WorldWideScience

Sample records for accelerated ageing syndrome

  1. Accelerated epigenetic aging in Down syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Horvath, Steve; Garagnani, Paolo; Bacalini, Maria Giulia; Pirazzini, Chiara; Salvioli, Stefano; Gentilini, Davide; Di Blasio, Anna Maria; Giuliani, Cristina; Tung, Spencer; Vinters, Harry V; Franceschi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Down Syndrome (DS) entails an increased risk of many chronic diseases that are typically associated with older age. The clinical manifestations of accelerated aging suggest that trisomy 21 increases the biological age of tissues, but molecular evidence for this hypothesis has been sparse. Here, we utilize a quantitative molecular marker of aging (known as the epigenetic clock) to demonstrate that trisomy 21 significantly increases the age of blood and brain tissue (on average by 6.6 years, P ...

  2. Accelerated epigenetic aging in Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Steve; Garagnani, Paolo; Bacalini, Maria Giulia; Pirazzini, Chiara; Salvioli, Stefano; Gentilini, Davide; Di Blasio, Anna Maria; Giuliani, Cristina; Tung, Spencer; Vinters, Harry V; Franceschi, Claudio

    2015-06-01

    Down Syndrome (DS) entails an increased risk of many chronic diseases that are typically associated with older age. The clinical manifestations of accelerated aging suggest that trisomy 21 increases the biological age of tissues, but molecular evidence for this hypothesis has been sparse. Here, we utilize a quantitative molecular marker of aging (known as the epigenetic clock) to demonstrate that trisomy 21 significantly increases the age of blood and brain tissue (on average by 6.6 years, P = 7.0 × 10(-14)).

  3. Accelerated aging syndromes, are they relevant to normal human aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreesen, Oliver; Stewart, Colin L

    2011-09-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria (HGPS) and Werner syndromes are diseases that clinically resemble some aspects of accelerated aging. HGPS is caused by mutations in theLMNA gene resulting in post-translational processing defects that trigger Progeria in children. Werner syndrome, arising from mutations in the WRN helicase gene, causes premature aging in young adults. What are the molecular mechanism(s) underlying these disorders and what aspects of the diseases resemble physiological human aging? Much of what we know stems from the study of patient derived fibroblasts with both mutations resulting in increased DNA damage, primarily at telomeres. However, in vivo patients with Werner's develop arteriosclerosis, among other pathologies. In HGPS patients, including iPS derived cells from HGPS patients, as well as some mouse models for Progeria, vascular smooth muscle (VSM) appears to be among the most severely affected tissues. Defective Lamin processing, associated with DNA damage, is present in VSM from old individuals, indicating processing defects may be a factor in normal aging. Whether persistent DNA damage, particularly at telomeres, is the root cause for these pathologies remains to be established, since not all progeroid Lmna mutations result in DNA damage and genome instability.

  4. Mechanisms of cardiovascular disease in accelerated aging syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capell, Brian C; Collins, Francis S; Nabel, Elizabeth G

    2007-07-06

    In the past several years, remarkable progress has been made in the understanding of the mechanisms of premature aging. These rare, genetic conditions offer valuable insights into the normal aging process and the complex biology of cardiovascular disease. Many of these advances have been made in the most dramatic of these disorders, Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. Although characterized by features of normal aging such as alopecia, skin wrinkling, and osteoporosis, patients with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome are affected by accelerated, premature arteriosclerotic disease that leads to heart attacks and strokes at a mean age of 13 years. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the biology of premature aging uncovered in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome and other accelerated aging syndromes, advances that provide insight into the mechanisms of cardiovascular diseases ranging from atherosclerosis to arrhythmias.

  5. Down syndrome as a model of DNA polymerase beta haploinsufficiency and accelerated aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, David; Cabelof, Diane C

    2012-04-01

    Down syndrome is a condition of intellectual disability characterized by accelerated aging. As with other aging syndromes, evidence accumulated over the past several decades points to a DNA repair defect inherent in Down syndrome. This evidence has led us to suggest that Down syndrome results in reduced DNA base excision repair (BER) capacity, and that this contributes to the genomic instability and the aging phenotype of Down syndrome. We propose important roles for microRNA and/or folate metabolism and oxidative stress in the dysregulation of BER in Down syndrome. Further, we suggest these pathways are involved in the leukemogenesis of Down syndrome. We have reviewed the role of BER in the processing of oxidative stress, and the impact of folate depletion on BER capacity. Further, we have reviewed the role that loss of BER, specifically DNA polymerase beta, plays in accelerating the rate of aging. Like that seen in the DNA polymerase beta heterozygous mouse, the aging phenotype of Down syndrome is subtle, unlike the aging phenotypes seen in the classical progeroid syndromes and mouse models of aging. As such, Down syndrome may provide a model for elucidating some of the basic mechanisms of aging.

  6. Neurodegeneration in accelerated aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibye-Knudsen, Moren

    2016-11-01

    The growing proportion of elderly people represents an increasing economic burden, not least because of age-associated diseases that pose a significant cost to the health service. Finding possible interventions to age-associated disorders therefore have wide ranging implications. A number of genetically defined accelerated aging diseases have been characterized that can aid in our understanding of aging. Interestingly, all these diseases are associated with defects in the maintenance of our genome. A subset of these disorders, Cockayne syndrome, Xeroderma pigmentosum group A and ataxia-telangiectasia, show neurological involvement reminiscent of what is seen in primary human mitochondrial diseases. Mitochondria are the power plants of the cells converting energy stored in oxygen, sugar, fat, and protein into ATP, the energetic currency of our body. Emerging evidence has linked this organelle to aging and finding mitochondrial dysfunction in accelerated aging disorders thereby strengthens the mitochondrial theory of aging. This theory states that an accumulation of damage to the mitochondria may underlie the process of aging. Indeed, it appears that some accelerated aging disorders that show neurodegeneration also have mitochondrial dysfunction. The mitochondrial alterations may be secondary to defects in nuclear DNA repair. Indeed, nuclear DNA damage may lead to increased energy consumption, alterations in mitochondrial ATP production and defects in mitochondrial recycling, a term called mitophagy. These changes may be caused by activation of poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase 1 (PARP1), an enzyme that responds to DNA damage. Upon activation PARP1 utilizes key metabolites that attenuate pathways that are normally protective for the cell. Notably, pharmacological inhibition of PARP1 or reconstitution of the metabolites rescues the changes caused by PARP1 hyperactivation and in many cases reverse the phenotypes associated with accelerated aging. This implies that modulation

  7. Atherosclerosis in ancient humans, accelerated aging syndromes and normal aging: is lamin a protein a common link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Michael I; Djabali, Karima; Gordon, Leslie B

    2014-06-01

    Imaging studies of ancient human mummies have demonstrated the presence of vascular calcification that is consistent with the presence of atherosclerosis. These findings have stimulated interest in the underlying biological processes that might impart to humans an inherent predisposition to the development of atherosclerosis. Clues to these processes may possibly be found in accelerated aging syndromes, such as Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), an ultra-rare disorder characterized by premature aging phenotypes, including very aggressive forms of atherosclerosis, occurring in childhood. The genetic defect in HGPS eventuates in the production of a mutant form of the nuclear structural protein lamin A, called progerin, which is thought to interfere with normal nuclear functioning. Progerin appears to be expressed in vascular cells, resulting in vessel wall cell loss and replacement by fibrous tissue, reducing vessel compliance and promoting calcification, leading to the vascular dysfunction and atherosclerosis seen in HGPS. Interestingly, vascular progerin is detectable in lower levels, in an age-related manner, in the general population, providing the basis for further study of the potential role of abnormal forms of lamin A in the atherosclerotic process of normal aging.

  8. Lifestyle-induced metabolic inflexibility and accelerated ageing syndrome: insulin resistance, friend or foe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell Jimmy D

    2009-04-01

    that as oxidative stress determines functional longevity, a rather more descriptive term for the metabolic syndrome is the 'lifestyle-induced metabolic inflexibility and accelerated ageing syndrome'. Ultimately, thriftiness is good for us as long as we have hormetic stimuli; unfortunately, mankind is attempting to remove all hormetic (stressful stimuli from his environment.

  9. IGBT accelerated aging data set.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Preliminary data from thermal overstress accelerated aging using the aging and characterization system. The data set contains aging data from 6 devices, one device...

  10. Premature aging syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppedè, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome and Werner syndrome are two of the best characterized human progeroid diseases with clinical features mimicking physiological aging at an early age. Both disorders have been the focus of intense research in recent years since they might provide insights into the pathology of normal human aging. The chapter contains a detailed description of the clinical features of both disorders and then it focuses on the genetics, the resulting biochemical alterations at the protein level and the most recent findings and hypotheses concerning the molecular basis of the premature aging phenotypes. A description of available diagnostic and therapeutic approaches is included.

  11. Atypical aging in Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigman, Warren B

    2013-01-01

    At present, there may be over 210,000 people with Down syndrome (DS) over the age of 55 in the United States (US) who have significant needs for augmented services due to circumstances related to ordinary and/or pathological aging. From 1979 through 2003, the birth prevalence of DS rose from 9.0 to 11.8 (31.1%) per 10,000 live births in 10 representative US regions. This increase, largely due to women conceiving after age 35, portends an ever-growing population of people with DS who may be subject to pathogenic aging. Whereas Trisomy 21 is one of the most widespread genetic causes of intellectual disability (ID), it still is one of the least understood of all genetic ID syndromes. While longevity in people with DS has improved appreciably in as modest a period as 30 years, age-specific risk for mortality still is considerably increased compared both with other people with ID or with the typically developing population. The penetrance of the phenotype is widely distributed, even though a consistent genotype is assumed in 95% of the cases. Some, but not all body systems, exhibit signs of premature or accelerated aging. This may be due to both genetic and epigenetic inheritance. We now know that the long-term outcome for people with DS is not as ominous as once contemplated; a number of people with DS are living into their late 60s and 70s with few if any major signs of pathogenic aging. Alzheimer's disease (AD), a devastating disease that robs a person of their memory, abilities and personality, is particularly common in elder adults with DS, but is not a certainty as originally thought, some 20% to 30% of elder adults with DS might never show any, or at most mild signs of AD. DS has been called a mature well-understood syndrome, not in need of further research or science funding. We are only beginning to understand how epigenetics affects the phenotype and it may be feasible in the future to alter the phenotype through epigenetic interventions. This chapter is

  12. Progeria syndromes and ageing: what is the connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtner, Christopher R; Kennedy, Brian K

    2010-08-01

    One of the many debated topics in ageing research is whether progeroid syndromes are really accelerated forms of human ageing. The answer requires a better understanding of the normal ageing process and the molecular pathology underlying these rare diseases. Exciting recent findings regarding a severe human progeria, Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome, have implicated molecular changes that are also linked to normal ageing, such as genome instability, telomere attrition, premature senescence and defective stem cell homeostasis in disease development. These observations, coupled with genetic studies of longevity, lead to a hypothesis whereby progeria syndromes accelerate a subset of the pathological changes that together drive the normal ageing process.

  13. Accelerated Aging in Electrolytic Capacitors for Prognostics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The focus of this work is the analysis of different degradation phenomena based on thermal overstress and electrical overstress accelerated aging systems and the use...

  14. PETN Coarsening - Predictions from Accelerated Aging Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiti, Amitesh [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gee, Richard H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-03-30

    Ensuring good ignition properties over long periods of time necessitates maintaining a good level of porosity in powders of initiator materials and preventing particle coarsening. To simulate porosity changes of such powder materials over long periods of time a common strategy is to perform accelerated aging experiments over shorter time spans at elevated temperatures. In this paper we examine historical accelerated-aging data on powders of Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate (PETN), an important energetic material, and make predictions for long-term aging under ambient conditions. Lastly, we develop an evaporation-condensation- based model to provide some mechanistic understanding of the coarsening process.

  15. Obesity accelerates epigenetic aging of human liver

    OpenAIRE

    Horvath, S; Erhart, W.; Brosch, M; Ammerpohl, O.; von Schonfels, W.; Ahrens, M.; Heits, N.; Bell, J.T.; Tsai, P.-C.; Spector, T D; Deloukas, P.; Siebert, R.; Sipos, B.; Becker, T.; Rocken, C.

    2014-01-01

    Because obese people are at an increased risk of many age-related diseases, it is a plausible hypothesis that obesity increases the biological age of some tissues and cell types. However, it has been difficult to detect such an accelerated aging effect because it is unclear how to measure tissue age. Here we use a recently developed biomarker of aging (known as “epigenetic clock”) to study the relationship between epigenetic age and obesity in several human tissues. We report an unexpectedly ...

  16. Obesity accelerates epigenetic aging of human liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Steve; Erhart, Wiebke; Brosch, Mario; Ammerpohl, Ole; von Schönfels, Witigo; Ahrens, Markus; Heits, Nils; Bell, Jordana T; Tsai, Pei-Chien; Spector, Tim D; Deloukas, Panos; Siebert, Reiner; Sipos, Bence; Becker, Thomas; Röcken, Christoph; Schafmayer, Clemens; Hampe, Jochen

    2014-10-28

    Because of the dearth of biomarkers of aging, it has been difficult to test the hypothesis that obesity increases tissue age. Here we use a novel epigenetic biomarker of aging (referred to as an "epigenetic clock") to study the relationship between high body mass index (BMI) and the DNA methylation ages of human blood, liver, muscle, and adipose tissue. A significant correlation between BMI and epigenetic age acceleration could only be observed for liver (r = 0.42, P = 6.8 × 10(-4) in dataset 1 and r = 0.42, P = 1.2 × 10(-4) in dataset 2). On average, epigenetic age increased by 3.3 y for each 10 BMI units. The detected age acceleration in liver is not associated with the Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Activity Score or any of its component traits after adjustment for BMI. The 279 genes that are underexpressed in older liver samples are highly enriched (1.2 × 10(-9)) with nuclear mitochondrial genes that play a role in oxidative phosphorylation and electron transport. The epigenetic age acceleration, which is not reversible in the short term after rapid weight loss induced by bariatric surgery, may play a role in liver-related comorbidities of obesity, such as insulin resistance and liver cancer.

  17. Is biological aging accelerated in drug addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachi, Keren; Sierra, Salvador; Volkow, Nora D; Goldstein, Rita Z; Alia-Klein, Nelly

    2017-02-01

    Drug-addiction may trigger early onset of age-related disease, due to drug-induced multi-system toxicity and perilous lifestyle, which remains mostly undetected and untreated. We present the literature on pathophysiological processes that may hasten aging and its relevance to addiction, including: oxidative stress and cellular aging, inflammation in periphery and brain, decline in brain volume and function, and early onset of cardiac, cerebrovascular, kidney, and liver disease. Timely detection of accelerated aging in addiction is crucial for the prevention of premature morbidity and mortality.

  18. Accelerated Aging in Electrolytic Capacitors for Prognostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celaya, Jose R.; Kulkarni, Chetan; Saha, Sankalita; Biswas, Gautam; Goebel, Kai Frank

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this work is the analysis of different degradation phenomena based on thermal overstress and electrical overstress accelerated aging systems and the use of accelerated aging techniques for prognostics algorithm development. Results on thermal overstress and electrical overstress experiments are presented. In addition, preliminary results toward the development of physics-based degradation models are presented focusing on the electrolyte evaporation failure mechanism. An empirical degradation model based on percentage capacitance loss under electrical overstress is presented and used in: (i) a Bayesian-based implementation of model-based prognostics using a discrete Kalman filter for health state estimation, and (ii) a dynamic system representation of the degradation model for forecasting and remaining useful life (RUL) estimation. A leave-one-out validation methodology is used to assess the validity of the methodology under the small sample size constrain. The results observed on the RUL estimation are consistent through the validation tests comparing relative accuracy and prediction error. It has been observed that the inaccuracy of the model to represent the change in degradation behavior observed at the end of the test data is consistent throughout the validation tests, indicating the need of a more detailed degradation model or the use of an algorithm that could estimate model parameters on-line. Based on the observed degradation process under different stress intensity with rest periods, the need for more sophisticated degradation models is further supported. The current degradation model does not represent the capacitance recovery over rest periods following an accelerated aging stress period.

  19. Accelerated aging of polymer composite bridge materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Nancy M.; Blackwood, Larry G.; Torres, Lucinda L.; Rodriguez, Julio G.; Yoder, Timothy S.

    1999-05-01

    Accelerated aging research on samples of composite materials and candidate UV protective coatings is determining the effects of six environmental factors on material durability. Candidate fastener materials are being evaluated to determine corrosion rates and crevice corrosion effects at load-bearing joints. This work supports field testing of a 30-ft long, 18-ft wide polymer matrix composite (PMC) bridge at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Durability results and sensor data form test with live loads provide information required for determining the cost/benefit measures to use in life-cycle planning, determining a maintenance strategy, establishing applicable inspection techniques, and establishing guidelines, standards and acceptance criteria for PMC bridges for use in the transportation infrastructure.

  20. Accelerated Aging of Polymer Composite Bridge Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Nancy Margaret; Blackwood, Larry Gene; Torres, Lucinda Laine; Rodriguez, Julio Gallardo; Yoder, Timothy Scott

    1999-03-01

    Accelerated aging research on samples of composite material and candidate ultraviolet (UV) protective coatings is determining the effects of six environmental factors on material durability. Candidate fastener materials are being evaluated to determine corrosion rates and crevice corrosion effects at load-bearing joints. This work supports field testing of a 30-ft long, 18-ft wide polymer matrix composite (PMC) bridge at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Durability results and sensor data from tests with live loads provide information required for determining the cost/benefit measures to use in life-cycle planning, determining a maintenance strategy, establishing applicable inspection techniques, and establishing guidelines, standards, and acceptance criteria for PMC bridges for use in the transportation infrastructure.

  1. Premature and accelerated ageing: HIV or HAART?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Luke Smith

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART has significantly increased life expectancy of the HIV-positive population. Nevertheless, the average lifespan of HIV patients remains shorter compared to uninfected individuals. Immunosenescence, a current explanation for this difference invokes heavily on viral stimulus despite HAART efficiency in viral suppression. We propose here that the premature and accelerated ageing of HIV patients can also be caused by adverse effects of antiretroviral drugs, specifically those that affect the mitochondria. The Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NRTI antiretroviral drug class for instance, is known to cause depletion of mitochondrial DNA via inhibition of the mitochondrial specific DNA polymerase-ƴ. Besides NRTIs, other antiretroviral drug classes such as Protease Inhibitors also cause severe mitochondrial damage by increasing oxidative stress and diminishing mitochondrial function. We also discuss important areas for future research and argue in favour of the use of C. elegans as a novel model system for studying these effects.

  2. Accelerated Aging Experiments for Capacitor Health Monitoring and Prognostics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper discusses experimental setups for health monitoring and prognostics of electrolytic capacitors under nominal operation and accelerated aging conditions....

  3. Physical properties of maxillofacial elastomers under conditions of accelerated aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, R; Koran, A; Craig, R G

    1980-06-01

    The stability of the physical properties of various commercially available maxillofacial prosthetic materials was evaluated with the use of an accelerated aging chamber. The tensile strength, maximum percent elongation, shear strength, tear energy, and Shore A hardness were determined before and after accelerated aging. Results indicate that silicone 44210, a RTV rubber, is a promising elastomer for maxillofacial application.

  4. An Epigenetic Clock Measures Accelerated Aging in Treated HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulias, Konstantinos; Lieberman, Judy; Greer, Eric Lieberman

    2016-04-21

    In this issue of Molecular Cell, Gross et al. (2016) find a CpG DNA methylation signature in blood cells of patients with chronic well-controlled HIV infection that correlates with accelerated aging.

  5. Pathology of Mouse Models of Accelerated Aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkema, L.; Youssef, S. A.; de Bruin, A.

    2016-01-01

    Progeroid mouse models display phenotypes in multiple organ systems that suggest premature aging and resemble features of natural aging of both mice and humans. The prospect of a significant increase in the global elderly population within the next decades has led to the emergence of geroscience, wh

  6. Pathology of Mouse Models of Accelerated Aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkema, L; Youssef, S A; de Bruin, A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837261

    2016-01-01

    Progeroid mouse models display phenotypes in multiple organ systems that suggest premature aging and resemble features of natural aging of both mice and humans. The prospect of a significant increase in the global elderly population within the next decades has led to the emergence of "geroscience,"

  7. Pathology of Mouse Models of Accelerated Aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkema, L; Youssef, S A; de Bruin, A

    2016-01-01

    Progeroid mouse models display phenotypes in multiple organ systems that suggest premature aging and resemble features of natural aging of both mice and humans. The prospect of a significant increase in the global elderly population within the next decades has led to the emergence of "geroscience,"

  8. Ageing and Brugada syndrome: considerations and recommendations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pieter G. Postema; Hanno L Tan; Arthur AM Wilde

    2013-01-01

    Brugada syndrome is an inherited disease associated with an increased risk of lethal ventricular arrhythmias. Such arrhythmias stem from innate disruptions in cardiac electrophysiology. Typically, such arrhythmias occur in the third or fourth decade of life. However, Brugada syndrome may also affect geriatric patients. In this paper, we focus on the ageing patient with Brugada syndrome, and specifically, on the interaction between Brugada syndrome and the more usually acquired clinical problems that may occur with increasing age, such as the use of cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular drugs, or the need for surgery. Such common conditions may also disrupt cardiac electrophysiology, thereby conferring added risk for Brugada syndrome patients. We present some considerations and recommendations that may serve as guidance to address these complexities.

  9. Altered Nuclear Functions in Progeroid Syndromes: a Paradigm for Aging Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baomin Li

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Syndromes of accelerated aging could provide an entry point for identifying and dissecting the cellular pathways that are involved in the development of age-related pathologies in the general population. However, their usefulness for aging research has been controversial, as it has been argued that these diseases do not faithfully reflect the process of natural aging. Here we review recent findings on the molecular basis of two progeroid diseases, Werner syndrome (WS and Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS, and highlight functional connections to cellular processes that may contribute to normal aging.

  10. Altered nuclear functions in progeroid syndromes: a paradigm for aging research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baomin; Jog, Sonali; Candelario, Jose; Reddy, Sita; Comai, Lucio

    2009-12-16

    Syndromes of accelerated aging could provide an entry point for identifying and dissecting the cellular pathways that are involved in the development of age-related pathologies in the general population. However, their usefulness for aging research has been controversial, as it has been argued that these diseases do not faithfully reflect the process of natural aging. Here we review recent findings on the molecular basis of two progeroid diseases, Werner syndrome (WS) and Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), and highlight functional connections to cellular processes that may contribute to normal aging.

  11. Accelerate Genomic Aging in Congenital Neutropenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    the Army position, policy or decision unless so designated by other documentation. REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188...accumulate in HSCs as a function of age and likely accounts for the increased incidence of AML/MDS in the elderly . It follows, that conditions that...Introduction 1 2. Keywords 1 3. Accomplishments 1 4. Impact 4 5. Changes/Problems 4 6. Products 5 7. Participants & Other Collaborating Organizations 5 8

  12. Accelerated Aging with Electrical Overstress and Prognostics for Power MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sankalita; Celaya, Jose Ramon; Vashchenko, Vladislav; Mahiuddin, Shompa; Goebel, Kai F.

    2011-01-01

    Power electronics play an increasingly important role in energy applications as part of their power converter circuits. Understanding the behavior of these devices, especially their failure modes as they age with nominal usage or sudden fault development is critical in ensuring efficiency. In this paper, a prognostics based health management of power MOSFETs undergoing accelerated aging through electrical overstress at the gate area is presented. Details of the accelerated aging methodology, modeling of the degradation process of the device and prognostics algorithm for prediction of the future state of health of the device are presented. Experiments with multiple devices demonstrate the performance of the model and the prognostics algorithm as well as the scope of application. Index Terms Power MOSFET, accelerated aging, prognostics

  13. Influence of Accelerated Aging on Detonation Performance of Explosives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Da-yuan; HUA Cheng; WANG Xiang; HAN Yong

    2010-01-01

    To understand the aging effects on detonation performances of explosives, an accelerated aging mechanism and effect of explosives were analyzed. Based on the thermo-gravimetric (TG) curves of explosives under the heat rate of 5, 10 and 20 K·min-1, the thermal decomposition activation energy, pre-exponential factor, mechanism function and kinetic equation of the explosives were calculated by Ozawa's equation and decomposition extents. Then, according to the derived kinetic equation, the density, composition and heat of formation of GI-1, PBX-1 and PBX-2 explosive in different decompo-sition extents were calculated at accelerated aging temperatures of 70 ℃ and 75 ℃, respectively. Furthermore, the detona-tion parameters of GI-1, PBX-1 and PBX-2 explosives were found out by means of VLWR code. The results show that after accelerated aging, the density are decrease, the detonation velocity and pressure are all decreased slightly.

  14. Delayed and accelerated aging share common longevity assurance mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schumacher, B.; van der Pluijm, I.; Moorhouse, M.J.; Kosteas, T.; Robinson, A.R.; Suh, Y.; Breit, T.M.; van Steeg, H.; Niedernhofer, L.J.; van IJcken, W.; Bartke, A.; Spindler, S.R.; Hoeijmakers, J.H.J.; van der Horst, G.T.J.; Garinis, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    Mutant dwarf and calorie-restricted mice benefit from healthy aging and unusually long lifespan. In contrast, mouse models for DNA repair-deficient progeroid syndromes age and die prematurely. To identify mechanisms that regulate mammalian longevity, we quantified the parallels between the genome-wi

  15. Delayed and accelerated aging share common longevity assurance mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schumacher, B.; van der Pluijm, I.; Moorhouse, M.J.; Kosteas, T.; Robinson, A.R.; Suh, Y.; Breit, T.M.; van Steeg, H.; Niedernhofer, L.J.; van IJcken, W.; Bartke, A.; Spindler, S.R.; Hoeijmakers, J.H.J.; van der Horst, G.T.J.; Garinis, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    Mutant dwarf and calorie-restricted mice benefit from healthy aging and unusually long lifespan. In contrast, mouse models for DNA repair-deficient progeroid syndromes age and die prematurely. To identify mechanisms that regulate mammalian longevity, we quantified the parallels between the

  16. Accelerated thermal and radiative ageing of hydrogenated NBR for DRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mares, G. [EUROTEST S.A., Bucharest (Romania). Research, Equipment Testing, Industrial Engineering and Scientific Services; Notingher, P. [Univ. Politehnica, Bucharest (Romania). Faculty of Electrical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The accelerated thermal and gamma radiation ageing of HNBR carbon black-T80 has been studied by measuring the residual deformation under constant deflection -- DRC, in air, using a relevant equation for the relaxation phenomena. The residual deformation under constant deflection during the process of accelerated ageing is increasing but the structure of polymer answers in the proper manner to the mechanical stress. The degradation equations were obtained, using Alfrey model for the relaxation polymer subject to compression and an Arrhenius dependence for the chemical reaction rate. The inverted relaxation time for the thermal degradation is depending on the chemical reaction rate and the dose rate of gamma radiation.

  17. [HIV infection as a cause of accelerated aging and frailty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Zaida; Sánchez-Conde, Matilde; Brañas, Fátima

    2017-06-07

    The HIV-infected population is aging due to the success of combination antiretroviral therapy, which prolongs survival, as well as the growing number of newly diagnosed cases in adults 50 years old and over. HIV-infected individuals suffer from an accelerated aging due to the persistent and chronic activation of the immune system that leads to immune exhaustion and accelerated immunosenescence, even when on optimal immuno-virological control treatment. The clinical expression of the immunosenescence state is an increased prevalence of aging-related non-HIV associated comorbidities and a rising prevalence of frailty occurring earlier than in the general population. Thus, HIV-infected patients are biologically older than their chronological age, and they suffer from aging-related problems, such as frailty, which should be assessed. Copyright © 2017 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Accelerated Brain Aging in Schizophrenia : A Longitudinal Pattern Recognition Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnack, Hugo G; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Nieuwenhuis, Mireille; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the multitude of longitudinal neuroimaging studies that have been published, a basic question on the progressive brain loss in schizophrenia remains unaddressed: Does it reflect accelerated aging of the brain, or is it caused by a fundamentally different process? The authors used

  19. Accelerated brain aging in schizophrenia : A longitudinal pattern recognition study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnack, Hugo G.; Van Haren, Neeltje E M; Nieuwenhuis, Mireille; Pol, Hilleke E Hulshoff; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the multitude of longitudinal neuroimaging studies that have been published, a basic question on the progressive brain loss in schizophrenia remains unaddressed: Does it reflect accelerated aging of the brain, or is it caused by a fundamentally different process? The authors used

  20. Accelerated Brain Aging in Schizophrenia : A Longitudinal Pattern Recognition Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnack, Hugo G; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Nieuwenhuis, Mireille; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the multitude of longitudinal neuroimaging studies that have been published, a basic question on the progressive brain loss in schizophrenia remains unaddressed: Does it reflect accelerated aging of the brain, or is it caused by a fundamentally different process? The authors used

  1. Aging in Rare Intellectual Disability Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    This review highlights several methodological challenges involved in research on aging, health, and mortality in adults with rare intellectual disability syndromes. Few studies have been performed in this area, with research obstacles that include: the ascertainment of older adults with genetic versus clinical diagnoses; likelihood that adults…

  2. Aging in Rare Intellectual Disability Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    This review highlights several methodological challenges involved in research on aging, health, and mortality in adults with rare intellectual disability syndromes. Few studies have been performed in this area, with research obstacles that include: the ascertainment of older adults with genetic versus clinical diagnoses; likelihood that adults…

  3. Evaluating the Role of p38 MAPK in the Accelerated Cell Senescence of Werner Syndrome Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence Davis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Progeroid syndromes show features of accelerated ageing and are used as models for human ageing, of which Werner syndrome (WS is one of the most widely studied. WS fibroblasts show accelerated senescence that may result from p38 MAP kinase activation since it is prevented by the p38 inhibitor SB203580. Thus, small molecule inhibition of p38-signalling may be a therapeutic strategy for WS. To develop this approach issues such as the in vivo toxicity and kinase selectivity of existing p38 inhibitors need to be addressed, so as to strengthen the evidence that p38 itself plays a critical role in mediating the effect of SB203580, and to find an inhibitor suitable for in vivo use. In this work we used a panel of different p38 inhibitors selected for: (1 having been used successfully in vivo in either animal models or human clinical trials; (2 different modes of binding to p38; and (3 different off-target kinase specificity profiles, in order to critically address the role of p38 in the premature senescence seen in WS cells. Our findings confirmed the involvement of p38 in accelerated cell senescence and identified p38 inhibitors suitable for in vivo use in WS, with BIRB 796 the most effective.

  4. Accelerated aging of GaAs concentrator solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, P.E.

    1982-04-01

    An accelerated aging study of AlGaAs/GaAs solar cells has been completed. The purpose of the study was to identify the possible degradation mechanisms of AlGaAs/GaAs solar cells in terrestrial applications. Thermal storage tests and accelerated AlGaAs corrosion studies were performed to provide an experimental basis for a statistical analysis of the estimated lifetime. Results of this study suggest that a properly designed and fabricated AlGaAs/GaAs solar cell can be mechanically rugged and environmentally stable with projected lifetimes exceeding 100 years.

  5. Circadian disruption induced by light-at-night accelerates aging and promotes tumorigenesis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Irina A.; Anisimov, Vladimir N.; Bukalev, Andrey V.; Semenchenko, Anna V.; Zabezhinski, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of various light/dark regimens on the survival, life span and tumorigenesis in rats. Two hundred eight male and 203 females LIO rats were subdivided into 4 groups and kept at various light/dark regimens: standard 12:12 light/dark (LD); natural lighting of the North-West of Russia (NL); constant light (LL), and constant darkness (DD) since the age of 25 days until natural death. We found that exposure to NL and LL regimens accelerated development of metabolic syndrome and spontaneous tumorigenesis, shortened life span both in male and females rats as compared to the standard LD regimen. We conclude that circadian disruption induced by light-at-night accelerates aging and promotes tumorigenesis in rats. This observation supports the conclusion of the International Agency Research on Cancer that shift-work that involves circadian disruption is probably carcinogenic to humans. PMID:20157558

  6. Gene expression and DNA repair in progeroid syndromes and human aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyng, Kasper J; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2005-11-01

    Human progeroid syndromes are caused by mutations in single genes accelerating some but not all features of normal aging. Most progeroid disorders are linked to defects in genome maintenance, and while it remains unknown if similar processes underlie normal and premature aging, they provide useful models for the study of aging. Altered transcription is speculated to play a causative role in aging, and is involved in the pathology of most if not all progeroid syndromes. Previous studies demonstrate that there is a similar pattern of gene expression changes in primary cells from old and Werner syndrome compared to young suggesting a presence of common cellular aging mechanisms in old and progeria. Here we review the role of transcription in progeroid syndromes and discuss the implications of similar transcription aberrations in normal and premature aging.

  7. Accelerated aging of AP/HTPB propellants and the influence of various environmental aging conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizers, H.L.J.

    1995-01-01

    Preliminary resuits on accelerated aging of lab-scale produced AP/HTPB propellant and propellants from dissectioned rocket motors are discussed, including aging logic, storage conditions, test techniques and resuits on mechanical, ballistic and safety testing. The mam aging effect observed was harde

  8. Accelerated aging of AP/HTPB propellants and the influence of various environmental aging conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizers, H.L.J.

    1995-01-01

    Preliminary resuits on accelerated aging of lab-scale produced AP/HTPB propellant and propellants from dissectioned rocket motors are discussed, including aging logic, storage conditions, test techniques and resuits on mechanical, ballistic and safety testing. The mam aging effect observed was

  9. Cognitive deterioration in adult epilepsy: Does accelerated cognitive ageing exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, L E M; Boon, P; Bergmans, J W M; Mess, W H; Besseling, R M H; de Louw, A; Tijhuis, A G; Zinger, S; Bernas, A; Klooster, D C W; Aldenkamp, A P

    2016-05-01

    A long-standing concern has been whether epilepsy contributes to cognitive decline or so-called 'epileptic dementia'. Although global cognitive decline is generally reported in the context of chronic refractory epilepsy, it is largely unknown what percentage of patients is at risk for decline. This review is focused on the identification of risk factors and characterization of aberrant cognitive trajectories in epilepsy. Evidence is found that the cognitive trajectory of patients with epilepsy over time differs from processes of cognitive ageing in healthy people, especially in adulthood-onset epilepsy. Cognitive deterioration in these patients seems to develop in a 'second hit model' and occurs when epilepsy hits on a brain that is already vulnerable or vice versa when comorbid problems develop in a person with epilepsy. Processes of ageing may be accelerated due to loss of brain plasticity and cognitive reserve capacity for which we coin the term 'accelerated cognitive ageing'. We believe that the concept of accelerated cognitive ageing can be helpful in providing a framework understanding global cognitive deterioration in epilepsy.

  10. Accelerated aging and stabilization of radiation-vulcanized EPDM rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basfar, A. A.; Abdel-Aziz, M. M.; Mofti, S.

    2000-03-01

    The effect of different antioxidants and their mixtures on the thermal aging and accelerated weathering of γ-radiation vulcanized EPDM rubber in presence of crosslinking coagent, was investigated. The compounds used were either a synergistic blend of phenolic and phosphite antioxidants, i.e. 1:4 Irganox 1076: Irgafos 168 or a blend of arylamine and quinoline type antioxidants, i.e. 1:1 IPPD: TMQ, at fixed concentration. Tinuvin 622 LD hindered amine light stabilized (HALS) was also used. The response was evaluated by the tensile strength and elongation at break for irradiated samples after thermal aging at 100°C for 28 days and accelerated weathering (Xenon test) up to 200 h.

  11. Accelerated Gray and White Matter Deterioration With Age in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropley, Vanessa L; Klauser, Paul; Lenroot, Rhoshel K; Bruggemann, Jason; Sundram, Suresh; Bousman, Chad; Pereira, Avril; Di Biase, Maria A; Weickert, Thomas W; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon; Pantelis, Christos; Zalesky, Andrew

    2017-03-01

    Although brain changes in schizophrenia have been proposed to mirror those found with advancing age, the trajectory of gray matter and white matter changes during the disease course remains unclear. The authors sought to measure whether these changes in individuals with schizophrenia remain stable, are accelerated, or are diminished with age. Gray matter volume and fractional anisotropy were mapped in 326 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and in 197 healthy comparison subjects aged 20-65 years. Polynomial regression was used to model the influence of age on gray matter volume and fractional anisotropy at a whole-brain and voxel level. Between-group differences in gray matter volume and fractional anisotropy were regionally localized across the lifespan using permutation testing and cluster-based inference. Significant loss of gray matter volume was evident in schizophrenia, progressively worsening with age to a maximal loss of 8% in the seventh decade of life. The inferred rate of gray matter volume loss was significantly accelerated in schizophrenia up to middle age and plateaued thereafter. In contrast, significant reductions in fractional anisotropy emerged in schizophrenia only after age 35, and the rate of fractional anisotropy deterioration with age was constant and best modeled with a straight line. The slope of this line was 60% steeper in schizophrenia relative to comparison subjects, indicating a significantly faster rate of white matter deterioration with age. The rates of reduction of gray matter volume and fractional anisotropy were significantly faster in males than in females, but an interaction between sex and diagnosis was not evident. The findings suggest that schizophrenia is characterized by an initial, rapid rate of gray matter loss that slows in middle life, followed by the emergence of a deficit in white matter that progressively worsens with age at a constant rate.

  12. ACCELERATED AGING AND ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY TESTS IN CRAMBE SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Joice Pereira Lima

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to adapt the methodology of the accelerated aging and electrical conductivity tests for determination of physiological potential in crambe seeds. Six seed lots of crambe (cv. FMS Brilhante were subjected to determination of moisture content, germination test, first count germination, emergence, and emergence speed index. For the accelerated aging test, the traditional methodology was used with water, and with a saturated potassium chloride and sodium chloride solution in three periods of exposure (24, 48, and 72 hours at 41°C; the electrical conductivity test was performed with four pre-soaking treatments (0, 2, 4, and 8 hours and four soaking periods (4, 8, 16, and 24 hours at 25°C. The accelerated aging test with water for 72 hours and the electrical conductivity test with 2 hours of pre-soaking and assessment after 16 hours were effective for classification of the crambe seed lots in regard to physiological quality.

  13. Accelerated features of age-related bone loss in zmpste24 metalloproteinase-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Daniel; Li, Wei; Akter, Rahima; Henderson, Janet E; Duque, Gustavo

    2009-10-01

    Age-related bone loss is associated with changes in bone cellularity, which include marrow fat infiltration and decreasing levels of osteoblastogenesis. The mechanisms that explain these changes remain unclear. Although nuclear lamina alterations occur in premature aging syndromes that include changes in body fat and severe osteoporosis, the role of proteins of the nuclear lamina in age-related bone loss remains unknown. Using the Zmpste24-null progeroid mice (Zmpste24(-/-)), which exhibit nuclear lamina defects and accumulate unprocessed prelamin A, we identified several alterations in bone cellularity in vivo. We found that defective prelamin A processing induced accelerated features of age-related bone loss including lower osteoblast and osteocyte numbers and higher levels of marrow adipogenesis. In summary, processing of prelamin A could become a new approach to regulate osteoblastogenesis and bone turnover and thus for the prevention and treatment of senile osteoporosis.

  14. Can we delay the accelerated lung aging in COPD? Anti-aging molecules and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Andriana I; Rossios, Christos; Kostikas, Konstantinos; Ito, Kazuhiro

    2013-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been recently characterized as a disease of accelerated lung aging. The prevalence of COPD is age-dependent suggesting an intimate relationship between the pathogenesis of COPD and aging. Lung function decline, the hallmark feature of COPD evolution, is more prominent with increasing age and this decline is greater in smoking individuals. One of the major goals of COPD pharmacotherapy is the development of drugs that would be able to result in a decrease of the decline in lung function over years. However, till nowadays smoking cessation is the only known intervention which is able to decelerate lung function decline. Several mechanisms of aging, including oxidative stress, inflammation and telomere shortening have been shown to be implicated in COPD. Furthermore, numerous anti-aging molecules, including sirtuins and Nrf-2 are reduced, and pathways such as mTOR and genes such as Klotho have also been shown to be abnormal in the lungs of COPD patients. The above mechanisms have been associated with the accelerated lung aging in COPD patients. Numerous therapeutic interventions have been studied in an attempt to reverse accelerated lung aging, and some of them have already been tested in clinical trials. The aim of the present review is to summarize the mechanisms associated with the accelerated lung aging in COPD and to provide information about the possible therapeutic implications targeting those mechanisms.

  15. Electrochemical migration technique to accelerate ageing of cementitious materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Z.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Durability assessment of concrete structures for constructions in nuclear waste repositories requires long term service life predictions. As deposition of low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW takes up to 100 000 years, it is necessary to analyze the service life of cementitious materials in this time perspective. Using acceleration methods producing aged specimens would decrease the need of extrapolating short term data sets. Laboratory methods are therefore, needed for accelerating the ageing process without making any influencing distortion in the properties of the materials. This paper presents an electro-chemical migration method to increase the rate of calcium leaching from cementitious specimens. This method is developed based on the fact that major long term deterioration process of hardened cement paste in concrete structures for deposition of LILW is due to slow diffusion of calcium ions. In this method the cementitious specimen is placed in an electrochemical cell as a porous path way through which ions can migrate at a rate far higher than diffusion process. The electrical field is applied to the cell in a way to accelerate the ion migration without making destructions in the specimen’s micro and macroscopic properties. The anolyte and catholyte solutions are designed favoring dissolution of calcium hydroxide and compensating for the leached calcium ions with another ion like lithium.

  16. Electrochemical migration technique to accelerate ageing of cementitious materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaahmadi, A.; Tang, L.; Abbas, Z.

    2013-07-01

    Durability assessment of concrete structures for constructions in nuclear waste repositories requires long term service life predictions. As deposition of low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) takes up to 100 000 years, it is necessary to analyze the service life of cementitious materials in this time perspective. Using acceleration methods producing aged specimens would decrease the need of extrapolating short term data sets. Laboratory methods are therefore, needed for accelerating the ageing process without making any influencing distortion in the properties of the materials. This paper presents an electro-chemical migration method to increase the rate of calcium leaching from cementitious specimens. This method is developed based on the fact that major long term deterioration process of hardened cement paste in concrete structures for deposition of LILW is due to slow diffusion of calcium ions. In this method the cementitious specimen is placed in an electrochemical cell as a porous path way through which ions can migrate at a rate far higher than diffusion process. The electrical field is applied to the cell in a way to accelerate the ion migration without making destructions in the specimen's micro and macroscopic properties. The anolyte and catholyte solutions are designed favoring dissolution of calcium hydroxide and compensating for the leached calcium ions with another ion like lithium.

  17. Cerebrolysin Accelerates Metamorphosis and Attenuates Aging-Accelerating Effect of High Temperature in Drosophila Melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrotskaya, V; Oxenkrug, G; Vorobyova, L; Sharma, H; Muresanu, D; Summergrad, P

    2014-10-01

    Cerebrolysin® (CBL) is a neuroprotective drug used for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. CBL's mechanisms of action remain unclear. Involvement of tryptophan (TRP)-kynurenine (KYN) pathway in neuroprotective effect of CBL might be suggested considering that modulation of KYN pathway of TRP metabolism by CBL, and protection against eclosion defect and prolongation of life span of Drosophila melanogaster with pharmacologically or genetically-induced down-regulation of TRP conversion into KYN. To investigate possible involvement of TRP-KYN pathway in mechanisms of neuroprotective effect of CBL, we evaluated CBL effects on metamorphosis and life span of Drosophila melanogaster maintained at 23 °C and 28 °C ambient temperature. CBL accelerated metamorphosis, exerted strong tendency (p = 0.04) to prolong life span in female but not in male flies, and attenuated aging-accelerating effect of high (28 °C) ambient temperature in both female and male flies. Further research of CBL effects on metamorphosis and resistance to aging-accelerating effect of high temperature might offer new insights in mechanisms of its neuroprotective action and expand its clinical applications.

  18. Accelerated Aging Experiments for Capacitor Health Monitoring and Prognostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Chetan S.; Celaya, Jose Ramon; Biswas, Gautam; Goebel, Kai

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses experimental setups for health monitoring and prognostics of electrolytic capacitors under nominal operation and accelerated aging conditions. Electrolytic capacitors have higher failure rates than other components in electronic systems like power drives, power converters etc. Our current work focuses on developing first-principles-based degradation models for electrolytic capacitors under varying electrical and thermal stress conditions. Prognostics and health management for electronic systems aims to predict the onset of faults, study causes for system degradation, and accurately compute remaining useful life. Accelerated life test methods are often used in prognostics research as a way to model multiple causes and assess the effects of the degradation process through time. It also allows for the identification and study of different failure mechanisms and their relationships under different operating conditions. Experiments are designed for aging of the capacitors such that the degradation pattern induced by the aging can be monitored and analyzed. Experimental setups and data collection methods are presented to demonstrate this approach.

  19. MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN THE HIPPOCAMPUS OF RATS IN ACCELERATED AGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yu. Maksimova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the analysis of structural changes with age in the hippocampus of senescenceaccelerated OXYS rats when signs of accelerated brain aging are missing (age 14 days, developments (age 5 months, and active progresses (age 15 months. The study was performed on 15 OXYS rats and 15 Wistar rats (as a control. After dislocation, brains were dissected, fixed with 10% formalin, embedded in paraffin, and serially cut in coronal sections (5μm thickness. These sections were stained with Cresyl violet and examined with a photomicroscope (Carl Zeiss Axiostar plus, Germany. The total number of hippocampal pyramidal cells in the CA1, CA3 and the dentate gyrus regions were estimated in 14-dayold, 5and 15-month-old OXYS and Wistar rats (n = 5 on the 5 slices of each brain sections. The number of neurons with chromatolysis, hyperchromatic with darkly stained cytoplasm and shrunken neurons were calculated as degenerative neurons. The pictures obtained with the program Carl Zeiss Axio Vision 8.0 with increasing 10  100, determined the average area bodies and nuclei of neurons (mkm2. The significant structural changes of neurons in the CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus regions of the hippocampus in OXYS rats at 5 month of age are revealed by light microscopy. This results indicates the early develop neurodegeneration in OXYS rats. The most pronounced morphological changes occur in the CA1 region of the hippocampus of OXYS rats and irreversible. The degenerative changes of neurons in the hippocampus increases by the age of 15 months. Morphometric analysis of the average area of bodies and the nuclei of hippocampal neurons in CA1, CA3 and the dentate gyrus regions of OXYS and Wistar rats at 14 days of age showed no significant interline differences. At 5 months of age in the CA1 region of the hippocampus of OXYS rats was determined a significantly lower average body size and nuclei of pyramidal neurons compared with Wistar rats. With age, these

  20. Model of human aging: Recent findings on Werner’s and Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shian-ling Ding

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Shian-ling Ding1, Chen-Yang Shen2,3,41Department of Nursing, Kang-Ning Junior College of Medical Care and Management, Taipei, Taiwan; 2Institute of Biomedical Sciences, and 3Life Science Library, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan; 4Graduate Institute of Environmental Science, China Medical University, Taichong, TaiwanAbstract: The molecular mechanisms involved in human aging are complicated. Two progeria syndromes, Werner’s syndrome (WS and Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS, characterized by clinical features mimicking physiological aging at an early age, provide insights into the mechanisms of natural aging. Based on recent findings on WS and HGPS, we suggest a model of human aging. Human aging can be triggered by two main mechanisms, telomere shortening and DNA damage. In telomere-dependent aging, telomere shortening and dysfunction may lead to DNA damage responses which induce cellular senescence. In DNA damage-initiated aging, DNA damage accumulates, along with DNA repair deficiencies, resulting in genomic instability and accelerated cellular senescence. In addition, aging due to both mechanisms (DNA damage and telomere shortening is strongly dependent on p53 status. These two mechanisms can also act cooperatively to increase the overall level of genomic instability, triggering the onset of human aging phenotypes.Keywords: human aging, Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria syndrome, Werner syndrome

  1. Repair mortars based on lime. Accelerated aging tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Ramírez, S.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour under different accelerated aging tests (freeze/thaw and crystallization cycles of a new lime mortar with biocide properties destinated to monumental repair has been studied. New mortars (which have the biocide impregnated in a clay called sepiolite have a similar behaviour to lime mortars used as a reference. After the aging tests, the biocide properties of the mortars have been tried.

    Se ha estudiado el comportamiento frente a distintos ensayos de envejecimiento acelerado (ciclos de hielo/deshielo y cristalización de sales de un nuevo mortero de cal con propiedades biocidas, destinado a la reparación monumental. Se ha comprobado que los nuevos morteros (que llevan incorporado el biocida impregnado en una arcilla denominada sepiolita tienen un comportamiento muy similar a los morteros de cal utilizados como referencia. Tras los ensayos de envejecimiento se ha visto que las propiedades biocidas de los morteros se mantienen.

  2. Acrylamide induces accelerated endothelial aging in a human cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellier, Cyril; Boulanger, Eric; Maladry, François; Tessier, Frédéric J; Lorenzi, Rodrigo; Nevière, Rémi; Desreumaux, Pierre; Beuscart, Jean-Baptiste; Puisieux, François; Grossin, Nicolas

    2015-09-01

    Acrylamide (AAM) has been recently discovered in food as a Maillard reaction product. AAM and glycidamide (GA), its metabolite, have been described as probably carcinogenic to humans. It is widely established that senescence and carcinogenicity are closely related. In vitro, endothelial aging is characterized by replicative senescence in which primary cells in culture lose their ability to divide. Our objective was to assess the effects of AAM and GA on human endothelial cell senescence. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) cultured in vitro were used as model. HUVECs were cultured over 3 months with AAM or GA (1, 10 or 100 μM) until growth arrest. To analyze senescence, β-galactosidase activity and telomere length of HUVECs were measured by cytometry and semi-quantitative PCR, respectively. At all tested concentrations, AAM or GA reduced cell population doubling compared to the control condition (p < 0.001). β-galactosidase activity in endothelial cells was increased when exposed to AAM (≥10 μM) or GA (≥1 μM) (p < 0.05). AAM (≥10 μM) or GA (100 μM) accelerated telomere shortening in HUVECs (p < 0.05). In conclusion, in vitro chronic exposure to AAM or GA at low concentrations induces accelerated senescence. This result suggests that an exposure to AAM might contribute to endothelial aging.

  3. Parasite infection accelerates age polyethism in young honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecocq, Antoine; Jensen, Annette Bruun; Kryger, Per; Nieh, James C

    2016-02-25

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are important pollinators and their health is threatened worldwide by persistent exposure to a wide range of factors including pesticides, poor nutrition, and pathogens. Nosema ceranae is a ubiquitous microsporidian associated with high colony mortality. We used lab micro-colonies of honey bees and video analyses to track the effects of N. ceranae infection and exposure on a range of individual and social behaviours in young adult bees. We provide detailed data showing that N. ceranae infection significantly accelerated the age polyethism of young bees, causing them to exhibit behaviours typical of older bees. Bees with high N. ceranae spore counts had significantly increased walking rates and decreased attraction to queen mandibular pheromone. Infected bees also exhibited higher rates of trophallaxis (food exchange), potentially reflecting parasite manipulation to increase colony infection. However, reduction in queen contacts could help bees limit the spread of infection. Such accelerated age polyethism may provide a form of behavioural immunity, particularly if it is elicited by a wide variety of pathogens.

  4. Mechanisms of premature vascular aging in children with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard-Herman, Marie; Smoot, Leslie B; Wake, Nicole; Kieran, Mark W; Kleinman, Monica E; Miller, David T; Schwartzman, Armin; Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Neuberg, Donna; Gordon, Leslie B

    2012-01-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome is a rare, segmental premature aging syndrome of accelerated atherosclerosis and early death from myocardial infarction or stroke. This study sought to establish comprehensive characterization of the fatal vasculopathy in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome and its relevance to normal aging. We performed cardiovascular assessments at a single clinical site on the largest prospectively studied cohort to date. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was dramatically elevated (mean: 13.00±3.83 m/s). Carotid duplex ultrasound echobrightness, assessed in predefined tissue sites as a measure of arterial wall density, was significantly greater than age- and sex-matched controls in the intima-media (Pnormalizing trends of these noninvasive cardiovascular measures. The data demonstrate that, along with peripheral vascular occlusive disease, accelerated vascular stiffening is an early and pervasive mechanism of vascular disease in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. There is considerable overlap with cardiovascular changes of normal aging, which reinforces the view that defining mechanisms of cardiovascular disease in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome provides a unique opportunity to isolate a subset of factors influencing cardiovascular disease in the general aging population.

  5. Ultraweak chemiluminescence of rice seeds during accelerated aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenli; Xing, Da; He, Yonghong

    2002-04-01

    Ultraweak Chemiluminescence (UCL) studies of different aging degree of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds stored in a high temperature 40 degree(s)C and high relative humidity 90% environment (0 day, 8 days, 15 days, and 22 days) were carried out. We firstly observed that aging degree of rice seeds was positive correlation with ultraweak chemiluminescence during the early imbibition (0-1h). Addition of water to rice seeds stimulates ultraweak chemiluminescence, the intensity of which depends upon aging degree of seeds. The shorter the seed accelerated aging time was, the higher the intensity of the UCL in the early imbibition period, the lower hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration of rice seeds, the higher percentage seed germination. The germination and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of dry rice seeds was obvious positive correlation with the intensity of UCL. While catalase (CAT) activity of rice seeds was determined. Mechanism of ultraweak chemiluminescence was discussed. It was concluded that the store time of rice seeds could be judged from their UCL characters during the early imbibition period, which might be a way to examine vigor of seeds.

  6. Desloratadine analysis: as a pharmaceutical preparation and after accelerating ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bober Katarzyna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Desloratadine is a biologically active compound that is not described in the Polish Pharmacopoeia IX, hence, its study is particular important. The aim of this work was to establish a procedure for desloratadine analysis by way of HPTLC in combination with densitometry, so as to be able to ascertain its presence and degree of presence within pharmaceutical preparations. In our work, a mixture of ethyl acetate, n-butanol, ammonia and methanol was used as the mobile phase. Moreover, HPTLC plates precoated with silica gel 60F254 were also employed. The proposed method was tested and subsequently validated. Spectrodensitometric analysis was then performed to determine the optimal wavelength for the quantitative determination (λ=276 nm, and following this, a quantitative analysis of desloratadine within certain pharmaceutical preparations was performed. Our research also took into consideration an analysis of the products of desloratadine decomposition that come about as a result of the accelerated aging of its solutions. The employed procedure for accelerating the aging of such desloratadine solutions consisted of heating these at 40℃ and then irradiating the solution surfaces with UV light. The changing color of these solutions after 2 hours of exposure served to indicate that degradation had occurred. Of note: as a result of irradiation with UV light, desloratadine content was seen to decrease with time, declining to almost zero after 30 hours. However, heating a solution of desloratadine alone did not induce a change in its content. Solutions of desloratadine that had previously undergone irradiation and heating were also analyzed to ascertain whether new substances were present. For this purpose, the GC-MS process was employed. As a result of this procedure, the spectrum of the solution after aging showed the presence of several new peaks that displayed retention several times larger and smaller than the normal desloratadine peak.

  7. Accelerated Aging of Intervertebral Discs in a Mouse Model of Progeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Nam; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon; Robinson, Andria; Sowa, Gwendolyn; Bentley, Douglas; Taylor, Lauren; Studer, Rebecca; Usas, Arvydas; Huard, Johnny; Alber, Sean; Watkins, Simon C.; Lee, Joon; Coehlo, Paulo; Wang, Dong; Loppini, Mattia; Robbins, Paul D.; Niedernhofer, Laura J.; Kang, James

    2012-01-01

    Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is a common and debilitating disorder that results in reduced flexibility of the spine, pain, and reduced mobility. Risk factors for IDD include age, genetic predisposition, injury, and other environmental factors such as smoking. Loss of proteoglycans (PGs) contributes to IDD with advancing age. Currently there is a lack of a model for rapid investigation of disc aging and evaluation of therapeutic interventions. Here we examined progression of disc aging in a murine model of a human progeroid syndrome caused by deficiency of the DNA repair endonuclease, ERCC1–XPF (Ercc1−/Δ mice). The ERCC1-deficient mice showed loss of disc height and degenerative structural changes in their vertebral bodies similar to those reported for old rodents. Compared to their wild-type littermates, Ercc1−/Δ mice also exhibit other age-related IDD characteristics, including premature loss of disc PG, reduced matrix PG synthesis, and enhanced apoptosis and cell senescence. Finally, the onset of age-associated disc pathologies was further accelerated in Ercc1−/Δ mice following chronic treatment with the chemotherapeutic agent mechlorethamine. These results demonstrate that Ercc1−/Δ mice represent an accurate and rapid model of disc aging and provide novel evidence that DNA damage negatively impacts PG synthesis. PMID:20973062

  8. Aging of organic materials around high-energy particle accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavlet, Marc

    1997-08-01

    Around particle accelerators used for fundamental research on the basic structure of matter, materials and components are exposed to ionizing radiation caused by beam losses in the proton machines and by synchrotron radiation in the lepton machines. Furthermore, with the high-energy and high-intensity collisions produced from future colliders, radiation damage is also to be expected in particle-physics detectors. Therefore, for a safe and reliable operation, the radiation aging of most of the components has to be assessed prior to their selection. An extensive radiation-damage test program has been carried out at CERN for decades on a routine basis and many results have been published. The tests have mainly concentrated on magnet-coil insulations and cable-insulating materials; they are carried out in accordance with the IEC 544 standard which defines the mechanical tests to be performed and the methods of degradation evaluation. The mechanical tests are also used to assess the degradation of composite structural materials. Moreover, electrical properties of high-voltage insulations and optical properties of organic scintillators and wave guides have also been studied. Our long-term experience has pointed out many parameters to be taken into account for the estimate of the lifetime of components in the radiation environment of our accelerators. One of the main parameters is the dose-rate effect, but the influence of other parameters has sometimes to be taken into account.

  9. Accelerated renal disease is associated with the development of metabolic syndrome in a glucolipotoxic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Cristina; Izquierdo, Adriana; Velagapudi, Vidya; Vivas, Yurena; Velasco, Ismael; Campbell, Mark; Burling, Keith; Cava, Fernando; Ros, Manuel; Oresic, Matej; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Medina-Gomez, Gema

    2012-09-01

    Individuals with metabolic syndrome are at high risk of developing chronic kidney disease (CKD) through unclear pathogenic mechanisms. Obesity and diabetes are known to induce glucolipotoxic effects in metabolically relevant organs. However, the pathogenic role of glucolipotoxicity in the aetiology of diabetic nephropathy is debated. We generated a murine model, the POKO mouse, obtained by crossing the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 (PPARγ2) knockout (KO) mouse into a genetically obese ob/ob background. We have previously shown that the POKO mice showed: hyperphagia, insulin resistance, hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia as early as 4 weeks of age, and developed a complete loss of normal β-cell function by 16 weeks of age. Metabolic phenotyping of the POKO model has led to investigation of the structural and functional changes in the kidney and changes in blood pressure in these mice. Here we demonstrate that the POKO mouse is a model of renal disease that is accelerated by high levels of glucose and lipid accumulation. Similar to ob/ob mice, at 4 weeks of age these animals exhibited an increased urinary albumin:creatinine ratio and significantly increased blood pressure, but in contrast showed a significant increase in the renal hypertrophy index and an associated increase in p27(Kip1) expression compared with their obese littermates. Moreover, at 4 weeks of age POKO mice showed insulin resistance, an alteration of lipid metabolism and glomeruli damage associated with increased transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) expression. At this age, levels of proinflammatory molecules, such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and fibrotic factors were also increased at the glomerular level compared with levels in ob/ob mice. At 12 weeks of age, renal damage was fully established. These data suggest an accelerated lesion through glucolipotoxic effects in the renal pathogenesis in POKO mice.

  10. Accelerated renal disease is associated with the development of metabolic syndrome in a glucolipotoxic mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Martínez-García

    2012-09-01

    Individuals with metabolic syndrome are at high risk of developing chronic kidney disease (CKD through unclear pathogenic mechanisms. Obesity and diabetes are known to induce glucolipotoxic effects in metabolically relevant organs. However, the pathogenic role of glucolipotoxicity in the aetiology of diabetic nephropathy is debated. We generated a murine model, the POKO mouse, obtained by crossing the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 (PPARγ2 knockout (KO mouse into a genetically obese ob/ob background. We have previously shown that the POKO mice showed: hyperphagia, insulin resistance, hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia as early as 4 weeks of age, and developed a complete loss of normal β-cell function by 16 weeks of age. Metabolic phenotyping of the POKO model has led to investigation of the structural and functional changes in the kidney and changes in blood pressure in these mice. Here we demonstrate that the POKO mouse is a model of renal disease that is accelerated by high levels of glucose and lipid accumulation. Similar to ob/ob mice, at 4 weeks of age these animals exhibited an increased urinary albumin:creatinine ratio and significantly increased blood pressure, but in contrast showed a significant increase in the renal hypertrophy index and an associated increase in p27Kip1 expression compared with their obese littermates. Moreover, at 4 weeks of age POKO mice showed insulin resistance, an alteration of lipid metabolism and glomeruli damage associated with increased transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP expression. At this age, levels of proinflammatory molecules, such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, and fibrotic factors were also increased at the glomerular level compared with levels in ob/ob mice. At 12 weeks of age, renal damage was fully established. These data suggest an accelerated lesion through glucolipotoxic effects in the renal pathogenesis in POKO mice.

  11. Acceleration of ventricular rate by fibrillation associated with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinman, B D; Evans, T

    1982-10-09

    Amiodarone has proved to be a valuable drug in atrial fibrillation associated with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. When it was administered to a patient with this syndrome in atrial fibrillation, who had previously suffered an inferior myocardial infarction, the ventricular rate accelerated from 170 to 230 beats/minute.This unusual case emphasises the need for full electrophysiological assessment of patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome for whom amiodarone treatment is being considered.

  12. Parasite infection accelerates age polyethism in young honey bees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lecocq, Antoine; Jensen, Annette Bruun; Kryger, Per

    2016-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are important pollinators and their health is threatened worldwide by persistent exposure to a wide range of factors including pesticides, poor nutrition, and pathogens. Nosema ceranae is a ubiquitous microsporidian associated with high colony mortality. We used lab...... micro-colonies of honey bees and video analyses to track the effects of N. ceranae infection and exposure on a range of individual and social behaviours in young adult bees. We provide detailed data showing that N. ceranae infection significantly accelerated the age polyethism of young bees, causing...... them to exhibit behaviours typical of older bees. Bees with high N. ceranae spore counts had significantly increased walking rates and decreased attraction to queen mandibular pheromone. Infected bees also exhibited higher rates of trophallaxis (food exchange), potentially reflecting parasite...

  13. ACCELERATED AGEING EFFECTS ON CURCUBITEA PEPO SEED OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mampouya A. H. W. Nakavoua

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated ageing of curcubitea pepo seed oil was followed by simulation of UV (light and ambiant oxygen actions held separately then simultaneously in order to know the effects of these parameters on this oil resistance to deterioraton. Nine withdrawals had undergone analyses by titrimetry supported by spectroscopic analyses notably MIR (Medium Infrared, DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry and also a gas chromatography for the composition in FA. This study has showed that pumpkin seed oil displays a weak resistance to UV which results among other in a decrease of unsaponifiable compounds. Its oxidization takes place very quickly in the presence of ambiant oxygen. However the accumulated action of the two factors weakens to the highest degree pumpkin seed oil and this results in polymerization. It has also enabled us to show the link between the formation of recticulations in the oil matrix and variations at the level of the molecular structure of pumpkin seed oil.

  14. Accelerated Aging System for Prognostics of Power Semiconductor Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celaya, Jose R.; Vashchenko, Vladislav; Wysocki, Philip; Saha, Sankalita

    2010-01-01

    Prognostics is an engineering discipline that focuses on estimation of the health state of a component and the prediction of its remaining useful life (RUL) before failure. Health state estimation is based on actual conditions and it is fundamental for the prediction of RUL under anticipated future usage. Failure of electronic devices is of great concern as future aircraft will see an increase of electronics to drive and control safety-critical equipment throughout the aircraft. Therefore, development of prognostics solutions for electronics is of key importance. This paper presents an accelerated aging system for gate-controlled power transistors. This system allows for the understanding of the effects of failure mechanisms, and the identification of leading indicators of failure which are essential in the development of physics-based degradation models and RUL prediction. In particular, this system isolates electrical overstress from thermal overstress. Also, this system allows for a precise control of internal temperatures, enabling the exploration of intrinsic failure mechanisms not related to the device packaging. By controlling the temperature within safe operation levels of the device, accelerated aging is induced by electrical overstress only, avoiding the generation of thermal cycles. The temperature is controlled by active thermal-electric units. Several electrical and thermal signals are measured in-situ and recorded for further analysis in the identification of leading indicators of failures. This system, therefore, provides a unique capability in the exploration of different failure mechanisms and the identification of precursors of failure that can be used to provide a health management solution for electronic devices.

  15. Statistical analysis of data from accelerated ageing tests of PES UF membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zondervan, Edwin; Zwijnenburg, Arie; Roffel, Brian

    2007-01-01

    In this research, membrane life-time was evaluated by means of accelerated ageing experiments. A pressure pulse unit was used to perform the ageing experiments in an accelerated way. An experimental design has been set up and four ageing factors were varied at two levels. The four ageing factors stu

  16. Statistical analysis of data from accelerated ageing tests of PES UF membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zondervan, E.; Zwijnenburg, A.; Roffel, B.

    2007-01-01

    In this research, membrane life-time was evaluated by means of accelerated ageing experiments. A pressure pulse unit was used to perform the ageing experiments in an accelerated way. An experimental design has been set up and four ageing factors were varied at two levels. The four ageing factors

  17. Acute coronary syndromes: an old age problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexander D Simms; Philip D Batin; John Kurian; Nigel Durham; Christopher P Gale

    2012-01-01

    The increasing population in older age will lead to greater numbers of them presenting with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). This has implications on global healthcare resources and necessitates better management and selection for evidenced-based therapies. The elderly are a high risk group with more significant treatment benefits than younger ACS. Nevertheless, age related inequalities in ACS care are recognised and persist. This discrepancy in care, to some extent, is explained by the higher frequency of atypical and delayed presentations in the elderly, and less diagnostic electrocardiograms at presentation, potentiating a delay in ACS diagnosis. Under estimation of mortality risk in the elderly due to limited consideration for physiological frailty, co-morbidity, cognitive/psychological impairment and physical disability, less input by cardiology specialists and lack of randomised, controlled trials data to guide management in the elderly may further confound the inequality of care. While these inequalities exist, there remains a substantial opportunity to improve age related ACS outcomes. The selection of elderly patients for specific therapies and medication regimens are unanswered. There is a growing need for randomised, controlled trial data to be more representative of the population and enroll those of advanced age with co-morbidity. A lack of reporting of adverse events, such as renal impairment post coronary angiography, in the elderly further limit risk benefit decisions. Substantial improvements in care of elderly ACS patients are required and should be advocated. Ultimately, these improvements are likely to lead to better outcomes post ACS. However, the improvement in outcome is not infinite and will be limited by non-modifiable factors of age-related risk.

  18. Volatile profile of Madeira wines submitted to traditional accelerated ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Vanda; Cacho, Juan; Marques, José C

    2014-11-01

    The evolution of monovarietal fortified Madeira wines forced-aged by traditional thermal processing (estufagem) were studied in terms of volatiles. SPE extracts were analysed by GC-MS before and after heating at 45 °C for 3 months (standard) and at 70 °C for 1 month (overheating). One hundred and ninety volatile compounds were identified, 53 of which were only encountered in baked wines. Most chemical families increased after standard heating, especially furans and esters, up to 61 and 3-fold, respectively. On the contrary, alcohols, acetates and fatty acids decreased after heating. Varietal aromas, such as Malvasia's monoterpenic alcohols were not detected after baking. The accelerated ageing favoured the development of some volatiles previously reported as typical aromas of finest Madeira wines, particularly phenylacetaldeyde, β-damascenone and 5-ethoxymethylfurfural. Additionally, ethyl butyrate, ethyl 2-methylbutyrate, ethyl caproate, ethyl isovalerate, guaiacol, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and γ-decalactone were also found as potential contributors to the global aroma of baked wines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Natural History of Aging in Cornelia de Lange Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    KLINE, ANTONIE D.; GRADOS, MARCO; SPONSELLER, PAUL; LEVY, HOWARD P.; BLAGOWIDOW, NATALIE; SCHOEDEL, CHRISTIANNE; RAMPOLLA, JONI; CLEMENS, DOUGLAS K.; KRANTZ, IAN; KIMBALL, AMY; PICHARD, CARMEN; TUCHMAN, DAVID

    2016-01-01

    Observations about the natural history of aging in Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) are made, based on 49 patients from a multidisciplinary clinic for adolescents and adults. The mean age was 17 years. Although most patients remain small, obesity may develop. Gastroesophageal reflux persists or worsens, and there are early long-term sequelae, including Barrett esophagus in 10%; other gastrointestinal findings include risk for volvulus, rumination, and chronic constipation. Submucous cleft palate was found in 14%, most undetected before our evaluation. Chronic sinusitis was noted in 39%, often with nasal polyps. Blepharitis improves with age; cataracts and detached retina may occur. Decreased bone density is observed, with occasional fractures. One quarter have leg length discrepancy and 39% scoliosis. Most females have delayed or irregular menses but normal gynecologic exams and pap smears. Benign prostatic hypertrophy occurred in one male prior to 40 years. The phenotype is variable, but there is a distinct pattern of facial changes with aging. Premature gray hair is frequent; two patients had cutis verticis gyrata. Behavioral issues and specific psychiatric diagnoses, including self-injury, anxiety, attention-deficit disorder, autistic features, depression, and obsessive-compulsive behavior, often worsen with age. This work presents some evidence for accelerated aging in CdLS. Of 53% with mutation analysis, 55% demonstrate a detectable mutation in NIPBL or SMC1A. Although no specific genotype–phenotype correlations have been firmly established, individuals with missense mutations in NIPBL and SMC1A appear milder than those with other mutations. Based on these observations, recommendations for clinical management of adults with CdLS are made. PMID:17640042

  20. Effects of Accelerated Aging on Fiber Damage Thresholds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setchell, R.E.

    1999-02-15

    internal defects. Damage characteristics obtained from fibers subjected to each of these aging environments were compared to results from fresh fibers tested under identical conditions. A surprising result was that internal damage was not observed in any of the tested fibers. Only breakdown at the fiber entrance face and catastrophic damage at both end faces were observed. Fiber end faces were not sealed during the accelerated aging environments, and thresholds at these faces were significantly lower in the aged fibers. However, most fibers transmitted relatively high pulse energies before damaging, and a large fraction never damaged before we reached the limits of our test laser. The absence of any observable affect on internal damage thresholds is encouraging, but the current results do not rule out the possibility that some other approach to accelerated aging could reveal a growth mechanism for internal defects.

  1. Comparison between accelerated thermo-hydro aged wood and naturally aged wood

    OpenAIRE

    Froidevaux, Julien; Volkmer, Thomas; Gril, Joseph; Fioravanti, Marco; Navi, Parviz

    2011-01-01

    The effects of aging in wood in term of physical, mechanical and chemical degradation has been studied first by Jiro Kohara [1] and more recently by Erhardt et al. [2-3] and Obataya [4]. It has been observed that similar degradation can be found in thermo-hydro (TH) treated wood [4]. The aim of this study is to compare the mechanical behavior of naturally aged and accelerate TH wood in the radial direction. A first pressure vessel with controllable temperature, oxygen pressure and relative hu...

  2. Comparative Assessment of Stabilised Polybutadiene Binder under Accelerated Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Cannaval Sbegue

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Polybutadiene elastomers are versatile materials, being employed at several applications from rocket propellant binder to adhesives and sealants. The elastomers derived from hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene are usually stabilised with antioxidants to prevent degradation. In this study, a comparative assessment among 2,2’-methylene-bis (4-methyl-6-tert-butylphenol (AO2246, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT, p-phenylenediamine (pPDA, and triphenylphosphine (TPP regarding stabilisation of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene binder under accelerated ageing (six months at 65 °C was carried out. Evaluation of antioxidants effectiveness was examined through Oxidation Induction time, sol/gel extraction, swelling and mechanical testing, dynamic mechanical analysis, and mass variation measurement. AO2246 yielded the best performance, meanwhile BHT was poorly protective. TPP acted as prooxidant, causing a severe degradation of the binder, and pPDA was not manageable to be assessed due to the lower curing degree of the resulted polyurethane.

  3. Color stability of repaired composite submitted to accelerated artificial aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Ana Beatriz Silva; Silame, Francisca Daniele Jardilino; Alandia-Roman, Carla Cecilia; Cruvinel, Diogo Rodrigues; Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti; Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the color stability (ΔE) of nanoparticulate composite, with consideration for the type of surface treatment performed before repair. A Teflon matrix was used to fabricate 50 test specimens from composite. After initial color readout, the specimens were submitted to 100 hours of accelerated artificial aging (AAA). The samples were divided into five groups (n = 10), according to the surface treatment performed: sandblasting with aluminum oxide powder, phosphoric acid, and an adhesive system (Group 1); sandblasting with aluminum oxide powder, phosphoric acid, and a flowable composite (Group 2); abrasion with a diamond bur, phosphoric acid, and an adhesive system (Group 3); abrasion with a diamond bur, phosphoric acid, and a nanoparticulate composite (Group 4); and a control group (Group 5). After repair, a new color readout was taken, the test specimens were submitted to a new AAA cycle (300 hours), and the final color readout was taken. Comparison of the ΔE means (one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests, p 0.05) after 100 hours of AAA. After repair, Group 1 (4.61 ± 2.03) presented the highest color alteration with a statistically significant difference compared with the other groups (p color alteration in comparison with the other groups, with a statistically significant difference (p color alteration of the restorations over the course of time.

  4. Signaling pathway activation drift during aging: Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome fibroblasts are comparable to normal middle-age and old-age cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliper, Alexander M; Csoka, Antonei Benjamin; Buzdin, Anton; Jetka, Tomasz; Roumiantsev, Sergey; Moskalev, Alexy; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2015-01-01

    For the past several decades, research in understanding the molecular basis of human aging has progressed significantly with the analysis of premature aging syndromes. Progerin, an altered form of lamin A, has been identified as the cause of premature aging in Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS), and may be a contributing causative factor in normal aging. However, the question of whether HGPS actually recapitulates the normal aging process at the cellular and organismal level, or simply mimics the aging phenotype is widely debated. In the present study we analyzed publicly available microarray datasets for fibroblasts undergoing cellular aging in culture, as well as fibroblasts derived from young, middle-age, and old-age individuals, and patients with HGPS. Using GeroScope pathway analysis and drug discovery platform we analyzed the activation states of 65 major cellular signaling pathways. Our analysis reveals that signaling pathway activation states in cells derived from chronologically young patients with HGPS strongly resemble cells taken from normal middle-aged and old individuals. This clearly indicates that HGPS may truly represent accelerated aging, rather than being just a simulacrum. Our data also points to potential pathways that could be targeted to develop drugs and drug combinations for both HGPS and normal aging.

  5. Could Metabolic Syndrome, Lipodystrophy, and Aging Be Mesenchymal Stem Cell Exhaustion Syndromes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Mansilla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important and complex diseases of modern society is metabolic syndrome. This syndrome has not been completely understood, and therefore an effective treatment is not available yet. We propose a possible stem cell mechanism involved in the development of metabolic syndrome. This way of thinking lets us consider also other significant pathologies that could have similar etiopathogenic pathways, like lipodystrophic syndromes, progeria, and aging. All these clinical situations could be the consequence of a progressive and persistent stem cell exhaustion syndrome (SCES. The main outcome of this SCES would be an irreversible loss of the effective regenerative mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs pools. In this way, the normal repairing capacities of the organism could become inefficient. Our point of view could open the possibility for a new strategy of treatment in metabolic syndrome, lipodystrophic syndromes, progeria, and even aging: stem cell therapies.

  6. The influences of accelerated aging on mechanical properties of veneering ceramics used for zirconia restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Huinan; Tang, Xuehua; Dong, Zhen; Tang, Hui; Nakamura, Takashi; Yatani, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the influences of accelerated aging on the mechanical properties of veneering ceramics used for zirconia frameworks. Five different veneering ceramics for zirconia frameworks were used. Twenty specimens were fabricated for each veneering ceramic. All specimens were divided into two groups. One was subjected to accelerated aging and the other was used as a control. Accelerated aging was performed in distilled water for 5 h at 200ºC and 2 atm. The density, open porosity, surface roughness, three-point flexural strength, and Vickers hardness were measured. The results showed that the density, open porosity, and surface roughness of all examined veneering ceramics were changed by the accelerated aging process. Accelerated aging was also found to have a positive effect on strength and a negative effect on the hardness.

  7. Telomerase Protects Werner Syndrome Lineage-Specific Stem Cells from Premature Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoi-Hung Cheung

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Werner syndrome (WS patients exhibit premature aging predominantly in mesenchyme-derived tissues, but not in neural lineages, a consequence of telomere dysfunction and accelerated senescence. The cause of this lineage-specific aging remains unknown. Here, we document that reprogramming of WS fibroblasts to pluripotency elongated telomere length and prevented telomere dysfunction. To obtain mechanistic insight into the origin of tissue-specific aging, we differentiated iPSCs to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs. We observed recurrence of premature senescence associated with accelerated telomere attrition and defective synthesis of the lagging strand telomeres in MSCs, but not in NPCs. We postulate this “aging” discrepancy is regulated by telomerase. Expression of hTERT or p53 knockdown ameliorated the accelerated aging phenotypein MSC, whereas inhibition of telomerase sensitized NPCs to DNA damage. Our findings unveil a role for telomerase in the protection of accelerated aging in a specific lineage of stem cells.

  8. Down syndrome and aging: a leadership and social justice landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevel, Kathleen M

    2010-01-01

    The growing phenomenon of aging adults with Down syndrome and other intellectual and developmental disabilities and dementia can be traumatic and overwhelming for families and caregivers. The realization is beset with angst and necessitates restructuring policies and programs while exploring the leadership landscape to facilitate a values framework for persons with Down syndrome. This article considers the changing role of the caregiver and the influences of community support networks, social policy, social justice, and quality of life adaptations for aging persons with Down syndrome and dementia. Note: To maintain confidentiality, personal communications noted throughout this article identify the individual using initials rather than surname.

  9. From old organisms to new molecules: integrative biology and therapeutic targets in accelerated human ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, L S; Faragher, R G A

    2007-10-01

    Understanding the basic biology of human ageing is a key milestone in attempting to ameliorate the deleterious consequences of old age. This is an urgent research priority given the global demographic shift towards an ageing population. Although some molecular pathways that have been proposed to contribute to ageing have been discovered using classical biochemistry and genetics, the complex, polygenic and stochastic nature of ageing is such that the process as a whole is not immediately amenable to biochemical analysis. Thus, attempts have been made to elucidate the causes of monogenic progeroid disorders that recapitulate some, if not all, features of normal ageing in the hope that this may contribute to our understanding of normal human ageing. Two canonical progeroid disorders are Werner's syndrome and Hutchinson-Gilford progeroid syndrome (also known as progeria). Because such disorders are essentially phenocopies of ageing, rather than ageing itself, advances made in understanding their pathogenesis must always be contextualised within theories proposed to help explain how the normal process operates. One such possible ageing mechanism is described by the cell senescence hypothesis of ageing. Here, we discuss this hypothesis and demonstrate that it provides a plausible explanation for many of the ageing phenotypes seen in Werner's syndrome and Hutchinson-Gilford progeriod syndrome. The recent exciting advances made in potential therapies for these two syndromes are also reviewed.

  10. [Acute coronary syndrome in women below 60 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, A.H.E.M.; Lagro-Janssen, T.; Boer, M.J. de

    2011-01-01

    Women below 60 years of age with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have higher in-hospital and 1-year mortality rates than similarly aged men, despite the lower prevalence of obstructive coronary artery disease. When ACS occurs, gender differences in symptom presentation result in later recognition by

  11. The relationship between premature ageing and immune responses in the oral cavity of Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Tanaka

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS is the most common chromosomal disorder resulting in various abnormalities such as mental retardation, immunodeficiency and physical abnormities. Especially, abnormality of the immune function is important pathological features in this syndrome, and leads to increased susceptibility to viral or bacterial infections. Interestingly, several studies have showed that they have high susceptibility of severe periodontal disease, even though they have lower or equal prevalence of dental caries. Many studies have attempted to clarify this phenomenon but it remains unsolved. It is also well known that DS is a premature ageing syndrome. DS has been considered as a model of precocious, abnormal ageing of immune function in human. Age-related declines in immune function cause more susceptibility to infections in the elderly. In addition, it is well known that ageing is related with telomere shortening. Furthermore, DS has an accelerated telomere shortening. However, there are only a few reports that focus on the relations among ageing, telomere length and high susceptibility of oral infectious disease in individuals with DS. Therefore, we summarize our current knowledge on the relations between the oral disease and immunodeficiency in individuals with DS taking account of telomere shortening and ageing.

  12. MECHANISMS OF PREMATURE VASCULAR AGING IN CHILDREN WITH HUTCHINSON-GILFORD PROGERIA SYNDROME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard-Herman, Marie; Smoot, Leslie B.; Wake, Nicole; Kieran, Mark W.; Kleinman, Monica E.; Miller, David T.; Schwartzman, Armin; Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Neuberg, Donna; Gordon, Leslie B.

    2011-01-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare, segmental premature aging syndrome of accelerated atherosclerosis and early death from myocardial infarction or stroke. This study sought to establish comprehensive characterization of the fatal vasculopathy in HGPS and its relevance to normal aging. We performed cardiovascular assessments at a single clinical site on the largest prospectively studied cohort to date. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was dramatically elevated (mean 13.00±3.83 m/s). Carotid duplex ultrasound echobrightness, assessed in predefined tissue sites as a measure of arterial wall density, was significantly greater than age- and gender-matched controls in the intima-media (P<0.02), near adventitia (P<0.003) and deep adventitia (P<0.01), as was internal carotid artery mean flow velocity (p<0.0001). Ankle-brachial indices were abnormal in 78% of patients. Effective disease treatments may be heralded by normalizing trends of these noninvasive cardiovascular measures. The data demonstrates that, along with peripheral vascular occlusive disease, accelerated vascular stiffening is an early and pervasive mechanism of vascular disease in HGPS. There is considerable overlap with cardiovascular changes of normal aging, which reinforces the view that defining mechanisms of cardiovascular disease in HGPS provides a unique opportunity to isolate a subset of factors influencing cardiovascular disease in the general aging population. PMID:22083160

  13. Aging stem cells. A Werner syndrome stem cell model unveils heterochromatin alterations as a driver of human aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiqi; Li, Jingyi; Suzuki, Keiichiro; Qu, Jing; Wang, Ping; Zhou, Junzhi; Liu, Xiaomeng; Ren, Ruotong; Xu, Xiuling; Ocampo, Alejandro; Yuan, Tingting; Yang, Jiping; Li, Ying; Shi, Liang; Guan, Dee; Pan, Huize; Duan, Shunlei; Ding, Zhichao; Li, Mo; Yi, Fei; Bai, Ruijun; Wang, Yayu; Chen, Chang; Yang, Fuquan; Li, Xiaoyu; Wang, Zimei; Aizawa, Emi; Goebl, April; Soligalla, Rupa Devi; Reddy, Pradeep; Esteban, Concepcion Rodriguez; Tang, Fuchou; Liu, Guang-Hui; Belmonte, Juan Carlos Izpisua

    2015-06-05

    Werner syndrome (WS) is a premature aging disorder caused by WRN protein deficiency. Here, we report on the generation of a human WS model in human embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Differentiation of WRN-null ESCs to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) recapitulates features of premature cellular aging, a global loss of H3K9me3, and changes in heterochromatin architecture. We show that WRN associates with heterochromatin proteins SUV39H1 and HP1α and nuclear lamina-heterochromatin anchoring protein LAP2β. Targeted knock-in of catalytically inactive SUV39H1 in wild-type MSCs recapitulates accelerated cellular senescence, resembling WRN-deficient MSCs. Moreover, decrease in WRN and heterochromatin marks are detected in MSCs from older individuals. Our observations uncover a role for WRN in maintaining heterochromatin stability and highlight heterochromatin disorganization as a potential determinant of human aging.

  14. Towards Accelerated Aging Methodologies and Health Management of Power MOSFETs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Understanding aging mechanisms of electronic components is of extreme importance in the aerospace domain where they are part of numerous critical subsystems...

  15. Down Syndrome and the aging process: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno de Sousa Lopes; Lucy Gomes Vianna; Clayton Franco Moraes; Gustavo de Azevedo Carvalho; Vicente Paulo Alves

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to identify and update the knowledge about older people with Down Syndrome (DS), and to understand the peculiarities of the aging process in this population. Bibliographical research conducted by Portal de Periódicos da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior and High Wire portal. Inclusion criteria were articles published in the last ten years with the words “Down Syndrome" and “Elderly”.  

  16. Correlation between mechanical and chemical degradation after outdoor and accelerated laboratory aging for multilayer photovoltaic backsheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chiao-Chi; Lyu, Yadong; Yu, Li-Chieh; Gu, Xiaohong

    2016-09-01

    Channel cracking fragmentation testing and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy were utilized to study mechanical and chemical degradation of a multilayered backsheet after outdoor and accelerated laboratory aging. A model sample of commercial PPE backsheet, namely polyethylene terephthalate/polyethylene terephthalate/ethylene vinyl acetate (PET/PET/EVA) was investigated. Outdoor aging was performed in Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA for up to 510 days, and complementary accelerated laboratory aging was conducted on the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) SPHERE (Simulated Photodegradation via High Energy Radiant Exposure). Fracture energy, mode I stress intensity factor and film strength were analyzed using an analytical model based on channel cracking fragmentation testing results. The correlation between mechanical and chemical degradation was discussed for both outdoor and accelerated laboratory aging. The results of this work provide preliminary understanding on failure mechanism of backsheets after weathering, laying the groundwork for linking outdoor and indoor accelerated laboratory testing for multilayer photovoltaic backsheets.

  17. Chronic inflammation induces telomere dysfunction and accelerates ageing in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurk, Diana; Wilson, Caroline; Passos, Joao F.; Oakley, Fiona; Correia-Melo, Clara; Greaves, Laura; Saretzki, Gabriele; Fox, Chris; Lawless, Conor; Anderson, Rhys; Hewitt, Graeme; Pender, Sylvia L. F.; Fullard, Nicola; Nelson, Glyn; Mann, Jelena; van de Sluis, Bart; Mann, Derek A.; von Zglinicki, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is associated with normal and pathological ageing. Here we show that chronic, progressive low-grade inflammation induced by knockout of the nfkb1 subunit of the transcription factor NF-kappa B induces premature ageing in mice. We also show that these mice have reduced regenerati

  18. Chronic inflammation induces telomere dysfunction and accelerates ageing in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurk, Diana; Wilson, Caroline; Passos, Joao F.; Oakley, Fiona; Correia-Melo, Clara; Greaves, Laura; Saretzki, Gabriele; Fox, Chris; Lawless, Conor; Anderson, Rhys; Hewitt, Graeme; Pender, Sylvia L. F.; Fullard, Nicola; Nelson, Glyn; Mann, Jelena; van de Sluis, Bart; Mann, Derek A.; von Zglinicki, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is associated with normal and pathological ageing. Here we show that chronic, progressive low-grade inflammation induced by knockout of the nfkb1 subunit of the transcription factor NF-kappa B induces premature ageing in mice. We also show that these mice have reduced regenerati

  19. Lifetime sedentary living accelerates some aspects of secondary aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, Frank W; Laye, Matthew J; Roberts, Michael D

    2011-01-01

    Lifetime physical inactivity interacts with secondary aging (i.e., aging caused by diseases and environmental factors) in three patterns of response. First, lifetime physical inactivity confers no apparent effects on a given set of physiological functions. Second, lifetime physical inactivity acc...

  20. Color change of composite resins subjected to accelerated artificial aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Cremonezzi Tornavoi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: All composite resins presented unacceptable color changes after 382 h of aging and different composite resins with same hue, presented different colors before being subjected to the aging process (B2 and C2 and after (B2. It was also observed color difference within a group of the same composite resin and same hue.

  1. [Molecular mechanism of accelerating ageing by oxidative stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Naito, Yuji

    2009-07-01

    Reactive oxygen species are important for many life sustaining processes of cells and tissues, but they can also induce cell damage and death. If their production and levels within cells are not effectively controlled, then the detrimental effects of oxidative stress can accumulate. Oxidative stress is widely thought to underpin many ageing processes, and the oxidative stress theory of ageing is one of the most widely acknowledged theories of ageing. As well as being the major source of reactive oxygen species, mitochondria are also a major site of oxidative damage. The purpose of this review is a concise and current review of the role of oxidative stress in ageing process. Emphasis is placed upon the roles of mitochondrial proton leak, the uncoupling proteins, and the anti-ageing effects of caloric restriction.

  2. [ASSOCIATION OF AGE OBESITY AND METABOLIC SYNDROME IN MEN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkhasov, B B; Selyatitskaya, V G; Karapetyan, A R; Lutov, Yu V

    2016-01-01

    The study included 253 men aged 22 to 74 years. Was shown that at the end of the first period of middle age the accumulation of adipose tissue was enhanced that was associated with the change of dominance from the gynoid to the android type of obesity. The most pronounced increase in the frequency of occurrence of individual components and the overall metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in men in the second period of middle age with a following decrease in the frequency such components as hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL cholesterol and hyperglycemia in elderly age. In the all three age groups the value of the index of visceral obesity was significantly higher in men with android type of obesity compared with gynoid. Thus, the men with gynoid compared with android type of obesity have a lower risk of development metabolic syndrome in all age groups.

  3. Effect of accelerated aging on translucency of monolithic zirconia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Abdelbary

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Thickness of zirconia has significant effect on translucency. Aging has significant effect on thinner sections of zirconia. More research is required on zirconia towards making the material more translucent for its potential use as esthetic monolithic restoration.

  4. Loss of caveolin-1 accelerates neurodegeneration and aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P Head

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aged brain exhibits a loss in gray matter and a decrease in spines and synaptic densities that may represent a sequela for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's. Membrane/lipid rafts (MLR, discrete regions of the plasmalemma enriched in cholesterol, glycosphingolipids, and sphingomyelin, are essential for the development and stabilization of synapses. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1, a cholesterol binding protein organizes synaptic signaling components within MLR. It is unknown whether loss of synapses is dependent on an age-related loss of Cav-1 expression and whether this has implications for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed brains from young (Yg, 3-6 months, middle age (Md, 12 months, aged (Ag, >18 months, and young Cav-1 KO mice and show that localization of PSD-95, NR2A, NR2B, TrkBR, AMPAR, and Cav-1 to MLR is decreased in aged hippocampi. Young Cav-1 KO mice showed signs of premature neuronal aging and degeneration. Hippocampi synaptosomes from Cav-1 KO mice showed reduced PSD-95, NR2A, NR2B, and Cav-1, an inability to be protected against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury compared to young WT mice, increased Aβ, P-Tau, and astrogliosis, decreased cerebrovascular volume compared to young WT mice. As with aged hippocampi, Cav-1 KO brains showed significantly reduced synapses. Neuron-targeted re-expression of Cav-1 in Cav-1 KO neurons in vitro decreased Aβ expression. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, Cav-1 represents a novel control point for healthy neuronal aging and loss of Cav-1 represents a non-mutational model for Alzheimer's disease.

  5. Huntington's disease accelerates epigenetic aging of human brain and disrupts DNA methylation levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Steve; Langfelder, Peter; Kwak, Seung; Aaronson, Jeff; Rosinski, Jim; Vogt, Thomas F; Eszes, Marika; Faull, Richard L M; Curtis, Maurice A; Waldvogel, Henry J; Choi, Oi-Wa; Tung, Spencer; Vinters, Harry V; Coppola, Giovanni; Yang, X William

    2016-07-01

    Age of Huntington's disease (HD) motoric onset is strongly related to the number of CAG trinucleotide repeats in the huntingtin gene, suggesting that biological tissue age plays an important role in disease etiology. Recently, a DNA methylation based biomarker of tissue age has been advanced as an epigenetic aging clock. We sought to inquire if HD is associated with an accelerated epigenetic age. DNA methylation data was generated for 475 brain samples from various brain regions of 26 HD cases and 39 controls. Overall, brain regions from HD cases exhibit a significant epigenetic age acceleration effect (p=0.0012). A multivariate model analysis suggests that HD status increases biological age by 3.2 years. Accelerated epigenetic age can be observed in specific brain regions (frontal lobe, parietal lobe, and cingulate gyrus). After excluding controls, we observe a negative correlation (r=-0.41, p=5.5×10-8) between HD gene CAG repeat length and the epigenetic age of HD brain samples. Using correlation network analysis, we identify 11 co-methylation modules with a significant association with HD status across 3 broad cortical regions. In conclusion, HD is associated with an accelerated epigenetic age of specific brain regions and more broadly with substantial changes in brain methylation levels.

  6. Comparison of Degradation on Aluminum Reflectors for Solar Collectors due to Outdoor Exposure and Accelerated Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Wette

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Reflectors for concentrated solar thermal technologies need to withstand 20 or even 30 years of outdoor exposure without significant loss of solar specular reflectance. In order to test the durability of innovative reflectors within a shorter period of time, an accelerated aging methodology is required. The problem with accelerated testing is that poor correlation between laboratory and field test results has been achieved in the past. This is mainly because unrealistic degradation mechanisms are accelerated in the weathering chambers. In order to define a realistic testing procedure, a high number of accelerated aging tests have been performed on differently coated aluminum reflectors. The degradation mechanisms of the accelerated tests have been classified and systematically compared to samples that have been exposed at nine different exposure sites outdoors. Besides the standardized aging tests, innovative aging procedures have been developed in such way that the agreement to the degradation pattern observed outdoors is increased. Although degradation depends on materials and location, five generic degradation mechanisms were detected. Standardized tests only reproduced one or two of the five mechanisms detected outdoors. Additionally, several degradation effects that were not observed outdoors appeared. The innovative accelerated aging tests of artificially soiled samples were able to reproduce three of the five mechanisms observed outdoors, presenting a much more realistic overall degradation pattern.

  7. Prevalence, incidence, and age at diagnosis in Marfan Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Kristian A; Hove, Hanne; Kyhl, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    Background: Marfan syndrome is a genetic disorder with considerable morbidity and mortality. Presently, clinicians use the 2010 revised Ghent nosology, which includes optional genetic sequencing of the FBN1 gene, to diagnose patients. So far, only a few studies based on older diagnostic criteria...... have reported a wide range of prevalence and incidence. Our aim was to study prevalence, incidence, and age at diagnosis in patients with Marfan syndrome. Method: Using unique Danish patient-registries, we identified all possible Marfan syndrome patients recorded by the Danish healthcare system (1977......-2014). Following, we confirmed or rejected the diagnosis according to the 2010 revised Ghent nosology. Results: We identified a total of 1628 persons with possible Marfan syndrome. We confirmed the diagnosis in 412, whereof 46 were deceased, yielding a maximum prevalence of 6.5/100,000 at the end of 2014...

  8. Rapamycin suppresses brain aging in senescence-accelerated OXYS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosova, Nataliya G; Vitovtov, Anton O; Muraleva, Natalia A; Akulov, Andrey E; Stefanova, Natalia A; Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2013-06-01

    Cellular and organismal aging are driven in part by the MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) pathway and rapamycin extends life span inC elegans, Drosophila and mice. Herein, we investigated effects of rapamycin on brain aging in OXYS rats. Previously we found, in OXYS rats, an early development of age-associated pathological phenotypes similar to several geriatric disorders in humans, including cerebral dysfunctions. Behavioral alterations as well as learning and memory deficits develop by 3 months. Here we show that rapamycin treatment (0.1 or 0.5 mg/kg as a food mixture daily from the age of 1.5 to 3.5 months) decreased anxiety and improved locomotor and exploratory behavior in OXYS rats. In untreated OXYS rats, MRI revealed an increase of the area of hippocampus, substantial hydrocephalus and 2-fold increased area of the lateral ventricles. Rapamycin treatment prevented these abnormalities, erasing the difference between OXYS and Wister rats (used as control). All untreated OXYS rats showed signs of neurodegeneration, manifested by loci of demyelination. Rapamycin decreased the percentage of animals with demyelination and the number of loci. Levels of Tau and phospho-Tau (T181) were increased in OXYS rats (compared with Wistar). Rapamycin significantly decreased Tau and inhibited its phosphorylation in the hippocampus of OXYS and Wistar rats. Importantly, rapamycin treatment caused a compensatory increase in levels of S6 and correspondingly levels of phospo-S6 in the frontal cortex, indicating that some downstream events were compensatory preserved, explaining the lack of toxicity. We conclude that rapamycin in low chronic doses can suppress brain aging.

  9. Recipient aging accelerates acquired transthyretin amyloidosis after domino liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misumi, Yohei; Narita, Yasuko; Oshima, Toshinori; Ueda, Mitsuharu; Yamashita, Taro; Tasaki, Masayoshi; Obayashi, Konen; Isono, Kaori; Inomata, Yukihiro; Ando, Yukio

    2016-05-01

    Domino liver transplantation (DLT) with liver grafts from patients with hereditary transthyretin (TTR) amyloidosis has been performed throughout the world because of a severe liver graft shortage. Reports of acquired systemic TTR amyloidosis in domino liver recipients have been increasing; however, the precise pathogenesis and clinical course of acquired TTR amyloidosis remains unclear. We analyzed the relationship between the occurrence of acquired amyloidosis and clinical features in 22 consecutive domino liver donors with hereditary TTR amyloidosis (10 males and 12 females; mean age at DLT: 37.2 years; TTR mutations: V30M [n = 19], Y114C [n = 1], L55P [n = 1], and S50I [n = 1]) and 22 liver recipients (16 males and 6 females; mean age at DLT, 46.2 years). The mean times from DLT to amyloid first appearance and transplant recipient symptom onset were 8.2 years and 9.9 years, respectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis and quantification of the amyloid deposition revealed aging of recipients correlated with early de novo amyloid deposition. The sex of donors and recipients and the age, disease duration, and disease severity of donors had no significant effect on the latency of de novo amyloid deposition. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that recipient aging is associated with the early onset de novo amyloidosis. Because acquired amyloidosis will likely increase, careful follow-up for early amyloidosis detection and new treatments, including TTR stabilizers and gene-silencing therapies, are required. Liver Transplantation 22 656-664 2016 AASLD. © 2015 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  10. Association of Microalbuminuria with Metabolic Syndrome among Aged Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Hong; Lin, Hai-Yan; Wang, Shu-Hua; Guan, Li-Ying; Wang, Yi-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Background. The impact of the various components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) on chronic kidney disease has been conflicting. We aim to investigate the association between MetS and microalbuminuria and identify the major contributing components of MetS that result in microalbuminuria in the Chinese aged population. Methods. A total of 674 adults aged 55-98 years (males: 266; mean age: 66.5 ± 7.5 years) were studied. MetS was defined by the 2004 Chinese Diabetes Society criteria and microalbuminuria by urine albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) ≥3 mg/mmoL. Results. The prevalence of microalbuminuria was gradually increased with increasing number of MetS components (P microalbuminuria (OR = 1.781, 95% CI = 1.226-2.587; P microalbuminuria in the Chinese aged population. Elevated FPG is the most predominant component of metabolic syndrome associated with microalbuminuria followed by elevated SBP and reduced HDL-C.

  11. Chronic Glucocorticoid Hypersecretion in Cushing's Syndrome Exacerbates Cognitive Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Kathy; Forget, Helene; Cohen, Henri

    2009-01-01

    Cumulative exposure to glucocorticoid hormones (GC) over the lifespan has been associated with cognitive impairment and may contribute to physical and cognitive degeneration in aging. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the pattern of cognitive deficits in patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS), a disorder characterized by…

  12. Chronic Glucocorticoid Hypersecretion in Cushing's Syndrome Exacerbates Cognitive Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Kathy; Forget, Helene; Cohen, Henri

    2009-01-01

    Cumulative exposure to glucocorticoid hormones (GC) over the lifespan has been associated with cognitive impairment and may contribute to physical and cognitive degeneration in aging. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the pattern of cognitive deficits in patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS), a disorder characterized by…

  13. The phenotype of polycystic ovary syndrome ameliorates with aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, Zoe A.; Louwers, Yvonne V.; Fong, Sharon Lie; Valkenburg, Olivier; Birnie, Erwin; de Jong, Frank H.; Fauser, Bart C. J. M.; Laven, Joop S. E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of aging on the features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Design: Retrospective longitudinal follow-up study. Setting: Tertiary care center. Patient(s): Patients with PCOS, diagnosed according to the 2003 Rotterdam criteria, who visited the outpatient clinic on c

  14. The phenotype of polycystic ovary syndrome ameliorates with aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, Zoe A.; Louwers, Yvonne V.; Fong, Sharon Lie; Valkenburg, Olivier; Birnie, Erwin; de Jong, Frank H.; Fauser, Bart C. J. M.; Laven, Joop S. E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of aging on the features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Design: Retrospective longitudinal follow-up study. Setting: Tertiary care center. Patient(s): Patients with PCOS, diagnosed according to the 2003 Rotterdam criteria, who visited the outpatient clinic on

  15. Restricted diet delays accelerated ageing and genomic stress in DNA-repair-deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.P. Vermeij (Wilbert); M. Dollé (MartijnE.T.); E. Reiling (Erwin); D. Jaarsma (Dick); C. Payan-Gomez; C.R. Bombardieri (Cíntia R.); Wu, H.; A.J.M. Roks (Anton); S.M. Botter (Sander); B.C.J. van der Eerden (Bram); S.A. Youssef (Sameh Ahmed); R. Kuiper (Ruud); B. Nagarajah (Bhawani); C.T.M. van Oostrom (Conny); R.M.C. Brandt (Renata); S. Barnhoorn (Sander); S. Imholz (Sandra); J.L.A. Pennings (Jeroen L.A.); A. de Bruin (Alain); Gyenis, Á.; J. Pothof (Joris); J. Vijg (Jan); H. van Steeg (Harry); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractMice deficient in the DNA excision-repair gene Ercc1 (Ercc1Δ/-) show numerous accelerated ageing features that limit their lifespan to 4-6 months. They also exhibit a 'survival response', which suppresses growth and enhances cellular maintenance. Such a response resembles the anti-ageing

  16. Restricted diet delays accelerated ageing and genomic stress in DNA-repair-deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, W. P.; Dolle, M. E. T.; Reiling, E.; Jaarsma, D.; Payan-Gomez, C.; Bombardieri, C. R.; Wu, H.; Roks, A. J. M.; Botter, S. M.; van der Eerden, B. C.; Youssef, S. A.; Kuiper, R. V.; Nagarajah, B.; van Oostrom, C. T.; Brandt, R. M. C.; Barnhoorn, S.; Imholz, S.; Pennings, J. L. A.; de Bruin, A.; Gyenis, A.; Pothof, J.; Vijg, J.; van Steeg, H.; Hoeijmakers, J. H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Mice deficient in the DNA excision-repair gene Ercc1 (Ercc1(Delta/-)) show numerous accelerated ageing features that limit their lifespan to 4-6 months(1-4). They also exhibit a 'survival response', which suppresses growth and enhances cellular maintenance. Such a response resembles the anti-ageing

  17. Restricted diet delays accelerated ageing and genomic stress in DNA-repair-deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, W P; Dollé, M E T; Reiling, E; Jaarsma, D|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323051928; Payan-Gomez, C; Bombardieri, C R; Wu, H; Roks, A J M; Botter, S M; van der Eerden, B C; Youssef, S A; Kuiper, R V|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/305415042; Nagarajah, B; van Oostrom, C T; Brandt, R M C; Barnhoorn, S; Imholz, S; Pennings, J L A; de Bruin, A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837261; Gyenis, Á; Pothof, J; Vijg, J; van Steeg, H; Hoeijmakers, J H J

    2016-01-01

    Mice deficient in the DNA excision-repair gene Ercc1 (Ercc1(∆/-)) show numerous accelerated ageing features that limit their lifespan to 4-6 months. They also exhibit a 'survival response', which suppresses growth and enhances cellular maintenance. Such a response resembles the anti-ageing response

  18. Accelerated ageing in testing bricks used in the conservation of historic buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlendová, Gabriela; Podoba, Rudolf; Baník, Ivan

    2014-11-01

    The effect of accelerated climate ageing on historical bricks in the laboratory is investigated in the paper. Differences in thermal properties are experimentally determined and studied before and after bricks exposure to climate ageing, which consists of 60 freeze-thaw cycles. For measuring thermal conductivity, diffusivity and specific heat, pulse method is used.

  19. Synaptic proteome changes in a DNA repair deficient Ercc1 mouse model of accelerated aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Végh (Marlene); M.C. de Waard (Monique); I. van der Pluijm (Ingrid); Y. Ridwan (Yanto); M.J.M. Sassen (Marion J.); P. van Nierop (Pim); R.C. van der Schors (Roel); K.W. Li (Ka Wan); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); A.B. Smit (August); R.E. van Kesteren (Ronald)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractCognitive decline is one of the earliest hallmarks of both normal and pathological brain aging. Here we used Ercc1 mutant mice, which are impaired in multiple DNA repair systems and consequently show accelerated aging and progressive memory deficits, to identify changes in the levels of

  20. Models of accelerated sarcopenia: critical pieces for solving the puzzle of age-related muscle atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buford, Thomas W; Anton, Stephen D; Judge, Andrew R; Marzetti, Emanuele; Wohlgemuth, Stephanie E; Carter, Christy S; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Pahor, Marco; Manini, Todd M

    2010-10-01

    Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass, is a significant public health concern that continues to grow in relevance as the population ages. Certain conditions have the strong potential to coincide with sarcopenia to accelerate the progression of muscle atrophy in older adults. Among these conditions are co-morbid diseases common to older individuals such as cancer, kidney disease, diabetes, and peripheral artery disease. Furthermore, behaviors such as poor nutrition and physical inactivity are well-known to contribute to sarcopenia development. However, we argue that these behaviors are not inherent to the development of sarcopenia but rather accelerate its progression. In the present review, we discuss how these factors affect systemic and cellular mechanisms that contribute to skeletal muscle atrophy. In addition, we describe gaps in the literature concerning the role of these factors in accelerating sarcopenia progression. Elucidating biochemical pathways related to accelerated muscle atrophy may allow for improved discovery of therapeutic treatments related to sarcopenia.

  1. Acceleration of ventricular rate by amiodarone in atrial fibrillation associated with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinman, Bryan D; Evans, Tom

    1982-01-01

    Amiodarone has proved to be a valuable drug in atrial fibrillation associated with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. When it was administered to a patient with this syndrome in atrial fibrillation, who had previously suffered an inferior myocardial infarction, the ventricular rate accelerated from 170 to 230 beats/minute. This unusual case emphasises the need for full electrophysiological assessment of patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome for whom amiodarone treatment is being considered. Imagesp1000-a PMID:6812745

  2. Are Anxiety Disorders Associated with Accelerated Aging? A Focus on Neuroprogression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampaolo Perna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders (AnxDs are highly prevalent throughout the lifespan, with detrimental effects on daily-life functioning, somatic health, and quality of life. An emerging perspective suggested that AnxDs may be associated with accelerated aging. In this paper, we explored the association between AnxDs and hallmarks of accelerated aging, with a specific focus on neuroprogression. We reviewed animal and human findings that suggest an overlap between processes of impaired neurogenesis, neurodegeneration, structural, functional, molecular, and cellular modifications in AnxDs, and aging. Although this research is at an early stage, our review suggests a link between anxiety and accelerated aging across multiple processes involved in neuroprogression. Brain structural and functional changes that accompany normal aging were more pronounced in subjects with AnxDs than in coevals without AnxDs, including reduced grey matter density, white matter alterations, impaired functional connectivity of large-scale brain networks, and poorer cognitive performance. Similarly, molecular correlates of brain aging, including telomere shortening, Aβ accumulation, and immune-inflammatory and oxidative/nitrosative stress, were overrepresented in anxious subjects. No conclusions about causality or directionality between anxiety and accelerated aging can be drawn. Potential mechanisms of this association, limitations of the current research, and implications for treatments and future studies are discussed.

  3. Influence of advanced age of maternal grandmothers on Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandra Nallur B

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Down syndrome (DS is the most common chromosomal anomaly associated with mental retardation. This is due to the occurrence of free trisomy 21 (92–95%, mosaic trisomy 21 (2–4% and translocation (3–4%. Advanced maternal age is a well documented risk factor for maternal meiotic nondisjunction. In India three children with DS are born every hour and more DS children are given birth to by young age mothers than by advanced age mothers. Therefore, detailed analysis of the families with DS is needed to find out other possible causative factors for nondisjunction. Methods We investigated 69 families of cytogenetically confirmed DS children and constructed pedigrees of these families. We also studied 200 randomly selected families belonging to different religions as controls. Statistical analysis was carried out using logistic regression. Results Out of the 69 DS cases studied, 67 were free trisomy 21, two cases were mosaic trisomy 21 and there were none with translocation. The number of DS births was greater for the young age mothers compared with the advanced age mothers. It has also been recorded that young age mothers (18 to 29 years born to their mothers at the age 30 years and above produced as high as 91.3% of children with DS. The logistic regression of case- control study of DS children revealed that the odds ratio of age of grandmother was significant when all the four variables were used once at a time. However, the effect of age of mother and father was smaller than the effect of age of maternal grandmother. Therefore, for every year of advancement of age of the maternal grandmother, the risk (odds of birth of DS baby increases by 30%. Conclusion Besides the known risk factors, mother's age, father's age, the age of the maternal grandmother at the time of birth of the mother is a risk factor for the occurrence of Down syndrome.

  4. Down Syndrome and the aging process: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Sousa Lopes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to identify and update the knowledge about older people with Down Syndrome (DS, and to understand the peculiarities of the aging process in this population. Bibliographical research conducted by Portal de Periódicos da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior and High Wire portal. Inclusion criteria were articles published in the last ten years with the words “Down Syndrome" and “Elderly”.  

  5. Down Syndrome and the aging process: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Bruno Sousa; Universidade Católica de Brasília (UCB). Brasília (DF).; Vianna, Lucy Gomes; Universidade Católica de Brasília (UCB); Moraes, Clayton Franco; Universidade Católica de Brasília (UCB).; Carvalho, Gustavo de Azevedo; Universidade Católica de Brasília (UCB). Brasília (DF).; Alves, Vicente Paulo; Universidade Católica de Brasília (UCB). Brasília (DF).

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to identify and update the knowledge about older people with Down Syndrome (DS), and to understand the peculiarities of the aging process in this population. Bibliographical research conducted by Portal de Periódicos da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior and High Wire portal. Inclusion criteria were articles published in the last ten years with the words “Down Syndrome" and “Elderly”.   O estudo teve como objetivo identificar e atualizar os conheci...

  6. Aging in Persons with Rett Syndrome: An Updated Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meir Lotan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome (RS is a neurological disease affecting mainly females, characterized by an arrest of brain development caused by an X-linked mutation. Rett syndrome is the first human disease found to be caused by defects in a protein involved in regulating gene expression through its interaction with methylated DNA. The disease has been traced to a defective gene called MECP2. The case stories presented here and recent findings show that females with RS are able to live into old age. Due to the observed longevity of individuals with RS, and the fact that individuals with RS present the therapist/physician with specific clinical challenges, it is suggested that proper, long-term, and individually tailored, intensive care should be provided at all ages in the hope to prevent or at least reduce the age-related deterioration that is typical of this population.

  7. LMNA-Associated Cardiocutaneous Progeria: a Novel Autosomal Dominant Premature Aging Syndrome with Late Onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Megan S.; Lindsay, Mark E.; Judge, Daniel P.; Barrowman, Jemima; Rhys, Colette Ap; Simonson, Lisa; Dietz, Harry C.; Michaelis, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS) is a well-characterized premature aging disorder caused by mutations in LMNA, the gene encoding the nuclear scaffold proteins lamin A and C. In HGPS and related progerias, processing of prelamin A is blocked at a critical step mediated by the zinc metalloprotease ZMPSTE24. Emerging evidence indicates that LMNA-linked progerias can be grouped into two classes: 1) the processing-deficient, early onset “typical” progerias (e.g. HGPS), and 2) the processing-proficient “atypical” progeria syndromes (APS) that are later in onset. Here we describe a novel progeria syndrome with prominent cutaneous and cardiovascular manifestations belonging to the second class. We suggest the name LMNA-associated cardiocutaneous progeria syndrome (LCPS) for this disorder. Affected patients are normal at birth but undergo progressive cutaneous changes in childhood and die in middle age of cardiovascular complications, including accelerated atherosclerosis, calcific valve disease, and cardiomyopathy. In addition, the proband demonstrated cancer susceptibility, a phenotype rarely described for LMNA-based progeria disorders. The LMNA mutation that causes LCPS is a heterozygous missense mutation resulting in an amino acid substitution (D300G) in the coiled-coil domain of lamin A/C. In skin fibroblasts isolated from the proband, the processing and levels of lamin A and C are normal. However, nuclear morphology is aberrant and rescued by treatment with farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs), as is also the case for HGPS and other laminopathies. Our findings advance knowledge of human LMNA progeria syndromes, and raise the possibility that typical and atypical progerias may converge upon a common mechanism to cause premature aging disease. PMID:23666920

  8. LMNA-associated cardiocutaneous progeria: an inherited autosomal dominant premature aging syndrome with late onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Megan S; Lindsay, Mark E; Judge, Daniel P; Barrowman, Jemima; Ap Rhys, Colette; Simonson, Lisa; Dietz, Harry C; Michaelis, Susan

    2013-07-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS) is a premature aging disorder caused by mutations in LMNA, which encodes the nuclear scaffold proteins lamin A and C. In HGPS and related progerias, processing of prelamin A is blocked at a critical step mediated by the zinc metalloprotease ZMPSTE24. LMNA-linked progerias can be grouped into two classes: (1) the processing-deficient, early onset "typical" progerias (e.g., HGPS), and (2) the processing-proficient "atypical" progeria syndromes (APS) that are later in onset. Here we describe a previously unrecognized progeria syndrome with prominent cutaneous and cardiovascular manifestations belonging to the second class. We suggest the name LMNA-associated cardiocutaneous progeria syndrome (LCPS) for this disorder. Affected patients are normal at birth but undergo progressive cutaneous changes in childhood and die in middle age of cardiovascular complications, including accelerated atherosclerosis, calcific valve disease, and cardiomyopathy. In addition, the proband demonstrated cancer susceptibility, a phenotype rarely described for LMNA-based progeria disorders. The LMNA mutation that caused LCPS in this family is a heterozygous c.899A>G (p.D300G) mutation predicted to alter the coiled-coil domain of lamin A/C. In skin fibroblasts isolated from the proband, the processing and levels of lamin A and C are normal. However, nuclear morphology is aberrant and rescued by treatment with farnesyltransferase inhibitors, as is also the case for HGPS and other laminopathies. Our findings advance knowledge of human LMNA progeria syndromes, and raise the possibility that typical and atypical progerias may converge upon a common mechanism to cause premature aging disease.

  9. Partial impairment of immune functions in peripheral blood leukocytes from aged men with Down's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, E; Alberti, J; Mehta, P; Dalton, A; Sersen, E; Schuller-Levis, G

    2000-04-01

    Down's syndrome (DS) has been considered a model of accelerated aging and of Alzheimer's disease. We investigated immunologic functions using peripheral blood leukocytes in order to correlate the production of cytokines and development of neuropathological changes of Alzheimer type in aged persons with DS. Cytokine production (IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-alpha), phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated proliferation of nonadherent monocytes, and superoxide anion production from polymorphonuclear leukocytes were measured. PHA-stimulated proliferation in aged individuals (>30 years old) with DS was significantly lower than that of age- and sex-matched controls (DS vs control, 55,707+/-5810 vs 88,310+/-6994 cpm, P < 0.001). PHA-stimulated IL-2 production was also significantly decreased in aged individuals with DS (DS vs control, 7.1+/-2.1 vs 10.7+/-1.3 ng/ml). Interestingly, the decrease of proliferation and IL-2 production in aged males with DS is significantly greater than in aged women with DS. PHA-stimulated proliferation and IL-2 production of nonadherent monocytes in females was not significantly reduced. IL-1beta production by LPS-activated adherent monocytes was significantly decreased in older adults with DS compared with non-DS controls. Other immune parameters measured in DS were not significantly different from that of age-matched controls. We conclude that there is partial impairment of T lymphocytes in aged persons with DS that is significantly greater in males than in females.

  10. Molecular ageing in progeroid syndromes: Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome as a model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Nóbrega Raphael

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS is a rare premature aging disorder that belongs to a group of conditions called laminopathies which affect nuclear lamins. Mutations in two genes, LMNA and ZMPSTE24, have been found in patients with HGPS. The p.G608G LMNA mutation is the most commonly reported mutation. The aim of this work was to compile a comprehensive literature review of the clinical features and genetic mutations and mechanisms of this syndrome as a contribution to health care workers. This review shows the necessity of a more detailed clinical identification of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome and the need for more studies on the pharmacologic and pharmacogenomic approach to this syndrome.

  11. Long-Term Flexural Behaviors of GFRP Reinforced Concrete Beams Exposed to Accelerated Aging Exposure Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonho Park

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of accelerated aging conditions on the long-term flexural behavior and ductility of reinforced concrete (RC members with glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP bars (RC-GFRP specimen and steel bars (RC-steel specimen. A total of thirty six specimens were designed with different amounts of reinforcement with three types of reinforcing bars (i.e., helically wrapped GFRP, sand-coated surface GFRP and steel. Eighteen specimens were subjected to sustained loads and accelerated aging conditions (i.e., 47 °C and 80% relative humidity in a chamber. The flexural behavior of specimens under 300-day exposure was compared to that of the companion specimens without experiencing accelerated aging conditions. Results indicate that the accelerated aging conditions reduced flexural capacity in not only RC-steel, but also RC-GFRP specimens, with different rates of reduction. Different types of GFRP reinforcement exhibited different rates of degradation of the flexural capacity when embedded in concrete under the same exposure conditions. Several existing models were compared with experimental results for predicting the deflection and deformability index for specimens. Bischoff and Gross’s model exhibited an excellent prediction of the time-dependent deflections. Except for the deformability index proposed by Jaeger, there was no general trend related to the aging duration. This study recommends the need for further investigation on the prediction of the deformability index.

  12. Estimation of vessel age and early diagnose of atherosclerosis in progeria syndrome by using echo-tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Várady, E; Feher, E; Levai, A; Battyany, I

    2010-01-01

    The stiffness of the arteries normally increases with age. Radiofrequency echo-tracking is a non-invasive ultrasound method which is able to detect the stiffness of the arteries, represented by the beta stiffness index. The estimation of biological age of vessels is possible on the basis of the normal age-group specific beta stiffness values. The beta stiffness index becomes higher in early stages of atherosclerosis as well, before any visible morphological changes. Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is rare genetic disorder resulting in accelerated aging including appearance of progressive atherosclerosis at an early age which determines the quality and term of life of these patients. Determination of vascular age and early diagnosis of atherosclerosis seems crucial. According to our knowledge, the estimation of vascular age detected with radiofrequency echo-tracking in HGPS patients, in contrast to the normal age-specific beta stiffness values, has not been published yet.

  13. Towards Accelerated Aging Methodologies and Health Management of Power MOSFETs (Technical Brief)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celaya, Jose R.; Patil, Nishad; Saha, Sankalita; Wysocki, Phil; Goebel, Kai

    2009-01-01

    Understanding aging mechanisms of electronic components is of extreme importance in the aerospace domain where they are part of numerous critical subsystems including avionics. In particular, power MOSFETs are of special interest as they are involved in high voltage switching circuits such as drivers for electrical motors. With increased use of electronics in aircraft control, it becomes more important to understand the degradation of these components in aircraft specific environments. In this paper, we present an accelerated aging methodology for power MOSFETs that subject the devices to indirect thermal overstress during high voltage switching. During this accelerated aging process, two major modes of failure were observed - latch-up and die attach degradation. In this paper we present the details of our aging methodology along with details of experiments and analysis of the results.

  14. The age of the universe, the Hubble constant, the accelerated expansion and the Hubble effect

    OpenAIRE

    Soares,Domingos

    2009-01-01

    The idea of an accelerating universe comes almost simultaneously with the determination of Hubble's constant by one of the Hubble Space Telescope Key Projects. The age of the universe dilemma is probably the link between these two issues. In an appendix, I claim that "Hubble's law" might yet to be investigated for its ultimate cause, and suggest the "Hubble effect" as the searched candidate.

  15. Accelerated aging and controlled deterioration for the determination of the physiological potential of onion seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodo Angelica Brod

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available International research on vegetable seed vigor is not at the same level attained for grain crops species. This study was conducted to identify reliable procedures for the accelerated aging and controlled deterioration tests to rank onion (Allium cepa L. seed lots according to their physiological potential. Six seed lots of the cultivars Aurora and Petroline were evaluated in the laboratory for germination, first count, seedling vigor classification, traditional and saturated salt accelerated aging (41masculineC / 48 and 72 h, controlled deterioration (24% of water / 45masculineC / 24 h and seedling emergence tests. Seed moisture content after the saturated salt accelerated aging test was lower and uniform, which is considered an important advantage in comparison to the traditional procedure. The saturated salt accelerated aging (41masculineC / 48 and 72 h and controlled deterioration (moisture content adjusted to 24% / 45masculineC / 24 h tests were the best procedures to assess the physiological potential of onion seeds, and are indicated for use in quality control programs.

  16. Effect of accelerated aging of MSWI bottom ash on the leaching mechanisms of copper and molybdenum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.J.; Zomeren, van A.; Meeussen, J.C.L.; Comans, R.N.J.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of accelerated aging of Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash on the leaching of Cu and Mo was studied using a "multisurface" modeling approach, based on surface complexation to iron/aluminum (hydr) oxides, mineral dissolution/precipitation, and metal complexation by humic s

  17. The age of the universe, the Hubble constant, the accelerated expansion and the Hubble effect

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Domingos

    2009-01-01

    The idea of an accelerating universe comes almost simultaneously with the determination of Hubble's constant by one of the Hubble Space Telescope Key Projects. The age of the universe dilemma is probably the link between these two issues. In an appendix, I claim that "Hubble's law" might yet to be investigated for its ultimate cause, and suggest the "Hubble effect" as the searched candidate.

  18. Genetics and aging; the Werner syndrome as a segmental progeroid syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G M

    1985-01-01

    The maximum lifespan potential is a constitutional feature of speciation and must be subject to polygenic controls acting both in the domain of development and in the domain of the maintenance of macromolecular integrity. The enormous genetic heterogeneity that characterizes our own species, the complexities of numerous nature-nurture interactions, and the quantitative and qualitative variations of the senescent phenotype that are observed suggest that precise patterns of aging in each of us may be unique. Patterns of aging may also differ sharply among species (for example, semelparous vs. multiparous mammals). Some potential common denominators, however, allow one to identify progeroid syndromes in man that could lead to the elucidation of important pathways of gene action. (The suffix "-oid" means "like"; it does not mean identity.) Unimodal progeroid syndromes (eg., familial dementia of the Alzheimer type, an autosomal dominant) can help us understand the pathogenesis of a particular aspect of the senescent phenotype of man. Segmental progeroid syndromes (eg. the Werner syndrome, an autosomal recessive) may be relevant to multiple aspects of the senescent phenotype. Some results of research on the Werner syndrome may be interpreted as support for "peripheral" as opposed to "central" theories of aging; they are consistent with the view that gene action in the domain of development (adolescence, in this instance) can set the stage for patterns of aging in the adult; they point to the importance of mesenchymal cell populations in the pathogenesis of age-related disorders; finally, they underscore the role of chromosomal instability, especially in the pathogenesis of neoplasia.

  19. Age-Related Neurodegeneration and Memory Loss in Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason P. Lockrow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS is a condition where a complete or segmental chromosome 21 trisomy causes variable intellectual disability, and progressive memory loss and neurodegeneration with age. Many research groups have examined development of the brain in DS individuals, but studies on age-related changes should also be considered, with the increased lifespan observed in DS. DS leads to pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD by 40 or 50 years of age. Progressive age-related memory deficits occurring in both AD and in DS have been connected to degeneration of several neuronal populations, but mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Inflammation and oxidative stress are early events in DS pathology, and focusing on these pathways may lead to development of successful intervention strategies for AD associated with DS. Here we discuss recent findings and potential treatment avenues regarding development of AD neuropathology and memory loss in DS.

  20. Compatibility and accelerated aging study for Li(Si)/FeS/sub 2 thermally activated batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, J. W.; Searcy, J. Q.; Neiswander, P. N.; Poole, R. L.

    1983-12-01

    Thermally activated batteries using the lithium (silicon) iron disulfide (Li(Si)/FeS2) electrochemical system are used in weapons having a required storage life of 25 years and high reliability. A review of known data revealed no information on the compatibility of Li(Si)/FeS2 with the organic materials used in the system. The compatibility question is studied. Accelerated-aging data on pairs of materials were produced. In addition, a group of production batteries was aged and tested. Three aging temperatures were used during the one-year study. Gas analyses, electrical tests and mechanical tests were compared for control and aged samples. Two results, the depletion of oxygen and an increase in hydrogen in the compatibility and accelerated-aging samples, stimulated additional studies. No unexpected or significant changes were observed in the electrical or mechanical properties of the organic materials. Calorific output and chloride ion content of heat pellets indicated no degradation with aging. Ignition sensitivity and burn rate measurements suggested no heat pellet degradation. Oxygen content in aged lithium (silicon) anodes remained within acceptable limits. Single-cell tests and battery test results showed no degradation with aging.

  1. Heroin abuse accelerates biological aging: a novel insight from telomerase and brain imaging interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, G L F; Zeng, H; Leung, M-K; Zhang, H-J; Lau, B W M; Liu, Y-P; Liu, G-X; Sham, P C; Chan, C C H; So, K-F; Lee, T M C

    2013-05-21

    Heroin abuse and natural aging exert common influences on immunological cell functioning. This observation led to a recent and untested idea that aging may be accelerated in abusers of heroin. We examined this claim by testing whether heroin use is associated with premature aging at both cellular and brain system levels. A group of abstinent heroin users (n=33) and matched healthy controls (n=30) were recruited and measured on various biological indicators of aging. These measures included peripheral blood telomerase activity, which reflects cellular aging, and both structural and functional measures of brain magnetic resonance imaging. We found that heroin users were characterized by significantly low telomerase activity (0.21 vs 1.78; 88% reduction; t(61)=6.96, Pbrain region implicated in aging. Using the PFC location identified from the structural analyses as a 'seed' region, it was further revealed that telomerase activity interacted with heroin use to impact age-sensitive brain functional networks (AlphaSim corrected Pbrain system and behavioral measures in the context of substance abuse. The present finding that heroin abuse is associated with accelerated aging at both cellular and brain system levels is novel and forms a unique contribution to our knowledge in how the biological processes of drug abusers may be disrupted.

  2. Telomere length in subjects with schizophrenia, their unaffected siblings and healthy controls: Evidence of accelerated aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czepielewski, Leticia Sanguinetti; Massuda, Raffael; Panizzutti, Bruna; da Rosa, Eduarda Dias; de Lucena, David; Macêdo, Danielle; Grun, Lucas Kich; Barbé-Tuana, Florencia María; Gama, Clarissa Severino

    2016-07-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is associated with broad burden. The clinical manifestations of SZ are related to pathophysiological alterations similar to what is seen in normal aging. Our aim was to evaluate the differences in telomere length (TL), a biomarker of cellular aging, in subjects with SZ (n=36), unaffected siblings (SB, n=36) and healthy controls (HC, n=47). SZ had shorter TL compared to HC, but no difference was found in SB comparing to SZ. These findings indicate that a pathological accelerated aging profile could be present in the course of SZ and further studies are needed to confirm TL as potential endophenotype, especially in at risk populations.

  3. Compatibility and accelerated aging study for Li(Si)/FeS2 thermally activated batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, J. W.; Searcy, J. Q.; Neiswander, P. A.; Poole, R. L.

    Thermally activated batteries using Li(Si)/FeS2 for use in systems which require a storage life of 25 years and high reliability are examined. All of the materials in the system, both organic and inorganic are incorporated except the heat paper and electric match are studied. No compatibility or aging problems are indicated. The following results are reported: oxygen vanishes from the overgas in containers that were accelerated aged; hydrogen increases sharply in the overgas initially but generally decreases as aging progresses. No unexpected or significant changes were observed in the volume resistivity, glass transition temperature, or shear modulus or organic materials.

  4. The role of oxidative and nitrosative stress in accelerated aging and major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Pawan Kumar; Noto, Cristiano; Rizzo, Lucas B; Rios, Adiel C; Nunes, Sandra O V; Barbosa, Décio Sabbatini; Sethi, Sumit; Zeni, Maiara; Mansur, Rodrigo B; Maes, Michael; Brietzke, Elisa

    2016-02-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects millions of individuals and is highly comorbid with many age associated diseases such as diabetes mellitus, immune-inflammatory dysregulation and cardiovascular diseases. Oxidative/nitrosative stress plays a fundamental role in aging, as well as in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative/neuropsychiatric disorders including MDD. In this review, we critically review the evidence for an involvement of oxidative/nitrosative stress in acceleration of aging process in MDD. There are evidence of the association between MDD and changes in molecular mechanisms involved in aging. There is a significant association between telomere length, enzymatic antioxidant activities (SOD, CAT, GPx), glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (MDA), nuclear factor κB, inflammatory cytokines with MDD. Major depression also is characterized by significantly lower concentration of antioxidants (zinc, coenzyme Q10, PON1). Since, aging and MDD share a common biological base in their pathophysiology, the potential therapeutic use of antioxidants and anti-aging molecules in MDD could be promising.

  5. Acceleration of cardiovascular-biological age by amphetamine exposure is a power function of chronological age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Amanda; Hulse, Gary Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    Background Amphetamine abuse is becoming more widespread internationally. The possibility that its many cardiovascular complications are associated with a prematurely aged cardiovascular system, and indeed biological organism systemically, has not been addressed. Methods Radial arterial pulse tonometry was performed using the SphygmoCor system (Sydney). 55 amphetamine exposed patients were compared with 107 tobacco smokers, 483 non-smokers and 68 methadone patients (total=713 patients) from 2006 to 2011. A cardiovascular-biological age (VA) was determined. Results The age of the patient groups was 30.03±0.51–40.45±1.15 years. This was controlled for with linear regression. The sex ratio was the same in all groups. 94% of amphetamine exposed patients had used amphetamine in the previous week. When the (log) VA was regressed against the chronological age (CA) and a substance-type group in both cross-sectional and longitudinal models, models quadratic in CA were superior to linear models (both pamphetamine exposure persisted after adjustment for all known cardiovascular risk factors (pamphetamines is associated with an advancement of cardiovascular-organismal age both over age and over time, and is robust to adjustment. That this is associated with power functions of age implies a feed-forward positively reinforcing exacerbation of the underlying ageing process. PMID:28243315

  6. Body Acceleration as Indicator for Walking Economy in an Ageing Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Valenti

    Full Text Available In adults, walking economy declines with increasing age and negatively influences walking speed. This study aims at detecting determinants of walking economy from body acceleration during walking in an ageing population.35 healthy elderly (18 males, age 51 to 83 y, BMI 25.5±2.4 kg/m2 walked on a treadmill. Energy expenditure was measured with indirect calorimetry while body acceleration was sampled at 60Hz with a tri-axial accelerometer (GT3X+, ActiGraph, positioned on the lower back. Walking economy was measured as lowest energy needed to displace one kilogram of body mass for one meter while walking (WCostmin, J/m/kg. Gait features were extracted from the acceleration signal and included in a model to predict WCostmin.On average WCostmin was 2.43±0.42 J/m/kg and correlated significantly with gait rate (r2 = 0.21, p<0.01 and regularity along the frontal (anteroposterior and lateral (mediolateral axes (r2 = 0.16, p<0.05 and r2 = 0.12, p<0.05 respectively. Together, the three variables explained 46% of the inter-subject variance (p<0.001 with a standard error of estimate of 0.30 J/m/kg. WCostmin and regularity along the frontal and lateral axes were related to age (WCostmin: r2 = 0.44, p<0.001; regularity: r2 = 0.16, p<0.05 and r2 = 0.12, p<0.05 respectively frontal and lateral.The age associated decline in walking economy is induced by the adoption of an increased gait rate and by irregular body acceleration in the horizontal plane.

  7. Models of Accelerated Sarcopenia: Critical Pieces for Solving the Puzzle of Age-Related Muscle Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buford, Thomas W.; Anton, Stephen D.; Judge, Andrew R.; Marzetti, Emanuele; Wohlgemuth, Stephanie E; Carter, Christy S.; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Pahor, Marco; Manini, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass, is a significant public health concern that continues to grow in relevance as the population ages. Certain conditions have the strong potential to coincide with sarcopenia to accelerate the progression of muscle atrophy in older adults. Among these conditions are co-morbid diseases common to older individuals such as cancer, kidney disease, diabetes, and peripheral artery disease. Furthermore, behaviors such as poor nutrition and physical inactivity are well-known to contribute to sarcopenia development. However, we argue that these behaviors are not inherent to the development of sarcopenia but rather accelerate its progression. In the present review, we discuss how these factors affect systemic and cellular mechanisms that contribute to skeletal muscle atrophy. In addition, we describe gaps in the literature concerning the role of these factors in accelerating sarcopenia progression. Elucidating biochemical pathways related to accelerated muscle atrophy may allow for improved discovery of therapeutic treatments related to sarcopenia. PMID:20438881

  8. Influence of Age and Gender in Takotsubo Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Birke; Sechtem, Udo

    2016-10-01

    Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) occurs predominantly in elderly females but young individuals and children may also be affected. There are no consistent differences between men and women regarding age, symptoms, prehospital delay, or clinical course. Mortality has been reported to be higher in males. The QTc interval may be disproportionately prolonged in male patients in the days after admission predisposing them to ventricular arrhythmias. The higher level of cardiac markers in males with TTS may be related to the greater frequency of physical stress before the onset of TTS. Understanding the pathogenetic background may lead to preventive/therapeutic means against this life-threatening disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Gamma radiation and magnetic field mediated delay in effect of accelerated ageing of soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mahesh; Singh, Bhupinder; Ahuja, Sumedha; Dahuja, Anil; Anand, Anjali

    2015-08-01

    Soybean seeds were exposed to gamma radiation (0.5, 1, 3 and 5 kGy), static magnetic field (50, 100 and 200 mT) and a combination of gamma radiation and magnetic energy (0.5 kGy + 200 mT and 5 kGy + 50 mT) and stored at room temperature for six months. These seeds were later subjected to accelerated ageing treatment at 42 °C temperature and 95-100 % relative humidity and were compared for various physical and biochemical characteristics between the untreated and the energized treatments. Energy treatment protected the quality of stored seeds in terms of its protein and oil content . Accelerated aging conditions, however, affected the oil and protein quantity and quality of seed negatively. Antioxidant enzymes exhibited a decline in their activity during aging while the LOX activity, which reflects the rate of lipid peroxidation, in general, increased during the aging. Gamma irradiated (3 and 5 kGy) and magnetic field treated seeds (100 and 200 mT) maintained a higher catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activity which may help in efficient scavenging of deleterious free radical produced during the aging. Aging caused peroxidative changes to lipids, which could be contributed to the loss of oil quality. Among the electromagnetic energy treatments, a dose of 1-5 kGy of gamma and 100 mT, 200 mT magnetic field effectively slowed the rate of biochemical degradation and loss of cellular integrity in seeds stored under conditions of accelerated aging and thus, protected the deterioration of seed quality. Energy combination treatments did not yield any additional protection advantage.

  10. Does cyclic stress and accelerated ageing influence the wear behavior of highly crosslinked polyethylene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affatato, Saverio; De Mattia, Jonathan Salvatore; Bracco, Pierangiola; Pavoni, Eleonora; Taddei, Paola

    2016-06-01

    First-generation (irradiated and remelted or annealed) and second-generation (irradiated and vitamin E blended or doped) highly crosslinked polyethylenes were introduced in the last decade to solve the problems of wear and osteolysis. In this study, the influence of the Vitamin-E addition on crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE_VE) was evaluated by comparing the in vitro wear behavior of crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) versus Vitamin-E blended polyethylene XLPE and conventional ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (STD_PE) acetabular cups, after accelerated ageing according to ASTM F2003-02 (70.0±0.1°C, pure oxygen at 5bar for 14 days). The test was performed using a hip joint simulator run for two millions cycles, under bovine calf serum as lubricant. Mass loss was found to decrease along the series XLPE_VE>STD_PE>XLPE, although no statistically significant differences were found between the mass losses of the three sets of cups. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate at a molecular level the morphology changes induced by wear. The spectroscopic analyses showed that the accelerated ageing determined different wear mechanisms and molecular rearrangements during testing with regards to the changes in both the chain orientation and the distribution of the all-trans sequences within the orthorhombic, amorphous and third phases. The results of the present study showed that the addition of vitamin E was not effective to improve the gravimetric wear of PE after accelerated ageing. However, from a molecular point of view, the XLPE_VE acetabular cups tested after accelerated ageing appeared definitely less damaged than the STD_PE ones and comparable to XLPE samples.

  11. Arsenite exposure accelerates aging process regulated by the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chan-Wei; How, Chun Ming; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan

    2016-05-01

    Arsenic is a known human carcinogen and high levels of arsenic contamination in food, soils, water, and air are of toxicology concerns. Nowadays, arsenic is still a contaminant of emerging interest, yet the effects of arsenic on aging process have received little attention. In this study, we investigated the effects and the underlying mechanisms of chronic arsenite exposure on the aging process in Caenorhabditis elegans. The results showed that prolonged arsenite exposure caused significantly decreased lifespan compared to non-exposed ones. In addition, arsenite exposure (100 μM) caused significant changes of age-dependent biomarkers, including a decrease of defecation frequency, accumulations of intestinal lipofuscin and lipid peroxidation in an age-dependent manner in C. elegans. Further evidence revealed that intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was significantly increased in an age-dependent manner upon 100 μM arsenite exposure. Moreover, the mRNA levels of transcriptional makers of aging (hsp-16.1, hsp-16.49, and hsp-70) were increased in aged worms under arsenite exposure (100 μM). Finally, we showed that daf-16 mutant worms were more sensitive to arsenite exposure (100 μM) on lifespan and failed to induce the expression of its target gene sod-3 in aged daf-16 mutant under arsenite exposure (100 μM). Our study demonstrated that chronic arsenite exposure resulted in accelerated aging process in C. elegans. The overproduction of intracellular ROS and the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO play roles in mediating the accelerated aging process by arsenite exposure in C. elegans. This study implicates a potential ecotoxicological and health risk of arsenic in the environment.

  12. Effect of Mn doping on electrical properties and accelerated ageing behaviours of ternary ZVM varistors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C-W Nahm

    2011-12-01

    The electrical properties and d.c. accelerated ageing behaviour of ZVM (Zn–V–Mn) ceramics were investigated with different valences and contents of Mn. The incorporation of Mn into the ZV ceramics was found to restrict the abnormal grain growth of ZnO. The nonlinear properties and stability against the d.c. accelerated ageing stress are significantly affected by different valences and contents of Mn. The high valence of Mn (Mn4+) in the ZVM ceramics resulted in better nonlinear properties than low valence of Mn (Mn2.66+). Furthermore, an increase in doping level of MnO2 greatly improved its nonlinear properties. The ZVM ceramics doped with 2 mol% MnO2 exhibited not only a high nonlinearity, in which the nonlinear coefficient is 27 and the leakage current density is 0.042 mA/cm2, but also a good stability, in which % 1\\ mA = –2.1%, % = –25.9% for the d.c. accelerated ageing stress of 0.85 1\\ mA/85°C/24 h.

  13. Proposition of an Accelerated Ageing Method for Natural Fibre/Polylactic Acid Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandvliet, Clio; Bandyopadhyay, N. R.; Ray, Dipa

    2015-10-01

    Natural fibre composite based on polylactic acid (PLA) composite is of special interest because it is entirely from renewable resources and biodegradable. Some samples of jute/PLA composite and PLA alone made 6 years ago and kept in tropical climate on a shelf shows too fast ageing degradation. In this work, an accelerated ageing method for natural fibres/PLA composite is proposed and tested. Experiment was carried out with jute and flax fibre/PLA composite. The method was compared with the standard ISO 1037-06a. The residual flexural strength after ageing test was compared with the one of common wood-based panels and of real aged samples prepared 6 years ago.

  14. Service Lifetime Estimation of EPDM Rubber Based on Accelerated Aging Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Li, Xiangbo; Xu, Likun; He, Tao

    2017-02-01

    Service lifetime of ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubber at room temperature (25 °C) was estimated based on accelerated aging tests. The study followed sealing stress loss on compressed cylinder samples by compression stress relaxation methods. The results showed that the cylinder samples of EPDM can quickly reach the physical relaxation equilibrium by using the over-compression method. The non-Arrhenius behavior occurred at the lowest aging temperature. A significant linear relationship was observed between compression set values and normalized stress decay results, and the relationship was not related to the ambient temperature of aging. It was estimated that the sealing stress loss in view of practical application would occur after around 86.8 years at 25 °C. The estimations at 25 °C based on the non-Arrhenius behavior were in agreement with compression set data from storage aging tests in natural environment.

  15. Accelerated Aging during Chronic Oxidative Stress: A Role for PARP-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniëlle M. P. H. J. Boesten

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathophysiology of chronic inflammatory disease and it has also been linked to accelerated telomere shortening. Telomeres are specialized structures at the ends of linear chromosomes that protect these ends from degradation and fusion. Telomeres shorten with each cell division eventually leading to cellular senescence. Research has shown that poly(ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1 and subtelomeric methylation play a role in telomere stability. We hypothesized that PARP-1 plays a role in accelerated aging in chronic inflammatory diseases due to its role as coactivator of NF-κb and AP-1. Therefore we evaluated the effect of chronic PARP-1 inhibition (by fisetin and minocycline in human fibroblasts (HF cultured under normal conditions and under conditions of chronic oxidative stress, induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP. Results showed that PARP-1 inhibition under normal culturing conditions accelerated the rate of telomere shortening. However, under conditions of chronic oxidative stress, PARP-1 inhibition did not show accelerated telomere shortening. We also observed a strong correlation between telomere length and subtelomeric methylation status of HF cells. We conclude that chronic PARP-1 inhibition appears to be beneficial in conditions of chronic oxidative stress but may be detrimental under relatively normal conditions.

  16. Beneficial effects of melatonin on cardiological alterations in a murine model of accelerated aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Katherine; Vara, Elena; García, Cruz; Kireev, Roman; Cuesta, Sara; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío; Tresguerres, J A F

    2010-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of aging-related parameters such as inflammation, oxidative stress and cell death in the heart in an animal model of accelerated senescence and analyzed the effects of chronic administration of melatonin on these markers. Thirty male mice of senescence-accelerated prone (SAMP8) and 30 senescence-accelerated-resistant mice (SAMR1) at 2 and 10 months of age were used. Animals were divided into eight experimental groups, four from each strain: two young control groups, two old untreated control groups, and four melatonin-treated groups. Melatonin was provided at two different dosages (1 and 10 mg/kg/day) in the drinking water. After 30 days of treatment, the expression of inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin 1 and 10, NFkBp50 and NFkBp52), apoptosis markers (BAD, BAX and Bcl2) and parameters related to oxidative stress (heme oxygenases 1 and 2, endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthases) were determined in the heart by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Inflammation, as well as, oxidative stress and apoptosis markers was increased in old SAMP8 males, when compared to its young controls. SAMR1 mice showed significantly lower basal levels of the measured parameters and smaller increases with age or no increases at all. After treatment with melatonin, these age-altered parameters were partially reversed, especially in SAMP8 mice. The results suggest that oxidative stress and inflammation increase with aging and that chronic treatment with melatonin, a potent antioxidant, reduces these parameters. The effects were more marked in the SAMP8 animals. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Pineal Research © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Normal ageing in adults with Down's syndrome: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devenny, D A; Silverman, W P; Hill, A L; Jenkins, E; Sersen, E A; Wisniewski, K E

    1996-06-01

    The ubiquitous presence of the neuropathology of Alzheimer disease (AD) in individuals with Down's syndrome (DS) over 40 years of age suggests that this group of people will exhibit a high prevalence of dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) as they age. The present study indicates that there is a clear discrepancy between the presumed presence of AD neuropathology and the clinical expression of DAT among older people with DS. In the first 6 years of a longitudinal study, the present authors compared 91 adults (31-63 years of age) with DS and mild or moderate mental retardation to 64 adults (31-76 years of age) with other forms of mental retardation (MR) on yearly measures of mental status, short- and long-term memory, speeded psychomotor function, and visuospatial organization. The results indicated that, over repeated testing on the verbal long-term memory test, younger participants with DS showed small increases in their scores, while older participants with DS showed very slight decreases. Overall performance scores on this test and a speeded psychomotor task were poorer for both diagnostic groups in individuals aged 50 years and older. The magnitude and type of these selective changes in performance were consistent with performance profiles observed in older healthy adults without mental retardation on tests measuring similar cognitive functions. Only four out of the 91 people with DS in the present sample showed changes in functioning that have led to a diagnosis of possible DAT, and in these individuals, alternative causes of performance declines were concurrently present (e.g. thyroid dysfunction). These findings indicate that some age-associated changes in functioning are related to "normal' but probably precocious ageing among adults with DS. Furthermore, these findings suggest that adults with DS and mild or moderate mental retardation may be at lower risk for dementia during their fourth and fifth decades of life than previous studies have suggested.

  18. Leisure Activity and Caregiver Involvement in Middle-Aged and Older Adults with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaila, Iulia; Hartley, Sigan L.; Handen, Benjamin L.; Bulova, Peter D.; Tumuluru, Rameshwari V.; Devenny, Darlynne A.; Johnson, Sterling C.; Lao, Patrick J.; Christian, Bradley, T.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined leisure activity and its association with caregiver involvement (i.e., residence and time spent with primary caregiver) in 62 middle-aged and older adults with Down syndrome (aged 30-53 years). Findings indicated that middle-aged and older adults with Down syndrome frequently participated in social and passive leisure…

  19. Acute coronary syndrome in women of reproductive age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris N

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nazimah Idris1, Sharifah Sulaiha Aznal1, Sze-Piaw Chin1, Wan Azman Wan Ahmad2, Azhari Rosman3, Sinnadurai Jeyaindran4, Omar Ismail5, Robaayah Zambahari3, Kui Huan Sim6 1International Medical University, Seremban; 2University Malaya Medical Centre, PJ; 3Institut Jantung Negara, KL; 4Hospital Kuala Lumpur, KL; 5Hospital Pulau Pinang; 6Hospital Umum Sarawak, Malaysia Background: There is scarce or no data on prevalence and presentation of acute coronary syndrome (ACS among women of reproductive age. Furthermore, whether women of reproductive age presenting with ACS have the same risk factors as men and older women is not known. Objective: To analyze factors associated with ACS in women of reproductive age in comparison with older women and men of a similar age group. Methodology: A total of 9702 cases of acute coronary syndrome over a 3-year period (2006–2008 from the National Cardiovascular Disease database were analyzed, with focus on women of reproductive age (20–<40 years, looking into association with ethnicity, comorbid illness, and the ACS stratum. Comparison with older women (40–<60 years; Control 1 and men of similar age group (Control 2 was made and analyzed using Fisher's exact test and chi-square test when necessary. Results: From a total of 9702 cases, 2344 (24.2% were women. Of these, 45 (1.9% were women between 20 and <40 years, which is significantly lower than the two controls (older women 30.8%, and men of same age 6.2%, respectively; P < 0.0001. The distribution of ethnicity shows a similar pattern between the study group and the controls, but patients of Indian ethnicity were over-represented when compared with the Malaysian demographics of general population (31.3% versus 7.1%; P < 0.0001. ACS in women of reproductive age was associated with diabetes mellitus in 37.8%, hypertension in 40.0%, and dyslipidemia in 24.4% of cases, similar to men of the same age but significantly lower than the older women (P < 0.0001. Smoking

  20. CEREBROCARDIAC SYNDROME ON PATIENTS OF OVER SEVENTY AGE AND EEG STUDY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Mingshun; MEI Fengjun; LI Fengluan; LIU Qingrui; GU Lanjie

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To observe cerebrocardiac syndrome on patients of the over seventy age and it's change of EEG. Methods: Brain CT and ECG were examined in 50 patients of the over seventy age with cerebrocardiac syndrome. Results: There were obvious changes in the brain CT and ECG. Conclusion:There were obvious changes of brain CT and ECG in cerebrocardiac syndrome of over seventy age patients.

  1. Non-thermal emissions from outer magnetospheric accelerators of middle-aged pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Takata, J

    2008-01-01

    We discuss $\\gamma$-ray emissions from the outer gap accelerators of middle-aged pulsars for part of the series of our studies. A two-dimensional electrodynamic model is used to solve the distribution of accelerating electric fields with electron and positron pair creation and radiation processes in the magnetic meridional plane. We compute the curvature radiation and the synchrotron radiation by solving the evolution of the Lorentz factor and the pitch angle. The calculated spectra are compared with observed phase-averaged spectra. We also use a three-dimensional geometrical model to discuss the pulse profiles. We argue that the outer gap of middle-aged pulsars occupies the whole region between the last-open field lines and the critical magnetic field lines, which are perpendicular to the rotational axis at the light cylinder. We assume that there is no outer gap accelerator inside the light cylinder between the rotational axis and the critical magnetic field lines. For the Geminga pulsar, we demonstrate tha...

  2. Time dependent diffusive shock acceleration and its application to middle aged supernova remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Xiaping

    2016-01-01

    Recent gamma-ray observations show that middle aged supernova remnants (SNRs) interacting with molecular clouds (MCs) can be sources of both GeV and TeV emission. Based on the MC association, two scenarios have been proposed to explain the observed gamma-ray emission. In one, energetic cosmic ray (CR) particles escape from the SNR and then illuminate nearby MCs, producing gamma-ray emission, while the other involves direct interaction between the SNR and MC. In the direct interaction scenario, re-acceleration of pre-existing CRs in the ambient medium is investigated while particles injected from the thermal pool are neglected in view of the slow shock speeds in middle aged SNRs. However, standard diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) theory produces a steady state particle spectrum that is too flat compared to observations, which suggests that the high energy part of the observed spectrum has not yet reached a steady state. We derive a time dependent DSA solution in the test particle limit for re-acceleration of...

  3. Characterization and Accelerated Ageing of UHMWPE Used in Orthopedic Prosthesis by Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Mansur

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE has been the most commonly used bearing material in total joint arthroplasty. Wear and oxidation fatigue resistance of UHMWPE are regarded as two important mechanical properties to extend the longevity of knee prostheses. Though accelerated in vitro protocols have been developed to test the relative oxidation resistance of various types of UHMWPE, its mechanism is not accurately understood yet. Thus, in the present study an accelerated ageing of UHMWPE in hydrogen peroxide solution was performed and relative oxidation was extensively characterized by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR spectroscopy and the morphological changes were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Different chemical groups of UHMWPE associated with the degradation reaction were monitored for over 120 days in order to evaluate the possible oxidation mechanism(s which may have occurred. The results have provided strong evidence that the oxidation mechanism is rather complex, and two stages with their own particular first-order kinetics reaction patterns have been clearly identified. Furthermore, hydrogen peroxide has proven to be an efficient oxidative medium to accelerate ageing of UHMWPE.

  4. Characterization and Accelerated Ageing of UHMWPE Used in Orthopedic Prosthesis by Peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Magda; Mansur, Alexandra; Mansur, Herman

    2009-01-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has been the most commonly used bearing material in total joint arthroplasty. Wear and oxidation fatigue resistance of UHMWPE are regarded as two important mechanical properties to extend the longevity of knee prostheses. Though accelerated in vitro protocols have been developed to test the relative oxidation resistance of various types of UHMWPE, its mechanism is not accurately understood yet. Thus, in the present study an accelerated ageing of UHMWPE in hydrogen peroxide solution was performed and relative oxidation was extensively characterized by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy and the morphological changes were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Different chemical groups of UHMWPE associated with the degradation reaction were monitored for over 120 days in order to evaluate the possible oxidation mechanism(s) which may have occurred. The results have provided strong evidence that the oxidation mechanism is rather complex, and two stages with their own particular first-order kinetics reaction patterns have been clearly identified. Furthermore, hydrogen peroxide has proven to be an efficient oxidative medium to accelerate ageing of UHMWPE.

  5. Clinical Presentation of Klinefelter's Syndrome: Differences According to Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Pacenza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to establish the characteristics of presentation of 94 patients with Kinelfelter's syndrome (KS referred to the endocrinologist at different ages. The diagnosis of KS was more frequent in the age group between 11 and 20 years (46.8%. Most of the patients (83.7% showed the classic 47,XXY karyotype and 7.1% showed a 47,XXY/46,XY mosaicism. Half of the patients younger than 18 years presented mild neurodevelopmental disorders. The most frequent clinical findings were cryptorchidism in prepubertal patients, and small testes, cryptorchidism, and gynecomastia in pubertal patients. FSH, LH, AMH, and inhibin B levels were normal in prepubertal patients and became abnormal from midpuberty. Most adults were referred for small testes, infertility, and gynecomastia; 43.6% had sexual dysfunction. Testosterone levels were low in 45%. Mean stature was above the 50th percentile, and 62.5% had BMI ≥25.0 kg/m2. In conclusion, the diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome seems to be made earlier nowadays probably because pediatricians are more aware that boys and adolescents with neuro-developmental disorders and cryptorchidism are at increased risk. The increasing use of prenatal diagnosis has also decreased the mean age at diagnosis and allowed to get insight into the evolution of previously undiagnosed cases, which probably represent the mildest forms. In adults average height and weight are slightly higher than those in the normal population. Bone mineral density is mildly affected, more at the spine than at the femoral neck level, in less than half of cases.

  6. Clinical Presentation of Klinefelter's Syndrome: Differences According to Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacenza, Néstor; Pasqualini, Titania; Gottlieb, Silvia; Knoblovits, Pablo; Costanzo, Pablo R.; Stewart Usher, Jorge; Rey, Rodolfo A.; Martínez, María P.; Aszpis, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish the characteristics of presentation of 94 patients with Kinelfelter's syndrome (KS) referred to the endocrinologist at different ages. The diagnosis of KS was more frequent in the age group between 11 and 20 years (46.8%). Most of the patients (83.7%) showed the classic 47,XXY karyotype and 7.1% showed a 47,XXY/46,XY mosaicism. Half of the patients younger than 18 years presented mild neurodevelopmental disorders. The most frequent clinical findings were cryptorchidism in prepubertal patients, and small testes, cryptorchidism, and gynecomastia in pubertal patients. FSH, LH, AMH, and inhibin B levels were normal in prepubertal patients and became abnormal from midpuberty. Most adults were referred for small testes, infertility, and gynecomastia; 43.6% had sexual dysfunction. Testosterone levels were low in 45%. Mean stature was above the 50th percentile, and 62.5% had BMI ≥25.0 kg/m2. In conclusion, the diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome seems to be made earlier nowadays probably because pediatricians are more aware that boys and adolescents with neuro-developmental disorders and cryptorchidism are at increased risk. The increasing use of prenatal diagnosis has also decreased the mean age at diagnosis and allowed to get insight into the evolution of previously undiagnosed cases, which probably represent the mildest forms. In adults average height and weight are slightly higher than those in the normal population. Bone mineral density is mildly affected, more at the spine than at the femoral neck level, in less than half of cases. PMID:22291701

  7. Age-related changes of adaptive and neuropsychological features in persons with Down Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ghezzo

    Full Text Available Down Syndrome (DS is characterised by premature aging and an accelerated decline of cognitive functions in the vast majority of cases. As the life expectancy of DS persons is rapidly increasing, this decline is becoming a dramatic health problem. The aim of this study was to thoroughly evaluate a group of 67 non-demented persons with DS of different ages (11 to 66 years, from a neuropsychological, neuropsychiatric and psychomotor point of view in order to evaluate in a cross-sectional study the age-related adaptive and neuropsychological features, and to possibly identify early signs predictive of cognitive decline. The main finding of this study is that both neuropsychological functions and adaptive skills are lower in adult DS persons over 40 years old, compared to younger ones. In particular, language and short memory skills, frontal lobe functions, visuo-spatial abilities and adaptive behaviour appear to be the more affected domains. A growing deficit in verbal comprehension, along with social isolation, loss of interest and greater fatigue in daily tasks, are the main features found in older, non demented DS persons evaluated in our study. It is proposed that these signs can be alarm bells for incipient dementia, and that neuro-cognitive rehabilitation and psycho-pharmacological interventions must start as soon as the fourth decade (or even earlier in DS persons, i.e. at an age where interventions can have the greatest efficacy.

  8. Effects of different polishing methods on color stability of resin composites after accelerated aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirin Karaarslan, Emine; Bulbul, Mehmet; Yildiz, Esma; Secilmis, Asli; Sari, Fatih; Usumez, Aslihan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of polishing procedures on the color stability of different types of composites after aging. Forty disk-shaped specimens (Ø10×2 mm) were prepared for each composite resin type (an ormocer, a packable, a nanohybrid, and a microhybrid) for a total of 160 specimens. Each composite group was divided into four subgroups according to polishing method (n=10): control (no finishing and polishing), polishing disk, polishing wheel, and glaze material. Color parameters (L*, a*, and b*) and surface roughness were measured before and after accelerated aging. Of the polishing methods, glazed specimens showed the lowest color change (∆E*), ∆L*, and ∆b* values (p<0.05). Of the composite resins, the microhybrid composite showed the lowest ∆E* value, whereas the ormocer showed the highest (p<0.05). For all composite types, the surface roughness of their control groups decreased after aging (p<0.05). In conclusion, all composite resins showed color changes after accelerated aging, with the use of glaze material resulting in the lowest color change.

  9. Applying the LLTM for the determination of children’s cognitive age-acceleration function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus D. Kubinger

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper uses Item Response Theory (IRT for modeling and hypothesis testing children’s cogni-tive age-acceleration function – within calibration and standardization of some intelligence test. For this, basically Fischer’s Linear logistic test model (LLTM; Fischer, 1973, 2005 is applied. How-ever, instead of originally decomposing the item difficulty parameters of the Rasch model into certain hypothesized elementary parameters, we now suggest to decompose the person parameter alike. That is, there is a decomposition into a testee’s basic ability parameter and an age-leveled effect due to the developmental stage of the age-group in question. For convenience, we only inter-change testees and items in order to facilitate parameter estimation and model test – of course, the Rasch model is totally symmetric as concerns testees and items. By doing so, all findings in the context of LLTM apply; in particular, pertinent program packages are at our disposal. In order to examine the suggested approach’s feasibility, an empirical example is given. An Analogy test with eight items administered to more than 300 testees aged between 6 and 16, was analyzed. As a matter of fact, the logistic acceleration function proved to fit the data well and best.

  10. Aging-like skin changes in metabolic syndrome model mice are mediated by mineralocorticoid receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagase, Takashi; Akase, Tomoko; Sanada, Hiromi; Minematsu, Takeo; Ibuki, Ai; Huang, Lijuan; Asada, Mayumi; Yoshimura, Kotaro; Nagase, Miki; Shimada, Tsutomu; Aburada, Masaki; Nakagami, Gojiro; Sugama, Junko

    2013-02-01

    Aging is accelerated, at least in part, by pathological condition such as metabolic syndrome (MetS), and various molecular pathways such as oxidative stress are common mediators of aging and MetS. We previously developed the aging-like skin model by single ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on the MetS model mice. Recent studies revealed that mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) signaling plays a pivotal role for various tissue inflammation and damages in MetS. Although previous studies reported that MR is expressed in the skin and that overexpression of MR in the skin resulted in the skin atrophy, the physiological or pathological functions of MR in the skin are not fully elucidated. Here, we show the involvement of MR signaling in the aging-like skin changes in our own model. Elevations of oxidative stress and inflammation markers were observed in the MetS mice, and the UV-evoked aging-like skin damages were attenuated by topical antioxidant. MR expression was higher in the MetS mouse skin, and notably, expression of its effecter gene Sgk1 was significantly upregulated in the aging-like skin in the UV-irradiated MetS mice. Furthermore, topical application of MR antagonist spironolactone suppressed Sgk1 expression, oxidative stress, inflammation, and the aging-like changes in the skin. The 2-week UV onto the non-MetS mice, the more usual photoaging model, resulted in the skin damages mostly equivalent to the MetS mice with single UV, but they were not associated with upregulation of MR signaling. Our studies suggested an unexpected role of MR signaling in the skin aging in MetS status.

  11. Effect of energy density on color stability in dental resin composites under accelerated aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamarripa, Eliezer; Ancona, Adriana L; D'Accorso, Norma B; Macchi, Ricardo L; Abate, Pablo F

    2008-01-01

    The effects of the energy density that is used for polymerization on properties of dental resin composites are well known. However, few studies relate color stability to this factor. The aim of this study was to assess color changes (deltaE*), in vitro, in terms of accelerated aging under UV exposure of specimens prepared with different energy densities. Four commercial dental resin composites were included in the study. Thirty six specimens were prepared for each one of them, following the procedure established by ISO 4049 Standard, and assigned to three groups: A (3.75 J/cm2), B (9 J/cm2), C (24 J/cm2). Each group was further subdivided into four subgroups: 1 (no aging), 2 (500 hours aging), 3 (1000 hours aging) and 4 (1500 hours aging). The results were analyzed by means of ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha = 0.05) to determine the effect of the factors. Correlation was performed in order to determine the possible relationship among variables. Energy density is not a significant factor in color stability. However aging is directly proportional to color changes. deltaE* depends on filler size; hybrid material presented deltaE* of 2.1(0.5), 2.4(0.6) and 3.3(0.3) at 500, 1000 and 1500 hours of accelerated aging respectively, and nanofilled material showed deltaE* of 3.0(0.6), 4.5(1.2) and 5.9(0.6) at the same times respectively. It can be concluded that deltaE* does not depend on energy density; however other factors are involved in color change. Further studies in this area are warranted.

  12. Two-Step Acceleration Model of Cosmic Rays at Middle-Aged SNR

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Recent gamma-ray observations of middle-aged supernova remnants revealed a mysterious broken power-law spectrum. Using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulations, we show that the interaction between a supernova blast wave and interstellar clouds formed by thermal instability generates multiple reflected shocks. The typical Mach numbers of the reflected shocks are shown to be M ~ 2 depending on the density contrast between the diffuse intercloud gas and clouds. These secondary shocks can further energize cosmic-ray particles originally accelerated at the blast-wave shock. This "two-step" acceleration scenario reproduces the observed gamma-ray spectrum and predicts the high-energy spectral index ranging approximately from 3 to 4.

  13. Bloom syndrome in short children born small for gestational age: A challenging diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.S. Renes (Judith); R.H. Willemsen (Ruben); A. Wagner (Anja); M.J. Finken (Martijn); A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: GH treatment has become a frequently applied growth-promoting therapy in short children born small for gestational age (SGA). In some disorders GH treatment is contraindicated, eg, chromosomal breakage syndromes. Bloom syndrome is a rare chromosomal breakage syndrome characte

  14. Bloom syndrome in short children born small for gestational age: A challenging diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.S. Renes (Judith); R.H. Willemsen (Ruben); A. Wagner (Anja); M.J. Finken (Martijn); A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: GH treatment has become a frequently applied growth-promoting therapy in short children born small for gestational age (SGA). In some disorders GH treatment is contraindicated, eg, chromosomal breakage syndromes. Bloom syndrome is a rare chromosomal breakage syndrome characte

  15. Anticedants and natural prevention of environmental toxicants induced accelerated aging of skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanuja Yadav; Mishra, Shivangi; Das, Shefali; Aggarwal, Shikha; Rani, Vibha

    2015-01-01

    Skin is frequently exposed to a variety of environmental and chemical agents that accelerate ageing. External stress such as UV radiations (UVR) and environmental pollutants majorly deteriorate the skin morphology, by activating certain intrinsic factors such as Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) which trigger the activation of Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) and inflammatory responses hence damaging the extracellular matrix (ECM) components. To counter this, an exogenous supply of anti-oxidants, is required since the endogenous anti-oxidant system cannot alone suffice the need. Bio-prospecting of natural resources for anti-oxidants has hence been intensified. Immense research is being carried out to identify potential plants with potent anti-oxidant activity against skin ageing. This review summarizes the major factors responsible for premature skin ageing and the plants being targeted to lessen the impact of those.

  16. Accelerated aging of melon seeds Envelhecimento acelerado em sementes de melão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Barros Torres

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated aging is one of the most useful tests used for the evaluation of seed vigor but it is seldomly used to test melon (Cucumis melo L. seeds. The objective this research was to compare different procedures of the accelerated aging test to evaluate the physiological quality of melon seeds and the efficiency of using saturated salt solution for the control of water uptake by seeds. Five seed lots each of the hybrids AF-646 and AF-682 were tested for germination, seedling emergence, traditional accelerated aging (periods 0f 48, 72 and 96 hours, at 38 or 41°C and salt saturated accelerated aging. The accelerated aging test (traditional procedure and with salt solution for 72h and 96h, at 38 or 41°C was sensitive to detect differences in the physiological quality of the seeds. It was also observed that the seed water content after salt saturated accelerated aging was lower and more uniform, thus presenting advantagens in relation to the traditional procedure.O teste de envelhecimento acelerado é um dos mais utilizados para a avaliação do potencial fisiológico das sementes de várias espécies. Entretanto, estudos com sementes de melão ainda são escassos. Avaliou-se procedimentos para a condução do teste de envelhecimento acelerado para avaliação do potencial fisiológico de sementes de melão (Cucumis melo L., incluindo o uso de solução saturada de sal em substituição à água. Cinco lotes de sementes, dos híbridos AF-646 e AF-682, foram submetidos aos testes de germinação, emergência de plântulas em casa de vegetação e envelhecimento acelerado (períodos de 48, 72 ou 96 horas, a 38 ou 41°C, com e sem o uso de solução saturada de NaCl. O teste de envelhecimento acelerado (procedimento tradicional e com solução salina, conduzido com períodos de exposição de 72h e 96h a 38 ou 41°C, apresentou sensibilidade suficiente para detectar diferenças no potencial fisiológico de lotes de sementes de melão. A utiliza

  17. Investigations of Accelerated Climate Aged Wood Substrates by Fourier Transform Infrared Material Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Petter Jelle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourier transform infrared (FTIR material characterization by applying the attenuated total reflectance (ATR experimental technique represents a powerful measurement tool. The ATR technique may be applied on both solid state materials, liquids and gases with none or only minor sample preparations, also including materials which are nontransparent to infrared radiation. This facilitation is made possible by pressing the sample directly onto various crystals, for example, diamond, with high refractive indices, in a special reflectance setup. Materials undergoing ageing processes by natural and accelerated climate exposure, decomposition and formation of chemical bonds and products, may be studied in an ATR-FTIR analysis. In this work, the ATR-FTIR technique is utilized to detect changes in selected wood building material substrates subjected to accelerated climate exposure conditions. Changes in specific FTIR absorbance peaks are designated to different wood deterioration processes. One aim is by ATR-FTIR analysis to be able to quantitatively determine the length of the wood ageing time before priming/treatment. Climate parameters like temperature (including freezing/thawing, relative air humidity, wind driven rain amount, solar and/or ultraviolet radiation, and exposure duration may be controlled in different climate ageing apparatuses. Both impregnated and raw wood samples have been employed in the experimental investigations.

  18. Evaluating Period of Accelerated Skeletal Maturation in Gujarati Children between Ages 8+ and 14+ Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarjit Singh Bhatia

    2012-01-01

    Aims and objective: In the present study, an attempt was made to assess the level of skeletal maturation and period of accelerated growth in 70 boys and 70 girls between the ages (8+ and (14+ years using CVMS index. Materials and methods: Lateral cephalogram of 140 individuals were selected, i.e. 70 girls and 70 boys, each of age group from 8+ to 14+ years. It is observed that CVMS index used is highly significant for this purpose. It is observed that this index is highly effective for this purpose. Conclusion: Females′ vertebrae mature earlier than males at each stage. The maturation rate is not constant between the various stages and period of accelerated growth is experienced at different ages and levels in males and females. Need arises to confirm that early maturation in females is not because of their smaller sized vertebra. Further, the time duration recorded between the two subsequent stages is different not because the changes required to be done by nature is different. Longitudinal growth studies of the jaws proper are desired to be conducted for this purpose.

  19. The Use of Mouse Models for Understanding the Biology of Down Syndrome and Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Vacano, Guido N.; Nathan Duval; David Patterson

    2012-01-01

    Down syndrome is a complex condition caused by trisomy of human chromosome 21. The biology of aging may be different in individuals with Down syndrome; this is not well understood in any organism. Because of its complexity, many aspects of Down syndrome must be studied either in humans or in animal models. Studies in humans are essential but are limited for ethical and practical reasons. Fortunately, genetically altered mice can serve as extremely useful models of Down syndrome, and progress ...

  20. Low heart-type fatty acid binding protein level during aging may protect down syndrome people against atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianello Elena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aging is considered an important independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. Down syndrome people (DS display an accelerated aging process compared to healthy subjects, anyway they are relatively resistant to developing atherosclerosis. The mechanisms involved in such protective effect are not well known. Since heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP is a protein involved in the transport of fatty acids and it has been recently correlated with the presence of atherosclerosis, we aimed to measure H-FABP level both in DS and in healthy subjects during aging to evaluate the association between this molecule, aging and atherosclerosis. Findings We quantified plasmatic H-FABP level in three groups of male DS and age-matched healthy subjects (children, age 2–14 years; adults, age 20–50 years; elderly, > 60 years using a biochip array analyzer. We observed that aging is associated with increased H-FABP level in healthy subjects but not in DS which display both the same protein level in the different ages of life and have also lower level compared to their age-matched healthy subjects. Conclusion Reduced H-FABP level during aging in DS may play a protective role against atherosclerosis. The potential involvement of H-FABP in the relationship between aging, atherosclerosis and development of coronary artery disease needs further investigations.

  1. Envelhecimento acelerado em sementes de alface Accelerated aging in lettuce seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Marani Barbosa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se adequar a metodologia do teste de envelhecimento acelerado para avaliação do potencial fisiológico de sementes de quatro lotes dos genótipos de alface 'Babá de verão', 'Tainá' e 'Vera', aplicando-se o método tradicional e com o uso de solução saturada de NaCl. Para tal, as sementes foram submetidas à determinação do teor de água, testes de germinação e vigor (primeira contagem, condutividade elétrica, emergência em bandeja, índice de velocidade de emergência incluindo o teste de envelhecimento acelerado, conduzido nos períodos de 24, 48, e 72 horas, a 41°C com e sem solução saturada de NaCl. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições. Os procedimentos tradicional e com o uso da solução saturada de NaCl por 72 horas foram sensíveis em estratificar os lotes em níveis de vigor, além de estarem de acordo com os demais testes utilizados. Portanto, o envelhecimento acelerado de sementes de alface deve ser feito utilizando o período de 72 horas, podendo ser realizado tanto pelo método tradicional quanto pelo método da solução saturada de NaCl.The objective was to adapt the methodology of the accelerated aging test to evaluate the physiological potential of seeds of four lots of lettuce genotypes 'Babá de verão', 'Tainá' and 'Vera' applying the traditional method and using a saturated NaCl solution. So, the seeds were subjected to determination of water content, seed germination and vigor (first count, electrical conductivity, speed emergency index, emergency tray including the accelerated aging test conducted in periods of 24, 48, 72 hours at 41°C with and without saturated solution of NaCl. The experiment was conducted in a randomized design with four replications. The accelerated aging traditional and saturated solution of NaCl by 72h was more sensitive to stratify the lots in vigor levels. Therefore, accelerated aging of seeds of lettuce should be

  2. Psychiatric Disorders, Morbidity, and Mortality: Tracing Mechanistic Pathways to Accelerated Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K; Wilson, Stephanie J

    2016-09-01

    A meta-analysis published in this issue of Psychosomatic Medicine provides convincing evidence that certain psychiatric populations have shorter telomeres than nonpsychiatric controls, in accord with the strong evidence linking psychiatric disorders with premature mortality. After addressing the clinical significance of shorter telomeres, this editorial describes mechanistic pathways that lead to telomere shortening. Additionally, two other novel methods for measuring biological markers of accelerated aging are briefly discussed: DNA methylation and cellular senescence based on p16. These innovative approaches could be used to confirm and extend our understanding of psychiatric patients' increased health and mortality risks.

  3. Acceleration of age-associated methylation patterns in HIV-1-infected adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy M Rickabaugh

    Full Text Available Patients with treated HIV-1-infection experience earlier occurrence of aging-associated diseases, raising speculation that HIV-1-infection, or antiretroviral treatment, may accelerate aging. We recently described an age-related co-methylation module comprised of hundreds of CpGs; however, it is unknown whether aging and HIV-1-infection exert negative health effects through similar, or disparate, mechanisms. We investigated whether HIV-1-infection would induce age-associated methylation changes. We evaluated DNA methylation levels at >450,000 CpG sites in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC of young (20-35 and older (36-56 adults in two separate groups of participants. Each age group for each data set consisted of 12 HIV-1-infected and 12 age-matched HIV-1-uninfected samples for a total of 96 samples. The effects of age and HIV-1 infection on methylation at each CpG revealed a strong correlation of 0.49, p<1 x 10(-200 and 0.47, p<1 x 10(-200. Weighted gene correlation network analysis (WGCNA identified 17 co-methylation modules; module 3 (ME3 was significantly correlated with age (cor=0.70 and HIV-1 status (cor=0.31. Older HIV-1+ individuals had a greater number of hypermethylated CpGs across ME3 (p=0.015. In a multivariate model, ME3 was significantly associated with age and HIV status (Data set 1: βage=0.007088, p=2.08 x 10(-9; βHIV=0.099574, p=0.0011; Data set 2: βage=0.008762, p=1.27 x 10(-5; βHIV=0.128649, p=0.0001. Using this model, we estimate that HIV-1 infection accelerates age-related methylation by approximately 13.7 years in data set 1 and 14.7 years in data set 2. The genes related to CpGs in ME3 are enriched for polycomb group target genes known to be involved in cell renewal and aging. The overlap between ME3 and an aging methylation module found in solid tissues is also highly significant (Fisher-exact p=5.6 x 10(-6, odds ratio=1.91. These data demonstrate that HIV-1 infection is associated with methylation patterns that

  4. Effect of accelerated environmental aging on tensile properties of oil palm/jute hybrid composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawaid, M.; Saba, N.; Alothman, O.; Paridah, M. T.

    2016-11-01

    Recently natural fibre based hybrid composites are receiving growing consideration due to environmental and biodegradability properties. In order to look behaviour of hybrid composites in outdoor applications, its environmental degradation properties such as UV accelerated weathering properties need to analyze. In this study oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and jute fibres reinforced hybrid composites, pure EFB, pure jute and epoxy composites were fabricated through hand lay-up techniques. Hybrid composites with different layering pattern (EFB/jute/EFB and Jute/EFB/jute) while maintaining 40 wt. % total fibre loading were fabricates to compared with EFB and jute composites. Effect of UV accelerated environmental aging on tensile properties of epoxy, pure EFB, pure jute, and hybrid composites were assessed and evaluate under UV exposure. Tensile samples of all composites were subjected to accelerated weathering for 100h, at temperature (75°C), relative humidity (35%), Light (125 W/m2), and water spray off. Obtained results indicated that there is reduction in tensile strength, modulus and elongation at break values of hybrid and pure composites due to degradation of lignin and fibre-matrix interfacial bonding.

  5. Melatonin can improve insulin resistance and aging-induced pancreas alterations in senescence-accelerated prone male mice (SAMP8)

    OpenAIRE

    Cuesta, Sara; Kireev, Roman; García, Cruz; Rancan, Lisa; Vara, Elena; Jesús A. F. Tresguerres

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of aging on several parameters related to glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance in pancreas and how melatonin administration could affect these parameters. Pancreas samples were obtained from two types of male mice models: senescence-accelerated prone (SAMP8) and senescence-accelerated-resistant mice (SAMR1). Insulin levels in plasma were increased with aging in both SAMP8 and SAMR1 mice, whereas insulin content in pancreas was d...

  6. Cerebrovascular contributions to aging and Alzheimer's disease in Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcock, Donna M; Schmitt, Frederick A; Head, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is a common cause of intellectual disability and is also associated with early age of onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Due to an extra copy of chromosome 21, most adults over 40years old with DS have beta-amyloid plaques as a result of overexpression of the amyloid precursor protein. Cerebrovascular pathology may also be a significant contributor to neuropathology observed in the brains of adults with DS. This review describes the features of cardiovascular dysfunction and cerebrovascular pathology in DS that may be modifiable risk factors and thus targets for interventions. We will describe cerebrovascular pathology, the role of co-morbidities, imaging studies indicating vascular pathology and the possible consequences. It is clear that our understanding of aging and AD in people with DS will benefit from further studies to determine the role that cerebrovascular dysfunction contributes to cognitive health. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock.

  7. Clinical presentation of Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome in children and adolescents : Is there an age effect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribolsi, Michele; Lin, Ashleigh; Wardenaar, Klaas J; Pontillo, Maria; Mazzone, Luigi; Vicari, Stefano; Armando, Marco

    2017-01-01

    There is limited research on clinical features related to age of presentation of the Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome in children and adolescents (CAD). Based on findings in CAD with psychosis, we hypothesized that an older age at presentation of Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome would be associated with l

  8. Variability of the Aging Process in Dementia-Free Adults with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Raphaele; Kindelberger, Cecile; Freminville, Benedicte; Touraine, Renaud; Bussey, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to analyze the typical aging process in adults with Down syndrome, focusing on its variability. The sample comprised 120 adults with Down syndrome who were free of dementia. Ages ranged from 20 to 69 years. Each participant was assessed on cognitive functioning and social adaptation, and was checked for…

  9. Clinical presentation of Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome in children and adolescents: Is there an age effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribolsi, Michele; Lin, Ashleigh; Wardenaar, Klaas J; Pontillo, Maria; Mazzone, Luigi; Vicari, Stefano; Armando, Marco

    2017-03-01

    There is limited research on clinical features related to age of presentation of the Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome in children and adolescents (CAD). Based on findings in CAD with psychosis, we hypothesized that an older age at presentation of Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome would be associated with less severe symptoms and better psychosocial functioning than presentation in childhood or younger adolescence. Ninety-four CAD (age 9-18) meeting Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome criteria participated in the study. The sample was divided and compared according to the age of presentation of Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome (9-14 vs 15-18 years). The predictive value of age of Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome presentation was investigated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC)-curve calculations. The two Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome groups were homogeneous in terms of gender distribution, IQ scores and comorbid diagnoses. Older Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome patients showed better functioning and lower depressive scores. ROC curves revealed that severity of functional impairment was best predicted using an age of presentation cut-off of 14.9 years for social functioning and 15.9 years for role functioning. This study partially confirmed our hypothesis; older age at presentation of Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome was associated with less functional impairment, but age was not associated with psychotic symptoms.

  10. Variability of the Aging Process in Dementia-Free Adults with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Raphaele; Kindelberger, Cecile; Freminville, Benedicte; Touraine, Renaud; Bussey, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to analyze the typical aging process in adults with Down syndrome, focusing on its variability. The sample comprised 120 adults with Down syndrome who were free of dementia. Ages ranged from 20 to 69 years. Each participant was assessed on cognitive functioning and social adaptation, and was checked for…

  11. Investigations into the Degradation of PTFE Surface Properties by Accelerated Aging Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Fragassa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an accelerate aging procedure used for investigating the surface alteration of PTFE gaskets commercialized by two alternative producers. These gaskets are installed in modern process plants where tires moulds are cleaned inside a multistage ultrasonic process. The surface of gaskets degrades inexplicably under ordinary operative conditions after a relatively short period. Even if these gaskets are exposed to a combination of ultrasonic waves, temperature, humidity and acid attack, the PTFE properties of resistance nominally exclude the possibility of severe erosion phenomena as highlighted during the real utilization. A possible explanation could be represented by the presence of unexpected chemical compounds emerging from the disaggregation of highly reacting elements from the tire composition. In particular, it is believed that the unpredicted combination of fluorides and chlorides could explain the violent chemical attack highlighted on steel tanks and on their gaskets. But no evidence exists. Thus, the experimental characterization of PTFE properties has to follow an appropriate accelerated aging, aiming at actuating the specific mechanics of wearing as in industrial use.

  12. Validation of accelerated ageing of Thales rotary Stirling cryocoolers for the estimation of MTTF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguineau, C.,; Cauquil, J.-M.; Martin, J.-Y.; Benschop, T.

    2016-05-01

    The cooled IR detectors are used in a wide range of applications. Most of the time, the cryocoolers are one of the components dimensioning the lifetime of the system. The current market needs tend to reliability figures higher than 15,000hrs in "standard conditions". Field returns are hardly useable mostly because of the uncertain environmental conditions of use, or the differences in user profiles. A previous paper explains how Thales Cryogenics has developed an approach based on accelerated ageing and statistical analysis [1]. The aim of the current paper is to compare results obtained on accelerated ageing on one side, and on the other side, specific field returns where the conditions of use are well known. The comparison between prediction and effective failure rate is discussed. Moreover, a specific focus is done on how some new applications of cryocoolers (continuous operation at a specific temperature) can increase the MTTF. Some assumptions are also exposed on how the failure modes, effects and criticality analysis evolves for continuous operation at a specific temperature and compared to experimental data.

  13. Macrophage Response to UHMWPE Submitted to Accelerated Ageing in Hydrogen Peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Magda F.G.; Mansur, Alexandra A.P.; Martins, Camila P.S.; Barbosa-Stancioli, Edel F.; Mansur, Herman S.

    2010-01-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has been the most commonly used bearing material in total joint arthroplasty. Wear and oxidation fatigue resistance of UHMWPE are regarded as two important properties to extend the longevity of knee prostheses. The present study investigated the accelerated ageing of UHMWPE in hydrogen peroxide highly oxidative chemical environment. The sliced samples of UHMWPE were oxidized in a hydrogen peroxide solution for 120 days with their total level of oxidation (Iox) characterized by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The potential inflammatory response, cell viability and biocompatibility of such oxidized UHMWPE systems were assessed by a novel biological in vitro assay based on the secretion of nitric oxide (NO) by activated murine macrophages with gamma interferon (IFN-γ) cytokine and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Furthermore, macrophage morphologies in contact with UHMWPE oxidized surfaces were analyzed by cell spreading-adhesion procedure using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results have given significant evidence that the longer the period of accelerated aging of UHMWPE the higher was the macrophage inflammatory equivalent response based on NO secretion analysis. PMID:20721321

  14. Analysis of Samples Treated by Resistance Test Method Exposed to Accelerated Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Bates

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Global awareness that packaging has to be fully adequate and of high quality, is gradually increasing. That is why printing inks and substrates, which have no detrimental effect on packed products, should be considered a compulsory precondition for food and tobacco packaging. Printing inks that have been developed in the recent years, especially for food and tobacco packaging, have low-odour and low migration into the printing substrate during the drying process. Their migration into the printing substrate is within the acceptable limits and has no detrimental effect in terms of food safety. Another extremely important element of prints in high quality food and tobacco packaging is their stability, as they have to be resistant to liquids and chemicals, which are a part of packed product. The selection of an appropriate printing substrate is also extremely relevant, since the interaction of substrate with printing inks should have zero effect on the packed product and should not change the physical appearance of packaging. This paper presents the results of analysing the stability of laboratory samples printed with low-migration inks, observed immediately after the printing (unaged and two treatments of accelerated aging. The accelerated aging of prints was conducted in order to simulate conditions in which food and tobacco packaging can be found due to the prolonged indoors storage. The stability of prints was analysed based on optical characteristics by observing the prints’ relative reflectance curves.

  15. The signaling pathways by which the Fas/FasL system accelerates oocyte aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiang; Lin, Fei-Hu; Zhang, Jie; Lin, Juan; Li, Hong; Li, You-Wei; Tan, Xiu-Wen; Tan, Jing-He

    2016-02-01

    In spite of great efforts, the mechanisms for postovulatory oocyte aging are not fully understood. Although our previous work showed that the FasL/Fas signaling facilitated oocyte aging, the intra-oocyte signaling pathways are unknown. Furthermore, the mechanisms by which oxidative stress facilitates oocyte aging and the causal relationship between Ca2+ rises and caspase-3 activation and between the cell cycle and apoptosis during oocyte aging need detailed investigations. Our aim was to address these issues by studying the intra-oocyte signaling pathways for Fas/FasL to accelerate oocyte aging. The results indicated that sFasL released by cumulus cells activated Fas on the oocyte by increasing reactive oxygen species via activating NADPH oxidase. The activated Fas triggered Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum by activating phospholipase C-γ pathway and cytochrome c pathway. The cytoplasmic Ca2+ rises activated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and caspase-3. While activated CaMKII increased oocyte susceptibility to activation by inactivating maturation-promoting factor (MPF) through cyclin B degradation, the activated caspase-3 facilitated further Ca2+releasing that activates more caspase-3 leading to oocyte fragmentation. Furthermore, caspase-3 activation and fragmentation were prevented in oocytes with a high MPF activity, suggesting that an oocyte must be in interphase to undergo apoptosis.

  16. Holocene age of the Yuha burial: Direct radiocarbon determinations by accelerator mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Thomas W.; Jull, A.J.T.; Zabel, T.H.; Donahue, D.J.; Duhamel, R.C.; Brendel, K.; Haynes, C.V.; Bischoff, J.L.; Payen, L.A.; Taylor, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    The view that human populations may not have arrived in the Western Hemisphere before about 12,000 radiocarbon yr BP1,2 has been challenged by claims of much greater antiquity for a small number of archaeological sites and human skeleton samples. One such site is the Homo sapiens sapiens cairn burial excavated in 1971 from the Yuha desert, Imperial County, California3-5. Radiocarbon analysis of caliche coating one of the bones of the skeleton yielded a radiocarbon age of 21,500??1,000 yr BP4, while radiocarbon and uranium series analyses of caliche coating a cairn boulder yielded ages of 22,125??400 and 19,000??3,000 yr BP, respectively5. The late Pleistocene age assignment to the Yuha burial has been challenged by comparing the cultural context of the burial with other cairn burials in the same region6, on the basis of the site's geomorphological context and from radiocarbon analyses of soil caliches. 7,8 In rebuttal, arguments in defence of the original age assignment have been presented9,10 as well as an amino acid racemization analysis on the Yuha skeleton indicating an age of 23,600??2,600 yr BP11. The tandem accelerator mass spectrometer at the University of Arizona has now been used to measure the ratio of 14C/13C in several organic and inorganic fractions of post-cranial bone from the Yuha H. sapiens sapiens skeleton. Isotope ratios from six chemical fractions all yielded radiocarbon ages for the skeleton of less than 4,000 yr BP. These results indicate that the Yuha skeleton is of Holocene age, in agreement with the cultural context of the burial, and in disagreement with the previously assigned Pleistocene age of 19,000-23,000 yr. ?? 1984 Nature Publishing Group.

  17. Nuclear matrix, nuclear envelope and premature aging syndromes in a translational research perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cau, Pierre; Navarro, Claire; Harhouri, Karim; Roll, Patrice; Sigaudy, Sabine; Kaspi, Elise; Perrin, Sophie; De Sandre-Giovannoli, Annachiara; Lévy, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    Lamin A-related progeroid syndromes are genetically determined, extremely rare and severe. In the past ten years, our knowledge and perspectives for these diseases has widely progressed, through the progressive dissection of their pathophysiological mechanisms leading to precocious and accelerated aging, from the genes mutations discovery until therapeutic trials in affected children. A-type lamins are major actors in several structural and functional activities at the nuclear periphery, as they are major components of the nuclear lamina. However, while this is usually poorly considered, they also play a key role within the rest of the nucleoplasm, whose defects are related to cell senescence. Although nuclear shape and nuclear envelope deformities are obvious and visible events, nuclear matrix disorganization and abnormal composition certainly represent the most important causes of cell defects with dramatic pathological consequences. Therefore, lamin-associated diseases should be better referred as laminopathies instead of envelopathies, this later being too restrictive, considering neither the key structural and functional roles of soluble lamins in the entire nucleoplasm, nor the nuclear matrix contribution to the pathophysiology of lamin-associated disorders and in particular in defective lamin A processing-associated aging diseases. Based on both our understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms and the biological and clinical consequences of progeria and related diseases, therapeutic trials have been conducted in patients and were terminated less than 10 years after the gene discovery, a quite fast issue for a genetic disease. Pharmacological drugs have been repurposed and used to decrease the toxicity of the accumulated, unprocessed and truncated prelaminA in progeria. To date, none of them may be considered as a cure for progeria and these clinical strategies were essentially designed toward reducing a subset of the most dramatic and morbid features

  18. Stochastic simulations of normal aging and Werner's syndrome.

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Qi

    2014-04-26

    Human cells typically consist of 23 pairs of chromosomes. Telomeres are repetitive sequences of DNA located at the ends of chromosomes. During cell replication, a number of basepairs are lost from the end of the chromosome and this shortening restricts the number of divisions that a cell can complete before it becomes senescent, or non-replicative. In this paper, we use Monte Carlo simulations to form a stochastic model of telomere shortening to investigate how telomere shortening affects normal aging. Using this model, we study various hypotheses for the way in which shortening occurs by comparing their impact on aging at the chromosome and cell levels. We consider different types of length-dependent loss and replication probabilities to describe these processes. After analyzing a simple model for a population of independent chromosomes, we simulate a population of cells in which each cell has 46 chromosomes and the shortest telomere governs the replicative potential of the cell. We generalize these simulations to Werner\\'s syndrome, a condition in which large sections of DNA are removed during cell division and, amongst other conditions, results in rapid aging. Since the mechanisms governing the loss of additional basepairs are not known, we use our model to simulate a variety of possible forms for the rate at which additional telomeres are lost per replication and several expressions for how the probability of cell division depends on telomere length. As well as the evolution of the mean telomere length, we consider the standard deviation and the shape of the distribution. We compare our results with a variety of data from the literature, covering both experimental data and previous models. We find good agreement for the evolution of telomere length when plotted against population doubling.

  19. Bisphenol A exposure accelerated the aging process in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ling; Wang, Shunchang; Wang, Yun; He, Mei; Liu, Dahai

    2015-06-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known environmental estrogenic disruptor that causes adverse effects. Recent studies have found that chronic exposure to BPA is associated with a high incidence of several age-related diseases. Aging is characterized by progressive function decline, which affects quality of life. However, the effects of BPA on the aging process are largely unknown. In the present study, by using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a model, we investigated the influence of BPA exposure on the aging process. The decrease in body length, fecundity, and population size and the increased egg laying defection suggested that BPA exposure resulted in fitness loss and reproduction aging in this animal. Lifetime exposure of worms to BPA shortened the lifespan in a dose-dependant manner. Moreover, prolonged BPA exposure resulted in age-related behavior degeneration and the accumulation of lipofuscin and lipid peroxide products. The expression of mitochondria-specific HSP-6 and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-related HSP-70 exhibited hormetic decrease. The expression of ER-related HSP-4 decreased significantly while HSP-16.2 showed a dose-dependent increase. The decreased expression of GCS-1 and GST-4 implicated the reduced antioxidant ability under BPA exposure, and the increase in SOD-3 expression might be caused by elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Finally, BPA exposure increased the generation of hydrogen peroxide-related ROS and superoxide anions. Our results suggest that BPA exposure resulted in an accelerated aging process in C. elegans mediated by the induction of oxidative stress.

  20. Accelerated Age-Dependent Hippocampal Volume Loss in Parkinson Disease With Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Christine B; Donix, Markus; Linse, Katharina; Werner, Annett; Fauser, Mareike; Klingelhoefer, Lisa; Löhle, Matthias; von Kummer, Rüdiger; Reichmann, Heinz; Storch, Alexander

    2017-09-01

    Patients with Parkinson disease are at high risk of developing dementia. During the course of the disease, a substantial number of patients will experience a cognitive decline, indicating the dynamics of the underlying neuropathology. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become increasingly useful for identifying structural characteristics in radiological brain anatomy existing prior to clinical symptoms. Whether these changes reflect pathology, whether they are aging related, or both often remains unclear. We hypothesized that aging-associated brain structural changes would be more pronounced in the hippocampal region among patients with Parkinson disease having mild cognitive deficits relative to cognitively unimpaired patients. Using MRI, we investigated 30 cognitively healthy patients with Parkinson disease and 33 patients with nondemented Parkinson disease having mild cognitive impairment. All participants underwent structural MRI scanning and extensive clinical and neuropsychological assessments. Irrespective of the study participants' cognitive status, older age was associated with reduced cortical thickness in various neocortical regions. Having mild cognitive impairment was not associated with an increased rate of cortical thinning or volume loss in these regions, except in the hippocampus bilaterally. Patients with Parkinson disease having mild cognitive impairment show an accelerated age-dependent hippocampal volume loss when compared with cognitively healthy patients with Parkinson disease. This may indicate pathological processes in a key region for memory functioning in patients with Parkinson disease at risk of developing dementia. Structural MRI of the hippocampal region could potentially contribute to identifying patients who should receive early treatment aimed at delaying the clinical onset of dementia.

  1. Adaptive-filtering of trisomy 21: risk of Down syndrome depends on family size and age of previous child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhäuser, Markus; Krackow, Sven

    2007-02-01

    The neonatal incidence rate of Down syndrome (DS) is well-known to accelerate strongly with maternal age. This non-linearity renders mere accumulation of defects at recombination during prolonged first meiotic prophase implausible as an explanation for DS rate increase with maternal age, but might be anticipated from chromosomal drive (CD) for trisomy 21. Alternatively, as there is selection against genetically disadvantaged embryos, the screening system that eliminates embryos with trisomy 21 might decay with maternal age. In this paper, we provide the first evidence for relaxed filtering stringency (RFS) to represent an adaptive maternal response that could explain accelerating DS rates with maternal age. Using historical data, we show that the proportion of aberrant live births decrease with increased family size in older mothers, that inter-birth intervals are longer before affected neonates than before normal ones, and that primiparae exhibit elevated levels of DS incidence at higher age. These findings are predicted by adaptive RFS but cannot be explained by the currently available alternative non-adaptive hypotheses, including CD. The identification of the relaxation control mechanism and therapeutic restoration of a stringent screen may have considerable medical implications.

  2. Evaluation of oxidative behavior of polyolefin geosynthetics utilizing accelerated aging tests based on temperature and pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengjia

    Polyolefin geosynthetics are susceptible to oxidation, which eventually leads to the reduction in their engineering properties. In the application of polyolefin geosynthetics, a major issue is an estimate of the materials durability (i.e. service lifetime) under various aging conditions. Antioxidant packages are added to the polyolefin products to extend the induction time, during which antioxidants are gradually depleted and polymer oxidation reactions are prevented. In this PhD study, an improved laboratory accelerating aging method under elevated and high pressure environments was applied to evaluate the combined effect of temperature and pressure on the depletion of the antioxidants and the oxidation of polymers. Four types of commercial polyolefn geosynthetic materials selected for aging tests included HDPE geogrid, polypropylene woven and nonwoven geotextiles. A total of 33 different temperature/pressure aging conditions were used, with the incubation duration up to 24 months. The applied oven temperature ranged from 35°C to 105°C and the partial oxygen pressure ranged from 0.005 MPa to 6.3 MPa. Using the Oxidative Induction Time (OIT) test, the antioxidant depletion, which is correlated to the decrease of the OIT value, was found to follow apparent first-order decay. The OIT data also showed that, the antioxidant depletion rate increased with temperature according to the Arrhenius equation, while under constant temperatures, the rate increased exponentially with the partial pressure of oxygen. A modified Arrhenius model was developed to fit the antioxidant depletion rate as a function of temperature and pressure and to predict the antioxidant lifetime under various field conditions. This study has developed new temperature/pressure incubation aging test method with lifetime prediction models. Using this new technique, the antioxidant lifetime prediction results are close to regular temperature aging data while the aging duration can be reduced considerably

  3. Theory of SEI Formation in Rechargeable Batteries: Capacity Fade, Accelerated Aging and Lifetime Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Pinson, Matthew B

    2012-01-01

    Cycle life is critically important in applications of rechargeable batteries, but lifetime prediction is mostly based on empirical trends, rather than mathematical models. In practical lithium-ion batteries, capacity fade occurs over thousands of cycles, limited by slow electrochemical processes, such as the formation of a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) in the negative electrode, which compete with reversible lithium intercalation. Focusing on SEI growth as the canonical degradation mechanism, we show that a simple single-particle model can accurately explain experimentally observed capacity fade in commercial cells with graphite anodes, and predict future fade based on limited accelerated aging data for short times and elevated temperatures. The theory is extended to porous electrodes, predicting that SEI growth is essentially homogeneous throughout the electrode, even at high rates. The lifetime distribution for a sample of batteries is found to be consistent with Gaussian statistics, as predicted by th...

  4. Evaluation of Experimental Parameters in the Accelerated Aging of Closed-Cell Foam Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, Therese K [ORNL; Vanderlan, Michael [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL

    2012-12-01

    The thermal conductivity of many closed-cell foam insulation products changes over time as production gases diffuse out of the cell matrix and atmospheric gases diffuse into the cells. Thin slicing has been shown to be an effective means of accelerating this process in such a way as to produce meaningful results. Efforts to produce a more prescriptive version of the ASTM C1303 standard test method led to the ruggedness test described here. This test program included the aging of full size insulation specimens for time periods of five years for direct comparison to the predicted results. Experimental parameters under investigation include: slice thickness, slice origin (at the surface or from the core of the slab), thin slice stack composition, product facings, original product thickness, product density, and product type. The test protocol has been completed and this report provides a detailed evaluation of the impact of the test parameters on the accuracy of the 5-year thermal conductivity prediction.

  5. Difference in age at regression in children with autism with and without Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Heidi; Patterson, Bonnie; Hickey, Francis; Kinsman, Anne; Howard, Jennifer M; Mitchell, Terry; Molloy, Cynthia A

    2008-04-01

    Autism occurs more frequently in individuals with Down syndrome than it does in the general population. Among children with autism and Down syndrome, regression is reported to occur in up to 50%. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare regression in children with autism with and without Down syndrome. In this case-control study, children with Down syndrome and autism characterized by a history of developmental regression (n = 12) were compared to children with autism with regression who did not have Down syndrome, matched for chronologic age and gender. Comparisons were made on age at acquisition of language and age at loss of language and other skills as measured by the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R). The mean age at acquisition of meaningful use of single words was 40.6 months (SD = 38.0) in children with Down syndrome and autism compared to 14.9 months (SD = 8.5) in children with autism without Down syndrome (p = .005). The mean age at language loss in children with autism with Down syndrome was 61.8 months (SD = 22.9) compared to 19.7 months (SD = 5.8) for those with autism without Down syndrome (p = .01). The mean age at other skill loss was 46.2 months (SD = 19.1) and 19.5 months (SD = 5.6), respectively (p = .006). When regression occurs in children with autism and Down syndrome it is, on average, much later than is typically seen in children with autism without Down syndrome.

  6. Accelerated increase and relative decrease in subjective age and changes in attitudes toward own aging over a 4-year period: results from the Health and Retirement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, Ehud; Ayalon, Liat; Avidor, Sharon; Palgi, Yuval

    2017-03-01

    The passage of time may force people to adjust their subjective age in response to changes in their attitudes toward own aging (ATOA). Although positive associations have been found between well-being and both positive ATOA and younger subjective age, the relationships between changes in these measures have not been examined yet. We expected (1) a decrease in positive ATOA to be associated with an accelerated increase in subjective age and (2) an increase in positive ATOA to be associated with a relative decrease in subjective age. Participants were individuals and their spouses, aged 50 and over, recruited by the Health and Retirement Study, who provided responses to a question concerning one's subjective age in 2008 and 2012 (n = 4174). A change in subjective age over the two waves was regarded as (1) an accelerated increase if it was greater than 5 years (36.2 % of the sample); (2) a relative decrease (39.1 %), if it was less than the 3 years; (3) no change if it did not comply with criteria 1 or 2 (24.7 %). A decrease in positive ATOA over the two waves resulted in an accelerated increase in subjective age, and an increase resulted in a relative decrease in subjective age. Older age and more physical impairments and depressive symptoms in 2012 compared with 2008 were associated with an accelerated increase in subjective age. Our findings emphasize the consequences ATOA might have on subjective age experiences, and the need to improve them.

  7. Accelerated cell aging in female APOE-ε4 carriers: implications for hormone therapy use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily G Jacobs

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein-ε4 (APOE-ε4 is a major genetic risk factor for cognitive decline, Alzheimer's disease (AD and early mortality. An accelerated rate of biological aging could contribute to this increased risk. Here, we determined whether APOE-ε4 status impacts leukocyte telomere length (TL and the rate of cellular senescence in healthy mid-life women and, further, whether hormone replacement therapy (HT modifies this association. Post-menopausal women (N = 63, Mean age = 57.7, all HT users for at least one year, were enrolled in a randomized longitudinal study. Half of the participants (N = 32 remained on their HT regimen and half (N = 31 went off HT for approximately two years (Mean  = 1.93 years. Participants included 24 APOE-ε4 carriers and 39 non-carrier controls. Leukocyte TL was measured at baseline and the end of year 2 using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the odds of an APOE-ε4 carrier exhibiting telomere shortening (versus maintenance/growth over the 2-year study were more than 6 (OR  = 6.26, 95% CI  = 1.02, 38.49 times higher than a non-carrier, adjusting for established risk factors and potential confounds. Despite the high-functioning, healthy mid-life status of study participants, APOE-ε4 carriers had marked telomere attrition during the 2-year study window, the equivalent of approximately one decade of additional aging compared to non-carriers. Further analyses revealed a modulatory effect of hormone therapy on the association between APOE status and telomere attrition. APOE-ε4 carriers who went off their HT regimen exhibited TL shortening, as predicted for the at-risk population. APOE-ε4 carriers who remained on HT, however, did not exhibit comparable signs of cell aging. The opposite pattern was found in non-carriers. The results suggest that hormone use might buffer against accelerated cell aging in mid-life women at risk for dementia

  8. Comparative Study on Accelerated Thermal Ageing of Vegetable Insulating Oil-paperboard and Mineral Oil-paperboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhu-Jun; Hu, Ting; Cheng, Lin; Tian, Kai; Yang, Jun; Wang, Xuan; Fang, Fu-Xin; Kong, Hai-Yang; Qian, Hang

    2016-05-01

    To comparatively study the insulation ageing life of vegetable insulating oil-paperboard and mineral oil-paperboard, we conducted accelerated thermal ageing experiments at 170°C. Then according to the temperature rise of vegetable insulating oil transformer, we conducted accelerated thermal ageing experiments at 150°C for vegetable insulating oil-paperboard and at 140°C for mineral oil-paperboard. The appearance, polymerization degree, and SEM microstructure of the paperboard after different ageing experiments were comparative analyzed. The results show that after the oil-paperboard system is accelerated ageing for 1 000 h at 170°C, that is equivalent to 20 years natural ageing, the structure of paperboard in vegetable insulating oil is damaged severely, which indicates that the lifetime of transformer are in the late stage; while the structure of paperboard in mineral oil maintain complete, and the polymerization degree is still above 500, which indicate that the lifetime of transformer are in the middle stage. The accelerated ageing rate of the vegetable insulating oil-paperboard system at 150°C is slower than that of the mineral oil-paperboard system, which indicates that the lifetime of the vegetable insulating oil-paperboard is longer than that of the mineral oil-paperboard.

  9. Effects of Operating Temperatures and Accelerated Environmental Ageing on the Mechanical Properties of a Glass-Vinylester Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasztorny, M.; Nycz, D. B.; Romanowski, R. K.; Gotowicki, P.; Kiczko, A.; Rudnik, D.

    2017-07-01

    Experimental identification of the mechanical properties of a selected glass-vinylester structural composite is developed, performed, and analysed taking into account accelerated environmental ageing and three operating temperatures (-20, 20, and 55°C) corresponding to the operating temperature range for composite footbridges in the Central Europe. The main constituents of the composite fabricated using infusion technology are a bidirectional balanced stitched E-glass fabric and a flame retardant, vinylester resin. After homogenization, the composite reinforced with one fabric forms a single lamina and is modeled as a linear elastic-brittle orthotropic material. Full sets of material constants were identified for the initial and aged composites at the selected operating temperatures. The accelerated environmental ageing of the composite was performed on 4-layer symmetric laminate platelets protected with a 300-mm-thick gelcoat layer, using an ageing chamber and a relevant ageing programme. A comparative analysis was carried out in order to determine the effects of operating temperature and accelerated environmental ageing on the material constants of the GFRP composite. It is found that the composite tested can be modeled as a linear elastic-brittle orthotropic material to the level of 20% of its strength in each strength test. The impact of the accelerated environmental ageing and operating temperature in the range from -20 to 55°C on the elastic/strength/ultimate strain constants of the selected E-glass/vinylester composite can be significant and different for individual constants.

  10. Early obesity and age-related mimicry of metabolic syndrome in female mice with sex hormonal imbalances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sairam, M Ram; Wang, Min; Danilovich, Natalia; Javeshghani, Danesh; Maysinger, Dusica

    2006-07-01

    To investigate the relationship of early obesity to metabolic syndrome during sex hormonal imbalances in mutant female mice at different ages. Hormonal imbalances, accumulation and nature of adipose tissue, food intake, glucose tolerance, and expression of candidate genes and markers of inflammation were studied by comparing wild-type, null, and haploinsufficient follitropin receptor knockout female mice at different ages. Follitropin receptor deletion in mice produced null females that are infertile and haploinsufficient mice that undergo accelerated biological aging. Both types of mutants with sex hormonal imbalances have central obesity without hyperphagia, but circulating leptin is elevated. Adipocyte hyperplasia and hypertrophy is attributed to elevated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma expression. Adiponectin protein levels increase in fat tissue and plasma. Only mutants but not controls acquire age-dependent decline in glucose tolerance with high insulin and altered pancreatic beta cells. Changes in inflammation markers, decreased muscle insulin receptor phosphorylation, and increase of the enzyme protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B indicate insulin resistance. In this animal model, the chronological appearance of early obesity induced by hormonal imbalances culminates in characteristics that are attributable to metabolic syndrome, including cardiovascular abnormalities. Dissection of the depot-specific alterations and defining molecular interrelationships could help in developing targeted remedies and resolving complications and controversies related to health benefits and adversities of current hormone replacement therapy.

  11. Association of age at menarche with metabolic syndrome and its components in rural Bangladeshi women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akter Shamima

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early age at menarche is associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome in both China and the West. However, little is known about the impact of age at menarche and metabolic syndrome in South Asian women, including those from low-income country, where age at menarche is also falling. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether age at menarche is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome in Bangladeshi women, who are mostly poor and have limited access to and or poor health care facilities. Methods This community-based cross-sectional study was performed using 1423 women aged between 15–75 years from rural Bangladesh in 2009 and 2010. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to standard NCEP-ATP III criteria. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between age at menarche and metabolic syndrome, with adjustment of potential confounding variables, including age, education, marital status, tobacco users, use of contraceptives and number of pregnancies. Results Early onset of menarche (13 years was found to be associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio=1.55; 95 % confidence interval =1.05-2.30. Age at onset of menarche was also inversely associated with prevalence of high triglycerides (P for trend P for trend = 0.01, but positively associated with prevalence of high fasting blood glucose (P for trend =0.02. However, no significant association was found between age at menarche, high blood pressure and elevated waist circumference. Conclusion Early onset of menarche might promote or trigger development of metabolic syndrome. Thus, knowledge of the history of age at onset of menarche may be critical in identifying women at risk of developing metabolic syndrome and those likely to benefit the most from early interventions.

  12. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adolescents aged 10-18 years in Jammu, J and K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinder Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among adolescents attending school in the Jammu region, India. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted between November 2009 and December 2010, among a total of 1160 school-going adolescents of both sexes aged 10-18 years. Relevant metabolic and anthropometric variables were analyzed and criteria suggested by National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel Third (NCEP-ATP III modified for age was used to define metabolic syndrome. Results: The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 2.6%. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in males (3.84% than in females (1.6% and slightly higher in urban area (2.80% than in rural area (2.52%, whereas prevalence of metabolic syndrome among centrally obese subjects was as high as 33.33%. High density lipoprotein cholesterol was the most common and high blood pressure was the least common constituent of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was most prevalent in 16-18 years age group (4.79%. Conclusion : This study demonstrates that metabolic syndrome phenotype exists in substantial number (up to 3% of adolescent population in the Jammu region, India, and particularly 33% of obese adolescents are at risk to develop metabolic syndrome. These findings pose a serious threat to the current and future health of these young people.

  13. Developmental Trajectories of Structural and Pragmatic Language Skills in School-Aged Children with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Heuvel, E.; Manders, E.; Swillen, A.; Zink, I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to compare developmental courses of structural and pragmatic language skills in school-aged children with Williams syndrome (WS) and children with idiopathic intellectual disability (IID). Comparison of these language trajectories could highlight syndrome-specific developmental features. Method: Twelve monolingual…

  14. Developmental Trajectories of Structural and Pragmatic Language Skills in School-Aged Children with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Heuvel, E.; Manders, E.; Swillen, A.; Zink, I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to compare developmental courses of structural and pragmatic language skills in school-aged children with Williams syndrome (WS) and children with idiopathic intellectual disability (IID). Comparison of these language trajectories could highlight syndrome-specific developmental features. Method: Twelve monolingual…

  15. The diagnostic value of the EEG in Angelman and Rett syndrome at a young age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, LAEM; Brouwer, OF; Begeer, CH; Zwinderman, AH; van Dijk, JG

    1998-01-01

    We determined the diagnostic value of the EEG in young children with Angelman syndrome (AS) and Rett syndrome (RS). EEGs, recorded before 5 years of age, of 10 patients with AS, 10 with RS and 10 with mental retardation of other origin were studied blindly by two examiners for the presence of the fo

  16. Metabolic syndrome in women of childbearing age and pregnancy: recognition and management of dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramsothy, Pathmaja; Knopp, Robert H

    2005-01-01

    The obesity pandemic engenders the global threat of metabolic syndrome and its related disorders, including diabetes and coronary artery disease (CAD). The purpose of this review is to discuss the deleterious effects of metabolic syndrome on women of childbearing age, including pregnancy, with a discussion of lipid management. Treatment options will also be presented.

  17. Accelerated fat cell aging links oxidative stress and insulin resistance in adipocytes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Finny Monickaraj; Sankaramoorthy Aravind; Pichamoorthy Nandhini; Paramasivam Prabu; Chandrakumar Sathishkumar; Viswanathan Mohan; Muthuswamy Balasubramanyam

    2013-03-01

    Telomere shortening is emerging as a biological indicator of accelerated aging and aging-related diseases including type 2 diabetes. While telomere length measurements were largely done in white blood cells, there is lack of studies on telomere length in relation to oxidative stress in target tissues affected in diabetes. Therefore, the aim of this study is to induct oxidative stress in adipocytes and to test whether these adipocytes exhibit shortened telomeres, senescence and functional impairment. 3T3-L1 adipocytes were subjected to oxidative stress and senescence induction by a variety of means for 2 weeks (exogenous application of H2O2, glucose oxidase, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and glucose oscillations). Cells were probed for reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), DNA damage, mRNA and protein expression of senescent and pro-inflammatory markers, telomere length and glucose uptake. Compared to untreated cells, both ROS generation and DNA damage were significantly higher in cells subjected to oxidative stress and senescence. Adipocytes subjected to oxidative stress also showed shortened telomeres and increased mRNA and protein expression of p53, p21, TNF and IL-6. Senescent cells were also characterized by decreased levels of adiponectin and impaired glucose uptake. Briefly, adipocytes under oxidative stress exhibited increased ROS generation, DNA damage, shortened telomeres and switched to senescent/pro-inflammatory phenotype with impaired glucose uptake.

  18. Accelerating Neuronal Aging in In Vitro Model Brain Disorders: a Focus on Reactive Oxygen Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Britto Campos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we discuss insights gained through the use of stem cell preparations regarding the modeling of neurological diseases, the need for aging neurons derived from pluripotent stem cells to further advance the study of late-onset adult neurological diseases, and the extent to which mechanisms linked to the mismanagement of ROS. The context of these issues can be revealed using the three disease states of Parkinson’s (PD, Alzheimer’s (AD, and schizophrenia, as considerable insights have been gained into these conditions through the use of stem cells in terms of disease etiologies and the role of oxidative stress. The latter subject is a primary area of interest of our group. After discussing the molecular models of accelerated aging, we highlight the role of ROS for the three diseases explored here. Importantly, we do not seek to provide an extensive account of all genetic mutations for each of the three disorders discussed in this review, but we aim instead to provide a conceptual framework that could maximize the gains from merging the approaches of stem cell microsystems and the study of oxidative stress in disease in order to optimize therapeutics and determine new molecular targets against oxidative stress that spare stem cell proliferation and development.

  19. Accelerated aging of solid lubricants for the W76-1 TSL : effects of polymer outgassing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugger, Michael Thomas; Wallace, William O.; Huffman, Elizabeth M.

    2006-09-01

    The behavior of MoS{sub 2} lubricants intended for the W76-1 TSL was evaluated after 17 and 82 thermal cycles, each lasting seven days and including a low temperature of -35 C and a high temperature of 93 C, in a sealed container containing organic materials. The MoS{sub 2} was applied by tumbling with MoS{sub 2} powder and steel pins (harperized), or by spraying with a resin binder (AS Mix). Surface composition measurements indicated an uptake of carbon and silicon on the lubricant surfaces after aging. Oxidation of the MoS{sub 2} on harperized coupons, where enough MoS{sub 2} was present at the surface to result in significant Mo and S concentrations, was found to be minimal for the thermal cycles in an atmosphere of primarily nitrogen. Bare steel surfaces showed a reduction in friction for exposed coupons compared to control coupons stored in nitrogen, at least for the initial cycles of sliding until the adsorbed contaminants were worn away. Lubricated surfaces showed no more than a ten percent increase in steady-state friction coefficient after exposure. Initial coefficient of friction was up to 250 percent higher than steady-state for AS Mix films on H950 coupons after 82 thermal cycles. However, the friction coefficient exhibited by lubricated coupons was never greater than 0.25, and more often less than 0.15, even after the accelerated aging exposures.

  20. Color stability of modern composites subjected to different periods of accelerated artificial aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drubi-Filho, Brahim; Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti; Cruvinel, Diogo Rodrigues; Sousa, Ana Beatriz Silva; Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the color stability of composites subjected to different periods of accelerated artificial aging (AAA). A polytetrafluorethylene matrix (10 x 2 mm) was used to fabricate 24 test specimens of three different composites (n=8): Tetric Ceram (Ivoclar/Vivadent); Filtek P90 and Z250 (3M ESPE), shade A3. After light activation for 20 s (FlashLite 1401), polishing and initial color readout (Spectrophotometer PCB 687; BYK Gardner), the test specimens were subjected to AAA (C-UV; Comexim), in 8-h cycles: 4 h exposure to UV-B rays at 50°C and 4 h condensation at 50°C. At the end of each cycle, color readouts were taken and the test ended when the mean value of ΔE attained a level ≥3.30. Tetric Ceram presented alteration in ΔE equal to 3.33 in the first aging cycle. For Filtek P90 and Z250, two (ΔE=3.60) and four (ΔE=3.42) AAA cycles were necessary. After each cycle, there was a reduction of luminosity in all the samples (ΔL). It was concluded that a short period of AAA was sufficient to promote clinically unacceptable color alteration in composites, and that this alteration was material-dependent.

  1. Immune responses accelerate ageing: proof-of-principle in an insect model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Rhiannon Pursall

    Full Text Available The pathology of many of the world's most important infectious diseases is caused by the immune response. Additionally age-related disease is often attributed to inflammatory responses. Consequently a reduction in infections and hence inflammation early in life has been hypothesized to explain the rise in lifespan in industrialized societies. Here we demonstrate experimentally for the first time that eliciting an immune response early in life accelerates ageing. We use the beetle Tenebrio molitor as an inflammation model. We provide a proof of principle for the effects of early infection on morbidity late in life and demonstrate a long-lasting cost of immunopathology. Along with presenting a proof-of-principle study, we discuss a mechanism for the apparently counter-adaptive persistence of immunopathology in natural populations. If immunopathology from early immune response only becomes costly later in life, natural selection on reducing self-harm would be relaxed, which could explain the presence of immune self-harm in nature.

  2. Accelerated aging tests of radiation damaged lasers and photodiodes for the CMS tracker optical links

    CERN Document Server

    Gill, K; Batten, J; Cervelli, G; Grabit, R; Jensen, F; Troska, Jan K; Vasey, F

    1999-01-01

    The combined effects of radiation damage and accelerated ageing in COTS lasers and p-i-n photodiodes are presented. Large numbers of these devices are employed in future High Energy Physics experiments and it is vital that these devices are confirmed to be sufficiently robust in terms of both radiation resistance and reliability. Forty 1310 nm InGaAsP edge-emitting lasers (20 irradiated) and 30 InGaAs p- i-n photodiodes (19 irradiated) were aged for 4000 hours at 80 degrees C with periodic measurements made of laser threshold and efficiency, in addition to p-i-n leakage current and photocurrent. There were no sudden failures and there was very little wearout- related degradation in either unirradiated or irradiated sample groups. The results suggest that the tested devices have a sufficiently long lifetime to operate for at least 10 years inside the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment despite being exposed to a harsh radiation environment. (13 refs).

  3. Prematurely aged children: molecular alterations leading to Hutchinson-Gilford progeria and Werner syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Gerpe, Lourdes; Araújo-Vilar, David

    2008-12-01

    Ageing is thought to be a polygenic and stochastic process in which multiple mechanisms operate at the same time. At the level of the individual organism ageing is associated with a progressive deterioration of health and quality of life, sharing common features such as: alopecia and grey hair, loss of audition, macular degeneration, neurodegeneration, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, cataract formation, type-2 diabetes, lipodystrophies; a generally increased susceptibility to infection, autoimmune disorders and diseases such as cancer; and an impaired ability to cope with stress. Recent studies of mechanisms involved in the ageing process are contributing to the identification of genes involved in longevity. Monogenic heritable disorders causing premature ageing, and animal models have contributed to the understanding of some of the characteristic organism-level features associated with human ageing. Werner syndrome and Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome are the best characterized human disorders. Werner syndrome patients have a median life expectancy of 47 years with clinical conditions from the second decade of life. Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome patients die at a median age of 11-13 years with clinical conditions appearing soon after birth. In both syndromes, alterations in specific genes have been identified, with mutations in the WRN and LMNA genes respectively being the most closely associated with each syndrome. Results from molecular studies strongly suggest an increase in DNA damage and cell senescence as the underlying mechanism of pathological premature ageing in these two human syndromes. The same general mechanism has also been observed in human cells undergoing the normal ageing process. In the present article the molecular mechanisms currently proposed for explaining these two syndromes, which may also partly explain the normal ageing process, are reviewed.

  4. EEG features of absence seizures in idiopathic generalized epilepsy: Impact of syndrome, age, and state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadleir, L.G.; Scheffer, I.E.; Smith, S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Factors influencing the electroencephalography (EEG) features of absence seizures in newly presenting children with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) have not been rigorously studied. We examined how specific factors such as state, provocation, age, and epilepsy syndrome affect the E...

  5. Infants with Down Syndrome: Percentage and Age for Acquisition of Gross Motor Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Karina; Basso, Renata Pedrolongo; Lindquist, Ana Raquel Rodrigues; da Silva, Louise Gracelli Pereira; Tudella, Eloisa

    2013-01-01

    The literature is bereft of information about the age at which infants with Down syndrome (DS) acquire motor skills and the percentage of infants that do so by the age of 12 months. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the difference in age, in relation to typical infants, at which motor skills were acquired and the percentage of infants with DS…

  6. Color stability after accelerated aging of two silicones, pigmented or not, for use in facial prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Nardi Mancuso

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges faced by buccomaxillofacial prosthetists is to reproduce the patient's exact skin color and provide adequate esthetics. To reach this objective, professionals must use materials with easy characterization and that maintain color over long periods of time. The objective of this study was, thus, to evaluate the color stability of two types of silicones, Silastic 732 and Silastic MDX4-4210. Twenty-four test specimens were made from each type of silicone and were divided into a colorless group and groups intrinsically pigmented with ceramics, cosmetics or iron oxide. The specimens were submitted to an accelerated system of aging for non-metallic materials. Readings were carried out initially and after periods corresponding to 163, 351, 692 and 1,000 hours of aging, using a reflection spectrophotometer analysis, and color alterations were calculated by the CIE L*a*b* system. The data were submitted to variance analysis and Tukey's test at a 5% level of probability. The results demonstrated that, irrespective of the period of time analyzed, all the materials underwent some type of chromatic alteration (ΔE > 0. The test specimens made with Silastic 732 and MDX4-4210, without pigmentation, presented the lowest color alteration values after 1,000 hours of aging. Of the pigments, ceramic presented the lowest color alteration values and cosmetic powder presented the highest values. Thus, it may be concluded that the materials without the incorporation of pigments presented similar color alteration values, and did not differ statistically. The cosmetic powder used in this study was the pigment that most altered the color of the test specimens.

  7. Circadian disruption induced by light-at-night accelerates aging and promotes tumorigenesis in young but not in old rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Irina A.; Anisimov, Vladimir N.; Bukalev, Andrey V.; Ilyukha, Viktor A.; Khizhkin, Evgeniy A.; Lotosh, Tatiana A.; Semenchenko, Anna V.; Zabezhinski, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of exposure to constant light started at the age of 1 month and at the age of 14 months on the survival, life span, tumorigenesis and age-related dynamics of antioxidant enzymes activity in various organs in comparison to the rats maintained at the standard (12:12 light/dark) light/dark regimen. We found that exposure to constant light started at the age of 1 month accelerated spontaneous tumorigenesis and shortened life span both in male and female rats as compared to the standard regimen. At the same time, the exposure to constant light started at the age of 14 months failed to influence survival of male and female rats. While delaying tumors in males, constant light accelerated tumors in females. We conclude that circadian disruption induced by light-at-night started at the age of 1 month accelerates aging and promotes tumorigenesis in rats, however failed affect survival when started at the age of 14 months. PMID:20354269

  8. [Behaviour problems of children with Down syndrome in preschool-age – Results from the Heidelberg Down syndrome study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarimski, Klaus

    2017-04-21

    We report on the frequency and the correlations of behaviour problems among children with Down syndrome in preschool-age. Method: As part of a longitudinal study 48 mothers of children with Down syndrome completed the German version of the “Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire” (SDQ-D) and the Parenting Stress Inventory (PSI). The mothers were asked to fill out the questionnaires when the children had a mean age of five years. The results were compared to norms from children with typical development. Thirty per cent of the children with Down syndrome were rated as abnormal. Specifically, mean scores indicating problems with children of the same age and hyperactivity were elevated. A regression analysis predicting the total problem score of the SDQ-D revealed maternal educational level, optimistic attitude, and subjective parental stress at the age of one year and the degree of behavioural abnormalities at the age of three years as significant influential factors. Early intervention for Down syndrome children should include supporting parenting competence and coping skills in order to prevent behaviour problems.

  9. Bloom syndrome in short children born small for gestational age: a challenging diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renes, Judith S; Willemsen, Ruben H; Wagner, Anja; Finken, Martijn J J; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S

    2013-10-01

    GH treatment has become a frequently applied growth-promoting therapy in short children born small for gestational age (SGA). In some disorders GH treatment is contraindicated, eg, chromosomal breakage syndromes. Bloom syndrome is a rare chromosomal breakage syndrome characterized by severe pre- and postnatal growth deficiency, a photosensitive facial erythema, immunodeficiency, mental retardation or learning disabilities, endocrinopathies, and a predisposition to develop a wide variety of cancers. We report 2 patients with Bloom syndrome illustrating the variety in clinical manifestations. They were initially diagnosed with short stature after SGA birth and Silver Russell syndrome and treated with GH. Both patients presented with pre- and postnatal growth failure but no clear other characteristic features associated with Bloom syndrome. Photosensitive skin lesions developed only at a pubertal age and were minimal. Also, both children showed normal immunoglobulin levels, normal development, and no signs of endocrinopathies at start of GH. Dysmorphic features resembling Silver Russell syndrome were observed in both patients. Remarkably, during GH treatment IGF-1 levels increased to values greater than 3.5 SD score, with normal IGF binding protein-3 levels. Short children born SGA comprise a heterogeneous group. Bloom syndrome should be tested for in children with consanguineous parents, dysmorphic features (particularly resembling Silver Russell syndrome), skin abnormalities, and/or IGF-1 levels greater than 2.5 SD score during standard GH treatment with normal IGF binding protein-3 levels.

  10. The Effect of Priming on Germination and Enzyme Activity of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L. Seeds After Accelerated Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabatabaei S. A.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Maximum germination percentage achieves immediately after harvesting and gradually de#creases with storage time. Aging is one of the key factors in plant yield loss especially in vegetables. Seed aging is the main problem of seed storage. Application of accelerated aging treatment is used to assess seed vigor and quality. Seed priming enhances seed germination performance after aging. An experiment was conduct in order to investigate the activity of catalase and ascorbate peroxidase during accelerated aging and repair during priming treatment of sesame (Sesamum indicum L. seeds. In order to improve germination characteristics in aged seeds with seed priming. Our result showed that seed priming treatments significantly (p≤ 0.01 affected, germination percentage, germination Index and normal seedling percentage after aging (0, 3 and 6 days. Increasing aging duration resulted higher reduction in germination characteristics. Priming with gibberelic acid (GA increased germination characteristics of seed aged. The highest germination percentage, germination index, normal seedling percentage and enzyme activity were achieved in control conditions (0 day of aging. Also antioxidant activity of aged seeds increased after seed priming.

  11. Effect of the Aged Garlic Extract on Cardiovascular Function in Metabolic Syndrome Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Torres, Israel; Torres-Narváez, Juan Carlos; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Rubio-Ruiz, María Esther; Díaz-Díaz, Eulises; Del Valle-Mondragón, Leonardo; Martínez-Memije, Raúl; Varela López, Elvira; Guarner-Lans, Verónica

    2016-10-26

    The antioxidant properties of aged garlic extract (AGE) on cardiovascular functioning (CF) in metabolic syndrome (MS) remains poorly studied. Here we study the AGE effects on CF in a rat model of MS. Control rats plus saline solution (C + SS), MS rats (30% sucrose in drinking water from weaning) plus saline solution (MS + SS), control rats receiving AGE (C + AGE 125 mg/Kg/12 h) and MS rats with AGE (MS + AGE) were studied. MS + SS had increased triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, insulin, leptin, HOMA index, and advanced glycation end products. AGE returned their levels to control values (p properties.

  12. Elevated estimated arterial age is associated with metabolic syndrome and low-grade inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Sara V; Blicher, Marie K; Kruger, Ruan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Arterial age can be estimated from equations relating arterial stiffness to age and blood pressure in large cohorts. We investigated whether estimated arterial age (eAA) was elevated in patients with the metabolic syndrome and/or known cardiovascular disease (CVD), which factors were...... of metabolic syndrome, Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation, or Framingham risk score. From age, mean blood pressure, and cfPWV, eAA and estimated cfPWV (ePWV) were calculated. In 2006, the combined cardiovascular endpoint (CEP) of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke...

  13. The effect of the accelerated aging on the mechanical properties of the PMMA denture base materials modified with itaconates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasojević Pavle M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of accelerated ageing on the tensile strength, elongation at break, hardness and Charpy impact strength in commercial PMMA denture base material modified with di-methyl itaconate (DMI and di-n-butyl itaconate (DBI. The samples were prepared by modifying commercial formulation by addition of itaconates in the amounts of 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% by weight. After polymerization samples were characterized by FT-IR and DSC analysis while residual monomer content was determined by HPLC-UV. Accelerated ageing was performed at 70°C in water for periods of 7, 15 and 30 days. Tensile measurements were performed using Instron testing machine while the hardness of the polymerized samples was measured by Shore D method. The addition of itaconate significantly reduces the residual MMA. Even at the small amounts of added itaconates (2.5% the residual MMA content was reduced by 50%. The increase of itaconate content in the system leads to the decrease of residual MMA. It has been found that the addition of di-n-alkyl itaconates decreases the tensile strength, hardness and Charpy impact strength and increases elongation at break. Samples modified with DMI had higher values of tensile strength, hardness and Charpy impact strength compared to the ones modified with DBI. This is explained by the fact that DBI has longer side chain compared to DMI. After accelerated ageing during a 30 days period the tensile strength decreased for all the investigated samples. The addition of DMI had no effect on the material ageing and the values for the tensile strength of all of the investigated samples decreased around 20%, while for the samples modified with DBI, the increase of the amount of DBI in the polymerized material leads to the higher decrease of the tensile strength after the complete accelerated ageing period od 30 days, aulthough after the first seven days of the accelerated ageing the values of hardness have increased for all of the

  14. Microstructure and mechanical properties of composite resins subjected to accelerated artificial aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis, Andréa Cândido; de Castro, Denise Tornavoi; Schiavon, Marco Antônio; da Silva, Leandro Jardel; Agnelli, José Augusto Marcondes

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of accelerated artificial aging (AAA) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the Filtek Z250, Filtek Supreme, 4 Seasons, Herculite, P60, Tetric Ceram, Charisma and Filtek Z100. composite resins. The composites were characterized by Fourier-transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal analyses (Differential Scanning Calorimetry - DSC and Thermogravimetry - TG). The microstructure of the materials was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Surface hardness and compressive strength data of the resins were recorded and the mean values were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). The results showed significant differences among the commercial brands for surface hardness (F=86.74, psurface hardness: F=0.39, p=0.53; compressive strength: F=2.82, p=0.09) of any of the composite resins. FTIR, DSC and TG analyses showed that resin polymerization was complete, and there were no differences between the spectra and thermal curve profiles of the materials obtained before and after AAA. TG confirmed the absence of volatile compounds and evidenced good thermal stability up to 200 °C, and similar amounts of residues were found in all resins evaluated before and after AAA. The AAA treatment did not significantly affect resin surface. Therefore, regardless of the resin brand, AAA did not influence the microstructure or the mechanical properties.

  15. Coffee Silverskin Extract Protects against Accelerated Aging Caused by Oxidative Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaia Iriondo-DeHond

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, coffee beans are almost exclusively used for the preparation of the beverage. The sustainability of coffee production can be achieved introducing new applications for the valorization of coffee by-products. Coffee silverskin is the by-product generated during roasting, and because of its powerful antioxidant capacity, coffee silverskin aqueous extract (CSE may be used for other applications, such as antiaging cosmetics and dermaceutics. This study aims to contribute to the coffee sector’s sustainability through the application of CSE to preserve skin health. Preclinical data regarding the antiaging properties of CSE employing human keratinocytes and Caenorhabditis elegans are collected during the present study. Accelerated aging was induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH in HaCaT cells and by ultraviolet radiation C (UVC in C. elegans. Results suggest that the tested concentrations of coffee extracts were not cytotoxic, and CSE 1 mg/mL gave resistance to skin cells when oxidative damage was induced by t-BOOH. On the other hand, nematodes treated with CSE (1 mg/mL showed a significant increased longevity compared to those cultured on a standard diet. In conclusion, our results support the antiaging properties of the CSE and its great potential for improving skin health due to its antioxidant character associated with phenols among other bioactive compounds present in the botanical material.

  16. Sox4 Links Tumor Suppression to Accelerated Aging in Mice by Modulating Stem Cell Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Foronda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sox4 expression is restricted in mammals to embryonic structures and some adult tissues, such as lymphoid organs, pancreas, intestine, and skin. During embryogenesis, Sox4 regulates mesenchymal and neural progenitor survival, as well as lymphocyte and myeloid differentiation, and contributes to pancreas, bone, and heart development. Aberrant Sox4 expression is linked to malignant transformation and metastasis in several types of cancer. To understand the role of Sox4 in the adult organism, we first generated mice with reduced whole-body Sox4 expression. These mice display accelerated aging and reduced cancer incidence. To specifically address a role for Sox4 in adult stem cells, we conditionally deleted Sox4 (Sox4cKO in stratified epithelia. Sox4cKO mice show increased skin stem cell quiescence and resistance to chemical carcinogenesis concomitantly with downregulation of cell cycle, DNA repair, and activated hair follicle stem cell pathways. Altogether, these findings highlight the importance of Sox4 in regulating adult tissue homeostasis and cancer.

  17. Polyphenols, Antioxidant Potential and Color of Fortified Wines during Accelerated Ageing: The Madeira Wine Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. Marques

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols, antioxidant potential and color of three types of fortified Madeira wines were evaluated during the accelerated ageing, named as estufagem. The traditional estufagem process was set to 45 °C for 3 months. Overheating conditions, 1 month at 70 °C, were also examined. Total polyphenols (TP, total monomeric anthocyanins (TMA and total flavonoids (TF were assessed by spectrophotometric methods, while individual polyphenols and furans were simultaneously determined by HPLC-DAD. Antioxidant potential (AP was estimated by ABTS, DPPH and FRAP assays, while color was evaluated by Glories and CIELab. Traditional estufagem decreased the TP and AP up to 20% and 26%, respectively, with final values similar to other wines. TMA of the Madeira wines from red grapes decreased during estufagem. Six hydroxybenzoic acids, three hydroxycinnamic acids, one stilbene, three flavonols and three flavan-3-ols were found in these wines. The prominent phenolics were hydroxycinnamates and hydroxybenzoates, even after estufagem. Most polyphenols decreased, with the exception of caffeic, ferulic, p-coumaric, gallic and syringic acids. Finally, both chromatic systems revealed that all wines tended to similar chromatic characteristics after estufagem. The study suggests that estufagem can be applied without high impact on polyphenols and antioxidant potential of these fortified wines.

  18. Imbibitions, energy test and accelerated ageing in primed and non-primed seeds of Peltophorum dubium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LILei-hong; ZHANGWan-li; ZUYuan-gang; SONIAPerez

    2005-01-01

    Peltophorum dubium seeds were set to imbibe with four treatments, soaked with solution Captan 0.2% under 10and 27℃,PEG 6000 -1.0 MPa under 10 and 27℃. For each treatment there were four replicates with 40 seeds incubated in 9-cm Petri dishes with double filter paper moistened with testing solution. The imbibition curves showed that the final weight increase were from 70% to 150% in the treatments when imbibition entered a lag phase. Seeds were tested for effects on germination of five treatments: control group (nonprimed), primed with PEG6000 -1.0 MPa at 10 and 27℃, primed with Captan 0.2% at 10 and 27℃. For each treatment, there were three sub-treatments: seeds were soaked in distilled water for 12, 24 and 36h before the energy test. Germination percentages of nonprimed seeds and primed in PEG 27℃ soaked in distilled water during 12 h were the highest, reaching 100%. The lowest germination percentage occurred primed seeds with PEG6000 27℃ and soaked in distilled water during 36 h, which was only 52%. Germination mean time of primed seeds in PEG at 10℃, soaked 24 h was 1.08 days, mean time of primed seeds in PEG at 27℃ soaked 12 h was 2.42 days. Accelerated ageing results showed low or no germination after ageing 72 h. Control group had a higher germination percentage and seeds were more resistant to deterioration than those in primed groups, both in Petri dish (27℃) and vermiculate (room temperature).

  19. Shift work aggravates metabolic syndrome development among early-middle-aged males with elevated ALT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Cheng Lin; Tun-Jen Hsiao; Pau-Chung Chen

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To examine whether shift work accelerates metabolic syndrome (MetS) development among early middle- aged males with elevated alanine aminotransferase (e-ALT).METHODS: A retrospective, observational followup study on MetS development at a 5-year interval was conducted using health examination data. Nine hundred and ninety six male employees not fulfilling MetS criteria at screening were enrolled. Age, MetScomponents,liver enzymes, serological markers for viral hepatitis, abdominal ultrasound, insulin resistance status, lifestyles, and workplace factors were analyzed.RESULTS: The prevalence of elevated serum ALT (> 40 U/L, e-ALT) at baseline was 19.1%. There were 381 (38.3%) workers with long-term exposures to daynight rotating shift work (RSW). 14.2% of subjects developed MetS during follow-up. After 5 years, the workers with e-ALT had significantly unfavorable changes in MetS-components, and higher rates of MetS development, vs subjects with normal baseline ALT levels. Workers with both baseline e-ALT and 5-year persistent RSW (pRSW) exposure had the highest rate of MetS development. Also, e-ALT-plus-pRSW workers had a significant increase in MetS-components at follow-up, compared with the other subgroups. After controlling for potential confounders, e-ALT-plus-pRSW workers posed a significant risk for MetS development (odds ratio, 2.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-5.3, vs workers without baseline e-ALT nor pRSW). CONCLUSION: We suggest that all early middleaged male employees with e-ALT should be evaluated and managed for MetS. Particularly in terms of job arrangements, impacts of long-term RSW on MetS development should be assessed for all male employees having baseline e-ALT.

  20. Effects of accelerated aging upon the lipid composition of seeds from two soft wheat varieties from Morocco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouzouline, M.; Tahani, N.; Demandre, C.; El Amrani, A.; Benhassaine-Kesri, G.; Serghini Caid, H.

    2009-07-01

    The lipid composition of the seeds from two soft wheat varieties (Triticum aestivum, cv. Marchouche and Mahdia) were analyzed before and after accelerated aging. Eight days of accelerated aging resulted in a total inhibition of seed germ inability as well as a decrease in their total and especially unsaturated fatty acid contents. Oleic and linoleic acid contents decreased particularly in the phosphatidylcholine of the seeds from both varieties. The proportion of polar lipids also decreased after aging as compared to neutral lipids: a 5.8% and 7.2% decrease in polar lipids was e observed in Mahdia and Marchouche cultivars, respectively. In the neutral lipids of the seeds from the Marchouche variety, the percentage of free fatty acids increased whereas the triacylglycerols decreased. After aging, the fatty acid compositions of all lipid classes were modified in the same manner as total fatty acid compositions. Among polar lipids, phospholipid proportions were particularly small, especially the phosphatidylcholine percentages with an 18.1% and 19.1% decrease in Mahdia and Marchouche varieties, respectively. In contrast, MGDG percentages increased, especially in the seeds from the Marchouche variety. A 15.5% increase was noticed when compared with seeds which were not aged. At the same time, the DGDG percentage showed a 16.6% decrease after accelerated aging of the seeds from the Marchouche variety. From these results we concluded that the lipid content decrease observed in seeds after accelerated aging could be linked to a loss in the germination and vigor of wheat seeds. (Author) 38 refs.

  1. Effect of dietary, social, and lifestyle determinants of accelerated aging and its common clinical presentation: A survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarakoon, S M S; Chandola, H M; Ravishankar, B

    2011-07-01

    Aging is unavoidable and natural phenomenon of life. Modern gerontologists are realizing the fact that aging is a disease, which Ayurveda had accepted as natural disease since long. Rate of aging is determined by one's biological, social, lifestyle, and psychological conditions and adversity of which leads to accelerated form of aging (Akalaja jara or premature aging). The aim of this study is to identify potential factors that may accelerate aging in the context of dietry factors, lifestyle and mental makeup. The 120 diagnosed subjects of premature-ageing of 30-60 years were randomly selected in the survey study. Premature ageing was common among females (75.83%), in 30-40 age group (70%), 86.67% were married, had secondary level of education (36.66%), house-views (61.67%), belongs top middle class (58.33%) and engaged in occupations that dominating physical labour (88.33%). The maximum patients are constipated (60%), had mandagni (80%), vata-kapha prakriti (48.33%), rajasika prakriti (58.33%), madhyama vyayama shakti (73.33%), and madhyama jarana shakti (85.83%). Collectively, 43.33% patients were above normal BMI. The more patients had anushna (38.33%) and vishamasana dietary pattern (25.83%), consumed Lavana (88.33%) and Amla rasa (78.33%) in excess on regular basis. Some patients had addicted to tobacco (11.67%) and beetle chewing (5.83%). The maximum patients had no any exercise (79.17%) and specific hobby (79.17%) in their leisure times. Analyzing Hamilton Anxiety and Depression Rating Scales revealed that 39.80%, 37.86%, 33.98%, 24.27% and 18.44% patients had insomnia, depression, tension, GIT symptoms and anxious mood respectively. These data suggest that certain social, dietary and lifestyle factors contribute towards accelerated ageing among young individuals.

  2. Evidence that PICALM affects age at onset of Alzheimer's dementia in Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Emma L; Mok, Kin; Hanney, Marisa; Harold, Denise; Sims, Rebecca; Williams, Julie; Ballard, Clive

    2013-10-01

    It is known that individuals with Down syndrome develop Alzheimer's disease with an early age at onset, although associated genetic risk factors have not been widely studied. We tested whether genes that increase the risk of late-onset Alzheimer's disease influence the age at onset in Down syndrome using genome-wide association data for age at onset of dementia in a small sample of individuals (N = 67) with Down syndrome. We tested for association with loci previously associated with Alzheimer's disease risk and, despite the small size of the study, we detected associations with age at onset of Alzheimer's disease in Down syndrome with PICALM (β = 3.31, p = 0.011) and the APOE loci (β = 3.58, p = 0.014). As dementia in people with Down syndrome is relatively understudied, we make all of these data publicly available to encourage further analyses of the problem of Alzheimer's disease in Down syndrome.

  3. Poor maternal nutrition and accelerated postnatal growth induces an accelerated aging phenotype and oxidative stress in skeletal muscle of male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S.; Chen, Jian Hua; Hargreaves, Iain P.; Neergheen, Viruna; Aiken, Catherine E.; Ozanne, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT ‘Developmental programming’, which occurs as a consequence of suboptimal in utero and early environments, can be associated with metabolic dysfunction in later life, including an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, and predisposition of older men to sarcopenia. However, the molecular mechanisms underpinning these associations are poorly understood. Many conditions associated with developmental programming are also known to be associated with the aging process. We therefore utilized our well-established rat model of low birth weight and accelerated postnatal catch-up growth (termed ‘recuperated’) in this study to establish the effects of suboptimal maternal nutrition on age-associated factors in skeletal muscle. We demonstrated accelerated telomere shortening (a robust marker of cellular aging) as evidenced by a reduced frequency of long telomeres (48.5-8.6 kb) and an increased frequency of short telomeres (4.2-1.3 kb) in vastus lateralis muscle from aged recuperated offspring compared to controls. This was associated with increased protein expression of the DNA-damage-repair marker 8-oxoguanine-glycosylase (OGG1) in recuperated offspring. Recuperated animals also demonstrated an oxidative stress phenotype, with decreased citrate synthase activity, increased electron-transport-complex activities of complex I, complex II-III and complex IV (all markers of functional mitochondria), and increased xanthine oxidase (XO), p67phox and nuclear-factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells (NF-κB). Recuperated offspring also demonstrated increased antioxidant defense capacity, with increased protein expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), catalase and heme oxygenase-1 (HO1), all of which are known targets of NF-κB and can be upregulated as a consequence of oxidative stress. Recuperated offspring also had a pro-inflammatory phenotype, as evidenced by

  4. Poor maternal nutrition and accelerated postnatal growth induces an accelerated aging phenotype and oxidative stress in skeletal muscle of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane L. Tarry-Adkins

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ‘Developmental programming’, which occurs as a consequence of suboptimal in utero and early environments, can be associated with metabolic dysfunction in later life, including an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, and predisposition of older men to sarcopenia. However, the molecular mechanisms underpinning these associations are poorly understood. Many conditions associated with developmental programming are also known to be associated with the aging process. We therefore utilized our well-established rat model of low birth weight and accelerated postnatal catch-up growth (termed ‘recuperated’ in this study to establish the effects of suboptimal maternal nutrition on age-associated factors in skeletal muscle. We demonstrated accelerated telomere shortening (a robust marker of cellular aging as evidenced by a reduced frequency of long telomeres (48.5-8.6 kb and an increased frequency of short telomeres (4.2-1.3 kb in vastus lateralis muscle from aged recuperated offspring compared to controls. This was associated with increased protein expression of the DNA-damage-repair marker 8-oxoguanine-glycosylase (OGG1 in recuperated offspring. Recuperated animals also demonstrated an oxidative stress phenotype, with decreased citrate synthase activity, increased electron-transport-complex activities of complex I, complex II-III and complex IV (all markers of functional mitochondria, and increased xanthine oxidase (XO, p67phox and nuclear-factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells (NF-κB. Recuperated offspring also demonstrated increased antioxidant defense capacity, with increased protein expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD, catalase and heme oxygenase-1 (HO1, all of which are known targets of NF-κB and can be upregulated as a consequence of oxidative stress. Recuperated offspring also had a pro-inflammatory phenotype, as evidenced by

  5. Working Memory in Early-School-Age Children with Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jifang; Gao, Dingguo; Chen, Yinghe; Zou, Xiaobing; Wang, Ya

    2010-01-01

    Using a battery of working memory span tasks and n-back tasks, this study aimed to explore working memory functions in early-school-age children with Asperger's syndrome (AS). Twelve children with AS and 29 healthy children matched on age and IQ were recruited. Results showed: (a) children with AS performed better in digit and word recall tasks,…

  6. Sleep Patterns of School-Age Children with Asperger Syndrome or High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allik, Hiie; Larsson, Jan-Olov; Smedje, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Sleep patterns of 32 school-age children with Asperger syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) were compared to those of 32 typically developing age- and gender-matched children, using parent survey and one week of diary and actigraphic monitoring. Parents of children with AS/HFA more commonly reported that their children had difficulty…

  7. Topical-steroid-induced iatrogenic Cushing syndrome in the pediatric age group: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Tiwari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cushing syndrome, a systemic disorder, is the result of abnormally high blood level of cortisol or other glucocorticoids. The most common cause of Cushing syndrome is prolonged exogenous administration of glucocorticoid hormones. Prolonged use of topical corticosteroids, particularly in children, may cause Cushing syndrome and suppression of the hypothalamopituitory-adrenal axis, which is less common than that of oral or parenteral route. However, iatrogenic Cushing syndrome in the infantile age group due to topical steroid is very rare and only a few patients have been reported to date in the literature. Here we report a case of iatrogenic Cushing syndrome due to topical steroid application in a 5-month-old female child admitted to the hospital for repeated episodes of fever and cough.

  8. Topical-steroid-induced iatrogenic Cushing syndrome in the pediatric age group: A rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ashish; Goel, Manjusha; Pal, Pankaj; Gohiya, Poorva

    2013-10-01

    Cushing syndrome, a systemic disorder, is the result of abnormally high blood level of cortisol or other glucocorticoids. The most common cause of Cushing syndrome is prolonged exogenous administration of glucocorticoid hormones. Prolonged use of topical corticosteroids, particularly in children, may cause Cushing syndrome and suppression of the hypothalamopituitory-adrenal axis, which is less common than that of oral or parenteral route. However, iatrogenic Cushing syndrome in the infantile age group due to topical steroid is very rare and only a few patients have been reported to date in the literature. Here we report a case of iatrogenic Cushing syndrome due to topical steroid application in a 5-month-old female child admitted to the hospital for repeated episodes of fever and cough.

  9. Exposure to omega-3 fatty acids at early age accelerate bone growth and improve bone quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Netta; Simsa-Maziel, Stav; Shahar, Ron; Schwartz, Betty; Monsonego-Ornan, Efrat

    2014-06-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) are essential nutritional components that must be obtained from foods. Increasing evidence validate that omega-3 FAs are beneficial for bone health, and several mechanisms have been suggested to mediate their effects on bone, including alterations in calcium absorption and urinary calcium loss, prostaglandin synthesis, lipid oxidation, osteoblast formation and inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. However, to date, there is scant information regarding the effect of omega-3 FAs on the developing skeleton during the rapid growth phase. In this study we aim to evaluate the effect of exposure to high levels of omega-3 FAs on bone development and quality during prenatal and early postnatal period. For this purpose, we used the fat-1 transgenic mice that have the ability to convert omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids and the ATDC5 chondrogenic cell line as models. We show that exposure to high concentrations of omega-3 FAs at a young age accelerates bone growth through alterations of the growth plate, associated with increased chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. We further propose that those effects are mediated by the receptors G-protein coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) and hepatic nuclear factor 4α, which are expressed by chondrocytes in culture. Additionally, using a combined study on the structural and mechanical bone parameters, we show that high omega-3 levels contribute to superior trabecular and cortical structure, as well as to stiffer bones and improved bone quality. Most interestingly, the fat-1 model allowed us to demonstrate the role of maternal high omega-3 concentration on bone growth during the gestation and postnatal period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Hypothalamic leptin gene therapy reduces body weight without accelerating age-related bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Russell T; Dube, Michael; Branscum, Adam J; Wong, Carmen P; Olson, Dawn A; Zhong, Xiaoying; Kweh, Mercedes F; Larkin, Iske V; Wronski, Thomas J; Rosen, Clifford J; Kalra, Satya P; Iwaniec, Urszula T

    2015-12-01

    Excessive weight gain in adults is associated with a variety of negative health outcomes. Unfortunately, dieting, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have had limited long-term success in weight control and can result in detrimental side effects, including accelerating age-related cancellous bone loss. We investigated the efficacy of using hypothalamic leptin gene therapy as an alternative method for reducing weight in skeletally-mature (9 months old) female rats and determined the impact of leptin-induced weight loss on bone mass, density, and microarchitecture, and serum biomarkers of bone turnover (CTx and osteocalcin). Rats were implanted with cannulae in the 3rd ventricle of the hypothalamus and injected with either recombinant adeno-associated virus encoding the gene for rat leptin (rAAV-Leptin, n=7) or a control vector encoding green fluorescent protein (rAAV-GFP, n=10) and sacrificed 18 weeks later. A baseline control group (n=7) was sacrificed at vector administration. rAAV-Leptin-treated rats lost weight (-4±2%) while rAAV-GFP-treated rats gained weight (14±2%) during the study. At study termination, rAAV-Leptin-treated rats weighed 17% less than rAAV-GFP-treated rats and had lower abdominal white adipose tissue weight (-80%), serum leptin (-77%), and serum IGF1 (-34%). Cancellous bone volume fraction in distal femur metaphysis and epiphysis, and in lumbar vertebra tended to be lower (PLeptin and rAAV-GFP rats. In summary, rAAV-Leptin-treated rats maintained a lower body weight compared to baseline and rAAV-GFP-treated rats with minimal effects on bone mass, density, microarchitecture, or biochemical markers of bone turnover.

  11. Rapid evaluation of the durability of cortical neural implants using accelerated aging with reactive oxygen species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takmakov, Pavel; Ruda, Kiersten; Phillips, K Scott; Isayeva, Irada S; Krauthamer, Victor; Welle, Cristin G

    2017-01-01

    Objective A challenge for implementing high bandwidth cortical brain–machine interface devices in patients is the limited functional lifespan of implanted recording electrodes. Development of implant technology currently requires extensive non-clinical testing to demonstrate device performance. However, testing the durability of the implants in vivo is time-consuming and expensive. Validated in vitro methodologies may reduce the need for extensive testing in animal models. Approach Here we describe an in vitro platform for rapid evaluation of implant stability. We designed a reactive accelerated aging (RAA) protocol that employs elevated temperature and reactive oxygen species (ROS) to create a harsh aging environment. Commercially available microelectrode arrays (MEAs) were placed in a solution of hydrogen peroxide at 87 °C for a period of 7 days. We monitored changes to the implants with scanning electron microscopy and broad spectrum electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (1 Hz–1 MHz) and correlated the physical changes with impedance data to identify markers associated with implant failure. Main results RAA produced a diverse range of effects on the structural integrity and electrochemical properties of electrodes. Temperature and ROS appeared to have different effects on structural elements, with increased temperature causing insulation loss from the electrode microwires, and ROS concentration correlating with tungsten metal dissolution. All array types experienced impedance declines, consistent with published literature showing chronic (>30 days) declines in array impedance in vivo. Impedance change was greatest at frequencies <10 Hz, and smallest at frequencies 1 kHz and above. Though electrode performance is traditionally characterized by impedance at 1 kHz, our results indicate that an impedance change at 1 kHz is not a reliable predictive marker of implant degradation or failure. Significance ROS, which are known to be present in vivo, can create

  12. Effects of different surface treatments and accelerated artificial aging on the bond strength of composite resin repairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Veiga de Melo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to assess the bond strength of composite resin repairs subjected to different surface treatments and accelerated artificial aging. 192 cylindrical samples (CSs were prepared and divided into 24 groups (n = 8. Half of the CSs were stored in water for 24 h, and the other half were subjected to C-UV accelerated aging for non-metallic specimens. The treatments were phosphoric acid + silane + adhesive (PSA; phosphoric acid + adhesive (PA; diamond bur + phosphoric acid + silane + adhesive (DPSA; diamond bur + phosphoric acid + adhesive (DPA; air abrasion + phosphoric acid + silane + adhesive (APSA; and air abrasion + phosphoric acid + adhesive (APA. The repair was performed and the specimens were again aged as described above. A control group (n = 8 was established and did not receive any type of aging or surface treatment. The specimens were loaded to failure in shear mode with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until fracture. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA/Tukey's test (p < 0.05. No statistically significant differences were found among DPSA, DPA, APSA, APA, and the control group. The aged PSA and PA achieved low bonding values and were statistically different from the control group, whereas the non-aged PSA and PA presented no statistically significant difference from the control group. Repairs with the proposed surface treatments were viable on both recent and aged restorations; however, phosphoric acid + adhesive alone were effective only on recent restorations.

  13. Test of a device for accelerated ageing of polymeric material in high concentrated sunlight at the DLR solar furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witzke, A.; Neumann, A.; Kaluza, J. [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Solar Energy Technology, Cologne (Germany); Demuth, M.; Ritterskamp, P. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Strahlenchemie, Muelheim a.d.R. (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Within this study the design and first tests of a device for accelerated ageing with high concentrated sunlight have been described. Firstly, the device was designed for testing samples of lacquer for the car industry. It is based on two points: first, the photochemical effect that the ageing of polymers is mainly initiated by the UV solar radiation and, second, on the idea to accelerate the ageing process by increasing the UV radiation dose. Therefore the concentrated sunlight at the DLR Solar Furnace is filtered by a cold-mirror that reflects the radiation with a wavelength below 450 nm onto the samples. The samples are fixed in a chamber where they can simultaneously be wetted by a spraying device. The first tests show that this device enables us to radiate the relevant samples with a high UV radiation intensity without overheating them. During one day irradiation at the DLR Solar Furnace in March 2001 we reach an UV radiation dose which is about sixteen times higher than the dose after 24 hours irradiation in common used weathering devices. Further tests at the DLR Solar Furnace have to examine in what way this increased radiation dose leads to a high accelerated ageing of the polymeric material. (orig.)

  14. Visual evaluation of color stability after accelerated aging of pigmented and nonpigmented silicones to be used in facial prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mancuso Daniela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate by a visual method of comparison the color stability of nonpigmented and pigmented facial silicones after accelerated aging. Materials and Methods: Two kinds of silicones were used in this study; one specifically formulated for facial prostheses and the other an acetic silicone for industrial use. Twenty-four trial bodies were made for each silicone. These were divided into colorless and intrinsically pigmented groups: ceramic, make-up, and iron oxide. The groups were submitted to accelerated aging for nonmetallic materials. An initial reading and subsequent readings were made at 163, 351, 692, and 1000 hours using a visual method of comparison. The values were annotated in a spreadsheet by two observers, according to scores elaborated for this study. Results: All groups presented color stability in the visual method. According to the results obtained and analyzed in this study, we can conclude that both silicones, Silastic 732 RTV and Silastic MDX 4-4210, behaved similarly, they can therefore be indicated for use in maxillofacial prosthesis. The time factor of aging influenced negatively, independently of the pigmentation, or lack of it, and of silicones and no group had visually noticeable alterations in any of the accelerated aging time, independently of the addition or not of pigments.

  15. Aging of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome fibroblasts is characterised by hyperproliferation and increased apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridger, Joanna M; Kill, Ian R

    2004-05-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that mimics certain aspects of aging prematurely. Recent work has revealed that mutations in the lamin A gene are a cause of the disease. We show here that cellular aging of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome fibroblasts is characterised by a period of hyperproliferation and terminates with a large increase in the rate of apoptosis. The occurrence of cells with abnormal nuclear morphology reported by others is shown to be a result of cell division since the fraction of these abnormalities increases with cellular age. Similarly, the proportion of cells with an abnormal or absent A-type lamina increases with age. These data provide clues as to the cellular basis for premature aging in HGPS and support the view that cellular senescence and tissue homeostasis are important factors in the normal aging process.

  16. Sleep EEG Fingerprints Reveal Accelerated Thalamocortical Oscillatory Dynamics in Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodizs, Robert; Gombos, Ferenc; Kovacs, Ilona

    2012-01-01

    Sleep EEG alterations are emerging features of several developmental disabilities, but detailed quantitative EEG data on the sleep phenotype of patients with Williams syndrome (WS, 7q11.23 microdeletion) is still lacking. Based on laboratory (Study I) and home sleep records (Study II) here we report WS-related features of the patterns of…

  17. Influence of age and length of service on the level of stress and burnout syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanetić, Kosana; Tesanović, Gordana

    2013-01-01

    The burnout syndrome is a response to chronic emotional and interpersonal stressors which are related to workplace. Medicine is one of the professions at the greatest risk of suffering from burnout syndrome. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of stress and burnout syndrome in relation with age and length of service in the family medicine physicians in the Republic of Srpska. The study was carried out on the basis of a questionnaire survey among family medicine physicians in seven Primary Health Care Centres in the Republic of Srpska from February 1st to April 30th 2010. The participants fulfilled the questionnaire for self-assessment of stress level and the Maslach Burnout Inventory, which were amended with data regarding age, sex, length of service and educational and vocational level. The study included 199 (83.3%) female and 40 (16.7%) male participants. The physicians aged over 46 years and with the length of service over 21 years had statistically significant higher level of stress and emotional exhaustion than younger participants and participants with shorter length of service. Age and length of service have important influence on the level of stress and burnout syndrome: the older the physicians and the higher the length of service the higher the level of stress and the higher the risk of burnout syndrome.

  18. ACCELERATED THERMAL AGEING OF ACRYLIC COPOLYMERS, CYCLOHEXANONE-BASED AND UREA-ALDEHYDE RESINS USED IN PAINTINGS CONSERVATION

    OpenAIRE

    Farmakalidis, Helen Velonika; Douvas, Antonios M.; Karatasios, Ioannis; Sotiropoulou, Sophia; Boyatzis, Stamatis; Argitis, Panagiotis; Chryssoulakis, Yannis; Kilikoglou, Vassilis

    2016-01-01

    The monitoring of performance characteristics of resins was always an issue for the conservation community, since the stability of the art objects depends on the service life of conservation materials used. Among the resins commonly applied in the field of paintings conservation, four of the most popular ones, Paraloid B72, Primal AC33 (acrylic polymers), Ketone Resin N (cyclohexanone) and Laropal A81 (ureaaldehyde) were selected to be comparatively studied under accelerated ageing conditions...

  19. Models for estimating the metabolic syndrome biological age as the new index for evaluation and management of metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Young Gon; Suh, Eunkyung; Chun, Hyejin; Kim, Sun-Hyun; Kim, Deog Ki; Bae, Chul-Young

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to propose a metabolic syndrome (MS) biological age model, through which overall evaluation and management of the health status and aging state in MS can be done easily. Through this model, we hope to provide a novel evaluation and management health index that can be utilized in various health care fields. Patient and methods MS parameters from American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute guidelines in 2005 were used as biomarkers for the estimation of MS biological age. MS biological age model development was done by analyzing data of 263,828 participants and clinical application of the developed MS biological age was assessed by analyzing the data of 188,886 subjects. Results The principal component accounted for 36.1% in male and 38.9% in female of the total variance in the battery of five variables. The correlation coefficient between corrected biological age and chronological age in males and females were 0.711 and 0.737, respectively. Significant difference for mean MS biological age and chronological age between the three groups, normal, at risk and MS, was seen (P<0.001). Conclusion For the comprehensive approach in MS management, MS biological age is expected to be additionally utilized as a novel evaluation and management index along with the traditional MS diagnosis. PMID:28203066

  20. 47,XXY Klinefelter syndrome: clinical characteristics and age-specific recommendations for medical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksglaede, Lise; Link, Katarina; Giwercman, Aleksander; Jørgensen, Niels; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Juul, Anders

    2013-02-15

    47,XXY (Klinefelter syndrome) is the most frequent sex chromosomal disorder and affects approximately one in 660 newborn boys. The syndrome is characterized by varying degrees of cognitive, social, behavioral, and learning difficulties and in adulthood additionally primary testicular failure with small testes, hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, tall stature, and eunuchoid body proportions. The phenotype is variable ranging from "near-normal" to a significantly affected individual. In addition, newborns with Klinefelter syndrome generally present with a normal male phenotype and the only consistent clinical finding in KS is small testes, that are most often not identified until after puberty. Decreased awareness of this syndrome among health professionals and a general perception that all patients with 47,XXY exhibit the classic textbook phenotype results in a highly under-diagnosed condition with up to 75% of the patients left undetected. Typically, diagnosis is delayed with the majority of patients identified during fertility workup in adulthood, and only 10% of patients diagnosed prior to puberty. Early detection of this syndrome is recommended in order to offer treatment and intervention at the appropriate ages and stages of development for the purpose of preventing osteopenia/osteoporosis, metabolic syndrome, and other medical conditions related to hypogonadism and to the XXY as well as minimizing potential learning and psychosocial problems. The aim of this review is to present the clinical aspects of XXY and the age-specific recommendations for medical management. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The Use of Mouse Models for Understanding the Biology of Down Syndrome and Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido N. Vacano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Down syndrome is a complex condition caused by trisomy of human chromosome 21. The biology of aging may be different in individuals with Down syndrome; this is not well understood in any organism. Because of its complexity, many aspects of Down syndrome must be studied either in humans or in animal models. Studies in humans are essential but are limited for ethical and practical reasons. Fortunately, genetically altered mice can serve as extremely useful models of Down syndrome, and progress in their production and analysis has been remarkable. Here, we describe various mouse models that have been used to study Down syndrome. We focus on segmental trisomies of mouse chromosome regions syntenic to human chromosome 21, mice in which individual genes have been introduced, or mice in which genes have been silenced by targeted mutagenesis. We selected a limited number of genes for which considerable evidence links them to aspects of Down syndrome, and about which much is known regarding their function. We focused on genes important for brain and cognitive function, and for the altered cancer spectrum seen in individuals with Down syndrome. We conclude with observations on the usefulness of mouse models and speculation on future directions.

  2. The use of mouse models for understanding the biology of down syndrome and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacano, Guido N; Duval, Nathan; Patterson, David

    2012-01-01

    Down syndrome is a complex condition caused by trisomy of human chromosome 21. The biology of aging may be different in individuals with Down syndrome; this is not well understood in any organism. Because of its complexity, many aspects of Down syndrome must be studied either in humans or in animal models. Studies in humans are essential but are limited for ethical and practical reasons. Fortunately, genetically altered mice can serve as extremely useful models of Down syndrome, and progress in their production and analysis has been remarkable. Here, we describe various mouse models that have been used to study Down syndrome. We focus on segmental trisomies of mouse chromosome regions syntenic to human chromosome 21, mice in which individual genes have been introduced, or mice in which genes have been silenced by targeted mutagenesis. We selected a limited number of genes for which considerable evidence links them to aspects of Down syndrome, and about which much is known regarding their function. We focused on genes important for brain and cognitive function, and for the altered cancer spectrum seen in individuals with Down syndrome. We conclude with observations on the usefulness of mouse models and speculation on future directions.

  3. Growth hormone treatment in Turner syndrome accelerates growth and skeletal maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Rongen-Westerlaken (Ciska); J.M. Wit (Jan); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine); B.J. Otten (Barto); W. Oostdijk (Wilma); H.A. Delemarre-van der Waal (H.); M.H. Gons (M.); A.G. Bot (Alice); J.L. van den Brande (J.)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractSixteen girls with Turner syndrome (TS) were treated for 4 years with biosynthetic growth hormone (GH). The dosage was 4IU/m2 body surface s.c. per day over the first 3 years. In the 4th year the dosage was increased to 61 U/m2 per day in the 6 girls with a poor height increment and in 1

  4. A preliminary study of the composition of commercial oil, acrylic and vinyl paints and their behaviour after accelerated ageing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Caterina Izzo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is part of a research project dealing with the establishment of monitoring and damage prevention plans for contemporary artworks. For this purpose, some commercial paints, among the most currently used by young artists, were selected: Winton oil paint (Winsor & Newton, UK, Heavy Body acrylic paint (Liquitex, USA and Flashe vinyl paint (Lefranc & Bourgeois, France. The paints were subjected to different treatments of accelerated ageing, the results indicating different behaviour in relation both to the type of binders and pigments present in the different formulations. In particular, it was observed that ageing produced by ozone plays an important role in the stability of the oil paints, above all in those containing organic azo pigments. Thermal ageing, as expected, influences the stability of all the commercial paints examined, with the formation of alteration products and visible changes in the paint films. Ageing produced by moisture clearly affects the synthetic polymer-based paints, particularly evident in the changes in mass. In all cases, the accelerated ageing treatments produced chromatic variations, more evidently for the oil paints containing organic pigment.

  5. Elevation of cartilage AGEs does not accelerate initiation of canine experimental osteoarthritis upon mild surgical damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, P.A.J.M.; Degroot, J.; Barten-Van Rijbroek, A.D.; Zuurmond, A.-M.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; Mastbergen, S.C.; Lafeber, F.P.J.G.

    2012-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a highly prevalent disease, age being the main risk factor. The age-related accumulation of advanced-glycation-endproducts (AGEs) adversely affects the mechanical and biochemical properties of cartilage. The hypothesis that accumulation of cartilage AGEs in combination with surgica

  6. The ups and downs of mutation frequencies during aging can account for the Apert syndrome paternal age effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Song-Ro; Qin, Jian; Glaser, Rivka L; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Wexler, Nancy S; Sokol, Rebecca; Arnheim, Norman; Calabrese, Peter

    2009-07-01

    Apert syndrome is almost always caused by a spontaneous mutation of paternal origin in one of two nucleotides in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 gene (FGFR2). The incidence of this disease increases with the age of the father (paternal age effect), and this increase is greater than what would be expected based on the greater number of germ-line divisions in older men. We use a highly sensitive PCR assay to measure the frequencies of the two causal mutations in the sperm of over 300 normal donors with a wide range of ages. The mutation frequencies increase with the age of the sperm donors, and this increase is consistent with the increase in the incidence rate. In both the sperm data and the birth data, the increase is non-monotonic. Further, after normalizing for age, the two Apert syndrome mutation frequencies are correlated within individual sperm donors. We consider a mathematical model for germ-line mutation which reproduces many of the attributes of the data. This model, with other evidence, suggests that part of the increase in both the sperm data and the birth data is due to selection for mutated premeiotic cells. It is likely that a number of other genetic diseases have similar features.

  7. The ups and downs of mutation frequencies during aging can account for the Apert syndrome paternal age effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Ro Yoon

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Apert syndrome is almost always caused by a spontaneous mutation of paternal origin in one of two nucleotides in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 gene (FGFR2. The incidence of this disease increases with the age of the father (paternal age effect, and this increase is greater than what would be expected based on the greater number of germ-line divisions in older men. We use a highly sensitive PCR assay to measure the frequencies of the two causal mutations in the sperm of over 300 normal donors with a wide range of ages. The mutation frequencies increase with the age of the sperm donors, and this increase is consistent with the increase in the incidence rate. In both the sperm data and the birth data, the increase is non-monotonic. Further, after normalizing for age, the two Apert syndrome mutation frequencies are correlated within individual sperm donors. We consider a mathematical model for germ-line mutation which reproduces many of the attributes of the data. This model, with other evidence, suggests that part of the increase in both the sperm data and the birth data is due to selection for mutated premeiotic cells. It is likely that a number of other genetic diseases have similar features.

  8. From old organisms to new molecules: integrative biology and therapeutic targets in accelerated human ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, L S; Faragher, R. G. A.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract. Understanding the basic biology of human ageing is a key milestone in attempting to ameliorate the deleterious consequences of old age. This is an urgent research priority given the global demographic shift towards an ageing population. Although some molecular pathways that have been proposed to contribute to ageing have been discovered using classical biochemistry and genetics, the complex, polygenic and stochastic nature of ageing is such that the process as a whole is not immedia...

  9. Effect of the Aged Garlic Extract on Cardiovascular Function in Metabolic Syndrome Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Pérez-Torres

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant properties of aged garlic extract (AGE on cardiovascular functioning (CF in metabolic syndrome (MS remains poorly studied. Here we study the AGE effects on CF in a rat model of MS. Control rats plus saline solution (C + SS, MS rats (30% sucrose in drinking water from weaning plus saline solution (MS + SS, control rats receiving AGE (C + AGE 125 mg/Kg/12 h and MS rats with AGE (MS + AGE were studied. MS + SS had increased triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, insulin, leptin, HOMA index, and advanced glycation end products. AGE returned their levels to control values (p < 0.01. Cholesterol was decreased by AGE (p = 0.05. Glutathion and GPx activity were reduced in MS + SS rats and increased with AGE (p = 0.05. Lipid peroxidation was increased in MS + SS and AGE reduced it (p = 0.001. Vascular functioning was deteriorated by MS (increased vasocontraction and reduced vasodilation and AGE improved it (p = 0.001. Coronary vascular resistance was increased in MS rats and AGE decreased it (p = 0.001. Cardiac performance was not modified by MS but AGE increased it. NO measured in the perfusate liquid from the heart and serum citrulline, nitrites/nitrates were decreased in MS and AGE increased them (p < 0.01. In conclusion, AGE reduces MS-induced cardiovascular risk, through its anti-oxidant properties.

  10. Recall Memory in Children with Down Syndrome and Typically Developing Peers Matched on Developmental Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milojevich, H.; Lukowski, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whereas research has indicated that children with Down syndrome (DS) imitate demonstrated actions over short delays, it is presently unknown whether children with DS recall information over lengthy delays at levels comparable with typically developing (TD) children matched on developmental age. Method: In the present research, 10…

  11. Ageing and Dementia in a Longitudinal Study of a Cohort with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Janet; Collins, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Background: A population sample of people with Down syndrome has been studied from infancy and has now been followed up again at age 47 years. Methods: Intelligence and language skills were tested and daily living skills assessed. Memory/cognitive deterioration was examined using two test instruments. Results: Scores on verbal tests of…

  12. Lifetime Prevalence, Age of Risk, and Genetic Relationships of Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in Tourette Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirschtritt, Matthew E; Lee, Paul C; Pauls, David L; Dion, Yves; Grados, Marco A; Illmann, Cornelia; King, Robert A; Sandor, Paul; McMahon, William M; Lyon, Gholson J; Cath, Danielle C; Kurlan, Roger; Robertson, Mary M; Osiecki, Lisa; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Mathews, Carol A

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Tourette syndrome (TS) is characterized by high rates of psychiatric comorbidity; however, few studies have fully characterized these comorbidities. Furthermore, most studies have included relatively few participants (<200), and none has examined the ages of highest risk for each TS-asso

  13. Onset of Dyspraxia in Aging Persons with Down Syndrome: Longitudinal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Arthur J.; Fedor, Bettye L.

    1998-01-01

    Because dyspraxia (partial loss of the ability to perform purposeful motor acts) is an early symptom of Alzheimer disease, a 62-item dyspraxia scale adapted for adults with Down syndrome (DS) was developed. Use of the measure over 3.5 years with 72 DS individuals (age 40 or older) found statistically significant deterioration that suggested…

  14. Ageing and Dementia in a Longitudinal Study of a Cohort with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Janet; Collins, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Background: A population sample of people with Down syndrome has been studied from infancy and has now been followed up again at age 47 years. Methods: Intelligence and language skills were tested and daily living skills assessed. Memory/cognitive deterioration was examined using two test instruments. Results: Scores on verbal tests of…

  15. Evolution of the microstructure of unmodified and polymer modified asphalt binders with aging in an accelerated weathering tester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menapace, Ilaria; Masad, Eyad

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents findings on the evolution of the surface microstructure of two asphalt binders, one unmodified and one polymer modified, directly exposed to aging agents with increasing durations. The aging is performed using an accelerated weathering tester, where ultraviolet radiation, oxygen and an increased temperature are applied to the asphalt binder surface. Ultraviolet and dark cycles, which simulated the succession of day and night, alternated during the aging process, and also the temperature varied, which corresponded to typical summer day and night temperatures registered in the state of Qatar. Direct aging of an exposed binder surface is more effective in showing microstructural modifications than previously applied protocols, which involved the heat treatment of binders previously aged with standardized methods. With the new protocol, any molecular rearrangements in the binder surface after aging induced by the heat treatment is prevented. Optical photos show the rippling and degradation of the binder surface due to aging. Microstructure images obtained by means of atomic force microscopy show gradual alteration of the surface due to aging. The original relatively flat microstructure was substituted with a profoundly different microstructure, which significantly protrudes from the surface, and is characterized by various shapes, such as rods, round structures and finally 'flower' or 'leaf' structures.

  16. Deficiency in Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase-1 (PARP-1) Accelerates Aging and Spontaneous Carcinogenesis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskunova, Tatiana S.; Yurova, Maria N.; Ovsyannikov, Anton I.; Semenchenko, Anna V.; Zabezhinski, Mark A.; Popovich, Irina G.; Wang, Zhao-Qi; Anisimov, Vladimir N.

    2008-01-01

    Genetic and biochemical studies have shown that PARP-1 and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation play an important role in DNA repair, genomic stability, cell death, inflammation, telomere maintenance, and suppressing tumorigenesis, suggesting that the homeostasis of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and PARP-1 may also play an important role in aging. Here we show that PARP-1−/− mice exhibit a reduction of life span and a significant increase of population aging rate. Analysis of noninvasive parameters, including body weight gain, body temperature, estrous function, behavior, and a number of biochemical indices suggests the acceleration of biological aging in PARP-1−/− mice. The incidence of spontaneous tumors in both PARP-1−/− and PARP-1+/+ groups is similar; however, malignant tumors including uterine tumors, lung adenocarcinomas and hepatocellular carcinomas, develop at a significantly higher frequency in PARP-1−/− mice than PARP-1+/+ mice (72% and 49%, resp.; P < .05). In addition, spontaneous tumors appear earlier in PARP-1−/− mice compared to the wild type group. Histopathological studies revealed a wide spectrum of tumors in uterus, ovaries, liver, lungs, mammary gland, soft tissues, and lymphoid organs in both groups of the mice. These results demonstrate that inactivation of DNA repair gene PARP-1 in mice leads to acceleration of aging, shortened life span, and increased spontaneous carcinogenesis. PMID:19415146

  17. Deficiency in Poly(ADP-ribose Polymerase-1 (PARP-1 Accelerates Aging and Spontaneous Carcinogenesis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana S. Piskunova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic and biochemical studies have shown that PARP-1 and poly(ADP-ribosylation play an important role in DNA repair, genomic stability, cell death, inflammation, telomere maintenance, and suppressing tumorigenesis, suggesting that the homeostasis of poly(ADP-ribosylation and PARP-1 may also play an important role in aging. Here we show that PARP-1−/− mice exhibit a reduction of life span and a significant increase of population aging rate. Analysis of noninvasive parameters, including body weight gain, body temperature, estrous function, behavior, and a number of biochemical indices suggests the acceleration of biological aging in PARP-1−/− mice. The incidence of spontaneous tumors in both PARP-1−/− and PARP-1+/+ groups is similar; however, malignant tumors including uterine tumors, lung adenocarcinomas and hepatocellular carcinomas, develop at a significantly higher frequency in PARP-1−/− mice than PARP-1+/+ mice (72% and 49%, resp.; < .05. In addition, spontaneous tumors appear earlier in PARP-1−/− mice compared to the wild type group. Histopathological studies revealed a wide spectrum of tumors in uterus, ovaries, liver, lungs, mammary gland, soft tissues, and lymphoid organs in both groups of the mice. These results demonstrate that inactivation of DNA repair gene PARP-1 in mice leads to acceleration of aging, shortened life span, and increased spontaneous carcinogenesis.

  18. Sick building syndrome: A disease of modern age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikić Dragana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sick building syndrome (SBS is a term used to describe situation in building when more than 30% of occupants suffer from various symptoms which tend to increase by severity during the time people spend in "sick" building and disappear when they leave the building. Typical cases of SBS report vague symptoms, which cannot be objectively measured, and sufferers usually show no clinical signs of illness. Symptom heterogeneity suggests that they do not represent a single disorder. The objective of our study was to establish if SBS is present in our town because new buildings have been built lately producing the artificial environment - exclusively artificial lightning and mechanical ventilation. A total of 812 subjects were included in our study. The investigation of SBS was performed by standardized questionnaires to determine the prevalence of symptoms and complaints. Questionnaires were used to collect data on perception of environment conditions and health during the period they work in this building. The subjects were divided in three groups according to sex, level of education and ownership. Our data suggested that the incidence of symptoms was higher in employers than in owners of the offices. Moreover, the prevalence of SBS was very high - up to 74.76%. It is obvious that certain physical, psychological and organizational factors are involved in the incidence of symptoms, but our investigation suggests that physical factor has a dominant role in development of symptoms, particularly low humidity and low air flow. In addition, our judgment is that SBS exists in our city, probably in the whole country and, therefore, it must be investigated properly.

  19. Accelerated Thermal Ageing of Polypropylene Fibres under High Oxygen pressure In Aqueous Media : Methodological Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Richaud, E.; Farcas, F.; FAYOLLE, B.; Audouin, L.; VERDU, J.

    2005-01-01

    Polypropylene materials are currently used in civil engineering, for example for soils reinforcement or concrete protection in tunnels. The expected lifetime (100 years) makes accelerated tests necessary in order to evaluate durability. These one are traditionally performed in ventilated ovens at high temperature (110°C-130°C). This approach is nonetheless very questionable for many reasons (stabilizers efficiency and degradation mechanism changes with temperature) so a new test is now under ...

  20. Executive functioning in Cornelia de Lange syndrome: domain asynchrony and age-related performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Donna; Moss, Jo; Nelson, Lisa; Groves, Laura; Oliver, Chris

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine executive functioning in adolescents and adults with Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) to identify a syndrome and age-related profile of cognitive impairment. Participants were 24 individuals with CdLS aged 13-42 years (M = 22; SD = 8.98), and a comparable contrast group of 21 individuals with Down syndrome (DS) aged 15-33 years (M = 24; SD = 5.82). Measures were selected to test verbal and visual fluency, inhibition, perseverance/flexibility, and working memory and comprised both questionnaire and performance tests. Individuals with CdLS showed significantly greater impairment on tasks requiring flexibility and inhibition (rule switch) and on forwards span capacity. These impairments were also reported in the parent/carer-rated questionnaire measures. Backwards Digit Span was significantly negatively correlated with chronological age in CdLS, indicating increased deficits with age. This was not identified in individuals with DS. The relative deficits in executive functioning task performance are important in understanding the behavioural phenotype of CdLS. Prospective longitudinal follow-up is required to examine further the changes in executive functioning with age and if these map onto observed changes in behaviour in CdLS. Links with recent research indicating heightened responses to oxidative stress in CdLS may also be important.

  1. Priming of microglia in a DNA-repair deficient model of accelerated aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raj, Divya D. A.; Jaarsma, Dick; Holtman, Inge R.; Olah, Marta; Ferreira, Filipa M.; Schaafsma, Wandert; Brouwer, Nieske; Meijer, Michel M.; de Waard, Monique C.; van der Pluijm, Ingrid; Brandt, Renata; Kreft, Karim L.; Laman, Jon D.; de Haan, Gerald; Biber, Knut P. H.; Hoeijmakers, Jan H. J.; Eggen, Bart J. L.; Boddeke, Hendrikus W. G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with reduced function, degenerative changes, and increased neuroinflammation of the central nervous system (CNS). Increasing evidence suggests that changes in microglia cells contribute to the age-related deterioration of the CNS. The most prominent age-related change of microgli

  2. Priming of microglia in a DNA-repair deficient model of accelerated aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raj, Divya D. A.; Jaarsma, Dick; Holtman, Inge R.; Olah, Marta; Ferreira, Filipa M.; Schaafsma, Wandert; Brouwer, Nieske; Meijer, Michel M.; de Waard, Monique C.; van der Pluijm, Ingrid; Brandt, Renata; Kreft, Karim L.; Laman, Jon D.; de Haan, Gerald; Biber, Knut P. H.; Hoeijmakers, Jan H. J.; Eggen, Bart J. L.; Boddeke, Hendrikus W. G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with reduced function, degenerative changes, and increased neuroinflammation of the central nervous system (CNS). Increasing evidence suggests that changes in microglia cells contribute to the age-related deterioration of the CNS. The most prominent age-related change of microgli

  3. Parental age and unbalanced Robertsonian translocations associated with Down syndrome and Patau syndrome: comparison with maternal and paternal age effects for 47, +21 and 47, +13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, E B

    1984-10-01

    Data are analysed on livebirths with trisomic syndromes associated with unbalanced Robertsonian translocations born from 1968 to 1981 and reported to the New York State Chromosome Registry. The maternal ages of reported cases were compared with those of the livebirths in the general population who were born in the same year. The number of translocations studied, the mean case-control differences in years in maternal age (and the standard errors of the mean) were respectively, as follows: D/21 mutants, n = 36, -0.1 (+/- 0.9); G/21 mutants, n = 46, +1.5 (+/-0.8); D/13 mutants, n = 16, +0.6 (+/-1.5); D/21 inherited, n = 12, -1.0 (+/-1.4); G/21 inherited, n = 3, -0.3 (+/-4.4); and D/13 inherited, n = 6, +2.1 (+/-2.4). There was little change in any category if the few cases diagnosed prenatally were included. Only the value for the G/21 mutants is significantly different from zero at the 0.05 level. (The results on G/21 mutants in maternal age are consistent with an earlier Japanese report of an increase of about 2 years over the control values.) The distribution of maternal ages suggests that G/21 mutants may be produced both by maternal age-independent and maternal age-dependent components. The data on D/21 mutants, however, do not indicate the negative association with maternal age reported in Japan. Differences between this study and the Japanese study in analyses of controls may explain this slight variation. But in any event both studies reveal no evidence for an increase in maternal age for unbalanced D/21 mutant or D/21 inherited translocations associated with Down syndrome. This is evidence against the hypothesis that relaxed selection during gestation, after recognition of pregnancy, accounts for the maternal age effects of 47, +21. In comparison with the results on Robertsonian translocations, the case-control differences in maternal age in years (and the standard errors of the mean) for 47, +21 for 2148 livebirths was +4.6 (+/-0.2), and for 2354 cases

  4. Aberrant DNA methylation profiles in the premature aging disorders Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria and Werner syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyn, Holger; Moran, Sebastian; Esteller, Manel

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation gradiently changes with age and is likely to be involved in aging-related processes with subsequent phenotype changes and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. The Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria (HGP) and Werner Syndrome (WS) are two premature aging diseases showing features of common natural aging early in life. Mutations in the LMNA and WRN genes were associated to disease onset; however, for a subset of patients the underlying causative mechanisms remain elusive. We aimed to evaluate the role of epigenetic alteration on premature aging diseases by performing comprehensive DNA methylation profiling of HGP and WS patients. We observed profound changes in the DNA methylation landscapes of WRN and LMNA mutant patients, which were narrowed down to a set of aging related genes and processes. Although of low overall variance, non-mutant patients revealed differential DNA methylation at distinct loci. Hence, we propose DNA methylation to have an impact on premature aging diseases. PMID:23257959

  5. Aberrant DNA methylation profiles in the premature aging disorders Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria and Werner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyn, Holger; Moran, Sebastian; Esteller, Manel

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation gradiently changes with age and is likely to be involved in aging-related processes with subsequent phenotype changes and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. The Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria (HGP) and Werner Syndrome (WS) are two premature aging diseases showing features of common natural aging early in life. Mutations in the LMNA and WRN genes were associated to disease onset; however, for a subset of patients the underlying causative mechanisms remain elusive. We aimed to evaluate the role of epigenetic alteration on premature aging diseases by performing comprehensive DNA methylation profiling of HGP and WS patients. We observed profound changes in the DNA methylation landscapes of WRN and LMNA mutant patients, which were narrowed down to a set of aging related genes and processes. Although of low overall variance, non-mutant patients revealed differential DNA methylation at distinct loci. Hence, we propose DNA methylation to have an impact on premature aging diseases.

  6. COMPUTER EYE SYNDROME IN CHILDREN AGED 3 TO 6 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasina P. Valcheva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To detect visual disturbances, major symptoms and relationship between them in children between the ages of 3 and 6 years, who spend some time in front of a computer. Material/Methods: In the present study 2823 children attending 23 kindergartens in the city of Pleven, were given inquiry cards. Those with completed questionnaires were examined for visual acuity and convergence. In cases with low vision the children were invited for a detailed eye examination in the Eye Clinic at the University Hospital "Dr George Stranski" - Pleven. Results: A total of 2332 children responded and were examined (1174 girls and 1158 boys. The age of children is from 3 to 6 years. We found 303 children with subjective complaints in a close work, 163 with low vision and 18 with impaired convergence. Regarding the duration of stay in front of a computer – 159 children stay over 3 hours a day in front of video display, 1228 children spend about 1 hour a day in front of a computer and 945 children do not play on a computer. Conclusion: Nowadays more and more children use computers for recreational purposes at home. From our study it became clear that preschool children overuse their stay in front of computer.

  7. Development of a lifetime prediction model for lithium-ion batteries based on extended accelerated aging test data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Madeleine; Gerschler, Jochen B.; Vogel, Jan; Käbitz, Stefan; Hust, Friedrich; Dechent, Philipp; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2012-10-01

    Battery lifetime prognosis is a key requirement for successful market introduction of electric and hybrid vehicles. This work aims at the development of a lifetime prediction approach based on an aging model for lithium-ion batteries. A multivariable analysis of a detailed series of accelerated lifetime experiments representing typical operating conditions in hybrid electric vehicle is presented. The impact of temperature and state of charge on impedance rise and capacity loss is quantified. The investigations are based on a high-power NMC/graphite lithium-ion battery with good cycle lifetime. The resulting mathematical functions are physically motivated by the occurring aging effects and are used for the parameterization of a semi-empirical aging model. An impedance-based electric-thermal model is coupled to the aging model to simulate the dynamic interaction between aging of the battery and the thermal as well as electric behavior. Based on these models different drive cycles and management strategies can be analyzed with regard to their impact on lifetime. It is an important tool for vehicle designers and for the implementation of business models. A key contribution of the paper is the parameterization of the aging model by experimental data, while aging simulation in the literature usually lacks a robust empirical foundation.

  8. Normal tempo of bone formation in Turner syndrome despite signs of accelerated bone resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleemann, Line Hartvig; Holm, Kirsten Bagge; Kobbernagel, Hanne;

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate area bone mineral density (aBMD) and volumetric BMD (vBMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and relations to bone markers and hormones in adolescent women with Turner syndrome (TS). Methods: Cross-sectional study in TS patients (n = 37, 16.7 ± 3.4 years) and control group (n......' TS, compared to controls. vBMD(hip) was lower in 'ongoing GH' TS, but similar in 'previous GH'. z scores for aBMD were uniformly reduced in 'ongoing TS', but near-normalized in 'previous GH' TS. Bone formation and resorption markers were increased in 'ongoing GH' TS, while 'previous GH' TS had...

  9. Normal Tempo of Bone Formation in Turner Syndrome despite Signs of Accelerated Bone Resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleemann, Line; Holm, Kirsten; Kobbernagel, Hanne;

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate area bone mineral density (aBMD) and volumetric BMD (vBMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and relations to bone markers and hormones in adolescent women with Turner syndrome (TS). Methods: Cross-sectional study in TS patients (n = 37, 16.7 ± 3.4 years) and control group (n......' TS, compared to controls. vBMD(hip) was lower in 'ongoing GH' TS, but similar in 'previous GH'. z scores for aBMD were uniformly reduced in 'ongoing TS', but near-normalized in 'previous GH' TS. Bone formation and resorption markers were increased in 'ongoing GH' TS, while 'previous GH' TS had...

  10. Overexpression of eIF-5A2 in mice causes accelerated organismal aging by increasing chromosome instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Leilei

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amplification of 3q26 is one of the most frequent genetic alterations in many human malignancies. Recently, we isolated a novel oncogene eIF-5A2 within the 3q26 region. Functional study has demonstrated the oncogenic role of eIF-5A2 in the initiation and progression of human cancers. In the present study, we aim to investigate the physiological and pathological effect of eIF-5A2 in an eIF-5A2 transgenic mouse model. Methods An eIF-5A2 transgenic mouse model was generated using human eIF-5A2 cDNA. The eIF-5A2 transgenic mice were characterized by histological and immunohistochemistry analyses. The aging phenotypes were further characterized by wound healing, bone X-ray imaging and calcification analysis. Mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF were isolated to further investigate molecular mechanism of eIF-5A2 in aging. Results Instead of resulting in spontaneous tumor formation, overexpression of eIF-5A2 accelerated the aging process in adult transgenic mice. This included decreased growth rate and body weight, shortened life span, kyphosis, osteoporosis, delay of wound healing and ossification. Investigation of the correlation between cellular senescence and aging showed that cellular senescence is not required for the aging phenotypes in eIF-5A2 mice. Interestingly, we found that activation of eIF-5A2 repressed p19 level and therefore destabilized p53 in transgenic mouse embryo fibroblast (MEF cells. This subsequently allowed for the accumulation of chromosomal instability, such as errors in cell dividing during metaphase and anaphase. Additionally, a significantly increase in number of aneuploidy cells (p Conclusion These observations suggest that eIF-5A2 mouse models could accelerate organismal aging by increasing chromosome instability.

  11. Melatonin can improve insulin resistance and aging-induced pancreas alterations in senescence-accelerated prone male mice (SAMP8).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Sara; Kireev, Roman; García, Cruz; Rancan, Lisa; Vara, Elena; Tresguerres, Jesús A F

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of aging on several parameters related to glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance in pancreas and how melatonin administration could affect these parameters. Pancreas samples were obtained from two types of male mice models: senescence-accelerated prone (SAMP8) and senescence-accelerated-resistant mice (SAMR1). Insulin levels in plasma were increased with aging in both SAMP8 and SAMR1 mice, whereas insulin content in pancreas was decreased with aging in SAMP8 and increased in SAMR1 mice. Expressions of glucagon and GLUT2 messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were increased with aging in SAMP8 mice, and no differences were observed in somatostatin and insulin mRNA expressions. Furthermore, aging decreased also the expressions of Pdx-1, FoxO 1, FoxO 3A and Sirt1 in pancreatic SAMP8 samples. Pdx-1 was decreased in SAMR1 mice, but no differences were observed in the rest of parameters on these mice strains. Treatment with melatonin was able to decrease plasma insulin levels and to increase its pancreatic content in SAMP8 mice. In SAMR1, insulin pancreatic content and plasma levels were decreased. HOMA-IR was decreased with melatonin treatment in both strains of animals. On the other hand, in SAMP8 mice, treatment decreased the expression of glucagon, GLUT2, somatostatin and insulin mRNA. Furthermore, it was also able to increase the expression of Sirt1, Pdx-1 and FoxO 3A. According to these results, aging is associated with significant alterations in the relative expression of pancreatic genes associated to glucose metabolism. This has been especially observed in SAMP8 mice. Melatonin administration was able to improve pancreatic function in old SAMP8 mice and to reduce HOMA-IR improving their insulin physiology and glucose metabolism.

  12. Rapamycin activates autophagy in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome: implications for normal aging and age-dependent neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziotto, John J; Cao, Kan; Collins, Francis S; Krainc, Dimitri

    2012-01-01

    While rapamycin has been in use for years in transplant patients as an antirejection drug, more recently it has shown promise in treating diseases of aging, such as neurodegenerative disorders and atherosclerosis. We recently reported that rapamycin reverses the cellular phenotype of fibroblasts from children with the premature aging disease Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS). We found that the causative aberrant protein, progerin, was cleared through autophagic mechanisms when the cells were treated with rapamycin, suggesting a new potential treatment for HGPS. Recent evidence shows that progerin is also present in aged tissues of healthy individuals, suggesting that progerin may contribute to physiological aging. While it is intriguing to speculate that rapamycin may affect normal aging in humans, as it does in lower organisms, it will be important to identify safer analogues of rapamycin for chronic treatments in humans in order to minimize toxicity. In addition to its role in HGPS and normal aging, we discuss the potential of rapamycin for the treatment of age-dependent neurodegenerative diseases.

  13. Metabolic syndrome and dementia associated with Parkinson's disease: impact of age and hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Oscar Schelp

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine correlations between age and metabolic disorders in Parkinson's disease (PD patients. METHODS: This observational cross-sectional study included brief tests for dementia and the Mattis test. Signals of metabolic syndrome were evaluated. RESULTS: There was no significant effect from the presence of hypertension (OR=2.36 for patients under 65 years old and OR=0.64 for patients over 65, diabetes or hypercholesterolemia regarding occurrences of dementia associated with PD (24% of the patients. The study demonstrated that each year of age increased the estimated risk of dementia in PD patients by 9% (OR=1.09; 95%CI: 1.01-1.17. CONCLUSION: There was no evidence to correlate the presence of metabolic syndrome with the risk of dementia that was associated with PD. The study confirmed that dementia in PD is age dependent and not related to disease duration.

  14. Cognitive training during infancy and adolescence accelerates adult associative learning: critical impact of age, stimulus contingency and training intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruss, Michael; Abraham, Andreas; Schäble, Sandra; Becker, Susann; Braun, Katharina

    2010-10-01

    A growing body of evidence supports the hypothesis that juvenile cognitive training shapes neural networks and behavior, and thereby determines the adult's capacity for learning and memory. In particular, we have shown that infant rats, even though they do not develop an active avoidance strategy in a two-way active avoidance task, show as adults accelerated learning in the same learning task. This indicates that a memory trace was formed in the infant rats, which most likely is recruited during adult training. To identify the learning conditions, which are essential prerequisites to form this memory trace in infancy or adolescence, we investigated the critical impact of: (i) age, (ii) CS-UCS contingency, and (iii) pre-training intensity on this facilitating effect. We observed: (i) an age-dependent improvement of avoidance learning, (ii) that the beneficial impact of infant or adolescent pre-training on adult learning increases with the age at pre-training, (iii) that CS-UCS contingency during infant pre-training was most efficient to accelerate adult learning, (iv) that pre-training intensity (i.e. number of pre-training trials) was positively correlated with the pre-training induced acceleration of adult learning, and (v) that infant rats, compared to adolescent rats, need a higher training intensity to show learning improvement as adults. These results indicate that infant rats develop a goal-oriented escape strategy, which during adult training is replaced by an avoidance strategy, facilitated by the recruitment of the CS-UCS association, which has been learned during infant training. Based on these results the future challenge will be to identify the specific contribution of prefronto-limbic circuits in infant and adult learning in relation to their functional maturation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of Different Types of Resin Luting Agents on Color Stability of Ceramic Laminate Veneers Subjected to Accelerated Artificial Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Silami,Francisca Daniele Jardilino; Tonani,Rafaella; Alandia-Román,Carla Cecilia; Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of accelerated aging (AAA) on the color stability of resin cements for bonding ceramic laminate veneers of different thicknesses. The occlusal surfaces of 80 healthy human molars were flattened. Ceramic laminate veneers (IPS e-max Ceram) of two thicknesses (0.5 and 1.0 mm) were bonded with three types of luting agents: light-cured, conventional dual and self-adhesive dual cement. Teeth without restorations and cement samples (0.5 mm...

  16. Chronic vitamin C deficiency does not accelerate oxidative stress in ageing brains of guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Hasselholt, Stine; Miyashita, Namiyo

    2012-01-01

      Increased oxidative stress in the brain has consistently been implied in ageing and in several degenerative brain disorders. Acting as a pivotal antioxidant in the brain, vitamin C is preferentially retained during deficiency and may play an essential role in neuroprotection during ageing. Thus...

  17. Evidence of accelerated ageing in clinical drug addiction from immune, hepatic and metabolic biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reece Albert

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug addiction is associated with significant disease and death, but its impact on the ageing process has not been considered. The recent demonstration that many of the items available in routine clinical pathology have applicability as biomarkers of the ageing process implies that routine clinical laboratory parameters would be useful as an initial investigation of this possibility. Methods 12,093 clinical laboratory results 1995–2006 were reviewed. To make the age ranges of the medical and addicted groups comparable the age range was restricted to 15–45 years. Results 739 drug addicted (DA and 5834 general medical (GM age matched blood samples were compared. Significant elevation of immune parameters was noted in the C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, total lymphocyte count, serum globulins and the globulin:albumin ratio (P Conclusion These data demonstrate for the first time that addiction is associated with an altered profile of common biomarkers of ageing raising the possibility that the ageing process may be altered in this group. Infective and immune processes may be centrally involved. They suggest that addiction forms an interesting model to further examine the contribution of immune suppression and hyperstimulation to the ageing process.

  18. Aging is associated with decreased maximal life span and accelerated senescence of bone marrow stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dokkedahl, Karin Stenderup; Justesen, Jeannette; Clausen, Christian

    2003-01-01

    donors were able to form similar amounts of mineralized matrix in vitro and of normal lamellar bone in vivo. In adipogenic medium similar numbers of adipocytes formed in cultures of young and old donors. In conclusion, aging is associated with decreased proliferative capacity of osteoprogenitor cells......Age-related decrease in bone formation is well described. However, the cellular causes are not known. Thus, we have established cultures of bone marrow stromal cells (MSC) from young (aged 18-29 years, n = 6) and old (aged 68-81 years, n = 5) donors. MSC were serially passaged until reaching......, suggesting that decreased osteoblastic cell number, and not function, leads to age-related decrease in bone formation....

  19. Reduced quality and accelerated follicle loss with female reproductive aging - does decline in theca dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) underlie the problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Judith H

    2013-12-13

    Infertility, spontaneous abortion and conception of trisomic offspring increase exponentially with age in mammals but in women there is an apparent acceleration in the rate from about age 37. The problems mostly commonly occur when the ovarian pool of follicles is depleted to a critical level with age but are also found in low follicular reserve of other etiologies. Since recent clinical studies have indicated that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation may reverse the problem of oocyte quality, this review of the literature was undertaken in an attempt to find an explanation of why this is effective? In affected ovaries, oxygenation of follicular fluid is low, ultrastructural disturbances especially of mitochondria, occur in granulosa cells and oocytes, and considerable disturbances of meiosis occur. There is, however, no evidence to date that primordial follicles are compromised. In females with normal fertility, pre-antral ovarian theca cells respond to stimulation by inhibin B to provide androgen-based support for the developing follicle. With depletion of follicle numbers, inhibin B is reduced with consequent reduction in theca DHEA. Theca cells are the sole ovarian site of synthesis of DHEA, which is both a precursor of androstenedione and an essential ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), the key promoter of genes affecting fatty acid metabolism and fat transport and genes critical to mitochondrial function. As well as inducing a plethora of deleterious changes in follicular cytoplasmic structure and function, the omega 9 palmitate/oleate ratio is increased by lowered activity of PPARα. This provides conditions for increased ceramide synthesis and follicular loss through ceramide-induced apoptosis is accelerated. In humans critical theca DHEA synthesis occurs at about 70 days prior to ovulation thus effective supplementation needs to be undertaken about four months prior to intended conception; timing which is also

  20. Effect of weaning age on hair sheep lamb and ewe production traits in an accelerated lambing system in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, R W; Weis, A J

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the impact of weaning age on lamb and ewe productivity in an accelerated lambing system. St. Croix White (STX) and Dorper × St. Croix White (DRPX) lambs were assigned at birth based on breed, gender, and litter size to be weaned at 63 (Early-1; 106 lambs and 68 ewes) or 90 d of age (Late-1; 99 lambs and 60 ewes) in Exp.1 or at 63 (Early-2; 77 lambs and 57 ewes) or 120 d of age (Late-2; 75 lambs and 56 ewes) in Exp. 2. After weaning, lambs were weighed weekly and fed a concentrate ration (2% BW·lamb·d) while grazing guinea grass pastures. In Exp. 1, weaning weight was greater ( 0.06) between Early-2 and Late-2 lambs (5.1 ± 0.2 vs. 5.6 ± 0.3 kg, respectively). In Exp. 1 and 2, ewe BW at breeding and lambing and weaning and lambing rate were not different among weaning ages of lambs ( > 0.17). The Early-1 ewes exhibited estrus earlier than Late-1 ewes (10.9 ± 0.9 vs. 13.9 ± 1.0 d, respectively) but there was no difference ( > 0.63) between Early-2 and Late-2 ewes. Weaning hair lambs at 90 or 120 d of age can be done in an accelerated lambing system with no detrimental effect on lamb or ewe productivity. Late weaning resulted in a decreased number of days that lambs received high-cost, imported feed without a reduction in growth, resulting in savings of US$6 to $15 per lamb.

  1. Calcium deficit in diet as risk factor for osteopenic syndrome in pregnant women of young age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saule Kabylova

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The study features of bone tissue mineral density and their correlation with bloodlevels of calcium, magnesium and non-organic phosphorus in young pregnantwomen. Clinical and ambulatory examination of 120 pregnant women of ages 16-25 was made. Estimation of bone tissue mineral density and blood levels ofcalcium, phosphorus and magnesium was performed during the pregnancy stageof 12 to 28 weeks. Among young pregnant women during II trimester, rate ofosteopenic syndrome amounts to 17.5%, including osteoporosis of 1.7%.Development of osteopenic syndrome is attributed to general blood calciumdeficiency. Development of osteopenic syndrome in young pregnant women isassociated with decreased dietary consumption of calcium (owing to exclusion ofmilk products. Bone tissue mineral density is directly correlated with bloodplasma levels of calcium.

  2. Onset of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome is accelerated by bruising in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Masanori; Saito, Mitsumasa; Iida, Ken-Ichiro; Taniai, Hiroaki; Soejima, Takashi; Nakayama, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Shin-Ichi

    2008-04-01

    Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) is the severest form of human infections caused by Streptococcus pyogenes. In our animal model of STSS [Saito M, Kajiwara H, Ishikawa T, et al. Delayed onset of systemic bacterial dissemination and subsequent death in mice injected intramuscularly with Streptococcus pyogenes. Microbiol Immunol 2001;45:777-86], mice inoculated intramuscularly with S. pyogenes strains initially suffer from a short illness, then recover and remain healthy for about 20 days, and finally become sick and incur a sudden death. Here we report that the death during the convalescent period was facilitated by artificially bruising an extremity remote from the site of the initial inoculation. Bacterial burden was found to be higher in the bruised site than in a non-bruised control extremity of each mouse examined. Bacteremia started to occur approximately 20 days after infection. These findings imply that a fresh bruise serves as a focus for bacterial multiplication in the presence of bacteremia, thereby facilitating the development of STSS.

  3. Analysis of tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation caused by accelerated artificial aging and the effects of microstructure in stabilized zirconia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Thomas J.

    This investigation addresses the issue that yttria stabilized zirconia is being used as a dental biomaterial without substantial evidence of its long-term viability. Furthermore, stabilized zirconia (SZ) undergoes low temperature degradation (LTD), which can lead to roughening of the surface. A rougher exterior can lead to increased wear of the antagonist in the oral environment. Despite the LTD concerns, SZ is now widely used in restorative dentistry, including full contour crowns. A comparison of aging methods to determine the role of artificial aging on inducing the transformation has not been extensively studied. Therefore, simulations of the transformation process were investigated by comparing different methods of accelerated aging. The rejected null hypothesis is that the temperature of aging treatment will not affect the time required to cause measurable monoclinic transformation of yttria stabilized zirconia. The transformation of SZ starts at the surface and progresses inward; however, it is unclear whether the progression is constant for different aging conditions. This investigation analyzed the depth of transformation as a function of aging conditions for stabilized zirconia in the top 5-6 mum from the surface. The rejected null hypothesis is that the transformation amount is constant throughout the first six micrometers from the surface. The effects of grain size on the amount of monoclinic transformation were also investigated. This study aimed to determine if the grain size of partially stabilized zirconia affects the amount of monoclinic transformation, surface roughness, and property degradation due to aging. The rejected null hypothesis is that the grain size will not affect the amount of monoclinic transformation, thus have no effect on surface roughening or property degradation. The final part of this study addresses the wear of enamel when opposing zirconia by observing how grain size and aging affected the wear rate of an enamel antagonist

  4. Leukocyte Telomere Length in Young Adults Born Preterm: Support for Accelerated Biological Ageing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina C J Smeets

    Full Text Available Subjects born preterm have an increased risk for age-associated diseases, such as cardiovascular disease in later life, but the underlying causes are largely unknown. Shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL, a marker of biological age, is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease.To compare LTL between subjects born preterm and at term and to assess if LTL is associated with other putative cardiovascular risk factors at young adult age.We measured mean LTL in 470 young adults. LTL was measured using a quantitative PCR assay and expressed as T/S ratio. We analyzed the influence of gestational age on LTL and compared LTL between subjects born preterm (n = 186 and at term (n = 284. Additionally, we analyzed the correlation between LTL and potential risk factors of cardiovascular disease.Gestational age was positively associated with LTL (r = 0.11, p = 0.02. Subjects born preterm had shorter LTL (mean (SD T/S ratio = 3.12 (0.44 than subjects born at term (mean (SD T/S ratio = 3.25 (0.46, p = 0.003. The difference remained significant after adjustment for gender and size at birth (p = 0.001. There was no association of LTL with any one of the putative risk factors analyzed.Young adults born preterm have shorter LTL than young adults born at term. Although we found no correlation between LTL and risk for CVD at this young adult age, this biological ageing indicator may contribute to CVD and other adult onset diseases at a later age in those born preterm.

  5. Modulation of the phenolic composition and colour of red wines subjected to accelerated ageing by controlling process variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sáiz, J M; Esteban-Díez, I; Rodríguez-Tecedor, S; Pérez-Del-Notario, N; Arenzana-Rámila, I; Pizarro, C

    2014-12-15

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the main factors conditioning accelerated ageing processes (oxygen dose, chip dose, wood origin, toasting degree and maceration time) on the phenolic and chromatic profiles of red wines by using a multivariate strategy based on experimental design methodology. The results obtained revealed that the concentrations of monomeric anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols could be modified through the application of particular experimental conditions. This fact was particularly remarkable since changes in phenolic profile were closely linked to changes observed in chromatic parameters. The main strength of this study lies in the possibility of using its conclusions as a basis to make wines with specific colour properties based on quality criteria. To our knowledge, the influence of such a large number of alternative ageing parameters on wine phenolic composition and chromatic attributes has not been studied previously using a comprehensive experimental design methodology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. INCIDENCE OF STUTTERING IN SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN WITH DOWN SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzeta SALIHOVIĆ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to examine the incidence (frequency and stuttering severity in the school-age children with Down syndrome. The sample was consisted of 37 school-age children with Down syndrome, both male and female. The study was conducted in the following institutions: Institute of Special Education and Rehabilitation for Children with Intellectual Disabilities "Mjedenica"; Centre for Education, Training and Employment of Mentally Retarded Children, Children with Autism and Cerebral palsy "Vladimir Nazor" in Sarajevo; Primary School of Special Education „Zenica“; Primary school "Kovačići" Sarajevo; "Association of United Civic Actions – DUGA" in Sarajevo; and The Association "Be my friend" in Ilijaš. All of the subjects were individually examined. The results showed that 13,51 % of the children with Down syndrome stuttered, and the total result of stuttering severity indicates a moderate stuttering. These results show that children with Down syndrome should be enrolled intensively in speech therapy in order to help them overcome their stuttering, to facilitate their everyday communication and to teach them how to cope with stuttering.

  7. Modelling of degradation processes in creep resistant steels through accelerated creep tests after long-term isothermal ageing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sklenicka, V.; Kucharova, K.; Svoboda, M.; Kroupa, A.; Kloc, L. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno (Czech Republic). Inst. of Physics of Materials; Cmakal, J. [UJP PRAHA a.s., Praha-Zbraslav (Czech Republic)

    2010-07-01

    Creep behaviour and degradation of creep properties of creep resistant materials are phenomena of major practical relevance, often limiting the lives of components and structures designed to operate for long periods under stress at elevated and/or high temperatures. Since life expectancy is, in reality, based on the ability of the material to retain its high-temperature creep strength for the projected designed life, methods of creep properties assessment based on microstructural evolution in the material during creep rather than simple parametric extrapolation of short-term creep tests are necessary. In this paper we will try to further clarify the creep-strength degradation of selected advanced creep resistant steels. In order to accelerate some microstructural changes and thus to simulate degradation processes in long-term service, isothermal ageing at 650 C for 10 000 h was applied to P91 and P23 steels in their as-received states. The accelerated tensile creep tests were performed at temperature 600 C in argon atmosphere on all steels both in the as-received state and after long-term isothermal ageing, in an effort to obtain a more complete description of the role of microstructural stability in high temperature creep of these steels. Creep tests were followed by microstructural investigations by means of both transmission and scanning electron microscopy and by the thermodynamic calculations. The applicability of the accelerated creep tests was verified by the theoretical modelling of the phase equilibria at different temperatures. It is suggested that under restructed oxidation due to argon atmosphere microstructural instability is the main detrimental process in the long-term degradation of the creep rupture strength of these steels. (orig.)

  8. Towards A Model-Based Prognostics Methodology for Electrolytic Capacitors: A Case Study Based on Electrical Overstress Accelerated Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celaya, Jose R.; Kulkarni, Chetan S.; Biswas, Gautam; Goebel, Kai

    2012-01-01

    A remaining useful life prediction methodology for electrolytic capacitors is presented. This methodology is based on the Kalman filter framework and an empirical degradation model. Electrolytic capacitors are used in several applications ranging from power supplies on critical avionics equipment to power drivers for electro-mechanical actuators. These devices are known for their comparatively low reliability and given their criticality in electronics subsystems they are a good candidate for component level prognostics and health management. Prognostics provides a way to assess remaining useful life of a capacitor based on its current state of health and its anticipated future usage and operational conditions. We present here also, experimental results of an accelerated aging test under electrical stresses. The data obtained in this test form the basis for a remaining life prediction algorithm where a model of the degradation process is suggested. This preliminary remaining life prediction algorithm serves as a demonstration of how prognostics methodologies could be used for electrolytic capacitors. In addition, the use degradation progression data from accelerated aging, provides an avenue for validation of applications of the Kalman filter based prognostics methods typically used for remaining useful life predictions in other applications.

  9. Accelerated Aging of BKC 44306-10 Rigid Polyurethane Foam: FT-IR Spectroscopy, Dimensional Analysis, and Micro Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbertson, Robert D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Patterson, Brian M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Zachary [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-02

    An accelerated aging study of BKC 44306-10 rigid polyurethane foam was carried out. Foam samples were aged in a nitrogen atmosphere at three different temperatures: 50 °C, 65 °C, and 80 °C. Foam samples were periodically removed from the aging canisters at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 month intervals when FT-IR spectroscopy, dimensional analysis, and mechanical testing experiments were performed. Micro Computed Tomography imaging was also employed to study the morphology of the foams. Over the course of the aging study the foams the decreased in size by a magnitude of 0.001 inches per inch of foam. Micro CT showed the heterogeneous nature of the foam structure likely resulting from flow effects during the molding process. The effect of aging on the compression and tensile strength of the foam was minor and no cause for concern. FT-IR spectroscopy was used to follow the foam chemistry. However, it was difficult to draw definitive conclusions about the changes in chemical nature of the materials due to large variability throughout the samples.

  10. The telomere attrition rate is not accelerated in women born small for gestational age: A birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Anderson Sanches; Reis, Rosana Maria Dos; Calado, Rodrigo T; de Carvalho Cavalli, Ricardo; Bettiol, Heloisa; Cardoso, Viviane Cunha; Ferriani, Rui Alberto; Barbieri, Marco Antonio; Vieira, Carolina Sales

    2017-02-05

    Physiologically, a reduction in telomere length (LTL) occurs with aging, but epigenetic changes may accelerate telomere shortening and also facilitate the onset of oxidative/inflammatory stress and the development of clinical/metabolic comorbidities in life spam. Although individuals born small for gestational age (SGA) may be related to those epigenetic changes, the assessment of LTL in individuals born SGA has yielded conflicting results (only cross-sectional studies) and has not been carried out in longitudinal studies. We performed a birth cohort study to evaluate the rate of telomere erosion in women born SGA in comparison to women born appropriate for gestational age (AGA) assessed at two different time points during the third decade of life. In our research, born SGA or AGA showed no difference in LTL shortening during a period of five years in the third decade of life. Our finding may have implications for understanding the natural history of diseases in lifespan because the same women (under the influence of similar environmental factors) may be accessed in different phases of life. Thus, the analysis of the present cohort population at a more advanced age may reveal a dynamics of telomere shortening different from here and its possible relation with onset of age-related diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Reduction in podocyte SIRT1 accelerates kidney injury in aging mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Peter Y; Cai, Weijing; Li, Xuezhu; Fang, Lu; Xu, Jin; Yacoub, Rabi; He, John Cijiang; Lee, Kyung

    2017-09-01

    Both the incidence and prevalence of chronic kidney disease are increasing in the elderly population. Although aging is known to induce kidney injury, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1), a longevity gene, is known to protect kidney cell injury from various cellular stresses. In previous studies, we showed that the podocyte-specific loss of Sirt1 aggravates diabetic kidney injury. However, the role of Sirt1 in aging-induced podocyte injury is not known. Therefore, in this study we sought to determine the effects of podocyte-specific reduction of Sirt1 in age-induced kidney injury. We employed the inducible podocyte-specific Sirt1 knockdown mice that express shRNA against Sirt1 (Pod-Sirt1(RNAi)) and control mice that express shRNA for luciferase (Pod-Luci(RNAi)). We found that reduction of podocyte Sirt1 led to aggravated aging-induced glomerulosclerosis and albuminuria. In addition, urinary level of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of oxidative stress, was markedly increased in aged Pod-Sirt1(RNAi) mice compared with aged Pod-Luci(RNAi) mice. Although podocyte-specific markers decreased in aged mice compared with the young controls, the decrease was further exacerbated in aged Pod-Sirt1(RNAi) compared with Pod-Luci(RNAi) mice. Interestingly, expression of cellular senescence markers was significantly higher in the glomeruli of Pod-Sirt1(RNAi) mice than Pod-Luci(RNAi) mice, suggesting that cellular senescence may contribute to podocyte loss in aging kidneys. Finally, we confirmed that Pod-Sirt1(RNAi) glomeruli were associated with reduced activation of the transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α coactivador-1 (PGC1α)/PPARγ, forkhead box O (FOXO)3, FOXO4, and p65 NF-κB, through SIRT1-mediated deacetylation. Together, our data suggest that SIRT1 may be a potential therapeutic target to treat patients with aging-related kidney disease.

  12. Oxidative stress and age-related changes in T cells: is thalassemia a model of accelerated immune system aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatreh-Samani, Mahdi; Esmaeili, Nafiseh; Soleimani, Masoud; Asadi-Samani, Majid; Ghatreh-Samani, Keihan; Shirzad, Hedayatolah

    2016-01-01

    Iron overload in β-thalassemia major occurs mainly due to blood transfusion, an essential treatment for β-thalassemia major patients, which results in oxidative stress. It has been thought that oxidative stress causes elevation of immune system senescent cells. Under this condition, cells normally enhance in aging, which is referred to as premature immunosenescence. Because there is no animal model for immunosenescence, most knowledge on the immunosenescence pattern is based on induction of immunosenescence. In this review, we describe iron overload and oxidative stress in β-thalassemia major patients and how they make these patients a suitable human model for immunosenescence. We also consider oxidative stress in some kinds of chronic virus infections, which induce changes in the immune system similar to β-thalassemia major. In conclusion, a therapeutic approach used to improve the immune system in such chronic virus diseases, may change the immunosenescence state and make life conditions better for β-thalassemia major patients.

  13. Moderate physical activity level as a protective factor against metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Huei; Chiang, Shang-Lin; Yates, Patsy; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Hung, Yi-Jen; Tzeng, Wen-Chii; Chiang, Li-Chi

    2015-05-01

    To investigate whether physical activity is a protective factor against metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older women. Socio-demographic and lifestyle behaviour factors contribute to metabolic syndrome. To minimise the risk of metabolic syndrome, several global guidelines recommend increasing physical activity level. However, only limited research has investigated the relationship between physical activity levels and metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older women after adjusting for socio-demographic and lifestyle behaviour factors. Cross-sectional design. A convenience sample of 326 middle-aged and older women was recruited. Metabolic syndrome was confirmed according to the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines, and physical activity levels were measured by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The sample had a mean age of 60·9 years, and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 43·3%. Postmenopausal women and women with low socioeconomic status (low-education background, without personal income and currently unemployed) had a significantly higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome. After adjusting for significant socio-demographic and lifestyle behaviour factors, the women with moderate or high physical activity levels had a significantly lower (OR = 0·10; OR = 0·11, p socio-demographic and lifestyle behaviour factors, physical activity level was a significant protective factor against metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older women. Higher physical activity levels (moderate or high physical activity level) reduced the risk of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older women. Appropriate strategies should be developed to encourage middle-aged and older women across different socio-demographic backgrounds to engage in moderate or high levels of physical activity to reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effects of accelerated aging upon the lipid composition of seeds from two soft wheat varieties from Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghini Caid, H.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The lipid composition of the seeds from two soft wheat varieties (Triticum aestivum, cv. Marchouche and Mahdia were analyzed before and after accelerated aging. Eight days of accelerated aging resulted in a total inhibition of seed germinability as well as a decrease in their total and especially unsaturated fatty acid contents. Oleic and linoleic acid contents decreased particularly in the phosphatidylcholine of the seeds from both varieties. The proportion of polar lipids also decreased after aging as compared to neutral lipids: a 5.8% and 7.2% decrease in polar lipids was e observed in Mahdia and Marchouche cultivars, respectively. In the neutral lipids of the seeds from the Marchouche variety, the percentage of free fatty acids increased whereas the triacylglycerols decreased. After aging, the fatty acid compositions of all lipid classes were modified in the same manner as total fatty acid compositions. Among polar lipids, phospholipid proportions were particularly small, especially the phosphatidylcholine percentages with an 18.1% and 19.1% decrease in Mahdia and Marchouche varieties, respectively. In contrast, MGDG percentages increased, especially in the seeds from the Marchouche variety. A 15.5% increase was noticed when compared with seeds which were not aged. At the same time, the DGDG percentage showed a 16.6% decrease after accelerated aging of the seeds from the Marchouche variety. From these results we concluded that the lipid content decrease observed in seeds after accelerated aging could be linked to a loss in the germination and vigor of wheat seeds.La composición lipídica de semillas de dos variedades de trigo blando (Triticum aestivum, cv. Marchouche and Mahdia fueron analizadas antes y después del envejecimiento acelerado. Ocho días de envejecimiento acelerado provoco una inhibición total de la geminabilidad, así como un descenso en el contenido total de ácidos grasos, en especial de los ácidos grasos insaturados

  15. Studies on the Effect of Accelerated Thermal Aging on Electrical and Physicochemical Properties of XLPE Cable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KIM Chon-ung; JIN Zhi-jian; JIANG Ping-kai; ZHU Zi-shu; LIU Fei; KIM Ui-chon

    2007-01-01

    The degradation of crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) cable insulation during service, such as thermo-oxidation and water treeing may lead to a premature electrical breakdown of the XLPE insulation cables. Therefore,it is necessary to optimize the period of replacement to evenly distribute the replacement cost by ascertaining the deterioration degree. Estimation of the aging degree is at present the most important task for diagnosis of the residual lifetime of the power cable insulation. This paper presents a study on the changes in the dielectric properties of the thermally aged XLPE cables in the frequency range from 0.07~10 MHz. Based on electrical and physicochemical characterization, some new "dactylograms" for the thermally aged XLPE cable insulation have been proposed.

  16. Brain aging and metabolic syndrome: a study in Cenischia Valley (Piedmont).

    OpenAIRE

    Marianna Rinaldi; Giuseppe Graffi; Salvatore Gallone; Emma Rabino Massa

    2011-01-01

    The Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a set of conditions, each of which represents a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (central obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hypertension). Recent studies have identified an association between MetS and increased risk of dementia (Vascular Dementia and Late Onset Alzheimer's Disease ). The purpose of our research is the study of brain aging and cognitive decline in a sample of elderly people (n=200) belonging to a rural alpine community, in r...

  17. Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Down’s Syndrome: Relevance to Aging and Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Coskun, Pinar E; Jorge Busciglio

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide gene deregulation and oxidative stress appear to be critical factors determining the high variability of phenotypes in Down’s syndrome (DS). Even though individuals with trisomy 21 exhibit a higher survival rate compared to other aneuploidies, most of them die in utero or early during postnatal life. While the survivors are currently predicted to live past 60 years, they suffer higher incidence of age-related conditions including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This paper is centered on...

  18. Association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and elderly population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林寰东

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between vitamin D and metabolic syndrome.Methods A total of 536subjects aged over 45 years old from Shanghai Changfeng community were included.A standard questionnaire,anthropometric parameters,and blood analysis,including lipid,fasting plasma glucose,2 h plasma glucose after oral glucose tolerance test,25-hydroxyvitamin D[25 (OH) D],and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were conducted.Bone mineral content was examined using dual energy

  19. Common variants modify the age of onset for basal cell carcinomas in Gorlin syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasar, Binnaz; Byers, Helen J; Smith, Miriam J; Lear, John; Oudit, Deemesh; Bholah, Zaynab; Roberts, Stephen A; Newman, William G; Evans, D Gareth

    2015-05-01

    Gorlin syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder, characterized by multiple early-onset basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and jaw keratocysts. Through association studies in cohorts of sporadic BCC, nine genetic variants have previously been identified to increase the risk of BCC. The nine SNPs were genotyped by Taqman allelic discrimination in 125 individuals with Gorlin syndrome. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional-Hazard regression analysis were applied to determine the association between genotypes and age of first BCC in individuals with Gorlin syndrome. The p.(Arg151Cys) variant in MC1R (rs1805007) was associated with an earlier median age of onset of BCC of 27 years (95% CI: 20-34) compared with 34 years (95% CI: 30-40) for wild-type individuals (hazard ratio (HR)=1.64, 95% CI: 1.04-2.58, P=0.034). The risk allele of the variant at the chromosome 5p15 locus encompassing TERT-CLPTM1L (rs401681) was also associated with an earlier median onset of BCC, 31 years (95% CI: 28-37) compared with 41 years (95% CI: 32-48, HR=1.44, 95% CI: 1.08-1.93, P=0.014). In individuals with a risk allele at either rs1805007 or rs401681 the median time to BCC was 31 years of age (95% CI: 28-34) compared with 44 years of age (95% CI: 38-53) in wild-type individuals (HR=2.48, 95% CI: 1.47-4.17, P=0.0002). Our findings may have implications for future personalized risk estimates and BCC screening strategies in individuals with Gorlin syndrome.

  20. Antiaging Effect of Metformin on Brain in Naturally Aged and Accelerated Senescence Model of Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Geetika; Singh, Sandeep; Singh, Abhishek Kumar; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim

    2017-01-09

    Metformin, a biguanide, is a widely used antidiabetic drug, which inhibits gluconeogenesis and is used to treat hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. Through activation of AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) pathway, metformin also mimics caloric restriction health benefits. Aging causes substantial molecular to morphological changes in brain, the brain cells being more susceptible toward oxidative stress mediated damages due to the presence of high lipid content and higher oxygen consumption. Wistar rats (naturally aged and d-galactose induced rat model) were supplemented with metformin (300 mg/kg b.w. orally) for 6 weeks. The biomarkers of oxidative stress such as antioxidant capacity (ferric reducing antioxidant potential [FRAP]), malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), protein carbonyl (PCO), reactive oxygen species (ROS), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, and nitric oxide (NO) were measured in brain tissues of control and experimental groups. The results indicate that metformin treatment augmented the levels of FRAP and GSH in naturally aged, and d-gal induced aging model groups compared to the respective controls. In contrast, metformin treated groups exhibited significant reduction in MDA, PCO, ROS, and NO levels and a significant increase in AChE activity in induced aging rats. The administration of d-galactose upregulated the expression of sirtuin-2, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and downregulated the expression of Beclin-1. Metformin supplementation downregulated the d-galactose induced expressions of sirtuin-2, IL-6, and TNF-α expression, whereas upregulated the Beclin-1 expression. Our data confirm that metformin restores the antioxidant status and improves healthy brain aging through the activation of autophagy and reduction in inflammation.

  1. Loss of caspase-2 accelerates age-dependent alterations in mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Cruzan, Marisa; Herman, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria are known to be a major source and target of oxidative stress. Oxidative stress increases during aging and is suggested to underlie in part the aging process. We have previously documented an increase in endogenous caspase-2 (casp2) activity in hepatocytes obtained from old (28 months) vs. young mice (5 months). More recently, we have shown that casp2 is activated by oxidative stress and is critical for mitochondrial oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Since casp2 appears integra...

  2. Accelerating regional atrophy rates in the progression from normal aging to Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluimer, Jasper D. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Alzheimer Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Image Analysis Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Alzheimer Centre, PO Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Flier, Wiesje M. van der; Scheltens, Philip [VU University Medical Centre, Alzheimer Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Karas, Giorgos B.; Barkhof, Frederik [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Alzheimer Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Image Analysis Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schijndel, Ronald van [VU University Medical Centre, Image Analysis Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Department of Informatics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Barnes, Josephine; Boyes, Richard G. [UCL, Institute of Neurology, Dementia Research Centre, London (United Kingdom); Cover, Keith S. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Physics and Medical Technology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Olabarriaga, Silvia D. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Fox, Nick C. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); UCL, Institute of Neurology, Dementia Research Centre, London (United Kingdom); Vrenken, Hugo [VU University Medical Centre, Alzheimer Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Image Analysis Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Department of Physics and Medical Technology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-12-15

    We investigated progression of atrophy in vivo, in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We included 64 patients with AD, 44 with MCI and 34 controls with serial MRI examinations (interval 1.8 {+-} 0.7 years). A nonlinear registration algorithm (fluid) was used to calculate atrophy rates in six regions: frontal, medial temporal, temporal (extramedial), parietal, occipital lobes and insular cortex. In MCI, the highest atrophy rate was observed in the medial temporal lobe, comparable with AD. AD patients showed even higher atrophy rates in the extramedial temporal lobe. Additionally, atrophy rates in frontal, parietal and occipital lobes were increased. Cox proportional hazard models showed that all regional atrophy rates predicted conversion to AD. Hazard ratios varied between 2.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1-6.2) for occipital atrophy and 15.8 (95% CI = 3.5-71.8) for medial temporal lobe atrophy. In conclusion, atrophy spreads through the brain with development of AD. MCI is marked by temporal lobe atrophy. In AD, atrophy rate in the extramedial temporal lobe was even higher. Moreover, atrophy rates also accelerated in parietal, frontal, insular and occipital lobes. Finally, in nondemented elderly, medial temporal lobe atrophy was most predictive of progression to AD, demonstrating the involvement of this region in the development of AD. (orig.)

  3. Acceleration of the Meckel Syndrome by Near-Infrared Light Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhwan Lim

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Phototherapy using a narrow-band, near-infrared (NIR light (using a light-emitting diode, LED is being used to treat certain medical conditions. This narrow-band red light has been shown to stimulate cytochrome c oxidase (CCO in mitochondria that would stimulate ATP production and has the ability to stimulate wound healing. LED treatment also decreases chemical-induced oxidative stress in tested systems. As renal cystic diseases are known to have evidence of oxidative stress with reduced antioxidant protection, we hypothesized that NIR light therapy might ameliorate the renal pathology in renal cystic disease. Methods: Wistar-Wpk/Wpk rats with Meckel syndrome (MKS were treated with light therapy on days 10–18 at which time disease severity was evaluated. Wpk rats were either treated daily for 80 s with narrow-band red light (640–690 nm wavelength or sham treated. At termination, renal and cerebral pathology was evaluated, and renal expression and activity of enzymes were assessed to evaluate oxidative stress. Blood was collected for blood urea nitrogen (BUN determination, the left kidney frozen for biochemical evaluation, and the right kidney and head fixed for morphological evaluation. Results: There were no significant effects of LED treatment on body weight (BW or total kidney weight in non-cystic rats. Total kidney weight was increased and anephric BW was decreased in cystic versus non-cystic controls. LED reduced BW and total kidney weight in cystic rats compared to non-light-treated cystic (control rats. BUN was already increased almost 6-fold in cystic rats compared to control rats. BUN was further increased almost 2-fold with NIR treatment in both non-cystic and cystic rats compared to cystic and control rats. The hydrocephalus associated with Wpk/Wpk (ventricular volume expressed as total volume and as percent of anephric BW was also more severe in NIR-treated cystic rats compared to the normal control rats. Renal

  4. The theory of bipolar disorder as an illness of accelerated aging: implications for clinical care and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Lucas Bortolotto; Costa, Leonardo Gazzi; Mansur, Rodrigo B; Swardfager, Walter; Belangero, Síntia Iole; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; McIntyre, Roger S; Bauer, Moisés E; Brietzke, Elisa

    2014-05-01

    Bipolar Disorder (BD) has been conceptualized as both a cyclic and a progressive disorder. Mechanisms involved in neuroprogression in BD remain largely unknown although several non-mutually exclusive models have been proposed as explanatory frameworks. In the present paper, we propose that the pathophysiological changes observed in BD (e.g. brain structural alterations, cognitive deficits, oxidative stress imbalance, amyloid metabolism, immunological deregulation, immunosenescence, neurotrophic deficiencies and telomere shortening) converge on a model of accelerated aging (AA). Aging can be understood as a multidimensional process involving physical, neuropsychological, and social changes, which can be highly variable between individuals. Determinants of successful aging (e.g environmental and genetic factors), may also confer differential vulnerability to components of BD pathophysiology and contribute to the clinical presentation of BD. Herein we discuss how the understanding of aging and senescence can contribute to the search for new and promising molecular targets to explain and ameliorate neuroprogression in BD. We also present the strengths and limitations of this concept.

  5. Functional abilities in aging women with Rett syndrome - the Danish cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schönewolf-Greulich, Bitten; Stahlhut, Michelle; Larsen, Jane Lunding

    2017-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, which mainly affects females and results in multiple disabilities. Many clinical descriptions of the symptoms and functional abilities have been made medically, though mainly in children with RTT. Previous reports have established that even...... of aging women with RTT can grab on to things - persons with hand function should be motivated to use this ability in the context of eating Communication is a difficult task especially for the aging RTT women - Communicative signs, their meaning and how to react to them should be written down for every...

  6. Iron overload accelerates bone loss in healthy postmenopausal women and middle-aged men: a 3-year retrospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beom-Jun; Ahn, Seong Hee; Bae, Sung Jin; Kim, Eun Hee; Lee, Seung-Hun; Kim, Hong-Kyu; Choe, Jae Won; Koh, Jung-Min; Kim, Ghi Su

    2012-11-01

    Despite extensive experimental and animal evidence about the detrimental effects of iron and its overload on bone metabolism, there have been no clinical studies relating iron stores to bone loss, especially in nonpathologic conditions. In the present study, we performed a large longitudinal study to evaluate serum ferritin concentrations in relation to annualized changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy Koreans. A total of 1729 subjects (940 postmenopausal women and 789 middle-aged men) aged 40 years or older who had undergone comprehensive routine health examinations with an average 3 years of follow-up were enrolled. BMD in proximal femur sites (ie, the total femur, femur neck, and trochanter) was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry using the same equipment at baseline and follow-up. The mean age of women and men in this study was 55.8 ± 6.0 years and 55.5 ± 7.8 years, respectively, and serum ferritin levels were significantly higher in men than in women (p men. After adjustment for potential confounders, the rates of bone loss in all proximal femur sites in both genders were significantly accelerated in a dose-response fashion across increasing ferritin quartile categories (p for trend = 0.043 to <0.001). Consistently, compared with subjects in the lowest ferritin quartile category, those in the third and/or highest ferritin quartile category showed significantly faster bone loss in the total femur and femur neck in both genders (p = 0.023 to <0.001). In conclusion, these data provide the first clinical evidence that increased total body iron stores could be an independent risk factor for accelerated bone loss, even in healthy populations.

  7. Target disruption of ribosomal protein pNO40 accelerates aging and impairs osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Ming; Wu, Chih-Ching; Chang, Yu-Chen; Wu, Chu-Han; Ho, Hsien Li; Hu, Ji Wei; Chang, Ren-Chi; Wang, Chung-Ta; Ouyang, Pin

    2016-01-22

    pNO40/PS1D, a novel nucleolar protein, has been characterized as a core protein of eukaryotic 60S ribosome and at least two splicing forms of pNO40 mRNAs with alternative starting sites have been identified. Through production of knockout (ko) mice with either exon 2 (△E2), exon 4 (△E4) or △E2+E4 targeted disruption we identified a cryptic splicing product occurring in the ko tissues examined which in general cannot be observed in regular RT-PCR detection of wild-type (wt) animals. Among ko animals, △E4 null embryos exhibited prominent senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining, a marker for senescent cells, in notochord, forelimbs and heart while bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from △E4 null mice developed accelerated aging and osteogenic differentiation defects compared to those from wt and other isoform mutant mice. Examination of the causal relationship between pNO40 deficiency and MSC-accelerated aging revealed △E4 null disruption in MSCs elicits high levels of ROS and elevated expression levels of p16 and Rb but not p53. Further analysis with iTraq identified CYP1B1, a component of the cytochrome p450 system, as a potential molecule mediating ROS generation in pNO40 deficient MSCs. We herein established a mouse model of MSC aging through pNO40-targeted depletion and demonstrated the effects of loss of pNO40 on bone homeostasis.

  8. Neurodevelopment of children under 3 years of age with Smith-Magenis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Pamela L; Gropman, Andrea L; Martin, Staci C; Smith, Michaele R; Hildenbrand, Hanna L; Brewer, Carmen C; Smith, Ann C M

    2009-10-01

    Systematic data regarding early neurodevelopmental functioning in Smith-Magenis syndrome are limited. Eleven children with Smith-Magenis syndrome less than 3 years of age (mean, 19 months; range, 5-34 months) received prospective multidisciplinary assessments using standardized measures. The total sample scored in the moderately to severely delayed range in cognitive functioning, expressive language, and motor skills and exhibited generalized hypotonia, oral-motor abnormalities, and middle ear dysfunction. Socialization skills were average, and significantly higher than daily living, communication, and motor abilities, which were below average. Mean behavior ratings were in the nonautistic range. According to exploratory analyses, the toddler subgroup scored significantly lower than the infant subgroup in cognition, expressive language, and adaptive behavior, suggesting that the toddlers were more delayed than the infants relative to their respective peers. Infants aged approximately 1 year or younger exhibited cognitive, language, and motor skills that ranged from average to delayed, but with age-appropriate social skills and minimal maladaptive behaviors. At ages 2 to 3 years, the toddlers consistently exhibited cognitive, expressive language, adaptive behavior, and motor delays and mildly to moderately autistic behaviors. Combining age groups in studies may mask developmental and behavioral differences. Increased knowledge of these early neurodevelopmental characteristics should facilitate diagnosis and appropriate intervention.

  9. Age as a Risk Factor for Burnout Syndrome in Nursing Professionals: A Meta-Analytic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Urquiza, José L; Vargas, Cristina; De la Fuente, Emilia I; Fernández-Castillo, Rafael; Cañadas-De la Fuente, Guillermo A

    2017-04-01

    Although past research has highlighted the possibility of a direct relationship between the age of nursing professionals and burnout syndrome, results have been far from conclusive. The aim of this study was to conduct a wider analysis of the influence of age on the three dimensions of burnout syndrome (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment) in nurses. We performed a meta-analysis of 51 publications extracted from health sciences and psychology databases that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. There were 47 reports of information on emotional exhaustion in 50 samples, 39 reports on depersonalization for 42 samples, and 31 reports on personal accomplishment in 34 samples. The mean effect sizes indicated that younger age was a significant factor in the emotional exhaustion and depersonalization of nurses, although it was somewhat less influential in the dimension of personal accomplishment. Because of heterogeneity in the effect sizes, moderating variables that might explain the association between age and burnout were also analyzed. Gender, marital status, and study characteristics moderated the relationship between age and burnout and may be crucial for the identification of high-risk groups. More research is needed on other variables for which there were only a small number of studies. Identification of burnout risk factors will facilitate establishment of burnout prevention programs for nurses. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Development and evaluation of an emulsion containing lycopene for combating acceleration of skin aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Caramori Cefali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lycopene, a carotenoid and potent antioxidant is found in large quantities in tomatoes. Lycopene combats diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and different types of cancer, including prostate cancer. However, its topical use in emulsion form for the combat of skin aging is under-explored. The aim of the present study was to develop an emulsion containing lycopene extracted from salad tomatoes and evaluate its cytotoxicity, stability, rheological behavior, antioxidant activity and phytocosmetic permeation. The developed cosmetic comprised an oil phase made up of shea derivatives and was evaluated in terms of its physiochemical stability, spreadability, thermal analysis, rheological behavior, microbiological quality, cytotoxicity, antioxidant activity, cutaneous permeation and retention. The results demonstrate that this phytocosmetic is stable, exhibits satisfactory rheological behavior for a topical formula and is a promising product for combating skin aging.

  11. Natural ageing process accelerates the release of Ag from functional textile in various exposure scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Dahu; Chen, Lulu; Dong, Shaowei; Cai, Hao; Chen, Jifei; Jiang, Canlan; Cai, Tianming

    2016-11-01

    Natural ageing process occurs throughout the life cycle of textile products, which may possess influences on the release behavior of additives such as silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). In this study, we assessed the releasability of Ag NPs from a Ag NPs functionalized textile in five different exposure scenarios (i.e. tap water (TW), pond water (PW), rain water (RW), artificial sweat (AS), and detergent solution (DS) along with deionized water (DW) as reference), which were very likely to occur throughout the life cycle of the textile. For the pristine textile, although the most remarkable release was found in DW (6–15 μg Ag/g textile), the highest release rate was found in RW (around 7 μg Ag/(g textile·h)). After ageing treatment, the total released Ag could be increased by 75.7~386.0% in DW, AS and DS. Morphological analysis clearly showed that the Ag NPs were isolated from the surface of the textile fibre due to the ageing treatment. This study provides useful information for risk assessment of nano-enhanced textile products.

  12. Use of organic solderability preservatives on solderability retention of copper after accelerated aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, C.L.; Sorensen, N.R.; Lucero, S.J.

    1997-02-01

    Organic solderability preservatives (OSP`s) have been used by the electronics industry for some time to maintain the solderability of circuit boards and components. Since solderability affects both manufacturing efficiency and product reliability, there is significant interest in maintaining good solder wettability. There is often a considerable time interval between the initial fabrication of a circuit board or component and its use at the assembly level. Parts are often stored under a variety of conditions, in many cases not well controlled. Solder wettability can deteriorate during storage, especially in harsh environments. This paper describes the ongoing efforts at Sandia National Laboratories to quantify solder watability on bare and aged copper surfaces. Benzotriazole and imidazole were applied to electronic grade copper to retard aging effects on solderability. The coupons were introduced into Sandia`s Facility for Atmospheric Corrosion Testing (FACT) to simulate aging in a typical indoor industrial environment. H{sub 2}S, NO{sub 2} and Cl{sub 2} mixed gas was introduced into the test cell and maintained at 35{degrees}C and 70% relative humidity for test periods of one day to two weeks. The OSP`s generally performed better than bare Cu, although solderability diminished with increasing exposure times.

  13. Hypertension Is a Key Feature of the Metabolic Syndrome in Subjects Aging with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Iguacel, Raquel; Negredo, Eugènia; Peck, Robert

    2016-01-01

    to predispose to these metabolic complications and to the excess risk of CVD observed in the HIV population. The metabolic syndrome (MS) represents a clustering of RF for CVD that includes abdominal obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. Hypertension is a prevalent feature of the MS in HIV......With widespread and effective antiretroviral therapy, the life expectancy in the HIV population has dramatically improved over the last two decades. Consequently, as patients are aging with HIV, other age-related comorbidities, such as metabolic disturbances and cardiovascular disease (CVD), have......, in particular in the aging population, and constitutes an important RF for CVD. Physicians should screen their patients for metabolic and cardiovascular risk at the regular visits to reduce MS and the associated CVD risk among people aging with HIV, since many of RF are under-diagnosed and under...

  14. Neu-Laxova syndrome in an appropriate for gestational age newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilli Dilek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Neu-Laxova syndrome is a rare lethal congenital disorder involving multiple systems. Intrauterine growth retardation, ichthyosis, microcephaly, abnormal facial findings, and limb contractures are its key features. We present a case of Neu-Laxova syndrome in a male appropriate for gestational age (AGA newborn with characteristic features including ichthyosis, microcephaly, severe ectropion, rudimentary ears, eclabion, limb contractures, and hypoplastic genitalia. The patient was born at 38 weeks of gestation to consanguinous Turkish parents. The mother was a 20-year-old primi gravida with lack of prenatal follow-up. Therefore, the case was diagnosed postnatally, and he died 5 days later. Because of the autosomal recessive inheritance of Neu-Laxova syndrome, in countries with high rates of consanguineous marriage, such as Turkey, physicians have to know this syndrome, and serial prenatal ultrasound examinations with genetic counseling should be performed on pregnant women at high risk. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case described in an AGA newborn.

  15. Placement, Relocation and End of Life Issues in Aging Adults with and without Down's Syndrome: A Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patti, P.; Amble, K.; Flory, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Aging adults with Down's syndrome (DS) experience more relocations and other life events than adults with intellectual disabilities aged 50 and older without DS. Age-related functional decline and the higher incidence of dementia were implicated as the contributing factors that led to relocation and nursing home placement. Method: A…

  16. Parkinson's disease accelerates age-related decline in haptic perception by altering somatosensory integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konczak, Jürgen; Sciutti, Alessandra; Avanzino, Laura; Squeri, Valentina; Gori, Monica; Masia, Lorenzo; Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Sandini, Giulio

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated how Parkinson's disease alters haptic perception and the underlying mechanisms of somatosensory and sensorimotor integration. Changes in haptic sensitivity and acuity (the abilities to detect and to discriminate between haptic stimuli) due to Parkinson's disease were systematically quantified and contrasted to the performance of healthy older and young adults. Using a robotic force environment, virtual contours of various curvatures were presented. Participants explored these contours with their hands and indicated verbally whether they could detect or discriminate between two contours. To understand what aspects of sensory or sensorimotor integration are altered by ageing and disease, we manipulated the sensorimotor aspect of the task: the robot either guided the hand along the contour or the participant actively moved the hand. Active exploration relies on multimodal sensory and sensorimotor integration, while passive guidance only requires sensory integration of proprioceptive and tactile information. The main findings of the study are as follows: first, a decline in haptic precision can already be observed in adults before the age of 70 years. Parkinson's disease may lead to an additional decrease in haptic sensitivity well beyond the levels typically seen in middle-aged and older adults. Second, the haptic deficit in Parkinson's disease is general in nature. It becomes manifest as a decrease in sensitivity and acuity (i.e. a smaller perceivable range and a diminished ability to discriminate between two perceivable haptic stimuli). Third, thresholds during both active and passive exploration are elevated, but not significantly different from each other. That is, active exploration did not enhance the haptic deficit when compared to passive hand motion. This implies that Parkinson's disease affects early stages of somatosensory integration that ultimately have an impact on processes of sensorimotor integration. Our results suggest that

  17. Soluble carbohydrates in cereal (wheat, rye, triticale) seed after storage under accelerated ageing conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka I. Piotrowicz-Cieślak; Maciej Niedzielski; Dariusz J. Michalczyk; Wiesław Łuczak; Barbara Adomas

    2011-01-01

    Germinability and the content of soluble carbohydrates were analysed in cereal seed (winter rye, cv. Warko; spring wheat, cv. Santa; hexaploid winter triticale, cv. Fidelio and cv. Woltario). Seed moisture content (mc) was equilibrated over silica gel to 0.08 g H2O/g dry mass and stored in a desiccator at 20oC for up to 205 weeks or were equilibrated to mc 0.06, 0.08 or 0.10 g H2O/g dm and subjected to artificial aging at 35oC in air-tight laminated aluminium foil packages for 205 weeks. It w...

  18. Exploring the link between depression and accelerated cellular aging: telomeres hold the key

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu R

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ruby Yu, Jean Woo Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, SAR, China Abstract: Accumulating evidence suggests that telomeres may be a marker for biological aging and telomere length may be affected by multifactorial influences, including cumulative exposure to depression. Associations with telomere length have been reported for major depressive disorder, lifetime duration of depression, higher depression severity, and history of depression. The exact underling mechanisms for these associations have yet to be fully elucidated; however, oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, dysregulated hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, and altered cortisol levels may be important biochemical mediators. These mediators could also be influenced by psychological stress, unhealthy lifestyle behaviors, or other potential factors, such as childhood abuse, post-traumatic stress disorder, and anxiety that are commonly associated with depression. As such, stress reduction and lifestyle interventions that may affect the telomere maintenance system should be considered for individuals with depression.Keywords: depression, telomere length, biomarkers, cellular ageing

  19. Aging and Intellectual Disability: Insights from Mouse Models of Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruparelia, Aarti; Pearn, Matthew L.; Mobley, William C.

    2013-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is one of many causes of intellectual disability (ID), others including but not limited to, fetal alcohol syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Rett syndrome, Williams syndrome, hypoxia, and infection. Down syndrome is characterized by a number of neurobiological problems resulting in learning and memory deficits and early onset…

  20. Aging and Intellectual Disability: Insights from Mouse Models of Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruparelia, Aarti; Pearn, Matthew L.; Mobley, William C.

    2013-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is one of many causes of intellectual disability (ID), others including but not limited to, fetal alcohol syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Rett syndrome, Williams syndrome, hypoxia, and infection. Down syndrome is characterized by a number of neurobiological problems resulting in learning and memory deficits and early onset…

  1. Can Social Instability, Food Deprivation and Food Inequality Accelerate Neuronal Aging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Mojarab

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on both animal and human studies, inequality in food intake and social instability has adverse effects on the health of individuals and the community. However, it is not known whether social instability, food deprivation and food inequality affect neuronal death and premature aging in young animals. To address this question, the effects of these adverse situations, histopathological changes in hippocampal pyramidal cells and aging process were investigated.Forty eight New Zeeland white male rabbits were divided into six groups and all of them were housed in similar conditions, with 2 animals per cage in a temperature-controlled colony room under light–dark cycle . All experimental animals were fed on standard rabbit commercial pellets and different social situations such as food deprivation, inequality in food intake, and unstable social status were applied to experimental groups during eight weeks. Afterward, lipofuscin accumulation and apoptosis, as main markers of aging, were compared to the control group by Long Ziehl Nelseen staining and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL reaction assay to reveal the rate of lipofuscin pigment accumulation and TUNEL-reactive apoptotic bodies in the hippocampal pyramidal cells. Serum cortisol level was also measured. Inequality in social situation raised chronic stress (i.e. food deprivation, social inequality and instability and caused significant changes in lipofuscin accumulation in hippocampal pyramidal cells in comparison to the control group (p<0.005 . The results also showed a significant increase in the ratio of apoptotic to normal cells in all of the stressed groups compared to the control group (p<0.05. Moreover, application of the social inequality and stresses alone or together modulated levels of cortisol in the experimental group. These findings suggest that food deprivation, inequality and social instability enhance the susceptibility of hippocampal

  2. Age associated differences in prevalence of individual rotterdam criteria and metabolic risk factors during reproductive age in 446 caucasian women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, D; Mumm, H; Ravn, P

    2012-01-01

    Clinical manifestations and metabolic risk factors may differ according to age in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Therefore, a retrospective trans-sectional study in academic tertiary-care medical center was designed. A cohort of 446 premenopausal, Caucasian women (age range 15...... and biochemical hyperandrogenism, whereas older patients are more obese with more severe hirsutism and more cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors....

  3. Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome as a model for vascular aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Jonathan A; Fekete, Natalie; Garnier, Alain; Hoesli, Corinne A

    2016-02-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a premature aging disorder caused by a de novo genetic mutation that leads to the accumulation of a splicing isoform of lamin A termed progerin. Progerin expression alters the organization of the nuclear lamina and chromatin. The life expectancy of HGPS patients is severely reduced due to critical cardiovascular defects. Progerin also accumulates in an age-dependent manner in the vascular cells of adults that do not carry genetic mutations associated with HGPS. The molecular mechanisms that lead to vascular dysfunction in HGPS may therefore also play a role in vascular aging. The vascular phenotypic and molecular changes observed in HGPS are strikingly similar to those seen with age, including increased senescence, altered mechanotransduction and stem cell exhaustion. This article discusses the similarities and differences between age-dependent and HGPS-related vascular aging to highlight the relevance of HGPS as a model for vascular aging. Induced pluripotent stem cells derived from HGPS patients are suggested as an attractive model to study vascular aging in order to develop novel approaches to treat cardiovascular disease.

  4. Relative time course of degeneration of different cochlear structures in the CD/1 mouse model of accelerated aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendrasingam, Shanthini; Macdonald, Jamie A; Furness, David N

    2011-08-01

    Presbycusis (age-related hearing loss) can result from various cochlear pathologies. We have studied the time course of degeneration in a mouse that shows accelerated presbycusis, the CD/1 mouse, as a possible model to investigate stem-cell strategies to prevent or ameliorate presbycusic changes. CD/1 mice from 0 to 72 weeks old were examined by light and electron microscopy. Early pathological changes were detected in basal turn spiral ligament fibrocytes and spiral ganglion, but the latter was variable as both satellite cells and neurons were normal in some cochleae. Light microscopic counts in the spiral ligament of 20-week-old mice revealed that of the five main types (types I-V), only type V fibrocytes showed no reduction in numbers compared with 3-week-old animals, and type IV showed the greatest losses. However, all types of fibrocyte showed subtle damage when examined using electron microscopy, in the form of swollen mitochondria, as early as 2 weeks. The extent of mitochondrial damage showed a degree of correspondence with the light microscopic pattern of fibrocyte loss in that types III and IV fibrocytes had the most abnormal mitochondria and type V the least, especially at early stages. By 10-15 weeks, ultrastructural features of fibrocyte damage were similar to longer term changes reported in gerbils. Stria vascularis, spiral ganglion and hair cells showed few consistent early signs of damage but became increasingly affected, lagging behind the fibrocyte damage. Our data suggest that fibrocyte pathology may precede other presbycusic changes; breakdown of homeostatic mechanisms to which they contribute may cause the subsequent degeneration of the hair cells. Overall, there were many similarities to presbycusic changes in other rodents and humans. Therefore, the features of accelerated aging in this mouse make it a suitable model for rapidly assessing possible strategies to prevent or ameliorate presbycusic changes.

  5. Radiolysis as a solution for accelerated ageing studies of electrolytes in Lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Daniel; Steinmetz, Vincent; Durand, Delphine; Legand, Solène; Dauvois, Vincent; Maître, Philippe; Le Caër, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    Diethyl carbonate and dimethyl carbonate are prototype examples of eco-friendly solvents used in lithium-ion batteries. Nevertheless, their degradation products affect both the battery performance and its safety. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the reaction mechanisms involved in the ageing processes. Among those, redox processes are likely to play a critical role. Here we show that radiolysis is an ideal tool to generate the electrolytes degradation products. The major gases detected after irradiation (H2, CH4, C2H6, CO and CO2) are identified and quantified. Moreover, the chemical compounds formed in the liquid phase are characterized by different mass spectrometry techniques. Reaction mechanisms are then proposed. The detected products are consistent with those of the cycling of Li-based cells. This demonstrates that radiolysis is a versatile and very helpful tool to better understand the phenomena occurring in lithium-ion batteries.

  6. Developmental trajectories of structural and pragmatic language skills in school-aged children with Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Heuvel, E; Manders, E; Swillen, A; Zink, I

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to compare developmental courses of structural and pragmatic language skills in school-aged children with Williams syndrome (WS) and children with idiopathic intellectual disability (IID). Comparison of these language trajectories could highlight syndrome-specific developmental features. Twelve monolingual Dutch-speaking children with WS aged 5.10 to 13.3 years were assessed by means of standardised structural language tests measuring receptive and expressive vocabulary and sentence comprehension and production. Pragmatic language was evaluated by means of an expressive referential communication task and a retelling test. All of these language abilities were re-evaluated with the same measures after a period of 18 to 24 months. Performance was compared to 12 children with IID pairwise matched for chronological age (CA) and non-verbal fluid reasoning (Gf) at Time 1. Non-verbal mental age (NVMA) was taken into account when delineating developmental trajectories. Children with WS outperformed children with IID on expressive vocabulary development. In contrast, sentence comprehension was significantly poorer than in children with IID at the second time point. Increased variability and rather poor performance on pragmatic language tasks were demonstrated in the WS group. Irrelevant and off-topic extraneous information transfer continued to be a syndrome-specific characteristic of children with WS. The data provide new insights into diverging developmental trajectories across language domains. Expressive structural language skills tend to progress more rapidly than receptive language skills in children with WS causing more distinctive language profiles over time. Some children with WS seem to benefit from the growth in expressive structural language abilities to enhance their expressive pragmatic language skills, while in some others these abilities remain challenging. This study highlights the need for continued follow-up of language challenges in

  7. Differentiating Aging Among Adults With Down Syndrome and Comorbid Dementia or Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, Anna J; Johnson, Emily Boshkoff; Amaral, Joseph L; Tan, Christine M; Macks, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Differences were examined between three groups of adults with Down syndrome in their behavioral presentation, social life/activities, health, and support needs. We compared those with comorbid dementia, with comorbid psychopathology, and with no comorbid conditions. Adults with comorbid dementia were more likely to be older, have lower functional abilities, have worse health and more health conditions, and need more support in self-care. Adults with comorbid psychopathology were more likely to exhibit more behavior problems and to be living at home with their families. Adults with no comorbidities were most likely to be involved in community employment. Differences in behavioral presentation can help facilitate clinical diagnoses in aging in Down syndrome, and implications for differential diagnosis and service supports are discussed.

  8. The utility of metformin therapy in reproductive-aged women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Nisha; Sullivan, Shannon D

    2014-01-01

    Metformin, an insulin-sensitizing drug commonly used to treat Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), has been increasingly used off-label for the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which affects at least 5-10% of reproductive- age women. With very little risk associated with its use, metformin provides many important benefits to women with PCOS, including regulating menstrual cycles, improving clinical signs of hyperandrogenism, ameliorating metabolic syndrome, inducing ovulation, improving pregnancy rates and pregnancy outcomes, preventing gestational diabetes, and preventing progression to T2DM. Here, we review the indications for metformin in women with PCOS, with a focus on the use of metformin during pre-conception and pregnancy.

  9. Aging-like skin changes induced by ultraviolet irradiation in an animal model of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akase, Tomoko; Nagase, Takashi; Huang, Lijuan; Ibuki, Ai; Minematsu, Takeo; Nakagami, Gojiro; Ohta, Yasunori; Shimada, Tsutomu; Aburada, Masaki; Sugama, Junko; Sanada, Hiromi

    2012-04-01

    Both physiological skin aging and pathologic photo-aging caused by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation are mediated by latent inflammation and oxidative stress. Although numerous animal skin-aging models have used UV irradiation, most require massive doses or long-term irradiation. To establish a more refined skin-aging model, we focused on an animal model of metabolic syndrome (MS) because MS involves damage to various organs via oxidative stress or inflammation, similar to the changes associated with aging. We hypothesized that MS skin might exhibit more aging-like changes after milder, shorter-term UV irradiation than would normal animal skin under similar conditions, thus providing a useful model for skin aging. The authors therefore examined the skin from Tsumura Suzuki obese diabetic (TSOD) mice (MS model) and control Tsumura Suzuki non-obese (TSNO) mice before and after UV irradiation. Skin from TSOD mice had a thinner epidermis and dermis, a thicker fatty layer, reduced density and convolution of the fragmented collagen fibers, and upregulated expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, a dual marker for inflammation and aging, compared to the skin from TSNO mice. UV irradiation affected TSOD skin more severely than TSNO skin, resulting in various changes resembling those in aged human skin, including damage to the dermis and subcutaneous fatty tissue, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and further upregulation of TNF-α expression. These results suggest that UV-irradiated TSOD mice may provide a new model of skin aging and imply that skin from humans with MS is more susceptible to UV- or aging-related damage than normal human skin.

  10. Mitochondrial superoxide dismutase deficiency accelerates chronological aging in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Toshiya; Senoo, Takanori; Kawano, Shinji; Ikeda, Shogo

    2016-01-01

    A mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD2) is the first line of antioxidant defense against mitochondrial superoxide. Even though the involvement of SOD2 in lifespan has been studied extensively in several organisms, characterization of the aging process has not been performed for the sod2 mutant (sod2Δ) of a prominent model Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In this study, we measured the chronological lifespan of sod2Δ cells by their ability to survive in long-term culture. SOD2 deficiency drastically decreased cell viability in the stationary phase. The mutation frequency of nuclear DNA in sod2Δ was elevated in the stationary phase, and cellular proteins and nuclear DNA were extensively degraded, concurrent with cell death. The sod2 gene in wild-type cells could be induced by an increase in endogenous oxidative stresses, after which, SOD2 activity was substantially elevated during the stationary phase. Culture in a lower glucose concentration (calorie restriction) prominently extended the sod2Δ lifespan. Therefore, S. pombe SOD2 plays a critical role in longevity through its upregulation in the non-dividing phase.

  11. Linseed oil presents different patterns of oxidation in real-time and accelerated aging assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douny, Caroline; Razanakolona, Rina; Ribonnet, Laurence; Milet, Jérôme; Baeten, Vincent; Rogez, Hervé; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Larondelle, Yvan

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed at verifying if the hypothesis that one day at 60°C is equivalent to one month at 20°C could be confirmed during linseed oil aging for 6months at 20°C and 6days at 60°C using the "Schaal oven stability test". Tests were conducted with linseed oil supplemented or not with myricetin or butyl-hydroxytoluene as antioxidants. Oxidation was evaluated with the peroxide and p-anisidine values, as well as the content in conjugated dienes and aldehydes. All four indicators of oxidation showed very different kinetic behaviors at 20 and 60°C. The hypothesis is thus not verified for linseed oil, supplemented or not with antioxidant. In the control oil, the conjugated dienes and the peroxide value observed were respectively of 41.8±0.8 Absorbance Unit (AU)/g oil and 254.3±5.8meq.O2/kg oil after 6months at 20°C. These values were of 18.2±1.3AU/g oil and 65.2±20.3meq.O2/kg after 6days at 60°C. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. First accelerated ageing cycling test on super capacitors for transportation applications: methodology, first results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coquery, G.; Lallemand, R.; Kauv, J. [Institut National de Recherche sur les Transports et leur Securite (INRETS), Lab. des Technologies Nouvelles, 94 - Arcueil (France); Monts, A. de; Soucaze-Guillous, B. [Societe Nationale des Chemins de fer Francais (SNCF), Dir. de la Recherche, 75 - Paris (France); Chabas, J.; Darnault, A. [VALEO Electrical Energy Management, 94 - Creteil (France)

    2004-07-01

    Automotive and railway electrical traction systems are submitted to high power cycles due to the urban mission profiles. In order to increase the energy efficiency and to reduce global pollutant emission, the buffer energy storage by means super-capacitor offer major advantages to optimise the traction energy management with the highest level of regenerative braking energy. Super-capacitors are promising for the energy management between traction chain and electrical supplying systems. Because the effects of the charge-discharge cycles are a strong limitation of the batteries lifetime, it was decided to evaluate the capabilities of this technology concerning the ageing effects due to these strong cycling power stresses link to the urban traffic. Today, there are no publications to discuss about this phenomena, however it appears as a fundamental acknowledge to design the super-capacitors assembly. The first step was to establish a typical mission profile representative of the transportation working conditions, to propose a preliminary test plan, and to define a measurement methodology. The presented investigations are linked to research projects on automotive and railway applications. (authors)

  13. Cigarette smoking accelerated brain aging and induced pre-Alzheimer-like neuropathology in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yuen-Shan; Yang, Xifei; Yeung, Sze-Chun; Chiu, Kin; Lau, Chi-Fai; Tsang, Andrea Wing-Ting; Mak, Judith Choi-Wo; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has been proposed as a major risk factor for aging-related pathological changes and Alzheimer's disease (AD). To date, little is known for how smoking can predispose our brains to dementia or cognitive impairment. This study aimed to investigate the cigarette smoke-induced pathological changes in brains. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to either sham air or 4% cigarette smoke 1 hour per day for 8 weeks in a ventilated smoking chamber to mimic the situation of chronic passive smoking. We found that the levels of oxidative stress were significantly increased in the hippocampus of the smoking group. Smoking also affected the synapse through reducing the expression of pre-synaptic proteins including synaptophysin and synapsin-1, while there were no changes in the expression of postsynaptic protein PSD95. Decreased levels of acetylated-tubulin and increased levels of phosphorylated-tau at 231, 205 and 404 epitopes were also observed in the hippocampus of the smoking rats. These results suggested that axonal transport machinery might be impaired, and the stability of cytoskeleton might be affected by smoking. Moreover, smoking affected amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing by increasing the production of sAPPβ and accumulation of β-amyloid peptide in the CA3 and dentate gyrus region. In summary, our data suggested that chronic cigarette smoking could induce synaptic changes and other neuropathological alterations. These changes might serve as evidence of early phases of neurodegeneration and may explain why smoking can predispose brains to AD and dementia.

  14. Cigarette smoking accelerated brain aging and induced pre-Alzheimer-like neuropathology in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen-Shan Ho

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking has been proposed as a major risk factor for aging-related pathological changes and Alzheimer's disease (AD. To date, little is known for how smoking can predispose our brains to dementia or cognitive impairment. This study aimed to investigate the cigarette smoke-induced pathological changes in brains. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were exposed to either sham air or 4% cigarette smoke 1 hour per day for 8 weeks in a ventilated smoking chamber to mimic the situation of chronic passive smoking. We found that the levels of oxidative stress were significantly increased in the hippocampus of the smoking group. Smoking also affected the synapse through reducing the expression of pre-synaptic proteins including synaptophysin and synapsin-1, while there were no changes in the expression of postsynaptic protein PSD95. Decreased levels of acetylated-tubulin and increased levels of phosphorylated-tau at 231, 205 and 404 epitopes were also observed in the hippocampus of the smoking rats. These results suggested that axonal transport machinery might be impaired, and the stability of cytoskeleton might be affected by smoking. Moreover, smoking affected amyloid precursor protein (APP processing by increasing the production of sAPPβ and accumulation of β-amyloid peptide in the CA3 and dentate gyrus region. In summary, our data suggested that chronic cigarette smoking could induce synaptic changes and other neuropathological alterations. These changes might serve as evidence of early phases of neurodegeneration and may explain why smoking can predispose brains to AD and dementia.

  15. Cardiac and Carotid Markers Link With Accelerated Brain Atrophy: The AGES-Reykjavik Study (Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabayan, Behnam; van Buchem, Mark A; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Zhang, Qian; Meirelles, Osorio; Harris, Tamara B; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Arai, Andrew E; Launer, Lenore J

    2016-11-01

    Pathologies in the heart-brain axis might, independently or in combination, accelerate the process of brain parenchymal loss. We aimed to investigate the association of serum N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), as a marker of cardiac dysfunction, and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), as a marker of carotid atherosclerosis burden, with structural brain changes. In the longitudinal population-based AGES-Reykjavik study (Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik), we included 2430 subjects (mean age, 74.6 years; 41.4% men) with baseline data on NT-proBNP and CITM (assessed by ultrasound imaging). Participants underwent a high-resolution brain magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and 5 years later to assess total brain (TBV), gray matter, and white matter volumes. Each unit higher log-transformed NT-proBNP was associated with 3.6 mL (95% confidence interval [CI], -6.0 to -1.1) decline in TBV and 3.5 mL (95% CI, -5.7 to -1.3) decline in gray matter volume. Likewise, each millimeter higher CIMT was associated with 10.8 mL (95% CI, -17.3 to -4.2) decline in TBV and 8.6 mL (95% CI, -14.4 to -2.8) decline in gray matter volume. There was no association between NT-proBNP and CIMT and changes in white matter volume. Compared with participants with low NT-proBNP and CIMT, participants with both high NT-proBNP and CIMT had 3.8 mL (95% CI, -6.0 to -1.6) greater decline in their TBV and 4 mL (95% CI, -6.0 to -2.0) greater decline in GMW. These associations were independent of sociodemographic and cardiovascular factors. Older subjects with both cardiac dysfunction and carotid atherosclerosis are at an increased risk for brain parenchymal loss. Accumulated pathologies in the heart-brain axis might accelerate brain atrophy. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome in Chinese obese women of reproductive age with or without metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Peiwen; Xi, Liuqing; Shi, Juan; Li, Wanyu; Zhao, Shaoqian; Deng, Yuying; Wang, Rui; Sun, Yingkai; Gu, Bin; Yuan, Lihui; Zhang, Yifei; Gu, Weiqiong; Wang, Weiqing; Hong, Jie

    2017-04-01

    To compare the prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and related clinical characteristics between metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO) and metabolically healthy obese (MHO) women of reproductive age. Cross-sectional clinical study. Tertiary hospital. We studied 299 MUO and 122 MHO Chinese women matched on body mass index. Metabolically healthy obese was defined as obesity with no more than one metabolic abnormality. Diagnosis of PCOS was based on the revised Rotterdam criteria. Each subject underwent physical examination, laboratory evaluation, and gynecologic ultrasound for a diagnosis of PCOS or metabolic syndrome (MetS). Prevalence of PCOS was calculated in both groups. Insulin resistance was determined by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance or by the insulin sensitivity index derived from Bergman's minimal model. Fat distribution was measured with computerized tomography scan. Prevalence of PCOS and its components did not differ between MUO and BMI-matched MHO groups (67.89% and 66.96%, respectively). In logistic regression analysis, MetS did not predict the presence of PCOS after adjusting for confounding factors. The MHO group had lower visceral adipose tissue, relatively higher insulin sensitivity, and better β-cell function, compared with those in the MUO group; but there were no significant differences in sex hormones (except for free T and sex hormone-binding globulin) and ultrasound manifestations between MHO and MUO women. For the first time, our findings suggest that MetS does not add additional risk for PCOS. In addition, we found that both MUO and MHO are associated with insulin resistance to some extent. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Low micronutrient intake may accelerate the degenerative diseases of aging through allocation of scarce micronutrients by triage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Bruce N.

    2006-01-01

    Inadequate dietary intakes of vitamins and minerals are widespread, most likely due to excessive consumption of energy-rich, micronutrient-poor, refined food. Inadequate intakes may result in chronic metabolic disruption, including mitochondrial decay. Deficiencies in many micronutrients cause DNA damage, such as chromosome breaks, in cultured human cells or in vivo. Some of these deficiencies also cause mitochondrial decay with oxidant leakage and cellular aging and are associated with late onset diseases such as cancer. I propose DNA damage and late onset disease are consequences of a triage allocation response to micronutrient scarcity. Episodic shortages of micronutrients were common during evolution. Natural selection favors short-term survival at the expense of long-term health. I hypothesize that short-term survival was achieved by allocating scarce micronutrients by triage, in part through an adjustment of the binding affinity of proteins for required micronutrients. If this hypothesis is correct, micronutrient deficiencies that trigger the triage response would accelerate cancer, aging, and neural decay but would leave critical metabolic functions, such as ATP production, intact. Evidence that micronutrient malnutrition increases late onset diseases, such as cancer, is discussed. A multivitamin-mineral supplement is one low-cost way to ensure intake of the Recommended Dietary Allowance of micronutrients throughout life. PMID:17101959

  18. Age effect on fatigue-induced limb acceleration as a consequence of high-level sustained submaximal contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Ting; Huang, Chien-Chun; Young, Ming-Shing; Hwang, Ing-Shiou

    2007-08-01

    In reference to electromyographic measurement, the study was conducted to reassess differences in the behavior of fatigue-related neuromuscular function between young and elderly humans with limb acceleration (LA). Fourteen young and fourteen elderly subjects performed sustained index abduction at 75% of their maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) until task failure. Measures of neuromuscular function, including temporal/spectral features of muscle activity of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and LA of the index and hand, were monitored. The results showed a manifest fatigue-induced increase in LA of the index in the elderly group, but not in the young group. In contrast, only the young group developed a significant increase in amplitude of the electromyography (EMG) until task failure. Spectral analyses of LA in the index reflected marked age-dependent reorganization following muscle fatigue, with a greater reduction of relative spectral amplitude of LA in the range of 20-40 Hz, but a lesser reduction in coherence between EMG and LA in the elderly group. In line with fatigue-associated restructuring of LA, the mechanical coupling of the metacarpophalangeal joint was more severely undermined in the elderly group than in the young group. The present study manifested an age-related difference in the relative contributions of neural versus mechanical factors to muscle fatigue. Subsequent to a high-level sustained submaximal isometric contraction, a predominant mechanical failure of the musculotendon complex in the elderly was featured with LA, whereas EMG measurement characterized prevailing impairment of neuromuscular propagation in the young.

  19. Quick Preparation of Moisture-Saturated Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Plastics and Their Accelerated Ageing Tests Using Heat and Moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Kunioka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A quick method involving the control of heat and water vapor pressure for preparing moisture-saturated carbon fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRP, 8 unidirectional prepreg layers, 1.5 mm thickness, epoxy resin has been developed. The moisture-saturated CFRP sample was obtained at 120 °C and 0.2 MPa water vapor in 72 h by this method using a sterilizer (autoclave. The bending strength and viscoelastic properties measured by a dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA remained unchanged during repetitive saturation and drying steps. No degradation and molecular structural change occurred. Furthermore an accelerated ageing test with two ageing factors, i.e., heat and moisture was developed and performed at 140–160 °C and 0.36–0.62 MPa water vapor pressure by using a sealed pressure-proof stainless steel vessel (autoclave. The bending strength of the sample decreased from 1107 to 319 MPa at 160 °C and 0.63 MPa water vapor pressure in 9 days. Degraded samples were analyzed by DMA. The degree of degradation for samples was analyzed by DMA. CFRP and degraded CFRP samples were analyzed by using a surface and interfacial cutting analysis system (SAICAS and an electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA equipped in a scanning electron microscope.

  20. Radiological Diagnosis of a Rare Premature Aging Genetic Disorder: Progeria (Hutchinson-Gilford Syndrome

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    Haji Mohammed Nazir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS is a rare disease with a combination of short stature, bone abnormalities, premature ageing, and skin changes. Though the physical appearance of these patients is characteristic, there is little emphasis on the characteristic radiological features. In this paper, we report a 16-year-old boy with clinical and radiological features of this rare genetic disorder. He had a characteristic facial appearance with a large head, large eyes, thin nose with beaked tip, small chin, protruding ears, prominent scalp veins, and absence of hair.

  1. Neuroinflammation in the Aging Down Syndrome Brain; Lessons from Alzheimer's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Wilcock, Donna M.

    2012-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most genetic cause of mental retardation and is caused by the triplication of chromosome 21. In addition to the disabilities caused early in life, DS is also noted as causing Alzheimer's-disease-like pathological changes in the brain, leading to 50–70% of DS patients showing dementia by 60–70 years of age. Inflammation is a complex process that has a key role to play in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. There is relatively little understood about inflammation ...

  2. Prevalence of premenstrual syndrome among women of child-bearing age with regular menstrual cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nodira Khodjaeva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The study on prevalence of premenstrual syndrome (PMS with various severities was conducted in a cohort of fertile female residents of Tashkent aged from 18 to 30. Clinical and medical history data on psycho-emotional and physical PMS symptoms was put into a specially developed card-questionnaire. Severity of symptoms was determined by total score to fill in a PMS symptom scale on the basis of the examinees’ self-observation. The associations of PMS with social-demographic factors, such as, level of education, employment status, sexual satisfaction and stress index were analyzed.

  3. Inverse Correlation between Adiponectin and the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-aged Japanese Male Workers

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    Miyazaki,Motonobu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite a close association between adiponectin and both hypertension and type 2 diabetes, the relationship between adiponectin and metabolic syndrome has not yet been well-investigated. To examine and evaluate the association between serum adiponectin levels and metabolic syndrome based on Japanese diagnostic criteria, we analyzed adiponectin and anthropometric parameters in 869 male employees aged 40-59 who belonged to a health insurance society in Fukuoka Prefecture and who underwent annual health check-ups from August 2006 to July 2007. Two hundred and thirty-two of the 869 subjects (26.7% were diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. The serum adiponectin levels were significantly higher in the non-metabolic syndrome group. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, the subjects in the top quartile of serum adiponectin (adjusted odds ratio:0.36;95% confidence interval:0.21-0.63 and the second (adjusted odds ratio:0.51;95% confidence interval:0.31-0.84 quartile had a significantly decreased risk for metabolic syndrome in comparison to the bottom quartile. The dose-response relationship between serum adiponectin levels and metabolic syndrome was significant (p for trend 0.0001 after adjusting for age, body mass index, smoking status, and drinking status. The current findings suggest that hypoadiponectinemia is inversely correlated with the risk of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged Japanese male workers.

  4. Age and body mass related changes of cardiovascular risk factors in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macut Đuro P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is considered a metabolic disorder closely related to obesity, insulin resistance (IR, hyperinsulinemia and unfavorable lipid profile, all increasing the risk for the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to assess age and body mass index (BMI related changes of cardiovascular risk factors in 90 women with PCOS. The cut-off age point was 30 years and for BMI 27.8 kg/m2. In all patients systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP, metabolic parameters comprising values of glucose and insulin during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, and basal lipid values were determined. Significant increase in blood pressure (BP indices, basal insulin values and insulin resistance (IR assessed by HOMA model were observed with aging and the increase of BMI, while the parameters of glucose metabolism, total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly elevated only with aging. However, the correlation between the indices of arterial blood pressure, and lipid and glucose metabolism parameters occurred only in patients over 30 years of age, pointing to the causative relation and the consequent deterioration of IR and lipid profile with aging, influencing cardiovascular function in women with PCOS.

  5. Working memory in early-school-age children with Asperger's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jifang; Gao, Dingguo; Chen, Yinghe; Zou, Xiaobing; Wang, Ya

    2010-08-01

    Using a battery of working memory span tasks and n-back tasks, this study aimed to explore working memory functions in early-school-age children with Asperger's syndrome (AS). Twelve children with AS and 29 healthy children matched on age and IQ were recruited. Results showed: (a) children with AS performed better in digit and word recall tasks, but worse in block recall task and variant-visual-patterns test; (b) children with AS took longer time in most conditions of n-back tasks, and showed larger effects of task load. These findings indicated imbalance of working memory development in AS children: they had advantage in the phonological loop storing, but disadvantage in the visuospatial sketchpad storing, and partial deficit in central executive.

  6. Patients age and results of treatment in discogenic cauda equina syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulla, I

    1994-03-01

    Cauda equina syndrome is a feared complication of lumbar disc disease. Despite of early surgery it frequently leaves persistent effects. Localisation, type, and duration of spinal nerve roots compression are quoted as the most important factors influencing the results of treatment. Statistical evaluation of data acquired by examinations of 58 persons operated on for this disease et the Department of Neurosurgery in Kosice within the period from January 1st, 1982 to December 31st, 1991 has shown that the further important facts are ageing of tissues and impairment of microcirculation. In patients over the age of 45 the recovery of motor and sexual functions, as well as the voluntary control of rectal sphincters, and the working ability were significantly worse. It is suggested thereby that in elderly persons with a proven intervertebral disc disease an early surgical intervention is indicated. (Tab. 7, Ref. 23.)

  7. [Neuropsychological syndromes of non-psychotic mental disorders of youthful age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluzhnikov, I V; Omelchenko, M A; Krylova, E S; Kaleda, V G

    2013-01-01

    Seventy male patients with non-psychotic mental disorders of youthful age (mean age 19.2±3.7), were studied using A.R. Luria neuropsychological syndrome analysis. Patients were stratified into 3 groups by diagnosis: cyclothymia (20 patients), pubertal decompensation of schizoid personality disorder (30 patients) and schizotypal personality disorder (20 patients). It has been shown that the neuropsychological changes indicate the dysfunction of the amygdale/temporal region in patients of the first group and frontal/thalamic/parietal connections in the patients of two other groups. There were interhemispheric differences between patients with personality disorder and schizotypal personality disorder: left hemisphere dysfunction was characteristic of schizotypal disorder and right hemisphere deficit (neurocognitive deficit) was found in patients with personality disorder.

  8. Metformin Alleviates Aging Cellular Phenotypes in Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome Dermal Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seul-Ki; Shin, Ok Sarah

    2017-02-13

    Metformin is a popular antidiabetic biguanide, which has been considered as a candidate drug for cancer treatment and aging prevention. Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a devastating disease characterized by premature aging and severe age-associated complications leading to death. The effects of metformin on HGPS dermal fibroblasts remain largely undefined. In this study, we investigated whether metformin could exert a beneficial effect on nuclear abnormalities and delay senescence in fibroblasts derived from HGPS patients. Metformin treatment partially restored normal nuclear phenotypes, delayed senescence, activated the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase, and decreased reactive oxygen species formation in HGPS dermal fibroblasts. Interestingly, metformin reduced the number of phosphorylated histone variant H2AX-positive DNA damage foci and suppressed progerin protein expression, compared to the control. Furthermore, metformin-supplemented aged mice showed higher splenocyte proliferation and mRNA expression of the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase 2 than the control mice. Collectively, our results show that metformin treatment alleviates the nuclear defects and premature aging phenotypes in HGPS fibroblasts. Thus, metformin can be considered a promising therapeutic approach for life extension in HGPS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of age on systemic inflamatory response syndrome and results of coronary bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokalp, Orhan; Yesilkaya, Nihan Karakas; Bozok, Sahin; Besir, Yuksel; Iner, Hasan; Durmaz, Huseyin; Gokkurt, Yasar; Lafci, Banu; Gokalp, Gamze; Yilik, Levent; Gurbuz, Ali

    2017-05-23

    Coronary artery bypass (CAB) surgery triggers systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) via several mechanisms. Moreover, age is directly correlated with SIRS. We evaluated the effect of age on SIRS and postoperative outcome after CAB surgery. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 229 patients who had undergone CAB surgery. The patients were divided into three groups according to age: group 1, 75 years old (n = 85). Pre- and peri-operative data were assessed in all patients. SIRS was diagnosed according to the criteria established by the 2001 SCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS International Sepsis Definitions Conference. The average pre-operative EuroSCORE value in group 3 was higher than in the other groups and body surface areas were significantly lower in group 3 than in the other groups (p SIRS rates were 68.9% in group 1, 84.3% in group 2 and 91.8% in group 3 (group 1 vs group 3; p 0.05). The predictive factors for SIRS were age, EuroSCORE rate, on-pump CAB surgery and intra-aortic balloon pump use. Age was an important risk factor for SIRS during the postoperative period after CAB.

  10. Increased expression of the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome truncated lamin A transcript during cell aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Sofia; Coppedè, Fabio; Sagelius, Hanna; Eriksson, Maria

    2009-07-01

    Most cases of the segmental progeroid syndrome, Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), are caused by a de novo dominant mutation within a single codon of the LMNA gene. This mutation leads to the increased usage of an internal splice site that generates an alternative lamin A transcript with an internal deletion of 150 nucleotides, called lamin A Delta 150. The LMNA gene encodes two major proteins of the inner nuclear lamina, lamins A and C, but not much is known about their expression levels. Determination of the overall expression levels of the LMNA gene transcripts is an important step to further the understanding of the HGPS. In this study, we have performed absolute quantification of the lamins A, C and A Delta 150 transcripts in primary dermal fibroblasts from HGPS patients and unaffected age-matched and parent controls. We show that the lamin A Delta 150 transcript is present in unaffected controls but its expression is >160-fold lower than that in samples from HGPS patients. Analysis of transcript expression during in vitro aging shows that although the levels of lamin A and lamin C transcripts remain unchanged, the lamin A Delta 150 transcript increases in late passage cells from HGPS patients and parental controls. This study provides a new method for LMNA transcript analysis and insights into the expression of the LMNA gene in HGPS and normal cells.

  11. Clinical and immunological characteristics of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in women of different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutdusova A.M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the clinical and immunological features of the hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in women of different age groups. Materials and methods: Clinical and laboratory characteristics of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in 148 women aged 17 to 65 years old have been investigated. Patients have been divided into two groups: group I included 101 patients with normal menstrual rhythm, group II included 47 female patients with menopause. In 57 women (36 from group I, 21 — from group II the content of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD16+, CD19+ — sub-populations of peripheral blood lymphocytes has been determined. Results: In compared groups significant differences in structure and frequency of complications of the disease have been revealed. Unidirectional tendency to increase significantly reduced absolute rates of investigated lymphocyte subpopulations in dynamics of the disease has been identified. It also has been stated that by the time of early convalescence in case of severe form of HFRS the indices did not reach the standard level. In an older group of women deeper damage and long-term recovery of immune system have been marked. Conclusion: According to the results of clinical and immunological studies the research work has revealed that in young women the response of the immune system to HFRS has developed faster and stronger than that in patients during the menopause period.

  12. Age is a critical risk factor for severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome.

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    Shujun Ding

    Full Text Available Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome (SFTS is an emerging infectious disease in East Asia. SFTS is a tick borne hemorrhagic fever caused by SFTSV, a new bunyavirus named after the syndrome. We investigated the epidemiology of SFTS in Laizhou County, Shandong Province, China.We collected serum specimens of all patients who were clinically diagnosed as suspected SFTS cases in 2010 and 2011 in Laizhou County. The patients' serum specimens were tested for SFTSV by real time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR. We collected 1,060 serum specimens from healthy human volunteers by random sampling in Laizhou County in 2011. Healthy persons' serum specimens were tested for specific SFTSV IgG antibody by ELISA.71 SFTS cases were diagnosed in Laizhou County in 2010 and 2011, which resulted in the incidence rate of 4.1/100,000 annually. The patients ranged from 15 years old to 87 years old and the median age of the patients were 59 years old. The incidence rate of SFTS was significantly higher in patients over 40 years old and fatal cases only occurred in patients over 50 years old. 3.3% (35/1,060 of healthy people were positive to SFTSV IgG antibody. The SFTSV antibody positive rate was not significantly different among people at different age groups.Our results revealed that seroprevalence of SFTSV in healthy people in Laizhou County was not significantly different among age groups, but SFTS patients were mainly elderly people, suggesting that age is the critical risk factor or determinant for SFTS morbidity and mortality.

  13. Anti-hepatitis C virus seropositivity is not associated with metabolic syndrome irrespective of age, gender and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuan-Lung; Wang, Yuan-Chen; Lan, Keng-Hsin; Huo, Teh-Ia; Huang, Yi-Hsiang; Su, Chien-Wei; Lin, Han-Chieh; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Wu, Jaw-Ching; Lee, Shou-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Although many studies have tried to clarify the association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and metabolic syndrome, few studies have comprehensively assessed their relationship stratified by different demographic characteristics. We aimed to investigate the correlation between metabolic syndrome and anti-HCV seropositivity in Taiwan. This study enrolled consecutive subjects who had received health check-up services at Taipei Veterans General Hospital from 2002 to 2009. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the criteria defined by the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention. Among the 30616 subjects enrolled in this study, the prevalence of positive anti-HCV serology was 2.7%, and 28.8% were diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. By multivariate analysis, metabolic syndrome was associated with higher body mass index, older age, male sex, a higher level of alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, platelet count and the presence of fatty liver whereas anti-HCV seropositivity was not an independent variable for metabolic syndrome. Further stratifying the subjects by age and sex, and there was still no significant difference in HCV status between those with and without metabolic syndrome. Moreover, the stage of liver fibrosis represented by aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index was also not correlated with metabolic syndrome in the subjects with anti-HCV seropositivity. In conclusion, although subjects with anti-HCV seropositivity had higher fasting glucose levels and lower cholesterol and triglyceride levels compared to those with negative anti-HCV test, anti-HCV seropositivity was not associated with metabolic syndrome based on the current diagnostic criteria irrespective of age, gender and the stage of hepatic fibrosis.

  14. Aroma profile and sensory characteristics of a sulfur dioxide-free mulberry (Morus nigra) wine subjected to non-thermal accelerating aging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchabo, William; Ma, Yongkun; Kwaw, Emmanuel; Zhang, Haining; Xiao, Lulu; Tahir, Haroon Elrasheid

    2017-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess accelerating aging effects of high pressure, ultrasound and manosonication on the aromatic profile and sensorial attributes of aged mulberry wines (AMW). A total of 166 volatile compounds were found amongst the AMW. The outcomes of the investigation were presented by means of geometric mean (GM), cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares regressions (PLSR) and principal component regression (PCR). GM highlighted 24 organoleptic attributes responsible for the sensorial profile of the AMW. Moreover, CA revealed that the volatile composition of the non-thermal accelerated aged wines differs from that of the conventional aged wines. Besides, PCA discriminated the AMW on the basis of their main sensorial characteristics. Furthermore, PLSR identified 75 aroma compounds which were mainly responsible for the olfactory notes of the AMW. Finally, the overall quality of the AMW was noted to be better predicted by PLSR than PCR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Accelerated Xenon Lamp Aging on the Mechanical Properties and Structure of Thermoplastic Polyurethane for Stratospheric Airship Envelope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yuyan; LIU Yuxi; LIU Shaozhu; TAN Huifeng

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of artificial weathering test on the photoaging behavior of TPU films. Changes in mechanical properties, morphology and chemical structures are studied by tensile test, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Fourier-transformed infrared, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show that the photoaging negatively affects the initial modulus and stress at break values of TPU films. The surface of the specimen that is exposed to irradiation becomes rough, and some visible micro-defects such as blisters and voids can be detected. The morphology of the fracture surfaces illustrates that irradiation reduces the plasticity but increases the brittleness of the TPU films. The chemical structure analyses of the accelerated aged films prove that chemical structural changes in TPU films occur. The irradiation may break the long molecular chains on the surface of the specimens and form the low-molecular weight oxygen-containing groups. The number of chain scissions increases with the increase in exposure time.

  16. Influence of Different Types of Resin Luting Agents on Color Stability of Ceramic Laminate Veneers Subjected to Accelerated Artificial Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silami, Francisca Daniele Jardilino; Tonani, Rafaella; Alandia-Román, Carla Cecilia; Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of accelerated aging (AAA) on the color stability of resin cements for bonding ceramic laminate veneers of different thicknesses. The occlusal surfaces of 80 healthy human molars were flattened. Ceramic laminate veneers (IPS e-max Ceram) of two thicknesses (0.5 and 1.0 mm) were bonded with three types of luting agents: light-cured, conventional dual and self-adhesive dual cement. Teeth without restorations and cement samples (0.5 mm) were used as control. After initial color evaluations, the samples were subjected to AAA for 580 h. After this, new color readouts were made, and the color stability (ΔE) and luminosity (ΔL) data were analyzed. The greatest color changes (pveneers were fixed with light-cured cement and the lowest when 1.0 mm veneers were fixed with conventional dual cement. There was no influence of the restoration thickness when the self-adhesive dual cement was used. When veneers were compared with the control groups, it was verified that the cement samples presented the greatest alterations (pcements. The changes in self-adhesive cement do not depend on restoration thickness.

  17. Folate Acts in E. coli to Accelerate C. elegans Aging Independently of Bacterial Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virk, Bhupinder; Jia, Jie; Maynard, Claire A; Raimundo, Adelaide; Lefebvre, Jolien; Richards, Shane A; Chetina, Natalia; Liang, Yen; Helliwell, Noel; Cipinska, Marta; Weinkove, David

    2016-02-23

    Folates are cofactors for biosynthetic enzymes in all eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Animals cannot synthesize folate and must acquire it from their diet or microbiota. Previously, we showed that inhibiting E. coli folate synthesis increases C. elegans lifespan. Here, we show that restriction or supplementation of C. elegans folate does not influence lifespan. Thus, folate is required in E. coli to shorten worm lifespan. Bacterial proliferation in the intestine has been proposed as a mechanism for the life-shortening influence of E. coli. However, we found no correlation between C. elegans survival and bacterial growth in a screen of 1,000+ E. coli deletion mutants. Nine mutants increased worm lifespan robustly, suggesting specific gene regulation is required for the life-shortening activity of E. coli. Disrupting the biosynthetic folate cycle did not increase lifespan. Thus, folate acts through a growth-independent route in E. coli to accelerate animal aging.

  18. The Influence of Irradiation and Accelerated Aging on the Mechanical and Tribological Properties of the Graphene Oxide/Ultra-High-Molecular-Weight Polyethylene Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene oxide/ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (GO/UHMWPE nanocomposite is a potential and promising candidate for artificial joint applications. However, after irradiation and accelerated aging, the mechanical and tribological behaviors of the nanocomposites are still unclear and require further investigation. GO/UHMWPE nanocomposites were successfully fabricated using ultrasonication dispersion, ball-milling, and hot-pressing process. Then, the nanocomposites were irradiated by gamma ray at doses of 100 kGy. Finally, GO/UHMWPE nanocomposites underwent accelerated aging at 80°C for 21 days in air. The mechanical and tribological properties of GO/UHMWPE nanocomposites have been evaluated after irradiation and accelerated aging. The results indicated that the incorporation of GO could enhance the mechanical, wear, and antiscratch properties of UHMWPE. After irradiation, these properties could be further enhanced, compared to unirradiated ones. After accelerated aging, however, these properties have been significantly reduced when compared to unirradiated ones. Moreover, GO and irradiation can synergistically enhance these properties.

  19. Oral AGE restriction ameliorates insulin resistance in obese individuals with the metabolic syndrome: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlassara, Helen; Cai, Weijing; Tripp, Elizabeth; Pyzik, Renata; Yee, Kalle; Goldberg, Laurie; Tansman, Laurie; Chen, Xue; Mani, Venkatesh; Fayad, Zahi A; Nadkarni, Girish N; Striker, Gary E; He, John C; Uribarri, Jaime

    2016-10-01

    We previously reported that obese individuals with the metabolic syndrome (at risk), compared with obese individuals without the metabolic syndrome (healthy obese), have elevated serum AGEs that strongly correlate with insulin resistance, oxidative stress and inflammation. We hypothesised that a diet low in AGEs (L-AGE) would improve components of the metabolic syndrome in obese individuals, confirming high AGEs as a new risk factor for the metabolic syndrome. A randomised 1 year trial was conducted in obese individuals with the metabolic syndrome in two parallel groups: L-AGE diet vs a regular diet, habitually high in AGEs (Reg-AGE). Participants were allocated to each group by randomisation using random permuted blocks. At baseline and at the end of the trial, we obtained anthropometric variables, blood and urine samples, and performed OGTTs and MRI measurements of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal tissue and carotid artery. Only investigators involved in laboratory determinations were blinded to dietary assignment. Effects on insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were the primary outcome. Sixty-one individuals were randomised to a Reg-AGE diet and 77 to an L-AGE diet; the data of 49 and 51, respectively, were analysed at the study end in 2014. The L-AGE diet markedly improved insulin resistance; modestly decreased body weight; lowered AGEs, oxidative stress and inflammation; and enhanced the protective factors sirtuin 1, AGE receptor 1 and glyoxalase I. The Reg-AGE diet raised AGEs and markers of insulin resistance, oxidative stress and inflammation. There were no effects on MRI-assessed measurements. No side effects from the intervention were identified. HOMA-IR came down from 3.1 ± 1.8 to 1.9 ± 1.3 (p insulin resistance in obese people with the metabolic syndrome, and may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes, without necessitating a major reduction in adiposity. Elevated serum AGEs may be used to diagnose and treat 'at-risk' obesity. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  20. Health conditions associated with aging and end of life of adults with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, Anna J

    2010-01-01

    Expectations for the life course of individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have changed, with life expectancy estimates increasing from 12 in 1949 to nearly 60 years of age today (Bittles & Glasson, 2004; Penrose, 1949). Along with this longer life expectancy comes a larger population of adults with DS who display premature age-related changes in their health. There is thus a need to provide specialized health care to this aging population of adults with DS who are at high risk for some conditions and at lower risk for others. This review focuses on the rates and contributing factors to medical conditions that are common in adults with DS or that show changes with age. The review of medical conditions includes the increased risk for skin and hair changes, early onset menopause, visual and hearing impairments, adult onset seizure disorder, thyroid dysfunction, diabetes, obesity, sleep apnea and musculoskeletal problems. The different pattern of conditions associated with the mortality of adults with DS is also reviewed.

  1. The Relationship between Age and Illness Duration in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Kidd

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a debilitating illness, but it is unclear if patient age and illness duration might affect symptoms and functioning of patients. In the current study, participants were categorized into four groups based upon age (under or over age 55 and illness duration (more or less than 10 years. The groups were compared on functioning and symptoms. Findings indicated that those who were older with a longer illness duration had significantly higher levels of mental health functioning than those who were younger with a shorter or longer illness duration and the older group with a shorter illness duration. The results suggest that older patients with an illness duration of over 10 years have significantly higher levels of mental health functioning than the three other groups. For symptoms, the younger/longer illness duration group had significantly worse immune and autonomic domains than the older/longer illness group. In addition, the younger patients with a longer illness duration displayed greater autonomic and immune symptoms in comparison to the older group with a longer illness duration. These findings suggest that both age and illness duration need to be considered when trying to understand the influence of these factors on patients.

  2. Age at menarche and its association with the metabolic syndrome and its components: results from the KORA F4 study.

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    Doris Stöckl

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The metabolic syndrome is a major public health challenge and identifies persons at risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to examine the association between age at menarche and the metabolic syndrome (IDF and NCEP ATP III classification and its components. DESIGN: 1536 women aged 32 to 81 years of the German population based KORA F4 study were investigated. Data was collected by standardized interviews, physical examinations, and whole blood and serum measurements. RESULTS: Young age at menarche was significantly associated with elevated body mass index (BMI, greater waist circumference, higher fasting glucose levels, and 2 hour glucose (oral glucose tolerance test, even after adjusting for the difference between current BMI and BMI at age 25. The significant effect on elevated triglycerides and systolic blood pressure was attenuated after adjustment for the BMI change. Age at menarche was inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome adjusting for age (p-values: <0.001 IDF, 0.003 NCEP classification and additional potential confounders including lifestyle and reproductive history factors (p-values: 0.001, 0.005. Associations remain significant when additionally controlling for recollected BMI at age 25 (p-values: 0.008, 0.033 or the BMI change since age 25 (p-values: 0.005, 0.022. CONCLUSION: Young age at menarche might play a role in the development of the metabolic syndrome. This association is only partially mediated by weight gain and increased BMI. A history of early menarche may help to identify women at risk for the metabolic syndrome.

  3. Sleep Patterns in School-Age Children with Asperger Syndrome or High-Functioning Autism: A Follow-Up Study

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    Allik, Hiie; Larsson, Jan-Olov; Smedje, Hans

    2008-01-01

    The course of sleep patterns over 2-3 years was compared between 16 school-age children with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA) and 16 age- and gender-matched typically developing children, using 1-week actigraphy at baseline and follow-up. At baseline (mean age 11.1 years), children with AS/HFA had longer sleep latency and…

  4. ACCELERATED AGING OF OLERACEOUS SPECIES SEEDS ENVELHECIMENTO ACELERADO DE SEMENTES DE ESPÉCIES OLERÁCEAS

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    Denis Santiago da Costa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The quality of seeds used in the agricultural production process is one of the main factors considered for the development of a crop. This study investigated the effect of vigor level in the performance of six oleraceous species seeds. Commercial seeds of lettuce, eggplant, broccoli, cauliflower, rocket, and tomato were subjected to accelerated aging, for 48 and 72 hours, to obtain lots with three vigor levels, resulting in one regular lot and two lots aged for different periods. After that, the seeds were submitted to germination tests, electrical conductivity, seedling emergence in trays, seedling length and dry weight. The effect of accelerated aging becomes stronger when the exposure time of seeds to high air relative humidity and temperature increases. This exposure reduces more emphatically the seed quality for some species, such as lettuce, cauliflower, and rocket, than for others, such as broccoli, tomato and eggplant. Less vigorous seeds, in addition to lower germination and emergence, show delays in

  5. What associates Charles Bonnet syndrome with age-related macular degeneration?

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    Vojniković, Bozo; Radeljak, Sanja; Dessardo, Sandro; Zarković-Palijan, Tija; Bajek, Goran; Linsak, Zeljko

    2010-04-01

    Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) is a condition related to patients with visual loss due to age related macular degeneration or glaucoma that are having complex visual hallucinations. The CBS was first described by Swiss physician Charles Bonnet in 1760. Affected patients, who are otherwise mentally healthy people with significant visual loss, have vivid, complex recurrent visual hallucinations (VHs). One characteristic of these hallucinations is that they usually are "Lilliputian hallucinations" as patients experience micropsia (hallucinations in which the characters or objects are distorted and much smaller than normal). The prevalence of Charles Bonnet Syndrome has been reported to be between 10% and 40%; a recent Australian study has found the prevalence to be 17.5%. The high incidence of non-reported CBS is thought to be as a result of patient's fear to report the symptoms as they could be labeled as mentally insane since those type of visual hallucinations could be found in variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders such as drug or alcohol abuse (delirium tremens), Alice in Wonderland syndrome (AIWS), psychosis, schizophrenia, dementia, narcolepsy, epilepsy, Parkinson disease, brain tumors, migraine, as well as, in long term sleep deprivation. VHs can also be presented as the initial sign of the Epstein-Barr virus infection in infectious mononucleosis. Patients who suffer from CBS usually possess insight into the unreality of their visual experiences, which are commonly pleasant but may sometimes cause distress. The hallucinations consist of well-defined, organized, and clear images over which the subject has little control. It is believed that they represent release phenomena due to deafferentiation of the visual association areas of the cerebral cortex, leading to a form of phantom vision. Cognitive defects, social isolation, and sensory deprivation have also been implicated in the etiology of this condition. This study was conducted on 350 patients

  6. Predictive value of serum cholinesterase for the prognosis of aged patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Qi-hui; HE Xiao-jun; LI Tian-lang; CHEN Huai-hong

    2011-01-01

    Background Some studies found that cholinesterase (ChE) can be an independent risk factor for patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.To assess aged patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) early and predict their prognosis,the predictive value of ChE for the prognosis of aged patients with SIRS was analyzed.Methods From September 2009 to September 2010,all aged patients with SIRS in the ICU of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine were retrospectively analyzed if they met inclusion criteria:patients aged >65 years and met American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine Consensus Conference criteria for SIRS.Serum ChE,albumin,D-dimer,lactic acid and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured,and the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) Ⅱ and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores were evaluated within the first 24 hours in the ICU.Fisher's exact test was used for comparison of the primary disease between the deceased group and surviving group.For comparison of study variables between the two groups,the Student's t test or Mann-Whitney U test was used.Multivariate significance was tested with binary Logistic regression analysis.Results The clinical data of 124 aged patients with SIRS were collected and analyzed.Sixty-six patients (46 male,20female,mean age (78.70±8.08) years) who died were included in the deceased group and 58 patients (34 male,24female,mean age (76.02±6.57) years) who survived were included in the surviving group.There were no significant differences in age,gender,APACHE Ⅱ score and GCS score between the deceased group and surviving group (all P>0.05),but there were significant differences in lactic acid (P=0.011),D-dimer (P=0.011),albumin (P=0.007),CRP (P=0.008),and ChE (P <0.0001).The correlation analysis showed that the APACHE Ⅱ score and CRP were not correlated with ChE (both P <0.05).D-dimer and albumin were correlated with Ch

  7. Scleroderma of geriatric age and scleroderma-like paraneoplastic syndrome – description of two cases

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    Magdalena Marek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis (Ssc is an autoimmune connective tissue disease of unknown origin, characterized by progressive fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. Immune reactions taking part in Ssc pathogenesis may contribute to cancer development; therefore patients with risk factors for this disease require observation for a neoplastic process. On the other hand, symptoms of Ssc may be a mask of various cancers. Differentiating between the idiopathic form of Ssc and scleroderma-like paraneoplastic syndrome often causes a lot of difficulties. The article presents two cases of Ssc at the beginning of the disease after 60 years of age. The first case was diagnosed as Ssc, whereas in the second case the defined diagnosis was scleroderma-like syndrome in the course of colorectal cancer. This paper presents an analysis of differential diagnostic procedures which were performed and led to the final diagnosis, mentions types of cancers co-occurring with Ssc and suggests a screening scheme for cancer development in patients with a diagnosis of Ssc.

  8. Scleroderma of geriatric age and scleroderma-like paraneoplastic syndrome - description of two cases.

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    Marek, Magdalena; Rudny, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (Ssc) is an autoimmune connective tissue disease of unknown origin, characterized by progressive fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. Immune reactions taking part in Ssc pathogenesis may contribute to cancer development; therefore patients with risk factors for this disease require observation for a neoplastic process. On the other hand, symptoms of Ssc may be a mask of various cancers. Differentiating between the idiopathic form of Ssc and scleroderma-like paraneoplastic syndrome often causes a lot of difficulties. The article presents two cases of Ssc at the beginning of the disease after 60 years of age. The first case was diagnosed as Ssc, whereas in the second case the defined diagnosis was scleroderma-like syndrome in the course of colorectal cancer. This paper presents an analysis of differential diagnostic procedures which were performed and led to the final diagnosis, mentions types of cancers co-occurring with Ssc and suggests a screening scheme for cancer development in patients with a diagnosis of Ssc.

  9. Scleroderma of geriatric age and scleroderma-like paraneoplastic syndrome – description of two cases

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    Rudny, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (Ssc) is an autoimmune connective tissue disease of unknown origin, characterized by progressive fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. Immune reactions taking part in Ssc pathogenesis may contribute to cancer development; therefore patients with risk factors for this disease require observation for a neoplastic process. On the other hand, symptoms of Ssc may be a mask of various cancers. Differentiating between the idiopathic form of Ssc and scleroderma-like paraneoplastic syndrome often causes a lot of difficulties. The article presents two cases of Ssc at the beginning of the disease after 60 years of age. The first case was diagnosed as Ssc, whereas in the second case the defined diagnosis was scleroderma-like syndrome in the course of colorectal cancer. This paper presents an analysis of differential diagnostic procedures which were performed and led to the final diagnosis, mentions types of cancers co-occurring with Ssc and suggests a screening scheme for cancer development in patients with a diagnosis of Ssc. PMID:27407287

  10. c-Src and neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP promote low oxygen-induced accelerated brain invasion by gliomas.

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    Zhuo Tang

    Full Text Available Malignant gliomas remain associated with poor prognosis and high morbidity because of their ability to invade the brain; furthermore, human gliomas exhibit a phenotype of accelerated brain invasion in response to anti-angiogenic drugs. Here, we study 8 human glioblastoma cell lines; U251, U87, D54 and LN229 show accelerated motility in low ambient oxygen. Src inhibition by Dasatinib abrogates this phenotype. Molecular discovery and validation studies evaluate 46 molecules related to motility or the src pathway in U251 cells. Demanding that the molecular changes induced by low ambient oxygen are reversed by Dasatinib in U251 cells, identifies neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (NWASP, Focal adhesion Kinase (FAK, [Formula: see text]-Catenin, and Cofilin. However, only Src-mediated NWASP phosphorylation distinguishes the four cell lines that exhibit enhanced motility in low ambient oxygen. Downregulating c-Src or NWASP by RNA interference abrogates the low-oxygen-induced enhancement in motility by in vitro assays and in organotypic brain slice cultures. The findings support the idea that c-Src and NWASP play key roles in mediating the molecular pathogenesis of low oxygen-induced accelerated brain invasion by gliomas.

  11. c-Src and neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) promote low oxygen-induced accelerated brain invasion by gliomas.

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    Tang, Zhuo; Araysi, Lita M; Fathallah-Shaykh, Hassan M

    2013-01-01

    Malignant gliomas remain associated with poor prognosis and high morbidity because of their ability to invade the brain; furthermore, human gliomas exhibit a phenotype of accelerated brain invasion in response to anti-angiogenic drugs. Here, we study 8 human glioblastoma cell lines; U251, U87, D54 and LN229 show accelerated motility in low ambient oxygen. Src inhibition by Dasatinib abrogates this phenotype. Molecular discovery and validation studies evaluate 46 molecules related to motility or the src pathway in U251 cells. Demanding that the molecular changes induced by low ambient oxygen are reversed by Dasatinib in U251 cells, identifies neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (NWASP), Focal adhesion Kinase (FAK), [Formula: see text]-Catenin, and Cofilin. However, only Src-mediated NWASP phosphorylation distinguishes the four cell lines that exhibit enhanced motility in low ambient oxygen. Downregulating c-Src or NWASP by RNA interference abrogates the low-oxygen-induced enhancement in motility by in vitro assays and in organotypic brain slice cultures. The findings support the idea that c-Src and NWASP play key roles in mediating the molecular pathogenesis of low oxygen-induced accelerated brain invasion by gliomas.

  12. Neuroinflammation in the Aging Down Syndrome Brain; Lessons from Alzheimer's Disease

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    Donna M. Wilcock

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS is the most genetic cause of mental retardation and is caused by the triplication of chromosome 21. In addition to the disabilities caused early in life, DS is also noted as causing Alzheimer's-disease-like pathological changes in the brain, leading to 50–70% of DS patients showing dementia by 60–70 years of age. Inflammation is a complex process that has a key role to play in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. There is relatively little understood about inflammation in the DS brain and how the genetics of DS may alter this inflammatory response and change the course of disease in the DS brain. The goal of this review is to highlight our current understanding of inflammation in Alzheimer's disease and predict how inflammation may affect the pathology of the DS brain based on this information and the known genetic changes that occur due to triplication of chromosome 21.

  13. Prognostic factors in de novo myelodysplastic syndrome in young and middle-aged people

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    Наталья Николаевна Климкович

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We spent multivariate analysis of clinical and laboratory parameters for the prediction of de-novo myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS patients aged 18-60 years. The results of clinical application of prognostic systems in MDS show that there is a large variability within individual risk groups, especially at low-risk MDS. So now hematologists conduct research aimed at identifying additional adverse risk MDS. This is done so that patients with low-risk MDS embodiments and unfavorable prognosis could benefit from early therapeutic intervention, and not only be clinician monitored until disease progression. We found that additional adverse risk factors for the development of MDS are the expression of CD95 in bone marrow ≤40 % and FLT3≥60 %. The expression level of CD95 in bone marrow cells≤40 % and FLT3≥60 % can be considered as a prognostic marker progression of MDS and time start specific therapy

  14. Neuroinflammation in the aging down syndrome brain; lessons from Alzheimer's disease.

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    Wilcock, Donna M

    2012-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most genetic cause of mental retardation and is caused by the triplication of chromosome 21. In addition to the disabilities caused early in life, DS is also noted as causing Alzheimer's-disease-like pathological changes in the brain, leading to 50-70% of DS patients showing dementia by 60-70 years of age. Inflammation is a complex process that has a key role to play in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. There is relatively little understood about inflammation in the DS brain and how the genetics of DS may alter this inflammatory response and change the course of disease in the DS brain. The goal of this review is to highlight our current understanding of inflammation in Alzheimer's disease and predict how inflammation may affect the pathology of the DS brain based on this information and the known genetic changes that occur due to triplication of chromosome 21.

  15. McCune-Albright syndrome: persistence of autonomous ovarian hyperfunction during adolescence and early adult age.

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    Matarazzo, Patrizia; Lala, Roberto; Andreo, Maria; Einaudi, Silvia; Altare, Franco; Viora, Elsa; Buzi, Fabio; De Luca, Filippo; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Rigon, Franco; Wasniewska, Malgorzata; de Sanctis, Luisa; de Sanctis, Carlo

    2006-05-01

    Gonadal hyperfunction is the most frequent endocrine dysfunction in females with McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS). Peripheral precocious puberty is usually the first MAS manifestation in children, characterized by episodes of hypersecretion of estrogens with a consequent reduction in gonadotropin secretion. Little is known about the course of this endocrine disease in adolescence and during young adult life. The aim of this study was to evaluate ovarian function in 10 females with MAS (age 11.4-20.1 years) to detect the persistence of autonomous ovarian hyperfunction throughout and following adolescence, after at least 1 year wash out of any treatment for precocious puberty. LH, FSH, estradiol, prolactin, androgen secretion, ovarian and breast sonography in luteal and follicular phases of some menstrual cycles were evaluated. We demonstrated the persistence of some ovarian autonomy, documented by hyperestrogenism and/or low or absent gonadotropin secretion and/or ovarian cysts.

  16. Influence of finishing/polishing on color stability and surface roughness of composites submitted to accelerated artificial aging

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    Gustavo Da Col dos Santos Pinto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the influence of finishing/polishing procedure on color stability (ΔE and surface roughness (Ra of composites (Heliomolar and Tetric - color A2 submitted to accelerated artificial aging (AAA. Materials and Methods : Sixty test specimens were made of each composite (12 mm × 2 mm and separated into six groups (n = 10, according to the type of finishing/polishing to which they were submitted: C, control; F, tip 3195 F; FF, tip 3195 FF; FP, tip 3195 F + diamond paste; FFP, tip 3195 FF + diamond paste; SF, Sof-Lex discs. After polishing, controlled by an electromechanical system, initial color (spectrophotometer PCB 6807 BYK GARDNER and Ra (roughness meter Surfcorder SE 1700, cut-off 0.25 mm readings were taken. Next, the test specimens were submitted to the AAA procedure (C-UV Comexim for 384 hours, and at the end of this period, new color readings and R a were taken. Results: Statistical analysis [2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, Bonferroni, P < 0.05] showed that all composites demonstrated ΔE alteration above the clinically acceptable limits, with the exception of Heliomolar composite in FP. The greatest ΔE alteration occurred for Tetric composite in SF (13.38 ± 2.10 statistically different from F and FF (P < 0.05. For Ra , Group F showed rougher samples than FF with statistically significant difference (P < 0.05. Conclusion: In spite of the surface differences, the different finishing/polishing procedures were not capable of providing color stability within the clinically acceptable limits.

  17. Aging in Down Syndrome and the Development of Alzheimer's Disease Neuropathology.

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    Head, Elizabeth; Lott, Ira T; Wilcock, Donna M; Lemere, Cynthia A

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome 21, triplicated in Down Syndrome, contains several genes that are thought to play a critical role in the development of AD neuropathology. The overexpression of the gene for the amyloid precursor protein (APP), on chromosome 21, leads to early onset beta-amyloid (Aβ) plaques in DS. In addition to Aβ accumulation, middle-aged people with DS develop neurofibrillary tangles, cerebrovascular pathology, white matter pathology, oxidative damage, neuroinflammation and neuron loss. There is also evidence of potential compensatory responses in DS that benefit the brain and delay the onset of dementia after there is sufficient neuropathology for a diagnosis of AD. This review describes some of the existing literature and also highlights gaps in our knowledge regarding AD neuropathology in DS. It will be critical in the future to develop networked brain banks with standardized collection procedures to fully characterize the regional and temporal pathological events associated with aging in DS. As more information is acquired regarding AD evolution in DS, there will be opportunities to develop interventions that are age-appropriate to delay AD in DS.

  18. Late-Onset Hypogonadism in Male Patients Over 60 Years of Age with Metabolic Syndrome

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    Ekrem Kara

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the study was to determine serum androgen levels and the frequency of late-onset hypogonadism (LOH in patients over 60 years of age with metabolic syndrome (MS and its correlation with parameters of MS. Material and Method: Men over 60 years of age who were diagnosed with MS according to the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III criteria in the internal medicine outpatient clinics at Cerrahpasa Medical School (n=30 and healthy controls (n=30 were included in the study. Total testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG levels were analysed. Bioavailable and free testosterone levels were calculated. The participants filled up the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and Aging Male Symptoms (AMS questionnaire forms themselves without any help of the physician. Results: LOH rates were 30% and 13.3% in the MS group and healthy control group, respectively (p=0.11. Serum total testosterone and SHBG levels were significantly lower in the MS group compared to controls (p=0.004 and p=0.003, respectively. A negative correlation was found between total testosterone and MS components. BDI and AMS questionnaire scores in the two groups were not significantly different.Discussion: Serum total testosterone and SHBG levels were lower in the MS group, and inversely proportional to this, insulin resistance and intensity of MS components were increased. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 22-7

  19. Age-Dependent Defects of Regulatory B Cells in Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Gene Knockout Mice.

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    Tadafumi Yokoyama

    Full Text Available The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS is a rare X-linked primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent infections, thrombocytopenia, eczema, and high incidence of malignancy and autoimmunity. The cellular mechanisms underlying autoimmune complications in WAS have been extensively studied; however, they remain incompletely defined. We investigated the characteristics of IL-10-producing CD19+CD1dhighCD5+ B cells (CD1dhighCD5+ Breg obtained from Was gene knockout (WKO mice and found that their numbers were significantly lower in these mice compared to wild type (WT controls. Moreover, we found a significant age-dependent reduction of the percentage of IL-10-expressing cells in WKO CD1dhighCD5+ Breg cells as compared to age-matched WT control mice. CD1dhighCD5+ Breg cells from older WKO mice did not suppress the in vitro production of inflammatory cytokines from activated CD4+ T cells. Interestingly, CD1dhighCD5+ Breg cells from older WKO mice displayed a basal activated phenotype which may prevent normal cellular responses, among which is the expression of IL-10. These defects may contribute to the susceptibility to autoimmunity with age in patients with WAS.

  20. Low-grade systemic inflammation connects aging, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease.

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    Guarner, Verónica; Rubio-Ruiz, Maria Esther

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with immunosenescence and accompanied by a chronic inflammatory state which contributes to metabolic syndrome, diabetes and their cardiovascular consequences. Risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes overlap, leading to the hypothesis that both share an inflammatory basis. Obesity is increased in the elderly population, and adipose tissue induces a state of systemic inflammation partially induced by adipokines. The liver plays a pivotal role in the metabolism of nutrients and exhibits alterations in the expression of genes associated with inflammation, cellular stress and fibrosis. Hepatic steatosis and its related inflammatory state (steatohepatitis) are the main hepatic complications of obesity and metabolic diseases. Aging-linked declines in expression and activity of endoplasmic reticulum molecular chaperones and folding enzymes compromise proper protein folding and the adaptive response of the unfolded protein response. These changes predispose aged individuals to CVDs. CVDs and endothelial dysfunction are characterized by a chronic alteration of inflammatory function and markers of inflammation and the innate immune response, including C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, TNF-α, and several cell adhesion molecules are linked to the occurrence of myocardial infarction and stroke in healthy elderly populations and patients with metabolic diseases.

  1. Metodologia para o teste de envelhecimento acelerado em sementes de ervilha Accelerated aging test on pea seeds

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    Warley Marcos Nascimento

    2007-06-01

    ível identificar os lotes de melhor qualidade.Pea production in Brazil uses seeds produced in the country. The objective of this study was to examine the efficiency of the accelerated aging test for vigor evaluation of pea seeds. Five seed lots of cultivar Axé (wrinkled seeds and five seed lots of cultivar Mikado (smooth seeds were used. The initial quality of each seed lot was evaluated by germination test, first counting, and seedling emergence in the field. Seed moisture content was also assessed. The accelerated aging test was set at 41ºC for periods of 24; 48; and 72 hours, with and without saturated NaCl solution. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design. The accelerated aging test was efficient for vigor evaluation of pea seeds, and the period of 48 hours at 41ºC, using saturated NaCl solution was the most adequate procedure to indicate vigor levels of pea seeds. However, the seed germination after this period was very low when compared to 24 hour-period (80% for both cultivars, even in higher vigor seed lots (35% for Axé and 38% for Mikado. In the saturated NaCl solution, the period of 48 hours at 41ºC was the most adequate for separate seeds through vigor levels. In these conditions, seed lots of highest vigor showed germination of 68% and 79% for Axé and Mikado, respectively. Results of the germination test, first counting, and seedling emergence were not effective in discriminating physiological seed quality when used individually. Nevertheless, when results from these tests were used all together, it was possible to identify the best seed lots.

  2. Relationship of age, body mass index, wrist and waist circumferences to carpal tunnel syndrome severity.

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    Komurcu, Hatice Ferhan; Kilic, Selim; Anlar, Omer

    2014-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) has a multifactorial etiology involving systemic, anatomical, idiopathic, and ergonomic characteristics. In this study, an investigation of the relationship between the CTS degree established by electrophysiological measurements in patients with clinical CTS prediagnosis, and age, gender, body mass index (BMI), hand wrist circumference, and waist circumference measurements has been done. On 547 patients included in the study, motor and sensory conduction examinations of the median and ulnar nerve were done on one or two upper extremities thought to have CTS. In terms of CTS severity, the patients were divided into four groups (normal, mild, medium, and severe CTS). A total of 843 electrophysiological examinations were done consisting of 424 on the right hand wrist and 419 on the left hand wrist. When the age group of 18-35 years is taken as the reference group, the CTS development risk independent of BMI has been found to have increased by a factor of 1.86 for ages 36-64 years, and by 4.17 for ages 65 years and higher after adjustment for BMI. With respect to normal degree CTS group, the BMI were significantly different in groups with mild, medium, and severe CTS. The waist circumferences of groups with mild, medium, and severe CTS severity were found to be significantly higher in comparison to the normal reference group. When this value was corrected with BMI and re-examined the statistically significant differences persisted. The study identified a significant relationship between the CTS severity and age, BMI, waist circumference.

  3. Gender and Age Impacts on the Association Between Thyroid Function and Metabolic Syndrome in Chinese.

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    Meng, Zhaowei; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Song, Kun; Tan, Jian; Jia, Qiang; Zhang, Guizhi; Wang, Renfei; He, Yajing; Ren, Xiaojun; Zhu, Mei; He, Qing; Wang, Shen; Li, Xue; Hu, Tianpeng; Liu, Na; Upadhyaya, Arun; Zhou, Pingping; Zhang, Jianping

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between thyroid dysfunction and metabolic syndrome (MS) is complex. We aimed to explore the impact of gender and age on their association in a large Chinese cohort. This cross-sectional study enrolled 13,855 participants (8532 male, 5323 female), who self-reported as healthy without any known previous diseases. Clinical data including anthropometric measurements, thyroid function, and serum metabolic parameters were collected. The associations between thyroid function and MS of both genders were analyzed separately after dividing thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), and age into subgroups. MS risks were calculated by binary logistic regression models. Young males had significantly higher MS prevalence than females, yet after menopause, females had higher prevalence than males. Females had higher incidence of thyroid dysfunction than males. By using TSH quartiles as the categorical variables and the lowest quartile as reference, significantly increased MS risk was demonstrated in quartile 4 for males, yet quartiles 3 and 4 for females. By using FT3 quartiles as the categorical variables, significantly increased MS risk was demonstrated in quartile 2 to 4 for females only. By using age subgroups as the categorical variables, significantly increased MS risk was shown in both genders, with females (4.408-58.455) higher than males (2.588-4.943). Gender and age had substantial influence on thyroid function and MS. Females with high TSH and high FT3 had higher MS risks than males. Aging was a risk for MS, especially for females. Urgent need is necessary to initiate interventional programs.

  4. Age-dependent resistance to Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replication in swine

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    Bautista Elida M

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV causes a prolonged, economically devastating infection in pigs, and immune resistance to infection appears variable. Since the porcine adaptive immune system is not fully competent at birth, we hypothesized that age influences the dynamics of PRRSV infection. Thus, young piglets, growing 16-20-week-old finisher pigs, and mature third parity sows were infected with virulent or attenuated PRRSV, and the dynamics of viral infection, disease, and immune response were monitored over time. Results Virulent PRRSV infection and disease were markedly more severe and prolonged in young piglets than in finishers or sows. Attenuated PRRSV in piglets also produced a prolonged viremia that was delayed and reduced in magnitude, and in finishers and sows, about half the animals showed no viremia. Despite marked differences in infection, antibody responses were observed in all animals irrespective of age, with older pigs tending to seroconvert sooner and achieve higher antibody levels than 3-week-old animals. Interferon γ (IFN γ secreting peripheral blood mononuclear cells were more abundant in sows but not specifically increased by PRRSV infection in any age group, and interleukin-10 (IL-10 levels in blood were not correlated with PRRSV infection status. Conclusion These findings show that animal age, perhaps due to increased innate immune resistance, strongly influences the outcome of acute PRRSV infection, whereas an antibody response is triggered at a low threshold of infection that is independent of age. Prolonged infection was not due to IL-10-mediated immunosuppression, and PRRSV did not elicit a specific IFN γ response, especially in non-adult animals. Equivalent antibody responses were elicited in response to virulent and attenuated viruses, indicating that the antigenic mass necessary for an immune response is produced at a low level of infection, and is not predicted by

  5. Characteristics of Adults with Down Syndrome: prevalence of age-related conditions

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    Angelo eCarfì

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In the last decades, life expectancy of persons with Down syndrome (DS has dramatically increased and it is estimated that they will be living as long as the general population within a generation. Despite being included among the progeroid syndromes, because of the presence of features typically observed in older adults, DS is still regarded as a disease of pediatric interest. Because limited knowledge is available on the clinical characteristics of adults with DS, this study aimed to assess clinical and non-clinical features of this population and to describe similarities to the geriatric population. Methods. In this study, we described 60 adults with DS evaluated at the Day Hospital of the Geriatric Department of the Policlinico A. Gemelli, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore in Rome. Individuals were assessed through a standardized protocol. Results. The mean age of study participants was 38 years (range, 18 to 58 years and 42 (70.0% were women. Geriatric conditions were highly prevalent: severe cognitive impairment was diagnosed in 39 (65.0% participants, behavioral symptoms were present in 25 (41.7% and functional impairment in 23 (38.3%. Six (10.0% participants lived in institutions and 11 (18.3% were diagnosed as obese. The mean number of drugs used was 2.4; use of psychotropic drugs was highly prevalent. The most common chronic diseases were thyroid problems (44, 73.3%, followed by mood disorders (19, 31.7%, osteoporosis (18, 30.0% and cardiac problems (10, 16.7%. Geriatric conditions and chronic diseases were more prevalent among participants aged ≥40 years. Conclusions. Several similarities between older adults and adults with DS were observed. Comorbidities, geriatric conditions, cognitive and functional deficits and social problems are highly prevalent in both populations, contributing to the high complexity of these patients’ assessment and treatment.

  6. Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of metabolic syndrome in school-aged children and their parents in nine Mesoamerican countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamor, Eduardo; Finan, Caitlin C; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Roman, Ana Victoria

    2017-02-01

    To ascertain the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of cardiometabolic risk factors in adults and school-aged children from Mesoamerica. Cross-sectional study with convenience sampling. In adults, metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria. In children, we calculated a continuous sex- and age-standardized metabolic risk score using variables corresponding to adult ATP III criteria. Metabolic syndrome prevalence in adults and risk score distribution in children were compared across levels of sociodemographic characteristics with use of Poisson and linear regression, respectively. Capital cities of Guatemala, El Salvador, the Dominican Republic, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Costa Rica, the Mexican State of Chiapas (Tuxtla Gutiérrez city) and Belize. Families (n 267), comprising one child aged 7-12 years and their biological parents. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 37·9 % among women and 35·3 % among men. The most common component was low HDL cholesterol, 83·3 % in women and 78·9 % in men. Prevalence was positively associated with age. In women, metabolic syndrome was inversely related to education level whereas in men it was positively associated with household food security and height, after adjustment. The metabolic risk score in children was inversely related to parental height, and positively associated with height-for-age and with having parents with the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in Mesoamerica. The burden of metabolic risk factors disproportionately affects women and children of lower socio-economic status and men of higher socio-economic status.

  7. Accelerated increase and decrease in subjective age as a function of changes in loneliness and objective social indicators over a four-year period: results from the health and retirement study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalon, Liat; Palgi, Yuval; Avidor, Sharon; Bodner, Ehud

    2016-07-01

    The study examined the role of changes in loneliness and objective social indicators in the formation of changes in subjective age over a four-year period. The Health and Retirement Study is a US nationally representative study of older adults over 50 and their spouse of any age. We restricted the sample to individuals, 65 years of age and older (n = 2591). An accelerated increase in subjective age was defined as an increase in subjective age over the two waves greater than five years. An accelerated decrease in subjective age was defined as a difference that was lower than three years. These were examined against a change in subjective age in the range of three to five years (i.e., change consistent with the passage of time). For 23.4% of the sample, changes in subjective age were consistent with the passage of time. A total of 38.3% had an accelerated decrease in subjective age, whereas 38.3% had an accelerated increase. A decrease in loneliness over the two waves resulted in an accelerated decrease in subjective age, whereas an increase in depressive symptoms resulted in an accelerated increase in subjective age. Changes in objective social indicators, physical difficulties or medical comorbidity did not predict changes in subjective age. This is one of very few studies that examined changes in subjective age over time. Changes in subjective age represent an important construct that corresponding to other changes in subjective experiences.

  8. Inhibition of a solid phase reaction among excipients that accelerates drug release from a solid dispersion with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Masayasu; Hirakura, Yutaka; Yamane, Ikuro; Miyanishi, Hideo; Yokota, Shoji; Hattori, Munetaka; Kajiyama, Atsushi

    2005-11-23

    Hydrophobic drug substances can be formulated as a solid dispersion or solution using macromolecular matrices with high glass transition temperatures to attain satisfactory dissolution. However, very few marketed products have previously relied on solid dispersion technology due to physical and chemical instability problems, and processing difficulties. In the present study, a modified release product of a therapeutic drug for hypertension, Barnidipine hydrochloride, was developed. The drug product consisted of solid dispersion based on a matrix of carboxymethylethylcellulose (CMEC), which was produced using the spray-coating method. An enteric coat layer was sprayed on the surface of the solid dispersion to control drug release. Interestingly, the release rate accelerated as the drug product aged, while there were no indications of deceleration of the release rate which was due to crystallization of the drug substance. To prevent changes in the dissolution kinetics during storage periods, a variety of processing conditions were tried. It was found that not only use of non-aqueous solvents but also a reduction in coating temperatures consistently resulted in stable solid dispersions. The molecular bases of dissolution of the drug substance from those matrices were investigated. The molecular weight of CMEC was found to be a dominant factor that determined dissolution kinetics, which followed zero-order release, suggesting an involvement of an osmotic pumping mechanism. While dissolution was faster using a higher molecular weight CMEC, the molecular weight of CMEC in the drug product slowly increased with aging (solid phase reaction) depending on the processing conditions, causing the time-induced elevation of dissolution. While no crystalline components were found in the solid dispersion, the amorphous structure maintained a degree of non-equilibrium by nature. Plasticization by water in the coating solution relaxed the amorphous system and facilitated phase

  9. Degradation of impact fracture during accelerated aging of weld metal on microalloyed steel; Degradacion de la tenacidad al impacto durante el envejecimiento acelerado de soldadura en acero microaleado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas-Arista, B.; Hallen, J. M.; Albiter, A.; Angeles-Chavez, C.

    2008-07-01

    The effect of accelerated aging on the toughness and fracture of the longitudinal weld metal on an API5L-X52 line pipe steel was evaluated by Charpy V-notch impact test, fracture analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Aging was performed at 250 degree centigrade for 100 to 1000 h. The impact results indicated a significant reduction in the fracture energy and impact toughness as a function of aging time, which were achieved by the scanning electron microscope fractography that showed a decrease in the vol fraction of microvoids by Charpy ductile failure with the aging time, which favored the brittle fracture by transgranular cleavage. The minimum vol fraction of microvoids was reached at 500 h due to the peak aged. The microstructural analysis indicated the precipitation of transgranular iron nano carbides in the aged specimens, which was related to the deterioration of toughness and change in the ductile to brittle behavior. (Author) 15 refs.

  10. Dynamics of hormonal status in women of different age groups in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murzabaeva R.Т.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the hormonal parameters in women of different age groups in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Materials and methods: We have studied the content of cortisol, thyrotropic hormone (TTH, triiodothyro-nine (T3, free thyroxin (FT4, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, testosterone, estradiol, progesterone, prolactin in blood serum of 62 women with moderate (33 and severe (29 HFRS forms age (17-62. They were divided into 2 groups: the first group (33 patients women with the normal menstrual cycle, the second group (29 women consisted of patients in climacteric period. Results: TTH secretion increase, T3 and FT4 — decrease with their normalization to the recovery period were registered in the thyroid system of the compared groups. Blood cortisol level was high during the illness. Gonadotropic hypophysis function study demonstrated that LH and blood prolactin concentrations were increased since oliguria period; FSH was authentic reduced. The indices of these hormones were restored to the normal level by the reconvalescence period. LH and FSH contents were authentic higher in women of the second group in comparison with the first group. The hyperprolactinemia was observed in both women groups during the whole period of disease. The increased progesterone and testosterone concentrations have been manifested in blood serum. The estradiol concentration had different direction tendencies. Conclusion: Thus, the complex study of hypophysic- thyreoid and gonadotropic hormone state of adrenal system and the sexual hormone levels in women of different age groups in HFRS revealed the hormone status indces changes due to the period and severity of the disease, connected with the virus action, intoxication, the general inflammation reactions and their age.

  11. Spectrum of Aortic Valve Abnormalities Associated with Aortic Dilation Across Age Groups in Turner Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, Laura J.; Baba, Ridhwan Y.; Arai, Andrew E.; Bandettini, W. Patricia; Rosing, Douglas R.; Bakalov, Vladimir; Sachdev, Vandana; Bondy, Carolyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Congenital aortic valve fusion is associated with aortic dilation, aneurysm and rupture in girls and women with Turner syndrome (TS). Our objective was to characterize aortic valve structure in subjects with TS, and determine the prevalence of aortic dilation and valve dysfunction associated with different types of aortic valves. Methods and Results The aortic valve and thoracic aorta were characterized by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in 208 subjects with TS in an IRB-approved natural history study. Echocardiography was used to measure peak velocities across the aortic valve, and the degree of aortic regurgitation. Four distinct valve morphologies were identified: tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) 64%(n=133), partially fused aortic valve (PF) 12%(n=25), bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) 23%(n=47), and unicuspid aortic valve (UAV) 1%(n=3). Age and body surface area (BSA) were similar in the 4 valve morphology groups. There was a significant trend, independent of age, towards larger BSA-indexed ascending aortic diameters (AADi) with increasing valve fusion. AADi were (mean +/− SD) 16.9 +/− 3.3 mm/m2, 18.3 +/− 3.3 mm/m2, and 19.8 +/− 3.9 mm/m2 (p<0.0001) for TAV, PF and BAV+UAV respectively. PF, BAV, and UAV were significantly associated with mild aortic regurgitation and elevated peak velocities across the aortic valve. Conclusions Aortic valve abnormalities in TS occur with a spectrum of severity, and are associated with aortic root dilation across age groups. Partial fusion of the aortic valve, traditionally regarded as an acquired valve problem, had an equal age distribution and was associated with an increased AADi. PMID:24084490

  12. Associations of menstrual cycle irregularities with age, obesity and phenotype in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panidis, Dimitrios; Tziomalos, Konstantinos; Papadakis, Efstathios; Chatzis, Panagiotis; Kandaraki, Eleni A; Tsourdi, Elena A; Macut, Djuro; Bjekic-Macut, Jelica; Marthopoulos, Apostolos; Katsikis, Ilias

    2015-01-01

    Limited data suggest that menstrual cycle abnormalities are more pronounced in younger and more obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We aimed to evaluate the association between menstrual cycle pattern and age, obesity and PCOS phenotype in a large population of women with PCOS. We studied 1,297 women with PCOS and divided them according to: a) age in ≤ 20, 21-30 and > 30 years old, b) body mass index in normal weight, overweight and obese and c) PCOS phenotype in phenotype 1 (anovulation, hyperandrogenemia and polycystic ovaries), 2 (anovulation and hyperandrogenemia without polycystic ovaries), 3 (hyperandrogenemia and polycystic ovaries without anovulation) and 4 (anovulation and polycystic ovaries without hyperandrogenemia). The proportion of women with regular menstrual cycles progressively increased in the older age groups, being 8.1, 10.5 and 12.7% in women ≤ 20, 21-30 and > 30 years old, respectively (p = 0.037). The proportion of women with regular menstrual cycles did not differ between normal weight and obese women but was higher in overweight women (9.3, 9.4 and 13%, respectively; p = 0.020). The proportion of women with regular cycles alternating with irregular cycles was highest in women with phenotype 4, intermediate in women with phenotype 2 and lowest in women with phenotype 1 (74.3, 69.4 and 61.7%, respectively; p = 0.027). Menstrual cycle pattern is more irregular in women with the "classic" PCOS phenotypes than in phenotype 4 but appears to normalize with ageing. On the other hand, obesity does not appear to have an important effect on menstrual cycle pattern in PCOS.

  13. Relationship between dental caries and metabolic syndrome among 13 998 middle-aged urban Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xia; Wang, Dongliang; Zhou, Jiansong; Yuan, Hong; Chen, Zhiheng

    2017-04-01

    The association between dental caries and metabolic syndrome (MetS) is inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between dental caries and MetS and its components in a middle-aged Chinese population. A cross-sectional analysis was performed of 13 998 participants aged 45-65 years undergoing a health check during 2013-14. An index variable of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) was calculated. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) after adjustment for sex, age, education level, dietary habits, alcohol use, smoking, physical activity, and periodontitis. Of the 13 998 participants, 6164 had dental caries and 7834 did not; 3571 had MetS, whereas 10 427 did not. Participants with severe caries showed a higher prevalence of MetS, abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia than those with mild or no caries (all P dental caries and those with two or more DMFT were 1.12 (95 % CI 1.14-1.74) and 1.09 (95 % CI, 0.89-1.21), respectively (P trend  caries were associated with MetS among subjects with hyperglycemia (OR 1.14 [95%CI, 0.98-1.34]; P caries and abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and elevated blood pressure (adjusted ORs [95 % CIs] 0.98 [0.82-1.16], 1.01 [0.85-1.19], 0.84 [0.70-1.00], and 0.96 [0.86-1.13], respectively; all P > 0.05). Dental caries were associated with MetS among middle-aged Chinese in the present study. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Senescence-accelerated OXYS rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanova, Natalia A; Kozhevnikova, Oyuna S; Vitovtov, Anton O; Maksimova, Kseniya Yi; Logvinov, Sergey V; Rudnitskaya, Ekaterina A; Korbolina, Elena E; Muraleva, Natalia A; Kolosova, Nataliya G

    2014-01-01

    Senescence-accelerated OXYS rats are an experimental model of accelerated aging that was established from Wistar stock via selection for susceptibility to cataractogenic effects of a galactose-rich diet and via subsequent inbreeding of highly susceptible rats. Currently, we have the 102nd generation of OXYS rats with spontaneously developing cataract and accelerated senescence syndrome, which means early development of a phenotype similar to human geriatric disorders, including accelerated brain aging. In recent years, our group found strong evidence that OXYS rats are a promising model for studies of the mechanisms of brain aging and neurodegenerative processes similar to those seen in Alzheimer disease (AD). The manifestation of behavioral alterations and learning and memory deficits develop since the fourth week of age, i.e., simultaneously with first signs of neurodegeneration detectable on magnetic resonance imaging and under a light microscope. In addition, impaired long-term potentiation has been demonstrated in OXYS rats by the age of 3 months. With age, neurodegenerative changes in the brain of OXYS rats become amplified. We have shown that this deterioration happens against the background of overproduction of amyloid precursor protein (AβPP), accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ), and hyperphosphorylation of the tau protein in the hippocampus and cortex. The development of AMD-like retinopathy in OXYS rats is also accompanied by increased accumulation of Aβ in the retina. These published data suggest that the OXYS strain may serve as a spontaneous rat model of AD-like pathology and could help to decipher the pathogenesis of AD. PMID:24552807

  15. [Clinical psychophysiological markers of maladaptive neuropsychic conditions in polyclinic doctors of old and middle age with professional burnout syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfenov, Iu A

    2012-01-01

    The article presents the actual in modern medicine problem of professional burnout of polyclinic doctors of middle and elderly age. It is shown that the specificity of the polyclinic doctors' activity provokes the formation of professional burnout syndrome, paired with maladaptive neuro-psychic conditions. We studied the prevalence of this syndrome in polyclinic doctors of middle age and older; its specific versions among the middle-aged doctors were defined, where the level of burnout is associated with aggressive tendencies, and the elderly doctors, where professional burnout is associated with the instability of affective response. Pathogenic markers of compensatory redistribution of information saturation of indicators of electroencephalography to the occipital cortex at professional burnout in polyclinic doctors of the elderly age, reflecting the involution processes in prefrontal areas of the cerebral cortex of the brain were identified.

  16. Video Analysis of Sensory-Motor Features in Infants with Fragile X Syndrome at 9-12 Months of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranek, Grace T.; Danko, Cassandra D.; Skinner, Martie L.; Donald B., Jr.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Roberts, Jane E.; Mirrett, Penny L.

    2005-01-01

    This study utilized retrospective video analysis to distinguish sensory-motor patterns in infants with fragile X syndrome (FXS) (n=11) from other infants [i.e., autism (n=11), other developmental delay (n=10), typical (n=11)] at 9-12 months of age. Measures of development, autistic features, and FMRP were assessed at the time of entry into the…

  17. Comparison of Conditioning Impairments in Children with Down Syndrome, Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Mental Age-Matched Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, P.; Staytom, L.; Stott, S.; Truzoli, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the relative ease of learning across four tasks suggested by an adaptation of Thomas's hierarchy of learning in children with Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorders and mental age-matched controls. Methods: Learning trials were carried out to investigate observational learning, instrumental learning, reversal…

  18. Predicting School Readiness from Neurodevelopmental Assessments at Age 2 Years after Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Infants Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrianakos-Hoobler, Athena I.; Msall, Michael E.; Huo, Dezheng; Marks, Jeremy D.; Plesha-Troyke, Susan; Schreiber, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether neurodevelopmental outcomes at the age of 2 years accurately predict school readiness in children who survived respiratory distress syndrome after preterm birth. Method: Our cohort included 121 preterm infants who received surfactant and ventilation and were enrolled in a randomized controlled study of inhaled nitric…

  19. Association between the glomerular filtration rate of renal dysfunction and metabolic syndrome: an age-stratified analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋慧

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between the renal dysfunction rate and metabolic syndrome(MS),stratified by age.Methods People took part in physical check-up in a certain tertiary hospital from March 2010to September 2012,were enrolled in this study.Estimated glomerular filtration rate(e GFR),—a renal dysfunction indicator,was calculated by modified MDRD

  20. FRASER SYNDROME IN A FEMALE BABY AGED 2MONTHS - A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjoy Chatterjee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fraser Syndrome is an autosomal recessive congenital disorder first described by Canadian geneticist C.R. Fraser in the year 1962. The incidence of Fraser Syndrome is 0.043 per 10,000 live born infants and 1.1 in 10,000 still births making it a rare syndrome

  1. Investigation into the human premature ageing disease, Hutchinson Gilford Progeria syndrome, using hTERT immortalised fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Worthington, Gemma Louise

    2016-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London Hutchinson Gilford Progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare premature ageing disease affecting children. 80% of “classic” HGPS patients share the same mutation in the LMNA gene that gives rise to characteristics similar to normal human ageing and they usually die in their teens from heart attacks or strokes. Cells taken from progeria patients have a short replicative lifespan in culture an...

  2. Enhanced and accelerated age hardening response of Al-5.2Mg-0.45Cu (wt%) alloy with Zn addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Cheng [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Di, E-mail: zhangdi@skl.ustb.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); He, Zhanbing [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhuang, Linzhong [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Tata Steel, 1970 CA IJmuiden (Netherlands); Zhang, Jishan [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2016-06-01

    The age hardening responses of the Al-5.2Mg-0.45Cu alloy with Zn addition have been investigated in this study. It is found that the age hardening process of the Zn-containing Al-5.2Mg-0.45Cu alloys can be divided into four stages, namely the initial jump(Ⅰ), the linear increase (Ⅱ), the accelerated increase to the peak (Ⅲ) and the overage (Ⅳ). The addition of Zn to the Al-5.2Mg-0.45Cu alloy leads to an enhanced and accelerated age-hardening response in two aspects: firstly introducing the T-[Mg{sub 32}(Al, Zn){sub 49}] phase resulting from the high Mg/Zn ratio and relatively high aging temperature; secondly stimulating the precipitation of the Guinier-Preston-Bagaryatsky (GPB) zones by increasing the supersaturation upon quenching, and accelerating the precipitation of S-Al{sub 2}MgCu phase by increasing Cu/Mg ratio in the matrix due to the formation of the T phase. The peak hardness is from the synergetic effects of the S and T phases. The clustering and partitioning behaviors of solutes after 1 h aging treatment have been investigated in detail using atom probe tomography (APT) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). It is shown that the formation of Mg-Cu clusters (precursor of the S phase) precedes that of Mg-Zn clusters (precursor of T phase), and the Mg-Cu clusters are responsible for the age hardening during the first two age hardening stages in the Cu-bearing alloys.

  3. Age-related differences in inhibitory control and memory updating in boys with Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Elisabeth M; Gschaidbauer, Bianca; Kaufmann, Liane; Fink, Andreas; Schulter, Günter; Mittenecker, Erich; Papousek, Ilona

    2016-12-26

    Deficits in specific executive domains are highly prevalent in autism spectrum disorder; however, age-related improvements in executive functions (reflecting prefrontal maturational changes) have been reported even in individuals diagnosed with autism. The current study examined two components of cognitive flexibility (inhibition of prepotent responses and memory monitoring/updating) by using a random-motor-generation task (MPT) in a group of 23 boys with Asperger syndrome (AS) and 23 matched healthy controls. We found poorer inhibition and more repetitive responses in younger AS children solely, but comparable memory monitoring/updating skills across groups. Overall, our findings correspond well with previous studies and reveal that even in AS specific EFs may improve with age and, thus, call for a more differentiated view of executive (dys) function profiles in children diagnosed with AS. Tests such as the random-motor-generation task may help to disentangle more specific processes of executive deficits in autism spectrum disorder as compared to the more classical tests.

  4. Small for Gestational Age and Magnesium: Intrauterine magnesium deficiency may induce metabolic syndrome in later life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junji Takaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium deficiency during pregnancy as a result of insufficient or low intake of magnesium is common in developing and developed countries. Previous reports have shown that intracellular magnesium of cord blood platelets is lower among small for gestational age (SGA groups than that of appropriate for gestational age (AGA groups, suggesting that intrauterine magnesium deficiency may result in SGA. Additionally, the risk of adult-onset diseases such as insulin resistance syndrome is greater among children whose mothers were malnourished during pregnancy, and who consequently had a low birth weight. In a number of animal models, poor nutrition during pregnancy leads to offspring that exhibit pathophysiological changes similar to human diseases. The offspring of pregnant rats fed a magensium restricted diet have developed hypermethylation in the hepatic 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 promoter. These findings indicate that maternal magnesium deficiencies during pregnancy influence regulation of non-imprinted genes by altering the epigenetic regulation of gene expression, thereby inducing different metabolic phenotypes. Magnesium deficiency during pregnancy may be responsible for not only maternal and fetal nutritional problems, but also lifelong consequences that affect the offspring throughout their life. Epidemiological, clinical, and basic research on the effects of magnesium deficiency now indicates underlying mechanisms, especially epigenetic processes.

  5. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Important Underrecognised Cardiometabolic Risk Factor in Reproductive-Age Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinka Pavicic Baldani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age. Although PCOS is diagnosed exclusively based on reproductive criteria, it is also a metabolic disorder. Insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and dyslipidemia are more common in women with PCOS than in age-comparable women without PCOS. Many of the metabolic abnormalities that manifest in PCOS are worsened by the concurrent incidence of obesity. However, some of these metabolic perturbations occur even in lean women with PCOS and therefore are rightfully recognized as intrinsic to PCOS. The intrinsic factors that produce these metabolic disturbances are reviewed in this paper. The consequences of obesity and the other metabolic aberrations are also discussed. The metabolic perturbations in PCOS patients lead to chronic low-grade inflammation and to cardiovascular impairments that heighten the risk of having cardiovascular disease. Even though many studies have shown an elevation in surrogate biomarkers of cardiovascular disease in PCOS women, it is still not clear to what extent and magnitude the elevation precipitates more frequent and earlier events.

  6. Association between history of abortion and metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and elderly Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Baihui; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Yu; Lu, Jieli; Xu, Min; Chen, Yuhong; Bi, Yufang; Ning, Guang

    2013-03-01

    Epidemiologic studies have suggested that abortion may cause long term health consequences such as cardiovascular disease. Until recently, studies focusing on the association between history of abortion and metabolic diseases were limited. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the association between history of abortion and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in middle-aged and elderly Chinese women. A cross-sectional survey was performed in 6302 women (age ≥ 40 years) in Shanghai. Standardized questionnaire was used to obtain the information about reproductive histories. Overall, we observed a positive association between history of induced abortion and the prevalence of MetS, independent of potential confounding factors. A multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that compared to those without a history of induced abortion, women with a history of induced abortion remained at 1.25 times more likely to have MetS (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.06-1.47, P abortion and the prevalence of MetS was observed. Compared to those without a history of spontaneous abortion, the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio associated with a history of spontaneous abortion for MetS was 0.88 (95% CI = 0.65-1.19, P > 0.05).

  7. Age-Dependent Loss of MMP-3 in Hutchinson–Gilford Progeria Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harten, Ingrid A.; Zahr, Rima S.; Lemire, Joan M.; Machan, Jason T.; Moses, Marsha A.; Doiron, Robert J.; Curatolo, Adam S.; Rothman, Frank G.; Wight, Thomas N.; Toole, Bryan P.

    2011-01-01

    Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare, progressive segmental premature aging disease that includes scleroderma-like skin, progressive joint contracture, and atherosclerosis. Affected individuals die prematurely of heart attacks or strokes. Extracellular matrix dysregulation is implicated as a factor in disease progression. We analyzed messenger RNA and protein levels for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-2,-3, and -9 in HGPS primary human dermal fibroblasts using real-time polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and gelatin zymography. MMP-3 messenger RNA and protein levels decreased significantly with increasing donor age in HGPS fibroblasts but not in controls. MMP-2 messenger RNA also showed a donor age–dependent decrease in HGPS fibroblasts, but levels of secreted protein were unchanged. MMP-9 was similar in HGPS and control cultures. The decreased MMP-3 may represent a shift in the inherent extracellular matrix–degrading proteolytic balance in favor of matrix deposition in HGPS. This metalloproteinase has the potential to serve as a biomarker of therapeutic efficacy when assessing treatments for HGPS. PMID:21852285

  8. Epigenetic Regulation of Werner Syndrome Gene in Age-Related Cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine the promoter methylation and histone modification of WRN (Werner syndrome gene, a DNA repair gene, and their relationship with the gene expression in age-related cataract (ARC lens. Methods. We collected the lenses after cataract surgery from 117ARC patients and 39 age-matched non-ARC. WRN expression, DNA methylation and histone modification around the CpG island were assessed. The methylation status of Human-lens-epithelium cell (HLEB-3 was chemically altered to observe the relationship between methylation and expression of WRN. Results. The WRN expression was significantly decreased in the ARC anterior lens capsules comparing with the control. The CpG island of WRN promoter in the ARC anterior lens capsules displayed hypermethylation comparing with the controls. The WRN promoter was almost fully methylated in the cortex of ARC and control lens. Acetylated H3 was lower while methylated H3-K9 was higher in ARC anterior lens capsules than that of the controls. The expression of WRN in HLEB-3 increased after demethylation of the cells. Conclusions. A hypermethylation in WRN promoter and altered histone modification in anterior lens capsules might contribute to the ARC mechanism. The data suggest an association of altered DNA repair capability in lens with ARC pathogenesis.

  9. Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Have Comparable Hip Bone Geometry to Age-Matched Control Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBreairty, Laura E; Zello, Gordon A; Gordon, Julianne J; Serrao, Shani B; Pierson, Roger A; Chizen, Donna R; Chilibeck, Philip D

    2016-12-26

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age manifesting with polycystic ovaries, menstrual irregularities, hyperandrogenism, hirsutism, and insulin resistance. The oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea characteristic to PCOS are associated with low bone mineral density (BMD); conversely, the hyperandrogenism and hyperinsulinemia may elicit a protective effect on BMD. As bone geometric properties provide additional information about bone strength, the objective of this study was to compare measures of hip geometry in women with PCOS to a healthy female population. Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, BMD and measures of hip geometry were determined in women with PCOS (n = 60) and healthy controls (n = 60) aged 18-35 years. Clinical biochemical measures were also determined in women with PCOS. Measures of hip geometry, including cross-sectional area, cross-sectional moment of inertia, subperiosteal width (SPW), and section modulus, were similar between groups following correction for body mass index (BMI) (all p > 0.05) with intertrochanter SPW significantly lower in women with PCOS (p geometry in women with PCOS. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Hormonal Modulation in Aging Patients with Erectile Dysfunction and Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Campos Costa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Erectile dysfunction (ED, metabolic syndrome (MetS, and hypogonadism are closely related, often coexisting in the aging male. Obesity was shown to raise the risk of ED and hypogonadism, as well as other endocrinological disturbances with impact on erectile function. We selected 179 patients referred for ED to our andrology unit, aiming to evaluate gonadotropins and estradiol interplay in context of ED, MetS, and hypogonadism. Patients were stratified into groups in accordance with the presence (or not of MetS and/or hypogonadism. Noticeable differences in total testosterone (TT and free testosterone (FT levels were found between patients with and without MetS. Men with MetS evidenced lower TT circulating levels with an increasing number of MetS parameters, for which hypertriglyceridemia and waist circumference strongly contributed. Regarding the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, patients with hypogonadism did not exhibit raised LH levels. Interestingly, among those with higher LH levels, estradiol values were also increased. Possible explanations for this unexpected profile of estradiol may be the age-related adiposity, other estrogen-raising pathways, or even unknown mechanisms. Estradiol is possibly a molecule with further interactions beyond the currently described. Our results further enlighten this still unclear multidisciplinary and complex subject, raising new investigational opportunities.

  11. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Important Underrecognised Cardiometabolic Risk Factor in Reproductive-Age Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldani, Dinka Pavicic; Skrgatic, Lana; Ougouag, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age. Although PCOS is diagnosed exclusively based on reproductive criteria, it is also a metabolic disorder. Insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and dyslipidemia are more common in women with PCOS than in age-comparable women without PCOS. Many of the metabolic abnormalities that manifest in PCOS are worsened by the concurrent incidence of obesity. However, some of these metabolic perturbations occur even in lean women with PCOS and therefore are rightfully recognized as intrinsic to PCOS. The intrinsic factors that produce these metabolic disturbances are reviewed in this paper. The consequences of obesity and the other metabolic aberrations are also discussed. The metabolic perturbations in PCOS patients lead to chronic low-grade inflammation and to cardiovascular impairments that heighten the risk of having cardiovascular disease. Even though many studies have shown an elevation in surrogate biomarkers of cardiovascular disease in PCOS women, it is still not clear to what extent and magnitude the elevation precipitates more frequent and earlier events. PMID:26124830

  12. IQ in Childhood and the Metabolic Syndrome in Middle Age: Extended Follow-Up of the 1946 British Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Marcus; Black, Stephanie; Mishra, Gita; Gale, Catharine R.; Deary, Ian J.; Batty, David G.

    2009-01-01

    IQ in early adulthood has been inversely associated with risk of the metabolic syndrome in midlife. We tested this association in the British 1946 birth cohort, which assessed IQ at age eight years and ascertained the metabolic syndrome at age 53 years based on modified (non-fasting blood) ATPIII criteria. Childhood IQ was inversely associated…

  13. Tamanho da semente e o teste de envelhecimento acelerado para soja Seed size and the accelerated aging vigor test for soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Marcos Filho

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar a possível relação entre efeitos da utilização de sementes de soja com diferentes tamanhos nos resultados do teste de envelhecimento acelerado. Foram analisados lotes dos cultivares BR-37 e Embrapa 48 (sementes não classificadas e de três tamanhos, classificadas em peneiras de crivos oblongos. Para cada lote e peneira, foram distribuídas três subamostras de 42,5 g de sementes, em camadas simples ou pré-pesadas (42,5 g na superfície da tela metálica de cada compartimento individual (caixa plástica, utilizado como câmara interna para a condução do teste. Cada caixa plástica recebeu 40 mL de água (constituindo ambiente com 100% U.R. do ar ou 40 mL de solução saturada de cloreto de sódio (ambiente com 76% U.R.. Estudaram-se os períodos de 48 e 72 horas de envelhecimento das sementes, em BOD, a 41°C. O teste de germinação subseqüente foi avaliado no quarto dia após a semeadura. A distribuição de amostras com massa uniforme não elimina os efeitos do tamanho das sementes. Desta maneira, o teste de envelhecimento acelerado, em sementes de soja, fornece informações mais consistentes quando as amostras comparadas são constituídas por sementes de tamanho semelhante. O uso de solução salina torna o teste menos severo, mas não reduz sua eficiência.The accelerated aging test is one of the most useful soybean seed vigor tests. This test exposes seeds to a stress of high relative humidity (100% and high temperature (41°C for 48 or 72 h. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether seed size affects water uptake during the accelerated aging test and its influence on the results of this test. Soybean seed lots from cultivars BR-37 and Embrapa 48 were separated into small (11x3/4", medium (13x3/34", and large (14x3/4" size classes. These seeds were subjected to the germination and accelerated aging tests; this test was conducted as recommended by the Association of Official

  14. Evaluation of laser desorption mass spectrometry and UV accelerated aging of dyes on paper as tools for the evaluation of a questioned document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, Donzna M; Siegel, Jay; Allison, John

    2002-11-01

    Laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) may be used for the detection and identification of dyes found in inks. Naturally-aged and artificially-aged blue and black ballpoint pen inks containing the cationic dye methyl violet were analyzed on paper. The average molecular weight of the dye sample was calculated from LD mass spectral data and plotted versus time. The resulting aging curves demonstrate that, as dye degradation increases, the average molecular weight of the dye decreases. Typical variables involved in ink aging, such as the type of paper and ink formulation, were investigated. Results show that these variables influence the rate of dye degradation. Furthermore, UV accelerated aging has been developed and tested as an alternative to thermal approaches.

  15. Problems with the language development in children with Down syndrome aged 5-7 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustaf Morina

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore and investigate the linguistic developments regarding children with Down syndrome. The study was conducted by interviewing children with Down syndrome. The study shows many problems with these children associated with difficulties with the reasoning attention, imitation, routines, and language development of children with Down syndrome, such as, speech problem, a problem related to pronunciation, sound or voice. This study uses the (Inductive and Qualitative primary research (deductive method with six case studies of children with Down syndrome, being induced on the Problems and difficulties of children with the Down syndrome in the field of language development.

  16. Benchmark Accelerated Aging of Harvested Hypalon/Epr and Cspe/Xlpe Power and I&C Cable in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duckworth, Robert C.; Frame, Emily; Fifield, Leonard S.; Glass, Samuel W.

    2016-08-30

    As part of the Light Water Reactor and Sustainability (LWRS) program in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy, material aging and degradation research is currently geared to support the long-term operation of existing nuclear power plants (NPPs) as they move beyond their initial 40 year licenses. The goal of this research is to provide information so that NPPs can develop aging management programs (AMPs) to address replacement and monitoring needs as they look to operate for 20 years, and in some cases 40 years, beyond their initial operating lifetimes. For cable insulation and jacket materials that support instrument, control, and safety systems, accelerated aging data are needed to determine priorities in cable aging management programs. Before accelerated thermal and radiation aging of harvested, representative cable insulation and jacket materials, the benchmark performance of a new test capability at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was evaluated for temperatures between 70 and 135°C, dose rates between 100 and 500 Gy/h, and accumulated doses up to 20 kGy, Samples that were characterized and are representative of current materials in use were harvested from the Callaway NPP near Fulton, Missouri, and the San Onofre NPP north of San Diego, California. From the Callaway NPP, a multiconductor control rod cable manufactured by Boston Insulated Wire (BIW), with a Hypalon/ chorolosulfonated polyethylene (CSPE) jacket and ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) insulation, was harvested from the auxiliary space during a planned outage in 2013. This cable was placed into service when the plant was started in 1984. From the San Onofre NPP, a Rockbestos Firewall III (FRIII) cable with a Hypalon/ CSPE jacket with cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) insulation was harvested from an on-site, climate-controlled storage area. This conductor, which was never placed into service, was procured around 2007 in anticipation of future operation that did not occur

  17. BENCHMARK ACCELERATED AGING OF HARVESTED HYPALON/EPR AND CSPE/XLPE POWER AND I&C CABLE IN NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL; Fifield, Dr Leonard S [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Light Water Reactor and Sustainability (LWRS) program in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy, material aging and degradation research is currently geared to support the long-term operation of existing nuclear power plants (NPPs) as they move beyond their initial 40 year licenses. The goal of this research is to provide information so that NPPs can develop aging management programs (AMPs) to address replacement and monitoring needs as they look to operate for 20 years, and in some cases 40 years, beyond their initial operating lifetimes. For cable insulation and jacket materials that support instrument, control, and safety systems, accelerated aging data are needed to determine priorities in cable aging management programs. Before accelerated thermal and radiation aging of harvested, representative cable insulation and jacket materials, the benchmark performance of a new test capability at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was evaluated for temperatures between 70 and 135 C, dose rates between 100 and 500 Gy/h, and accumulated doses up to 20 kGy, Samples that were characterized and are representative of current materials in use were harvested from the Callaway NPP near Fulton, Missouri, and the San Onofre NPP north of San Diego, California. From the Callaway NPP, a multiconductor control rod cable manufactured by Boston Insulated Wire (BIW), with a Hypalon/ chorolosulfonated polyethylene (CSPE) jacket and ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) insulation, was harvested from the auxiliary space during a planned outage in 2013. This cable was placed into service when the plant was started in 1984. From the San Onofre NPP, a Rockbestos Firewall III (FRIII) cable with a Hypalon/ CSPE jacket with cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) insulation was harvested from an on-site, climate-controlled storage area. This conductor, which was never placed into service, was procured around 2007 in anticipation of future operation that did not occur

  18. Negative Association of Domestic Activity and Active Commuting with Metabolic Syndrome in a Chinese Population Aged 35-64 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiao Rong; ZHAO Wen Hua; ZHANG Jian; DING Gang Qiang; DONG Zhong; ZHANG Xin Wei; LI Jian Hong; CHEN Bo; YAN Liu Xia; MI Sheng Quan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand the associations of physical activity domains with metabolic syndrome among a middle-aged Chinese population. Methods In all, 3326 professional adults aged 35-64 years from Beijing and Zhejiang province were recruited with a cluster random sampling method. The Global Physical Activity Questionnaire was modified, and the recommended Asia-Pacific cut-offs of waist circumstance were introduced into the criteria for metabolic syndrome from the Adult Treatment Panel III. A binary logistic regression model was applied to examine the association of all physical activity domains with the risk of the syndrome. Results Participants who engaged in domestic activity for ³1176 MET-min/week had a 41.6% less chance of having metabolic syndrome [odds ratio (OR), 0.584;95%confidence interval (CI), 0.480-0.710] than those without this activity. In adjusted models, adults who actively commuted for ³33 MET-min/week but Conclusion This study highlighted the independently negative association of traffic and house activity with the prevalence of the syndrome in this sample with a generally low level of moderate activity.

  19. Age effects on cortical thickness in young Down's syndrome subjects: a cross-sectional gender study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Andrea; Moraschi, Marta [San Raffaele Foundation Rome, Rehabilitation Facility Ceglie Messapica, Rome (Italy); Cornia, Riccardo; Stella, Giacomo [University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Department of Education and Human Sciences, Emilia-Romagna (Italy); Bozzao, Alessandro; Gagliardo, Olga [University Sapienza, NESMOS, Department of Neuroradiology, S. Andrea Hospital, Rome (Italy); Chiacchiararelli, Laura [University Sapienza, Department of Medical Physics, S. Andrea Hospital, Rome (Italy); Iani, Cristina [University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Department of Communication and Economy, Emilia-Romagna (Italy); Albertini, Giorgio [IRCSS San Raffaele Pisana, Department of Paediatrics, Rome (Italy); Pierallini, Alberto [IRCSS San Raffaele Pisana, Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy)

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine differences in the characteristic pattern of age-related cortical thinning in men and women with Down's syndrome (DS) by means of MRI and automatic cortical thickness measurements and a cross-sectional design, in a large cohort of young subjects. Eighty-four subjects with DS, 30 females (11-35 years, mean age ± SD = 22.8 ± 5.9) and 54 males (11-35 years, mean age ± SD = 21.5 ± 6.5), were examined using a 1.5-T scanner. MRI-based quantification of cortical thickness was performed using FreeSurfer software package. For all subjects participating in the study, the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient between age and mean cortical thickness values has been evaluated. A significant negative correlation between cortical thickness and age was found in female DS subjects, predominantly in frontal and parietal lobes, bilaterally. In male DS subjects, a significant negative correlation between cortical thickness and age was found in the right fronto-temporal lobes and cingulate regions. Whole brain mean cortical thickness values were significantly negative correlated with age only in female DS subjects. Females with Down's syndrome showed a strong correlation between cortical thickness and age, already in early age. We suggest that the cognitive impairment due to hormonal deficit in the postmenopausal period could be emphasized by the early structural decline of gray matter in female DS subjects. (orig.)

  20. Muscle and Bone Impairment in Children With Marfan Syndrome: Correlation With Age and FBN1 Genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haine, Elsa; Salles, Jean-Pierre; Khau Van Kien, Philippe; Conte-Auriol, Françoise; Gennero, Isabelle; Plancke, Aurélie; Julia, Sophie; Dulac, Yves; Tauber, Maithé; Edouard, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a rare connective tissue disorder caused by mutation in the gene encoding the extracellular matrix protein fibrillin-1 (FBN1), leading to transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling dysregulation. Although decreased axial and peripheral bone mineral density (BMD) has been reported in adults with MFS, data about the evolution of bone mass during childhood and adolescence are limited. The aim of the present study was to evaluate bone and muscle characteristics in children, adolescents, and young adults with MFS. The study population included 48 children and young adults (22 girls) with MFS with a median age of 11.9 years (range 5.3 to 25.2 years). The axial skeleton was analyzed at the lumbar spine using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), whereas the appendicular skeleton (hand) was evaluated using the BoneXpert system (with the calculation of the Bone Health Index). Muscle mass was measured by DXA. Compared with healthy age-matched controls, bone mass at the axial and appendicular levels and muscle mass were decreased in children with MFS and worsened from childhood to adulthood. Vitamin D deficiency (<50 nmol/L) was found in about a quarter of patients. Serum vitamin D levels were negatively correlated with age and positively correlated with lumbar spine areal and volumetric BMD. Lean body mass (LBM) Z-scores were positively associated with total body bone mineral content (TB-BMC) Z-scores, and LBM was an independent predictor of TB-BMC values, suggesting that muscle hypoplasia could explain at least in part the bone loss in MFS. Patients with a FBN1 premature termination codon mutation had a more severe musculoskeletal phenotype than patients with an inframe mutation, suggesting the involvement of TGF-β signaling dysregulation in the pathophysiologic mechanisms. In light of these results, we recommend that measurement of bone mineral status should be part of the longitudinal clinical investigation of MFS children.

  1. Comparison of Lower and Upper Extremity Strength of Individuals with Down Syndrome in Terms of Age Groups and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Ince

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare lower and upper extremity strength of individuals with Down syndrome in terms of age and gender. Nineteen females (52.8% and 17 males (47.2% individuals with Down syndrome (Trisomy 21 type who continue special education and rehabilitation centers participated in the study. The average age of participants was 21.25±6.25 years, average height: 152.18±8.01cm, body weight average: 65.60±18.28kg. There was no statistically significant difference between lower and upper extremity results of Down's syndrome patients (p <0.05. In terms of gender, (Female: 15.8±5.6, male: 11.9 ± 4.8, p=0.03 it were found to be statistically better than boys in terms of horizontal jump (female: 71.7±20.5, male: 55.12±19.7, p=0.02 and vertical jump. As a result, lower and upper extremity strength in different age groups of individuals was found to be similar. However, it can be said that girls with Down syndrome have better explosive strength than men.

  2. Analysis and Management of Accelerated Aging of Relay in NPPs%核电厂继电器加速老化分析及管理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张圣; 马沂荩; 江虹; 陈世均; 黄立军; 莫春铌

    2013-01-01

    This paper reveals the main factors of accelerated the aging of relay through statistical analysis of aging and failure data of intermediate relay and output relay for MV distribution board in Daya Bay nuclear power plant and Ling'ao nuclear power plant The factors of accelerating relay aging are operation context including humidity, temperature, vibration impact, and etc., and aging mechanism including oxidation corrosion, mechanical wear, electrical wear, organic gas corrosion, insulation aging, electromagnetic interference, and etc. The suggested measures are the classified management, relay replacement, periodic check, and periodic replacement or maintenance.%通过对大亚湾和岭澳核电站中压配电盘的中间和出口继电器老化与失效数据进行统计,分析核电厂继电器加速老化的主要因素.继电器加速老化的影响因素为运行环境,主要是湿度、温度和振动冲击;老化机理为氧化腐蚀、机械磨损、电磨损、有机气体腐蚀、绝缘老化和电磁干扰.建议对继电器分类管理、替代使用,进行周期检测、更换或维护.

  3. Family members and health professionals' perspectives on future life planning of ageing people with Down syndrome: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covelli, Venusia; Raggi, Alberto; Paganelli, Chiara; Leonardi, Matilde

    2017-08-08

    To address the way in which primary caregivers of people over 45 with Down syndrome describe daily life activities and context and foresee their future. Thirteen family members and 15 health professionals participated to four focus groups. Meaningful concepts were identified and linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health using established linking rules. A total of 258 relevant concepts were identified and linked to 75 categories of the classification: 38 were from activity and participation and 17 from environmental factors domains. The most commonly reported issues were mental functions (b117-intellectual functions and b152-emotional functions), community life activities (d910-community life and d920-recreation and leisure) and environmental factors (e310-support of immediate family, e355-support from health professionals and e555-associations and organizational services). Information on the daily life and health of ageing people with Down syndrome is important to plan social and health care interventions tailored to deal with problems that they may encounter in older age. Considering the interaction between health and environment and maintaining a continuity of daily routines were reported as the most relevant topics for managing daily lives of persons with Down syndrome in older ages. Implications for rehabilitation Pay more attention to the interaction between environmental factors and health condition in ageing people with Down syndrome. Information about the life contest are important in order to plan present and future social-health care interventions. Future planning for people with Down syndrome is a great concern for family members.

  4. Ultrastructural features of skeletal muscle in adult and aging Ts65Dn mice, a murine model of Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisterna, Barbara; Costanzo, Manuela; Scherini, Elda; Zancanaro, Carlo; Malatesta, Manuela

    2013-10-01

    Patients with Down syndrome (DS) suffer from muscle hypotonia and an altered motor coordination whose basic mechanisms are still largely unknown. Interestingly, they show muscle weakness like healthy aged subjects, suggesting possible similarity with sarcopenia: to test this hypothesis, the Ts65Dn mouse, a suitable animal model of DS, was employed. The fine structure of skeletal fibres of the quadriceps femoris muscle was analysed in adult (12 months) and aging (19 months) animals and their age-matched euploid controls by combining morphometry and immunocytochemistry at transmission electron microscopy. Results demonstrated structural alterations of mitochondria and myonuclei reminiscent of those observed in age-related sarcopenia, supporting the hypothesis that trisomy leads to an early aging of skeletal muscle consistent with the multi-systemic premature aging typical of DS.

  5. Syndromic analysis of ADHD at preschool age according to A.R. Luria concept

    OpenAIRE

    Yulia Solovieva; Luis Quintanar Rojas

    2014-01-01

    Different authors have studied attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in preschool children from different perspectives. Neuropsychological assessment can detect many kinds of cognitive difficulties, but the common syndromic picture has not yet been established. The idea of the existence of a specific neuropsychological syndrome based on A.R. Lurias concept differs from syndromes that are established in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , 4 th edition. The goa...

  6. Respiratory distress syndrome in newborns of gestational age of over 32 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimar, Zeljka; Milas, Vesna; Medimurec, Maja; Mesić, Ivana

    2014-06-01

    Albeit the aetiology of the respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is well known, the paper shall demonstrate that the causes of RDS changed over the years 2006 and 2010. This retrospective study comprises analysis of the data collected from 60 newborns of over 32 weeks gestation with RDS in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at the Clinical Hospital Centre in Osijek. The focus of the paper lies in the difference in the incidence of RDS over two research periods (2006 and 2010), the most common and possible causes of RDS in newborns of over 32 weeks gestation as well as in the potential changes in the aetiology over the two research periods. An increase in the incidence of RDS was established in 2010, but it was statistically significant only for newborns of gestational age of 35 1/7 to 36 6/7 weeks. The most common cause of RDS in both research periods was sepsis, which decreased in its share in 2010, whereas the incidence of asphyxia and complications during pregnancy increased. The new potential cause in 2010 was maternal thrombophilia. The share of unknown causes of RDS decreased, although not significantly so. The results of the research indicate that the causes of RDS changed over the observed periods and that further research should focus on thrombophilia and other complications during pregnancy with the aim of reducing morbidity and improving neonatal outcomes as well as further reducing the incidence of RDS with unknown causes in newborns.

  7. Aging eye microbiota in Dry Eye Syndrome in patients treated with Enterococcus faecium and Saccharomyces boulardii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisari, Giuseppe; Chisari, Eleonora Margherita; Borzì, Antonio Maria; Ozyalcin, Erdogan; Chisari, Clara Grazia

    2017-07-04

    Aging seem to have a key role in the onset and progression of ocular surface diseases. Dry Eye Syndrome (DES) is a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface in which symptoms may interfere with the ability to work and carry out daily functions. This clinical trial was a pilot study to evaluate the effects of supplementation with mixture (MYA796 and Enterococcus faecium SGEf01) on the tear film. Following the run-in period subjects were randomized in two groups: group A (n.30 subjects) and group B (n.30 subjects). Group A (control) treated only with substitute tear and group B treated with substitute tear + mixture (symbiotic). The data obtained in the two study groups A and B were, respectively the following: Schirmer I: 9.2±0.2 Vs 12.8±0.4 (pmicrobiota ocular surface subject with DES. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Genotype-phenotype correlations in Cornelia de Lange syndrome: Behavioral characteristics and changes with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Joanna; Penhallow, Jessica; Ansari, Morad; Barton, Stephanie; Bourn, David; FitzPatrick, David R; Goodship, Judith; Hammond, Peter; Roberts, Catherine; Welham, Alice; Oliver, Chris

    2017-06-01

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a multisystem genetic disorder associated with unusual facial features, limb abnormalities, a wide range of health conditions, and intellectual disability. Mutations in five genes that encode (SMC1A, SMC3, RAD21) or regulate (NIPBL, HDAC8) the cohesin complex have been identified in up to 70% of individuals. Genetic cause remains unknown for a proportion of individuals. There is substantial heterogeneity in all aspects of CdLS but very little is known about what predicts phenotypic heterogeneity. In this study, we evaluated genotype-phenotype associations in 34 individuals with CdLS. Participants with NIPBL mutations had significantly lower self help skills and were less likely to have verbal skills relative to those who were negative for the NIPBL mutation. No significant differences were identified between the groups in relation to repetitive behavior, mood, interest and pleasure, challenging behavior, activity, impulsivity, and characteristics of autism spectrum disorder whilst controlling differences in self help skills. Significant correlations indicating lower mood, interest and pleasure, and increased insistence on sameness with older age were identified for those who were NIPBL mutation positive. The findings suggest similarities in the behavioral phenotype between those with and without the NIPBL mutation once differences in self help skills are controlled for. However, there may be subtle differences in the developmental trajectory of these behaviors according to genetic mutation status in CdLS. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Altered regulation of tau phosphorylation in a mouse model of down syndrome aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Olivia; Plattner, Florian; Rubin, Anna; Slender, Amy; Linehan, Jacqueline M; Brandner, Sebastian; Tybulewicz, Victor L J; Fisher, Elizabeth M C; Wiseman, Frances K

    2012-04-01

    Down syndrome (DS) results from trisomy of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) and is associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, using the unique transchromosomic Tc1 mouse model of DS we investigate the influence of trisomy of Hsa21 on the protein tau, which is hyperphosphorylated in Alzheimer's disease. We show that in old, but not young, Tc1 mice increased phosphorylation of tau occurs at a site suggested to be targeted by the Hsa21 encoded kinase, dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A). We show that DYRK1A is upregulated in young and old Tc1 mice, but that young trisomic mice may be protected from accumulating aberrantly phosphorylated tau. We observe that the key tau kinase, glycogen synthase kinase3-β (GSK-3β) is aberrantly phosphorylated at an inhibitory site in the aged Tc1 brain which may reduce total glycogen synthase kinase3-β activity. It is possible that a similar mechanism may also occur in people with DS.

  10. Implication for treatment: GABAA receptors in aging, Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissman, Robert A.; Mobley, William C.

    2011-01-01

    In addition to progressive dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by increased incidence of seizure activity. Although originally discounted as a secondary process occurring as a result of neurodegeneration, more recent data suggest that alterations in excitatory-inhibitory (E/I) balance occur in AD and may be a primary mechanism contributing AD cognitive decline. In this study, we discuss relevant research and reports on the GABAA receptor in developmental disorders, such as Down syndrome, in healthy aging, and highlight documented aberrations in the GABAergic system in AD. Stressing the importance of understanding the subunit composition of individual GABAA receptors, investigations demonstrate alterations of particular GABAA receptor subunits in AD, but overall sparing of the GABAergic system. In this study, we review experimental data on the GABAergic system in the pathobiology of AD and discuss relevant therapeutic implications. When developing AD therapeutics that modulate GABA it is important to consider how E/I balance impacts AD pathogenesis and the relationship between seizure activity and cognitive decline. PMID:21388375

  11. Implications for treatment: GABAA receptors in aging, Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissman, Robert A; Mobley, William C

    2011-05-01

    In addition to progressive dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by increased incidence of seizure activity. Although originally discounted as a secondary process occurring as a result of neurodegeneration, more recent data suggest that alterations in excitatory-inhibitory (E/I) balance occur in AD and may be a primary mechanism contributing AD cognitive decline. In this study, we discuss relevant research and reports on the GABA(A) receptor in developmental disorders, such as Down syndrome, in healthy aging, and highlight documented aberrations in the GABAergic system in AD. Stressing the importance of understanding the subunit composition of individual GABA(A) receptors, investigations demonstrate alterations of particular GABA(A) receptor subunits in AD, but overall sparing of the GABAergic system. In this study, we review experimental data on the GABAergic system in the pathobiology of AD and discuss relevant therapeutic implications. When developing AD therapeutics that modulate GABA it is important to consider how E/I balance impacts AD pathogenesis and the relationship between seizure activity and cognitive decline.

  12. Donepezil for treatment of cognitive dysfunction in children with Down syndrome aged 10-17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishnani, Priya S; Heller, James H; Spiridigliozzi, Gail A; Lott, Ira; Escobar, Luis; Richardson, Sharon; Zhang, Richard; McRae, Thomas

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this 10-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study was to assess the efficacy and safety of donepezil for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction exhibited by children with Down syndrome (DS). Intervention comprised donepezil (2.5-10 mg/day) in children (aged 10-17 years) with DS of mild-to-moderate severity. The primary measures were the Vineland-II Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS-II) Parent/Caregiver Rating Form (PCRF) the sum of nine subdomain standardized scores and standard safety measures. Secondary measures included the VABS-II/PCRF scores on the following domains and their respective individual subdomains: Communication (receptive, expressive, and written); Daily Living Skills (personal, domestic, and community); Socialization (interpersonal relationships, play and leisure time, and coping skills), and scores on the Test of Verbal Expression and Reasoning, a subject-performance-based measure of expressive language. At baseline, 129 participants were assigned treatment with donepezil or placebo. During the double-blind phase, VABS II/PCRF sum of the nine subdomain standardized scores, called v-scores, improved significantly from baseline in both groups (P < 0.0001), with no significant between-group differences. This trial failed to demonstrate any benefit for donepezil versus placebo in children and adolescents with DS, although donepezil appeared to be well tolerated. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. McCune-Albright syndrome revealed by hyperthyroidism at advanced age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhaï, Muriel; Meunier, Marine; Kahan, André; Cormier, Catherine

    2011-12-01

    We report a case of a 38-year-old woman admitted to our service for diagnosis of osteolytic lesions. She suffered from back, lumbar and costal pain at the time a hyperthyroidism, related to multinodular goiter, was diagnosed. The pain remained despite the cure of hyperthyroidism. Cutaneous examination revealed café au lait skin spots. Analysis of the phosphocalcic metabolism allowed the diagnosis of phosphate diabetes. X-ray showed lytic lesions involving the ribs with thinning of the cortex and vertebral fractures of the dorsal spine. The computed tomography revealed lytic lesions with a typical "ground glass" appearance involving the spine, ribs, sternum, iliac bones and sacrum. The presence of this clinical triad allowed the diagnosis of McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS). The treatment consisted in vitamin D supplementation, and high doses of both oral phosphate and calcitriol to treat the phosphate diabetes as well as cycles of intravenous pamidronate administration to relieve bone pain. We report an uncommon case of the diagnosis of MAS at an advanced age following hyperthyroidism. We believe that the disease was revealed by an increase in bone turnover due to hyperthyroidism.

  14. Hypokalemic paralysis in a middle-aged female with classic Bartter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Wen-Fang; Lin, Shih-Hung; Chan, Jenq-Shyong; Lin, Shih-Hua

    2014-02-01

    Inherited classic Bartter syndrome (cBS) is an autosomal recessive renal tubular disorder resulting from inactivating mutations in the asolateral chloride channel (C1C-Kb) and usually presents in early infancy or childhood with mild to moderate hypokalemia. Profound hypokalemic paralysis in patients with cBS is extremely rare, especially in middle age. A 45-year-old Chinese female patient was referred for evaluation of chronic severe hypokalemia despite regular K+ supplementation (1 mmol/kg/d). She had had two episodes of muscle paralysis due to severe hypokalemia (K+ 1.9 - 2.1 mmol/l) in the past 3 years. She denied vomiting, diarrhea, or the use of laxatives or diuretics. Her blood pressure was normal. Biochemical studies showed hypokalemia (K+ 2.5 mmol/l) with renal potassium wasting, metabolic alkalosis (HCO3- 32 mmol/l), normomagnesemia (Mg2+ 0.8 mmol/l), hypercalciuria (calcium to creatinine ratio 0.5 mmol/mmol; normal paralysis and should be considered in adult patients with hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis.

  15. Behavioral deficits in an Angelman syndrome model: effects of genetic background and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsien-Sung; Burns, Andrew J; Nonneman, Randal J; Baker, Lorinda K; Riddick, Natallia V; Nikolova, Viktoriya D; Riday, Thorfinn T; Yashiro, Koji; Philpot, Benjamin D; Moy, Sheryl S

    2013-04-15

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder associated with disruption of maternally inherited UBE3A (ubiquitin protein ligase E3A) expression. At the present time, there is no effective treatment for AS. Mouse lines with loss of maternal Ube3a (Ube3a(m-/p+)) recapitulate multiple aspects of the clinical AS profile, including impaired motor coordination, learning deficits, and seizures. Thus, these genetic mouse models could serve as behavioral screens for preclinical efficacy testing, a critical component of drug discovery for AS intervention. However, the severity and consistency of abnormal phenotypes reported in Ube3a(m-/p+) mice can vary, dependent upon age and background strain, which is problematic for the detection of beneficial drug effects. As part of an ongoing AS drug discovery initiative, we characterized Ube3a(m-/p+) mice on either a 129S7/SvEvBrd-Hprt(b-m2) (129) or C57BL/6J (B6) background across a range of functional domains and ages to identify reproducible and sufficiently large phenotypes suitable for screening therapeutic compounds. The results from the study showed that Ube3a(m-/p+) mice have significant deficits in acquisition and reversal learning in the Morris water maze. The findings also demonstrated that Ube3a(m-/p+) mice exhibit motor impairment in a rotarod task, hypoactivity, reduced rearing and marble-burying, and deficient fear conditioning. Overall, these profiles of abnormal phenotypes can provide behavioral targets for evaluating effects of novel therapeutic strategies relevant to AS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cystatin C Levels in Middle-Aged Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostas Archontogeorgis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS is associated with systemic inflammation and increased risk of cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease. Cystatin C (Cyst C is a novel biomarker of both latent renal damage and cardiovascular disease. Aim of the study was to measure serum levels of Cyst C, as well as IL-8 and CRP, in otherwise healthy OSAS patients. Methods. 84 individuals examined with polysomnography for OSAS symptoms without known comorbidities were prospectively recruited. Results. According to apnea hypopnea index (AHI subjects were divided in two groups: OSAS group (AHI > 5/hour, n=64 and controls (AHI < 5/hour, n=20, which were age- and BMI-matched. Cyst C levels were higher in OSAS patients versus controls (1176.13±351.33 versus 938.60±245.83 ng/mL, resp.; p=0.017 while serum IL-8 and CRP levels did not differ significantly. Positive correlation was found between Cyst C levels and respiratory disturbance index (RDI (r=0.240, p=0.039 and percentage of time with oxygen saturation <90% (r=0.290, p=0.02 and negative correlation was found between Cyst C levels and average oxygen saturation during sleep (r=-0.291, p=0.012. After adjustment for age and BMI, RDI was the only independent predictor of Cyst C levels (β = 0.256, p=0.039. Conclusion. Cyst C serum levels are increased in OSAS patients without comorbidities, suggesting an increased renal and cardiovascular disease risk.

  17. Arousal responses in babies at risk of sudden infant death syndrome at different postnatal ages.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dunne, K P

    1992-03-01

    Hypercarbic and hypoxic arousal responses during sleep were measured in healthy term infants, infants where a previous sibling died from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and infants suffering a clearly defined apparent life threatening event (ALTE) requiring vigorous or mouth to mouth resuscitation. Groups of infants were tested at approximately one, six and 13 weeks postnatally. Arousal was defined as gross body movement with eyes opening and moving or crying. Hypercarbic arousal was by step increases in F1 Co2 until arousal occurred or until endtidal (PETCO2) reached 8.7 KpA (65 mm Hg) Hypoxic arousal was by step decreases in FIO2 until arousal occurred or until an FIO2 of 0.15 had been maintained for 20 minutes. There was no difference in hypercaribic arousal threshold with age in any group. Hypercarbic arousal threshold was significantly higher in siblings (mean 53.4, 53.6, 54.7 mmHg. [7.12, 7.14, 7.29 KPA] at 0, 6, 13 postnatal weeks) compared to controls (mean 50.9, 52.3, 53.0mm Hg. [6.78, 6.97, 7.29 KPS respectively). ALTE infants differed only at 12 weeks having a significantly lower threshold (51.0mmHg. [6.80 KPA] V 53.0mm Hg. (7.06 KPA]) compared to controls. There was no difference in hypoxic arousal response with age in any group. An arousal response to hypoxia occurred in only 22% of ALTE infants and 40% of siblings compared to 67% of normal infants. Deficient sleep arousal, especially to hypoxia, is common in infants and especially those considered at increased risk from SIDS. This deficiency is present in the first postnatal week and did not vary overy the first three months of postnatal life.

  18. Aging and DNA repair capability. [Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tice, R R

    1977-01-01

    A review of the literature on DNA repair processes in relation to aging is presented under the following headings: DNA repair processes; age-related occurrence of unrepaired DNA lesions; DNA repair capability as a function of age; tissue-specific DNA repair capability; acceleration of the aging process by exposure to DNA damaging agents; human genetic syndromes; and longevity and DNA repair processes. (HLW)

  19. The maternal age-specific live birth prevalence of trisomies 13 and 18 compared to trisomy 21 (Down syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savva, George M; Walker, Kate; Morris, Joan K

    2010-01-01

    To estimate the maternal age-specific live birth prevalence (in the absence of prenatal diagnosis and selective termination) of trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) and trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome) and compare it with that of trisomy 21 (Down syndrome). Records of prenatal and postnatal diagnoses from seven UK regional congenital anomaly registers and two Australian registers covering 4.5 million births included 975 diagnoses of trisomy 13 and 2254 of trisomy 18. Prevalence at birth in the absence of prenatal diagnosis and selective termination was calculated by adjusting for prenatally diagnosed pregnancies that were terminated according to their likelihood of surviving to term. The live birth prevalence in the absence of prenatal screening and selective termination in England and Wales from 1997 to 2004 was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.2-1.6) per 10 000 births for trisomy 13 and 2.3 (95% CI: 2.1-2.5) for trisomy 18. It has increased since 1989-1996, by 13% for trisomy 13 and 25% for trisomy 18. These increases are consistent with those predicted due to increases in maternal age. This study provides the first estimates of maternal age-specific prevalence of trisomies 13 and 18 for women aged 16-45. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Causes of death in patients ≥75 years of age with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morici, Nuccia; Savonitto, Stefano; Murena, Ernesto; Antonicelli, Roberto; Piovaccari, Giancarlo; Tucci, Daniele; Tamburino, Corrado; Fontanelli, Alessandro; Bolognese, Leonardo; Menozzi, Mila; Cavallini, Claudio; Petronio, Anna Sonia; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Piscione, Federico; Steffenino, Giuseppe; De Servi, Stefano

    2013-07-01

    The causes of death within 1 year of hospital admission in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes are ill defined, particularly in patients aged ≥75 years. From January 2008 through May 2010, we enrolled 645 patients aged ≥75 years with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes: 313 in a randomized trial comparing an early aggressive versus an initially conservative approach, and 332, excluded from the trial for specific reasons, in a parallel registry. Each death occurring during 1 year of follow-up was adjudicated by an independent committee. The mean age was 82 years in both study cohorts, and 53% were men. By the end of the follow-up period (median 369 days, interquartile range 345 to 391), 120 patients (18.6%) had died. The mortality was significantly greater in the registry (23.8% vs 13.1%, p = 0.001). The deaths were classified as cardiac in 94% of the cases during the index admission and 68% of the cases during the follow-up period. Eighty-six percent of the cardiac deaths were of ischemic origin. In a multivariate logistic regression model that included the variables present on admission in the whole study population, the ejection fraction (hazard ratio 0.95, 95% confidence interval 0.94 to 0.97; p segment elevation acute coronary syndromes, most deaths in patients aged ≥75 years have a cardiac origin, mostly owing to myocardial ischemia.

  1. Obesity-induced chronic inflammation in high fat diet challenged C57BL/6J mice is associated with acceleration of age-dependent renal amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, Roel A; Bijzet, Johan; Meijers, Wouter C; Yakala, Gopala K; Kleemann, Robert; Nguyen, Tri Q; de Boer, Rudolf A; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Hazenberg, Bouke P C; Tietge, Uwe J F; Heeringa, Peter

    2015-11-13

    Obesity-induced inflammation presumably accelerates the development of chronic kidney diseases. However, little is known about the sequence of these inflammatory events and their contribution to renal pathology. We investigated the effects of obesity on the evolution of age-dependent renal complications in mice in conjunction with the development of renal and systemic low-grade inflammation (LGI). C57BL/6J mice susceptible to develop age-dependent sclerotic pathologies with amyloid features in the kidney, were fed low (10% lard) or high-fat diets (45% lard) for 24, 40 and 52 weeks. HFD-feeding induced overt adiposity, altered lipid and insulin homeostasis, increased systemic LGI and adipokine release. HFD-feeding also caused renal upregulation of pro-inflammatory genes, infiltrating macrophages, collagen I protein, increased urinary albumin and NGAL levels. HFD-feeding severely aggravated age-dependent structural changes in the kidney. Remarkably, enhanced amyloid deposition rather than sclerosis was observed. The degree of amyloidosis correlated significantly with body weight. Amyloid deposits stained positive for serum amyloid A (SAA) whose plasma levels were chronically elevated in HFD mice. Our data indicate obesity-induced chronic inflammation as a risk factor for the acceleration of age-dependent renal amyloidosis and functional impairment in mice, and suggest that obesity-enhanced chronic secretion of SAA may be the driving factor behind this process.

  2. Effects of accelerated artificial daylight aging on bending strength and bonding of glass fibers in fiber-embedded maxillofacial silicone prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatamleh, Muhanad M; Watts, David C

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effect of different periods of accelerated artificial daylight aging on bond strength of glass fiber bundles embedded into maxillofacial silicone elastomer and on bending strength of the glass fiber bundles. Forty specimens were fabricated by embedding resin-impregnated fiber bundles (1.5-mm diameter, 20-mm long) into maxillofacial silicone elastomer. Specimens were randomly allocated into four groups, and each group was subjected to different periods of accelerated daylight aging as follows (in hours); 0, 200, 400, and 600. The aging cycle included continuous exposure to quartz-filtered visible daylight (irradiance 760 W/m(2)) under an alternating weathering cycle (wet for 18 minutes, dry for 102 minutes). Pull-out tests were performed to evaluate bond strength between fiber bundles and silicone using a universal testing machine at 1 mm/min crosshead speed. Also a three-point bending test was performed to evaluate bending strength of the fiber bundles. One-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc tests were carried out to detect statistical significance (p bending strengths of fiber bundles were in the range of 917.72 MPa to 1124.06 MPa. Bending strength significantly increased after 200 and 400 hours of aging only. After 200 hours of exposure to artificial daylight and moisture conditions, bond strength between glass fibers and heat-cured silicones is optimal, and the bending strength of the glass fiber bundles is enhanced.

  3. Soiling of building envelope surfaces and its effect on solar reflectance – Part II: Development of an accelerated aging method for roofing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sleiman, Mohamad [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kirchstetter, Thomas W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Berdahl, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gilbert, Haley E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Quelen, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Marlot, Lea [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Preble, Chelsea V. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Sharon [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Montalbano, Amandine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rosseler, Olivier [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Akbari, Hashem [Concordia Univ., Montreal (Canada); Levinson, Ronnen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Destaillats, Hugo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-09

    Highly reflective roofs can decrease the energy required for building air conditioning, help mitigate the urban heat island effect, and slow global warming. However, these benefits are diminished by soiling and weathering processes that reduce the solar reflectance of most roofing materials. Soiling results from the deposition of atmospheric particulate matter and the growth of microorganisms, each of which absorb sunlight. Weathering of materials occurs with exposure to water, sunlight, and high temperatures. This study developed an accelerated aging method that incorporates features of soiling and weathering. The method sprays a calibrated aqueous soiling mixture of dust minerals, black carbon, humic acid, and salts onto preconditioned coupons of roofing materials, then subjects the soiled coupons to cycles of ultraviolet radiation, heat and water in a commercial weatherometer. Three soiling mixtures were optimized to reproduce the site-specific solar spectral reflectance features of roofing products exposed for 3 years in a hot and humid climate (Miami, Florida); a hot and dry climate (Phoenix, Arizona); and a polluted atmosphere in a temperate climate (Cleveland, Ohio). A fourth mixture was designed to reproduce the three-site average values of solar reflectance and thermal emittance attained after 3 years of natural exposure, which the Cool Roof Rating Council (CRRC) uses to rate roofing products sold in the US. This accelerated aging method was applied to 25 products₋single ply membranes, factory and field applied coatings, tiles, modified bitumen cap sheets, and asphalt shingles₋and reproduced in 3 days the CRRC's 3-year aged values of solar reflectance. In conclusion, this accelerated aging method can be used to speed the evaluation and rating of new cool roofing materials.

  4. Age-related symptom and life quality changes in women with irritable bowel syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Rong Tang; Wei-Wei Yang; Mei-Lan Liang; Xin-Yu Xu; Mei-Feng Wang; Lin Lin

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To explore age-related changes in symptoms and quality of life (QoL) of women with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).METHODS:Two-hundred and fifty-four female adult outpatients with IBS attending the Department of Gastroenterology at the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University between January,2008 and October,2008 were approached.Patients with a history of abdominal surgery,mental illness or those who had recently taken psychotropic drugs were excluded.A physician obtained demographic and abdominal symptom data.All patients were asked to complete the Zung Self-Rated Anxiety and Depression Scale (SDS/SAS) and the IBS-specific QoL questionnaire.The patients were divided into six groups according to age,in 10-year increments:18-27 years,28-37 years,38-47 years,48-57 years,58-67 years and 68-75 years (maximum 75 years).Age-related differences of abdominal pain or discomfort were analyzed using ranksum tests.Differences in SDS/SAS and IBS-QoL scores between age groups were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance.Pearson's correlations evaluated potential associations between IBS symptoms,psychological factors and QoL in each age group.RESULTS:There were no differences in the distribution of IBS subtypes between age groups (x2 =20.516,P =0.153).Differences in the severity of abdominal pain/discomfort with age were statistically significant (x2 =25.638,P < 0.001); patients aged 48-57 years,58-67 years or 68-75 years had milder abdominal pain/discomfort than those in the younger age groups.The severity of anxiety or depressive symptoms did not differ between age groups (SDS,x2 =390.845,P =0.110;SAS,x2 =360.071,P =0.220).Differences of IBSQoL scores were statistically significant between age groups (x2 =1098.458,P =0.011).The scores of patients in the 48-57-year group were lower than those in the 18-27-year and 28-37-year groups (48-57-year group vs 18-27-year group,74.88 ± 8.76 vs 79.76± 8.63,P =0.021; 48-57-year group vs 28-37-year group,74.88

  5. Stuttering Treatment for a School-Age Child with Down Syndrome: A Descriptive Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasym, Jessica; Langevin, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Background: Little is known about optimal treatment approaches and stuttering treatment outcomes for children with Down syndrome. Aims and method: The purpose of this study was to investigate outcomes for a child with Down syndrome who received a combination of fluency shaping therapy and parent delivered contingencies for normally fluent speech,…

  6. Experiences of Supporting People with Down Syndrome and Alzheimer's Disease in Aged Care and Family Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carling-Jenkins, Rachel; Torr, Jennifer; Iacono, Teresa; Bigby, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Background: Research addressing the experiences of families of adults with Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease in seeking diagnosis and gaining support is limited. The aim of this study was to gain a greater understanding of these processes by exploring the experiences of families and carers in supporting people with Down syndrome and…

  7. Screening for Asperger Syndrome in School-Age Children: Issues and Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Colin; Campbell, Audrey; Keran, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Many children with Asperger syndrome are not identified prior to school entry, and difficulties associated with the condition may only become evident when a child enters school. Failure to identify children with the syndrome may lead to increased risk for psychopathology, and lack of understanding of the reasons for social and communicative…

  8. Stuttering Treatment for a School-Age Child with Down Syndrome: A Descriptive Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasym, Jessica; Langevin, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Background: Little is known about optimal treatment approaches and stuttering treatment outcomes for children with Down syndrome. Aims and method: The purpose of this study was to investigate outcomes for a child with Down syndrome who received a combination of fluency shaping therapy and parent delivered contingencies for normally fluent speech,…

  9. The CAST (Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test): preliminary development of a UK screen for mainstream primary-school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Fiona J; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Bolton, Patrick; Brayne, Carol

    2002-03-01

    The article describes a pilot and follow-up study of the preliminary development of a new tool to screen for Asperger syndrome (AS) and related social and communication conditions (the Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test, CAST) in children aged 4-11 years, in a non-clinical setting. In the pilot study, parents of 13 children with AS and of 37 typically developing children completed the CAST. There were significant differences between the AS and typical sample means. The pilot was used to establish preliminary cut-off scores for the CAST. In the main study, parents of 1150 primary-school-age children were sent the CAST, and 174 took part in the full data analysis. Results suggest that compared with other tools currently available, the CAST may be useful for identifying children at risk for AS and related conditions, in a mainstream non-clinical sample. Further research is ongoing.

  10. Small for Gestational Age and Magnesium in Cord Blood Platelets: Intrauterine Magnesium Deficiency May Induce Metabolic Syndrome in Later Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junji Takaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium deficiency in pregnancy frequently occurs because of inadequate or low intake of magnesium. Magnesium deficiency during pregnancy can induce not only maternal and fetal nutritional problems, but also consequences that might last in offspring throughout life. Many epidemiological studies have disclosed that small for gestational age (SGA is associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance in adult life. We reported that intracellular magnesium of cord blood platelets is lower in SGA groups than that in appropriate for gestational age groups, suggesting that intrauterine magnesium deficiency may result in SGA. Taken together, intrauterine magnesium deficiency in the fetus may lead to or at least program insulin resistance after birth. In this review, we propose that intrauterine magnesium deficiency may induce metabolic syndrome in later life. We discuss the potential contribution of aberrant magnesium regulation to SGA and to the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome.

  11. Does frequency of restless legs syndrome and poor sleep quality increase with age in irritable bowel syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acay, Akif; Bal, Ahmet; Oruc, Serdar; Ozkececi, Taner; Sariaydin, Muzaffer; Demirbas, Hayri; Acarturk, Gursel

    2016-12-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disease which leads to a reduction in the quality of life. Restless legs syndrome (RLS) and the incidence of poor sleep quality (PSQ) are known to increase in IBS. In this study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence and association of RLS and PSQ in a young population. A total of 112 IBS patients (46 constipation predominant IBS, 17 diarrhea predominant IBS, 23 mixed IBS and 26 unsubtyped IBS) and 106 healthy controls were included in the study. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the 2012 revised diagnostic criteria of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group were used in the groups. In the patients with IBS and the control group, the respective results obtained were as follows: presence of PSQ 16 (13.4 %) and 5 (4.7 %) and presence of RLS 10 (8.9 %) and 4 (3.7 %), respectively. There were significant differences between the two groups in terms of these values. According to the PSQI, the mean global PSQI scores of patients with IBS and control group were 7.61±3.9 and 4.5±3.7, respectively (P = 0.01). While PSQ was detected in 21 out of 218 participants, RLS was detected in 14. PSQ and RLS coexisted in nine of the participants and all of them were IBS patients. Previous studies and our study reveal that the frequency of RLS and PSQ increases in IBS. However, this result is a lower rate compared to previous studies. The controlled and prospective studies with larger numbers of cases which demonstrate the real frequency.

  12. Age of diagnosis in Rett syndrome: patterns of recognition among diagnosticians and risk factors for late diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tarquinio, DC; W Hou; Neul, JL; Lane, JB; Barnes, KV; O'Leary, HM; Bruck, NM; Kaufmann, WE; Motil, KJ; Glaze, DG; Skinner, SA; Annese, F.; Baggett, L; Barrish, JO; Geerts, SP

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Purpose Diagnosis of Rett syndrome (RTT) is often delayed. We sought to determine the type of physician who typically makes the RTT diagnosis and to identify risk factors for delayed diagnosis. Methods A total of 1085 participants from the multicenter longitudinal RTT natural history study with classic and atypical RTT were recruited between 2006 and 2014. Age of diagnosis, diagnostician, diagnostic criteria, and clinical and developmental data were collected. Results Amo...

  13. Accelerated inactivation of the L-type calcium current due to a mutation in CACNB2b underlies Brugada syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordeiro, Jonathan M; Marieb, Mark; Pfeiffer, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated an association between mutations in CACNA1c or CACNB2b and Brugada syndrome (BrS). Previously described mutations all caused a loss of function secondary to a reduction of peak calcium current (I(Ca)). We describe a novel CACNB2b mutation associated with Br...... revealed brief episodes of very rapid ventricular tachycardia. He was also diagnosed with vasovagal syncope. Genomic DNA was isolated from lymphocytes. All exons and intron borders of 15 ion channel genes were amplified and sequenced. The only mutation uncovered was a missense mutation (T11I) in CACNB2b...... that the faster current decay results in a loss-of-function responsible for the Brugada phenotype...

  14. Influence of Second-Trimester Ultrasound Markers for Down Syndrome in Pregnant Women of Advanced Maternal Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza Rumi Kataguiri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of second-trimester ultrasound markers on the incidence of Down syndrome among pregnant women of advanced maternal age. This was a retrospective cohort study on 889 singleton pregnancies between the 14th and 30th weeks, with maternal age ≥ 35 years, which would undergo genetic amniocentesis. The second-trimester ultrasound assessed the following markers: increased nuchal fold thickness, cardiac hyperechogenic focus, mild ventriculomegaly, choroid plexus cysts, uni- or bilateral renal pyelectasis, intestinal hyperechogenicity, single umbilical artery, short femur and humerus length, hand/foot alterations, structural fetal malformation, and congenital heart disease. To investigate differences between the groups with and without markers, nonparametric tests consisting of the chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test were used. Moreover, odds ratios with their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Out of the 889 pregnant women, 131 (17.3% presented markers and 758 (82.7% did not present markers on the second-trimester ultrasound. Increased nuchal fold (P<0.001 and structural malformation (P<0.001 were the markers most associated with Down syndrome. The presence of one marker increased the relative risk 10.5-fold, while the presence of two or more markers increased the risk 13.5-fold. The presence of markers on the second-trimester ultrasound, especially thickened nuchal fold and structural malformation, increased the risk of Down syndrome among pregnant women with advanced maternal age.

  15. The mystery of C. elegans aging: an emerging role for fat. Distant parallels between C. elegans aging and metabolic syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Daniel; Gems, David

    2012-06-01

    New C. elegans studies imply that lipases and lipid desaturases can mediate signaling effects on aging. But why might fat homeostasis be critical to aging? Could problems with fat handling compromise health in nematodes as they do in mammals? The study of signaling pathways that control longevity could provide the key to one of the great unsolved mysteries of biology: the mechanism of aging. But as our view of the regulatory pathways that control aging grows ever clearer, the nature of aging itself has, if anything, grown more obscure. In particular, focused investigations of the oxidative damage theory have raised questions about an old assumption: that a fundamental cause of aging is accumulation of molecular damage. Could fat dyshomeostasis instead be critical?

  16. Hypertension in Reproductive-Aged Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Association With Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joham, Anju E; Boyle, Jacqueline A; Zoungas, Sophia; Teede, Helena J

    2015-07-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder with metabolic complications, yet the prevalence of hypertension is unclear. We aim to assess hypertension prevalence and the impact of obesity in women reporting PCOS compared to those not reporting PCOS. This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from a large longitudinal study, the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH). Women from the general community were randomly selected from the national health insurance database. Standardized data collection occurred at 6 survey time points. Data from Survey 4 in 2006 (n = 8,612, age: 28-33 years) were examined for this study. The main outcome measures studied were self-reported PCOS and hypertension. Reported PCOS prevalence was 5.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): 5.3%-6.4%). Women with PCOS had higher body mass index (BMI). Hypertension prevalence was 5.5% (95% CI: 3.3-7.7) in women reporting PCOS and 2.0% (95% CI: 1.6-2.3) in women not reporting PCOS (P < 0.001). Hypertension was associated with BMI (odds ratio: 1.07, 95% CI: 1.05-1.10, P < 0.001) with a trend towards an association with PCOS (P = 0.09). On subgroup analysis, hypertension was not associated with BMI in women reporting PCOS but was associated in those not reporting PCOS. In this large community-based cohort, we note increased prevalence of hypertension and higher BMI in young women reporting PCOS. BMI association with hypertension appeared clear in women not reporting PCOS. Yet in women with PCOS, hypertension appeared to not be associated with BMI, akin to observations on diabetes risk in PCOS, suggesting that metabolic abnormalities in PCOS may be independent of BMI. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Relationship between the Concentrations of Heavy Metals and Bioelements in Aging Men with Metabolic Syndrome

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    Iwona Rotter

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals may exacerbate metabolic syndrome (MS but abnormal serum concentrations of bioelements may also co-exist with MS. The primary aim of the study was to assess the relationship of blood heavy metal and bioelement concentrations and MS, in men aged 50–75 years. Heavy metals—lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd, mercury (Hg, arsenic (As, tungsten (W, Macroelements—magnesium (Mg and calcium (Ca, and microelements—iron (Fe, zinc (Zn copper (Cu, chromium (Cr, molybdenum (Mo, selenium (Se and manganese (Mn, body mass index (BMI, waist to hip ratio (WHR, abdominal circumference (AC and blood pressure (BP, total cholesterol (TCh, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, triglyceride (TG, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, insulin, and Homeostasis Model Assessment—Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. The men with MS showed statistically significant higher Zn and lower Mg concentrations. Those with diabetes had higher Ca concentration and lower Mg concentration. Cr and Mn concentrations were significantly higher in obese men. The participants with hypertension had lower Mg concentration. We found statistically significant positive correlations (W-TCh, W-LDL, Mg-TCh, Mg-LDL, Ca-TCh, Ca-LDL, Ca-insulin, Ca-HOMAR-IR, Zn-TG, Zn-insulin, Zn-HOMA-IR, Cu-BP systolic, Mn-BMI, Mn-AC, Mn-WHR, Mn-insulin, Mn-HOMA-IR, Se-TCh, Se-LDL, Se-TG, Se-insulin, Se-HOMA-IR, Cr-TCh, Cr-HDL, Cr-LDL, Cr-TG and negative correlations (Cd-insulin, Hg-WHR, W-insulin, W-HOMA-IR, Mg-BMI, Mg-AC, Mg-WHR, Mg-BP systolic, Mo-insulin, Mn-HDL. Tungsten may contribute to lipid disorders. Magnesium appears to play the protective role in the occurrence of metabolic disorders. Microelements Mn, Cr and Se may intensify MS.

  18. Insomnia in school-age children with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism

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    Smedje Hans

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asperger syndrome (AS and high-functioning autism (HFA are pervasive developmental disorders (PDD in individuals of normal intelligence. Childhood AS/HFA is considered to be often associated with disturbed sleep, in particular with difficulties initiating and/or maintaining sleep (insomnia. However, studies about the topic are still scarce. The present study investigated childhood AS/HFA regarding a wide range of parent reported sleep-wake behaviour, with a particular focus on insomnia. Methods Thirty-two 8–12 yr old children with AS/HFA were compared with 32 age and gender matched typically developing children regarding sleep and associated behavioural characteristics. Several aspects of sleep-wake behaviour including insomnia were surveyed using a structured paediatric sleep questionnaire in which parents reported their children's sleep patterns for the previous six months. Recent sleep patterns were monitored by use of a one-week sleep diary and actigraphy. Behavioural characteristics were surveyed by use of information gleaned from parent and teacher-ratings in the High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire, and in the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results Parent-reported difficulties initiating sleep and daytime sleepiness were more common in children with AS/HFA than in controls, and 10/32 children with AS/HFA (31.2% but none of the controls fulfilled our definition of paediatric insomnia. The parent-reported insomnia corresponded to the findings obtained by actigraphy. Children with insomnia had also more parent-reported autistic and emotional symptoms, and more teacher-reported emotional and hyperactivity symptoms than those children without insomnia. Conclusion Parental reports indicate that in childhood AS/HFA insomnia is a common and distressing symptom which is frequently associated with coexistent behaviour problems. Identification and treatment of sleep problems need to be a routine

  19. The anti-aging effects of LW-AFC via correcting immune dysfunctions in senescence accelerated mouse resistant 1 (SAMR1) strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhui; Cheng, Xiaorui; Zhang, Xiaorui; Cheng, Junping; Xu, Yiran; Zeng, Ju; Zhou, Wenxia; Zhang, Yongxiang

    2016-05-10

    Although there were considerable advances in the anti-aging medical field, it is short of therapeutic drug for anti-aging. Mounting evidence indicates that the immunosenescence is the key physiopathological mechanism of aging. This study showed the treatment of LW-AFC, an herbal medicine, decreased the grading score of senescence, increased weight, prolonged average life span and ameliorated spatial memory impairment in 12- and 24-month-old senescence accelerated mouse resistant 1 (SAMR1) strain. And these anti-aging effects of LW-AFC were more excellent than melatonin. The administration of LW-AFC enhanced ConA- and LPS-induced splenocyte proliferation in aged SAMR1 mice. The treatment of LW-AFC not only reversed the decreased the proportions of helper T cells, suppressor T cells and B cells, the increased regulatory T cells in the peripheral blood of old SAMR1 mice, but also could modulate the abnormal secretion of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-17, IL-23, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, TNF-α, TNF-β, RANTES, eotaxin, MCP-1, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and G-CSF. These data indicated that LW-AFC reversed the immunosenescence status by restoring immunodeficiency and decreasing chronic inflammation and suggested LW-AFC may be an effective anti-aging agent.

  20. Dusart Syndrome in a Scandinavian family characterized by arterial and venous thrombosis at young age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanathan, Ramshanker; Gram, Jørgen; Feddersen, Søren

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dysfibrinogenemia is a rare group of qualitative fibrinogen disorders caused by structural abnormalities in the fibrinogen molecule. The laboratory diagnosis of dysfibrinogenemia is controversial. Fibrinogen Paris V, clinically termed Dusart Syndrome, is a dysfibrinogenemia caused...

  1. Gene variants of the renin-angiotensin system are associated with accelerated hippocampal volume loss and cognitive decline in old age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannas, Anthony S.; McQuoid, Douglas R.; Payne, Martha E; MacFall, James R.; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Steffens, David C.; Potter, Guy G.; Taylor, Warren D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Genetic factors confer risk for neuropsychiatric phenotypes, but the polygenic etiology of these phenotypes makes identification of genetic culprits challenging. An approach to this challenge is to examine the effects of genetic variation on relevant endophenotypes, such as hippocampal volume loss. Smaller hippocampus is associated with gene variants of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), a system implicated in vascular disease. However, no studies have investigated longitudinally the effects of genetic variation of RAS on the hippocampus. Method We examined the effects of polymorphisms of AGTR1, the gene encoding angiotensin-II type 1 receptor of RAS, on longitudinal hippocampal volumes of older adults. 138 older adults (age ≥ 60 years) were followed for an average of about four years. Subjects underwent repeated structural MRI and comprehensive neurocognitive testing, and were genotyped for four AGTR1 SNPs with low pairwise linkage disequilibrium values and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype. Results Genetic variants at three AGTR1 SNPs (rs2638363, rs1492103, rs2675511) were independently associated with accelerated hippocampal volume loss over the four-year follow-up in the right but not left hemisphere. Intriguingly, these AGTR1 risk alleles also predicted worse episodic memory performance but were not related to other cognitive measures. Two risk variants (rs2638363 and rs12721331) interacted with the APOE4 allele to accelerate right hippocampal volume loss. Conclusions Risk genetic variants of RAS may accelerate memory decline in older adults, an effect that may be conferred by accelerated hippocampal volume loss. Molecules involved in this system may hold promise as early therapeutic targets for late-life neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:25124854

  2. Association of gene variants of the renin-angiotensin system with accelerated hippocampal volume loss and cognitive decline in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannas, Anthony S; McQuoid, Douglas R; Payne, Martha E; MacFall, James R; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Steffens, David C; Potter, Guy G; Taylor, Warren D

    2014-11-01

    Genetic factors confer risk for neuropsychiatric phenotypes, but the polygenic etiology of these phenotypes makes identification of genetic culprits challenging. An approach to this challenge is to examine the effects of genetic variation on relevant endophenotypes, such as hippocampal volume loss. A smaller hippocampus is associated with gene variants of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), a system implicated in vascular disease. However, no studies to date have investigated longitudinally the effects of genetic variation of RAS on the hippocampus. The authors examined the effects of polymorphisms of AGTR1, the gene encoding angiotensin-II type 1 receptor of RAS, on longitudinal hippocampal volumes of older adults. In all, 138 older adults (age ≥60 years) were followed for an average of about 4 years. The participants underwent repeated structural MRI and comprehensive neurocognitive testing, and they were genotyped for four AGTR1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with low pairwise linkage disequilibrium values and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype. Genetic variants at three AGTR1 SNPs (rs2638363, rs1492103, and rs2675511) were independently associated with accelerated hippocampal volume loss over the 4-year follow-up period in the right but not left hemisphere. Intriguingly, these AGTR1 risk alleles also predicted worse episodic memory performance but were not related to other cognitive measures. Two risk variants (rs2638363 and rs12721331) interacted with the APOE4 allele to accelerate right hippocampal volume loss. Risk genetic variants of the RAS may accelerate memory decline in older adults, an effect that may be conferred by accelerated hippocampal volume loss. Molecules involved in this system may hold promise as early therapeutic targets for late-life neuropsychiatric disorders.

  3. Are early onset aging conditions correlated to daily activity functions in youth and adults with Down syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Lan-Ping; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Chen, Wen-Xiu; Lin, Fu-Gong; Wu, Jia-Ling; Chu, Cordia

    2014-11-13

    This study aims to answer the research question of "Are early onset aging conditions correlated to daily activity functions in youth and adults with Down syndrome (DS)?" A cross-sectional survey was employed to recruit 216 individuals with DS over 15 years of age in the analyses. A structured questionnaire included demographic data, brief self-reported aging conditions, Dementia Screening Questionnaire for Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities (DSQIID) and activity of daily living (ADL) scales were completed by the primary caregivers who were well-suited for providing information on the functioning conditions of the DS individuals. Results showed that the most five frequent aging conditions (sometimes, usually and always) included frailty (20.2%), vision problem (15.8%), loss of language ability (15.3%), sleep problem (14.9%) and memory impairment (14.5%). Other onset aging conditions included more chronic diseases (13.9%), hearing loss (13%), chewing ability and tooth loss (12.5%), incontinence (11.1%), depressive syndrome (7.7%), falls and gait disorder (7.2%), loss of taste and smell (7.2%). The data also showed scores of DSQIID, onset aging conditions and ADL has significant relationships each other in Pearson's correlation tests. Finally, multiple linear regression analyses indicated onset aging conditions (β=-0.735, p<0.001) can significantly predicted the variation in ADL scores after adjusting other factors (R(2)=0.381). This study suggests that the authority should initiate early intervention programs aim to improve healthy aging and ADL functions for people with DS.

  4. Age-related differences in features associated with polycystic ovary syndrome in normogonadotrophic oligo-amenorrhoeic infertile women of reproductive years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Bili; B. Imani (Babak); M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); B.C.J.M. Fauser (Bart); J.S.E. Laven (Joop)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of age on clinical, endocrine and sonographic features associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in normogonadotrophic anovulatory infertile women of reproductive years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Four hundred and seve

  5. Report of an Atypical Form of Charles Bonnet Syndrome with Specific Characteristics in a Middle-aged Woman with Major Depressive Disorder

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    A Ghaffarinejad

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Charles Bonnet syndrome is an entity including vivid and complex visual hallucination and has been well known in patients with visual problem. A middle-aged Afghan female refugee with the diagnosis of major depressive disorder who had episodic complex and well formed visual hallucinatory periods with open eyes will be described. She also experienced auditory and olfactory hallucinations associated with visual hallucination. Hallucinatory experiences described in Charles Bonnet syndrome may exist concurrently with psychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder. Olfactory hallucination as a symptom of Charles Bonnet syndrome is reported for the first time in our case. Key words: Major depressive disorder, Charles Bonnet syndrome

  6. AGE and their receptor RAGE in systemic autoimmune diseases : An inflammation propagating factor contributing to accelerated atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nienhuis, Hans L. A.; Westra, Johanna; Smit, Andries J.; Limburg, Pieter C.; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.; Bijl, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Systemic autoimmune diseases are associated with inflammation, and oxidative stress favouring the formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE), able to modulate cellular functions by activation of receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE). As RAGE expression is increased in an

  7. AGE and their receptor RAGE in systemic autoimmune diseases : An inflammation propagating factor contributing to accelerated atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nienhuis, Hans L. A.; Westra, Johanna; Smit, Andries J.; Limburg, Pieter C.; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.; Bijl, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Systemic autoimmune diseases are associated with inflammation, and oxidative stress favouring the formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE), able to modulate cellular functions by activation of receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE). As RAGE expression is increased in an inflamma

  8. Accelerated Aging of the Traditional Greek Distillate Tsipouro Using Wooden Chips. Part I: Effect of Static Maceration vs. Ultrasonication on the Polyphenol Extraction and Antioxidant Activity

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    Theodora Taloumi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Greek traditional grape marc distillate Tsipouro was subjected to accelerated aging, using wooden chips from acacia, cherry, chestnut and oak wood. The processes included treatments under static maceration and ultrasonication and the evolution of the total polyphenol concentration was monitored over a period of 30 days. During this period, leaching of polyphenols from the chips into the distillate was found to obey first-order kinetics, but no statistical differences were shown between the two treatments regarding the enrichment of the liquid in polyphenolic substances. The determination of the antioxidant activity demonstrated that aging with chestnut chips may provide Tsipouro with particularly strong radical scavenging and reducing effects, highlighting its importance as a material that could be used to turn distillates into foods with functional properties.

  9. Metabolic syndrome, its components and risk of age-related cataract extraction: a case-control study in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeone, Carlotta; Petracci, Elisabetta; Pelucchi, Claudio; Zucchetto, Antonella; La Vecchia, Carlo; Tavani, Alessandra

    2010-05-01

    We sought to explore the relationship between age-related cataract extraction and the metabolic syndrome or its various components separately and in various combinations in an Italian case-control study. A total of 761 cases and 1,522 controls in hospital for acute, non-neoplastic, non-ophthalmologic, non-metabolic diseases were interviewed between 1991 and 2003. Odds ratios (ORs), and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs), were computed from multiple logistic regression models, conditioned on sex, age, and study center and adjusted for education and smoking. The ORs were 1.41 for a history of central obesity, 1.42 for hypertension, 1.25 for hyperlipidemia, and 1.16 for diabetes. Patients with the metabolic syndrome (defined as the simultaneous presence of central obesity and at least two other factors among hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes) had an increased risk of cataract, with an OR of 2.01 (95% CI: 1.43-2.83). The ORs were 1.75 for the presence of any of two components and 2.50 for three to four components, with a linear trend in risk. This study indicates that the metabolic syndrome, its components, and their combination are associated with an increased risk of cataract extraction in this Italian population. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Preschool psychopathology reported by parents in 23 societies: testing the seven-syndrome model of the child behavior checklist for ages 1.5-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Masha Y; Achenbach, Thomas M; Rescorla, Leslie A; Harder, Valerie S; Ang, Rebecca P; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Capron, Christiane; De Pauw, Sarah S W; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Doepfner, Manfred; Duyme, Michele; Eapen, Valsamma; Erol, Nese; Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Frigerio, Alessandra; Gonçalves, Miguel M; Gudmundsson, Halldor S; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Jetishi, Pranvera; Jusiene, Roma; Kim, Young-Ah; Kristensen, Solvejg; Lecannelier, Felipe; Leung, Patrick W L; Liu, Jianghong; Montirosso, Rosario; Oh, Kyung Ja; Plueck, Julia; Pomalima, Rolando; Shahini, Mimoza; Silva, Jaime R; Simsek, Zynep; Sourander, Andre; Valverde, Jose; Van Leeuwen, Karla G; Woo, Bernardine S C; Wu, Yen-Tzu; Zubrick, Stephen R; Verhulst, Frank C

    2010-12-01

    To test the fit of a seven-syndrome model to ratings of preschoolers' problems by parents in very diverse societies. Parents of 19,106 children 18 to 71 months of age from 23 societies in Asia, Australasia, Europe, the Middle East, and South America completed the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5). Confirmatory factor analyses were used to test the seven-syndrome model separately for each society. The primary model fit index, the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), indicated acceptable to good fit for each society. Although a six-syndrome model combining the Emotionally Reactive and Anxious/Depressed syndromes also fit the data for nine societies, it fit less well than the seven-syndrome model for seven of the nine societies. Other fit indices yielded less consistent results than the RMSEA. The seven-syndrome model provides one way to capture patterns of children's problems that are manifested in ratings by parents from many societies. Clinicians working with preschoolers from these societies can thus assess and describe parents' ratings of behavioral, emotional, and social problems in terms of the seven syndromes. The results illustrate possibilities for culture-general taxonomic constructs of preschool psychopathology. Problems not captured by the CBCL/1.5-5 may form additional syndromes, and other syndrome models may also fit the data. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. AGE AND GENDER MAY INFLUENCE THE RESULTS OF ROUX-EN-Y GASTRIC BYPASS? Metabolic syndrome parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Garcia ANDRADE-SILVA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context Severe obesity affects the body favoring the development of serious diseases, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis and non alcoholic fatty liver disease. Bariatric procedures increased in Brazil in the last decade. Objectives The purpose of this study was to verify if gender and age in date of procedure resulted significant differences in metabolic syndrome parameters after surgery. Methods The study involved 205 medical records of adult patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, stratified by gender and age groups and followed one year by a multidisciplinary team. Results It was observed significant decrease in body mass index, fasting glucose and insulin at all ages and both genders. Lipid profile showed significant improvements except high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Ectopic fat in the liver has decreased after 6 months in patients classified with steatosis at baseline. Patients classified as hypertensive blood pressure levels decreased 6 months after surgical intervention. Conclusions Roux-en-Y gastric bypass proved to be an important tool in remission of metabolic syndrome parameters. The reduction of body mass accompanied to decrease in insulin resistance resulted in lower prevalence of comorbidities associated with obesity. The benefits were similar and extended both genders and all age groups between 18 and 65 years old.

  12. Health-related quality of life and cognitive functioning from the perspective of parents of school-aged children with Asperger's Syndrome utilizing the PedsQL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbers, Christine A; Heffer, Robert W; Varni, James W

    2009-11-01

    HRQOL as a multidimensional construct has not been previously investigated in children with Asperger's Syndrome. The objective of the present study was to examine the initial feasibility, reliability, and validity of the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales and PedsQL Cognitive Functioning Scale parent proxy-report versions in school-aged children with Asperger's Syndrome. The PedsQL evidenced no missing responses (0.0%), achieved excellent reliability for the Generic Core Total Scale score (alpha = 0.82) and Cognitive Functioning Scale (alpha = 0.92), distinguished between children with Asperger's Syndrome and a matched sample of healthy children, and was related to similar constructs on the Asperger Syndrome Diagnostic Scale. The results demonstrate the initial measurement properties of the PedsQL in school-aged children with Asperger's Syndrome.

  13. Age threshold for moderate and severe periodontitis among Korean adults without diabetes mellitus, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and/or obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyungdo; Park, Jun-Beom

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine an appropriate age threshold at which to recommend the evaluation of moderate and severe periodontitis among Korean adults.This study involved a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2012 to 2014. Incidence rates of periodontitis with the 95% confidence interval (CI) were evaluated. The predictive accuracy of age for periodontitis was determined by calculating the area under curve (AUC) on the basis of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve.The cutoff value of age was 43 years in men having periodontitis with an AUC of 0.70 with 95% CI of 0.69 to 0.72. The AUC was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.70-0.73), and the cutoff value of age (49 years) was identified for the moderate periodontitis in women. The cutoff values for age with AUCs and 95% CI for individuals with periodontitis were 46 years (0.72 [0.71-0.73]), 43 years (0.73 [0.72, 0.74]), 45 years (0.71 [0.70,0.72]), 43 years (0.73 [0.72, 0.74]), and 45 years (0.74 [0.72, 0.75]) for no obesity, no abdominal obesity, no diabetes mellitus, no hypertension, and no metabolic syndrome groups, respectively.This study proposed the guideline for the appropriate age threshold at which to recommend the evaluation of moderate and severe periodontitis for the general population and additionally added the guideline for the individuals without systemic disease including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. This study suggests that the participants with certain age may be recommended for the regular periodontal evaluation.

  14. Calculation of apparent age by linear combination of facial skin parameters: a predictive tool to evaluate the efficacy of cosmetic treatments and to assess the predisposition to accelerated aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicanio, Denise; Sparacio, Rose; Declercq, Lieve; Corstjens, Hugo; Muizzuddin, Neelam; Hidalgo, Julie; Giacomoni, Paolo U; Jorgensen, Lise; Maes, Daniel

    2009-12-01

    The estimated apparent age (EAA) was estimated by a panel of trained experts, for the individuals in a cohort. Twelve independent clinical, biophysical and biochemical parameters measured on facial skin, have been identified by multiple regression analysis, which influence the EAA of a person of chronological age (CA) (under eye lines, clinically assessed crow's feet, age spots, clinically evaluated firmness, forehead lines, pores, lip lines, instrumentally evaluated firmness, instrumentally evaluated crow feet, skin texture, in vivo fluorescence related to proliferation and glycation). An algorithm has been devised to obtain the calculated age score (CAS) in a cohort of 452 female volunteers, as CAS(n) = ∑RCiPi(n) (i = 1-13, n = 1-452 and P13 = 1) where the coefficients Ci are obtained by minimizing the difference EAA - CAS, and Pi(n) are the experimental values of the i-th parameter for the n-th volunteer. The determination of CAS before and after a specific cosmetic or pharmacological anti-aging treatment can be used to objectively assess the efficacy of the treatment. The comparison of EAA(n) and of CAS(n) with CA(n) allows one to predict the susceptibility of an individual's face to undergo aging. It has been observed that the biophysical and biochemical parameters play a relevant role in the assessment of the predisposition of skin to undergo accelerated aging.

  15. The relationship between psychosocial stress, age, BMI, CRP, lifestyle, and the metabolic syndrome in apparently healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Okazaki, Ai; Ohmori, Susumu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the factors which may be associated with the metabolic syndrome by exploring the relationship between psychosocial stress, age, body mass index (BMI), C-reactive protein (CRP), lifestyle factors, and the components of the metabolic syndrome, such as glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting blood sugar (FBS), body fat percentage, and triglyceride concentration, among apparently healthy subjects. Psychosocial stress was measured by the use of the inventory to measure psychosocial stress (IMPS). One thousand four hundred and ninety-nine people out of 1,941 public school workers admitted to a hospital for a medical check-up responded to the IMPS, yielding a response rate of 77.2%. A total of 1,201 workers excluding 298 who were taking medication for various diseases were analyzed with the use of hierarchical multiple regression models. It was found that IMPS-measured stress score, age, BMI, and smoking habit were associated with an increase in glycated hemoglobin among men, while alcohol consumption was associated with a decrease in glycated hemoglobin. Stress score, age, BMI, and alcohol consumption were found to be associated with an increase in FBS among men, while smoking and exercise habits were associated with a decrease in FBS. CRP was found to be associated with an increase in body fat percentage among men, though stress score was not associated with an increase in body fat percentage. Stress score, age, and BMI were associated with an increase in triglyceride concentration among women. The findings of the present study seem to be in line with the hypothesis that psychosocial stress plays an important role in developing the metabolic syndrome, which may be associated with inflammatory processes in the vascular wall, resulting in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease.

  16. Proteus syndrome in a child aged 14 years and 11 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Elizarova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteus syndrome is an extremely rare genetic disorder with problematic genetic identification. It has been hypothesized that it is related to a lethal dominant somatic mutation occurring at a post-zygotic stage of embryonic development. Clinical presentation of the disease has much in common with a  number of hereditary disorders and is frequently associated with malignancies. We present a clinical case of Proteus syndrome in a child aged 14 years and 11 months, in whom late diagnosis and late administration of specific treatment resulted in disease progression with the development of the end stage chronic renal disease. Only correct and early diagnosis allows for timely referral of a  patient to a specialized hospital for adequate care.

  17. Quality of life in Swedish patients with post-polio syndrome with a focus on age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Tae-Du; Broman, Lisbet; Stibrant-Sunnerhagen, Katharina; Gonzalez, Henrik; Borg, Kristian

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the health-related quality of life (QOL) in Swedish patients with post-polio syndrome (PPS), with a focus on sex and age. A total of 364 patients were recruited from five Swedish post-polio clinics. Analysis was carried out using SF-36 and data were compared with those of a normal population. QOL was significantly lower in PPS patients for all eight subdomains and the two main scores (physical compound score and mental compound score) when compared with the controls. Male patients had a significantly higher QOL than female patients for all subdomains and also for mental compound score and physical compound score, a phenomenon also observed in the normal population. There was a decrease in QOL in the physical domains and an increase in vitality with age. PPS decreases health-related QOL in both sexes, more in female patients. QOL for physical domains decreases whereas vitality increases with age in both sexes.

  18. Metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus after gastric banding: the role of aging and of duration of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontiroli, Antonio E; Alberto, Morabito; Paganelli, Michele; Saibene, Alessandro; Busetto, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Bariatric surgery leads to resolution of arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus; isolated reports indicate that response to bariatric surgery is lower in aged patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of age and of duration of obesity on the frequency of co-morbidities in morbid obesity, as well as on improvement of co-morbidities. A total of 837 consecutive patients with known duration of obesity, undergoing gastric banding, were considered for this study; they were divided into quartiles of age and of duration of obesity. Presence of co-morbidities (diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, metabolic syndrome), metabolic variables (cholesterol and HDL-C, triglycerides, blood glucose), anthropometric variables, and loss of weight during 24 months were considered. Older patients had a higher frequency of co-morbidities; duration of obesity only affected frequency of co-morbidities, but not response to surgery. At logistic regression, duration of obesity had a moderate independent effect on the frequency of diabetes. Older patients lost less weight than younger patients, but diabetes mellitus and arterial hypertension improved to the same extent in patients of different ages, and metabolic syndrome disappeared more in older patients, associated with a greater decrease of blood glucose. Frequency of removal of gastric banding and loss to follow-up were not different in different quartiles of age or in different quartiles of duration of obesity. Older patients, despite lower weight loss, have a response to bariatric surgery that is similar to that of younger patients; age and duration of obesity should not be considered as limits to indications to bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Suppression of the aging-associated decline in physical performance by a combination of resveratrol intake and habitual exercise in senescence-accelerated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Takatoshi; Haramizu, Satoshi; Ota, Noriyasu; Hase, Tadashi

    2009-08-01

    The decline in physical performance with increasing age is a crucial problem in our aging society. We examined the effects of resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound present in grapes, in combination with habitual exercise on the aging-associated decline in physical performance in senescence-accelerated prone mice (SAMP1). The endurance capacity of SAMP1 mice undergoing an exercise regimen (SAMP1-Ex) de