for Advanced Radiotherapy Technologies (CART), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Scanderbeg, Daniel J.; Barna, Patrick; Yashar, William; Yashar, Catheryn [Department of Radiation Oncology and Center for Advanced Radiotherapy Technologies (CART), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2012-04-01

    The SAVI and Contura breast brachytherapy applicators represent 2 recent advancements in brachytherapy technology that have expanded the number of women eligible for accelerated partial breast irradiation in the treatment of early-stage breast cancer. Early clinical experience with these 2 single-entry, multichannel high-dose-rate brachytherapy devices confirms their ease of use and dosimetric versatility. However, current clinical guidelines for SAVI and Contura brachytherapy may result in a smaller or less optimal volume of treated tissue compared with traditional interstitial brachytherapy. This study evaluates the feasibility of using the SAVI and Contura to irradiate larger and irregularly shaped target volumes, approaching what is treatable with the interstitial technique. To investigate whether additional tissue can be treated, 17 patients treated with the SAVI and 3 with the Contura were selected. For each patient, the planning target volume (PTV) was modified to extend 1.1 cm, 1.3 cm, and 1.5 cm beyond the tumor bed cavity. To evaluate dose conformance to an irregularly shaped target volume, 9 patients treated with the SAVI and 3 with the Contura were selected from the original 20 patients. The following asymmetric PTV margin combinations were assessed for each patient: 1.5/0.3, 1.3/0.3, and 1.1/0.3 cm. For all patients, treatment planning was performed, adopting the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project guidelines, and dosimetric comparisons were made. The 6-1 and 8-1 SAVI devices can theoretically treat a maximal tissue margin of 1.5 cm and an asymmetric PTV with margins ranging from 0.3 to 1.5 cm. The 10-1 SAVI and Contura can treat a maximal margin of 1.3 cm and 1.1 cm, respectively, and asymmetric PTV with margins ranging from 0.3-1.3 cm. Compared with the Contura, the SAVI demonstrated greater dosimetric flexibility. Risk of developing excessive hot spots increased with the size of the SAVI device. Both the SAVI and Contura appear

  3. Concurrent chemo-irradiation using accelerated concomitant boost radiation therapy in loco-regionally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of combining concomitant boost-accelerated radiation regimen (ACB with full-dose mono-chemotherapy using cisplatin and to assess its local response and acute toxicity patterns in patients with advanced loco-regional head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC. Materials and Methods: Between July 2004 and August 2005, a pilot study involving 27 patients with stage III to IVB (AJCC-6th HNSCC of the oropharynx, hypopharynx and larynx who met the eligibility criteria was undertaken. Twenty-four of these patients (median age - 53 years were analyzable. The radiation dose was 72 Gy in 42 fractions over 6 weeks, delivered in one daily fraction of 1.8 Gy during the first 3.5 weeks and two fractions per day, 1.8 Gy and 1.5 Gy boost-separated by> 6 h interval, during the last 2.5 weeks. cisplatin, 100 mg/m2, was given in intravenous (i.v. infusion on day 1 and day 22. Tumor and clinical status were assessed and acute toxicities were graded. Results: Out of 27 patients, 24 patients received both radiation and chemotherapy as per protocol and were available for analysis. The loco-regional response rates were as follows: an overall response of 95.8% (23 patients, a complete response of 79.1% (19 patients, a partial response of 16.7% (4 patients and progressive disease in 4.2% (1 patient. Dysphagia, nausea, vomiting and bone marrow suppression were the most common side effects and were associated with cisplatin administration. One patient (3.7% died of complications (pneumonia and sepsis, 3 patients (12.5% had acute grade 4 toxicity and 21 patients (87.5% had acute grade 3 (17 patients or grade 2 (4 patients toxicity. Conclusion: This data shows that it is feasible to combine ACB and full-dose mono-chemotherapy using cisplatin with manageable, although substantial, toxicity. The compliance to therapy was high and the loco-regional response achieved compared favorably with ACB alone or other concurrent chemoradiation

  4. Accelerator programme at CAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Accelerator Programme at the Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT), Indore, has very broad based concept under which all types of accelerators are to be taken up for design and fabrication. This centre will be housing a wide variety of accelerators to serve as a common facility for the universities, national laboratories in addition to laboratories under the Department of Atomic Energy. In the first phase of the programme, a series of electron accelerators are designed and fabricated. They are synchrotron radiation sources of 450 MeV (INDUS-I) and of 2 GeV (INDUS-II), microtron upto energy of 20 MeV, linear accelerator upto 20 MeV, and DC Accelerator for industrial irradiation upto 750 KeV and 20 KW. A proton accelerator of 300 MeV with 20 MeV linac injector is also designed. CAT is also developing a strong base for support technologies like ultra high vacuum, radio frequency and microwaves, DC pulsed and superconducting magnets, power supplies and controls etc. These technologies are very useful for other industrial applications also. To develop user groups to utilise INDUS-II synchrotron radiation source, a batch production of rotating Anode X-ray generators with power supplies has been initiated. So also, the sputter ion pumps, electron guns, turbo molecular pumps are brought into batch production. (author)

  5. Application of electron accelerator worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machi, Sueo [Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    Electron accelerator is an important radiation source for radiation technology, which covers broad fields such as industry, health care, food and environmental protection. There are about 1,000 electron accelerators for radiation processing worldwide. Electron accelerator has advantage over Co-60 irradiator in term of high dose rate and power, assurance of safety, and higher economic performance at larger volume of irradiation. Accelerator generating higher energy in the range of 10 MeV and high power electron beam is now commercially available. There is a trend to use high-energy electron accelerator replacing Co-60 in case of large through-put of medical products. Irradiated foods, in particular species, are on the commercial market in 35 countries. Electron accelerator is used efficiently and economically for production of new or modified polymeric materials through radiation-induced cross-linking, grafting and polymerization reaction. Another important application of electron beam is the curing of surface coatings in the manufacture of products. Electron accelerators of large capacity are used for cleaning exhaust gases in industrial scale. Economic feasibility studies of this electron beam process have shown that this technology is more cost effective than the conventional process. It should be noted that the conventional limestone process produce gypsum as a by-product, which cannot be used in some countries. By contrast, the by-product of the electron beam process is a valuable fertilizer. (Y. Tanaka)

  6. Application of electron accelerator worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron accelerator is an important radiation source for radiation technology, which covers broad fields such as industry, health care, food and environmental protection. There are about 1,000 electron accelerators for radiation processing worldwide. Electron accelerator has advantage over Co-60 irradiator in term of high dose rate and power, assurance of safety, and higher economic performance at larger volume of irradiation. Accelerator generating higher energy in the range of 10 MeV and high power electron beam is now commercially available. There is a trend to use high-energy electron accelerator replacing Co-60 in case of large through-put of medical products. Irradiated foods, in particular species, are on the commercial market in 35 countries. Electron accelerator is used efficiently and economically for production of new or modified polymeric materials through radiation-induced cross-linking, grafting and polymerization reaction. Another important application of electron beam is the curing of surface coatings in the manufacture of products. Electron accelerators of large capacity are used for cleaning exhaust gases in industrial scale. Economic feasibility studies of this electron beam process have shown that this technology is more cost effective than the conventional process. It should be noted that the conventional limestone process produce gypsum as a by-product, which cannot be used in some countries. By contrast, the by-product of the electron beam process is a valuable fertilizer. (Y. Tanaka)

  7. Prototype of industrial electrons accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interest and the necessity of Mexico's industry in the use of irradiation process has been increased in the last years. As examples are the irradiation of combustion gases (elimination of NOx and SO2) and the polymer cross-linking between others. At present time at least twelve enterprises require immediately of them which have been contacted by electron accelerators suppliers of foreign countries. The first project step consisted in to identify the electrons accelerator type that in can be constructed in Mexico with the major number of possible equipment, instruments, components and acquisition materials local and useful for the major number of users. the characteristics of the accelerator prototype are: accelerator type transformer with multiple secondary insulated and rectifier circuits with a potential of 0.8 MV of voltage, the second step it consisted in an economic study that permitted to demonstrate the economic feasibility of its construction. (Author)

  8. Electron accelerators for environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of this publication is to provide information suitable for electron accelerators implementation in facilities applying radiation technology for environmental protection. It should be noticed that radiation processing has been successfully used in the fields of crosslinking polymer curing and medical products sterilization for more than 40 years. Practical application of radiation technology today extends on SO2 and NOx removal from the flue gas (one of major power intensive radiation processing), destruction and removal of organic chemicals from water, decreasing bacteria content in the irradiated sludge and waste water. On the other hand the increased awareness of environmental pollution hazards and more stringent waste regulations in many countries may open stronger support for environmentally oriented technologies. This publication provides an evaluation of electron accelerators capabilities in respect of environmental applications where technological and economical criteria are now well defined. In order to determine the potential of electron accelerators, the literature data were examined as well visits and meetings with various accelerator manufacturers were performed by the author. Experience of the author in accelerator facilities construction and exploitation including those which were used for environmental protection are significant part of this publication. The principle of accelerator action was described in Chapter 1. Early development, accelerator classification and fields of accelerators application were included to this chapter as well. Details of accelerator construction was described in Chapter 2 to illustrate physical capability of accelerators to perform the function of ionizing radiation source. Electron beam extraction devices, under beam equipment, electron beam parameters and measuring methods were characterized in this chapter as well. Present studies of accelerator technology was described in Chapter 3, where direct

  9. Future accelerators (?)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Womersley

    2003-08-21

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  10. Materials irradiation research in neutron science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Kenji; Oyama, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-11-01

    Materials irradiation researches are planned in Neutron Science Research Program. A materials irradiation facility has been conceived as one of facilities in the concept of Neutron Science Research Center at JAERI. The neutron irradiation field of the facility is characterized by high flux of spallation neutrons with very wide energy range up to several hundred MeV, good accessibility to the irradiation field, good controllability of irradiation conditions, etc. Extensive use of such a materials irradiation facility is expected for fundamental materials irradiation researches and R and D of nuclear energy systems such as accelerator-driven incineration plant for long-lifetime nuclear waste. In this paper, outline concept of the materials irradiation facility, characteristics of the irradiation field, preliminary technical evaluation of target to generate spallation neutrons, and materials researches expected for Neutron Science Research program are described. (author)

  11. Breast-conserving therapy with partial or whole breast irradiation: Ten-year results of the Budapest randomized trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: To report the long-term results of a single-institution randomized study comparing the results of breast-conserving treatment with partial breast irradiation (PBI) or conventional whole breast irradiation (WBI). Patients and methods: Between 1998 and 2004, 258 selected women with pT1 pN0-1mi M0, grade 1–2, non-lobular breast cancer without the presence of extensive intraductal component and resected with negative margins were randomized after BCS to receive 50 Gy WBI (n = 130) or PBI (n = 128). The latter consisted of either 7 × 5.2 Gy high-dose-rate (HDR) multi-catheter brachytherapy (BT; n = 88) or 50 Gy electron beam (EB) irradiation (n = 40). Primary endpoint was local recurrence (LR) as a first event. Secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), disease-free survival (DFS), and cosmetic results. Results: After a median follow up of 10.2 years, the ten-year actuarial rate of LR was 5.9% and 5.1% in PBI and WBI arms, respectively (p = 0.77). There was no significant difference in the ten-year probability of OS (80% vs 82%), CSS (94% vs 92%), and DFS (85% vs 84%), either. The rate of excellent-good cosmetic result was 81% in the PBI, and 63% in the control group (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Partial breast irradiation delivered by interstitial HDR BT or EB for a selected group of early-stage breast cancer patients produces similar ten-year results to those achieved with conventional WBI. Significantly better cosmetic outcome can be achieved with HDR BT implants compared with the outcome after WBI

  12. Accelerating Value Creation with Accelerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Eythor Ivar

    2015-01-01

    accelerator programs. Microsoft runs accelerators in seven different countries. Accelerators have grown out of the infancy stage and are now an accepted approach to develop new ventures based on cutting-edge technology like the internet of things, mobile technology, big data and virtual reality. It is also...... with the traditional audit and legal universes and industries are examples of emerging potentials both from a research and business point of view to exploit and explore further. The accelerator approach may therefore be an Idea Watch to consider, no matter which industry you are in, because in essence accelerators...

  13. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation is a promising technology in which food products are exposed to a controlled amount of radiant energy to eliminate disease-causing bacteria. The process can also control parasites and insects, reduce spoilage and inhibit ripening and sprouting. Food irradiation is endorsed by the most important health organisations (WHO, CDC, USDA, FDA, EFSA, etc.) and allowed in nearly 40 Countries. It is to remember that irradiation is not a substitute either for comprehensive food safety programs or for good food-handling practices. Irradiated foods must be labelled with either the statement treated with radiation or treated by irradiation and the international symbol for irradiation, the radura. Some consumer associations suppose negative aspects of irradiation, such as increase of the number of free radicals in food and decrease of antioxidant vitamins that neutralize them

  14. Laser accelerator

    OpenAIRE

    Vigil, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In 1979,W. B. Colson and S. K. Ride proposed a new kind of electron accelerator using a uniform magnetic field in combination with a circularly-polarized laser field. A key concept is to couple the oscillating electric field to the electron’s motion so that acceleration is sustained. This dissertation investigates the performance of the proposed laser accelerator using modern high powered lasers and mag-netic fields that are significan...

  15. Electron accelerators for radiosterilization; Akceleratory elektronow dla potrzeb sterylizacji radiacyjnej

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimek, Z. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-10-01

    The applications of electron accelerators in commercial plants for radiosterilization have been shown. Advantages of such irradiation source have been presented. The types and parameters of accelerators being installed in worldwide irradiation plants for radiosterilization have been listed as well. 2 tabs.

  16. Phase 2 Trial of Accelerated, Hypofractionated Whole-Breast Irradiation of 39 Gy in 13 Fractions Followed by a Tumor Bed Boost Sequentially Delivering 9 Gy in 3 Fractions in Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ja Young [Proton Therapy Center, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Jung, So-Youn; Lee, Seeyoun; Kang, Han-Sung; Lee, Eun Sook; Park, In Hae; Lee, Keun Seok; Ro, Jungsil [Center for Breast Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Nam Kwon [Proton Therapy Center, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea University Medical Center, Collage of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Kyung Hwan, E-mail: radiat@ncc.re.kr [Proton Therapy Center, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea University Medical Center, Collage of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To report a phase 2 trial of accelerated, hypofractionated whole-breast irradiation (AH-WBI) delivered as a daily dose of 3 Gy to the whole breast followed by a tumor bed boost. Methods and Materials: Two hundred seventy-six patients diagnosed with breast cancer (pT1-2 and pN0-1a) who had undergone breast-conserving surgery in which the operative margins were negative were treated with AH-WBI delivered as 39 Gy in 13 fractions of 3 Gy to the whole breast once daily over 5 consecutive working days, and 9 Gy in 3 sequential fractions of 3 Gy to a lumpectomy cavity, all within 3.2 weeks. Results: After a median follow-up period of 57 months (range: 27-75 months), the rate of 5-year locoregional recurrence was 1.4% (n=4), whereas that of disease-free survival was 97.4%. No grade 3 skin toxicity was reported during the follow-up period. Qualitative physician cosmetic assessments of good or excellent were noted in 82% of the patients at 2 months after the completion of AH-WBI. The global cosmetic outcome did not worsen over time, and a good or excellent cosmetic outcome was reported in 82% of the patients at 3 years. The mean pretreatment percentage breast retraction assessment was 12.00 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.14-12.86). The mean value of percentage breast retraction assessment increased to 13.99 (95% CI: 12.17-15.96) after 1 year and decreased to 13.54 (95% CI: 11.84-15.46) after 3 years but was not significant (P>.05). Conclusions: AH-WBI consisting of 39 Gy in 13 fractions followed by a tumor bed boost sequentially delivering 9 Gy in 3 fractions can be delivered with excellent disease control and tolerable skin toxicity in patients with early-stage breast cancer after breast-conserving surgery.

  17. Phase 2 Trial of Accelerated, Hypofractionated Whole-Breast Irradiation of 39 Gy in 13 Fractions Followed by a Tumor Bed Boost Sequentially Delivering 9 Gy in 3 Fractions in Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To report a phase 2 trial of accelerated, hypofractionated whole-breast irradiation (AH-WBI) delivered as a daily dose of 3 Gy to the whole breast followed by a tumor bed boost. Methods and Materials: Two hundred seventy-six patients diagnosed with breast cancer (pT1-2 and pN0-1a) who had undergone breast-conserving surgery in which the operative margins were negative were treated with AH-WBI delivered as 39 Gy in 13 fractions of 3 Gy to the whole breast once daily over 5 consecutive working days, and 9 Gy in 3 sequential fractions of 3 Gy to a lumpectomy cavity, all within 3.2 weeks. Results: After a median follow-up period of 57 months (range: 27-75 months), the rate of 5-year locoregional recurrence was 1.4% (n=4), whereas that of disease-free survival was 97.4%. No grade 3 skin toxicity was reported during the follow-up period. Qualitative physician cosmetic assessments of good or excellent were noted in 82% of the patients at 2 months after the completion of AH-WBI. The global cosmetic outcome did not worsen over time, and a good or excellent cosmetic outcome was reported in 82% of the patients at 3 years. The mean pretreatment percentage breast retraction assessment was 12.00 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.14-12.86). The mean value of percentage breast retraction assessment increased to 13.99 (95% CI: 12.17-15.96) after 1 year and decreased to 13.54 (95% CI: 11.84-15.46) after 3 years but was not significant (P>.05). Conclusions: AH-WBI consisting of 39 Gy in 13 fractions followed by a tumor bed boost sequentially delivering 9 Gy in 3 fractions can be delivered with excellent disease control and tolerable skin toxicity in patients with early-stage breast cancer after breast-conserving surgery

  18. LIBO accelerates

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The prototype module of LIBO, a linear accelerator project designed for cancer therapy, has passed its first proton-beam acceleration test. In parallel a new version - LIBO-30 - is being developed, which promises to open up even more interesting avenues.

  19. IFMIF accelerator facility RAMI analyses in the engineering design phase

    OpenAIRE

    Bargalló Font, Enric

    2014-01-01

    The planned International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) has the mission to test and qualify materials for future fusion reactors. IFMIF will employ the deuteron-lithium stripping reaction to irradiate the test samples with a high-energy neutron flux. IFMIF will consist mainly of two linear deuteron accelerators, a liquid lithium loop and a test cell. Accelerated deuterons will collide with the lithium producing a high-energy neutron flux that will irradiate the material sample...

  20. Dose rate effect in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been suggested that the minor losses of nutrients associated with radiation processing may be further reduced by irradiating foods at the high dose rates generally associated with electron beams from accelerators, rather than at the low dose rates typical of gamma irradiation (e.g. 60Co). This review briefly examines available comparative data on gamma and electron irradiation of foods to evaluate these suggestions. (137 refs., 27 tabs., 11 figs.)

  1. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author reviews in outline the present status of industrial gamma irradiation plants for food and medical sterilization and in particular lists commercial irradiation plants currently operating in the U.K., considering briefly plant design, efficiency, costs and dose control. (UK)

  2. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the need for effective and efficient technologies in improving the food handling system. It defines the basic premises for the development of food handling. The application of food irradiation technology is briefly discussed. The paper points out key considerations for the adoption of food irradiation technology in the ASEAN region (author)

  3. Investigation of the effect of some irradiation parameters on the response of various types of dosimeters to electron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, K.; Kuntz, F.; Kadri, O.; Ghedira, L.

    2004-09-01

    Several undyed and dyed polymer films are commercially available for dosimetry in intense radiation fields, especially for radiation processing of food and sterilisation of medical devices. The effects of temperature during irradiation and post-irradiation stability, on the response of these dosimeters are of importance to operators of irradiation facilities. The present study investigates the effects of temperature during irradiation by 2.2 MeV electrons beam accelerator and post irradiation storage on the response of several types of dosimeter films. All dosimeters showed a significant effect of temperature during irradiation and post-irradiation storage.

  4. Investigation of the effect of some irradiation parameters on the response of various types of dosimeters to electron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farah, K. E-mail: k.farah@cnstn.rnrt.tn; Kuntz, F.; Kadri, O.; Ghedira, L

    2004-10-01

    Several undyed and dyed polymer films are commercially available for dosimetry in intense radiation fields, especially for radiation processing of food and sterilisation of medical devices. The effects of temperature during irradiation and post-irradiation stability, on the response of these dosimeters are of importance to operators of irradiation facilities. The present study investigates the effects of temperature during irradiation by 2.2 MeV electrons beam accelerator and post irradiation storage on the response of several types of dosimeter films. All dosimeters showed a significant effect of temperature during irradiation and post-irradiation storage.

  5. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation can have a number of beneficial effects, including prevention of sprouting; control of insects, parasites, pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, moulds and yeasts; and sterilization, which enables commodities to be stored for long periods. It is most unlikely that all these potential applications will prove commercially acceptable; the extend to which such acceptance is eventually achieved will be determined by practical and economic considerations. A review of the available scientific literature indicates that food irradiation is a thoroughly tested food technology. Safety studies have so far shown no deleterious effects. Irradiation will help to ensure a safer and more plentiful food supply by extending shelf-life and by inactivating pests and pathogens. As long as requirement for good manufacturing practice are implemented, food irradiation is safe and effective. Possible risks of food irradiation are not basically different from those resulting from misuse of other processing methods, such as canning, freezing and pasteurization. (author)

  6. Breast-Conserving Treatment With Partial or Whole Breast Irradiation for Low-Risk Invasive Breast Carcinoma-5-Year Results of a Randomized Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To report the 5-year results of a randomized study comparing the survival and cosmetic results of breast-conserving treatment with partial breast irradiation (PBI) or conventional whole breast irradiation (WBI). Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2004, 258 selected patients with T1 N0-1mi, Grade 1-2, nonlobular breast cancer without presence of extensive intraductal component and resected with negative margins were randomized after breast-conserving surgery to receive 50 Gy/25 fractions WBI (n = 130) or PBI (n = 128). The latter consisted of either 7 x 5.2 Gy high-dose-rate (HDR) multicatheter brachytherapy (BT; n = 88) or 50 Gy/25 fractions electron beam (EB) irradiation (n = 40). Results: At a median follow-up of 66 months, the 5-year actuarial rate of local recurrence was 4.7% and 3.4% in the PBI and WBI arms, respectively (p = 0.50). There was no significant difference in the 5-year probability of overall survival (94.6% vs. 91.8%), cancer-specific survival (98.3% vs. 96.0%), and disease-free survival (88.3% vs. 90.3%). The rate of excellent to good cosmetic result was 77.6% in the PBI group (81.2% after HDR BT; 70.0% after EB) and 62.9% in the control group (52.2% after telecobalt; 65.6% after 6-9-MV photons; pWBI/PBI = 0.009). Conclusions: Partial breast irradiation using interstitial HDR implants or EB to deliver radiation to the tumor bed alone for a selected group of early-stage breast cancer patients produces 5-year results similar to those achieved with conventional WBI. Significantly better cosmetic outcome can be achieved with carefully designed HDR multicatheter implants compared with the outcome after WBI

  7. Accelerators for the advanced radiation technology project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion beam irradiation facilities are now under construction for the advanced radiation technology (ART) project in Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment of (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute) JAERI. The project is intended to make an effective use of ion beams, especially ion beams, in the research field of radiation application technology. The TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities include four ion accelerators to produce almost all kinds of energetic ions in the periodic table. The facilities are also provided with several advanced irradiation means and act as very powerful accelerator complex for material development. Specifically, this report presents an outline of the ART project, features of TIARA as accelerator facilities dedicated to material development, the AVF cyclotron under construction (Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Model 930), tandem accelerator, microbeam, and experimental instruments used. (N.K.)

  8. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food treatment by means of ionizing energy, or irradiation, is an innovative method for its preservation. In order to treat important volumes of food, it is necessary to have industrial irradiation installations. The effect of radiations on food is analyzed in the present special work and a calculus scheme for an Irradiation Plant is proposed, discussing different aspects related to its project and design: ionizing radiation sources, adequate civil work, security and auxiliary systems to the installations, dosimetric methods and financing evaluation methods of the project. Finally, the conceptual design and calculus of an irradiation industrial plant of tubercles is made, based on the actual needs of a specific agricultural zone of our country. (Author)

  9. Fruits irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this project in food irradiation are two-fold, to study the effect of irradiation in prolongation of useful storage life of fruits and to evaluate irradiation as a means of preserving fruits. However radiation is not intended to replace existing preservation processes but may be used in conjunction with current methods such as refrigeration, drying, fermentation etc. In fact radiation should combine with proper storage and packaging techniques in order to ensure maximum benefits. Ripening retardation of fruits by irradiation kinds of fruits: papaya, mango, rambutan, longan and durian. Changes in organoleptic properties of fruit flavor and taste, texture changes by taste panel estimation of significance level of results by statistical mathematical methods, chemical changes determination of climacteric peak in fruits by estimation of carbon dioxide evolution, vitamin C determination by Tillmann's method, carotenoid separation by thin layer chromatography, reducing sugars and acidity determination, volatile components of durian by gas-chromatography

  10. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preservation of food using irradiation may replace or be used in combination with traditional or conventional food preservation techniques. Studies have shown that the irradiation technique which uses less energy than other preservation methods is a potential way for reducing post harvest losses. However, economic feasibility among other constraints is the core factor to determine the success of the technique at commercial scale. The need and importance for considering this new technique in Malaysia are discussed here. (author)

  11. Breast cancer radiotherapy: controversies and prospectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jin-ming; WANG Yong-sheng

    2008-01-01

    @@ Despite consensus on breast cancer radiotherapy, there are still some controversies over post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) in patients with 1-3 positive lymph nodes, accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI), appropriate sequence of radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormonal treatment, and radiotherapy after preoperative systemic therapy.

  12. Triple ion beam irradiation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, M.B.; Allen, W.R.; Buhl, R.A.; Packan, N.H.; Cook, S.W.; Mansur, L.K.

    1988-12-01

    A unique ion irradiation facility consisting of three accelerators is described. The accelerators can be operated simultaneously to deliver three ion beams on one target sample. The energy ranges of the ions are 50 to 400 keV, 200 keV to 2.5 MeV, and 1.0 to 5.0 MeV. Three different ions in the appropriate mass range can be simultaneously implanted to the same depth in a target specimen as large as 100 mm/sup 2/ in area. Typical depth ranges are 0.1 to 1.0 ..mu..m. The X-Y profiles of all three ion beams are measured by a system of miniature Faraday cups. The low-voltage accelerator can periodically ramp the ion beam energy during the implantation. Three different types of target chambers are in use at this facility. The triple-beam high-vacuum chamber can hold nine transmission electron microscopy specimens at elevated temperature during a irradiation by the three simultaneous beams. A second high-vacuum chamber on the medium-voltage accelerator beamline houses a low- and high-temperature translator and a two-axis goniometer for ion channeling measurements. The third chamber on the high-energy beamline can be gas-filled for special stressed specimen irradiations. Special applications for the surface modification of materials with this facility are described. Appendixes containing operating procedures are also included. 18 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Triple ion beam irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A unique ion irradiation facility consisting of three accelerators is described. The accelerators can be operated simultaneously to deliver three ion beams on one target sample. The energy ranges of the ions are 50 to 400 keV, 200 keV to 2.5 MeV, and 1.0 to 5.0 MeV. Three different ions in the appropriate mass range can be simultaneously implanted to the same depth in a target specimen as large as 100 mm2 in area. Typical depth ranges are 0.1 to 1.0 μm. The X-Y profiles of all three ion beams are measured by a system of miniature Faraday cups. The low-voltage accelerator can periodically ramp the ion beam energy during the implantation. Three different types of target chambers are in use at this facility. The triple-beam high-vacuum chamber can hold nine transmission electron microscopy specimens at elevated temperature during a irradiation by the three simultaneous beams. A second high-vacuum chamber on the medium-voltage accelerator beamline houses a low- and high-temperature translator and a two-axis goniometer for ion channeling measurements. The third chamber on the high-energy beamline can be gas-filled for special stressed specimen irradiations. Special applications for the surface modification of materials with this facility are described. Appendixes containing operating procedures are also included. 18 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab

  14. Accelerator operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section is concerned with the operation of both the tandem-linac system and the Dynamitron, two accelerators that are used for entirely different research. Developmental activities associated with the tandem and the Dynamitron are also treated here, but developmental activities associated with the superconducting linac are covered separately because this work is a program of technology development in its own right

  15. Advanced accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the suitability of four novel particle acceleration technologies for multi-TeV particle physics machines: laser driven linear accelerators (linac), plasma beat-wave devices, plasma wakefield devices, and switched power and cavity wakefield linacs. The report begins with the derivation of beam parameters practical for multi-TeV devices. Electromagnetic field breakdown of materials is reviewed. The two-beam accelerator scheme for using a free electron laser as the driver is discussed. The options recommended and the conclusions reached reflect the importance of cost. We recommend that more effort be invested in achieving a self-consistent range of TeV accelerator design parameters. Beat-wave devices have promise for 1-100 GeV applications and, while not directly scalable to TeV designs, the current generation of ideas are encouraging for the TeV regime. In particular, surfatrons, finite-angle optical mixing devices, plasma grating accelerator, and the Raman forward cascade schemes all deserve more complete analysis. The exploitation of standard linac geometry operated in an unconventional mode is in a phase of rapid evolution. While conceptual projects abound, there are no complete designs. We recommend that a fraction of sponsored research be devoted to this approach. Wakefield devices offer a great deal of potential; trades among their benefits and constraints are derived and discussed herein. The study of field limitation processes has received inadequate attention; this limits experiment designers. The costs of future experiments are such that investment in understanding these processes is prudent. 34 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Irradiation tests report of the 33rd cycle in 'JOYO'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the operating and irradiation data of the experimental reactor 'JOYO' 33rd cycle, and estimates the 34th cycle irradiation condition. Irradiation tests in the 33rd cycle are as follows: (1) B-type irradiation rig (B9). (a) High burn up performance tests of MONJU' fuel pins, advanced austenitic steel cladding fuel pins, large diameter fuel pins, ferrite steel cladding fuel pins and large diameter annular pellet fuel pins, (b) Mixed carbide and nitride fuel pins irradiation tests (in collaboration with JAERI). (2) C-type irradiation rig (C4F). (a) High burn up performance test of advanced austenitic stainless steel cladding fuel pins (in collaboration with France). (3) C-type irradiation rig (C6D). (a) Large diameter fuel pins irradiation tests. (4) Absorber Materials Irradiation Rig (AMIR-6). (a) Run to absorber pin's cladding breach. (5) Core Materials Irradiation Rig (CMIR-5). (a) Cladding tube materials irradiation tests for 'MONJU'. (6) Core Materials Irradiation Rig (CMIR-5-1). (a) Core materials irradiation tests. (7) Structure Materials Irradiation Rigs (SMIR). (a) Material irradiation tests (in collaboration with universities, (b) Surveillance back up tests for 'MONJU' (8) Upper core structure irradiation Plug Rig (UPR-1-5). (a) Upper core neutron spectrum effect and accelerated irradiation effect. The maximum burnup driver assembly 'PFD516' reached 64,300 MWd/t (pin average). (author)

  17. Commercial irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercial irradiation, the treatment of products with gamma radiation principally using a Cobalt-60 source, had its beginnings in Europe and Australia 25 years ago. To date the most successful application of the process is the sterilization of medical products and, for a variety of reasons, gamma sterilization is now becoming dominant in this important field. Many other applications have been evaluated over the years and the most exciting is undoubtedly food irradiation for which there is a vast potential. The commercial feasibility of setting up and irradiation facility is a complex subject and the selection of Cobalt-60 gamma plant depends on a number of technical and economic considerations. The parameters which determine the design and capacity of the optimum plant include throughput, product size and dose requirements; a balance has to be struck between plant flexibility and overall economy. The Ansell irradiators are designed primarily for the sterilization of medical products although some experimental food irradiation has been done, particularly in Australia. (author)

  18. Characterization Study of Accelerator for Application in Biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characterization of accelerator for application in biotechnology was studied. Accelerator is a machine to produce ion beam particles. Accelerator can be used for biotechnology experiments. Ion beam particles irradiation on the biological material will produced variabilities of genetics and induced mutations. In general, new varieties were found by hybridization method or mutation breeding method by gamma rays irradiation. Ion beam particles can be used for biological material irradiation to find variabilities of genetics and induced mutations. The high percentage of mutation rate and LET value by ion beam particles irradiation was found higher than by gamma rays irradiation. Ion beam particle irradiation can also be controlled and foewed to target in biological material. The characterization of accelerator needed for biotechnology experiments are types of accelerator (Tandem Van de Graff, AVF Cyclotron, Synchrotron, Rilac), types of ion particles (C, He, electron, Ar, Ne, Ni, Al, Xe and Au), range of energy (5 - 2.090 MeV), range of dose irradiation (10 - 250 Gy), range of ion current (0.02 - 20 nA), range of ion beam particles diameter (10 - 100 μm), range of LET value (300 - 1.800 keV/μm ) and irradiation time (5 - 30 seconds/samples). (author)

  19. Vinca irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development programme of the VINCA radiosterilisation centre involves plans for an irradiator capable of working in several ways. Discontinuous operation. The irradiator is loaded for a certain period then runs automatically until the moment of unloading. This method is suitable as long as the treatment capacity is relatively small. Continuous operation with permanent batch loading and unloading carried out either manually or automatically (by means of equipment to be installed later). Otherwise the design of the apparatus is highly conventional. The source is a vertical panel submersible in a pool. The conveyor is of the 'bucket' type, with 4 tiers to each bucket. The batches pass successively through all possible irradiation positions. Transfert into and out of the cell take place through a maze, which also provides access to the cell when the sources are in storage at the bottom of the pool

  20. KEKB accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KEKB, the B-Factory at High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) recently achieved the luminosity of 1 x 1034 cm-2s-1. This luminosity is two orders higher than the world's level at 1990 when the design of KEKB started. This unprecedented result was made possible by KEKB's innovative design and technology in three aspects - beam focusing optics, high current storage, and beam - beam interaction. Now KEKB is leading the luminosity frontier of the colliders in the world. (author)

  1. Accelerating networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evolving out-of-equilibrium networks have been under intense scrutiny recently. In many real-world settings the number of links added per new node is not constant but depends on the time at which the node is introduced in the system. This simple idea gives rise to the concept of accelerating networks, for which we review an existing definition and-after finding it somewhat constrictive-offer a new definition. The new definition provided here views network acceleration as a time dependent property of a given system as opposed to being a property of the specific algorithm applied to grow the network. The definition also covers both unweighted and weighted networks. As time-stamped network data becomes increasingly available, the proposed measures may be easily applied to such empirical datasets. As a simple case study we apply the concepts to study the evolution of three different instances of Wikipedia, namely, those in English, German, and Japanese, and find that the networks undergo different acceleration regimes in their evolution

  2. Multi-modality fusion of CT, 3D ultrasound, and tracked strain images for breast irradiation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi, Pezhman; Csoma, Csaba; Rivaz, Hassan; Fichtinger, Gabor; Zellars, Richard; Hager, Gregory; Boctor, Emad

    2009-02-01

    Breast irradiation significantly reduces the risk of recurrence of cancer. There is growing evidence suggesting that irradiation of only the involved area of the breast, partial breast irradiation (PBI), is as effective as whole breast irradiation. Benefits of PBI include shortened treatment time, and perhaps fewer side effects as less tissue is treated. However, these benefits cannot be realized without precise and accurate localization of the lumpectomy cavity. Several studies have shown that accurate delineation of the cavity in CT scans is very challenging and the delineated volumes differ dramatically over time and among users. In this paper, we propose utilizing 3D ultrasound (3D-US) and tracked strain images as complementary modalities to reduce uncertainties associated with current CT planning workflow. We present the early version of an integrated system that fuses 3D-US and real-time strain images. For the first time, we employ tracking information to reduce the noise in calculation of strain image by choosing the properly compressed frames and to position the strain image within the ultrasound volume. Using this system, we provide the tools to retrieve additional information from 3D-US and strain image alongside the CT scan. We have preliminarily evaluated our proposed system in a step-by-step fashion using a breast phantom and clinical experiments.

  3. High intensity laser-driven ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion acceleration by intense laser-plasma interactions is a very active field of research whose development can be traced in a large number of publications over the last few years. Past studies were mostly performed irradiating thin foils where protons are predominantly accelerated to energies up to 60 MeV in an exponentially decaying spectrum by a mechanism named target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA). We present our latest experimental advances on acceleration schemes away from TNSA, such as shock acceleration, ion beam generation from relativistically transparent targets and radiation-pressure acceleration. These results are a major step towards highly energetic, mono-chromatic ion beams generated at high conversion efficiencies as demanded by many potential applications. Those include fast ignition inertial confinement fusion (ICF) as well as oncology and radiation therapy of tumors.

  4. Accelerators and the Accelerator Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process.

  5. accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    On the inside of the cavitytThere is a layer of niobium. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment.

  6. Food irradiation: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent regulatory and commercial activity regarding food irradiation is highlighted. The effects of irradiation, used to kill insects and microorganisms which cause food spoilage, are discussed. Special attention is given to the current regulatory status of food irradiation in the USA; proposed FDA regulation regarding the use of irradiation; pending irradiation legislation in the US Congress; and industrial applications of irradiation

  7. Nuclear data for designing the IFMIF accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Masayoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    The objective of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) and the design concept of the IFMIF accelerator system are described. The status of the nuclear data, especially for the deuteron-induced reactions, to qualify the system design is reviewed. The requests for the nuclear data compilation and/or evaluation are summarized. (author)

  8. Spectroscopic and thermal studies of 8 MeV electron beam irradiated HPMC films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sangappa [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri 574 199 (India)], E-mail: syhalabhavi@yahoo.co.in; Asha, S. [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri 574 199 (India); Demappa, T. [Department of Studies in Polymer Science, University of Mysore, Sir M.V.P.G. Center, Mandya 571 402 (India); Sanjeev, Ganesh [Microtron Centre, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri 574 199 (India); Parameswara, P.; Somashekar, R. [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore 570 006 (India)

    2009-07-01

    Radiation-induced changes in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) films under electron irradiation were investigated and correlated with dose. Polymer samples were irradiated in air at room temperature by an electron beam accelerator in the range of 0-100 kGy. Various properties of the irradiated films were studied using a Ultraviolet-Visible spectrophotometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Electron irradiation was found to induce changes in the physical, chemical and thermal properties, depending on the irradiation dose.

  9. Is there a future for industrial food irradiation in Germany?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial irradiation systems currently in operation in Germany encompass 7 gamma sources with an activity of approx. 10 MCi, and 20 electron accelerators with voltages ranging from 0.5 MeV to 10 MeV. The value of the goods irradiated every year at those installations amounts to approx. DM 5 billion. Irradiation technology plays a significant role in German industry and is expected to become more important in the future. Enhanced non-biased information of the general public about the usefulness of food irradiation, for instance for control of health risks emanating from foodstuffs, is hoped to raise public acceptance of the food irradiation technology. (orig./CB)

  10. The studies of irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking on reactor internals stainless steel under Xe irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Rong-shan [Suzhou Nuclear Power Research Institute, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province 215004 (China); Xu, Chao-liang, E-mail: xuchaoliang@cgnpc.com.cn [Suzhou Nuclear Power Research Institute, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province 215004 (China); Liu, Xiang-bing; Huang, Ping [Suzhou Nuclear Power Research Institute, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province 215004 (China); Chen, Yu [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Specimens of Chinese domestic reactor internals stainless steel were irradiated with 6 MeV Xe ions for three peak displacement damage of 2, 7 and 15 dpa at room temperature. The slow strain rate tests (SSRT), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and nano-indentation tests were carried out to study the IASCC properties, phase transition and nano-hardness variations. The SSRT results indicate that the IASCC susceptibility increases with irradiation damage. Ion irradiation accelerates the stress corrosion cracking (SCC). A new ferrite phase diffraction peak of α(1 1 0) after irradiated to 7 dpa and another two α phase of α(2 0 0) and α(2 1 1) after irradiated to 15 dpa were observed by GIXRD, which may be due to localized deformation. A similar trend of irradiation hardening and IASCC susceptibility was observed, which suggests an essential connection between them.

  11. Radiotherapy using a laser proton accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Murakami, Masao; Miyajima, Satoshi; Okazaki, Yoshiko; Sutherland, Kenneth L; Abe, Mitsuyuki; Bulanov, Sergei V; Daido, Hiroyuki; Esirkepov, Timur Zh; Koga, James; Yamagiwa, Mitsuru; Tajima, Toshiki

    2008-01-01

    Laser acceleration promises innovation in particle beam therapy of cancer where an ultra-compact accelerator system for cancer beam therapy can become affordable to a broad range of patients. This is not feasible without the introduction of a technology that is radically different from the conventional accelerator-based approach. The laser acceleration method provides many enhanced capabilities for the radiation oncologist. It reduces the overall system size and weight by more than one order of magnitude. The characteristics of the particle beams (protons) make them suitable for a class of therapy that might not be possible with the conventional accelerator, such as the ease for changing pulse intensity, the focus spread, the pinpointedness, and the dose delivery in general. A compact, uncluttered system allows a PET device to be located in the vicinity of the patient in concert with the compact gantry. The radiation oncologist may be able to irradiate a localized tumor by scanning with a pencil-like particle...

  12. Nanostructured targets for TNSA laser ion acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torrisi Lorenzo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured targets, based on hydrogenated polymers with embedded nanostructures, were prepared as thin micrometric foils for high-intensity laser irradiation in TNSA regime to produce high-ion acceleration. Experiments were performed at the PALS facility, in Prague, by using 1315 nm wavelength, 300 ps pulse duration and an intensity of 1016 W/cm2 and at the IPPLM, in Warsaw, by using 800 nm wavelength, 40 fs pulse duration, and an intensity of 1019 W/cm2. Forward plasma diagnostic mainly uses SiC detectors and ion collectors in time of flight (TOF configuration. At these intensities, ions can be accelerated at energies above 1 MeV per nucleon. In presence of Au nanoparticles, and/or under particular irradiation conditions, effects of resonant absorption can induce ion acceleration enhancement up to values of the order of 4 MeV per nucleon.

  13. Microwave-Accelerated Organic Reactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU; TaJung

    2001-01-01

    The use of microwave technology in accelerating organic reactions has received intense attention leading to immense growth recently. Accordingly, we have been interested in improving the efficacy of organic processes by microwave irradiation. Here we report our results on the microwave assisted 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of nitrile oxides with allylic alcohols, the cleavage reaction of 1,3-diketones under alkaline conditions, and the formation of carbamates from isocyanates with alcohols. The reactions carried out under microwave irradiation, in general, required considerably less reaction time and afforded the desired products in higher yields than those under classical conditions. In all the cases we have studied, the procedures are simplified, the purity of the products are higher, and the cost of reaction is greatly reduced employing microwave.  ……

  14. Microwave-Accelerated Organic Reactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ The use of microwave technology in accelerating organic reactions has received intense attention leading to immense growth recently. Accordingly, we have been interested in improving the efficacy of organic processes by microwave irradiation. Here we report our results on the microwave assisted 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of nitrile oxides with allylic alcohols, the cleavage reaction of 1,3-diketones under alkaline conditions, and the formation of carbamates from isocyanates with alcohols. The reactions carried out under microwave irradiation, in general, required considerably less reaction time and afforded the desired products in higher yields than those under classical conditions. In all the cases we have studied, the procedures are simplified, the purity of the products are higher, and the cost of reaction is greatly reduced employing microwave.

  15. Neutron induced activation in the EVEDA accelerator materials: Implications for the accelerator maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, J. [Department of Power Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), C/Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Institute of Nuclear Fusion, UPM, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: jsanz@ind.uned.es; Garcia, M.; Sauvan, P.; Lopez, D. [Department of Power Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), C/Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Institute of Nuclear Fusion, UPM, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Moreno, C.; Ibarra, A.; Sedano, L. [CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-04-30

    The Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) phase of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility project should result in an accelerator prototype for which the analysis of the dose rates evolution during the beam-off phase is a necessary task for radioprotection and maintenance feasibility purposes. Important aspects of the computational methodology to address this problem are discussed, and dose rates for workers inside the accelerator vault are assessed and found to be not negligible.

  16. Effect of electron beam irradiation on surgical rubber gloves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper outlines the effects of electron beam irradiation on surgical rubber gloves. The tensile strength, elongation at break and modulus were evaluated as function of dose range 20-100 kGy minimum dose, dose uniformity ratio, 3.1, and both, accelerated and normal aging, were used to study the stability of the irradiated gloves after irradiation. The surgical gloves were found to be useful up to the highest dose tested. (orig.)

  17. Compact RF ion source for industrial electrostatic ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyeok-Jung, E-mail: hjkwon@kaeri.re.kr; Park, Sae-Hoon; Kim, Dae-Il; Cho, Yong-Sub [Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Gyeongsangbukdo 38180 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex is developing a single-ended electrostatic ion accelerator to irradiate gaseous ions, such as hydrogen and nitrogen, on materials for industrial applications. ELV type high voltage power supply has been selected. Because of the limited space, electrical power, and robust operation, a 200 MHz RF ion source has been developed. In this paper, the accelerator system, test stand of the ion source, and its test results are described.

  18. How to improve the irradiation conditions for the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Daum, E

    2000-01-01

    The accelerator-based intense D-Li neutron source International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) provides very suitable irradiation conditions for fusion materials development with the attractive option of accelerated irradiations. Investigations show that a neutron moderator made of tungsten and placed in the IFMIF test cell can further improve the irradiation conditions. The moderator softens the IFMIF neutron spectrum by enhancing the fraction of low energy neutrons. For displacement damage, the ratio of point defects to cascades is more DEMO relevant and for tritium production in Li-based breeding ceramic materials it leads to a preferred production via the sup 6 Li(n,t) sup 4 He channel as it occurs in a DEMO breeding blanket.

  19. Application and industrialization of irradiation processing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation processing technique is a new processing technique. At present, there are 40 sets of electron accelerators have been built or are building for industry are, total power comes to 1436 kw. The products provided have been 8 types and several ten kinds. Current status of radiation processing technique at home and abroad are reviewed

  20. Food processing with electrically generated photon irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A conceptual design for a portable electric food irradiation processing machine is presented and analyzed for cost assuming the required accelerators are available for $1.5 million each. It is shown that food can be processed to 1 kGy for a price of $5.98/ton

  1. Electron accelerators for radiation sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial radiation processes using high power electron accelerators are attractive because the throughput rates are very high and the treatment costs per unit of product are often competitive with more conventional chemical processes. The utilization of energy in e-beam processing is more efficient than typical thermal processing. The use of volatiles or toxic chemicals can be avoided. Strict temperature or moisture controls may not be needed. Irradiated materials are usable immediately after processing. These capabilities are unique in that beneficial changes can be induced rapidly in solid materials and preformed products. In recent years, e-beam accelerators have emerged as the preferred alternative for industrial processing as they offer advantages over isotope radiation sources, such as (a) increased public acceptance since the storage, transport and disposal of radioactive material is not an issue; (b) the ability to hook up with the manufacturing process for in-line processing; (c) higher dose rates resulting in high throughputs. During the 1980s and 1990s, accelerator manufacturers dramatically increased the beam power available for high energy equipment. This effort was directed primarily at meeting the demands of the sterilization industry. During this era, the perception that bigger (higher power, higher energy) was always better prevailed, since the operating and capital costs of accelerators did not increase with power and energy as fast as the throughput. High power was needed to maintain low unit costs for the treatment. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, advances in e-beam technology produced new high energy, high power e-beam accelerators suitable for use in sterilization on an industrial scale. These newer designs achieved high levels of reliability and proved to be competitive with gamma sterilization by 60Co and fumigation with EtO. In parallel, technological advances towards 'miniaturization' of accelerators also made it possible to

  2. Transmission electron microscope interfaced with ion accelerators and its application to materials science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Hiroaki; Naramoto, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Hojou, Kiichi; Furuno, Shigemi; Tsukamoto, Tetsuo

    1997-03-01

    We have developed the transmission/analytical electron microscope interfaced with two sets of ion accelerators (TEM-Accelerators Facility) at JAERI-Takasaki. The facility is expected to provide quantitative insights into radiation effects, such as damage evolution, irradiation-induced phase transformation and their stability, through in-situ observation and analysis under ion and/or electron irradiation. The TEM-Accelerators Facility and its application to materials research are reviewed. (author)

  3. Irradiation tests report of the 35th cycle in 'JOYO'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the operating and irradiation data of the experimental reactor 'JOYO' 35th cycle. Irradiation tests in the 35th cycle are as follows: (1) C-type irradiation rig (C4F). (a) High burn up performance test of advanced austenitic stainless steel cladding fuel pins (in collaboration with France). (2) C-type irradiation rig (C6D). (a) Large diameter fuel pins irradiation tests. (3) Core Materials Irradiation Rig (CMIR-5). (a) Cladding tube materials irradiation tests for 'MONJU'. (4) Structure Materials Irradiation Rigs (SMIR). (a) Decision of material design base standard of structure materials for prototype reactor and large scale reactor. (5) Upper core structure irradiation Plug Rig (UPR-1-5). (a) Upper core neutron spectrum effect and accelerated irradiation effect. (6) SurVeillance un-instrument Irradiation Rig (SVIR). (a) Confirmation of surveillance irradiation condition for 'JOYO'. (a) Material irradiation tests (based on a contract with universities). The maximum burnup driver assembly PFD253' reached 67,600 MWd/t (pin average). (author)

  4. Linear Accelerator (LINAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Linear Accelerator A linear accelerator (LINAC) customizes high energy x-rays to ... ensured? What is this equipment used for? A linear accelerator (LINAC) is the device most commonly used ...

  5. Effect of dexamethasone on irradiated rabbit pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The caudal half of the rabbit pancreas was irradiated with 3,000 rad of 60Co in a single dose. Dexamethasone, 1 mg, was given intravenously 30 minutes before irradiation, and then, 0.5 mg of dexamethasone was given intramuscularly for the following 3 days. Pancreatic tissues were observed 20 hours, 44 hours, 3 days, 4 days, 10 days and 25 days after irradiation. Light microscopic findings in the single irradiated group showed swelling and vacuole formation of acinar cells and dilatation of the ductal system at the early stage after irradiation. Twenty-five days after irradiation, lobules were separated by fibrous tissues, atrophy of acini appeared, and the number of acini decreased. In the dexamethasone, treated group atrophic degeneration of acinar cells was accelerated, focal necrosis appeared at the early stage after irradiation, and fibrosis appeared markedly. Electron microscopic findings in the single irradiated group showed whorle-like configurations of rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in acinar cells, an decrease in lysosomes, a decrease in exocrine granules, and large autophagic vacuoles. Changes in nucleus, swelling of basement membranes of acini, and an increase in collagen fibri appeared at the early stage after irradiation. In the dexamethasone treated group, above-mentioned changes were observed more markedly and many necrotic cells were observed at the early stage after irradiation. Twenty-five days after irradiation, a marked increase in collagen fibri and a marked decrease in acini was observed. In acinar cells, a decrease in rough ER, disappearance of exocrine granules, swelling of mitochondria, and appearance of filament-like substances were observed. (Tsunoda, M.)

  6. Genotoxicity test of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety tests of radiation irradiated foods started as early as from 1967 in Japan and genotoxicity tests in the Hatano Res. Inst., from 1977. The latter is unique in the world and is reviewed in this paper. Tests included those for the initial injury of DNA, mutagenicity, chromosomal aberration and transformation with use of bacteria, cultured mammalian cells and animals (for chromosomal aberration, micronucleus formation and dominant lethality). Foods tested hitherto were onion, rice, wheat and flour, Vienna sausage, fish sausage (kamaboko), mandarian orange, potato, black pepper and red capsicum, of which extract or powder was subjected to the test. Irradiation doses and its purposes were 0.15-6 kGy γ-ray (60Co) or electron beam by the accelerator (only for the orange), and suppression of germination, pesticide action or sterilization, respectively. Genotoxicity of all foods under tested conditions is shown negative. (N.I.)

  7. Immunity to Trichinella spiralis in irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation prevented the accelerated expulsion of Trichinella spiralis from mice immunized by transfer of immune mesenteric lymph node cells (IMLNC) or by prior infection. Nevertheless, worms in irradiated immune mice were smaller and less fecund than those in controls. In adoptively immunized and irradiated mice expulsion could not be achieved by increasing the numbers of IMLNC transferred, although the effect upon worm length was more severe. Thus IMLNC express a direct, anti-worm immunity which is independent of their role in worm expulsion. IMLNC cause expulsion in irradiated mice only when adequate levels of bone marrow-derived cells are available. The results are discussed in terms of a possible antibody-mediated basis for direct anti-worm immunity. (author)

  8. A particle accelerator probes artifacts

    CERN Document Server

    Dran, J C; Salomon, J

    2002-01-01

    The AGLAE system is made up of a 2 mega volts electrostatic accelerator and of 3 irradiation lines: one leads to a vacuum enclosure in which targets are irradiated and the 2 others lines are designed to irradiate targets under an air or helium atmosphere. The AGLAE system is located in the premises of the Louvre museum in Paris and is devoted to the study of cultural objects through ion beam analysis (IBA). 4 techniques are used: -) proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) -) proton-induced gamma ray (PIGE) -) Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (NRS) and -) nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). A decisive progress has permitted the direct analysis of artifacts without sampling. The object itself is set just a few millimeters away from the exit window of the beam in an air or helium atmosphere. The exit window must be resistant enough to bear the atmospheric pressure and the damages caused by the proton beam but must be thin enough to not deteriorate the quality of the beam. By using a 10 sup - sup 7 m thick exit w...

  9. Arrangement for selectively irradiating webs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The arrangement for selectively irradiating a web includes a perforated band of a radiation impermeable substance which is guided in an endless path via a pair of guide rollers and has two juxtaposed runs in this path. A take-up roller conveys a web of material past one of the runs at a side thereof remote from the other run, the direction of movement of the web being other than parallel to that of the band and, preferably, normal thereto. An electron accelerator is provided at the far side of the run remote from the web and is effective for directing a radiation beam at the web through the perforations

  10. Progress of food irradiation in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiated foods have not yet made a significant impact in the United States marketplace. What progress has occurred to facilitate their commercialization? Irradiated produce has been sold in small quantities since 1992 and irradiated poultry was introduced in the marketplace in 1993. Federal inspection of irradiated commodities has settled into a regular routine. What must occur to further expand irradiated foods in the marketplace? Petitions to permit irradiation of red meats and seafood are being considered by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and a petition to permit the irradiation of shell eggs is being prepared for submission to FDA. In addition, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has accelerated efforts to develop the policies and regulatory structure needed to facilitate the approval of new irradiation treatments for imported plant products regulated by quarantine. When will greater commercialization occur? More positive coverage to food irradiation in recent months by both the trade and popular press indicates a change in attitude towards irradiated foods by both consumers and the food industry. Finally, actual consumer response to available irradiated foods casts a favorable light on the potential for increased marketing of value-added irradiated foods. (Author)

  11. Effects of electron beam irradiation on bovine pericardium tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polak, Roberta; Pitombo, Ronaldo N.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Tecnologia Bioquimico-Farmaceutica], e-mail: robertaplk@gmail.com, e-mail: pitombo@usp.br; Rodas, Andrea C.D.; Higa, Olga Z. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia], e-mail: andrea.ipen@gmail.com, e-mail: ozhiga@ipen.br; Kodama, Yasko; Machado, Luci D.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes], e-mail: ykodama@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    In this work, electron beam irradiation was studied as a way for bovine pericardium (BP) tissue crosslinking. BP samples were irradiated in an electron beam accelerator at different doses (12.5 and 25 kGy), at three different dose ratios (4.67, 9.34 kGy/s), in the presence and absence of oxygen. Irradiated samples were analyzed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetry (TGA), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and swelling degree. DSC analysis showed a decrease in shrinkage temperature. However, for all irradiated samples, the energy required in the process was higher than the non irradiated BP. The TGA analysis showed that the thermal behavior, both the control and the irradiated samples, was characterized by three stages concerned in the loss of mass. The BP structure was characterized by swelling degree and SEM. The structure of the BP tissue suffered alteration, becoming looser, or more compact. By swelling degree, when the BP was irradiated in the presence of oxygen, the swelling degree value was higher than non irradiated BP, in the other hand the swelling degree value of BP irradiated in oxygen absence were lower than the non irradiated BP. Those results indicate that the BP irradiated in absence of oxygen could predominantly crosslinks. The BP degradation when it was irradiated in presence of oxygen was confirmed by SEM. (author)

  12. Heavy ion medical accelerator in chiba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The HIMAC (Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba) construction project has been promoted by NIRS (National Institute of Radiological Sciences) as one of the projects of 'Comprehensive 10 year Strategy for Cancer Control' HIMAC is the first heavy-ion accelerator dedicated to medicine in the world, and its design parameters are based on the radiological requirements. It consists of two types of ion sources, an RFQ and an Alvarez linacs, dual synchrotron rings, high energy beam transport lines, and irradiation facilities for treatment and experiments. This report mainly describes the outline of the structure and performance of each HIMAC subsystem. (J.P.N.)

  13. Steam-chemical reactivity for irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, R.A.; McCarthy, K.A.; Oates, M.A.; Petti, D.A.; Pawelko, R.J.; Smolik, G.R. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an experimental investigation to determine the influence of neutron irradiation effects and annealing on the chemical reactivity of beryllium exposed to steam. The work entailed measurements of the H{sub 2} generation rates for unirradiated and irradiated Be and for irradiated Be that had been previously annealed at different temperatures ranging from 450degC to 1200degC. H{sub 2} generation rates were similar for irradiated and unirradiated Be in steam-chemical reactivity experiments at temperatures between 450degC and 600degC. For irradiated Be exposed to steam at 700degC, the chemical reactivity accelerated rapidly and the specimen experienced a temperature excursion. Enhanced chemical reactivity at temperatures between 400degC and 600degC was observed for irradiated Be annealed at temperatures of 700degC and higher. This reactivity enhancement could be accounted for by the increased specific surface area resulting from development of a surface-connected porosity in the irradiated-annealed Be. (author)

  14. Accelerator Technology Program. Status report, April-September 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents highlights of major projects in the Accelerator Technology (AT) Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The first section deals with the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility. The second section covers code development and documentation done by the Accelerator Theory and Simulation Group. Following sections relate to the Proton Storage Ring, the racetrack microtron projects, beam dynamics, accelerator structure development, and LAMPF II. The last sections discuss programs involving free-electron laser technology, microwave and magnet technology, the portable accelerator, and klystron code development. The report concludes with a listing of papers published by AT-Division personnel during this reporting period

  15. Accelerator Technology Program. Status report, April-September 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents highlights of major projects in the Accelerator Technology (AT) Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Radio-frequency and microwave technology are dealt with. The p-bar gravity experiment, accelerator theory and simulation activities, the Proton Storage Ring, and the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test accelerator are discussed. Activities on the proposed LAMPF II accelerator, the BEAR (Beam Experiment Aboard Rocket) project, beam dynamics, the National Bureau of Standards racetrack microtron, and the University of Illinois racetrack microtron are covered. Papers published by AT-Division personnel during this reporting period are listed

  16. Solid targetry at the TESLA Accelerator Installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the concept of the TESLA Accelerator Installation, the channel for production of radioisotopes has to routinely produce 201Tl, 111In, 67Ga, 123I and 18F, and a number of other radionuclides for experimental purposes. The production of 123I and 18F will be performed in dedicated, commercial target stations, while a versatile solid target irradiation system is designed for the routine and experimental production of all other radioisotopes. The solid target station is designed to accept targets for both the 7 deg. and 90 deg. irradiation geometry. The targets used for the routine production will be prepared by electroplating on a silver substrate. They can be irradiated with a 1.5 kW beam using the 7 deg. geometry. The cooling of these targets is enhanced by fins on the back of the silver substrate designed so that the highest temperature on the surface of the target does not exceed 110 deg. C. The irradiation procedures will conform to the GMP requirements for the production of radiopharmaceuticals. The irradiated targets will be transported directly into the appropriate hot cell for radiochemical processing. All cells will be equipped with a target dissolution unit for etching the irradiated, electroplated film. After decontamination and sufficient cooling down, these targets will be reused several times

  17. Accelerated radiation damage test facility using a 5 MV tandem ion accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wady, P. T.; Draude, A.; Shubeita, S. M.; Smith, A. D.; Mason, N.; Pimblott, S. M.; Jimenez-Melero, E.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a new irradiation facility that allows to perform accelerated damage tests of nuclear reactor materials at temperatures up to 400 °C using the intense proton (stainless steel with a 3 MeV proton beam to a dose level of 3 dpa. The irradiation temperature was 356 °C, with a maximum range in temperature values of ±6 °C within the first 24 h of continuous irradiation. The sample stage is connected to ground through an electrometer to measure accurately the charge deposited on the sample. The charge can be integrated in hardware during irradiation, and this methodology removes uncertainties due to fluctuations in beam current. The measured gamma spectrum allowed the identification of the main radioactive nuclides produced during the proton bombardment from the lifetimes and gamma emissions. This dedicated radiation damage beam line is hosted by the Dalton Cumbrian Facility of the University of Manchester.

  18. The influence of Listeria monocytogenes cells on the primary immunologic response in irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of killed Listeria monocytogenes cells on the primary immunologic response in mice irradiated with 300 or 500 R was studied. The immunologic response of the mice to sheep red blood cells used as antigen was assessed at the cellular level (by counting PFC) and humoral level. Injection of killed Listeria monocytogenes cells before irradiation of the mice diminished the immunosuppressive effect of roentgen radiation. Injection of the cells after irradiation accelerated regeneration of immunologic reactivity in the irradiated mice. (author)

  19. Accelerators for Fusion Materials Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaster, Juan; Okumura, Yoshikazu

    Fusion materials research is a worldwide endeavor as old as the parallel one working toward the long term stable confinement of ignited plasma. In a fusion reactor, the preservation of the required minimum thermomechanical properties of the in-vessel components exposed to the severe irradiation and heat flux conditions is an indispensable factor for safe operation; it is also an essential goal for the economic viability of fusion. Energy from fusion power will be extracted from the 14 MeV neutron freed as a product of the deuterium-tritium fusion reactions; thus, this kinetic energy must be absorbed and efficiently evacuated and electricity eventually generated by the conventional methods of a thermal power plant. Worldwide technological efforts to understand the degradation of materials exposed to 14 MeV neutron fluxes >1018 m-2s-1, as expected in future fusion power plants, have been intense over the last four decades. Existing neutron sources can reach suitable dpa (“displacement-per-atom”, the figure of merit to assess materials degradation from being exposed to neutron irradiation), but the differences in the neutron spectrum of fission reactors and spallation sources do not allow one to unravel the physics and to anticipate the degradation of materials exposed to fusion neutrons. Fusion irradiation conditions can be achieved through Li (d, xn) nuclear reactions with suitable deuteron beam current and energy, and an adequate flowing lithium screen. This idea triggered in the late 1970s at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) a campaign working toward the feasibility of continuous wave (CW) high current linacs framed by the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) project. These efforts continued with the Low Energy Demonstrating Accelerator (LEDA) (a validating prototype of the canceled Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project), which was proposed in 2002 to the fusion community as a 6.7MeV, 100mA CW beam injector for a Li (d, xn) source to bridge

  20. A proton irradiation facility for studying radiation damage and irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A proton irradiation facility has been constructed for the study of irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking and irradiation damage in austenitic stainless steels. The facility has many proton irradiation. The facility uses a specially designed irradiation stage mounted onto the target chamber of a 1.7 MV tandetron accelerator. Samples are mounted on a heated and cooled copper block in the stage and irradiated with a raster-scanned proton beam of 1.0μA/cm2 (3.4 MeV) though a 1.6 cm2 target aperture. The proton range is approximately 45 μm with the energy loss varying only a factor of two over the first 35 μm. Sample temperature is monitored using a carefully calibrated infrared pyrometer. Experiments thus far have concentrated on inducing 1 dpa of damage at a sample temperature of 400 degrees C. Long-lived residual radioactivity is minimal after a 3-6 day cooling period and samples can be readily examined in TEM, SAM and tested in a high temperature water loop. Experiments have shown that the irradiated microstructure and grain boundary segregation is similar to that produced by neutron irradiation at the same temperature and dose, but at a dose rate 100 to 1000 times lower. This paper focuses on the feature of the technique and the resulting microstructural and microchemical changes

  1. 2014 CERN Accelerator Schools: Plasma Wake Acceleration

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    A specialised school on Plasma Wake Acceleration will be held at CERN, Switzerland from 23-29 November, 2014.   This course will be of interest to staff and students in accelerator laboratories, university departments and companies working in or having an interest in the field of new acceleration techniques. Following introductory lectures on plasma and laser physics, the course will cover the different components of a plasma wake accelerator and plasma beam systems. An overview of the experimental studies, diagnostic tools and state of the art wake acceleration facilities, both present and planned, will complement the theoretical part. Topical seminars and a visit of CERN will complete the programme. Further information can be found at: http://cas.web.cern.ch/cas/PlasmaWake2014/CERN-advert.html http://indico.cern.ch/event/285444/

  2. The direction of acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Thomas; Burde, Jan-Philipp; Lück, Stephan

    2015-11-01

    Acceleration is a physical quantity that is difficult to understand and hence its complexity is often erroneously simplified. Many students think of acceleration as equivalent to velocity, a ˜ v. For others, acceleration is a scalar quantity, which describes the change in speed Δ|v| or Δ|v|/Δt (as opposed to the change in velocity). The main difficulty with the concept of acceleration therefore lies in developing a correct understanding of its direction. The free iOS app AccelVisu supports students in acquiring a correct conception of acceleration by showing acceleration arrows directly at moving objects.

  3. ENHANCING FOOD SAFETY AND STABILITY THROUGH IRRADIATION: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor Ahmad Shah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Food irradiation is one of the non thermal food processing methods. It is the process of exposing food materials to the controlled amounts of ionizing radiations such as gamma rays, X-rays and accelerated electrons, to improve microbiological safety and stability. Irradiation disrupts the biological processes that lead to decay of food quality. It is an effective tool to reduce food-borne pathogens, spoilage microorganisms and parasites; to extend shelf-life and for insect disinfection. The safety and consumption of irradiated foods have been extensively studied at national levels and in international cooperations and have concluded that foods irradiated under appropriate technologies are both safe and nutritionally adequate. Specific applications of food irradiation have been approved by national legislations of more than 55 countries worldwide. This review aims to discuss the applications of irradiation in food processing with the emphasis on food safety and stability.

  4. Effects of electron beam irradiation on cut flowers and mites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohino, Toshiyuki; Tanabe, Kazuo [Yokohama Plant Protection Station (Japan)

    1994-08-01

    Two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae KOCH were irradiated with electron beams (2.5MeV) to develop an alternative quarantine treatment for imported cut flowers. The tolerance of eggs increased with age (1-5-day-old). Immature stages (larva-teleiochrysalis) irradiated at 0.4-0.8kGy increased tolerance with their development. Mated mature females irradiated at 0.4kGy or higher did not produce viable eggs, although temporary recovery was observed at 0.2kGy. Adult males were sterilized at 0.4kGy because non-irradiated virgin females mated with yielded female progeny malformed and sterilized. Various effects of electron beam irradiation were observed when nine species of cut flowers were irradiated in 5MeV Dynamitron accelerator. Chrysanthemum and rose were most sensitive among cut flowers. (author).

  5. San Francisco Accelerator Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Where are today's challenges in accelerator physics?' was the theme of the open session at the San Francisco meeting, the largest ever gathering of accelerator physicists and engineers

  6. Improved plasma accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, D. Y.

    1971-01-01

    Converging, coaxial accelerator electrode configuration operates in vacuum as plasma gun. Plasma forms by periodic injections of high pressure gas that is ionized by electrical discharges. Deflagration mode of discharge provides acceleration, and converging contours of plasma gun provide focusing.

  7. Standing wave linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consideration is being given to standing wave linear accelerator containing generator, phase shifter, two accelerating resonator sections, charged particle injector and waveguide bridge. Its first arm is oined up with generator via the phase shifter, the second and the third ones-with accelerating sections and the fourth one - with HF-power absorber. HF-power absorber represents a section of circular diaphragmatic wavequide with transformer with input wave and intrawaveguide output load located between injector and the first accelerating section. The section possesses holes in side walls lying on accelerator axis. The distances between centers of the last cell of the fast accelerating section and the first cell of the second accelerating sectiOn equal (2n+3)lambda/4, where n=1, 2, 3..., lambda - wave length of generator. The suggested system enables to improve by one order spectral characteristics of accelerators as compared to the prototype in which magnetrons are used as generator

  8. Accelerator Technology Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    In fiscal year (FY) 1991, the Accelerator Technology (AT) division continued fulfilling its mission to pursue accelerator science and technology and to develop new accelerator concepts for application to research, defense, energy, industry, and other areas of national interest. This report discusses the following programs: The Ground Test Accelerator Program; APLE Free-Electron Laser Program; Accelerator Transmutation of Waste; JAERI, OMEGA Project, and Intense Neutron Source for Materials Testing; Advanced Free-Electron Laser Initiative; Superconducting Super Collider; The High-Power Microwave Program; (Phi) Factory Collaboration; Neutral Particle Beam Power System Highlights; Accelerator Physics and Special Projects; Magnetic Optics and Beam Diagnostics; Accelerator Design and Engineering; Radio-Frequency Technology; Free-Electron Laser Technology; Accelerator Controls and Automation; Very High-Power Microwave Sources and Effects; and GTA Installation, Commissioning, and Operations.

  9. High Energy Particle Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Audio Productions, Inc, New York

    1960-01-01

    Film about the different particle accelerators in the US. Nuclear research in the US has developed into a broad and well-balanced program.Tour of accelerator installations, accelerator development work now in progress and a number of typical experiments with high energy particles. Brookhaven, Cosmotron. Univ. Calif. Berkeley, Bevatron. Anti-proton experiment. Negative k meson experiment. Bubble chambers. A section on an electron accelerator. Projection of new accelerators. Princeton/Penn. build proton synchrotron. Argonne National Lab. Brookhaven, PS construction. Cambridge Electron Accelerator; Harvard/MIT. SLAC studying a linear accelerator. Other research at Madison, Wisconsin, Fixed Field Alternate Gradient Focusing. (FFAG) Oakridge, Tenn., cyclotron. Two-beam machine. Comments : Interesting overview of high energy particle accelerators installations in the US in these early years. .

  10. Heavy ion acceleration in the Breakout Afterburner regime

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, G M; Thomas, A G R; Krushelnick, K; Beg, F N

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical study of heavy ion acceleration from an ultrathin (20 nm) gold foil irradiated by sub-picosecond lasers is presented. Using two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations we identified two highly efficient ion acceleration schemes. By varying the laser pulse duration we observed a transition from Radiation Pressure Acceleration to the Breakout Afterburner regime akin to light ions. The underlying physics and ion acceleration regimes are similar to that of light ions, however, nuances of the acceleration process make the acceleration of heavy ions more challenging. Two laser systems are studied in detail: the Texas Petawatt Laser and the Trident laser, the former having pulse duration 180 fs, intermediate between very short femtosecond pulses and picosecond pulses. Both laser systems generated directional gold ions beams (~10 degrees half-angle) with fluxes in excess of 1011 ion/sr and normalized energy >10 MeV/nucleon.

  11. Maximal Acceleration Is Nonrotating

    OpenAIRE

    Page, Don N.

    1997-01-01

    In a stationary axisymmetric spacetime, the angular velocity of a stationary observer that Fermi-Walker transports its acceleration vector is also the angular velocity that locally extremizes the magnitude of the acceleration of such an observer, and conversely if the spacetime is also symmetric under reversing both t and phi together. Thus a congruence of Nonrotating Acceleration Worldlines (NAW) is equivalent to a Stationary Congruence Accelerating Locally Extremely (SCALE). These congruenc...

  12. A Solid state accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a solid state accelerator concept utilizing particle acceleration along crystal channels by longitudinal electron plasma waves in a metal. Acceleration gradients of order 100 GV/cm are theoretically possible, but channeling radiation limits the maximum attainable energy to 105 TeV for protons. Beam dechanneling due to multiple scattering is substantially reduced by the high acceleration gradient. Plasma wave dissipation and generation in metals are also discussed

  13. Applications of particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle accelerators are now widely used in a variety of applications for scientific research, applied physics, medicine, industrial processing, while possible utilisation in power engineering is envisaged. Earlier presentations of this subject, given at previous CERN Accelerator School sessions have been updated with papers contributed to the first European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology (ECAART) held in September 1989 in Frankfurt and to the Second European Particle Accelerator Conference in Nice in June 1990. (orig.)

  14. Accelerators at school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latest subject covered by the CERN Accelerator School was 'Applied Geodesy of Particle Accelerators', which attracted an impressive number of outside participants to CERN for a week in April. Since the forerunners of today's particle accelerators were demonstrated over 50 years ago, the positioning of accelerator components has progressed from the laboratory bench-top to tunnels tens of kilometres long. Despite this phenomenal growth in size, sub-millimetre accuracy is still required

  15. In-situ high temperature irradiation setup for temperature dependent structural studies of materials under swift heavy ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulriya, P. K.; Kumari, Renu; Kumar, Rajesh; Grover, V.; Shukla, R.; Tyagi, A. K.; Avasthi, D. K.

    2015-01-01

    An in-situ high temperature (1000 K) setup is designed and installed in the materials science beam line of superconducting linear accelerator at the Inter-University Accelerator Centre (IUAC) for temperature dependent ion irradiation studies on the materials exposed with swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation. The Gd2Ti2O7 pyrochlore is irradiated using 120 MeV Au ion at 1000 K using the high temperature irradiation facility and characterized by ex-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD). Another set of Gd2Ti2O7 samples are irradiated with the same ion beam parameter at 300 K and simultaneously characterized using in-situ XRD available in same beam line. The XRD studies along with the Raman spectroscopic investigations reveal that the structural modification induced by the ion irradiation is strongly dependent on the temperature of the sample. The Gd2Ti2O7 is readily amorphized at an ion fluence 6 × 1012 ions/cm2 on irradiation at 300 K, whereas it is transformed to a radiation-resistant anion-deficient fluorite structure on high temperature irradiation, that amorphized at ion fluence higher than 1 × 1013 ions/cm2. The temperature dependent ion irradiation studies showed that the ion fluence required to cause amorphization at 1000 K irradiation is significantly higher than that required at room temperature irradiation. In addition to testing the efficiency of the in-situ high temperature irradiation facility, the present study establishes that the radiation stability of the pyrochlore is enhanced at higher temperatures.

  16. Food irradiation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the author discussed the recent situation of food irradiation in China, its history, facilities, clearance, commercialization, and with emphasis on market testing and public acceptance of irradiated food. (author)

  17. Economics of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic aspects of food irradiation and direct economic benefits accruing from the application of food irradiation are discussed. A formula is presented to estimate the net economic benefit due to radiation processing of food. (M.G.B .)

  18. Acceleration: It's Elementary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Mariam

    2012-01-01

    Acceleration is one tool for providing high-ability students the opportunity to learn something new every day. Some people talk about acceleration as taking a student out of step. In actuality, what one is doing is putting a student in step with the right curriculum. Whole-grade acceleration, also called grade-skipping, usually happens between…

  19. The CERN Accelerator School

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction to accelerator physics The CERN Accelerator School: Introduction to Accelerator Physics, which should have taken place in Istanbul, Turkey, later this year has now been relocated to Budapest, Hungary.  Further details regarding the new hotel and dates will be made available as soon as possible on a new Indico site at the end of May.

  20. Accelerators and Dinosaurs

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, Michael Stanley

    2003-01-01

    Using naturally occuring particles on which to research might have made accelerators become extinct. But in fact, results from astrophysics have made accelerator physics even more important. Not only are accelerators used in hospitals but they are also being used to understand nature's inner workings by searching for Higgs bosons, CP violation, neutrino mass and dark matter (2 pages)

  1. Far field acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernow, R.C.

    1995-07-01

    Far fields are propagating electromagnetic waves far from their source, boundary surfaces, and free charges. The general principles governing the acceleration of charged particles by far fields are reviewed. A survey of proposed field configurations is given. The two most important schemes, Inverse Cerenkov acceleration and Inverse free electron laser acceleration, are discussed in detail.

  2. The pilot plant for food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pilot plant for radiation processing of food has been built in the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw, during the period 1986-1990. The technical features as well as the working parameters of two electron accelerators and equipment accompanied have been presented. The legal aspects connected with food irradiation have been also performed. The system of dose control and product inspection utilized in the course of production process have been shown. 1 tab

  3. JMTR irradiation handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide variety of nuclear irradiation and post-irradiation experiments are available using the JMTR (Japan Materials Testing Reactor, 50 MW) and the multi-cell hot laboratory associated with the JMTR. In this Handbook, an application manual for conducting irradiation and post-irradiation experiments using those facilities is provided. The Handbook is primarily designed to aid the experimenter and to serve as a reference for communications between the experimenter and the Division of JMTR Project. (author)

  4. Studying Radiation Damage in Structural Materials by Using Ion Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosemann, Peter

    2011-02-01

    Radiation damage in structural materials is of major concern and a limiting factor for a wide range of engineering and scientific applications, including nuclear power production, medical applications, or components for scientific radiation sources. The usefulness of these applications is largely limited by the damage a material can sustain in the extreme environments of radiation, temperature, stress, and fatigue, over long periods of time. Although a wide range of materials has been extensively studied in nuclear reactors and neutron spallation sources since the beginning of the nuclear age, ion beam irradiations using particle accelerators are a more cost-effective alternative to study radiation damage in materials in a rather short period of time, allowing researchers to gain fundamental insights into the damage processes and to estimate the property changes due to irradiation. However, the comparison of results gained from ion beam irradiation, large-scale neutron irradiation, and a variety of experimental setups is not straightforward, and several effects have to be taken into account. It is the intention of this article to introduce the reader to the basic phenomena taking place and to point out the differences between classic reactor irradiations and ion irradiations. It will also provide an assessment of how accelerator-based ion beam irradiation is used today to gain insight into the damage in structural materials for large-scale engineering applications.

  5. Heavy ion irradiation of crystalline water ice

    CERN Document Server

    Dartois, E; Boduch, P; Brunetto, R; Chabot, M; Domaracka, A; Ding, J J; Kamalou, O; Lv, X Y; Rothard, H; da Silveira, E F; Thomas, J C

    2015-01-01

    Under cosmic irradiation, the interstellar water ice mantles evolve towards a compact amorphous state. Crystalline ice amorphisation was previously monitored mainly in the keV to hundreds of keV ion energies. We experimentally investigate heavy ion irradiation amorphisation of crystalline ice, at high energies closer to true cosmic rays, and explore the water-ice sputtering yield. We irradiated thin crystalline ice films with MeV to GeV swift ion beams, produced at the GANIL accelerator. The ice infrared spectral evolution as a function of fluence is monitored with in-situ infrared spectroscopy (induced amorphisation of the initial crystalline state into a compact amorphous phase). The crystalline ice amorphisation cross-section is measured in the high electronic stopping-power range for different temperatures. At large fluence, the ice sputtering is measured on the infrared spectra, and the fitted sputtering-yield dependence, combined with previous measurements, is quadratic over three decades of electronic ...

  6. Direct Laser Acceleration in Laser Wakefield Accelerators

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    In this dissertation, the direct laser acceleration (DLA) of ionization-injected electrons in a laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) operating in the quasi-blowout regime has been investigated through experiment and simulation. In the blowout regime of LWFA, the radiation pressure of an intense laser pulse can push a majority of the plasma electrons out and around the main body of the pulse. The expelled plasma electrons feel the electrostatic field of the relatively-stationary ions and are t...

  7. The Accelerator Reliability Forum

    CERN Document Server

    Lüdeke, Andreas; Giachino, R

    2014-01-01

    A high reliability is a very important goal for most particle accelerators. The biennial Accelerator Reliability Workshop covers topics related to the design and operation of particle accelerators with a high reliability. In order to optimize the over-all reliability of an accelerator one needs to gather information on the reliability of many different subsystems. While a biennial workshop can serve as a platform for the exchange of such information, the authors aimed to provide a further channel to allow for a more timely communication: the Particle Accelerator Reliability Forum [1]. This contribution will describe the forum and advertise it’s usage in the community.

  8. Effects of neutron irradiation on high temperature superconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Hammerer, John J.

    1988-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. Neutron irradiation of high temperature superconductors was performed in order to determine the effects of nuclear weapons on these novel materials. This radiation could also be encountered in space radiation belts, fusion reactors and particle accelerators. Fluences used were on the order of 10 to the 18th power fast and thermal neutrons/sq cm. The result of the irradiation was a complete loss of observed superconductivity in YBa2Cu3...

  9. Liquid-xenon detector under the intensive pulse irradiation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsanov, M. A.

    2016-02-01

    The effect of intense pulsed irradiation on the operation of the liquid xenon spectrometer was studied. The ionization chamber filled with liquid xenon was irradiated by bremsstrahlung pulses of the microtron. The pulse repetition rate was 400 Hz. The absorbed dose ranged from 10-7 to 0.1 Gy per pulse. Stable operation of the liquid xenon spectrometer in the intervals between the pulses of the accelerator was shown for a long time.

  10. ENHANCING FOOD SAFETY AND STABILITY THROUGH IRRADIATION: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Manzoor Ahmad Shah; Shabir Ahmad Mir; Showket Ahmad Pala

    2014-01-01

    Food irradiation is one of the non thermal food processing methods. It is the process of exposing food materials to the controlled amounts of ionizing radiations such as gamma rays, X-rays and accelerated electrons, to improve microbiological safety and stability. Irradiation disrupts the biological processes that lead to decay of food quality. It is an effective tool to reduce food-borne pathogens, spoilage microorganisms and parasites; to extend shelf-life and for insect disinfection. The s...

  11. Deuteron and neutron induced activation in the Eveda accelerator materials: implications for the accelerator maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, M.; Sanz, J.; Garcia, N.; Cabellos, O. [Madrid Univ. Politecnica, C/ Jose Gutierrez Abascal, lnstituto de Fusion Nuclear (Spain); Sauvan, R. [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), Madrid (Spain); Moreno, C.; Sedano, L.A. [CIEMAT-Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Association Euratom-CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) is an accelerator-based DLi neutron source designed to test fusion reactor candidate materials for high fluence neutrons. Before deciding IFMIF construction, an engineering design and associated experimental data acquisition, defined as EVEDA, has been proposed. Along the EVEDA accelerator, deuteron beam losses collide with the accelerator materials, producing activation and consequent radiations responsible of dose. Calculation of the dose rates in the EVEDA accelerator room is necessary in order to analyze the feasibility for manual maintenance. Dose rates due to the activation produced by the deuteron beam losses interaction with the accelerator materials, will be calculated with the ACAB activation code, using EAF2007 library for deuteron activation cross-sections. Also, dose rates from the activation induced by the neutron source produced by the interaction of deuteron beam losses with the accelerator materials and the deuterium implanted in the structural lattice, will be calculated with the SRIM2006, TMAP7, DROSG2000/NEUYIE, MCNPX and ACAB codes. All calculations will be done for the EVEDA accelerator with the room temperature DTL structure, which is based on copper cavities for the DTL. Some calculations will be done for the superconducting DTL structure, based on niobium cavities for the DTL working at cryogenic temperature. Final analysis will show the dominant mechanisms and major radionuclides contributing to the surface dose rates. (authors)

  12. Induction linear accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birx, Daniel

    1992-03-01

    Among the family of particle accelerators, the Induction Linear Accelerator is the best suited for the acceleration of high current electron beams. Because the electromagnetic radiation used to accelerate the electron beam is not stored in the cavities but is supplied by transmission lines during the beam pulse it is possible to utilize very low Q (typicallymarriage of liner accelerator technology and nonlinear magnetic compressors has produced some unique capabilities. It now appears possible to produce electron beams with average currents measured in amperes, peak currents in kiloamperes and gradients exceeding 1 MeV/meter, with power efficiencies approaching 50%. The nonlinear magnetic compression technology has replaced the spark gap drivers used on earlier accelerators with state-of-the-art all-solid-state SCR commutated compression chains. The reliability of these machines is now approaching 1010 shot MTBF. In the following paper we will briefly review the historical development of induction linear accelerators and then discuss the design considerations.

  13. High Intensity Accelerator and Neutron Source in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xialing; Wei, J.; Loong, Chun

    2011-06-01

    High intensity Accelerator is being studied all over world for numerous applications, which includes the waste transmutation, spallation neutron source and material irradiation facilities. The R/D activities of the technology of High intensity accelerator are also developed in China for some year, and have some good facilities around China. This paper will reports the status of some high intensity accelerators and neutron source in China, which including ADS/RFQ; CARR; CSNS; PKUNIFTY & CPHS. This paper will emphatically report the Compact Pulsed Hadron Source (CPHS) led by the Department of Engineering Physics of Tsinghua University in Beijing, China.

  14. Particle-accelerator decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generic considerations involved in decommissioning particle accelerators are examined. There are presently several hundred accelerators operating in the United States that can produce material containing nonnegligible residual radioactivity. Residual radioactivity after final shutdown is generally short-lived induced activity and is localized in hot spots around the beam line. The decommissioning options addressed are mothballing, entombment, dismantlement with interim storage, and dismantlement with disposal. The recycle of components or entire accelerators following dismantlement is a definite possibility and has occurred in the past. Accelerator components can be recycled either immediately at accelerator shutdown or following a period of storage, depending on the nature of induced activation. Considerations of cost, radioactive waste, and radiological health are presented for four prototypic accelerators. Prototypes considered range from small accelerators having minimal amounts of radioactive mmaterial to a very large accelerator having massive components containing nonnegligible amounts of induced activation. Archival information on past decommissionings is presented, and recommendations concerning regulations and accelerator design that will aid in the decommissioning of an accelerator are given

  15. Particle-accelerator decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opelka, J.H.; Mundis, R.L.; Marmer, G.J.; Peterson, J.M.; Siskind, B.; Kikta, M.J.

    1979-12-01

    Generic considerations involved in decommissioning particle accelerators are examined. There are presently several hundred accelerators operating in the United States that can produce material containing nonnegligible residual radioactivity. Residual radioactivity after final shutdown is generally short-lived induced activity and is localized in hot spots around the beam line. The decommissioning options addressed are mothballing, entombment, dismantlement with interim storage, and dismantlement with disposal. The recycle of components or entire accelerators following dismantlement is a definite possibility and has occurred in the past. Accelerator components can be recycled either immediately at accelerator shutdown or following a period of storage, depending on the nature of induced activation. Considerations of cost, radioactive waste, and radiological health are presented for four prototypic accelerators. Prototypes considered range from small accelerators having minimal amounts of radioactive mmaterial to a very large accelerator having massive components containing nonnegligible amounts of induced activation. Archival information on past decommissionings is presented, and recommendations concerning regulations and accelerator design that will aid in the decommissioning of an accelerator are given.

  16. An introduction to acceleration mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the acceleration of charged particles by electromagnetic fields, i.e., by fields that are produced by the motion of other charged particles driven by some power source. The mechanisms that are discussed include: Ponderamotive Forces, Acceleration, Plasma Beat Wave Acceleration, Inverse Free Electron Laser Acceleration, Inverse Cerenkov Acceleration, Gravity Acceleration, 2D Linac Acceleration and Conventional Iris Loaded Linac Structure Acceleration

  17. Synergistic effects obtained by combined electron beam and microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method based on microwave energy addition to accelerated electron beam energy for material processing was developed. The main idea of this work was to combine the advantages of both electron beam (EB) irradiation and microwave (MW) irradiation, i.e. EB high irradiation efficiency and MW high selectivity and volumetric heating, for material processing. The first expected and obtained result was the decrease of the required EB absorbed dose. Thus, the ionizing radiation costs could be reduced and the application of low intensity EB accelerators will become very economically attractive in the material-processing field. Another expected and obtained result was the improvement of material properties. A special designed facility consisting of an EB accelerator of 5.5 MeV and a MW source of 2.45 GHz and 1.6 kW that performs combined EB and MW irradiation is presented. There are three fields of interest under our investigation for application of combined EB and MW irradiation: environmental waste treatment (sewage sludge, flue gases), sterilization (food residuals, hospital wastes) and food quality and safety. Both, EB (ionizing radiation) and MW (non-ionizing) material processing are based on the radiation ability to alter physical and chemical properties of materials. Irradiation with electron beams was put forth as a very effective method for material processing because can produce ions, electrons, and free radicals at any temperature in the solid, liquid and gas. EB processes are very effective for material processing but the required absorbed dose is still high for pollutants removal, sterilization, vulcanization, etc. MW processing of materials is a relatively new technology that provides new approaches to improve the physical properties of materials and to produce new materials and microstructures that cannot be achieved by other methods. MW processes are less effective for material processing than EB processes but the cost of microwave systems is considerably

  18. Recent irradiation tests for future nuclear system at HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Man Soon; Choo, Kee Nam; Yang, Seong Woo; Park, Sang Jun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The capsule at HANARO is a device that evaluates the irradiation effects of nuclear materials and fuels, which can reproduce the environment of nuclear power plants and accelerate to reach to the end of life condition. As the integrity assessment and the extension of lifetime of nuclear power plants are recently considered as important issues in Korea, the requirements for irradiation test are gradually being increased. The capacity and capability irradiation tests at HANARO are becoming important because Korea strives to develop SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) and VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) among the future nuclear system and to export the research reactors and to develop the fusion reactor technology.

  19. Recent irradiation tests for future nuclear system at HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capsule at HANARO is a device that evaluates the irradiation effects of nuclear materials and fuels, which can reproduce the environment of nuclear power plants and accelerate to reach to the end of life condition. As the integrity assessment and the extension of lifetime of nuclear power plants are recently considered as important issues in Korea, the requirements for irradiation test are gradually being increased. The capacity and capability irradiation tests at HANARO are becoming important because Korea strives to develop SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) and VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) among the future nuclear system and to export the research reactors and to develop the fusion reactor technology.

  20. Heavy ion acceleration using femtosecond laser pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, G M; Thomas, A G R; Krushelnick, K; Beg, F N

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical study of heavy ion acceleration from ultrathin (<200 nm) gold foils irradiated by a short pulse laser is presented. Using two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations the time history of the laser bullet is examined in order to get insight into the laser energy deposition and ion acceleration process. For laser pulses with intensity , duration 32 fs, focal spot size 5 mkm and energy 27 Joules the calculated reflection, transmission and coupling coefficients from a 20 nm foil are 80 %, 5 % and 15 %, respectively. The conversion efficiency into gold ions is 8 %. Two highly collimated counter-propagating ion beams have been identified. The forward accelerated gold ions have average and maximum charge-to-mass ratio of 0.25 and 0.3, respectively, maximum normalized energy 25 MeV/nucleon and flux . Analytical model was used to determine a range of foil thicknesses suitable for acceleration of gold ions in the Radiation Pressure Acceleration regime and the onset of the Target Normal Sheath Acceleratio...

  1. Biochemical changes in rats regenerating liver under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The white female rats were hezato ectomized before irradiation to create conditions comparable with clinical. Rats front abdomen area was irradiated with 14 Gy. It was shown that changes by all indices took place in regenerating and weakly regenerating (irradiated) liver in 2, 4 and 15 days following hepatectomy. The process of irradiation accelerates lipid peroxide oxidation, decreases acid phosphatase activity in gredter degree than in regenerating liver and doesn't influence glucose-6-phosphatase activity in comparison with non-irradiated hepatectomized animals. The studied biochemical indices can be used in formation of test bit to diagnose local radiation injuries of various organs or to characterize modification action. 13 refs.; 1 tab

  2. Development of a new method of whole body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishi, Kazushi (Wakayama Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1989-08-01

    A new method of whole body irradiation was developed using a linear accelerator linked to microprocessor. By this modified arc technique, a total body photon irradiation and a total skin electron irradiation were practical for narrow room. Approximative calculations were deviced for dose distribution. Dosimetric results were consistent with those previosly calculated. Local doses in lungs, neck and other areas were easily adjustable with arrangements of pre-set dose rate. In total skin electron irradation, six predeterminated postures and 'make up' irradiation were necessary to dose homogeneity over 'shady area' such as axillae. Clinically, a large arteriovenous malformation in an arm decreased with normalization of plethysmogram after treatment, and remarkable reductions of mycosis fungoides tumor were observed. This new method of total skin electron irradiation and total body photon therapy will clinically expand with the progress of bone marrow transplantation. (author).

  3. Accelerator reliability workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, L.; Duru, Ph.; Koch, J.M.; Revol, J.L.; Van Vaerenbergh, P.; Volpe, A.M.; Clugnet, K.; Dely, A.; Goodhew, D

    2002-07-01

    About 80 experts attended this workshop, which brought together all accelerator communities: accelerator driven systems, X-ray sources, medical and industrial accelerators, spallation sources projects (American and European), nuclear physics, etc. With newly proposed accelerator applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, replacement of nuclear power plants and others. Reliability has now become a number one priority for accelerator designers. Every part of an accelerator facility from cryogenic systems to data storage via RF systems are concerned by reliability. This aspect is now taken into account in the design/budget phase, especially for projects whose goal is to reach no more than 10 interruptions per year. This document gathers the slides but not the proceedings of the workshop.

  4. Switched Matrix Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a new concept for a microwave circuit functioning as a charged-particle accelerator at mm-wavelengths, permitting an accelerating gradient higher than conventional passive circuits can withstand consistent with cyclic fatigue. The device provides acceleration for multiple bunches in parallel channels, and permits a short exposure time for the conducting surface of the accelerating cavities. Our analysis includes scalings based on a smooth transmission line model and a complementary treatment with a coupled-cavity simulation. We provide also an electromagnetic design for the accelerating structure, arriving at rough dimensions for a seven-cell accelerator matched to standard waveguide and suitable for bench tests at low power in air at 91.392. GHz. A critical element in the concept is a fast mm-wave switch suitable for operation at high-power, and we present the considerations for implementation in an H-plane tee. We discuss the use of diamond as the photoconductor switch medium

  5. Accelerator and radiation physics

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Samita; Nandy, Maitreyee

    2013-01-01

    "Accelerator and radiation physics" encompasses radiation shielding design and strategies for hadron therapy accelerators, neutron facilities and laser based accelerators. A fascinating article describes detailed transport theory and its application to radiation transport. Detailed information on planning and design of a very high energy proton accelerator can be obtained from the article on radiological safety of J-PARC. Besides safety for proton accelerators, the book provides information on radiological safety issues for electron synchrotron and prevention and preparedness for radiological emergencies. Different methods for neutron dosimetry including LET based monitoring, time of flight spectrometry, track detectors are documented alongwith newly measured experimental data on radiation interaction with dyes, polymers, bones and other materials. Design of deuteron accelerator, shielding in beam line hutches in synchrotron and 14 MeV neutron generator, various radiation detection methods, their characteriza...

  6. Leaky Fermi accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Kushal; Rom-Kedar, Vered; Turaev, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    A Fermi accelerator is a billiard with oscillating walls. A leaky accelerator interacts with an environment of an ideal gas at equilibrium by exchange of particles through a small hole on its boundary. Such interaction may heat the gas: we estimate the net energy flow through the hole under the assumption that the particles inside the billiard do not collide with each other and remain in the accelerator for sufficiently long time. The heat production is found to depend strongly on the type of the Fermi accelerator. An ergodic accelerator, i.e. one which has a single ergodic component, produces a weaker energy flow than a multi-component accelerator. Specifically, in the ergodic case the energy gain is independent of the hole size, whereas in the multi-component case the energy flow may be significantly increased by shrinking the hole size.

  7. Nuclear physics accelerator facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes many of the nuclear physics heavy-ion accelerator facilities in the US and the research programs being conducted. The accelerators described are: Argonne National Laboratory--ATLAS; Brookhaven National Laboratory--Tandem/AGS Heavy Ion Facility; Brookhaven National Laboratory--Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) (Proposed); Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory--Bevalac; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory--88-Inch Cyclotron; Los Alamos National Laboratory--Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF); Massachusetts Institute of Technology--Bates Linear Accelerator Center; Oak Ridge National Laboratory--Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory--Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator; Stanford Linear Accelerator Center--Nuclear Physics Injector; Texas AandM University--Texas AandM Cyclotron; Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL); University of Washington--Tandem/Superconducting Booster; and Yale University--Tandem Van de Graaff

  8. Accelerator reliability workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 80 experts attended this workshop, which brought together all accelerator communities: accelerator driven systems, X-ray sources, medical and industrial accelerators, spallation sources projects (American and European), nuclear physics, etc. With newly proposed accelerator applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, replacement of nuclear power plants and others. Reliability has now become a number one priority for accelerator designers. Every part of an accelerator facility from cryogenic systems to data storage via RF systems are concerned by reliability. This aspect is now taken into account in the design/budget phase, especially for projects whose goal is to reach no more than 10 interruptions per year. This document gathers the slides but not the proceedings of the workshop

  9. High Gradient Accelerator Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temkin, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics. Plasma Science and Fusion Center

    2016-07-12

    The goal of the MIT program of research on high gradient acceleration is the development of advanced acceleration concepts that lead to a practical and affordable next generation linear collider at the TeV energy level. Other applications, which are more near-term, include accelerators for materials processing; medicine; defense; mining; security; and inspection. The specific goals of the MIT program are: • Pioneering theoretical research on advanced structures for high gradient acceleration, including photonic structures and metamaterial structures; evaluation of the wakefields in these advanced structures • Experimental research to demonstrate the properties of advanced structures both in low-power microwave cold test and high-power, high-gradient test at megawatt power levels • Experimental research on microwave breakdown at high gradient including studies of breakdown phenomena induced by RF electric fields and RF magnetic fields; development of new diagnostics of the breakdown process • Theoretical research on the physics and engineering features of RF vacuum breakdown • Maintaining and improving the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator, the highest frequency operational accelerator in the world, a unique facility for accelerator research • Providing the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator facility as a facility for outside users • Active participation in the US DOE program of High Gradient Collaboration, including joint work with SLAC and with Los Alamos National Laboratory; participation of MIT students in research at the national laboratories • Training the next generation of Ph. D. students in the field of accelerator physics.

  10. High Gradient Accelerator Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temkin, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics. Plasma Science and Fusion Center

    2016-07-12

    The goal of the MIT program of research on high gradient acceleration is the development of advanced acceleration concepts that lead to a practical and affordable next generation linear collider at the TeV energy level. Other applications, which are more near-term, include accelerators for materials processing; medicine; defense; mining; security; and inspection. The specific goals of the MIT program are: • Pioneering theoretical research on advanced structures for high gradient acceleration, including photonic structures and metamaterial structures; evaluation of the wakefields in these advanced structures • Experimental research to demonstrate the properties of advanced structures both in low power microwave cold test and high power, high gradient test at megawatt power levels • Experimental research on microwave breakdown at high gradient including studies of breakdown phenomena induced by RF electric fields and RF magnetic fields; development of new diagnostics of the breakdown process • Theoretical research on the physics and engineering features of RF vacuum breakdown • Maintaining and improving the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator, the highest frequency operational accelerator in the world, a unique facility for accelerator research • Providing the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator facility as a facility for outside users • Active participation in the US DOE program of High Gradient Collaboration, including joint work with SLAC and with Los Alamos National Laboratory; participation of MIT students in research at the national laboratories • Training the next generation of Ph. D. students in the field of accelerator physics.

  11. Department of Accelerator Physics and Technology: Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pachan, M. [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1999-10-01

    Full text: As presented at the overview seminar held on December 98, the activities of the Department were shared among several directions of accelerator applications, as well as research and development works on new accelerator techniques and technologies. In the group of proton and ion accelerators, two main tasks were advanced. The first was a further step in the optimization of operational parameters of multicusp ion-source, prepared for axial injection system in C-30 cyclotron. Another one is the participation in important modifications of r.f. acceleration system in heavy-ion accelerator C-200 of Warsaw University. In the broad field of electron accelerators our main attention was directed at medical applications. Most important of them was the designing and construction of a full scale technological model of a high-gradient accelerating structure for low-energy radiotherapy unit CO-LINE 1000. Microwave measurements, and tuning were accomplished, and the technical documentation for construction of radiation unit completed. This work was supported by the State Committee for Scientific Research. Preparatory work was continued to undertake in the year 1999 the design of two new medical accelerators. First is a new generation radiotherapy unit, with 15 MeV electron beam and two selected energies of X-ray photons. This accelerator should in future replace the existing Neptun 10 MeV units. The work will be executed in the frame of the Project-Ordered commissioned by the State Committee for Scientific Research. The next type of accelerators in preparation is the mobile, self-shielded electron-beam unit for inter operative irradiation. The specification of parameters was completed and study of possible solutions advanced. The programme of medical accelerator development is critically dependent on the existence of a metrological and experimental basis. Therefore the building of a former proton linear accelerator was adopted to the new function as electron accelerators

  12. Safe industrial electron accelerators operation in extended period of exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    construction. Safe industrial electron accelerators operation in extended period of exploitation became a question due to over 30 years long period in service of some units and second hand accelerators sometime offered on the market. The careful evaluation should be performed to establish critical parameters like: - Accelerator reliability (availability); - Access to the spare parts and cost of accelerator servicing; - Safety interlocks condition and reliability; - Quality of cables, wires and rubber tubes which are irradiated by scattered radiation (in some cases replacement is needed in 10-15 years intervals). One should recognize if second hand accelerator was renovated and it is adequate in spite of: - Lack of computer based accelerator control and technological process management; - Limited quality control capabilities in relation to present industrial standards; - Certain accelerator parameters (electron energy, beam power, electrical efficiency, exploitation cost). Positive answer on above topics may allow on successful accelerator exploitation in extended period of time. Such evaluation should be repeated in 2-5 years period to avoid rapid change in accelerator availability. More conservative direct (transformer) accelerator construction is better suited for longer exploitation period to compare with microwave linacs where microwave components with limited life period are applied. Progress in development of microwave components creates difficulties in access to old fashion spare parts. The accelerator upgrading program can be applied in some cases to increase electron energy, beam power or both, replace certain components when ageing process is particularly intense or replace components which are no more accessible as spare parts. The detail investigation should be made to recognize manpower in development and implementation such upgrading program, time needed and available financial resources. New accelerator purchasing could be better solution in some cases. (author)

  13. 36Chlorine accelerator mass spectrometry programme at BARC-TIFR pelletron accelerator. RSP-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an ultra sensitive means of counting individual atoms having sufficiently long half life and available in small amount. The 14 UD Pelletron Accelerator is an ideal machine to carry out AMS studies with heavy isotopes like 36Cl and 129I. Cosmogenic radio isotope 36Cl is widely being detected using AMS as it has got applications in ground water research, radioactive waste management, atmospheric 36Cl transport mechanism studies of Arctic Alpine ice core etc. As a part of the ongoing AMS programme at 14UD Pelletron Accelerator Facility, Mumbai, a segmented gas detector developed for identification of 36Cl was tested for performance. Recently a beam chopper required for this measurement has been developed. 36Cl measurements carried out to detect and measure the ratio of 36Cl to 35Cl in an irradiated sample and dated sample are reported in this paper

  14. Solid targetry at the TESLA Accelerator Installation

    CERN Document Server

    Comor, J J; Rajcevic, M; Kosutic, D; Spasic, M; Vidovic, A; Duricic, J; Nedeljkovic, N

    2002-01-01

    According to the concept of the TESLA Accelerator Installation, the channel for production of radioisotopes has to routinely produce sup 2 sup 0 sup 1 Tl, sup 1 sup 1 sup 1 In, sup 6 sup 7 Ga, sup 1 sup 2 sup 3 I and sup 1 sup 8 F, and a number of other radionuclides for experimental purposes. The production of sup 1 sup 2 sup 3 I and sup 1 sup 8 F will be performed in dedicated, commercial target stations, while a versatile solid target irradiation system is designed for the routine and experimental production of all other radioisotopes. The solid target station is designed to accept targets for both the 7 deg. and 90 deg. irradiation geometry. The targets used for the routine production will be prepared by electroplating on a silver substrate. They can be irradiated with a 1.5 kW beam using the 7 deg. geometry. The cooling of these targets is enhanced by fins on the back of the silver substrate designed so that the highest temperature on the surface of the target does not exceed 110 deg. C. The irradiation ...

  15. Spinal cord tolerance to single-fraction partial-volume irradiation: a swine model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medin, P.M.; Foster, R.D.; Kogel, A.J. van der; Sayre, J.W.; McBride, W.H.; Solberg, T.D.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the spinal cord tolerance to single-fraction, partial-volume irradiation in swine. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A 5-cm-long cervical segment was irradiated in 38-47-week-old Yucatan minipigs using a dedicated, image-guided radiosurgery linear accelerator. The radiation was delivered

  16. Utilization of electron accelerator in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabalfin, Estelita G. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon (Philippines)

    2003-02-01

    Radiosterilization of medical and surgical supplies, radiation treatment of consumer products such as food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, and the modification of polymers, crosslinking or curing, using gamma irradiation facilities in Philippine industries are overviewed. Philippine Nuclear Research Institute(PNRI) conducts bioburden determination, dose setting and validation of compatibility with radiation of product and packaging with the technical assistance of IAEA. The products with yields treated at the irradiation facility from 1996-2001 are shown in table. An electron accelerator of 10 MeV and 28 kW, established by Terumo Corporation, is used since 2000 for in-house radiation sterilization of syringes. Current regulations and regulatory authority in Philippines are also briefly introduced. Future processes such as radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex (RVNRL), use of carrageenan as hydrogel for dressing wounds and others and fermented bagasse as animal feed are now in progress. (S. Ohno)

  17. Acceleration of Organic Reactions Using Microwave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Ta-Jung

    2004-01-01

    The use of microwave technology in accelerating organic reactions has received intense attention leading to immense growth recently. Accordingly, we have been interested in improving the efficacy of organic processes by microwave irradiation. Here we report our results on the microwave assisted direct amide formation from carboxylic acid and amine, the hydrolysis of biopolymers, and nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction. The reactions carried out under microwave irradiation, in general, required considerably less reaction time and afforded the desired products in higher yields than those under classical conditions. In all the cases we have studied, the procedures are simplified, the purity of the products are higher, and the cost of reaction is greatly reduced employing microwave.

  18. Accelerator Modeling with MATLAB Accelerator Toolbox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces Accelerator Toolbox (AT)--a collection of tools to model storage rings and beam transport lines in the MATLAB environment. The objective is to illustrate the flexibility and efficiency of the AT-MATLAB framework. The paper discusses three examples of problems that are analyzed frequently in connection with ring-based synchrotron light sources

  19. Angular velocities, angular accelerations, and coriolis accelerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graybiel, A.

    1975-01-01

    Weightlessness, rotating environment, and mathematical analysis of Coriolis acceleration is described for man's biological effective force environments. Effects on the vestibular system are summarized, including the end organs, functional neurology, and input-output relations. Ground-based studies in preparation for space missions are examined, including functional tests, provocative tests, adaptive capacity tests, simulation studies, and antimotion sickness.

  20. Food irradiation. An alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to start a food irradiation program, one needs to perform some tests, such as: local handling problems, consumer acceptance and government licenses. At this point the cost of a special food irradiator can be considered a too high investment. It is proposed that for the irradiation of a few tons of several food items, a commercial irradiator for medical products sterilization be employed. With the use of an ''experimental loop'' and some special positions inside the irradiation chamber, it is possible to irradiate even potatoes and onions, at doses ranging from 100 Gy to 200 Gy. The quantities, depending on the source activity, can be around 300 kg per hour. For doses near 10 kGy, the normal procedure used for sterilization of medical products can be employed, while changing the cycle on the machine. In the case of an experimental loop within a JS-7400 (AECC) irradiator at a dose rate of 20 Gy per minute, around 200 kg of potatoes per hour can be irradiated. The experimental positions inside the chamber have a dose rate of 60 Gy per hour, and the batch capacity is 250 kg, so that 250 kg can be irradiated each 1,5 hour

  1. Irradiation of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A committee has on instructions from the swedish government made an inquiry into the possible effects on health and working environment from irradition of food. In this report, a review is presented on the known positiv and negative effects of food irradiation Costs, availabilty, shelf life and quality of irradiated food are also discussed. According to the report, the production of radiolysis products during irradiation is not easily evaluated. The health risks from irradiation of spices are estimated to be lower than the risks associated with the ethenoxid treatment presently used. (L.E.)

  2. Media effects on radiochemical corrosion at high-output gamma irradiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma irradiation of metals at high dose rate conditions may induce or accelerate a wide variety of electrochemical corrosion processes. Examination of failures encountered in irradiation facilities due to corrosion indicated that, above a threshold value for atmospheric humidity, the electrode reactions are chiefly controlled by the action of radiolytic products arising from the electrolyte during gamma irradiation. Thus, the nature of the corrosive medium provides the decisive variable factor influencing the overall effect of radiochemical corrosion. (author)

  3. Food Irradiation. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    of perishable food products. Different radiation sources, particularly 60Co and electron accelerators, can be used. Different types of foodstuffs react differently: ripening is delayed in some fruit, the cooking time of dehydrated vegetables can be shortened, and the shelf life of fish and some varieties of fruit and vegetables can be more than doubled. The applicability of irradiation depends on economic factors, as well as on climatic, technological, transport and food-growing conditions in given areas. The main subjects covered at the Symposium were: radiation sources and dosimetry, the wholesomeness of irradiated food, the chemical and physical effects of ionizing radiation, microbiology, virology and quarantine problems, the status of various irradiated commodities, including meat and meat products, poultry and eggs, grain and stored food products, fish and sea foods, and fruit and vegetables. In the broader application of radiation to food preservation, the participants discussed present programmes in operation, facilities used, and economics, together with national legislation and clearances for irradiated items. Some countries are already using radiation for the prevention of sprouting in potatoes and onions and for the sterilization of bacon. In the near future its use for the disinfestation of grain will be implemented. The irradiation of food - described as the first truly novel food preservation method since Nicolas Appert well over one hundred years ago invented food preservation by bottling - will doubtless play a very important role in the life of mankind, in many instances in conjunction with conventional food treatment methods, such as heat and refrigeration.

  4. Studies on effects of γ-ray irradiation on yellow rice wine mellowness and sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of irradiation dosage, irradiation temperature, different kinds of packing container, vacuous capacity of the container, technology of making wine and storage time on acceleration of yellow rice wine mellowness were studied by sensory evaluation and chemical composition analysis. The results showed low dosage of γ-ray irradiation had accelerated the mellowness of yellow rice wine. The unique flavour of colour, aroma, taste and style were still remained after the wine was irradiated. The hygiene and safety experiments showed the irradiated wine is safe to human health. The optimal temperature during γ-ray irradiation was 30∼40 degree C. The pottery containers were superior to the glass container for the packing container during yellow wine irradiation. The suitable vacuous capacity for a 500 ml glass bottle was 100 ml. The new technology of brewing wine was better than the traditional technology for the quality of irradiated wine. The proper storage time after irradiation was 5∼6 months. The γ-ray irradiation combined at 60 degree C of temperature had good effects on sterilization of raw yellow wine. The quality of irradiated wine was stable, the chemical composition was not changed, and it was still remained the traditional flavour. It is up to the standard of export wine

  5. Racetrack linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved recirculating electron beam linear accelerator of the racetrack type is described. The system comprises a beam path of four straight legs with four Pretzel bending magnets at the end of each leg to direct the beam into the next leg of the beam path. At least one of the beam path legs includes a linear accelerator. (UK)

  6. COLLECTIVE-FIELD ACCELERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sessler, Andrew M.

    1969-07-04

    Diverse methods proposed for the acceleration of particles by means of collective fields are reviewed. A survey is made of the various currently active experimental programs devoted to investigating collective acceleration, and the present status of the research is briefly noted.

  7. KEK digital accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashita, T.; Adachi, T.; Takayama, K.; Leo, K. W.; Arai, T.; Arakida, Y.; Hashimoto, M.; Kadokura, E.; Kawai, M.; Kawakubo, T.; Kubo, Tomio; Koyama, K.; Nakanishi, H.; Okazaki, K.; Okamura, K.; Someya, H.; Takagi, A.; Tokuchi, A.; Wake, M.

    2011-07-01

    The High Energy Accelerator Research Organization KEK digital accelerator (KEK-DA) is a renovation of the KEK 500 MeV booster proton synchrotron, which was shut down in 2006. The existing 40 MeV drift tube linac and rf cavities have been replaced by an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source embedded in a 200 kV high-voltage terminal and induction acceleration cells, respectively. A DA is, in principle, capable of accelerating any species of ion in all possible charge states. The KEK-DA is characterized by specific accelerator components such as a permanent magnet X-band ECR ion source, a low-energy transport line, an electrostatic injection kicker, an extraction septum magnet operated in air, combined-function main magnets, and an induction acceleration system. The induction acceleration method, integrating modern pulse power technology and state-of-art digital control, is crucial for the rapid-cycle KEK-DA. The key issues of beam dynamics associated with low-energy injection of heavy ions are beam loss caused by electron capture and stripping as results of the interaction with residual gas molecules and the closed orbit distortion resulting from relatively high remanent fields in the bending magnets. Attractive applications of this accelerator in materials and biological sciences are discussed.

  8. Asia honours accelerator physicists

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    "Steve Meyers of Cern and Jie Wei of Beijing's Tsinghua University are the first recipients of a new prize for particle physics. The pair were honoured for their contributions to numerous particle-accelerator projects - including Cern's Large Hadron Collider - by the Asian Committee for Future Accelerators (ACFA)..." (1 paragraph)

  9. Accelerators for energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tremendous progress of accelerators for these several decades, has been motivated mainly by the research on subnuclear physics. The culmination in high energy accelerators might be SSC, 20 TeV collider in USA, probably the ultimate accelerator being built with the conventional principle. The technology cultivated and integrated for the accelerator development, can now stably offer the high power beam which could be used for the energy problems. The Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) with high current, 10 kA and short pulse, 20 ns heavy ion beam (HIB) of mass number ∼200, would be the most promising application of accelerators for energy production. In this scenario, the fuel containing D-T mixture, will be compressed to the high temperature, ∼10 keV and to the high density state, ∼1000 times the solid density with the pressure of ablative plasma or thermal X ray produced by bombarding of high power HIB. The efficiency, beam power/electric power for accelerator, and the repetition rate of HIB accelerators could be most suitable for the energy production. In the present paper, the outline of HIB ICF (HIF) is presented emphasizing the key issues of high current heavy ion accelerator system. (author)

  10. Accelerators Beyond The Tevatron?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lach, Joseph; /Fermilab

    2010-07-01

    Following the successful operation of the Fermilab superconducting accelerator three new higher energy accelerators were planned. They were the UNK in the Soviet Union, the LHC in Europe, and the SSC in the United States. All were expected to start producing physics about 1995. They did not. Why?

  11. Maximal Acceleration Is Nonrotating

    CERN Document Server

    Page, D N

    1998-01-01

    In a stationary axisymmetric spacetime, the angular velocity of a stationary observer that Fermi-Walker transports its acceleration vector is also the angular velocity that locally extremizes the magnitude of the acceleration of such an observer, and conversely if the spacetime is also symmetric under reversing both t and phi together. Thus a congruence of Nonrotating Acceleration Worldlines (NAW) is equivalent to a Stationary Congruence Accelerating Locally Extremely (SCALE). These congruences are defined completely locally, unlike the case of Zero Angular Momentum Observers (ZAMOs), which requires knowledge around a symmetry axis. The SCALE subcase of a Stationary Congruence Accelerating Maximally (SCAM) is made up of stationary worldlines that may be considered to be locally most nearly at rest in a stationary axisymmetric gravitational field. Formulas for the angular velocity and other properties of the SCALEs are given explicitly on a generalization of an equatorial plane, infinitesimally near a symmetry...

  12. Linear induction accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines a new layout for the injector and accelerating sectins of a linear induction accelerator. The sections are combined in a single housing: an induction system with a current-pulse generator based on double strip shaping lines laid over ferromagnetic cores; a multichannel spark discharger with forced current division among channels; and a system for core demagnetization and electron-beam formation and transport. The results of formation of an electron beam in the injector system and its acceleration in the first accelerating section of the accelerator for injection of beams with energies of 0.2-0.4 MeV, currents of 1-2 kA, and pulse durations of 60 nsec are given

  13. Collinear wake field acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Voss-Weiland scheme of wake field acceleration a high current, ring-shaped driving bunch is used to accelerate a low current beam following along on axis. In such a structure, the transformer ratio, i.e., the ratio of maximum voltage that can be gained by the on-axis beam and the voltage lost by the driving beam, can be large. In contrast, it has been observed that for an arrangement in which driving and driven bunches follow the same path, and where the current distribution of both bunches is gaussian, the transformer ratio is not normally greater than two. This paper explores some of the possibilities and limitations of a collinear acceleration scheme. In addition to its application to wake field acceleration in structures, this study is also of interest for the understanding of the plasma wake field accelerator. 11 refs., 4 figs

  14. Accelerators, Beams And Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators And Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemann, R.H.; /SLAC

    2011-10-24

    Accelerator science and technology have evolved as accelerators became larger and important to a broad range of science. Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams was established to serve the accelerator community as a timely, widely circulated, international journal covering the full breadth of accelerators and beams. The history of the journal and the innovations associated with it are reviewed.

  15. Electron accelerator applications for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    programmes concerning accelerator family developments. The low energy accelerators' capability has not been explored fully up to now. New environmental applications demand development of high power, reliable accelerators. The most powerful radiation processing facility, applying accelerators over 1 MW total power has been constructed for power plant emitted flue gases purification. However, these new challenges for accelerator manufactures demonstrated that further progress in accelerator technology is needed and possible. Application of X-rays for radiation processing based on X-ray tubes is quite popular in the case of blood irradiation. The concept of e-/X conversion is known for years, a lot of R and D was performed in the field and some units were installed. However, a breakthrough in technology is expected after implementation of the high power units, which are already being tested. Commercial irradiators are being offered on the market. The recent developments in the field of radiation technology and application of electron accelerators are presented in the paper delivered as a plenary lecture at IMRP, Chicago, 2003. Besides, there are some well-established technologies like: - Sterilization; - Food irradiation (mostly spices and herbs); - Polymer cross-linking (cables, thermo shrinkable materials, tires, composites etc). There are also new and emerging applications: - Environment protection; - Natural polymers processing; - Homeland security; - Nanotechnology. These and other applications require new modeling and dose distribution calculation methods. The progress in the field of instrumental and modeling methods may allow to achieve better control of Sterility of Assurance Level (SAL) which can allow to apply, if regulated, optimum dose leading to higher throughput. Sometimes it is good to recall basics concerning the dose rate calculations that explain why in the on-line systems almost exclusively electron accelerators are applied. The continuous flow of material

  16. Installation, tests and start up of the Tandetron positive ions accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Institute of Nuclear Research acquired a Positive ions accelerator type Tandetron 2MV of the Dutch Company High Voltage Engineering, Europe B.V. (H.V.E.E.) which was installed in the building named Irradiator Nave which is occupied by the Gamma irradiator and the Pelletron accelerator. Starting from the accelerator selection it was defined the conditions required for the operation of this as well as: electric feeding, water quality and quantity, air compressed, temperature, humidity, etc.; as well as the necessary modifications of the installation area. (Author)

  17. Absorbed Dose Distributions in Irradiated Plastic Tubing and Wire Insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne; McLaughlin, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    Plastic tubing and wire insulation were simulated by radiochromic dye dosimeter films having electron absorbing properties similar to the materials of interest (polyethylene and PVC). A 400-keV electron accelerator was used to irradiate from 1, 2, 3 and 4 sides simulating possible industrial...

  18. Facts about food irradiation: Chemical changes in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fact sheet addresses the safety of irradiated food. The irradiation process produces very little chemical change in food, and laboratory experiments have shown no harmful effects in animals fed with irradiated milk powder. 3 refs

  19. Effect of the lipid fraction of Listeria monocytogenes cells on the immune response of irradiated mice. Pt. 2. Effect of lipids administered after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipids from Listeria monocytegenes were tested for their effect on the process of recovery of the immune reactivity in mice irradiated with 250 and 500 R. The recovery was evaluated by determining cellular and humoral immune response to sheep erythrocytes given as antigen 15 and 30 days after irradiation. The administration of lipids was shown to accelerate the recovery of the immune mechanisms impaired by irradiation. The effect was greatly dependent upon the lipid dose and time of its administration. The effect was highest when the lipid was given 10 days after irradiation, the optimal dose being 0.25 mg. (author)

  20. Development of a Charged Particle Microbeam for Targeted and Single Particle Subcellular Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanch, Jacquelyn C.

    2004-03-12

    The development of a charged particle microbeam for single particle, subcellular irradiations at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Laboratory for Accelerator Beam Applications (MIT LABA) was initiated under this NEER aeard. The Microbeam apparatus makes use of a pre-existing electrostatic accelerator with a horizontal beam tube.

  1. Installation of the Ion Accelerator for the Surface Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Kim, Han-Sung; Chung, Bo-Hyun; Ahn, Tae-Sung; Kim, Dae-Il; Kim, Cho-Rong; Cho, Yong-Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, an introduction to the accelerator, an installation status at KOMAC and the operation plan of the accelerator are discussed. A pelletron, which has been used over 25 years at KIGAM, is moved and installed at KOMAC in order to supply a qualified service to ion beam users. The system will be installed in September and component tests will be carried. The operation of the system starts in 2016 after it gets operation license from Nuclear Safety and Security Commission. Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC) is operating several ion beam accelerators to provide various ion beams to users. Those are a 100 MeV proton linear accelerator, a 220 keV ion implanter for gaseous ion beams, a 150 keV metal ion implanter and a 20 keV high-current ion implanter. All of those are the machine for user service and it is important to qualify the results of the irradiation conditions for user service. For this reason, an electrostatic tandem accelerator, which has been operating over 25 years at Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), is moved to KOMAC in order to supply the qualified and quantified data on the irradiation species.

  2. Materials modified by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of radiation in pharmaceutical sciences and cosmetology, polymer materials, food industry, environment, health camre products and packing production is described. Nanotechnology is described more detailed, because it is less known as irradiation using technology. Economic influence of the irradiation on the materials value addition is shown

  3. Food irradiation control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review is given of the control and monitoring of food irradiation with particular emphasis on the UK situation. After describing legal aspects, various applications of food irradiation in different countries are listed. Other topics discussed include code of practice for general control for both gamma radiation and electron beam facilities, dose specification, depth dose distribution and dosimetry. (U.K.)

  4. Phase stability under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental evidences of radiation induced instability are described then it is shown what theoretical approaches are relevant. Radiation induced segregation and precipitation in alloys irradiated at constant chemical composition, precipitate re-solution, order-disorder transition under irradiation and amorphization are examined

  5. Electron beam irradiation effects on some packaged dried food items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For radical sports practitioners, small nutritious snack foods are needed. At the same time, food preparation must guarantee long shelf life and be compact or lightweight for easiness of carrying. Commercial individually packaged foods can be used either for sports practitioners like adventure racing or eventually as military rations. Irradiation processing of foods is an important preservation technology. High-voltage electron beams generated from linear accelerators are an alternative to radioisotope generators as they require much shorter exposure times (seconds vs. hours for γ irradiation) to be effective and are currently used to pasteurize meat products among others food items. This work describes the application of electron beam irradiation on some food items used in sport training diets: fiber rich cookies, fruit cereal bars, instant dehydrated asparagus soup and instant Brazilian corn pudding. Each kind of sample contained 3 groups of 15 units each. Irradiation was performed with an electron beam accelerator Dynamitron (Radiation Dynamics Inc.) model JOB 188, with doses of 5 and 10 kGy. For the evaluation of irradiated samples a methodology based on the Analytical Norms of the Instituto Adolfo Lutz, one of the South America Reference Laboratories was employed. The microbiological and sensory analyses of the diverse irradiated samples are presented. Electron beam irradiation resulted in significant reduction of the fungus and yeast load but caused dose dependent differences of some sensory characteristics. A careful dose choice and special irradiation conditions must be used in order to achieve sensory requirements needed for the commercialization of these irradiated food items. (author)

  6. Educational applications on particle accelerators in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian production of radiopharmaceuticals and radioisotopes for medical usage dates back to the 70's, since the beginning up to 2006; it was a monopoly of the government-owned corporations. After the market was open for the private enterprise, the quantity of small particle accelerators is increasing. The difficulties are many, from industry installation to the hard time on finding qualified personnel. The lack of investment on this area brought few trained people and the trained ones keep working in the government laboratories. Facing this issue, a strong program was started on training and educating people on universities, businesses enterprises and at hospitals in order to increase the human resources capabilities in the country. Activities such as laboratory research and lectures are being made as well in order to adapt Brazil to the renascence of the nuclear technology and increase the knowledge in the field of particle accelerators. These investments on education are preparing professionals in several areas, such as: physics, engineering, pharmacy, medicine, administration, among others. It started on the universities not only with lectures and workshops, but also with research partnerships on the stand-by time of the particle accelerators. At clinics and hospitals the efforts are focused in the improvement and training of the particle accelerator product applications. One of the private enterprise corporations has trained more than 30 people from five different states and established partnership with five different universities, qualifying people on installation, operation, maintenance and administration of the whole process of implementation of a particle accelerator site. It's also collaborating with the universities and researchers in the development of new techniques: the irradiation of other material targets or the use of non-usual particle beams, allowing the study of the nuclear activation of the concrete walls of the particle accelerator

  7. The miniature accelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    The image that most people have of CERN is of its enormous accelerators and their capacity to accelerate particles to extremely high energies. But thanks to some cutting-edge studies on beam dynamics and radiofrequency technology, along with innovative construction techniques, teams at CERN have now created the first module of a brand-new accelerator, which will be just 2 metres long. The potential uses of this miniature accelerator will include deployment in hospitals for the production of medical isotopes and the treatment of cancer. It’s a real David-and-Goliath story.   Serge Mathot, in charge of the construction of the "mini-RFQ", pictured with the first of the four modules that will make up the miniature accelerator. The miniature accelerator consists of a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ), a component found at the start of all proton accelerator chains around the world, from the smallest to the largest. The LHC is designed to produce very high-intensity beams ...

  8. Large electrostatic accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The increasing importance of energetic heavy ion beams in the study of atomic physics, nuclear physics, and materials science has partially or wholly motivated the construction of a new generation of large electrostatic accelerators designed to operate at terminal potentials of 20 MV or above. In this paper, the author briefly discusses the status of these new accelerators and also discusses several recent technological advances which may be expected to further improve their performance. The paper is divided into four parts: (1) a discussion of the motivation for the construction of large electrostatic accelerators, (2) a description and discussion of several large electrostatic accelerators which have been recently completed or are under construction, (3) a description of several recent innovations which may be expected to improve the performance of large electrostatic accelerators in the future, and (4) a description of an innovative new large electrostatic accelerator whose construction is scheduled to begin next year. Due to time and space constraints, discussion is restricted to consideration of only tandem accelerators.

  9. Collective ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress achieved in the understanding and development of collective ion acceleration is presented. Extensive analytic and computational studies of slow cyclotron wave growth on an electron beam in a helix amplifier were performed. Research included precise determination of linear coupling between beam and helix, suppression of undesired transients and end effects, and two-dimensional simulations of wave growth in physically realizable systems. Electrostatic well depths produced exceed requirements for the Autoresonant Ion Acceleration feasibility experiment. Acceleration of test ions to modest energies in the troughs of such waves was also demonstrated. Smaller efforts were devoted to alternative acceleration mechanisms. Langmuir wave phase velocity in Converging Guide Acceleration was calculated as a function of the ratio of electron beam current to space-charge limiting current. A new collective acceleration approach, in which cyclotron wave phase velocity is varied by modulation of electron beam voltage, is proposed. Acceleration by traveling Virtual Cathode or Localized Pinch was considered, but appears less promising. In support of this research, fundamental investigations of beam propagation in evacuated waveguides, of nonneutral beam linear eigenmodes, and of beam stability were carried out. Several computer programs were developed or enhanced. Plans for future work are discussed

  10. Dose verification by OSLDs in the irradiation of cell cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of value of irradiation dose presents difficulties when targets are irradiated located in regions where electronic equilibrium of charged particle is not reached, as in the case of irradiation -in vitro- of cell lines monolayer-cultured, in culture dishes or flasks covered with culture medium. The present study aimed to implement a methodology for dose verification in irradiation of cells in culture media by optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry (OSLD). For the determination of the absorbed dose in terms of cell proliferation OSL dosimeters of aluminum oxide doped with carbon (Al2O3:C) were used, which were calibrated to the irradiation conditions of culture medium and at doses that ranged from 0.1 to 15 Gy obtained with a linear accelerator of 6 MV photons. Intercomparison measurements were performed with an ionization chamber of 6 cm3. Different geometries were evaluated by varying the thicknesses of solid water, air and cell culture medium. The results showed deviations below 2.2% when compared with the obtained doses of OSLDs and planning system used. Also deviations were observed below 3.4% by eccentric points of the irradiation plane, finding homogeneous dose distribution. Uncertainty in the readings was less than 2%. The proposed methodology contributes a contribution in the dose verification in this type of irradiations, eliminating from the calculation uncertainties, potential errors in settling irradiation or possible equipment failure with which is radiating. It also provides certainty about the survival curves to be plotted with the experimental data. (Author)

  11. Needs of in-situ materials testing under neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under neutron irradiation, the component atoms of materials are displaced as primary knock-on atoms, and the energy of the primary knock-on atoms is consumed by electron excitation and nuclear collision. Elementary irradiation defects accumulate to form damage structure including voids and bubbles. In situ test under neutron irradiation is necessary for investigating into the effect of irradiation on creep behavior, the electric properties of ceramics, transport phenomena and so on. The in situ test is also important to investigate into the phenomena related to the chemical reaction with environment during irradiation. Accelerator type high energy neutron sources are preferable to fission reactors. In this paper, the needs and the research items of in situ test under neutron irradiation using a D-Li stripping type high energy neutron source on metallic and ceramic materials are described. Creep behavior is one of the most important mechanical properties, and depends strongly on irradiation environment, also it is closely related to microstructure. Irradiation affects the electric conductibity of ceramics and also their creep behavior. In this way, in situ test is necessary. (K.I.)

  12. Irradiation Creep in Graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubic, Rick; Butt, Darryl; Windes, William

    2014-03-13

    An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of irradiation creep in graphite material is required to correctly interpret experimental data, explain micromechanical modeling results, and predict whole-core behavior. This project will focus on experimental microscopic data to demonstrate the mechanism of irradiation creep. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy should be able to image both the dislocations in graphite and the irradiation-induced interstitial clusters that pin those dislocations. The team will first prepare and characterize nanoscale samples of virgin nuclear graphite in a transmission electron microscope. Additional samples will be irradiated to varying degrees at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) facility and similarly characterized. Researchers will record microstructures and crystal defects and suggest a mechanism for irradiation creep based on the results. In addition, the purchase of a tensile holder for a transmission electron microscope will allow, for the first time, in situ observation of creep behavior on the microstructure and crystallographic defects.

  13. Irradiation of goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical handling apparatus is adapted to handle goods, such as boxed fruit, during a process of irradiation, in palletized form. Palletized goods are loaded onto wheeled vehicles in a loading zone. Four vehicles are wheeled on a track into an irradiation zone via a door in a concrete shield. The vehicles are arranged in orthogonal relationship around a source of square section. Turntables are positioned at corners of the square shaped rail truck around the source selectively to turn the vehicles to align then with track sections. Mechanical manipulating devices are positioned in the track sections opposed to sides of the source. During irradiation, the vehicles and their palletized goods are cylically moved toward the source to offer first sides of the goods for irradiation and are retraced from the source and are pivoted through 900 to persent succeeding sides of the goods for irradiation

  14. Issues in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This discussion paper has two goals: first, to raise public awareness of food irradiation, an emerging technology in which Canada has the potential to build a new industry, mainly oriented to promising overseas markets; and second, to help build consensus among government and private sector decision makers about what has to be done to realize the domestic and export potential. The following pages discuss the potential of food irradiation; indicate how food is irradiated; outline the uses of food irradiation; examine questions of the safety of the equipment and both the safety and nutritional value of irradiated food; look at international commercial developments; assess the current and emerging domestic scene; and finally, draw some conclusions and offer suggestions for action

  15. Experimental study of the nucleation and growth of c-component loops under charged particle irradiations of recrystallized Zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recrystallized zirconium alloys, used as structural materials for the Pressurized Water Reactor fuel assembly, undergo under neutron irradiation induced stress free growth which accelerates for high irradiation doses. This acceleration is correlated with the formation of c-component vacancy dislocation loops in the basal plane. Since these defects are responsible for breakaway growth of recrystallized zirconium alloys, it is of prime importance to know the various factors that can affect their nucleation and growth. In the present work, two types of charged particle irradiations were conducted on recrystallized Zircaloy-4 samples in order to study c-component loops. A 2 MeV proton irradiation was performed up to a dose of 11.5 dpa at 623 K, and 600 keV Zr ion irradiations were carried out at 573 K up to 7 dpa. For the first time after those charged particle irradiations, c-component loops were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy. It has been shown that under Zr ion irradiation they start to nucleate and grow beyond a threshold dose as for neutron irradiation. The differences in the c-component loop microstructure are discussed for both ion irradiations and compared to the microstructure observed after neutron irradiation. Furthermore, it is shown that after proton irradiation the irradiated layer exhibits a misfit strain which is consistent with the irradiation induced growth of recrystallized zirconium alloys.

  16. Experimental study of the nucleation and growth of c-component loops under charged particle irradiations of recrystallized Zircaloy-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tournadre, L., E-mail: lea.tournadre@cea.fr [CEA-DEN, Section for Applied Metallurgy Research, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, Cedex (France); Onimus, F.; Bechade, J.-L. [CEA-DEN, Section for Applied Metallurgy Research, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, Cedex (France); Gilbon, D. [CEA-DEN, Nuclear Material Department, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, Cedex (France); Cloue, J.-M.; Mardon, J.-P. [AREVA NP SAS Fuel Business Unit 10, Rue Juliette Recamier 69456, Lyon Cedex 06 (France); Feaugas, X. [Laboratoire d' Etude des Materiaux en Milieux Agressifs (LEMMA), Universite de La Rochelle, 17042 La Rochelle Cedex 1 (France); Toader, O. [Michigan Ion Beam Laboratory (MIBL), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bachelet, C. [Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectroscopie de Masse (CSNSM), Universite Paris-Sud 11, 91405 Orsay Campus (France)

    2012-06-15

    Recrystallized zirconium alloys, used as structural materials for the Pressurized Water Reactor fuel assembly, undergo under neutron irradiation induced stress free growth which accelerates for high irradiation doses. This acceleration is correlated with the formation of c-component vacancy dislocation loops in the basal plane. Since these defects are responsible for breakaway growth of recrystallized zirconium alloys, it is of prime importance to know the various factors that can affect their nucleation and growth. In the present work, two types of charged particle irradiations were conducted on recrystallized Zircaloy-4 samples in order to study c-component loops. A 2 MeV proton irradiation was performed up to a dose of 11.5 dpa at 623 K, and 600 keV Zr ion irradiations were carried out at 573 K up to 7 dpa. For the first time after those charged particle irradiations, c-component loops were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy. It has been shown that under Zr ion irradiation they start to nucleate and grow beyond a threshold dose as for neutron irradiation. The differences in the c-component loop microstructure are discussed for both ion irradiations and compared to the microstructure observed after neutron irradiation. Furthermore, it is shown that after proton irradiation the irradiated layer exhibits a misfit strain which is consistent with the irradiation induced growth of recrystallized zirconium alloys.

  17. Accelerator Toolbox for MATLAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces Accelerator Toolbox (AT)--a collection of tools to model particle accelerators and beam transport lines in the MATLAB environment. At SSRL, it has become the modeling code of choice for the ongoing design and future operation of the SPEAR 3 synchrotron light source. AT was designed to take advantage of power and simplicity of MATLAB--commercially developed environment for technical computing and visualization. Many examples in this paper illustrate the advantages of the AT approach and contrast it with existing accelerator code frameworks

  18. Hadron accelerators in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaldi, U. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland). Accelerator School; Silari, M. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milan (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    The application of hadron accelerators (protons and light ions) in cancer therapy is discussed. After a brief introduction on the rationale for the use of heavy charged particles in radiation therapy, a discussion is given on accelerator technology and beam delivery systems. Next, existing and planned facilities are briefly reviewed. The Italian Hadron-therapy Project is then described in some detail, with reference ro both the National Centre for Oncological Hadron-therapy and the design of different types of compact proton accelerators aimed at introducing proton therapy in a large umber of hospitals. (author) 28 refs.

  19. Confronting Twin Paradox Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Thomas W.

    2016-05-01

    The resolution to the classic twin paradox in special relativity rests on the asymmetry of acceleration. Yet most students are not exposed to a satisfactory analysis of what exactly happens during the acceleration phase that results in the nonaccelerated observer's more rapid aging. The simple treatment presented here offers both graphical and quantitative solutions to the problem, leading to the correct result that the acceleration-induced age gap is 2Lβ years when the one-way distance L is expressed in light-years and velocity β ≡v/c .

  20. Entropic accelerating universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easson, Damien A., E-mail: easson@asu.ed [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Department of Physics and School of Earth and Space Exploration and Beyond Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ 85287-1504 (United States); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-4030 (United States); Frampton, Paul H., E-mail: frampton@physics.unc.ed [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Smoot, George F., E-mail: gfsmoot@lbl.go [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Institute for the Early Universe, Ewha Womans University and Advanced Academy, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chaire Blaise Pascale, Universite Paris Denis Diderot, Paris (France)

    2011-01-31

    To accommodate the observed accelerated expansion of the universe, one popular idea is to invoke a driving term in the Friedmann-Lemaitre equation of dark energy which must then comprise 70% of the present cosmological energy density. We propose an alternative interpretation which takes into account the entropy and temperature intrinsic to the horizon of the universe due to the information holographically stored there. Dark energy is thereby obviated and the acceleration is due to an entropic force naturally arising from the information storage on the horizon surface screen. We consider an additional quantitative approach inspired by surface terms in general relativity and show that this leads to the entropic accelerating universe.

  1. ACCELERATORS: School prizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedicated to its goal of encouraging scientists and students to work in the field of particle accelerators, the US Particle Accelerator School (operating since 1981) has switched to a new format. Starting this year, it will offer in alternate years basic accelerator physics plus advanced subjects in both university and symposium styles over four weeks. Expanding the school from two to four weeks gives additional flexibility, and undergraduate participation should be encouraged by university credits being offered for particular courses. In the intervening years, the school will organize six-day topical courses

  2. Auroral electron acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two theories of auroral electron acceleration are discussed. Part 1 examines the currently widely held view that the acceleration is an ordered process in a quasi-static electric field. It is suggested that, although there are many factors seeming to support this theory, the major qualifications and uncertainties that have been identified combine to cast serious doubt over its validity. Part 2 is devoted to a relatively new interpretation in terms of stochastic acceleration in turbulent electric fields. This second theory, which appears to account readily for most known features of the electron distribution function, is considered to provide a more promising approach to this central question in magnetospheric plasma physics. (author)

  3. The particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the Palais de la Decouverte (in Paris) is the sole scientific vulgarization establishment in the world to operate an actual particle accelerator able to provoke different types of nuclear reactions, the author recalls some historical aspects of the concerned department since the creation of the 'Radioactivity - Atom synthesis' department in 1937. He recalls the experiments which were then performed, the installation of the particle accelerator in 1964 and its renewal. He describes what's going on in this accelerator. He gives an overview of the difficulties faced after it has been decided to move it, of the works which had to be performed, and of radiation protection measures

  4. Detection of laser-accelerated protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, Sabine

    2012-08-08

    Real-time (Online) detection of laser-accelerated protons is a challenge for any electronic detector system due to the peculiar time structure ({<=} ns) and high intensity ({>=}10{sup 7} p/cm{sup 2}) of the generated ion pulses. Besides considerable saturation effects, problems are expected by an electromagnetic interference pulse (EMP), generated during laser-plasma interaction. In the scope of this work, different detection systems were built-up with regard to specific demands of laser-ion-acceleration at the MPQ ATLAS laser, which allow the quantitative analysis of the generated proton beam. A cell irradiation experiment at the ATLAS laser was accomplished to demonstrate the usability of laser-accelerated protons for radiation therapy. Cells were irradiated with a single shot dose of few Gy for a proton energy of 5 MeV. The following cell analysis required the spatially resolved measurement of the dose distribution. Only radiation-sensitive films were applicable because of the small proton range, although they show significant quenching effects for the used proton energy. This was extensively studied in the 3-200 MeV energy range. A film-based dosimetry protocol for low-energy proton irradiations was developed, making the absolute dose determination in the cell experiment possible. The non-electronic detectors (nuclear track detectors, radiation-sensitive films) are still state of the art in laser-accelerated ion diagnostics, although these detectors only allow a delayed in time (offline) detection. A non-electronic system, based on image plates, was thoroughly characterized and calibrated for ongoing experiments at the ATLAS laser, for the first time. Main objective of this work, though, was the set-up of a real-time detection system, which is urgently required, owing to increasing repetition rate of the laser accelerator (>Hz), to advance the parameter optimisation of the laser-acceleration in an efficient way. Systems based on silicon pixel detectors are

  5. Detection of laser-accelerated protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Real-time (Online) detection of laser-accelerated protons is a challenge for any electronic detector system due to the peculiar time structure (≤ ns) and high intensity (≥107 p/cm2) of the generated ion pulses. Besides considerable saturation effects, problems are expected by an electromagnetic interference pulse (EMP), generated during laser-plasma interaction. In the scope of this work, different detection systems were built-up with regard to specific demands of laser-ion-acceleration at the MPQ ATLAS laser, which allow the quantitative analysis of the generated proton beam. A cell irradiation experiment at the ATLAS laser was accomplished to demonstrate the usability of laser-accelerated protons for radiation therapy. Cells were irradiated with a single shot dose of few Gy for a proton energy of 5 MeV. The following cell analysis required the spatially resolved measurement of the dose distribution. Only radiation-sensitive films were applicable because of the small proton range, although they show significant quenching effects for the used proton energy. This was extensively studied in the 3-200 MeV energy range. A film-based dosimetry protocol for low-energy proton irradiations was developed, making the absolute dose determination in the cell experiment possible. The non-electronic detectors (nuclear track detectors, radiation-sensitive films) are still state of the art in laser-accelerated ion diagnostics, although these detectors only allow a delayed in time (offline) detection. A non-electronic system, based on image plates, was thoroughly characterized and calibrated for ongoing experiments at the ATLAS laser, for the first time. Main objective of this work, though, was the set-up of a real-time detection system, which is urgently required, owing to increasing repetition rate of the laser accelerator (>Hz), to advance the parameter optimisation of the laser-acceleration in an efficient way. Systems based on silicon pixel detectors are applicable for

  6. SPS accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    See photo 8202397: View towards the downstream end of one of the SPS accelerating cavities (200 MHz, travelling wave structure). See 7603195 and 8011289 for more details, 7411032 for the travelling wave structure, and also 8104138.

  7. SPS accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    View towards the downstream end of one of the SPS accelerating cavities (200 MHz, travelling wave structure). See 7603195 and 8011289 for more details, 7411032 for the travelling wave structure, and also 8104138.

  8. Rejuvenating CERN's Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    In the coming years and especially in 2005, CERN's accelerators are going to receive an extensive renovation programme to ensure they will perform reliably and effectively when the LHC comes into service.

  9. Dimension Driven Accelerating Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, S

    2009-01-01

    The current acceleration of the universe leads us to investigate higher dimensional gravity theory, which is able to explain acceleration from a theoretical view point without the need of introducing dark energy by hand. We argue that the terms containing higher dimensional metric coefficients produce an extra negative pressure that apparently drives an acceleration of the 3D space, tempting us to suggest that the accelerating universe seems to act as a window to the existence of extra spatial dimensions. Interesting to point out that in this case our cosmology apparently mimics the well known quintessence scenario fuelled by a generalised Chaplygin-type of fluid where a smooth transition from a dust dominated model to a de Sitter like one takes place. Correspondence to models generated by a tachyonic form of matter is also briefly discussed.

  10. Revisiting Caianiello's Maximal Acceleration

    OpenAIRE

    Papini, G.

    2003-01-01

    A quantum mechanical limit on the speed of orthogonality evolution justifies the last remaining assumption in Caianiello's derivation of the maximal acceleration. The limit is perfectly compatible with the behaviour of superconductors of the first type.

  11. Joint International Accelerator School

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    2014-01-01

    The CERN and US Particle Accelerator Schools recently organised a Joint International Accelerator School on Beam Loss and Accelerator Protection, held at the Hyatt Regency Hotel, Newport Beach, California, USA from 5-14 November 2014. This Joint School was the 13th in a series of such schools, which started in 1985 and also involves the accelerator communities in Japan and Russia.   Photo courtesy of Alfonse Pham, Michigan State University.   The school attracted 58 participants representing 22 different nationalities, with around half from Europe and the other half from Asia and the Americas. The programme comprised 26 lectures, each of 90 minutes, and 13 hours of case study. The students were given homework each day and had an opportunity to sit a final exam, which counted towards university credit. Feedback from the participants was extremely positive, praising the expertise and enthusiasm of the lecturers, as well as the high standard and quality of their lectures. Initial dis...

  12. Effects of Electron Beam Irradiated Natural Casings on the Quality Characteristics of Emulsion Sausage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyunwook; Kim, Hackyoun; Hwang, Koeun; Choi, Sunmi; Kim, Cheonjei; Choi, Jihun; Choi, Yunsang [Konkuk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Juwoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    The effects of electron beam irradiated hog and sheep casings (1, 3, and 8 KGy) on the physicochemical properties and shelf stability of emulsion sausage were evaluated. There were no significantly differences in ph, instrumental color, and sensory evaluation among all the samples tested (p>0.05). The cooking yields for the irradiated treated samples were larger than the yields obtained for the non-irradiated samples for both the hog and sheep casing. However, the results on the purge loss after storage for 5 weeks were contradictory. The hardness of the sausage was lower when the irradiated natural casings were used. The irradiated natural casings accelerated lipid oxidation. The volatile basic nitrogen values were lower in samples treated with electron beam irradiation. The natural casings irradiated up to a dose of 3kGy not only had different total aerobic bacteria counts during the initial storage period but also displayed higher TAB counts at the final storage period.

  13. Irradiation response of straw drift tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Dünnweber, W; Neumayr, J; Platzer, K

    2003-01-01

    Drift tubes filled with Ar/CF//4/CO//2 (74:20:6) were exposed to 26 MeV proton beams from the Munich Tandem accelerator to study the radiation effects and operation characteristics expected for the COMPASS experiment at CERN. Stable operation with no significant loss of gain and no significant Malter current was observed up to charge accumulations of 1.1 C/cm. For comparison, with Ar/CH//4 (90:10) the same detectors show a 23% loss of gain and large Malter currents under the same irradiation condition. For Ar/CF//4/CO//2 a thin ( less than 0.1 mum) surface layer is observed by means of SEM on the anode wire in the irradiated detector section. As revealed by an ERDA study, the prominent components of this layer are C, O and Si.

  14. Gamma irradiation in a saturated tuff environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of gamma irradiation on the reaction of actinide doped SRL 165 and PNL 76-68 glasses in a saturated tuff environment has been studied in a series of tests lasting up to 56 days. The reaction, and subsequent actinide release, of both glasses depends on the dynamic interaction between radiolysis effects which cause the solution pH to become more acidic and glass reaction which drives the pH more basic. The use of large gamma irradiation dose rates to accelerate reactions that would occur in an actual repository radiation field may affect this dynamic balance by unduly influencing the mechanism of the glass-water reaction. Comparisons are made between the present results and data obtained by reacting the same or similar glasses using MCC-1 and NNWSI rock cup procedures. 11 references, 3 figures

  15. Irradiation effects in YBCO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxide superconductors are very sensitive to electron or ion beam irradiation/implantation. In the past 19 years after high-Tc (HTc) superconductivity was discovered in these materials, many aspects of interactions of accelerated particles with HTc thin films were investigated. In this paper short review of most significant phenomena is given, especially of those important for electronic applications (controllable reduction of critical temperature and critical current density) and their applications for HTc film patterning, fabrication of HTc Josephson junctions and SQUIDs. Some new results in creating 3-d inhomogeneous regions in YBCO superconductors by ion irradiation/implantation and investigation of high harmonic generation in YBCO film modified by 100 keV oxygen ions are presented. (author)

  16. A symmetrical rail accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igenbergs, E. (Technische Univ. Muenchen, Lehrstuhl fuer Raumfahrttechnik, Richard-Wagner-Strasse 18, 8000 Muenchen 2 (DE))

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the symmetrical rail accelerator that has four rails, which are arranged symmetrically around the bore. The opposite rails have the same polarity and the adjacent rails the opposite polarity. In this configuration the radial force acting upon the individual rails is significantly smaller than in a conventional 2-rail configuration and a plasma armature is focussed towards the axis of the barrel. Experimental results indicate a higher efficiency compared to a conventional rail accelerator.

  17. Advanced Accelerator Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference proceedings represent the results of theThird Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop held in PortJefferson, New York. The workshop was sponsored by the U.S.Department of Energy, the Office of Navel Research and BrookhavenNational Laboratory. The purpose was to assess new techniques forproduction of ultra-high gradient acceleration and to addressengineering issues in achieving this goal. There are eighty-onepapers collected in the proceedings and all have been abstractedfor the database

  18. CEBAF Accelerator Achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past decade, nuclear physics users of Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) have benefited from accelerator physics advances and machine improvements. As of early 2011, CEBAF operates routinely at 6 GeV, with a 12 GeV upgrade underway. This article reports highlights of CEBAF's scientific and technological evolution in the areas of cryomodule refurbishment, RF control, polarized source development, beam transport for parity experiments, magnets and hysteresis handling, beam breakup, and helium refrigerator operational optimization.

  19. Accelerating Cosmologies from Compactification

    CERN Document Server

    Townsend, P K; Townsend, Paul K.; Wohlfarth, Mattias N.R.

    2003-01-01

    A solution of the (4+n)-dimensional vacuum Einstein equations is found for which spacetime is compactified on a compact hyperbolic manifold of time-varying volume to a flat four-dimensional FLRW cosmology undergoing accelerated expansion in Einstein conformal frame. This shows that the `no-go' theorem forbidding acceleration in `standard' (time-independent) compactifications of string/M-theory does not apply to `cosmological' (time-dependent) hyperbolic compactifications.

  20. Designing reliability into accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Future accelerators will have to provide a high degree of reliability. Quality must be designed in right from the beginning and must remain a central theme throughout the project. The problem is similar to the problems facing US industry today, and examples of the successful application of quality engineering will be given. Different aspects of an accelerator project will be addressed: Concept, Design, Motivation, Management Techniques, and Fault Diagnosis. The importance of creating and maintaining a coherent team will be stressed

  1. Accelerated cyclic corrosion tests

    OpenAIRE

    Prošek T.

    2016-01-01

    Accelerated corrosion testing is indispensable for material selection, quality control and both initial and residual life time prediction for bare and painted metallic, polymeric, adhesive and other materials in atmospheric exposure conditions. The best known Neutral Salt Spray (NSS) test provides unrealistic conditions and poor correlation to exposures in atmosphere. Modern cyclic accelerated corrosion tests include intermittent salt spray, wet and dry phases and eventually other technical p...

  2. Accelerating News Issue 2

    CERN Document Server

    Kahle, K; Wildner, E

    2012-01-01

    In this summer issue we look at how developments in collimator materials could have applications in aerospace and beyond, and how Polish researchers are harnessing accelerators for medical and industrial uses. We see how the LHC luminosity upgrade is linking with European industry and US researchers, and how the neutrino oscillation community is progressing. We find out the mid-term status of TIARA-PP and how it is mapping European accelerator education resources.

  3. Irradiation-Induced Nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birtcher, R.C.; Ewing, R.C.; Matzke, Hj.; Meldrum, A.; Newcomer, P.P.; Wang, L.M.; Wang, S.X.; Weber, W.J.

    1999-08-09

    This paper summarizes the results of the studies of the irradiation-induced formation of nanostructures, where the injected interstitials from the source of irradiation are not major components of the nanophase. This phenomena has been observed by in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in a number of intermetallic compounds and ceramics during high-energy electron or ion irradiations when the ions completely penetrate through the specimen. Beginning with single crystals, electron or ion irradiation in a certain temperature range may result in nanostructures composed of amorphous domains and nanocrystals with either the original composition and crystal structure or new nanophases formed by decomposition of the target material. The phenomenon has also been observed in natural materials which have suffered irradiation from the decay of constituent radioactive elements and in nuclear reactor fuels which have been irradiated by fission neutrons and other fission products. The mechanisms involved in the process of this nanophase formation are discussed in terms of the evolution of displacement cascades, radiation-induced defect accumulation, radiation-induced segregation and phase decomposition, as well as the competition between irradiation-induced amorphization and recrystallization.

  4. Food irradiation 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation principles; its main applications, advantages and limitations; wholesomeness, present activities at Ezeiza Atomic Centre; research coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency; capacity building; and some aspects on national and international regulations, standards and commercialization are briefly described. At present 56 countries authorize the consumption of varied irradiated foods; trade is performed in 32 countries, with about 200 irradiation facilities. Argentina pioneered nuclear energy knowledge and applications in Latin America, food irradiation included. A steady growth of food industrial volumes treated in two gamma facilities can be observed. Food industry and producers show interest towards new facilities construction. However, a 15 years standstill in incorporating new approvals in the Argentine Alimentary Code, in spite of consecutive request performed either by CNEA or some food industries restricts, a wider industrial implementation, which constitute a drawback to future regional commercialization in areas such as MERCOSUR, where Brazil since 2000 freely authorize food irradiation. Besides, important chances in international trade with developed countries will be missed, like the high fresh fruits and vegetables requirements United States has in counter-season, leading to convenient sale prices. The Argentine food irradiation facilities have been designed and built in the country. Argentina produces Cobalt-60. These capacities, unusual in the world and particularly in Latin America, should be protected and enhanced. Being the irradiation facilities scarce and concentrated nearby Buenos Aires city, the possibilities of commercial application and even research and development are strongly limited for most of the country regions. (author)

  5. Economics of Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews and evaluates current developments relating to the prospects for commercial food irradiation within the United States. The study, recognizes that one cannot generalize about the prospects for food irradiation either by process or product. Both technical and economic potentials vary widely for different food products subjected to the same or different types of treatment. Food irradiation processes and products are evaluated. Recent studies concerned with the economics of food irradiation are briefly reviewed and evaluated and findings and conclusions relating to economic potentials summarized. Industry reactions to a proposed pilot plant meat irradiator, sponsored by the U.S. Army and U.S. AEC and coordinated by the Department of Commerce, are discussed and factors which will determine the future direction, extent and commercial success of food preservation by ionizing irradiation are analysed. Developments in all these categories are essential for success, and if not achieved would be limiting factors. Nevertheless, the successful and profitable marketing of irradiated foods must finally be dependent upon customer acceptance and favourable cost versus benefit relations. Benefits will include lower costs and higher profits through spoilage reductions, extensions of shelf-life and shipping distances, market expansions, and quality Improvements. Ultimately, the economic success of this new technology must depend upon the clear demonstration that these benefits will exceed the additional processing costs by a margin sufficient to induce the necessary private investments and willingness to accept related risks in this new field. (author)

  6. Nuclear physics accelerator facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brief descriptions are given of DOE and Nuclear Physics program operated and sponsored accelerator facilities. Specific facilities covered are the Argonne Tandem/Linac Accelerator System, the Tandem/AGS Heavy Ion Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory, the proposed Continuous Beam Accelerator at Newport News, Virginia, the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory at Duke University, the Bevalac and the SuperHILAC at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Bates Linear Accelerator Center at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Nuclear Physics Injector at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, the Texas A and M Cyclotrons, the Tandem/Superconducting Booster Accelerator at the University of Washington and the Tandem Van de Graaff at the A.W. Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory of Yale University. Included are acquisition cost, research programs, program accomplishments, future directions, and operating parameters of each facility

  7. Accelerators for America's Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Mei

    2016-03-01

    Particle accelerator, a powerful tool to energize beams of charged particles to a desired speed and energy, has been the working horse for investigating the fundamental structure of matter and fundermental laws of nature. Most known examples are the 2-mile long Stanford Linear Accelerator at SLAC, the high energy proton and anti-proton collider Tevatron at FermiLab, and Large Hadron Collider that is currently under operation at CERN. During the less than a century development of accelerator science and technology that led to a dazzling list of discoveries, particle accelerators have also found various applications beyond particle and nuclear physics research, and become an indispensible part of the economy. Today, one can find a particle accelerator at almost every corner of our lives, ranging from the x-ray machine at the airport security to radiation diagnostic and therapy in hospitals. This presentation will give a brief introduction of the applications of this powerful tool in fundermental research as well as in industry. Challenges in accelerator science and technology will also be briefly presented

  8. Irradiation in action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extent to which food irradiation takes place and the regulations governing the process in America, Brazil, Chile, and European countries is reported. The development and operation of a pilot plant built in Holland to test the application of the process to the sterilization of medical supplies and certain foods and the setting up and operation, by Gammester, of a special food irradiation plant in 1982, is described. In this plant 36 foods, mainly dry ingredients such as spices, dried vegetables, egg powder and blood proteins are irradiated. Research looks promising for the future. The implementation of international legal acceptance and more public information is stressed. (U.K.)

  9. Alaskan Commodities Irradiation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ninety-ninth US Congress commissioned a six-state food irradiation research and development program to evaluate the commercial potential of this technology. Hawaii, Washington, Iowa, Oklahoma and Florida as well as Alaska have participated in the national program; various food products including fishery products, red meats, tropical and citrus fruits and vegetables have been studied. The purpose of the Alaskan study was to review and evaluate those factors related to the technical and economic feasibility of an irradiator in Alaska. This options analysis study will serve as a basis for determining the state's further involvement in the development of food irradiation technology. 40 refs., 50 figs., 53 tabs

  10. Investigations of the concept of a multibunch dielectric wakefield accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, I. N.; Kiselev, V. A.; Linnik, A. F.; Pristupa, V. I.; Sotnikov, G. V.

    2016-09-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations of the physical principles of multibunch dielectric wakefield accelerator concept based on the wakefield excitation in the dielectric structure by a sequence of relativistic electron bunches are presented. The purpose of the concept is to enhance the wakefield intensity by means of the multibunch coherent excitation and wakefield accumulation in a resonator. The acceleration of bunches is achieved at detuning of bunch repetition frequency relative to the frequency of the excited wakefield. In such a way the sequence of bunches is divided into exciting and accelerated parts due to displacing bunches into accelerating phases of wakefield excited by a previous part of bunches of the same sequence. Besides the change of the permittivity and loss tangent of dielectrics under the irradiation by 100 MeV electron beam is studied.

  11. Diffusive Shock Acceleration and Reconnection Acceleration Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zank, G. P.; Hunana, P.; Mostafavi, P.; Le Roux, J. A.; Li, Gang; Webb, G. M.; Khabarova, O.; Cummings, A.; Stone, E.; Decker, R.

    2015-12-01

    Shock waves, as shown by simulations and observations, can generate high levels of downstream vortical turbulence, including magnetic islands. We consider a combination of diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) and downstream magnetic-island-reconnection-related processes as an energization mechanism for charged particles. Observations of electron and ion distributions downstream of interplanetary shocks and the heliospheric termination shock (HTS) are frequently inconsistent with the predictions of classical DSA. We utilize a recently developed transport theory for charged particles propagating diffusively in a turbulent region filled with contracting and reconnecting plasmoids and small-scale current sheets. Particle energization associated with the anti-reconnection electric field, a consequence of magnetic island merging, and magnetic island contraction, are considered. For the former only, we find that (i) the spectrum is a hard power law in particle speed, and (ii) the downstream solution is constant. For downstream plasmoid contraction only, (i) the accelerated spectrum is a hard power law in particle speed; (ii) the particle intensity for a given energy peaks downstream of the shock, and the distance to the peak location increases with increasing particle energy, and (iii) the particle intensity amplification for a particular particle energy, f(x,c/{c}0)/f(0,c/{c}0), is not 1, as predicted by DSA, but increases with increasing particle energy. The general solution combines both the reconnection-induced electric field and plasmoid contraction. The observed energetic particle intensity profile observed by Voyager 2 downstream of the HTS appears to support a particle acceleration mechanism that combines both DSA and magnetic-island-reconnection-related processes.

  12. Effects of irradiated biodegradable polymer in endothelial cell monolayer formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbeitman, Claudia R.; Grosso, Mariela F. del [CONICET – Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (Argentina); Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, TANDAR-CNEA (Argentina); Behar, Moni [Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); García Bermúdez, Gerardo, E-mail: ggb@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [CONICET – Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (Argentina); Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, TANDAR-CNEA (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnología, UNSAM (Argentina)

    2013-11-01

    In this work we study cell adhesion, proliferation and cell morphology of endothelial cell cultured on poly-L-lactide acid (PLLA) modified by heavy ion irradiation. Thin films of PLLA samples were irradiated with sulfur (S) at energies of 75 MeV and gold (Au) at 18 MeV ion-beams. Ion beams were provided by the Tandar (Buenos Aires, Argentina) and Tandetron (Porto Alegre, Brazil) accelerators, respectively. The growth of a monolayer of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) onto unirradiated and irradiated surfaces has been studied by in vitro techniques in static culture. Cell viability and proliferation increased on modified substrates. But the results on unirradiated samples, indicate cell death (necrosis/apoptosis) with the consequent decrease in proliferation. We analyzed the correlation between irradiation parameters and cell metabolism and morphology.

  13. Studies of ablation pressure, ablative acceleration and ablative implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time and space resolved X-ray spectroscopy have been used to measure ablation rate and ablation pressure on plane targets irradiated by the first and second harmonics of Nd glass laser light. Streaked X-ray shadowgraphy has been applied to the study of ablatively imploded spherical shell targets uniformly irradiated by six 1.05 μm laser beams. The results give a direct measurement of shell acceleration and thus of ablation pressure and show evidence of fluid instability increasing as the shell ratio is varied from 10 to 100. A direct determination of implosion core density is also obtained. (author)

  14. Facts about food irradiation: Irradiated foods and the consumer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fact sheet discusses market testing of irradiate food, consumer response to irradiated products has always been positive, and in some countries commercial quantities of some irradiated food items have been sold on a regular basis. Consumers have shown no reluctance to buy irradiated food products. 4 refs

  15. Innovations in irradiator design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past few years industry has demanded certain changes in irradiator design to meet the needs of the medical manufacturers, and as well service the requirements of new applications for irradiation. The medical manufacturers have, in certain cases, been tending toward larger capacity machines with higher efficiencies to take advantage of economies of scale. Other parts of the industry have been demanding a truly ''Multipurpose'' facility which can process many varied types of products. Coupled with these machine changes there has been an increase in demand for more comprehensive logging of the irradiation process. This has spawned development of several styles of computer monitoring, control and logging systems. This paper will discuss these topics in more detail in order to give some insight into the ''state of the art'' within the irradiator design industry. (author)

  16. Packing for food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee approved the use of radiation treatment of foods. Nowadays food packaging are mostly made of plastics, natural or synthetic, therefore effect of irradiation on these materials is crucial for packing engineering for food irradiation technology. By selecting the right polymer materials for food packaging it can be ensured that the critical elements of material and product performance are not compromised. When packaging materials are in contact with food at the time of irradiation that regulatory approvals sometimes apply. The review of the R-and-D and technical papers regarding material selection, testing and approval is presented in the report. The most information come from the USA where this subject is well elaborated, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reports are reviewed as well. The report can be useful for scientists and food irradiation plants operators. (author)

  17. Food irradiation : ACA inquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The executive summary of the report on food irradiation by the Australian Consumers' Association is presented. The key issues which emerged during the inquiry are summarised including safety controls, wholesomeness, the environment, consumer rights and economic considerations

  18. Sterilization by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1980 the National Institute of Nuclear Research counts with an Industrial Gamma Irradiator, for the sterilization of raw materials and finished products. Through several means has been promoted the use of this technology as alternative to conventional methods of sterilization as well as steam treatment and ethylene oxide. As a result of the made promotion this irradiator has come to its saturation limit being the sterilization irradiation one of the main services that National Institute of Nuclear Research offers to producer enterprises of disposable materials of medical use also of raw materials for the elaboration of cosmetic products and pharmaceuticals as well as dehydrated foods. It is presented the trend to the sterilization service by irradiation showed by the compilation data in a survey made by potential customers. (Author)

  19. The Thai multipurpose food irradiation and experience in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losses of agricultural produce in Thailand are due to the hot climate accelerating the ripening of fruits and sprouting of vegetables, spoilage microorganisms, pathogenic microorganisms, and insect infestation. Losses amount to as much as 30%. Onion, garlic and potato which have a short shelf-life, for instance, cannot be stored long enough for off-season domestic consumption. The annual production and domestic consumption of onion in Thailand is approximately 50,000 and 30,000 tons respectively. However, about 50% of the harvest is discarded during storage because of rotting and sprouting. Fresh onion can be stored for only a few months under tropical conditions. Therefore during the scarce season of 1982, Thailand had to import 4,760 tons of onion at a cost of 56 million baht. Other major problems for fruit are short shelf-life and insect infestation. Food items for export may meet with rejection by importing countries due to insect infestation and microbial contamination. This can mean considerable economic loss. In order to solve these problems, the government of Thailand is interested in setting up a multi-purpose agricultural pilot plant demonstration facility for government-industry-consumer benefit. Since 1963, the Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) has been responsible for carrying out research and development in food irradiation in the areas of extending shelf-life, insect disinfestation, radicidation, and inhibition of sprouting in food and agricultural produce. There are many well-trained scientists able to assist in the commercialization of food irradiation. The multi-purpose agricultural pilot plant demonstration facility in this project will be operated by the staff of OAEP. The service will be available for irradiation of eight selected food items, initially for 6,084 operating hours. These are onion, potato, and garlic at 6,000, 2,000, 6,000 tons respectively; salted and dried fish at 1,000 and mungbeans at 3,000 tons; fermented pork, Vietnam

  20. Small type accelerator. Try for accelerator driven system

    CERN Document Server

    Mori, Y

    2003-01-01

    FFAG (Fixed-field alternating gradient) accelerator for accelerator driven subcritical reactor, which aims to change from long-lived radioactive waste to short-lived radioactivity, is introduced. It is ring accelerator. The performance needed is proton as accelerator particle, 10MW (total) beam power, about 1GeV beam energy, >30% power efficiency and continuous beam. The feature of FFAG accelerator is constant magnetic field. PoP (Proof-of-principle)-FFAG accelerator, radial type, was run at first in Japan in 2000. The excursion is about some ten cm. In principle, beam can be injected and extracted at any place of ring. The 'multi-fish' acceleration can accelerate beams to 100% duty by repeating acceleration. 150MeV-FFAG accelerator has been started since 2001. It tried to practical use, for example, treatment of cancer. (S.Y.)

  1. Proton irradiation of EMCCDs

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, DR; Ingley, R.; Holland, AD

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the irradiation of 95 electron multiplication charge coupled devices (EMCCDs) at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) in Switzerland, to investigate the effects of proton irradiation on the operational characteristics of CCDs featuring electron multiplication technology for space use. This work was carried out in support of the CCD development for the radial velocity spectrometer (RVS) instrument of the European Space Agency's cornerstone Gaia mission. Previous proton irradia...

  2. Fully portable blood irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fully portable blood irradiator was developed using the beta emitter thulium-170 as the radiation source and vitreous carbon as the body of the irradiator, matrix for isotope encapsulation, and blood interface material. These units were placed in exteriorized arteriovenous shunts in goats, sheep, and dogs and the effects on circulating lymphocytes and on skin allograft retention times measured. The present work extends these studies by establishing baseline data for skin graft rejection times in untreated animals

  3. Food irradiation in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation has recently been visited as a technology that can contribute to the solution of problems associated with food preservation of Malaysia's agriculture produce and products thereby improving the economic status of the rural sector. However, the history of food irradiation in Malaysia is very recent. Research carried out on food irradiation only began in 1974 as a result of the installation of a 60Co facility (initially 10,000 Ci) at the National University of Malaysia. Since its installation several studies have been carried out pertaining to the food irradiation. Presently its development has been slow. Research in this area has been confined to laboratory scale and purely academic. This limitation is due to a number of reasons, among others are: a) limited number of facilities; b) lack of expertise to conduct its research; c) other preservation methods can be improved with lower capital output. An important step towards its development was made when Malaysia actively participated in the RCA/IAEA food irradiation project, viz. the irradiation of pepper which was carried out at the National University of Malaysia in the 80's. As a result of this venture, research and development activities in food irradiation have been geared toward semi-plot scale with the view ot commercialization in the future. In 1982, a group of researchers was formed to conduct feasibility studies using irradiation techniques in trying to overcome several problems associated with our local paddy and rice. Another group is being organized by the National University of Malaysia to look into the problems associated with the preservation of frozen shrimps. (author)

  4. Chemical and molecular properties of irradiated starch extrudates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corn starch samples containing 0, 25, 50, and 70% amylose were gamma-irradiated at 0 (native), 5, 10, 20, and 30 kGy. All starch samples were extrusion cooked at 140 degrees C barrel temperature, 140 rpm screw speed, and 18% moisture content (db) using a C. W. Brabender single-screw extruder. Starches irradiated at a 20-kGy dosage were extrusion cooked with and without hydrogen peroxide, potassium persulfate, or ceric ammonium nitrate. The quantity of free radicals produced on the starch increased with increasing irradiation dosages (0-30 kGy). Stability of the free radicals was greater for high-amylose starches than for those with low amylose. Extrusion-cooked starches had traces of free radical activity. Acidity of the irradiated starches increased (pH decreased) with increasing irradiation dosages. Gel permeation chromatographic separation of variously treated starches gave three fractions. Fraction I, mostly amylopectin, eluted at the void volume, whereas fraction II, mostly amylose, eluted at the latter part of the gel. Fraction 0, degraded products of amylopectin and amylose, mostly eluted closer to the total volume of the gel. Fraction I quantities of irradiated starches decreased with increasing irradiation dosages, whereas fraction II and III quantities correspondingly increased. Native starches with 0% amylose exhibited more than a fourfold decrease in fraction I content, whereas 70% amylose native starches showed less than a twofold decrease due to increasing irradiation dosages from 0 to 30 kGy. Extrusion cooking accelerated the degradation of fraction I for 0% amylose starches more than for 70% amylose starches. Both 2.5 and 5% concentrations of chemical additives caused excessive degradation of fraction I of starches irradiated at 20 kGy, consequently increasing reducing powers. Ceric ammonium nitrate caused the highest decrease in the iodine binding capacity of the starches. Fraction I clearly suffered more degradation due to irradiation, extrusion

  5. Irradiation Defects in Silicon Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The application of irradiation in silicon crystal is introduced.The defects caused by irradiation are reviewed and some major ways of studying defects in irradiated silicon are summarized.Furthermore the problems in the investigation of irradiated silicon are discussed as well as its properties.

  6. Radiation Shielding Analysis of Electron Beam Accelerator Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this technical report are to establish the radiation shielding technology of a high-energy electron accelerator to the facilities which utilize with electron beam. The technologies of electron beam irradiation(300 KeV -10 MeV) demand on the diverse areas of material processing, surface treatment, treatments on foods or food processing, improvement of metal properties, semiconductors, and ceramics, sterilization of medical goods and equipment, treatment and control of contamination and pollution, and so on. In order to acquire safety design for the protection of personnel from the radiations produced by electron beam accelerators, it is important to develop the radiation shielding analysis technology. The shielding analysis are carried out by which define source term, calculation modelling and computer calculations for 2 MeV and 10 MeV accelerators. And the shielding analysis for irradiation dump shield with 10 MeV accelerators are also performed by solving the complex 3-D geometry and long computer run time problem. The technology development of shielding analysis will be contributed to extend the further high energy accelerator development

  7. Accelerating nondiffracting beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Shaohui; Li, Manman; Yao, Baoli, E-mail: yaobl@opt.ac.cn; Yu, Xianghua; Lei, Ming; Dan, Dan; Yang, Yanlong; Min, Junwei; Peng, Tong

    2015-06-05

    We present a set of beams which combine the properties of accelerating beams and (conventional) diffraction-free beams. These beams can travel along a desired trajectory while keeping an approximately invariant transverse profile, which may be (higher-order) Bessel-, Mathieu- or parabolic-nondiffracting-like beams, depending on the initial complex amplitude distribution. A possible application of these beams presented here may be found in optical trapping field. For example, a higher-order Bessel-like beam, which has a hollow (transverse) pattern, is suitable for guiding low-refractive-index or metal particles along a curve. - Highlights: • A set of beams having arbitrary trajectories of accelerating and nondiffracting behaviors are generalized and presented. • Bessel-like accelerating beams are generalized to the higher-order (hollow) version. • Mathieu-like accelerating beams and parabolic-nondiffracting-like accelerating beams are presented. • A possible application of these beams may be found in optical trapping and guiding of particles.

  8. Dielectric laser accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, R. Joel; Noble, Robert J.; Bane, Karl; Dowell, David H.; Ng, Cho-Kuen; Spencer, James E.; Tantawi, Sami; Wu, Ziran; Byer, Robert L.; Peralta, Edgar; Soong, Ken; Chang, Chia-Ming; Montazeri, Behnam; Wolf, Stephen J.; Cowan, Benjamin; Dawson, Jay; Gai, Wei; Hommelhoff, Peter; Huang, Yen-Chieh; Jing, Chunguang; McGuinness, Christopher; Palmer, Robert B.; Naranjo, Brian; Rosenzweig, James; Travish, Gil; Mizrahi, Amit; Schachter, Levi; Sears, Christopher; Werner, Gregory R.; Yoder, Rodney B.

    2014-10-01

    The use of infrared lasers to power optical-scale lithographically fabricated particle accelerators is a developing area of research that has garnered increasing interest in recent years. The physics and technology of this approach is reviewed, which is referred to as dielectric laser acceleration (DLA). In the DLA scheme operating at typical laser pulse lengths of 0.1 to 1 ps, the laser damage fluences for robust dielectric materials correspond to peak surface electric fields in the GV /m regime. The corresponding accelerating field enhancement represents a potential reduction in active length of the accelerator between 1 and 2 orders of magnitude. Power sources for DLA-based accelerators (lasers) are less costly than microwave sources (klystrons) for equivalent average power levels due to wider availability and private sector investment. Because of the high laser-to-particle coupling efficiency, required pulse energies are consistent with tabletop microJoule class lasers. Combined with the very high (MHz) repetition rates these lasers can provide, the DLA approach appears promising for a variety of applications, including future high-energy physics colliders, compact light sources, and portable medical scanners and radiative therapy machines.

  9. Total lymphoid irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-05-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen.

  10. TGF-β1 accelerates the DNA damage response in epithelial cells via Smad signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeeyong; Kim, Mi-Ra; Kim, Hyun-Ji; An, You Sun; Yi, Jae Youn

    2016-08-01

    The evidence suggests that transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) regulates the DNA-damage response (DDR) upon irradiation, and we previously reported that TGF-β1 induced DNA ligase IV (Lig4) expression and enhanced the nonhomologous end-joining repair pathway in irradiated cells. In the present study, we investigated the effects of TGF-β1 on the irradiation-induced DDRs of A431 and HaCaT cells. Cells were pretreated with or without TGF-β1 and irradiated. At 30 min post-irradiation, DDRs were detected by immunoblotting of phospho-ATM, phospho-Chk2, and the presence of histone foci (γH2AX). The levels of all three factors were similar right after irradiation regardless of TGF-β1 pretreatment. However, they soon thereafter exhibited downregulation in TGF-β1-pretreated cells, indicating the acceleration of the DDR. Treatment with a TGF-β type I receptor inhibitor (SB431542) or transfections with siRNAs against Smad2/3 or DNA ligase IV (Lig4) reversed this acceleration of the DDR. Furthermore, the frequency of irradiation-induced apoptosis was decreased by TGF-β1 pretreatment in vivo, but this effect was abrogated by SB431542. These results collectively suggest that TGF-β1 could enhance cell survival by accelerating the DDR via Smad signaling and Lig4 expression.

  11. Determination of beam characteristic parameters for a linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mechanism to determine electron beam characteristic parameters of a linear accelerator was constructed. The mechanism consists in an electro-calorimeter and an accurate optical densitometer. The following parameters: mean power, mean current, mean energy/particle, pulse Width, pulse amplitude dispersion, and pulse frequency, operating the 2 MeV linear accelerator of CBPF (Brazilian Center pf Physics Researches). The optical isodensity curves of irradiated glass lamellae were obtained, providing information about focus degradation penetration direction in material and the reach of particle. The point to point dose distribution in the material from optical density curves were obtained, using a semi empirical and approached model. (M.C.K.)

  12. Accelerator Technology Program. Status report, October 1983-March 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report covers major projects in the Accelerator Technology (AT) Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The first sections highlight activities related to beam dynamics, inertial fusion, structure development, the racetrack microtron, and the CERN high-energy physics experiment NA-12. Discussed next is the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility, followed by a summary of progress on the Proton Storage Ring and activities of the Theory and Simulation Group. The report concludes with a discussion of the H- accelerator program and a listing of papers published by AT-Division personnel during this reporting period

  13. Accelerated larvae development of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs with ultraviolet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aladawi, M.A. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)]. E-mail: Scientific@aec.org.sy; Albarodi, H. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Hammoudeh, A. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Shamma, M. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Sharabi, N. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2006-01-15

    In order to investigate the effect of UV radiation on the development of Ascaris lumbricoides larvae, eggs were exposed to increasing UV doses. Filtered wastewater from the secondary effluent taken from the Damascus wastewater treatment plant (DWTP) was used as irradiation and incubation medium. The progressive and accelerated embryonation stages were microscopically observed and the percentages of completely developed larvae were determined weekly. Results indicated that the UV radiation accelerated the development of larvae with increasing UV dose. Preliminary information about the relationship between the UV radiation dose and rate of embryonation is also presented.

  14. Accelerated larvae development of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs with ultraviolet radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladawi, M. A.; Albarodi, H.; Hammoudeh, A.; Shamma, M.; Sharabi, N.

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of UV radiation on the development of Ascaris lumbricoides larvae, eggs were exposed to increasing UV doses. Filtered wastewater from the secondary effluent taken from the Damascus wastewater treatment plant (DWTP) was used as irradiation and incubation medium. The progressive and accelerated embryonation stages were microscopically observed and the percentages of completely developed larvae were determined weekly. Results indicated that the UV radiation accelerated the development of larvae with increasing UV dose. Preliminary information about the relationship between the UV radiation dose and rate of embryonation is also presented.

  15. Plasma-based accelerator structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Carl B.

    1999-12-01

    Plasma-based accelerators have the ability to sustain extremely large accelerating gradients, with possible high-energy physics applications. This dissertation further develops the theory of plasma-based accelerators by addressing three topics: the performance of a hollow plasma channel as an accelerating structure, the generation of ultrashort electron bunches, and the propagation of laser pulses is underdense plasmas.

  16. Plasma-based accelerator structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma-based accelerators have the ability to sustain extremely large accelerating gradients, with possible high-energy physics applications. This dissertation further develops the theory of plasma-based accelerators by addressing three topics: the performance of a hollow plasma channel as an accelerating structure, the generation of ultrashort electron bunches, and the propagation of laser pulses is underdense plasmas

  17. Superconducting accelerator magnet design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superconducting dipoles, quadrupoles and correction magnets are necessary to achieve the high magnetic fields required for big accelerators presently in construction or in the design phase. Different designs of superconducting accelerator magnets are described and the designs chosen at the big accelerator laboratories are presented. The most frequently used cosθ coil configuration is discussed in detail. Approaches for calculating the magnetic field quality including coil end fields are presented. Design details of the cables, coils, mechanical structures, yokes, helium vessels and cryostats including thermal radiation shields and support structures used in superconducting magnets are given. Necessary material properties are mentioned. Finally, the main results of magnetic field measurements and quench statistics are presented. (orig.)

  18. Particle accelerator physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wiedemann, Helmut

    2007-01-01

    Particle Accelerator Physics is an in-depth and comprehensive introduction to the field of high-energy particle acceleration and beam dynamics. Part I gathers the basic tools, recalling the essentials of electrostatics and electrodynamics as well as of particle dynamics in electromagnetic fields. Part II is an extensive primer in beam dynamics, followed in Part III by the introduction and description of the main beam parameters. Part IV is devoted to the treatment of perturbations in beam dynamics. Part V discusses the details of charged particle accleration. Part VI and Part VII introduce the more advanced topics of coupled beam dynamics and the description of very intense beams. Part VIII is an exhaustive treatment of radiation from accelerated charges and introduces important sources of coherent radiation such as synchrotrons and free-electron lasers. Part IX collects the appendices gathering useful mathematical and physical formulae, parameters and units. Solutions to many end-of-chapter problems are give...

  19. Superconducting Accelerator Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Mess, K H; Wolff, S

    1996-01-01

    The main topic of the book are the superconducting dipole and quadrupole magnets needed in high-energy accelerators and storage rings for protons, antiprotons or heavy ions. The basic principles of low-temperature superconductivity are outlined with special emphasis on the effects which are relevant for accelerator magnets. Properties and fabrication methods of practical superconductors are described. Analytical methods for field calculation and multipole expansion are presented for coils without and with iron yoke. The effect of yoke saturation and geometric distortions on field quality is studied. Persistent magnetization currents in the superconductor and eddy currents the copper part of the cable are analyzed in detail and their influence on field quality and magnet performance is investigated. Superconductor stability, quench origins and propagation and magnet protection are addressed. Some important concepts of accelerator physics are introduced which are needed to appreciate the demanding requirements ...

  20. Irradiation of mangoes as a quarantine treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research project was conducted following the guidelines of research protocols for post-harvest treatments developed by the United States Department of Agriculture. Laboratory bioassays included the irradiation of mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) infested with third instar larvae of Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann), A. Ludens (Loew), A. obliqua (Macquart) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) at doses of 10-250 Gy. Irradiation doses were applied using a 60Co Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Model JS-7400 irradiator. The design was chosen to obtain a maximum/minimum ratio equal to, or less than, 1025, C. capitata was the species most tolerant to irradiation. A dose of 60 Gy, applied to third instar fruit fly larvae in the infested fruits, sterilized this species and prevented the emergence of adults of the other three species. A dose of 250 Gy was required to prevent emergence of C. capitata. In fertility tests using emerged adults of A. ludens and A. obliqua, a dose of 30 Gy gave 45 and 27% fertility, respectively. The adults of A. serpentina that emerged died before reaching sexual maturity. Confirmatory tests, at the probit 9 security level, were done at 100 Gy for the three species of Anastrepha and at 150 Gy for C. capitata. The quality of fruits irradiated up to 1000 Gy was evaluated by chemical, physiological and sensorial tests. Determination of vitamin C indicated that there was no loss in the nutritive value of the fruit. It also was observed that fruit metabolism, was not accelerated, since no significant increase in respiration or transpiration was registered and consumers accepted both the treated and untreated fruits in the same way. (author). 11 refs, 2 figs, 9 tabs

  1. Irradiation of mangoes as a quarantine treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustos R, M.E.; Enkerlin H, W.; Toledo A, J.; Reyes F, J.; Casimiro G, A

    1991-06-15

    This research project was conducted following guidelines of research protocols for post-harvest treatments developed by the United States Department of Agriculture CUSA. Laboratory bioassays included the irradiation of mangoes infested with third instar larvae of Anastrepha serpentina (Wied), A. ludens (Loew), A. obliqua (Macquart) and Ceratitis capitata (Wied) , at doses from 10 to 250 Gy. Irradiation doses were applied using a Co-60 AECL Model JS-7400 irradiator. The design was chosen to obtain a maximum to minimum ratio equal to, or less than, 1.025. C. capitata was the species most tolerant to irradiation. A dose of 60 Gy applied to third instar fruit fly larvae sterilized this species and prevented emergence of adults of the other three species. A dose of 250 Gy was required to prevent emergence of C. capitata. In fertility tests using emerged adults of A . Iudens, and A. obliqua a dose of 30 Gy gave 45 % and 27 % fertility, respectively. Adults of A. serpentina that emerged, died before reaching sexual maturity. The confirmatory tests, at probit-9 security level, were done at 100 Gy for the three species of Anastrepha and at 150 Gy for C. capitata. The quality of mangoes irradiated up to 1000 Gy was evaluated by chemical, physiological, and sensorial tests. The determination of vitamin C indicated that there was no loss of the nutritive value of the fruit. It also was observed that fruit metabolism was not accelerated since no significant increase in respiration or transpiration was registered and consumers accepted both treated and untreated fruit in the same way. (Author)

  2. Uniform Acceleration in General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Yaakov

    2016-01-01

    We extend de la Fuente and Romero's defining equation for uniform acceleration in a general curved spacetime from linear acceleration to the full Lorentz covariant uniform acceleration. In a flat spacetime background, we have explicit solutions. We use generalized Fermi-Walker transport to parallel transport the Frenet basis along the trajectory. In flat spacetime, we obtain velocity and acceleration transformations from a uniformly accelerated system to an inertial system. We obtain the time dilation between accelerated clocks. We apply our acceleration transformations to the motion of a charged particle in a constant electromagnetic field and recover the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac equation.

  3. Ion acceleration in a solitary wave by an intense picosecond laser pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhidkov, A; Uesaka, M; Sasaki, A; Daido, H

    2002-11-18

    Acceleration of ions in a solitary wave produced by shock-wave decay in a plasma slab irradiated by an intense picosecond laser pulse is studied via particle-in-cell simulation. Instead of exponential distribution as in known mechanisms of ion acceleration from the target surface, these ions accelerated forwardly form a bunch with relatively low energy spread. The bunch is shown to be a solitary wave moving over expanding plasma; its velocity can exceed the maximal velocity of ions accelerated forward from the rear side of the target.

  4. Laser Acceleration of Quasi-Monoenergetic Protons via Radiation Pressure Driven Thin Foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a theoretical and simulation study of laser acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic protons in a thin foil irradiated by high intensity laser light. The underlying physics of radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) is discussed, including the importance of optimal thickness and circularly polarized light for efficient acceleration of ions to quasi-monoenergetic beams. Preliminary two-dimensional simulation studies show that certain parameter regimes allow for stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability and possibility of acceleration of monoenergetic ions to an excess of 200 MeV, making them suitable for important applications such as medical cancer therapy and fast ignition.

  5. Irradiation of cane sugar spirit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study deals with the effect of irradiation on the gas-chromatographic profile of irradiated cane sugar spirit irradiated in glass containers in the presence of oak chops with doses of 0-10 kGy. Volatile constituents were analyzed in a CG gas chromatographer with a flame ionization detector using a Megabore CG-745 column. The results are discussed considering the contribution of irradiation to the quality of the spirit and the contribution of the irradiated oak wood. (author)

  6. Irradiated produce reaches Midwest market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In March 1992, the Chicago-area store gave its shoppers a choice between purchasing irradiated and nonirradiated fruits. The irradiated fruits were treated at Vindicator Inc., the first U.S. food irradiation facility (starting up on January 10, 1992). The plant, located in Mulberry, Fla., then shipped the fruits in trucks to the store where they were displayed under a hand-lettered sign describing the irradiated fruits and showing the irradiation logo

  7. Consumer response to irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apart from the safety and nutritional adequacy of irradiated foods, consumer acceptance would be a major factor in the successful commercialization of irradiation technology. One way to remove the misconceptions about irradiated foods is to serve the food items prepared from irradiated foods to consumers and gauge their response. To evaluate the public perception on irradiated foods, a survey was conducted in various scientific symposia and Bhabha Atomic Research Centre canteens covering a wide spectrum of consumers

  8. Nuclear Physics accelerator facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Physics program requires the existence and effective operation of large and complex accelerator facilities. These facilities provide the variety of projectile beams upon which virtually all experimental nuclear research depends. Their capability determine which experiments can be performed and which cannot. Seven existing accelerator facilities are operated by the Nuclear Physics program as national facilities. These are made available to all the Nation's scientists on the basis of scientific merit and technical feasibility of proposals. The national facilities are the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory; the Bates Linear Accelerator Center at Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the Bevalac at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory; the Tandem/AGS Heavy Ion Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory; the ATLAS facility at Argonne National Laboratory; the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory; the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The Nuclear Physics Injector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) enables the SLAC facility to provide a limited amount of beam time for nuclear physics research on the same basis as the other national facilities. To complement the national facilities, the Nuclear Physics program supports on-campus accelerators at Duke University, Texas A and M University, the University of Washington, and Yale University. The facility at Duke University, called the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL), is jointly staffed by Duke University, North Carolina State University, and the University of North Carolina. These accelerators are operated primarily for the research use of the local university faculty, junior scientists, and graduate students

  9. Microelectromechanical acceleration-sensing apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robb M.; Shul, Randy J.; Polosky, Marc A.; Hoke, Darren A.; Vernon, George E.

    2006-12-12

    An acceleration-sensing apparatus is disclosed which includes a moveable shuttle (i.e. a suspended mass) and a latch for capturing and holding the shuttle when an acceleration event is sensed above a predetermined threshold level. The acceleration-sensing apparatus provides a switch closure upon sensing the acceleration event and remains latched in place thereafter. Examples of the acceleration-sensing apparatus are provided which are responsive to an acceleration component in a single direction (i.e. a single-sided device) or to two oppositely-directed acceleration components (i.e. a dual-sided device). A two-stage acceleration-sensing apparatus is also disclosed which can sense two acceleration events separated in time. The acceleration-sensing apparatus of the present invention has applications, for example, in an automotive airbag deployment system.

  10. Studies of accelerated compact toruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an earlier publication we considered acceleration of plasma rings (Compact Torus). Several possible accelerator configurations were suggested and the possibility of focusing the accelerated rings was discussed. In this paper we consider one scheme, acceleration of a ring between coaxial electrodes by a B/sub theta/ field as in a coaxial rail-gun. If the electrodes are conical, a ring accelerated towards the apex of the cone undergoes self-similar compression (focusing) during acceleration. Because the allowable acceleration force, F/sub a/ = kappaU/sub m//R where (kappa -2, the accelerating distance for conical electrodes is considerably shortened over that required for coaxial electrodes. In either case, however, since the accelerating flux can expand as the ring moves, most of the accelerating field energy can be converted into kinetic energy of the ring leading to high efficiency

  11. Intermittent Sea Level Acceleration

    OpenAIRE

    Olivieri, M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Bologna, Bologna, Italia; Spada, G.; Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Fondamenti, Università di Urbino Carlo Bo, Urbino

    2013-01-01

    Using instrumental observations from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), we provide a new assessment of the global sea{level acceleration for the last 2 centuries (1820-2010). Our results, obtained by a stack of tide gauge time series, con firm the existence of a global sea level acceleration (GSLA) and, coherently with independent assessments so far, they point to a value close to 0:01 mm/yr2. However, di fferently from previous studies, we discuss how change points or ...

  12. Seismic surveying and accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with an investigation into the impact of earth vibrations on charged particle beams in modern colliders. It is ascertained that the displacement of accelerator magnetic elements from the perfect position results in the excitation of betatron oscillations and distortion of particle orbit position. The results of experimental investigations into seismic noises are presented for ASR, SSC, DESY and KEK. The rms orbit displacement in accelerators is estimated relying on the law of earth diffusion motion, according to which the variance of relative displacements is proportional to the distance between these points and time of observation. 6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  13. High intensity hadron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This rapporteur report consists mainly of two parts. Part I is an abridged review of the status of all High Intensity Hadron Accelerator projects in the world in semi-tabulated form for quick reference and comparison. Part II is a brief discussion of the salient features of the different technologies involved. The discussion is based mainly on my personal experiences and opinions, tempered, I hope, by the discussions I participated in in the various parallel sessions of the workshop. In addition, appended at the end is my evaluation and expression of the merits of high intensity hadron accelerators as research facilities for nuclear and particle physics

  14. Irradiated fibroblasts promote epithelial–mesenchymal transition and HDGF expression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Ci-Hang; Wang, Xin-Tong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Ma, Wei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Genaral Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750000 (China); Wang, Na-Na; Nesa, Effat un; Wang, Jian-Bo; Wang, Cong; Jia, Yi-Bin; Wang, Kai [Department of Radiation Oncology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Tian, Hui [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Cheng, Yu-Feng, E-mail: qlcyf1965@126.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China)

    2015-03-06

    Recent evidence suggested that nonirradiated cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) promoted aggressive phenotypes of cancer cells through epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) is a radiosensitive gene of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). This study aimed to investigate the effect of irradiated fibroblasts on EMT and HDGF expression of ESCC. Our study demonstrated that coculture with nonirradiated fibroblasts significantly increased the invasive ability of ESCC cells and the increased invasiveness was further accelerated when they were cocultured with irradiated fibroblasts. Scattering of ESCC cells was also accelerated by the supernatant from irradiated fibroblasts. Exposure of ESCC cells to supernatant from irradiated fibroblasts resulted in decreased E-cadherin, increased vimentin in vitro and β-catenin was demonstrated to localize to the nucleus in tumor cells with irradiated fibroblasts in vivo models. The expression of HDGF and β-catenin were increased in both fibroblasts and ESCC cells of irradiated group in vitro and in vivo models. Interestingly, the tumor cells adjoining the stromal fibroblasts displayed strong nuclear HDGF immunoreactivity, which suggested the occurrence of a paracrine effect of fibroblasts on HDGF expression. These data suggested that irradiated fibroblasts promoted invasion, growth, EMT and HDGF expression of ESCC. - Highlights: • Irradiated CAFs accelerated invasiveness and scattering of ESCC cell lines. • Irradiated CAFs promoted EMT of ESCC cells. • Irradiated fibroblasts induced nuclear β-catenin relocalization in ESCC cells. • Irradiated fibroblasts increased HDGF expression in vitro and in vivo.

  15. Irradiation and food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurbjörnsson, B; Loaharanu, P

    1989-01-01

    After more than four decades of research and development, food irradiation has been demonstrated to be safe, effective and versatile as a process of food preservation, decontamination or disinfection. Its various applications cover: inhibition of sprouting of root crops; insect disinfestation of stored products, fresh and dried food; shelf-life extension of fresh fruits, vegetables, meat and fish; destruction of parasites and pathogenic micro-organisms in food of animal origin; decontamination of spices and food ingredients, etc. Such applications provide consumers with the increase in variety, volume and value of food. Although regulations on food irradiation in different countries are largely unharmonized, national authorities have shown increasing recognition and acceptance of this technology based on the Codex Standard for Irradiated Foods and its associated Code of Practice. Harmonization of national legislations represents an important prerequisite to international trade in irradiated food. Consumers at large are still not aware of the safety and benefits that food irradiation has to offer. Thus, national and international organizations, food industry, trade associations and consumer unions have important roles to play in introducing this technology based on its scientific values. Public acceptance of food irradiation may be slow at the beginning, but should increase at a faster rate in the foreseeable future when consumers are well informed of the safety and benefits of this technology in comparison with existing ones. Commercial applications of food irradiation has already started in 18 countries at present. The volume of food or ingredients treated on a commercial scale varies from country to country ranging from several tons of spices to hundreds of thousands of tons of grains per annum. With the increasing interest of national authorities and the food industry in applying the process, it is anticipated that some 25 countries will use some 55 commercial

  16. Longevity of irradiated burros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the course of external radiation exposures of burros to establish a dose-response curve for acute mortality after total irradiation, some of the animals at the three lowest exposures to gamma photons survived. These groups of 10, 9, and 10 burros were exposed to 320, 425, and 545 R, respectively. There were 10 unirradiated controls. In 1953, 20 burros were exposed to 375 R (gamma) in 25-R/week increments without acute mortality and were added to the life-span study. In 1957, 33 burros were exposed to mixed neutron-gamma radiation from nuclear weapons, and 14 controls were added. The total number of irradiated burros in the study was increased to 88 by the addition of 6 animals irradiated with 180 rads of neutron and gamma radiation (4:1) in a Godiva-type reactor in 1959. In this experiment two acute deaths occurred which were not included in the analysis. In the first 4 years after the single gamma exposures, there were deaths from pancytopenia and thrombocytopenia, obviously related to radiation-induced bone-marrow damage. After that period, however, deaths were from common equine diseases; no death has resulted from a malignant neoplasm. Of the original 112 burros, 15 survive (10 irradiated and 5 controls). Survival curves determined for unirradiated and neutron-gamma- and gamma-irradiated burros showed significant differences. The mean survival times were: controls, 28 years; gamma irradiation only, 26 years; and neutron-gamma irradiation, 23 years. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  17. Production of nuclear sources and nuclear batteries by proton irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Möller, S

    2016-01-01

    The decay of instable nuclei is being used in a broad range of applications from detector calibration to power sources. As the public acceptance of classical fission nuclear technology is decaying and its integral costs are enormous, alternative production routes are required. The mathematical formalism and fundamental considerations are presented for the use of ion accelerators for isotope production. A focus is put on the production of nuclear power sources to substitute Pu-238 based batteries. 20 MeV protons are found to produce {\\alpha} emitting polonium isotopes from bismuth with an energy efficiency of up to 0.031%. Some hours are required to produce a 1Wth power source of the 2.9 year half-life {\\alpha} emitter Po-208 with a suitable accelerator. The accelerator approach offers more flexibility for tailoring of nuclear products and less waste. The technical requirements are close to and compatible with the planned International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility accelerator

  18. Present status of corn grain disinfestation by irradiation in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adem, E.; Uribe, R.M. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City. Inst. de Fisica); Watters, F.L. (Department of Agriculture, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada). Research Station); Bourges, H. (Instituto Nacional de la Nutricion, Mexico City)

    1981-01-01

    Progress in the use of ionizing radiation for the disinfestation of grain in Mexico is reviewed. Main topics described in the paper concern determination of optimum dose for disinfestation, comparison of Co-60 gamma rays and accelerated electrons for suppressing infestation, susceptibility of different strains of insects, dose rate effects on survival of different insect species, survival of progeny of irradiated insects, germinative tests, and effect of radiation on the nutrient content of corn. The technical and economical aspects of irradiation disinfestation are mentioned.

  19. Physiological response of wheat, maize and cotton to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grains of wheat triticum aestivum vulgare cv. Giza 155, maize Zea mays cv. double hybrid strain 17 S and cotton seeds Gossypium barbadence cv. Giza 67 were irradiated with successive doses of gamma rays from 0 to 64 Krad. Irradiating wheat grains with 1 Krad, maize grains with 0.5 Krad and cotton seeds with 4 Krad stimulated their germination and enhanced the growth of seedlings and their chlorophyll content. Also, these doses activated Alpha- and Beta-Amylase in the seeds. Higher doses had suppression effects. Peroxidase value in the seedlings of the three species was accelerated progressively in concomitant with the increase in the dosage

  20. Dosimetric comparison of linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma S; Kumar Sudhir; Dagaonkar S; Bisht Geetika; Dayanand S; Devi Reena; Deshpande S; Chaudhary S; Bhatt B; Kannan S

    2007-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a special radiotherapy technique used to irradiate intracranial lesions by 3-D arrangements of narrow photon beams eliminating the needs of invasive surgery. Three different tertiary collimators, namely BrainLab and Radionics circular cones and BrainLab micro multileaf collimator (mMLC), are used for linear accelerator-based SRS systems (X-Knife). Output factor (St), tissue maximum ratio (TMR) and off axis ratio (OAR) of these three SRS systems were measured...