WorldWideScience

Sample records for accelerated carbonation technology

  1. Environmental remediation and conversion of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) into useful green products by accelerated carbonation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Mihee; Han, Gi-Chun; Ahn, Ji-Whan; You, Kwang-Suk

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the application of carbonation technology to the environmental industry as a way of reducing carbon dioxide (CO(2)), a green house gas, including the presentation of related projects of our research group. An alternative technology to very slow natural carbonation is the co-called 'accelerated carbonation', which completes its fast reaction within few hours by using pure CO(2). Carbonation technology is widely applied to solidify or stabilize solid combustion residues from municipal solid wastes, paper mill wastes, etc. and contaminated soils, and to manufacture precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC). Carbonated products can be utilized as aggregates in the concrete industry and as alkaline fillers in the paper (or recycled paper) making industry. The quantity of captured CO(2) in carbonated products can be evaluated by measuring mass loss of heated samples by thermo-gravimetric (TG) analysis. The industrial carbonation technology could contribute to both reduction of CO(2) emissions and environmental remediation.

  2. Accelerator Technology Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    In fiscal year (FY) 1991, the Accelerator Technology (AT) division continued fulfilling its mission to pursue accelerator science and technology and to develop new accelerator concepts for application to research, defense, energy, industry, and other areas of national interest. This report discusses the following programs: The Ground Test Accelerator Program; APLE Free-Electron Laser Program; Accelerator Transmutation of Waste; JAERI, OMEGA Project, and Intense Neutron Source for Materials Testing; Advanced Free-Electron Laser Initiative; Superconducting Super Collider; The High-Power Microwave Program; (Phi) Factory Collaboration; Neutral Particle Beam Power System Highlights; Accelerator Physics and Special Projects; Magnetic Optics and Beam Diagnostics; Accelerator Design and Engineering; Radio-Frequency Technology; Free-Electron Laser Technology; Accelerator Controls and Automation; Very High-Power Microwave Sources and Effects; and GTA Installation, Commissioning, and Operations.

  3. Accelerating the development and deployment of carbon capture and storage technologies : an innovation system perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Alphen, K.

    2011-01-01

    In order to take up the twin challenge of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, while meeting a growing energy demand, the potential deployment of carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies is attracting a growing interest of policy makers around the world. At present CCS is the only t

  4. Advanced modeling to accelerate the scale up of carbon capture technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David C.; Sun, XIN; Storlie, Curtis B.; Bhattacharyya, Debangsu

    2015-06-01

    In order to help meet the goals of the DOE carbon capture program, the Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) was launched in early 2011 to develop, demonstrate, and deploy advanced computational tools and validated multi-scale models to reduce the time required to develop and scale-up new carbon capture technologies. This article focuses on essential elements related to the development and validation of multi-scale models in order to help minimize risk and maximize learning as new technologies progress from pilot to demonstration scale.

  5. Prospects for Accelerator Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Alan

    2011-02-01

    Accelerator technology today is a greater than US$5 billion per annum business. Development of higher-performance technology with improved reliability that delivers reduced system size and life cycle cost is expected to significantly increase the total accelerator technology market and open up new application sales. Potential future directions are identified and pitfalls in new market penetration are considered. Both of the present big market segments, medical radiation therapy units and semiconductor ion implanters, are approaching the "maturity" phase of their product cycles, where incremental development rather than paradigm shifts is the norm, but they should continue to dominate commercial sales for some time. It is anticipated that large discovery-science accelerators will continue to provide a specialty market beset by the unpredictable cycles resulting from the scale of the projects themselves, coupled with external political and economic drivers. Although fraught with differing market entry difficulties, the security and environmental markets, together with new, as yet unrealized, industrial material processing applications, are expected to provide the bulk of future commercial accelerator technology growth.

  6. ACCELERATING NANO-TECHNOLOGICAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Stissing; Koch, Christian

    2007-01-01

    By viewing the construction industry as a technological innovation system (TIS) this paper discusses possible initiatives to accelerate nanotechnological innovations. The point of departure is a recent report on the application of nano-technology in the Danish construction industry, which concludes...... of the system are furthermore poorly equipped at identifying potentials within high-tech areas. In order to exploit the potentials of nano-technology it is thus argued that an alternative TIS needs to be established. Initiatives should identify and support “incubation rooms” or marked niches in order...

  7. Optimizing accelerator technology

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    A new EU-funded research and training network, oPAC, is bringing together 22 universities, research centres and industry partners to optimize particle accelerator technology. CERN is one of the network’s main partners and will host 5 early-stage researchers in the BE department.   A diamond detector that will be used for novel beam diagnostics applications in the oPAC project based at CIVIDEC. (Image courtesy of CIVIDEC.) As one of the largest Marie Curie Initial Training Networks ever funded by the EU – to the tune of €6 million – oPAC extends well beyond the particle physics community. “Accelerator physics has become integral to research in almost every scientific discipline – be it biology and life science, medicine, geology and material science, or fundamental physics,” explains Carsten P. Welsch, oPAC co-ordinator based at the University of Liverpool. “By optimizing the operation of accelerators, all of these...

  8. Industrial Applications of Accelerator Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jaesang; Park, Jaewon; Lee, Chanyoung; and others

    2013-02-15

    PEFP(Proton Engineering Frontier Project) put its aim on development of high power linear proton accelerator and its beam applications. So, it has, since late 1990's, accumulated accelerator and ion source technologies, supplied beam utilization service to related industry. As of now, right after 10 year long project(PEFP), many of its low energy beam technologies seem to be successfully utilized for industrial purpose to meet the market needs, especially in improvement of production process and manufacturing performance, new substance development, etc. In this context, it is high time to carry out in-depth industrialization development on PEFP's retained ion beam technology prowess: To help them diffused profitable markets as soon as possible. So, in this work, through verification on the industrialization feasibility by experiments, it is going to get it started, with cooperation of participatory company, to enter into markets with developed technology and products.

  9. Accelerator Technology Division annual report, FY 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    This paper discusses: accelerator physics and special projects; experiments and injectors; magnetic optics and beam diagnostics; accelerator design and engineering; radio-frequency technology; accelerator theory and simulation; free-electron laser technology; accelerator controls and automation; and high power microwave sources and effects.

  10. Technology and applications of advanced accelerator concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Weiren

    2016-01-01

    Since its invention in the 1920s, particle accelerators have made tremendous progress in accelerator science, technology and applications. However, the fundamental acceleration principle, namely, to apply an external radiofrequency (RF) electric field to accelerate charged particles, remains unchanged. As this method (either room temperature RF or superconducting RF) is approaching its intrinsic limitation in acceleration gradient (measured in MeV/m), it becomes apparent that new methods with much higher acceleration gradient (measured in GeV/m) must be found for future very high energy accelerators as well as future compact (table-top or room-size) accelerators. This volume introduces a number of advanced accelerator concepts (AAC) — their principles, technologies and potential applications. For the time being, none of them stands out as a definitive direction in which to go. But these novel ideas are in hot pursuit and look promising. Furthermore, some AAC requires a high power laser system. This has the ...

  11. Accelerator Technology Division progress report, FY 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schriber, S.O.; Hardekopf, R.A.; Heighway, E.A.

    1993-07-01

    This report briefly discusses the following topics: The Ground Test Accelerator Program; Defense Free-Electron Lasers; AXY Programs; A Next Generation High-Power Neutron-Scattering Facility; JAERI OMEGA Project and Intense Neutron Sources for Materials Testing; Advanced Free-Electron Laser Initiative; Superconducting Supercollider; The High-Power Microwave (HPM) Program; Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) Power Systems Highlights; Industrial Partnering; Accelerator Physics and Special Projects; Magnetic Optics and Beam Diagnostics; Accelerator Design and Engineering; Radio-Frequency Technology; Accelerator Theory and Free-Electron Laser Technology; Accelerator Controls and Automation; Very High-Power Microwave Sources and Effects; and GTA Installation, Commissioning, and Operations.

  12. A Survey of Hadron Therapy Accelerator Technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PEGGS,S.; SATOGATA, T.; FLANZ, J.

    2007-06-25

    Hadron therapy has entered a new age [1]. The number of facilities grows steadily, and 'consumer' interest is high. Some groups are working on new accelerator technology, while others optimize existing designs by reducing capital and operating costs, and improving performance. This paper surveys the current requirements and directions in accelerator technology for hadron therapy.

  13. Superconducting Radiofrequency (SRF) Acceleration Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — SRF cavities enable accelerators to increase particle beam energy levels while minimizing the use of electrical power by all but eliminating electrical resistance....

  14. Advances of Accelerator Physics and Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    This volume, consisting of articles written by experts with international repute and long experience, reviews the state of the art of accelerator physics and technologies and the use of accelerators in research, industry and medicine. It covers a wide range of topics, from basic problems concerning the performance of circular and linear accelerators to technical issues and related fields. Also discussed are recent achievements that are of particular interest (such as RF quadrupole acceleration, ion sources and storage rings) and new technologies (such as superconductivity for magnets and RF ca

  15. Technology of superconducting accelerator dipoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassenzahl, W.V.; Meuser, R.B.; Taylor, C.

    1983-06-01

    We discuss accelerator dipoles and their characteristics. Other types of magnets, in particular bubble chamber magnets have been quite successful. Their performance is based on cryogenic stability which is addressed only briefly in this chapter. This type of stability is not available to the accelerator designer because of the large quantities of copper or other stabilizer that would reduce the current density in the windings to an unacceptably low value.

  16. Industrialization of Superconducting RF Accelerator Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiniger, Michael; Pekeler, Michael; Vogel, Hanspeter

    2012-01-01

    Superconducting RF (SRF) accelerator technology has basically existed for 50 years. It took about 20 years to conduct basic R&D and prototyping at universities and international institutes before the first superconducting accelerators were built, with industry supplying complete accelerator cavities. In parallel, the design of large scale accelerators using SRF was done worldwide. In order to build those accelerators, industry has been involved for 30 years in building the required cavities and/or accelerator modules in time and budget. To enable industry to supply these high tech components, technology transfer was made from the laboratories in the following three regions: the Americas, Asia and Europe. As will be shown, the manufacture of the SRF cavities is normally accomplished in industry whereas the cavity testing and module assembly are not performed in industry in most cases, yet. The story of industrialization is so far a story of customized projects. Therefore a real SRF accelerator product is not yet available in this market. License agreements and technology transfer between leading SRF laboratories and industry is a powerful tool for enabling industry to manufacture SRF components or turnkey superconducting accelerator modules for other laboratories and users with few or no capabilities in SRF technology. Despite all this, the SRF accelerator market today is still a small market. The manufacture and preparation of the components require a range of specialized knowledge, as well as complex and expensive manufacturing installations like for high precision machining, electron beam welding, chemical surface preparation and class ISO4 clean room assembly. Today, the involved industry in the US and Europe comprises medium-sized companies. In Japan, some big enterprises are involved. So far, roughly 2500 SRF cavities have been built by or ordered from industry worldwide. Another substantial step might come from the International Linear Collider (ILC) project

  17. Technologies for Advanced Induction Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, M A; Autrey, D; Duncan, G; Friedman, A; Grote, D P; Halaxa, E; Hanks, R; Kamin, G; Sangster, C; Sharp, W; Williams, C

    2000-01-01

    To harness fusion energy is one of today's greatest technological challenges, and one well worth pursuing. Success in the development of fusion power would result in a virtually inexhaustible source of energy. The fusion reaction, the process that powers the sun and the stars, can be duplicated on Earth. However, to date these fusion processes have been the products of large-scale experimental efforts. They have yet to achieve fusion in a manner that is cost effective and efficient enough to be applied in a commercial reactor. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been centrally involved in the Nation's inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program for over 25 years. Much of the focus of the LLNL ICF Program has been the well-known effort to develop high power, short wavelength laser drivers to create the conditions necessary for the fusion process. But the ICF Program has also been investigating, in collaboration with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), the potential of heavy-ion accelerato...

  18. Trends in accelerator technology for hadron therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostromin, S. A.; Syresin, E. M.

    2013-12-01

    Hadron therapy with protons and carbon ions is one of the most effective branches in radiation oncology. It has advantages over therapy using gamma radiation and electron beams. Fifty thousand patients a year need such treatment in Russia. A review of the main modern trends in the development of accelerators for therapy and treatment techniques concerned with respiratory gated irradiation and scanning with the intensity modulated pencil beams is given. The main stages of formation, time structure, and the main parameters of the beams used in proton therapy, as well as the requirements for medicine accelerators, are considered. The main results of testing with the beam of the C235-V3 cyclotron for the first Russian specialized hospital proton therapy center in Dimitrovgrad are presented. The use of superconducting accelerators and gantry systems for hadron therapy is considered.

  19. Carbon Fiber Damage in Accelerator Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Sapinski, M; Guerrero, A; Koopman, J; Métral, E

    2009-01-01

    Carbon fibers are commonly used as moving targets in Beam Wire Scanners. Because of their thermomechanical properties they are very resistant to particle beams. Their strength deteriorates with time due to radiation damage and low-cycle thermal fatigue. In case of high intensity beams this process can accelerate and in extreme cases the fiber is damaged during a single scan. In this work a model describing the fiber temperature, thermionic emission and sublimation is discussed. Results are compared with fiber damage test performed on SPS beam in November 2008. In conclusions the limits of Wire Scanner operation on high intensity beams are drawn.

  20. Laser technology inspires new accelerator concepts

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    A new EU-funded research network, LA³NET, is bringing together universities, research centres and industry partners worldwide to explore the use of laser technology in particle beam generation, acceleration and diagnostics. As one of the network partners, CERN will be hosting three early stage researchers in the BE and EN Departments.   One of the laser systems now in use in the ISOLDE experiment. If you take a closer look at recent experimental developments, you’ll notice a new topic trending: laser technology. It’s being used to study the characteristics of particles, as incorporated into the new ALPHA-2 set-up; to conduct diagnostics of particle beams, as used in a laser wire scanner at Petra III; to “breed” unusual ion beams, as carried out by ISOLDE’s Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS); and even to accelerate particles to high energies, as explored at Berkeley’s BELLA facility. These projects notwithstanding...

  1. Carbon Farming as a Carbon Negative Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C.; Laird, D.; Hayes, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon farms have a pivotal role in national and international efforts to mitigate and adapt to climate change. A carbon farm in its broadest sense is one that reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or captures and holds carbon in vegetation and soils. Their capacity to remove carbon from the air and store it safely and permanently, while providing additional human and ecosystem benefits, means they could contribute significantly to national efforts to stabilize or reduce GHGs. We examine carbon farms in the context of corn and soybean production agriculture. We illustrate, using Iowa data but with relevance across United States corn and soybean production, the potential for carbon farms to reduce human GHG emissions and sequester carbon permanently at a rate that has meaningful impact on global greenhouse gas concentration. Carbon has been viewed as a next generation cash crop in Iowa for over a decade. The carbon farm perspective, however, goes beyond carbon as cash crop to make carbon the center of an entire farm enterprise. The transformation is possible through slight adjustment crop practices mixed with advances in technology to sequester carbon through biochar. We examine carbon balance of Iowa agriculture given only the combination of slight reduction in fertilizer and sequestration by biochar. We find the following. Iowa carbon farms could turn Iowa agriculture into a carbon sink. The estimated range of GHG reduction by statewide implementation of carbon farms is 19.46 to 90.27 MMt CO2-equivalent (CO2-e), while the current agricultural CO2-e emission estimate is 35.38 MMt CO2-e. Iowa carbon farm GHG reduction would exceed Iowa GHG reduction by wind energy (8.7 MMt CO2-e) and could exceed combined reductions from wind energy and corn grain ethanol (10.7 MMt CO2-e; 19.4 MMt CO2-e combined). In fact, Iowa carbon farms alone could exceed GHG reduction from national corn grain ethanol production (39.6 MMt CO2-e). A carbon price accessible to agricultural

  2. Carbon Fiber Technology Facility (CFTF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Functionally within the MDF, ORNL operates DOE’s unique Carbon Fiber Technology Facility (CFTF)—a 42,000 ft2 innovative technology facility and works with leading...

  3. BIG DATA TECHNOLOGY ACCELERATE GENOMICS PRECISION MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAO LI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During genomics life science research, the data volume of whole genomics and life science algorithm is going bigger and bigger, which is calculated as TB, PB or EB etc. The key problem will be how to store and analyze the data with optimized way. This paper demonstrates how Intel Big Data Technology and Architecture help to facilitate and accelerate the genomics life science research in data store and utilization. Intel defines high performance GenomicsDB for variant call data query and Lustre filesystem with Hierarchal Storage Management for genomics data store. Based on these great technology, Intel defines genomics knowledge share and exchange architecture, which is landed and validated in BGI China and Shanghai Children Hospital with very positive feedback. And these big data technology can definitely be scaled to much more genomics life science partners in the world

  4. Accelerator Technology: Magnets, Normal and Superconducting

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L

    2013-01-01

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Accelerators and Colliders' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the the Section '8.1 Magnets, Normal and Superconducting' of the Chapter '8 Accelerator Technology' with the content: 8.1 Magnets, Normal and Superconducting 8.1.1 Introduction 8.1.2 Normal Conducting Magnets 8.1.2.1 Magnetic Design 8.1.2.2 Coils 8.1.2.3 Yoke 8.1.2.4 Costs 8.1.2.5 Undulators, Wigglers, Permanent Magnets 8.1.2.6 Solenoids 8.1.3 Superconducting Magnets 8.1.3.1 Superconducting Materials 8.1.3.2 Superconducting Cables 8.1.3.3 Stability and Margins, Quench and Protection 8.1.3.4 Magnetization, Coupling and AC Loss 8.1.3.5 Magnetic Design of Superconducting Accelerator Magnets 8.1.3.6 Current Leads 8.1.3.7 Mechanics, Insulation, Cooling and Manufacturing Aspects

  5. Protolytic carbon film technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renschler, C.L.; White, C.A.

    1996-04-01

    This paper presents a technique for the deposition of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) on virtually any surface allowing carbon film formation with only the caveat that the substrate must withstand carbonization temperatures of at least 600 degrees centigrade. The influence of processing conditions upon the structure and properties of the carbonized film is discussed. Electrical conductivity, microstructure, and morphology control are also described.

  6. LHC accelerator physics and technology challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Lyndon R

    1998-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) incorporates many technological innovations in order to achieve its design objectives at the lowest cost. The two-in-one magnet design, with the two magnetic channels i ntegrated into a common yoke, has proved to be an economical alternative to two separate rings and allows enough free space in the existing (LEP) tunnel for a possible future re-installation of a lept on ring for e-p physics. In order to achieve the design energy of 7 TeV per beam, with a dipole field of 8.3 T, the superconducting magnet system must operate in superfluid helium at 1.9 K. The LHC wi ll be the first hadron machine to produce appreciable synchrotron radiation which, together with the heat load due to image currents, has to be absorbed at cryogenic temperatures. A brief review of th e machine design is given and some of the main technological and accelerator physics issues are discussed.

  7. Accelerator physics and technology research toward future multi-MW proton accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Shiltsev, V; Romanenko, A; Valishev, A; Zwaska, R

    2015-01-01

    Recent P5 report indicated the accelerator-based neutrino and rare decay physics research as a centrepiece of the US domestic HEP program. Operation, upgrade and development of the accelerators for the near-term and longer-term particle physics program at the Intensity Frontier face formidable challenges. Here we discuss accelerator physics and technology research toward future multi-MW proton accelerators.

  8. LHC Accelerator Physics and Technology Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Lyndon R

    1999-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) incorporates many technological innovations in order to achieve its design objectives at the lowest cost. The two-in-one magnet design, with the two magnetic channels integrated into a common yoke, has proved to be an economical alternative to two separate rings and allows enough free space in the existing (LEP) tunnel for a possible future re-installation of a lepton ring for e-p physics. In order to achieve the design energy of 7 TeV per beam, with a dipole field of 8.3 T, the superconducting magnet system must operate in superfluid helium at 1.9 K. This requires further development of cold compressors similar to those first used at CEBAF. The LHC will be the first hadron machine to produce appreciable synchrotron radiation which, together with the heat load due to image currents, has to be absorbed at cryogenic temperatures. Finally, the LHC is the first major CERN accelerator project built in collaboration with other laboratories. A brief review of the machine design is giv...

  9. Acceleration sensing based on piezoresistive effect of carbon nanotube films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Feng-yan; SHEN Hui-juan; CAO Chun-lan; LIAO Ke-jun; HU Chen-guo

    2006-01-01

    Based on piezoresistive effect,the acceleration sensitivity of multi-walled canbon nanotube (MWNT) films was investigated.A three-point bending technique was presented to measure the piezoresistivity,which used a bending stress applied to the samples while making MWNT films wheeling with a rotational machine.The experimental results showed that the fractional increase in resistance increases linearly versus the increase of centripetal acceleration,and there is a linear relationship between the acceleration and the strain.These shed light on using carbon nanotube films as acceleration sensors for many potential applications.

  10. Self-shielded electron linear accelerators designed for radiation technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belugin, V. M.; Rozanov, N. E.; Pirozhenko, V. M.

    2009-09-01

    This paper describes self-shielded high-intensity electron linear accelerators designed for radiation technologies. The specific property of the accelerators is that they do not apply an external magnetic field; acceleration and focusing of electron beams are performed by radio-frequency fields in the accelerating structures. The main characteristics of the accelerators are high current and beam power, but also reliable operation and a long service life. To obtain these characteristics, a number of problems have been solved, including a particular optimization of the accelerator components and the application of a variety of specific means. The paper describes features of the electron beam dynamics, accelerating structure, and radio-frequency power supply. Several compact self-shielded accelerators for radiation sterilization and x-ray cargo inspection have been created. The introduced methods made it possible to obtain a high intensity of the electron beam and good performance of the accelerators.

  11. Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation: Advancing Computational Science for Future Accelerators and Accelerator Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spentzouris, P.; /Fermilab; Cary, J.; /Tech-X, Boulder; McInnes, L.C.; /Argonne; Mori, W.; /UCLA; Ng, C.; /SLAC; Ng, E.; Ryne, R.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2011-11-14

    The design and performance optimization of particle accelerators are essential for the success of the DOE scientific program in the next decade. Particle accelerators are very complex systems whose accurate description involves a large number of degrees of freedom and requires the inclusion of many physics processes. Building on the success of the SciDAC-1 Accelerator Science and Technology project, the SciDAC-2 Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation (ComPASS) is developing a comprehensive set of interoperable components for beam dynamics, electromagnetics, electron cooling, and laser/plasma acceleration modelling. ComPASS is providing accelerator scientists the tools required to enable the necessary accelerator simulation paradigm shift from high-fidelity single physics process modeling (covered under SciDAC1) to high-fidelity multiphysics modeling. Our computational frameworks have been used to model the behavior of a large number of accelerators and accelerator R&D experiments, assisting both their design and performance optimization. As parallel computational applications, the ComPASS codes have been shown to make effective use of thousands of processors. ComPASS is in the first year of executing its plan to develop the next-generation HPC accelerator modeling tools. ComPASS aims to develop an integrated simulation environment that will utilize existing and new accelerator physics modules with petascale capabilities, by employing modern computing and solver technologies. The ComPASS vision is to deliver to accelerator scientists a virtual accelerator and virtual prototyping modeling environment, with the necessary multiphysics, multiscale capabilities. The plan for this development includes delivering accelerator modeling applications appropriate for each stage of the ComPASS software evolution. Such applications are already being used to address challenging problems in accelerator design and optimization. The ComPASS organization

  12. Clean Coal Technologies - Accelerating Commerical and Policy Drivers for Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Coal is and will remain the world's most abundant and widely distributed fossil fuel. Burning coal, however, can pollute and it produces carbon dioxide. Clean coal technologies address this problem. The widespread deployment of pollution-control equipment to reduce sulphur dioxide, Nox and dust emissions from industry is just one example which has brought cleaner air to many countries. Since the 1970s, various policy and regulatory measures have created a growing commercial market for these clean coal technologies, with the result that costs have fallen and performance has improved. More recently, the need to tackle rising CO2 emissions to address climate change means that clean coal technologies now extend to include those for CO2 capture and storage (CCS). This short report from the IEA Coal Industry Advisory Board (CIAB) presents industry's considered recommendations on how to accelerate the development and deployment of this important group of new technologies and to grasp their very signifi cant potential to reduce emissions from coal use. It identifies an urgent need to make progress with demonstration projects and prove the potential of CCS through government-industry partnerships. Its commercialisation depends upon a clear legal and regulatory framework,public acceptance and market-based financial incentives. For the latter, the CIAB favours cap-and-trade systems, price supports and mandatory feed-in tariffs, as well as inclusion of CCS in the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism to create demand in developing economies where coal use is growing most rapidly. This report offers a unique insight into the thinking of an industry that recognises both the threats and growing opportunities for coal in a carbon constrained world.

  13. Reviews of accelerator science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Weiren

    2008-01-01

    Particle accelerators are a major invention of the 20th century. In the last eight decades, they have evolved enormously and have fundamentally changed the way we live, think and work. Accelerators are the most powerful microscopes for viewing the tiniest inner structure of cells, genes, molecules, atoms and their constituents such as protons, neutrons, electrons, neutrinos and quarks. This opens up a whole new world for materials science, chemistry and molecular biology.Accelerators with megawatt beam power may ultimately solve a critical problem faced by our society, namely, the treatment of nuclear waste and the supply of an alternative type of energy. There are also tens of thousands of small accelerators all over the world. They are used every day for medical imaging, cancer therapy, radioisotope production, high-density chip-making, mass spectrometry, cargo x-ray/gamma-ray imaging, detection of explosives and illicit drugs, and weapons. This volume provides a comprehensive review of this driving and fas...

  14. Commnity Petascale Project for Accelerator Science And Simulation: Advancing Computational Science for Future Accelerators And Accelerator Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spentzouris, Panagiotis; /Fermilab; Cary, John; /Tech-X, Boulder; Mcinnes, Lois Curfman; /Argonne; Mori, Warren; /UCLA; Ng, Cho; /SLAC; Ng, Esmond; Ryne, Robert; /LBL, Berkeley

    2011-10-21

    The design and performance optimization of particle accelerators are essential for the success of the DOE scientific program in the next decade. Particle accelerators are very complex systems whose accurate description involves a large number of degrees of freedom and requires the inclusion of many physics processes. Building on the success of the SciDAC-1 Accelerator Science and Technology project, the SciDAC-2 Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation (ComPASS) is developing a comprehensive set of interoperable components for beam dynamics, electromagnetics, electron cooling, and laser/plasma acceleration modelling. ComPASS is providing accelerator scientists the tools required to enable the necessary accelerator simulation paradigm shift from high-fidelity single physics process modeling (covered under SciDAC1) to high-fidelity multiphysics modeling. Our computational frameworks have been used to model the behavior of a large number of accelerators and accelerator R&D experiments, assisting both their design and performance optimization. As parallel computational applications, the ComPASS codes have been shown to make effective use of thousands of processors.

  15. Flightweight Carbon Nanotube Magnet Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, J. N.; Schmidt, H. J.; Ruoff, R. S.; Chandrasekhar, V.; Dikin, D. A.; Litchford, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    Virtually all plasma-based systems for advanced airborne/spaceborne propulsion and power depend upon the future availability of flightweight magnet technology. Unfortunately, current technology for resistive and superconducting magnets yields system weights that tend to counteract the performance advantages normally associated with advanced plasma-based concepts. The ongoing nanotechnology revolution and the continuing development of carbon nanotubes (CNT), however, may ultimately relieve this limitation in the near future. Projections based on recent research indicate that CNTs may achieve current densities at least three orders of magnitude larger than known superconductors and mechanical strength two orders of magnitude larger than steel. In fact, some published work suggests that CNTs are superconductors. Such attributes imply a dramatic increase in magnet performance-to-weight ratio and offer real hope for the construction of true flightweight magnets. This Technical Publication reviews the technology status of CNTs with respect to potential magnet applications and discusses potential techniques for using CNT wires and ropes as a winding material and as an integral component of the containment structure. The technology shortfalls are identified and a research and technology strategy is described that addresses the following major issues: (1) Investigation and verification of mechanical and electrical properties, (2) development of tools for manipulation and fabrication on the nanoscale, (3) continuum/molecular dynamics analysis of nanotube behavior when exposed to practical bending and twisting loads, and (4) exploration of innovative magnet fabrication techniques that exploit the natural attributes of CNTs.

  16. Neural computation and particle accelerators research, technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    D'Arras, Horace

    2010-01-01

    This book discusses neural computation, a network or circuit of biological neurons and relatedly, particle accelerators, a scientific instrument which accelerates charged particles such as protons, electrons and deuterons. Accelerators have a very broad range of applications in many industrial fields, from high energy physics to medical isotope production. Nuclear technology is one of the fields discussed in this book. The development that has been reached by particle accelerators in energy and particle intensity has opened the possibility to a wide number of new applications in nuclear technology. This book reviews the applications in the nuclear energy field and the design features of high power neutron sources are explained. Surface treatments of niobium flat samples and superconducting radio frequency cavities by a new technique called gas cluster ion beam are also studied in detail, as well as the process of electropolishing. Furthermore, magnetic devises such as solenoids, dipoles and undulators, which ...

  17. Computational Tools for Accelerating Carbon Capture Process Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David; Sahinidis, N V; Cozad, A; Lee, A; Kim, H; Morinelly, J; Eslick, J; Yuan, Z

    2013-06-04

    This presentation reports development of advanced computational tools to accelerate next generation technology development. These tools are to develop an optimized process using rigorous models. They include: Process Models; Simulation-Based Optimization; Optimized Process; Uncertainty Quantification; Algebraic Surrogate Models; and Superstructure Optimization (Determine Configuration).

  18. Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) pulse power technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reginato, L.L.; Branum, D.; Cook, E.

    1981-03-09

    The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) is a pulsed linear induction accelerator with the following design parameters: 50 MeV, 10 kA, 70 ns, and 1 kHz in a ten-pulse burst. Acceleration is accomplished by means of 190 ferrite-loaded cells, each capable of maintaining a 250 kV voltage pulse for 70 ns across a 1-inch gap. The unique characteristic of this machine is its 1 kHz burst mode capability at very high currents. This paper dscribes the pulse power development program which used the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) technology as a starting base. Considerable changes have been made both electrically and mechanically in the pulse power components with special consideration being given to the design to achieve higher reliability. A prototype module which incorporates all the pulse power components has been built and tested for millions of shots. Prototype components and test results are described.

  19. Accelerating innovation in information and communication technology for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crean, Kevin W

    2010-02-01

    Around the world, inventors are creating novel information and communication technology applications and systems that can improve health for people in disparate settings. However, it is very difficult to find investment funding needed to create business models to expand and develop the prototype technologies. A comprehensive, long-term investment strategy for e-health and m-health is needed. The field of social entrepreneurship offers an integrated approach to develop needed investment models, so that innovations can reach more patients, more effectively. Specialized financing techniques and sustained support from investors can spur the expansion of mature technologies to larger markets, accelerating global health impacts.

  20. The impact of the ISR on accelerator physics and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Bryant, P J

    2012-01-01

    The ISR (Intersecting Storage Rings) were two intersecting proton synchrotron rings each with a circumference of 942 m and eight-fold symmetry that were operational for 13 years from 1971 to 1984. The CERN PS injected 26 GeV/c proton beams into the two rings that could accelerate up to 31.4 GeV/c. The ISR worked for physics with beams of 30-40 A over 40-60 hours with luminosities in its superconducting low-{\\beta} insertion of 1031-1032 cm-2 s-1. The ISR demonstrated the practicality of collider beam physics while catalysing a rapid advance in accelerator technologies and techniques.

  1. Evidence for super-exponentially accelerating atmospheric carbon dioxide growth

    CERN Document Server

    Hüsler, Andreas D

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the growth rates of atmospheric carbon dioxide and human population, by comparing the relative merits of two benchmark models, the exponential law and the finite-time-singular (FTS) power law. The later results from positive feedbacks, either direct or mediated by other dynamical variables, as shown in our presentation of a simple endogenous macroeconomic dynamical growth model. Our empirical calibrations confirm that human population has decelerated from its previous super-exponential growth until 1960 to ``just' an exponential growth, but with no sign of more deceleration. As for atmospheric CO2 content, we find that it is at least exponentially increasing and most likely characterized by an accelerating growth rate as off 2009, consistent with an unsustainable FTS power law regime announcing a drastic change of regime. The coexistence of a quasi-exponential growth of human population with a super-exponential growth of carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere is a diagnostic of insignificant impr...

  2. SLIM, Short-pulse Technology for High Gradient Induction Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arntz, Floyd; /Diversified Tech., Bedford; Kardo-Sysoev, A.; /Ioffe Phys. Tech. Inst.; Krasnykh, A.; /SLAC

    2008-12-16

    A novel short-pulse concept (SLIM) suited to a new generation of a high gradient induction particle accelerators is described herein. It applies advanced solid state semiconductor technology and modern microfabrication techniques to a coreless induction method of charged particle acceleration first proven on a macro scale in the 1960's. Because this approach avoids use of magnetic materials there is the prospect of such an accelerator working efficiently with accelerating pulses in the nanosecond range and, potentially, at megahertz pulse rates. The principal accelerator section is envisioned as a stack of coreless induction cells, the only active element within each being a single, extremely fast (subnanosecond) solid state opening switch: a Drift Step Recovery Diode (DSRD). Each coreless induction cell incorporates an electromagnetic pulse compressor in which inductive energy developed within a transmission-line feed structure over a period of tens of nanoseconds is diverted to the acceleration of the passing charge packet for a few nanoseconds by the abrupt opening of the DSRD switch. The duration of this accelerating output pulse--typically two-to-four nanoseconds--is precisely determined by a microfabricated pulse forming line connected to the cell. Because the accelerating pulse is only nanoseconds in duration, longitudinal accelerating gradients approaching 100 MeV per meter are believed to be achievable without inciting breakdown. Further benefits of this approach are that, (1) only a low voltage power supply is required to produce the high accelerating gradient, and, (2) since the DSRD switch is normally closed, voltage stress is limited to a few nanoseconds per period, hence the susceptibility to hostile environment conditions such as ionizing radiation, mismatch (e.g. in medical applications the peak beam current may be low), strong electromagnetic noise levels, etc is expected to be minimal. Finally, we observe the SLIM concept is not limited to

  3. Advanced visualization technology for terascale particle accelerator simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, K-L; Schussman, G.; Wilson, B.; Ko, K.; Qiang, J.; Ryne, R.

    2002-11-16

    This paper presents two new hardware-assisted rendering techniques developed for interactive visualization of the terascale data generated from numerical modeling of next generation accelerator designs. The first technique, based on a hybrid rendering approach, makes possible interactive exploration of large-scale particle data from particle beam dynamics modeling. The second technique, based on a compact texture-enhanced representation, exploits the advanced features of commodity graphics cards to achieve perceptually effective visualization of the very dense and complex electromagnetic fields produced from the modeling of reflection and transmission properties of open structures in an accelerator design. Because of the collaborative nature of the overall accelerator modeling project, the visualization technology developed is for both desktop and remote visualization settings. We have tested the techniques using both time varying particle data sets containing up to one billion particle s per time step and electromagnetic field data sets with millions of mesh elements.

  4. EuCARD 2010 Accelerator Technology in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, R S

    2010-01-01

    Accelerators are basic tools of the experimental physics of elementary particles, nuclear physics, light sources of the fourth generation. They are also used in myriad other applications in research, industry and medicine. For example, there are intensely developed transmutation techniques for nuclear waste from nuclear power and atomic industries. The European Union invests in the development of accelerator infrastructures inside the framework programs to build the European Research Area. The aim is to build new infrastructure, develop the existing, and generally make the infrastructure available to competent users. The paper summarizes the first year of activities of the EU FP7 Project Capacities EuCARD –European Coordination of Accelerator R&D. Several teams from this country participate actively in this project. The contribution from Polish research teams concerns: photonic and electronic measurement – control systems, RF-gun co-design, thin-film superconducting technology, superconducting transpo...

  5. Accelerator Technology Program. Progress report, January-June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, E.A.; Jameson, R.A. (Comps.)

    1980-03-01

    The activities of Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's (LASL) Accelerator Technology (AT) Division during the first six months of calendar 1980 are discussed. This report is organized around major projects of the Division, reflecting a wide variety of applications and sponsors. The first section summarizes progress on the Proton Storage Ring to be located between LAMPF and the LASL Pulsed Neutron Research facility, followed by a section on the gyrocon, a new type of high-power, high-efficiency radio-frequency (rf) amplifier. The third section discusses the racetrack microtron being developed jointly by AT Division and the National Bureau of Standards; the fourth section concerns the free-electron studies. The fifth section covers the radio-frequency quadrupole linear accelerator, a new concept for the acceleration of low-velocity particles; this section is followed by a section discussing heavy ion fusion accelerator development. The next section reports activities in the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test program, a collaborative effort with the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory. The final section deals first with development of H/sup -/ ion sources and injectors, then with accelerator instrumentation and beam dynamics.

  6. Development of small applied accelerator in Tokyo Institute of Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hattori, T

    2002-01-01

    Interdigital-H(IH) Linac was constructed and applied to materials research in the University. IH Linac uses 1.6 MV small tandem pelletron and accelerates ion (>Q/A=1/4) from 240 KeV to 2.4 MeV. The secondary IH Linac was built and increased the energy to 3.4 MeV/u. In order to apply linac to therapy, IH Linac for PET (Position Emission Tomography), Carbon 6 MeV/u Linac for cancer therapy, APF (Alternating Phase Focus)-IH prototype linac, Carbon 2 MeV/u test APF-IH linac were developed. On application to semiconductor and industry, IHQ type MeV ion implantation device, APF-IH type MeV ion implantation device and high-energy electron accelerator were developed. A bone density measurement instrument was developed and the data was proved better values than ordinary instrument. The problems of prototype small accelerator are summarized. (S.Y.)

  7. Leveraging Old Intellectual Property to Accelerate Technology Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Smith

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Acquiring or licensing assets to older technologies, including surviving intellectual property rights, is an often-overlooked viable strategy for accelerating technology entrepreneurship. This strategy can help entrepreneurs short-cut the growth of a customer base, reduce development effort, and shorten the time to market with a minimum viable product. However, this strategy is not without risk; entrepreneurs need to be careful that the acquired intellectual property rights are not fraught with issues that could severely outweigh any perceived value. Proper investigation is required to ensure success because the current literature fails to provide tools that an entrepreneur can apply when considering the acquisition of intellectual property. This article includes a case study of a technology company – Piranha Games – that indirectly acquired sole and exclusive access to a substantial historical customer base by acquiring and licensing older technology and surviving intellectual property assets. The founders then leveraged the existing product brand and its historical customers to acquire significant funding and went global with a minimum viable product in three years. The copyright and trademark assets provided value on day one to Piranha Games by making it difficult and risky for others to exploit the technology. Based on this case study, this article offers recommendations to entrepreneurs who may benefit from acquiring old intellectual property to accelerate the growth of their startups.

  8. Optimization of accelerator-driven technology for LWR waste transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, C.D.

    1996-12-31

    The role of accelerator-driven transmutation technology is examined in the context of the destruction of actinide waste from commercial light water reactors. It is pointed out that the commercial plutonium is much easier to use for entry-level nuclear weapons than weapons plutonium. Since commercial plutonium is easier to use, since there is very much more of it already, and since it is growing rapidly, the permanent disposition of commercial plutonium is an issue of greater importance than weapons plutonium. The minor actinides inventory, which may be influenced by transmutation, is compared in terms of nuclear properties with commercial and weapons plutonium and for possible utility as weapons material. Fast and thermal spectrum systems are compared as means for destruction of plutonium and the minor actinides. it is shown that the equilibrium fast spectrum actinide inventory is about 100 times larger than for thermal spectrum systems, and that there is about 100 times more weapons-usable material in the fast spectrum system inventory compared to the thermal spectrum system. Finally it is shown that the accelerator size for transmutation can be substantially reduced by design which uses the accelerator-produced neutrons only to initiate the unsustained fission chains characteristic of the subcritical system. The analysis argues for devoting primary attention to the development of thermal spectrum transmutation technology. A thermal spectrum transmuter operating at a fission power of 750-MWth fission power, which is sufficient to destroy the actinide waste from one 3,000-MWth light water reactor, may be driven by a proton beam of 1 GeV energy and a current of 7 mA. This accelerator is within the range of realizable cyclotron technology and is also near the size contemplated for the next generation spallation neutron source under consideration by the US, Europe, and Japan.

  9. Accelerating nano-technological innovation in the Danish construction industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Stissing Jensen, Jens

    2007-01-01

      By viewing the construction industry as a technological innovation system (TIS) this paper discusses possible initiatives to accelerate nanotechnological innovations. The point of departure is a recent report on the application of nano-technology in the Danish construction industry, which...... concludes that opportunities are generally poorly appreciated by the industry and research communities alike. It is found that the construction industry is characterised by low-tech trajectories where dedicated innovation networks are often too fragile for innovations to stabilize and diffuse....... The institutional features of the system are furthermore poorly equipped at identifying potentials within high-tech areas. In order to exploit the potentials of nano-technology it is thus argued that an alternative TIS needs to be established. Initiatives should identify and support "incubation rooms" or marked...

  10. Global change accelerates carbon assimilation by a wetland ecosystem engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Joshua S.; Hager, Rachel N.; Megonigal, J. Patrick; Mozdzer, Thomas J.

    2015-11-01

    The primary productivity of coastal wetlands is changing dramatically in response to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, nitrogen (N) enrichment, and invasions by novel species, potentially altering their ecosystem services and resilience to sea level rise. In order to determine how these interacting global change factors will affect coastal wetland productivity, we quantified growing-season carbon assimilation (≈gross primary productivity, or GPP) and carbon retained in living plant biomass (≈net primary productivity, or NPP) of North American mid-Atlantic saltmarshes invaded by Phragmites australis (common reed) under four treatment conditions: two levels of CO2 (ambient and +300 ppm) crossed with two levels of N (0 and 25 g N added m-2 yr-1). For GPP, we combined descriptions of canopy structure and leaf-level photosynthesis in a simulation model, using empirical data from an open-top chamber field study. Under ambient CO2 and low N loading (i.e., the Control), we determined GPP to be 1.66 ± 0.05 kg C m-2 yr-1 at a typical Phragmites stand density. Individually, elevated CO2 and N enrichment increased GPP by 44 and 60%, respectively. Changes under N enrichment came largely from stimulation to carbon assimilation early and late in the growing season, while changes from CO2 came from stimulation during the early and mid-growing season. In combination, elevated CO2 and N enrichment increased GPP by 95% over the Control, yielding 3.24 ± 0.08 kg C m-2 yr-1. We used biomass data to calculate NPP, and determined that it represented 44%-60% of GPP, with global change conditions decreasing carbon retention compared to the Control. Our results indicate that Phragmites invasions in eutrophied saltmarshes are driven, in part, by extended phenology yielding 3.1× greater NPP than native marsh. Further, we can expect elevated CO2 to amplify Phragmites productivity throughout the growing season, with potential implications including accelerated spread

  11. Analysis of accelerants and fire debris using aroma detection technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barshick, S.A.

    1997-01-17

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the utility of electronic aroma detection technologies for the detection and identification of accelerant residues in suspected arson debris. Through the analysis of known accelerant residues, a trained neural network was developed for classifying suspected arson samples. Three unknown fire debris samples were classified using this neural network. The item corresponding to diesel fuel was correctly identified every time. For the other two items, wide variations in sample concentration and excessive water content, producing high sample humidities, were shown to influence the sensor response. Sorbent sampling prior to aroma detection was demonstrated to reduce these problems and to allow proper neural network classification of the remaining items corresponding to kerosene and gasoline.

  12. Acceleration of cell factories engineering using CRISPR-based technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronda, Carlotta

    potentially be standardized in an automatable platform and, in the future be integrated with metabolic modeling tools. In particularly it describes the technologies developed in the three widely used organisms: E. coli, S. cerevisiae and CHO mammalian cells using the recent breakthrough CRISPR/ Cas9 system....... These include CRMAGE, a MAGE improved recombineering platform using CRISPR negative selection, CrEdit, a system for multi-loci marker-free simultaneous gene and pathway integrations and CRISPy a platform to accelerate genome editing in CHO cells....

  13. Accelerator technology program. Progress report, January-December 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, E.A.; Jameson, R.A. (comps.)

    1980-11-01

    The activities of Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's (LASL) Accelerator Technology (AT) Division during the calendar year 1979 are highlighted, with references to more detailed reports. This report is organized around the major projects of the Division, reflecting a wide variety of applications and sponsors. The first section covers the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test program, a collaborative effort with the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; the second section summarizes progress on the Proton Storage Ring to be built between LAMPF and the LASL Pulsed Neutron Research facility. A new project that achieved considerable momentum during the year is described next - the free-electron laser studies; the following section discusses the status of the Pion Generator for Medical Irradiation program. Next, two more new programs, the racetrack microtron being developed jointly by AT-Division and the National Bureau of Standards and the radio-frequency (rf) accelerator development for heavy ion fusion, are outlined. Development activities on a new type of high-power, high-efficiency rf amplifier called the gyrocon are then reported, and the final sections cover development of H/sup -/ ion sources and injectors, and linear accelerator instrumentation and beam dynamics.

  14. Development of superconducting acceleration cavity technology for free electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Min; Lee, Byung Cheol; Kim, Sun Kook; Jeong, Young Uk; Cho, Sung Oh

    2000-10-01

    As a result of the cooperative research between the KAERI and Peking University, the key technologies of superconducting acceleration cavity and photoelectron gun have been developed for the application to high power free electron lasers. A 1.5-GHz, 1-cell superconducting RF cavity has been designed and fabricated by using pure Nb sheets. The unloaded Q values of the fabricated superconducting cavity has been measured to be 2x10{sup 9} at 2.5K, and 8x10{sup 9} at 1.8K. The maximum acceleration gradient achieved was 12 MeV/m at 2.5K, and 20MV/m at 1.8 K. A cryostat for the 1-cell superconducting cavity has been designed. As a source of electron beam, a DC photocathode electron gun has been designed and fabricated, which is composed of a photocathode evaporation chamber and a 100-keV acceleration chamber. The efficiency of the Cs2Te photocathode is 3% nominally at room temperature, 10% at 290 deg C. The superconducting photoelectron gun system developed has been estimated to be a good source of high-brightness electron beam for high-power free electron lasers.

  15. Technological Development in Carbon Sequestration at Petrobras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castello Branco, R.; Vazquez Sebastian, G.; Murce, T.; Cunha, P.; Dino, R.; Sartori Santarosa, C.

    2007-07-01

    Petrobras defined, in its mission, the intention to act in a safe and profitable way, with social and environmental responsibility. In its vision, the company decided to be an oil and energy company, taking into account climate change mitigation. These changes were partially caused, without the company's knowledge, for many years, by the burning of fossil fuels. Among many technologies available for this mitigation, carbon sequestration is the one that, in a short space of time, can avoid the collapse of earth's climate. In order to meet this carbon sequestration challenge, there has been established, at CENPES, three strategies for its technological development: (i) establishment of a Systemic Project for Carbon Sequestration within the scope of the Environmental Technology Program - PROAMB; (ii) creation of a Group of Carbon Sequestration Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation - formation of team and qualification program, which includes the realization of the International Seminar on Carbon Sequestration and Climate Change at Petrobras in October 2006; and (iii) Implementation of the Technological Network of Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation. (auth)

  16. Superconducting RF Technology R&D for Future Accelerator Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Reece, Charles E

    2012-01-01

    Superconducting rf technology (SRF) is evolving rapidly as are its applications. While there is active exploitation of what one may term the current state-of-the-practice, there is also rapid progress expanding in several dimensions the accessible and useful parameter space. While state-of-the-art performance sometimes outpaces thorough understanding, the improving scientific understanding from active SRF research is clarifying routes to obtain optimum performance from present materials and opening avenues beyond the standard bulk niobium. The improving technical basis understanding is enabling process engineering to both improve performance confidence and reliability and also unit implementation costs. Increasing confidence in the technology enables the engineering of new creative application designs. We attempt to survey this landscape to highlight the potential for future accelerator applications.

  17. Transmission Control of Transport and Technological Cars in Acceleration Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. I. Plujnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In most structures a transmission of the transport-technological machine (TTM is controlled by automatic systems. In their creating it is necessary to specify the appropriate parameters and algorithms. In the total balance of the machine run time the acceleration mode is the most important. Therefore, an algorithm of the transmission gear ratio change during acceleration largely provides desirable rating of machines.It is known that the process of acceleration is estimated by its dynamic quality and fuel economy. To reach the best rating of both simultaneously is impossible. Therefore, as the criteria of estimate, were chosen the time and fuel consumption during acceleration to a fixed speed value.From a mathematical point of view, these criteria represent the sum of integrals, each of which defines the time or the fuel consumption during acceleration with a certain transmission gear ratio. The problem is formulated as follows: to determine the speed values of the TTM at the moments when the transmission gear ratio is changed providing the minimum values during fixed fuel supply for the estimate criteria. The latter condition in a certain way limits the task, but in explicit form there is no this control action in the dependence data.Given the variety of possible design options for the TTM, the solution is given by a specific example that simplifies the mathematics and makes it easier to understand the results obtained. As a TTM, is considered a passenger car with petrol engine and automatic transmission, which includes a hydrodynamic transformer and three-speed gearbox.A chosen way of solving the problem involves using the theory of ordinary maxima and minima, which allows finding the unknown values of independent variables. The expressions of sub-integral functions are in explicit form obtained and studied for meeting the necessary and sufficient conditions for existence of the extreme point. The result was a proof that in the case of

  18. Carbon nanohorns allow acceleration of osteoblast differentiation via macrophage activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Eri; Miyako, Eijiro; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Ushijima, Natsumi; Sakaguchi, Norihito; Russier, Julie; Yudasaka, Masako; Iijima, Sumio; Bianco, Alberto; Yokoyama, Atsuro

    2016-07-01

    Carbon nanohorns (CNHs), formed by a rolled graphene structure and terminating in a cone, are promising nanomaterials for the development of a variety of biological applications. Here we demonstrate that alkaline phosphatase activity is dramatically increased by coculture of human monocyte derived macrophages (hMDMs) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in the presence of CNHs. CNHs were mainly localized in the lysosome of macrophages more than in hMSCs during coculturing. At the same time, the amount of Oncostatin M (OSM) in the supernatant was also increased during incubation with CNHs. Oncostatin M (OSM) from activated macrophage has been reported to induce osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization through STAT3. These results suggest that the macrophages engulfed CNHs and accelerated the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into the osteoblast via OSM release. We expect that the proof-of-concept on the osteoblast differentiation capacity by CNHs will allow future studies focused on CNHs as ideal therapeutic materials for bone regeneration.Carbon nanohorns (CNHs), formed by a rolled graphene structure and terminating in a cone, are promising nanomaterials for the development of a variety of biological applications. Here we demonstrate that alkaline phosphatase activity is dramatically increased by coculture of human monocyte derived macrophages (hMDMs) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in the presence of CNHs. CNHs were mainly localized in the lysosome of macrophages more than in hMSCs during coculturing. At the same time, the amount of Oncostatin M (OSM) in the supernatant was also increased during incubation with CNHs. Oncostatin M (OSM) from activated macrophage has been reported to induce osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization through STAT3. These results suggest that the macrophages engulfed CNHs and accelerated the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into the osteoblast via OSM release. We expect that the

  19. Accelerating Gas Adsorption on 3D Percolating Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Wen, Chenyu; Zhang, Youwei; Wu, Dongping; Zhang, Shi-Li; Qiu, Zhi-Jun

    2016-02-01

    In the field of electronic gas sensing, low-dimensional semiconductors such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) can offer high detection sensitivity owing to their unprecedentedly large surface-to-volume ratio. The sensitivity and responsivity can further improve by increasing their areal density. Here, an accelerated gas adsorption is demonstrated by exploiting volumetric effects via dispersion of SWCNTs into a percolating three-dimensional (3D) network in a semiconducting polymer. The resultant semiconducting composite film is evaluated as a sensing membrane in field effect transistor (FET) sensors. In order to attain reproducible characteristics of the FET sensors, a pulsed-gate-bias measurement technique is adopted to eliminate current hysteresis and drift of sensing baseline. The rate of gas adsorption follows the Langmuir-type isotherm as a function of gas concentration and scales with film thickness. This rate is up to 5 times higher in the composite than only with an SWCNT network in the transistor channel, which in turn results in a 7-fold shorter time constant of adsorption with the composite. The description of gas adsorption developed in the present work is generic for all semiconductors and the demonstrated composite with 3D percolating SWCNTs dispersed in functional polymer represents a promising new type of material for advanced gas sensors.

  20. Accelerating process and catalyst development in reforming reactions with high throughput technologies under industrially relevant conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunk, S.A.; Bollmann, G.; Froescher, A.; Kaiser, H.; Lange de Oliveira, A.; Roussiere, T.; Wasserschaff, G. [hte Aktiengesellschaft, Heidelberg (Germany); Domke, I. [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2010-12-30

    The generation of hydrogen via reforming of a variety of carbon containing feed-stocks in the presence of water is up to date one of the most versatile technologies for the production of hydrogen and syngas. Although these reforming technologies are in principle well established, understood and commercialized, there are still a number of technological challenges that are not solved up to a satisfactorily degree and there is a constant demand for appropriate answers to the challenges posed. High throughput experimentation can be a valuable tool in helping accelerate the development of suitable solutions on the catalyst and process development side. In order to be able to generate test data that are close or identical to process relevant conditions, hte has developed a new technology portfolio of test technologies named Stage-IV technology. In contrast to earlier developments which address more small scale testing on the basis of catalyst volumes of 1ml up to 10 ml under isothermal conditions, our new technology portfolio offers the advantage of test volumes at sub-pilot scale also realizing reactor dimensions close to technical applications. This does not only ensure a good mimic of the hydrodynamic conditions of the technical scale, but also allows a fingerprinting of features like temperature gradients in the catalyst bed which play a large role for catalyst performance. Apart from catalyst tests with granulates when screening for optimized catalyst compositions, the units are designed to accommodate tests with shaped catalysts. In order to demonstrate how these technologies can accelerate catalyst and process development we have chosen technically challenging application examples: (I) Pre-reforming and reforming of methane based feeds which accelerate coking and catalyst deactivation. Higher reaction pressures, high CO{sub 2} contents in the feedgas (which occur typically in sources like bio-gas or certain types of natural gas), the presence of higher alkanes

  1. Carbon Capture: A Technology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-21

    monoethanolamine (MEA) and ammonia ; pre- combustion capture (also via chemical solvents) from the synthesis gas produced in an integrated coal gasification...71 D. Heaven et al., “ Synthesis Gas Purification in Gasification to Ammonia /Urea Plants,” Gasification Technologies...32 Ammonia -Based Capture Processes

  2. [Research progress on biochar carbon sequestration technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-Xiang; Zheng, Hao; Li, Feng-Min; Wang, Zhen-Yu

    2013-08-01

    Biochar is a fine-grained and porous material, which is produced by pyrolyzing biomass under anaerobic or oxygen-limiting condition. Due to the aromatic structure, it is resistant to the biotic and abiotic degradation which makes biochar production a promising carbon sequestration technology, and it has attracted widespread attention. Factors including biochar production, biochar stability in soil and the response of plant growth and soil organic carbon to the biochar addition can influence the carbon sequestration potential of biochar. Through exploring the mechanisms of biochar carbon sequestration, the influence of these factors was studied. Furthermore, the research progress of carbon sequestration potential and its economic viability were examined. Finally, aiming at the knowledge gaps in the influencing factors as well as the relationship between these factors, some further research needs were proposed for better application of biochar in China.

  3. Comparison of properties of traditional and accelerated carbonated solidified/stabilized contaminated soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jiangying; XU Dimin; XIONG Lan; Colin HILLS; Paula CAREY; Kevin GARDNER

    2008-01-01

    The investigation of the long-term performance of solidified/stabilized (S/S) contaminated soils was carried out in a trial site in southeast UK. The soils were exposed to the maximum natural weathering for four years and sampled at various depths in a controlled manner. The chemical properties (e. g. , degree of carbonation (DOC), pH, electrical conductivity (EC)) and physical properties (e. g. , moisture content (MC), liquid limit (LL), plastic limit (PL), plasticity index (PI)) of the samples untreated and treated with the traditional and accelerated carbonated S/S processes were analyzed. Their variations on the depths of the soils were also studied. The result showed that the broad geotechnical properties of the soils, manifested in their PIs, were related to the concentration of the water soluble ions and in particular the free calcium ions. The samples treated with the accelerated carbonation technology (ACT), and the untreated samples contained limited number of free calcium ions in solutions and consequently interacted with waters in a similar way. Compared with the traditional cement-based S/S technology, e. g. , treatment with ordinary portland cement (OPC) or EnvirOceM, ACT caused the increase of the PI of the treated soil and made it more stable during long-term weathering. The PI values for the four soils ascended according to the order: the EnvirOceM soil, the OPC soil, the ACT soil, and the untreated soil while their pH and EC values descended according to the same order.

  4. Computational Tools for Accelerating Carbon Capture Process Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David

    2013-01-01

    The goals of the work reported are: to develop new computational tools and models to enable industry to more rapidly develop and deploy new advanced energy technologies; to demonstrate the capabilities of the CCSI Toolset on non-proprietary case studies; and to deploy the CCSI Toolset to industry. Challenges of simulating carbon capture (and other) processes include: dealing with multiple scales (particle, device, and whole process scales); integration across scales; verification, validation, and uncertainty; and decision support. The tools cover: risk analysis and decision making; validated, high-fidelity CFD; high-resolution filtered sub-models; process design and optimization tools; advanced process control and dynamics; process models; basic data sub-models; and cross-cutting integration tools.

  5. Tourism Transport, Technology, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Technological development from horse-drawn carriages to the new Airbus A380 has led to a remarkable increase in both the capacity and speed of tourist travel. This development has an endogenous systemic cause and will continue to increase carbon dioxide emissions/energy consumption if left unchecked

  6. Theoretical and technological building blocks for an innovation accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Harmelen, F.; Kampis, G.; Börner, K.; van den Besselaar, P.; Schultes, E.; Goble, C.; Groth, P.; Mons, B.; Anderson, S.; Decker, S.; Hayes, C.; Buecheler, T.; Helbing, D.

    2012-11-01

    Modern science is a main driver of technological innovation. The efficiency of the scientific system is of key importance to ensure the competitiveness of a nation or region. However, the scientific system that we use today was devised centuries ago and is inadequate for our current ICT-based society: the peer review system encourages conservatism, journal publications are monolithic and slow, data is often not available to other scientists, and the independent validation of results is limited. The resulting scientific process is hence slow and sloppy. Building on the Innovation Accelerator paper by Helbing and Balietti [1], this paper takes the initial global vision and reviews the theoretical and technological building blocks that can be used for implementing an innovation (in first place: science) accelerator platform driven by re-imagining the science system. The envisioned platform would rest on four pillars: (i) Redesign the incentive scheme to reduce behavior such as conservatism, herding and hyping; (ii) Advance scientific publications by breaking up the monolithic paper unit and introducing other building blocks such as data, tools, experiment workflows, resources; (iii) Use machine readable semantics for publications, debate structures, provenance etc. in order to include the computer as a partner in the scientific process, and (iv) Build an online platform for collaboration, including a network of trust and reputation among the different types of stakeholders in the scientific system: scientists, educators, funding agencies, policy makers, students and industrial innovators among others. Any such improvements to the scientific system must support the entire scientific process (unlike current tools that chop up the scientific process into disconnected pieces), must facilitate and encourage collaboration and interdisciplinarity (again unlike current tools), must facilitate the inclusion of intelligent computing in the scientific process, must facilitate

  7. Analytical Validation of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry for Pharmaceutical Development: the Measurement of Carbon-14 Isotope Ratio.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keck, B D; Ognibene, T; Vogel, J S

    2010-02-05

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an isotope based measurement technology that utilizes carbon-14 labeled compounds in the pharmaceutical development process to measure compounds at very low concentrations, empowers microdosing as an investigational tool, and extends the utility of {sup 14}C labeled compounds to dramatically lower levels. It is a form of isotope ratio mass spectrometry that can provide either measurements of total compound equivalents or, when coupled to separation technology such as chromatography, quantitation of specific compounds. The properties of AMS as a measurement technique are investigated here, and the parameters of method validation are shown. AMS, independent of any separation technique to which it may be coupled, is shown to be accurate, linear, precise, and robust. As the sensitivity and universality of AMS is constantly being explored and expanded, this work underpins many areas of pharmaceutical development including drug metabolism as well as absorption, distribution and excretion of pharmaceutical compounds as a fundamental step in drug development. The validation parameters for pharmaceutical analyses were examined for the accelerator mass spectrometry measurement of {sup 14}C/C ratio, independent of chemical separation procedures. The isotope ratio measurement was specific (owing to the {sup 14}C label), stable across samples storage conditions for at least one year, linear over 4 orders of magnitude with an analytical range from one tenth Modern to at least 2000 Modern (instrument specific). Further, accuracy was excellent between 1 and 3 percent while precision expressed as coefficient of variation is between 1 and 6% determined primarily by radiocarbon content and the time spent analyzing a sample. Sensitivity, expressed as LOD and LLOQ was 1 and 10 attomoles of carbon-14 (which can be expressed as compound equivalents) and for a typical small molecule labeled at 10% incorporated with {sup 14}C corresponds to 30 fg

  8. Biobased carbon content of resin extracted from polyethylene composite by carbon-14 concentration measurements using accelerator mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Taguchi, Kazuhiro; Kunioka, Masao; Funabashi, Masahiro; Ninomiya, Fumi

    2014-01-01

    An estimation procedure for biobased carbon content of polyethylene composite was studied using carbon-14 (14C) concentration ratios as measured by accelerated mass spectrometry (AMS). Prior to the measurement, additives and fillers in composites should be removed because they often contain a large amount of biobased carbon and may shift the estimation. Samples of resin with purity suitable for measurement were isolated from composites with a Soxhlet extractor using heated cyclohexanone. Afte...

  9. Microfluidic technologies for accelerating the clinical translation of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Pedro M.; Farokhzad, Omid C.; Karnik, Rohit; Langer, Robert

    2012-10-01

    Using nanoparticles for therapy and imaging holds tremendous promise for the treatment of major diseases such as cancer. However, their translation into the clinic has been slow because it remains difficult to produce nanoparticles that are consistent 'batch-to-batch', and in sufficient quantities for clinical research. Moreover, platforms for rapid screening of nanoparticles are still lacking. Recent microfluidic technologies can tackle some of these issues, and offer a way to accelerate the clinical translation of nanoparticles. In this Progress Article, we highlight the advances in microfluidic systems that can synthesize libraries of nanoparticles in a well-controlled, reproducible and high-throughput manner. We also discuss the use of microfluidics for rapidly evaluating nanoparticles in vitro under microenvironments that mimic the in vivo conditions. Furthermore, we highlight some systems that can manipulate small organisms, which could be used for evaluating the in vivo toxicity of nanoparticles or for drug screening. We conclude with a critical assessment of the near- and long-term impact of microfluidics in the field of nanomedicine.

  10. Recycling technology of emitted carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakawa, Hironori [National Inst. of Materials and Chemical Research (NIMC), Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    Ways to halt global warming are being discussed worldwide. Global warming is an energy problem which is mainly attributed to the large volumes of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) released into the atmosphere from the rapid increase in energy consumption since the Industrial Revolution. The basic solution to the problem, therefore, is to cut consumption of fossil fuels. To this end, it is important to promote energy conservation by improving the fuel efficiency of machines, as well as shift to energy sources that do not emit carbon dioxide and develop related technologies. If current trends in economic growth continue in the devloping world as well as the developed countries, there can be no doubt that energy consumption will increase. Therefore, alongside energy conservation and the development of alternative energies, the importance of technologies to recover and fix CO{sub 2} will increase in the fight against global warming.

  11. Modeling of a self-healing process in blast furnace slag cement exposed to accelerated carbonation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zemskov, S.V.; Ahmad, B.; Copuroglu, O.; Vermolen, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    In the current research, a mathematical model for the post-damage improvement of the carbonated blast furnace slag cement (BFSC) exposed to accelerated carbonation is constructed. The study is embedded within the framework of investigating the effect of using lightweight expanded clay aggregate, whi

  12. Carbon Dioxide Reduction Technology Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Frank F.; Anderson, Molly S.; Abney, Morgan B.

    2011-01-01

    For long-term human missions, a closed-loop atmosphere revitalization system (ARS) is essential to minimize consumables. A carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction technology is used to reclaim oxygen (O2) from metabolic CO2 and is vital to reduce the delivery mass of metabolic O2. A key step in closing the loop for ARS will include a proper CO2 reduction subsystem that is reliable and with low equivalent system mass (ESM). Sabatier and Bosch CO2 reduction are two traditional CO2 reduction subsystems (CRS). Although a Sabatier CRS has been delivered to International Space Station (ISS) and is an important step toward closing the ISS ARS loop, it recovers only 50% of the available O2 in CO2. A Bosch CRS is able to reclaim all O2 in CO2. However, due to continuous carbon deposition on the catalyst surface, the penalties of replacing spent catalysts and reactors and crew time in a Bosch CRS are significant. Recently, technologies have been developed for recovering hydrogen (H2) from Sabatier-product methane (CH4). These include methane pyrolysis using a microwave plasma, catalytic thermal pyrolysis of CH4 and thermal pyrolysis of CH4. Further, development in Sabatier reactor designs based on microchannel and microlith technology could open up opportunities in reducing system mass and enhancing system control. Improvements in Bosch CRS conversion have also been reported. In addition, co-electrolysis of steam and CO2 is a new technology that integrates oxygen generation and CO2 reduction functions in a single system. A co-electrolysis unit followed by either a Sabatier or a carbon formation reactor based on Bosch chemistry could improve the overall competitiveness of an integrated O2 generation and CO2 reduction subsystem. This study evaluates all these CO2 reduction technologies, conducts water mass balances for required external supply of water for 1-, 5- and 10-yr missions, evaluates mass, volume, power, cooling and resupply requirements of various technologies. A system

  13. Accelerating technological change. Towards a more sustainable transport system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vooren, A.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis provides insights into the mechanisms of technological change by capturing the complexity that characterises the current technological transition of the transport system into existing evolutionary models of technological change. The transition towards a more sustainable transport system

  14. DTU climate change technologies. Recommendations on accelerated development and deployment of climate change technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hans; Halsnaes, K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, System Analysis Div., Roskilde (Denmark)); Nielsen, Niels Axel; Moeller, J.S.; Hansen, Jakob Fritz; Froekjaer Strand, I. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark))

    2009-09-15

    During 2009, the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) has held a number of international workshops for climate change. Participants came from industry, research institutions and government. The workshops focused on sustainable energy systems and climate change adaptation. The summary of conclusions and recommendations from the workshops constitutes a comprehensive set of technology tracks and recommended actions towards accelerated development and deployment of technology within these two key areas. The workshop process has led to three main conclusions. A. Radical changes are needed to develop sustainable energy systems. B. Tools and processes that climate-proof societal planning and management are needed in order to adapt to climate change. C. Partnerships concerning innovation and deployment (research, development and deployment) are required to meet time constraints.

  15. FAW Technology Strategies of Low-Carbon Passenger Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jun

    2012-01-01

    Author analyzed the global background of low-carbon technology around the world,a technology & economy analysis model called TOS was developed in the paper,author analyzed technology paths for low-carbon Car in China based on the current technologies available and technologies to he developed in China,3 possible paths are presented based on the analysis,author also explained the FAW BlueWay technology strategies for low carbon cars both for short mid and long term objectives.Author concludes the paper with illustration of powertrain lineup for FAW BlueWay Technologies.

  16. Life Prediction on a T700 Carbon Fiber Reinforced Cylinder with Limited Accelerated Life Testing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Xiaobing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An accelerated life testing investigation was conducted on a composite cylinder that consists of aluminum alloy and T700 carbon fiber. The ultimate failure stress predictions of cylinders were obtained by the mixing rule and verified by the blasting static pressure method. Based on the stress prediction of cylinder under working conditions, the constant stress accelerated life test of the cylinder was designed. However, the failure data cannot be sufficiently obtained by the accelerated life test due to the time limitation. Therefore, most of the data presented to be high censored in high stress level and zero-failure data in low stress level. When using the traditional method for rupture life prediction, the results showed to be of lower confidence. In this study, the consistency of failure mechanism for carbon fiber and cylinder was analyzed firstly. According to the analysis result, the statistical test information of carbon fiber could be utilized for the accelerated model constitution. Then, rupture life prediction method for cylinder was proposed based on the accelerated life test data and carbon fiber test data. In this way, the life prediction accuracy of cylinder could be improved obviously, and the results showed that the accuracy of this method increased by 35%.

  17. Fermilab Project X nuclear energy application: Accelerator, spallation target and transmutation technology demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gohar, Yousry; /Argonne; Johnson, David; Johnson, Todd; Mishra, Shekhar; /Fermilab

    2011-04-01

    The recent paper 'Accelerator and Target Technology for Accelerator Driven Transmutation and Energy Production' and report 'Accelerators for America's Future' have endorsed the idea that the next generation particle accelerators would enable technological breakthrough needed for nuclear energy applications, including transmutation of waste. In the Fall of 2009 Fermilab sponsored a workshop on Application of High Intensity Proton Accelerators to explore in detail the use of the Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) accelerator technology for Nuclear Energy Applications. High intensity Continuous Wave (CW) beam from the Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) Linac (Project-X) at beam energy between 1-2 GeV will provide an unprecedented experimental and demonstration facility in the United States for much needed nuclear energy Research and Development. We propose to carry out an experimental program to demonstrate the reliability of the accelerator technology, Lead-Bismuth spallation target technology and a transmutation experiment of spent nuclear fuel. We also suggest that this facility could be used for other Nuclear Energy applications.

  18. Carbon nanohorns accelerate bone regeneration in rat calvarial bone defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasai, Takao; Iizuka, Tadashi; Kanamori, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Atsuro [Department of Oral Functional Prosthodontics, Division of Oral Functional Science, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 13, Nishi 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8586 (Japan); Matsumura, Sachiko; Shiba, Kiyotaka [Division of Protein Engineering, Cancer Institute, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31, Ariake, koutou-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Yudasaka, Masako; Iijima, Sumio, E-mail: tkasai@den.hokudai.ac.jp [Nanotube Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Central 5, 1-1-1, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan)

    2011-02-11

    A recent study showed that carbon nanohorns (CNHs) have biocompatibility and possible medical uses such as in drug delivery systems. It was reported that some kinds of carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes were useful for bone formation. However, the effect of CNHs on bone tissue has not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of CNHs on bone regeneration and their possible application for guided bone regeneration (GBR). CNHs dispersed in ethanol were fixed on a porous polytetrafluoroethylene membrane by vacuum filtration. Cranial defects were created in rats and covered by a membrane with/without CNHs. At two weeks, bone formation under the membrane with CNHs had progressed more than under that without CNHs and numerous macrophages were observed attached to CNHs. At eight weeks, there was no significant difference in the amount of newly formed bone between the groups and the appearance of macrophages was decreased compared with that at two weeks. Newly formed bone attached to some CNHs directly. These results suggest that macrophages induced by CNHs are related to bone regeneration. In conclusion, the present study indicates that CNHs are compatible with bone tissue and effective as a material for GBR.

  19. Carbon nanohorns accelerate bone regeneration in rat calvarial bone defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Takao; Matsumura, Sachiko; Iizuka, Tadashi; Shiba, Kiyotaka; Kanamori, Takeshi; Yudasaka, Masako; Iijima, Sumio; Yokoyama, Atsuro

    2011-02-01

    A recent study showed that carbon nanohorns (CNHs) have biocompatibility and possible medical uses such as in drug delivery systems. It was reported that some kinds of carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes were useful for bone formation. However, the effect of CNHs on bone tissue has not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of CNHs on bone regeneration and their possible application for guided bone regeneration (GBR). CNHs dispersed in ethanol were fixed on a porous polytetrafluoroethylene membrane by vacuum filtration. Cranial defects were created in rats and covered by a membrane with/without CNHs. At two weeks, bone formation under the membrane with CNHs had progressed more than under that without CNHs and numerous macrophages were observed attached to CNHs. At eight weeks, there was no significant difference in the amount of newly formed bone between the groups and the appearance of macrophages was decreased compared with that at two weeks. Newly formed bone attached to some CNHs directly. These results suggest that macrophages induced by CNHs are related to bone regeneration. In conclusion, the present study indicates that CNHs are compatible with bone tissue and effective as a material for GBR.

  20. Monitoring accelerated carbonation on standard Portland cement mortar by nonlinear resonance acoustic test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiras, J. N.; Kundu, T.; Popovics, J. S.; Monzó, J.; Borrachero, M. V.; Payá, J.

    2015-03-01

    Carbonation is an important deleterious process for concrete structures. Carbonation begins when carbon dioxide (CO2) present in the atmosphere reacts with portlandite producing calcium carbonate (CaCO3). In severe carbonation conditions, C-S-H gel is decomposed into silica gel (SiO2.nH2O) and CaCO3. As a result, concrete pore water pH decreases (usually below 10) and eventually steel reinforcing bars become unprotected from corrosion agents. Usually, the carbonation of the cementing matrix reduces the porosity, because CaCO3 crystals (calcite and vaterite) occupy more volume than portlandite. In this study, an accelerated carbonation-ageing process is conducted on Portland cement mortar samples with water to cement ratio of 0.5. The evolution of the carbonation process on mortar is monitored at different levels of ageing until the mortar is almost fully carbonated. A nondestructive technique based on nonlinear acoustic resonance is used to monitor the variation of the constitutive properties upon carbonation. At selected levels of ageing, the compressive strength is obtained. From fractured surfaces the depth of carbonation is determined with phenolphthalein solution. An image analysis of the fractured surfaces is used to quantify the depth of carbonation. The results from resonant acoustic tests revealed a progressive increase of stiffness and a decrease of material nonlinearity.

  1. Molten carbonate fuel cell technology improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-06-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under Department of Energy Contract DEAC21-87MC23270, Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Technology Improvement.'' This work was conducted over a three year period and consisted of three major efforts. The first major effort was the power plant system study which reviewed the competitive requirements for a coal gasifier/molten carbonate fuel cell power plant, produced a conceptual design of a CG/MCFC, and defined the technology development requirements. This effort is discussed in Section 1 of the report. The second major effort involved the design and development of a new MCFC cell configuration which reduced the material content of the cell to a level competitive with competing power plants, simplified the cell configuration to make the components more manufacturable and adaptable to continuous low cost processing techniques, and introduced new-low-pressure drop flow fields for both reactant gases. The new flow fields permitted the incorporation of recirculation systems in both reactant gas systems, permitting simplified cooling techniques and the ability to operate on both natural gas and a wide variety of gasifier fuels. This cell technology improvement is discussed in Section 2. The third major effort involved the scaleup of the new cell configuration to the full-area, 8-sq-ft size and resulted in components used for a 25-kW, 20-cell stack verification test. The verification test was completed with a run of 2200 hours, exceeding the goal of 2000 hours and verifying the new cell design. TWs test, in turn, provided the confidence to proceed to a 100-kW demonstration which is the goal of the subsequent DOE program. The scaleup and stack verification tests are discussed in Sections 3, 4, 5, and 6 of this report.

  2. The R/D of high power proton accelerator technology in China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guan Xialing

    2002-12-01

    In China, a multipurpose verification system as a first phase of our ADS program consists of a low energy accelerator (150 MeV/3 mA proton LINAC) and a swimming pool light water subcritical reactor. In this paper the activities of HPPA technology related to ADS in China, which includes the intense proton ECR source, the RFQ accelerator and some other technology of HPPA, are described.

  3. Interview with Steve Myers, Director for Accelerators and Technology

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2009-01-01

    Questions : 1. After a year of repairs and consolidation work, is the LHC now ready for data? 2. Is the LHC more difficult to run compared to other existing or previous particle accelerators? Why? 3. When do you expect to be running at 7 TeV? 4. What is exactly going to happen in the control room in the next few days?

  4. Report of the B-factory group: II, Accelerator technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemann, R.H.; Cassel, D.G.; Feldman, G.J.; Alam, M.S.; Aleksan, R.; Atwood, W.B.; Bartelt, J.; Bisognano, J.J.; Boyce, J.R.; Cline, D.B.

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on B-factory accelerators: Storage rings for the {Upsilon}(4S) and continuing Linear colliders for the {Upsilon}(4S) and continuum; and storage rings and linear colliders for the Z. 52 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

  5. Determination of tritium and carbon-14 in accelerator waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argentini, M.; Weinreich, R. [Lab. of Radio- and Environmental Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen-PSI (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    In dismounted parts of the accelerator facilities of paul scherrer institute, tritium and {sup 14}C were determined by low-level counting after chemical separation. In graphite targets used for the production of {pi}-mesons, tritium amounts from 1.7.10{sup 8} to 6.10{sup 8} Bq/g were found; the corresponding {sup 14}C data were 6 and 9 Ci/g, respectively. In the dismantled copper beam dump of Target E, the tritium content extended up to 2.8.10{sup 6} Bq/g, but no {sup 14}C could be detected. In mechanical parts of the beam dump, consisting of iron and stainless steel, respectively, the tritium amount ranged up to 5.3.10{sup 3} Bq/g, the {sup 14}C amount from 1 to 800 Bq/g. The separation procedures are described in detail. (orig.)

  6. Development of the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry technology at the Comenius University in Bratislava

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Povinec, Pavel P., E-mail: povinec@fmph.uniba.sk; Masarik, Jozef; Ješkovský, Miroslav; Kaizer, Jakub; Šivo, Alexander; Breier, Robert; Pánik, Ján; Staníček, Jaroslav; Richtáriková, Marta; Zahoran, Miroslav; Zeman, Jakub

    2015-10-15

    An Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) laboratory has been established at the Centre for Nuclear and Accelerator Technologies (CENTA) at the Comenius University in Bratislava comprising of a MC-SNICS ion source, 3 MV Pelletron tandem accelerator, and an analyzer of accelerated ions. The preparation of targets for {sup 14}C and {sup 129}I AMS measurements is described in detail. The development of AMS techniques for potassium, uranium and thorium analysis in radiopure materials required for ultra-low background underground experiments is briefly mentioned.

  7. Accelerated carbonation test of sprayed concrete%喷射混凝土快速碳化试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马蕊; 牛荻涛; 王家滨

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the carbonation resistance of sprayed concrete and the mechanical property after carbonation ,the accel-erated carbonation test was carried out.The results indicated that the carbonation resistance of sprayed concrete was superior to the normal. With the increasing of carbonation depth,compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of sprayed concrete grew rapidly.The admix-ing of steel fiber can further improve the carbonation resistance,reduce the carbonation rate,and increase the splitting tensile strength of sprayed concrete greatly.Besides,based on analyzing the effects of shotcrete technology and carbonation resistance of steel fiber admixing to sprayed concrete,a carbonation depth model for sprayed concrete was established.%通过快速碳化试验,探讨了喷射混凝土抗碳化性能和碳化后力学性能变化规律。试验结果表明:喷射混凝土较普通混凝土具有更好的抗碳化性能,其抗压强度、劈拉强度随碳化深度的增加快速提高;掺入钢纤维能进一步提高喷射混凝土碳化性能,减小碳化速率,还能显著提高喷射混凝土碳化后劈拉强度。同时,在分析钢纤维和施工方式对混凝土碳化影响的基础上,建立了喷射混凝土碳化深度模型。

  8. Model of Carbon Wire Heating in Accelerator Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Sapinski, M

    2008-01-01

    A heat flow equation with beam-induced heating and various cooling processes for a carbon wire passing through a particle beam is solved. Due to equation nonlinearity a numerical approach based on discretization of the wire movement is used. Heating of the wire due to the beam-induced electromagnetic field is taken into account. An estimation of the wire sublimation rate is made. The model is tested on SPS, LEP and Tevatron Main Injector data. Results are discussed and conclusions about limits of Wire Scanner operation on LHC beams are drawn.

  9. Marine Forces Reserve: Accelerating Knowledge Flow through Asynchronous Learning Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-19

    pedagogic techniques that are infeasible in the classroom , and they suggest that in some respects technologically intermediated learning can be even better...frameworks and technologies to examine I-I knowledge flows, and from the practitioner perspective, we bring to bear deep inside knowledge of the focal...ASYNCHRONOUS LEARNING TECHNOLOGIES by Mark Nissen, Robert McGuiness and Anthony Davis December 2014 Further distribution of all or part of this

  10. Frost Induces Respiration and Accelerates Carbon Depletion in Trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Or Sperling

    Full Text Available Cellular respiration depletes stored carbohydrates during extended periods of limited photosynthesis, e.g. winter dormancy or drought. As respiration rate is largely a function of temperature, the thermal conditions during such periods may affect non-structural carbohydrate (NSC availability and, ultimately, recovery. Here, we surveyed stem responses to temperature changes in 15 woody species. For two species with divergent respirational response to frost, P. integerrima and P. trichocarpa, we also examined corresponding changes in NSC levels. Finally, we simulated respiration-induced NSC depletion using historical temperature data for the western US. We report a novel finding that tree stems significantly increase respiration in response to near freezing temperatures. We observed this excess respiration in 13 of 15 species, deviating 10% to 170% over values predicted by the Arrhenius equation. Excess respiration persisted at temperatures above 0 °C during warming and reoccurred over multiple frost-warming cycles. A large adjustment of NSCs accompanied excess respiration in P. integerrima, whereas P. trichocarpa neither excessively respired nor adjusted NSCs. Over the course of the years included in our model, frost-induced respiration accelerated stem NSC consumption by 8.4 mg (glucose eq. cm(-3 yr(-1 on average in the western US, a level of depletion that may continue to significantly affect spring NSC availability. This novel finding revises the current paradigm of low temperature respiration kinetics.

  11. Electron string ion sources for carbon ion cancer therapy accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Boytsov, A Yu; Donets, E D; Donets, E E; Katagiri, K; Noda, K; Ponkin, D O; Ramzdorf, A Yu; Salnikov, V V; Shutov, V B

    2015-01-01

    The Electron String type of Ion Sources (ESIS) was developed, constructed and tested first in the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. These ion sources can be the appropriate sources for production of pulsed C4+ and C6+ ion beams which can be used for cancer therapy accelerators. In fact the test ESIS Krion-6T already now at the solenoid magnetic field only 4.6 T provides more than 10^10 C4+ ions per pulse and about 5*10^9 C6+ ions per pulse. Such ion sources could be suitable for application at synchrotrons. It was also found, that Krion-6T can provide more than 10^11 C6+ ions per second at 100 Hz repetition rate, and the repetition rate can be increased at the same or larger ion output per second. This makes ESIS applicable at cyclotrons as well. As for production of 11C radioactive ion beams ESIS can be the most economic kind of ion source. To proof that the special cryogenic cell for pulse injection of gaseous species into electron string was successfully tested using the ESIS Krion-2M.

  12. Evaluation of some commercial grade polymers as possible dosimeters for technological irradiations in electron accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Bryl-Sandelewska, T

    2002-01-01

    Dosimetric properties of two kinds of clear polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)and one kind of polystyrene (PS) sheets in technological accelerator irradiations, are presented. Absorbance of the sheets and its dependence on the dose have been measured at a suitable wavelength using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer. Both kind PMMA can be used for technological dose measurements but each of them in the different range of the doses (approx 3 to approx 30 kGy and approx 30 to above 200 kGy). Heating the samples after irradiation accelerates the stabilization of the absorbance, which change slowly during the storage of the samples if not heated.Absorbance of clear PS sheets decreases very much during the storage after irradiation, and heating of the samples does not accelerate the stabilization of the value. It can be said that the Ps investigated is not suitable for technological dose measurements in accelerator i radiations.

  13. Using semantic web technology to accelerate plant breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chibon, P.Y.; Carreres, B.M.; Weerd, de H.H.; Visser, R.G.F.; Finkers, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    One goal within plant breeding is to find the causal gene(s) explaining a given phenotype. Semantic web technology brings opportu- nities to integration data and information accross spread data sources. Chebi2gene and Marker2sequence are two applications relying on this se- mantic web technology to

  14. How can public policies accelerate the progress in technologies for the struggle against climate change?; Comment les politiques publiques peuvent-elles accelerer le progres sur les technologies de lutte contre le changement climatique?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieillefosse, A

    2008-07-01

    After having recalled the three stages of the technical progress according to Schumpeter (invention, innovation and diffusion), and the roles of R and D and learning in this process, the author briefly comments the cost evolution of different energy production technologies between 1980 and 1995, proposes a simple modelling of the learning system under the influence of public policies, and indicates the research themes by 2050. Then, she discusses the fact that the R and D level is not socially optimal, notably because of market imperfections, and also because some innovations may have applications within a time which is too long for companies. This is the reason why the State generally takes care of fundamental research. She discusses either demand-based or supply-based public policies aiming at accelerating the progress in low carbon technologies, describes the international cooperation in R and D (agreement on research on low carbon technologies, standards), and how to promote the diffusion of technology towards developing countries (problem of emission increase in these countries, technology transfer in general and within the frame of the convention on climate change, public development support and direct foreign investments)

  15. Beam Position Monitor and Energy Analysis at the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, David Juarez [Univ. of Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2015-08-01

    Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology Facility has produced its first beam with an energy of 20 MeV. This energy is obtained by the acceleration at the Electron Gun and the Capture Cavity 2 (CC2). When fully completed, the accelerator will consist of a photoinjector, one International Liner Collider (ILC)-type cryomodule, multiple accelerator R&D beamlines, and a downstream beamline to inject 300 MeV electrons into the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA). We calculated the total energy of the beam and the corresponding energy to the Electron Gun and CC2. Subsequently, a Beam Position Monitors (BPM) error analysis was done, to calculate the device actual resolution.

  16. Experimental control of the beam properties of laser-accelerated protons and carbon ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, Munib

    2008-12-15

    The laser generation of energetic high quality beams of protons and heavier ions has opened up the door to a plethora of applications. These beams are usually generated by the interaction of a short pulse high power laser with a thin metal foil target. They could already be applied to probe transient phenomena in plasmas and to produce warm dense matter by isochoric heating. Other applications such as the production of radioisotopes and tumour radiotherapy need further research to be put into practice. To meet the requirements of each application, the properties of the laser-accelerated particle beams have to be controlled precisely. In this thesis, experimental means to control the beam properties of laser-accelerated protons and carbon ions are investigated. The production and control of proton and carbon ion beams is studied using advanced ion source designs: Experiments concerning mass-limited (i.e. small and isolated) targets are conducted. These targets have the potential to increase both the number and the energy of laser-accelerated protons. Therefore, the influence of the size of a plane foil target on proton beam properties is measured. Furthermore, carbon ion sources are investigated. Carbon ions are of particular interest in the production of warm dense matter and in cancer radiotherapy. The possibility to focus carbon ion beams is investigated and a simple method for the production of quasi-monoenergetic carbon ion beams is presented. This thesis also provides an insight into the physical processes connected to the production and the control of laser-accelerated ions. For this purpose, laser-accelerated protons are employed to probe plasma phenomena on laser-irradiated targets. Electric fields evolving on the surface of laser-irradiated metal foils and hollow metal foil cylinders are investigated. Since these fields can be used to displace, collimate or focus proton beams, understanding their temporal and spatial evolution is crucial for the design of

  17. Technological Issues and High Gradient Test Results on X-Band Molybdenum Accelerating Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spataro, B.; /LNF, Dafne Light; Alesini, D.; /LNF, Dafne Light; Chimenti, V.; /LNF, Dafne Light; Dolgashev, V.; /SLAC; Haase, A.; /SLAC; Tantawi, S.G.; /SLAC; Higashi, Y.; /KEK, Tsukuba; Marrelli, C.; /Rome U.; Mostacci, A.; /Rome U.; Parodi, R.; /INFN, Genoa; Yeremian, A.D.; /SLAC

    2012-04-24

    Two 11.424 GHz single cell standing wave accelerating structures have been fabricated for high gradient RF breakdown studies. Both are brazed structures: one made from copper and the other from sintered molybdenum bulk. The tests results are presented and compared to those of similar devices constructed at SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) and KEK (Ko Enerugi Kasokuki Kenkyu Kiko). The technological issues to build both sections are discussed.

  18. Technological issues and high gradient test results on X-band molybdenum accelerating structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spataro, B., E-mail: bruno.spataro@lnf.infn.it [INFN-LNF, Via E. Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Alesini, D.; Chimenti, V. [INFN-LNF, Via E. Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Dolgashev, V.; Haase, A.; Tantawi, S.G. [SLAC, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Higashi, Y. [KEK 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0801 (Japan); Marrelli, C.; Mostacci, A. [University of Rome Sapienza, Department of Fundamental and Applied Science for Engineering, Via A. Scarpa 14, 00185 Rome (Italy); Parodi, R. [INFN-Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Yeremian, A.D. [SLAC, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2011-11-21

    Two 11.424 GHz single cell standing wave accelerating structures have been fabricated for high gradient RF breakdown studies. Both are brazed structures: one made from copper and the other from sintered molybdenum bulk. The tests results are presented and compared to those of similar devices constructed at SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) and KEK (Ko Enerugi Kasokuki Kenkyu Kiko). The technological issues to build both sections are discussed.

  19. Accelerating the deployment of offshore renewable energy technologies. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, Mott

    2011-02-15

    Offshore wind energy and ocean energy (i.e. wave and tidal) are at different stages of technology development and deployment, and, as such, they require different approaches for successful deployment. However, regardless of their deployment stage, these technologies may face common hurdles in their way to market competitiveness. IEA-RETD has completed a study with the overall objective to assist policy makers and project developers in a better understanding of these barriers and the specifics of offshore renewable energy and to give them practical guidelines. These include an offshore energy deployment framework, substantiated by evidence-based analyses, and recommendations for future policies design, including best practices for allocation of seafloor rights.

  20. Accelerating Industrial Adoption of Metal Additive Manufacturing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Kenneth; McDonald, Tom

    2016-03-01

    While metal additive manufacturing (AM) technology has clear benefits, there are still factors preventing its adoption by industry. These factors include the high cost of metal AM systems, the difficulty for machinists to learn and operate metal AM machines, the long approval process for part qualification/certification, and the need for better process controls; however, the high AM system cost is the main barrier deterring adoption. In this paper, we will discuss an America Makes-funded program to reduce AM system cost by combining metal AM technology with conventional computerized numerical controlled (CNC) machine tools. Information will be provided on how an Optomec-led team retrofitted a legacy CNC vertical mill with laser engineered net shaping (LENS®—LENS is a registered trademark of Sandia National Labs) AM technology, dramatically lowering deployment cost. The upgraded system, dubbed LENS Hybrid Vertical Mill, enables metal additive and subtractive operations to be performed on the same machine tool and even on the same part. Information on the LENS Hybrid system architecture, learnings from initial system deployment and continuing development work will also be provided to help guide further development activities within the materials community.

  1. Killing effect of Chinese hamster V79 cells exposed to accelerated carbon ions and RBE determination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIQiang; ZHOUGuang-Ming; 等

    2002-01-01

    Survival curves of Chinese hamster V79 cells exposed to accelerated carbon ions with linear energy transfers of 125.5,200 and 700keV/um were measured,respectively,Inactivation cross sections corresponding to the irradiation above were deduced from the V79 cell survival curves.They are 7.86±0.17,10.44±1.11 and 32.32±3.59um2 in turn.With the surviving response of V79 cells to 60Co γ-rays as a reference value,relative biological effectiveness at 10%,20%,50%and 80% survival levels were given for the accelerated carbon ions,The results showed that carbon ions with LET of 125.5keV/um had a higher value of RBE at all the four survival levels than the carbon ions with other LETs.It was prompted that the maximum value of RBE for the V79 cell surviving as the biological endpoint emerged at the LET below 200keV/um for carbon ions.

  2. Extraordinary Tools for Extraordinary Science: The Impact ofSciDAC on Accelerator Science&Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryne, Robert D.

    2006-08-10

    Particle accelerators are among the most complex and versatile instruments of scientific exploration. They have enabled remarkable scientific discoveries and important technological advances that span all programs within the DOE Office of Science (DOE/SC). The importance of accelerators to the DOE/SC mission is evident from an examination of the DOE document, ''Facilities for the Future of Science: A Twenty-Year Outlook''. Of the 28 facilities listed, 13 involve accelerators. Thanks to SciDAC, a powerful suite of parallel simulation tools has been developed that represent a paradigm shift in computational accelerator science. Simulations that used to take weeks or more now take hours, and simulations that were once thought impossible are now performed routinely. These codes have been applied to many important projects of DOE/SC including existing facilities (the Tevatron complex, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider), facilities under construction (the Large Hadron Collider, the Spallation Neutron Source, the Linac Coherent Light Source), and to future facilities (the International Linear Collider, the Rare Isotope Accelerator). The new codes have also been used to explore innovative approaches to charged particle acceleration. These approaches, based on the extremely intense fields that can be present in lasers and plasmas, may one day provide a path to the outermost reaches of the energy frontier. Furthermore, they could lead to compact, high-gradient accelerators that would have huge consequences for US science and technology, industry, and medicine. In this talk I will describe the new accelerator modeling capabilities developed under SciDAC, the essential role of multi-disciplinary collaboration with applied mathematicians, computer scientists, and other IT experts in developing these capabilities, and provide examples of how the codes have been used to support DOE/SC accelerator projects.

  3. Possible incorporation of petroleum-based carbons in biochemicals produced by bioprocess--biomass carbon ratio measured by accelerator mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunioka, Masao

    2010-06-01

    The biomass carbon ratios of biochemicals related to biomass have been reviewed. Commercial products from biomass were explained. The biomass carbon ratios of biochemical compounds were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) based on the (14)C concentration of carbons in the compounds. This measuring method uses the mechanism that biomass carbons include a very low level of (14)C and petroleum carbons do not include (14)C similar to the carbon dating measuring method. It was confirmed that there were some biochemicals synthesized from petroleum-based carbons. This AMS method has a high accuracy with a small standard deviation and can be applied to plastic products.

  4. High gradient insulator technology for the dielectric wall accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampayan, S.; Caporaso, G.; Carder, B. [and others

    1995-04-27

    Insulators composed of finely spaced alternating layers of dielectric and metal are thought to minimize secondary emission avalanche (SEA) growth. Most data to date was taken with small samples (order 10 cm{sup 2} area) in the absence of an ion or electron beam. The authors have begun long pulse (>1 {mu}s) high voltage testing of small hard seal samples. Further, they have performed short pulse (20 ns) high voltage testing of moderate scale bonded samples (order 100 cm{sup 2} area) in the presence of a 1 kA electron beam. Results thus far indicate a 1.0 to 4.0 increase in the breakdown electric field stress is possible with this technology.

  5. Accelerated myotube formation using bioprinting technology for biosensor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaofeng; Gao, Guifang; Qiu, Yongjun

    2013-03-01

    Muscle-powered, biological, microelectro-mechanical system is promising for actuator and biosensor applications. Functional conjugation between the cells, tissues, and biomolecules to the microdevice is crucial for this application. Bioprinting as an enabling technology possesses the advantages of high throughput, digital control, and highly accurate delivery of various biological factors to the desired locations for numerous applications such as 3D tissue fabrication. We have now evaluated the feasibility of the precise placement of mouse myoblasts onto micro-sized cantilevers. The evenly aligned printed cells fused with each other and formed mature myotubes after only 4 days. In contrast, it took more than 14 days for randomly deposited cells to do so. The printed myotubes were functional and responded to the electrical stimulation synchronously. Furthermore, the integrated Bio-MEMS device responded to the chemical stimulation spontaneously which demonstrated the potential as a functional biosensor. The contractility of the system was recovered quickly after the removal of the chemical stimulation, which indicated the flexibility of this system and the recycling potential.

  6. Biobased carbon content of resin extracted from polyethylene composite by carbon-14 concentration measurements using accelerator mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Kazuhiro; Kunioka, Masao; Funabashi, Masahiro; Ninomiya, Fumi

    2014-01-01

    An estimation procedure for biobased carbon content of polyethylene composite was studied using carbon-14 ((14)C) concentration ratios as measured by accelerated mass spectrometry (AMS). Prior to the measurement, additives and fillers in composites should be removed because they often contain a large amount of biobased carbon and may shift the estimation. Samples of resin with purity suitable for measurement were isolated from composites with a Soxhlet extractor using heated cyclohexanone. After cooling of extraction solutions, the resin was recovered as a fine semi-crystalline precipitate, which was easily filtered. Recovery rates were almost identical (99%), even for low-density polyethylene and linear low-density polyethylene, which may have lower crystallinity. This procedure could provide a suitable approach for estimation of biobased carbon content by AMS on the basis of the standard ASTM D 6866. The biobased carbon content for resin extracted from polyethylene composites allow for the calculation of biosynthetic polymer content, which is an indicator of mass percentage of the biobased plastic resin in the composite.

  7. Accelerator Technology and High Energy Physic Experiments, WILGA 2012; EuCARD Sessions

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, R S

    2012-01-01

    Wilga Sessions on HEP experiments, astroparticle physica and accelerator technology were organized under the umbrella of the EU FP7 Project EuCARD – European Coordination for Accelerator Research and Development. The paper is the second part (out of five) of the research survey of WILGA Symposium work, May 2012 Edition, concerned with accelerator technology and high energy physics experiments. It presents a digest of chosen technical work results shown by young researchers from different technical universities from this country during the XXXth Jubilee SPIE-IEEE Wilga 2012, May Edition, symposium on Photonics and Web Engineering. Topical tracks of the symposium embraced, among others, nanomaterials and nanotechnologies for photonics, sensory and nonlinear optical fibers, object oriented design of hardware, photonic metrology, optoelectronics and photonics applications, photonics-electronics co-design, optoelectronic and electronic systems for astronomy and high energy physics experiments, JET and pi-of-the ...

  8. Treatment of industrial effluents using electron beam accelerator and adsorption with activated carbon: a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Sampa, M.H. de E-mail: mhosampa@ipen.br; Rela, Paulo Roberto; Las Casas, Alexandre; Nunes Mori, Manoel; Lopes Duarte, Celina

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents preliminary results of a study that compares the use of electron beam processing and activated carbon adsorption to clean up a standardized organic aqueous solution and a real industrial effluent. The electron beam treatment was performed in a batch system using the IPEN's Electron Beam Accelerators from Radiation Dynamics Inc., Dynamitron 37.5 kW. The granular activated carbon removal treatment was performed using charcoal made from wood 'pinus'. If the adequate irradiation dose is delivered to the organic pollutant, it is possible to conclude for the studied compounds that the Electron Beam Process is similar to the activated carbon process in organic removal efficiency.

  9. The Analysis of Activated Carbon Regeneration Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚芳

    2014-01-01

    A series of methods for activated carbon regeneration were briefly introduced.Such as thermal regeneration,chemical regeneration,biochemical regeneration,and newly supercritical fluid regeneration, electrochemical regeneration,light-catalyzed regeneration,and microwave radiation method,and the developing trend of activated carbon regeneration was predicted.

  10. Overview of CERN Technology Transfer Strategy and Accelerator-Related Activities

    CERN Document Server

    Chesta, E; Wuensch, W; Sgobba, S; Stora, T; Chiggiato, P; Taborelli, M

    2013-01-01

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, is actively engaged in identifying technologies developed for its accelerator complex that could be profitably used by partner research organizations or commercial companies in applications with potentially high socio-economic impact beyond pure fundamental physics research. \

  11. Natural Gas Based Electricity Production and Low Carbon Technology Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concerns regarding air quality, global climate change, and the national energy security impacts of the intensive use of fossil fuels and their environmental impacts in the power generation sector have raised interest in alternative low carbon electricity generation technology and...

  12. Effect of accelerated carbonation and zero valent iron on metal leaching from bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, M; Andreas, L; Lagerkvist, A

    2016-05-01

    About 85% of the ashes produced in Sweden originated from the incineration of municipal solid waste and biofuel. The rest comes from the thermal treatment of recycled wood, peat, charcoal and others. About 68% of all ashes annually produced in Sweden are used for constructions on landfills, mainly slopes, roads and embankments, and only 3% for construction of roads and working surfaces outside the landfills (SCB, 2013). Since waste bottom ash (BA) often has similar properties to crushed bedrock or gravel, it could be used for road constructions to a larger extent. However, the leaching of e.g. Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb and Zn can cause a threat to the surrounding environment if the material is used as it is. Carbonation is a commonly used pre-treatment method, yet it is not always sufficient. As leaching from aged ash is often controlled by adsorption to iron oxides, increasing the number of Fe oxide sorption sites can be a way to control the leaching of several critical elements. The importance of iron oxides as sorption sites for metals is known from both mineralogical studies of bottom ash and from the remediation of contaminated soil, where iron is used as an amendment. In this study, zero valent iron (Fe(0)) was added prior to accelerated carbonation in order to increase the number of adsorption sites for metals and thereby reduce leaching. Batch, column and pHstat leaching tests were performed and the leaching behaviour was evaluated with multivariate data analysis. It showed that leaching changed distinctly after the tested treatments, in particular after the combined treatment. Especially, the leaching of Cr and Cu clearly decreased as a result of accelerated carbonation. The combination of accelerated carbonation with Fe(0) addition reduced the leaching of Cr and Cu even further and reduced also the leaching of Mo, Zn, Pb and Cd compared to untreated BA. Compared with only accelerated carbonation, the Fe(0) addition significantly reduced the leaching of Cr, Cu and Mo

  13. Potentiality of the composite fulleren based carbon films as the stripper foils for tandem accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Vasin, A V; Rusavsky, A V; Totsky, Y I; Vishnevski, I N

    2001-01-01

    The problem of the radiation resistance of the carbon stripper foils is considered. The short review of the experimental data available in literature and original experimental results of the are presented. In the paper discussed is the possibility of composite fulleren based carbon films to be used for preparation of the stripper foils. Some technological methods for preparation of composite fulleren based carbon films are proposed. Raman scattering and atom force microscopy were used for investigation of the fulleren and composite films deposited by evaporation of the C sub 6 sub 0 fulleren powder.

  14. Neutron data for accelerator-driven transmutation technologies. Annual Report 2002/2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomgren, J.; Hildebrand, A.; Mermod, P.; Olsson, N.; Pomp, S.; Oesterlund, M. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. for Neutron Research

    2003-08-01

    The project NATT, Neutron data for Accelerator-driven Transmutation Technology, is performed within the nuclear reactions group of the Department for neutron research, Uppsala university. The activities of the group is directed towards experimental studies of nuclear reaction probabilities of importance for various applications, like transmutation of nuclear waste, biomedical effects and electronics reliability. The experimental work is primarily undertaken at the The Svedberg Laboratory (TSL) in Uppsala, where the group has previously developed two world-unique instruments, MEDLEY and SCANDAL. Highlights from the past year: Analysis and documentation has been finalized of previously performed measurements of elastic neutron scattering from carbon and lead at 96 MeV. The precision in the results surpasses all previous data by at least an order of magnitude. These measurements represent the highest energy in neutron scattering where the ground state has been resolved. The results show that all previous theory work has underestimated the probability for neutron scattering at the present energy by 0-30 %. A new method for measurements of absolute probabilities for neutron-induced nuclear reactions with experimental techniques only has been developed. Previously, only two such methods have been known. One student has reached his PhD exam. Two PhD students have been accepted. TSL has decided to build a new neutron beam facility with significantly improved performance for these, and similar, activities. A new instrument for measurements of inelastic neutron scattering has been built, tested and found to meet the specifications. This work has been performed in collaboration with two French research groups from Caen and Nantes. The instrument is intended to be used for a series of experiments during the coming years. Previous work by the group on nuclear data for assessment of electronics reliability has lead to a new industry standard in the USA.

  15. Gel nanostructure in alkali-activated binders based on slag and fly ash, and effects of accelerated carbonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal, Susan A., E-mail: s.bernal@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Provis, John L., E-mail: j.provis@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Walkley, Brant; San Nicolas, Rackel [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Gehman, John D. [School of Chemistry and Bio21 Institute, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Brice, David G.; Kilcullen, Adam R. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Zeobond Pty Ltd, P.O. Box 23450, Docklands, Victoria 8012 (Australia); Duxson, Peter [Zeobond Pty Ltd, P.O. Box 23450, Docklands, Victoria 8012 (Australia); Deventer, Jannie S.J. van [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Zeobond Pty Ltd, P.O. Box 23450, Docklands, Victoria 8012 (Australia)

    2013-11-15

    Binders formed through alkali-activation of slags and fly ashes, including ‘fly ash geopolymers’, provide appealing properties as binders for low-emissions concrete production. However, the changes in pH and pore solution chemistry induced during accelerated carbonation testing provide unrealistically low predictions of in-service carbonation resistance. The aluminosilicate gel remaining in an alkali-activated slag system after accelerated carbonation is highly polymerised, consistent with a decalcification mechanism, while fly ash-based binders mainly carbonate through precipitation of alkali salts (bicarbonates at elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations, or carbonates under natural exposure) from the pore solution, with little change in the binder gel identifiable by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In activated fly ash/slag blends, two distinct gels (C–A–S–H and N–A–S–H) are formed; under accelerated carbonation, the N–A–S–H gel behaves comparably to fly ash-based systems, while the C–A–S–H gel is decalcified similarly to alkali-activated slag. This provides new scope for durability optimisation, and for developing appropriate testing methodologies. -- Highlights: •C-A-S-H gel in alkali-activated slag decalcifies during accelerated carbonation. •Alkali-activated fly ash gel changes much less under CO{sub 2} exposure. •Blended slag-fly ash binder contains two coexisting gel types. •These two gels respond differently to carbonation. •Understanding of carbonation mechanisms is essential in developing test methods.

  16. Carbon Dioxide Collection and Pressurization Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Reactive Innovations, LLC, proposes a Phase I SBIR program to develop a compact and lightweight electrochemical reactor to separate and pressurize carbon dioxide...

  17. Harnessing collaborative technology to accelerate achievement of chronic disease management objectives for Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Leslee J; Healey, Lindsay; Falk, Will

    2007-01-01

    Morgan and colleagues put forth a call to action for the transformation of the Canadian healthcare system through the adoption of a national chronic disease prevention and management (CDPM) strategy. They offer examples of best practices and national solutions including investment in clinical information technologies to help support improved care and outcomes. Although we acknowledge that the authors propose CDPM solutions that are headed in the right direction, more rapid deployment of solutions that harness the potential of advanced collaborative technologies is required. We provide examples of how technologies that exist today can help to accelerate the achievement of some key CDPM objectives.

  18. Accelerating net terrestrial carbon uptake during the warming hiatus due to reduced respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Ashley; Smith, William; Anderegg, William; Kauppi, Pekka; Sarmiento, Jorge; Tans, Pieter; Shevliakova, Elena; Pan, Yude; Poulter, Benjamin; Anav, Alessandro; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Houghton, Richard; Running, Steven

    2017-01-01

    The recent `warming hiatus' presents an excellent opportunity to investigate climate sensitivity of carbon cycle processes. Here we combine satellite and atmospheric observations to show that the rate of net biome productivity (NBP) has significantly accelerated from -0.007 +/- 0.065 PgC yr-2 over the warming period (1982 to 1998) to 0.119 +/- 0.071 PgC yr-2 over the warming hiatus (1998-2012). This acceleration in NBP is not due to increased primary productivity, but rather reduced respiration that is correlated (r = 0.58 P = 0.0007) and sensitive (γ = 4.05 to 9.40 PgC yr-1 per °C) to land temperatures. Global land models do not fully capture this apparent reduced respiration over the warming hiatus; however, an empirical model including soil temperature and moisture observations better captures the reduced respiration.

  19. Killing effect of Chinese hamster V79 cells exposed to accelerated carbon ions and RBE determination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Survival curves of Chinese hamster V79 cells exposed to accclerated carbon ions with linear energy transfers of 125.5, 200 and 700 keV/μm were measured, respectively. Inactivation cross sections corresponding to the irradiation above were deduced from the V79 cell survival curves. They are 7.86±0.17, 10.44±1.11 and 32.32±3.58 μm2 in turn. With the surviving response of V79 cells to 60Co γ-rays as a reference value, relative biological effectiveness at 10%, 20%, 50% and 80% survival levels were given for the accelerated carbon ions. The results showed that carbon ions with LET of 125.5 keV/μm had a higher value of RBE at all the four survival levels than the carbon ions with other LETs. It was prompted that the maximum value of RBE for the V79 cell surviving as the biological endpoint emerged at the LET below 200 keV/μm for carbon ions.

  20. Accelerated export of sediment and carbon from a landscape under intensive agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendell, M; Brazier, R E

    2014-04-01

    The export of total organic carbon (particulate and dissolved) from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems has important implications for water quality and the global carbon cycle. However, most research to date has focused on DOC losses from either forested or peaty catchments, with only limited studies examining the controls and rates of total fluvial carbon losses from agricultural catchments, particularly during storm events. This study examined the controls and fluxes of total suspended sediment (SS), total particulate (TPC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from two adjacent catchments with contrasting intensive agricultural and semi-natural land-use. Data from 35 individual storm events showed that the agricultural catchment exported significantly higher SS concentrations on a storm-by-storm basis than the semi-natural catchment, with peak discharge exerting a greater control over SS, TPC and DOC concentrations. Baseflow DOC concentrations in the agricultural catchment were significantly higher. DOC quality monitored during one simultaneous rainfall event differed between the two study catchments, with more humic, higher molecular weight compounds prevailing in the agricultural catchment and lower molecular weight compounds prevailing in the semi-natural catchment. During an eight month period for which a comparable continuous turbidity record was available, the estimated SS yields from the agricultural catchment were higher than from the semi-natural catchment. Further, the agricultural catchment exported proportionally more TPC and a comparable amount of DOC, despite a lower total soil carbon pool. These results suggest that altered hydrological and biogeochemical processes within the agricultural catchment, including accelerated soil erosion and soil organic matter turnover, contributed to an enhanced fluvial SS and carbon export. Thus, we argue that enhancing semi-natural vegetation within intensively farmed catchments could reduce sediment and carbon losses

  1. Densification mechanism of chemical vapor infiltration technology for carbon/carbon composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian-xun; XIONG Xiang; HUANG Qi-zhong; YI Mao-zhong; HUANG Bai-yun

    2007-01-01

    Carbon/carbon composites were fabricated using pressure-gradient chemical vapor infiltration(CVI) technology with propane (C3H6) as the carbon precursor gas and nitrogen (N2) as the carrier gas. The chemical process of deposition of pyrolytic carbon was deduced by analyzing the component of molecules in gas phase and observing the microstructure of deposition carbon. The results show that the process of deposition starts from the breakdown of C-C single bond of propene (C3H6), and forms two kinds of active groups in the heterogeneous gas phase reaction. Afterwards, these active groups form many stable bigger molecules and deposit on carbon fiber surface. At the same time, hydrogen atoms of the bigger molecules absorbed on carbon fiber surface are eliminated and the solid pyrolytic carbon matrix is formed in the heterogeneous reaction process.

  2. Carbon The Future Material for Advanced Technology Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Messina, Giacomo

    2006-01-01

    Carbon-based materials and their applications constitute a burgeoning topic of scientific research among scientists and engineers attracted from diverse areas such as applied physics, materials science, biology, mechanics, electronics and engineering. Further development of current materials, advances in their applications, and discovery of new forms of carbon are the themes addressed by the frontier research in these fields. This book covers all the fundamental topics concerned with amorphous and crystalline C-based materials, such as diamond, diamond-like carbon, carbon alloys, carbon nanotubes. The goal is, by coherently progressing from growth - and characterisation techniques to technological applications for each class of material, to fashion the first comprehensive state-of-the-art review of this fast evolving field of research in carbon materials.

  3. WILGA Photonics and Web Engineering, January 2012; EuCARD Sessions on HEP and Accelerator Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, R S

    2012-01-01

    Wilga Sessions on HEP experiments and accelerator technology were organized under the umbrella of the EU FP7 Project EuCARD – European Coordination for Accelerator Research and Development. The paper presents a digest of chosen technical work results shown by young researchers from technical universities during the SPIE-IEEE Wilga January 2012 Symposium on Photonics and Web Engineering. Topical tracks of the symposium embraced, among others, new technologies for photonics, sensory and nonlinear optical fibers, object oriented design of hardware, photonic metrology, optoelectronics and photonics applications, photonics-electronics co-design, optoelectronic and electronic systems for astronomy and high energy physics experiments, JET and pi-of-the sky experiments development. The symposium held two times a year is a summary in the development of numerable Ph.D. theses carried out in this country in the area of advanced electronic and photonic systems. It is also a great occasion for SPIE, IEEE, OSA and PSP st...

  4. Advanced technology for functionalization of carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lingjie Meng; Chuanlong Fu; Qinghua Lu

    2009-01-01

    Functionalization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has attracted considerable interest in the fields of physics, chemistry, material science and biology. The functionalized CNTs exhibit improved properties enabling facile fabrication of novel nanomaterials and nanodevices. Most of the functionalization approaches developed at present could be categorized into the covalent attachment of functional groups and the non-covalent adsorption of various functional molecules onto the surface of CNTs. This review highlights recent development and our work in functionalization of carbon nanotubes, leading to bio-compatible CNTs, fluorescent CNTs and transition metal func-tionalizcd CNTs. These novel methods possess advantages such as simplified technical procedures and reduced cost of novel nanoma-terials and nanodcvices fabrication.

  5. Carbon black dispersion pre-plating technology for printed wire board manufacturing. Final technology evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folsom, D.W.; Gavaskar, A.R.; Jones, J.A.; Olfenbuttel, R.F.

    1993-10-01

    The project compared chemical use, waste generation, cost, and product quality between electroless copper and carbon-black-based preplating technologies at the printed wire board (PWB) manufacturing facility of McCurdy Circuits in Orange, CA. The carbon-black based preplating technology evaluated is used as an alternative process for electroless copper (EC) plating of through-holes before electrolytic copper plating. The specific process used at McCurdy is the BlackHole (BH) technology process, which uses a dispersion of carbon black in an aqueous solution to provide a conductive surface for subsequent electrolytic copper plating. The carbon-black dispersion technology provided effective waste reduction and long-term cost savings. The economic analysis determined that the new process was cost efficient because chemical use was reduced and the process proved more efficient; the payback period was less than 4 yrs.

  6. Acceleration of carbon-13 spin-lattice relaxation times in amino acids by electrolytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Jinping; Yin Yingwu

    2004-01-01

    A series of amino acids and carboxylic acids were determined by 13C NMR spectroscopy.The results showed that addition of 3M MgCl2 led to the 13C NMR integral area of samples being well proportional to number of carbon atoms that produce the particular signal with reliability over 95%. Measurements of 13C spin-lattice relaxation times (T1's) are reported for a number of amino acids. T1's of all the carbons in amino acids generally tend to decrease with the increase of the concentration of electrolytes, and the presence of magnesium slats is of significant. Carboxylic carbons in amino acids are the most sensitive "acceptor" of the 13C spin-lattice relaxation accelerating effects in electrolytes, and the 13C spin-lattice relaxation accelerating ability of electrolytes is Mg(ClO4)2 >MgCl2 >CaCl2 >NaCl >KCl >LiClO4 >NaOH. In general, T1's of C1 carbons in nonpolar a-amino acids are higher than those in polar and basic a-amino acids both in aqueous and 3M MgCl2 medium. In aliphatic straight-chain amino acids, a-, a-, a-, ai- and a- amino acids, T1's of C1 carbons tend to reduce with the increase of inserted carbon numbers between amino and carboxylic groups compared with Gly. T1's can be decreased even more when amino acids are mixed in 3M MgCl2, but T1's of carbons in amino acids decrease slightly with increase of the concentration of amino acids in 3M MgCl2. The mechanisms of the observed phenomena are discussed in terms of intermolecular interaction and paramagnetic impurity in electrolytes, large contributions of intermolecular interaction which is enhanced in electrolytes concentrate on the incoming "unsaturation" of the primary solvation shell of cations with the increase of electrolytes concentration and complexes formation of amino acids with metal ions. In electrolytes, amino acids are "anchored" to cations and molecule tumbling is slowed down, molecular rigidity is increased and molecular size is "enlarged", all of these are helpful to accelerate

  7. Improved technology for manufacture of carbon electrodes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Platon; A Dumbrava; N Iutes-Petrescu; Luzia Simionescu

    2000-02-01

    Current industrial carbon electrodes are typically manufactured by blending petroleum coke particles (the filler) with molten coal tar pitch (the binder) and extruding the resultant mix to form the `green electrode’. This is then baked under controlled conditions. In case of usage as anodes in steel electric furnaces (or as other carbon and graphite products), the electrodes could undergo further processing like pitch impregnation or graphitization. During heat treatment, some of the organics are destructively distilled, vaporized or decomposed, resulting in carbon deposition in the electrode. As the vaporized materials exit the body of the electrode they cause porosity in the walls, which results in reduction in density, current carrying capacity and flexural strength. The paper presents investigations to improve some physico-chemical characteristics of these electrodes (such as coefficient of thermal expansion, mechanical strengths, density, pore volume, porosity etc.), obtained in different manufacture steps, by addition of varieties of coal tar pitch. These include attempts to improve the chemical compatibility of the coke-pitch system in the mixture and establish the method and the point of introduction of additive, the concentration required and appropriate analytical control during the entire manufacture. Methods of analysis used include thermogravimetry and porosimetry. The microstructure of the electrodes is investigated through a wide range and the data obtained include pore size and pore volume distribution, surface area, porosity, particle size distribution and type of pores. The overall results clearly indicate better characteristics and performance for electrodes with additives as against electrodes without them, such as lower porosity, lower thermal expansion coefficients and greater mechanical strength. These data are analyzed with respect to the process step and electrode type.

  8. Potential of the technological and chemical utilisation of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aresta, M. [Univ. Bari (Italy). Dip. di Chimica e Centro METEA

    1998-10-01

    The carbon dioxide mitigation has been agreed at international level. Besides the efficiency technologies, the recovery of CO{sub 2} from power-plants flue gases is a most innovative approach. This would make available large amounts of CO{sub 2}, either for disposal or for utilisation. The technological and chemical utilisation of carbon dioxide are options whose potential is under evaluation. The Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) study seems to be the most effective tool for their assessment. The two options are considered in this paper and the synthetic methodologies that appear as most likely to be implemented are analysed.

  9. Development of internal reforming carbonate fuel cell stack technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farooque, M.

    1990-10-01

    Activities under this contract focused on the development of a coal-fueled carbonate fuel cell system design and the stack technology consistent with the system design. The overall contract effort was divided into three phases. The first phase, completed in January 1988, provided carbonate fuel cell component scale-up from the 1ft{sup 2} size to the commercial 4ft{sup 2} size. The second phase of the program provided the coal-fueled carbonate fuel cell system (CGCFC) conceptual design and carried out initial research and development needs of the CGCFC system. The final phase of the program emphasized stack height scale-up and improvement of stack life. The results of the second and third phases are included in this report. Program activities under Phase 2 and 3 were designed to address several key development areas to prepare the carbonate fuel cell system, particularly the coal-fueled CFC power plant, for commercialization in late 1990's. The issues addressed include: Coal-Gas Related Considerations; Cell and Stack Technology Improvement; Carbonate Fuel Cell Stack Design Development; Stack Tests for Design Verification; Full-Size Stack Design; Test Facility Development; Carbonate Fuel Cell Stack Cost Assessment; and Coal-Fueled Carbonate Fuel Cell System Design. All the major program objectives in each of the topical areas were successfully achieved. This report is organized along the above-mentioned topical areas. Each topical area has been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  10. Technology Roadmap: Carbon Capture and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    As long as fossil fuels and carbon-intensive industries play dominant roles in our economies, carbon capture and storage (CCS) will remain a critical greenhouse gas reduction solution. This CCS roadmap aims at assisting governments and industry in integrating CCS in their emissions reduction strategies and in creating the conditions for scaled-up deployment of all three components of the CCS chain: CO2 capture, transport and storage. To get us onto the right pathway, this roadmap highlights seven key actions needed in the next seven years to create a solid foundation for deployment of CCS starting by 2020. IEA analysis shows that CCS is an integral part of any lowest-cost mitigation scenario where long-term global average temperature increases are limited to significantly less than 4 °C, particularly for 2 °C scenarios (2DS). In the 2DS, CCS is widely deployed in both power generation and industrial applications. The total CO2 capture and storage rate must grow from the tens of megatonnes of CO2 captured in 2013 to thousands of megatonnes of CO2 in 2050 in order to address the emissions reduction challenge. A total cumulative mass of approximately 120 GtCO2 would need to be captured and stored between 2015 and 2050, across all regions of the globe.

  11. Technologies for improved soil carbon management and environmental quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reicosky, D.C. [USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Morris, MN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The objective of this paper is to create an environmental awareness of and to provide insight into the future balance of environment and economic issues in developing new technologies that benefit the farmer, the public, and agricultural product sales. Agricultural impacts of tillage-induced CO{sub 2} losses are addressed along with new and existing technologies to minimize tillage-induced flow of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere, Emphasis is placed on the carbon cycle and the cost of environmental damage to illustrate the need for improved technologies leading to reduced environmental impacts by business ventures. New technologies and concepts related to methods of tillage and stover management for carbon sequestration with the agricultural production systems are presented. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  12. The Machine Protection System for the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jinyuan [Fermilab; Warner, Arden [Fermilab; Liu, Ning [Fermilab; Neswold, Richard [Fermilab; Carmichael, Linden [Fermilab

    2015-11-15

    The Machine Protection System (MPS) for the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology Facility (FAST) has been implemented and tested. The system receives signals from several subsystems and devices which conveys the relevant status needed to the safely operate the accelerator. Logic decisions are made based on these inputs and some predefined user settings which in turn controls the gate signal to the laser of the photo injector. The inputs of the system have a wide variety of signal types, encoding methods and urgencies for which the system is designed to accommodate. The MPS receives fast shutdown (FSD) signals generated by the beam loss system and inhibits the beam or reduces the beam intensity within a macropulse when the beam losses at several places along the accelerator beam line are higher than acceptable values. TTL or relay contact signals from the vacuum system, toroids, magnet systems etc., are chosen with polarities that ensure safe operation of the accelerator from unintended events such as cable disconnection in the harsh industrial environment of the experimental hall. A RS422 serial communication scheme is used to interface the operation permit generator module and a large number of movable devices each reporting multi-bit status. The system also supports operations at user defined lower beam levels for system conunissioning. The machine protection system is implemented with two commercially available off-the-shelf VMEbus based modules with on board FPGA devices. The system is monitored and controlled via the VMEbus by a single board CPU

  13. Catalytic acceleration of graphitisation of amorphous carbon during synthesis of tungsten carbide from tungsten and excess amorphous carbon in a solar furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shohoji, N. [Inst. Nacional de Engenharia e Tecnologia Industrial, Lisbon (Portugal); Guerra Rosa, L.; Cruz Fernandes, J. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001, Lisbon (Portugal); Martinez, D.; Rodriguez, J. [Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Centro Europeo de Ensayos de Energia Solar, Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, P.O. Box 22, 04200, Tabernas (Spain)

    1999-03-25

    Amorphous carbon is one of the allotropes of carbon possessing carbon activity a(C) higher than that of graphite (standard state with a(C) = 1). Amorphous carbon is in a metastable state but, under normal circumstances, it takes several hours to be graphitised to an extent detectable by X-ray diffraction even at temperature higher than 1500 C. In the present work, we report the accelerated graphitisation of amorphous carbon induced apparently by the catalytic action of tungsten (W) or tungsten carbide (WC) during synthesis of WC started from W and active carbon in solar furnace under controlled atmosphere (Ar or N{sub 2}). This degree of graphitisation of amorphous carbon did not proceed by the similar reaction undertaken in the traditional laboratory furnace under the comparable conditions. (orig.) 14 refs.

  14. Experimental Verifiction of the CLIC two beam Acceleration Technology in CTF3

    CERN Document Server

    Constance, B; Barranco, J; Corsini, R; Doebert, S; Dubrovskiy, A; Skowronski, P; Tecker, F; Farabolini, W; Persson, T; Lillestol, R; Ikarios, E; Jacewicz, M; Palaia, A; Ruber, R

    2013-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider international collaboration is pursuing an extensive R&D program towards a multi- TeV electron-positron collider. In particular, the development of two-beam acceleration technology is the focus of the CLIC test facility CTF3. In this paper we summarise the most recent results obtained at CTF3: the results of the studies on the drive beam generation are presented, the achieved two beam acceleration performance is reported and the measured breakdown rates and related observations are summarised. The stability of deceleration process performed over 12 subsequent modules and the comparison of the obtained results with the theoretical expectations are discussed. We also outline and discuss the future experimental program.

  15. Development of free electron laser and accelerator technology in Poland (CARE and EuCARD projects)

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2009-01-01

    The development of accelerator technology in Poland is strictly combined with the cooperation with specialist accelerator centers of global character, where the relevant knowledge is generated, allowing to build big and modern machines. These are relatively costly undertakings of interdisciplinary character. Most of them are financed from the local resources. Only the biggest machines are financed commonly by many nations like: LHC in CERN, ILC in Fermi Lab, E-XFEL in DESY. A similar financing solution has to be implemented in Poland, where a scientific and political campaign is underway on behalf of building two big machines, a Polish Synchrotron in Kraków and a Polish FEL in Świerk. Around these two projects, there are realized a dozen or so smaller ones.

  16. Development of accelerator technology in Poland, Impact of European CARE and EuCARD projects

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, R

    2008-01-01

    The development of accelerator technology in Poland is strictly combined with the cooperation with specialist accelerator centers of global character, where the relevant knowledge is generated, allowing to build big and modern machines. These are relatively costly undertakings of interdisciplinary character. Most of them are financed from the local resources. Only the biggest machines are financed commonly by many nations like: LHC in CERN, ILC in Fermi Lab, E-XFEL in DESY. A similar financing solution has to be implemented in Poland, where a scientific and political campaign is underway on behalf of building two big machines, a Polish Synchrotron in Kraków and a Polish FEL in Świerk. Around these two projects, there are realized a dozen or so smaller ones.

  17. Climate-change effects on soils: Accelerated weathering, soil carbon and elemental cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qafoku, Nikolla

    2015-04-01

    Climate change [i.e., high atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations (≥400 ppm); increasing air temperatures (2-4°C or greater); significant and/or abrupt changes in daily, seasonal, and inter-annual temperature; changes in the wet/dry cycles; intensive rainfall and/or heavy storms; extended periods of drought; extreme frost; heat waves and increased fire frequency] is and will significantly affect soil properties and fertility, water resources, food quantity and quality, and environmental quality. Biotic processes that consume atmospheric CO2, and create organic carbon (C) that is either reprocessed to CO2 or stored in soils are the subject of active current investigations, with great concern over the influence of climate change. In addition, abiotic C cycling and its influence on the inorganic C pool in soils is a fundamental global process in which acidic atmospheric CO2 participates in the weathering of carbonate and silicate minerals, ultimately delivering bicarbonate and Ca2+ or other cations that precipitate in the form of carbonates in soils or are transported to the rivers, lakes, and oceans. Soil responses to climate change will be complex, and there are many uncertainties and unresolved issues. The objective of the review is to initiate and further stimulate a discussion about some important and challenging aspects of climate-change effects on soils, such as accelerated weathering of soil minerals and resulting C and elemental fluxes in and out of soils, soil/geo-engineering methods used to increase C sequestration in soils, soil organic matter (SOM) protection, transformation and mineralization, and SOM temperature sensitivity. This review reports recent discoveries, identifies key research needs, and highlights opportunities offered by the climate-change effects on soils.

  18. Technology Roadmaps: Carbon Capture and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is an important part of the lowest-cost greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation portfolio. IEA analysis suggests that without CCS, overall costs to reduce emissions to 2005 levels by 2050 increase by 70%. This roadmap includes an ambitious CCS growth path in order to achieve this GHG mitigation potential, envisioning 100 projects globally by 2020 and over 3000 projects by 2050. This roadmap's level of project development requires an additional investment of over USD 2.5-3 trillion from 2010 to 2050, which is about 6% of the overall investment needed to achieve a 50% reduction in GHG emissions by 2050. OECD governments will need to increase funding for CCS demonstration projects to an average annual level of USD 3.5 to 4 billion (bn) from 2010 to 2020. In addition, mechanisms need to be established to incentivise commercialisation beyond 2020 in the form of mandates, GHG reduction incentives, tax rebates or other financing mechanisms.

  19. Geo-Spatial Technologies for Carbon Sequestration Monitoring and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Jeyanny

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Globally, the quantification of Carbon Sequestration (CS potential of various ecosystems is a challenge. There is an urgent need for technologies that can quantify CS potential cost-efficiently in a repeated and organized manner. Approach: Remote Sensing (RS and Geographic Information System (GIS have great potential in current estimation, future prediction and management of carbon sequestration potential in terrestrial ecosystems. This review discusses the current utilization of RS and GIS technologies in CS management in various sectors. Results: Deployment of RS and GIS for CS sequestration improves accuracy, reduces costs, increases productivity, and provides current observations from a regional scale. Conclusion: This review demonstrates the synergistic role of RS and GIS technologies in improving CS management.

  20. Endogenous Technological Progress with Uncertainty and Carbon Abatement Polices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, G.L. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-11-01

    Most greenhouse gas abatement policy models tend to neglect a potentially important element that is relevant to the induced technology changes(ITC). These models that incorporate technological change treat such a change as autonomous, that is, unaffected by changes in prices brought about by policy reforms. However, climate change policies can create economic incentives to engage in more extensive R and D oriented toward the discovery of new production techniques that mitigate a reliance on convectional fuels, ultimately resulting in impacts on the policies themselves. In order to investigate the significance of induced technology for the attractiveness of abatement policies, this study develop the multi-sectoral dynamic CGE model by incorporating two characteristics of technological progress: the endogenous growth model with externality of technology in Romer (1986) and Lucas(1988) and the technological changes resulting from profit maximizing investment in R and D in Rebelo(1991) and Jones and Manuelli(1990). Furthermore, technological progress is affected by not only the economical factors but also the political and institutional system that cannot be captured in this model. This study considers such uncertainty in the technological progress as technology shock as in RBC school. This study shows that the presence of ITC implies lower costs of achieving a given abatement target in terms of the reduction cost per ton of carbon and GDP losses. The presence of ITC reduces the GDP losses by 0.9%p{approx}1.5%p compared with the absence of the ITC. As the abatement target is substantially high, R and D is reduced significantly even in the presence of ITC. Therefore, it is necessary to seriously consider the tax recycling for enhancing R and D investment, which minimizes the GDP losses. The reduction cost is highly sensitive to the uncertainty in technological progress. The technology shock leads the reduction cost to widely vary, in terms of standard deviation, 3

  1. Simulation of Cascaded Longitudinal-Space-Charge Amplifier at the Fermilab Accelerator Science & Technology (Fast) Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halavanau, A. [Northern Illinois U.; Piot, P. [Northern Illinois U.

    2015-12-01

    Cascaded Longitudinal Space Charge Amplifiers (LSCA) have been proposed as a mechanism to generate density modulation over a board spectral range. The scheme has been recently demonstrated in the optical regime and has confirmed the production of broadband optical radiation. In this paper we investigate, via numerical simulations, the performance of a cascaded LSCA beamline at the Fermilab Accelerator Science & Technology (FAST) facility to produce broadband ultraviolet radiation. Our studies are carried out using elegant with included tree-based grid-less space charge algorithm.

  2. A Study on Accelerated Thermal Aging of High Modulus Carbon/Epoxy Composite Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Min Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite materials have been used increasingly for various space applications due to the favorable characteristic of high modulus to density ratio and potential for near-zero coefficient of thermal expansion. In composite system, depending on the orientation of fibers, strength and stiffness can be changed so that the optimum structure can be accomplished. This is because the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE of carbon fibers is negative. For spacecraft and orbiting space structure, which are thermally cycled by moving through the earth' shadow for at least 5 years, it is necessary to investigate the change of properties of the material over time. In this study, thermal aging of epoxy matrix/high modulus carbon fiber composite materials are accelerated to predict the long term creep property. Specimens are tested at various temperatures of 100~140°C with dynamic mechanical analysis to obtain creep compliances that are functions of time and temperature. Using Time Temperature Superposition method, creep compliance curves at each temperature are shifted to the reference temperature by shift factor and a master curve is generated at the reference temperature. This information is useful to predict the long term thermal aging of high modulus composite material for spacecraft application.

  3. Carbon Capture in the Cement Industry: Technologies, Progress, and Retrofitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Thomas; Leeson, Duncan; Florin, Nicholas; Fennell, Paul

    2016-01-05

    Several different carbon-capture technologies have been proposed for use in the cement industry. This paper reviews their attributes, the progress that has been made toward their commercialization, and the major challenges facing their retrofitting to existing cement plants. A technology readiness level (TRL) scale for carbon capture in the cement industry is developed. For application at cement plants, partial oxy-fuel combustion, amine scrubbing, and calcium looping are the most developed (TRL 6 being the pilot system demonstrated in relevant environment), followed by direct capture (TRL 4-5 being the component and system validation at lab-scale in a relevant environment) and full oxy-fuel combustion (TRL 4 being the component and system validation at lab-scale in a lab environment). Our review suggests that advancing to TRL 7 (demonstration in plant environment) seems to be a challenge for the industry, representing a major step up from TRL 6. The important attributes that a cement plant must have to be "carbon-capture ready" for each capture technology selection is evaluated. Common requirements are space around the preheater and precalciner section, access to CO2 transport infrastructure, and a retrofittable preheater tower. Evidence from the electricity generation sector suggests that carbon capture readiness is not always cost-effective. The similar durations of cement-plant renovation and capture-plant construction suggests that synchronizing these two actions may save considerable time and money.

  4. Reducing Students' Carbon Footprints Using Personal Carbon Footprint Management System Based on Environmental Behavioural Theory and Persuasive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shyh-ming

    2016-01-01

    This study applied environmental behavioural theories to develop a personal carbon footprint management system and used persuasive technology to implement it. The system serves as an educational system to improve the determinants of students' low-carbon behaviours, to promote low-carbon concepts and to facilitate their carbon management. To assess…

  5. Fabrication Technologies of the High Gradient Accelerator Structures at 100MV/M Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Juwen; /SLAC; Lewandowski, James; /SLAC; Van Pelt, John; /SLAC; Yoneda, Charles; /SLAC; Gudkov, Boris; /CERN; Riddone, Germana; /CERN; Higo, Toshiyasu; /KEK, Tsukuba; Takatomi, Toshikazu; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2012-07-03

    A CERN-SLAC-KEK collaboration on high gradient X-band structure research has been established in order to demonstrate the feasibility of the CLIC baseline design for the main linac stably operating at more than 100 MV/m loaded accelerating gradient. Several prototype CLIC structures were successfully fabricated and high power tested. They operated at 105 MV/m with a breakdown rate that meets the CLIC linear collider specifications of < 5 x 10{sup -7}/pulse/m. This paper summarizes the fabrication technologies including the mechanical design, precision machining, chemical cleaning, diffusion bonding as well as vacuum baking and all related assembly technologies. Also, the tolerances control, tuning and RF characterization will be discussed.

  6. Biased HiPIMS technology for superconducting rf accelerating cavities coating

    CERN Document Server

    G. Rosaz, G.; Sonato, D.; Calatroni, S.; Ehiasarian, A.; Junginger, T.; Taborelli, M.

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years the interest of the thin film science and technology community on High Impulse Power Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS) coatings has steadily increased. HIPIMS literature shows that better thin film morphology, denser and smoother films can be achieved when compared with standard dc Magnetron Sputtering (dcMS) coating technology. Furthermore the capability of HIPIMS to produce a high quantity of ionized species can allow conformal coatings also for complex geometries. CERN already studied the possibility to use such a coating method for SRF accelerating cavities. Results are promising but not better from a RF point of view than dcMS coatings. Thanks to these results the next step is to go towards a biased HiPIMS approach. However the geometry of the cavities leads to complex changes in the coating setup in order to apply a bias voltage. Coating system tweaking and first superconducting properties of biased samples are presented.

  7. Nanosecond pulse-width electron diode based on dielectric wall accelerator technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Quantang, E-mail: zhaoquantang@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Z.M.; Yuan, P.; Cao, S.C.; Shen, X.K.; Jing, Y. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yu, C.S. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Z.P.; Liu, M.; Xiao, R.Q. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zong, Y.; Wang, Y.R. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhao, H.W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2013-11-21

    An electron diode using a short section of dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) has been under development at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences. Tests have been carried out with spark gap switches triggered by lasers. The stack voltage efficiency of a four-layer of Blumleins reached about 60–70% with gas filled spark gap switching. The generated pulse voltage of peak amplitude of 23 kV and pulse width of 5 ns is used to extract and accelerate an electron beam of 320 mA, measured by a fast current transformer. A nanosecond pulse width electron diode was achieved successfully. Furthermore, the principle of a DWA is well proven and the development details and discussions are presented in this article. -- Highlights: •The key technology of DWA, including switches and pulse forming lines were studied. •The SiC PCSS obtained from Shanghai Institute were tested. •Two layers ZIP lines (new structure) and four layers Blumlein lines were studied with laser triggered spark gap switches. •A nanosecond pulse-width electron diode based on DWA technologies is achieved and studied experimentally. •The principle of DWA is also proved by the diode.

  8. Accelerator Science and Technology Breakthroughs, Achievements and Lessons from the Tevatron

    CERN Document Server

    Shiltsev, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    For almost a quarter of a century, the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider was the centerpiece of the world's high energy physics program - beginning operation in December of 1985 until it was overtaken by LHC in 2011. The aim of this unique scientific instrument was to explore the elementary particle physics reactions with center of mass collision energies of up to 1.96 TeV. The initial design luminosity of the Tevatron was 1030cm-2s-1, however as a result of two decades of upgrades, the accelerator has been able to deliver 430 times higher luminosities to each of two high luminosity experiments, CDF and D0. The Tevatron will be shut off September 30, 2011. The collider was arguably one of the most complex research instruments ever to reach the operation stage and is widely recognized for many technological breakthroughs and numerous physics discoveries. In this John Adams lecture, I briefly present the history of the Tevatron, major advances in accelerator physics, and technology implemented during the long...

  9. Technology Roadmaps: Carbon Capture and Storage in Industrial Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    A new technology roadmap on Carbon Capture and Storage in Industrial Applications, released today in Beijing, shows that carbon capture and storage (CCS) has the potential to reduce CO2 emissions from industrial applications by 4 gigatonnes in 2050. Such an amount is equal to roughly one-tenth of the total emission cuts needed from the energy sector by the middle of the century. This requires a rapid deployment of CCS technologies in various industrial sectors, and across both OECD and non-OECD countries. The roadmap, a joint report from the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), says that over 1800 industrial-scale projects are required over the next 40 years.

  10. Possibilities and Challenges designing low-carbon-energy technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Araceli

    Footprint, concepts and tools from Life Cycle Assessment, and relevant elements from eco-efficiency theoretical frameworks. Often systemic approaches tend to be driven by completely rational models. However, our main contribution is to consider a more holistic approach that also includes socio......Though there is broad consensus that one of the solutions to the current environmental challenge will be based on the use of low-carbon technologies, and even though there is a big potential to turn to a more sustainable design and innovation, there are several elements that need to be taken...... as a study object and discusses the question: What are the main possibilities and challenges when designing low-carbon illumination technologies? To answer this question, we use a systemic approach including environmental, economic, energy and political issues using relevant concepts from the Ecological...

  11. Area- and energy-efficient CORDIC accelerators in deep sub-micron CMOS technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnoi, U.; Noll, T. G.

    2012-09-01

    The COordinate Rotate DIgital Computer (CORDIC) algorithm is a well known versatile approach and is widely applied in today's SoCs for especially but not restricted to digital communications. Dedicated CORDIC blocks can be implemented in deep sub-micron CMOS technologies at very low area and energy costs and are attractive to be used as hardware accelerators for Application Specific Instruction Processors (ASIPs). Thereby, overcoming the well known energy vs. flexibility conflict. Optimizing Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers to reduce the hardware complexity is an important research topic at present. In such receivers CORDIC accelerators can be used for digital baseband processing (fixed-point) and in Position-Velocity-Time estimation (floating-point). A micro architecture well suited to such applications is presented. This architecture is parameterized according to the wordlengths as well as the number of iterations and can be easily extended for floating point data format. Moreover, area can be traded for throughput by partially or even fully unrolling the iterations, whereby the degree of pipelining is organized with one CORDIC iteration per cycle. From the architectural description, the macro layout can be generated fully automatically using an in-house datapath generator tool. Since the adders and shifters play an important role in optimizing the CORDIC block, they must be carefully optimized for high area and energy efficiency in the underlying technology. So, for this purpose carry-select adders and logarithmic shifters have been chosen. Device dimensioning was automatically optimized with respect to dynamic and static power, area and performance using the in-house tool. The fully sequential CORDIC block for fixed-point digital baseband processing features a wordlength of 16 bits, requires 5232 transistors, which is implemented in a 40-nm CMOS technology and occupies a silicon area of 1560 μm2 only. Maximum clock frequency from circuit

  12. Flattening filter-free accelerators: a report from the AAPM Therapy Emerging Technology Assessment Work Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ying; Kry, Stephen F; Popple, Richard; Yorke, Ellen; Papanikolaou, Niko; Stathakis, Sotirios; Xia, Ping; Huq, Saiful; Bayouth, John; Galvin, James; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2015-05-08

    This report describes the current state of flattening filter-free (FFF) radiotherapy beams implemented on conventional linear accelerators, and is aimed primarily at practicing medical physicists. The Therapy Emerging Technology Assessment Work Group of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) formed a writing group to assess FFF technology. The published literature on FFF technology was reviewed, along with technical specifications provided by vendors. Based on this information, supplemented by the clinical experience of the group members, consensus guidelines and recommendations for implementation of FFF technology were developed. Areas in need of further investigation were identified. Removing the flattening filter increases beam intensity, especially near the central axis. Increased intensity reduces treatment time, especially for high-dose stereotactic radiotherapy/radiosurgery (SRT/SRS). Furthermore, removing the flattening filter reduces out-of-field dose and improves beam modeling accuracy. FFF beams are advantageous for small field (e.g., SRS) treatments and are appropriate for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). For conventional 3D radiotherapy of large targets, FFF beams may be disadvantageous compared to flattened beams because of the heterogeneity of FFF beam across the target (unless modulation is employed). For any application, the nonflat beam characteristics and substantially higher dose rates require consideration during the commissioning and quality assurance processes relative to flattened beams, and the appropriate clinical use of the technology needs to be identified. Consideration also needs to be given to these unique characteristics when undertaking facility planning. Several areas still warrant further research and development. Recommendations pertinent to FFF technology, including acceptance testing, commissioning, quality assurance, radiation safety, and facility planning, are presented. Examples of clinical

  13. Corrosion behaviour of steel during accelerated carbonation of solutions which simulate the pore concrete solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso, C.

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the numerous studies carried out on carbonation of the concrete, very few data have been published on the mechanism of steel depassivation and the corrosion rates involved in this type of phenomenon. Also some uncertainties remain as to the chemical composition of the pore solution of a carbonated concrete. Random behaviours related with the changes in the corrosion rate of steel during accelerated carbonation of cement mortars have suggested the need to study the process in a more simple medium which allows the isolation of the different parameters. Thus, saturated Ca(0H2 -base solutions with different additions of KOH and NaOH have been used to simulate the real pore concrete solution. In the present work, simultaneous changes in the pH value, corrosion potential and corrosion rate (measured by means of the determination of the Polarization Resistance of steel roads have been monitored during accelerated carbonation produced by a constant flux through the solution of CO2 gas and/or air.

    A pesar de los numerosos estudios realizados en torno a la carbonatación del hormigón, son muy pocos los datos publicados acerca del mecanismo de despasivación del acero y las velocidades de corrosión implicadas en el proceso de corrosión por carbonatación. Por otra parte, aún no se conoce la composición de la fase acuosa de un hormigón carbonatado. Cierta erraticidad en los cambios registrados en la velocidad de corrosión del acero durante la carbonatación acelerada de morteros de cemento, puso de manifiesto la necesidad del estudio del proceso en un sistema simplificado que permitiera considerar aisladamente cada uno de los distintos parámetros. A este fin se utilizaron como disoluciones de simulación de la fase acuosa intersticial del hormigón, disoluciones saturadas de Ca(0H2 con distintas adiciones de NaOH o KOH. En el presente trabajo, se han registrado simultáneamente los cambios en

  14. Economic innovation and efficiency gains as the driving force for accelerating carbon dioxide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, T. J.

    2012-12-01

    It is normally assumed that gains in energy efficiency are one of the best routes that society has available to it for stabilizing future carbon dioxide emissions. For a given degree of economic productivity less energy is consumed and a smaller quantity of fossil fuels is required. While certainly this observation is true in the instant, it ignores feedbacks in the economic system such that efficiency gains ultimately lead to greater energy consumption: taken as a global whole, they permit civilization to accelerate its expansion into the energy reserves that sustain it. Here this argument is formalized from a general thermodynamic perspective. The core result is that there exists a fixed, time-independent link between a very general representation of global inflation-adjusted economic wealth (units currency) and civilization's total capacity to consume power (units energy per time). Based on 40 years of available statistics covering more than a tripling of global GDP and a doubling of wealth, this constant has a value of 7.1 +/- 0.01 Watts per one thousand 2005 US dollars. Essentially, wealth is power. Civilization grows by dissipating power in order to sustain all its current activities and to incorporate more raw material into its existing structure. Growth of its structure is related to economic production, so more energy efficient economic production facilitates growth. Growth is into the reserves that sustain civilization, in which case there is a positive feedback in the economic system whereby energy efficiency gains ultimately "backfire" if their intended purpose is to reduce energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. The analogy that can be made is to a growing child: a healthy child who efficiently incorporates food into her structure grows quickly and is able to consume more in following years. Economically, an argument is made that, for a range of reasons, there are good reasons to refer to efficiency gains as economic "innovation", both for

  15. Low Secondary Electron Yield Carbon Coatings for Electron Cloud Mitigation in Modern Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Yin Vallgren, Christina; Taborelli, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    In order to upgrade the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) performance to be oriented towards higher energies and higher intensities in the future, a series of improvements of the existing LHC injectors is planned to take place over the next few years. Electron cloud effects are expected to be enhanced and play a central role in limiting the performance of the machines of the CERN complex. Electron cloud phenomena in beam pipes are based on electron multiplication and can be sufficiently suppressed if the Secondary Electron Yield (SEY) of the surface of the beam pipes is lower than unity. The goal of this work is to find and study a thin film coating with reliably low initial Secondary Electron Yield (SEY), which does not require bake-out or conditioning in situ with photons, is robust again air exposure and can easily be applied in the beam pipes of accelerators. In this work, amorphous carbon (a-C) thin films have been prepared by DC magnetron sputtering for electron cloud mitigation and antimultipactor applicatio...

  16. Evaluation of High Energy Nuclear Data of Importance for Use in Accelerator and Space Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Ouk

    2005-10-15

    New evaluation were performed for neutron- and proton-induced reactions for energies up to 250 400 MeV on C-12, N-14, O-16, Al-27, Si-28, Ca-40, Ar-40, Fe-54,58, Ni-64, Cu-63,65, Zr-90, Pb-208, Th-232, U-233,234,236, and Cm-243246. The evaluated results are then applied to the accelerator and space technology. A set of optical model parameters were optimized by searching a number of adjustable coefficients with the Simulated Annealing(SA) method for the spherical nuclei. A parameterization of the empirical formula was proposed to describe the proton-nucleus non-elastic cross sections of high-priority elements for space shielding purpose for proton energies from reaction threshold up to 400 MeV, which was then implemented into the fast scoping space shielding code CHARGE, based on the results of the optical model analysis utilizing up-to-date measurements. For proton energies up to 400 MeV covering most of the incident spectrum for trapped protons and solar energetic particle events, energy-angle spectra of secondary neutrons produced from the proton-induced neutron production reaction were prepared. The evaluated cross section set was applied to the thick target yield (TTY) and promp radiation benchmarks for the accelerator shielding. As for the assessment of the radiological impact of the accelerator to the environment, relevant nuclear reaction cross sections for the activation of the air were recommended among the author's evaluations and existing library based on the available measurements.

  17. Ultracompact Accelerator Technology for a Next-Generation Gamma-Ray Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, R A; Albert, F; Anderson, S G; Gibson, D J; Wu, S S; Hartemann, F V; Barty, C J

    2012-05-14

    This presentation reported on the technology choices and progress manufacturing and testing the injector and accelerator of the 250 MeV ultra-compact Compton Scattering gamma-ray Source under development at LLNL for homeland security applications. This paper summarizes the status of various facets of current accelerator activities at LLNL. The major components for the X-band test station have been designed, fabricated, and await installation. The XL-4 klystron has been delivered, and will shortly be dressed and installed in the ScandiNova modulator. High power testing of the klystron into RF loads will follow, including adjustment of the modulator for the klystron load as necessary. Assembly of RF transport, test station supports, and accelerator components will follow. Commissioning will focus on processing the RF gun to full operating power, which corresponds to 200 MV/m peak electric field on the cathode surface. Single bunch benchmarking of the Mark 1 design will provide confidence that this first structure operates as designed, and will serve as a solid starting point for subsequent changes, such as a removable photocathode, and the use of various cathode materials for enhanced quantum efficiency. Charge scaling experiments will follow, partly to confirm predictions, as well as to identify important causes of emittance growth, and their scaling with charge. Multi-bunch operation will conclude testing of the Mark 1 RF gun, and allow verification of code predictions, direct measurement of bunch-to-bunch effects, and initial implementation compensation mechanisms. Modeling will continue and focus on supporting the commissioning and experimental program, as well as seeking to improve all facets of linac produced Compton gamma-rays.

  18. Amine reclaiming technologies in post-combustion carbon dioxide capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tielin; Hovland, Jon; Jens, Klaus J

    2015-01-01

    Amine scrubbing is the most developed technology for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture. Degradation of amine solvents due to the presence of high levels of oxygen and other impurities in flue gas causes increasing costs and deterioration in long term performance, and therefore purification of the solvents is needed to overcome these problems. This review presents the reclaiming of amine solvents used for post combustion CO2 capture (PCC). Thermal reclaiming, ion exchange, and electrodialysis, although principally developed for sour gas sweetening, have also been tested for CO2 capture from flue gas. The three technologies all have their strengths and weaknesses, and further development is needed to reduce energy usage and costs. An expected future trend for amine reclamation is to focus on process integration of the current reclaiming technologies into the PCC process in order to drive down costs.

  19. Toward high-performance digital logic technology with carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulevski, George S; Franklin, Aaron D; Frank, David; Lobez, Jose M; Cao, Qing; Park, Hongsik; Afzali, Ali; Han, Shu-Jen; Hannon, James B; Haensch, Wilfried

    2014-09-23

    The slow-down in traditional silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) scaling (Moore's law) has created an opportunity for a disruptive innovation to bring the semiconductor industry into a postsilicon era. Due to their ultrathin body and ballistic transport, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have the intrinsic transport and scaling properties to usher in this new era. The remaining challenges are largely materials-related and include obtaining purity levels suitable for logic technology, placement of CNTs at very tight (∼5 nm) pitch to allow for density scaling and source/drain contact scaling. This review examines the potential performance advantages of a CNT-based computing technology, outlines the remaining challenges, and describes the recent progress on these fronts. Although overcoming these issues will be challenging and will require a large, sustained effort from both industry and academia, the recent progress in the field is a cause for optimism that these materials can have an impact on future technologies.

  20. Amine reclaiming technologies in post-combustion carbon dioxide capture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tielin Wang; Jon Hovland; KlauS J.Jens

    2015-01-01

    Amine scrubbing is the most developed technology for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture.Degradation of amine solvents due to the presence of high levels of oxygen and other impurities in flue gas causes increasing costs and deterioration in long term performance,and therefore purification of the solvents is needed to overcome these problems.This review presents the reclaiming of amine solvents used for post combustion CO2 capture (PCC).Thermal reclaiming,ion exchange,and electrodialysis,although principally developed for sour gas sweetening,have also been tested for CO2 capture from flue gas.The three technologies all have their strengths and weaknesses,and further development is needed to reduce energy usage and costs.An expected future trend for amine reclamation is to focus on process integration of the current reclaiming technologies into the PCC process in order to drive down costs.

  1. A new type of accelerator power supply based on voltage-type space vector PWM rectification technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Fengjun, E-mail: wufengjun@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Gao, Daqing; Shi, Chunfeng; Huang, Yuzhen [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Cui, Yuan [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yan, Hongbin [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, Huajian [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Bin [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Xiaohui [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-08-01

    To solve the problems such as low input power factor, a large number of AC current harmonics and instable DC bus voltage due to the diode or thyristor rectifier used in an accelerator power supply, particularly in the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou-Cooler Storage Ring (HIRFL-CSR), we designed and built up a new type of accelerator power supply prototype base on voltage-type space vector PWM (SVPWM) rectification technology. All the control strategies are developed in TMS320C28346, which is a digital signal processor from TI. The experimental results indicate that an accelerator power supply with a SVPWM rectifier can solve the problems above well, and the output performance such as stability, tracking error and ripple current meet the requirements of the design. The achievement of prototype confirms that applying voltage-type SVPWM rectification technology in an accelerator power supply is feasible; and it provides a good reference for design and build of this new type of power supply. - Highlights: • Applying SVPWM rectification technology in an accelerator power supply improves its grid-side performance. • New Topology and its control strategies make an accelerator power supply have bidirectional power flow ability. • Hardware and software of controller provide a good reference for design of this new type of power supply.

  2. High brightness gamma-ray production at Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalcea, D.; Jacobson, B.; Murokh, A.; Piot, P.; Ruan, J.

    2017-03-01

    Electron beams with energies of the order of a few 100's of MeV and low transverse emittance, in combination with powerful infrared lasers, allow for the production of high quality gamma rays through Inverse Compton Scattering (ICS). At Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility, a 300 MeV beam will be used to generate gamma rays with maximum photon energies of up to ˜1.5 MeV and brightness of the order of 1021 photons/[s-(mm-mrad)2- 0.1%BW]. Due to the low electron-beam transverse emittance, the relative bandwidth of the scattered radiation is expected to be ≤ 1%. A key challenge toward the production of high radiation dose and brightness is to enhance the energy of the infrared 3 ps laser pulses to the joule level. In this contribution, we present the plans for the experimental setup, along with comprehensive numerical simulations of the ICS process.

  3. Accelerating the commercialization of university technologies for military healthcare applications: the role of the proof of concept process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Rosibel; DeLong, Hal; Kenyon, Jessica; Wilson, Eli

    2011-06-01

    The von Liebig Center for Entrepreneurism and Technology Advancement at UC San Diego (vonliebig.ucsd.edu) is focused on accelerating technology transfer and commercialization through programs and education on entrepreneurism. Technology Acceleration Projects (TAPs) that offer pre-venture grants and extensive mentoring on technology commercialization are a key component of its model which has been developed over the past ten years with the support of a grant from the von Liebig Foundation. In 2010, the von Liebig Entrepreneurism Center partnered with the U.S. Army Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center (TATRC), to develop a regional model of Technology Acceleration Program initially focused on military research to be deployed across the nation to increase awareness of military medical needs and to accelerate the commercialization of novel technologies to treat the patient. Participants to these challenges are multi-disciplinary teams of graduate students and faculty in engineering, medicine and business representing universities and research institutes in a region, selected via a competitive process, who receive commercialization assistance and funding grants to support translation of their research discoveries into products or services. To validate this model, a pilot program focused on commercialization of wireless healthcare technologies targeting campuses in Southern California has been conducted with the additional support of Qualcomm, Inc. Three projects representing three different universities in Southern California were selected out of forty five applications from ten different universities and research institutes. Over the next twelve months, these teams will conduct proof of concept studies, technology development and preliminary market research to determine the commercial feasibility of their technologies. This first regional program will help build the needed tools and processes to adapt and replicate this model across other regions in the

  4. Free standing diamond-like carbon thin films by PLD for laser based electrons/protons acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thema, F.T.; Beukes, P.; Ngom, B.D. [UNESCO Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West, 7129, PO Box722, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Manikandan, E., E-mail: mani@tlabs.ac.za [UNESCO Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West, 7129, PO Box722, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Central Research Laboratory, Sree Balaji Medical College & Hospital (SBMCH), Chrompet, Bharath University, Chennai, 600044 (India); Maaza, M., E-mail: maaza@tlabs.ac.za [UNESCO Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West, 7129, PO Box722, Western Cape Province (South Africa)

    2015-11-05

    This study we reports for the first time on the synthesis and optical characteristics of free standing diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) onto graphene buffer layers for ultrahigh intensity laser based electron/proton acceleration applications. The fingerprint techniques of micro-Raman, UV–VIS–NIR and the IR spectroscopic investigations indicate that the suitability of such free standing DLC thin-films within the laser window and long wave infrared (LWIR) spectral range and hence their appropriateness for the targeted applications. - Highlights: • We report for the first time synthesis of free standing diamond-like carbon. • Pulsed laser deposition onto graphene buffer layers. • Fingerprint techniques of micro-Raman, UV–VIS–NIR and the IR spectroscopic investigations. • Ultrahigh intensity laser based electron/proton acceleration applications. • This material's suitable for the laser window and long wave infrared (LWIR) spectral range.

  5. Accelerating Value Creation with Accelerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Eythor Ivar

    2015-01-01

    accelerator programs. Microsoft runs accelerators in seven different countries. Accelerators have grown out of the infancy stage and are now an accepted approach to develop new ventures based on cutting-edge technology like the internet of things, mobile technology, big data and virtual reality. It is also...... with the traditional audit and legal universes and industries are examples of emerging potentials both from a research and business point of view to exploit and explore further. The accelerator approach may therefore be an Idea Watch to consider, no matter which industry you are in, because in essence accelerators...

  6. Particle Accelerators in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuang; Fang, Shouxian

    As the special machines that can accelerate charged particle beams to high energy by using electromagnetic fields, particle accelerators have been widely applied in scientific research and various areas of society. The development of particle accelerators in China started in the early 1950s. After a brief review of the history of accelerators, this article describes in the following sections: particle colliders, heavy-ion accelerators, high-intensity proton accelerators, accelerator-based light sources, pulsed power accelerators, small scale accelerators, accelerators for applications, accelerator technology development and advanced accelerator concepts. The prospects of particle accelerators in China are also presented.

  7. Accelerated carbonation using municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash and cold-rolling wastewater: Performance evaluation and reaction kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, E-E; Pan, Shu-Yuan; Yang, Liuhanzi; Chen, Yi-Hung; Kim, Hyunook; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2015-09-01

    Accelerated carbonation of alkaline wastes including municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWI-BA) and the cold-rolling wastewater (CRW) was investigated for carbon dioxide (CO2) fixation under different operating conditions, i.e., reaction time, CO2 concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, particle size, and CO2 flow rate. The MSWI-BA before and after carbonation process were analyzed by the thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The MSWI-BA exhibits a high carbonation conversion of 90.7%, corresponding to a CO2 fixation capacity of 102g perkg of ash. Meanwhile, the carbonation kinetics was evaluated by the shrinking core model. In addition, the effect of different operating parameters on carbonation conversion of MSWI-BA was statistically evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM) using experimental data to predict the maximum carbonation conversion. Furthermore, the amount of CO2 reduction and energy consumption for operating the proposed process in refuse incinerator were estimated. Capsule abstract: CO2 fixation process by alkaline wastes including bottom ash and cold-rolling wastewater was developed, which should be a viable method due to high conversion.

  8. Accelerated carbonation using municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash and cold-rolling wastewater: Performance evaluation and reaction kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, E-E [Department of Biochemistry, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wu-Hsing Street, Taipei City, Taiwan 110, Taiwan, ROC (China); Pan, Shu-Yuan [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71 Chou-Shan Rd., Taipei City, Taiwan 10673, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yang, Liuhanzi [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Haidin District, Beijing 100084 (China); Chen, Yi-Hung [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, 1, Sec. 3, Zhongxiao E. Rd., Taipei City, Taiwan 10608, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kim, Hyunook [Department of Energy and Environmental System Engineering, University of Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chiang, Pen-Chi, E-mail: pcchiang@ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71 Chou-Shan Rd., Taipei City, Taiwan 10673, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Carbonation was performed using CO{sub 2}, wastewater and bottom ash in a slurry reactor. • A maximum capture capacity of 102 g CO{sub 2} per kg BA was achieved at mild conditions. • A maximum carbonation conversion of MSWI-BA was predicted to be 95% by RSM. • The CO{sub 2} emission from Bali incinerator could be expected to reduce by 6480 ton/y. • The process energy consumption per ton CO{sub 2} captured was estimated to be 180 kW h. - Abstract: Accelerated carbonation of alkaline wastes including municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWI-BA) and the cold-rolling wastewater (CRW) was investigated for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) fixation under different operating conditions, i.e., reaction time, CO{sub 2} concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, particle size, and CO{sub 2} flow rate. The MSWI-BA before and after carbonation process were analyzed by the thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The MSWI-BA exhibits a high carbonation conversion of 90.7%, corresponding to a CO{sub 2} fixation capacity of 102 g per kg of ash. Meanwhile, the carbonation kinetics was evaluated by the shrinking core model. In addition, the effect of different operating parameters on carbonation conversion of MSWI-BA was statistically evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM) using experimental data to predict the maximum carbonation conversion. Furthermore, the amount of CO{sub 2} reduction and energy consumption for operating the proposed process in refuse incinerator were estimated. Capsule abstract: CO{sub 2} fixation process by alkaline wastes including bottom ash and cold-rolling wastewater was developed, which should be a viable method due to high conversion.

  9. Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends report is the authoritative reference for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions,...

  10. Technology Roadmap: Low-Carbon Technology for the Indian Cement Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    The Indian cement industry is one of the most efficient in the world. Its efforts to reduce its carbon footprint by adopting the best available technologies and environmental practices are reflected in the achievement of reducing total CO2 emissions to an industrial average of 0.719 tCO2/t cement in 2010 from a substantially higher level of 1.12 tCO2/t cement in 1996. However, because the manufacturing process relies on the burning of limestone, it still produced 137 MtCO2 in 2010 – approximately 7% of India’s total man-made CO2 emissions. Yet opportunity for improvement exists, particularly in relation to five key levers that can contribute to emissions reductions: alternative fuel and raw materials; energy efficiency; clinker substitution; waste heat recovery and newer technologies. This roadmap sets out one pathway by which the Indian cement industry can reach its targets to improve energy efficiency and reduce CO2 emissions by 2050, thereby laying the foundation for low-carbon growth in the years beyond. The Technology Roadmap: Low-Carbon Technology for the Indian Cement Industry builds on the global IEA technology roadmap for the cement sector developed by the IEA and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development’s Cement Sustainability Initiative. It outlines a possible transition path for the Indian cement industry to reduce its direct CO2 emissions intensity to 0.35 tCO2/t cement and support the global goal of halving CO2 emissions by 2050.

  11. Molten carbonate fuel cell technology improvement. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-06-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under Department of Energy Contract DEAC21-87MC23270, ``Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Technology Improvement.`` This work was conducted over a three year period and consisted of three major efforts. The first major effort was the power plant system study which reviewed the competitive requirements for a coal gasifier/molten carbonate fuel cell power plant, produced a conceptual design of a CG/MCFC, and defined the technology development requirements. This effort is discussed in Section 1 of the report. The second major effort involved the design and development of a new MCFC cell configuration which reduced the material content of the cell to a level competitive with competing power plants, simplified the cell configuration to make the components more manufacturable and adaptable to continuous low cost processing techniques, and introduced new-low-pressure drop flow fields for both reactant gases. The new flow fields permitted the incorporation of recirculation systems in both reactant gas systems, permitting simplified cooling techniques and the ability to operate on both natural gas and a wide variety of gasifier fuels. This cell technology improvement is discussed in Section 2. The third major effort involved the scaleup of the new cell configuration to the full-area, 8-sq-ft size and resulted in components used for a 25-kW, 20-cell stack verification test. The verification test was completed with a run of 2200 hours, exceeding the goal of 2000 hours and verifying the new cell design. TWs test, in turn, provided the confidence to proceed to a 100-kW demonstration which is the goal of the subsequent DOE program. The scaleup and stack verification tests are discussed in Sections 3, 4, 5, and 6 of this report.

  12. AN INTEGRATED MODELING FRAMEWORK FOR CARBON MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anand B. Rao; Edward S. Rubin; Michael B. Berkenpas

    2004-03-01

    CO{sub 2} capture and storage (CCS) is gaining widespread interest as a potential method to control greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel sources, especially electric power plants. Commercial applications of CO{sub 2} separation and capture technologies are found in a number of industrial process operations worldwide. Many of these capture technologies also are applicable to fossil fuel power plants, although applications to large-scale power generation remain to be demonstrated. This report describes the development of a generalized modeling framework to assess alternative CO{sub 2} capture and storage options in the context of multi-pollutant control requirements for fossil fuel power plants. The focus of the report is on post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture using amine-based absorption systems at pulverized coal-fired plants, which are the most prevalent technology used for power generation today. The modeling framework builds on the previously developed Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM). The expanded version with carbon sequestration is designated as IECM-cs. The expanded modeling capability also includes natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plants and integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems as well as pulverized coal (PC) plants. This report presents details of the performance and cost models developed for an amine-based CO{sub 2} capture system, representing the baseline of current commercial technology. The key uncertainties and variability in process design, performance and cost parameters which influence the overall cost of carbon mitigation also are characterized. The new performance and cost models for CO{sub 2} capture systems have been integrated into the IECM-cs, along with models to estimate CO{sub 2} transport and storage costs. The CO{sub 2} control system also interacts with other emission control technologies such as flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems for SO{sub 2} control. The integrated model is applied to

  13. Taking Control of Castleman Disease: Leveraging Precision Medicine Technologies to Accelerate Rare Disease Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Samantha Kass; Jayanthan, Raj K; Mitchell, Grant W; Carreras Tartak, Jossie A; Croglio, Michael P; Suarez, Alexander; Liu, Amy Y; Razzo, Beatrice M; Oyeniran, Enny; Ruth, Jason R; Fajgenbaum, David C

    2015-12-01

    Castleman disease (CD) is a rare and heterogeneous disorder characterized by lymphadenopathy that may occur in a single lymph node (unicentric) or multiple lymph nodes (multicentric), the latter typically occurring secondary to excessive proinflammatory hypercytokinemia. While a cohort of multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) cases are caused by Human Herpes Virus-8 (HHV-8), the etiology of HHV-8 negative, idiopathic MCD (iMCD), remains unknown. Breakthroughs in "omics" technologies that have facilitated the development of precision medicine hold promise for elucidating disease pathogenesis and identifying novel therapies for iMCD. However, in order to leverage precision medicine approaches in rare diseases like CD, stakeholders need to overcome several challenges. To address these challenges, the Castleman Disease Collaborative Network (CDCN) was founded in 2012. In the past 3 years, the CDCN has worked to transform the understanding of the pathogenesis of CD, funded and initiated genomics and proteomics research, and united international experts in a collaborative effort to accelerate progress for CD patients. The CDCN's collaborative structure leverages the tools of precision medicine and serves as a model for both scientific discovery and advancing patient care.

  14. High Brightness Gamma-Ray Production at Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihalcea, Daniel [Northern Illinois U.; Jacobson, B. [RadiaBeam Tech.; Murokh, A. [RadiaBeam Tech.; Piiot, P. [Northern Illinois U.; Ruan, J. [Fermilab

    2016-10-10

    Electron beams with energies of the order of a few 100’s of MeV and low transverse emittance, in combination with powerful infrared lasers, allow for the production of high quality gamma rays through Inverse Compton Scattering (ICS). At Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility, a 300 MeV beam will be used to generate gamma rays with maximum photon energies of up to ∼ 1.5 MeV and brightness of the order of 1021 photons/[s-(mm-mrad)2- 0.1%BW]. Due to the low electron-beam transverse emittance, the relative bandwidth of the scattered radiation is expected to be ≤ 1%. A key challenge toward the production of high radiation dose and brightness is to enhance the energy of the infrared 3 ps laser pulses to the joule level. In this contribution, we present the plans for the experimental setup, along with comprehensive numerical simulations of the ICS process.

  15. Neutron data for accelerator-driven transmutation technologies. Annual Report 2003/2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomgren, J.; Hildebrand, A.; Nilsson, L.; Mermod, P.; Olsson, N.; Pomp, S.; Oesterlund, M. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. for Neutron Research

    2004-08-01

    The project NATT, Neutron data for Accelerator-driven Transmutation Technology, is performed within the nuclear reactions group of the Dept. of Neutron Research, Uppsala univ. The activities of the group are directed towards experimental studies of nuclear reaction probabilities of importance for various applications, like transmutation of nuclear waste, biomedical effects and electronics reliability. The experimental work is primarily undertaken at the The Svedberg Laboratory (TSL) in Uppsala, where the group has previously developed two world-unique instruments, MEDLEY and SCANDAL. Highlights from the past year: Analysis and documentation has been finalized of previously performed measurements of elastic neutron scattering from hydrogen at 96 MeV. The results corroborate the normalization of previously obtained data at TSL, which have been under debate. This is of importance since this reaction serves as reference for many other measurements. Compelling evidence of the existence of three-body forces in nuclei has been obtained. Within the project, one PhD exam and one licentiate exam has been awarded. One PhD exam and one licentiate exam has been awarded for work closely related to the project. A new neutron beam facility with significantly improved performance has been built and commissioned at TSL.

  16. NON-SCALING FIXED FIELD GRADIENT ACCELERATOR (FFAG) DESIGN FOR THE PROTON AND CARBON THERAPY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TRBOJEVIC, D.; KEIL, E.; SESSLER, A.

    2005-06-05

    The non-scaling Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG-from now on) accelerator provides few advantages with respect to the other fixed field accelerators like CYCLOTRONS or scaling-FFAG's. One of the advantages is smaller required aperture due to small orbit offsets during acceleration. The large and heavy magnets are avoided. The beam is very well controlled in a strong focusing regime. This concept has been extensively investigated during the last eight FFAG workshops in Japan, USA, Canada, and CERN in Europe.

  17. Desalination of Saline and Brackish Waters using Carbon Aerogel Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Massoudinejad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Background and Objectives: The increasing demand for drinking water has led scientists to the use of saline waters, but existing desalinating processes are very expensive. carbon aerogel is a type of organic aerogel that is suitable for desalination owing to its unique porous structure. Low potential of fouling and deposits, very low wastewater production, electrostatic regeneration of aerogels and, in turn, no need to acid consumption, and lower power consumption are some of this technology benefits.Materials and Method: In this experimental- analytical study, the purpose was survey of saline and brackish water desalination using carbon aerogel technology and its comparison with electrolysis.The community studied was synthetic salt water samples, using of TDS and EC indicators. The minimum synthetic samples were 243. In this regard, after polymerization of Resorsinol and Formaldehyde compounds under ambient pressure conditions and then its pyrolysis, we fabricated plates of carbon aerogel.Result: With manufacturing in the pilot-scale, the effect of different parameters, including input salt concentration, current, water flow, distance of between electrodes and pH, on NaCl sorption amount of carbon aerogel electrodes were studied. Generally, adsorption amount increased with increasing of current and NaCl concentration and decreased with increasing of distance electrodes, flow and pH.  Results: Fabricating reactor at pilot-scale, we studied the effect of different parameters, including input salt concentration, current, water flow, intra-distance of electrodes, and pH on the NaCl sorption using carbon aerogel electrodes. Generally, adsorption capacity increased with increasing of current and NaCl concentration in the inlet flow, and it decreased with increasing intra-distance of electrodes, flow, and pH.Conclusion: Under the most optimal

  18. An Accelerated Test Method of Simultaneous Carbonation and Chloride Ion Ingress: Durability of Silica Fume Concrete in Severe Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Ghahari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of simultaneous carbonation and chloride ion attack on mechanical characteristics and durability of concrete containing silica fume have been investigated through an accelerated test method. Specimens containing different amounts of silica fume were maintained in an apparatus in which carbon dioxide pressure and concentration and relative humidity were kept constant, and wetting and drying cycles in saline water were applied. Surface resistivity, sorptivity, CO2 consumption, and carbonation and chloride ion ingress depths measurements were taken. Phase change due to carbonation and chloride ion attack was monitored by XRD analysis, and microstructures and interfacial transition zones were studied by implementing SEM as well as mercury intrusion porosimetry. It was expected to have a synergistic effect in the tidal zone where simultaneous carbonation and chloride ion attack happen. However, the observed reduced surface resistivity, compared to specimens maintained in CO2 gas, could be due to the moisture that is available near the surface, hindering CO2 from penetrating into the pores of the specimens. Moreover, the porosity analysis of the specimens showed that the sample containing silica fume cured in the tidal zone had 50.1% less total porosity than the plain cement paste cured in the same condition.

  19. Let dependence of cell death, mutation induction and chromatin damage in human cells irradiated with accelerated carbon ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, M.; Watanabe, M.; Kanai, T.; Kase, Y.; Yatagai, F.; Kato, T.; Matsubara, S.

    We investigated the LET dependence of cell death, mutation induction and chromatin break induction in human embryo (HE) cells irradiated by accelerated carbon-ion beams. The results showed that cell death, mutation induction and induction of non-rejoining chromatin breaks detected by the premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique had the same LET dependence. Carbon ions of 110 to 124keV/mum were the most effective at all endpoints. However, the number of initially induced chromatin breaks was independent of LET. About 10 to 15 chromatin breaks per Gy per cell were induced in the LET range of 22 to 230 keV/mum. The deletion pattern of exons in the HPRT locus, analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), was LET-specific. Almost all the mutants induced by 124 keV/mum carbon-ion beams showed deletion of the entire gene, while all mutants induced by 230keV/mum carbon-ion beams showed no deletion. These results suggest that the difference in the density distribution of carbon-ion track and secondary electron with various LET is responsible for the LET dependency of biological effects.

  20. EVALUATION OF SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE SOLVENT IN SPRAY COATING APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This evaluation, part of the Pollution Prevention Clean Technology Demonstration (CTD) Program, addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues of spray paint application using supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2). Anion Carbide has developed this technology and...

  1. High energy physics advisory panel`s composite subpanel for the assessment of the status of accelerator physics and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    In November 1994, Dr. Martha Krebs, Director of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Research (OER), initiated a broad assessment of the current status and promise of the field of accelerator physics and technology with respect to five OER programs -- High Energy Physics, Nuclear Physics, Basic Energy Sciences, Fusion Energy, and Health and Environmental Research. Dr. Krebs asked the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel (HEPAP) to establish a composite subpanel with representation from the five OER advisory committees and with a balance of membership drawn broadly from both the accelerator community and from those scientific disciplines associated with the OER programs. The Subpanel was also charged to provide recommendations and guidance on appropriate future research and development needs, management issues, and funding requirements. The Subpanel finds that accelerator science and technology is a vital and intellectually exciting field. It has provided essential capabilities for the DOE/OER research programs with an enormous impact on the nation`s scientific research, and it has significantly enhanced the nation`s biomedical and industrial capabilities. Further progress in this field promises to open new possibilities for the scientific goals of the OER programs and to further benefit the nation. Sustained support of forefront accelerator research and development by the DOE`s OER programs and the DOE`s predecessor agencies has been responsible for much of this impact on research. This report documents these contributions to the DOE energy research mission and to the nation.

  2. Towards a novel laser-driven method of exotic nuclei extraction-acceleration for fundamental physics and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Nishio, Katsuhisa; Orlandi, Riccard; Sako, Hiroyuki; Pikuz, Tatiana A; Faenov, Anatory Ya; Esirkepov, Timur Zh; Pirozhkov, Alexander S; Matsukawa, Kenya; Sagisaka, Akito; Ogura, Koichi; Kanasaki, Masato; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Fukuda, Yuji; Koura, Hiroyuki; Kando, Masaki; Yamauchi, Tomoya; Watanabe, Yukinobu; Bulanov, Sergei V; Kondo, Kiminori; Imai, Kenichi; Nagamiya, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of properties of exotic nuclei, essential for fundamental nuclear physics, now confronts a formidable challenge for contemporary radiofrequency accelerator technology. A promising option can be found in the combination of state-of-the-art high-intensity short pulse laser system and nuclear measurement techniques. We propose a novel Laser-driven Exotic Nuclei extraction-acceleration method (LENex): a femtosecond petawatt laser, irradiating a target bombarded by an external ion beam, extracts from the target and accelerates to few GeV highly-charged nuclear reaction products. Here a proof-of-principle experiment of LENex is presented: a few hundred-terawatt laser focused onto an aluminum foil, with a small amount of iron simulating nuclear reaction products, extracts almost fully stripped iron nuclei and accelerate them up to 0.9 GeV. Our experiments and numerical simulations show that short-lived, heavy exotic nuclei, with a much larger charge-to-mass ratio than in conventional technology, can ...

  3. A new type of accelerator power supply based on voltage-type space vector PWM rectification technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fengjun; Gao, Daqing; Shi, Chunfeng; Huang, Yuzhen; Cui, Yuan; Yan, Hongbin; Zhang, Huajian; Wang, Bin; Li, Xiaohui

    2016-08-01

    To solve the problems such as low input power factor, a large number of AC current harmonics and instable DC bus voltage due to the diode or thyristor rectifier used in an accelerator power supply, particularly in the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou-Cooler Storage Ring (HIRFL-CSR), we designed and built up a new type of accelerator power supply prototype base on voltage-type space vector PWM (SVPWM) rectification technology. All the control strategies are developed in TMS320C28346, which is a digital signal processor from TI. The experimental results indicate that an accelerator power supply with a SVPWM rectifier can solve the problems above well, and the output performance such as stability, tracking error and ripple current meet the requirements of the design. The achievement of prototype confirms that applying voltage-type SVPWM rectification technology in an accelerator power supply is feasible; and it provides a good reference for design and build of this new type of power supply.

  4. 16 October 2012 - Norwegian University of Science and Technology Rector Digernes in the ATLAS visitor centre with Senior Norwegian S. Stapnes and J. Vigen; signing the guest book with Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jacques Fichet

    2012-01-01

    16 October 2012 - Norwegian University of Science and Technology Rector Digernes in the ATLAS visitor centre with Senior Norwegian S. Stapnes and J. Vigen; signing the guest book with Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers.

  5. Designing and Demonstrating a Master Student Project to Explore Carbon Dioxide Capture Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asherman, Florine; Cabot, Gilles; Crua, Cyril; Estel, Lionel; Gagnepain, Charlotte; Lecerf, Thibault; Ledoux, Alain; Leveneur, Sebastien; Lucereau, Marie; Maucorps, Sarah; Ragot, Melanie; Syrykh, Julie; Vige, Manon

    2016-01-01

    The rise in carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) concentration in the Earth's atmosphere, and the associated strengthening of the greenhouse effect, requires the development of low carbon technologies. New carbon capture processes are being developed to remove CO[subscript 2] that would otherwise be emitted from industrial processes and fossil fuel…

  6. Ocean acidification accelerates net calcium carbonate loss in a coral rubble community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubler, Amber D.; Peterson, Bradley J.

    2016-09-01

    Coral rubble communities are an important yet often overlooked component of a healthy reef ecosystem. The organisms inhabiting reef rubble are primarily bioeroders that contribute to the breakdown and dissolution of carbonate material. While the effects of ocean acidification on calcifying communities have been well studied, there are few studies investigating the response of bioeroding communities to future changes in pH and calcium carbonate saturation state. Using a flow-through pH-stat system, coral rubble pieces with a naturally occurring suite of organisms, along with bleached control rubble pieces, were subjected to three different levels of acidification over an 8-week period. Rates of net carbonate loss in bleached control rubble doubled in the acidification treatments (0.02 vs. 0.04% CaCO3 d-1 in ambient vs. moderate and high acidification), and living rubble communities experienced significantly increased rates of net carbonate loss from ambient to high acidification conditions (0.06 vs. 0.10% CaCO3 d-1, respectively). Although more experimentation is necessary to understand the long-term response and succession of coral rubble communities under projected conditions, these results suggest that rates of carbonate loss will increase in coral rubble as pH and calcium carbonate saturation states are reduced. This study demonstrates a need to thoroughly investigate the contribution of coral rubble to the overall carbonate budget, reef resilience, recovery, and function under future conditions.

  7. Institute a modest carbon tax to reduce carbon emissions, finance clean energy technology development, cut taxes, and reduce the deficit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muro, Mark; Rothwell, Jonathan

    2012-11-15

    The nation should institute a modest carbon tax in order to help clean up the economy and stabilize the nation’s finances. Specifically, Congress and the president should implement a $20 per ton, steadily increasing carbon excise fee that would discourage carbon dioxide emissions while shifting taxation onto pollution, financing energy efficiency (EE) and clean technology development, and providing opportunities to cut taxes or reduce the deficit. The net effect of these policies would be to curb harmful carbon emissions, improve the nation’s balance sheet, and stimulate job-creation and economic renewal.

  8. Carbon dioxide enrichment alters plant community structure and accelerates shrub growth in the shortgrass steppe

    OpenAIRE

    Jack A Morgan; Milchunas, Daniel G.; LeCain, Daniel R.; West, Mark; MOSIER, ARVIN R.

    2007-01-01

    A hypothesis has been advanced that the incursion of woody plants into world grasslands over the past two centuries has been driven in part by increasing carbon dioxide concentration, [CO2], in Earth's atmosphere. Unlike the warm season forage grasses they are displacing, woody plants have a photosynthetic metabolism and carbon allocation patterns that are responsive to CO2, and many have tap roots that are more effective than grasses for reaching deep soil water stores that can be enhanced u...

  9. Carbon Nanotubes Technology for Removal of Arsenic from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Naghizadeh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Please cite this article as: Naghizadeh A, Yari AR, Tashauoei HR, Mahdavi M, Derakhshani E, Rahimi R, Bahmani P. Carbon nanotubes technology for removal of arsenic from water. Arch Hyg Sci 2012;1(1:6-11. Aims of the Study: This study was aimed to investigate the adsorption mechanism of the arsenic removal from water by using carbon nanotubes in continuous adsorption column. Materials & Methods: Independent variables including carbon nanotubes dosage, contact time and breakthrough point were carried out to determine the influence of these parameters on the adsorption capacity of the arsenic from water. Results: Adsorption capacities of single wall and multiwall carbon nanotubes were about 148 mg/g and 95 mg/g respectively. The experimental data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and equilibrium data indicate the best fit obtained with Langmuir isotherm model. Conclusions: Carbon nanotubes can be considered as a promising adsorbent for the removal of arsenic from large volume of aqueous solutions. References: 1. Lomaquahu ES, Smith AH. Feasibility of new epidemiology studies on arsenic exposures at low levels. AWWA Inorganic Contaminants Workshop. San Antonio; 1998. 2. Burkel RS, Stoll RC. Naturally occurring arsenic in sandstone aquifer water supply wells of North Eastern Wisconsin. Ground Water Monit Remediat 1999;19(2:114-21. 3. Mondal P, Majumder CB, Mohanty B. Laboratory based approaches for arsenic remediation from contaminated water: recent developments. J Hazard Mater 2006;137(1: 464-79. 4. Meenakshi RCM. Arsenic removal from water: a review. Asian J Water Environ Pollut 2006;3(1:133-9. 5. Wickramasinghe SR, Binbing H, Zimbron J, Shen Z, Karim MN. Arsenic removal by coagulation and filtration: comparison of ground waters from United States and Bangladesh. Desalination 2004;169:231-44. 6. Hossain MF. Arsenic contamination in Bangladesh-an overview. Agric Ecosyst Environ 2006;113(1-4:1-16. 7. USEPA, Arsenic. Final

  10. Electrochemical Acceleration of Carbonate and Silicate Weathering for CO2 Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, G. H.; Carroll, S.

    2011-12-01

    Carbonate and many silicate minerals dissolve in strong acids, and such acids are commonly generated at the anode of a conventional saline water electrolysis cell. It was therefore reasoned that encasing such an anode with base minerals would lead to enhanced mineral dissolution and hence increased hydroxide (base) generation at the cathode, formed in course of splitting water, generating H2 and OH-. Subsequent exposue of the alkalized solution to CO2 (e.g., as in air) would lead to absorption of the CO2 and formation of stable dissolved or solid (bi)carbonates for carbon sequestration. Previously, it has been demonstrated that mineral carbonate encasement of a seawater electrolysis cell anode indeed generated basic solutions in excess of pH 9 that were subsequently neutralized via contact with air CO2, increasing the carbon content of the initial seawater by 30% (Rau, G.H. 2008. Environ Sci. Techol. 42, 8935-). To test such a weathering/CO2 capture scheme using silicate minerals, either powdered wollastonite or ultramafic rock standard (UM-4) was encased around the anode of an electrolysis cell composed of graphite electrodes and a 0.25M Na2SO4 electrolyte solution. After 0.5 to 1.5 hrs of electricity application (3.5Vdc, 5-10mA), the electrolyte pH rose to as much as 11.1 (initial and blank solution pH's electrolysis times and/or alternative electrolyte solutions might allow formation and precipitation of Ca or Mg carbonates. Such electrochemistry might ultimately provide a safe, efficient way to harness the planet's: i) large, off-peak or off-grid renewable electricity potential, ii) abundant basic minerals, and iii) vast natural brine electrolytes for large-scale air CO2 mitigation and carbon-negative H2 production.

  11. Tailoring hierarchically porous graphene architecture by carbon nanotube to accelerate extracellular electron transfer of anodic biofilm in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Long; Qiao, Yan; Wu, Xiao-Shuai; Li, Chang Ming

    2016-10-01

    To overcoming their respective shortcomings of graphene and carbon nanotube, a hierarchically porous multi-walled carbon nanotube@reduced graphene oxide (MWCNT@rGO) hybrid is fabricated through a versatile and scalable solvent method, in which the architecture is tailored by inserting MWCNTs as scaffolds into the rGO skeleton. An appropriate amount of inserted 1-D MWCNTs not only effectively prevent the aggregation of rGO sheets but also act as bridges to increase multidirectional connections between 2-D rGO sheets, resulting in a 3-D hierarchically porous structure with large surface area and excellent biocompatibility for rich bacterial biofilm and high electron transfer rate. The MWCNT@rGO1:2/biofilm anode delivers a maximum power density of 789 mW m-2 in Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 microbial fuel cells, which is much higher than that of individual MWCNT and rGO, in particular, 6-folder higher than that of conventional carbon cloth. The great enhancement is ascribed to a synergistic effect of the integrated biofilm and hierarchically porous structure of MWCNT@rGO1:2/biofilm anode, in which the biofilm provides a large amount of bacterial cells to raise the concentration of local electron shuttles for accelerating the direct electrochemistry on the 3-D hierarchically porous structured anodes.

  12. Chemical technologies for exploiting and recycling carbon dioxide into the value chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Martina; Köhler, Burkhard; Kuckshinrichs, Wilhelm; Leitner, Walter; Markewitz, Peter; Müller, Thomas E

    2011-09-19

    While experts in various fields discuss the potential of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies, the utilization of carbon dioxide as chemical feedstock is also attracting renewed and rapidly growing interest. These approaches do not compete; rather, they are complementary: CCS aims to capture and store huge quantities of carbon dioxide, while the chemical exploitation of carbon dioxide aims to generate value and develop better and more-efficient processes from a limited part of the waste stream. Provided that the overall carbon footprint for the carbon dioxide-based process chain is competitive with conventional chemical production and that the reaction with the carbon dioxide molecule is enabled by the use of appropriate catalysts, carbon dioxide can be a promising carbon source with practically unlimited availability for a range of industrially relevant products. In addition, it can be used as a versatile processing fluid based on its remarkable physicochemical properties.

  13. Application of Java Technology to Simulation of Transient Effects in Accelerator Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Superconducting magnets are one of the key building blocks of modern high-energy particle accelerators. Operating at extremely low temperatures (1.9 K), superconducting magnets produce high magnetic field needed to control the trajectory of beams travelling at nearly the speed of light. With high performance comes considerable complexity represented by several coupled physical domains characterized by multi-rate and multi-scale behaviour. The full exploitation of the LHC, as well as the design of its upgrades and future accelerators calls for more accurate simulations. With such a long-term vision in mind, the STEAM (Simulation of Transient Effects in Accelerator Magnets) project has been establish and is based on two pillars: (i) models developed with optimised solvers for particular sub-problems, (ii) coupling interfaces allowing to exchange information between the models. In order to tackle these challenges and develop a maintainable and extendable simulation framework, a team of developers implemented a ...

  14. PREFACE: International Symposium on Vacuum Science & Technology and its Application for Accelerators (IVS 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, V. S.; Pal, Gautam

    2012-11-01

    The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970 to promote vacuum science and technology in academic, industrial and R&D institutions in India. IVS is a member society of the International Union for Vacuum Science, Technique and Applications (IUVSTA). It has organized International and national symposia, short term courses and workshops on different aspects of Vacuum Science and Technology at regular intervals. So far 27 National symposia, 4 International Symposia and 47 courses have been organized at various locations in India. There has been an active participation from R&D establishments, universities and Indian industries during all these events. In view of the current global situation and emerging trends in vacuum technology, the executive committee of the IVS suggested to us that we organize an International Symposium at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata from 15-17 February 2012. At the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre we have a large number of high vacuum systems used in the K130 Cyclotron and K500 Superconducting Cyclotron. Also a large cryogenic system using LHe plant is in operation for cryopanels and a superconducting magnet for K-500 Cyclotron. The main areas covered at the symposium were the production and measurement of vacuums, leak detection, design and development of large vacuum systems, vacuum metallurgy, vacuum materials and the application of high vacuums in cyclotrons, LINACS and other accelerators. This symposium provided an opportunity for interaction between active researchers and technologists and allowed them to review the current situation, report recent experimental results, share the available expertise and consider the future R&D efforts needed in this area. Keeping the industrial significance of vacuum technology in mind, an exhibition of the vacuum related equipment, accessories, products etc by various suppliers and manufactures was organized alongside the symposium. Participation by a large number of exhibitors

  15. EuCARD and CARE - development of accelerator technology in Poland

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2009-01-01

    EuCARD (2009-1013) and CARE (2004-2008) are examples of big European R&D projects for building integrated accelerator infrastructures in Europe. Several research teams from a number of European countries are participating in this consolidated effort. Here we summarize the tasks done by some teams from Poland on a more general background.

  16. Accelerating the commercialization on new technologies. [free market operation of federal alternate energy sources programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, T. J.; Nawrocki, P. M.

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that federal programs for hastening the adoption of alternative energy sources must operate within the free market structure. Five phases of the free market commercialization process are described. Federal role possibilities include information dissemination and funding to stimulate private sector activities within these five phases, and federally sponsored procedures for accelerating commercialization of solar thermal small power systems are considered.

  17. Development of molten-carbonate fuel-cell technology. Final report, February-December 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The objective of the work was to focus on the basic technology for producing molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) components. This included the development and fabrication of stable anode structures, preparation of lithiated nickel oxide cathodes, synthesis and characterization of a high surface area (gamma-lithium-aluminate) electrolyte support, pressurized cell testing and modeling of the overall electrolyte distribution within a cell to aid performance optimization of the different cell components. The electrode development program is highlighted by two successful 5000 hour bench-scale tests using stabilized anode structures. One of these provided better performance than in any previous state-of-the-art, bench-scale cell (865 mV at 115 mA/cm/sup 2/ under standard conditions). Pressurized testing at 10 atmosphere of a similar stabilized, high surface area, Ni/Co anode structure in a 300 cm/sup 2/ cell showed that the 160 mA/cm/sup 2/ performance goal of 850 mV on low Btu fuel (80% conversion) can be readily met. A study of the H/sub 2/S-effects on molten carbonate fuel cells showed that ERC's Ni/Co anode provided better tolerance than a Ni/Cr anode. Prelithiated nickel oxide plaques were prepared from materials made by a low temperature and a high temperature powder-production process. The methods for fabricating handleable cathodes of various thicknesses were also investigated. In electrolyte matrix development, accelerated out-of-cell and in-cell tests have confirmed the superior stability of ..gamma..-LiAlO/sub 2/.

  18. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes coating accelerates osteoconductivity of anodized titanium [an abstract of entire text

    OpenAIRE

    井上, 沙織

    2014-01-01

    Because of their excellent mechanical, electrical and biocompatible properties, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are employed for tissue engineering. Recent studies have also revealed that CNTs provide a preferable surface for cell adhesion and growth. Osteoblast-like cells adhere well and grow on the MWCNT-coated collagen sponge better than on the non-coated sponge. On the other hand, ti tanium is commonly used as a biomaterial for dental implants because of its excellent mechanical and...

  19. Surface coatings on carbon steel for prevention of flow accelerated corrosion under two phase flow conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Hee-Sang; Kim, Kyung Mo; Hur, Do Haeng [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Hyun; Kim, Ji Hyun [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Since the occurrence of a Surry-2 pipe rupture accident, a lot of effort has been made to prevent FAC of carbon steel piping. Some of the chemicals were suggested as a corrosion inhibitor. A platinum decoration was applied as another prevention strategy of carbon steel thinning. The severe FAC-damaged carbon steel pipings were replaced by tolerant materials such as SA335 Gr.P22. However, some components such as the piping materials between moisture separator and turbine have still suffered from the FAC degradation. This work provides a coating method to prevent the FAC degradation of the SA106 Gr.B, which is a piping material between moisture separator and high-pressure turbine, under two-phase flow. We suggested the coating materials to prevent FAC of SA106Gr.B under two-phase water-vapor flow. The FAC resistance of SA106Gr.B was improved with 5 times by electroless-deposited Ni-P protective layer. Other coating materials also enhanced the tolerance up to 5 times for the FAC in a condition of 150 .deg. C and 3.8 bar at 9.5 compared to non-coated SA106Gr.B.

  20. Monte Carlo simulations of molecular gas flow: some applications in accelerator vacuum technology using a versatile personal computer program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, A.; Poncet, A. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland))

    1990-01-01

    The Monte Carlo technique has been used extensively in the past to solve the problem of molecular flow through vacuum pipes or structures with specific boundary conditions for which analytical or even approximate solutions do not exist. Starting from a specific program written in 1975, the idea germinated over the years to produce handy, rather general, problem solving applications capable of running efficiently on modern microcomputers, mainly for ease of transportability and interactivity. Here, the latest version is described. The capabilities and limitations of these tools are presented through a few practical cases of conductance and pumping speed calculations pertinent to accelerator vacuum technology. (author).

  1. Nanosecond pulse-width electron diode based on dielectric wall accelerator technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Quantang; Zhang, Z. M.; Yuan, P.; Cao, S. C.; Shen, X. K.; Jing, Y.; Yu, C. S.; Li, Z. P.; Liu, M.; Xiao, R. Q.; Zong, Y.; Wang, Y. R.; Zhao, H. W.

    2013-11-01

    An electron diode using a short section of dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) has been under development at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences. Tests have been carried out with spark gap switches triggered by lasers. The stack voltage efficiency of a four-layer of Blumleins reached about 60-70% with gas filled spark gap switching. The generated pulse voltage of peak amplitude of 23 kV and pulse width of 5 ns is used to extract and accelerate an electron beam of 320 mA, measured by a fast current transformer. A nanosecond pulse width electron diode was achieved successfully. Furthermore, the principle of a DWA is well proven and the development details and discussions are presented in this article.

  2. Considerations in forecasting the demand for carbon sequestration and biotic storage technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trexler, M.C. [Trexler and Associates, Inc., Portland, OR (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has identified forestry and other land-use based mitigation measures as possible sources and sinks of greenhouse gases. An overview of sequestration and biotic storage is presented, and the potential impacts of the use of carbon sequestration as a mitigation technology are briefly noted. Carbon sequestration is also compare to other mitigation technologies. Biotic mitigation technologies are concluded to be a legitimate and potentially important part of greenhouse gas mitigation due to their relatively low costs, ancillary benefits, and climate impact. However, not all biotic mitigation techniques perfectly match the idealized definition of a mitigation measure, and policies are becoming increasingly biased against biotic technologies.

  3. Laser Ablation - Accelerator Mass Spectrometry: An Approach for Rapid Radiocarbon Analyses of Carbonate Archives at High Spatial Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welte, Caroline; Wacker, Lukas; Hattendorf, Bodo; Christl, Marcus; Fohlmeister, Jens; Breitenbach, Sebastian F M; Robinson, Laura F; Andrews, Allen H; Freiwald, André; Farmer, Jesse R; Yeman, Christiane; Synal, Hans-Arno; Günther, Detlef

    2016-09-06

    A new instrumental setup, combining laser ablation (LA) with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), has been investigated for the online radiocarbon ((14)C) analysis of carbonate records. Samples were placed in an in-house designed LA-cell, and CO2 gas was produced by ablation using a 193 nm ArF excimer laser. The (14)C/(12)C abundance ratio of the gas was then analyzed by gas ion source AMS. This configuration allows flexible and time-resolved acquisition of (14)C profiles in contrast to conventional measurements, where only the bulk composition of discrete samples can be obtained. Three different measurement modes, i.e. discrete layer analysis, survey scans, and precision scans, were investigated and compared using a stalagmite sample and, subsequently, applied to terrestrial and marine carbonates. Depending on the measurement mode, a precision of typically 1-5% combined with a spatial resolution of 100 μm can be obtained. Prominent (14)C features, such as the atomic bomb (14)C peak, can be resolved by scanning several cm of a sample within 1 h. Stalagmite, deep-sea coral, and mollusk shell samples yielded comparable signal intensities, which again were comparable to those of conventional gas measurements. The novel LA-AMS setup allowed rapid scans on a variety of sample materials with high spatial resolution.

  4. How to trigger low carbon technologies by EU targets for 2030? An assessment of technology needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenenberg, H.; Van Breevoort, P.; Janeiro, L.; Winkel, T.

    2013-04-15

    The current EU framework for energy and climate policies up to 2020 consists of three headline targets: 20% reduction of GHG emissions compared to 2005, a 20% share of renewable energy in final energy consumption, and 20% primary energy savings compared to baseline developments. While progress on these 2020 targets is mixed, discussions in the EU about climate and energy policies and targets for the period after 2020 have started. Given the long cycles associated to energy and climate investments, agreement on a clear longer-term policy framework is critical to improve visibility for investors and avoid lock-in effects in inefficient or polluting technologies. Therefore, the European Commission published a Communication on 6 June 2012 on the need for a long term policy framework for renewable energy, and a Green Paper on the 2030 climate and energy policy framework on 27 March 2013. Against this background, the Dutch Ministries of Infrastructure and Environment and the Ministry of Economic Affairs requested PBL to create input for the European debate on climate targets and policies until and beyond 2030. Ecofys supported PBL by addressing the following two questions: (1) What steps are needed for selected key technology groups to achieve long term GHG emission reductions and what climate and energy policies are likely to trigger these steps?; and (2) What are the pros and cons of a 2030 policy framework with (a) a GHG reduction target only, and (b) targets for GHG reduction, renewable energy, and energy efficiency? The focus of the first question was on four technology groups, namely (1) energy efficiency in the built environment, notably for heat; (2) solar PV and wind energy; (3) advanced biofuels; (4) CO2 carbon capture and storage (CCS). An analysis of the steps needed for the deployment of the full GHG mitigation potential of the discussed technology groups shows that this will largely depend on the adoption of a wide range of policy instruments by EU Member

  5. Flow accelerated corrosion of carbon steel feeder pipes from pressurized heavy water reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J. L.; Kumar, Umesh; Kumawat, N.; Kumar, Sunil; Kain, Vivekanand; Anantharaman, S.; Sinha, A. K.

    2012-10-01

    Detailed investigation of a number of feeder pipes received from Rajasthan Atomic Power Station Unit 2 (RAPS#2) after en-masse feeder pipe replacement after 15.67 Effective Full Power Years (EFPYs) was carried out. Investigations included ultrasonic thickness measurement by ultrasonic testing, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, chemical analysis and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Results showed that maximum thickness reduction of the feeder had occurred downstream and close to the weld in 32 NB (1.25″/32.75 mm ID) elbows. Rate of Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) was measured to be higher in the lower diameter feeder pipes due to high flow velocity and turbulence. Weld regions had thinned to a lower extent than the parent material due to higher chromium content in the weld. A weld protrusion has been shown to add to the thinning due to FAC and lead to faster thinning rate at localized regions. Surface morphology of inner surface of feeder had shown different size scallop pattern over the weld and parent material. Inter-granular cracks were also observed along the weld fusion line and in the parent material in 32 NB outlet feeder elbow.

  6. Increases in dissolved organic carbon accelerate loss of toxic Al in Adirondack lakes recovering from acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Dukett, James E; Houck, Nathan; Snyder, Phillip; Capone, Susan B.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing pH and decreasing Al in surface waters recovering from acidification have been accompanied by increasing concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and associated organic acids that partially offset pH increases and complicate assessments of recovery from acidification. To better understand the processes of recovery, monthly chemistry from 42 lakes in the Adirondack region, NY, collected from 1994 to 2011, were used to (1) evaluate long-term changes in DOC and associated strongly acidic organic acids and (2) use the base-cation surplus (BCS) as a chemical index to assess the effects of increasing DOC concentrations on the Al chemistry of these lakes. Over the study period, the BCS increased (p acids.

  7. Assessment of Carbon Tetrachloride Groundwater Transport in Support of the Hanford Carbon Tetrachloride Innovative Technology Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Murray, Christopher J.; Cole, Charles R.; Cameron, Richard J.; Johnson, Michael D.; Skeen, Rodney S.; Johnson, Christian D.

    2001-07-13

    Groundwater modeling was performed in support of the Hanford Carbon Tetrachloride Innovative Treatment Remediation Demonstration (ITRD) Program. The ITRD program is facilitated by Sandia National Laboratory for the Department of Energy Office of Science and Technology. This report was prepared to document the results of the modeling effort and facilitate discussion of characterization and remediation options for the carbon tetrachloride plume among the ITRD participants. As a first step toward implementation of innovative technologies for remediation of the carbon tetrachloride (CT) plume underlying the 200-West Area, this modeling was performed to provide an indication of the potential impact of the CT source on the compliance boundary approximately 5000 m distant. The primary results of the modeling bracket the amount of CT source that will most likely result in compliance/non-compliance at the boundary and the relative influence of the various modeling parameters.

  8. Accelerated carbonation of steel slags using CO2 diluted sources: CO2 uptakes and energy requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato eBaciocchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of carbonation experiments performed on Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF steel slag samples employing gas mixtures containing 40 and 10% CO2 vol. simulating the gaseous effluents of gasification and combustion processes respectively, as well as 100% CO2 for comparison purposes. Two routes were tested, the slurry phase (L/S=5 l/kg, T=100 °C and Ptot=10 bar and the thin film (L/S =0.3-0.4 l/kg, T=50 °C and Ptot=7-10 bar routes. For each one, the CO2 uptake achieved as a function of the reaction time was analyzed and on this basis the energy requirements associated to each carbonation route and gas mixture composition were estimated considering to store the CO2 emissions of a medium size natural gas fired power plant (20 MW. For the slurry phase route, maximum CO2 uptakes ranged from around 8% at 10% CO2, to 21.1% (BOF-a and 29.2% (BOF-b at 40% CO2 and 32.5% (BOF-a and 40.3% (BOF-b at 100% CO2. For the thin film route, maximum uptakes of 13% (BOF-c and 19.5% (BOF-d at 40% CO2, and 17.8% (BOF-c and 20.2% (BOF-d at 100% were attained. The energy requirements of the two analyzed process routes appeared to depend chiefly on the CO2 uptake of the slag. For both process route, the minimum overall energy requirements were found for the tests with 40% CO2 flows (i.e. 1400-1600 MJ/t CO2 for the slurry phase and 2220-2550 MJ/t CO2 for the thin film route.

  9. Carbon dioxide enrichment alters plant community structure and accelerates shrub growth in the shortgrass steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jack A; Milchunas, Daniel G; LeCain, Daniel R; West, Mark; Mosier, Arvin R

    2007-09-11

    A hypothesis has been advanced that the incursion of woody plants into world grasslands over the past two centuries has been driven in part by increasing carbon dioxide concentration, [CO(2)], in Earth's atmosphere. Unlike the warm season forage grasses they are displacing, woody plants have a photosynthetic metabolism and carbon allocation patterns that are responsive to CO(2), and many have tap roots that are more effective than grasses for reaching deep soil water stores that can be enhanced under elevated CO(2). However, this commonly cited hypothesis has little direct support from manipulative experimentation and competes with more traditional theories of shrub encroachment involving climate change, management, and fire. Here, we show that, although doubling [CO(2)] over the Colorado shortgrass steppe had little impact on plant species diversity, it resulted in an increasingly dissimilar plant community over the 5-year experiment compared with plots maintained at present-day [CO(2)]. Growth at the doubled [CO(2)] resulted in an approximately 40-fold increase in aboveground biomass and a 20-fold increase in plant cover of Artemisia frigida Willd, a common subshrub of some North American and Asian grasslands. This CO(2)-induced enhancement of plant growth, among the highest yet reported, provides evidence from a native grassland suggesting that rising atmospheric [CO(2)] may be contributing to the shrubland expansions of the past 200 years. Encroachment of shrubs into grasslands is an important problem facing rangeland managers and ranchers; this process replaces grasses, the preferred forage of domestic livestock, with species that are unsuitable for domestic livestock grazing.

  10. Carbon nanotube-coating accelerated cell adhesion and proliferation on poly (L-lactide)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, Eri, E-mail: erieri@den.hokudai.ac.jp [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Akasaka, Tsukasa [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Uo, Motohiro [Graduate School of Medical and Dental Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Takita, Hiroko; Watari, Fumio; Yokoyama, Atsuro [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    2012-12-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The surface of a polylactic acid (PLLA) was coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MWCNT-coated PLLA showed remarkable higher wettability than uncoated PLLA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer More Human osteosarcoma cell line (Saos2) adhered on the CNT-coated than those on uncoated PLLA at 2 h after seeding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MWCNT-coating on PLLA improved the surface wettability and initial cell attachment at early stage. - Abstract: The surface of a polylactic acid (PLLA) was coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in order to improve the surface properties. In addition, its surface characteristics and cell culturing properties were examined. Whole surface of PLLA was homogeneously covered by MWCNTs maintained a unique tubular structure. MWCNT-coated PLLA showed remarkable higher wettability than uncoated PLLA. Human osteosarcoma cell line (Saos2) adhered well on the CNT-coated PLLA whereas there are few cells attached on the uncoated PLLA at 2 h after seeding. The number of the cells on uncoated PLLA was still smaller than on the MWCNT-coated PLLA at 1 and 3 days. Moreover, The DNA content in the cells attached to the MWCNT-coated PLLA was significantly higher than that on the uncoated PLLA (p < 0.05) at 1 and 3 days. There was no significant difference between the scaffolds for ALP activity normalized by DNA content at both term (p > 0.1). Therefore MWCNT-coating on PLLA improved the surface wettability and initial cell attachment at early stage.

  11. Accelerated life tests of specimen heat pipe from Communication Technology Satellite (CTS) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tower, L. K.; Kaufman, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    A gas-loaded variable conductance heat pipe of stainless steel with methanol working fluid identical to one now on the CTS satellite was life tested in the laboratory at accelerated conditions for 14 200 hours, equivalent to about 70 000 hours at flight conditions. The noncondensible gas inventory increased about 20 percent over the original charge. The observed gas increase is estimated to increase operating temperature by about 2.2 C, insufficient to harm the electronic gear cooled by the heat pipes in the satellite. Tests of maximum heat input against evaporator elevation agree well with the manufacturer's predictions.

  12. Optimal Strategies for Low Carbon Supply Chain with Strategic Customer Behavior and Green Technology Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is mainly caused by excessive emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. In order to reduce carbon emissions, cap and trade policy is implemented by governments in many countries, which has significant impacts on the decisions of companies at all levels of the low carbon supply chain. This paper investigates the decision-making and coordination of a low carbon supply chain consisting of a low carbon manufacturer who produces one product and is allowed to invest in green technology to reduce carbon emissions in production and a retailer who faces stochastic demands formed by homogeneous strategic customers. We investigate the optimal production, pricing, carbon trading, and green technology investment strategies of the low carbon supply chain in centralized (including Rational Expected Equilibrium scenario and quantity commitment scenario and decentralized settings. It is demonstrated that quantity commitment strategy can improve the profit of the low carbon supply chain with strategic customer behavior. We also show that the performance of decentralized supply chain is lower than that of quantity commitment scenario. We prove that the low carbon supply chain cannot be coordinated by revenue sharing contract but by revenue sharing-cost sharing contract.

  13. Soil carbon sequestration and biochar as negative emission technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pete

    2016-03-01

    Despite 20 years of effort to curb emissions, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions grew faster during the 2000s than in the 1990s, which presents a major challenge for meeting the international goal of limiting warming to carbon capture and storage and afforestation/deforestation, showed that all NETs have significant limits to implementation, including economic cost, energy requirements, land use, and water use. In this paper, I assess the potential for negative emissions from soil carbon sequestration and biochar addition to land, and also the potential global impacts on land use, water, nutrients, albedo, energy and cost. Results indicate that soil carbon sequestration and biochar have useful negative emission potential (each 0.7 GtCeq. yr(-1) ) and that they potentially have lower impact on land, water use, nutrients, albedo, energy requirement and cost, so have fewer disadvantages than many NETs. Limitations of soil carbon sequestration as a NET centre around issues of sink saturation and reversibility. Biochar could be implemented in combination with bioenergy with carbon capture and storage. Current integrated assessment models do not represent soil carbon sequestration or biochar. Given the negative emission potential of SCS and biochar and their potential advantages compared to other NETs, efforts should be made to include these options within IAMs, so that their potential can be explored further in comparison with other NETs for climate stabilization.

  14. Accelerators for Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Arlene J.

    2000-05-30

    The vast majority of radiation treatments for cancerous tumors are given using electron linacs that provide both electrons and photons at several energies. Design and construction of these linacs are based on mature technology that is rapidly becoming more and more standardized and sophisticated. The use of hadrons such as neutrons, protons, alphas, or carbon, oxygen and neon ions is relatively new. Accelerators for hadron therapy are far from standardized, but the use of hadron therapy as an alternative to conventional radiation has led to significant improvements and refinements in conventional treatment techniques. This paper presents the rationale for radiation therapy, describes the accelerators used in conventional and hadron therapy, and outlines the issues that must still be resolved in the emerging field of hadron therapy.

  15. Accelerating the Pace of Change in Energy Technologies Through an Integrated Federal Energy Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-11-01

    In this report, the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) calls for the development of a coordinated government-wide Federal energy policy. This will be a major undertaking, given the large number of Federal policies that affect the development, implementation, and use of energy technologies. For that reason, we recommend that the Administration initiate a process analogous to the Quadrennial Defense Review undertaken every four years by the Department of Defense

  16. Design tools for a DNA-guided self-assembling carbon nanotube technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, C.; Johri, V.; Cheung, M.; Patwardhan, J.; Lebeck, A.; Sorin, D.

    2004-09-01

    The shift in technology away from silicon complementary metal-oxide semiconductors (CMOS) to novel nanoscale technologies requires new design tools. In this paper, we explore one particular nanotechnology: carbon nanotube transistors that are self-assembled into circuits by using DNA. We develop design tools and demonstrate how to use them to develop circuitry based on this nanotechnology.

  17. Algal-based CO2 Sequestration Technology and Global Scenario of Carbon Credit Market: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Kumar Singh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the global and national scenario of Carbon credit. This paper will also discuss the advantages of the algae-based carbon capture technology in growing carbon credit market. Carbon Dioxide (CO2, the most important greenhouse gas produced by combustion of fuels, has become a cause of global panic as its concentration in the Earth’s atmosphere has been rising alarmingly. However, it is now turning into a product that helps people, countries, consultants, traders, corporations and even farmers earn billion of rupees. A carbon credit is a generic term for any tradable certificate or permit representing the right to emit one tone of CO2 or CO2 equivalent (CO2-e. Businesses can exchange, buy or sell carbon credits in the international markets at the prevailing market price. India and China are likely to emerge as biggest seller and Europe is going to be biggest buyers of carbon credits. Using algae for reduction the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere is known as algae-based carbon capture technology. This new technology has attracted companies that need inexpensive CO2 sequestration solutions. Algae farming emerge as the best CO2 sequestration technique in comparison with other methods.

  18. [Effects of ginkgo diterpene lactones meglumine injection's activated carbon adsorption technology on officinal components].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, En-li; Wang, Ren-jie; Li, Miao; Wang, Wei; Xu, Dian-hong; Hu, Yang; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Bi, Yu-an; Xiao, Wei

    2015-10-01

    With the diversion rate of ginkgolide A, B, K as comprehensive evaluation indexes, the amount of activated carbon, ad- sorption time, mix rate, and adsorption temperature were selected as factors, orthogonal design which based on the evaluation method of information entropy was used to optimize activated carbon adsorption technology of ginkgo diterpene lactones meglumine injection. Opti- mized adsorption conditions were as follows: adsorbed 30 min with 0.2% activated carbon in 25 °C, 40 r ·min⁻¹, validation test re- sult display. The optimum extraction condition was stable and feasible, it will provide a basis for ginkgo diterpene lactone meglumine injection' activated carbon adsorption process.

  19. Techno-economic and environmental analysis of low carbon energy technologies: Indian perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Vijay Prakash; Kumar, Rahul; Kumar, Manish; Deswal, Surinder; Chandna, Pankaj

    2010-09-15

    In this paper, techno-economic and an environmental investigation and analysis of Low Carbon Technologies (LCTs) has been presented, with special emphasis on India. The paper identify, analyze and recommend, on the basis of available and collected / collated information and data, the promising and potential low carbon energy technology options suited to Indian conditions for grid connected power generation. The evaluation criteria adopted include - emission reduction potential, technological feasibility, and economic viability; and on its basis recommend a detailed action plan and strategy for guiding future research and development with a more focused approach considering current Indian policy framework.

  20. GPU technology as a platform for accelerating physiological systems modeling based on Laguerre-Volterra networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Agathoklis; Kostoglou, Kyriaki; Mitsis, Georgios D; Theocharides, Theocharis

    2015-01-01

    The use of a GPGPU programming paradigm (running CUDA-enabled algorithms on GPU cards) in biomedical engineering and biology-related applications have shown promising results. GPU acceleration can be used to speedup computation-intensive models, such as the mathematical modeling of biological systems, which often requires the use of nonlinear modeling approaches with a large number of free parameters. In this context, we developed a CUDA-enabled version of a model which implements a nonlinear identification approach that combines basis expansions and polynomial-type networks, termed Laguerre-Volterra networks and can be used in diverse biological applications. The proposed software implementation uses the GPGPU programming paradigm to take advantage of the inherent parallel characteristics of the aforementioned modeling approach to execute the calculations on the GPU card of the host computer system. The initial results of the GPU-based model presented in this work, show performance improvements over the original MATLAB model.

  1. Terahertz Science and Technology of Macroscopically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Junichiro

    One of the outstanding challenges in nanotechnology is how to assemble individual nano-objects into macroscopic architectures while preserving their extraordinary properties. For example, the one-dimensional character of electrons in individual carbon nanotubes leads to extremely anisotropic transport, optical, and magnetic phenomena, but their macroscopic manifestations have been limited. Here, we describe methods for preparing macroscopic films, sheets, and fibers of highly aligned carbon nanotubes and their applications to basic and applied terahertz studies. Sufficiently thick films act as ideal terahertz polarizers, and appropriately doped films operate as polarization-sensitive, flexible, powerless, and ultra-broadband detectors. Together with recently developed chirality enrichment methods, these developments will ultimately allow us to study dynamic conductivities of interacting one-dimensional electrons in macroscopic single crystals of single-chirality single-wall carbon nanotubes.

  2. Low carbon Finland 2050. VTT clean energy technology strategies for society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koljonen, T.; Simila, L.; Sipila, K. [and others

    2012-11-15

    The Low Carbon Finland 2050 project by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland aims to assess the technological opportunities and challenges involved in reducing Finland's greenhouse gas emissions. A target for reduction is set as at least 80% from the 1990 level by 2050 as part of an international effort, which requires strong RD and D in clean energy technologies. Key findings of the project are presented in this publication, which aims to stimulate enlightening and multidisciplinary discussions on low-carbon futures for Finland. The project gathered together VTT's technology experts in clean energy production, smart energy infrastructures, transport, buildings, and industrial systems as well as experts in energy system modelling and foresight. VTT's leading edge 'Low Carbon and Smart Energy' enables new solutions with a demonstration that is the first of its kind in Finland, and the introduction of new energy technology onto national and global markets. (orig.)

  3. Radio frequency for particle accelerators: evolution and anatomy of a technology

    CERN Document Server

    Vretenar, M

    2011-01-01

    This introductory lecture outlines the impressive progress of radio frequency technology, from the first table-top equipment to the present gigantic installations. The outcome of 83 years of evolution is subsequently submitted to an anatomical analysis, which allows identifying the main components of a modern RF system and their interrelations.

  4. Low carbon technology performance vs infrastructure vulnerability: analysis through the local and global properties space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, David A; Purnell, Phil; Roelich, Katy; Busch, Jonathan; Steinberger, Julia K

    2014-11-04

    Renewable energy technologies, necessary for low-carbon infrastructure networks, are being adopted to help reduce fossil fuel dependence and meet carbon mitigation targets. The evolution of these technologies has progressed based on the enhancement of technology-specific performance criteria, without explicitly considering the wider system (global) impacts. This paper presents a methodology for simultaneously assessing local (technology) and global (infrastructure) performance, allowing key technological interventions to be evaluated with respect to their effect on the vulnerability of wider infrastructure systems. We use exposure of low carbon infrastructure to critical material supply disruption (criticality) to demonstrate the methodology. A series of local performance changes are analyzed; and by extension of this approach, a method for assessing the combined criticality of multiple materials for one specific technology is proposed. Via a case study of wind turbines at both the material (magnets) and technology (turbine generators) levels, we demonstrate that analysis of a given intervention at different levels can lead to differing conclusions regarding the effect on vulnerability. Infrastructure design decisions should take a systemic approach; without these multilevel considerations, strategic goals aimed to help meet low-carbon targets, that is, through long-term infrastructure transitions, could be significantly jeopardized.

  5. Quick Preparation of Moisture-Saturated Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Plastics and Their Accelerated Ageing Tests Using Heat and Moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Kunioka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A quick method involving the control of heat and water vapor pressure for preparing moisture-saturated carbon fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRP, 8 unidirectional prepreg layers, 1.5 mm thickness, epoxy resin has been developed. The moisture-saturated CFRP sample was obtained at 120 °C and 0.2 MPa water vapor in 72 h by this method using a sterilizer (autoclave. The bending strength and viscoelastic properties measured by a dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA remained unchanged during repetitive saturation and drying steps. No degradation and molecular structural change occurred. Furthermore an accelerated ageing test with two ageing factors, i.e., heat and moisture was developed and performed at 140–160 °C and 0.36–0.62 MPa water vapor pressure by using a sealed pressure-proof stainless steel vessel (autoclave. The bending strength of the sample decreased from 1107 to 319 MPa at 160 °C and 0.63 MPa water vapor pressure in 9 days. Degraded samples were analyzed by DMA. The degree of degradation for samples was analyzed by DMA. CFRP and degraded CFRP samples were analyzed by using a surface and interfacial cutting analysis system (SAICAS and an electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA equipped in a scanning electron microscope.

  6. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Jenny Henman; Zoe Kant; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Neil Sampson; Gilberto Tiepolo; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Miguel Calmon

    2006-01-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st , 2005 and June 30th, 2005. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  7. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Brent Sohngen; Neil Sampson; Mark Anderson; Miguel Calmon; Sean Grimland; Ellen Hawes; Zoe Kant; Dan Morse; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Arlene Olivero; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Jon Winsten; Chris Zganjar

    2006-09-30

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st and July 30th 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  8. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Brent Sohngen; Neil Sampson; Mark Anderson; Miguel Calmon; Sean Grimland; Zoe Kant; Dan Morse; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Arlene Olivero; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Jon Winsten; Chris Zganjar

    2007-03-31

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between January 1st and March 31st 2007. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1--carbon inventory advancements; Task 2--emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3--baseline method development; Task 4--third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5--new project feasibility studies; and Task 6--development of new project software screening tool.

  9. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Jenny Henman; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Neil Sampson; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon

    2006-04-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between January 1st and March 31st 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  10. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Jenny Henman; Zoe Kant; Gilberto Tiepolo; Tim Pearson; Neil Sampson; Miguel Calmon

    2005-10-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st , 2005 and June 30th, 2005. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  11. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Brent Sohngen; Neil Sampson; Mark Anderson; Miguel Calmon; Sean Grimland; Zoe Kant; Dan Morse; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Arlene Olivero; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Jon Winsten; Chris Zganjar

    2006-12-31

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between October 1st and December 31st 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  12. Low-carbon innovation and technology transfer in latecomer countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lema, Rasmus; Lema, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the organizational arrangements for technology supply in solar photovoltaic projects in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). It shows that while lower middle-income countries typically import solar PV equipment into CDM projects, China, India and Thailand have begun to use new...... the future of the global climate regime. Technology transfer does not become less important as developing countries' capabilities mature, but the nature of technology transfer changes over time. This suggests a need to differentiate between countries at different levels of development. Lower middle-income...... countries may have greater needs for building technological capabilities whereas cooperative activities may be suitable for upper middle-income countries that already have capabilities to address climate change...

  13. Status of molten carbonate fuel cell technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, E. L., Jr.; Williams, M. C.; George, T. J.

    The MCFC technology has been identified by the DOE as a promising product for commercialization. Development of the MCFC technology supports the National Energy Strategy. Review of the status of the MCFC technology indicates that the MCFC technology developers are making rapid and significant progress. Manufacturing facility development and extensive testing is occurring. Improvements in performance (power density), lower costs, improved packaging, and scale up to full height are planned. MCFC developers need to continue to be responsive to end-users in potential markets. It will be market demands for the correct product definition which will ultimately determine the character of MCFC power plants. There is a need for continued MCFC product improvement and multiple product development tests.

  14. Informed public preferences for electricity portfolios with CCS and other low-carbon technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleishman, Lauren A; De Bruin, Wändi Bruine; Morgan, M Granger

    2010-09-01

    Public perceptions of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) and other low-carbon electricity-generating technologies may affect the feasibility of their widespread deployment. We asked a diverse sample of 60 participants recruited from community groups in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to rank 10 technologies (e.g., coal with CCS, natural gas, nuclear, various renewables, and energy efficiency), and seven realistic low-carbon portfolios composed of these technologies, after receiving comprehensive and carefully balanced materials that explained the costs and benefits of each technology. Rankings were obtained in small group settings as well as individually before and after the group discussions. The ranking exercise asked participants to assume that the U.S. Congress had mandated a reduction in carbon dioxide emissions from power plants to be built in the future. Overall, rankings suggest that participants favored energy efficiency, followed by nuclear power, integrated gasification combined-cycle coal with CCS and wind. The most preferred portfolio also included these technologies. We find that these informed members of the general public preferred diverse portfolios that contained CCS and nuclear over alternatives once they fully understood the benefits, cost, and limitations of each. The materials and approach developed for this study may also have value in educating members of the general public about the challenges of achieving a low-carbon energy future.

  15. Accelerator-based electron beam technologies for modification of bipolar semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Y. S.; Surma, A. M.; Lagov, P. B.; Fomenko, Y. L.; Geifman, E. M.

    2016-09-01

    Radiation processing technologies for static and dynamic parameters modification of silicon bipolar semiconductor devices implemented. Devices of different classes with wide range of operating currents (from a few mA to tens kA) and voltages (from a few volts to 8 kV) were processed in large scale including power diodes and thyristors, high-frequency bipolar and IGBT transistors, fast recovery diodes, pulsed switching diodes, precise temperature- compensated Zener diodes (in general more than fifty 50 device types), produced by different enterprises. The necessary changes in electrical parameters and characteristics of devices caused by formation in the device structures of electrically active and stable in the operating temperature range sub-nanoscale recombination centres. Technologies implemented in the air with high efficiency and controllability, and are an alternative to diffusion doping of Au or Pt, γ-ray, proton and low-Z ion irradiation.

  16. Policy Challenges of Accelerating Technological Change: Security Policy and Strategy Implications of Parallel Scientific Revolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    commoditization/open source development, big data, the cloud, and the IoT (Web of Everything). As the digital networking of people and devices continues to...hacking and ID theft); financial and marketing information; and soon, data available through common household devices , as the IoT expands its reach...shelf technologies now available for IoT devices , OTs are expanding very rapidly and are a very significant security uncertainty. Supply chain

  17. Systematic Acceleration of Radical Discovery and Innovation in Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Competitive Intelligence Professionals, Los Angeles, CA 1993b. 73 Kostoff, R. N., "Database Tomography for Technical Intelligence," Competitive ...1994a. Kostoff, R.N., "Database Tomography: Origins and Applications," Competitive Intelligence Review, Special Issue on Technology, 5:1. 48-55...34Database Tomography for Technical Intelligence: Analysis of the Research Impact Assessment Literature", Competitive Intelligence Review, 8:2, Summer 1997b

  18. Development of accelerated dewatering technology for managing oil sands fine fluid tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahaie, R. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Fort McMurray, AB (Canada); Seto, J.T.C. [BGC Engineering Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Chapman, D. [O' Kane Consultants Inc., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Carrier, W.D. III [Argila Enterprises Inc., Lakeland, FL (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This article discussed an accelerated dewatering technique being applied and tested for managing fine fluid tailings produced from oil sands mining. The process involved rim ditching and a decant system to promote the drainage of surface waters and enhance the drying and densification of mature fine tailings (MFT). To field test the procedure, a deposit containing 60,000 cubic metres of in-line flocculated MFT was constructed and instrumented to monitor consolidation and dewatering response of the MFT deposit over time. Ten months after being filled, the deposit had settled about 1.2 metres, which corresponds to a 19 percent reduction in volume relative to initial filling. The field test will continue for several more years, during which time the deposit will continue to be monitored and sampled. The Florida phosphate industry has used rim ditching for over 20 years, but the process had never before been applied to oil sand tailings. The paper discussed the particular consolidation behaviour of MFT, the rim ditch concept, the layout of the containment pit and instrumentation, the pit filling procedure, and post-filling observations. 6 refs., 12 figs.

  19. STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth; Xu Chen

    2002-09-10

    The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. During this fourth project period we completed the characterization of ozone-treated carbon surfaces and wrote a comprehensive report on the mechanism through which ozone suppresses the adsorption of concrete surfactants.

  20. STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth; Xu Chen

    2003-05-20

    The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. During this fourth project period we completed the characterization of ozone-treated carbon surfaces and wrote a comprehensive report on the mechanism through which ozone suppresses the adsorption of concrete surfactants.

  1. A MERGE model with endogenous technological change and the cost of carbon stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kypreos, Socrates [Laboratory of Energy Systems Analysis, The Energy Departments, Energy Economics Group, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232, Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2007-11-15

    Two stylized backstop systems with endogenous technological learning (ETL) are introduced in the ''model for evaluating regional and global effects'' (MERGE): one for the electric and the other for the non-electric markets. Then the model is applied to analyze the impacts of ETL on carbon-mitigation policy, contrasting the resulting impacts with the situation without ETL. We model research and development (R and D) spending and learning subsidies for the demonstration and deployment stage as control variables, and we investigate the ability of this extra spending to create path-dependent experience and knowledge to aid in the implementation of carbon-free technologies. Based on model estimations and sensitivity analyses, we conclude that increased commitments for the development of new technologies to advance along their learning curves has a potential for substantial reductions in the cost of mitigating climate change and thereby helping to reach safe concentrations of carbon in the atmosphere. (author)

  2. Comparison of CO2 capture by ex-situ accelerated carbonation and in in-situ naturally weathered coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muriithi, Grace N; Petrik, Leslie F; Fatoba, Olanrewaju; Gitari, Wilson M; Doucet, Frédéric J; Nel, Jaco; Nyale, Sammy M; Chuks, Paul E

    2013-09-30

    Natural weathering at coal power plants ash dams occurs via processes such as carbonation, dissolution, co-precipitation and fluid transport mechanisms which are responsible for the long-term chemical, physical and geochemical changes in the ash. Very little information is available on the natural carbon capture potential of wet or dry ash dams. This study investigated the extent of carbon capture in a wet-dumped ash dam and the mineralogical changes promoting CO2 capture, comparing this natural phenomenon with accelerated ex-situ mineral carbonation of fresh fly ash (FA). Significant levels of trace elements of Sr, Ba and Zr were present in both fresh and weathered ash. However Nb, Y, Sr, Th and Ba were found to be enriched in weathered ash compared to fresh ash. Mineralogically, fresh ash is made up of quartz, mullite, hematite, magnetite and lime while weathered and carbonated ashes contained additional phases such as calcite and aragonite. Up to 6.5 wt % CO2 was captured by the fresh FA with a 60% conversion of calcium to CaCO3 via accelerated carbonation (carried out at 2 h, 4Mpa, 90 °C, bulk ash and a S/L ratio of 1). On the other hand 6.8 wt % CO2 was found to have been captured by natural carbonation over a period of 20 years of wet disposed ash. Thus natural carbonation in the ash dumps is significant and may be effective in capturing CO2.

  3. Low-carbon innovation and technology transfer in latecomer countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lema, Adrian; Lema, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the organizational arrangements for technology supply in solar photovoltaic projects in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). It shows that while lower middle-income countries typically import solar PV equipment into CDM projects, China, India and Thailand have begun to use n...

  4. Low Carbon Technology Options for the Natural Gas Electricity Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of this task is to perform environmental and economic analysis of natural gas based power production technologies (different routes) to investigate and evaluate strategies for reducing emissions from the power sector. It is a broad research area. Initially, the...

  5. Process systems engineering issues and applications towards reducing carbon dioxide emissions through conversion technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roh, Kosan; Frauzem, Rebecca; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews issues and applications for design of sustainable carbon dioxide conversion processes, specifically through chemical conversion, and the integration of the conversion processes with other systems from a process systems engineering (PSE) view-point. Systematic and computer...... conversion processes with other systems including coexisting infrastructure and carbon dioxide sources is described.Then, the importance of PSE based studies for such application is discussed. Finally, some perspectives on the status and future directions of carbon dioxide conversion technology...... and the development and use of PSE approaches are given....

  6. Preparation of a technology development roadmap for the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) System : report of the ATW separations technologies and waste forms technical working group.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, E.; Duguid, J.; Henry, R.; Karell, E.; Laidler, J.; McDeavitt, S.; Thompson, M.; Toth, M.; Williamson, M.; Willit, J.

    1999-08-12

    In response to a Congressional mandate to prepare a roadmap for the development of Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) technology, a Technical Working Group comprised of members from various DOE laboratories was convened in March 1999 for the purpose of preparing that part of the technology development roadmap dealing with the separation of certain radionuclides for transmutation and the disposal of residual radioactive wastes from these partitioning operations. The Technical Working Group for ATW Separations Technologies and Waste Forms completed its work in June 1999, having carefully considered the technology options available. A baseline process flowsheet and backup process were identified for initial emphasis in a future research, development and demonstration program. The baseline process combines aqueous and pyrochemical processes to permit the efficient separation of the uranium, technetium, iodine and transuranic elements from the light water reactor (LWR) fuel in the head-end step. The backup process is an all- pyrochemical system. In conjunction with the aqueous process, the baseline flowsheet includes a pyrochemical process to prepare the transuranic material for fabrication of the ATW fuel assemblies. For the internal ATW fuel cycle the baseline process specifies another pyrochemical process to extract the transuranic elements, Tc and 1 from the ATW fuel. Fission products not separated for transmutation and trace amounts of actinide elements would be directed to two high-level waste forms, one a zirconium-based alloy and the other a glass/sodalite composite. Baseline cost and schedule estimates are provided for a RD&D program that would provide a full-scale demonstration of the complete separations and waste production flowsheet within 20 years.

  7. Accelerators, Beams And Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators And Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemann, R.H.; /SLAC

    2011-10-24

    Accelerator science and technology have evolved as accelerators became larger and important to a broad range of science. Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams was established to serve the accelerator community as a timely, widely circulated, international journal covering the full breadth of accelerators and beams. The history of the journal and the innovations associated with it are reviewed.

  8. Carbon dioxide utilization: Bridging the GHG mitigation with environmentally friendly technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aresta, M. [Univ. of Bari (Italy)

    1997-12-31

    The recovery of carbon dioxide from power plants, flue gases, or industrial processes has been proposed as a technology for its mitigation. The end fate of recovered CO{sub 2} is either disposal in natural fields or gainful utilization (biological, technological, or chemical). The latter option deserves careful consideration as it would be doubly beneficial, helping to control the carbon dioxide emission and to save natural resources through the recycling of carbon. The economical aspects of the utilization option need thorough analysis to determine its feasibility. Another major point to consider is the amount of avoided carbon dioxide. This will define the extent of mitigation possible via the utilization option. To assess the potential of carbon dioxide utilization in the short-, medium-, and long-term is an exercise of great value from both the environmental and economical points of view. In this paper, criteria for the assessment be discussed as well as the current status of industrial carbon dioxide utilization. Furthermore, the perspectives for carbon dioxide utilization will be framed within the research needed for its implementation.

  9. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Zoe Kant; Gilberto Tiepolo; Wilber Sabido; Ellen Hawes; Jenny Henman; Miguel Calmon; Michael Ebinger

    2004-07-10

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas impacts. The research described in this report occurred between July 1, 2002 and June 30, 2003. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: remote sensing for carbon analysis; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  10. Applications of the Strategic Defense Initiative's compact accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanarelli, Nick; Lynch, Ted

    1991-12-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative's (SDI) investment in particle accelerator technology for its directed energy weapons program has produced breakthroughs in the size and power of new accelerators. These accelerators, in turn, have produced spinoffs in several areas: the radio frequency quadrupole linear accelerator (RFQ linac) was recently incorporated into the design of a cancer therapy unit at the Loma Linda University Medical Center, an SDI-sponsored compact induction linear accelerator may replace Cobalt-60 radiation and hazardous ethylene-oxide as a method for sterilizing medical products, and other SDIO-funded accelerators may be used to produce the radioactive isotopes oxygen-15, nitrogen-13, carbon-11, and fluorine-18 for positron emission tomography (PET). Other applications of these accelerators include bomb detection, non-destructive inspection, decomposing toxic substances in contaminated ground water, and eliminating nuclear waste.

  11. Greener power generation technologies. Solutions for carbon capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimuth, Oliver; Kremer, Hermann; Vortmeyer, Nicolas [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Fossil-based power generation will continue to account for a dominant share of over 50 % in the future energy mix. In order to meet the requirements of climate protection, a combination of highly-efficient, flexible combined cycle power plants and the use of CCS in coal-based power generation will be necessary. In addition to funding of the first demonstration projects comprehensive statutory framework and public acceptance are necessary for launching CCS technology. (orig.)

  12. Final Report: Towards an Emergent Model of Technology Adoption for Accelerating the Diffusion of Residential Solar PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Varun [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-08-15

    This project sought to enable electric utilities in Texas to accelerate diffusion of residential solar photovoltaic (PV) by systematically identifying and targeting existing barriers to PV adoption. A core goal of the project was to develop an integrated research framework that combines survey research, econometric modeling, financial modeling, and implementation and evaluation of pilot projects to study the PV diffusion system. This project considered PV diffusion as an emergent system, with attention to the interactions between the constituent parts of the PV socio-technical system including: economics of individual decision-making; peer and social influences; behavioral responses; and information and transaction costs. We also conducted two pilot projects, which have yielded new insights into behavioral and informational aspects of PV adoption. Finally, this project has produced robust and generalizable results that will provide deeper insights into the technology-diffusion process that will be applicable for the design of utility programs for other technologies such as home-energy management systems and plug-in electric vehicles. When we started this project in 2013 there was little systematic research on characterizing the decision-making process of households interested in adopting PV. This project was designed to fill that research gap by analyzing the PV adoption process from the consumers' decision-making perspective and with the objective to systematically identifying and addressing the barriers that consumers face in the adoption of PV. The two key components of that decision-making process are consumers' evaluation of: (i) uncertainties and non-monetary costs associated with the technology and (ii) the direct monetary cost-benefit. This project used an integrated approach to study both the non-monetary and the monetary components of the consumer decision-making process.

  13. Technological acceleration and organizational transformations in the upstream oil and gas industry; Acceleration technologique et transformations organisationnelles dans l'industrie d'exploration-production d'hydrocarbures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isabelle, M

    2000-12-15

    The upstream oil and gas industry experienced a dramatic technological acceleration in the early 1970's. The relationships between the agents in this industry have themselves undergone deep changes since that date. This thesis shows that a tight link exists between the technological acceleration and the organizational transformations in the upstream oil and gas industry. In a first part, it focuses on the economic theory's developments concerning industrial organization. In a second part, it applies these developments to three types of relations: those between the owner-states of hydrocarbon resources and the international petroleum companies; those between the international petroleum companies and their subcontractors; and finally those between the international petroleum companies themselves. (author)

  14. Technologies of image guidance and the development of advanced linear accelerator systems for radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Vincent W C; Law, Maria Y Y; Star-Lack, Josh; Cheung, Fion W K; Ling, C Clifton

    2011-01-01

    As advanced radiotherapy approaches for targeting the tumor and sparing the normal tissues have been developed, the image guidance of therapy has become essential to directing and confirming treatment accuracy. To approach these goals, image guidance devices now include kV on-board imagers, kV/MV cone-beam CT systems, CT-on-rails, and mobile and in-room radiographic/fluoroscopic systems. Nonionizing sources, such as ultrasound and optical systems, and electromagnetic devices have been introduced to monitor or track the patient and/or tumor positions during treatment. In addition, devices have been designed specifically for monitoring and/or controlling respiratory motion. Optimally, image-guided radiation therapy systems should possess 3 essential elements: (1) 3D imaging of soft tissues and tumors, (2) efficient acquisition and comparison of the 3D images, and (3) an efficacious process for clinically meaningful intervention. Understanding and using these tools effectively is central to current radiotherapy practice. The implementation and integration of these devices continue to carry practical challenges, which emphasize the need for further development of the technologies and their clinical applications.

  15. Accelerator Magnet Quench Heater Technology and Quality Control Tests for the LHC High Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Meuter, Florian

    The High Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) foresees the installation of new superconducting Nb3Sn magnets. For the protection of these magnets, quench heaters are placed on the magnet coils. The quench heater circuits are chemically etched from a stainless steel foil that is glued onto a flexible Polyimide film, using flexible printed circuit production technology. Approximately 500 quench heaters with a total length of about 3000 m are needed for the HL-LHC magnets. In order to keep the heater circuit electrical resistance in acceptable limits, an approximately 10 µm-thick Cu coating is applied onto the steel foil. The quality of this Cu coating has been found critical in the quench heater production. The work described in this thesis focuses on the characterisation of Cu coatings produced by electrolytic deposition, sputtering and electron beam evaporation. The quality of the Cu coatings from different manufacturers has been assessed for instance by ambient temperature electrical res...

  16. Conceptual design of an integrated technology model for carbon policy assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Dimotakes, Paul E. (NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA)

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the conceptual design of a technology choice model for understanding strategies to reduce carbon intensity in the electricity sector. The report considers the major modeling issues affecting technology policy assessment and defines an implementable model construct. Further, the report delineates the basis causal structure of such a model and attempts to establish the technical/algorithmic viability of pursuing model development along with the associated analyses.

  17. The Effect of Government Actions on Environmental Technology Innovation: Applications to the Integrated Assessment of Carbon Sequestration Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E. S.; Hounshell, D. A.; Yeh, S.; Taylor, M.; Schrattenholzer, L.; Riahi, K.; Barreto, L.; Rao, S.

    2004-01-15

    This project seeks to improve the ability of integrated assessment models (IA) to incorporate changes in technology, especially environmental technologies, cost and performance over time. In this report, we present results of research that examines past experience in controlling other major power plant emissions that might serve as a reasonable guide to future rates of technological progress in carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) systems. In particular, we focus on U.S. and worldwide experience with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technologies over the past 30 years, and derive empirical learning rates for these technologies. The patterns of technology innovation are captured by our analysis of patent activities and trends of cost reduction over time. Overall, we found learning rates of 11% for the capital costs of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system for SO{sub 2} control, and 13% for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems for NO{sub x} control. We explore the key factors responsible for the observed trends, especially the development of regulatory policies for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control, and their implications for environmental control technology innovation.

  18. Mass Production of Carbon Nanofibers Using Microwave Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, N M; Abdullah, E C; Sahu, J N; Jayakumar, N S; Ganesan, P

    2015-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNFs) were produced by gas phase single stage microwave assisted chemical vapour deposition (MA-CVD) using ferrocene as a catalyst and acetylene (C2H2) and hydrogen (H2) as precursor gases. The effect of the process parameters such as microwave power, radiation time, and gas ratio of C2H2/H2 was investigated. The CNFs were characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Results reveal that the optimized conditions for CNF production were 1000 W reaction power, 35 min radiation time, and 0.8 gas ratio of C2H2/H2. TEM analyses revealed that the uniformly dispersed CNFs diameters ranging from 115-131 nm. The TGA analysis showed that the purity of CNF produced was 93%.

  19. A new technology for production of high thickness carbon/carbon composites for launchers application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Marta; Delfini, Andrea; Pastore, Roberto; Micheli, Davide; Marchetti, Mario

    2016-11-01

    Carbon-Carbon (C/C) composites are known for their extraordinary stability and excellent mechanical properties, almost unchanged at high temperatures. Among the several advanced applications, C/C based materials can be used in engines as nozzle throat section for launchers. In particular, the main feature for such employment is the material high resistance in extreme thermal environment. On the other hand, large-size items are required for this kind of purposes, thus introducing criticalities in terms of material uniformity and final overall properties. Up to now, there no standard for the production of high thickness C/C structures. In this paper a novel manufacturing method is analyzed, following each phase of the process, from the carbon fiber preform design and preparation to the carbon densification by chemical vapor infiltration method. Five preforms of large dimensions with different characteristics have been manufactured and infiltrated. The realized prototypes have been then analyzed by means of mechanical, physical and morphological tests. Aim of the results of this preliminary work is to establish a set of guidelines for a well-defined high thickness C/C production method.

  20. TeV/m Nano-Accelerator: Current Status of CNT-Channeling Acceleration Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Young Min [Northern Illinois U.; Lumpkin, Alex H. [Fermilab; Thangaraj, Jayakar Charles [Fermilab; Thurman-Keup, Randy Michael [Fermilab; Shiltsev, Vladimir D. [Fermilab

    2014-09-17

    Crystal channeling technology has offered various opportunities in the accelerator community with a viability of ultrahigh gradient (TV/m) acceleration for future HEP collider. The major challenge of channeling acceleration is that ultimate acceleration gradients might require a high power driver in the hard x-ray regime (~ 40 keV). This x-ray energy exceeds those for x-rays as of today, although x-ray lasers can efficiently excite solid plasma and accelerate particles inside a crystal channel. Moreover, only disposable crystal accelerators are possible at such high externally excited fields which would exceed the ionization thresholds destroying the atomic structure, so acceleration will take place only in a short time before full dissociation of the lattice. Carbon-based nanostructures have great potential with a wide range of flexibility and superior physical strength, which can be applied to channeling acceleration. This paper presents a beam- driven channeling acceleration concept with CNTs and discusses feasible experiments with the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) in Fermilab.

  1. THE APPLICATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF APPROPRIATE TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR COST-EFFECTIVE CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Ellen Hawes; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon; Gilberto Tiepolo

    2002-09-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research projects is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas impacts. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: advanced videography testing; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  2. APPLICATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF APPROPRIATE TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR COST-EFFECTIVE CARBON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Ellen Hawes; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon; Patrick Gonzalez; Brad Kreps; Gilberto Tiepolo

    2003-09-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas impacts. The research described in this report occurred between July 1, 2002 and June 30, 2003. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: advanced videography testing; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  3. Unravelling uncertainty and variability in early stage techno-economic assessments of carbon capture technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spek, Mijndert; Sanchez Fernandez, Eva; Eldrup, Nils Henrik; Skagestad, Ragnhild; Ramirez, Andrea; Faaij, André

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the uncertainty and variability in techno-economic studies of carbon capture technologies, based on a detailed comparison of the results of different studies on postcombustion CO2 capture with advanced amines, and on an in-depth uncertainty analysis using a combination of sensit

  4. STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth; Xu Chen; Indrek Kulaots

    2004-02-13

    The overall objective of the present project was to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific issues addressed included: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity based on pilot-plant studies; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This laboratory data has provided scientific and engineering support and underpinning for parallel process development activities. The development work on the ash ozonation process has now transitioned into a scale-up and commercialization project involving a multi-industry team and scheduled to begin in 2004. This report describes and documents the laboratory and pilot-scale work in the above three areas done at Brown University and the University of Utah during this three-year project.

  5. The Low Carbonization Usage Technologies of Coal%煤碳的低碳化利用技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚伟; 任世营

    2012-01-01

    The low carbonization technologies such as efficient combustion, advanced coal chemical indus- try and carbon capture and storage are introduced. These provide the ways to develop the low carboniza-tion usage technologies of high- carbon energy and realize the low-carbon economy.%介绍了煤炭高效燃烧、新型煤化工及碳的捕捉和封存等相关的低碳化技术,为发展高碳能源低碳化利用技术、实现低碳经济提供了方向。

  6. Hydrothermal carbonization as innovative technology in sustainable sanitation in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Ariane [Engineers Without Boarders (Germany), Berlin (DE). Project ' ' Carbonization as Sanitation' ' (CaSa)

    2011-07-01

    The need for sustainable systems is apparent as climate change and other adverse anthropogenic activities continue to negatively affect the soil fertility in Africa. One of the indicators of the loss of soil fertility is the continuous decrease in soil organic matter, which is the major building block of a fertile soil. This is mainly attributed to the inappropriate practice of human-beings of taking more substances from the ecosystem than the amount replaced. As the soil fertility is increasingly lost, food insecurity, due to dropped productivity of the soil, is becoming a critical issue in many areas of Africa, Tanzania is not any different in this respect. On the other hand, most people in rural areas of Africa still lack possibilities to cover their daily energy needs in a more sustainable way and many people mainly rely on firewood. This, in turn, has an adverse impact on the climate and the soil, causing a local viscous circle of poor soil and productivity conditions. Moreover, the sanitation coverage of those areas is very low and there is a need for appropriate sanitation systems. Therefore, the aim of this project is, to conduct research on the possibility of establishing a self-sustaining system for the rural areas of Kagera, Tanzania, to address the three basic issues: sanitation, energy supply and soil fertility. The system consists of a small-scale biogas digester, a urine diverting dehydrating toilet (UDDT) and an adaptive hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) unit. Biogas is produced from crop residues and other domestic organic waste. The fermentation residues and the dehydrated fecal matter from the UDDT is then treated with HTC. The carbonised and sanitized residue is then applied as soil amendment to improve the soil fertility as manifested by the Terra Preta in the Amazon. This holistic approach is a new development in ecological sanitation. Therefore, a comprehensive sustainability assessment including environmental, economic and socio

  7. Using co-metabolism to accelerate synthetic starch wastewater degradation and nutrient recovery in photosynthetic bacterial wastewater treatment technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haifeng; Zhang, Guangming; Lu, Yufeng; Zhang, Yuanhui; Li, Baoming; Cao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Starch wastewater is a type of nutrient-rich wastewater that contains numerous macromolecular polysaccharides. Using photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) to treat starch wastewater can reduce pollutants and enhance useful biomass production. However, PSB cannot directly degrade macromolecular polysaccharides, which weakens the starch degradation effect. Therefore, co-metabolism with primary substances was employed in PSB wastewater treatment to promote starch degradation. The results indicated that co-metabolism is a highly effective method in synthetic starch degradation by PSB. When malic acid was used as the optimal primary substrate, the chemical oxygen demand, total sugar, macromolecules removal and biomass yield were considerably higher than when primary substances were not used, respectively. Malic acid was the primary substrate that played a highly important role in starch degradation. It promoted the alpha-amylase activity to 46.8 U and the PSB activity, which induced the degradation of macromolecules. The products in the wastewater were ethanol, acetic acid and propionic acid. Ethanol was the primary product throughout the degradation process. The introduction of co-metabolism with malic acid to treat wastewater can accelerate macromolecules degradation and bioresource production and weaken the acidification effect. This method provides another pathway for bioresource recovery from wastewater. This approach is a sustainable and environmentally friendly wastewater treatment technology.

  8. Trends in Global Demonstrations of Carbon Management Technologies to Advance Coal- Based Power Generation With Carbon Capture and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, K. K.; Plasynski, S.; Feeley, T. J.

    2008-05-01

    Atmospheric CO2 concentrations increased an estimated 35% since preindustrial levels two centuries ago, reportedly due to the burning of fossil fuels combined with increased deforestation. In the U.S., energy-related activities account for 75% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, with more than 50% from large stationary sources such as power plants and about one-third from transportation. Mitigation technologies for CO2 atmospheric stabilization based on energy and economic scenarios include coal-based power plant- carbon capture and storage (CCS), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is assessing CCS operations and supporting technologies at U.S. locations and opportunities abroad reported here. The Algerian In Salah Joint Industry Project injecting 1 million tons CO2 (MtCO2)/year into a gas field sandstone, and the Canadian Weyburn-Midale CO2 Monitoring and Storage Project injecting over 1.8 MtCO2/year into carbonate oil reservoirs are ongoing industrial-scale storage operations DOE participates in. DOE also supports mid-scale CCS demonstrations at the Australian Otway Project and CO2SINK in Germany. Enhanced oil recovery operations conducted for decades in west Texas and elsewhere have provided the industrial experience to build on, and early pilots such as Frio-I Texas in 2004 have spearheaded technology deployment. While injecting 1,600 tons of CO2 into a saline sandstone at Frio, time-lapse borehole and surface seismic detected P-wave velocity decreases and reflection amplitude changes resulting from the replacement of brine with CO2 in the reservoir. Just two of many cutting-edge technologies tested at Frio, these and others are now deployed by U.S. researchers with international teams to evaluate reservoir injectivity, capacity, and integrity, as well as to assess CO2 spatial distribution, trapping, and unlikely leakage. Time-lapse Vertical Seismic Profiling at Otway and microseismic at In Salah and Otway, monitor injection and reservoir

  9. Hadron accelerators for radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Hywel; MacKay, Ranald; Peach, Ken; Smith, Susan

    2014-04-01

    Over the last twenty years the treatment of cancer with protons and light nuclei such as carbon ions has moved from being the preserve of research laboratories into widespread clinical use. A number of choices now exist for the creation and delivery of these particles, key amongst these being the adoption of pencil beam scanning using a rotating gantry; attention is now being given to what technologies will enable cheaper and more effective treatment in the future. In this article the physics and engineering used in these hadron therapy facilities is presented, and the research areas likely to lead to substantive improvements. The wider use of superconducting magnets is an emerging trend, whilst further ahead novel high-gradient acceleration techniques may enable much smaller treatment systems. Imaging techniques to improve the accuracy of treatment plans must also be developed hand-in-hand with future sources of particles, a notable example of which is proton computed tomography.

  10. Viability of 3 D Woven Carbon Cloth and Advanced Carbon-Carbon Ribs for Adaptive Deployable Entry Placement Technology (ADEPT) for Future NASA Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Arnold, James O.; Peterson, K. H.; Blosser, M. L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes aerothermodynamic and thermal structural testing that demonstrate the viability of three dimensional woven carbon cloth and advanced carbon-carbon (ACC) ribs for use in the Adaptive Deployable Entry Placement Technology (ADEPT). ADEPT is an umbrella-like entry system that is folded for stowage in the launch vehicle's shroud and deployed prior to reaching the atmeopheric interface. A key feature of the ADEPT concept is a lower ballistic coefficient for delivery of a given payload than seen with conventional, rigid body entry systems. The benefits that accrue from the lower ballistic coefficient incllude factor-of-ten reductions of deceleration forces and entry heating. The former enables consideration of new classes of scientific instruments for solar system exploration while the latter enables the design of a more efficient thermal protection system. The carbon cloth base lined for ADEPT has a dual use in that it serves as the thermal protection system and as the "skin" that transfers aerdynamic deceleration loads to its umbrella-like substructure. Arcjet testing described in this paper was conducted for some of the higher heating conditions for a future Venus mission using the ADEPT concept, thereby showing that the carbon cloth can perform in a relevant entry environment. Recently completed the thermal structural testing of the cloth attached to a representative ACC rib design is also described. Finally, this paper describes a preliminary engineering level code, based on the arcjet data, that can be used to estimate cloth thickness for future ADEPT missions and to predict carbon cloth performance in future arcjet tests.

  11. Investigating public perceptions of carbon dioxide utilisation (CDU) technology: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C R; Kaklamanou, D; Stuttard, W M; Radford, R L; Burley, J

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide utilisation (CDU) technologies hold promise for helping to limit atmospheric releases of CO2 while generating saleable products. However, while there is growing investment in the research and development required to bring CDU to the market, to date there has been very little systematic research into public perceptions of the technology. The current research reports upon the findings of a series of six qualitative focus groups (and an associated questionnaire) held with members of the UK public in order to discuss the perceived benefits and risks of CDU technology. The findings reveal that public awareness of CDU is currently very low and that there is a desire to learn more about the technology. While our participants did, on average, appear to develop an overall positive attitude towards CDU, this attitude was tentative and was associated with a number of caveats. The implications for the findings in terms of the development of communication and broader strategies of public engagements are outlined.

  12. Laser acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, T.; Nakajima, K.; Mourou, G.

    2017-02-01

    The fundamental idea of Laser Wakefield Acceleration (LWFA) is reviewed. An ultrafast intense laser pulse drives coherent wakefield with a relativistic amplitude robustly supported by the plasma. While the large amplitude of wakefields involves collective resonant oscillations of the eigenmode of the entire plasma electrons, the wake phase velocity ˜ c and ultrafastness of the laser pulse introduce the wake stability and rigidity. A large number of worldwide experiments show a rapid progress of this concept realization toward both the high-energy accelerator prospect and broad applications. The strong interest in this has been spurring and stimulating novel laser technologies, including the Chirped Pulse Amplification, the Thin Film Compression, the Coherent Amplification Network, and the Relativistic Mirror Compression. These in turn have created a conglomerate of novel science and technology with LWFA to form a new genre of high field science with many parameters of merit in this field increasing exponentially lately. This science has triggered a number of worldwide research centers and initiatives. Associated physics of ion acceleration, X-ray generation, and astrophysical processes of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are reviewed. Applications such as X-ray free electron laser, cancer therapy, and radioisotope production etc. are considered. A new avenue of LWFA using nanomaterials is also emerging.

  13. Industrial Application of Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    At CERN, we are very familiar with large, high energy particle accelerators. However, in the world outside CERN, there are more than 35000 accelerators which are used for applications ranging from treating cancer, through making better electronics to removing harmful micro-organisms from food and water. These are responsible for around $0.5T of commerce each year. Almost all are less than 20 MeV and most use accelerator types that are somewhat different from what is at CERN. These lectures will describe some of the most common applications, some of the newer applications in development and the accelerator technology used for them. It will also show examples of where technology developed for particle physics is now being studied for these applications. Rob Edgecock is a Professor of Accelerator Science, with a particular interest in the medical applications of accelerators. He works jointly for the STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the International Institute for Accelerator Applications at the Univer...

  14. Industrial Application of Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    At CERN, we are very familiar with large, high energy particle accelerators. However, in the world outside CERN, there are more than 35000 accelerators which are used for applications ranging from treating cancer, through making better electronics to removing harmful micro-organisms from food and water. These are responsible for around $0.5T of commerce each year. Almost all are less than 20 MeV and most use accelerator types that are somewhat different from what is at CERN. These lectures will describe some of the most common applications, some of the newer applications in development and the accelerator technology used for them. It will also show examples of where technology developed for particle physics is now being studied for these applications. Rob Edgecock is a Professor of Accelerator Science, with a particular interest in the medical applications of accelerators. He works jointly for the STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the International Institute for Accelerator Applications at the Uni...

  15. Opportunities and challenges for innovation in the design of low-carbon energy technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Araceli; Kjær, Tyge; Andersen, Jan;

    2012-01-01

    Footprint, concepts and tools from Life Cycle Assessment, and relevant elements from eco-efficiency theoretical frameworks. Often systemic approaches tend to be driven by completely rational models. However, our main contribution is to consider a more holistic approach that also includes socio......Though there is broad consensus that one of the solutions to the current environmental challenge will be based on the use of low-carbon technologies, and even though there is a big potential to turn to a more sustainable design and innovation, there are several elements that need to be taken...... as a study object and discusses the question: What are the main possibilities and challenges when designing low-carbon illumination technologies? To answer this question, we use a systemic approach including environmental, economic, energy and political issues using relevant concepts from the Ecological...

  16. Functional nanostructured hydrothermal carbons for sustainable technologies : heteroatom doping and superheated vapor

    OpenAIRE

    Wohlgemuth, Stephanie-Angelika

    2012-01-01

    The underlying motivation for the work carried out for this thesis was the growing need for more sustainable technologies. The aim was to synthesize a “palette” of functional nanomaterials using the established technique of hydrothermal carbonization (HTC). The incredible diversity of HTC was demonstrated together with small but steady advances in how HTC can be manipulated to tailor material properties for specific applications. Two main strategies were used to modify the materials obtained ...

  17. A semi-analytical solution to accelerate spin-up of a coupled carbon and nitrogen land model to steady state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Xia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The spin-up of land models to steady state of coupled carbon-nitrogen processes is computationally so costly that it becomes a~bottleneck issue for global analysis. In this study, we introduced a semi-analytical solution (SAS for the spin-up issue. SAS is fundamentally based on the analytic solution to a set of equations that describe carbon transfers within ecosystems over time. SAS is implemented by three steps: (1 having an initial spin-up with prior pool-size values until net primary productivity (NPP reaches steady state, (2 calculating quasi steady-state pool sizes by letting fluxes of the equations equal zero, and (3 having a final spin-up to meet the criterion of steady state. Step 2 is enabled by averaged time-varying variables over one period of repeated driving forcings. SAS was applied to both site-level and global scale spin-up of the Australian Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE model. For the carbon-cycle-only simulations, SAS saved 95.7% and 92.4% of computational time for site-level and global spin-up, respectively, in comparison with the traditional method. For the carbon-nitrogen-coupled simulations, SAS reduced computational cost by 84.5% and 86.6% for site-level and global spin-up, respectively. The estimated steady-state pool sizes represent the ecosystem carbon storage capacity, which was 12.1 kg C m−2 with the coupled carbon-nitrogen global model, 14.6% lower than that with the carbon-only model. The nitrogen down-regulation in modeled carbon storage is partly due to the 4.6% decrease in carbon influx (i.e., net primary productivity and partly due to the 10.5% reduction in residence times. This steady-state analysis accelerated by the SAS method can facilitate comparative studies of structural differences in determining the ecosystem carbon storage capacity among biogeochemical models. Overall, the computational efficiency of SAS potentially permits many global analyses that are impossible

  18. Accelerator Science and Technology in Canada -- From the Microtron to TRIUMF, Superconducting Cyclotrons and the Canadian Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, M. K.; Laxdal, R. E.

    As elsewhere, accelerators in Canada have evolved from modest beginnings to major facilities such as TRIUMF (currently with the highest-power driver for rare isotope beam production) and the third generation Canadian Light Source. Highlights along the way include construction of the first microtron, the first racetrack microtron and the first superconducting cyclotron (to which list might have been added the first pulse stretcher ring, had it been funded sooner). This article will summarize the history of accelerators in Canada, documenting both the successes and the near-misses. Besides the research accelerators, a thriving commercial sector has developed, manufacturing small cyclotrons and linacs, beam line components and superconducting rf cavities.

  19. Accelerator Science and Technology in Canada — From the Microtron to TRIUMF, Superconducting Cyclotrons and the Canadian Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, M. K.; Laxdal, R. E.

    As elsewhere, accelerators in Canada have evolved from modest beginnings to major facilities such as TRIUMF (currently with the highest-power driver for rare isotope beam production) and the third generation Canadian Light Source. Highlights along the way include construction of the first microtron, the first racetrack microtron and the first superconducting cyclotron (to which list might have been added the first pulse stretcher ring, had it been funded sooner). This article will summarize the history of accelerators in Canada, documenting both the successes and the near-misses. Besides the research accelerators, a thriving commercial sector has developed, manufacturing small cyclotrons and linacs, beam line components and superconducting rf cavities.

  20. Final Report on "Development and Testing of Advanced Accelerator Structures and Technologies at 11.424 GHz"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gold, Steven H. [Naval Research Laboratory

    2013-10-13

    This is the final report on the research program ?Development and Testing of Advanced Accelerator Structures and Technologies at 11.424 GHz,? which was carried out by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) under Interagency Agreement DE?AI02?01ER41170 with the Department of Energy. The period covered by this report is 15 July 2010 ? 14 July 2013. The program included two principal tasks. Task 1 involved a study of the key physics issues related to the use of high gradient dielectric-loaded accelerating (DLA) structures in rf linear accelerators and was carried out in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Euclid Techlabs LLC. Task 2 involved a study of high power active microwave pulse compressors and was carried out in collaboration with Omega-P, Inc. and the Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Nizhny Novgorod. The studies under Task 1 were focused on rf-induced multipactor and breakdown in externally driven DLA structures at the 200-ns timescale. Suppression of multipactor and breakdown are essential to the practical application of dielectric structures in rf linear accelerators. The structures that were studied were developed by ANL and Euclid Techlabs and their performance was evaluated at high power in the X-band Magnicon Laboratory at NRL. Three structures were designed, fabricated, and tested, and the results analyzed in the first two years of the program: a clamped quartz traveling-wave (TW) structure, a externally copper-coated TW structure, and an externally copper-coated dielectric standing-wave (SW) structure. These structures showed that rf breakdown could be largely eliminated by eliminating dielectric joints in the structures, but that the multipactor loading was omnipresent. In the third year of the program, the focus of the program was on multipactor suppression using a strong applied axial magnetic field, as proposed by Chang et al. [C. Chang et al., J. Appl. Phys. 110, 063304 (2011).], and a

  1. Barriers to the Transfer of Low-carbon Electricity Generation Technologies in Four Latin American Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desgain, Denis DR; Haselip, James Arthur

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the conclusions of four national Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) processes in Latin America (2011-2013), as applied to the electricity sector. The primary focus is on the financial and economic barriers identified by countries to the transfer of prioritized low-carbon ene......This article discusses the conclusions of four national Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) processes in Latin America (2011-2013), as applied to the electricity sector. The primary focus is on the financial and economic barriers identified by countries to the transfer of prioritized low......-carbon energy technologies. While many electricity markets in Latin America were liberalized during the 1990s and 2000s, such market-driven reform policies were far from uniform and in reality there exist a diversity of governance frameworks for national electricity markets, exemplified here by Argentina, Cuba...... to the debate about the relationship between financial and economic barriers to technology transfer and electricity market structures, based on a new round of country-driven priorities and analysis, in support of the UNFCCC process on climate change mitigation....

  2. Impact accelerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongierke, H. E.; Brinkley, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    The degree to which impact acceleration is an important factor in space flight environments depends primarily upon the technology of capsule landing deceleration and the weight permissible for the associated hardware: parachutes or deceleration rockets, inflatable air bags, or other impact attenuation systems. The problem most specific to space medicine is the potential change of impact tolerance due to reduced bone mass and muscle strength caused by prolonged weightlessness and physical inactivity. Impact hazards, tolerance limits, and human impact tolerance related to space missions are described.

  3. Non-invasive technology that improves cardiac function after experimental myocardial infarction: Whole Body Periodic Acceleration (pGz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkady Uryash

    Full Text Available Myocardial infarction (MI may produce significant inflammatory changes and adverse ventricular remodeling leading to heart failure and premature death. Pharmacologic, stem cell transplantation, and exercise have not halted the inexorable rise in the prevalence and great economic costs of heart failure despite extensive investigations of such treatments. New therapeutic modalities are needed. Whole Body Periodic Acceleration (pGz is a non-invasive technology that increases pulsatile shear stress to the endothelium thereby producing several beneficial cardiovascular effects as demonstrated in animal models, normal humans and patients with heart disease. pGz upregulates endothelial derived nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and its phosphorylation (p-eNOS to improve myocardial function in models of myocardial stunning and preconditioning. Here we test whether pGz applied chronically after focal myocardial infarction in rats improves functional outcomes from MI. Focal MI was produced by left coronary artery ligation. One day after ligation animals were randomized to receive daily treatments of pGz for four weeks (MI-pGz or serve as controls (MI-CONT, with an additional group as non-infarction controls (Sham. Echocardiograms and invasive pressure volume loop analysis were carried out. Infarct transmurality, myocardial fibrosis, and markers of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines were determined along with protein analysis of eNOS, p-eNOS and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS.At four weeks, survival was 80% in MI-pGz vs 50% in MI-CONT (p< 0.01. Ejection fraction and fractional shortening and invasive pressure volume relation indices of afterload and contractility were significantly better in MI-pGz. The latter where associated with decreased infarct transmurality and decreased fibrosis along with increased eNOS, p-eNOS. Additionally, MI-pGz had significantly lower levels of iNOS, inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, and higher level of anti

  4. Non-Invasive Technology That Improves Cardiac Function after Experimental Myocardial Infarction: Whole Body Periodic Acceleration (pGz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurlansky, Paul; Altamirano, Francisco; Lopez, Jose R.

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) may produce significant inflammatory changes and adverse ventricular remodeling leading to heart failure and premature death. Pharmacologic, stem cell transplantation, and exercise have not halted the inexorable rise in the prevalence and great economic costs of heart failure despite extensive investigations of such treatments. New therapeutic modalities are needed. Whole Body Periodic Acceleration (pGz) is a non-invasive technology that increases pulsatile shear stress to the endothelium thereby producing several beneficial cardiovascular effects as demonstrated in animal models, normal humans and patients with heart disease. pGz upregulates endothelial derived nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and its phosphorylation (p-eNOS) to improve myocardial function in models of myocardial stunning and preconditioning. Here we test whether pGz applied chronically after focal myocardial infarction in rats improves functional outcomes from MI. Focal MI was produced by left coronary artery ligation. One day after ligation animals were randomized to receive daily treatments of pGz for four weeks (MI-pGz) or serve as controls (MI-CONT), with an additional group as non-infarction controls (Sham). Echocardiograms and invasive pressure volume loop analysis were carried out. Infarct transmurality, myocardial fibrosis, and markers of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines were determined along with protein analysis of eNOS, p-eNOS and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS).At four weeks, survival was 80% in MI-pGz vs 50% in MI-CONT (p< 0.01). Ejection fraction and fractional shortening and invasive pressure volume relation indices of afterload and contractility were significantly better in MI-pGz. The latter where associated with decreased infarct transmurality and decreased fibrosis along with increased eNOS, p-eNOS. Additionally, MI-pGz had significantly lower levels of iNOS, inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α), and higher level of anti

  5. Interactions between biomass energy technologies and nutrient and carbon balances at the farm level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, Uffe; Molt Petersen, B. [Danish Inst. of Agricultural Science, Dept. of Agroecology, Tjele (Denmark)

    2006-08-15

    Biomass energy is by far the largest renewable energy source in the world (IEA Renewable information (www.iea.org)). Biomass utilisation is closely linked to management and sustainability issues of forestry and agriculture. Carbon is extracted from forests and agriculture to bioenergy facilities, from where it is partly or fully emitted as CO{sub 2} and thus no longer available for sustaining soil organic matter content. Nutrients are extracted as well and, depending of the conversion technology, they may be recycled to farmland or lost as gaseous emissions. Thus, we must be able to describe these effects, and to suggest strategies to alleviate adverse effects on farm sustainability and on the environment. By choosing intelligent combinations of cropping systems and energy conversion technologies, win-win solutions may be achieved. This paper illustrates, via three cases, some agricultural impacts of choice of biomass technology and describes an intriguing possibility for recycling municipal or industrial wastes through the bioenergy chain. (au)

  6. Barriers to the Transfer of Low-carbon Electricity Generation Technologies in Four Latin American Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desgain, Denis DR; Haselip, James Arthur

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the conclusions of four national Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) processes in Latin America (2011-2013), as applied to the electricity sector. The primary focus is on the financial and economic barriers identified by countries to the transfer of prioritized low-carbon ene......This article discusses the conclusions of four national Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) processes in Latin America (2011-2013), as applied to the electricity sector. The primary focus is on the financial and economic barriers identified by countries to the transfer of prioritized low...... to the debate about the relationship between financial and economic barriers to technology transfer and electricity market structures, based on a new round of country-driven priorities and analysis, in support of the UNFCCC process on climate change mitigation....

  7. Chemical and Biological Catalytic Enhancement of Weathering of Silicate Minerals and industrial wastes as a Novel Carbon Capture and Storage Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, A. H. A.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere is attributed to rising consumption of fossil fuels around the world. The development of solutions to reduce CO2 emissions to the atmosphere is one of the most urgent needs of today's society. One of the most stable and long-term solutions for storing CO2 is via carbon mineralization, where minerals containing metal oxides of Ca or Mg are reacted with CO2 to produce thermodynamically stable Ca- and Mg-carbonates that are insoluble in water. Carbon mineralization can be carried out in-situ or ex-situ. In the case of in-situ mineralization, the degree of carbonation is thought to be limited by both mineral dissolution and carbonate precipitation reaction kinetics, and must be well understood to predict the ultimate fate of CO2 within geological reservoirs. While the kinetics of in-situ mineral trapping via carbonation is naturally slow, it can be enhanced at high temperature and high partial pressure of CO2. The addition of weak organic acids produced from food waste has also been shown to enhance mineral weathering kinetics. In the case of the ex-situ carbon mineralization, the role of these ligand-bearing organic acids can be further amplified for silicate mineral dissolution. Unfortunately, high mineral dissolution rates often lead to the formation of a silica-rich passivation layer on the surface of silicate minerals. Thus, the use of novel solvent mixture that allows chemically catalyzed removal of this passivation layer during enhanced Mg-leaching surface reaction has been proposed and demonstrated. Furthermore, an engineered biological catalyst, carbonic anhydrase, has been developed and evaluated to accelerate the hydration of CO2, which is another potentially rate-limiting step of the carbonation reaction. The development of these novel catalytic reaction schemes has significantly improved the overall efficiency and sustainability of in-situ and ex-situ mineral carbonation technologies and allowed direct

  8. Applications of Advanced Technology for Monitoring Forest Carbon to Support Climate Change Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsey, R.; Hurtt, G. C.; Dubayah, R.; Hagen, S. C.; Vargas, R.; Nehrkorn, T.; Domke, G. M.; Houghton, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Measurement, Reporting, and Verification (MRV) is a broad concept guiding the application of monitoring technology to the needs of countries or entities for reporting and verifying reductions in greenhouse gas emissions or increases in greenhouse gas sinks. Credibility, cost-effectiveness, and compatibility are important features of global MRV efforts that can support implementation of climate change mitigation programs such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation and Sustainable Forest Management (REDD+). Applications of MRV technology may be tailored to individual country circumstances following guidance provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; hence, there is no single approach that is uniquely viable but rather a range of ways to integrate new MRV methods. MRV technology is advancing rapidly with new remote sensing and advanced measurement of atmospheric CO2, and in situ terrestrial and ocean measurements, coupled with improvements in data analysis, modeling, and assessing uncertainty. Here we briefly summarize some of the most application-ready MRV technologies being developed under NASA's Carbon Monitoring System (CMS) program, and illustrate how these technologies may be applied for monitoring forests using several case studies that span a range of scales, country circumstances, and stakeholder reporting requirements. We also include remarks about the potential role of advanced monitoring technology in the context of the global climate accord that is expected to result from the 21st session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which is expected to take place in December 2015, in Paris, France.

  9. Radiosensitivity of pimonidazole-unlabelled intratumour quiescent cell population to γ-rays, accelerated carbon ion beams and boron neutron capture reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunaga, S; Sakurai, Y; Tanaka, H; Hirayama, R; Matsumoto, Y; Uzawa, A; Suzuki, M; Kondo, N; Narabayashi, M; Maruhashi, A; Ono, K

    2013-01-01

    Objective To detect the radiosensitivity of intratumour quiescent (Q) cells unlabelled with pimonidazole to accelerated carbon ion beams and the boron neutron capture reaction (BNCR). Methods EL4 tumour-bearing C57BL/J mice received 5-bromo-29-deoxyuridine (BrdU) continuously to label all intratumour proliferating (P) cells. After the administration of pimonidazole, tumours were irradiated with c-rays, accelerated carbon ion beams or reactor neutron beams with the prior administration of a 10B-carrier. Responses of intratumour Q and total (P+Q) cell populations were assessed based on frequencies of micronucleation and apoptosis using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. The response of pimonidazole-unlabelled tumour cells was assessed by means of apoptosis frequency using immunofluorescence staining for pimonidazole. Results Following c-ray irradiation, the pimonidazole-unlabelled tumour cell fraction showed significantly enhanced radiosensitivity compared with the whole tumour cell fraction, more remarkably in the Q than total cell populations. However, a significantly greater decrease in radiosensitivity in the pimonidazole-unlabelled cell fraction, evaluated using a delayed assay or a decrease in radiation dose rate, was more clearly observed among the Q than total cells. These changes in radiosensitivity were suppressed following carbon ion beam and neutron beam-only irradiaton. In the BNCR, the use of a 10B-carrier, especially L-para-boronophenylalanine-10B, enhanced the sensitivity of the pimonidazole-unlabelled cells more clearly in the Q than total cells. Conclusion The radiosensitivity of the pimonidazole-unlabelled cell fraction depends on the quality of radiation delivered and characteristics of the 10B-carrier used in the BNCR. Advances in knowledge The pimonidazole-unlabelled subfraction of Q tumour cells may be a critical target in tumour control. PMID:23255546

  10. Contributions To The 9th Workshop On Rf Superconductivity, Accelerator Technology For The 21st Century (rf Superconductivity Activities At Lal Accelerating Field Measurement In 3 Ghz Pulsed Cavities Design And Test Of A 1.3 Ghz Travelling Wave Window

    CERN Document Server

    Le Duff, J; Thomas, C

    2000-01-01

    Contributions To The 9th Workshop On Rf Superconductivity, Accelerator Technology For The 21st Century (rf Superconductivity Activities At Lal Accelerating Field Measurement In 3 Ghz Pulsed Cavities Design And Test Of A 1.3 Ghz Travelling Wave Window

  11. Technology collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Jacob [Halliburton (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to present Halliburton's Brazilian technology center. Halliburton has technology centers in the United States, Saudi Arabia, India, Singapore and Brazil, all of which aim at delivering accelerated innovation in the oil sector. The technology centers engage in research and development activities with the help of various universities and in collaboration with the customer or supplier. The Halliburton Brazil technology center provides its customers with timely research and development solutions for enhancing recovery and mitigating reservoir uncertainty; they are specialized in finding solutions for pre- and post-salt carbonate drilling and in the enhancement of production from mature fields. This presentation showcased the work carried out by the Halliburton Brazil technology center to help customers develop their deepwater field activities.

  12. The Relationship between Low-carbon Agriculture and Agricultural Science and Technology Based on Gray Relational Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Ai-xiang

    2012-01-01

    The agricultural energy consumption per unit of GDP is selected as an indicator for measuring the development level of low-carbon agriculture. Using gray relational theory, I analyze the relationship between development level of agricultural science and technology and development level of low-carbon agriculture in China. The results show that the correlation between the two is prominent; the number of agricultural science and technology talents, the number of agricultural science and technology patents, and the number of agricultural science and technology input are three major factors influencing the development of low-carbon agriculture. On this basis, I propose to take further effective measures, and put forth corresponding recommendations, in order to improve the level of agricultural science and technology.

  13. An effective method of UV-oxidation of dissolved organic carbon in natural waters for radiocarbon analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yuejun; Ge, Tiantian; Wang, Xuchen

    2015-12-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) measurement of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a very powerful tool to study the sources, transformation and cycling of carbon in the ocean. The technique, however, remains great challenges for complete and successful oxidation of sufficient DOC with low blanks for high precision carbon isotopic ratio analysis, largely due to the overwhelming proportion of salts and low DOC concentrations in the ocean. In this paper, we report an effective UV-Oxidation method for oxidizing DOC in natural waters for radiocarbon analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The UV-oxidation system and method show 95%±4% oxidation efficiency and high reproducibility for DOC in both river and seawater samples. The blanks associated with the method was also low (about 3 µg C) that is critical for 14C analysis. As a great advantage of the method, multiple water samples can be oxidized at the same time so it reduces the sample processing time substantially compared with other UV-oxidation method currently being used in other laboratories. We have used the system and method for 14C studies of DOC in rivers, estuaries, and oceanic environments and have received promise results.

  14. Towards a novel laser-driven method of exotic nuclei extraction-acceleration for fundamental physics and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiuchi, M.; Sakaki, H.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Nishio, K.; Pikuz, T. A.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Skobelev, I. Yu.; Orlandi, R.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Sagisaka, A.; Ogura, K.; Kanasaki, M.; Kiriyama, H.; Fukuda, Y.; Koura, H.; Kando, M.; Yamauchi, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Bulanov, S. V.; Kondo, K.; Imai, K.; Nagamiya, S.

    2016-04-01

    A combination of a petawatt laser and nuclear physics techniques can crucially facilitate the measurement of exotic nuclei properties. With numerical simulations and laser-driven experiments we show prospects for the Laser-driven Exotic Nuclei extraction-acceleration method proposed in [M. Nishiuchi et al., Phys, Plasmas 22, 033107 (2015)]: a femtosecond petawatt laser, irradiating a target bombarded by an external ion beam, extracts from the target and accelerates to few GeV highly charged short-lived heavy exotic nuclei created in the target via nuclear reactions.

  15. Carbon nanotube high-performance logic technology - challenges and current progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shu-Jen

    2015-03-01

    In the last four decades, we have witnessed a tremendous information technology revolution originated from the relentless scaling of Si complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) devices. CMOS scaling provides ever-improved transistor performance, density, power and cost, and will continue to bring new applications and functions to our daily life. However, the conventional homogeneous scaling of silicon devices has become very difficult, firstly due to the unsatisfactory electrostatic control from the gate dielectric. In addition, as we look forward to the technology nodes with sub-10 nm channel length, non-Si based channel materials will be required to provide continuous carrier velocity enhancement when the conventional strained-Si techniques run out of steam. Single-walled carbon nanotubes are promising to replace silicon as the channel material for high-performance electronics near the end of silicon scaling roadmap, with their superb electrical properties, intrinsic ultrathin body, and nearly transparent contact with certain metals. This talk discusses recent advances in modeling and experimental works that reveal the properties and potential of ultra-scaled nanotube transistors, separation and assembly techniques for forming nanotube arrays with high semiconducting nanotube purity and tight pitch separation, and engineering aspects of their implementation in integrated circuits and functional systems. A concluding discussion highlights most significant challenges from technology points of view, and provides perspectives on the future of carbon nanotube based nanoelectronics.

  16. An international partnership approach to clean energy technology innovation: Carbon capture and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoliang

    Is a global research partnership effective in developing, deploying, and diffusing clean energy technologies? Drawing on and extending innovation system studies, this doctoral dissertation elaborates an analytical model for a global technology learning system; examines the rationales, mechanisms, and effectiveness of the United States-- China Clean Energy Research Center Advanced Coal Technology Consortium (CERC-ACTC); and analyzes government's role in developing and implementing carbon capture and storage technologies in the United States (U.S.) and China. Studies have shown that successful technology innovation leads to economic prosperity and national competence, and prove that technology innovation does not happen in isolation but rather within interactive systems among stakeholders. However, the innovation process itself remains unclear, particularly with regard to interactive learning among and between major institutional actors, including technology developers, regulators, and financial organizations. This study seeks to advance scholarship on the interactive learning from the angle of global interactive learning. This dissertation research project seeks, as well, to inform policy-makers of how to strengthen international collaboration in clean energy technology development. The U.S.--China CERC-ACTC announced by Presidents Obama and Hu in 2009, provided a unique opportunity to close this scholarly gap. ACTC aimed to "advance the coal technology needed to safely, effectively, and efficiently utilize coal resources including the ability to capture, store, and utilize the emissions from coal use in both nations " through the joint research and development by U.S. and Chinese scientists and engineers. This dissertation project included one-year field research in the two countries, with in-depth interviews of key stakeholders, a survey of Consortium participants, analysis of available data, and site visits to collaborative research projects from 2013-2014. This

  17. March 2008 - ITER Organization Director-General K.Ikeda and Deputy Director-General N. Holtkamp, visiting the ATLAS cavern with Spokesperson P. Jenni, Accelerators Technology Department Head P. Lebrun and LHC Mangnets Group Leader L. Rossi.

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2008-01-01

    March 2008 - ITER Organization Director-General K.Ikeda and Deputy Director-General N. Holtkamp, visiting the ATLAS cavern with Spokesperson P. Jenni, Accelerators Technology Department Head P. Lebrun and LHC Mangnets Group Leader L. Rossi.

  18. 7 March 2013 -Stanford University Professor N. McKeown FREng, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and B. Leslie, Creative Labs visiting CERN Control Centre and the LHC tunnel with Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers.

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    7 March 2013 -Stanford University Professor N. McKeown FREng, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and B. Leslie, Creative Labs visiting CERN Control Centre and the LHC tunnel with Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers.

  19. Japanese challenge to create a low carbon society - 'Clean coal technologies, now and future'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagaki, Yoshihiko; Yoshida, Minoru; Noguchi, Yoshikazu

    2010-09-15

    Under the increase of world energy demand, especially in major developing countries, energy demand will not be satisfied without coal. It is true that 30% of carbon dioxide emission is from coal-fired power stations, and there is no other effective solution than abating these emissions. The key is Clean Coal Technologies (CCT), to make power stations to low carbon. It is necessary to develop and transfer these CCTs together with developed and developing countries. Japan, who has excellent CCTs, should play an important role to develop higher innovative technologies and is challenging to make a low carbon society in the world.

  20. Development of molten carbonate fuel cell technology at M-C Power Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilger, D. [M-C Power Corp., Burr Ridge, IL (United States)

    1996-04-01

    M-C Power Corporation was founded in 1987 with the mission to further develop and subsequently commercialize molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC). The technology chosen for commercialization was initially developed by the Institute of Gas technology (IGT). At the center of this MCFC technology is the Internally Manifolded Heat EXchange (IMHEX) separator plate design. The IMHEX technology design provides several functions within one component assembly. These functions include integrating the gas manifold structure into the fuel cell stack, separating the fuel gas stream from the oxidant gas stream, providing the required electrical contact between cells to achieve desired power output, and removing excess heat generated in the electrochemical process. Development of this MCFC technology from lab-scale sizes too a commercial area size of 1m{sup 2} has focused our efforts an demonstrating feasibility and evolutionary progress. The development effort will culminate in a proof-of-concept- 250kW power plant demonstration in 1996. The remainder of our commercialization program focuses upon lowering the costs associated with the MCFC power plant system in low production volumes.

  1. 加速退化试验技术研究、应用与发展%Research, Application and Development of Accelerated Degradation Test Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑德强; 张正平; 李海波; 吴建国; 徐静

    2011-01-01

    长寿命、高可靠性已经成为工业领域产品的发展目标和要求,对传统的可靠性技术研究提出了新的挑战.加速退化试验技术为长寿命、高可靠产品的寿命和可靠性研究提供了一种有效的途径,成为目前研究的热点.在总结国内外的研究成果的基础上,对加速退化试验的研究背景、试验方法、加速退化模型、工程应用和优化设计等进行了综述和研究,最后分析了加速退化试验的研究现状并展望了后续的研究方向.%Long-lifespan and high-reliability has become the development goal and requirement of industrial products,which brings forwards a new challenge to traditional reliability technologies. Accelerated degradation test technology is an effective approach to evaluate the life and reliability of long-lifespan and high-reliability equipment, and becomes a hot spot of research.Based on analysis of domestic and abroad research achievements, the demand background, testing methods, accelerated degradation models, engineering applications and optimization of accelerated degradation testing were summarized and studied. The main research problems of accelerated degradation test were analyzed and the future development direction was prospected.

  2. Synthesis of Ultradisperse Carbon Dioxide Powder with Plasma-Dynamic Method in the Coaxial Magneto-Plasma Accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golyanskaya Evgeniya. O.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most promising trends in modern physics is the high-temperature superconductivity. Analysis of high-temperature superconductors revealed that almost all of them are complex copper-based oxides. Studies have shown the possibility of using them for the synthesis of coaxial magneto accelerator. Studies have identified the products synthesized soot: Cu, Cu2O, CuO, their shape and size. Also been deciphered and electron microscopy confirmed the composition of the nanopowder obtained in laboratory conditions.

  3. Effect of technology innovation and spillovers on the carbon intensity of human well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jifang; Yuan, Jianhong

    2016-01-01

    In order to enhance sustainability, it is necessary to reduce the carbon intensity of human well-being (CIWB). In this paper, we analyze the impact of technology innovation and spillovers on CIWB using panel data of 30 provinces in China from 2005 to 2010. We find that increasing research and development (R&D) intensity and interregional R&D spillovers can decrease CIWB; R&D intensity has a nonlinear effect on CIWB without incorporating interregional R&D spillovers; economic development has positive effect on CIWB, while manufacturing has negative effect on CIWB.

  4. New Technical Risk Management Development for Carbon Capture Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, David W.; Letellier, Bruce; Edwards, Brian; Leclaire, Rene; Jones, Edward

    2012-04-30

    The basic CCSI objective of accelerating technology development and commercial deployment of carbon capture technologies through the extensive use of numerical simulation introduces a degree of unfamiliarity and novelty that potentially increases both of the traditional risk elements. In order to secure investor confidence and successfully accelerate the marketability of carbon capture technologies, it is critical that risk management decision tools be developed in parallel with numerical simulation capabilities and uncertainty quantification efforts. The focus of this paper is on the development of a technical risk model that incorporates the specific technology maturity development (level).

  5. Subattomole sensitivity in biological accelerator mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehpour, Mehran; Possnert, Göran; Bryhni, Helge

    2008-05-15

    The Uppsala University 5 MV Pelletron tandem accelerator has been used to study (14)C-labeled biological samples utilizing accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) technology. We have adapted a sample preparation method for small biological samples down to a few tens of micrograms of carbon, involving among others, miniaturizing of the graphitization reactor. Standard AMS requires about 1 mg of carbon with a limit of quantitation of about 10 amol. Results are presented for a range of small sample sizes with concentrations down to below 1 pM of a pharmaceutical substance in human blood. It is shown that (14)C-labeled molecular markers can be routinely measured from the femtomole range down to a few hundred zeptomole (10 (-21) mol), without the use of any additional separation methods.

  6. Arcjet Testing of Woven Carbon Cloth for Use on Adaptive Deployable Entry Placement Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, James O.; laub, Bernard; Chen, Yih-Kang; Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Bittner, M. E.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes arcjet testing and analysis that has successfully demonstrated the viability of three dimensional woven carbon cloth for dual use in the Adaptive Deployable Entry Placement Technology (ADEPT). ADEPT is an umbrella-like entry system that is folded for stowage in the launch vehicle s shroud and deployed in space prior to reaching the atmospheric interface. A key feature of the ADEPT concept is its lower ballistic coefficient for delivery of a given payload than those for conventional, rigid body entry systems. The benefits that accrue from the lower ballistic coefficient include factor of ten reductions of deceleration forces and entry heating. The former enables consideration of new classes of scientific instruments for solar system exploration while the latter enables the design of a more efficient thermal protection system. The carbon cloth now base lined for ADEPT has a dual use in that it serves as ADEPT s thermal protection system and as the "skin" that transfers aerodynamic deceleration loads to its umbrella-like substructure. The arcjet testing described in this paper was conducted for some of the higher heating conditions for a future Venus mission using the ADEPT concept, thereby showing that the carbon cloth can perform in a relevant entry environment. The ADEPT project considered the carbon cloth to be mission enabling and was carrying it as a major risk during Fiscal Year 2012. The testing and analysis reported here played a major role in retiring that risk and is highly significant to the success and possible adoption of ADEPT for future NASA missions. Finally, this paper also describes a preliminary engineering level code, based on the arcjet data, that can be used to estimate cloth thickness for future missions using ADEPT and to predict carbon cloth performance in future arcjet tests.

  7. The Deployment of Low Carbon Technologies in Energy Intensive Industries: A Macroeconomic Analysis for Europe, China and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Nabernegg

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Industrial processes currently contribute 40% to global CO2 emissions and therefore substantial increases in industrial energy efficiency are required for reaching the 2 °C target. We assess the macroeconomic effects of deploying low carbon technologies in six energy intensive industrial sectors (Petroleum, Iron and Steel, Non-metallic Minerals, Paper and Pulp, Chemicals, and Electricity in Europe, China and India in 2030. By combining the GAINS technology model with a macroeconomic computable general equilibrium model, we find that output in energy intensive industries declines in Europe by 6% in total, while output increases in China by 11% and in India by 13%. The opposite output effects emerge because low carbon technologies lead to cost savings in China and India but not in Europe. Consequently, the competitiveness of energy intensive industries is improved in China and India relative to Europe, leading to higher exports to Europe. In all regions, the decarbonization of electricity plays the dominant role for mitigation. We find a rebound effect in China and India, in the size of 42% and 34% CO2 reduction, respectively, but not in Europe. Our results indicate that the range of considered low-carbon technology options is not competitive in the European industrial sectors. To foster breakthrough low carbon technologies and maintain industrial competitiveness, targeted technology policy is therefore needed to supplement carbon pricing.

  8. Application of carbon nanotube technology for removal of contaminants in drinking water: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyayula, Venkata K K; Deng, Shuguang; Mitchell, Martha C; Smith, Geoffrey B

    2009-12-15

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) adsorption technology has the potential to support point of use (POU) based treatment approach for removal of bacterial pathogens, natural organic matter (NOM), and cyanobacterial toxins from water systems. Unlike many microporous adsorbents, CNTs possess fibrous shape with high aspect ratio, large accessible external surface area, and well developed mesopores, all contribute to the superior removal capacities of these macromolecular biomolecules and microorganisms. This article provides a comprehensive review on application of CNTs as adsorbent media to concentrate and remove pathogens, NOM, and cyanobacterial (microcystin derivatives) toxins from water systems. The paper also surveys on consideration of CNT based adsorption filters for removal of these contaminants from cost, operational and safety standpoint. Based on the studied literature it appears that POU based CNT technology looks promising, that can possibly avoid difficulties of treating biological contaminants in conventional water treatment plants, and thereby remove the burden of maintaining the biostability of treated water in the distribution systems.

  9. Application of carbon nanotube technology for removal of contaminants in drinking water: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyayula, Venkata K.K., E-mail: vupadhyayula@fairpoint.net [Microbiology and Applied Biochemistry Division, Air Force Research Labs, 139 Barnes Drive, Suite II, Tyndall Air Force Base, Panama City, FL, 32403 (United States); Deng, Shuguang; Mitchell, Martha C. [Chemical Engineering Department, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, MSC 3805, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Smith, Geoffrey B. [Biology Department, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, MSC 3AF, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) adsorption technology has the potential to support point of use (POU) based treatment approach for removal of bacterial pathogens, natural organic matter (NOM), and cyanobacterial toxins from water systems. Unlike many microporous adsorbents, CNTs possess fibrous shape with high aspect ratio, large accessible external surface area, and well developed mesopores, all contribute to the superior removal capacities of these macromolecular biomolecules and microorganisms. This article provides a comprehensive review on application of CNTs as adsorbent media to concentrate and remove pathogens, NOM, and cyanobacterial (microcystin derivatives) toxins from water systems. The paper also surveys on consideration of CNT based adsorption filters for removal of these contaminants from cost, operational and safety standpoint. Based on the studied literature it appears that POU based CNT technology looks promising, that can possibly avoid difficulties of treating biological contaminants in conventional water treatment plants, and thereby remove the burden of maintaining the biostability of treated water in the distribution systems.

  10. Research on carbonation depth prediction of fiber reinforced shotcrete based on accelerated carbonation experiment%基于快速碳化试验的纤维喷射混凝土碳化深度预测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志杰; 王奇; 孙长升; 何明磊; 董玉辉

    2014-01-01

    Three different shot concretes were texted in the accelerated carbonation experiment.They were steel fiber shot concrete, steel-polypropylene composite shot concrete,and common shot concrete.Carbonation depth prediction formula was estab lished based on the experiment.Calculation results showed a good agreement with the experimental ones.Experiment results showed that the fiber shot con-crete can improve carbonation resistance property effectively.Under the same mix proportion with a suitable fiber fraction amount,carbona-tion resistance property:steel-polypropylene composite shot concrete>steel fiber shot concrete>common shotcrete.The natural carbonation depth prediction model based on experiment was established by analyzing the differences between the natural carbonation and accelerated carbonation.Due to the lack of actual engineering test datum of the fiber reinforced shot concrete,this model still need to be texted and cor-rected according to the actual conditions.%对掺入钢纤维的喷射混凝土、掺入聚丙烯纤维和钢纤维的复合纤维喷射混凝土和普通素混凝土三种喷射混凝土进行快速碳化试验,建立了基于试验的碳化深度预测计算式,该计算式有碳化速度系数和初始碳化难易程度两个常数,经对比与实际吻合良好。试验结果表明:在喷射混凝土中掺入纤维可以有效改善喷射混凝土的抗碳化性能。在配合比相同及纤维掺量适宜的条件下,其抗碳化性:复合纤维喷射混凝土>钢纤维喷射混凝土>普通喷射混凝土。在考虑了自然环境与试验环境的主要区别的基础之上,提出了基于试验的自然环境下纤维喷射混凝土碳化深度的预测模型。由于纤维喷射混凝土实际工程测试数据缺乏,该模型尚需实际检验与修正。

  11. Final Technical Report: Science and technology reviews of FACE[Free Air Carbon Enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strain, Boyd R.

    1998-03-23

    The purpose of this grant was to bring together the principals of all known facilities that had been developed, principals who had submitted proposals to develop FACE facilities, and principals who want to develop proposals for facilities. In addition, critical program personnel from potential funding agencies and a few high level science administrators were invited to observe the proceedings and to visit a working FACE facility. The objectives of this study are to conduct a three-day international meeting on scientific aspects of research with the new and developing free air carbon enrichment (FACE) technology. Immediately following the science meeting, conduct a two-day international meeting on experimental protocols to be applied in FACE research. To conduct a four day international meeting on the assessment of the responses of forest ecosystems to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide. The three meetings supported by this grant were all highly successful meetings and resulted in the formation of an organized and identified working group with the acronym InterFACE (International Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment) working group.

  12. Effects of Particle Filters and Accelerated Engine Replacement on Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicle Emissions of Black Carbon, Nitrogen Oxides, and Ultrafine Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchstetter, T.; Preble, C.; Dallmann, T. R.; DeMartini, S. J.; Tang, N. W.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Hering, S. V.; Harley, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Diesel particle filters have become widely used in the United States since the introduction in 2007 of a more stringent exhaust particulate matter emission standard for new heavy-duty diesel vehicle engines. California has instituted additional regulations requiring retrofit or replacement of older in-use engines to accelerate emission reductions and air quality improvements. This presentation summarizes pollutant emission changes measured over several field campaigns at the Port of Oakland in the San Francisco Bay Area associated with diesel particulate filter use and accelerated modernization of the heavy-duty truck fleet. Pollutants in the exhaust plumes of hundreds of heavy-duty trucks en route to the Port were measured in 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2013. Ultrafine particle number, black carbon (BC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations were measured at a frequency ≤ 1 Hz and normalized to measured carbon dioxide concentrations to quantify fuel-based emission factors (grams of pollutant emitted per kilogram of diesel consumed). The size distribution of particles in truck exhaust plumes was also measured at 1 Hz. In the two most recent campaigns, emissions were linked on a truck-by-truck basis to installed emission control equipment via the matching of transcribed license plates to a Port truck database. Accelerated replacement of older engines with newer engines and retrofit of trucks with diesel particle filters reduced fleet-average emissions of BC and NOx. Preliminary results from the two most recent field campaigns indicate that trucks without diesel particle filters emit 4 times more BC than filter-equipped trucks. Diesel particle filters increase emissions of NO2, however, and filter-equipped trucks have NO2/NOx ratios that are 4 to 7 times greater than trucks without filters. Preliminary findings related to particle size distribution indicate that (a) most trucks emitted particles characterized by a single mode of approximately

  13. Technical Progress Report on Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Jenny Henman; Ben Poulter; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Neil Sampson; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon; Gilberto Tiepolo

    2006-06-30

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st and July 30th 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool. Work is being carried out in Brazil, Belize, Chile, Peru and the USA.

  14. Aspects regarding the efficiency of technology transfer from the national research institutes towards the industry in order to accelerate the development of Romanian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Felicia Nicoara

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, Romania is faced with problems regarding closing the deep economic gap between it and the rest of the EU members. In addition, Romania is concerned with overcoming the difficulties generated by the current economic crisis. The technology transfer of the research results from the scientific field towards the industry is one of the main leverages for the economic development, the innovation development and the competitiveness of the companies. At this point, Romania marks a very low transfer rate of technology between the research institutions and the economy. This is why, increasing and accelerating this rate becomes a vital element for the Romanian economy. The national research institutes are one of the most representative institutions of the national research and development system. With a high capacity of generating scientific results specific to certain national areas of expertise, their potential of transfering technology should be exploited and made more efficient. This paper presents a synthesis of the written works regarding the technology transfer, its role in the economic growth and the factors influencing its efficiency. The paper performs an analysis the current state of the national research institutes and formulates hypotheses regarding the causes leading to the low technology transfer rate, making suggestions on further research studies on how to turn this important process into a more efficient one

  15. Carbon Carbon Composites: An Overview .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rohini Devi

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon carbon composites are a new class of engineering materials that are ceramic in nature but exhibit brittle to pseudoplastic behaviour. Carbon-carbon is a unique all-carbon composite with carbon fibre embeded in carbon matrix and is known as an inverse composite. Due to their excellent thermo-structural properties, carbon-carbon composites are used in specialised application like re-entry nose-tips, leading edges, rocket nozzles, and aircraft brake discs apart from several industrial and biomedical applications. The multidirectional carbon-carbon product technology is versatile and offers design flexibility. This paper describes the multidirectional preform and carbon-carbon process technology and research and development activities within the country. Carbon-carbon product experience at DRDL has also been discussed. Development of carbon-carbon brake discs process technology using the liquid impregnation process is described. Further the test results on material characterisation, thermal, mechanical and tribological properties are presented.

  16. A life-cycle approach to technology, infrastructure, and climate policy decision making: Transitioning to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and low-carbon electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaras, Constantine

    cycle assessment to evaluate options and opportunities for large GHG reductions from plug-in hybrids. After the options and uncertainties are framed, engineering economic analysis is used to evaluate the policy actions required for adoption of PHEVs at scale and the implications for low-carbon electricity investments. A logistic PHEV adoption model is constructed to parameterize implications for low-carbon electricity infrastructure investments and climate policy. This thesis concludes with an examination of what lessons can be learned for climate, innovation, and low-carbon energy policies from the evolution of wind power from an emerging alternative energy technology to a utility-scale power source. Policies to promote PHEVs and other emerging energy technologies can take lessons learned from the successes and challenges of wind power's development to optimize low-carbon energy policy and R&D programs going forward. The need for integrated climate policy, energy policy, sustainability, and urban mobility solutions will accelerate in the next two decades as concerns regarding GHG emissions and petroleum resources continue to be environmental and economic priorities. To assist in informing the discussions on climate policy and low-carbon energy R&D, this research and its methods will provide stakeholders in government and industry with plug-in hybrid and energy policy choices based on life cycle assessment, engineering economics, and systems analysis.

  17. Direct Air Capture of CO2 - an Overview of Carbon Engineering's Technology and Pilot Plant Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, G.; Corless, A.

    2014-12-01

    At Carbon Engineering, we are developing and commercializing technology to scrub CO2 directly from atmospheric air at industrial scale. By providing atmospheric CO2 for use in fuel production, we can enable production of transportation fuels with ultra-low carbon intensities, which command price premiums in the growing set of constrained fuels markets such as California's LCFS. We are a Calgary based startup founded in 2009 with 10 employees, and we are considered a global leader in the direct air capture (DAC) field. We will review CE's DAC technology, based on a wet-scrubbing "air contactor" which absorbs CO2 into aqueous solution, and a chemical looping "regeneration" component, which liberates pure CO2 from this aqueous solution while re-making the original absorption chemical. CE's DAC tecnology exports purified atmospheric CO2, combined with the combustion CO2 from plant energy usage, as the end product. We will also discuss CE's 2014-2015 end-to-end Pilot Demonstration Unit. This is a $7M technology demonstration plant that CE is building with the help of key industrial partners and equipment vendors. Vendor design and engineering requirements have been used to specify the pilot air contactor, pellet reactor, calciner, and slaker modules, as well as auxiliary systems. These modules will be run for several months to obtain the engineering and performance data needed for subsequent commercial plant design, as well as to test the residual integration risks associated with CE's process. By the time of the AGU conference, the pilot is expected to be in late stages of fabrication or early stages of site installation.

  18. Accelerating technology transfer from federal laboratories to the private sector by industrial R and D collaborations - A new business model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LOMBANA,CESAR A.; ROMIG JR.,ALTON D.; LINTON,JONATHAN D.; MARTINEZ,J. LEONARD

    2000-04-13

    Many important products and technologies were developed in federal laboratories and were driven initially by national needs and for federal applications. For example, the clean room technology that enhanced the growth of the semiconductor industry was developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) decades ago. Similarly, advances in micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS)--an important set of process technologies vital for product miniaturization--are occurring at SNL. Each of the more than 500 federal laboratories in the US, are sources of R and D that contributes to America's economic vitality, productivity growth and, technological innovation. However, only a fraction of the science and technology available at the federal laboratories is being utilized by industry. Also, federal laboratories have not been applying all the business development processes necessary to work effectively with industry in technology commercialization. This paper addresses important factors that federal laboratories, federal agencies, and industry must address to translate these under utilized technologies into profitable products in the industrial sector.

  19. Modern compact accelerators of cyclotron type for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, V.; Vorozhtsov, S.

    2016-09-01

    Ion beam therapy and hadron therapy are types of external beam radiotherapy. Recently, the vast majority of patients have been treated with protons and carbon ions. Typically, the types of accelerators used for therapy were cyclotrons and synchrocyclotrons. It is intuitively clear that a compact facility fits best to a hospital environment intended for particle therapy and medical diagnostics. Another criterion for selection of accelerators to be mentioned in this article is application of superconducting technology to the magnetic system design of the facility. Compact isochronous cyclotrons, which accelerate protons in the energy range 9-30 MeV, have been widely used for production of radionuclides. Energy of 230 MeV has become canonical for all proton therapy accelerators. Similar application of a carbon beam requires ion energy of 430 MeV/u. Due to application of superconducting coils the magnetic field in these machines can reach 4-5 T and even 9 T in some cases. Medical cyclotrons with an ironless or nearly ironless magnetic system that have a number of advantages over the classical accelerators are in the development stage. In this work an attempt is made to describe some conceptual and technical features of modern accelerators under consideration. The emphasis is placed on the magnetic and acceleration systems along with the beam extraction unit, which are very important from the point of view of the facility compactness and compliance with the strict medical requirements.

  20. Design and simulation of 3½-cell superconducting gun cavity and beam dynamics studies of the SASE-FEL System at the Institute of Accelerator Technologies at Ankara University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, H. Duran; Cakir, R.; Porsuk, D.

    2015-06-01

    Design and simulation of a superconducting gun cavity with 3½ cells have been studied in order to give the first push to the electron beam for the linear accelerating system at The Institute of Accelerator Technologies at Ankara University. Electrons are accelerated through the gun cavity with the help of the Radiofrequency power suppliers from cryogenic systems. Accelerating gradient should be as high as possible to accelerate electron beam inside the cavity. In this study, electron beam reaches to 9.17 MeV energy at the end of the gun cavity with the accelerating gradient; Ec=19.21 MV/m. 1.3 GHz gun cavity consists of three TESLA-like shaped cells while the special designed gun-cell includes a cathode plug. Optimized important beam parameters inside the gun cavity, average beam current 3 mA, transverse emittance 2.5 mm mrad, repetition rate 30 MHz and other parameters are obtained for the SASE-FEL System. The Superfish/Poisson program is used to design each cell of the superconducting cavity. Superconducting gun cavity and Radiofrequency properties are studied by utilizing 2D Superfish/Poisson, 3D Computer Simulation Technology Microwave Studio, and 3D Computer Simulation Technology Particle Studio. Superfish/Poisson is also used to optimize the geometry of the cavity cells to get the highest accelerating gradient. The behavior of the particles along the beamline is included in this study. ASTRA Code is used to track the particles.

  1. Advanced manufacturing technologies of large martensitic stainless steel castings with ultra low carbon and high cleanliness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Yanchun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The key manufacturing technologies associated with composition, microstructure, mechanical properties, casting quality and key process control for large martensitic stainless steel castings are involved in this paper. The achievements fully satisfied the technical requirements of the large 700 MW stainless steel hydraulic turbine runner for the Three Gorges Hydropower Station, and become the major technical support for the design and manufacture of the largest 700 MW hydraulic turbine generator unit in the world developed through our own efforts. The characteristics of a new high yield to tensile strength (Rp0.2/Rm ratio and high obdurability martensitic stainless steel with ultra low carbon and high cleanliness are also described. Over the next ten years, the large martensitic stainless steel castings and advanced manufacturing technologies will see a huge demand in clean energy industry such as nuclear power, hydraulic power at home and abroad. Therefore, the new high yield o tensile strength (Rp0.2/Rm ratio and high obdurability martensitic stainless steel materials, the fast and flexible manufacturing technologies of large size castings, and new environment friendly sustainable process will face new challenges and opportunities.

  2. Emission Inventories of Carbon-containing Greenhouse Gases in and Technological Measures for Their Abatement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuang Yahui; Zhang Hongxun; Wang Xiaoke; Li Changsheng

    2004-01-01

    The report summarizes surveys on carbon inventories and initiatives on sustainable carbon cycling taken by the Research Center for EcoEnvironmental Sciences, where the authors work/worked. The first part of the report, which appeared in the preceding issue of this journal, deals with the concept of sustainable carbon cycling, the historic evolution of carbon cycling processes in China, carbon pool enhancement, value addition,carbon sequestration and carbon balance. This very paper, as the second part of the report, covers the results of carbon dynamics modeling, emission inventories of various carbon-containing greenhouse gases and their potential abatement measures.

  3. Conductive Carbon Nanotube Inks for Use with Desktop Inkjet Printing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Luke; Williams, Martha; Tate, LaNetra; Fortier, Craig; Smith, David; Davia, Kyle; Gibson, Tracy; Snyder, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Inkjet printing is a common commercial process. In addition to the familiar use in printing documents from computers, it is also used in some industrial applications. For example, wire manufacturers are required by law to print the wire type, gauge, and safety information on the exterior of each foot of manufactured wire, and this is typically done with inkjet or laser printers. The goal of this work was the creation of conductive inks that can be applied to a wire or flexible substrates via inkjet printing methods. The use of inkjet printing technology to print conductive inks has been in testing for several years. While researchers have been able to get the printing system to mechanically work, the application of conductive inks on substrates has not consistently produced adequate low resistances in the kilohm range. Conductive materials can be applied using a printer in single or multiple passes onto a substrate including textiles, polymer films, and paper. The conductive materials are composed of electrical conductors such as carbon nanotubes (including functionalized carbon nanotubes and metal-coated carbon nanotubes); graphene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (e.g., pentacene and bisperipentacene); metal nanoparticles; inherently conductive polymers (ICP); and combinations thereof. Once the conductive materials are applied, the materials are dried and sintered to form adherent conductive materials on the substrate. For certain formulations, increased conductivity can be achieved by printing on substrates supported by low levels of magnetic field alignment. The adherent conductive materials can be used in applications such as damage detection, dust particle removal, smart coating systems, and flexible electronic circuitry. By applying alternating layers of different electrical conductors to form a layered composite material, a single homogeneous layer can be produced with improved electrical properties. It is believed that patterning alternate layers of

  4. Calcium and chemical looping technology for power generation and carbon dioxide (CO2) capture solid oxygen- and CO2-carriers

    CERN Document Server

    Fennell, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Calcium and Chemical Looping Technology for Power Generation and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture reviews the fundamental principles, systems, oxygen carriers, and carbon dioxide carriers relevant to chemical looping and combustion. Chapters review the market development, economics, and deployment of these systems, also providing detailed information on the variety of materials and processes that will help to shape the future of CO2 capture ready power plants. Reviews the fundamental principles, systems, oxygen carriers, and carbon dioxide carriers relevant to calcium and chemical loopingProvi

  5. Accelerated killing of cancer cells using a multifunctional single-walled carbon nanotube-based system for targeted drug delivery in combination with photothermal therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyamohan P

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Prashanti Jeyamohan, Takashi Hasumura, Yutaka Nagaoka, Yasuhiko Yoshida, Toru Maekawa, D Sakthi Kumar Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Graduate School of Interdisciplinary New Science, Toyo University, Kawagoe, Japan Abstract: The photothermal effect of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs in combination with the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX for targeting and accelerated destruction of breast cancer cells is demonstrated in this paper. A targeted drug-delivery system was developed for selective killing of breast cancer cells with polyethylene glycol biofunctionalized and DOX-loaded SWCNTs conjugated with folic acid. In our work, in vitro drug-release studies showed that the drug (DOX binds at physiological pH (pH 7.4 and is released only at a lower pH, ie, lysosomal pH (pH 4.0, which is the characteristic pH of the tumor environment. A sustained release of DOX from the SWCNTs was observed for a period of 3 days. SWCNTs have strong optical absorbance in the near-infrared (NIR region. In this special spectral window, biological systems are highly transparent. Our study reports that under laser irradiation at 800 nm, SWCNTs exhibited strong light–heat transfer characteristics. These optical properties of SWCNTs open the way for selective photothermal ablation in cancer therapy. It was also observed that internalization and uptake of folate-conjugated NTs into cancer cells was achieved by a receptor-mediated endocytosis mechanism. Results of the in vitro experiments show that laser was effective in destroying the cancer cells, while sparing the normal cells. When the above laser effect was combined with DOX-conjugated SWCNTs, we found enhanced and accelerated killing of breast cancer cells. Thus, this nanodrug-delivery system, consisting of laser, drug, and SWCNTs, looks to be a promising selective modality with high treatment efficacy and low side effects for cancer therapy. Keywords: cancer, nanotherapy, SWCNTs, targeted drug delivery

  6. Technology advancement for the ASCENDS mission using the ASCENDS CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator (ACES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obland, M. D.; Antill, C.; Browell, E. V.; Campbell, J. F.; CHEN, S.; Cleckner, C.; Dijoseph, M. S.; Harrison, F. W.; Ismail, S.; Lin, B.; Meadows, B. L.; Mills, C.; Nehrir, A. R.; Notari, A.; Prasad, N. S.; Kooi, S. A.; Vitullo, N.; Dobler, J. T.; Bender, J.; Blume, N.; Braun, M.; Horney, S.; McGregor, D.; Neal, M.; Shure, M.; Zaccheo, T.; Moore, B.; Crowell, S.; Rayner, P. J.; Welch, W.

    2013-12-01

    The ASCENDS CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator (ACES) is a NASA Langley Research Center project funded by NASA's Earth Science Technology Office that seeks to advance technologies critical to measuring atmospheric column carbon dioxide (CO2) mixing ratios in support of the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. The technologies being advanced are: (1) multiple transmitter and telescope-aperture operations, (2) high-efficiency CO2 laser transmitters, (3) a high bandwidth detector and transimpedance amplifier (TIA), and (4) advanced algorithms for cloud and aerosol discrimination. The instrument architecture is being developed for ACES to operate on a high-altitude aircraft, and it will be directly scalable to meet the ASCENDS mission requirements. The above technologies are critical for developing an airborne simulator and spaceborne instrument with lower platform consumption of size, mass, and power, and with improved performance. This design employs several laser transmitters and telescope-apertures to demonstrate column CO2 retrievals with alignment of multiple laser beams in the far-field. ACES will transmit five laser beams: three from commercial lasers operating near 1.57-microns, and two from the Exelis atmospheric oxygen (O2) fiber laser amplifier system operating near 1.26-microns. The Master Oscillator Power Amplifier at 1.57-microns measures CO2 column concentrations using an Integrated-Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar approach. O2 column amounts needed for calculating the CO2 mixing ratio will be retrieved using the Exelis laser system with a similar IPDA approach. The three aperture telescope design was built to meet the constraints of the Global Hawk high-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). This assembly integrates fiber-coupled transmit collimators for all of the laser transmitters and fiber-coupled optical signals from the three telescopes to the aft optics and detector package. The detector

  7. Effect of powdered activated carbon technology on short-cut nitrogen removal for coal gasification wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Han, Hongjun; Xu, Chunyan; Zhuang, Haifeng; Fang, Fang; Zhang, Linghan

    2013-08-01

    A combined process consisting of a powdered activated carbon technology (PACT) and short-cut biological nitrogen removal reactor (SBNR) was developed to enhance the removal efficiency of the total nitrogen (TN) from the effluent of an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor, which was used to treat coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The SBNR performance was improved with the increasing of COD and TP removal efficiency via PACT. The average removal efficiencies of COD and TP in PACT were respectively 85.80% and 90.30%. Meanwhile, the NH3-N to NO2-N conversion rate was achieved 86.89% in SBNR and the total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency was 75.54%. In contrast, the AOB in SBNR was significantly inhibited without PACT or with poor performance of PACT in advance, which rendered the removal of TN. Furthermore, PAC was demonstrated to remove some refractory compounds, which therefore improved the biodegradability of the coal gasification wastewater.

  8. Carbon-Nanotube-Based Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitor Technologies for Spaceflight Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arepalli, S.; Fireman, H.; Huffman, C.; Maloney, P.; Nikolaev, P.; Yowell, L.; Kim, K.; Kohl, P. A.; Higgins, C. D.; Turano, S. P.

    2005-01-01

    Electrochemical double-layer capacitors, or supercapacitors, have tremendous potential as high-power energy sources for use in low-weight hybrid systems for space exploration. Electrodes based on single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) offer exceptional power and energy performance due to the high surface area, high conductivity, and the ability to functionalize the SWCNTs to optimize capacitor properties. This paper will report on the preparation of electrochemical capacitors incorporating SWCNT electrodes and their performance compared with existing commercial technology. Preliminary results indicate that substantial increases in power and energy density are possible. The effects of nanotube growth and processing methods on electrochemical capacitor performance is also presented. The compatibility of different SWCNTs and electrolytes was studied by varying the type of electrolyte ions that accumulate on the high-surface-area electrodes.

  9. Assessment of Carbon- and Metal-Based Nanoparticle DNA Damage with Microfluidic Electrophoretic Separation Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrand, Amanda M; Powell, Thomas; Robertson, Tiffany; Hussain, Saber M

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we examined the feasibility of extracting DNA from whole cell lysates exposed to nanoparticles using two different methodologies for evaluation of fragmentation with microfluidic electrophoretic separation. Human lung macrophages were exposed to five different carbon- and metal-based nanoparticles at two different time points (2 h, 24 h) and two different doses (5 µg/ml, 100 µg/ml). The primary difference in the banding patterns after 2 h of nanoparticle exposure is more DNA fragmentation at the higher NP concentration when examining cells exposed to nanoparticles of the same composition. However, higher doses of carbon and silver nanoparticles at both short and long dosing periods can contribute to erroneous or incomplete data with this technique. Also comparing DNA isolation methodologies, we recommend the centrifugation extraction technique, which provides more consistent banding patterns in the control samples compared to the spooling technique. Here we demonstrate that multi-walled carbon nanotubes, 15 nm silver nanoparticles and the positive control cadmium oxide cause similar DNA fragmentation at the short time point of 2 h with the centrifugation extraction technique. Therefore, the results of these studies contribute to elucidating the relationship between nanoparticle physicochemical properties and DNA fragmentation results while providing the pros and cons of altering the DNA isolation methodology. Overall, this technique provides a high throughput way to analyze subcellular alterations in DNA profiles of cells exposed to nanomaterials to aid in understanding the consequences of exposure and mechanistic effects. Future studies in microfluidic electrophoretic separation technologies should be investigated to determine the utility of protein or other assays applicable to cellular systems exposed to nanoparticles.

  10. Radiative Forcing associated with Particulate Carbon Emissions resulting from the Use of Mercury Control Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, H.; Penner, J. E.; Lin, G.

    2013-12-01

    Mercury is a persistent, toxic metal that bio-accumulates within the food web and causes neurological damage and fetal defects in humans. The U.S. was the first country to regulate the leading anthropogenic source of mercury into the atmosphere: coal combustion for electric power generation. The U.S. EPA's 2005 Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) was replaced and further tightened in 2012 by the Mercury and Air Toxics Standard (MATS), which required existing coal-fired utilities to reduce their mercury emissions by approximately 90% by 2015. Outside the U.S., the Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has passed the legally binding Minamata global mercury treaty that compels its signatory countries to prevent and reduce the emission and release of mercury. The most mature technology for controlling mercury emissions from coal combustion is the injection into the flue gas of powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorbents having chemically treated surfaces designed to rapidly oxidize and adsorb mercury. However, such PAC is known to have electrical properties that make it difficult to remove from flue gas via electrostatic precipitation, by far the most common particulate control technology used in countries such as the U.S., India, and China which rely heavily on coal for power generation. As a result, PAC used to control mercury emissions can be emitted into the atmosphere, the sub-micron fraction of which may result in unintended radiative forcing similar to black carbon (BC). Here, we estimate the potential increases in secondary BC emissions, those not produced from combustion but arising instead from the use of injected PAC for mercury emission reduction. We also calculate the radiative forcing associated with these secondary BC emissions by using a global atmospheric chemical transport model coupled with a radiative transfer model.

  11. Monitoring Conformance and Containment for Geological Carbon Storage: Can Technology Meet Policy and Public Requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, D. C.; Osadetz, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Province of Alberta, Canada identified carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a key element of its 2008 Climate Change strategy. The target is a reduction in CO2 emissions of 139 Mt/year by 2050. To encourage uptake of CCS by industry, the province has provided partial funding to two demonstration scale projects, namely the Quest Project by Shell and partners (CCS), and the Alberta Carbon Trunk Line Project (pipeline and CO2-EOR). Important to commercial scale implementation of CCS will be the requirement to prove conformance and containment of the CO2 plume injected during the lifetime of the CCS project. This will be a challenge for monitoring programs. The Containment and Monitoring Institute (CaMI) is developing a Field Research Station (FRS) to calibrate various monitoring technologies for CO2 detection thresholds at relatively shallow depths. The objective being assessed with the FRS is sensitivity for early detection of loss of containment from a deeper CO2 storage project. In this project, two injection wells will be drilled to sandstone reservoir targets at depths of 300 m and 700 m. Up to four observation wells will be drilled with monitoring instruments installed. Time-lapse surface and borehole monitoring surveys will be undertaken to evaluate the movement and fate of the CO2 plume. These will include seismic, microseismic, cross well, electrical resistivity, electromagnetic, gravity, geodetic and geomechanical surveys. Initial baseline seismic data from the FRS will presented.

  12. Climate Change Mitigation Technologies: the Siemens Roadmap to Carbon Capture and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voges, K.

    2007-07-01

    A full range of technology options will have to be deployed until 2025 to get the global CO{sub 2} emissions on a 550 ppm stabilization track. The focus of the paper will be on Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) as an indispensable part of a carbon constrained energy infrastructure. In CCS our main long term focus is clearly on coal based processes. For Greenfield applications Siemens is prioritizing IGCC based pre-combustion capture. Post-combustion capture is pursued for steam power plant retrofit. (a) IGCC with pre-combustion capture: A first F-class based demonstration plant could be available until 2014. The roadmap addresses gasifier scale up, hydrogen burner and turbine development and integration issues. Beyond that a bundle of further efficiency improvement measures will further enhance efficiency and economic competitiveness. (b) Post-combustion capture: The development aims at optimizing existing solvents or developing new ones and integrating the complete unit with its mass and heat interchange system into the power plant. (c) CO{sub 2} Compressors: For efficiency and operating flexibility reasons Siemens Power Generation prefers gear-type compressors instead of single shaft compressors. The improvement of maintainability and the reduced number of stages or corrosion protection are issues addressed in current R and D activities. (auth)

  13. Acceleration of suspending single-walled carbon nanotubes in BSA aqueous solution induced by amino acid molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Haruhisa; Nakamura, Ayako; Horie, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) suspensions in aqueous media were prepared using bovine serum albumin (BSA) and amino acid molecules. It was found that the amino acid molecules clearly decreased the time required for suspending the SWCNTs in BSA aqueous solutions. Dynamic light scattering measurements revealed that the particle sizes of the SWCNTs suspended in aqueous media with and without amino acid molecules were approximately the same and stable for more than one week. The zeta potential values of the BSA molecules in pure water and amino acid aqueous solutions were different, and these values were also reflected in the surface potential of colloidal SWCNT particles in the corresponding aqueous media, thus inducing different dispersibility of SWCNTs in aqueous media. Pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance measurements showed that the interactions between the SWCNTs and the amino acid molecules are weak and comprise chemical exchange interactions and not bonding interactions. Amino acid molecules play a fascinating role in the preparation of SWCNT suspensions in BSA aqueous media by increasing electrostatic repulsive interactions between SWCNT colloidal particles and consequently enhancing the dispersion ability of the BSA molecules.

  14. Future accelerators (?)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Womersley

    2003-08-21

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  15. Demonstration project as a procedure for accelerating the application of new technology (Charpie Task Force report). Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-02-01

    This report examines the issues associated with government programs proposed for the ''commercialization'' of new energy technologies; these programs are intended to hasten the pace at which target technologies are adopted by the private sector. The ''commercial demonstration'' is the principal tool used in these programs. Most previous government interventions in support of technological change have focused on R and D and left to the private sector the decision as to adoption for commercial utilization; thus there is relatively little in the way of analysis or experience which bears direct application. The analysis is divided into four sections. First, the role of R, D, and D within the structure of the national energy goals and policies is examined. The issue of ''prices versus gaps'' is described as a crucial difference of viewpoint concerning the role of the government in the future of the energy system. Second, the process of technological change as it occurs with respect to energy technologies is then examined for possible sources of misalignment of social and private incentives. The process is described as a series of investments. Third, correction of these sources of misalignment then becomes the goal of commercial demonstration programs as this goal and the means for attaining it are explored. Government-supported commercialization may be viewed as a subsidy to the introduction stage of the process; the circumstances under which such subsidies are likely to affect the success of the subsequent diffusion stage are addressed. The discussion then turns to the political, legal, and institutional problems. Finally, methods for evaluation and planning of commercial demonstration programs are analyzed. The critical areas of ignorance are highlighted and comprise a research agenda for improved analytical techniques to support decisions in this area.

  16. Game Changing Development Program - Next Generation Life Support Project: Oxygen Recovery From Carbon Dioxide Using Ion Exchange Membrane Electrolysis Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth A.; Jiao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the Phase I research and development work performed during the March 13, 2015 to July 13, 2016 period. The proposal for this work was submitted in response to NASA Research Announcement NNH14ZOA001N, "Space Technology Research, Development, Demonstration, and Infusion 2014 (SpaceTech-REDDI-2014)," Appendix 14GCD-C2 "Game Changing Development Program, Advanced Oxygen Recovery for Spacecraft Life Support Systems Appendix" The Task Agreement for this Phase I work is Document Control Number: GCDP-02-TA-15015. The objective of the Phase I project was to demonstrate in laboratories two Engineering Development Units (EDU) that perform critical functions of the low temperature carbon dioxide electrolysis and the catalytic conversion of carbon monoxide into carbon and carbon dioxide. The low temperature carbon dioxide electrolysis EDU was built by the University of Delaware with Dr. Feng Jiao as the principal investigator in charge of this EDU development (under NASA Contract NNC15CA04C). The carbon monoxide catalytic conversion EDU was built by the NASA Glenn Research Center with Kenneth Burke as the principal investigator and overall project leader for the development of both EDUs. Both EDUs were successfully developed and demonstrated the critical functions for each process. The carbon dioxide electrolysis EDU was delivered to the NASA Johnson Space Center and the carbon monoxide catalytic conversion EDU was delivered to the NASA Marshall Spaceflight Center.

  17. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program TPP Final Report - A Value Chain Partnership to Accelerate U.S. PV Industry Growth, GE Global Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Tolliver; Danielle Merfeld; Charles Korman; James Rand; Tom McNulty; Neil Johnson; Dennis Coyle

    2009-07-31

    General Electric’s (GE) DOE Solar Energy Technologies TPP program encompassesd development in critical areas of the photovoltaic value chain that affected the LCOE for systems in the U.S. This was a complete view across the value chain, from materials to rooftops, to identify opportunities for cost reductions in order to realize the Department of Energy’s cost targets for 2010 and 2015. GE identified a number of strategic partners with proven leadership in their respective technology areas to accelerate along the path to commercialization. GE targeted both residential and commercial rooftop scale systems. To achieve these goals, General Electric and its partners investigated three photovoltaic pathways that included bifacial high-efficiency silicon cells and modules, low-cost multicrystalline silicon cells and modules and flexible thin film modules. In addition to these technologies, the balance of system for residential and commercial installations were also investigated. Innovative system installation strategies were pursed as an additional avenue for cost reduction.

  18. Industrial experience on the development of the molten carbonate fuel cell technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosio, B.; Costamagna, P. [Ist. di Ingegneria Chimica e di Processo ``G.B. Bonino`` Univ. di Genova (Italy); Parodi, F.; Passalacqua, B. [Ansaldo Ricerche, Genova (Italy)

    1998-08-01

    The development of the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) technology at Ansaldo Ricerche (ARI) is reported, starting from small scale single cells up to stacks of several kW capacity. The evolution of material and fabrication strategies as well as the progress in terms of electrical performance are described and discussed. The data reported show that the MCFC technology has been successfully tested on stacks in the kW power class, however some problems still need to be solved to improve the stack performance. In particular, better control of the start-up phase, of electrolyte migration through the manifolds and of the gas feed distribution are required, based on the latest experimental data on a 50 cell stack with cell area 0.1 m{sup 2} (cell active area 0.0702 m{sup 2}), which operated for 780 h with a maximum performance of 4 kW at 206 mA/cm{sup 2} at 50% fuel utilisation. Future development steps, which will lead to the realisation and operation of systems of several hundred kW, are presented. (orig.)

  19. Overview of Carbon Capture and Storage Technology%碳捕获与封存技术综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩东升; 任吉萍; 吴干学; 郭家秀; 尹华强

    2012-01-01

    人类活动排放的二氧化碳将导致全球温度上升,从而引发各种灾难。CCS是短期内减缓全球变暖速度的重要手段。文中综述了碳捕获和碳封存的技术方法,以及CCS技术存在的问题。碳捕获分为燃烧前捕获、富氧燃烧捕获和燃烧后捕获。碳封存方式有地址封存、洋封存、矿石碳化、工业利用、生态封存等,其中地质封存是主流方式。%Carbon dioxide emissions from human activities will cause global temperatures to rise, which cause all kinds of disasters. CCS is an important technology to slow down the speed of global warming. In this paper, we introduce some technology methods on carbon capture and sequestration, and some prob- lems about CCS technology. Carbon capture includes pre-combustion capture, capture and oxyfuel combus- tion capture. The ways of carbon sequestration include address sequestration, ocean storage, mineral carbonation, industrial use and storage of ecology, geological storage is a main approach.

  20. Development of a dedicated beam forming system for material and bioscience research with high intensity, small field electron beam of LILLYPUT 3 accelerator at Wroclaw Technology Park

    CERN Document Server

    Adrich, Przemysław; Wilk, Piotr; Chorowski, Maciej; Poliński, Jarosław; Bogdan, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The primary use of the LILLYPUT 3 accelerator at the Nondestructive Testing Laboratory at Wroclaw Technology Park is X-ray radiography for nondestructive testing, including R&D of novel techniques for industrial and medical imaging. The scope of possible applications could be greatly extended by providing a system for irradiation with electron beam. The purpose of this work was to design such a system, especially for high dose rate, small field irradiations under cryogenic conditions for material and bioscience research. In this work, two possible solutions, based either on beam scanning or scattering and collimation, were studied and compared. It was found that under existing conditions efficiency of both systems would be comparable. The latter one was adopted due to its simplicity and much lower cost. The system design was optimized by means of detailed Monte Carlo modeling. The system is being currently fabricated at National Centre for Nuclear Research in \\'Swierk.

  1. [Effect of accelerated heavy ions of carbon 12C, neon 20Ne and iron 56Fe on the chromosomal apparatus of human blood lymphocytes in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repina, L A

    2011-01-01

    Cytogenetic assay of the chromosomal apparatus of human blood lymphocytes was carried out after in vitro irradiation by heavy charged particles with high LET values. Blood plasm samples enriched with lymphocytes were irradiated by accelerated ions of carbon 12C (290 MeV/nucleon and LET = 70 keV/microm), neon 20Ne (400 MeV/nucleon and LET = 70 keV/microm), and iron 56Fe (500 MeV/nucleon and LET = 200 keV/microm) in the dose range from 0.25 to 1 Gy. Rate of chromosome aberrations showed a linear dependence on doses from the densely ionizing radiations with high LET values. Frequency of dicentrics and centric rings in human lymphocytes irradiated by 12C with the energy of 290 MeV/nucleon was maximal at 1 Gy (p < 0.05) relative to the other heavy particles. It was found that relative biological effectiveness of heavy nuclei is several times higher than of 60Co gamma-radiation throughout the range of doses in this investigation.

  2. Technical Report on Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Zoe Kant; Patrick Gonzalez

    2009-01-07

    The Nature Conservancy participated in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project was 'Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration'. The objectives of the project were to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Final Technical Report discusses the results of the six tasks that The Nature Conservancy undertook to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between July 1st 2001 and July 10th 2008. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool. The project occurred in two phases. The first was a focused exploration of specific carbon measurement and monitoring methodologies and pre-selected carbon sequestration opportunities. The second was a more systematic and comprehensive approach to compare various competing measurement and monitoring methodologies, and assessment of a variety of carbon sequestration opportunities in order to find those that are the lowest cost with the greatest combined carbon and other

  3. Technical Report on Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Zoe Kant; Patrick Gonzalez

    2009-01-07

    The Nature Conservancy participated in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project was 'Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration'. The objectives of the project were to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Final Technical Report discusses the results of the six tasks that The Nature Conservancy undertook to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between July 1st 2001 and July 10th 2008. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool. The project occurred in two phases. The first was a focused exploration of specific carbon measurement and monitoring methodologies and pre-selected carbon sequestration opportunities. The second was a more systematic and comprehensive approach to compare various competing measurement and monitoring methodologies, and assessment of a variety of carbon sequestration opportunities in order to find those that are the lowest cost with the greatest combined carbon and other

  4. Development project of small accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, S

    2002-01-01

    The object of this project is demonstration of a small proton and heavy ion synchrotron and a small hard X-ray photon radiation source by using new technology and application of them to therapy, diagnosis, material science and life science. In this paper, a part of small proton and heavy ion synchrotron is discussed. Nine organizations joined in this project. There are four development themes such as optimization of laser-ion 100 TW class source target, beam storage and cooling device, small synchrotron ring and FFAG accelerator. Outline and contents of development of them are explained. This project is planning to generate a few MeV/u carbon ions in fully ionized states by impact of laser with about 100 TW output. 3 T maximum bending magnetic field using normal conduction AC magnet will be actualized for synchrotron with 200 MeV proton beam. (S.Y.)

  5. Interview with Steve Myers, Director for Accelerators and Technology, December 18th, 2009, after the LHC Report

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2009-01-01

    LHC ends 2009 run on a high note Geneva, 18 December 2009. At its 153rd session today, the CERN Council heard that the Large Hadron Collider ended its first full period of operation in style on Wednesday 16 December. Collisions at 2.36TeV recorded since last weekend have set a new world record and brought to a close a successful first run for the world’s most powerful particle accelerator. The LHC has now been put into standby mode, and will restart in February 2010 following a short technical stop to prepare for higher energy collisions and the start of the main research programme. The LHC circulated its first beams of 2009 on 20 November, ushering in a remarkably rapid beam-commissioning phase. The first collisions were recorded on 23 November, and a world-record beam energy was established on 30 November. Following those milestones, a systematic phase of LHC commissioning led to an extended data-taking period to provide data for the experiments. Over the last two weeks, the six LHC experiments have recor...

  6. Exploring the potential impact of implementing carbon capture technologies in fossil fuel power plants on regional European water stress index levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schakel, W.B.; Pfister, Stephan; Ramirez, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    Equipping power plants with carbon capture technology can affect cooling demand and water use. This study has explored the potential impact of large scale deployment of power plants with carbon capture technologies on future regional water stress in Europe. A database including 458 of European large

  7. SMART 3D SUBSURFACE CONTAMINANT CHARACTERIZATION AT THE BGRR DECOMMISSIONING PROJECT. ACCELERATED SITE TECHNOLOGY DEPLOYMENT COST AND PERFORMANCE REPORT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HEISER,J.; KALB,P.; SULLIVAN,T.; MILIAN,L.

    2001-12-01

    The BGRR was the world's first nuclear reactor dedicated to the peaceful exploration of atomic energy. The reactor pile consisted of a 700-ton, 25-foot cube of graphite fueled by uranium. A total of 1,369 fuel channels were available with roughly half in use at any given time. Insertion and removal of boron steel control rods controlled reactor power levels. One or more of five fans powered air-cooling. Air was brought in through two filtered plenums, flowed through and around the reactor core, through an exhaust duct containing filters, and finally out through the 320-foot high exhaust stack. Spent fuel was temporarily stored in the spent-fuel canal, and then sent to the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). Access to the canal for removing spent fuel was through the Canal House (Building 709). The BGRR ceased operation in 1968 and was placed in a shutdown mode in which all fuel was removed and sent to SRS. Penetrations in the biological shield around the graphite cube and fuel channels were sealed. The final decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) process was initiated in 1999 and is scheduled for completion in 2005. An accelerated schedule was developed that combines characterization with removal actions for the various systems and structures. Before D and D work on a section of the BGRR facility begins, contaminant characterization is conducted to determine the types and amounts of contaminants present. The data are then used for project planning, including decisions affecting the extent of removal, waste designation, and health and safety plans.

  8. KEK digital accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashita, T.; Adachi, T.; Takayama, K.; Leo, K. W.; Arai, T.; Arakida, Y.; Hashimoto, M.; Kadokura, E.; Kawai, M.; Kawakubo, T.; Kubo, Tomio; Koyama, K.; Nakanishi, H.; Okazaki, K.; Okamura, K.; Someya, H.; Takagi, A.; Tokuchi, A.; Wake, M.

    2011-07-01

    The High Energy Accelerator Research Organization KEK digital accelerator (KEK-DA) is a renovation of the KEK 500 MeV booster proton synchrotron, which was shut down in 2006. The existing 40 MeV drift tube linac and rf cavities have been replaced by an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source embedded in a 200 kV high-voltage terminal and induction acceleration cells, respectively. A DA is, in principle, capable of accelerating any species of ion in all possible charge states. The KEK-DA is characterized by specific accelerator components such as a permanent magnet X-band ECR ion source, a low-energy transport line, an electrostatic injection kicker, an extraction septum magnet operated in air, combined-function main magnets, and an induction acceleration system. The induction acceleration method, integrating modern pulse power technology and state-of-art digital control, is crucial for the rapid-cycle KEK-DA. The key issues of beam dynamics associated with low-energy injection of heavy ions are beam loss caused by electron capture and stripping as results of the interaction with residual gas molecules and the closed orbit distortion resulting from relatively high remanent fields in the bending magnets. Attractive applications of this accelerator in materials and biological sciences are discussed.

  9. Accelerating the development and diffusion of new energy technologies: Beyond the 'valley of death'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyant, John P., E-mail: weyant@stanford.edu

    2011-07-15

    There are at least three motivations for government intervention in GHG mitigation: (1) inducing the private sector to reduce GHG emissions directly by setting a price on emissions, (2) increasing the amount of innovative activity in GHG mitigation technology development, and (3) educating the public regarding GHG-reducing investment opportunities, allowing consumers to make better private decisions. This paper discusses the pros and cons of policy instruments that might be used to respond to these motivations and makes recommendations for an appropriate mix of policy instruments over time given both economic and policital/instituional considerations. - Research Highlights: > Increases in pre-competitive energy R and D and energy efficiency technology diffusion policies in the US are highly desirable. > The cost of well designed programs in these areas can be low and the pay off very high. > Such policies make sense even if the GHG externality is internalized through a GHG tax or equivalent, but are even more desirable if they are not.

  10. Cap-and-trade policy: The influence on investments in carbon dioxide reducing technologies in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahie, Monique

    With most of the energy produced in the state of Indiana coming from coal, the implementation of policy instruments such as cap-and-trade, which is included in the most recent climate bill, will have significant effects. This thesis provides an analysis of the effects that a cap-and-trade policy might have on the investment decisions for alternative technologies in the power plant sector in Indiana. Two economic models of representative coal-fired power plants, Gallagher (600MW) and Rockport (2600MW), are selected and used to evaluate the repowering decision of a plant for several technologies: integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), wind farm combined with natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) and supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC). The firm will make its decisions based on the net present value (NPV) of cost estimates for these CO2 reducing technologies, the cost of purchasing offsets and CO 2 allowances. This model is applied to a base case and three American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 cases derived from the Energy Information Administration (EIA, 2009b). A sensitivity analysis is done on the discount rate and capital costs. The results of the study indicate that a SCPC plant without carbon capture and storage (CCS) is the least costly compliance option for both plants under all of the cases while retrofitting the existing plant with CCS is the most expensive. Gallagher's three least expensive options across most scenarios were SCPC without CCS, the operation of the existing plant as is and investment in wind plus NGCC. Rockport's three least expensive compliance options across most scenarios were SCPC without CCS, the operation of the existing plant as is and IGCC without CCS. For both plants, when a 12% discount rate is utilized, NPV of costs are generally lower and the operation of the existing plant technology with the aid of allowances and offsets to be in compliance is the cheapest option. If capital costs were to decrease by 30%, a SCPC

  11. In Situ Sediment Treatment Using Activated Carbon: A Demonstrated Sediment Cleanup Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patmont, Clayton R; Ghosh, Upal; LaRosa, Paul; Menzie, Charles A; Luthy, Richard G; Greenberg, Marc S; Cornelissen, Gerard; Eek, Espen; Collins, John; Hull, John; Hjartland, Tore; Glaza, Edward; Bleiler, John; Quadrini, James

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews general approaches for applying activated carbon (AC) amendments as an in situ sediment treatment remedy. In situ sediment treatment involves targeted placement of amendments using installation options that fall into two general approaches: 1) directly applying a thin layer of amendments (which potentially incorporates weighting or binding materials) to surface sediment, with or without initial mixing; and 2) incorporating amendments into a premixed, blended cover material of clean sand or sediment, which is also applied to the sediment surface. Over the past decade, pilot- or full-scale field sediment treatment projects using AC—globally recognized as one of the most effective sorbents for organic contaminants—were completed or were underway at more than 25 field sites in the United States, Norway, and the Netherlands. Collectively, these field projects (along with numerous laboratory experiments) have demonstrated the efficacy of AC for in situ treatment in a range of contaminated sediment conditions. Results from experimental studies and field applications indicate that in situ sequestration and immobilization treatment of hydrophobic organic compounds using either installation approach can reduce porewater concentrations and biouptake significantly, often becoming more effective over time due to progressive mass transfer. Certain conditions, such as use in unstable sediment environments, should be taken into account to maximize AC effectiveness over long time periods. In situ treatment is generally less disruptive and less expensive than traditional sediment cleanup technologies such as dredging or isolation capping. Proper site-specific balancing of the potential benefits, risks, ecological effects, and costs of in situ treatment technologies (in this case, AC) relative to other sediment cleanup technologies is important to successful full-scale field application. Extensive experimental studies and field trials have shown that when

  12. Combination of cathodic reduction with adsorption for accelerated removal of Cr(VI) through reticulated vitreous carbon electrodes modified with sulfuric acid–glycine co-doped polyaniline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, Xi [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Yang, Zhao-hui, E-mail: yzh@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Xu, Hai-yin; Zeng, Guang-ming; Huang, Jing; Yang, Xia; Song, Pei-pei; Wang, Li-ke [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • RVC/PANI-SA-GLY electrode was applied as a novel electrode material for accelerated removal of Cr(VI). • Faster reduction kinetics of Cr(VI) was observed by RVC/PANI-SA-GLY electrode when compared with RVC/PANI-SA and RVC electrode. • Cr(VI) removal experienced an adsorption-reduction system built by RVC/PANI-SA-GLY electrode. • The stability of RVC/PANI-SA-GLY electrode was relatively satisfactory. - Abstract: Improving the reduction kinetics is crucial in the electroreduction process of Cr(VI). In this study, we developed a novel adsorption–electroreduction system for accelerated removal of Cr(VI) by employing reticulated vitreous carbon electrode modified with sulfuric acid–glycine co-doped polyaniline (RVC/PANI-SA-GLY). Firstly, response surface methodology confirmed the optimum polymerization condition of co-doped polyaniline for modifying electrodes (Aniline, sulfuric acid and glycine, respectively, of 0.2 mol/L, 0.85 mol/L, 0.93 mol/L) when untraditional dopant glycine was added. Subsequently, RVC/PANI-SA-GLY showed higher Cr(VI) removal percentages in electroreduction experiments over RVC electrode modified with sulfuric acid doped polyaniline (RVC/PANI-SA) and bare RVC electrode. In contrast to RVC/PANI-SA, the improvement by RVC/PANI-SA-GLY was more significant and especially obvious at more negative potential, lower initial Cr(VI) concentration, relatively less acidic solution and higher current densities, best achieving 7.84% higher removal efficiency with entire Cr(VI) eliminated after 900 s. Current efficiencies were likewise enhanced by RVC/PANI-SA-GLY under quite negative potentials. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) analysis revealed a possible adsorption–reduction mechanism of RVC/PANI-SA-GLY, which greatly contributed to the faster reduction kinetics and was probably relative to the absorption between protonated amine groups of glycine and HCrO{sub 4}{sup −}. Eventually, the

  13. Accelerating Value Creation with Accelerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Eythor Ivar

    2015-01-01

    Accelerators can help to accelerate value creation. Accelerators are short-term programs that have the objective of creating innovative and fast growing ventures. They have gained attraction as larger corporations like Microsoft, Barclays bank and Nordea bank have initiated and sponsored accelera......Accelerators can help to accelerate value creation. Accelerators are short-term programs that have the objective of creating innovative and fast growing ventures. They have gained attraction as larger corporations like Microsoft, Barclays bank and Nordea bank have initiated and sponsored...... an approach to facilitate implementation and realization of business ideas and is a lucrative approach to transform research into ventures and to revitalize regions and industries in transition. Investors have noticed that the accelerator approach is a way to increase the possibility of success by funnelling...

  14. Accelerating News Issue 4

    CERN Document Server

    Szeberenyi, A; Wildner, E

    2012-01-01

    In this winter issue, we are very pleased to announce the approval of EuCARD-2 by the European Commission. We look at the conclusions of EUROnu in proposing future neutrino facilities at CERN, a new milestone reached by CLIC and progress on the SPARC upgrade using C-band technology. We also report on recent events: second Joint HiLumi LHC-LARP Annual Meeting and workshop on Superconducting technologies for the Next Generation of Accelerators aiming at closer collaboration with industry. The launch of the Accelerators for Society brochure is also highlighted.

  15. Influence of temperature and solvent concentration on the kinetics of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase in carbon capture technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gladis, Arne; Deslauriers, Maria Gundersen; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup

    2017-01-01

    In this study the effect of carbonic anhydrase addition on the absorption of CO2 was investigated in a wetted wall column apparatus. Four different solvents: the primary amine monoethanolamine (MEA), the sterically hindered primary amine 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP), the tertiary amine N......-methyl-diethanolamine (MDEA) and the carbonate salt solution K2CO3 were compared in concentrations from 5 to 50 wt% in a temperature range of 298–328 K with and without enzyme. Necessary mass transfer parameters such as liquid side mass transfer coefficient and solvent and enzyme reaction rates were determined...... and benchmarked to a 30 wt% MEA solution. The study reveals that the addition of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) dramatically increases the liquid side mass transfer coefficient for MDEA, and K2CO3; AMP has a moderate increase whereas MEA was unchanged. The results confirm that just bicarbonate forming systems...

  16. CRADA Final Report for CRADA Number NFE-10-02991 "Development and Commercialization of Alternative Carbon Precursors and Conversion Technologies"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, Rober [ORNL; Paulauskas, Felix [ORNL; Naskar, Amit [ORNL; Kaufman, Michael [ORNL; Yarborough, Ken [ORNL; Derstine, Chris [The Dow Chemical Company

    2013-10-01

    The overall objective of the collaborative research performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Dow Chemical Company under this Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA NFE-10-02991) was to develop and establish pathways to commercialize new carbon fiber precursor and conversion technology. This technology is to produce alternative polymer fiber precursor formulations as well as scaled energy-efficient advanced conversion technology to enable continuous mode conversion to obtain carbonized fibers that are technically and economically viable in industrial markets such as transportation, wind energy, infrastructure and oil drilling applications. There have been efforts in the past to produce a low cost carbon fiber. These attempts have to be interpreted against the backdrop of the market needs at the time, which were strictly military aircraft and high-end aerospace components. In fact, manufacturing costs have been reduced from those days to current practice, where both process optimization and volume production have enabled carbon fiber to become available at prices below $20/lb. However, the requirements of the lucrative aerospace market limits further price reductions from current practice. This approach is different because specific industrial applications are targeted, most specifically wind turbine blade and light vehicle transportation, where aircraft grade carbon fiber is not required. As a result, researchers are free to adjust both manufacturing process and precursor chemistry to meet the relaxed physical specifications at a lower cost. This report documents the approach and findings of this cooperative research in alternative precursors and advanced conversion for production of cost-effective carbon fiber for energy missions. Due to export control, proprietary restrictions, and CRADA protected data considerations, specific design details and processing parameters are not included in this report.

  17. Emerging Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction Technologies for the Iron and Steel Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept.. China Energy Group; Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept.. China Energy Group; Arens, Marlene [Fraunhofer Inst. for Systems and Innovation Research (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-01-31

    Iron and steel manufacturing is among the most energy-intensive industries and accounts for the largest share, approximately 27 percent, of global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the manufacturing sector. The ongoing increase in world steel demand means that this industry’s energy use and CO2 emissions continue to grow, so there is significant incentive to develop, commercialize and adopt emerging energy-efficiency and CO2 emissions-reduction technologies for steel production. Although studies from around the world have identified a wide range of energy-efficiency technologies applicable to the steel industry that have already been commercialized, information is limited and/or scattered regarding emerging or advanced energy-efficiency and low-carbon technologies that are not yet commercialized. This report consolidates available information on 56 emerging iron and steel industry technologies, with the intent of providing a well-structured database of information on these technologies for engineers, researchers, investors, steel companies, policy makers, and other interested parties. For each technology included, we provide information on energy savings and environmental and other benefits, costs, and commercialization status; we also identify references for more information.

  18. Anaerobic digestion technologies for closing the domestic water, carbon and nutrient cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammes, F; Kalogo, Y; Verstraete, W

    2000-01-01

    Sustainable wastewater treatment requires that household wastewater is collected and treated separately from industrial wastewater and rainwater run-offs. This separate treatment is, however, still inadequate, as more than 70% of the nutrients and much of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and potential pathogens of a domestic sewage system are confined to the few litres of black water (faeces, urine and toilet water). Whilst grey water can easily be filter treated and re-used for secondary household purposes, black water requires more intensive treatment due to its high COD and microbial (pathogens) content. Recently developed vacuum/dry toilets produce a nutrient rich semi-solid waste stream, which, with proper treatment, offers the possibility of nutrient, carbon, water and energy recovery. This study investigates the terrestrial applicability of Life Support System (LSS) concepts as a framework for future domestic waste management. The possibilities of treating black water together with other types of human-generated solid waste (biowastes/mixed wastes) in an anaerobic reactor system at thermophilic conditions, as well as some post treatment alternatives for product recovery and re-use, are considered. Energy can partially be recovered in the form of biogas produced during anaerobic digestion. The system is investigated in the form of theoretical mass balances, together with an assessment of the current feasibility of this technology and other post-treatment alternatives.

  19. Combination of cathodic reduction with adsorption for accelerated removal of Cr(VI) through reticulated vitreous carbon electrodes modified with sulfuric acid-glycine co-doped polyaniline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Xi; Yang, Zhao-hui; Xu, Hai-yin; Zeng, Guang-ming; Huang, Jing; Yang, Xia; Song, Pei-pei; Wang, Li-ke

    2015-04-09

    Improving the reduction kinetics is crucial in the electroreduction process of Cr(VI). In this study, we developed a novel adsorption-electroreduction system for accelerated removal of Cr(VI) by employing reticulated vitreous carbon electrode modified with sulfuric acid-glycine co-doped polyaniline (RVC/PANI-SA-GLY). Firstly, response surface methodology confirmed the optimum polymerization condition of co-doped polyaniline for modifying electrodes (Aniline, sulfuric acid and glycine, respectively, of 0.2 mol/L, 0.85 mol/L, 0.93 mol/L) when untraditional dopant glycine was added. Subsequently, RVC/PANI-SA-GLY showed higher Cr(VI) removal percentages in electroreduction experiments over RVC electrode modified with sulfuric acid doped polyaniline (RVC/PANI-SA) and bare RVC electrode. In contrast to RVC/PANI-SA, the improvement by RVC/PANI-SA-GLY was more significant and especially obvious at more negative potential, lower initial Cr(VI) concentration, relatively less acidic solution and higher current densities, best achieving 7.84% higher removal efficiency with entire Cr(VI) eliminated after 900 s. Current efficiencies were likewise enhanced by RVC/PANI-SA-GLY under quite negative potentials. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) analysis revealed a possible adsorption-reduction mechanism of RVC/PANI-SA-GLY, which greatly contributed to the faster reduction kinetics and was probably relative to the absorption between protonated amine groups of glycine and HCrO4(-). Eventually, the stability of RVC/PANI-SA-GLY was proven relatively satisfactory.

  20. Occupational exposure to complex mixtures of volatile organic compounds in ambient air: desorption from activated charcoal using accelerated solvent extraction can replace carbon disulfide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizi, Giovanni; Fioretti, Marzia; Rocca, Lucia Mainero

    2013-01-01

    A desorption study of 57 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been conducted by use of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Different solvents were tested to extract activated charcoal tubes with the objective of replacing carbon disulfide, used in official methods, because of its highly toxic health and environmental effects. Extraction conditions, for example temperature and number of cycles, were investigated and optimized. The definitive extraction procedure selected was use of acetone at 150 °C and two consecutive extraction cycles at a pressure of 1,500 psi. Considering a sample volume of 0.005 Nm(3), corresponding to a sampling time of 8 h at a flow rate of 0.01 L min(-1), the method was validated over the concentration range 65-26,300 μg Nm(-3). The lowest limit of quantification was 6 μg Nm(-3), and recovery for the 93 % of analytes ranged from 65 to 102 %. For most of the compounds, relative standard deviations were less than 15 % for inter and intra-day precision. Uncertainty of measurement was also determined: the relative expanded uncertainty was always below 29.6 %, except for dichlorodifluoromethane. This work shows that use of friendlier solvent, for example acetone, coupled with use of ASE, can replace use of CS(2) for chemical removal of VOCs from activated charcoal. ASE has several advantages over traditional solvent-extraction methods, including shorter extraction time, minimum sample manipulation, high reproducibility, and less extraction discrimination. No loss of sensitivity occurs and there is also a salutary effect on bench workers' health and on the smell of laboratory air.

  1. Environmental evaluation of carbon capture and storage technology and large scale deployment scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Bhawna

    2011-03-15

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is the most viable option to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants while continuing the use of fossil fuels required to satisfy the increasing energy demand. However, CCS is an energy intensive process, and demands additional energy, chemicals and infrastructure. The capture processes may also have certain direct emissions to air (NH{sub 3}, aldehydes, solvent vapor etc.) and generate solid wastes from degradation byproducts. A trade-off in environmental impacts is expected, and with the large-scale application of CCS needed to make any significant reduction in CO emissions, these potential trade-offs can become enormous in magnitude. Therefore a systematic process of evaluation of complete life cycle for all available CCS options and large-scale CCS deployment scenarios is needed. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is well established and best suited for such analysis. Methodology of hybrid life cycle assessment is used in this work and methodological developments are made to build-up simple approaches for evaluation of future CCS systems and scenarios. The thesis also extends the result presentation to more comprehensible damage indicators and evaluates control potentials for human health, ecosystem damage and resource depletion for the technology. The results of the study shows that the CCS systems achieve significant reduction in global warming impact but have multiple environmental trade-offs depending on the technology. These trade-offs are mainly due to energy penalty from capture process, infrastructure development and waste treatment processes. Damage assessment shows that the CCS systems greatly reduce human health damage and ecosystem damage by mitigating the climate change impact while increasing the resource consumption. Scenario assessment results show the clear advantage of global CCS integration scenarios over the Baseline scenario having significantly lower impact potential scores for all impact and

  2. Processing and Characterization of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Containing Alumina-Carbon Refractories Prepared by Nanocomposite Powder Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Feng; Li, Nan; Liu, Baikuan; He, Zhongyang

    2016-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have often been used as additives to improve the properties of refractories containing carbon. However, it is very difficult to evenly distribute CNTs in the matrix. In order to solve this difficulty, an alumina/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) (AM) composite powder in which MWCNTs had grown on the surfaces of Al2O3 particles was developed and used in alumina-carbon (Al2O3-C) refractories. The effects of the AM composite powders on the microstructure and properties of the Al2O3-C refractories were studied and compared with the commercial MWCNTs. The nanocomposite powders significantly improved the distribution uniformity of MWCNTs in the Al2O3-C matrix. The densification, fracture properties, thermal shock resistance, and slag corrosion resistance were enhanced due to the well-dispersed MWCNTs. On the contrary, no improvement of the densification, fracture properties, and thermal shock resistance of the refractories was achieved by addition of commercial MWCNTs due to the agglomeration of MWCNTs.

  3. Biomedical accelerator mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Stewart P. H. T.; Vogel, John S.

    1995-05-01

    Ultrasensitive SIMS with accelerator based spectrometers has recently begun to be applied to biomedical problems. Certain very long-lived radioisotopes of very low natural abundances can be used to trace metabolism at environmental dose levels ( [greater-or-equal, slanted] z mol in mg samples). 14C in particular can be employed to label a myriad of compounds. Competing technologies typically require super environmental doses that can perturb the system under investigation, followed by uncertain extrapolation to the low dose regime. 41Ca and 26Al are also used as elemental tracers. Given the sensitivity of the accelerator method, care must be taken to avoid contamination of the mass spectrometer and the apparatus employed in prior sample handling including chemical separation. This infant field comprises the efforts of a dozen accelerator laboratories. The Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry has been particularly active. In addition to collaborating with groups further afield, we are researching the kinematics and binding of genotoxins in-house, and we support innovative uses of our capability in the disciplines of chemistry, pharmacology, nutrition and physiology within the University of California. The field can be expected to grow further given the numerous potential applications and the efforts of several groups and companies to integrate more the accelerator technology into biomedical research programs; the development of miniaturized accelerator systems and ion sources capable of interfacing to conventional HPLC and GMC, etc. apparatus for complementary chemical analysis is anticipated for biomedical laboratories.

  4. Accelerators for America's Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Mei

    2016-03-01

    Particle accelerator, a powerful tool to energize beams of charged particles to a desired speed and energy, has been the working horse for investigating the fundamental structure of matter and fundermental laws of nature. Most known examples are the 2-mile long Stanford Linear Accelerator at SLAC, the high energy proton and anti-proton collider Tevatron at FermiLab, and Large Hadron Collider that is currently under operation at CERN. During the less than a century development of accelerator science and technology that led to a dazzling list of discoveries, particle accelerators have also found various applications beyond particle and nuclear physics research, and become an indispensible part of the economy. Today, one can find a particle accelerator at almost every corner of our lives, ranging from the x-ray machine at the airport security to radiation diagnostic and therapy in hospitals. This presentation will give a brief introduction of the applications of this powerful tool in fundermental research as well as in industry. Challenges in accelerator science and technology will also be briefly presented

  5. Using improved technology for widespread application of a geological carbon sequestration study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raney, J.

    2013-12-01

    analysis program can combine public LAS data with privately owned digital petrophysical information to create refined cross sections with details on lithology and geochemistry. The interactive mapper displays geophysical surveys such as depth and time converted 3D seismic, gravity, magnetic, remote sensing, simulations, regional geologic base layers, and launches web-based well profile tools. Geocelluar models that demonstrate porosity, fault boundaries, seal continuity, and other hydrostratigraphic parameters will illustrate the presence of aquifers and caprocks. Dynamic models will use this input to simulate in situ CO2 plume migration and entrapment mechanisms over time. Additional outreach activities such as core workshops that showcase geological samples, conference presentations to describe technology experiences, and publishing peer-review journal articles will ensure the scientific research is delivered to the general public and useful in academia. Next steps will seek to enhance the current 3D depiction of the subsurface, leading to a direct visual connection between conceptual models and their supporting scientific evidence. Together, these tools aim to unite various industries to perform streamlined data analysis leading to a greater understanding of future geological carbon utilization and storage.

  6. Negative Emissions Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Danny

    2006-04-01

    Although `negative emissions' of carbon dioxide need not, in principle, involve use of biological processes to draw carbon out of the atmosphere, such `agricultural' sequestration' is the only known way to remove carbon from the atmosphere on time scales comparable to the time scale for anthropogenic increases in carbon emissions. In order to maintain the `negative emissions' the biomass must be used in such a way that the resulting carbon dioxide is separated and permanently sequestered. Two options for sequestration are in the topsoil and via geologic carbon sequestration. The former has multiple benefits, but the latter also is needed. Thus, although geologic carbon sequestration is viewed skeptically by some environmentalists as simply a way to keep using fossil fuels---it may be a key part of reversing accelerating climate forcing if rapid climate change is beginning to occur. I will first review the general approach of agricultural sequestration combined with use of resulting biofuels in a way that permits carbon separation and then geologic sequestration as a negative emissions technology. Then I discuss the process that is the focus of my company---the EPRIDA cycle. If deployed at a sufficiently large scale, it could reverse the increase in CO2 concentrations. I also estimate of benefits --carbon and other---of large scale deployment of negative emissions technologies. For example, using the EPRIDA cycle by planting and soil sequestering carbon in an area abut In 3X the size of Texas would remove the amount of carbon that is being accumulated worldwide each year. In addition to the atmospheric carbon removal, the EPRIDA approach also counters the depletion of carbon in the soil---increasing topsoil and its fertility; reduces the excess nitrogen in the water by eliminating the need for ammonium nitrate fertilizer and reduces fossil fuel reliance by providing biofuel and avoiding natural gas based fertilizer production.

  7. The miniature accelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    The image that most people have of CERN is of its enormous accelerators and their capacity to accelerate particles to extremely high energies. But thanks to some cutting-edge studies on beam dynamics and radiofrequency technology, along with innovative construction techniques, teams at CERN have now created the first module of a brand-new accelerator, which will be just 2 metres long. The potential uses of this miniature accelerator will include deployment in hospitals for the production of medical isotopes and the treatment of cancer. It’s a real David-and-Goliath story.   Serge Mathot, in charge of the construction of the "mini-RFQ", pictured with the first of the four modules that will make up the miniature accelerator. The miniature accelerator consists of a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ), a component found at the start of all proton accelerator chains around the world, from the smallest to the largest. The LHC is designed to produce very high-intensity beams ...

  8. LIBO accelerates

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The prototype module of LIBO, a linear accelerator project designed for cancer therapy, has passed its first proton-beam acceleration test. In parallel a new version - LIBO-30 - is being developed, which promises to open up even more interesting avenues.

  9. RECIRCULATING ACCELERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERG,J.S.; GARREN,A.A.; JOHNSTONE,C.

    2000-04-07

    This paper compares various types of recirculating accelerators, outlining the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches. The accelerators are characterized according to the types of arcs they use: whether there is a single arc for the entire recirculator or there are multiple arcs, and whether the arc(s) are isochronous or non-isochronous.

  10. Efficient control of odors and VOC emissions via activated carbon technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Farhana; Kim, James; Huang, Ruey; Nu, Huong Ton; Lorenzo, Vlad

    2014-07-01

    This research study was undertaken to enhance the efficiency and economy of carbon scrubbers in controlling odors and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at the wastewater collection and treatment facilities of the Bureau of Sanitation, City of Los Angeles. The butane activity and hydrogen sulfide breakthrough capacity of activated carbon were assessed. Air streams were measured for odorous gases and VOCs and removal efficiency (RE) determined. Carbon towers showed average to excellent removal of odorous compounds, VOCs, and siloxanes; whereas, wet scrubbers demonstrated good removal of odorous compounds but low to negative removal of VOCs. It was observed that the relative humidity and empty bed contact time are one of the most important operating parameters of carbon towers impacting the pollutant RE. Regular monitoring of activated carbon and VOCs has resulted in useful information on carbon change-out frequency, packing recommendations, and means to improve performance of carbon towers.

  11. Modelling Socio-Environmental Sensitivities: How Public Responses to Low Carbon Energy Technologies Could Shape the UK Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brighid Moran Jay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low carbon energy technologies are not deployed in a social vacuum; there are a variety of complex ways in which people understand and engage with these technologies and the changing energy system overall. However, the role of the public’s socio-environmental sensitivities to low carbon energy technologies and their responses to energy deployments does not receive much serious attention in planning decarbonisation pathways to 2050. Resistance to certain resources and technologies based on particular socio-environmental sensitivities would alter the portfolio of options available which could shape how the energy system achieves decarbonisation (the decarbonisation pathway as well as affecting the cost and achievability of decarbonisation. Thus, this paper presents a series of three modelled scenarios which illustrate the way that a variety of socio-environmental sensitivities could impact the development of the energy system and the decarbonisation pathway. The scenarios represent risk aversion (DREAD which avoids deployment of potentially unsafe large-scale technology, local protectionism (NIMBY that constrains systems to their existing spatial footprint, and environmental awareness (ECO where protection of natural resources is paramount. Very different solutions for all three sets of constraints are identified; some seem slightly implausible (DREAD and all show increased cost (especially in ECO.

  12. Snowmass 2013 Computing Frontier: Accelerator Science

    CERN Document Server

    Spentzouris, P; Joshi, C; Amundson, J; An, W; Bruhwiler, D L; Cary, J R; Cowan, B; Decyk, V K; Esarey, E; Fonseca, R A; Friedman, A; Geddes, C G R; Grote, D P; Kourbanis, I; Leemans, W P; Lu, W; Mori, W B; Ng, C; Qiang, Ji; Roberts, T; Ryne, R D; Schroeder, C B; Silva, L O; Tsung, F S; Vay, J -L; Vieira, J

    2013-01-01

    This is the working summary of the Accelerator Science working group of the Computing Frontier of the Snowmass meeting 2013. It summarizes the computing requirements to support accelerator technology in both Energy and Intensity Frontiers.

  13. The Application of the Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extraction Technology on the Extraction of Micro Amount of Uranium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG; Zhi-jun; YU; Zhen; LIANG; Xiao-hu; DING; You-qian

    2012-01-01

    <正>The characteristic of solid radioactive wastes containing less 1% uranium, such as mine tailings, contaminated soil and sludge, is complex matrix and irregular surface. The traditional treatment technology usually consumes a lot of chemical reagents and produces a large amount of secondary wastes. The supercritical fluid has the advantage of high diffusivity, low viscosity, and liquid-like solvating capability, which enable the supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction (SFE) technology to be a alternative method to extract micro amount of uranium from solid radioactive wastes.

  14. Wind Power Technologies FY 2017 Budget At-A-Glance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-03-01

    The Wind Program accelerates U.S. deployment of clean, affordable, and reliable domestic wind power through research, development, and demonstration activities. These advanced technology investments directly contribute to the goals for the United States to generate 80% of the nation’s electricity from clean, carbon-free energy sources by 2035; reduce carbon emissions 26%-28% below 2005 levels by 2025; and reduce carbon emissions 80% by 2050 by reducing costs and increasing performance of wind energy systems.

  15. 14 November 2013 - Director of Indian Institute of Technology Indore P. Mathur with members of the Indian community working at CERN; visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 2, the ALICE experimental area and SM18 with ALICE Collaboration Spokesperson, Istituto Nazionale Fisica Nucleare P. Giubellino and Technology Department, Accelerator Beam Transfer Group Leader V. Mertens

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2013-01-01

    14 November 2013 - Director of Indian Institute of Technology Indore P. Mathur with members of the Indian community working at CERN; visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 2, the ALICE experimental area and SM18 with ALICE Collaboration Spokesperson, Istituto Nazionale Fisica Nucleare P. Giubellino and Technology Department, Accelerator Beam Transfer Group Leader V. Mertens

  16. 2 March 2012 - US Google Management Team Executive Chairman E. Schmidt visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers and Head of Technology Department F. Bordry; signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    2 March 2012 - US Google Management Team Executive Chairman E. Schmidt visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers and Head of Technology Department F. Bordry; signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer.

  17. Investigation on laser accelerators. Plasma beat wave accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Akihiko; Miyamoto, Yasuaki; Hagiwara, Masayoshi; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Sudo, Osamu [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works

    1998-04-01

    Laser accelerator technology has characteristics of high energy, compact, short pulse and high luminescence{center_dot}low emittance. This means potential many applications in wide ranges of fields as well as high energy and nuclear physics. High power short laser pulses are injected to a plasma in the typical example of laser accelerators. Large electric fields are induced in the plasma. Electrons in the plasma are accelerated with the ponderomotive force of the electric field. The principles of interaction on beat wave, wakefield accelerators, inverse free electron laser and inverse Cherenkov radiation are briefly introduced. The overview of plasma beat wave accelerator study is briefly described on the programs at Chalk River Laboratories(Canada), UCLA(USA), Osaka Univ. (Japan) and Ecole Polytechnique (France). Issues of the plasma beat wave accelerator are discussed from the viewpoint of application. Existing laser technologies of CO{sub 2}, YAG and YFL are available for the present day accelerator technology. An acceleration length of beat wave interaction is limited due to its phase condition. Ideas on multi-staged acceleration using the phasing plasma fiber are introduced. (Y. Tanaka)

  18. Diagnosis and Treatment of Neurological and Ischemic Disorders Employing Carbon Nanotube Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick P. Komane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive research on carbon nanotubes has been conducted due to their excellent physicochemical properties. Based on their outstanding physicochemical properties, carbon nanotubes have the potential to be employed as theranostic tools for neurological pathologies such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease including ischemic stroke diagnosis and treatment. Stroke is currently regarded as the third root cause of death and the leading source of immobility around the globe. The development and improvement of efficient and effective procedures for central nervous system disease diagnosis and treatment is necessitated. The main aim of this review is to discuss the application of nanotechnology, specifically carbon nanotubes, to the diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders with an emphasis on ischemic stroke. Areas covered include the conventional current diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders, as well as a critical review of the application of carbon nanotubes in the diagnosis and treatment of ischemic stroke, covering areas such as functionalization of carbon nanotubes and carbon nanotube-based biosensors. A broad perspective on carbon nanotube stimuli-responsiveness, carbon nanotube toxicity, and commercially available carbon nanotubes is provided. Potential future studies employing carbon nanotubes have been discussed, evaluating their extent of advancement in the diagnosis and treatment of neurological and ischemic disorders.

  19. Project X: Accelerator Reference Design

    CERN Document Server

    Holmes, S D; Chase, B; Gollwitzer, K; Johnson, D; Kaducak, M; Klebaner, A; Kourbanis, I; Lebedev, V; Leveling, A; Li, D; Nagaitsev, S; Ostroumov, P; Pasquinelli, R; Patrick, J; Prost, L; Scarpine, V; Shemyakin, A; Solyak, N; Steimel, J; Yakovlev, V; Zwaska, R

    2013-01-01

    Part 1 of "Project X: Accelerator Reference Design, Physics Opportunities, Broader Impacts". Part 1 contains the volume Preface and a description of the conceptual design for a high-intensity proton accelerator facility being developed to support a world-leading program of Intensity Frontier physics over the next two decades at Fermilab. Subjects covered include performance goals, the accelerator physics design, and the technological basis for such a facility.

  20. Marine ecotoxicity of nitramines, transformation products of amine-based carbon capture technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutris, Claire; Macken, Ailbhe L; Collins, Andrew R; El Yamani, Naouale; Brooks, Steven J

    2015-09-15

    In the context of reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere, chemical absorption with amines is emerging as the most advanced technology for post-combustion CO2 capture from exhaust gases of fossil fuel power plants. Despite amine solvent recycling during the capture process, degradation products are formed and released into the environment, among them aliphatic nitramines, for which the environmental impact is unknown. In this study, we determined the acute and chronic toxicity of two nitramines identified as important transformation products of amine-based carbon capture, dimethylnitramine and ethanolnitramine, using a multi-trophic suite of bioassays. The results were then used to produce the first environmental risk assessment for the marine ecosystem. In addition, the in vivo genotoxicity of nitramines was studied by adapting the comet assay to cells from experimentally exposed fish. Overall, based on the whole organism bioassays, the toxicity of both nitramines was considered to be low. The most sensitive response to both compounds was found in oysters, and dimethylnitramine was consistently more toxic than ethanolnitramine in all bioassays. The Predicted No Effect Concentrations for dimethylnitramine and ethanolnitramine were 0.08 and 0.18 mg/L, respectively. The genotoxicity assessment revealed contrasting results to the whole organism bioassays, with ethanolnitramine found to be more genotoxic than dimethylnitramine by three orders of magnitude. At the lowest ethanolnitramine concentration (1mg/L), 84% DNA damage was observed, whereas 100mg/L dimethylnitramine was required to cause 37% DNA damage. The mechanisms of genotoxicity were also shown to differ between the two compounds, with oxidation of the DNA bases responsible for over 90% of the genotoxicity of dimethylnitramine, whereas DNA strand breaks and alkali-labile sites were responsible for over 90% of the genotoxicity of ethanolnitramine. Fish exposed to >3mg/L ethanolnitramine had virtually no DNA

  1. High Efficiency Water Heating Technology Development Final Report. Part I, Lab/Field Performance Evaluation and Accelerated Life Testing of a Hybrid Electric Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Murphy, Richard W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Linkous, Randall Lee [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    DOE has supported efforts for many years with the objective of getting a water heater that uses heat pump technology (aka a heat pump water heater or HPWH) successfully on the residential equipment market. The most recent previous effort (1999-2002) produced a product that performed very well in ORNL-led accelerated durability and field tests. The commercial partner for this effort, Enviromaster International (EMI), introduced the product to the market under the trade name Watter$aver in 2002 but ceased production in 2005 due to low sales. A combination of high sales price and lack of any significant infrastructure for service after the sale were the principal reasons for the failure of this effort. What was needed for market success was a commercial partner with the manufacturing and market distribution capability necessary to allow economies of scale to lead to a viable unit price together with a strong customer service infrastructure. General Electric certainly meets these requirements, and knowing of ORNL s expertise in this area, approached ORNL with the proposal to partner in a CRADA to produce a high efficiency electric water heater. A CRADA with GE was initiated early in Fiscal Year, 2008. GE initially named its product the Hybrid Electric Water Heater (HEWH).

  2. Nitrogen removal from coal gasification wastewater by activated carbon technologies combined with short-cut nitrogen removal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Han, Hongjun; Hou, Baolin; Zhuang, Haifeng; Jia, Shengyong; Fang, Fang

    2014-11-01

    A system combining granular activated carbon and powdered activated carbon technologies along with shortcut biological nitrogen removal (GAC-PACT-SBNR) was developed to enhance total nitrogen (TN) removal for anaerobically treated coal gasification wastewater with less need for external carbon resources. The TN removal efficiency in SBNR was significantly improved by introducing the effluent from the GAC process into SBNR during the anoxic stage, with removal percentage increasing from 43.8%-49.6% to 68.8%-75.8%. However, the TN removal rate decreased with the progressive deterioration of GAC adsorption. After adding activated sludge to the GAC compartment, the granular carbon had a longer service-life and the demand for external carbon resources became lower. Eventually, the TN removal rate in SBNR was almost constant at approx. 43.3%, as compared to approx. 20.0% before seeding with sludge. In addition, the production of some alkalinity during the denitrification resulted in a net savings in alkalinity requirements for the nitrification reaction and refractory chemical oxygen demand (COD) degradation by autotrophic bacteria in SBNR under oxic conditions. PACT showed excellent resilience to increasing organic loadings. The microbial community analysis revealed that the PACT had a greater variety of bacterial taxons and the dominant species associated with the three compartments were in good agreement with the removal of typical pollutants. The study demonstrated that pre-adsorption by the GAC-sludge process could be a technically and economically feasible method to enhance TN removal in coal gasification wastewater (CGW).

  3. An Evaluation of the Feasibility of Combining Carbon Dioxide Flooding Technologies with Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery Technologies in Order To Sequester Carbon Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd French; Lew Brown; Rafael Hernandez; Magan Green; Lynn Prewitt; Terry Coggins

    2009-08-19

    The need for more energy as our population grows results in an increase in the amount of CO2 introduced into the atmosphere. The effect of this introduction is currently debated intensely as to the severity of the effect of this. The bjective of this investigation was to determine if the production of more energy (i.e. petroleum) and the sequestration of CO2 could be coupled into one process. Carbon dioxide flooding is a well-established technique that introduces Compressed CO2 into a subsurface oil-bearing formation to aide in liquefying harder to extract petroleum and enhancing its mobility towards the production wells.

  4. Horizontal Accelerator

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Horizontal Accelerator (HA) Facility is a versatile research tool available for use on projects requiring simulation of the crash environment. The HA Facility is...

  5. Accelerating advanced-materials commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine, Elicia; Seegopaul, Purnesh

    2016-05-01

    Long commercialization times, high capital costs and sustained uncertainty deter investment in innovation for advanced materials. With appropriate strategies, technology and market uncertainties can be reduced, and the commercialization of advanced materials accelerated.

  6. Variability in and agreement between modeled and personal continuously measured black carbon levels using novel smartphone and sensor technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Rivas, Ioar; de Castro, Montserrat; Cirach, Marta; Hoek, Gerard; Seto, Edmund; Jerrett, Michael; Sunyer, Jordi

    2015-03-01

    Novel technologies, such as smartphones and small personal continuous air pollution sensors, can now facilitate better personal estimates of air pollution in relation to location. Such information can provide us with a better understanding about whether and how personal exposures relate to residential air pollution estimates, which are normally used in epidemiological studies. The aims of this study were to examine (1) the variability in personal air pollution levels during the day and (2) the relationship between modeled home and school estimates and continuously measured personal air pollution exposure levels in different microenvironments (e.g., home, school, and commute). We focused on black carbon as an indicator of traffic-related air pollution. We recruited 54 school children (aged 7-11) from 29 different schools around Barcelona as part of the BREATHE study, an epidemiological study of the relation between air pollution and brain development. For 2 typical week days during 2012-2013, the children were given a smartphone with CalFit software to obtain information on their location and physical activity level and a small sensor, the micro-aethalometer model AE51, to measure their black carbon levels simultaneously and continuously. We estimated their home and school exposure to PM2.5 filter absorbance, which is well-correlated with black carbon, using a temporally adjusted PM2.5 absorbance land use regression (LUR) model. We found considerable variation in the black carbon levels during the day, with the highest levels measured during commuting periods (geometric mean = 2.8 μg/m(3)) and the lowest levels at home (geometric mean = 1.3 μg/m(3)). Hourly temporally adjusted LUR model estimates for the home and school showed moderate to good correlation with measured personal black carbon levels at home and school (r = 0.59 and 0.68, respectively) and lower correlation with commuting trips (r = 0.32 and 0.21, respectively). The correlation between modeled home

  7. Integrated life-cycle assessment of electricity-supply scenarios confirms global environmental benefit of low-carbon technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwich, Edgar G; Gibon, Thomas; Bouman, Evert A; Arvesen, Anders; Suh, Sangwon; Heath, Garvin A; Bergesen, Joseph D; Ramirez, Andrea; Vega, Mabel I; Shi, Lei

    2015-05-19

    Decarbonization of electricity generation can support climate-change mitigation and presents an opportunity to address pollution resulting from fossil-fuel combustion. Generally, renewable technologies require higher initial investments in infrastructure than fossil-based power systems. To assess the tradeoffs of increased up-front emissions and reduced operational emissions, we present, to our knowledge, the first global, integrated life-cycle assessment (LCA) of long-term, wide-scale implementation of electricity generation from renewable sources (i.e., photovoltaic and solar thermal, wind, and hydropower) and of carbon dioxide capture and storage for fossil power generation. We compare emissions causing particulate matter exposure, freshwater ecotoxicity, freshwater eutrophication, and climate change for the climate-change-mitigation (BLUE Map) and business-as-usual (Baseline) scenarios of the International Energy Agency up to 2050. We use a vintage stock model to conduct an LCA of newly installed capacity year-by-year for each region, thus accounting for changes in the energy mix used to manufacture future power plants. Under the Baseline scenario, emissions of air and water pollutants more than double whereas the low-carbon technologies introduced in the BLUE Map scenario allow a doubling of electricity supply while stabilizing or even reducing pollution. Material requirements per unit generation for low-carbon technologies can be higher than for conventional fossil generation: 11-40 times more copper for photovoltaic systems and 6-14 times more iron for wind power plants. However, only two years of current global copper and one year of iron production will suffice to build a low-carbon energy system capable of supplying the world's electricity needs in 2050.

  8. 2014 Joint International Accelerator School: Beam Loss and Accelerator Protection

    CERN Document Server

    JAS - Joint US-CERN-Japan-Russia Accelerator School

    2016-01-01

    Many particle accelerators operate with very high beam power and very high energy stored in particle beams as well as in magnet systems. In the future, the beam power in high intensity accelerators will further increase. The protection of the accelerator equipment from the consequences of uncontrolled release of the energy is essential. This was the motivation for organizing a first school on beam losses and accelerator protection (in general referred to as machine protection). During the school the methods and technologies to identify, mitigate, monitor and manage the technical risks associated with the operation of accelerators with high-power beams or subsystems with large stored energy were presented. At the completion of the school the participants should have been able to understand the physical phenomena that can damage machine subsystems or interrupt operations and to analyze an accelerator facility to produce a register of technical risks and the corresponding risk mitigation and management strategie...

  9. Carbon Dioxide Snow Jet Cleaning Technology%干冰微粒喷射清洗技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭新贺; 王磊; 景玉鹏

    2012-01-01

    简要介绍了随着工艺节点的缩小,传统RCA清洗方法在硅片清洗工艺中的局限性和弊端,进而提出了以CO2为介质的新型干冰微粒喷射清洗方法.从CO2的物理特性出发,论述了CO2流经喷枪后形成干冰微粒的机理,并简要分析了干冰微粒喷射技术对颗粒污染物和有机污染物的清洗机理.在此基础上,介绍了自主研发的一台基于干冰微粒喷射技术的半导体清洗设备,对该设备的结构和各部分的作用作了简要介绍,论述了使用该设备对硅片进行清洗的工艺流程.通过对比实验发现,采用压强为8 MPa、纯度为5N的CO2作为气源,喷嘴前压强设置为11 MPa,使用该设备可以达到很好的清洗效果.%With the drastic shrink of the semiconductor technology node, the limitations and shortcomings of traditional RCA cleaning methods are introduced briefly, and then the carbon dioxide snow jet cleaning as a novel cleaning technology for cleaning process is discussed. Based on the special physical properties of carbon dioxide, the mechanisms of dry ice micro-particle formation as the carbon dioxide passes through an orifice are discussed, and the carbon dioxide snow jet cleaning mechanisms for the particle and organic pollutants are analyzed briefly. Then the self-made semiconductor cleaning equipment based on the carbon dioxide snow jet cleaning was introduced, and the structure of the equipment and the function of each part were discussed. Besides that, the process flow of cleaning the silicon wafer with the equipment was presented. The contrast experiment shows that the equipment has a very good effect of silicon wafer cleaning when the gas pressure of the carbon dioxide source is 8 Mpa, carbon dioxide with the purity of 5N is used as the gas source, and the pressure parameter before the orifice is set to 11 Mpa.

  10. Industrial accelerators and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hamm, Marianne E

    2012-01-01

    This unique new book is a comprehensive review of the many current industrial applications of particle accelerators, written by experts in each of these fields. Readers will gain a broad understanding of the principles of these applications, the extent to which they are employed, and the accelerator technology utilized. The book also serves as a thorough introduction to these fields for non-experts and laymen. Due to the increased interest in industrial applications, there is a growing interest among accelerator physicists and many other scientists worldwide in understanding how accelerators are used in various applications. The government agencies that fund scientific research with accelerators are also seeking more information on the many commercial applications that have been or can be developed with the technology developments they are funding. Many industries are also doing more research on how they can improve their products or processes using particle beams.

  11. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 as a clean technology for palm kernel oil extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhuda I

    2009-04-01

    Kyoto Protocol. Keywords: By-product, Solvent extraction, Kyoto protocol, Supercritical Carbon Dioxide, Palm Kernel Oil Received: 13 July 2008 / Received in revised form: 17 February 2009, Accepted: 28 February 2009, Published online: 12 March 2009

  12. Nanoporous carbons as promising novel methane adsorbents for natural gas technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Morad Rashidi; Roghaye Lotfi; Amideddin Nouralishahi; Mohammad Ali Khodagholi; Masoud Zare; Faeghe Eslamipour

    2011-01-01

    Nanoporous carbons were synthesized using furfuryl alcohol and sucrose as precursors and MCM-41 and mordenite as nanoporous templates.The produced nanoporous carbons were used as adsorbent for methane storage.The average pore diameter of the samples varied from 3.9 nm to 5.9 nm and the BET surface area varied from 320 m2/g to 824 m2/g.The volumetric adsorption experiments revealed that MCM-41 and sucrose had better performance compared with mordenite and furfuryl alcohol,correspondingly.Also,the effect of precursor to template ratio on the structure of nanoporous carbons and their adsorption capacities was investigated.The nanoporous carbon produced from MCM-41 mesoporous molecular sieve partially filled by sucrose shows the best methane adsorption capacity among the tested samples.

  13. Electrostatic accelerators fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    Electrostatic accelerators are an important and widespread subgroup within the broad spectrum of modern, large particle acceleration devices. They are specifically designed for applications that require high-quality ion beams in terms of energy stability and emittance at comparatively low energies (a few MeV). Their ability to accelerate virtually any kind of ion over a continuously tunable range of energies make them a highly versatile tool for investigations in many research fields including, but not limited to, atomic and nuclear spectroscopy, heavy ion reactions, accelerator mass spectroscopy as well as ion-beam analysis and modification. The book is divided into three parts. The first part concisely introduces the field of accelerator technology and techniques that emphasize their major modern applications. The second part treats the electrostatic accelerator per se: its construction and operational principles as well as its maintenance. The third part covers all relevant applications in which electrosta...

  14. Stephen Myers - More collaboration for accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Stephen Myers has been appointed Director of Accelerators and Technology. His highest priority is to get the LHC running this year, but beyond that he also has the difficult task of balancing resources between non-LHC physics, new projects and consolidation of the existing accelerators. Stephen Myers, previous head of the Accelerator and Beams (AB) Department, will now oversee all the accelerator and technology activities at CERN, including the Beams, Technology and Engineering departments, in the re-established position of Director of Accelerators and Technology. "There are several good reasons to have a single person responsible for the CERN accelerators and technology," said Myers. "Most importantly, this will allow closer collaboration between the three departments and provide the structure for possible redeployment of resources. There will, of course, be regular meetings between the heads of department and myself, and if proble...

  15. Carbon Dioxide Separation Technology: R&D Needs for the Chemical and Petrochemical Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2007-11-01

    This report, the second in a series, is designed to summarize and present recommendations for improved CO2 separation technology for industrial processes. This report provides an overview of 1) the principal CO2 producing processes, 2) the current commercial separation technologies and 3) emerging adsorption and membrane technologies for CO2 separation, and makes recommendations for future research.

  16. Report of the results of the fiscal 1997 regional consortium R and D project. Regional consortium field / Development of technology to treat aquatic environment by using microorganisms fixed on carbon fabrics (abbreviation: carbon/aquatic environment project) (first fiscal year); 1997 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Chiiki consortium bun`ya / tanso sen`i nansoshiki eno biseibutsu kochaku gensho wo riyoshita mizukankyo seibi gijutsu no kaihatsu (ryakusho: tanso mizu kankyo project) daiichi nendo seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Out of the development of technology to arrange the aquatic environment using phenomena of microorganism fixation on carbon fiber soft textures, the paper stated the fiscal 1997 result. On carbon fibers in a state of swaying in water, microorganisms in water fix in an amazingly large quantity. A catalog was compiled of 58 kinds of carbon fabrics trially woven and knitted. When carbon fiber is used as activated sludge carrier, activity of microorganism lasts more than one year. Only a little amount of surplus sludge is generated. The fixed microorganisms are more active in case of carbon fiber than in case of nylon and polyester fibers. Fiber texture models of carbon fiber fixing activated sludge groups were proposed. By pump operation, the water flow inside/outside microorganism groups is being accelerated. Several new strains of bacillus carboniphilus were isolated/identified from soil and marsh. To grasp relationships of characteristics among three elements such as the state of aquatic environment, fiber, and microorganism group, the experiment was prepared. Preliminary work is conducted to derive a simple equation for facility design, and experimental directions to obtain design conditions were proposed. 6 refs., 166 figs., 47 tabs.

  17. Development of a technology for obtaining flotation reagent oxane-3 for carbon mineral raw materials of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Kalugin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents the results of development of a technology for obtaining oxane-3 and its application for enrichment of carbon mineral raw materials. Studies on enrichment of a shungite rock showed that the increase of a pulp temperature to 30°C significantly improves the characteristics and rate of the flotation process. Measured indicators of a shungite rock enrichment using Flotol B were lower in comparison with an enrichment by oxane-3. For schungite mineral, it was established that the obtained heterocyclic compound can replace existing industrial flotation reagents in enrichment processes.

  18. Loading amorphous Asarone in mesoporous silica SBA-15 through supercritical carbon dioxide technology to enhance dissolution and bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengzan; Quan, Guilan; Wu, Qiaoli; Zhou, Chan; Li, Feng; Bai, Xuequn; Li, Ge; Pan, Xin; Wu, Chuanbin

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to load amorphous hydrophobic drug into ordered mesoporous silica (SBA-15) by supercritical carbon dioxide technology in order to improve the dissolution and bioavailability of the drug. Asarone was selected as a model drug due to its lipophilic character and poor bioavailability. In vitro dissolution and in vivo bioavailability of the obtained Asarone-SBA-15 were significantly improved as compared to the micronized crystalline drug. This study offers an effective, safe, and environmentally benign means of solving the problems relating to the solubility and bioavailability of hydrophobic molecules.

  19. Dielectric laser accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, R. Joel; Noble, Robert J.; Bane, Karl; Dowell, David H.; Ng, Cho-Kuen; Spencer, James E.; Tantawi, Sami; Wu, Ziran; Byer, Robert L.; Peralta, Edgar; Soong, Ken; Chang, Chia-Ming; Montazeri, Behnam; Wolf, Stephen J.; Cowan, Benjamin; Dawson, Jay; Gai, Wei; Hommelhoff, Peter; Huang, Yen-Chieh; Jing, Chunguang; McGuinness, Christopher; Palmer, Robert B.; Naranjo, Brian; Rosenzweig, James; Travish, Gil; Mizrahi, Amit; Schachter, Levi; Sears, Christopher; Werner, Gregory R.; Yoder, Rodney B.

    2014-10-01

    The use of infrared lasers to power optical-scale lithographically fabricated particle accelerators is a developing area of research that has garnered increasing interest in recent years. The physics and technology of this approach is reviewed, which is referred to as dielectric laser acceleration (DLA). In the DLA scheme operating at typical laser pulse lengths of 0.1 to 1 ps, the laser damage fluences for robust dielectric materials correspond to peak surface electric fields in the GV /m regime. The corresponding accelerating field enhancement represents a potential reduction in active length of the accelerator between 1 and 2 orders of magnitude. Power sources for DLA-based accelerators (lasers) are less costly than microwave sources (klystrons) for equivalent average power levels due to wider availability and private sector investment. Because of the high laser-to-particle coupling efficiency, required pulse energies are consistent with tabletop microJoule class lasers. Combined with the very high (MHz) repetition rates these lasers can provide, the DLA approach appears promising for a variety of applications, including future high-energy physics colliders, compact light sources, and portable medical scanners and radiative therapy machines.

  20. FERMILAB ACCELERATOR R&D PROGRAM TOWARDS INTENSITY FRONTIER ACCELERATORS : STATUS AND PROGRESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiltsev, Vladimir [Fermilab

    2016-11-15

    The 2014 P5 report indicated the accelerator-based neutrino and rare decay physics research as a centrepiece of the US domestic HEP program at Fermilab. Operation, upgrade and development of the accelerators for the near- term and longer-term particle physics program at the Intensity Frontier face formidable challenges. Here we discuss key elements of the accelerator physics and technology R&D program toward future multi-MW proton accelerators and present its status and progress. INTENSITY FRONTIER ACCELERATORS

  1. Accelerated Unification

    OpenAIRE

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Cohen, Andrew; Georgi, Howard

    2001-01-01

    We construct four dimensional gauge theories in which the successful supersymmetric unification of gauge couplings is preserved but accelerated by N-fold replication of the MSSM gauge and Higgs structure. This results in a low unification scale of $10^{13/N}$ TeV.

  2. Microchemical and Gaseous Sensors Using Carbon Nanotubes and MEMS Fabrication Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chung-Chiun; VanderWal, Randy; Hunter, Gary

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this research is to use a combination of carbon nanotubes and silicon-based microfabrication and micromachining processes to produce unique micro-sized chemical and gaseous sensors. Polished quartz substrate is used. Interdigitated structure is used for the sensing elements. Metallic catalysts for the growth of the carbon nanotube include copper, iron, nickel, and cobalt. Various thicknesses of the metallic catalysts are used in this study varying between 5 to 20 microns. Depositing of the metallic catalyst is accomplished using an ion-beam sputtering thin film technique and a shadow mask. Single wall carbon nanotubes are successfully formed over the metallic catalyst layer. Preliminary measurements of the carbon nanotubes show this nanotube contained film over the sensing elements which had a resistance value of 400 ohms at room temperature. This is a more conductive film comparing to metal oxide films, such as SnO2 or ZnO, that are now widely used in gaseous sensor research. Evaluation of the carbon nanotube film for potential gaseous sensing will be carried out.

  3. Production of Biologically Activated Carbon from Orange Peel and Landfill Leachate Subsequent Treatment Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve adsorption of macromolecular contaminants and promote the growth of microorganisms, active carbon for biological wastewater treatment or follow-up processing requires abundant mesopore and good biophile ability. In this experiment, biophile mesopore active carbon is produced in one-step activation with orange peel as raw material, and zinc chloride as activator, and the adsorption characteristics of orange peel active carbon is studied by static adsorption method. BET specific surface area and pore volume reached 1477 m2/g and 2.090 m3/g, respectively. The surface functional groups were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. The surface of the as-prepared activated carbon contained hydroxyl group, carbonyl group, and methoxy group. The analysis based on X-ray diffraction spectrogram (XRD and three-dimensional fluorescence spectrum indicated that the as-prepared activated carbon, with smaller microcrystalline diameter and microcrystalline thickness and enhanced reactivity, exhibited enhanced adsorption performance. This research has a deep influence in effectively controlling water pollution, improving area water quality, easing orange peel waste pollution, and promoting coordinated development among society, economy, and environment.

  4. How can accelerated development of bioenergy contribute to the future UK energy mix? Insights from a MARKAL modelling exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandarajah Gabrial

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This work explores the potential contribution of bioenergy technologies to 60% and 80% carbon reductions in the UK energy system by 2050, by outlining the potential for accelerated technological development of bioenergy chains. The investigation was based on insights from MARKAL modelling, detailed literature reviews and expert consultations. Due to the number and complexity of bioenergy pathways and technologies in the model, three chains and two underpinning technologies were selected for detailed investigation: (1 lignocellulosic hydrolysis for the production of bioethanol, (2 gasification technologies for heat and power, (3 fast pyrolysis of biomass for bio-oil production, (4 biotechnological advances for second generation bioenergy crops, and (5 the development of agro-machinery for growing and harvesting bioenergy crops. Detailed literature searches and expert consultations (looking inter alia at research and development needs and economic projections led to the development of an 'accelerated' dataset of modelling parameters for each of the selected bioenergy pathways, which were included in five different scenario runs with UK-MARKAL (MED. The results of the 'accelerated runs' were compared with a low-carbon (LC-Core scenario, which assesses the cheapest way to decarbonise the energy sector. Results Bioenergy was deployed in larger quantities in the bioenergy accelerated technological development scenario compared with the LC-Core scenario. In the electricity sector, solid biomass was highly utilised for energy crop gasification, displacing some deployment of wind power, and nuclear and marine to a lesser extent. Solid biomass was also deployed for heat in the residential sector from 2040 in much higher quantities in the bioenergy accelerated technological development scenario compared with LC-Core. Although lignocellulosic ethanol increased, overall ethanol decreased in the transport sector in the bioenergy

  5. Control System for Multi-energy Electron Irradiation Accelerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Li-feng; LIU; Bao-jie

    2012-01-01

    <正>Multi-energy electron irradiation accelerator has a wide range of applications in areas such as industrial irradiation. Accelerator is operated under control system with accelerator subsystems, in which new technologies are involved, such as fiber-based network communication technology and PLC technology. The control system integrates pulse modulator systems,

  6. Breakthroughs of Low-temperature Direct Rubber Mixing in Low-carbon Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Rubber mixing is the most energy-consuming procedure in tire production, covering about 40% energy of the whole tire producing workflow. The process of low temperature direct rubber mixing, developed by Triangle Group Co., Ltd., MESNAC Co., Ltd., Yiyang Rubber and Plastics Co., Ltd., TTA (Qingdao) Tire Technology Co., Ltd., Guangzhou SCUT Bestry Technology Co., Ltd., etc.

  7. Carbon Smackdown: Visualizing Clean Energy (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meza, Juan [LBNL, Computational Research Division

    2010-08-09

    The final Carbon Smackdown match took place Aug. 9, 2010. Juan Meza of the Computational Research Division revealed how scientists use computer visualizations to accelerate climate research and discuss the development of next-generation clean energy technologies such as wind turbines and solar cells.

  8. An Assessment of the Commercial Availability of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Technologies as of June 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, James J.; Davidson, Casie L.; Dahowski, Robert T.

    2009-06-26

    Currently, there is considerable confusion within parts of the carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technical and regulatory communities regarding the maturity and commercial readiness of the technologies needed to capture, transport, inject, monitor and verify the efficacy of carbon dioxide (CO2) storage in deep, geologic formations. The purpose of this technical report is to address this confusion by discussing the state of CCS technological readiness in terms of existing commercial deployments of CO2 capture systems, CO2 transportation pipelines, CO2 injection systems and measurement, monitoring and verification (MMV) systems for CO2 injected into deep geologic structures. To date, CO2 has been captured from both natural gas and coal fired commercial power generating facilities, gasification facilities and other industrial processes. Transportation via pipelines and injection of CO2 into the deep subsurface are well established commercial practices with more than 35 years of industrial experience. There are also a wide variety of MMV technologies that have been employed to understand the fate of CO2 injected into the deep subsurface. The four existing end-to-end commercial CCS projects – Sleipner, Snøhvit, In Salah and Weyburn – are using a broad range of these technologies, and prove that, at a high level, geologic CO2 storage technologies are mature and capable of deploying at commercial scales. Whether wide scale deployment of CCS is currently or will soon be a cost-effective means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions is largely a function of climate policies which have yet to be enacted and the public’s willingness to incur costs to avoid dangerous anthropogenic interference with the Earth’s climate. There are significant benefits to be had by continuing to improve through research, development, and demonstration suite of existing CCS technologies. Nonetheless, it is clear that most of the core technologies required to address capture, transport

  9. Future Accelerator Magnet Needs

    CERN Document Server

    Devred, Arnaud; Yamamoto, A

    2005-01-01

    Superconducting magnet technology is continually evolving in order to meet the demanding needs of new accelerators and to provide necessary upgrades for existing machines. A variety of designs are now under development, including high fields and gradients, rapid cycling and novel coil configurations. This paper presents a summary of R&D programs in the EU, Japan and the USA. A performance comparison between NbTi and Nb3Sn along with fabrication and cost issues are also discussed.

  10. Technological testing of calcium carbonate tablets for use in the treatment of renal osteodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Zotto, M; Ragazzi, E; Realdon, N; Dalla Fini, G

    1993-07-01

    Samples of calcium carbonate tablets produced by different manufacturers were subjected to various tests in order to evaluate tablet quality parameters, mostly indicative for calcium availability. Indications about tablet suitability for treatment of renal osteodystrophy in uremic patients were also tested. The disintegration test turned out to be the most useful in evaluating calcium carbonate availability from tablets. Samples from several manufacturers varied in their behaviour to disaggregation. The availability of calcium dissolved in gastric fluid and the extent of phosphorus binding appeared to depend on disintegration behaviour.

  11. Effect of Accelerated Thermal Ageing on the Selective Solar Thermal Harvesting Properties of Multiwall Carbon Nanotube/Nickel Oxide Nanocomposite Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittessa T. Roro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Varying amounts of dispersed multiwalled carbon nanotubes in NiO have been used to develop composites that absorb the solar energy very well but lose very little through emission. Determination of absorptance, αsol, and emissivity, εther, from such selective solar absorbers shows that the optimum efficiency of 71% can be attained when about 10 mg of MWCNTs are composited with NiO. One such absorber was subjected to thermal ageing tests. The performance criterion (PC limit for passing the test when simulated for 25 years is (−Δα+0.25Δε≤0.05. It was found that the typical absorber had a PC value of −0.01. This value is much better than the passing limit. Raman spectra of the typical absorber before and after the thermal ageing test showed a reduced intensity in the D and G bands of disordered and graphitic carbon, respectively but an enhancement of the NiO bands indicating loss of carbon atoms due to thermal ageing tests. Simple equations are derived determining the proportion of carbon atoms that are lost and the proportion of carbon atoms that remains in the absorber; both of these are in agreement with the original carbon composition before the thermal ageing test. It is reported that the typical absorber will retain 63% of the carbon after 25 years.

  12. Accelerated Innovation Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Opportunities: I. Engage NASA team (examples) a) Research and technology calls . provide suggestions to AES, HRP, OCT. b) Use NASA@Work to solicit other ideas; (possibly before R+D calls). II. Stimulate collaboration (examples) a) NHHPC. b) Wharton Mack Center for Technological Innovation (Feb 2013). c) International ] DLR ] :envihab (July 2013). d) Accelerated research models . NSF, Myelin Repair Foundation. III. Engage public Prizes (open platform: InnoCentive, yet2.com, NTL; Rice Business Plan, etc.) IV. Use same methods to engage STEM.

  13. Factors Affecting the Rate of Penetration of Large-Scale Electricity Technologies: The Case of Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James R. McFarland; Howard J. Herzog

    2007-05-14

    This project falls under the Technology Innovation and Diffusion topic of the Integrated Assessment of Climate Change Research Program. The objective was to better understand the critical variables that affect the rate of penetration of large-scale electricity technologies in order to improve their representation in integrated assessment models. We conducted this research in six integrated tasks. In our first two tasks, we identified potential factors that affect penetration rates through discussions with modeling groups and through case studies of historical precedent. In the next three tasks, we investigated in detail three potential sets of critical factors: industrial conditions, resource conditions, and regulatory/environmental considerations. Research to assess the significance and relative importance of these factors involved the development of a microeconomic, system dynamics model of the US electric power sector. Finally, we implemented the penetration rate models in an integrated assessment model. While the focus of this effort is on carbon capture and sequestration technologies, much of the work will be applicable to other large-scale energy conversion technologies.

  14. Isotactic polypropylene/carbon nanotube composites prepared by latex technology: electrical conductivity study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossiord, N.; Wouters, M.E.L.; Miltner, H.E.; Lu, K.; Loos, J.; Mele, B.V.; Koning, C.E.

    2010-01-01

    Several series of nanocomposites were prepared using a latex-based process, the main step of which consisted of mixing an aqueous suspension of exfoliated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and a polymer latex. In the present work, a systematic study on the electrical properties of fully amorphous (polystyrene

  15. SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY Supercritical carbon dioxide process for releasing stuck cantilever beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui; Chaoqun, Gao; Lei, Wang; Yupeng, Jing

    2010-10-01

    The multi-SCCO2 (supercritical carbon dioxide) release and dry process based on our specialized SCCO2 semiconductor process equipment is investigated and the releasing mechanism is discussed. The experiment results show that stuck cantilever beams were held up again under SCCO2 high pressure treatment and the repeatability of this process is nearly 100%.

  16. Coupled Climate-Economy-Biosphere (CoCEB) model - Part 1: Abatement share and investment in low-carbon technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogutu, K. B. Z.; D'Andrea, F.; Ghil, M.; Nyandwi, C.; Manene, M. M.; Muthama, J. N.

    2015-04-01

    The Coupled Climate-Economy-Biosphere (CoCEB) model described herein takes an integrated assessment approach to simulating global change. By using an endogenous economic growth module with physical and human capital accumulation, this paper considers the sustainability of economic growth, as economic activity intensifies greenhouse gas emissions that in turn cause economic damage due to climate change. Different types of fossil fuels and different technologies produce different volumes of carbon dioxide in combustion. The shares of different fuels and their future evolution are not known. We assume that the dynamics of hydrocarbon-based energy share and their replacement with renewable energy sources in the global energy balance can be modeled into the 21st century by use of logistic functions. Various climate change mitigation policy measures are considered. While many integrated assessment models treat abatement costs merely as an unproductive loss of income, we consider abatement activities also as an investment in overall energy efficiency of the economy and decrease of overall carbon intensity of the energy system. The paper shows that these efforts help to reduce the volume of industrial carbon dioxide emissions, lower temperature deviations, and lead to positive effects in economic growth.

  17. Analysis and status of post-combustion carbon dioxide capture technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhown, Abhoyjit S; Freeman, Brice C

    2011-10-15

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) undertook a multiyear effort to understand the landscape of postcombustion CO₂ capture technologies globally. In this paper we discuss several central issues facing CO₂ capture involving scale, energy, and overall status of development. We argue that the scale of CO₂ emissions is sufficiently large to place inherent limits on the types of capture processes that could be deployed broadly. We also discuss the minimum energy usage in terms of a parasitic load on a power plant. Finally, we present summary findings of the landscape of capture technologies using an index of technology readiness levels.

  18. MUON ACCELERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERG,S.J.

    2003-11-18

    One of the major motivations driving recent interest in FFAGs is their use for the cost-effective acceleration of muons. This paper summarizes the progress in this area that was achieved leading up to and at the FFAG workshop at KEK from July 7-12, 2003. Much of the relevant background and references are also given here, to give a context to the progress we have made.

  19. Accelerator applications in energy and security

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Weiren

    2015-01-01

    As accelerator science and technology progressed over the past several decades, the accelerators themselves have undergone major improvements in multiple performance factors: beam energy, beam power, and beam brightness. As a consequence, accelerators have found applications in a wide range of fields in our life and in our society. The current volume is dedicated to applications in energy and security, two of the most important and urgent topics in today's world. This volume makes an effort to provide a review as complete and up to date as possible of this broad and challenging subject. It contains overviews on each of the two topics and a series of articles for in-depth discussions including heavy ion accelerator driven inertial fusion, linear accelerator-based ADS systems, circular accelerator-based ADS systems, accelerator-reactor interface, accelerators for fusion material testing, cargo inspection, proton radiography, compact neutron generators and detectors. It also has a review article on accelerator ...

  20. Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) - Enabling Missions Beyond Heritage Carbon Phenolic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerby, D.; Beerman, A.; Blosser, M.; Boghozian, T.; Chavez-Garcia, J.; Chinnapongse, R.; Fowler, M.; Gage, P.; Gasch, M.; Gonzales, G.; Hamm, K.; Ma, J.; Milos, F.; Nishioka, O.; Poteet, C.; Splinter, S.; Stackpoole, M.; Venkatapathy, E.; Young, Z.

    2015-01-01

    This poster provides an overview of the requirements, design, development and testing of the 3D Woven TPS being developed under NASA's Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) project. Under this current program, NASA is working to develop a Thermal Protection System (TPS) capable of surviving entry into Venus or Saturn. A primary goal of the project is to build and test an Engineering Test Unit (ETU) to establish a Technical Readiness Level (TRL) of 6 for this technology by 2017.

  1. Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) Enabling Missions Beyond Heritage Carbon Phenolic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerby, D.; Beerman, A.; Blosser, M.; Boghozian, T.; Chavez-Garcia, J.; Chinnapongse, R.; Fowler, M.; Gage, P.; Gasch, M.; Gonzaes, G.; Hamm, K.; Kazemba, C.; Ma, J.; Mahzari, M.; Milos, F.; Nishioka, O.; Peterson, K.; Poteet, C.; Prabhu, D.; Splinter, S.; Stackpoole, M.; Venkatapathy, E.; Young, Z.

    2015-01-01

    This poster provides an overview of the requirements, design, development and testing of the 3D Woven TPS being developed under NASAs Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) project. Under this current program, NASA is working to develop a Thermal Protection System (TPS) capable of surviving entry into Venus or Saturn. A primary goal of the project is to build and test an Engineering Test Unit (ETU) to establish a Technical Readiness Level (TRL) of 6 for this technology by 2017.

  2. Beam acceleration through proton radio frequency quadrupole accelerator in BARC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwat, P. V.; Krishnagopal, S.; Mathew, J. V.; Singh, S. K.; Jain, P.; Rao, S. V. L. S.; Pande, M.; Kumar, R.; Roychowdhury, P.; Kelwani, H.; Rama Rao, B. V.; Gupta, S. K.; Agarwal, A.; Kukreti, B. M.; Singh, P.

    2016-05-01

    A 3 MeV proton Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator has been designed at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India, for the Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA) programme. The 352 MHz RFQ is built in 4 segments and in the first phase two segments of the LEHIPA RFQ were commissioned, accelerating a 50 keV, 1 mA pulsed proton beam from the ion source, to an energy of 1.24 MeV. The successful operation of the RFQ gave confidence in the physics understanding and technology development that have been achieved, and indicate that the road forward can now be traversed rather more quickly.

  3. Technologies for the 21st century: carbon nano tubes as adsorbents of metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alguacil, F. J.; Cerpa, A.; Lado, I.; Lopez, F. A.

    2014-07-01

    Nowadays and in the recent past when the word nano appeared in almost anything it attracted immediate attention and interest, this is why carbon nano tubes, since its discovery nearly twenty years ago, caught the interest of a wide scientific and industrial population to apply the somewhat amazing properties of these nano materials in a number of applications. Among them, the removal of toxic and sometimes profitable metals from aqueous streams appeared, due to its economical and social impact, as one of the targets for their uses. This paper reviews some recent advances (2009-2013 years) in the application of carbon nano tubes materials in the removal of a variety of metals from these aqueous streams. (Author)

  4. Nitroguanidine Wastewater Pollution Control Technology: Phase III. Ion Exchange and Carbon Adsorption Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    SD are synthetic cross-linked resins provided as moist spherical beads nominally of 50 percent water content. The clinoptilolite was supplied presized...Na+ i3 provided by a resin (either naturally occurring or synthetic ). Usually, the resin is prepared in a fixed-bed column, and hard water ion is...these :.ons as well as NQ. I/’ I . , I * MATERIALS AND METHODS RESINS AND CARBONS Three ion-exchange materials were studied: clinoptilolite , an

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF PRODUCTION-INDUCED DEFECTS IN CARBON FIBER REINFORCED THERMOPLASTIC TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Frederic; Mezakeu Tongnan, Yannick; Beyrle, Matthias; Gerngroß, Tobias; Kupke, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Advanced thermoplastic composites such as carbon fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone (CF-PEEK) have a great potential for efficient processing. Along the production chain certain manufacturing steps may cause slight, superficial flaws or mere optical effects without greater impact on performance whereas others may lead to severe changes of the final part properties. These production–induced defects can arise already in the early stages of the production chain and may hence cause significant...

  6. 弯曲应力作用下喷射混凝土受拉区碳化试验研究%Influence of accelerated carbonation on shotcrete at tensile area under bending stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王家滨; 牛荻涛; 张永利

    2016-01-01

    In order to research the carbonation of shotcrete single-layer lining in tunnel,the accelerator carbona-tion of shotcrete with and without steel fiber under bending stress which the ratios of flexural strength were 0, 0.25,0.5 and 0.75,respectively were studied.The carbonation depth of shotcrete obeys Fick's first law and in-creased with the carbonation age and bending stress improved.In the similar experiment conditions,the carbon-ation depth of shotcrete was small than ordinary concrete.Meanwhile,the carbonation depth of steel fiber rein-forced shotcrete was much less than ordinary shotcrete at the same age.Based on the influence coefficients of bending stress,steel fiber and construction mode,the carbonation depth prediction model of ordinary concrete was modified.%为了研究隧道喷射混凝土单层衬砌碳化规律,采用快速碳化实验方法,研究了不同弯曲应力(0,0.25,0.5及0.75)作用下喷射混凝土及钢纤维喷射混凝土受拉区碳化深度变化规律.结果表明,喷射混凝土碳化深度经时变化规律服从Fick第一定律,碳化深度随着碳化龄期和弯曲应力的增加而增大.同实验条件下,喷射混凝土碳化深度小于普通混凝土,而钢纤维的加入进一步减小喷射混凝土同龄期碳化深度.在考虑弯曲应力影响系数、钢纤维影响系数及施工方式影响系数基础上对普通混凝土碳化深度预测模型进行修正,使其能够较好预测喷射混凝土碳化深度.

  7. Functionalization of carbon nanotubes: manufacturing techniques and properties of customized nanocomponents for molecular-level technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Sohaib; Taimoor, Aqeel A

    2009-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) since their discovery have been the focus of research on account of exceptional chemical, mechanical and electrical properties. However, manipulation and processing of CNTs have been limited by their compatibility with other materials. Considerable efforts have therefore been devoted to the surface modification of CNTs to pave the way to many useful applications and to realize the potential applications in successful products, especially composite manufacturing. The chemical modification, dispersion and solubilization of CNTs represent an emerging area in the research on nanotubes-based materials. Several research groups have reported successful and doable functionalization techniques for single-walled (SWCNT) and multi-wall (MWCNT) carbon nanotubes. This paper presents an overview of the functionalization of the carbon nanotubes covering both covalent and non-covalent techniques at tips and walls of SWCNTs and MWCNTs, and summarizes recent patents possessing significant commercial value and large-scale practicality. The principal aim is to review main approaches to chemical functionalization of CNTs and to account for the advances that have been made so far.

  8. Accelerators and the Accelerator Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process.

  9. 论推进文化科技融合创新加快文化产业发展%Promoting Integration and Innovation of Cultural Science and Technology to Accelerate the Development of Cultural Industries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨恒智

    2016-01-01

    加快发展文化产业,必须推进文化科技创新。本文通过阐述河南文化科技融合发展的现状和存在问题,提出了进一步加强文化科技融合创新发展的对策和建议。%To accelerate the development of cultural industry, we must promote the innovation of cultural science and technology. This paper expounds the status quo and existing problems in the integration and devel⁃opment of Henan cultural science and technology, and puts forward the countermeasures and suggestions to fur⁃ther strengthen the integration and innovation of cultural science and technology.

  10. Application of electron accelerator worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machi, Sueo [Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    Electron accelerator is an important radiation source for radiation technology, which covers broad fields such as industry, health care, food and environmental protection. There are about 1,000 electron accelerators for radiation processing worldwide. Electron accelerator has advantage over Co-60 irradiator in term of high dose rate and power, assurance of safety, and higher economic performance at larger volume of irradiation. Accelerator generating higher energy in the range of 10 MeV and high power electron beam is now commercially available. There is a trend to use high-energy electron accelerator replacing Co-60 in case of large through-put of medical products. Irradiated foods, in particular species, are on the commercial market in 35 countries. Electron accelerator is used efficiently and economically for production of new or modified polymeric materials through radiation-induced cross-linking, grafting and polymerization reaction. Another important application of electron beam is the curing of surface coatings in the manufacture of products. Electron accelerators of large capacity are used for cleaning exhaust gases in industrial scale. Economic feasibility studies of this electron beam process have shown that this technology is more cost effective than the conventional process. It should be noted that the conventional limestone process produce gypsum as a by-product, which cannot be used in some countries. By contrast, the by-product of the electron beam process is a valuable fertilizer. (Y. Tanaka)

  11. Coupled Climate–Economy–Biosphere (CoCEB model – Part 2: Deforestation control and investment in carbon capture and storage technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Z. Ogutu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study uses the global climate–economy–biosphere (CoCEB model developed in Part 1 to investigate economic aspects of deforestation control and carbon sequestration in forests, as well as the efficiency of carbon capture and storage (CCS technologies as policy measures for climate change mitigation. We assume – as in Part 1 – that replacement of one technology with another occurs in terms of a logistic law, so that the same law also governs the dynamics of reduction in carbon dioxide emission using CCS technologies. In order to take into account the effect of deforestation control, a slightly more complex description of the carbon cycle than in Part 1 is needed. Consequently, we add a biomass equation into the CoCEB model and analyze the ensuing feedbacks and their effects on per capita gross domestic product (GDP growth. Integrating biomass into the CoCEB and applying deforestation control as well as CCS technologies has the following results: (i low investment in CCS contributes to reducing industrial carbon emissions and to increasing GDP, but further investment leads to a smaller reduction in emissions, as well as in the incremental GDP growth; and (ii enhanced deforestation control contributes to a reduction in both deforestation emissions and in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, thus reducing the impacts of climate change and contributing to a slight appreciation of GDP growth. This effect is however very small compared to that of low-carbon technologies or CCS. We also find that the result in (i is very sensitive to the formulation of CCS costs, while to the contrary, the results for deforestation control are less sensitive.

  12. 多因素综合海洋气候自然加速试验技术相关性和加速性验证%Relativity and Acceleration Verification of Multi-factors Integrated Marine Climate Natural Accelerated Test Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭京川; 郭赞洪; 杨晓然

    2016-01-01

    Objective To verify the relativity and acceleration of multi-factors integrated marine climate natural accelerated test technologies to outdoor exposure test in tropic marine climate.Methods Multi-factors integrated marine climate natural ac-celerated test device, relative enterprise standards as well as traditional marine climate outdoor exposure were adopted to test and verify automobile fasteners of different surface treatment technologies, standard metals, organic coatings and plastics as specimen. Spearman order relativity coefficient method and acceleration factor method were used to further verify the relativity and acceleration.Results Automobile fasteners, standard metals and organic coatings indicated that their corrosion failure mod-es were the same in multi-factors integrated marine climate natural accelerated test and tropic marine climate outdoor exposure test. For the accelerated test to outdoor exposure test in the exposure site 350 meters from South China Sea, order relativity coefficient of fasteners was 1, and the acceleration rate of zinc nickel alloy plated fastener, chromium free zinc aluminum alloy coated fastener, LAFRE coated fastener and Graphene coated fastener was 7.7, 11.3, 10.3 and 13.5 respectively; order relativity coefficient of standard metals was 0.8, and the acceleration rate of Q235, industrial pure aluminum, industrial pure zinc, and in-dustrial pure copper was 11.8,11.5,9.3 and 3.7 respectively. For the accelerated test to outdoor exposure test in the marine plat-form, order relativity coefficient of standard metals was 1, and the acceleration rate of Q235, industrial pure aluminum, industri-al pure zinc, and industrial pure copper was 3.4, 2.1, 4.5 and 2.2 respectively.Conclusion Multi-factors integrated marine cli-mate natural accelerated test technology has good relativity to tropic marine climate outdoor exposure, and has better relativity to marine platform exposure. The technology also has high acceleration rate to

  13. accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    On the inside of the cavitytThere is a layer of niobium. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment.

  14. Research on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Technology%碳捕捉与封存技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于德龙; 吴明; 赵玲; 汪宇彤

    2014-01-01

    碳捕捉与封存技术指将二氧化碳从工业生产过程中最大限度分离出来,输送到指定地点封存,并与大气长期隔绝过程。CO2捕捉技术有燃烧前捕捉、燃烧后捕捉和富氧燃烧捕捉三类,且各具优缺点和适用情况,实际应用应根据具体情况具体分析;CO2常用输送方式有管道输送、船舶输送和罐车输送三类,对于大规模长距离应首选管道输送,长距离海洋输送应首选船舶输送,对于短距离小输量应首选罐车输送;CO2封存一般有四大类封存方式:海洋封存、矿石碳化、地质封存和工业利用,其中地质封存对减排贡献最大,矿石碳化和工业利用贡献有限,海洋封存仍处研究之中。%Carbon dioxide capture and storage technology is to separate CO2 from industry and to transport to a pointed place for storage. CO2 capture technologies include three measures:pre-combustion capture, post-combustion capture and oxygen-enriched combustion capture. Each measure has advantages and disadvantages, and the suitable technology should be chosen according to particular case. CO2 common transportation methods include three modes of pipeline transportation, marine transportation and tanker transportation. For long distance and large quantities,the pipeline transportation should be chosen; for long distance ocean transportation,shipping transportation should be chosen;For little throughput and short distance, the tanker transportation should be chosen. CO2 storage methods include four types in general. They are ocean sequestration, mineral carbonation, geological storage and industrial use. Among them the geological storage has the largest contribution to emission reduction, the mineral carbonation and industrial use have limited contribution, and the ocean sequestration is still in studying.

  15. ACFA and IPAC announce accelerator prizes

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Steve Myers, CERN's Director for Accelerators and Technology. The Asian Committee for Future Accelerators (ACFA) has joined forces with the first International Particle Accelerator Conference, IPAC’10, to award prizes for outstanding work in the field of accelerators. The conference replaces the regional conferences of the Americas, Europe and Asia and will be hosted by the three regions on a rotational basis (see CERN Courier). The ACFA/IPAC’10 Prizes Selection Committee, chaired by Won Namkung of Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, decided on the prizes and the names of the winners at a meeting on 20 January. The awards will be made during IPAC’10, which will be held in Kyoto on 23-28 May. Jie Wei. (Courtesy Tsinghua University.) Steve Myers, Director for Accelerators and Technology at CERN, receives an Achievement Prize for Outstanding Work in the Accelerator Field with no Age Limit “for his numerous outstanding contributions to the design, construction, commissio...

  16. A new peptide ligand for targeting human carbonic anhydrase IX, identified through the phage display technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios Askoxylakis

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX is a transmembrane enzyme found to be overexpressed in various tumors and associated with tumor hypoxia. Ligands binding this target may be used to visualize hypoxia, tumor manifestation or treat tumors by endoradiotherapy. METHODS: Phage display was performed with a 12 amino acid phage display library by panning against a recombinant extracellular domain of human carbonic anhydrase IX. The identified peptide CaIX-P1 was chemically synthesized and tested in vitro on various cell lines and in vivo in Balb/c nu/nu mice carrying subcutaneously transplanted tumors. Binding, kinetic and competition studies were performed on the CAIX positive human renal cell carcinoma cell line SKRC 52, the CAIX negative human renal cell carcinoma cell line CaKi 2, the human colorectal carcinoma cell line HCT 116 and on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC. Organ distribution studies were carried out in mice, carrying SKRC 52 tumors. RNA expression of CAIX in HCT 116 and HUVEC cells was investigated by quantitative real time PCR. RESULTS: In vitro binding experiments of (125I-labeled-CaIX-P1 revealed an increased uptake of the radioligand in the CAIX positive renal cell carcinoma cell line SKRC 52. Binding of the radioligand in the colorectal carcinoma cell line HCT 116 increased with increasing cell density and correlated with the mRNA expression of CAIX. Radioligand uptake was inhibited up to 90% by the unlabeled CaIX-P1 peptide, but not by the negative control peptide octreotide at the same concentration. No binding was demonstrated in CAIX negative CaKi 2 and HUVEC cells. Organ distribution studies revealed a higher accumulation in SKRC 52 tumors than in heart, spleen, liver, muscle, intestinum and brain, but a lower uptake compared to blood and kidney. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that CaIX-P1 is a promising candidate for the development of new ligands targeting human carbonic anhydrase IX.

  17. Expansion of Michigan EOR Operations Using Advanced Amine Technology at a 600 MW Project Wolverine Carbon Capture and Storage Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H Hoffman; Y kishinevsky; S. Wu; R. Pardini; E. Tripp; D. Barnes

    2010-06-16

    highly corrosive nature of the typical amine-based separation process leads to high plant capital investment. According to recent DOE-NETL studies, MEA-based CCS will increase the cost of electricity of a new pulverized coal plant by 80-85% and reduce the net plant efficiency by about 30%. Non-power industrial facilities will incur similar production output and efficiency penalties when implementing conventional carbon capture systems. The proposed large scale demonstration project combining advanced amine CO{sub 2} capture integrated with commercial EOR operations significantly advances post-combustion technology development toward the DOE objectives of reducing the cost of energy production and improving the efficiency of CO{sub 2} Capture technologies. WPC has assembled a strong multidisciplinary team to meet the objectives of this project. WPC will provide the host site and Hitachi will provide the carbon capture technology and advanced solvent. Burns and Roe bring expertise in overall engineering integration and plant design to the team. Core Energy, an active EOR producer/operator in the State of Michigan, is committed to support the detailed design, construction and operation of the CO{sub 2} pipeline and storage component of the project. This team has developed a Front End Engineering Design and Cost Estimate as part of Phase 1 of DOE Award DE-FE0002477.

  18. 碳纤维制造产业的专利分析%Analysis of patents on carbon fiber manufacturing technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀小强; 易方方

    2012-01-01

    对碳纤维制造技术专利文献进行了检索统计,分别从年度发展趋势、专利申请国分布、申请人状况和中美日欧四局共同申请的重点专利布局等方面对碳纤维制造产业的国内外技术专利进行了分析,揭示了国内外碳纤维专利申请的现状,分析了主要专利申请人专利的国际专利分类领域和技术重点,为我国科研院所和企业提出了专利申请布局的相关建议.提出了我国应利用已公开的专利技术,研发特种碳纤维的制造技术,强化碳纤维的应用技术,促进碳纤维的产业化和工程化.%The relevant patents of carbon fiber manufacturing technologies were retrieved. The China and international patents on carbon fiber manufacturing technologies were analyzed from the aspects of annual trend and geographical spread of patent applications, statistics of patent applicants, distribution of key patents filed in US, Japan, Europe and China patent offices. The status of carbon fiber patent application was explored is China and abroad. The international classification and focal points of patent technology were analyzed according to the dominant patent applicants. Some suggestion on the patent application strategy was put forward for China science research institutes and enterprises. It was pointed out that China should develop the manufacturing technology of special carbon fiber, strengthen the application technology and stimulate the industrialization and engineering technology of carbon fiber using the published patent technologies.

  19. Acceleration of microparticle

    CERN Document Server

    Shibata, H

    2002-01-01

    A microparticle (dust) ion source has been installed at the high voltage terminal of the 3.75 MV single ended Van de Graaff electrostatic accelerator and a beam line for microparticle experiments has been build at High Fluence Irradiation Facility (HIT) of Research Center for Nuclear Science and Technology, the University of Tokyo. Microparticle acceleration has been successful in obtaining expected velocities of 1-20 km/s or more for micron or submicron sized particles. Development of in situ dust detectors and analyzers on board satellites and spacecraft in the expected mass and velocity range of micrometeoroids and investigation of hypervelocity impact phenomena by using time of flight mass spectrometry, impact flash or luminescence measurement and scanning electron or laser microscope observation for metals, ceramics, polymers and semiconductors bombarded by micron-sized particles were started three years ago. (author)

  20. Preparation of ultrafine silica from potash feldspar using sodium carbonate roasting technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-nan Liu; Xiao-yi Shen; Yan Wu; Jun Zhang; Yu-chun Zhai

    2016-01-01

    A novel process was developed for the preparation of ultrafine silica from potash feldspar. In the first step, potash feldspar was roasted with Na2CO3 and was followed by leaching using NaOH solution to increase the levels of potassium, sodium, and aluminum in the solid residue. The leaching solution was then carbonated to yield ultrafine silica. The optimized reaction conditions in the roasting process were as follows:an Na2CO3-to-potash feldspar molar ratio of 1.1, a reaction temperature of 875°C, and a reaction time of 1.5 h. Under these conditions, the extraction rate of SiO2 was 98.13%. The optimized carbonation conditions included a final solution pH value of 9.0, a tem-perature of 40°C, a CO2 flow rate of 6 mL/min, a stirring intensity of 600 r/min, and an ethanol-to-water volume ratio of 1:9. The precipita-tion rate and granularity of the SiO2 particles were 99.63%and 200 nm, respectively. We confirmed the quality of the obtained ultrafine sil-ica by comparing the recorded indexes with those specified in Chinese National Standard GB 25576―2010.

  1. Design and Simulation of a New Optimized Full-Adder Using Carbon Nano Tube Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Asadi Aghbolaghi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The full adder circuit is one of the most significant and prominent fundamental parts in digital processors and integrated circuits since it can be used for implementing all four basic computational functions including: addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. so, in this paper a new low power and high performance full adder cell has been proposed with the benefit of using carbon nano tube field effect transistors. The proposed design contains 12 CNTFET transistors which are connected in pass transistor logic style to make the desired functionality. Carbon Nano Tube Field Effect Transistor (CNTFET has modified electrical characteristics such as low power consumption and high speed in comparison with MOSFET transistor; The proposed design is simulated using Hspice software based on CNTFET model and 0.65V supply voltage. the simulations are done considering three different frequencies, and three different load capacitors. The simulation results, which demonstrated in tables and diagrams, proved the superiority of proposed design in terms of power consumption and performance (PDP compared to the existing counterparts.

  2. Preparation of ultrafine silica from potash feldspar using sodium carbonate roasting technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia-nan; Shen, Xiao-yi; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Jun; Zhai, Yu-chun

    2016-08-01

    A novel process was developed for the preparation of ultrafine silica from potash feldspar. In the first step, potash feldspar was roasted with Na2CO3 and was followed by leaching using NaOH solution to increase the levels of potassium, sodium, and aluminum in the solid residue. The leaching solution was then carbonated to yield ultrafine silica. The optimized reaction conditions in the roasting process were as follows: an Na2CO3-to-potash feldspar molar ratio of 1.1, a reaction temperature of 875°C, and a reaction time of 1.5 h. Under these conditions, the extraction rate of SiO2 was 98.13%. The optimized carbonation conditions included a final solution pH value of 9.0, a temperature of 40°C, a CO2 flow rate of 6 mL/min, a stirring intensity of 600 r/min, and an ethanol-to-water volume ratio of 1:9. The precipitation rate and granularity of the SiO2 particles were 99.63% and 200 nm, respectively. We confirmed the quality of the obtained ultrafine silica by comparing the recorded indexes with those specified in Chinese National Standard GB 25576―2010.

  3. Nitrogen removal for low-carbon wastewater in reversed A~2/O process by regulation technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张智; 陈杰云; 谢丽华; 范功端; 尹晓静; 李勇

    2009-01-01

    Full scale experimental study on nitrogen removal for low-carbon wastewater was conducted in reversed A2/O process in Jiguanshi waste water treatment plant in Chongqing,in order to aid the operation and maintenance of similar WWTP. When the proposed measures,such as using 0.1% (volume fraction of wastewater) landfill leachate,shortening HRT by 2/3 in the primary sedimentation tank and controlling DO at 0.5 mg/L in the 3rd section of aerobic zone,are applied,15% of the carbon source can be complemented,the favorable property of activated sludge is achieved,and the nitrogen removal effect is significantly improved. The effluent NH3-N is 2 mg/L and the removal rate is 90%. The effluent TN is 17 mg/L and the removal rate is 54%. The up-to-standard discharge of the effluent is achieved. And after the optimization,the unit electricity consumption also reaches 0.21 kW/h and saves 20%.

  4. Combination of Polymer Technology and Carbon Nanotube Array for the Development of an Effective Drug Delivery System at Cellular Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggio Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, a carbon nanotube (CNT array-based system combined with a polymer thin film is proposed as an effective drug release device directly at cellular level. The polymeric film embedded in the CNT array is described and characterized in terms of release kinetics, while in vitro assays on PC12 cell line have been performed in order to assess the efficiency and functionality of the entrapped agent (neural growth factor, NGF. PC12 cell differentiation, following incubation on the CNT array embedding the alginate delivery film, demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed solution. The achieved results indicate that polymeric technology could be efficiently embedded in CNT array acting as drug delivery system at cellular level. The implication of this study opens several perspectives in particular in the field of neurointerfaces, combining several functions into a single platform.

  5. The influence of lubricant carrier and lubrication conditions on mechanical-technological properties of high carbon steel wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Suliga

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the effect of the type of soap powder and lubricant carriers on lubrication conditions in multipass drawing process of high carbon steel wires has been determined. The wire drawing process was conducted in industrial conditions by means of a modern multi-die Koch drawing machine. For wires drawn on borax and phosphate lubricant carriers the mechanical-technological properties have been carried out, in which yield stress, tensile strength, uniform elongation, number of twists and number of bends were assessed. It has been proved that the application of phosphate lubricant carrier and also the rotary die in the first draft in an essential way improve the lubrication condition in high speed multipass drawing process and makes it possible to refine the mechanical properties of wires.

  6. Methane Post-Processor Development to Increase Oxygen Recovery beyond State-of-the-Art Carbon Dioxide Reduction Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Greenwood, Zachary; Miller, Lee A.; Alvarez, Giraldo; Iannantuono, Michelle; Jones, Kenny

    2013-01-01

    State-of-the-art life support carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction technology, based on the Sabatier reaction, is theoretically capable of 50% recovery of oxygen from metabolic CO2. This recovery is constrained by the limited availability of reactant hydrogen. Post-processing of the methane byproduct from the Sabatier reactor results in hydrogen recycle and a subsequent increase in oxygen recovery. For this purpose, a Methane Post-Processor Assembly containing three sub-systems has been developed and tested. The assembly includes a Methane Purification Assembly (MePA) to remove residual CO2 and water vapor from the Sabatier product stream, a Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) to partially pyrolyze methane into hydrogen and acetylene, and an Acetylene Separation Assembly (ASepA) to purify the hydrogen product for recycle. The results of partially integrated testing of the sub-systems are reported

  7. Comparative analysis of 10 small molecules binding to carbonic anhydrase II by different investigators using Biacore technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, Giuseppe A; Leavitt, Stephanie; Bynum, Maggie A; Katsamba, Phinikoula S; Wilton, Rosemarie; Qiu, Huawei; Steukers, Mieke; Wang, Siming; Bindu, Lakshman; Phogat, Sanjay; Giannetti, Anthony M; Ryan, Thomas E; Pudlak, Victoria A; Matusiewicz, Katarzyna; Michelson, Klaus M; Nowakowski, Agnes; Pham-Baginski, Anh; Brooks, Jonathan; Tieman, Bryan C; Bruce, Barry D; Vaughn, Michael; Baksh, Michael; Cho, Yun Hee; Wit, Mieke De; Smets, Alexandra; Vandersmissen, Johan; Michiels, Lieve; Myszka, David G

    2006-12-01

    In this benchmark study, 26 investigators were asked to characterize the kinetics and affinities of 10 sulfonamide inhibitors binding to the enzyme carbonic anhydrase II using Biacore optical biosensors. A majority of the participants collected data that could be fit to a 1:1 interaction model, but a subset of the data sets obtained from some instruments were of poor quality. The experimental errors in the k(a), k(d), and K(D) parameters determined for each of the compounds averaged 34, 24, and 37%, respectively. As expected, the greatest variation in the reported constants was observed for compounds with exceptionally weak affinity and/or fast association rates. The binding constants determined using the biosensor correlated well with solution-based titration calorimetry measurements. The results of this study provide insight into the challenges, as well as the level of experimental variation, that one would expect to observe when using Biacore technology for small molecule analyses.

  8. How nanoscience translates into technology: the case of self-assembled monolayers, electron-beam writing, and carbon nanomembranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, R E; Robinson, A P G; Guo, Q

    2013-08-27

    One of the great quests in nanotechnology is to translate nanoprecision materials science into practical manufacturing processes. The paper by Angelova et al. in this issue of ACS Nano, which discusses the production of functional carbon-based membranes with a thickness of 0.5 to 3 nm, provides instructive insight into how researchers are pulling together complementary strands from a quarter century of nanoscience research to develop novel, hybrid processing schemes. In this Perspective, we reflect on the progress that is taking place in the two principal component technologies combined in this scheme, namely, (i) control of self-assembled monolayers, including their detailed atomic structures, and (ii) electron-induced manipulation and processing of molecular layers, as well as considering (iii) remaining challenges for thin membrane production in the future.

  9. Public perceptions of low carbon energy technologies. Results from a Dutch large group workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunsting, S.; Van Bree, B.; Feenstra, C.F.J.; Hekkenberg, M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-06-15

    This report describes the outcomes of a large group workshop held in Utrecht, the Netherlands on 21 May 2011. The workshop aims to learn about Dutch citizens perspectives on climate change and low emission energy technologies and how these perspectives may change after receiving and discussing objective information. This report presents participants environmental profile, stated beliefs, knowledge and attitudes, support for different energy technologies, and environmental behaviours and intentions, derived from questionnaire answers and observations during the day. The report also presents observed changes on the above over the course of the workshop. Whereas the report provides some conclusions and inferences throughout its sections, the focus of the report is on presenting the observations. No overall conclusions are drawn.

  10. Accelerator and electrodynamics capability review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Kevin W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) uses capability reviews to assess the science, technology and engineering (STE) quality and institutional integration and to advise Laboratory Management on the current and future health of the STE. Capability reviews address the STE integration that LANL uses to meet mission requirements. The Capability Review Committees serve a dual role of providing assessment of the Laboratory's technical contributions and integration towards its missions and providing advice to Laboratory Management. The assessments and advice are documented in reports prepared by the Capability Review Committees that are delivered to the Director and to the Principal Associate Director for Science, Technology and Engineering (PADSTE). Laboratory Management will use this report for STE assessment and planning. LANL has defined fifteen STE capabilities. Electrodynamics and Accelerators is one of the seven STE capabilities that LANL Management (Director, PADSTE, technical Associate Directors) has identified for review in Fiscal Year (FY) 2010. Accelerators and electrodynamics at LANL comprise a blend of large-scale facilities and innovative small-scale research with a growing focus on national security applications. This review is organized into five topical areas: (1) Free Electron Lasers; (2) Linear Accelerator Science and Technology; (3) Advanced Electromagnetics; (4) Next Generation Accelerator Concepts; and (5) National Security Accelerator Applications. The focus is on innovative technology with an emphasis on applications relevant to Laboratory mission. The role of Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) in support of accelerators/electrodynamics will be discussed. The review provides an opportunity for interaction with early career staff. Program sponsors and customers will provide their input on the value of the accelerator and electrodynamics capability to the Laboratory mission.

  11. Carbon Capture and Storage in the Permian Basin, a Regional Technology Transfer and Training Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rychel, Dwight

    2013-09-30

    The Permian Basin Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS) Training Center was one of seven regional centers formed in 2009 under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and managed by the Department of Energy. Based in the Permian Basin, it is focused on the utilization of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) projects for the long term storage of CO2 while producing a domestic oil and revenue stream. It delivers training to students, oil and gas professionals, regulators, environmental and academia through a robust web site, newsletter, tech alerts, webinars, self-paced online courses, one day workshops, and two day high level forums. While course material prominently features all aspects of the capture, transportation and EOR utilization of CO2, the audience focus is represented by its high level forums where selected graduate students with an interest in CCUS interact with Industry experts and in-house workshops for the regulatory community.

  12. Enzyme inactivation in food processing using high pressure carbon dioxide technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wanfeng; Zhou, Linyan; Xu, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Yan; Liao, Xiaojun

    2013-01-01

    High pressure carbon dioxide (HPCD) is an effective non-thermal processing technique for inactivating deleterious enzymes in liquid and solid food systems. This processing method avoids high temperatures and exerts a minimal impact on the nutritional and sensory properties of foods, but extends shelf life by inhibiting or killing microorganisms and enzymes. Indigenous enzymes in food such as polyphenol oxidase (PPO), pectin methylesterase (PME), and lypoxygenase (LOX) may cause undesirable chemical changes in food attributes, showing the loss in color, texture, and flavor. For more than two decades, HPCD has proved its effectiveness in inactivating these enzymes. The HPCD-induced inactivation of some microbial enzymes responsible for microbial metabolism is also included. This review presents a survey of the published knowledge regarding the use of HPCD for the inactivation of these enzymes, and analyzes the factors controlling the efficiency of HPCD and speculates on the underlying mechanism that leads to enzyme inactivation.

  13. Technologies for the 21st century: carbon nanotubes as adsorbents of metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alguacil, Francisco José

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays and in the recent past when the word “nano” appeared in almost anything it attracted immediate attention and interest, this is why carbon nanotubes, since its discovery nearly twenty years ago, caught the interest of a wide scientific and industrial population to apply the somewhat amazing properties of these nanomaterials in a number of applications. Among them, the removal of toxic and sometimes profitable metals from aqueous streams appeared, due to its economical and social impact, as one of the targets for their uses. This paper reviews some recent advances (2009–2013 years in the application of carbon nanotubes materials in the removal of a variety of metals from these aqueous streams.Tanto en el pasado como hoy en día, cuando la palabra “nano” aparece en cualquier sitio inmediatamente suscita atención e interés; por eso y desde su descubrimiento hace cerca de veinte años, los nanotubos de carbono interesaron tanto a científicos como a industriales, que utilizaron las propiedades de estos nanomateriales en una serie de aplicaciones. Entre éstas, se incluye la eliminación de metales tóxicos, y otros con un cierto valor económico, de medios acuosos, problemática que además tiene unas implicaciones económicas y sociales importantes. Este trabajo revisa los avances más recientes (años 2009–2013 de la utilización de estos nanotubos de carbono en la eliminación de una serie de metales contenidos en distintos medios acuosos.

  14. Improved microwave shielding behavior of carbon nanotube-coated PET fabric using plasma technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haji, Aminoddin, E-mail: Ahaji@iaubir.ac.ir [Department of Textile Engineering, Birjand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Semnani Rahbar, Ruhollah [Department of Textile and Leather, Faculty of Chemistry and Petrochemical Engineering, Standard Research Institute, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mousavi Shoushtari, Ahmad [Textile Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-08-30

    Four different procedures were conducted to load amine functionalized multiwall carbon nanotube (NH{sub 2}-MWCNT) onto poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabric surface to obtain a microwave shielding sample. Plasma treated fabric which was subsequently coated with NH{sub 2}-MWCNT in the presence of acrylic acid was chosen as the best sample. Surface changes in the PET fabrics were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Wide-angle X-ray diffraction was used to study the crystalline structure of the PET fabric. The microwave shielding performance of the PET fabrics in term of reflection loss was determined using a network analyzer at X-band (8.2–12.4 GHz). The XPS results revealed that the carbon atomic percentage decreased while the oxygen atomic percentage increased when the fabric was plasma treated and coated with NH{sub 2}-MWCNT. The SEM images showed that the NH{sub 2}-MWCNTs were homogenously dispersed and individually separated in the surface of fabric. Moreover, the structural studies showed that the crystalline region of the fabrics was not affected by NH{sub 2}-MWCNT and plasma treatment. The best microwave absorbing properties were obtained from the plasma treated fabric which was then coated with 10% NH{sub 2}-MWCNT in the presence of acrylic acid. It showed a minimum reflection loss of ∼−18.2 dB about 11 GHz. Proper attachments of NH{sub 2}-MWCNT on the PET fabric surface was explained in the suggested mechanism in which hydrogen bonding and amide linkage are responsible for the achievement of microwave shielding properties with high durability.

  15. Improved microwave shielding behavior of carbon nanotube-coated PET fabric using plasma technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Aminoddin; Semnani Rahbar, Ruhollah; Mousavi Shoushtari, Ahmad

    2014-08-01

    Four different procedures were conducted to load amine functionalized multiwall carbon nanotube (NH2-MWCNT) onto poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabric surface to obtain a microwave shielding sample. Plasma treated fabric which was subsequently coated with NH2-MWCNT in the presence of acrylic acid was chosen as the best sample. Surface changes in the PET fabrics were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Wide-angle X-ray diffraction was used to study the crystalline structure of the PET fabric. The microwave shielding performance of the PET fabrics in term of reflection loss was determined using a network analyzer at X-band (8.2-12.4 GHz). The XPS results revealed that the carbon atomic percentage decreased while the oxygen atomic percentage increased when the fabric was plasma treated and coated with NH2-MWCNT. The SEM images showed that the NH2-MWCNTs were homogenously dispersed and individually separated in the surface of fabric. Moreover, the structural studies showed that the crystalline region of the fabrics was not affected by NH2-MWCNT and plasma treatment. The best microwave absorbing properties were obtained from the plasma treated fabric which was then coated with 10% NH2-MWCNT in the presence of acrylic acid. It showed a minimum reflection loss of ∼-18.2 dB about 11 GHz. Proper attachments of NH2-MWCNT on the PET fabric surface was explained in the suggested mechanism in which hydrogen bonding and amide linkage are responsible for the achievement of microwave shielding properties with high durability.

  16. Evaluating the Contribution of Climate Forcing and Forest Dynamics to Accelerating Carbon Sequestration by Forest Ecosystems in the Northeastern U.S.: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munger, J. William [Harvard University, SEAS; Foster, David R. [Harvard University, Harvard Forest; Richardson, Andrew D. [Harvard University, OEB

    2014-10-01

    This report summarizes work to improve quantitative understanding of the terrestrial ecosystem processes that control carbon sequestration in unmanaged forests It builds upon the comprehensive long-term observations of CO2 fluxes, climate and forest structure and function at the Harvard Forest in Petersham, MA. This record includes the longest CO2 flux time series in the world. The site is a keystone for the AmeriFlux network. Project Description The project synthesizes observations made at the Harvard Forest HFEMS and Hemlock towers, which represent the dominant mixed deciduous and coniferous forest types in the northeastern United States. The 20+ year record of carbon uptake at Harvard Forest and the associated comprehensive meteorological and biometric data, comprise one of the best data sets to challenge ecosystem models on time scales spanning hourly, daily, monthly, interannual and multi-decadal intervals, as needed to understand ecosystem change and climate feedbacks.

  17. Mass spectrometry with accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litherland, A E; Zhao, X-L; Kieser, W E

    2011-01-01

    As one in a series of articles on Canadian contributions to mass spectrometry, this review begins with an outline of the history of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), noting roles played by researchers at three Canadian AMS laboratories. After a description of the unique features of AMS, three examples, (14)C, (10)Be, and (129)I are given to illustrate the methods. The capabilities of mass spectrometry have been extended by the addition of atomic isobar selection, molecular isobar attenuation, further ion acceleration, followed by ion detection and ion identification at essentially zero dark current or ion flux. This has been accomplished by exploiting the techniques and accelerators of atomic and nuclear physics. In 1939, the first principles of AMS were established using a cyclotron. In 1977 the selection of isobars in the ion source was established when it was shown that the (14)N(-) ion was very unstable, or extremely difficult to create, making a tandem electrostatic accelerator highly suitable for assisting the mass spectrometric measurement of the rare long-lived radioactive isotope (14)C in the environment. This observation, together with the large attenuation of the molecular isobars (13)CH(-) and (12)CH 2(-) during tandem acceleration and the observed very low background contamination from the ion source, was found to facilitate the mass spectrometry of (14)C to at least a level of (14)C/C ~ 6 × 10(-16), the equivalent of a radiocarbon age of 60,000 years. Tandem Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, or AMS, has now made possible the accurate radiocarbon dating of milligram-sized carbon samples by ion counting as well as dating and tracing with many other long-lived radioactive isotopes such as (10)Be, (26)Al, (36)Cl, and (129)I. The difficulty of obtaining large anion currents with low electron affinities and the difficulties of isobar separation, especially for the heavier mass ions, has prompted the use of molecular anions and the search for alternative

  18. Recent Advance in Carbon Dioxide Capture Technologies%碳捕集技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亮; 贺尧祖; 刘勇军; 罗德明

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide capture was widely seen as a vital technology for reducing atmospheric emission of CO2 from power plants and other industrial facilities. In this paper, the recent research on three type of capture technologies, namely pre-combustion processes oxy-combustion systems and post-combustion CO2 capture processes, were reviewed. For prospective, we made insight of the further process about CO2 capture that would make in the future.%碳捕集技术对于减少大气中的CO2浓度显得至关重要,尤其是对于排放大量温室气体的火力发电厂和工业源的CO2捕集。本文主要概述了CO2的燃烧前捕集、富氧燃烧捕集、燃烧后捕集这3种主要的碳捕集技术的研究现状,并结合当前正在研究的碳捕集技术,提出了碳捕集技术未来可能的发展方向。

  19. Comparison of Carbon Dioxide Capture Technology in Power Plant%电厂二氧化碳捕捉技术对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王泽平; 周涛; 张记刚; 李洋

    2011-01-01

    由于全球温室效应的不断加剧,发展二氧化碳捕捉技术变得十分必要.通过分析燃烧前捕捉、燃烧后捕捉和富氧燃烧捕捉三种二氧化碳捕捉方式流程及其特点,指出三种不同的二氧化碳捕捉技术的发展现状以及应用途径.通过具体对比现有二氧化碳捕捉技术的工作原理以及优缺点,针对现有的几种具体的二氧化碳捕捉技术进行详细的分析,积极应用各种物理、化学、甚至生物的吸附技术,深入研究各种吸附技术的机理,寻找更高效的吸附方法,提高CO2的捕捉效率,减少捕捉成本.通过分析研究,提出以国家项目的形式立项,积极开展“燃烧前捕捉、燃烧后捕捉、寓氧燃烧捕捉”三种方式在中国的实验研究,尝试进行“燃烧中捕捉”研究,积极开创符合中国特色的二氧化碳捕捉技术的建议.%Due to increasingly intensified global greenhouse effect, it is quite necessary to develop carbon dioxide capture technology. By analysis of working process and characteristics of three different carbon dioxide capture technologies including pre-combustion capture, post-combustion capture and oxygen-enriched combustion technology, the current development and application of carbon dioxide capture technology were introduced. Different carbon dioxide capture technologies were discussed, with comparison of basic principle of technologies as well as their advantages and disadvantages. By detailed analysis of carbon dioxide capture technology, combining with analysis of basic principle and application of various physical, chemical, biological adsorption technology, more efficient adsorption methods were assessed in order to enhance CO2 capture efficiency and reduce capture cost. National level project and pilot study was proposed for the study of precombustion capture, postcombustion capture and oxygen enriched combustion technology. Technical development of carbon dioxide capture suitable to local

  20. Conventional processes and membrane technology for carbon dioxide removal from natural gas: A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zee Ying Yeo; Thiam Leng Chew; Peng Wei Zhu; Abdul Rahman Mohamed; Siang-Piao Chai

    2012-01-01

    Membrane technology is becoming more important for CO2 separation from natural gas in the new era due to its process simplicity,relative ease of operation and control,compact,and easy to scale up as compared with conventional processes.Conventional processes such as absorption and adsorption for CO2 separation from natural gas are generally more energy demanding and costly for both operation and maintenance.Polymeric membranes are the current commercial membranes used for CO2 separation from natural gas.However,polymeric membranes possess drawbacks such as low permeability and selectivity,plasticization at high temperatures,as well as insufficient thermal and chemical stability.The shortcomings of commercial polymeric membranes have motivated researchers to opt for other alternatives,especially inorganic membranes due to their higher thermal stability,good chemical resistance to solvents,high mechanical strength and long lifetime.Surface modifications can be utilized in inorganic membranes to further enhance the selectivity,permeability or catalytic activities of the membrane.This paper is to provide a comprehensive review on gas separation,comparing membrane technology with other conventional methods of recovering CO2 from natural gas,challenges of current commercial polymeric membranes and inorganic membranes for CO2 removal and membrane surface modification for improved selectivity.

  1. Effects of Low-Carbon Technologies and End-Use Electrification on Energy-Related Greenhouse Gases Mitigation in China by 2050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Guo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas emissions in China have been increasing in line with its energy consumption and economic growth. Major means for energy-related greenhouse gases mitigation in the foreseeable future are transition to less carbon intensive energy supplies and structural changes in energy consumption. In this paper, a bottom-up model is built to examine typical projected scenarios for energy supply and demand, with which trends of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by 2050 can be analyzed. Results show that low-carbon technologies remain essential contributors to reducing emissions and altering emissions trends up to 2050. By pushing the limit of current practicality, emissions reduction can reach 20 to 28 percent and the advent of carbon peaking could shift from 2040 to 2030. In addition, the effect of electrification at end-use sectors is studied. Results show that electrifying transport could reduce emissions and bring the advent of carbon peaking forward, but the effect is less significant compared with low-carbon technologies. Moreover, it implies the importance of decarbonizing power supply before electrifying end-use sectors.

  2. Development of a Screening Model for Design and Costing of an Innovative Tailored Granular Activated Carbon Technology to Treat Perchlorate-Contaminated Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    1 Background ...Granular Activated Carbon Technology to Treat Perchlorate-Contaminated Water I. Introduction 1.1 Background Perchlorate is commonly used... Hypothyroidism is a condition where the thyroid makes insufficient amounts of these hormones with varying health effects, including impaired

  3. ACCELERATION GROWTH OF ICT MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drakulić Danica

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The wurk points to the importance of ICT (Information Communication Technologies, as one of the main trajectories by which advanced economies have come to the high dynamism and richness. How do the performsnces of these technological changes, determined mainly by ICT, exert influences on the economicgrowth or, in general, on production results at the aggregate, macroeconomic level. The U.S.A. supremacy in this field has faced challenges. It loses tempo, and the EU countries, after the multi-decade syndrome of technological catching up to U.S.A., go through faster into the future, giving an accelerating tone to the technological race.

  4. Applications of Technology of Compound Lining of Semi—gr aphitized Self—baking Carbon Block Ceramic Brickwork in Large—sized Blast Furnaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAOYung-zhong; CHENQian-wan

    1994-01-01

    Based on the analyses of the lining technologies of the hot press formed carbon brick iu U.S.A., of the ce-ramic cup in France and of the creative self-baking car-bon brick in China,the technology of semi-graphitized car-bon block-ceramic brickwork has been studied and developed ,and has successfully ben used in No.7 blast furnace (2580m3) at Anshan Irom and Steel Company and in No.3 blast furnace (1200m3) at Taiyuan Iron and Steel Company,This paper puts fourward a feasible scheme for realization of long service lives of the bootms and the hearths of large-sized blast furaces in China.

  5. Effect of casting technology on microstructure and phases of high carbon high speed steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Tianming

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The as-cast microstructures of high carbon high speed steels (HC-HSS made by sand casting, centrifugal casting and electromagnetic centrifugal casting, respectively, were studied by using of optical microscopy (OM and D/max2200pc X-ray diffraction. The results show that the microstructure of as-cast HC-HSS is dominated by alloy carbides (W2C, VC, Cr7C3, martensite and austenite. The centrifugal casting and electromagnetic centrifugal casting apparently improve the solidification structure of HC-HSS. With the increase of magnetic intensity (B, the volume fraction of austenite in the HC-HSS solidification structure increases significantly while the eutectic ledeburite decreases. Moreover, the secondary carbides precipitated from the austenite are finer with more homogeneous distribution in the electromagnetic centrifugal castings. It has also been found that the lath of eutectic carbide in ledeburite becomes finer and carbide phase spacing in eutectic ledeburite increases along with the higher magnetic field strength.

  6. A brief summary of carbon nanotubes science and technology: a health and safety perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, Peter; Clift, Martin J D; Rösslein, Matthias; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

    2011-07-18

    Engineered nanomaterials, particularly carbon nanotubes (CNTs), hold great promise for a variety of industrial, consumer, and biomedical applications, due to their outstanding and novel properties. Over the last two decades many different types of CNTs have been produced at the industrial scale. Therefore, the exposure risk to humans associated with such a mass scale production has also increased substantially. This has led to increased concerns about the potential adverse health effects that may be associated with human exposure to CNTs, predominantly because of to their size, their shape, and chemistry. CNTs are also intended for use in many biomedical applications, and therefore their biocompatibility, biodistribution, and fate needs to be carefully assessed. This Minireview intends to highlight the current state of the assessment of potential adverse human health effects possibly associated with CNT exposure, as well as the challenges related to and posed by CNT safety research. The importance of reliability and comparison within and between different studies, as regards the test systems employed, is discussed as well as many other essential aspects relative to CNT safety research, for example efficient and comprehensive characterization, are discussed in the view of an improvement in data collection.

  7. Development of functionalized multi-walled carbon-nanotube-based alginate hydrogels for enabling biomimetic technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joddar, Binata; Garcia, Eduardo; Casas, Atzimba; Stewart, Calvin M.

    2016-08-01

    Alginate is a hydrogel commonly used for cell culture by ionically crosslinking in the presence of divalent Ca2+ ions. However these alginate gels are mechanically unstable, not permitting their use as scaffolds to engineer robust biological bone, breast, cardiac or tumor tissues. This issue can be addressed via encapsulation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) serving as a reinforcing phase while being dispersed in a continuous phase of alginate. We hypothesized that adding functionalized MWCNT to alginate, would yield composite gels with distinctively different mechanical, physical and biological characteristics in comparison to alginate alone. Resultant MWCNT-alginate gels were porous, and showed significantly less degradation after 14 days compared to alginate alone. In vitro cell-studies showed enhanced HeLa cell adhesion and proliferation on the MWCNT-alginate compared to alginate. The extent of cell proliferation was greater when cultured atop 1 and 3 mg/ml MWCNT-alginate; although all MWCNT-alginates lead to enhanced cell cluster formation compared to alginate alone. Among all the MWCNT-alginates, the 1 mg/ml gels showed significantly greater stiffness compared to all other cases. These results provide an important basis for the development of the MWCNT-alginates as novel substrates for cell culture applications, cell therapy and tissue engineering.

  8. Carbon Capture and Storage in the Permian Basin, a Regional Technology Transfer and Training Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rychel, Dwight [Petroleum Tech Transfer Council, Oak Hill, VA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The Permian Basin Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS) Training Center was one of seven regional centers formed in 2009 under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and managed by the Department of Energy. Based in the Permian Basin, it is focused on the utilization of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) projects for the long term storage of CO2 while producing a domestic oil and revenue stream. It delivers training to students, oil and gas professionals, regulators, environmental and academia through a robust web site, newsletter, tech alerts, webinars, self-paced online courses, one day workshops, and two day high level forums. While course material prominently features all aspects of the capture, transportation and EOR utilization of CO2, the audience focus is represented by its high level forums where selected graduate students with an interest in CCUS interact with Industry experts and in-house workshops for the regulatory community.

  9. In vivo genotoxicity of nitramines, transformation products of amine-based carbon capture technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Coutris

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In times where we need to reduce our CO2 emissions to the atmosphere, it is important to get a clearer picture of the environmental impacts associated with potential mitigation technologies. Chemical absorption with amines is emerging as the most advanced mitigation technology for post-combustion capture of CO2 from fossil fuel power stations. Although the amine solvent used in this technology is recycled during the capture process, degradation products are formed and released into the environment. Among these degradation products, the aliphatic nitramine compounds dimethylnitramine and ethanolnitramine have been identified, whose environmental impact was unknown. In addition to conducting survival, growth and reproduction tests in a range of marine species, we looked into the in vivo genotoxic potential of these two compounds to experimentally exposed fish (Coutris et al. 2015. DNA damage was analyzed in blood samples collected from the caudal vein of juvenile turbot Scophthalmus maximus after 28 day exposure to nitramines, using the 12 mini-gels version of the comet assay, with and without digestion with formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase. Although whole organism bioassays indicated that nitramine toxicity through necrosis was low, the genotoxicity assessment revealed contrasting results, with ethanolnitramine found to be more genotoxic than dimethylnitramine by three orders of magnitude. At the lowest ethanolnitramine concentration (1 mg/L, 84 % DNA damage was observed, whereas 100 mg/L dimethylnitramine was required to cause 37 % DNA damage. The mechanisms of genotoxicity were also shown to differ between the two compounds, with oxidation of the DNA bases responsible for over 90 % of the genotoxicity of dimethylnitramine, whereas DNA strand breaks and alkali-labile sites were responsible for over 90 % of the genotoxicity of ethanolnitramine. Fish exposed to > 3 mg/L ethanolnitramine had virtually no DNA left in their red blood cells. The

  10. 多线程技术在LIA中两路束流测量的实现%Implementation of Double Electron Beam Measurement of Linear Induction Accelerator with Multithreading Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王远; 张开志; 江孝国; 杨国君; 李劲

    2009-01-01

    强流脉冲电子束作为一种高亮度的光源,具有广阔的应用前景,而双轴束流测量的控制对于研究产生电子束的加速器技术具有重要意义;利用多线程技术在CVI环境下的实现方法,研究了双路束流参数特点、双路束流测量的时序同步控制方法,在此基础上采用线程池多线程技术实现基于TCP/IP的加速器束流测量的数据采集软件,结果表明采用多线程技术可以很好地实现多任务的同时工作,有助于提高束测量的响应速度和测量的执行效率.%The intense current pulsed electron beam is a new kind of light source with very high brightness and is very useful. The control technology of double axial orientation electron beam measurement is very important for the study of linear induction accelerator (LIA)which produce the electron beam. In order to meet the demand of measuring the double electron beam by Muhithreading Technology, a new method for the beam measurement and synchronous control has been developed, the software of beam measurement of accelerator can be implemented with multithreading technology by TCP/IP; The method can ensure synchronous work by multithreading technology and the method can improve response speed and measurement efficiency.

  11. Do technological advances in linear accelerators improve dosimetric outcomes in stereotaxy? A head-on comparison of seven linear accelerators using volumetric modulated arc therapy-based stereotactic planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Linear accelerator (Linac based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT has been used for treating small intracranial lesions. Recent development in the Linacs such as inbuilt micro multileaf collimator (MLC and flattening filter free (FFF beam are intended to provide a better dose conformity and faster delivery when using VMAT technique. This study was aimed to compare the dosimetric outcomes and monitor units (MUs of the stereotactic treatment plans for different commercially available MLC models and beam profiles. Materials and Methods: Ten patients having 12 planning target volume (PTV/gross target volume's (GTVs who received the SRS/SRT treatment in our clinic using Axesse Linac (considered reference arm gold standard were considered for this study. The test arms comprised of plans using Elekta Agility with FFF, Elekta Agility with the plane beam, Elekta APEX, Varian Millennium 120, Varian Millennium 120HD, and Elekta Synergy in Monaco treatment planning system. Planning constraints and calculation grid spacing were not altered in the test plans. To objectively evaluate the efficacy of MLC-beam model, the resultant dosimetric outcomes were subtracted from the reference arm parameters. Results: V95%, V100%, V105%, D1%, maximum dose, and mean dose of PTV/GTV showed a maximum inter MLC - beam model variation of 1.5% and 2% for PTV and GTV, respectively. Average PTV conformity index and heterogeneity index shows a variation in the range 0.56–0.63 and 1.08–1.11, respectively. Mean dose difference (excluding Axesse for all organs varied between 1.1 cGy and 74.8 cGy (mean dose = 6.1 cGy standard deviation [SD] = 26.9 cGy and 1.7 cGy–194.5 cGy (mean dose 16.1 cGy SD = 57.2 cGy for single and multiple fraction, respectively. Conclusion: The dosimetry of VMAT-based SRS/SRT treatment plan had minimal dependence on MLC and beam model variations. All tested MLC

  12. Electricity generation development of Eastern Europe. A carbon technology management case study for Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalvatzis, Konstantinos J. [School of Environmental Sciences and Norwich Business School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-15

    Energy and electricity in particular, are of unquestionable value for the welfare of all modern societies. The electricity sectors of Eastern European countries have undergone several phases of development between the post-WWII days within the CEMA and USSR frameworks and today's EU and global energy and environmental regimes. The present paper examines the progress of the Polish electricity sector throughout the last decades, providing useful information regarding not only the technical generation and distribution infrastructure but also the policies that have been and are currently implemented. The results are discussed in the context of indicators such as the electricity intensity and per capita consumption, and show that although the Polish electricity sector has gone a long way, there still are several necessary technology management steps to be taken if Poland is to adequately address the challenges of international competition, electricity supply security and environmental sustainability. (author)

  13. Superconducting Magnets for Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, L

    2012-01-01

    Superconductivity has been the most influential technology in the field of accelerators in the last 30 years. Since the commissioning of the Tevatron, which demonstrated the use and operability of superconductivity on a large scale, superconducting magnets and rf cavities have been at the heart of all new large accelerators. Superconducting magnets have been the invariable choice for large colliders, as well as cyclotrons and large synchrotrons. In spite of the long history of success, superconductivity remains a difficult technology, requires adequate R&D and suitable preparation, and has a relatively high cost. Hence, it is not surprising that the development has also been marked by a few setbacks. This article is a review of the main superconducting accelerator magnet projects; it highlights the main characteristics and main achievements, and gives a perspective on the development of superconducting magnets for the future generation of very high energy colliders.

  14. Seasonal changes in the invertebrate community of granular activated carbon filters and control technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; You, Wei; Li, Xiaowei; Yang, Yufeng; Liu, Lijun

    2014-03-15

    Invertebrate colonization of granular activated carbon (GAC) filters in the waterworks is one of the most frequently occurring and least studied biological problems of water processing in China. A survey of invertebrate colonization of GAC filters was carried out weekly from October 2010 to December 2011 at a reservoir water treatment works in South China. Twenty-six kinds of invertebrates were observed. The abundance was as high as 5600ind.m(-3) with a mean of 860ind.m(-3). Large variations in abundance were observed among different seasons and before and after GAC filtration. The dominant organisms were rotifers and copepods. The average invertebrate abundance in the filtrate was 12-18.7 times of that in the pre-filtered water. Results showed that the GAC filters were colonized by invertebrates which may lead to a higher output of organisms in the filtrate than in the pre-filtered water. The invertebrate abundance in the GAC filters was statistically correlated with the water temperature. Seasonal patterns were observed. The invertebrate abundance grew faster in the spring and summer. Copepods were dominant in the summer while rotifers dominated in all other seasons of the year. There was a transition of small invertebrates (rotifers) gradually being substituted by larger invertebrates (copepods) from spring to summer. Control measures such as backwashing with chloric water, drying filter beds and soaking with saliferous water were implemented in the waterworks to reduce invertebrate abundances in the GAC filters. The results showed that soaking with saliferous water (99%, reduction in percent) was best but drying the filter beds (84%) was more economical. Soaking filter beds with 20g/L saliferous water for one day can be implemented in case of emergency. In order to keep invertebrate abundance in the acceptable range, some of these measures should be adopted.

  15. Carbon Monoxide Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Materials Working with the Media Fire Protection Technology Carbon monoxide safety outreach materials Help inform residents in ... with these messages and free materials. What is carbon monoxide? Carbon monoxide, also known as CO, is ...

  16. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  17. Study on Analysis Approaches for Technology Roadmapping of Low-Carbon Industry%低碳产业技术路线图分析方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛济川; 曹杰

    2011-01-01

    Technology Roadmapping(TRM) is introduced into the study for low-carbon technology development strategy.The methods,tools and approaches of developing technology roadmaps in low-carbon industry are discussed and analyzed.According to analyzing the objectives and drivers of technology roadmaps in low-carbon industry,the common vision and missions are proposed.Research findings indicate the method which is combined Bibliometric Analysis with Delphi Survey is suitable for low-carbon technology foresight,and the index system for Delphi Survey is established for low-carbon industry studying.Based on the analysis of survey data,the method and example of developing technology roadmaps in low-carbon industry are proposed.Research findings also indicate it is necessary to establish a regular update mechanism after the completion of developing roadmaps,and the specific update mechanism which is used for TRM in low-carbon industry is elaborated.%将技术路线图方法引入到低碳产业技术发展战略研究之中,对制定低碳产业技术路线图的方法和工具进行了讨论和分析。通过分析低碳产业技术路线图的对象和驱动力,明确了路线图的共同愿景和使命。研究表明,在进行低碳技术预见时,采取文献计量分析和德尔菲法相结合的方法是一种比较合适的技术预见方法,并建立了适合低碳产业需要的问卷指标体系。在对调查数据分析的基础上,提出了绘制低碳产业技术路线图的方法和范式。在完成路线图的制定工作后,需要建立起定期的更新机制,并阐述了具体的适用于建立低碳产业技术路线图更新机制的工作流程。

  18. Accelerated low water corrosion of carbon steel in the presence of a biofilm harbouring sulphate-reducing and sulphur-oxidising bacteria recovered from a marine sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beech, Iwona B. [Applied Microbiology and Electrochemistry Group, University of Portsmouth, St. Michael' s Building, White Swan Road, Portsmouth PO1 2DT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: iwona.beech@port.ac.uk; Campbell, Sheelagh A. [Applied Microbiology and Electrochemistry Group, University of Portsmouth, St. Michael' s Building, White Swan Road, Portsmouth PO1 2DT (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-01

    Investigations were undertaken to elucidate causes of accelerated low water corrosion (ALWC) of steel piling in a harbour in Southern England. Visual inspection revealed features characteristic of ALWC such as the presence of poorly adherent, thick corrosion products of varying morphology, often seen as large blisters randomly located on sections of the structure at the low water mark. Upon the removal of blisters, a bright surface covered with shallow pits was exposed. Representative samples of the corrosion products were collected from the structure and water and sediment specimens were retrieved from selected areas in the harbour for microbiological, chemical and microscopy testing. In the laboratory, field samples were enriched to detect and enumerate communities of sulphur-oxidising bacteria (SOB) and sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Biofilms, comprising SRB and SOB populations isolated from a sediment sample were grown under static conditions on surfaces of electrodes manufactured from steel piling material. Linear polarisation resistance (LPR) measurements revealed that the corrosion rate of steel with biofilms (0.518 mm y{sup -1}) was higher than that recorded in sterile seawater alone (0.054 mm y{sup -1}) and in sterile seawater to which nutrient was added (0.218 mm y{sup -1}). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging demonstrated enhanced pitting under biofilms. The results of our investigation revealed for the first time that the attack on steel piling in the presence of sediment SRB and SOB populations was characteristic of ALWC.

  19. Carbon isotopes profiles of human whole blood, plasma, red blood cells, urine and feces for biological/biomedical 14C-accelerator mass spectrometry applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Hyun; Chuang, Jennifer C; Kelly, Peter B; Clifford, Andrew J

    2011-05-01

    Radiocarbon ((14)C) is an ideal tracer for in vivo human ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination) and PBPK (physiological-based pharmacokinetic) studies. Living plants peferentially incorporate atmospheric (14)CO(2) versus (13)CO(2) versus (12)CO(2), which result in unique signature. Furthermore, plants and the food chains they support also have unique carbon isotope signatures. Humans, at the top of the food chain, consequently acquire isotopic concentrations in the tissues and body fluids depending on their dietary habits. In preparation of ADME and PBPK studies, 12 healthy subjects were recruited. The human baseline (specific to each individual and their diet) total carbon (TC) and carbon isotope (13)C (δ(13)C) and (14)C (F(m)) were quantified in whole blood (WB), plasma, washed red blood cell (RBC), urine, and feces. TC (mg of C/100 μL) in WB, plasma, RBC, urine, and feces were 11.0, 4.37, 7.57, 0.53, and 1.90, respectively. TC in WB, RBC, and feces was higher in men over women, P < 0.05. Mean δ(13)C were ranked low to high as follows: feces < WB = plasma = RBC = urine, P < 0.0001. δ(13)C was not affected by gender. Our analytic method shifted δ(13)C by only ±1.0 ‰ ensuring our F(m) measurements were accurate and precise. Mean F(m) were ranked low to high as follows: plasma = urine < WB = RBC = feces, P < 0.05. F(m) in feces was higher for men over women, P < 0.05. Only in WB, (14)C levels (F(m)) and TC were correlated with one another (r = 0.746, P < 0.01). Considering the lag time to incorporate atmospheric (14)C into plant foods (vegetarian) and or then into animal foods (nonvegetarian), the measured F(m) of WB in our population (recruited April 2009) was 1.0468 ± 0.0022 (mean ± SD), and the F(m) of WB matched the (extrapolated) atmospheric F(m) of 1.0477 in 2008. This study is important in presenting a procedure to determine a baseline for a study group for human ADME and PBPK studies using (14)C as a tracer.

  20. Research Progress of Carbon Dioxide Capture Technology%CO2捕集技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾先立

    2014-01-01

    This article reveals the relationship between the concentration of CO 2 and air temperature ,and points out that carbon dioxide capture and storage is one of the effective solutions .The commonly used methods of CO2 capture include solvent absorption ,oxygen -rich combustion ,capturing CO2 from ambient air ,membrane separation and pressure swing adsorption ,etc .The article makes a comparative analysis of advantages and disadvantages of these capture methods .The results show that the absorbent is easily decomposed and the equipment is corroded by the alkaline absorbent ;the method of oxygen - rich combustion can only remove combustible impurities , and the operating costs during the preparation of oxygen are expensive ;in the process of roasting calcium carbonate need high energy efficiency ,and the air scrubbers are very large ;raw gas of membrane separation has highly purity ;pressure swing adsorption needs high pressure ,energy consumption and operating costs .At last ,the article presents the development direction of carbon dioxide capture technology .%指出了CO2浓度与温室效应之间的关系,CO2捕集是有效的解决方案之一。常用的捕集方法有:溶剂吸收法、富氧燃烧法、空气捕集、膜分离法、变压吸附(PS A )法等。分析比较了各种捕集方法的优缺点:溶剂吸收法吸收剂易被分解且再生能耗高,对设备腐蚀大;富氧燃烧法在制备氧气时能耗高,只能去除可燃性杂质;从空气中捕集CO2,浓度较低空气洗涤器规格过大,焙烧CaCO3时能耗高;膜分离法对原料气的要求较高;变压吸附法需要2次加压,能耗高,运行成本大。提出了CO2捕集技术的发展方向与建议。

  1. Future HEP Accelerators: The US Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Bhat, Pushpalatha

    2015-01-01

    Accelerator technology has advanced tremendously since the introduction of accelerators in the 1930s, and particle accelerators have become indispensable instruments in high energy physics (HEP) research to probe Nature at smaller and smaller distances. At present, accelerator facilities can be classified into Energy Frontier colliders that enable direct discoveries and studies of high mass scale particles and Intensity Frontier accelerators for exploration of extremely rare processes, usually at relatively low energies. The near term strategies of the global energy frontier particle physics community are centered on fully exploiting the physics potential of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN through its high-luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC), while the intensity frontier HEP research is focused on studies of neutrinos at the MW-scale beam power accelerator facilities, such as Fermilab Main Injector with the planned PIP-II SRF linac project. A number of next generation accelerator facilities have been proposed...

  2. Evaluating the Contribution of Climate Forcing and Forest Dynamics to Accelerating Carbon Sequestration by Forest Ecosystems in the Northeastern U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzjarrald, David Roy [Atmos Sciences Res Ctr

    2013-09-11

    We used 10 Hz eddy flux signals and 0.2 Hz incident radiation (global shortwave and PAR) records from Harvard Forest (Massachusetts) and Tapajos National Forest (Brazil) to establish empirical relationships among directly measured cloud type and cover percentage and corresponding PAR fluctuations and its diffuse fraction. In future work such a cloud characterization will be related to water and light use efficiency estimates for each of these ecosystems. We developed empirical relationships to link sky cover type and fraction (measured with the ceilometer) to incident direct and diffuse PAR. We developed a methodology for constructing synthetic incident solar radiation time series based on operational reports of sky cover and cloud type from National Weather Service METAR reports. The aim of this work is to document the temporal and spectral properties radiation incident on the canopy, as a first step toward developing a sky-type parameterization for the net carbon uptake models.

  3. TEACHERS IN THE ERA OF ACCELERATION : How the acceleration of ICT developments influences the ICT use by teachers at school

    OpenAIRE

    Charalambous, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    In the effort to examine the factors that impact the use of ICT by teachers, research has up until now neglected the acceleration of ICT developments as a factor that affects the successful integration of ICT in education. The technological acceleration in general has triggered significant changes at the social level, such as the acceleration of social change and the acceleration of the pace of life. This is why the study of the acceleration of ICT provides for a good theoretical framework to...

  4. Global particle accelerator gets the big chill

    CERN Multimedia

    Sherriff, Lucy

    2004-01-01

    Scientists at an international symposium in Beijing have recommended that a new global particle accelerator should be based on "cold" or superconducting technology, bringing the construction of the multi-billion dollar facility one step closer to reality (½ page)

  5. 纳米碳纤维技术的新进展%New development of carbon nano-fibers technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芦长椿

    2013-01-01

    综述了已投入商业化运营的纳米碳纤维(CNF)生产工艺,诸如化学汽相沉积法(CVD)、静电纺丝法技术状况以及相关的生命周期分析数据.表明纳米尺度的碳纤维及其复合材料是一种多功能材料,具有优良的导电性、力学增强性和热性能.在纳米复合材料、贮氢和催化载体领域显示出了市场潜力.%The article introduces CNF manufacture process which is commercially used,for instance,chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and electro-spinning technology as well as their life cycle assessment (LCA).Nanometer scale carbon fiber (CNF) and its composites is a multi-functional material with the excellent electrical conductivity,mechanical reinforcement and thermal properties.It demonstrates marketing potentiality in aspects of CNF composites,hydrogen storage and catalyst supports.

  6. Electrochemical immunoassay of benzo[a]pyrene based on dual amplification strategy of electron-accelerated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/polyaniline platform and multi-enzyme-functionalized carbon sphere label

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Mouhong [Institute of Biomaterials, College of Sciences, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, Guangdong Province (China); Liu Yingju, E-mail: liuyingju@hotmail.com [Institute of Biomaterials, College of Sciences, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, Guangdong Province (China); Sun Zihong; Zhang Shenglai; Yang Zhuohong [Institute of Biomaterials, College of Sciences, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, Guangdong Province (China); Ni Chunlin, E-mail: niclchem@scau.edu.cn [Institute of Biomaterials, College of Sciences, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, Guangdong Province (China)

    2012-04-13

    Graphical abstract: Schematic representation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/PANI/Nafion-based immunosensor using multi-HRP-HCS-Ab{sub 2} bioconjugates as labels. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An electrochemical immunosensor for high sensitive detection of BaP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A dual amplification strategy by Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/PANI/Nafion film and multi-HRP-HCS-Ab{sub 2} label. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An accelerated electron transfer pathway by the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/PANI/Nafion film. - Abstract: An electrochemical immunosensor, basing on a dual amplification strategy by employing a biocompatible Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/polyaniline/Nafion (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/PANI/Nafion) layer as sensor platform and multi-enzyme-antibody functionalized highly-carbonized spheres (multi-HRP-HCS-Ab{sub 2}) as label, was constructed for sensitive detection of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). The stable film, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/PANI/Nafion, can not only immobilize biomolecules, but also catalyze the reduction of hydrogen peroxide, indicating an accelerated electron transfer pathway of the platform. The experimental conditions, including the concentration of Nafion, concentration of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/polyaniline (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/PANI), pH of the detection solution and concentrations of biomolecules, were studied in detail. Basing on a competitive immunoassay, the current change was proportional to the logarithm of BaP concentration in the range of 8 pM and 2 nM with the detection limit of 4 pM. The proposed immunosensor exhibited acceptable reproducibility and stability. This new type of dual amplification strategy may provide potential applications for the detection of environmental pollutants.

  7. New Effective Material Couple--Oxide Ceramic and Carbon Nanotube-- Developed for Aerospace Microsystem and Micromachine Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; VanderWal, Randall L.; Tomasek, Aaron J.; Sayir, Ali; Farmer, Serene C.

    2004-01-01

    The prime driving force for using microsystem and micromachine technologies in transport vehicles, such as spacecraft, aircraft, and automobiles, is to reduce the weight, power consumption, and volume of components and systems to lower costs and increase affordability and reliability. However, a number of specific issues need to be addressed with respect to using microsystems and micromachines in aerospace applications--such as the lack of understanding of material characteristics; methods for producing and testing the materials in small batches; the limited proven durability and lifetime of current microcomponents, packaging, and interconnections; a cultural change with respect to system designs; and the use of embedded software, which will require new product assurance guidelines. In regards to material characteristics, there are significant adhesion, friction, and wear issues in using microdevices. Because these issues are directly related to surface phenomena, they cannot be scaled down linearly and they become increasingly important as the devices become smaller. When microsystems have contacting surfaces in relative motion, the adhesion and friction affect performance, energy consumption, wear damage, maintenance, lifetime and catastrophic failure, and reliability. Ceramics, for the most part, do not have inherently good friction and wear properties. For example, coefficients of friction in excess of 0.7 have been reported for ceramics and ceramic composite materials. Under Alternate Fuels Foundation Technologies funding, two-phase oxide ceramics developed for superior high-temperature wear resistance in NASA's High Operating Temperature Propulsion Components (HOTPC) project and new two-layered carbon nanotube (CNT) coatings (CNT topcoat/iron bondcoat/quartz substrate) developed in NASA's Revolutionary Aeropropulsion Concepts (RAC) project have been chosen as a materials couple for aerospace applications, including micromachines, in the nanotechnology

  8. Space Technology Research Grants Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Space Technology Research Grants Program will accelerate the development of "push" technologies to support the future space science and exploration...

  9. On the isolation of elemental carbon for micro-molar 14C accelerator mass spectrometry; evaluation of alternative isolation procedures, and accuracy assurance using a hybrid isotopic particulate carbon reference material

    OpenAIRE

    Currie, L A; Kessler,J.D.

    2005-01-01

    International audience; The primary objective of the research reported here has been the development of an hybrid reference material (RM) to serve as a test of accuracy for elemental carbon (EC) isotopic (14C) speciation measurements. Such measurements are critically important for the quantitative apportionment of fossil and biomass sources of ''soot'' (EC), the tracer of fire that has profound effects on health, atmospheric visibility, and climate. Previous studies of 14C-EC measurement qual...

  10. Electric rail gun projectile acceleration to high velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, D. P.; Mccormick, T. J.; Barber, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    Electric rail accelerators are being investigated for application in electric propulsion systems. Several electric propulsion applications require that the rail accelerator be capable of launching projectiles at velocities above 10 km/s. An experimental program was conducted to develop rail accelerator technology for high velocity projectile launch. Several 6 mm bore, 3 m long rail accelerators were fabricated. Projectiles with a mass of 0.2 g were accelerated by plasmas, carrying currents up to 150 kA. Experimental design and results are described. Results indicate that the accelerator performed as predicted for a fraction of the total projectile acceleration. The disparity between predicted and measured results are discussed.

  11. NEW ACCELERATION METHODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sessler, A.M.

    1984-07-01

    But a glance at the Livingston chart, Fig. 1, of accelerator particle energy as a function of time shows that the energy has steadily, exponentially, increased. Equally significant is the fact that this increase is the envelope of diverse technologies. If one is to stay on, or even near, the Livingston curve in future years then new acceleration techniques need to be developed. What are the new acceleration methods? In these two lectures I would like to sketch some of these new ideas. I am well aware that they will probably not result in high energy accelerators within this or the next decade, but conversely, it is likely that these ideas will form the basis for the accelerators of the next century. Anyway, the ideas are stimulating and suffice to show that accelerator physicists are not just 'engineers', but genuine scientists deserving to be welcomed into the company of high energy physicists. I believe that outsiders will find this field surprisingly fertile and, certainly fun. To put it more personally, I very much enjoy working in this field and lecturing on it. There are a number of review articles which should be consulted for references to the original literature. In addition there are three books on the subject. Given this material, I feel free to not completely reference the material in the remainder of this article; consultation of the review articles and books will be adequate as an introduction to the literature for references abound (hundreds are given). At last, by way of introduction, I should like to quote from the end of Ref. 2 for I think the remarks made there are most germane. Remember that the talk was addressed to accelerator physicists: 'Finally, it is often said, I think by physicists who are not well-informed, that accelerator builders have used up their capital and now are bereft of ideas, and as a result, high energy physics will eventually--rather soon, in fact--come to a halt. After all, one can't build too many

  12. Vacuum Brazing of Accelerator Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajvir; Pant, K. K.; Lal, Shankar; Yadav, D. P.; Garg, S. R.; Raghuvanshi, V. K.; Mundra, G.

    2012-11-01

    Commonly used materials for accelerator components are those which are vacuum compatible and thermally conductive. Stainless steel, aluminum and copper are common among them. Stainless steel is a poor heat conductor and not very common in use where good thermal conductivity is required. Aluminum and copper and their alloys meet the above requirements and are frequently used for the above purpose. The accelerator components made of aluminum and its alloys using welding process have become a common practice now a days. It is mandatory to use copper and its other grades in RF devices required for accelerators. Beam line and Front End components of the accelerators are fabricated from stainless steel and OFHC copper. Fabrication of components made of copper using welding process is very difficult and in most of the cases it is impossible. Fabrication and joining in such cases is possible using brazing process especially under vacuum and inert gas atmosphere. Several accelerator components have been vacuum brazed for Indus projects at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore using vacuum brazing facility available at RRCAT, Indore. This paper presents details regarding development of the above mentioned high value and strategic components/assemblies. It will include basics required for vacuum brazing, details of vacuum brazing facility, joint design, fixturing of the jobs, selection of filler alloys, optimization of brazing parameters so as to obtain high quality brazed joints, brief description of vacuum brazed accelerator components etc.

  13. Accelerators for Society - TIARA 2012 Test Infrastructure and Accelerator Research Area (in Polish)

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, R S

    2013-01-01

    TIARA (Test Infrastructure and Accelerator Research Area - Preparatory Phae) is an European Collaboration of Accelerator Technology, which by running research projects, technical, networks and infrastructural has a duty to integrate the research and technical communities and infrastructures in the global scale of Europe. The Collaboration gathers all research centers with large accelerator infrastructures. Other ones, like universities, are affiliated as associate members. TIARA-PP (preparatory phase) is an European infrastructural project run by this Consortium and realized inside EU-FP7. The paper presents a general overview of TIARA activities, with an introduction containing a portrait of contemporary accelerator technology and a digest of its applications in modern society.

  14. Evaluation of particles released from single-wall carbon nanotube/polymer composites with or without thermal aging by an accelerated abrasion test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lin; Kondo, Akira; Shigeta, Masahiro; Endoh, Shigehisa; Uejima, Mitsugu; Ogura, Isamu; Naito, Makio

    2014-01-01

    To provide data required for assessing the environmental health and safety risks of nanocomposites, abrasion-induced particle release from single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/polymer composites with or without thermal aging were evaluated by a shot blast system. First, overall composite weight loss (i.e., overall particle release) as a result of shot blasting was measured. Incorporating 5 wt% SWCNTs in polystyrene (PS) matrix was observed to reduce overall particle release by approximately 30% compared with pure PS. Heat treatment of the 5 wt% SWCNT/PS composites at 100°C for 10 days induced very slight change in overall particle release due to shot blasting. However, heat treatment at 350°C for 1 hr greatly deteriorated the abrasion resistance of the composites, enhancing overall particle release. Second, to verify the existence and form of SWCNTs released from the composites, released particles were observed by electron microscopy. Micron-sized particles with protruding SWCNTs and submicron-sized SWCNT clusters were observed in the particles released from the composites. Heat treatment of the composites at 350°C for 1 hr enhanced SWCNT release, which mainly formed clusters or rope-like bundles.

  15. Sustained acceleration of soil carbon decomposition observed in a 6-year warming experiment in a warm-temperate forest in southern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramoto, Munemasa; Liang, Naishen; Takagi, Masahiro; Zeng, Jiye; Grace, John

    2016-10-01

    To examine global warming’s effect on soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition in Asian monsoon forests, we conducted a soil warming experiment with a multichannel automated chamber system in a 55-year-old warm-temperate evergreen broadleaved forest in southern Japan. We established three treatments: control chambers for total soil respiration, trenched chambers for heterotrophic respiration (Rh), and warmed trenched chambers to examine warming effect on Rh. The soil was warmed with an infrared heater above each chamber to increase soil temperature at 5 cm depth by about 2.5 °C. The warming treatment lasted from January 2009 to the end of 2014. The annual warming effect on Rh (an increase per °C) ranged from 7.1 to17.8% °C-1. Although the warming effect varied among the years, it averaged 9.4% °C-1 over 6 years, which was close to the value of 10.1 to 10.9% °C-1 that we calculated using the annual temperature-efflux response model of Lloyd and Taylor. The interannual warming effect was positively related to the total precipitation in the summer period, indicating that summer precipitation and the resulting soil moisture level also strongly influenced the soil warming effect in this forest.

  16. Research on Problem of Ethical Value of Low-Carbon Technology%低碳技术的价值伦理问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张倩

    2012-01-01

    低碳技术具有工具内涵和工艺内涵,能在一定程度上解决温室效应给环境和气候造成的极大危害,但是低碳技术也引发了价值伦理问题.基于低碳技术的哲学反思和思想根源,探讨了低碳技术存在的伦理问题,主要包括:技术意志剥夺了人的主体性,科层制、技术工具理性与道德价值理性断裂等问题.通过分析低碳技术的属性、人的主体性及伦理问题的责任者等原因,从打破传统伦理、树立整合多元主义的伦理观点、建设世界主义的全球公共政治文化及重建工具理性与价值理性的平衡四个方面重构低碳技术的伦理价值.%Low-carbon technology has tool connotation and technology content. To a certain extent, low-carbon technology can solve the problem of environment and climate caused by greenhouse effect, but also results in value ethical issues. Based on philosophical reflection and ideological root of low-carbon technology, it discusses ethical issues including: technologies will deprive of people's subjectivity, the hierarchy, fracture of technical tools rationality and moral value rationality. Through analyzing the properties of low-carbon technology, people's subjectivity and contributor of ethical issues, etc., it reconstructs ethical values of low-carbon technology from four aspects of breaking traditional ethics, setting up the integration of pluralism, constructing the cosmopolitanism and global public political culture, and rebuilding the balance between instrumental rationality and value rationality.

  17. STATUS OF THE DIELECTRIC WALL ACCELERATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caporaso, G J; Chen, Y; Sampayan, S; Akana, G; Anaya, R; Blackfield, D; Carroll, J; Cook, E; Falabella, S; Guethlein, G; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Hickman, B; Holmes, C; Horner, A; Nelson, S; Paul, A; Pearson, D; Poole, B; Richardson, R; Sanders, D; Selenes, K; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J; Weir, J

    2009-04-22

    The dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) system being developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) uses fast switched high voltage transmission lines to generate pulsed electric fields on the inside of a high gradient insulating (HGI) acceleration tube. High electric field gradients are achieved by the use of alternating insulators and conductors and short pulse times. The system is capable of accelerating any charge to mass ratio particle. Applications of high gradient proton and electron versions of this accelerator will be discussed. The status of the developmental new technologies that make the compact system possible will be reviewed. These include, high gradient vacuum insulators, solid dielectric materials, photoconductive switches and compact proton sources.

  18. 2nd European Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, Ralph; Grebenyuk, Julia

    2016-01-01

    The European Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop has the mission to discuss and foster methods of beam acceleration with gradients beyond state of the art in operational facilities. The most cost effective and compact methods for generating high energy particle beams shall be reviewed and assessed. This includes diagnostics methods, timing technology, special need for injectors, beam matching, beam dynamics with advanced accelerators and development of adequate simulations. This workshop is organized in the context of the EU-funded European Network for Novel Accelerators (EuroNNAc2), that includes 52 Research Institutes and universities.

  19. Climate Change and Future U.S. Electricity Infrastructure: the Nexus between Water Availability, Land Suitability, and Low-Carbon Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, J.; Halter, T.; Hejazi, M. I.; Jensen, E.; Liu, L.; Olson, J.; Patel, P.; Vernon, C. R.; Voisin, N.; Zuljevic, N.

    2014-12-01

    Integrated assessment models project the future electricity generation mix under different policy, technology, and socioeconomic scenarios, but they do not directly address site-specific factors such as interconnection costs, population density, land use restrictions, air quality, NIMBY concerns, or water availability that might affect the feasibility of achieving the technology mix. Moreover, since these factors can change over time due to climate, policy, socioeconomics, and so on, it is important to examine the dynamic feasibility of integrated assessment scenarios "on the ground." This paper explores insights from coupling an integrated assessment model (GCAM-USA) with a geospatial power plant siting model (the Capacity Expansion Regional Feasibility model, CERF) within a larger multi-model framework that includes regional climate, hydrologic, and water management modeling. GCAM-USA is a dynamic-recursive market equilibrium model simulating the impact of carbon policies on global and national markets for energy commodities and other goods; one of its outputs is the electricity generation mix and expansion at the state-level. It also simulates water demands from all sectors that are downscaled as input to the water management modeling. CERF simulates siting decisions by dynamically representing suitable areas for different generation technologies with geospatial analyses (informed by technology-specific siting criteria, such as required mean streamflow per the Clean Water Act), and then choosing siting locations to minimize interconnection costs (to electric transmission and gas pipelines). CERF results are compared across three scenarios simulated by GCAM-USA: 1) a non-mitigation scenario (RCP8.5) in which conventional fossil-fueled technologies prevail, 2) a mitigation scenario (RCP4.5) in which the carbon price causes a shift toward nuclear, carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), and renewables, and 3) a repeat of scenario (2) in which CCS technologies are

  20. The Application Study in Solar Energy Technology for Highway Service Area: A Case Study of West Lushan Highway Low-Carbon Service Area in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A lot of research works have been made concerning highway service area or solar technology and acquired great achievements. However, unfortunately, few works have been made combining the two topics together of highway service areas and solar energy saving to make a systemic research on solar technology application for highway service area. In this paper, taking West Lushan highway low-carbon service area in Jiangxi Province of China as the case study, the advantages, technical principles, and application methods of solar energy technology for highway service area including solar photoelectric technology and solar water heating technology were discussed based on the analysis of characteristics of highway low-carbon service area; the system types, operation mode, and installing tilt angle of the two kinds of solar systems suitable for highway service areas were confirmed. It was proved that the reduction of the cost by electricity savings of solar system was huge. Taking the investment of the solar systems into account, the payback period of solar photoelectric systems and solar water heating systems was calculated. The economic effect of the solar systems in West Lushan highway service area during the effective operation periods was also calculated and proved very considerable.