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Sample records for accelerate intestinal invasion

  1. The Inside Story of Shigella Invasion of Intestinal Epithelial Cells

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    Carayol, Nathalie; Tran Van Nhieu, Guy

    2013-01-01

    As opposed to other invasive pathogens that reside into host cells in a parasitic mode, Shigella, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery, invades the colonic mucosa but does not penetrate further to survive into deeper tissues. Instead, Shigella invades, replicates, and disseminates within the colonic mucosa. Bacterial invasion and spreading in intestinal epithelium lead to the elicitation of inflammatory responses responsible for the tissue destruction and shedding in the environment for further infection of other hosts. In this article, we highlight specific features of the Shigella arsenal of virulence determinants injected by a type III secretion apparatus (T3SA) that point to the targeting of intestinal epithelial cells as a discrete route of invasion during the initial event of the infectious process. PMID:24086068

  2. Intestinal complications following accelerated fractionated X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauer-Jensen, M.; Poulakos, L.; Osborne, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    Due to paucity of suitable animal models, it has been difficult to study the development of long-term intestinal complications following fractionated irradiation. We recently developed a model which allows multiple radiation exposures of a short segment of rat ileum without the need for repeated surgery. In the present series, this model was used to study the influence of shortening the total treatment time (accelerated fractionation) on development of radiation enteropathy. Male rats were orchiectomized and a short segment of distal ileum was transposed to the scrotum. Starting 3 weeks after surgery, the scrotum containing the intestinal segment was X-irradiated with 20 fractions of 2.8 Gy (total dose 56 Gy). Two fractionation schedules were compared: one fraction per day (total treatment time 26 days) and 3 fractions per day (total treatment time 7 days). Actuarial survival curves were obtained, and the degree of radiation injury was assessed 2, 8 and 26 weeks after the last radiation exposure using a semiquantitative histopathologic scoring system. There was no mortality from acute radiation injury in either treatment group. All animals of the 1-fraction/day group survived the observation period (26 weeks). In the 3-fraction/day group, there was significant mortality due to intestinal obstruction, and cumulative mortality at 26 weeks was 100%. Radiation injury, as assessed by the histopathologic scoring system, was also more pronounced in this group than in the 1-fraction/day group. We conclude that shortening the total treatment time significantly increases the severity of late intestinal complications. Our data are suggestive of an association between acute mucosal damage and chronic radiation injury of the small intestine. (orig.)

  3. Intestinal invasion and disseminated disease associated with Penicillium chrysogenum

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    Herchline Thomas E

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Penicillium sp., other than P. marneffei, is an unusual cause of invasive disease. These organisms are often identified in immunosuppressed patients, either due to human immunodeficiency virus or from immunosuppressant medications post-transplantation. They are a rarely identified cause of infection in immunocompetent hosts. Case presentation A 51 year old African-American female presented with an acute abdomen and underwent an exploratory laparotomy which revealed an incarcerated peristomal hernia. Her postoperative course was complicated by severe sepsis syndrome with respiratory failure, hypotension, leukocytosis, and DIC. On postoperative day 9 she was found to have an anastamotic breakdown. Pathology from the second surgery showed transmural ischemic necrosis with angioinvasion of a fungal organism. Fungal blood cultures were positive for Penicillium chrysogenum and the patient completed a 6 week course of amphotericin B lipid complex, followed by an extended course oral intraconazole. She was discharged to a nursing home without evidence of recurrent infection. Discussion Penicillium chrysogenum is a rare cause of infection in immunocompetent patients. Diagnosis can be difficult, but Penicillium sp. grows rapidly on routine fungal cultures. Prognosis remains very poor, but aggressive treatment is essential, including surgical debridement and the removal of foci of infection along with the use of amphotericin B. The clinical utility of newer antifungal agents remains to be determined.

  4. Fecal lipocalin 2, a sensitive and broadly dynamic non-invasive biomarker for intestinal inflammation.

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    Chassaing, Benoit; Srinivasan, Gayathri; Delgado, Maria A; Young, Andrew N; Gewirtz, Andrew T; Vijay-Kumar, Matam

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation has classically been defined histopathologically, especially by the presence of immune cell infiltrates. However, more recent studies suggest a role for "low-grade" inflammation in a variety of disorders ranging from metabolic syndrome to cancer, which is defined by modest elevations in pro-inflammatory gene expression. Consequently, there is a need for cost-effective, non-invasive biomarkers that, ideally, would have the sensitivity to detect low-grade inflammation and have a dynamic range broad enough to reflect classic robust intestinal inflammation. Herein, we report that, for assessment of intestinal inflammation, fecal lipocalin 2 (Lcn-2), measured by ELISA, serves this purpose. Specifically, using a well-characterized mouse model of DSS colitis, we observed that fecal Lcn-2 and intestinal expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, CXCL1, TNFα) are modestly but significantly induced by very low concentrations of DSS (0.25 and 0.5%), and become markedly elevated at higher concentrations of DSS (1.0 and 4.0%). As expected, careful histopathologic analysis noted only modest immune infiltrates at low DSS concentration and robust colitis at higher DSS concentrations. In accordance, increased levels of the neutrophil product myeloperoxidase (MPO) was only detected in mice given 1.0 and 4.0% DSS. In addition, fecal Lcn-2 marks the severity of spontaneous colitis development in IL-10 deficient mice. Unlike histopathology, MPO, and q-RT-PCR, the assay of fecal Lcn-2 requires only a stool sample, permits measurement over time, and can detect inflammation as early as 1 day following DSS administration. Thus, assay of fecal Lcn-2 by ELISA can function as a non-invasive, sensitive, dynamic, stable and cost-effective means to monitor intestinal inflammation in mice.

  5. Mononuclear phagocytes contribute to intestinal invasion and dissemination of Yersinia enterocolitica.

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    Drechsler-Hake, Doreen; Alamir, Hanin; Hahn, Julia; Günter, Manina; Wagner, Samuel; Schütz, Monika; Bohn, Erwin; Schenke-Layland, Katja; Pisano, Fabio; Dersch, Petra; Autenrieth, Ingo B; Autenrieth, Stella E

    2016-09-01

    Enteropathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye) enters the host via contaminated food. After colonisation of the small intestine Ye invades the Peyer's patches (PPs) via M cells and disseminates to the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), spleen and liver. Whether Ye uses other invasion routes and which pathogenicity factors are required remains elusive. Oral infection of lymphotoxin-β-receptor deficient mice lacking PPs and MLNs with Ye revealed similar bacterial load in the spleen 1h post infection as wild-type mice, demonstrating a PP-independent dissemination route for Ye. Immunohistological analysis of the small intestine revealed Ye in close contact with mononuclear phagocytes (MPs), specifically CX3CR1(+) monocyte-derived cells (MCs) as well as CD103(+) dendritic cells (DCs). This finding was confirmed by flow cytometry and imaging flow cytometry analysis of lamina propria (LP) leukocytes showing CD103(+) DCs and MCs with intracellular Ye. Uptake of Ye by LP CD103(+) DCs and MCs was dependent on the pathogenicity factor invasin, whereas the adhesin YadA was dispensable as demonstrated by Ye deletion mutants. Furthermore, Ye were found exclusively associated with CD103(+) DCs in the MLNs from wild-type mice, but not from CCR7(-/-) mice, demonstrating a CCR7 dependent transport of Ye by CD103(+) DCs from LP to the MLNs. In contrast, dissemination of Ye to the spleen was dependent on MCs as significantly less Ye could be recovered from the spleen of CX3CR1(GFP/GFP) mice compared to wild-type mice. Altogether, MCs and CD103(+) DCs contribute to immediate invasion and dissemination of Ye. This together with data from other bacteria suggests MPs as general pathogenic entry site in the intestine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhancement of the non-invasive electroenterogram to identify intestinal pacemaker activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye-Lin, Y; Garcia-Casado, J; Prats-Boluda, G; Martinez-de-Juan, J L; Ponce, J L

    2009-01-01

    Surface recording of electroenterogram (EEnG) is a non-invasive method for monitoring intestinal myoelectrical activity. However, surface EEnG is seriously affected by a variety of interferences: cardiac activity, respiration, very low frequency components and movement artefacts. The aim of this study is to eliminate respiratory interference and very low frequency components from external EEnG recording by means of empirical mode decomposition (EMD), so as to obtain more robust indicators of intestinal pacemaker activity from the external EEnG signal. For this purpose, 11 recording sessions were performed in an animal model under fasting conditions and in each individual session the myoelectrical signal was recorded simultaneously in the intestinal serosa and the external abdominal surface in physiological states. Various parameters have been proposed for evaluating the efficacy of the method in reducing interferences: the signal-to-interference ratio (S/I ratio), attenuation of the target and interference signals, the normal slow wave percentage and the stability of the dominant frequency (DF) of the signal. The results show that the S/I ratio of the processed signals is significantly greater than the original values (9.66 ± 4.44 dB versus 1.23 ± 5.13 dB), while the target signal was barely attenuated (−0.63 ± 1.02 dB). The application of the EMD method also increased the percentage of the normal slow wave to 100% in each individual session and enabled the stability of the DF of the external signal to be increased considerably. Furthermore, the variation coefficient of the DF derived from the external processed signals is comparable to the coefficient obtained using internal recordings. Therefore, the EMD method could be a very useful tool to improve the quality of external EEnG recording in the low frequency range and therefore to obtain more robust indicators of the intestinal pacemaker activity from non-invasive EEnG recordings

  7. Feed-additive probiotics accelerate yet antibiotics delay intestinal microbiota maturation in broiler chicken.

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    Gao, Pengfei; Ma, Chen; Sun, Zheng; Wang, Lifeng; Huang, Shi; Su, Xiaoquan; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Heping

    2017-08-03

    Reducing antibiotics overuse in animal agriculture is one key in combat against the spread of antibiotic resistance. Probiotics are a potential replacement of antibiotics in animal feed; however, it is not clear whether and how probiotics and antibiotics differ in impact on physiology and microbial ecology of host animals. Host phenotype and fecal microbiota of broilers with either antibiotics or probiotics as feed additive were simultaneously sampled at four time points from birth to slaughter and then compared. Probiotic feeding resulted in a lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) and induced the highest level of immunity response, suggesting greater economic benefits in broiler farming. Probiotic use but not antibiotic use recapitulated the characteristics of age-dependent development of gut microbiota in the control group. The maturation of intestinal microbiota was greatly accelerated by probiotic feeding, yet significantly retarded and eventually delayed by antibiotic feeding. LP-8 stimulated the growth of many intestinal Lactobacillus spp. and led to an altered bacterial correlation network where Lactobacillus spp. are negatively correlated with 14 genera and positively linked with none, yet from the start antibiotic feeding featured a less-organized network where such inter-genera interactions were fewer and weaker. Consistently, microbiota-encoded functions as revealed by metagenome sequencing were highly distinct between the two groups. Thus, "intestinal microbiota maturation index" was proposed to quantitatively compare impact of feed additives on animal microecology. Our results reveal a tremendous potential of probiotics as antibiotics' substitute in poultry farming.

  8. Hurricanes accelerated the Florida-Bahamas lionfish invasion.

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    Johnston, Matthew W; Purkis, Sam J

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we demonstrate how perturbations to the Florida Current caused by hurricanes are relevant to the spread of invasive lionfish from Florida to the Bahamas. Without such perturbations, this current represents a potential barrier to the transport of planktonic lionfish eggs and larvae across the Straits of Florida. We further show that once lionfish became established in the Bahamas, hurricanes significantly hastened their spread through the island chain. We gain these insights through: (1) an analysis of the direction and velocity of simulated ocean currents during the passage of hurricanes through the Florida Straits and (2) the development of a biophysical model that incorporates the tolerances of lionfish to ocean climate, their reproductive strategy, and duration that the larvae remain viable in the water column. On the basis of this work, we identify 23 occasions between the years 1992 and 2006 in which lionfish were provided the opportunity to breach the Florida Current. We also find that hurricanes during this period increased the rate of spread of lionfish through the Bahamas by more than 45% and magnified its population by at least 15%. Beyond invasive lionfish, we suggest that extreme weather events such as hurricanes likely help to homogenize the gene pool for all Caribbean marine species susceptible to transport. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Intestinal Adenovirus Shedding Before Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation Is a Risk Factor for Invasive Infection Post-transplant

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    Karin Kosulin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Human adenoviruses (HAdV are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric human stem cell transplant (HSCT recipients. Our previous studies identified the gastrointestinal tract as a site of HAdV persistence, but the role of intestinal virus shedding pre-transplant for the risk of ensuing invasive infection has not been entirely elucidated. Molecular HAdV monitoring of serial stool samples using RQ-PCR was performed in 304 children undergoing allogeneic HSCT. Analysis of stool and peripheral blood specimens was performed pre-transplant and at short intervals until day 100 post-HSCT. The virus was detected in the stool of 129 patients (42%, and 42 tested positive already before HSCT. The patients displaying HAdV shedding pre-transplant showed a significantly earlier increase of intestinal HAdV levels above the critical threshold associated with high risk of invasive infection (p < 0.01. In this subset of patients, the occurrence of invasive infection characterized by viremia was significantly higher than in patients without HAdV shedding before HSCT (33% vs 7%; p < 0.0001. The data demonstrate that intestinal HAdV shedding before HSCT confers a greatly increased risk for invasive infection and disseminated disease post-transplant, and highlights the need for timely HAdV monitoring and pre-emptive therapeutic considerations in HSCT recipients.

  10. Deficiency in DNA damage response of enterocytes accelerates intestinal stem cell aging in Drosophila.

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    Park, Joung-Sun; Jeon, Ho-Jun; Pyo, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Young-Shin; Yoo, Mi-Ae

    2018-03-07

    Stem cell dysfunction is closely linked to tissue and organismal aging and age-related diseases, and heavily influenced by the niche cells' environment. The DNA damage response (DDR) is a key pathway for tissue degeneration and organismal aging; however, the precise protective role of DDR in stem cell/niche aging is unclear. The Drosophila midgut is an excellent model to study the biology of stem cell/niche aging because of its easy genetic manipulation and its short lifespan. Here, we showed that deficiency of DDR in Drosophila enterocytes (ECs) accelerates intestinal stem cell (ISC) aging. We generated flies with knockdown of Mre11 , Rad50 , Nbs1 , ATM , ATR , Chk1 , and Chk2 , which decrease the DDR system in ECs. EC-specific DDR depletion induced EC death, accelerated the aging of ISCs, as evidenced by ISC hyperproliferation, DNA damage accumulation, and increased centrosome amplification, and affected the adult fly's survival. Our data indicated a distinct effect of DDR depletion in stem or niche cells on tissue-resident stem cell proliferation. Our findings provide evidence of the essential role of DDR in protecting EC against ISC aging, thus providing a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of stem cell/niche aging.

  11. Insights into embryo defenses of the invasive apple snail Pomacea canaliculata: egg mass ingestion affects rat intestine morphology and growth.

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    Dreon, Marcos S; Fernández, Patricia E; Gimeno, Eduardo J; Heras, Horacio

    2014-06-01

    The spread of the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata is expanding the rat lungworm disease beyond its native range. Their toxic eggs have virtually no predators and unusual defenses including a neurotoxic lectin and a proteinase inhibitor, presumably advertised by a warning coloration. We explored the effect of egg perivitellin fluid (PVF) ingestion on the rat small intestine morphology and physiology. Through a combination of biochemical, histochemical, histopathological, scanning electron microscopy, cell culture and feeding experiments, we analyzed intestinal morphology, growth rate, hemaglutinating activity, cytotoxicity and cell proliferation after oral administration of PVF to rats. PVF adversely affects small intestine metabolism and morphology and consequently the standard growth rate, presumably by lectin-like proteins, as suggested by PVF hemaglutinating activity and its cytotoxic effect on Caco-2 cell culture. Short-term effects of ingested PVF were studied in growing rats. PVF-supplemented diet induced the appearance of shorter and wider villi as well as fused villi. This was associated with changes in glycoconjugate expression, increased cell proliferation at crypt base, and hypertrophic mucosal growth. This resulted in a decreased absorptive surface after 3 days of treatment and a diminished rat growth rate that reverted to normal after the fourth day of treatment. Longer exposure to PVF induced a time-dependent lengthening of the small intestine while switching to a control diet restored intestine length and morphology after 4 days. Ingestion of PVF rapidly limits the ability of potential predators to absorb nutrients by inducing large, reversible changes in intestinal morphology and growth rate. The occurrence of toxins that affect intestinal morphology and absorption is a strategy against predation not recognized among animals before. Remarkably, this defense is rather similar to the toxic effect of plant antipredator strategies. This defense

  12. Insights into embryo defenses of the invasive apple snail Pomacea canaliculata: egg mass ingestion affects rat intestine morphology and growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos S Dreon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The spread of the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata is expanding the rat lungworm disease beyond its native range. Their toxic eggs have virtually no predators and unusual defenses including a neurotoxic lectin and a proteinase inhibitor, presumably advertised by a warning coloration. We explored the effect of egg perivitellin fluid (PVF ingestion on the rat small intestine morphology and physiology.Through a combination of biochemical, histochemical, histopathological, scanning electron microscopy, cell culture and feeding experiments, we analyzed intestinal morphology, growth rate, hemaglutinating activity, cytotoxicity and cell proliferation after oral administration of PVF to rats. PVF adversely affects small intestine metabolism and morphology and consequently the standard growth rate, presumably by lectin-like proteins, as suggested by PVF hemaglutinating activity and its cytotoxic effect on Caco-2 cell culture. Short-term effects of ingested PVF were studied in growing rats. PVF-supplemented diet induced the appearance of shorter and wider villi as well as fused villi. This was associated with changes in glycoconjugate expression, increased cell proliferation at crypt base, and hypertrophic mucosal growth. This resulted in a decreased absorptive surface after 3 days of treatment and a diminished rat growth rate that reverted to normal after the fourth day of treatment. Longer exposure to PVF induced a time-dependent lengthening of the small intestine while switching to a control diet restored intestine length and morphology after 4 days.Ingestion of PVF rapidly limits the ability of potential predators to absorb nutrients by inducing large, reversible changes in intestinal morphology and growth rate. The occurrence of toxins that affect intestinal morphology and absorption is a strategy against predation not recognized among animals before. Remarkably, this defense is rather similar to the toxic effect of plant antipredator strategies

  13. Effects of positive acceleration exposure on intestinal mucosal barrier and sIgA level in rats

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    Jie QIU

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the effect of positive acceleration (+Gz on immune barrier of intestinal mucosa in rats. Methods  Thirty two male SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (8 each: Group A (control group, Group B (+5Gz group, Group C (+10Gz group and Group D (repeated exposure group. The animal centrifuge was used to simulate the exposure of acceleration. Group A was no disposed. +5Gz group and +10Gz group were subjected to centrifugal force of +5Gz and +10Gz respectively for 5min; repeated exposure group was continuously exposed to 1.5min under +5Gz value, 2min under +10Gz value and 1.5min under +5Gz. All groups were exposed to the respective acceleration once daily for 5 days. The damage of intestinal mucosa was observed by light microscopy after the experiment was finished, and the content of sIgA in intestinal mucosa was detected by ELISA. Results  Except for group A, intestinal mucosal injury was observed in the other three groups. Group D was shown as the most serious one, followed by group C and group B. Compared with group A, the level of sIgA was significantly lower in other three groups (P<0.05. The level of sIgA in group C was significantly lower than that in group B (P<0.05 and higher than that in group D (P<0.05. Conclusion  +Gz exposure can result in intestinal injury and weaken the function of immune barrier of intestinal mucosa in rats. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.10.14

  14. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supernatant enhance neonatal resistance to systemic Escherichia coli K1 infection by accelerating development of intestinal defense

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaolong He; Qing Zeng; Santhosh Puthiyakunnon; Zhijie Zeng; Weijun Yang; Jiawen Qiu; Lei Du; Swapna Boddu; Tongwei Wu; Danxian Cai; Sheng-He Huang; Hong Cao

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG culture supernatant (LCS) has a preventive effect against gut-derived systemic neonatal Escherichia coli (E. coli) K1 infection. The preventive effects were evaluated in human colonic carcinoma cell line Caco-2 and neonatal rat models. Our in vitro results showed that LCS could block adhesion, invasion and translocation of E. coli K1 to Caco-2 monolayer via up-regulating mucin production and maintaining intestinal...

  15. THE RATIONALE FOR ALPHA-INTERFERON IMMUNOTHERAPY IN INFANTS WITH FUNCTIONAL GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS AND ACUTE INVASIVE INTESTINAL INFECTION

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    E. R. Meskina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute intestinal  infections  in children are a considerable  medical and social problem  worldwide. Immune therapy  could  help  to reduce the frequency of post-infectious functional intestinal dysfunction  in patients  with comorbidities. Aim: To evaluate  the  efficacy of human  recombinant interferon  alpha-2b, administered at acute  phase  of an acute  invasive intestinal  infection to infants in the first months  of age, suffering from functional  bowel  disorders. Materials and methods: This  was  an  open-label,  randomized (envelope method, prospective  study in two parallel groups. The study included  59 infants of the  first months  of life, who were breastfed, had a history of intestinal  dysfunction  and were hospitalized  to  an  infectious  department. We studied  efficacy of recombinant interferon  alpha-2b administered in rectal suppositories  at a dose  of   chromatography with measurement of short-chain fatty acids. Results: Standard treatment was ineffective in 63.3% (95% CI 43.9–80.0% of patients. Administration   of  interferon   alpha-2b   reduced the rate of treatment failure by day 14 to 32% (95% CI 9–56% and  the  risk of persistent  diarrhea  for more than  one month  to 29% (95% CI 5–53%. In those patients  who were administered interferon, inflammation at days 25 to 55 was less severe and the levels of i-forms of short-chain fatty acids were lower. Conclusion: Immunotherapy with recombinant interferon alpha-2b seems to be a promising way to improve  combination treatment of acute invasive intestinal infections in infants with a history of intestinal dysfunction, as it reduces the risk of post-infectious intestinal disorders.

  16. Invasive hybridization in a threatened species is accelerated by climate change

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    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Kovach, Ryan P.; Jones, Leslie A.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert; Boyer, Matthew C.; Leary, Robb F.; Lowe, Winsor H.; Luikart, Gordon; Allendorf, Fred W.

    2014-07-01

    Climate change will decrease worldwide biodiversity through a number of potential pathways, including invasive hybridization (cross-breeding between invasive and native species). How climate warming influences the spread of hybridization and loss of native genomes poses difficult ecological and evolutionary questions with little empirical information to guide conservation management decisions. Here we combine long-term genetic monitoring data with high-resolution climate and stream temperature predictions to evaluate how recent climate warming has influenced the spatio-temporal spread of human-mediated hybridization between threatened native westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) and non-native rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the world's most widely introduced invasive fish. Despite widespread release of millions of rainbow trout over the past century within the Flathead River system, a large relatively pristine watershed in western North America, historical samples revealed that hybridization was prevalent only in one (source) population. During a subsequent 30-year period of accelerated warming, hybridization spread rapidly and was strongly linked to interactions between climatic drivers--precipitation and temperature--and distance to the source population. Specifically, decreases in spring precipitation and increases in summer stream temperature probably promoted upstream expansion of hybridization throughout the system. This study shows that rapid climate warming can exacerbate interactions between native and non-native species through invasive hybridization, which could spell genomic extinction for many species.

  17. Invasive hybridization in a threatened species is accelerated by climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Kovach, Ryan P.; Jones, Leslie A.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Boyer, Matthew C.; Leary, Robb F.; Lowe, Winsor H.; Luikart, Gordon; Allendorf, Fred W.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change will decrease worldwide biodiversity through a number of potential pathways, including invasive hybridization (cross-breeding between invasive and native species). How climate warming influences the spread of hybridization and loss of native genomes poses difficult ecological and evolutionary questions with little empirical information to guide conservation management decisions. Here we combine long-term genetic monitoring data with high-resolution climate and stream temperature predictions to evaluate how recent climate warming has influenced the spatio-temporal spread of human-mediated hybridization between threatened native westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) and non-native rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the world’s most widely introduced invasive fish. Despite widespread release of millions of rainbow trout over the past century within the Flathead River system, a large relatively pristine watershed in western North America, historical samples revealed that hybridization was prevalent only in one (source) population. During a subsequent 30-year period of accelerated warming, hybridization spread rapidly and was strongly linked to interactions between climatic drivers—precipitation and temperature—and distance to the source population. Specifically, decreases in spring precipitation and increases in summer stream temperature probably promoted upstream expansion of hybridization throughout the system. This study shows that rapid climate warming can exacerbate interactions between native and non-native species through invasive hybridization, which could spell genomic extinction for many species.

  18. A non-invasive method for fractionated steriotactic irradiation of brain tumors with linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hariz, M.I.; Laitinen, L.V.; Henriksson, R.; Saeterborg, N.-E.; Loefroth, P.-O.

    1990-01-01

    A new technique for fractionated stereotactic irradiation of intracranial lesions is described. The treatment is based on a versatile, non-invasive interface for stereotactic localization of the brain target imaged by computed tomography (CT), angiography or magnetic resonance tomography (MRT), and subsequent repetitive stereotactic irradiation of the target using a linear accelerator. The fractionation of the stereotactic irradiation was intended to meet the requirements of the basic principles of radiobiology. The radiophysical evaluation using phantoms, and the clinical results in a small number of patients, demonstrated a good reproducibilit between repeated positionings of the target in the isocenter of the accelerator, and a high degree of accuracy in the treatment of brain lesions. (authors). 28 refs.; 11 figs.; 1 tab

  19. Long-term Outcomes in Treatment of Invasive Bladder Cancer With Concomitant Boost and Accelerated Hyperfractionated Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canyilmaz, Emine; Yavuz, Melek Nur; Serdar, Lasif; Uslu, Gonca Hanedan; Zengin, Ahmet Yasar; Aynaci, Ozlem; Haciislamoglu, Emel; Bahat, Zumrut; Yoney, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term clinical efficacy and toxicity of concomitant boost and accelerated hyperfractionated radiation therapy (CBAHRT) in patients with invasive bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: Between October 1997 and September 2012, 334 patients with diagnoses of invasive bladder cancer were selected. These patients received CBAHRT as a bladder-conserving approach. The treatment consisted of a dose of 45 Gy/1.8 Gy to the whole pelvis with a daily concomitant boost of 1.5 Gy to the tumor. Total dose was 67.5 Gy in 5 weeks. A total of 32 patients (10.3%) had a diagnosis of stage T1, 202 (64.3%) were at stage T2, 46 (14.6%) were at stage T3a, 22 (7%) were at stage T3b, and 12 (3.8%) were at stage T4a. Results: The follow-up period was 33.1 months (range, 4.3-223.3 months). Grade 3 late intestinal toxicity was observed in 9 patients (2.9%), whereas grade 3 late urinary toxicity was observed in 8 patients (2.5%). The median overall survival (OS) was 26.3 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 21.4-31.2). The 5-, 10, and 15-year OS rates were 32.1% (standard error [SE], ± 0.027), 17.9% (SE, ± 0.025) and 12.5% (SE, ± 0.028), respectively. The median cause-specific survival (CSS) was 42.1 months (95% CI: 28.7-55.5). The 5-, 10-, and 15-year CSS rates were 43.2% (SE, ± 0.03), 30.3% (SE, ± 0.03), and 28% (SE, ± 0.04), respectively. The median relapse-free survival (RFS) was 111.8 months (95% CI: 99.6-124). The 5-, 10-, and 15-year RFS rates were 61.9% (SE, ± 0.03), 57.6% (SE, ± 0.04), and 48.2% (SE, ± 0.07), respectively. Conclusions: The CBAHRT technique demonstrated acceptable toxicity and local control rates in patients with invasive bladder cancer, and this therapy facilitated bladder conservation. In selected patients, the CBAHRT technique is a practical alternative treatment option with acceptable 5-, 10-, and 15-year results in patients undergoing cystectomy as well as concurrent chemoradiation therapy

  20. Long-term Outcomes in Treatment of Invasive Bladder Cancer With Concomitant Boost and Accelerated Hyperfractionated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canyilmaz, Emine, E-mail: dremocan@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey); Yavuz, Melek Nur [Department of Radiation Oncology, Akdeniz University, Antalya (Turkey); Serdar, Lasif [Department of Radiation Oncology, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey); Uslu, Gonca Hanedan; Zengin, Ahmet Yasar [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kanuni Research and Education Hospital, Trabzon (Turkey); Aynaci, Ozlem; Haciislamoglu, Emel; Bahat, Zumrut; Yoney, Adnan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term clinical efficacy and toxicity of concomitant boost and accelerated hyperfractionated radiation therapy (CBAHRT) in patients with invasive bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: Between October 1997 and September 2012, 334 patients with diagnoses of invasive bladder cancer were selected. These patients received CBAHRT as a bladder-conserving approach. The treatment consisted of a dose of 45 Gy/1.8 Gy to the whole pelvis with a daily concomitant boost of 1.5 Gy to the tumor. Total dose was 67.5 Gy in 5 weeks. A total of 32 patients (10.3%) had a diagnosis of stage T1, 202 (64.3%) were at stage T2, 46 (14.6%) were at stage T3a, 22 (7%) were at stage T3b, and 12 (3.8%) were at stage T4a. Results: The follow-up period was 33.1 months (range, 4.3-223.3 months). Grade 3 late intestinal toxicity was observed in 9 patients (2.9%), whereas grade 3 late urinary toxicity was observed in 8 patients (2.5%). The median overall survival (OS) was 26.3 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 21.4-31.2). The 5-, 10, and 15-year OS rates were 32.1% (standard error [SE], ± 0.027), 17.9% (SE, ± 0.025) and 12.5% (SE, ± 0.028), respectively. The median cause-specific survival (CSS) was 42.1 months (95% CI: 28.7-55.5). The 5-, 10-, and 15-year CSS rates were 43.2% (SE, ± 0.03), 30.3% (SE, ± 0.03), and 28% (SE, ± 0.04), respectively. The median relapse-free survival (RFS) was 111.8 months (95% CI: 99.6-124). The 5-, 10-, and 15-year RFS rates were 61.9% (SE, ± 0.03), 57.6% (SE, ± 0.04), and 48.2% (SE, ± 0.07), respectively. Conclusions: The CBAHRT technique demonstrated acceptable toxicity and local control rates in patients with invasive bladder cancer, and this therapy facilitated bladder conservation. In selected patients, the CBAHRT technique is a practical alternative treatment option with acceptable 5-, 10-, and 15-year results in patients undergoing cystectomy as well as concurrent chemoradiation therapy.

  1. Development of an in vivo model for study of intestinal invasion by Salmonella enterica in chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Søren; Christensen, J.P.; Chadfield, M.S.

    2000-01-01

    , followed by a 1-h incubation with gentamicin in order to kill noninvading bacteria. After euthanasia, Salmonella invasiveness was measured as tissue-associated counts relative to a reference strain. The ability of Salmonella invasion was 1 log(10) CFU higher per 42-mm(2) mucosal tissue in the anterior than...

  2. Acceleration of exotic plant invasion in a forested ecosystem by a generalist herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschtruth, Anne K; Battles, John J

    2009-04-01

    The successful invasion of exotic plants is often attributed to the absence of coevolved enemies in the introduced range (i.e., the enemy release hypothesis). Nevertheless, several components of this hypothesis, including the role of generalist herbivores, remain relatively unexplored. We used repeated censuses of exclosures and paired controls to investigate the role of a generalist herbivore, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), in the invasion of 3 exotic plant species (Microstegium vimineum, Alliaria petiolata, and Berberis thunbergii) in eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) forests in New Jersey and Pennsylvania (U.S.A.). This work was conducted in 10 eastern hemlock (T. canadensis) forests that spanned gradients in deer density and in the severity of canopy disturbance caused by an introduced insect pest, the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae). We used maximum likelihood estimation and information theoretics to quantify the strength of evidence for alternative models of the influence of deer density and its interaction with the severity of canopy disturbance on exotic plant abundance. Our results were consistent with the enemy release hypothesis in that exotic plants gained a competitive advantage in the presence of generalist herbivores in the introduced range. The abundance of all 3 exotic plants increased significantly more in the control plots than in the paired exclosures. For all species, the inclusion of canopy disturbance parameters resulted in models with substantially greater support than the deer density only models. Our results suggest that white-tailed deer herbivory can accelerate the invasion of exotic plants and that canopy disturbance can interact with herbivory to magnify the impact. In addition, our results provide compelling evidence of nonlinear relationships between deer density and the impact of herbivory on exotic species abundance. These findings highlight the important role of herbivore density in determining impacts on

  3. Oligomannose-Rich Membranes of Dying Intestinal Epithelial Cells Promote Host Colonization by Adherent-Invasive E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Dumych

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel mechanism is revealed by which clinical isolates of adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC penetrate into the epithelial cell layer, replicate, and establish biofilms in Crohn's disease. AIEC uses the FimH fimbrial adhesin to bind to oligomannose glycans on the surface of host cells. Oligomannose glycans exposed on early apoptotic cells are the preferred binding targets of AIEC, so apoptotic cells serve as potential entry points for bacteria into the epithelial cell layer. Thereafter, the bacteria propagate laterally in the epithelial intercellular spaces. We demonstrate oligomannosylation at two distinct sites of a glycoprotein receptor for AIEC, carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 6 (CEACAM6 or CD66c, on human intestinal epithelia. After bacterial binding, FimH interacts with CEACAM6, which then clusters. The presence of the highest-affinity epitope for FimH, oligomannose-5, on CEACAM6 is demonstrated using LC-MS/MS. As mannose-dependent infections are abundant, this mechanism might also be used by other adherent-invasive pathogens.

  4. Clinical Outcomes Using Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation in Patients With Invasive Lobular Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Chirag; Wilkinson, J. Ben; Shaitelman, Simona; Grills, Inga; Wallace, Michelle; Mitchell, Christina [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Cancer Institute, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Vicini, Frank, E-mail: fvicini@beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Cancer Institute, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: We compared clinical outcomes of women diagnosed with either invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) or invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Methods and Materials: A total of 16 patients with ILC received APBI as part of their breast-conservation therapy (BCT) and were compared with 410 patients with IDC that received APBI as part of their BCT. Clinical, pathologic, and treatment related variables were analyzed including age, tumor size, hormone receptor status, surgical margins, lymph node status, adjuvant hormonal therapy, adjuvant chemotherapy, and APBI modality. Clinical outcomes including local recurrence (LR), regional recurrence (RR), disease-free survival (DFS), cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. Results: Median follow-up was 3.8 years for the ILC patients and 6.0 years for the IDC patients. ILC patients were more likely to have positive margins (20.0% vs. 3.9%, p = 0.006), larger tumors (14.1 mm vs. 10.9 mm, p = 0.03) and less likely to be node positive (0% vs. 9.5%, p < 0.001) when compared with patients diagnosed with IDC. The 5-year rate of LR was 0% for the ILC cohort and 2.5% for the IDC cohort (p = 0.59). No differences were seen in the rates of RR (0% vs. 0.7%, p = 0.80), distant metastases (0% vs. 3.5%, p = 0.54), DFS (100% vs. 94%, p = 0.43), CSS (100% vs. 97%, p = 0.59), or OS (92% vs. 89%, p = 0.88) between the ILC and IDC patients, respectively. Additionally, when node-positive patients were excluded from the IDC cohort, no differences in the rates of LR (0% vs. 2.2%, p = 0.62), RR (0% vs. 0%), DFS (100% vs. 95%, p = 0.46), CSS (100% vs. 98%, p = 0.63), or OS (92% vs. 89%, p = 0.91) were noted between the ILC and IDC patients. Conclusion: Women with ILC had excellent clinical outcomes after APBI. No difference in local control was seen between patients with invasive lobular versus invasive ductal histology.

  5. Clinical Outcomes Using Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation in Patients With Invasive Lobular Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Chirag; Wilkinson, J. Ben; Shaitelman, Simona; Grills, Inga; Wallace, Michelle; Mitchell, Christina; Vicini, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: We compared clinical outcomes of women diagnosed with either invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) or invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Methods and Materials: A total of 16 patients with ILC received APBI as part of their breast-conservation therapy (BCT) and were compared with 410 patients with IDC that received APBI as part of their BCT. Clinical, pathologic, and treatment related variables were analyzed including age, tumor size, hormone receptor status, surgical margins, lymph node status, adjuvant hormonal therapy, adjuvant chemotherapy, and APBI modality. Clinical outcomes including local recurrence (LR), regional recurrence (RR), disease-free survival (DFS), cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. Results: Median follow-up was 3.8 years for the ILC patients and 6.0 years for the IDC patients. ILC patients were more likely to have positive margins (20.0% vs. 3.9%, p = 0.006), larger tumors (14.1 mm vs. 10.9 mm, p = 0.03) and less likely to be node positive (0% vs. 9.5%, p < 0.001) when compared with patients diagnosed with IDC. The 5-year rate of LR was 0% for the ILC cohort and 2.5% for the IDC cohort (p = 0.59). No differences were seen in the rates of RR (0% vs. 0.7%, p = 0.80), distant metastases (0% vs. 3.5%, p = 0.54), DFS (100% vs. 94%, p = 0.43), CSS (100% vs. 97%, p = 0.59), or OS (92% vs. 89%, p = 0.88) between the ILC and IDC patients, respectively. Additionally, when node-positive patients were excluded from the IDC cohort, no differences in the rates of LR (0% vs. 2.2%, p = 0.62), RR (0% vs. 0%), DFS (100% vs. 95%, p = 0.46), CSS (100% vs. 98%, p = 0.63), or OS (92% vs. 89%, p = 0.91) were noted between the ILC and IDC patients. Conclusion: Women with ILC had excellent clinical outcomes after APBI. No difference in local control was seen between patients with invasive lobular versus invasive ductal histology.

  6. Kefir-isolated bacteria and yeasts inhibit Shigella flexneri invasion and modulate pro-inflammatory response on intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolla, P A; Abraham, A G; Pérez, P F; de Los Angeles Serradell, M

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of a kefir-isolated microbial mixture containing three bacterial and two yeast strains (MM) to protect intestinal epithelial cells against Shigella flexneri invasion, as well as to analyse the effect on pro-inflammatory response elicited by this pathogen. A significant decrease in S. flexneri strain 72 invasion was observed on both HT-29 and Caco-2 cells pre-incubated with MM. Pre-incubation with the individual strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae CIDCA 8112 or Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CIDCA 8221 also reduced the internalisation of S. flexneri into HT-29 cells although in a lesser extent than MM. Interestingly, Lactobacillus plantarum CIDCA 83114 exerted a protective effect on the invasion of Caco-2 and HT-29 cells by S. flexneri. Regarding the pro-inflammatory response on HT-29 cells, S. flexneri infection induced a significant activation of the expression of interleukin 8 (IL-8), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) encoding genes (P<0.05), whereas incubation of cells with MM did not induce the expression of any of the mediators assessed. Interestingly, pre-incubation of HT-29 monolayer with MM produced an inhibition of S. flexneri-induced IL-8, CCL20 and TNF-α mRNA expression. In order to gain insight on the effect of MM (or the individual strains) on this pro-inflammatory response, a series of experiments using a HT-29-NF-κB-hrGFP reporter system were performed. Pre-incubation of HT-29-NF-κB-hrGFP cells with MM significantly dampened Shigella-induced activation. Our results showed that the contribution of yeast strain Kluyveromyces marxianus CIDCA 8154 seems to be crucial in the observed effect. In conclusion, results presented in this study demonstrate that pre-treatment with a microbial mixture containing bacteria and yeasts isolated from kefir, resulted in inhibition of S. flexneri internalisation into human intestinal epithelial cells, along with the

  7. A Flexible Multiring Concentric Electrode for Non-Invasive Identification of Intestinal Slow Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Zena-Giménez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing new types of optimized electrodes for specific biomedical applications can substantially improve the quality of the sensed signals. Concentric ring electrodes have been shown to provide enhanced spatial resolution to that of conventional disc electrodes. A sensor with different electrode sizes and configurations (monopolar, bipolar, etc. that provides simultaneous records would be very helpful for studying the best signal-sensing arrangement. A 5-pole electrode with an inner disc and four concentric rings of different sizes was developed and tested on surface intestinal myoelectrical recordings from healthy humans. For good adaptation to a curved body surface, the electrode was screen-printed onto a flexible polyester substrate. To facilitate clinical use, it is self-adhesive, incorporates a single connector and can perform dry or wet (with gel recordings. The results show it to be a versatile electrode that can evaluate the optimal configuration for the identification of the intestinal slow wave and reject undesired interference. A bipolar concentric record with an outer ring diameter of 30 mm, a foam-free adhesive material, and electrolytic gel gave the best results.

  8. Loss of Cdh1 and Pten Accelerates Cellular Invasiveness and Angiogenesis in the Mouse Uterus1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Mallory E.; Stodden, Genna R.; King, Mandy L.; MacLean, James A.; Mann, Jordan L.; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Lydon, John P.; Hayashi, Kanako

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT E-cadherin (CDH1) is a cell adhesion molecule that coordinates key morphogenetic processes regulating cell growth, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Loss of CDH1 is a trademark of the cellular event epithelial to mesenchymal transition, which increases the metastatic potential of malignant cells. PTEN is a tumor-suppressor gene commonly mutated in many human cancers, including endometrial cancer. In the mouse uterus, ablation of Pten induces epithelial hyperplasia, leading to endometrial carcinomas. However, loss of Pten alone does not affect longevity until around 5 mo. Similarly, conditional ablation of Cdh1 alone does not predispose mice to cancer. In this study, we characterized the impact of dual Cdh1 and Pten ablation (Cdh1d/d Ptend/d) in the mouse uterus. We observed that Cdh1d/d Ptend/d mice died at Postnatal Days 15–19 with massive blood loss. Their uteri were abnormally structured with curly horns, disorganized epithelial structure, and increased cell proliferation. Co-immunostaining of KRT8 and ACTA2 showed invasion of epithelial cells into the myometrium. Further, the uteri of Cdh1d/d Ptend/d mice had prevalent vascularization in both the endometrium and myometrium. We also observed reduced expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors, loss of cell adherens, and tight junction molecules (CTNNB1 and claudin), as well as activation of AKT in the uteri of Cdh1d/d Ptend/d mice. However, complex hyperplasia was not found in the uteri of Cdh1d/d Ptend/d mice. Collectively, these findings suggest that ablation of Pten with Cdh1 in the uterus accelerates cellular invasiveness and angiogenesis and causes early death. PMID:23740945

  9. Loss of CDH1 and Pten accelerates cellular invasiveness and angiogenesis in the mouse uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Mallory E; Stodden, Genna R; King, Mandy L; MacLean, James A; Mann, Jordan L; DeMayo, Francesco J; Lydon, John P; Hayashi, Kanako

    2013-07-01

    E-cadherin (CDH1) is a cell adhesion molecule that coordinates key morphogenetic processes regulating cell growth, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Loss of CDH1 is a trademark of the cellular event epithelial to mesenchymal transition, which increases the metastatic potential of malignant cells. PTEN is a tumor-suppressor gene commonly mutated in many human cancers, including endometrial cancer. In the mouse uterus, ablation of Pten induces epithelial hyperplasia, leading to endometrial carcinomas. However, loss of Pten alone does not affect longevity until around 5 mo. Similarly, conditional ablation of Cdh1 alone does not predispose mice to cancer. In this study, we characterized the impact of dual Cdh1 and Pten ablation (Cdh1(d/d) Pten(d/d)) in the mouse uterus. We observed that Cdh1(d/d) Pten(d/d) mice died at Postnatal Days 15-19 with massive blood loss. Their uteri were abnormally structured with curly horns, disorganized epithelial structure, and increased cell proliferation. Co-immunostaining of KRT8 and ACTA2 showed invasion of epithelial cells into the myometrium. Further, the uteri of Cdh1(d/d) Pten(d/d) mice had prevalent vascularization in both the endometrium and myometrium. We also observed reduced expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors, loss of cell adherens, and tight junction molecules (CTNNB1 and claudin), as well as activation of AKT in the uteri of Cdh1(d/d) Pten(d/d) mice. However, complex hyperplasia was not found in the uteri of Cdh1(d/d) Pten(d/d) mice. Collectively, these findings suggest that ablation of Pten with Cdh1 in the uterus accelerates cellular invasiveness and angiogenesis and causes early death.

  10. The type VI secretion system impacts bacterial invasion and population dynamics in a model intestinal microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Savannah L.; Shields, Drew S.; Hammer, Brian K.; Xavier, Joao B.; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer

    Animal gastrointestinal tracts are home to a diverse community of microbes. The mechanisms by which microbial species interact and compete in this dense, physically dynamic space are poorly understood, limiting our understanding of how natural communities are assembled and how different communities could be engineered. Here, we focus on a physical mechanism for competition: the type VI secretion system (T6SS). The T6SS is a syringe-like organelle used by certain bacteria to translocate effector proteins across the cell membranes of target bacterial cells, killing them. Here, we use T6SS+ and T6SS- strains of V. cholerae, the pathogen that causes cholera in humans, and light sheet fluorescence microscopy for in vivo imaging to show that the T6SS provides an advantage to strains colonizing the larval zebrafish gut. Furthermore, we show that T6SS+ bacteria can invade and alter an existing population of a different species in the zebrafish gut, reducing its abundance and changing the form of its population dynamics. This work both demonstrates a mechanism for altering the gut microbiota with an invasive species and explores the processes controlling the stability and dynamics of the gut ecosystem. Research Corporation, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, and the Simons Foundation.

  11. Small intestinal obstruction secondary to direct invasion by recurrent non-hormonal adrenal cortical carcinoma: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colquhoun, I.R.; Nolan, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    A patient with an adrenal cortical carcinoma is presented in whom the neoplasm recurred with gastrointestinal symptoms from involvement of the proximal small intestine. The appearances as shown on a small bowel enema are described. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first radiological description of this neoplasm invading the small intestine. 8 refs.; 1 figure

  12. Minimally Invasive Techniques to Accelerate the Orthodontic Tooth Movement: A Systematic Review of Animal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Qamruddin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate various noninvasive and minimally invasive procedures for the enhancement of orthodontic tooth movement in animals. Materials and Methods. Literature was searched using NCBI (PubMed, PubMed Central, and PubMed Health, MedPilot (Medline, Catalogue ZB MED, Catalogue Medicine Health, and Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE, and Google Scholar from January 2009 till 31 December 2014. We included original articles related to noninvasive and minimally invasive procedures to enhance orthodontic tooth movement in animals. Extraction of data and quality assessments were carried out by two observers independently. Results. The total number of hits was 9195 out of which just 11 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Nine articles were good and 5 articles were moderate in quality. Low level laser therapy (LLLT was among the most common noninvasive techniques whereas flapless corticision using various instruments was among the commonest minimally invasive procedures to enhance velocity of tooth movement. Conclusions. LLLT, low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS, mechanical vibration, and flapless corticision are emerging noninvasive and minimally invasive techniques which need further researches to establish protocols to use them clinically with conviction.

  13. Dominant Expression of DCLK1 in Human Pancreatic Cancer Stem Cells Accelerates Tumor Invasion and Metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromitsu Ito

    Full Text Available Patients with pancreatic cancer typically develop tumor invasion and metastasis in the early stage. These malignant behaviors might be originated from cancer stem cells (CSCs, but the responsible target is less known about invisible CSCs especially for invasion and metastasis. We previously examined the proteasome activity of CSCs and constructed a real-time visualization system for human pancreatic CSCs. In the present study, we found that CSCs were highly metastatic and dominantly localized at the invading tumor margins in a liver metastasis model. Microarray and siRNA screening assays showed that doublecortin-like kinase 1 (DCLK1 was predominantly expressed with histone modification in pancreatic CSCs with invasive and metastatic potential. Overexpression of DCLK1 led to amoeboid morphology, which promotes the migration of pancreatic cancer cells. Knockdown of DCLK1 profoundly suppressed in vivo liver metastasis of pancreatic CSCs. Clinically, DCLK1 was overexpressed in the metastatic tumors in patients with pancreatic cancer. Our studies revealed that DCLK1 is essential for the invasive and metastatic properties of CSCs and may be a promising epigenetic and therapeutic target in human pancreatic cancer.

  14. Vector-virus mutualism accelerates population increase of an invasive whitefly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jiu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between plant viruses, their herbivore vectors and host plants can be beneficial, neutral, or antagonistic, depending on the species involved. This variation in relationships may affect the process of biological invasion and the displacement of indigenous species by invaders when the invasive and indigenous organisms occur with niche overlap but differ in the interactions. The notorious invasive B biotype of the whitefly complex Bemisia tabaci entered China in the late 1990s and is now the predominant or only biotype in many regions of the country. Tobacco curly shoot virus (TbCSV and Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV are two whitefly-transmitted begomoviruses that have become widespread recently in south China. We compared the performance of the invasive B and indigenous ZHJ1 whitefly biotypes on healthy, TbCSV-infected and TYLCCNV-infected tobacco plants. Compared to its performance on healthy plants, the invasive B biotype increased its fecundity and longevity by 12 and 6 fold when feeding on TbCSV-infected plants, and by 18 and 7 fold when feeding on TYLCCNV-infected plants. Population density of the B biotype on TbCSV- and TYLCCNV-infected plants reached 2 and 13 times that on healthy plants respectively in 56 days. In contrast, the indigenous ZHJ1 performed similarly on healthy and virus-infected plants. Virus-infection status of the whiteflies per se of both biotypes showed limited effects on performance of vectors on cotton, a nonhost plant of the viruses. The indirect mutualism between the B biotype whitefly and these viruses via their host plants, and the apparent lack of such mutualism for the indigenous whitefly, may contribute to the ability of the B whitefly biotype to invade, the displacement of indigenous whiteflies, and the disease pandemics of the viruses associated with this vector.

  15. Global trade will accelerate plant invasions in emerging economies under climate change

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seebens, H.; Essl, F.; Dawson, W.; Fuentes, N.; Moser, D.; Pergl, Jan; Pyšek, Petr; van Kleunen, M.; Weber, E.; Winter, M.; Blasius, B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 11 (2015), s. 4128-4140 ISSN 1354-1013 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G; GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/1028 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : plant invasions * climate change * trade Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 8.444, year: 2015

  16. Rupture, Invasion and Inflammatory Destruction of the Intestinal Barrier by Shigella: The Yin and Yang of Innate Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe J Sansonetti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Shigella is a Gram-negative bacterial species of the family Enterobacteriaceae that causes bacillary dysentery in humans. This acute colitis reflects the capacity of the microorganism to disrupt, invade and cause the inflammatory destruction of the intestinal epithelium. The pathogenesis of the Shigella infection can be seen as a disruption of the homeostatic balance that protects the gut against inflammation in the presence of its commensal flora. This provides the unified view that enteroinvasive pathogens allow for the identification of key signalling molecules and pathways involved in the regulation of intestinal inflammation, and more generally, in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune response.

  17. Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    The talk summarizes the principles of particle acceleration and addresses problems related to storage rings like LEP and LHC. Special emphasis will be given to orbit stability, long term stability of the particle motion, collective effects and synchrotron radiation.

  18. Increased detection of lymphatic vessel invasion by D2-40 (podoplanin) in early breast cancer: possible influence on patient selection for accelerated partial breast irradiation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debald, M.; Polcher, M.; Flucke, U.E.; Walgenbach-Brunagel, G.; Walgenbach, K.J.; Holler, T.; Wolfgarten, M.; Rudlowski, C.; Buttner, R.; Schild, H.; Kuhn, W.; Braun, M.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Several international trials are currently investigating accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) for patients with early-stage breast cancer. According to existing guidelines, patients with lymphatic vessel invasion (LVI) do not qualify for APBI. D2-40 (podoplanin) significantly

  19. Decay-Accelerating Factor Mitigates Controlled Hemorrhage-Instigated Intestinal and Lung Tissue Damage and Hyperkalemia in Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    glucose , hematocrit (Hct), hemoglobin (Hb), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), and ionized calcium (iCa2+) using i-STAT cartridges ( Abbott Laboratories...animals were observed for 200 minutes. Blood chemistry and physiological parameters were recorded. Tissue samples from lung and small intestine were...seemingly acceptable medical therapy and surgical intervention.4 The first physiologic response to severe blood loss is activation of the neuroendocrine

  20. Accelerating the dissolution of enteric coatings in the upper small intestine: evolution of a novel pH 5.6 bicarbonate buffer system to assess drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varum, Felipe J O; Merchant, Hamid A; Goyanes, Alvaro; Assi, Pardis; Zboranová, Veronika; Basit, Abdul W

    2014-07-01

    Despite rapid dissolution in compendial phosphate buffers, gastro resistant (enteric coated) products can take up to 2 h to disintegrate in the human small intestine, which clearly highlights the inadequacy of the in vitro test method to predict in vivo behaviour of these formulations. The aim of this study was to establish the utility of a novel pH 5.6 bicarbonate buffer, stabilized by an Auto pH™ System, as a better surrogate of the conditions of the proximal small intestine to investigate the dissolution behaviour of standard and accelerated release enteric double coating formulations. Prednisolone tablets were coated with 3 or 5 mg/cm(2) of partially neutralized EUDRAGIT(®) L 30 D-55, HP-55 or HPMC adjusted to pH 6 or 8. An outer layer of EUDRAGIT(®) L 30 D-55 was applied at 5mg/cm(2). For comparison purposes, a standard single layer of EUDRAGIT(®) L 30 D-55 was applied to the tablets. Dissolution was carried out using USP II apparatus in 0.1 M HCl for 2 h, followed by pH 5.6 bicarbonate buffer. EUDRAGIT(®) L 30 D-55 single-coated tablets showed a slow drug release with a lag time of 75 min in buffer, whereas release from the EUDRAGIT(®) L 30 D-55 double-coated tablets was accelerated. These in vitro lag times closely match the in vivo disintegration times for these coated tablets reported previously. Drug release was further accelerated from modified double coatings, particularly in the case of coatings with a thinner inner layer of HP-55 or HPMC (pH 8 and KH2PO4). This study confirms that the pH 5.6 bicarbonate buffer system offers significant advantages during the development of dosage forms designed to release the drug in the upper small intestine. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Selective expression of a splice variant of decay-accelerating factor in c-erbB-2-positive mammary carcinoma cells showing increased transendothelial invasiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, Burkhard; Mikesch, Jan-Hendrik; Simon, Ronald; Roetger, Antje; Kemming, Dirk; Schier, Katrin; Sauter, Guido; Buerger, Horst

    2005-01-01

    By differential-display-PCR a subclone of the SK-BR-3 cell line with high in vitro transendothelial invasiveness was identified to express increased levels of a new alternative splice variant of decay-accelerating factor (DAF). DAF seems to play an important role in some malignant tumours since on the one hand the expression of complement inhibitors on the surface of tumour cells prevents the accumulation of complement factors and in consequence cell lysis. On the other hand, DAF has been identified as a ligand for the CD97 surface receptor which induces cell migration. Immunofluorescence procedures, Western blot analyses, and cDNA clone sequencing were employed to confirm the expression of DAF restricted to invasive tumour cells. Using a radioactive RNA-in situ hybridisation on freshly frozen tissue microarrays and RT-PCR on native tumour tissue, the expression of alternative spliced DAF mRNA was demonstrated in invasive breast cancer. Due to the fact that it could thereby not be detected in normal mammary tissues, it has to be confirmed in larger studies that the DAF splice variant might be a specific tumour marker for invasive breast cancer

  2. Non-invasive characterization of real-time bladder sensation using accelerated hydration and a novel sensation meter: An initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Anna S; Speich, John E; De Wachter, Stefan G; Ghamarian, Peter P; Le, David M; Colhoun, Andrew F; Ratz, Paul H; Barbee, Robert W; Klausner, Adam P

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop a non-invasive, objective, and unprompted method to characterize real-time bladder sensation. Volunteers with and without overactive bladder (OAB) were prospectively enrolled in a preliminary accelerated hydration study. Participants drank 2L Gatorade-G2® and recorded real-time sensation (0-100% scale) and standardized verbal sensory thresholds using a novel, touch-screen "sensation meter." 3D bladder ultrasound images were recorded throughout fillings for a subset of participants. Sensation data were recorded for two consecutive complete fill-void cycles. Data from 14 normal and 12 OAB participants were obtained (ICIq-OAB-5a = 0 vs. ≥3). Filling duration decreased in fill2 compared to fill1, but volume did not significantly change. In normals, adjacent verbal sensory thresholds (within fill) showed no overlap, and identical thresholds (between fill) were similar, demonstrating effective differentiation between degrees of %bladder capacity. In OAB, within-fill overlaps and between-fill differences were identified. Real-time %capacity-sensation curves left shifted from fill1 to fill2 in normals, consistent with expected viscoelastic behavior, but unexpectedly right shifted in OAB. 3D ultrasound volume data showed that fill rates started slowly and ramped up with variable end points. This study establishes a non-invasive means to evaluate real-time bladder sensation using a two-fill accelerated hydration protocol and a sensation meter. Verbal thresholds were inconsistent in OAB, and the right shift in OAB %capacity-sensation curve suggests potential biomechanical and/or sensitization changes. This methodology could be used to gain valuable information on different forms of OAB in a completely non-invasive way. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Intestinal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

  4. Accelerating orthodontic tooth movement: A new, minimally-invasive corticotomy technique using a 3D-printed surgical template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giansanti, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Background A reduction in orthodontic treatment time can be attained using corticotomies. The aggressive nature of corticotomy due to the elevation of muco-periosteal flaps and to the duration of the surgery raised reluctance for its employ among patients and dental community. This study aims to provide detailed information on the design and manufacture of a 3D-printed CAD-CAM (computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing) surgical guide which can aid the clinician in achieving a minimally-invasive, flapless corticotomy. Material and Methods An impression of dental arches was created; the models were digitally-acquired using a 3D scanner and saved as STereoLithography ( STL ) files. The patient underwent cone beam computed tomography (CBCT): images of jaws and teeth were transformed into 3D models and saved as an STL file. An acrylic template with the design of a surgical guide was manufactured and scanned. The STLs of jaws, scanned casts, and acrylic templates were matched. 3D modeling software allowed the view of the 3D models from different perspectives and planes with perfect rendering. The 3D model of the acrylic template was transformed into a surgical guide with slots designed to guide, at first, a scalpel blade and then a piezoelectric cutting insert. The 3D STL model of the surgical guide was printed. Results This procedure allowed the manufacturing of a 3D-printed CAD/CAM surgical guide, which overcomes the disadvantages of the corticotomy, removing the need for flap elevation. No discomfort, early surgical complications or unexpected events were observed. Conclusions The effectiveness of this minimally-invasive surgical technique can offer the clinician a valid alternative to other methods currently in use. Key words:Corticotomy, orthodontics, CAD/CAM, minimally invasive, surgical template, 3D printer. PMID:27031067

  5. Increased Detection of Lymphatic Vessel Invasion by D2-40 (Podoplanin) in Early Breast Cancer: Possible Influence on Patient Selection for Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debald, Manuel; Poelcher, Martin; Flucke, Uta; Walgenbach-Bruenagel, Gisela

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Several international trials are currently investigating accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) for patients with early-stage breast cancer. According to existing guidelines, patients with lymphatic vessel invasion (LVI) do not qualify for APBI. D2-40 (podoplanin) significantly increases the frequency of LVI detection compared with conventional hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining in early-stage breast cancer. Our purpose was to retrospectively assess the hypothetical change in management from APBI to whole breast radiotherapy with the application of D2-40. Patients and Methods: Immunostaining with D2-40 was performed on 254 invasive breast tumors of 247 patients. The following criteria were used to determine the eligibility for APBI: invasive ductal adenocarcinoma of ≤3 cm, negative axillary node status (N0), and unifocal disease. Of the 247 patients, 74 with available information concerning LVI, as detected by D2-40 immunostaining and routine HE staining, formed our study population. Results: Using D2-40, our results demonstrated a significantly greater detection rate (p = .031) of LVI compared with routine HE staining. LVI was correctly identified by D2-40 (D2-40-positive LVI) in 10 (13.5%) of 74 tumors. On routine HE staining, 4 tumors (5.4%) were classified as HE-positive LVI. Doublestaining of these specimens with D2-40 unmasked false-positive LVI status in 2 (50%) of the 4 tumors. According to the current recommendations for APBI, immunostaining with D2-40 would have changed the clinical management from APBI to whole breast radiotherapy in 8 (10.8%) of 74 patients and from whole breast radiotherapy to APBI in 2 patients (2.7%). Conclusion: These data support the implementation of D2-40 immunostaining in the routine workup to determine a patient's eligibility for APBI.

  6. Amebiasis intestinal Intestinal amebiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIO CÉSAR GÓMEZ

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica es el patógeno intestinal más frecuente en nuestro medio -después de Giardia lamblia-, una de las principales causas de diarrea en menores de cinco años y la cuarta causa de muerte en el mundo debida a infección por protozoarios. Posee mecanismos patogénicos complejos que le permiten invadir la mucosa intestinal y causar colitis amebiana. El examen microscópico es el método más usado para su identificación pero la existencia de dos especies morfológicamente iguales, una patógena ( E. histolytica y una no patógena ( Entamoeba dispar, ha llevado al desarrollo de otros métodos de diagnóstico. El acceso al agua potable y los servicios sanitarios adecuados, un tratamiento médico oportuno y el desarrollo de una vacuna, son los ejes para disminuir la incidencia y mortalidad de esta entidad.Entamoeba histolytica is the most frequent intestinal pathogen seen in our country, after Giardia lamblia, being one of the main causes of diarrhea in children younger than five years of age, and the fourth leading cause of death due to infection for protozoa in the world. It possesses complex pathogenic mechanisms that allow it to invade the intestinal mucosa, causing amoebic colitis. Microscopy is the most used method for its identification, but the existence of two species morphologically identical, the pathogen one ( E. histolytica, and the non pathogen one ( E. dispar, have taken to the development of other methods of diagnosis. The access to drinkable water and appropriate sanitary services, an opportune medical treatment, and the development of a vaccine are the axes to diminish the incidence and mortality of this entity.

  7. Targeted treatment of invasive fungal infections accelerates healing of foot wounds in patients with Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellan, G; Neethu, K; Varma, A K; Mangalanandan, T S; Shashikala, S; Dinesh, K R; Sundaram, K R; Varma, N; Jayakumar, R V; Bal, A; Kumar, H

    2012-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that fluconazole plus standard care is superior to the standard care for diabetic foot wounds infected with deep-seated fungal infections. We carried out a randomized, controlled, open-label, parallel-arm study in 75 patients with both fungal and bacterial infections in deep tissues of diabetic foot wounds. Thirty-seven patients (control group) were given standard care (surgical debridement + culture-specific antibiotics + offloading + glycaemic control) and 38 patients (treatment group) were given fluconazole 150 mg daily plus standard care. Wound surface area was measured every 2 weeks until the endpoints (complete epithelialization or skin grafting) were met. By week 4, the mean wound surface area reduced to 27.3 from 111.5 cm(2) in the treatment group, as opposed to 67.1 from 87.3 cm(2) in the control group. Subsequently, the mean wound surface areas were remarkably smaller in the treatment group compared with the control group, and statistically significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) in mean wound surface area were observed between the treatment group and the control group at week 6. However, no statistically significant (P ≤ 0.47) difference in complete healing was observed between the treatment group and the control group, 20 vs. 24. The mean wound healing time for the treatment group was 7.3 weeks, whereas for the control group it was 11.3 weeks (P ≤ 0.022). Similarly, the probability of wound healing in the treatment group was 50 vs. 20% in the control group at week 10. Fluconazole plus standard care was superior to standard care alone in accelerating wound reduction among patients with diabetes with deep-seated fungal infections in diabetic foot wounds. Those in the treatment group who did heal, healed more quickly (P ≤ 0.022), but overall healing was not different. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.

  8. Intestinal Lymphangiectasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview of Crohn Disease Additional Content Medical News Intestinal Lymphangiectasia (Idiopathic Hypoproteinemia) By Atenodoro R. Ruiz, Jr., MD, ... Overview of Malabsorption Bacterial Overgrowth Syndrome Celiac Disease Intestinal ... Intolerance Short Bowel Syndrome Tropical Sprue Whipple ...

  9. Intestinal Obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colostomy ) is required to relieve an obstruction. Understanding Colostomy In a colostomy, the large intestine (colon) is cut. The part ... 1 What Causes Intestinal Strangulation? Figure 2 Understanding Colostomy Gastrointestinal Emergencies Overview of Gastrointestinal Emergencies Abdominal Abscesses ...

  10. Intestinal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrochers, André; Anderson, David E

    2016-11-01

    A wide variety of disorders affecting the intestinal tract in cattle may require surgery. Among those disorders the more common are: intestinal volvulus, jejunal hemorrhage syndrome and more recently the duodenal sigmoid flexure volvulus. Although general principles of intestinal surgery can be applied, cattle has anatomical and behavior particularities that must be known before invading the abdomen. This article focuses on surgical techniques used to optimize outcomes and discusses specific disorders of small intestine. Diagnoses and surgical techniques presented can be applied in field conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Intestine transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeja Pintar

    2011-02-01

    Conclusion: Intestine transplantation is reserved for patients with irreversible intestinal failure due to short gut syndrome requiring total paranteral nutrition with no possibility of discontinuation and loss of venous access for patient maintenance. In these patients complications of underlying disease and long-term total parenteral nutrition are present.

  12. Microcontainers for Intestinal Drug Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tentor, Fabio; Mazzoni, Chiara; Keller, Stephan Sylvest

    Among all the drug administration routes, the oral one is the most preferred by the patients being less invasive, faster and easier. Oral drug delivery systems designed to target the intestine are produced by powder technology and capsule formulations. Those systems including micro- and nano...

  13. Intestinal leiomyoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most often found when a person has an upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy or colonoscopy for another reason. Rarely, these tumors can cause bleeding, blockage or rupture of the intestines If this ...

  14. Small Intestine Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease Crohn's disease Infections Intestinal cancer Intestinal obstruction Irritable bowel syndrome Ulcers, such as peptic ulcer Treatment of disorders of the small intestine depends on the cause.

  15. INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, G. H.; Stone, H. B.; Bernheim, B. M.

    1913-01-01

    Closed duodenal loops may be made in dogs by ligatures placed just below the pancreatic duct and just beyond the duodenojejunal junction, together with a posterior gastro-enterostomy. These closed duodenal loop dogs die with symptoms like those of patients suffering from volvulus or high intestinal obstruction. This duodenal loop may simulate closely a volvulus in which there has been no vascular disturbance. Dogs with closed duodenal loops which have been washed out carefully survive a little longer on the average than animals with unwashed loops. The duration of life in the first instance is one to three days, with an average of about forty-eight hours. The dogs usually lose considerable fluid by vomiting and diarrhea. A weak pulse, low blood pressure and temperature are usually conspicuous in the last stages. Autopsy shows more or less splanchnic congestion which may be most marked in the mucosa of the upper small intestine. The peritoneum is usually clear and the closed loop may be distended with thin fluid, or collapsed, and contain only a small amount of pasty brown material. The mucosa of the loop may show ulceration and even perforation, but in the majority of cases it is intact and exhibits only a moderate congestion. Simple intestinal obstruction added to a closed duodenal loop does not modify the result in any manner, but it may hasten the fatal outcome. The liver plays no essential role as a protective agent against this poison, for a dog with an Eck fistula may live three days with a closed loop. A normal dog reacts to intraportal injection and to intravenous injection of the toxic substance in an identical manner. Drainage of this loop under certain conditions may not interfere with the general health over a period of weeks or months. Excision of the part of the duodenum included in this loop causes no disturbance. The material from the closed duodenal loops contains no bile, pancreatic juice, gastric juice, or split products from the food. It can be

  16. Intestinal myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U S Udgaonkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Intestinal myiasis is a condition when the fly larvae inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and are passed out in faeces. This type of infestation results when eggs or larvae of the fly, deposited on food are inadvertently taken by man. They survive the unfavourable conditions within the gastrointestinal tract and produce disturbances, which may vary from mild to severe. The condition is not uncommon and is often misdiagnosed as pinworm infestation. Correct diagnosis by the clinical microbiologist is important to avoid unnecessary treatment. Materials and Methods: We had 7 cases of intestinal myiasis. In 2 cases the larvae were reared to adult fly in modified meat and sand medium (developed by Udgaonkar. This medium is simple and can be easily prepared in the laboratory. Results: Of the 7 larvae, 5 were Sarcophaga haemorrhoidalis, 1 Megaselia species and 1 was identified as Muscina stabulans. Conclusions: S. haemorrhoidalis was the commonest maggot involved. A high index of suspicion is required for clinical diagnosis when the patient complains of passing wriggling worms in faeces for a long period without any response to antihelminthics. The reason for long duration of illness and recurrence of infestation is baffling. The nearest to cure was colonic wash. We feel prevention is of utmost importance, which is to avoid eating food articles with easy access to flies.

  17. Intestinal myiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udgaonkar, U S; Dharamsi, R; Kulkarni, S A; Shah, S R; Patil, S S; Bhosale, A L; Gadgil, S A; Mohite, R S

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal myiasis is a condition when the fly larvae inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and are passed out in faeces. This type of infestation results when eggs or larvae of the fly, deposited on food are inadvertently taken by man. They survive the unfavourable conditions within the gastrointestinal tract and produce disturbances, which may vary from mild to severe. The condition is not uncommon and is often misdiagnosed as pinworm infestation. Correct diagnosis by the clinical microbiologist is important to avoid unnecessary treatment. We had 7 cases of intestinal myiasis. In 2 cases the larvae were reared to adult fly in modified meat and sand medium (developed by Udgaonkar). This medium is simple and can be easily prepared in the laboratory. Of the 7 larvae, 5 were Sarcophaga haemorrhoidalis, 1 Megaselia species and 1 was identified as Muscina stabulans. S. haemorrhoidalis was the commonest maggot involved. A high index of suspicion is required for clinical diagnosis when the patient complains of passing wriggling worms in faeces for a long period without any response to antihelminthics. The reason for long duration of illness and recurrence of infestation is baffling. The nearest to cure was colonic wash. We feel prevention is of utmost importance, which is to avoid eating food articles with easy access to flies.

  18. Invasive Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Invasive Candidiasis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Global Emergence ... antifungal drugs. Learn more about C. auris Invasive candidiasis is an infection caused by a yeast (a ...

  19. Fecal markers of intestinal inflammation and intestinal permeability are elevated in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwiertz, Andreas; Spiegel, Jörg; Dillmann, Ulrich; Grundmann, David; Bürmann, Jan; Faßbender, Klaus; Schäfer, Karl-Herbert; Unger, Marcus M

    2018-02-12

    Intestinal inflammation and increased intestinal permeability (both possibly fueled by dysbiosis) have been suggested to be implicated in the multifactorial pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). The objective of the current study was to investigate whether fecal markers of inflammation and impaired intestinal barrier function corroborate this pathogenic aspect of PD. In a case-control study, we quantitatively analyzed established fecal markers of intestinal inflammation (calprotectin and lactoferrin) and fecal markers of intestinal permeability (alpha-1-antitrypsin and zonulin) in PD patients (n = 34) and controls (n = 28, group-matched for age) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The study design controlled for potential confounding factors. Calprotectin, a fecal marker of intestinal inflammation, and two fecal markers of increased intestinal permeability (alpha-1-antitrypsin and zonulin) were significantly elevated in PD patients compared to age-matched controls. Lactoferrin, as a second fecal marker of intestinal inflammation, showed a non-significant trend towards elevated concentrations in PD patients. None of the four fecal markers correlated with disease severity, PD subtype, dopaminergic therapy, or presence of constipation. Fecal markers reflecting intestinal inflammation and increased intestinal permeability have been primarily investigated in inflammatory bowel disease so far. Our data indicate that calprotectin, alpha-1-antitrypsin and zonulin could be useful non-invasive markers in PD as well. Even though these markers are not disease-specific, they corroborate the hypothesis of an intestinal inflammation as contributing factor in the pathogenesis of PD. Further investigations are needed to determine whether calprotectin, alpha-1-antitrypsin and zonulin can be used to define PD subgroups and to monitor the effect of interventions in PD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Adult intestinal malrotation associated with intestinal volvulus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando-Almudí, Ernesto; Cerdán-Pascual, Rafael; Vallejo-Bernad, Cristina; Martín-Cuartero, Joaquín; Sánchez-Rubio, María; Casamayor-Franco, Carmen

    Intestinal malrotation is a congenital anomaly of the intestinal rotation and fixation, and usually occurs in the neonatal age. Description of a clinical case associated with acute occlusive symptoms. A case of intestinal malrotation is presented in a previously asymptomatic woman of 46 years old with an intestinal obstruction, with radiology and surgical findings showing an absence of intestinal rotation. Intestinal malrotation in adults is often asymptomatic, and is diagnosed as a casual finding during a radiological examination performed for other reasons. Infrequently, it can be diagnosed in adults, associated with an acute abdomen. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  1. Intestinal Ostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambe, Peter C; Kurz, Nadja Rebecca; Nitschke, Claudia; Odeh, Siad F; Möslein, Gabriela; Zirngibl, Hubert

    2018-03-16

    About 100 000 ostomy carriers are estimated to live in Germany today. The creation of an ostomy represents a major life event that can be associated with impaired quality of life. Optimal ostomy creation and proper ostomy care are crucially important determinants of the success of treatment and of the patients' quality of life. This article is based on pertinent publications retrieved by a selective search in PubMed, GoogleScholar, and Scopus, and on the authors' experience. Intestinal stomata can be created using either the small or the large bowel. More than 75% of all stomata are placed as part of the treatment of colorectal cancer. The incidence of stoma-related complications is reported to be 10-70%. Skin irritation, erosion, and ulceration are the most common early complications, with a combined incidence of 25-34%, while stoma prolapse is the most common late complication, with an incidence of 8-75%. Most early complications can be managed conservatively, while most late complications require surgical revision. In 19% of cases, an ostomy that was initially planned to be temporary becomes permanent. Inappropriate stoma location and inadequate ostomy care are the most common causes of early complications. Both surgical and patient-related factors influence late complications. Every step from the planning of a stoma to its postoperative care should be discussed with the patient in detail. Preoperative marking is essential for an optimal stoma site. Optimal patient management with the involvement of an ostomy nurse increases ostomy acceptance, reduces ostomy-related complications, and improves the quality of life of ostomy carriers.

  2. Intestinal tract diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenshtraukh, L.S.

    1985-01-01

    Roentgenoanatomy and physiology of the small intestine are described. Indications for radiological examinations and their possibilities in the diagnosis of the small intestine diseases are considered.Congenital anomalies and failures in the small intestine development, clinical indications and diagnosis methods for the detection of different aetiology enteritis are described. Characteristics of primary malabsorption due to congenital or acquired inferiority of the small intestine, is provided. Radiological picture of intestinal allergies is described. Clinical, morphological, radiological pictures of Crohn's disease are considered in detail. Special attention is paid to the frequency of primary and secondary tuberculosis of intestinal tract. The description of clinical indications and frequency of benign and malignant tumours of the small intestine, methods for their diagnosis are given. Radiological pictures of parasitogenic and rare diseases of the small intestine are presented. Changes in the small intestine as a result of its reaction to pathological processes, developing in other organs and systems of the organism, are described

  3. Determination of Intestine Inflammation Markers in Diagnostic Search in Children with Intestinal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Pavlenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Prevalence of bowel diseases in children is the second, trailing only the diseases of gastroduodenal zone and growing in recent years. Actual one is the problem of differential diagnosis of functional and inflammatory intestinal diseases using non-invasive methods on the prehospital stage and as a screening. Objective. Comparative analysis of fecal markers of the bowel inflammation (lactoferrine and calprotectine with endoscopy and morphology of intestinal mucosa in children. Matherials and methods. 49 children aged 6–18 years were examined. All patients underwent endoscopic and morphological study of the intestine, coprotest, determination of fecal markers of bowel inflammation (lactoferrin and calprotectine. Results. It is shown that in young children, the intestinal mucosa mainly hadn’t endoscopic changes, coprotest and morphological examination didn’t reveal the signs of inflammation, fecal intestinal inflammation markers were negative (p < 0.05. In the group of older children, moderate or marked catarrhal changes were found endoscopically, coprotest results were typical of inflammation in the intestines, it was morphologically proved the presence of chronic inflammation of the mucous membrane of the colon with signs of atrophy, the results of lactoferrin and calprotectine determination were positive (p < 0.05. Conclusion. The findings suggest that the evaluation of calprotectine and lactoferrin can be used in pediatric patients because of its non-invasiveness as diagnostic screening for the selection of patients for the further endoscopic examination and diagnostic search.

  4. [Myosin B ATPase activity of the intestinal smooth muscle in intestinal obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, H

    1983-06-01

    Intestinal smooth myosin B was prepared from muscle layers around the lesion in dogs with experimental colonic stenosis and in patients with congenital intestinal obstruction. Mg2+-ATPase activity of the myosin B was compared between the proximal dilated segment and distal segment to obstruction. Experimental colonic stenosis: In early period after surgery, proximal colons showed higher activity of myosin B ATPase than distal colons, decreasing to less than distal colon as time passed. Congenital intestinal obstruction: In three cases, whose atresia might have occurred at earlier period of gestation, proximal bowels showed less activity of myosin B ATPase than distal bowels. However, in two cases, whose atresia might have occurred at later period of gestation, and two cases with intestinal stenosis, proximal bowels indicated higher activity of myosin B ATPase than distal bowels. These data suggested that the contractibility of the proximal intestine was depending on the duration of obstruction, and it was depressed in the former patients and was accelerated in the latter patients. These results suggested that the extensive resection of dilated proximal bowel in the congenital atresia is not always necessary to obtain good postoperative intestinal dynamics at the operation of the atresial lesions which may be induced at later period of gestation. They also suggested that surgery for intestinal obstruction should be performed before the depression of intestinal contractibility to get good bowel function.

  5. Cytokine Tuning of Intestinal Epithelial Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Andrews

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The intestine serves as both our largest single barrier to the external environment and the host of more immune cells than any other location in our bodies. Separating these potential combatants is a single layer of dynamic epithelium composed of heterogeneous epithelial subtypes, each uniquely adapted to carry out a subset of the intestine’s diverse functions. In addition to its obvious role in digestion, the intestinal epithelium is responsible for a wide array of critical tasks, including maintaining barrier integrity, preventing invasion by microbial commensals and pathogens, and modulating the intestinal immune system. Communication between these epithelial cells and resident immune cells is crucial for maintaining homeostasis and coordinating appropriate responses to disease and can occur through cell-to-cell contact or by the release or recognition of soluble mediators. The objective of this review is to highlight recent literature illuminating how cytokines and chemokines, both those made by and acting on the intestinal epithelium, orchestrate many of the diverse functions of the intestinal epithelium and its interactions with immune cells in health and disease. Areas of focus include cytokine control of intestinal epithelial proliferation, cell death, and barrier permeability. In addition, the modulation of epithelial-derived cytokines and chemokines by factors such as interactions with stromal and immune cells, pathogen and commensal exposure, and diet will be discussed.

  6. [Malaria and intestinal protozoa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Marcos, Gerardo; Cuadros-González, Juan

    2016-03-01

    Malaria is life threatening and requires urgent diagnosis and treatment. Incidence and mortality are being reduced in endemic areas. Clinical features are unspecific so in imported cases it is vital the history of staying in a malarious area. The first line treatments for Plasmodium falciparum are artemisinin combination therapies, chloroquine in most non-falciparum and intravenous artesunate if any severity criteria. Human infections with intestinal protozoa are distributed worldwide with a high global morbid-mortality. They cause diarrhea and sometimes invasive disease, although most are asymptomatic. In our environment populations at higher risk are children, including adopted abroad, immune-suppressed, travelers, immigrants, people in contact with animals or who engage in oral-anal sex. Diagnostic microscopic examination has low sensitivity improving with antigen detection or molecular methods. Antiparasitic resistances are emerging lately. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  7. Intestinal pseudo-obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying in bed for long periods of time (bedridden). Taking drugs that slow intestinal movements. These include ... be tried: Colonoscopy may be used to remove air from the large intestine. Fluids can be given ...

  8. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A. C. F.; Fonseca, P.; Coelho, L. F. S.

    2009-01-01

    The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ)[1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

  9. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A. C. F.; Fonseca, P.; Coelho, L. F. S.

    2009-03-01

    The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ) [1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

  10. Plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, R.; Angelis, U. de; Johnston, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    Recently attention has focused on charged particle acceleration in a plasma by a fast, large amplitude, longitudinal electron plasma wave. The plasma beat wave and plasma wakefield accelerators are two efficient ways of producing ultra-high accelerating gradients. Starting with the plasma beat wave accelerator (PBWA) and laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) schemes and the plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) steady progress has been made in theory, simulations and experiments. Computations are presented for the study of LWFA. (author)

  11. Linear Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vretenar, M

    2014-01-01

    The main features of radio-frequency linear accelerators are introduced, reviewing the different types of accelerating structures and presenting the main characteristics aspects of linac beam dynamics

  12. Accelerator Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champelovier, Y.; Ferrari, M.; Gardon, A.; Hadinger, G.; Martin, J.; Plantier, A.

    1998-01-01

    Since the cessation of the operation of hydrogen cluster accelerator in July 1996, four electrostatic accelerators were in operation and used by the peri-nuclear teams working in multidisciplinary collaborations. These are the 4 MV Van de Graaff accelerator, 2,5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator, 400 kV ion implanter as well as the 120 kV isotope separator

  13. Gastric and intestinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Theresa W; Hedlund, Cheryl S

    2003-09-01

    Gastric surgery is commonly performed to remove foreign bodies and correct gastric dilatation-volvulus and is less commonly performed to treat gastric ulceration or erosion, neoplasia, and benign gastric outflow obstruction. Intestinal surgery, although commonly performed by veterinarians, should never be considered routine. The most common procedures of the small intestinal tract performed in dogs and cats include enterotomy and resection/anastomosis. Surgery of the large intestine is indicated for lesions causing obstruction, perforations, colonic inertia, or chronic inflammation.

  14. Expression of avian beta-defensins in the intestine of Eimeria-challenged chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian coccidiosis is caused by the intracellular protozoa Eimeria. The site of invasion and lesions in the intestine is species-specific; for example, E. acervulina mainly affects the duodenum, E. maxima the jejunum, and E. tenella the ceca. Lesions in the intestinal mucosa reduce feed efficiency a...

  15. Enteric Virome Sensing-Its Role in Intestinal Homeostasis and Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Rebecca N; Krug, Anne B; Eisenächer, Katharina

    2018-03-23

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) sensing commensal microorganisms in the intestine induce tightly controlled tonic signaling in the intestinal mucosa, which is required to maintain intestinal barrier integrity and immune homeostasis. At the same time, PRR signaling pathways rapidly trigger the innate immune defense against invasive pathogens in the intestine. Intestinal epithelial cells and mononuclear phagocytes in the intestine and the gut-associated lymphoid tissues are critically involved in sensing components of the microbiome and regulating immune responses in the intestine to sustain immune tolerance against harmless antigens and to prevent inflammation. These processes have been mostly investigated in the context of the bacterial components of the microbiome so far. The impact of viruses residing in the intestine and the virus sensors, which are activated by these enteric viruses, on intestinal homeostasis and inflammation is just beginning to be unraveled. In this review, we will summarize recent findings indicating an important role of the enteric virome for intestinal homeostasis as well as pathology when the immune system fails to control the enteric virome. We will provide an overview of the virus sensors and signaling pathways, operative in the intestine and the mononuclear phagocyte subsets, which can sense viruses and shape the intestinal immune response. We will discuss how these might interact with resident enteric viruses directly or in context with the bacterial microbiome to affect intestinal homeostasis.

  16. Enteric Virome Sensing—Its Role in Intestinal Homeostasis and Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca N. Metzger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs sensing commensal microorganisms in the intestine induce tightly controlled tonic signaling in the intestinal mucosa, which is required to maintain intestinal barrier integrity and immune homeostasis. At the same time, PRR signaling pathways rapidly trigger the innate immune defense against invasive pathogens in the intestine. Intestinal epithelial cells and mononuclear phagocytes in the intestine and the gut-associated lymphoid tissues are critically involved in sensing components of the microbiome and regulating immune responses in the intestine to sustain immune tolerance against harmless antigens and to prevent inflammation. These processes have been mostly investigated in the context of the bacterial components of the microbiome so far. The impact of viruses residing in the intestine and the virus sensors, which are activated by these enteric viruses, on intestinal homeostasis and inflammation is just beginning to be unraveled. In this review, we will summarize recent findings indicating an important role of the enteric virome for intestinal homeostasis as well as pathology when the immune system fails to control the enteric virome. We will provide an overview of the virus sensors and signaling pathways, operative in the intestine and the mononuclear phagocyte subsets, which can sense viruses and shape the intestinal immune response. We will discuss how these might interact with resident enteric viruses directly or in context with the bacterial microbiome to affect intestinal homeostasis.

  17. Intestinal lymphangiectasia in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Hasan M.; Al-Arayedh, Ghadeer G.; Mohamed, Afaf M.

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal lymphangiectasia (IL) is a rare disease characterized by dilatation of intestinal lymphatics. It can be classified as primary or secondary according to the underlying etiology. The clinical presentations of IL are pitting edema, chylous ascites, pleural effusion, acute appendicitis, diarrhea, lymphocytopenia, malabsorption, and intestinal obstruction. The diagnosis is made by intestinal endoscopy and biopsies. Dietary modification is the mainstay in the management of IL with a variable response. Here we report 2 patients with IL in Bahrain who showed positive response to dietary modification. PMID:26837404

  18. Intestinal parasites and tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Alonso Cedeño-Burbano

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: The available evidence was insufficient to affirm that intestinal parasites predispose to developing tuberculous. The studies carried out so far have found statistically insignificant results.

  19. Future accelerators (?)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Womersley

    2003-08-21

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  20. Activated STAT5 Confers Resistance to Intestinal Injury by Increasing Intestinal Stem Cell Proliferation and Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shila Gilbert

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal epithelial stem cells (IESCs control the intestinal homeostatic response to inflammation and regeneration. The underlying mechanisms are unclear. Cytokine-STAT5 signaling regulates intestinal epithelial homeostasis and responses to injury. We link STAT5 signaling to IESC replenishment upon injury by depletion or activation of Stat5 transcription factor. We found that depletion of Stat5 led to deregulation of IESC marker expression and decreased LGR5+ IESC proliferation. STAT5-deficient mice exhibited worse intestinal histology and impaired crypt regeneration after γ-irradiation. We generated a transgenic mouse model with inducible expression of constitutively active Stat5. In contrast to Stat5 depletion, activation of STAT5 increased IESC proliferation, accelerated crypt regeneration, and conferred resistance to intestinal injury. Furthermore, ectopic activation of STAT5 in mouse or human stem cells promoted LGR5+ IESC self-renewal. Accordingly, STAT5 promotes IESC proliferation and regeneration to mitigate intestinal inflammation. STAT5 is a functional therapeutic target to improve the IESC regenerative response to gut injury.

  1. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, N; Ganesh, R; Sankar, Janani; Sathiyasekaran, Malathi

    2009-10-01

    Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL) is a rare disease of intestinal lymphatics presenting with hypoproteinemia, bilateral lower limb edema, ascites, and protein losing enteropathy. We report a series of 4 children from Chennai, India presenting with anasarca, recurrent diarrhea, hypoproteinemia and confirmatory features of PIL on endoscopy and histopathology.

  2. Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Dušan Đ.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia is a disease which leads to protein losing enteropathy. Tortous, dilated lymphatic vessels in the intestinal wall and mesenterium are typical features of the disease. Clinical manifestations include malabsorption, diarrhea, steatorrhea, edema and effusions. Specific diet and medication are required for disease control. Case report. A 19-year old male patient was hospitalized due to diarrhea, abdominal swelling, weariness and fatigue. Physical examination revealed growth impairment, ascites, and lymphedema of the right hand and forearm. Laboratory assessment indicated iron deficiency anaemia, lymphopenia, malabsorption, inflammatory syndrome, and urinary infection. Enteroscopy and video capsule endoscopy demonstrated dilated lymphatic vessels in the small intestine. The diagnosis was confirmed by intestinal biopsy. The patient was put on high-protein diet containing medium-chain fatty acids, somatotropin and suportive therapy. Conclusion. Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia is a rare disease, usually diagnosed in childhood. Early recognition of the disease and adequate treatment can prevent development of various complications.

  3. [Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Dugan D j; Spuran, Milan; Alempijević, Tamara; Krstić, Miodrag; Djuranović, Srdjan; Kovacević, Nada; Damnjanović, Svetozar; Micev, Marjan

    2011-03-01

    Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia is a disease which leads to protein losing enteropathy. Tortuous, dilated lymphatic vessels in the intestinal wall and mesenterium are typical features of the disease. Clinical manifestations include malabsorption, diarrhea, steatorrhea, edema and effusions. Specific diet and medication are required for disease control. A 19-year old male patient was hospitalized due to diarrhea, abdominal swelling, weariness and fatigue. Physical examination revealed growth impairment, ascites, and lymphedema of the right hand and forearm. Laboratory assessment indicated iron deficiency anaemia, lymphopenia, malabsorption, inflammatory syndrome, and urinary infection. Enteroscopy and video capsule endoscopy demonstrated dilated lymphatic vessels in the small intestine. The diagnosis was confirmed by intestinal biopsy. The patient was put on high-protein diet containing medium-chain fatty acids, somatotropin and supportive therapy. Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia is a rare disease, usually diagnosed in childhood. Early recognition of the disease and adequate treatment can prevent development of various complications.

  4. Biological invasions, ecological resilience and adaptive governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Brian C; Garmestani, Ahjond S; Angeler, David G; Herrmann, Dustin L; Stow, Craig A; Nyström, Magnus; Sendzimir, Jan; Hopton, Matthew E; Kolasa, Jurek; Allen, Craig R

    2016-12-01

    In a world of increasing interconnections in global trade as well as rapid change in climate and land cover, the accelerating introduction and spread of invasive species is a critical concern due to associated negative social and ecological impacts, both real and perceived. Much of the societal response to invasive species to date has been associated with negative economic consequences of invasions. This response has shaped a war-like approach to addressing invasions, one with an agenda of eradications and intense ecological restoration efforts towards prior or more desirable ecological regimes. This trajectory often ignores the concept of ecological resilience and associated approaches of resilience-based governance. We argue that the relationship between ecological resilience and invasive species has been understudied to the detriment of attempts to govern invasions, and that most management actions fail, primarily because they do not incorporate adaptive, learning-based approaches. Invasive species can decrease resilience by reducing the biodiversity that underpins ecological functions and processes, making ecosystems more prone to regime shifts. However, invasions do not always result in a shift to an alternative regime; invasions can also increase resilience by introducing novelty, replacing lost ecological functions or adding redundancy that strengthens already existing structures and processes in an ecosystem. This paper examines the potential impacts of species invasions on the resilience of ecosystems and suggests that resilience-based approaches can inform policy by linking the governance of biological invasions to the negotiation of tradeoffs between ecosystem services. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Electrostatic accelerators

    OpenAIRE

    Hinterberger, F

    2006-01-01

    The principle of electrostatic accelerators is presented. We consider Cockcroft– Walton, Van de Graaff and Tandem Van de Graaff accelerators. We resume high voltage generators such as cascade generators, Van de Graaff band generators, Pelletron generators, Laddertron generators and Dynamitron generators. The speci c features of accelerating tubes, ion optics and methods of voltage stabilization are described. We discuss the characteristic beam properties and the variety of possible beams. We ...

  6. Electrostatic accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Hinterberger, F

    2006-01-01

    The principle of electrostatic accelerators is presented. We consider Cockcroft– Walton, Van de Graaff and Tandem Van de Graaff accelerators. We resume high voltage generators such as cascade generators, Van de Graaff band generators, Pelletron generators, Laddertron generators and Dynamitron generators. The speci c features of accelerating tubes, ion optics and methods of voltage stabilization are described. We discuss the characteristic beam properties and the variety of possible beams. We sketch possible applications and the progress in the development of electrostatic accelerators.

  7. Accelerator development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Because the use of accelerated heavy ions would provide many opportunities for new and important studies in nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, as well as other disciplines, both the Chemistry and Physics Divisions are supporting the development of a heavy-ion accelerator. The design of greatest current interest includes a tandem accelerator with a terminal voltage of approximately 25 MV injecting into a linear accelerator with rf superconducting resonators. This combined accelerator facility would be capable of accelerating ions of masses ranging over the entire periodic table to an energy corresponding to approximately 10 MeV/nucleon. This approach, as compared to other concepts, has the advantages of lower construction costs, lower operating power, 100 percent duty factor, and high beam quality (good energy resolution, good timing resolution, small beam size, and small beam divergence). The included sections describe the concept of the proposed heavy-ion accelerator, and the development program aiming at: (1) investigation of the individual questions concerning the superconducting accelerating resonators; (2) construction and testing of prototype accelerator systems; and (3) search for economical solutions to engineering problems. (U.S.)

  8. Intestinal failure in childhood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insulin influences intestinal structure and absorptive function.36 The favourable effect of .... lipid emulsions, micronutrients provison and cyclic infusion.3 The guidelines on PN .... Classification, epidemiology and aetiology. Best Pract Res Clin ...

  9. Pathological and therapeutic significance of cellular invasion by Proteus mirabilis in an enterocystoplasty infection stone model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B. Mathoera (Rejiv); D.J. Kok (Dirk); C.M. Verduin (Cees); R.J.M. Nijman (Rien)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractProteus mirabilis infection often leads to stone formation. We evaluated how bacterium-mucin adhesion, invasion, and intracellular crystal formation are related to antibiotic sensitivity and may cause frequent stone formation in enterocystoplasties. Five intestinal

  10. Intestinal Permeability: The Basics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvar Bjarnason

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors review some of the more fundamental principles underlying the noninvasive assessment of intestinal permeability in humans, the choice of test markers and their analyses, and the practical aspects of test dose composition and how these can be changed to allow the specific assessment of regional permeability changes and other intestinal functions. The implications of increased intestinal permeability in the pathogenesis of human disease is discussed in relation to findings in patients with Crohn’s disease. A common feature of increased intestinal permeability is the development of a low grade enteropathy, and while quantitatively similar changes may be found in Crohn’s disease these seem to predict relapse of disease. Moreover, factors associated with relapse of Crohn’s disease have in common an action to increase intestinal permeability. While increased intestinal permeability does not seem to be important in the etiology of Crohn’s disease it may be a central mechanism in the clinical relapse of disease.

  11. RECIRCULATING ACCELERATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BERG, J.S.; GARREN, A.A.; JOHNSTONE, C.

    2000-01-01

    This paper compares various types of recirculating accelerators, outlining the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches. The accelerators are characterized according to the types of arcs they use: whether there is a single arc for the entire recirculator or there are multiple arcs, and whether the arc(s) are isochronous or non-isochronous

  12. LIBO accelerates

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The prototype module of LIBO, a linear accelerator project designed for cancer therapy, has passed its first proton-beam acceleration test. In parallel a new version - LIBO-30 - is being developed, which promises to open up even more interesting avenues.

  13. Invasive ability of human renal cell carcinoma cell line Caki-2 is accelerated by gamma-aminobutyric acid, via sustained activation of ERK1/2 inducible matrix metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamoto, Teruo; Azuma, Haruhito; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Kiyama, Satoshi; Ubai, Takanobu; Kotake, Yatsugu; Watanabe, Masahito; Katsuoka, Yoji

    2007-10-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was first discovered as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS) and has been reported to have a variety of functions, including regulation of cell division, cell differentiation and maturation, and to be involved in the development of certain cancers outside the CNS. In the present study, using the human renal cell carcinoma cell line Caki-2, we demonstrated that GABA stimulation significantly increased the expression of MMP-2 and -9 and subsequently increased the invasive activity of the cancer cells. Because MAPK signaling is one of the key regulators of MMP expression, we further evaluated MAPK signaling after stimulation with GABA. It was found that GABA stimulation promoted the phosphorylation of MAPKs, including ERK1/2, JNK, and p38. ERK1/2 phosphorylation was sustained for up to 12 h, while phosphorylation of JNK and p38 returned to the endogenous level by 30 min. It was noteworthy that the ras/raf/MEK/ERK pathway inhibitor PD98059 attenuated GABA-induced MMP-9 expression and that both PD98059 and MMP inhibitors attenuated the GABA-induced invasive activity of Caki-2 cells. Moreover, data obtained by depletion of the MEK/ERK pathway using interfering RNA transfection of Caki-2 cells clearly corroborated the above results, as both MMP-9 expression and GABA-induced invasive ability were decreased significantly. We also demonstrated that the GABA-induced increase in invasive ability via ERK1/2 up-regulation was mediated mainly through the GABA-B receptor. These results indicate that GABA stimulation promotes cancer cell invasion and that the effect is partly due to ERK1/2-dependent up-regulation of MMPs.

  14. Accelerating Inspire

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2266999

    2017-01-01

    CERN has been involved in the dissemination of scientific results since its early days and has continuously updated the distribution channels. Currently, Inspire hosts catalogues of articles, authors, institutions, conferences, jobs, experiments, journals and more. Successful orientation among this amount of data requires comprehensive linking between the content. Inspire has lacked a system for linking experiments and articles together based on which accelerator they were conducted at. The purpose of this project has been to create such a system. Records for 156 accelerators were created and all 2913 experiments on Inspire were given corresponding MARC tags. Records of 18404 accelerator physics related bibliographic entries were also tagged with corresponding accelerator tags. Finally, as a part of the endeavour to broaden CERN's presence on Wikipedia, existing Wikipedia articles of accelerators were updated with short descriptions and links to Inspire. In total, 86 Wikipedia articles were updated. This repo...

  15. Intestinal lymphangiectasia in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Hugh James; Nimmo, Michael

    2011-02-15

    Intestinal lymphangiectasia in the adult may be characterized as a disorder with dilated intestinal lacteals causing loss of lymph into the lumen of the small intestine and resultant hypoproteinemia, hypogammaglobulinemia, hypoalbuminemia and reduced number of circulating lymphocytes or lymphopenia. Most often, intestinal lymphangiectasia has been recorded in children, often in neonates, usually with other congenital abnormalities but initial definition in adults including the elderly has become increasingly more common. Shared clinical features with the pediatric population such as bilateral lower limb edema, sometimes with lymphedema, pleural effusion and chylous ascites may occur but these reflect the severe end of the clinical spectrum. In some, diarrhea occurs with steatorrhea along with increased fecal loss of protein, reflected in increased fecal alpha-1-antitrypsin levels, while others may present with iron deficiency anemia, sometimes associated with occult small intestinal bleeding. Most lymphangiectasia in adults detected in recent years, however, appears to have few or no clinical features of malabsorption. Diagnosis remains dependent on endoscopic changes confirmed by small bowel biopsy showing histological evidence of intestinal lymphangiectasia. In some, video capsule endoscopy and enteroscopy have revealed more extensive changes along the length of the small intestine. A critical diagnostic element in adults with lymphangiectasia is the exclusion of entities (e.g. malignancies including lymphoma) that might lead to obstruction of the lymphatic system and "secondary" changes in the small bowel biopsy. In addition, occult infectious (e.g. Whipple's disease from Tropheryma whipplei) or inflammatory disorders (e.g. Crohn's disease) may also present with profound changes in intestinal permeability and protein-losing enteropathy that also require exclusion. Conversely, rare B-cell type lymphomas have also been described even decades following initial

  16. FMIT accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, D.D.

    1983-01-01

    A 35-MeV 100-mA cw linear accelerator is being designed by Los Alamos for use in the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. Essential to this program is the design, construction, and evaluation of performance of the accelerator's injector, low-energy beam transport, and radio-frequency quadrupole sections before they are shipped to the facility site. The installation and testing of some of these sections have begun as well as the testing of the rf, noninterceptive beam diagnostics, computer control, dc power, and vacuum systems. An overview of the accelerator systems and the performance to date is given

  17. Electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramyan.

    1981-01-01

    The USSR produces an electron accelerator family of a simple design powered straight from the mains. The specifications are given of accelerators ELITA-400, ELITA-3, ELT-2, TEUS-3 and RIUS-5 with maximum electron energies of 0.3 to 5 MeV, a mean power of 10 to 70 kW operating in both the pulsed and the continuous (TEUS-3) modes. Pulsed accelerators ELITA-400 and ELITA-3 and RIUS-5 in which TESLA resonance transformers are used are characterized by their compact size. (Ha)

  18. Diagnosis of intestinal and extra intestinal amoebiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Myriam Consuelo; Quiroz, Damian Arnoldo; Pinilla, Analida Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The objective is to carry out a review of the national and international literature as of the XXth century in order to update the advances for the diagnosis of complex odd Entamoeba histolytic / Entamoeba dispar and that of intestinal and extra intestinal amoebiasis that may be of use to the scientific community. As well as to unify the diagnostic criteria of this parasitosis known as a public health problem, and as a consequence of that, optimize the quality of population care. Data source: there was a systematic search for the scientific literature Publisher in Spanish and English since 1960 until today, this selection started on the first semester of 2006 until 2007, in the development of the line on intestinal and extra-intestinal amoebiasis of the Medical School of the National University of Colombia. A retrospective search process was carried out, systematically reviewing the most relevant articles as well as the products of this research line. In deciding how to make this article, there was a continuous search in different data bases such as Medline, SciELO and other bases in the library of the National University of Colombia, as well as other classical books related to the subject. For that purpose the terms amoebiasis, odd Entamoeba histolytic, Entamoeba, diagnosis, epidemiology, dysentery, amoebic liver abscess, were used. Studies selection: titles and abstracts were reviewed to select the original publications and the most representative ones related to this article's subject. Data extraction: the articles were classified according to the subject, the chronology and the authors according to the scientific contribution to solve the problem. Synthesis of the data: in the fi rst instance, a chronological critical analysis was carried out to order and synthesize the progress made in the diagnosis until confirmation of the experts' agreements in the field of amoebiasis was obtained throughout the world. Conclusion: this article summarizes what has taken place

  19. Horizontal Accelerator

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Horizontal Accelerator (HA) Facility is a versatile research tool available for use on projects requiring simulation of the crash environment. The HA Facility is...

  20. Acceleration theorems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.

    1994-06-01

    Electromagnetic fields can be separated into near and far components. Near fields are extensions of static fields. They do not radiate, and they fall off more rapidly from a source than far fields. Near fields can accelerate particles, but the ratio of acceleration to source fields at a distance R, is always less than R/λ or 1, whichever is smaller. Far fields can be represented as sums of plane parallel, transversely polarized waves that travel at the velocity of light. A single such wave in a vacuum cannot give continuous acceleration, and it is shown that no sums of such waves can give net first order acceleration. This theorem is proven in three different ways; each method showing a different aspect of the situation

  1. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

    1959-02-17

    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  2. Small intestine diverticuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomakov, P.; Risov, A.

    1991-01-01

    The routine method of contrast matter passage applied to 850 patients with different gastrointestinal diseases proved inefficient to detect any small-intestinal diverticuli. The following modiffications of the method have been tested in order to improve the diagnostic possibilities of the X-ray: study at short intervals, assisted passage, enteroclysm, pharmacodynamic impact, retrograde filling of the ileum by irrigoscopy. Twelve diverticuli of the small-intestinal loops were identified: 5 Meckel's diverticuli, 2 solitary of which one of the therminal ileum, 2 double diverticuli and 1 multiple diverticulosis of the jejunum. The results show that the short interval X-ray examination of the small intestines is the method of choice for identifying local changes in them. The solitary diverticuli are not casuistic scarcity, its occurrence is about 0.5% at purposeful X-ray investigation. The assisted passage method is proposed as a method of choice for detection of the Meckel's diverticulum. 5 figs., 3 tabs. 18 refs

  3. Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeon, Kyung Mo; Seo, Jeong Kee; Lee, Yong Seok [Seoul National University Children' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-03-15

    Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome is a rare clinical condition in which impaired intestinal peristalsis causes recurrent symptoms of bowel obstruction in the absence of a mechanical occlusion. This syndrome may involve variable segments of small or large bowel, and may be associated with urinary bladder retention. This study included 6 children(3 boys and 3 girls) of chronic intestinal obstruction. Four were symptomatic at birth and two were of the ages of one month and one year. All had abdominal distension and deflection difficulty. Five had urinary bladder distension. Despite parenteral nutrition and surgical intervention(ileostomy or colostomy), bowel obstruction persisted and four patients expired from sepses within one year. All had gaseous distension of small and large bowel on abdominal films. In small bowel series, consistent findings were variable degree of dilatation, decreased peristalsis(prolonged transit time) and microcolon or microrectum. This disease entity must be differentiated from congenital megacolon, ileal atresia and megacystis syndrome.

  4. Small Intestinal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munot, Khushboo; Kotler, Donald P

    2016-06-01

    Small intestinal infections are extremely common worldwide. They may be bacterial, viral, or parasitic in etiology. Most are foodborne or waterborne, with specific etiologies differing by region and with diverse pathophysiologies. Very young, very old, and immune-deficient individuals are the most vulnerable to morbidity or mortality from small intestinal infections. There have been significant advances in diagnostic sophistication with the development and early application of molecular diagnostic assays, though these tests have not become mainstream. The lack of rapid diagnoses combined with the self-limited nature of small intestinal infections has hampered the development of specific and effective treatments other than oral rehydration. Antibiotics are not indicated in the absence of an etiologic diagnosis, and not at all in the case of some infections.

  5. Small intestine aspirate and culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/003731.htm Small intestine aspirate and culture To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Small intestine aspirate and culture is a lab test to check for infection ...

  6. Milk modulates campylobacter invasion into caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwen, R.; Neerven, van R.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Raw milk is a recognized source of Campylobacter outbreaks, but pasteurization is an effective way to eliminate the causative agent of Campylobacteriosis. Whereas breastfeeding is protective against infectious diseases, consumption of formula milk is thought to be not. However, in relation to

  7. Intestinal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abdominal X-ray of patients 1, 3 and 4 demonstrated dilated small bowel loops with fluid levels in keeping with intestinal ... myxoid/vascular pattern characterised by a variable admixture of capillary-calibre blood vessels, .... in the present study had a past history of abdominal trauma or surgery. Ancillary histopathological ...

  8. Human Intestinal Spirochaetosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    Human intestinal spirochaetosis is a condition of the colon that is characterized by the presence of spirochaetes attached to the mucosal cells of the colon. These spirochaetes belong to the family Brachyspiraceae and two species are known to occur in humans: Brachyspira aalborgi and Brachyspira

  9. Intestinal health in carnivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen-Plantinga, Esther A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge on the influence of gastro-intestinal (GI) microbiota on the health status of humans and animals is rapidly expanding. A balanced microbiome may provide multiple benefits to the host, like triggering and stimulation of the immune system, acting as a barrier against possible pathogenic

  10. Intestinal Complications of IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... localized pocket of pus caused by infection from bacteria. More common in Crohn’s than in colitis, an abscess may form in the intestinal wall—sometimes causing it to bulge out. Visible abscesses, such as those around the anus, look like boils and treatment often involves lancing. Symptoms of ...

  11. Intestinal volvulus in cetaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begeman, L; St Leger, J A; Blyde, D J; Jauniaux, T P; Lair, S; Lovewell, G; Raverty, S; Seibel, H; Siebert, U; Staggs, S L; Martelli, P; Keesler, R I

    2013-07-01

    Intestinal volvulus was recognized as the cause of death in 18 cetaceans, including 8 species of toothed whales (suborder Odontoceti). Cases originated from 11 institutions from around the world and included both captive (n = 9) and free-ranging (n = 9) animals. When the clinical history was available (n = 9), animals consistently demonstrated acute dullness 1 to 5 days prior to death. In 3 of these animals (33%), there was a history of chronic gastrointestinal illness. The pathological findings were similar to those described in other animal species and humans, and consisted of intestinal volvulus and a well-demarcated segment of distended, congested, and edematous intestine with gas and bloody fluid contents. Associated lesions included congested and edematous mesentery and mesenteric lymph nodes, and often serofibrinous or hemorrhagic abdominal effusion. The volvulus involved the cranial part of the intestines in 85% (11 of 13). Potential predisposing causes were recognized in most cases (13 of 18, 72%) but were variable. Further studies investigating predisposing factors are necessary to help prevent occurrence and enhance early clinical diagnosis and management of the condition.

  12. Small intestinal motility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smout, André J. P. M.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the past year, many studies were published in which new and relevant information on small intestinal motility in humans and laboratory animals was obtained. RECENT FINDINGS: Although the reported findings are heterogeneous, some themes appear to be particularly interesting and

  13. Location and pathogenic potential of Blastocystis in the porcine intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqi Wang

    Full Text Available Blastocystis is an ubiquitous, enteric protozoan of humans and many other species. Human infection has been associated with gastrointestinal disease such as irritable bowel syndrome, however, this remains unproven. A relevant animal model is needed to investigate the pathogenesis/pathogenicity of Blastocystis. We concluded previously that pigs are likely natural hosts of Blastocystis with a potentially zoonotic, host-adapted subtype (ST, ST5, and may make suitable animal models. In this study, we aimed to characterise the host-agent interaction of Blastocystis and the pig, including localising Blastocystis in porcine intestine using microscopy, PCR and histopathological examination of tissues. Intestines from pigs in three different management systems, i.e., a commercial piggery, a small family farm and a research herd (where the animals were immunosuppressed were examined. This design was used to determine if environment or immune status influences intestinal colonisation of Blastocystis as immunocompromised individuals may potentially be more susceptible to blastocystosis and development of associated clinical signs. Intestines from all 28 pigs were positive for Blastocystis with all pigs harbouring ST5. In addition, the farm pigs had mixed infections with STs 1 and/or 3. Blastocystis organisms/DNA were predominantly found in the large intestine but were also detected in the small intestine of the immunosuppressed and some of the farm pigs, suggesting that immunosuppression and/or husbandry factors may influence Blastocystis colonisation of the small intestine. No obvious pathology was observed in the histological sections. Blastocystis was present as vacuolar/granular forms and these were found within luminal material or in close proximity to epithelial cells, with no evidence of attachment or invasion. These results concur with most human studies, in which Blastocystis is predominantly found in the large intestine in the absence of

  14. Accelerator microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuniz, C.

    1997-01-01

    Particle accelerators have been developed more than sixty years ago to investigate nuclear and atomic phenomena. A major shift toward applications of accelerators in the study of materials structure and composition in inter-disciplinary projects has been witnessed in the last two decades. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has developed advanced research programs based on the use of particle and photon beams. Atmospheric pollution problems are investigated at the 3 MV Van de Graff accelerator using ion beam analysis techniques to detect toxic elements in aerosol particles. High temperature superconductor and semiconductor materials are characterised using the recoil of iodine and other heavy ions produced at ANTARES, the 10-MV Tandem accelerator. A heavy-ion microprobe is presently being developed at ANTARES to map elemental concentrations of specific elements with micro-size resolution. An Accelerator mass Spectrometry (AMS) system has been developed at ANSTO for the ultra-sensitive detection of Carbon-14, Iodine-129 and other long-lived radioisotopes. This AMS spectrometer is a key instrument for climate change studies and international safeguards. ANSTO is also managing the Australian Synchrotron Research program based on facilities developed at the Photon Factory (Japan) and at the Advanced Photon Source (USA). Advanced projects in biology, materials chemistry, structural condensed matter and other disciplines are being promoted by a consortium involving Australian universities and research institutions. This paper will review recent advances in the use of particle accelerators, with a particular emphasis on applications developed at ANSTO and related to problems of international concern, such as global environmental change, public health and nuclear proliferation

  15. Biological invasions, ecological resilience and adaptive governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a world of increasing interconnections in global trade as well as rapid change in climate and land cover, the accelerating introduction and spread of invasive species is a critical concern due to associated negative social and ecological impacts, both real and perceived. Much...

  16. [Intrauterine intestinal volvulus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawrych, Elzbieta; Chojnacka, Hanna; Wegrzynowski, Jerzy; Rajewska, Justyna

    2009-07-01

    Intrauterine intestinal volvulus is an extremely rare case of acute congenital intestinal obstruction. The diagnosis is usually possible in the third trimester of a pregnancy. Fetal midgut volvulus is most likely to be recognized by observing a typical clockwise whirlpool sign during color Doppler investigation. Multiple dilated intestinal loops with fluid levels are usually visible during the antenatal ultrasound as well. Physical and radiographic findings in the newborn indicate intestinal obstruction and an emergency surgery is required. The authors describe intrauterine volvulus in 3 female newborns in which surgical treatment was individualized. The decision about primary or delayed anastomosis after resection of the gangrenous part of the small bowel was made at the time of the surgery and depended on the general condition of the newborn, as well as presence or absence of meconium peritonitis. Double loop jejunostomy was performed in case of two newborns, followed by a delayed end-to-end anastomosis. In case of the third newborn, good blood supply of the small intestine after untwisting and 0.25% lignocaine injections into mesentery led to the assumption that the torsion was not complete and ischemia was reversible. In the two cases of incomplete rotation the cecum was sutured to the left abdominal wall to prevent further twisting. The postoperative course was uneventful and oral alimentation caused no problems. Physical development of all these children has been normal (current age: 1-2 years) and the parents have not observed any disorders or problems regarding passage of food through the alimentary canal. Prompt antenatal diagnosis of this surgical emergency and adequate choice of intervention may greatly reduce mortality due to intrauterine volvulus.

  17. Accelerator operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    This section is concerned with the operation of both the tandem-linac system and the Dynamitron, two accelerators that are used for entirely different research. Developmental activities associated with the tandem and the Dynamitron are also treated here, but developmental activities associated with the superconducting linac are covered separately because this work is a program of technology development in its own right

  18. CNSTN Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habbassi, Afifa; Trabelsi, Adel

    2010-01-01

    This project give a big idea about the measurement of the linear accelerator in the CNSTN. During this work we control dose distribution for different product. For this characterisation we have to make an installation qualification ,operational qualification,performance qualification and of course for every step we have to control temperature and the dose ,even the distribution of the last one.

  19. Accelerators course

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA; Métral, E

    2006-01-01

    1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges

  20. Accelerator operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Operations of the SuperHILAC, the Bevatron/Bevalac, and the 184-inch Synchrocyclotron during the period from October 1977 to September 1978 are discussed. These include ion source development, accelerator facilities, the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System, and Bevelac biomedical operations

  1. Accelerator update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    When the Accelerator Conference, combined International High Energy and US Particle versions, held in Dallas in May, was initially scheduled, progress nearby for the US Superconducting Supercollider was high on the preliminary agenda. With the SSC voted down by Congress in October 1993, this was no longer the case. However the content of the meeting, in terms of both its deep implications for ambitious new projects and the breadth of its scope, showed that the worldwide particle accelerator field is far from being moribund. A traditional feature of such accelerator conferences is the multiplicity of parallel sessions. No one person can attend all sessions, so that delegates can follow completely different paths and emerge with totally different impressions. Despite this overload, and despite the SSC cancellation, the general picture is one of encouraging progress over a wide range of major new projects throughout the world. At the same time, spinoff from, and applications of, accelerators and accelerator technology are becoming increasingly important. Centrestage is now CERN's LHC proton-proton collider, where a test string of superconducting magnets is operating over long periods at the nominal LHC field of 8.36 tesla or more. The assignment of the underground areas in the existing 27- kilometre LEP tunnel is now quasidefinitive (see page 3). For CERN's existing big machine, the LEP electron-positron collider, ongoing work concentrates on boosting performance using improved optics and bunch trains. But the main objective is the LEP2 scheme using superconducting accelerating cavities to boost the beam energy (see page 6). After some initial teething problems, production and operation of these cavities appears to have been mastered, at least under test conditions. A highlight at CERN last year was the first run with lead ions (December 1994, page 15). Handling these heavy particles with systems originally designed for protons calls for ingenuity. The SPS

  2. Accelerator update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-09-15

    When the Accelerator Conference, combined International High Energy and US Particle versions, held in Dallas in May, was initially scheduled, progress nearby for the US Superconducting Supercollider was high on the preliminary agenda. With the SSC voted down by Congress in October 1993, this was no longer the case. However the content of the meeting, in terms of both its deep implications for ambitious new projects and the breadth of its scope, showed that the worldwide particle accelerator field is far from being moribund. A traditional feature of such accelerator conferences is the multiplicity of parallel sessions. No one person can attend all sessions, so that delegates can follow completely different paths and emerge with totally different impressions. Despite this overload, and despite the SSC cancellation, the general picture is one of encouraging progress over a wide range of major new projects throughout the world. At the same time, spinoff from, and applications of, accelerators and accelerator technology are becoming increasingly important. Centrestage is now CERN's LHC proton-proton collider, where a test string of superconducting magnets is operating over long periods at the nominal LHC field of 8.36 tesla or more. The assignment of the underground areas in the existing 27- kilometre LEP tunnel is now quasidefinitive (see page 3). For CERN's existing big machine, the LEP electron-positron collider, ongoing work concentrates on boosting performance using improved optics and bunch trains. But the main objective is the LEP2 scheme using superconducting accelerating cavities to boost the beam energy (see page 6). After some initial teething problems, production and operation of these cavities appears to have been mastered, at least under test conditions. A highlight at CERN last year was the first run with lead ions (December 1994, page 15). Handling these heavy particles with systems originally designed for protons calls for ingenuity. The SPS has managed

  3. Non-invasive assessment of gastric activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smallwood, R.H.; Brown, B.H.

    1983-01-01

    There have been many suggestions for the routine clinical use of the electro-enterogram, but with the exception of the reported usage in the USSR no significant penetration into medical practice has been reported elsewhere. Amongst the many suggestions have been the possible application of electrical stimulation via surface electrodes to overcome post-operative inhibition of intestinal electrical activity, which can be recorded via surface electrodes. Gastric emptying studies have shown that duodenal ulceration is associated with changes in the rate and pattern of emptying of solid meals. Identifiable patterns in the electro-gastrogram following a metal might have diagnostic application. There is some evidence of correlations of electrical activity and pathology in the large intestine. In the colon diverticular disease has been shown to change the frequency content of the slow wave electrical activity and there is some evidence that this might be recorded from surface electrodes. A major obstacle to progress remains the inability to relate non-invasive recordings to intestinal motility. The best hope may be the use of direct and yet non-invasive methods of obtaining motility and in this context real-time ultrasound imaging is probably the most promising technique. The electro-gastrogram has certainly been shown to allow recording of gastric slow wave activity and there is a reasonable hope that further methods of analysis will allow inferential information on motility to be obtained. The following section makes brief mention of these techniques

  4. Small intestinal transplantation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, E M

    2012-02-03

    The past few years have witnessed a considerable shift in the clinical status of intestinal transplantation. A great deal of experience has been gained at the most active centers, and results comparable with those reported at a similar stage in the development of other solid-organ graft programs are now being achieved by these highly proficient transplant teams. Rejection and its inevitable associate, sepsis, remain ubiquitous, and new immunosuppressant regimes are urgently needed; some may already be on the near horizon. The recent success of isolated intestinal grafts, together with the mortality and morbidity attendant upon the development of advanced liver disease related to total parenteral nutrition, has prompted the bold proposal that patients at risk for this complication should be identified and should receive isolated small bowel grafts before the onset of end-stage hepatic failure. The very fact that such a suggestion has begun to emerge reflects real progress in this challenging field.

  5. Accelerating Value Creation with Accelerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Eythor Ivar

    2015-01-01

    and developing the best business ideas and support the due diligence process. Even universities are noticing that the learning experience of the action learning approach is an effective way to develop capabilities and change cultures. Accelerators related to what has historically been associated...

  6. The usefulness of MDCT in acute intestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kum Rae; Park, Won Kyu; Kim, Jae Woon; Chang, Jay Chun; Jang, Han Won

    2006-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the usefulness of MDCT for localizing a bleeding site and for helping make a decision on further management for acute intestinal bleeding. We conducted a retrospective review of 17 consecutive patients who presented with acute intestinal bleeding and who also underwent MDCT before angiography or surgery. The sensitivity of MDCT for detecting acute intestinal bleeding was assessed and compared with that of conventional angiography. The sensitivity of MDCT for the detection of acute intestinal bleeding was 77% (13 or 17), whereas that of angiography was 46% (6 or 13). All the bleeding points that were subsequently detected on angiography were visualized on MDCT. In three cases, the bleeding focus was detected on MDCT and not on angiography. In four cases, both MDCT and angiography did not detect the bleeding focus; for one of these cases, CT during SMA angiography was performed and this detected the active bleeding site. In patients with acute intestinal bleeding, MDCT is a useful image modality to detect the bleeding site and to help decide on further management before performing angiography or surgery. When tumorous lesions are detected, invasive angiography can be omitted

  7. Laser acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, T.; Nakajima, K.; Mourou, G.

    2017-02-01

    The fundamental idea of Laser Wakefield Acceleration (LWFA) is reviewed. An ultrafast intense laser pulse drives coherent wakefield with a relativistic amplitude robustly supported by the plasma. While the large amplitude of wakefields involves collective resonant oscillations of the eigenmode of the entire plasma electrons, the wake phase velocity ˜ c and ultrafastness of the laser pulse introduce the wake stability and rigidity. A large number of worldwide experiments show a rapid progress of this concept realization toward both the high-energy accelerator prospect and broad applications. The strong interest in this has been spurring and stimulating novel laser technologies, including the Chirped Pulse Amplification, the Thin Film Compression, the Coherent Amplification Network, and the Relativistic Mirror Compression. These in turn have created a conglomerate of novel science and technology with LWFA to form a new genre of high field science with many parameters of merit in this field increasing exponentially lately. This science has triggered a number of worldwide research centers and initiatives. Associated physics of ion acceleration, X-ray generation, and astrophysical processes of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are reviewed. Applications such as X-ray free electron laser, cancer therapy, and radioisotope production etc. are considered. A new avenue of LWFA using nanomaterials is also emerging.

  8. Laser acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.; Nakajima, K.; Mourou, G.

    2017-01-01

    The fundamental idea of LaserWakefield Acceleration (LWFA) is reviewed. An ultrafast intense laser pulse drives coherent wakefield with a relativistic amplitude robustly supported by the plasma. While the large amplitude of wake fields involves collective resonant oscillations of the eigenmode of the entire plasma electrons, the wake phase velocity ∼ c and ultra fastness of the laser pulse introduce the wake stability and rigidity. A large number of worldwide experiments show a rapid progress of this concept realization toward both the high-energy accelerator prospect and broad applications. The strong interest in this has been spurring and stimulating novel laser technologies, including the Chirped Pulse Amplification, the Thin Film Compression, the Coherent Amplification Network, and the Relativistic Mirror Compression. These in turn have created a conglomerate of novel science and technology with LWFA to form a new genre of high field science with many parameters of merit in this field increasing exponentially lately. This science has triggered a number of worldwide research centers and initiatives. Associated physics of ion acceleration, X-ray generation, and astrophysical processes of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are reviewed. Applications such as X-ray free electron laser, cancer therapy, and radioisotope production etc. are considered. A new avenue of LWFA using nano materials is also emerging.

  9. Accelerating networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, David M D; Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Johnson, Neil F

    2007-01-01

    Evolving out-of-equilibrium networks have been under intense scrutiny recently. In many real-world settings the number of links added per new node is not constant but depends on the time at which the node is introduced in the system. This simple idea gives rise to the concept of accelerating networks, for which we review an existing definition and-after finding it somewhat constrictive-offer a new definition. The new definition provided here views network acceleration as a time dependent property of a given system as opposed to being a property of the specific algorithm applied to grow the network. The definition also covers both unweighted and weighted networks. As time-stamped network data becomes increasingly available, the proposed measures may be easily applied to such empirical datasets. As a simple case study we apply the concepts to study the evolution of three different instances of Wikipedia, namely, those in English, German, and Japanese, and find that the networks undergo different acceleration regimes in their evolution

  10. Advanced concepts for acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    Selected examples of advanced accelerator concepts are reviewed. Such plasma accelerators as plasma beat wave accelerator, plasma wake field accelerator, and plasma grating accelerator are discussed particularly as examples of concepts for accelerating relativistic electrons or positrons. Also covered are the pulsed electron-beam, pulsed laser accelerator, inverse Cherenkov accelerator, inverse free-electron laser, switched radial-line accelerators, and two-beam accelerator. Advanced concepts for ion acceleration discussed include the electron ring accelerator, excitation of waves on intense electron beams, and two-wave combinations

  11. Lipo sarcoma in small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Iglesias, J.; Pineyro Gutierrez, A.; Taroco Medeiros, L.; Fein Kolodny, C.; Navarrete Pedocchi, H.

    1987-01-01

    A case is presented by primitive liposarcoma in small intestine , an extensive bibliographical review foreigner and national in this case. It detach the exceptional of the intestinal topography of the liposarcomas; and making stress in the relative value of the computerized tomography and ultrasonography in the diagnose of the small intestine tumors . As well as in the sarcomas of another topography, chemo and radiotherapy associated to the exeresis surgery, it can be of benefit [es

  12. Accelerators and the Accelerator Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process.

  13. Accelerators and the Accelerator Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process

  14. Ring accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisler, G.; Faehl, R.

    1983-01-01

    We present two-dimensional simulations in (r-z) and r-theta) cylinderical geometries of imploding-liner-driven accelerators of rings of charged particles. We address issues of azimuthal and longitudinal stability of the rings. We discuss self-trapping designs in which beam injection and extraction is aided by means of external cusp fields. Our simulations are done with the 2-1/2-D particle-in-cell plasma simulation code CLINER, which combines collisionless, electromagnetic PIC capabilities with a quasi-MHD finite element package

  15. accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    On the inside of the cavity there is a layer of niobium. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment.

  16. Beneficial effects of naloxone in a patient with intestinal pseudoobstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schang, J.C.; Devroede, G.

    1985-01-01

    A 15-day course of Naloxone treatment was given to a patient with intestinal pseudoobstruction who had previously undergone subtotal colectomy with terminal ileostomy for invalidating constipation. The effects of the drug were assessed according to symptoms, by recording the myoelectric activity of the stomach, and by measuring gastric emptying of a radiolabeled solid-liquid meal and the intestinal transit time of radiopaque markers. All tests were performed 1) at baseline; 2) after 2 wk with Naloxone 1.6 mg subcutaneous per day; and 3) after 8 days of placebo. Results showed that before treatment gastric emptying of solids was delayed, emptying of liquids was normal, myoelectric activity of the stomach was normal, small intestinal transit time of radiopaque markers was considerably increased while ileal output was markedly decreased. After Naloxone, gastric emptying of solids was markedly accelerated, emptying of liquids remained normal, gastric electrical spiking activity increased, small intestinal transit time strikingly decreased, and ileal output increased. After placebo, a tendency to return to pretreatment values was observed. This observation suggests that Naloxone may be helpful in the treatment of some patients with intestinal pseudoobstruction

  17. Beneficial effects of naloxone in a patient with intestinal pseudoobstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schang, J.C.; Devroede, G.

    1985-06-01

    A 15-day course of Naloxone treatment was given to a patient with intestinal pseudoobstruction who had previously undergone subtotal colectomy with terminal ileostomy for invalidating constipation. The effects of the drug were assessed according to symptoms, by recording the myoelectric activity of the stomach, and by measuring gastric emptying of a radiolabeled solid-liquid meal and the intestinal transit time of radiopaque markers. All tests were performed 1) at baseline; 2) after 2 wk with Naloxone 1.6 mg subcutaneous per day; and 3) after 8 days of placebo. Results showed that before treatment gastric emptying of solids was delayed, emptying of liquids was normal, myoelectric activity of the stomach was normal, small intestinal transit time of radiopaque markers was considerably increased while ileal output was markedly decreased. After Naloxone, gastric emptying of solids was markedly accelerated, emptying of liquids remained normal, gastric electrical spiking activity increased, small intestinal transit time strikingly decreased, and ileal output increased. After placebo, a tendency to return to pretreatment values was observed. This observation suggests that Naloxone may be helpful in the treatment of some patients with intestinal pseudoobstruction.

  18. Intestinal parasites : associations with intestinal and systemic inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zavala, Gerardo A; García, Olga P; Camacho, Mariela; Ronquillo, Dolores; Campos-Ponce, Maiza; Doak, Colleen; Polman, Katja; Rosado, Jorge L

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: Evaluate associations between intestinal parasitic infection with intestinal and systemic inflammatory markers in school-aged children with high rates of obesity. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma concentrations of CRP, leptin, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 were measured as systemic inflammation markers and

  19. Cosmic ray acceleration mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarsky, C.J.

    1982-09-01

    We present a brief summary of some of the most popular theories of cosmic ray acceleration: Fermi acceleration, its application to acceleration by shocks in a scattering medium, and impulsive acceleration by relativistic shocks

  20. Small Intestine Cancer—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of small intestine cancer. Other types of small intestine cancer are sarcomas, carcinoid tumors, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and lymphomas. Find evidence-based information on small intestine cancer treatment, research, and statistics.

  1. Wireless capsule endoscopy for diagnosis of acute intestinal graft-versus-host disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Susanne; Schoppmeyer, Konrad; Lange, Thoralf; Wiedmann, Marcus; Golsong, Johannes; Tannapfel, Andrea; Mossner, Joachim; Niederwieser, Dietger; Caca, Karel

    2007-03-01

    The small intestine is the most common location of intestinal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). EGD with duodenal biopsies yields the highest diagnostic sensitivity, but the jejunum and ileum are not accessible by regular endoscopy. In contrast, wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is a noninvasive imaging procedure offering complete evaluation of the small intestine. The objective was to compare the diagnostic value of EGD, including biopsies, with the results of WCE in patients with acute intestinal symptoms who received allogeneic blood stem cell transplantation and to analyze the appearance and distribution of acute intestinal GVHD lesions in these patients. An investigator-blinded, single-center prospective study. Patients with acute intestinal symptoms after allogeneic stem cell transplantation underwent both EGD and WCE within 24 hours. Clinical data were recorded during 2 months of follow-up. Fourteen consecutive patients with clinical symptoms of acute intestinal GVHD were recruited. In 1 patient, the capsule remained in the stomach and was removed endoscopically. In 7 of 13 patients who could be evaluated, acute intestinal GVHD was diagnosed by EGD with biopsies, but 3 of these would have been missed by EGD alone. In all 7 patients with histologically confirmed acute intestinal GVHD, WCE revealed typical signs of GVHD. Lesions were scattered throughout the small intestine, but were most accentuated in the ileum. This study had a small number of patients. WCE, which is less invasive than EGD with biopsies, showed a comparable sensitivity and a high negative predictive value for diagnosing acute intestinal GVHD. It may be helpful to avoid repeated endoscopic procedures in patients who have undergone stem cell transplantation.

  2. Hippo signalling directs intestinal fate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    le Bouteiller, Marie Catherine M; Jensen, Kim Bak

    2015-01-01

    Hippo signalling has been associated with many important tissue functions including the regulation of organ size. In the intestinal epithelium differing functions have been proposed for the effectors of Hippo signalling, YAP and TAZ1. These are now shown to have a dual role in the intestinal...

  3. Indian Hedgehog Suppresses a Stromal Cell-Driven Intestinal Immune Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, B. Florien; Büller, Nikè V. J. A.; Karpus, Olga N.; van Dop, Willemijn A.; Koster, Jan; Versteeg, Rogier; Koelink, Pim J.; Snel, Clinton Y.; Meisner, Sander; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; Uhmann, Anja; Ver Loren van Themaat, Emiel; Heijmans, Jarom; Hahn, Heidi; Muncan, Vanesa; Wildenberg, Manon E.; van den Brink, Gijs R.

    2018-01-01

    Upon intestinal epithelial damage a complex wound healing response is initiated to restore epithelial integrity and defend against pathogenic invasion. Epithelium-derived Indian Hedgehog (Ihh) functions as a critical sensor in this process. Signaling occurs in a paracrine manner because the receptor

  4. Intestinal handling-induced mast cell activation and inflammation in human postoperative ileus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    The, F. O.; Bennink, R. J.; Ankum, W. M.; Buist, M. R.; Busch, O. R. C.; Gouma, D. J.; van der Heide, S.; van den Wijngaard, R. M.; de Jonge, W. J.; Boeckxstaens, G. E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Murine postoperative ileus results from intestinal inflammation triggered by manipulation-induced mast cell activation. As its extent depends on the degree of handling and subsequent inflammation, it is hypothesised that the faster recovery after minimal invasive surgery results from

  5. Intestinal handling-induced mast cell activation and inflammation in human postoperative ileus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    The, F. O.; Bennink, R. J.; Ankum, W. M.; Buist, M. R.; Busch, O. R. C.; Gouma, D. J.; Van der Heide, S.; van den Wijngaard, R. M.; Boeckxstaens, G. E.; de Jonge, Wouter J.

    Background: Murine postoperative ileus results from intestinal inflammation triggered by manipulation-induced mast cell activation. As its extent depends on the degree of handling and subsequent inflammation, it is hypothesised that the faster recovery after minimal invasive surgery results from

  6. Environmental Adaptations, Ecological Filtering, and Dispersal Central to Insect Invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, David; Laparie, Mathieu; McCauley, Shannon J; Bonte, Dries

    2018-01-07

    Insect invasions, the establishment and spread of nonnative insects in new regions, can have extensive economic and environmental consequences. Increased global connectivity accelerates rates of introductions, while climate change may decrease the barriers to invader species' spread. We follow an individual-level insect- and arachnid-centered perspective to assess how the process of invasion is influenced by phenotypic heterogeneity associated with dispersal and stress resistance, and their coupling, across the multiple steps of the invasion process. We also provide an overview and synthesis on the importance of environmental filters during the entire invasion process for the facilitation or inhibition of invasive insect population spread. Finally, we highlight important research gaps and the relevance and applicability of ongoing natural range expansions in the context of climate change to gain essential mechanistic insights into insect invasions.

  7. A Role for the RNA Chaperone Hfq in Controlling Adherent-Invasive Escherichia coli Colonization and Virulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karina T; Nielsen, Gorm; Bjerrum, Janni Vester

    2011-01-01

    strain LF82 forms a persistent infection in C. elegans, thereby reducing the host lifespan significantly. This host killing phenotype was associated with massive bacterial colonization of the nematode intestine and damage to the intestinal epithelial surface. C. elegans killing was independent of known...... to and subsequent invasion of the intestinal epithelium coupled with its ability to survive phagocytosis by macrophages once it has crossed the intestinal barrier. To gain further insight into AIEC pathogenesis we employed the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as an in vivo infection model. We demonstrate that AIEC...

  8. [Treatment of children with intestinal failure: intestinal rehabilitation, home parenteral nutrition or small intestine transplantation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelis, E.G.; Oers, H.A. van; Escher, J.C.; Damen, G.M.; Rings, E.H.; Tabbers, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal failure is characterised by inadequate absorption of food or fluids, which is caused by insufficient bowel surface area or functioning. Children with chronic intestinal failure are dependent on parenteral nutrition (PN), which can be provided at home (HPN). In the Netherlands, HPN for

  9. Imaging features of gastric invasive aspergillosis: A report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dong Jin; Cho, Seung Hyun; Kim, Seong Hoon; Shin, Ji Yeol; Lee, Yil Gi [Daegu Fatima Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Invasive aspergillosis is an opportunistic infection that usually occurs in immunocompromised patients. Although there are a few rare reports of isolated invasive aspergillosis affecting the small intestine, isolated or disseminated gastric invasive aspergillosis is extremely rare. Herein, we report 2 cases of gastric invasive aspergillosis in a 72 year old woman and a 43 year old man; the woman had been recovering from ruptured left posterior communicating artery aneurysm, which presented as emphysematous gastritis and the man from acute subdural haemorrhage in the intensive care unit, which presented as a pseudoaneurysm on CT imaging.

  10. Analysis of interactions of Salmonella type three secretion mutants with 3-D intestinal epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L Radtke

    Full Text Available The prevailing paradigm of Salmonella enteropathogenesis based on monolayers asserts that Salmonella pathogenicity island-1 Type Three Secretion System (SPI-1 T3SS is required for bacterial invasion into intestinal epithelium. However, little is known about the role of SPI-1 in mediating gastrointestinal disease in humans. Recently, SPI-1 deficient nontyphoidal Salmonella strains were isolated from infected humans and animals, indicating that SPI-1 is not required to cause enteropathogenesis and demonstrating the need for more in vivo-like models. Here, we utilized a previously characterized 3-D organotypic model of human intestinal epithelium to elucidate the role of all characterized Salmonella enterica T3SSs. Similar to in vivo reports, the Salmonella SPI-1 T3SS was not required to invade 3-D intestinal cells. Additionally, Salmonella strains carrying single (SPI-1 or SPI-2, double (SPI-1/2 and complete T3SS knockout (SPI-1/SPI-2: flhDC also invaded 3-D intestinal cells to wildtype levels. Invasion of wildtype and TTSS mutants was a Salmonella active process, whereas non-invasive bacterial strains, bacterial size beads, and heat-killed Salmonella did not invade 3-D cells. Wildtype and T3SS mutants did not preferentially target different cell types identified within the 3-D intestinal aggregates, including M-cells/M-like cells, enterocytes, or Paneth cells. Moreover, each T3SS was necessary for substantial intracellular bacterial replication within 3-D cells. Collectively, these results indicate that T3SSs are dispensable for Salmonella invasion into highly differentiated 3-D models of human intestinal epithelial cells, but are required for intracellular bacterial growth, paralleling in vivo infection observations and demonstrating the utility of these models in predicting in vivo-like pathogenic mechanisms.

  11. Protective Role of R-spondin1, an Intestinal Stem Cell Growth Factor, against Radiation-Induced Gastrointestinal Syndrome in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Bhanja, Payel; Saha, Subhrajit; Kabarriti, Rafi; Liu, Laibin; Roy-Chowdhury, Namita; Roy-Chowdhury, Jayanta; Sellers, Rani S.; Alfieri, Alan A.; Guha, Chandan

    2009-01-01

    Background Radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome (RIGS) results from a combination of direct cytocidal effects on intestinal crypt and endothelial cells and subsequent loss of the mucosal barrier, resulting in electrolyte imbalance, diarrhea, weight loss, infection and mortality. Because R-spondin1 (Rspo1) acts as a mitogenic factor for intestinal stem cells, we hypothesized that systemic administration of Rspo1 would amplify the intestinal crypt cells and accelerate the regeneration of...

  12. Shigella infection of intestinal epithelium and circumvention of the host innate defense system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Michinaga; Mimuro, Hitomi; Sasakawa, Chihiro

    2009-01-01

    Shigella, Gram-negative bacteria closely related to Escherichia coli, are highly adapted human pathogens that cause bacillary dysentery. Although Shigella have neither adherence factors nor flagella required for attaching or accessing the intestinal epithelium, Shigella are capable of colonizing the intestinal epithelium by exploiting epithelial-cell functions and circumventing the host innate immune response. During Shigella infection, they deliver many numbers of effectors through the type III secretion system into the surrounding space and directly into the host-cell cytoplasm. The effectors play pivotal roles from the onset of bacterial infection through to the establishment of the colonization of the intestinal epithelium, such as bacterial invasion, intracellular survival, subversion of the host immune defense response, and maintenance of the infectious foothold. These examples suggest that Shigella have evolved highly sophisticated infectious and intracellular strategies to establish replicative niches in the intestinal epithelium.

  13. Intestinal transplantation: The anesthesia perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Aparna

    2016-04-01

    Intestinal transplantation is a complex and challenging surgery. It is very effective for treating intestinal failure, especially for those patients who cannot tolerate parenteral nutrition nor have extensive abdominal disease. Chronic parental nutrition can induce intestinal failure associated liver disease (IFALD). According to United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) data, children with intestinal failure affected by liver disease secondary to parenteral nutrition have the highest mortality on a waiting list when compared with all candidates for solid organ transplantation. Intestinal transplant grafts can be isolated or combined with the liver/duodenum/pancreas. Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) has defined intestinal donor criteria. Living donor intestinal transplant (LDIT) has the advantages of optimal timing, short ischemia time and good human leukocyte antigen matching contributing to lower postoperative complications in the recipient. Thoracic epidurals provide excellent analgesia for the donors, as well as recipients. Recipient management can be challenging. Thrombosis and obstruction of venous access maybe common due to prolonged parenteral nutrition and/or hypercoaguability. Thromboelastography (TEG) is helpful for managing intraoperative product therapy or thrombosis. Large fluid shifts and electrolyte disturbances may occur due to massive blood loss, dehydration, third spacing etc. Intestinal grafts are susceptible to warm and cold ischemia and ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Post-reperfusion syndrome is common. Cardiac or pulmonary clots can be monitored with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. Vasopressors maybe used to ensure stable hemodynamics. Post-intestinal transplant patients may need anesthesia for procedures such as biopsies for surveillance of rejection, bronchoscopy, endoscopy, postoperative hemorrhage, anastomotic leaks, thrombosis of grafts etc. Asepsis

  14. INVASIVE AMOEBIASIS COMPLICATING IFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziglam H

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTIONAmoebiasis, which is caused by the intestinal protozoan Entamoeba histolytica, is a ubiquitous parasitic infection affecting approximately 10% of the world’s population and causing more deaths every year (100,000 deaths than any other parasitic infection, with the exception of malaria and schistosomiasis [1–3]. Most individuals with an E. histolytica infection are asymptomatic, but some develop severe invasive disease, such as amoebic colitis. Other manifestations, such as pulmonary, cardiac or brain involvement, are rare. Intestinal amoebiasis can probably also present as a chronic, non-dysenteric syndrome of diarrhoea, weight loss, and abdominal pain that can last for years and mimic inflammatory bowel disease. Fulminant colitis with bowel necrosis leading to perforation and peritonitis occurs in only about 0.5% of cases, but it is associated with a mortality rate of more than 40%. Patients with invasive amoebiasis living in the United Kingdom and other developed countries generally acquire the infection in another country in which the pathogenic species is endemic. Areas that have high rates of amoebic infection include India, Africa, Mexico and parts of Central and South America. Infection with pathogenic E. histolytica is not a common cause of travelers’ diarrhoea, and gastrointestinal infection is uncommon in travelers who have spent less than one month in endemic areas.

  15. Functional Metagenomic Investigations of the Human Intestinal Microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Aimee M.; Munck, Christian; Sommer, Morten Otto Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The human intestinal microbiota encode multiple critical functions impacting human health, including metabolism of dietary substrate, prevention of pathogen invasion, immune system modulation, and provision of a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes accessible to pathogens. The complexity...... microorganisms, but relatively recently applied to the study of the human commensal microbiota. Metagenomic functional screens characterize the functional capacity of a microbial community, independent of identity to known genes, by subjecting the metagenome to functional assays in a genetically tractable host....... Here we highlight recent work applying this technique to study the functional diversity of the intestinal microbiota, and discuss how an approach combining high-throughput sequencing, cultivation, and metagenomic functional screens can improve our understanding of interactions between this complex...

  16. Robotic-Assisted Live Donor Ileal Segmentectomy for Intestinal Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guosheng Wu, MD, PhD

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Every effort should be made to optimize surgical techniques and to minimize potential morbidity rates associated with live donor operations. Advances in a minimally invasive approach by robotic surgery to donor nephrectomy have raised the possibility of applying this technique to live donor bowel resections for intestinal transplantation. Methods. We report the first 5 consecutive cases of a robotic-assisted live donor ileal segmentectomy. We describe the technical aspects of the procedure, discuss the rationale for considering this option, and evaluate potential advantages of this approach. Results. We found that this new approach is associated with less postoperative discomfort, a shorter hospital length of stay, and a faster recovery of bowel function compared to our previous open surgery. Conclusions. Our initial experience suggests that robotic surgery is a safe and feasible procedure for live donor ileal resection for intestinal transplantation and is a useful alternative to conventional open surgery.

  17. Impact of Intestinal Microbiota on Intestinal Luminal Metabolome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mitsuharu; Kibe, Ryoko; Ooga, Takushi; Aiba, Yuji; Kurihara, Shin; Sawaki, Emiko; Koga, Yasuhiro; Benno, Yoshimi

    2012-01-01

    Low–molecular-weight metabolites produced by intestinal microbiota play a direct role in health and disease. In this study, we analyzed the colonic luminal metabolome using capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry with time-of-flight (CE-TOFMS) —a novel technique for analyzing and differentially displaying metabolic profiles— in order to clarify the metabolite profiles in the intestinal lumen. CE-TOFMS identified 179 metabolites from the colonic luminal metabolome and 48 metabolites were present in significantly higher concentrations and/or incidence in the germ-free (GF) mice than in the Ex-GF mice (p metabolome and a comprehensive understanding of intestinal luminal metabolome is critical for clarifying host-intestinal bacterial interactions. PMID:22724057

  18. Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiradfar, Mehran; Shojaeian, Reza; Dehghanian, Paria; Hajian, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) is a multisystemic disorder in which impaired intestinal motor activity causes recurrent symptoms of intestinal obstruction in the absence of mechanical occlusion, associated with bladder distention without distal obstruction of the urinary tract. MMIHS and prune belly syndrome may overlap in most of the clinical features and discrimination of these two entities is important because the prognosis, management and consulting with parents are completely different. MMIHS outcome is very poor and in this article we present two neonates with MMIHS that both died in a few days. PMID:23729700

  19. Antibiotic concentrations in intestinal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmborg, A S

    1985-01-01

    The concentrations in the intestinal mucosa after the initial dose of cefoxitin, piperacillin and clindamycin have been studied. The antibiotics were given at the induction of anesthesia as prophylaxis to patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery. The concentrations of the antibiotics in serum and intestinal mucosa taken during the operation were determined by the microbiological agar diffusion method. Therapeutic concentrations in intestinal mucosa were maintained during the major part of the operation period. The mean mucosa/serum concentration ratios were for cefoxitin 0.4, for piperacillin 0.5 and for clindamycin 1.2.

  20. INFANTS’ INTESTINAL COLICS. MODERN DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Ursova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes modern data on infants’ intestinal colics. Peculiarities of nutrition, intestinal microbiocenose in healthy infants, methods of colcs’ correction are discussed. Author describes the principles of probiotics choice based on their clinical effectiveness in infants. Milk formula «Nan Comfort» can be useful in prophylaxis and treatment of functional disorders of gastrointestinal tract in children.Key words: infants, gastrointestinal tract, anatomy, physiology, intestinal colics, nutrition, probiotics.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (2: 125–131

  1. Gastric transit and small intestinal transit time and motility assessed by a magnet tracking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsøe, Jonas; Fynne, Lotte; Gregersen, Tine; Schlageter, Vincent; Christensen, Lisbet A; Dahlerup, Jens F; Rijkhoff, Nico J M; Laurberg, Søren; Krogh, Klaus

    2011-12-29

    Tracking an ingested magnet by the Magnet Tracking System MTS-1 (Motilis, Lausanne, Switzerland) is an easy and minimally-invasive method to assess gastrointestinal transit. The aim was to test the validity of MTS-1 for assessment of gastric transit time and small intestinal transit time, and to illustrate transit patterns detected by the system. A small magnet was ingested and tracked by an external matrix of 16 magnetic field sensors (4 × 4) giving a position defined by 5 coordinates (position: x, y, z, and angle: θ, φ). Eight healthy subjects were each investigated three times: (1) with a small magnet mounted on a capsule endoscope (PillCam); (2) with the magnet alone and the small intestine in the fasting state; and (3) with the magnet alone and the small intestine in the postprandial state. Experiment (1) showed good agreement and no systematic differences between MTS-1 and capsule endoscopy when assessing gastric transit (median difference 1 min; range: 0-6 min) and small intestinal transit time (median difference 0.5 min; range: 0-52 min). Comparing experiments (1) and (2) there were no systematic differences in gastric transit or small intestinal transit when using the magnet-PillCam unit and the much smaller magnetic pill. In experiments (2) and (3), short bursts of very fast movements lasting less than 5% of the time accounted for more than half the distance covered during the first two hours in the small intestine, irrespective of whether the small intestine was in the fasting or postprandial state. The mean contraction frequency in the small intestine was significantly lower in the fasting state than in the postprandial state (9.90 min-1 vs. 10.53 min-1) (p = 0.03). MTS-1 is reliable for determination of gastric transit and small intestinal transit time. It is possible to distinguish between the mean contraction frequency of small intestine in the fasting state and in the postprandial state.

  2. Sector ring accelerator ''RESATRON''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwabe, E.

    1980-01-01

    Project of sector ring accelerator RESATRON is described. The curiosity of this accelerator is the second cycle of acceleration of the beam after stripping it on the foil. In such an accelerator heavy ions with a different ratio Z to A can be accelerated. (S.B.)

  3. Progress towards non-invasive diagnosis and follow-up of celiac disease in children : a prospective multicentre study to the usefulness of plasma I-FABP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaanse, Marlou P. M.; Mubarak, A; Riedl, R G; Ten Kate, F J W; Damoiseaux, J G M C; Buurman, Wim A.; Houwen, R H J; Vreugdenhil, A C E

    2017-01-01

    This prospective study investigates whether measurement of plasma intestinal-fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP), a sensitive marker for small intestinal epithelial damage, improves non-invasive diagnosing of celiac disease (CD), and whether I-FABP levels are useful to evaluate mucosal healing in

  4. Multiperiodic accelerator structures for linear particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, D.T.

    1975-01-01

    High efficiency linear accelerator structures, comprised of a succession of cylindrical resonant cavities for acceleration, are described. Coupling annular cavities are located at the periphery, each being coupled to two adjacent cylindrical cavities. (auth)

  5. Intestinal Failure (Short Bowel Syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at the beginning to maintain nutrition and good hydration although it is hoped that the small intestine ... life. For more information or to locate a pediatric gastroenterologist in your area please visit our website ...

  6. INTESTINAL INTUSSUSCEPTION DUE TO CONCURRENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Hymenolepis nana and Dentostomella ... worms (H. nana and D. translucida) were observed in the lumen of the intestine with severe cellular infiltration .... helminthosis and Balantidosis in Red monkey (Erythrocebus patas) in Ibadan Nigeria Nigerian ...

  7. Telescoping Intestine in an Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaldoon Shaheen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Protrusion of a bowel segment into another (intussusception produces severe abdominal pain and culminates in intestinal obstruction. In adults, intestinal obstruction due to intussusception is relatively rare phenomenon, as it accounts for minority of intestinal obstructions in this population demographic. Organic lesion is usually identifiable as the cause of adult intussusceptions, neoplasms account for the majority. Therefore, surgical resection without reduction is almost always necessary and is advocated as the best treatment of adult intussusception. Here, we describe a rare case of a 44-year-old male with a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma involving the terminal ileum, which had caused ileocolic intussusception and subsequently developed intestinal obstruction requiring surgical intervention. This case emphasizes the importance of recognizing intussusception as the initial presentation for bowel malignancy.

  8. Intestinal actinomycosis: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, C.M.; Labrunie, E.; Pannaim, V.L.N.; Santos, A.A.S. dos; Pereira, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    Intestinal actinomycosis: a case report. The authors describe a case of intestinal actinomycosis, which was manisfestated by abdominal mass and suggested, clinical and radiologically, a bowel carcinoma. They discuss the pathogenesis, and the clinical and radiological manisfestations of this disease, and its differential diagnosis. This is an infrequent disease which must be considered whenever suggestive clinical aspects are associated with a radiological ''malignant pattern'' of a bowel lesion. (author) [pt

  9. Accelerators of atomic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarancev, V.

    1975-01-01

    A brief survey is presented of accelerators and methods of accelerating elementary particles. The principle of collective accelerating of elementary particles is clarified and the problems are discussed of its realization. (B.S.)

  10. Parenteral Nutrition and Intestinal Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielawska, Barbara; Allard, Johane P

    2017-05-06

    Severe short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a major cause of chronic (Type 3) intestinal failure (IF) where structural and functional changes contribute to malabsorption and risk of micronutrient deficiencies. Chronic IF may be reversible, depending on anatomy and intestinal adaptation, but most patients require long-term nutritional support, generally in the form of parenteral nutrition (PN). SBS management begins with dietary changes and pharmacologic therapies taking into account individual anatomy and physiology, but these are rarely sufficient to avoid PN. New hormonal therapies targeting intestinal adaptation hold promise. Surgical options for SBS including intestinal transplant are available, but have significant limitations. Home PN (HPN) is therefore the mainstay of treatment for severe SBS. HPN involves chronic administration of macronutrients, micronutrients, fluid, and electrolytes via central venous access in the patient's home. HPN requires careful clinical and biochemical monitoring. Main complications of HPN are related to venous access (infection, thrombosis) and metabolic complications including intestinal failure associated liver disease (IFALD). Although HPN significantly impacts quality of life, outcomes are generally good and survival is mostly determined by the underlying disease. As chronic intestinal failure is a rare disease, registries are a promising strategy for studying HPN patients to improve outcomes.

  11. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia: Minireview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, Sachin B; Hinge (Ingle), Chitra R

    2014-01-01

    Primary idiopathic intestinal lymphangiectasia is an unusual disease featured by the presence of dilated lymphatic channels which are located in the mucosa, submucosa or subserosa leading to protein loosing enteropathy.Most often affected were children and generally diagnosed before third year of life but may be rarely seen in adults too. Bilateral pitting oedema of lower limb is the main clinical manifestation mimicking the systemic disease and posing a real diagnostic dilemma to the clinicians to differentiate it from other common systemic diseases like Congestive cardiac failure, Nephrotic Syndrome, Protein Energy Malnutrition, etc. Diagnosis can be made on capsule endoscopy which can localise the lesion but unable to take biopsy samples. Thus, recently double-balloon enteroscopy and biopsy in combination can be used as an effective diagnostic tool to hit the correct diagnosis. Patients respond dramatically to diet constituting low long chain triglycerides and high protein content with supplements of medium chain triglyceride. So early diagnosis is important to prevent untoward complications related to disease or treatment for the sake of accurate pathological diagnosis. PMID:25325063

  12. Haemorrhage and intestinal lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attilia M. Pizzini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of coeliac disease is around 1% in general population but this is often unrecognised. The classical presentation of adult coeliac disease is characterized by diarrhoea and malabsorption syndrome, but atypical presentations are probably more common and are characterized by iron deficiency anaemia, weight loss, fatigue, infertility, arthralgia, peripheral neuropathy and osteoporosis. Unusual are the coagulation disorders (prevalence 20% and these are due to vitamin K malabsorption (prolonged prothrombin time. Clinical case: A 64-year-old man was admitted to our Department for an extensive spontaneous haematoma of the right leg. He had a history of a small bowel resection for T-cell lymphoma, with a negative follow-up and he didn’t report any personal or familiar history of bleeding. Laboratory tests showed markedly prolonged prothrombin (PT and partial-thromboplastin time (PTT, corrected by mixing studies, and whereas platelet count and liver tests was normal. A single dose (10 mg of intravenous vitamin K normalized the PT. Several days before the patient had been exposed to a superwarfarin pesticide, but diagnostic tests for brodifacoum, bromadiolone or difenacoum were negative. Diagnosis of multiple vitamin K-dependent coagulationfactor deficiencies (II, VII, IX, X due to intestinal malabsorption was made and coeliac disease was detected. Therefore the previous lymphoma diagnosis might be closely related to coeliac disease. Conclusions: A gluten free diet improves quality of life and restores normal nutritional and biochemical status and protects against these complications.

  13. Adult intestinal failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, J., E-mail: Jdavidson@doctors.org.u [Salford Royal Hospital, Salford (United Kingdom); Plumb, A.; Burnett, H. [Salford Royal Hospital, Salford (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    Intestinal failure (IF) is the inability of the alimentary tract to digest and absorb sufficient nutrition to maintain normal fluid balance, growth, and health. It commonly arises from disease affecting the mesenteric root. Although severe IF is usually managed in specialized units, it lies at the end of a spectrum with degrees of nutritional compromise being widely encountered, but commonly under-recognized. Furthermore, in the majority of cases, the initial enteric insult occurs in non-specialist IF centres. The aim of this article is to review the common causes of IF, general principles of its management, some commoner complications, and the role of radiology in the approach to a patient with severe IF. The radiologist has a crucial role in helping provide access for feeding solutions (both enteral and parenteral) and controlling sepsis (via drainage of collections) in an initial restorative phase of treatment, whilst simultaneously mapping bowel anatomy and quality, and searching for disease complications to assist the clinicians in planning a later, restorative phase of therapy.

  14. Campylobacter jejuni induces transcytosis of commensal bacteria across the intestinal epithelium through M-like cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent epidemiological analyses have implicated acute Campylobacter enteritis as a factor that may incite or exacerbate inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in susceptible individuals. We have demonstrated previously that C. jejuni disrupts the intestinal barrier function by rapidly inducing epithelial translocation of non-invasive commensal bacteria via a transcellular lipid raft-mediated mechanism ('transcytosis'). To further characterize this mechanism, the aim of this current study was to elucidate whether C. jejuni utilizes M cells to facilitate transcytosis of commensal intestinal bacteria. Results C. jejuni induced translocation of non-invasive E. coli across confluent Caco-2 epithelial monolayers in the absence of disrupted transepithelial electrical resistance or increased permeability to a 3 kDa dextran probe. C. jejuni-infected monolayers displayed increased numbers of cells expressing the M cell-specific marker, galectin-9, reduced numbers of enterocytes that stained with the absorptive enterocyte marker, Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1, and reduced activities of enzymes typically associated with absorptive enterocytes (namely alkaline phosphatase, lactase, and sucrase). Furthermore, in Campylobacter-infected monolayers, E. coli were observed to be internalized specifically within epithelial cells displaying M-like cell characteristics. Conclusion These data indicate that C. jejuni may utilize M cells to promote transcytosis of non-invasive bacteria across the intact intestinal epithelial barrier. This mechanism may contribute to the inflammatory immune responses against commensal intestinal bacteria commonly observed in IBD patients. PMID:21040540

  15. Campylobacter jejuni induces transcytosis of commensal bacteria across the intestinal epithelium through M-like cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalischuk Lisa D

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent epidemiological analyses have implicated acute Campylobacter enteritis as a factor that may incite or exacerbate inflammatory bowel disease (IBD in susceptible individuals. We have demonstrated previously that C. jejuni disrupts the intestinal barrier function by rapidly inducing epithelial translocation of non-invasive commensal bacteria via a transcellular lipid raft-mediated mechanism ('transcytosis'. To further characterize this mechanism, the aim of this current study was to elucidate whether C. jejuni utilizes M cells to facilitate transcytosis of commensal intestinal bacteria. Results C. jejuni induced translocation of non-invasive E. coli across confluent Caco-2 epithelial monolayers in the absence of disrupted transepithelial electrical resistance or increased permeability to a 3 kDa dextran probe. C. jejuni-infected monolayers displayed increased numbers of cells expressing the M cell-specific marker, galectin-9, reduced numbers of enterocytes that stained with the absorptive enterocyte marker, Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1, and reduced activities of enzymes typically associated with absorptive enterocytes (namely alkaline phosphatase, lactase, and sucrase. Furthermore, in Campylobacter-infected monolayers, E. coli were observed to be internalized specifically within epithelial cells displaying M-like cell characteristics. Conclusion These data indicate that C. jejuni may utilize M cells to promote transcytosis of non-invasive bacteria across the intact intestinal epithelial barrier. This mechanism may contribute to the inflammatory immune responses against commensal intestinal bacteria commonly observed in IBD patients.

  16. Effects of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide on heart rate in relation to vagal cardioacceleration in conscious dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roossien, A; Brunstig, J.R; Nijmeijer, A; Zaagsma, Hans; Zijlstra, W.G

    Objective: The vagal cardiac accelerator (VCA) system takes part in the nervous control of the heart rate. In the present study we tried to adduce evidence that vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VLP) contributes to vagally induced cardioacceleration. Methods: The effect of VIP on heart rate and

  17. Morphological and functional alterations of small intestine in chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubergrits, Natalya B; Linevskiy, Yuri V; Lukashevich, Galina M; Fomenko, Pavel G; Moroz, Tatyana V; Mishra, Tapan

    2012-09-10

    The small intestine in chronic pancreatitis has not been investigated yet thoroughly. It would be important to understand fat metabolism in the course of this disease and could be explained if the small intestine has some pathological conditions and, due to this reason, pancreatic enzyme substitution does not work in all patients. To investigate the pathophysiology of small intestine in chronic pancreatitis and to show the reason why in some cases pancreatic enzyme substitution does not work properly. In the process of the study 33 chronic pancreatitis patients have been examined. The control group includes 30 subjects without chronic pancreatitis similar for age, sex and alcohol consumption to the patients with chronic pancreatitis patients. Aspiration biopsy of jejunum mucosa followed by histological examination and investigation of intestinal enzymes by aspiration has been performed. Metabolism at membranic level has been studied by enzymatic activity of amylase and lipase in the small intestine. Production of enzymes (monoglyceride lipase, lactase, saccharase, maltase, glycyl-l-leucine dipeptidase) promoting metabolism in enterocytes has been estimated as to their activity in homogenates of jejunum mucosa samples. Participation of mucosa in intestinal digestion has been assessed by alkaline phosphatase activity in a secretory chyme from proximal portion of jejunum. Absorptive capacity of jejunum was evaluated by D-xylose test results. DNA, lysozyme, immunoglobulin contents of chyme have also been calculated and bacteriological study of chyme has been also performed. Secondary enteritis, accompanied by moderate dystrophic changes of mucous membrane, thinning of limbus, and decrease of Paneth cell mitotic index, was found to occur in chronic pancreatitis patients. Enteritis is followed by changes in enzymatic processes in the sphere of membrane and intestinal digestion, decrease of absorption, accelerated desquamation of epithelium, fall in local immunity and

  18. Overview of Current Concepts in Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia and Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Jason D.; Borum, Marie L.; Koh, Joyce M.; Stephen, Sindu

    2018-01-01

    Gastric intestinal metaplasia is a precancerous change of the mucosa of the stomach with intestinal epithelium, and is associated with an increased risk of dysplasia and cancer. The pathogenesis to gastric cancer is proposed by the Correa hypothesis as the transition from normal gastric epithelium to invasive cancer via inflammation followed by intramucosal cancer and invasion. Multiple risk factors have been associated with the development of gastric intestinal metaplasia interplay, including Helicobacter pylori infection and associated genomics, host genetic factors, environmental milieu, rheumatologic disorders, diet, and intestinal microbiota. Globally, screening guidelines have been established in countries with high incidence. In the United States, no such guidelines have been developed due to lower, albeit increasing, incidence. The American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy recommends a case-by-case patient assessment based upon epidemiology, genetics, and environmental risk factors. Studies have examined the use of a serologic biopsy to stratify risk based upon factors such as H pylori status and virulence factors, along with serologic markers of chronic inflammation including pepsinogen I, pepsinogen II, and gastrin. High-risk patients may then be advised to undergo endoscopic evaluation with mapping biopsies from the antrum (greater curvature, lesser curvature), incisura angularis, and corpus (greater curvature, lesser curvature). Surveillance guidelines have not been firmly established for patients with known gastric intestinal metaplasia, but include repeat endoscopy at intervals according to the histologic risk for malignant transformation. PMID:29606921

  19. Overview of Current Concepts in Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia and Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jencks, David S; Adam, Jason D; Borum, Marie L; Koh, Joyce M; Stephen, Sindu; Doman, David B

    2018-02-01

    Gastric intestinal metaplasia is a precancerous change of the mucosa of the stomach with intestinal epithelium, and is associated with an increased risk of dysplasia and cancer. The pathogenesis to gastric cancer is proposed by the Correa hypothesis as the transition from normal gastric epithelium to invasive cancer via inflammation followed by intramucosal cancer and invasion. Multiple risk factors have been associated with the development of gastric intestinal metaplasia interplay, including Helicobacter pylori infection and associated genomics, host genetic factors, environmental milieu, rheumatologic disorders, diet, and intestinal microbiota. Globally, screening guidelines have been established in countries with high incidence. In the United States, no such guidelines have been developed due to lower, albeit increasing, incidence. The American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy recommends a case-by-case patient assessment based upon epidemiology, genetics, and environmental risk factors. Studies have examined the use of a serologic biopsy to stratify risk based upon factors such as H pylori status and virulence factors, along with serologic markers of chronic inflammation including pepsinogen I, pepsinogen II, and gastrin. High-risk patients may then be advised to undergo endoscopic evaluation with mapping biopsies from the antrum (greater curvature, lesser curvature), incisura angularis, and corpus (greater curvature, lesser curvature). Surveillance guidelines have not been firmly established for patients with known gastric intestinal metaplasia, but include repeat endoscopy at intervals according to the histologic risk for malignant transformation.

  20. Deeply invasive candidiasis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostrosky-Zeichner, L.; Rex, J.H.; Bennett, J.; Kullberg, B.J.

    2002-01-01

    The incidence of invasive candidiasis is on the rise because of increasing numbers of immunocompromised hosts and more invasive medical technology. Recovery of Candida spp from several body sites in a critically ill or immunocompromised patient should raise the question of disseminated disease.

  1. Cryptic invasions: a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morais, Pedro Miguel; Reichard, Martin

    613-614, February (2018), s. 1438-1448 ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-05872S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Conspecific invader * Biological invasions * Bibliometric * Invasiveness Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2016

  2. Factors influencing plant invasiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvette Ortega; Dean Pearson

    2009-01-01

    Invasiveness of spotted knapweed and biological control agents. Dean and Yvette are examining the influence of drought on the invasiveness of spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) and its susceptibility to herbivory by biological control agents. In collaboration with the University of Montana and Forest Health Protection, researchers have constructed 150...

  3. Alien invasive birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochier, B; Vangeluwe, D; van den Berg, T

    2010-08-01

    A bird species is regarded as alien invasive if it has been introduced, intentionally or accidentally, to a location where it did not previously occur naturally, becomes capable of establishing a breeding population without further intervention by humans, spreads and becomes a pest affecting the environment, the local biodiversity, the economy and/or society, including human health. European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) and Red-vented Bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) have been included on the list of '100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species', a subset of the Global Invasive Species Database. The 'Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe' project has selected Canada Goose (Branta canadensis), Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis), Rose-ringed Parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and Sacred Ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus) as among 100 of the worst invasive species in Europe. For each of these alien bird species, the geographic range (native and introduced range), the introduction pathway, the general impacts and the management methods are presented.

  4. Minimally invasive orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Cory M; Kaban, Leonard B; Troulis, Maria J

    2009-02-01

    Minimally invasive surgery is defined as the discipline in which operative procedures are performed in novel ways to diminish the sequelae of standard surgical dissections. The goals of minimally invasive surgery are to reduce tissue trauma and to minimize bleeding, edema, and injury, thereby improving the rate and quality of healing. In orthognathic surgery, there are two minimally invasive techniques that can be used separately or in combination: (1) endoscopic exposure and (2) distraction osteogenesis. This article describes the historical developments of the fields of orthognathic surgery and minimally invasive surgery, as well as the integration of the two disciplines. Indications, techniques, and the most current outcome data for specific minimally invasive orthognathic surgical procedures are presented.

  5. Ultrasound-guided hydrostatic reduction of intestinal intussusception: description of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Hanemann Kim

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of reporting the technique of ultrasound-guided hydrostatic reduction of intestinal intussusception, three cases with confirmed diagnosis of the disease submitted to reduction with this technique are described. All cases had successful reductions with no complications. One patient experienced a recurrence of the invagination eight days after treatment, which was surgically corrected. The technique of hydrostatic reversal of intestinal intussusception guided by ultrasound may be used in place of the conventional barium enema, since it is a minimally invasive and safe method, with high rates of success and few complications.

  6. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (Waldmann's disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignes, Stéphane; Bellanger, Jérôme

    2008-02-22

    Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL) is a rare disorder characterized by dilated intestinal lacteals resulting in lymph leakage into the small bowel lumen and responsible for protein-losing enteropathy leading to lymphopenia, hypoalbuminemia and hypogammaglobulinemia. PIL is generally diagnosed before 3 years of age but may be diagnosed in older patients. Prevalence is unknown. The main symptom is predominantly bilateral lower limb edema. Edema may be moderate to severe with anasarca and includes pleural effusion, pericarditis or chylous ascites. Fatigue, abdominal pain, weight loss, inability to gain weight, moderate diarrhea or fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies due to malabsorption may also be present. In some patients, limb lymphedema is associated with PIL and is difficult to distinguish lymphedema from edema. Exsudative enteropathy is confirmed by the elevated 24-h stool alpha1-antitrypsin clearance. Etiology remains unknown. Very rare familial cases of PIL have been reported. Diagnosis is confirmed by endoscopic observation of intestinal lymphangiectasia with the corresponding histology of intestinal biopsy specimens. Videocapsule endoscopy may be useful when endoscopic findings are not contributive. Differential diagnosis includes constrictive pericarditis, intestinal lymphoma, Whipple's disease, Crohn's disease, intestinal tuberculosis, sarcoidosis or systemic sclerosis. Several B-cell lymphomas confined to the gastrointestinal tract (stomach, jejunum, midgut, ileum) or with extra-intestinal localizations were reported in PIL patients. A low-fat diet associated with medium-chain triglyceride supplementation is the cornerstone of PIL medical management. The absence of fat in the diet prevents chyle engorgement of the intestinal lymphatic vessels thereby preventing their rupture with its ensuing lymph loss. Medium-chain triglycerides are absorbed directly into the portal venous circulation and avoid lacteal overloading. Other inconsistently effective

  7. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (Waldmann's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellanger Jérôme

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL is a rare disorder characterized by dilated intestinal lacteals resulting in lymph leakage into the small bowel lumen and responsible for protein-losing enteropathy leading to lymphopenia, hypoalbuminemia and hypogammaglobulinemia. PIL is generally diagnosed before 3 years of age but may be diagnosed in older patients. Prevalence is unknown. The main symptom is predominantly bilateral lower limb edema. Edema may be moderate to severe with anasarca and includes pleural effusion, pericarditis or chylous ascites. Fatigue, abdominal pain, weight loss, inability to gain weight, moderate diarrhea or fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies due to malabsorption may also be present. In some patients, limb lymphedema is associated with PIL and is difficult to distinguish lymphedema from edema. Exsudative enteropathy is confirmed by the elevated 24-h stool α1-antitrypsin clearance. Etiology remains unknown. Very rare familial cases of PIL have been reported. Diagnosis is confirmed by endoscopic observation of intestinal lymphangiectasia with the corresponding histology of intestinal biopsy specimens. Videocapsule endoscopy may be useful when endoscopic findings are not contributive. Differential diagnosis includes constrictive pericarditis, intestinal lymphoma, Whipple's disease, Crohn's disease, intestinal tuberculosis, sarcoidosis or systemic sclerosis. Several B-cell lymphomas confined to the gastrointestinal tract (stomach, jejunum, midgut, ileum or with extra-intestinal localizations were reported in PIL patients. A low-fat diet associated with medium-chain triglyceride supplementation is the cornerstone of PIL medical management. The absence of fat in the diet prevents chyle engorgement of the intestinal lymphatic vessels thereby preventing their rupture with its ensuing lymph loss. Medium-chain triglycerides are absorbed directly into the portal venous circulation and avoid lacteal overloading. Other

  8. Accelerators of future generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolomenskij, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    A brief review of the prospects of development of various of types accelerator over next 10 to 15 years is given. The following directions are considered: superhign energy proton accelerators and storage rings, electron-positron colliding beams, heavy ion accelerators, medium energy, high-current proton accelerators superhigh power particle beams (electrons light- and heavy ions) for inertial fusion

  9. Future accelerator technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessler, A.M.

    1986-05-01

    A general discussion is presented of the acceleration of particles. Upon this foundation is built a categorization scheme into which all accelerators can be placed. Special attention is devoted to accelerators which employ a wake-field mechanism and a restricting theorem is examined. It is shown how the theorem may be circumvented. Comments are made on various acceleration schemes

  10. Extensive Intestinal Resection Triggers Behavioral Adaptation, Intestinal Remodeling and Microbiota Transition in Short Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Mayeur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Extensive resection of small bowel often leads to short bowel syndrome (SBS. SBS patients develop clinical mal-absorption and dehydration relative to the reduction of absorptive area, acceleration of gastrointestinal transit time and modifications of the gastrointestinal intra-luminal environment. As a consequence of severe mal-absorption, patients require parenteral nutrition (PN. In adults, the overall adaptation following intestinal resection includes spontaneous and complex compensatory processes such as hyperphagia, mucosal remodeling of the remaining part of the intestine and major modifications of the microbiota. SBS patients, with colon in continuity, harbor a specific fecal microbiota that we called “lactobiota” because it is enriched in the Lactobacillus/Leuconostoc group and depleted in anaerobic micro-organisms (especially Clostridium and Bacteroides. In some patients, the lactobiota-driven fermentative activities lead to an accumulation of fecal d/l-lactates and an increased risk of d-encephalopathy. Better knowledge of clinical parameters and lactobiota characteristics has made it possible to stratify patients and define group at risk for d-encephalopathy crises.

  11. Isotopic identification of intestinal strangulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.C.; Selby, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    A small series of eleven dogs prepared with a strangulating segment of jejunum demonstrated that a radionuclide, 99 mTc-labelled albumin, concentrates in the lumen and bowel wall of the affected intestinal segment. Modern scanning equipment accurately localized the strangulating loop. This technique has the potential of identifying patients with intestinal obstruction, in whom strangulation is a factor, prior to the development of impaired arterial inflow and frank gangrene. These findings confirmed earlier obstructions that were reported when nuclear scanning instrumentation was less sophisticated. Identification of patients at risk for intestinal strangulation requires a high index of suspicion. Excruciating cramping abdominal pain out of proportion to physical findings, roentgenogram evidence, and laboratory studies should alert the physician to the possibility of intestinal ischemia and closed loop obstruction. Radionuclide scanning in such cases may be of assistance in defining or excluding the diagnosis of a strangulating mechanism. The test is simple, relatively economical, and represents a low risk procedure to patients. It would have no place when the classic physical and laboratory findings of intestinal infarction are present

  12. Intestinal circulation during inhalation anesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tverskoy, M.; Gelman, S.; Fowler, K.C.; Bradley, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the influence of inhalational agents on the intestinal circulation in an isolated loop preparation. Sixty dogs were studied, using three intestinal segments from each dog. Selected intestinal segments were pumped with aortic blood at a constant pressure of 100 mmHg. A mixture of 86 Rb and 9-microns spheres labeled with 141 Ce was injected into the arterial cannula supplying the intestinal loop, while mesenteric venous blood was collected for activity counting. A very strong and significant correlation was found between rubidium clearance and microsphere entrapment (r = 0.97, P less than 0.0001). Nitrous oxide anesthesia was accompanied by a higher vascular resistance (VR), lower flow (F), rubidium clearance (Cl-Rb), and microspheres entrapment (Cl-Sph) than pentobarbital anesthesia, indicating that the vascular bed in the intestinal segment was constricted and flow (total and nutritive) decreased. Halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane anesthesia were accompanied by a much lower arteriovenous oxygen content difference (AVDO 2 ) and oxygen uptake than pentobarbital or nitrous oxide. Compared with pentobarbital, enflurane anesthesia was not accompanied by marked differences in VR, F, Cl-Rb, and Cl-Sph; halothane at 2 MAC decreased VR and increased F and Cl-Rb while isoflurane increased VR and decreased F. alpha-Adrenoceptor blockade with phentolamine (1 mg . kg-1) abolished isoflurane-induced vasoconstriction, suggesting that the increase in VR was mediated via circulating catecholamines

  13. [Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (Waldmann's disease)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignes, S; Bellanger, J

    2017-08-31

    Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL), Waldmann's disease, is a rare disorder of unknown etiology characterized by dilated intestinal lacteals leading to lymph leakage into the small-bowel lumen and responsible for protein-losing enteropathy leading to lymphopenia, hypoalbuminemia and hypogammaglobulinemia. PIL is generally diagnosed before 3 years of age but may be diagnosed in older patients. The main symptom is bilateral lower limb edema. Edema may be moderate to severe including pleural effusion, pericarditis or ascites. Protein-losing enteropathy is confirmed by the elevated 24-h stool α1-antitrypsin clearance and diagnosis by endoscopic observation of intestinal lymphangiectasia with the corresponding histology of biopsies. Videocapsule endoscopy may be useful when endoscopic findings are not contributive. Several B-cell lymphomas of the gastrointestinal tract or with extra-intestinal localizations were reported in PIL patients. A long-term strictly low-fat diet associated with medium-chain triglyceride and liposoluble vitamin supplementation is the cornerstone of PIL medical management. Octreotide, a somatostatin analog, have been proposed with an inconsistent efficacy in association with diet. Surgical small-bowel resection is useful in the rare cases with segmental and localized intestinal lymphangiectasia. A prolonged clinical and biological follow-up is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Parenteral nutrition in intestinal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurkchubasche AG

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Arlet G Kurkchubasche,1 Thomas J Herron,2 Marion F Winkler31Department of Surgery and Pediatrics, 2Department of Surgery, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, 3Department of Surgery/Nutritional Support Service, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Intestinal failure is a consequence of extensive surgical resection resulting in anatomic loss and/or functional impairment in motility or absorptive capacity. The condition is clinically characterized by the inability to maintain fluid, energy, protein, electrolyte, or micronutrient balance when on a conventionally accepted, normal diet. Parenteral nutrition (PN is the cornerstone of management until intestinal adaptation returns the patient to a PN-independent state. Intestinal length, residual anatomic segments and motility determine the need for and duration of parenteral support. The goals of therapy are to provide sufficient nutrients to enable normal growth and development in children, and support a healthy functional status in adults. This review addresses indications for PN, the formulation of the PN solution, patient monitoring, and considerations for prevention of PN-associated complications. With the ultimate goal of achieving enteral autonomy, the important role of diet, pharmacologic interventions, and surgery is discussed.Keywords: intestinal failure, short-bowel syndrome, parenteral nutrition, home nutrition support, intestinal rehabilitation

  15. Small intestinal sulphoxidation of albendazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, C; Alvarez, A I; Redondo, P; Voces, J; Del Estal, J L; Prieto, J G

    1995-05-01

    1. The in vitro sulphoxidation of Albendazole (ABZ) by rat intestinal microsomes has been examined. The results revealed intestinal sulphoxidation of ABZ by intestinal microsomes in a NADPH-dependent enzymatic system. The kinetic constants for sulphoxidase activity were Vmax = 46 pmol/min/mg protein and Michaelis constant Km = 6.8 microM. 2. The possible effect of inducers (Arochlor 1254 and ABZ pretreatment) and inhibitors (erythromycin, methimazole, carbon monoxide and fenbendazole), was also studied. In rat pretreated with Arochlor 1254, Vmax was 52 pmol/min/mg protein, whereas oral administration of ABZ increased the intestinal sulphoxidation of the drug, Vmax being 103 pmol/min/mg protein. 3. Erythromycin did not change the enzymatic bioconversion of ABZ, but methimazole and carbon monoxide inhibited the enzyme activity by approximately 60 and 30% respectively. Fenbendazole (a structural analogue of ABZ) was a competitive inhibitor of the sulphoxidation process, characterized by a Ki or 69 microM. 4. These data demonstrate that the intestinal enzymes contributing to the initial sulphoxidation of ABZ may be similar to the hepatic enzymes involved in the biotransformation process by the P450 and FMO systems, a conclusion that needs to be further established.

  16. Isotopic identification of intestinal strangulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.C.; Selby, J.B.

    1982-12-01

    A small series of eleven dogs prepared with a strangulating segment of jejunum demonstrated that a radionuclide, /sup 99/mTc-labelled albumin, concentrates in the lumen and bowel wall of the affected intestinal segment. Modern scanning equipment accurately localized the strangulating loop. This technique has the potential of identifying patients with intestinal obstruction, in whom strangulation is a factor, prior to the development of impaired arterial inflow and frank gangrene. These findings confirmed earlier obstructions that were reported when nuclear scanning instrumentation was less sophisticated. Identification of patients at risk for intestinal strangulation requires a high index of suspicion. Excruciating cramping abdominal pain out of proportion to physical findings, roentgenogram evidence, and laboratory studies should alert the physician to the possibility of intestinal ischemia and closed loop obstruction. Radionuclide scanning in such cases may be of assistance in defining or excluding the diagnosis of a strangulating mechanism. The test is simple, relatively economical, and represents a low risk procedure to patients. It would have no place when the classic physical and laboratory findings of intestinal infarction are present.

  17. Anthrax lethal toxin disrupts intestinal barrier function and causes systemic infections with enteric bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Sun

    Full Text Available A variety of intestinal pathogens have virulence factors that target mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathways, including Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax lethal toxin (LT has specific proteolytic activity against the upstream regulators of MAPKs, the MAPK kinases (MKKs. Using a murine model of intoxication, we show that LT causes the dose-dependent disruption of intestinal epithelial integrity, characterized by mucosal erosion, ulceration, and bleeding. This pathology correlates with an LT-dependent blockade of intestinal crypt cell proliferation, accompanied by marked apoptosis in the villus tips. C57BL/6J mice treated with intravenous LT nearly uniformly develop systemic infections with commensal enteric organisms within 72 hours of administration. LT-dependent intestinal pathology depends upon its proteolytic activity and is partially attenuated by co-administration of broad spectrum antibiotics, indicating that it is both a cause and an effect of infection. These findings indicate that targeting of MAPK signaling pathways by anthrax LT compromises the structural integrity of the mucosal layer, serving to undermine the effectiveness of the intestinal barrier. Combined with the well-described immunosuppressive effects of LT, this disruption of the intestinal barrier provides a potential mechanism for host invasion via the enteric route, a common portal of entry during the natural infection cycle of Bacillus anthracis.

  18. Biological invasions: recommendations for U.S. policy and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodge, David M; Williams, Susan; MacIsaac, Hugh J; Hayes, Keith R; Leung, Brian; Reichard, Sarah; Mack, Richard N; Moyle, Peter B; Smith, Maggie; Andow, David A; Carlton, James T; McMichael, Anthony

    2006-12-01

    The Ecological Society of America has evaluated current U.S. national policies and practices on biological invasions in light of current scientific knowledge. Invasions by harmful nonnative species are increasing in number and area affected; the damages to ecosystems, economic activity, and human welfare are accumulating. Without improved strategies based on recent scientific advances and increased investments to counter invasions, harm from invasive species is likely to accelerate. Federal leadership, with the cooperation of state and local governments, is required to increase the effectiveness of prevention of invasions, detect and respond quickly to new potentially harmful invasions, control and slow the spread of existing invasions, and provide a national center to ensure that these efforts are coordinated and cost effective. Specifically, the Ecological Society of America recommends that the federal government take the following six actions: (1) Use new information and practices to better manage commercial and other pathways to reduce the transport and release of potentially harmful species; (2) Adopt more quantitative procedures for risk analysis and apply them to every species proposed for importation into the country; (3) Use new cost-effective diagnostic technologies to increase active surveillance and sharing of information about invasive species so that responses to new invasions can be more rapid and effective; (4) Create new legal authority and provide emergency funding to support rapid responses to emerging invasions; (5) Provide funding and incentives for cost-effective programs to slow the spread of existing invasive species in order to protect still uninvaded ecosystems, social and industrial infrastructure, and human welfare; and (6) Establish a National Center for Invasive Species Management (under the existing National Invasive Species Council) to coordinate and lead improvements in federal, state, and international policies on invasive species

  19. Evaluating methods to quantify spatial variation in the velocity of biological invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement Tisseuil; Aiko Gryspeirt; Renaud Lancelot; Maryline Pioz; Andrew Liebhold; Marius. Gilbert

    2016-01-01

    Invading species rarely spread homogeneously through a landscape and invasion patterns typically display irregular frontal boundaries as the invasion progresses through space. Those irregular patterns are generally produced by local environmental factors that may slow or accelerate movement of the frontal boundary. While there is an abundant literature on species...

  20. Intestinal Microbiota Influences Non-intestinal Related Autoimmune Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opazo, Maria C.; Ortega-Rocha, Elizabeth M.; Coronado-Arrázola, Irenice; Bonifaz, Laura C.; Boudin, Helene; Neunlist, Michel; Bueno, Susan M.; Kalergis, Alexis M.; Riedel, Claudia A.

    2018-01-01

    The human body is colonized by millions of microorganisms named microbiota that interact with our tissues in a cooperative and non-pathogenic manner. These microorganisms are present in the skin, gut, nasal, oral cavities, and genital tract. In fact, it has been described that the microbiota contributes to balancing the immune system to maintain host homeostasis. The gut is a vital organ where microbiota can influence and determine the function of cells of the immune system and contributes to preserve the wellbeing of the individual. Several articles have emphasized the connection between intestinal autoimmune diseases, such as Crohn's disease with dysbiosis or an imbalance in the microbiota composition in the gut. However, little is known about the role of the microbiota in autoimmune pathologies affecting other tissues than the intestine. This article focuses on what is known about the role that gut microbiota can play in the pathogenesis of non-intestinal autoimmune diseases, such as Grave's diseases, multiple sclerosis, type-1 diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, schizophrenia, and autism spectrum disorders. Furthermore, we discuss as to how metabolites derived from bacteria could be used as potential therapies for non-intestinal autoimmune diseases. PMID:29593681

  1. Intestinal Microbiota Influences Non-intestinal Related Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Opazo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The human body is colonized by millions of microorganisms named microbiota that interact with our tissues in a cooperative and non-pathogenic manner. These microorganisms are present in the skin, gut, nasal, oral cavities, and genital tract. In fact, it has been described that the microbiota contributes to balancing the immune system to maintain host homeostasis. The gut is a vital organ where microbiota can influence and determine the function of cells of the immune system and contributes to preserve the wellbeing of the individual. Several articles have emphasized the connection between intestinal autoimmune diseases, such as Crohn's disease with dysbiosis or an imbalance in the microbiota composition in the gut. However, little is known about the role of the microbiota in autoimmune pathologies affecting other tissues than the intestine. This article focuses on what is known about the role that gut microbiota can play in the pathogenesis of non-intestinal autoimmune diseases, such as Grave's diseases, multiple sclerosis, type-1 diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, schizophrenia, and autism spectrum disorders. Furthermore, we discuss as to how metabolites derived from bacteria could be used as potential therapies for non-intestinal autoimmune diseases.

  2. Gintonin absorption in intestinal model systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Hwan Lee

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study shows that gintonin could be absorbed in the intestine through transcellular and paracellular diffusion, and active transport. In addition, the lipid component of gintonin might play a key role in its intestinal absorption.

  3. Therapeutic hypothermia reduces intestinal ischemia/reperfusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The detached intestinal epithelial cells in hypothermia group showed ... of apoptosis than those in normothermia group at 4 h (17.30 ± 2.56 vs. ... intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury, which could be attenuated by therapeutic hypothermia.

  4. PACAP and VIP inhibit the invasiveness of glioblastoma cells exposed to hypoxia through the regulation of HIFs and EGFR expression

    OpenAIRE

    Grazia eMaugeri; Agata Grazia eD'Amico; Agata Grazia eD'Amico; Rita eReitano; Gaetano eMagro; Sebastiano eCavallaro; Salvatore eSalomone; Velia eD'Agata

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) through the binding of vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors (VIPRs), perform a wide variety of effects in human cancers, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). This tumor is characterized by extensive areas of hypoxia, which triggers the expression of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). HIFs not only mediate angiogenesis but also tumor cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, HIFs activation...

  5. Update on small intestinal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tesori, Valentina; Puglisi, Maria Ausiliatrice; Lattanzi, Wanda; Gasbarrini, Giovanni Battista; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Among somatic stem cells, those residing in the intestine represent a fascinating and poorly explored research field. Particularly, somatic stem cells reside in the small intestine at the level of the crypt base, in a constant balance between self-renewal and differentiation. Aim of the present review is to delve into the mechanisms that regulate the delicate equilibrium through which intestinal stem cells orchestrate intestinal architecture. To this aim, special focus will be addressed to id...

  6. Intestinal epithelium in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coskun, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium has a strategic position as a protective physical barrier to luminal microbiota and actively contributes to the mucosal immune system. This barrier is mainly formed by a monolayer of specialized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) that are crucial in maintaining intestinal...... of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Understanding the role of the intestinal epithelium in IBD pathogenesis might contribute to an improved knowledge of the inflammatory processes and the identification of potential therapeutic targets....

  7. Exercise and the gastro-intestinal tract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on perfonnance and me value of cardiovascular training in improving performance in aerobic sports is well recognised. The role of me gastro-intestinal tracr, bom as a limiting and sustaining facror in aerobic exercises, is less well appreciared. Gastro-intestinal symptoms. The spectrum of gastro-intestinal effecrs of exercise ...

  8. The mucosal firewalls against commensal intestinal microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Andrew J; Slack, Emma; Geuking, Markus B; McCoy, Kathy D

    2009-07-01

    Mammals coexist with an extremely dense microbiota in the lower intestine. Despite the constant challenge of small numbers of microbes penetrating the intestinal surface epithelium, it is very unusual for these organisms to cause disease. In this review article, we present the different mucosal firewalls that contain and allow mutualism with the intestinal microbiota.

  9. 2014 CERN Accelerator Schools: Plasma Wake Acceleration

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    A specialised school on Plasma Wake Acceleration will be held at CERN, Switzerland from 23-29 November, 2014.   This course will be of interest to staff and students in accelerator laboratories, university departments and companies working in or having an interest in the field of new acceleration techniques. Following introductory lectures on plasma and laser physics, the course will cover the different components of a plasma wake accelerator and plasma beam systems. An overview of the experimental studies, diagnostic tools and state of the art wake acceleration facilities, both present and planned, will complement the theoretical part. Topical seminars and a visit of CERN will complete the programme. Further information can be found at: http://cas.web.cern.ch/cas/PlasmaWake2014/CERN-advert.html http://indico.cern.ch/event/285444/

  10. INTESTINAL PERMEABILITY IN PEDIATRIC GASTROENTEROLOGY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANELBURG, RM; UIL, JJ; DEMONCHY, JGR; HEYMANS, HSA

    1992-01-01

    The role of the physiologic barrier function of the small bowel and its possible role in health and disease has attracted much attention over the past decade. The intestinal mucosal barrier for luminal macromolecules and microorganism is the result of non-immunologic and immunologic defense

  11. Drug Transporters in the Intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffansen, Bente

    2016-01-01

    to the intestinal exsorptive DTs. An example is the API sulfasalazine, which is a substrate for breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)/ABCG2. Sulfasalazine absorption is found to increase when human volunteers are administered high concentrations together with the inhibitor and spice curcumin. In conclusion...

  12. Radiology of the small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueber, E.; Engelbrecht, V.

    1998-01-01

    The book presents the state of the art in radiology of the small intestine, discussing diagnostic fundamentals in the general, introductory chapter and continuing with the specific modalities available and applicable for diagnostic evaluation of the various symptoms and lesions. (orig./CB) [de

  13. Circadian disorganization alters intestinal microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin M Voigt

    Full Text Available Intestinal dysbiosis and circadian rhythm disruption are associated with similar diseases including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. Despite the overlap, the potential relationship between circadian disorganization and dysbiosis is unknown; thus, in the present study, a model of chronic circadian disruption was used to determine the impact on the intestinal microbiome. Male C57BL/6J mice underwent once weekly phase reversals of the light:dark cycle (i.e., circadian rhythm disrupted mice to determine the impact of circadian rhythm disruption on the intestinal microbiome and were fed either standard chow or a high-fat, high-sugar diet to determine how diet influences circadian disruption-induced effects on the microbiome. Weekly phase reversals of the light:dark (LD cycle did not alter the microbiome in mice fed standard chow; however, mice fed a high-fat, high-sugar diet in conjunction with phase shifts in the light:dark cycle had significantly altered microbiota. While it is yet to be established if some of the adverse effects associated with circadian disorganization in humans (e.g., shift workers, travelers moving across time zones, and in individuals with social jet lag are mediated by dysbiosis, the current study demonstrates that circadian disorganization can impact the intestinal microbiota which may have implications for inflammatory diseases.

  14. Milk products and intestinal health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Meer, R; Bovee-Oudenhoven, IMJ; Sesink, ALA; Kleibeuker, JH

    Milk products may improve intestinal health by means of the cytoprotective effects of their high calcium phosphate (CaPi) content. We hypothesized that this cytoprotection may increase host defenses against bacterial infections as well as decrease colon cancer risk. This paper summarizes our studies

  15. Hirschsprung's disease - Postsurgical intestinal dysmotility

    OpenAIRE

    Romaneli, Mariana Tresoldi das Neves; Ribeiro, Antonio Fernando; Bustorff-Silva, Joaquim Murray; de Carvalho, Rita Barbosa; Lomazi, Elizete Aparecida

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To describe the case of an infant with Hirschsprung's disease presenting as total colonic aganglionosis, which, after surgical resection of the aganglionic segment persisted with irreversible functional intestinal obstruction; discuss the difficulties in managing this form of congenital aganglionosis and discuss a plausible pathogenetic mechanism for this case. Case description: The diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease presenting as total colonic aganglionosis was establi...

  16. Intestinal Volvulus in Idiopathic Steatorrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, H. A.; Kinnear, D. G.; Cameron, D. G.

    1963-01-01

    Volvulus of the intestine has recently been observed in three patients with idiopathic steatorrhea in relapse. Two patients gave a history of intermittent abdominal pain, distension and obstipation. Radiographic studies during these attacks revealed obstruction at the level of the sigmoid colon. Reduction under proctoscopic control was achieved in one instance, spontaneous resolution occurring in the other. The third patient presented as a surgical emergency and underwent operative reduction of a small intestinal volvulus. Persistence of diarrhea and weight loss postoperatively led to further investigation and a diagnosis of idiopathic steatorrhea. In all cases, treatment resulted in clinical remission with a coincident disappearance of obstructive intestinal symptoms. The pathogenesis of volvulus in sprue is poorly understood. Atonicity and dilatation of the bowel and stretching of the mesentery likely represent important factors. The symptoms of recurrent abdominal pain and distension in idiopathic steatorrhea necessitate an increased awareness of intestinal volvulus as a complication of this disease. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Figs. 4 and 5Fig. 6 PMID:13998948

  17. Diversity of insect intestinal microflora

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrázek, Jakub; Štrosová, Lenka; Fliegerová, Kateřina; Kott, T.; Kopečný, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2008), s. 229-233 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/06/0974 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : insect intestinal microflora Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.172, year: 2008

  18. Other people's accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1987-06-15

    The first report from the Washington Accelerator Conference concentrated on news from the particle physics centres. But the bulk of the Conference covered the use of accelerators in other fields, underlining this valuable spinoff from particle physics.

  19. Improved plasma accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, D. Y.

    1971-01-01

    Converging, coaxial accelerator electrode configuration operates in vacuum as plasma gun. Plasma forms by periodic injections of high pressure gas that is ionized by electrical discharges. Deflagration mode of discharge provides acceleration, and converging contours of plasma gun provide focusing.

  20. The electron accelerator Ridgetron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashizaki, N.; Hattori, T.; Odera, M.; Fujisawa, T.

    1999-01-01

    Many electron accelerators of DC or RF type have been widely used for electron beam irradiation (curing, crosslinking of polymers, sterilization of medical disposables, preservation of food, etc.). Regardless of the acceleration energy, the accelerators to be installed in industrial facilities, have to satisfy the requires of compact size, low power consumption and stable operation. The DC accelerator is realized very compact in the energy under 300 keV, however, it is large to prevent the discharge of an acceleration column in the energy over 300 keV. The RF electron accelerator Ridgetron has been developed to accelerate the continuous beam of the 0.5-10 MeV range in compact space. It is the first example as an electron accelerator incorporated a ridged RF cavity. A prototype system of final energy of 2.5 MeV has been studied to confirm the feasibility at present

  1. High brightness electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.; Carlsten, B.E.; Young, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    A compact high brightness linear accelerator is provided for use, e.g., in a free electron laser. The accelerator has a first plurality of accelerating cavities having end walls with four coupling slots for accelerating electrons to high velocities in the absence of quadrupole fields. A second plurality of cavities receives the high velocity electrons for further acceleration, where each of the second cavities has end walls with two coupling slots for acceleration in the absence of dipole fields. The accelerator also includes a first cavity with an extended length to provide for phase matching the electron beam along the accelerating cavities. A solenoid is provided about the photocathode that emits the electrons, where the solenoid is configured to provide a substantially uniform magnetic field over the photocathode surface to minimize emittance of the electrons as the electrons enter the first cavity. 5 figs

  2. Unified accelerator libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malitsky, Nikolay; Talman, Richard

    1997-01-01

    A 'Universal Accelerator Libraries' (UAL) environment is described. Its purpose is to facilitate program modularity and inter-program and inter-process communication among heterogeneous programs. The goal ultimately is to facilitate model-based control of accelerators

  3. YEREVAN: Acceleration workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Sponsored by the Yerevan Physics Institute in Armenia, a Workshop on New Methods of Charged Particle Acceleration in October near the Nor Amberd Cosmic Ray Station attracted participants from most major accelerator centres in the USSR and further afield

  4. San Francisco Accelerator Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southworth, Brian

    1991-01-01

    'Where are today's challenges in accelerator physics?' was the theme of the open session at the San Francisco meeting, the largest ever gathering of accelerator physicists and engineers

  5. Large tandem accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.M.

    1976-01-01

    The increasing importance of energetic heavy ion beams in the study of atomic physics, nuclear physics, and materials science has partially or wholly motivated the construction of a new generation of tandem accelerators designed to operate at maximum terminal potentials in the range 14 to 30 MV. In addition, a number of older tandem accelerators are now being significantly upgraded to improve their heavy ion performance. Both of these developments have reemphasized the importance of negative heavy ion sources. The new large tandem accelerators are described, and the requirements placed on negative heavy ion source technology by these and other tandem accelerators used for the acceleration of heavy ions are discussed. First, a brief description is given of the large tandem accelerators which have been completed recently, are under construction, or are funded for construction, second, the motivation for construction of these accelerators is discussed, and last, criteria for negative ion sources for use with these accelerators are presented

  6. Vp x B acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, Ryo.

    1987-05-01

    A unique particle acceleration by an electrostatic (ES) wave, a magnetosonic shock wave as well as an electromagnetic (EM) wave is reviewed. The principle of the acceleration is that when a charged particle is carried across an external magnetic field the charge feels a DC field (the Lorentz force) and is accelerated. The theory for the ES wave acceleration is experimentally verified thought it is semi-quantitative. The shock acceleration is extensively studied theoretically and in a particle simulation method and the application is extended to phenomena in interplanetary space. The EM wave acceleration is based on a trapping in a moving neutral sheet created by the wave magnetic field and the external magnetic field, and the particle can be accelerated indefinitely. A brief sketch on a slow-wave-structure for this acceleration will be given. (author)

  7. Accelerator-timing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmer, E.; Heine, E.

    1985-01-01

    Along the NIKHEF accelerator in Amsterdam (Netherlands), at several places a signal is needed for the sychronisation of all devices with the acceleration process. In this report, basic principles and arrangements of this timing system are described

  8. Linear accelerator: A concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutzberg, J.

    1972-01-01

    Design is proposed for inexpensive accelerometer which would work by applying pressure to fluid during acceleration. Pressure is used to move shuttle, and shuttle movement is sensed and calibrated to give acceleration readings.

  9. Prenatal intestinal volvulus: look for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouikh, Taieb; Mottet, Nicolas; Cabrol, Christelle; Chaussy, Yann

    2016-12-21

    Intestinal volvulus is a life-threatening emergency requiring prompt surgical management. Prenatal intestinal volvulus is rare, and most are secondary to intestinal atresia, mesenteric defect or without any underlying cause. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is known to cause digestive tract disorders. After birth, 10-15% of newborns with CF may develop intestinal obstruction within a few days of birth because of meconial ileus. 1 This obstruction is a result of dehydrated thickened meconium obstructing the intestinal lumen. We report two cases of fetuses with prenatal diagnosis of segmental volvulus in whom CF was diagnosed. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  10. Heavy ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmelzer, C.

    1974-01-01

    This review of the present state of work on heavy-ion accelerators pays particular attention to the requirements for nuclear research. It is divided into the following sections: single-particle versus collective acceleration, heavy-ion accelerators, beam quality, and a status report on the UNILAC facility. Among the topics considered are the recycling cyclotron, linacs with superconducting resonators, and acceleration to the GeV/nucleon range. (8 figures, 2 tables) (U.S.)

  11. Accelerators at school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Latest subject covered by the CERN Accelerator School was 'Applied Geodesy of Particle Accelerators', which attracted an impressive number of outside participants to CERN for a week in April. Since the forerunners of today's particle accelerators were demonstrated over 50 years ago, the positioning of accelerator components has progressed from the laboratory bench-top to tunnels tens of kilometres long. Despite this phenomenal growth in size, sub-millimetre accuracy is still required

  12. Accelerators at school

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1986-06-15

    Latest subject covered by the CERN Accelerator School was 'Applied Geodesy of Particle Accelerators', which attracted an impressive number of outside participants to CERN for a week in April. Since the forerunners of today's particle accelerators were demonstrated over 50 years ago, the positioning of accelerator components has progressed from the laboratory bench-top to tunnels tens of kilometres long. Despite this phenomenal growth in size, sub-millimetre accuracy is still required.

  13. Accelerators for Medicine

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    This lecture will review the different applications of particle accelerators to the medical field, from cancer treatment with beams of accelerator-produced particles (photons, electrons, protons, ions and neutrons) to the generation of radioactive isotopes used in medical diagnostics, in cancer therapy and in the new domain of theragnostics. For each application will be outlined the state of the art, the potential, and the accelerator challenges to be faced to meet the increasing demand for therapeutic procedures based on accelerators.

  14. Large electrostatic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The paper is divided into four parts: a discussion of the motivation for the construction of large electrostatic accelerators, a description and discussion of several large electrostatic accelerators which have been recently completed or are under construction, a description of several recent innovations which may be expected to improve the performance of large electrostatic accelerators in the future, and a description of an innovative new large electrostatic accelerator whose construction is scheduled to begin next year

  15. Particle beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, N.L.

    1982-01-01

    A particle beam accelerator is described which has several electrodes that are selectively short circuited together synchronously with changes in the magnitude of a DC voltage applied to the accelerator. By this method a substantially constant voltage gradient is maintained along the length of the unshortened electrodes despite variations in the energy applied to the beam by the accelerator. The invention has particular application to accelerating ion beams that are implanted into semiconductor wafers. (U.K.)

  16. Superconducting accelerator technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunder, H.A.; Hartline, B.K.

    1986-01-01

    Modern and future accelerators for high energy and nuclear physics rely increasingly on superconducting components to achieve the required magnetic fields and accelerating fields. This paper presents a practical overview of the phenomenon of superconductivity, and describes the design issues and solutions associated with superconducting magnets and superconducting rf acceleration structures. Further development and application of superconducting components promises increased accelerator performance at reduced electric power cost

  17. Applications of particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbalat, O.

    1994-01-01

    Particle accelerators are now widely used in a variety of applications for scientific research, applied physics, medicine, industrial processing, while possible utilisation in power engineering is envisaged. Earlier presentations of this subject, given at previous CERN Accelerator School sessions have been updated with papers contributed to the first European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology (ECAART) held in September 1989 in Frankfurt and to the Second European Particle Accelerator Conference in Nice in June 1990. (orig.)

  18. Investigation of motility and biofilm formation by intestinal Campylobacter concisus strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavrencic Peter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Motility helps many pathogens swim through the highly viscous intestinal mucus. Given the differing outcomes of Campylobacter concisus infection, the motility of eight C. concisus strains isolated from patients with Crohn’s disease (n=3, acute (n=3 and chronic (n=1 gastroenteritis and a healthy control (n=1 were compared. Following growth on solid or liquid media the eight strains formed two groups; however, the type of growth medium did not affect motility. In contrast, following growth in viscous liquid medium seven of the eight strains demonstrated significantly decreased motility. In media of increasing viscosities the motility of C. concisus UNSWCD had two marked increases at viscosities of 20.0 and 74.7 centipoises. Determination of the ability of UNSWCD to swim through a viscous medium, adhere to and invade intestinal epithelial cells showed that while adherence levels significantly decreased with increasing viscosity, invasion levels did not significantly change. In contrast, adherence to and invasion of UNSWCD to mucus-producing intestinal cells increased upon accumulation of mucus, as did bacterial aggregation. Given this aggregation, we determined the ability of the eight C. concisus strains to form biofilms, and showed that all strains formed biofilms. In conclusion, the finding that C. concisus strains could be differentiated into two groups based on their motility may suggest that strains with high motility have an increased ability to swim through the intestinal mucus and reach the epithelial layer.

  19. The CERN Accelerator School

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction to accelerator physics The CERN Accelerator School: Introduction to Accelerator Physics, which should have taken place in Istanbul, Turkey, later this year has now been relocated to Budapest, Hungary.  Further details regarding the new hotel and dates will be made available as soon as possible on a new Indico site at the end of May.

  20. Angular Acceleration without Torque?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Hardly. Just as Robert Johns qualitatively describes angular acceleration by an internal force in his article "Acceleration Without Force?" here we will extend the discussion to consider angular acceleration by an internal torque. As we will see, this internal torque is due to an internal force acting at a distance from an instantaneous center.

  1. Accelerators and Dinosaurs

    CERN Multimedia

    Turner, Michael Stanley

    2003-01-01

    Using naturally occuring particles on which to research might have made accelerators become extinct. But in fact, results from astrophysics have made accelerator physics even more important. Not only are accelerators used in hospitals but they are also being used to understand nature's inner workings by searching for Higgs bosons, CP violation, neutrino mass and dark matter (2 pages)

  2. Far field acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernow, R.C.

    1995-07-01

    Far fields are propagating electromagnetic waves far from their source, boundary surfaces, and free charges. The general principles governing the acceleration of charged particles by far fields are reviewed. A survey of proposed field configurations is given. The two most important schemes, Inverse Cerenkov acceleration and Inverse free electron laser acceleration, are discussed in detail

  3. A etiological factors in mechanical intestinal obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asad, S.; Khan, H.; Khan, I.A.; Ghaffar, S.; Rehman, Z.U.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Intestinal obstruction occurs when the normal flow of intestinal contents is interrupted. The most frequent causes of intestinal obstruction are postoperative adhesions and hernias, which cause extrinsic compression of the intestine. Less frequently, tumours or strictures of the bowel can cause intrinsic blockage. Objective of the study was to find out the various a etiological factors of mechanical intestinal obstruction and to evaluate the morbidity and mortality in adult patients presenting to Surgical 'A' unit of Ayub teaching hospital with mechanical intestinal obstruction. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2009 to September, 2009. All patients presenting with intestinal obstruction and were above the age of 12 years were included in the study. Patients with non-mechanical obstruction were excluded from the study and those who responded to conservative measures were also excluded. Results: A total of 36 patients with age ranging from 12 to 80 years (Mean age 37.72+-19.74 years) and male to female ratio of 1.77:1, were treated for mechanical intestinal obstruction. The most common cause for mechanical intestinal obstruction was adhesions (36.1%). Intestinal tuberculosis was the second most common cause (19.4%), while hernias and sigmoid volvulus affected 13.9% patients each. Malignancies were found in 5.6% cases. Conclusion: Adhesions and Tuberculosis are the leading causes of mechanical intestinal obstruction in Pakistan. Although some patients can be treated conservatively, a substantial portion requires immediate surgical intervention. (author)

  4. Intestinal perfusion in the study of intestinal absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S.J.

    1976-01-01

    Several techniques for studying absorption by means of intestinal perfusion have been developed. While the principle is simple, the practice is complicated by absorption of the solvent and by excretion of fluid into the lumen. To improve reliability a ''marker'' is incorporated into the system; it should behave as nearly as possible like the nutrient of interest, except that it should be unabsorbable. A great many markers, including several labelled with radionuclides, have been developed for use with numerous nutrients, and perfusion methods using double or triple tubes or occlusive balloons have been tested. The perfusion technique is too complicated for routine diagnostic use, but it offers at present the only possibility of studying the function of defined sections of the small intestine in the intact human. (author)

  5. The CT signs of intestinal volvulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Jiansong; Wang Zufei; Xu Zhaolong; Lv Guijian; Xu Min; Zhao Zhongwei; Su Jinliang; Zhou Limin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To improve the accuracy rate of spiral CT diagnosing intestinal volvulus. Methods: To analysis the CT findings of 9 cases of intestinal volvulus proved by operation, the main reconstruction techniques were multiplanar reformation (MPR) and sliding thin-slab maximum intensity projection (STS-MIP). Results: All the 9 cases were diagnosed accurately, the main signs were 'whirlpool' of intestine (6 cases) and vessels (9 cases),'target loop' (2 cases),'beak'(6 cases). Conclusion: 'Whirlpool' of vessels is a specific sign to diagnose intestinal volvulus, 'target loop', reduced enhancement of intestinal wall and ascites are the reliable signs to strangulated intestinal obstruction. Spiral CT and reconstructions have important value to diagnose the intestinal volvulus. (authors)

  6. Serratia marcescens is injurious to intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochieng, John B; Boisen, Nadia; Lindsay, Brianna; Santiago, Araceli; Ouma, Collins; Ombok, Maurice; Fields, Barry; Stine, O Colin; Nataro, James P

    2014-01-01

    Diarrhea causes substantial morbidity and mortality in children in low-income countries. Although numerous pathogens cause diarrhea, the etiology of many episodes remains unknown. Serratia marcescens is incriminated in hospital-associated infections, and HIV/AIDS associated diarrhea. We have recently found that Serratia spp. may be found more commonly in the stools of patients with diarrhea than in asymptomatic control children. We therefore investigated the possible enteric pathogenicity of S. marcescens in vitro employing a polarized human colonic epithelial cell (T84) monolayer. Infected monolayers were assayed for bacterial invasion, transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), cytotoxicity, interleukin-8 (IL-8) release and morphological changes by scanning electron microscopy. We observed significantly greater epithelial cell invasion by S. marcescens compared to Escherichia coli strain HS (p = 0.0038 respectively). Cell invasion was accompanied by reduction in TEER and secretion of IL-8. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) extracellular concentration rapidly increased within a few hours of exposure of the monolayer to S. marcescens. Scanning electron microscopy of S. marcescens-infected monolayers demonstrated destruction of microvilli and vacuolization. Our results suggest that S. marcescens interacts with intestinal epithelial cells in culture and induces dramatic alterations similar to those produced by known enteric pathogens.

  7. Virtual Accelerator for Accelerator Optics Improvement

    CERN Document Server

    Yan Yi Ton; Decker, Franz Josef; Ecklund, Stanley; Irwin, John; Seeman, John; Sullivan, Michael K; Turner, J L; Wienands, Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    Through determination of all quadrupole strengths and sextupole feed-downs by fitting quantities derivable from precision orbit measurement, one can establish a virtual accelerator that matches the real accelerator optics. These quantities (the phase advances, the Green's functions, and the coupling eigen-plane ellipses tilt angles and axis ratios) are obtained by analyzing turn-by-turn Beam Position Monitor (BPM) data with a model-independent analysis (MIA). Instead of trying to identify magnet errors, a limited number of quadrupoles are chosen for optimized strength adjustment to improve the virtual accelerator optics and then applied to the real accelerator accordingly. These processes have been successfully applied to PEP-II rings for beta beating fixes, phase and working tune adjustments, and linear coupling reduction to improve PEP-II luminosity.

  8. Ongoing ingestive behavior is rapidly suppressed by a preabsorptive, intestinal “bitter taste” cue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Terry L.; Powley, Terry L.

    2011-01-01

    The discovery that cells in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract express the same molecular receptors and intracellular signaling components known to be involved in taste has generated great interest in potential functions of such post-oral “taste” receptors in the control of food intake. To determine whether taste cues in the GI tract are detected and can directly influence behavior, the present study used a microbehavioral analysis of intake, in which rats drank from lickometers that were programmed to simultaneously deliver a brief yoked infusion of a taste stimulus to the intestines. Specifically, in daily 30-min sessions, thirsty rats with indwelling intraduodenal catheters were trained to drink hypotonic (0.12 M) sodium chloride (NaCl) and simultaneously self-infuse a 0.12 M NaCl solution. Once trained, in a subsequent series of intestinal taste probe trials, rats reduced licking during a 6-min infusion period, when a bitter stimulus denatonium benzoate (DB; 10 mM) was added to the NaCl vehicle for infusion, apparently conditioning a mild taste aversion. Presentation of the DB in isomolar lithium chloride (LiCl) for intestinal infusions accelerated the development of the response across trials and strengthened the temporal resolution of the early licking suppression in response to the arrival of the DB in the intestine. In an experiment to evaluate whether CCK is involved as a paracrine signal in transducing the intestinal taste of DB, the CCK-1R antagonist devazepide partially blocked the response to intestinal DB. In contrast to their ability to detect and avoid the bitter taste in the intestine, rats did not modify their licking to saccharin intraduodenal probe infusions. The intestinal taste aversion paradigm developed here provides a sensitive and effective protocol for evaluating which tastants—and concentrations of tastants—in the lumen of the gut can control ingestion. PMID:21865540

  9. Ongoing ingestive behavior is rapidly suppressed by a preabsorptive, intestinal "bitter taste" cue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schier, Lindsey A; Davidson, Terry L; Powley, Terry L

    2011-11-01

    The discovery that cells in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract express the same molecular receptors and intracellular signaling components known to be involved in taste has generated great interest in potential functions of such post-oral "taste" receptors in the control of food intake. To determine whether taste cues in the GI tract are detected and can directly influence behavior, the present study used a microbehavioral analysis of intake, in which rats drank from lickometers that were programmed to simultaneously deliver a brief yoked infusion of a taste stimulus to the intestines. Specifically, in daily 30-min sessions, thirsty rats with indwelling intraduodenal catheters were trained to drink hypotonic (0.12 M) sodium chloride (NaCl) and simultaneously self-infuse a 0.12 M NaCl solution. Once trained, in a subsequent series of intestinal taste probe trials, rats reduced licking during a 6-min infusion period, when a bitter stimulus denatonium benzoate (DB; 10 mM) was added to the NaCl vehicle for infusion, apparently conditioning a mild taste aversion. Presentation of the DB in isomolar lithium chloride (LiCl) for intestinal infusions accelerated the development of the response across trials and strengthened the temporal resolution of the early licking suppression in response to the arrival of the DB in the intestine. In an experiment to evaluate whether CCK is involved as a paracrine signal in transducing the intestinal taste of DB, the CCK-1R antagonist devazepide partially blocked the response to intestinal DB. In contrast to their ability to detect and avoid the bitter taste in the intestine, rats did not modify their licking to saccharin intraduodenal probe infusions. The intestinal taste aversion paradigm developed here provides a sensitive and effective protocol for evaluating which tastants-and concentrations of tastants-in the lumen of the gut can control ingestion.

  10. The Accelerator Reliability Forum

    CERN Document Server

    Lüdeke, Andreas; Giachino, R

    2014-01-01

    A high reliability is a very important goal for most particle accelerators. The biennial Accelerator Reliability Workshop covers topics related to the design and operation of particle accelerators with a high reliability. In order to optimize the over-all reliability of an accelerator one needs to gather information on the reliability of many different subsystems. While a biennial workshop can serve as a platform for the exchange of such information, the authors aimed to provide a further channel to allow for a more timely communication: the Particle Accelerator Reliability Forum [1]. This contribution will describe the forum and advertise it’s usage in the community.

  11. Notes on Laser Acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.

    2008-01-01

    This note intends to motivate our effort toward the advent of new methods of particle acceleration, utilizing the fast rising laser technology. By illustrating the underlying principles in an intuitive manner and thus less jargon-clad fashion, we seek a direction in which we shall be able to properly control and harness the promise of laser acceleration. First we review the idea behind the laser wakefield. We then go on to examine ion acceleration by laser. We examine the sheath acceleration in particular and look for the future direction that allows orderly acceleration of ions in high energies

  12. The Contributions of Human Mini-Intestines to the Study of Intestinal Physiology and Pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huimin; Hasan, Nesrin M; In, Julie G; Estes, Mary K; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Zachos, Nicholas C; Donowitz, Mark

    2017-02-10

    The lack of accessibility to normal and diseased human intestine and the inability to separate the different functional compartments of the intestine even when tissue could be obtained have held back the understanding of human intestinal physiology. Clevers and his associates identified intestinal stem cells and established conditions to grow "mini-intestines" ex vivo in differentiated and undifferentiated conditions. This pioneering work has made a new model of the human intestine available and has begun making contributions to the understanding of human intestinal transport in normal physiologic conditions and the pathophysiology of intestinal diseases. However, this model is reductionist and lacks many of the complexities of normal intestine. Consequently, it is not yet possible to predict how great the advances using this model will be for understanding human physiology and pathophysiology, nor how the model will be modified to include multiple other intestinal cell types and physical forces necessary to more closely approximate normal intestine. This review describes recent studies using mini-intestines, which have readdressed previously established models of normal intestinal transport physiology and newly examined intestinal pathophysiology. The emphasis is on studies with human enteroids grown either as three-dimensional spheroids or two-dimensional monolayers. In addition, comments are provided on mouse studies in cases when human studies have not yet been described.

  13. Industrial Application of Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    At CERN, we are very familiar with large, high energy particle accelerators. However, in the world outside CERN, there are more than 35000 accelerators which are used for applications ranging from treating cancer, through making better electronics to removing harmful micro-organisms from food and water. These are responsible for around $0.5T of commerce each year. Almost all are less than 20 MeV and most use accelerator types that are somewhat different from what is at CERN. These lectures will describe some of the most common applications, some of the newer applications in development and the accelerator technology used for them. It will also show examples of where technology developed for particle physics is now being studied for these applications. Rob Edgecock is a Professor of Accelerator Science, with a particular interest in the medical applications of accelerators. He works jointly for the STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the International Institute for Accelerator Applications at the Univer...

  14. Industrial Application of Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    At CERN, we are very familiar with large, high energy particle accelerators. However, in the world outside CERN, there are more than 35000 accelerators which are used for applications ranging from treating cancer, through making better electronics to removing harmful micro-organisms from food and water. These are responsible for around $0.5T of commerce each year. Almost all are less than 20 MeV and most use accelerator types that are somewhat different from what is at CERN. These lectures will describe some of the most common applications, some of the newer applications in development and the accelerator technology used for them. It will also show examples of where technology developed for particle physics is now being studied for these applications. Rob Edgecock is a Professor of Accelerator Science, with a particular interest in the medical applications of accelerators. He works jointly for the STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the International Institute for Accelerator Applications at the Uni...

  15. Accelerations in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, J H

    1925-01-01

    This work on accelerometry was done at McCook Field for the purpose of continuing the work done by other investigators and obtaining the accelerations which occur when a high-speed pursuit airplane is subjected to the more common maneuvers. The accelerations obtained in suddenly pulling out of a dive with well-balanced elevators are shown to be within 3 or 4 per cent of the theoretically possible accelerations. The maximum acceleration which a pilot can withstand depends upon the length of time the acceleration is continued. It is shown that he experiences no difficulty under the instantaneous accelerations as high as 7.8 G., but when under accelerations in excess of 4.5 G., continued for several seconds, he quickly loses his faculties.

  16. Accelerators for energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Makoto

    2000-01-01

    A particle accelerator is a device to consume energy but not to produce it. Then, the titled accelerator seems to mean an accelerator for using devices related to nuclear energy. For an accelerator combined to nuclear fissionable fuel, neutron sources are D-T type, (gamma, n) reaction using electron beam type spallation type, and so forth. At viewpoints of powers of incident beam and formed neutron, a spallation type source using high energy proton is told to be effective but others have some advantages by investigation on easy operability, easy construction, combustion with target, energy and directivity of neutron, and so forth. Here were discussed on an accelerator for research on accelerator driven energy system by dividing its researching steps, and on kind, energy, beam intensity, and so forth of an accelerator suitable for it. And, space electric charge effect at beam propagation direction controlled by beam intensity of cyclotron was also commented. (G.K.)

  17. Ultrasonographic Demonstration of Intestinal Obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Hoo; Choi, Hyae Seoun; Kim, S. K.; Han, S.U.; Park, K. S.; Park, H. N.

    1982-01-01

    The cardinal feature of intestinal obstruction is the intraluminal fluid accumulation within the bowel segments. The presence of air simply makes it easier to find dilated fluid-filled bowel loop on plain radiographic films. Distended fluid-filed loop, however, may be obscure on X-ray film when gas is absent, secondary to vomiting, or to cessation of air swallowing. furthermore, in closed loop obstruction, air cannot enter the involved bowel, and thereby in this situation gray scale ultrasonography may be a useful device in making a rapid diagnosis. By sonographic confirmations of intestinal obstruction, a tonic, fluid-filled bowel loops usually were revealed as multiple, circular or cylindrical cystic structures with a finely irregular wall. Valvulae connivente sexhibit a characteristic key-board appearance when they project into the fluid-filled lumen

  18. The intestinal microenvironment in sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Katherine T; Ford, Mandy L; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2017-10-01

    The gastrointestinal tract has long been hypothesized to function as "the motor" of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. The gastrointestinal microenvironment is comprised of a single cell layer epithelia, a local immune system, and the microbiome. These three components of the intestine together play a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis during times of health. However, the gastrointestinal microenvironment is perturbed during sepsis, resulting in pathologic changes that drive both local and distant injury. In this review, we seek to characterize the relationship between the epithelium, gastrointestinal lymphocytes, and commensal bacteria during basal and pathologic conditions and how the intestinal microenvironment may be targeted for therapeutic gain in septic patients. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Colon in acute intestinal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Alfredo; Buccigrossi, Vittoria; Armellino, Carla

    2009-04-01

    The colon is actively implicated in intestinal infections not only as a target of enteric pathogens and their products but also as a target organ for treatment. In the presence of diarrhea, both of osmotic and secretory nature, the colon reacts with homeostatic mechanisms to increase ion absorption. These mechanisms can be effectively exploited to decrease fluid discharge. A model of intestinal infections using rotavirus (RV) in colonic cells was set up and used to define a dual model of secretory and osmotic diarrhea in sequence. Using this model, antidiarrheal drugs were tested, namely zinc and the enkephalinase inhibitor racecadotril. Zinc was able to decrease the enterotoxic activity responsible for secretory diarrhea. It also inhibited the cytotoxic effect of RV. The mechanism of zinc was related at least in part to the activation of MAPK activity, but also a direct antiviral effect was observed. Racecadotril showed a potent and selective inhibition of active secretion, being particularly effective in the first phase of RV diarrhea. The use of drugs active at the colonic level, therefore, offers effective options to treat intestinal infections in childhood. In addition, the colon is the natural site of colonic microflora, a target of probiotic therapy, which is the first line of approach recommended by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition to treat infectious diarrhea.

  20. Radiological manifestations of intestinal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jae Hoon

    1974-01-01

    Radiological findings of 87 cases of intestinal tuberculosis are analyzed and presented. The diagnosis was based on histopathology in 29 cases, and on clinical ground and radiological findings in 58 cases. The radio of male and female patients was 4:6, and peak incidence is between 10 and 30. Abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, fever and general weakness are frequent symptoms, and tenderness of abdomen, ascites with abdominal distension, malnutrition and emaciation are frequent signs of the patients. Laboratory investigation reveal anemia, raised ESR, hypoalbuminaemia and positive occult blood reaction in the stool in most of the patients. Chest film show activity pulmonary tuberculosis in only 1/3 patients. There is no pathognomonic radiological findings in intestinal tuberculosis and their manifestations are protean, and differentiation from other inflammatory diseases and malignant tumors in gastrointestinal tract is very difficult on radiological ground alone. However, in patients with complaining vague abdominal symptoms and signs, the radiological diagnosis is most certain means in the decision of existence of organic lesion and suggestion of tuberculosis in the gastrointestinal tract and its extent as yet. Multiplicity of the lesion, involvement of adjacent organ such as peritoneum or mesenteric lymph nodes, typical nodularity or irregularity of mesenteric border and existence of active pulmonary tuberculosis are the suggestive findings of intestinal tuberculosis. In the diagnosis of inflammatory disease or malignant tumor of gastrointestinal tract, the possibility of tuberculosis should be borne in mind, and vice versa

  1. INTESTINAL MICROBIOTA IN DIGESTIVE DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Friche PASSOS

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND In recent years, especially after the development of sophisticated metagenomic studies, research on the intestinal microbiota has increased, radically transforming our knowledge about the microbiome and its association with health maintenance and disease development in humans. Increasing evidence has shown that a permanent alteration in microbiota composition or function (dysbiosis can alter immune responses, metabolism, intestinal permeability, and digestive motility, thereby promoting a proinflammatory state. Such alterations can mainly impair the host’s immune and metabolic functions, thus favoring the onset of diseases such as diabetes, obesity, digestive, neurological, autoimmune, and neoplastic diseases. This comprehensive review is a compilation of the available literature on the formation of the complex intestinal ecosystem and its impact on the incidence of diseases such as obesity, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and digestive neoplasms. CONCLUSION: Alterations in the composition and function of the gastrointestinal microbiota (dysbiosis have a direct impact on human health and seem to have an important role in the pathogenesis of several gastrointestinal diseases, whether inflammatory, metabolic, or neoplastic ones.

  2. Radiological manifestations of intestinal tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Jae Hoon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-10-15

    Radiological findings of 87 cases of intestinal tuberculosis are analyzed and presented. The diagnosis was based on histopathology in 29 cases, and on clinical ground and radiological findings in 58 cases. The radio of male and female patients was 4:6, and peak incidence is between 10 and 30. Abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, fever and general weakness are frequent symptoms, and tenderness of abdomen, ascites with abdominal distension, malnutrition and emaciation are frequent signs of the patients. Laboratory investigation reveal anemia, raised ESR, hypoalbuminaemia and positive occult blood reaction in the stool in most of the patients. Chest film show activity pulmonary tuberculosis in only 1/3 patients. There is no pathognomonic radiological findings in intestinal tuberculosis and their manifestations are protean, and differentiation from other inflammatory diseases and malignant tumors in gastrointestinal tract is very difficult on radiological ground alone. However, in patients with complaining vague abdominal symptoms and signs, the radiological diagnosis is most certain means in the decision of existence of organic lesion and suggestion of tuberculosis in the gastrointestinal tract and its extent as yet. Multiplicity of the lesion, involvement of adjacent organ such as peritoneum or mesenteric lymph nodes, typical nodularity or irregularity of mesenteric border and existence of active pulmonary tuberculosis are the suggestive findings of intestinal tuberculosis. In the diagnosis of inflammatory disease or malignant tumor of gastrointestinal tract, the possibility of tuberculosis should be borne in mind, and vice versa.

  3. [Intestinal parasitic diseases in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mare, Anca; Man, A; Toma, Felicia; Székely, Edit; Lôrinczi, Lilla; Sipoş, Anca

    2007-01-01

    To compare the incidence of intestinal parasitosis between children with residence in urban and rural areas: to compare the efficacy of parasitologic diagnostic methods. In our study we included two lots of children. The first lot consisted in 74 children from rural areas from which we collected 44 samples of feces and 55 samples for the "Scotch tape" test. The second lot consisted in 214 children from urban areas from which we collected 44 samples of feces. We examined each sample of feces by three different methods. The study was performed between April to June 2006. The incidence of intestinal parasitosis increases in children from urban areas towards rural areas, and in children between 5 and 10 years. Ascariasis is the most frequent disease in both urban and rural areas. By examination of each fecal sample by three different methods, the number of positive cases increased. The residence in rural areas and age between 5 to 10 years are risk factors for intestinal parasitosis. The "Scotch tape" test was more efficient in Enterobius vermicularis infection than the methods performed from feces. We recommend using at the same time three diagnostic methods for feces examination to improve the diagnostic sensibility.

  4. Basic studies on digestion and absorption in the small intestine, 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohki, Masahisa

    1980-01-01

    The absorption of 14 C-labeled fatty acids (caproic acid, oleic acid and stearic acid) was investigated. These were emulsified with an ultrasonic mixer for 60 min, and intestine treated with physiological saline and 10% pluronic F68 solution was used. Caproic acid was absorbed very rapidly and solely through the portal vein. Oleic acid and stearic acid were absorbed slowly through the lymphatics, with the former being absorbed faster. In physiological saline-treated intestine, oleic acid was transported into both the portal vein and lymphatic ducts. 10% Pluronic F68 solution did not change the absorption of caproic acid and oleic acid, but accelerated that of stearic acid. Autoradiographic studies demonstrated that each fatty acid was absorbed into absorptive cells in a different fashion, and long chain fatty acids required a long period of time for transport from the intestinal cells to the circulating blood. (author)

  5. Exotic invasive plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn Hull Sieg; Barbara G. Phillips; Laura P. Moser

    2003-01-01

    Ecosystems worldwide are threatened by nonnative plant invasions that can cause undesirable, irreversible changes. They can displace native plants and animals, out-cross with native flora, alter nutrient cycling and other ecosystem functions, and even change an ecosystem's flammability (Walker and Smith 1997). After habitat loss, the spread of exotic species is...

  6. Minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Røsok, Bård I.; de Rooij, Thijs; van Hilst, Jony; Diener, Markus K.; Allen, Peter J.; Vollmer, Charles M.; Kooby, David A.; Shrikhande, Shailesh V.; Asbun, Horacio J.; Barkun, Jeffrey; Besselink, Marc G.; Boggi, Ugo; Conlon, Kevin; Han, Ho Seong; Hansen, Paul; Kendrick, Michael L.; Kooby, David; Montagnini, Andre L.; Palanivelu, Chinnasamy; Wakabayashi, Go; Zeh, Herbert J.

    2017-01-01

    The first International conference on Minimally Invasive Pancreas Resection was arranged in conjunction with the annual meeting of the International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association (IHPBA), in Sao Paulo, Brazil on April 19th 2016. The presented evidence and outcomes resulting from the session

  7. Pathogenesis of invasive candidiasis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Kullberg, B.J.; Netea, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Disseminated candidiasis remains a life-threatening disease in the ICU. The development of invasive disease with Candida albicans is dependent on multiple factors, such as colonization and efficient host defense at the mucosa. In the present review, we describe the host defense

  8. Particle-accelerator decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opelka, J.H.; Mundis, R.L.; Marmer, G.J.; Peterson, J.M.; Siskind, B.; Kikta, M.J.

    1979-12-01

    Generic considerations involved in decommissioning particle accelerators are examined. There are presently several hundred accelerators operating in the United States that can produce material containing nonnegligible residual radioactivity. Residual radioactivity after final shutdown is generally short-lived induced activity and is localized in hot spots around the beam line. The decommissioning options addressed are mothballing, entombment, dismantlement with interim storage, and dismantlement with disposal. The recycle of components or entire accelerators following dismantlement is a definite possibility and has occurred in the past. Accelerator components can be recycled either immediately at accelerator shutdown or following a period of storage, depending on the nature of induced activation. Considerations of cost, radioactive waste, and radiological health are presented for four prototypic accelerators. Prototypes considered range from small accelerators having minimal amounts of radioactive mmaterial to a very large accelerator having massive components containing nonnegligible amounts of induced activation. Archival information on past decommissionings is presented, and recommendations concerning regulations and accelerator design that will aid in the decommissioning of an accelerator are given

  9. An introduction to acceleration mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.B.

    1987-05-01

    This paper discusses the acceleration of charged particles by electromagnetic fields, i.e., by fields that are produced by the motion of other charged particles driven by some power source. The mechanisms that are discussed include: Ponderamotive Forces, Acceleration, Plasma Beat Wave Acceleration, Inverse Free Electron Laser Acceleration, Inverse Cerenkov Acceleration, Gravity Acceleration, 2D Linac Acceleration and Conventional Iris Loaded Linac Structure Acceleration

  10. Flexible CO2 laser and submucosal gel injection for safe endoluminal resection in the intestines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Joyce T; Mittra, Arjun; Wong, Joyce; Carpenter, Susanne; Carson, Joshua; Haddad, Dana; Monette, Sebastien; Ezell, Paula; Patel, Snehal; Fong, Yuman

    2012-01-01

    The CO(2) laser's unique wavelength of 10.6 μm has the advantage of being readily absorbed by water but historically limited it to line-of-sight procedures. Through recent technological advances, a flexible CO(2) laser fiber has been developed and holds promise for endoluminal surgery. We examined whether this laser, along with injection of a water-based gel in the submucosal space, will allow safe dissection of the intestines and enhance the potential of this tool for minimally invasive surgery. Using an ex vivo model with porcine intestines, spot ablation was performed with the flexible CO(2) laser at different power settings until transmural perforation. Additionally, excisions of mucosal patches were performed by submucosal dissection with and without submucosal injection of a water-based gel. With spot ablation at 5 W, none of the specimens was perforated by 5 min, which was the maximum recorded time. The time to perforation was significantly shorter with increased laser power, and gel pretreatment protected the intestines against spot ablation, increasing the time to perforation from 6 to 37 s at 10 W and from 1 to 7 s at 15 W. During excision of mucosal patches, 56 and 83% of untreated intestines perforated at 5 and 10 W, respectively. Gel pretreatment prior to excision protected all intestines against perforation. These specimens were verified to be intact by inflation with air to over 100 mmHg. Furthermore, excision of the mucosal patch was complete in gel-pretreated specimens, whereas 22% of untreated specimens had residual islands of mucosa after excision. The flexible CO(2) laser holds promise as a precise dissection and cutting tool for endoluminal surgery of the intestines. Pretreatment with a submucosal injection of a water-based gel protects the intestines from perforation during ablation and mucosal dissection.

  11. Importance of intestinal absorption of amino acids in regard to the efficiency of feed proteins in poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larbier, M.; Blum, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    The absorption of 14 C(U) L-lysine was studied in vivo (perfusion of isolated intestinal folds) and in vitro (incubation of fragments of intestine) in the chicken and duck during growth. Factors that increase the nutritional efficiency of proteins, e.g. amino-acid deficiency, accelerate intestinal absorption. On the other hand, factors that reduce protein efficiency, be they nutritional (excess amino acids), physiological (age; sex: female compared with male; species: duck compared with chicken) or pathological (experimental coccidiosis), slow down the absorption of lysine. The results are discussed bearing in mind that the absorption rate has a double significance. It plays a part in digestive utilization; it may also reflect metabolic utilization to the extent that transfer through the intestinal mucosa is comparable to incorporation in the cells of the organism. (author)

  12. An intestinal Trojan horse for gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Haisheng; Wang, Chao; Xu, Xiaoyang; Yu, Chenxu; Wang, Qun

    2015-03-14

    The intestinal epithelium forms an essential element of the mucosal barrier and plays a critical role in the pathophysiological response to different enteric disorders and diseases. As a major enteric dysfunction of the intestinal tract, inflammatory bowel disease is a genetic disease which results from the inappropriate and exaggerated mucosal immune response to the normal constituents in the mucosal microbiota environment. An intestine targeted drug delivery system has unique advantages in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. As a new concept in drug delivery, the Trojan horse system with the synergy of nanotechnology and host cells can achieve better therapeutic efficacy in specific diseases. Here, we demonstrated the feasibility of encapsulating DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles into primary isolated intestinal stem cells to form an intestinal Trojan horse for gene regulation therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. This proof-of-concept intestinal Trojan horse will have a wide variety of applications in the diagnosis and therapy of enteric disorders and diseases.

  13. Epidermal Growth Factor and Intestinal Barrier Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermal growth factor (EGF is a 53-amino acid peptide that plays an important role in regulating cell growth, survival, migration, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation. In addition, EGF has been established to be an effective intestinal regulator helping to protect intestinal barrier integrity, which was essential for the absorption of nutrients and health in humans and animals. Several researches have demonstrated that EGF via binding to the EGF receptor and subsequent activation of Ras/MAPK, PI3K/AKT, PLC-γ/PKC, and STATS signal pathways regulates intestinal barrier function. In this review, the relationship between epidermal growth factor and intestinal development and intestinal barrier is described, to provide a better understanding of the effects of EGF on intestine development and health.

  14. Intestinal epithelium in inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet eCoskun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelium has a strategic position as a protective physical barrier to luminal microbiota and actively contributes to the mucosal immune system. This barrier is mainly formed by a monolayer of specialized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs that are crucial in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Therefore, dysregulation within the epithelial layer can increase intestinal permeability, lead to abnormalities in interactions between IECs and immune cells in underlying lamina propria, and disturb the intestinal immune homeostasis, all of which are linked to the clinical disease course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Understanding the role of the intestinal epithelium in IBD pathogenesis might contribute to an improved knowledge of the inflammatory processes and the identification of potential therapeutic targets.

  15. Intestinal intraepithelial lymphocyte-enterocyte crosstalk regulates production of bactericidal angiogenin 4 by Paneth cells upon microbial challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine R Walker

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial proteins influence intestinal microbial ecology and limit proliferation of pathogens, yet the regulation of their expression has only been partially elucidated. Here, we have identified a putative pathway involving epithelial cells and intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (iIELs that leads to antimicrobial protein (AMP production by Paneth cells. Mice lacking γδ iIELs (TCRδ(-/- express significantly reduced levels of the AMP angiogenin 4 (Ang4. These mice were also unable to up-regulate Ang4 production following oral challenge by Salmonella, leading to higher levels of mucosal invasion compared to their wild type counterparts during the first 2 hours post-challenge. The transfer of γδ iIELs from wild type (WT mice to TCRδ(-/- mice restored Ang4 production and Salmonella invasion levels were reduced to those obtained in WT mice. The ability to restore Ang4 production in TCRδ(-/- mice was shown to be restricted to γδ iIELs expressing Vγ7-encoded TCRs. Using a novel intestinal crypt co-culture system we identified a putative pathway of Ang4 production initiated by exposure to Salmonella, intestinal commensals or microbial antigens that induced intestinal epithelial cells to produce cytokines including IL‑23 in a TLR-mediated manner. Exposure of TCR-Vγ7(+ γδ iIELs to IL-23 promoted IL‑22 production, which triggered Paneth cells to secrete Ang4. These findings identify a novel role for γδ iIELs in mucosal defence through sensing immediate epithelial cell cytokine responses and influencing AMP production. This in turn can contribute to the maintenance of intestinal microbial homeostasis and epithelial barrier function, and limit pathogen invasion.

  16. Accelerator and radiation physics

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Samita; Nandy, Maitreyee

    2013-01-01

    "Accelerator and radiation physics" encompasses radiation shielding design and strategies for hadron therapy accelerators, neutron facilities and laser based accelerators. A fascinating article describes detailed transport theory and its application to radiation transport. Detailed information on planning and design of a very high energy proton accelerator can be obtained from the article on radiological safety of J-PARC. Besides safety for proton accelerators, the book provides information on radiological safety issues for electron synchrotron and prevention and preparedness for radiological emergencies. Different methods for neutron dosimetry including LET based monitoring, time of flight spectrometry, track detectors are documented alongwith newly measured experimental data on radiation interaction with dyes, polymers, bones and other materials. Design of deuteron accelerator, shielding in beam line hutches in synchrotron and 14 MeV neutron generator, various radiation detection methods, their characteriza...

  17. 2014 Accelerators meeting, Grenoble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucotte, Arnaud; Lamy, Thierry; De Conto, Jean-Marie; Fontaine, Alain; Revol, Jean-Luc; Nadolski, Laurent S.; Kazamias, Sophie; Vretenar, Maurizio; Ferrando, Philippe; Laune, Bernard; Vedrine, Pierre

    2014-10-01

    The Accelerators meeting is organised every two years by the Accelerators division of the French Society of Physics (SFP). It brings together about 50 participants during a one-day meeting. The morning sessions are devoted to scientific presentations while the afternoon is dedicated to technical visits of facilities. This document brings together the available presentations (slides): 1 - Presentation of the Laboratory of subatomic physics and cosmology - LPSC-Grenoble (Lucotte, Arnaud; Lamy, Thierry); 2 - Presentation of the Accelerators division of the French Society of Physics (Fontaine, Alain; Revol, Jean-Luc); 3 - Presentation of Grenoble's master diplomas in Accelerator physics (Nadolski, Laurent S.); 4 - Presentation of Paris' master diplomas in big instruments (Kazamias, Sophie); 5 - Particle accelerators and European Union's projects (Vretenar, Maurizio); 6 - French research infrastructures (Ferrando, Philippe); 7 - Coordination of accelerators activity in France (Laune, Bernard; Vedrine, Pierre)

  18. Accelerator reliability workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, L; Duru, Ph; Koch, J M; Revol, J L; Van Vaerenbergh, P; Volpe, A M; Clugnet, K; Dely, A; Goodhew, D

    2002-07-01

    About 80 experts attended this workshop, which brought together all accelerator communities: accelerator driven systems, X-ray sources, medical and industrial accelerators, spallation sources projects (American and European), nuclear physics, etc. With newly proposed accelerator applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, replacement of nuclear power plants and others. Reliability has now become a number one priority for accelerator designers. Every part of an accelerator facility from cryogenic systems to data storage via RF systems are concerned by reliability. This aspect is now taken into account in the design/budget phase, especially for projects whose goal is to reach no more than 10 interruptions per year. This document gathers the slides but not the proceedings of the workshop.

  19. Accelerator reliability workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, L.; Duru, Ph.; Koch, J.M.; Revol, J.L.; Van Vaerenbergh, P.; Volpe, A.M.; Clugnet, K.; Dely, A.; Goodhew, D.

    2002-01-01

    About 80 experts attended this workshop, which brought together all accelerator communities: accelerator driven systems, X-ray sources, medical and industrial accelerators, spallation sources projects (American and European), nuclear physics, etc. With newly proposed accelerator applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, replacement of nuclear power plants and others. Reliability has now become a number one priority for accelerator designers. Every part of an accelerator facility from cryogenic systems to data storage via RF systems are concerned by reliability. This aspect is now taken into account in the design/budget phase, especially for projects whose goal is to reach no more than 10 interruptions per year. This document gathers the slides but not the proceedings of the workshop

  20. Acceleration of radioactive ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laxdal, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    There is an intense interest world-wide in the use of radioactive ion beams (RIBs) for experiment. In many existing or proposed facilities ions are produced or collected at source potential, ionized and re-accelerated. Within the past year three new ISOL based facilities have added dedicated post-accelerators to deliver accelerated RIBs to experiment. The paper gives an overview of RIB accelerators present and future, and explores the inherent features in the various acceleration methods with an emphasis on heavy ion linacs. The ISAC-I and ISAC-II post-accelerators are discussed as examples. Commissioning results and initial operating experience with ISAC-I will be presented

  1. Nuclear physics accelerator facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This paper describes many of the nuclear physics heavy-ion accelerator facilities in the US and the research programs being conducted. The accelerators described are: Argonne National Laboratory--ATLAS; Brookhaven National Laboratory--Tandem/AGS Heavy Ion Facility; Brookhaven National Laboratory--Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) (Proposed); Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory--Bevalac; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory--88-Inch Cyclotron; Los Alamos National Laboratory--Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF); Massachusetts Institute of Technology--Bates Linear Accelerator Center; Oak Ridge National Laboratory--Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory--Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator; Stanford Linear Accelerator Center--Nuclear Physics Injector; Texas AandM University--Texas AandM Cyclotron; Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL); University of Washington--Tandem/Superconducting Booster; and Yale University--Tandem Van de Graaff

  2. Inhibition between invasives: a newly introduced predator moderates the impacts of a previously established invasive predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffen, Blaine D; Guy, Travis; Buck, Julia C

    2008-01-01

    1. With continued globalization, species are being transported and introduced into novel habitats at an accelerating rate. Interactions between invasive species may provide important mechanisms that moderate their impacts on native species. 2. The European green crab Carcinus maenas is an aggressive predator that was introduced to the east coast of North America in the mid-1800 s and is capable of rapid consumption of bivalve prey. A newer invasive predator, the Asian shore crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus, was first discovered on the Atlantic coast in the 1980s, and now inhabits many of the same regions as C. maenas within the Gulf of Maine. Using a series of field and laboratory investigations, we examined the consequences of interactions between these predators. 3. Density patterns of these two species at different spatial scales are consistent with negative interactions. As a result of these interactions, C. maenas alters its diet to consume fewer mussels, its preferred prey, in the presence of H. sanguineus. Decreased mussel consumption in turn leads to lower growth rates for C. maenas, with potential detrimental effects on C. maenas populations. 4. Rather than an invasional meltdown, this study demonstrates that, within the Gulf of Maine, this new invasive predator can moderate the impacts of the older invasive predator.

  3. Gastric transit and small intestinal transit time and motility assessed by a magnet tracking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WorsØe Jonas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tracking an ingested magnet by the Magnet Tracking System MTS-1 (Motilis, Lausanne, Switzerland is an easy and minimally-invasive method to assess gastrointestinal transit. The aim was to test the validity of MTS-1 for assessment of gastric transit time and small intestinal transit time, and to illustrate transit patterns detected by the system. Methods A small magnet was ingested and tracked by an external matrix of 16 magnetic field sensors (4 × 4 giving a position defined by 5 coordinates (position: x, y, z, and angle: θ, ϕ. Eight healthy subjects were each investigated three times: (1 with a small magnet mounted on a capsule endoscope (PillCam; (2 with the magnet alone and the small intestine in the fasting state; and (3 with the magnet alone and the small intestine in the postprandial state. Results Experiment (1 showed good agreement and no systematic differences between MTS-1 and capsule endoscopy when assessing gastric transit (median difference 1 min; range: 0-6 min and small intestinal transit time (median difference 0.5 min; range: 0-52 min. Comparing experiments (1 and (2 there were no systematic differences in gastric transit or small intestinal transit when using the magnet-PillCam unit and the much smaller magnetic pill. In experiments (2 and (3, short bursts of very fast movements lasting less than 5% of the time accounted for more than half the distance covered during the first two hours in the small intestine, irrespective of whether the small intestine was in the fasting or postprandial state. The mean contraction frequency in the small intestine was significantly lower in the fasting state than in the postprandial state (9.90 min-1 vs. 10.53 min-1 (p = 0.03. Conclusion MTS-1 is reliable for determination of gastric transit and small intestinal transit time. It is possible to distinguish between the mean contraction frequency of small intestine in the fasting state and in the postprandial state.

  4. Japan Accelerator Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    At the international level, the high energy accelerator scene evolves rapidly and the International Conference on High Energy Accelerators is where its strong pulse can best be felt. This year, the Conference was held for the first time in Japan, with the 14th meeting in the series having been hosted in August by the Japanese KEK National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba. The venue was a recognition of the premier accelerator physics and technology status achieved by this diligent nation

  5. Accelerator shielding benchmark problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, H.; Ban, S.; Nakamura, T.

    1993-01-01

    Accelerator shielding benchmark problems prepared by Working Group of Accelerator Shielding in the Research Committee on Radiation Behavior in the Atomic Energy Society of Japan were compiled by Radiation Safety Control Center of National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. Twenty-five accelerator shielding benchmark problems are presented for evaluating the calculational algorithm, the accuracy of computer codes and the nuclear data used in codes. (author)

  6. Plasma particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) will require an 87-kilometer accelerator ring to boost particles to 40 TeV. The SSC's size is due in part to the fact that its operating principle is the same one that has dominated accelerator design for 50 years: it guides particles by means of magnetic fields and propels them by strong electric fields. If one were to build an equally powerful but smaller accelerator, one would need to increase the strength of the guiding and propelling fields. Actually, however, conventional technology may not be able to provide significant increases in field strength. There are two reasons. First, the forces from magnetic fields are becoming greater than the structural forces that hold a magnetic material together; the magnets that produce these fields would themselves be torn apart. Second, the energy from electric fields is reaching the energies that bind electrons to atoms; it would tear electrons from nuclei in the accelerator's support structures. It is the electric field problem that plasma accelerators can overcome. Plasma particle accelerators are based on the principle that particles can be accelerated by the electric fields generated within a plasma. Because the plasma has already been ionized, plasma particle accelerators are not susceptible to electron dissociation. They can in theory sustain accelerating fields thousands of times stronger that conventional technologies. So far two methods for creating plasma waves for accelerators have been proposed and tested: the wakefield and the beat wave. Although promising electric fields have been produced, more research is necessary to determine whether plasma particle accelerators can compete with the existing accelerators. 7 figs

  7. Wake field accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.B.

    1986-02-01

    In a wake field accelerator a high current driving bunch injected into a structure or plasma produces intense induced fields, which are in turn used to accelerate a trailing charge or bunch. The basic concepts of wake field acceleration are described. Wake potentials for closed cavities and periodic structures are derived, as are wake potentials on a collinear path with a charge distribution. Cylindrically symmetric structures excited by a beam in the form of a ring are considered

  8. CONFERENCE: Computers and accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1984-01-15

    In September of last year a Conference on 'Computers in Accelerator Design and Operation' was held in West Berlin attracting some 160 specialists including many from outside Europe. It was a Europhysics Conference, organized by the Hahn-Meitner Institute with Roman Zelazny as Conference Chairman, postponed from an earlier intended venue in Warsaw. The aim was to bring together specialists in the fields of accelerator design, computer control and accelerator operation.

  9. Japan Accelerator Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1989-11-15

    At the international level, the high energy accelerator scene evolves rapidly and the International Conference on High Energy Accelerators is where its strong pulse can best be felt. This year, the Conference was held for the first time in Japan, with the 14th meeting in the series having been hosted in August by the Japanese KEK National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba. The venue was a recognition of the premier accelerator physics and technology status achieved by this diligent nation.

  10. CERN Accelerator School

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) recently held its Advanced Accelerator Physics course in Greece on the island of Rhodes. Complementing the general course in Finland last year, this course was organized together with the University of Athens and NCSR. Demokritos. Accelerator specialists from Europe, CIS, Japan and USA followed two weeks of ''state-of-theart'' lectures designed to complete their education in the field

  11. Applying the accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbalat, Oscar

    1989-12-15

    Originally developed as tools for frontier physics, particle accelerators provide valuable spinoff benefits in applied research and technology. These accelerator applications are the subject of a biennial meeting in Denton, Texas, but the increasing activity in this field resulted this year (5-9 September) in the first European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, organized by K. Bethge of Frankfurt's Goethe University. The meeting reflected a wide range of applications - ion beam analysis, exploitation of nuclear microbeams, accelerator mass spectrometry, applications of photonuclear reactions, ion beam processing, synchrotron radiation for semiconductor technology, specialized technology.

  12. Laser-driven accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Several devices for using laser fields have been proposed and they can be classified in three broad categories - 'far-field' accelerators (such as the principle of inverse free electron lasers), 'media' accelerators (which, for example, use the inverse Cherenkov effect or laser-controlled plasma waves), and 'near-field' accelerators (using a loaded guiding structure such as cavities or gratings). These different approaches come from the fact that a particle cannot be accelerated by the absorption of single photons (because of momentum conservation) and thus some other element has to intervene. (orig./HSI).

  13. Illinois Accelerator Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroc, Thomas K.; Cooper, Charlie A.

    The Illinois Accelerator Research Center (IARC) hosts a new accelerator development program at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. IARC provides access to Fermi's state-of-the-art facilities and technologies for research, development and industrialization of particle accelerator technology. In addition to facilitating access to available existing Fermi infrastructure, the IARC Campus has a dedicated 36,000 ft2 Heavy Assembly Building (HAB) with all the infrastructure needed to develop, commission and operate new accelerators. Connected to the HAB is a 47,000 ft2 Office, Technology and Engineering (OTE) building, paid for by the state, that has office, meeting, and light technical space. The OTE building, which contains the Accelerator Physics Center, and nearby Accelerator and Technical divisions provide IARC collaborators with unique access to world class expertise in a wide array of accelerator technologies. At IARC scientists and engineers from Fermilab and academia work side by side with industrial partners to develop breakthroughs in accelerator science and translate them into applications for the nation's health, wealth and security.

  14. High Gradient Accelerator Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temkin, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the MIT program of research on high gradient acceleration is the development of advanced acceleration concepts that lead to a practical and affordable next generation linear collider at the TeV energy level. Other applications, which are more near-term, include accelerators for materials processing; medicine; defense; mining; security; and inspection. The specific goals of the MIT program are: • Pioneering theoretical research on advanced structures for high gradient acceleration, including photonic structures and metamaterial structures; evaluation of the wakefields in these advanced structures • Experimental research to demonstrate the properties of advanced structures both in low-power microwave cold test and high-power, high-gradient test at megawatt power levels • Experimental research on microwave breakdown at high gradient including studies of breakdown phenomena induced by RF electric fields and RF magnetic fields; development of new diagnostics of the breakdown process • Theoretical research on the physics and engineering features of RF vacuum breakdown • Maintaining and improving the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator, the highest frequency operational accelerator in the world, a unique facility for accelerator research • Providing the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator facility as a facility for outside users • Active participation in the US DOE program of High Gradient Collaboration, including joint work with SLAC and with Los Alamos National Laboratory; participation of MIT students in research at the national laboratories • Training the next generation of Ph. D. students in the field of accelerator physics.

  15. Interacting with accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, S.

    1994-01-01

    Accelerators are research machines which produce energetic particle beam for use as projectiles to effect nuclear reactions. These machines along with their services and facilities may occupy very large areas. The man-machine interface of accelerators has evolved with technological changes in the computer industry and may be partitioned into three phases. The present paper traces the evolution of man-machine interface from the earliest accelerators to the present computerized systems incorporated in modern accelerators. It also discusses the advantages of incorporating expert system technology for assisting operators. (author). 8 ref

  16. FFAGS for muon acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, J. Scott; Kahn, Stephen; Palmer, Robert; Trbojevic, Dejan; Johnstone, Carol; Keil, Eberhard; Aiba, Masamitsu; Machida, Shinji; Mori, Yoshiharu; Ogitsu, Toru; Ohmori, Chihiro; Sessler, Andrew; Koscielniak, Shane

    2003-01-01

    Due to their finite lifetime, muons must be accelerated very rapidly. It is challenging to make the magnets ramp fast enough to accelerate in a synchrotron, and accelerating in a linac is very expensive. One can use a recirculating accelerator (like CEBAF), but one needs a different arc for each turn, and this limits the number of turns one can use to accelerate, and therefore requires significant amounts of RF to achieve the desired energy gain. An alternative method for muon acceleration is using a fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator. Such an accelerator has a very large energy acceptance (a factor of two or three), allowing one to use the same arc with a magnetic field that is constant over time. Thus, one can in principle make as many turns as one can tolerate due to muon decay, therefore reducing the RF cost without increasing the arc cost. This paper reviews the current status of research into the design of FFAGs for muon acceleration. Several current designs are described and compared. General design considerations are also discussed

  17. Accelerator-based BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiner, A J; Baldo, M; Bergueiro, J R; Cartelli, D; Castell, W; Thatar Vento, V; Gomez Asoia, J; Mercuri, D; Padulo, J; Suarez Sandin, J C; Erhardt, J; Kesque, J M; Valda, A A; Debray, M E; Somacal, H R; Igarzabal, M; Minsky, D M; Herrera, M S; Capoulat, M E; Gonzalez, S J; del Grosso, M F; Gagetti, L; Suarez Anzorena, M; Gun, M; Carranza, O

    2014-06-01

    The activity in accelerator development for accelerator-based BNCT (AB-BNCT) both worldwide and in Argentina is described. Projects in Russia, UK, Italy, Japan, Israel, and Argentina to develop AB-BNCT around different types of accelerators are briefly presented. In particular, the present status and recent progress of the Argentine project will be reviewed. The topics will cover: intense ion sources, accelerator tubes, transport of intense beams, beam diagnostics, the (9)Be(d,n) reaction as a possible neutron source, Beam Shaping Assemblies (BSA), a treatment room, and treatment planning in realistic cases. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Applying the accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbalat, Oscar

    1989-01-01

    Originally developed as tools for frontier physics, particle accelerators provide valuable spinoff benefits in applied research and technology. These accelerator applications are the subject of a biennial meeting in Denton, Texas, but the increasing activity in this field resulted this year (5-9 September) in the first European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, organized by K. Bethge of Frankfurt's Goethe University. The meeting reflected a wide range of applications - ion beam analysis, exploitation of nuclear microbeams, accelerator mass spectrometry, applications of photonuclear reactions, ion beam processing, synchrotron radiation for semiconductor technology, specialized technology

  19. Superconducting linear accelerator cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Elkonin, B.V.; Sokolowski, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    A large vertical cryostat for a superconducting linear accelerator using quarter wave resonators has been developed. The essential technical details, operational experience and performance are described. (author)

  20. The effect of gastric inhibitory polypeptide on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Eiichi [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Hosokawa, Masaya [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Faculty of Human Sciences, Tezukayama Gakuin University, Osaka (Japan); Harada, Norio; Yamane, Shunsuke; Hamasaki, Akihiro; Toyoda, Kentaro; Fujimoto, Shimpei; Fujita, Yoshihito; Fukuda, Kazuhito [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Tsukiyama, Katsushi; Yamada, Yuichiro [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Geriatric Medicine, Akita University School of Medicine, Akita (Japan); Seino, Yutaka [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Kansai Electric Power Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Inagaki, Nobuya, E-mail: inagaki@metab.kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); CREST of Japan Science and Technology Cooperation (JST), Kyoto (Japan)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal motility through a somatostatin-mediated pathway. {yields} Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility. {yields} The GIP-receptor-mediated action in intestine does not involve in GLP-1-mediated pathway. -- Abstract: Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is released from the small intestine upon meal ingestion and increases insulin secretion from pancreatic {beta} cells. Although the GIP receptor is known to be expressed in small intestine, the effects of GIP in small intestine are not fully understood. This study was designed to clarify the effect of GIP on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility. Intestinal glucose absorption in vivo was measured by single-pass perfusion method. Incorporation of [{sup 14}C]-glucose into everted jejunal rings in vitro was used to evaluate the effect of GIP on sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT). Motility of small intestine was measured by intestinal transit after oral administration of a non-absorbed marker. Intraperitoneal administration of GIP inhibited glucose absorption in wild-type mice in a concentration-dependent manner, showing maximum decrease at the dosage of 50 nmol/kg body weight. In glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor-deficient mice, GIP inhibited glucose absorption as in wild-type mice. In vitro examination of [{sup 14}C]-glucose uptake revealed that 100 nM GIP did not change SGLT-dependent glucose uptake in wild-type mice. After intraperitoneal administration of GIP (50 nmol/kg body weight), small intestinal transit was inhibited to 40% in both wild-type and GLP-1 receptor-deficient mice. Furthermore, a somatostatin receptor antagonist, cyclosomatostatin, reduced the inhibitory effect of GIP on both intestinal transit and glucose absorption in wild-type mice. These results demonstrate that exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility through a somatostatin

  1. The effect of gastric inhibitory polypeptide on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Eiichi; Hosokawa, Masaya; Harada, Norio; Yamane, Shunsuke; Hamasaki, Akihiro; Toyoda, Kentaro; Fujimoto, Shimpei; Fujita, Yoshihito; Fukuda, Kazuhito; Tsukiyama, Katsushi; Yamada, Yuichiro; Seino, Yutaka; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal motility through a somatostatin-mediated pathway. → Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility. → The GIP-receptor-mediated action in intestine does not involve in GLP-1-mediated pathway. -- Abstract: Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is released from the small intestine upon meal ingestion and increases insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells. Although the GIP receptor is known to be expressed in small intestine, the effects of GIP in small intestine are not fully understood. This study was designed to clarify the effect of GIP on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility. Intestinal glucose absorption in vivo was measured by single-pass perfusion method. Incorporation of [ 14 C]-glucose into everted jejunal rings in vitro was used to evaluate the effect of GIP on sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT). Motility of small intestine was measured by intestinal transit after oral administration of a non-absorbed marker. Intraperitoneal administration of GIP inhibited glucose absorption in wild-type mice in a concentration-dependent manner, showing maximum decrease at the dosage of 50 nmol/kg body weight. In glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor-deficient mice, GIP inhibited glucose absorption as in wild-type mice. In vitro examination of [ 14 C]-glucose uptake revealed that 100 nM GIP did not change SGLT-dependent glucose uptake in wild-type mice. After intraperitoneal administration of GIP (50 nmol/kg body weight), small intestinal transit was inhibited to 40% in both wild-type and GLP-1 receptor-deficient mice. Furthermore, a somatostatin receptor antagonist, cyclosomatostatin, reduced the inhibitory effect of GIP on both intestinal transit and glucose absorption in wild-type mice. These results demonstrate that exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility through a somatostatin-mediated pathway rather

  2. Update on small intestinal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesori, Valentina; Puglisi, Maria Ausiliatrice; Lattanzi, Wanda; Gasbarrini, Giovanni Battista; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2013-08-07

    Among somatic stem cells, those residing in the intestine represent a fascinating and poorly explored research field. Particularly, somatic stem cells reside in the small intestine at the level of the crypt base, in a constant balance between self-renewal and differentiation. Aim of the present review is to delve into the mechanisms that regulate the delicate equilibrium through which intestinal stem cells orchestrate intestinal architecture. To this aim, special focus will be addressed to identify the integrating signals from the surrounding niche, supporting a model whereby distinct cell populations facilitate homeostatic vs injury-induced regeneration.

  3. Impaired neutrophil function in intestinal lymphangiectasia.

    OpenAIRE

    Bolton, R P; Cotter, K L; Losowsky, M S

    1986-01-01

    Impaired neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis were shown in three patients with intestinal lymphangiectasia. Abnormalities in cell associated and serum derived activity occurred, and possible mechanisms are suggested.

  4. Lymphangiectasia of small intestine presenting as intussusception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katoch Pervez

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Intussusception is defined as telescoping of a segment of gastrointestinal tract into an adjacent one. In small children, it is the commonest cause of intestinal obstruction. More than 90% of childhood intussusceptions are idiopathic. We report a rare case of localized small intestinal lymphangiectasia, presenting as intussusception in a 6-month-old male child. The child presented with features of acute intestinal obstruction for which he was later operated. The gross examination of excised ileocecal mass revealed intussusception. Histopathologic examination revealed lymphangiectasia of small intestine, which acted as a lead point for ileocecal intussusception. Postoperative period was uneventful.

  5. Lymphangiectasia of small intestine presenting as intussusception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoch, Pervez; Bhardwaj, Subhash

    2008-01-01

    Intussusception is defined as telescoping of a segment of gastrointestinal tract into an adjacent one. In small children, it is the commonest cause of intestinal obstruction. More than 90% of childhood intussusceptions are idiopathic. We report a rare case of localized small intestinal lymphangiectasia, presenting as intussusception in a 6-month-old male child. The child presented with features of acute intestinal obstruction for which he was later operated. The gross examination of excised ileocecal mass revealed intussusception. Histopathologic examination revealed lymphangiectasia of small intestine, which acted as a lead point for ileocecal intussusception. Postoperative period was uneventful.

  6. Bile acids in regulation of intestinal physiology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keating, Niamh

    2009-10-01

    In addition to their roles in facilitating lipid digestion and absorption, bile acids are recognized as important regulators of intestinal function. Exposure to bile acids can dramatically influence intestinal transport and barrier properties; in recent years, they have also become appreciated as important factors in regulating cell growth and survival. Indeed, few cells reside within the intestinal mucosa that are not altered to some degree by exposure to bile acids. The past decade saw great advances in the knowledge of how bile acids exert their actions at the cellular and molecular levels. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the role of bile acids in regulation of intestinal physiology.

  7. Intestinal Microbiota Signatures Associated With Histological Liver Steatosis in Pediatric-Onset Intestinal Failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korpela, K.; Mutanen, A.; Salonen, A.; Savilahti, E.; Vos, de W.M.; Pakarinen, M.P.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intestinal failure (IF)-associated liver disease (IFALD) is the major cause of mortality in IF. The link between intestinal microbiota and IFALD is unclear. METHODS: We compared intestinal microbiota of patients with IF (n = 23) with healthy controls (n = 58) using culture-independent

  8. Management of invasive species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jesper Sølver; Jensen, Frank

    impact of the establishment of this invasive species is a substantial increase in the number of allergy cases, which we use as a measure of the physical damage. As valuation methods, we use both the cost-of-illness method and the benefit transfer method to quantify the total gross benefits of the two...... policy actions. Based on the idea of an invasion function, we identify the total and average net benefit under both prevention and mitigation. For both policy actions, the total and average net benefits are significantly positive irrespective of the valuation method used; therefore, both prevention...... and mitigation are beneficial policy actions. However, the total and average net benefits under mitigation are larger than the benefits under prevention, implying that the former policy action is more beneficial. Despite this result, we conclude that prevention, not mitigation, shall be used because...

  9. Anesthetic management of intestinal obstruction: A postgraduate educational review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, S; Sripriya, R; Krishnaveni, N

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal obstruction is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Scientific assessment of the cause, site of obstruction, appropriate correction of the fluid deficit and electrolyte imbalance with preoperative stabilization of blood gases is ideal as a preoperative workup. Placement of a preoperative epidural catheter especially in the thoracic interspace takes care of perioperative pain and stress reduction. Intraoperative management by controlled general anesthesia administering a relative high inspired fraction of oxygen with invasive monitoring in selected sick cases is mandatory. Preoperative monitoring and stabilizing raised intra-abdominal pressure reduces morbidity. Caution should be exercised during opening and closure of abdomen to avoid cardiorespiratory ill effects. There should be an emphasis on avoiding hypothermia. The use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may worsen sick, fragile patients. The use of sugammadex rather than neostigmine will obscure certain controversies in the healing of intestinal anastomotic site. Replacement of blood loss continued correction of fluids and electrolytes with possible postoperative mechanical ventilation in sick cases may improve outcomes in these patients.

  10. Functional Metagenomic Investigations of the Human Intestinal Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee Marguerite Moore

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The human intestinal microbiota encode multiple critical functions impacting human health, including, metabolism of dietary substrate, prevention of pathogen invasion, immune system modulation, and provision of a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes accessible to pathogens. The complexity of this microbial community, its recalcitrance to standard cultivation and the immense diversity of its encoded genes has necessitated the development of novel molecular, microbiological, and genomic tools. Functional metagenomics is one such culture-independent technique used for decades to study environmental microorganisms but relatively recently applied to the study of the human commensal microbiota. Metagenomic functional screens characterize the functional capacity of a microbial community independent of identity to known genes by subjecting the metagenome to functional assays in a genetically tractable host. Here we highlight recent work applying this technique to study the functional diversity of the intestinal microbiota, and discuss how an approach combining high-throughput sequencing, cultivation, and metagenomic functional screens can improve our understanding of interactions between this complex community and its human host.

  11. Intestinal Microbiota Distinguish Gout Patients from Healthy Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhuang; Zhang, Jiachao; Wang, Zhanli; Ang, Kay Ying; Huang, Shi; Hou, Qiangchuan; Su, Xiaoquan; Qiao, Jianmin; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Lifeng; Koh, Eileen; Danliang, Ho; Xu, Jian; Lee, Yuan Kun; Zhang, Heping

    2016-01-01

    Current blood-based approach for gout diagnosis can be of low sensitivity and hysteretic. Here via a 68-member cohort of 33 healthy and 35 diseased individuals, we reported that the intestinal microbiota of gout patients are highly distinct from healthy individuals in both organismal and functional structures. In gout, Bacteroides caccae and Bacteroides xylanisolvens are enriched yet Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum depleted. The established reference microbial gene catalogue for gout revealed disorder in purine degradation and butyric acid biosynthesis in gout patients. In an additional 15-member validation-group, a diagnosis model via 17 gout-associated bacteria reached 88.9% accuracy, higher than the blood-uric-acid based approach. Intestinal microbiota of gout are more similar to those of type-2 diabetes than to liver cirrhosis, whereas depletion of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and reduced butyrate biosynthesis are shared in each of the metabolic syndromes. Thus the Microbial Index of Gout was proposed as a novel, sensitive and non-invasive strategy for diagnosing gout via fecal microbiota. PMID:26852926

  12. [Endoscopic treatment of intestinal malrotation in newborns and infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Yu A; Novozhilov, V A; Rasputin, A A; Us, G P; Kuznetsova, N N; Pakelchuk, A

    To compare treatment of intestinal malrotation in newborns and infants using laparoscopy and laparotomy. For the period from January 2004 to December 2013 34 Ladd's procedures were performed. Children were divided into 2 groups by 17 patients: laparoscopic (group I) and open treatment (group II). Both groups had similar demographic and other preoperative parameters. There were significant differences in duration of operation between both groups (61 vs. 70 minutes). Nutrition was initiated earlier after mini-invasive treatment (1.5 days vs. 3 days) and the time need for full enteral nutrition was also less (4.2 days vs. 6.9 days). Hospital-stay was shorter in group I (7.7 vs. 10.2 days). Number of early postoperative complications was similar in groups. Incidence of remote complications was higher in laparotomy group but the differences were not significant. Our results showed that endoscopic correction of congenital anomalies of intestinal rotation provides better postoperative results than open surgery and can be widely used in young children.

  13. [Circumstances for diagnosis and treatment of intestinal parasitosis in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchaud, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    In a compatible context, hypereosinophilia is suggestive of helminthosis. When the count is higher than 1000/mm(3), a primo-invasion syndroma may be considered, especially if allergic signs are present. Below that level, the helminthosis is probably at the adult stage (chronic phase). In a chronic diarrhoea occurring after a journey abroad, "emerging" protozoa (crypto-microsporidia, Isospora, Cyclospora…) are possibly in cause. A presumptive treatment may be considered. A systematic screening for schistosomiasis (serology and stool examination) is recommended in travellers exposed to the risk (contacts with fresh water) and in immigrant from endemic areas (mainly sub-Saharan Africa) since the disease may be asymptomatic. In young children living communally, two courses at 15 days interval against giardiosis or enterobiasis are recommended for both infected and contact persons. In order to avoid disseminated strongyloidiasis, severe and possibly lethal, a systematic course of ivermectine is strongly recommended before any immunosuppressive treatment in patients having stayed in tropical areas even for a short period and even decades ago. Albendazole became the reference drug for intestinal helminthiasis with in addition a good efficacy on giardiasis. Since some intestinal parasites are not pathogenic, a treatment is not necessarily required when a parasite is found in a stool examination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. E. coli Nissle 1917 Affects Salmonella adhesion to porcine intestinal epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schierack

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN has been shown to interfere in a human in vitro model with the invasion of several bacterial pathogens into epithelial cells, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not known. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of EcN on Salmonella Typhimurium invasion of porcine intestinal epithelial cells, focusing on EcN effects on the various stages of Salmonella infection including intracellular and extracellular Salmonella growth rates, virulence gene regulation, and adhesion. We show that EcN affects the initial Salmonella invasion steps by modulating Salmonella virulence gene regulation and Salmonella SiiE-mediated adhesion, but not extra- and intracellular Salmonella growth. However, the inhibitory activity of EcN against Salmonella invasion always correlated with EcN adhesion capacities. EcN mutants defective in the expression of F1C fimbriae and flagellae were less adherent and less inhibitory toward Salmonella invasion. Another E. coli strain expressing F1C fimbriae was also adherent to IPEC-J2 cells, and was similarly inhibitory against Salmonella invasion like EcN. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that EcN affects Salmonella adhesion through secretory components. This mechanism appears to be common to many E. coli strains, with strong adherence being a prerequisite for an effective reduction of SiiE-mediated Salmonella adhesion.

  15. Intestinal Lymphangiectasia Secondary to Neuroblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RM Reifen

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available An eight month-old infant presented with a 10-day history of vomiting and diarrhea, and a one-week history of swelling of the lower extremities. Laboratory evaluations revealed hypoproteinemia and lymphocytopenia due to protein-losing enteropathy. Peroral small bowel biopsy showed intestinal lymphangiectasia. Subsequent onset of unexplained ecchymosis and obstructive jaundice resulted in additional studies which revealed an omental neuroblastoma as the underlying etiology of the infant’s symptoms. This report emphasizes the importance of considering secondary, obstructive causes for lymphangiectasia and protein-losing enteropathy.

  16. [Invasive nosocomial pulmonary aspergillosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germaud, P; Haloun, A

    2001-04-01

    Immunodepressed patients, particularly those with neutropenia or bone marrow or organ grafts, are at risk of developing nosocomial invasive pulmonary aspergilosis. The favoring factors, early diagnostic criteria and curative treatment protocols are well known. Prognosis remains however quite severe with a death rate above 50%. Preventive measures are required for the treatment of these high-risk patients and epidemiology surveillance is needed in case of aspergillosis acquired in the hospital.

  17. Accelerator Modeling with MATLAB Accelerator Toolbox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces Accelerator Toolbox (AT)--a collection of tools to model storage rings and beam transport lines in the MATLAB environment. The objective is to illustrate the flexibility and efficiency of the AT-MATLAB framework. The paper discusses three examples of problems that are analyzed frequently in connection with ring-based synchrotron light sources

  18. Plant invasions: Merging the concepts of species invasiveness and community invasibility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Richardson, D. M.; Pyšek, Petr

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 3 (2006), s. 409-431 ISSN 0309-1333 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : plant invasions * species invasiveness * community invasibility Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.278, year: 2006

  19. Intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts support in vitro and in vivo growth of human small intestinal epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Lahar

    Full Text Available The intestinal crypt-niche interaction is thought to be essential to the function, maintenance, and proliferation of progenitor stem cells found at the bases of intestinal crypts. These stem cells are constantly renewing the intestinal epithelium by sending differentiated cells from the base of the crypts of Lieberkühn to the villus tips where they slough off into the intestinal lumen. The intestinal niche consists of various cell types, extracellular matrix, and growth factors and surrounds the intestinal progenitor cells. There have recently been advances in the understanding of the interactions that regulate the behavior of the intestinal epithelium and there is great interest in methods for isolating and expanding viable intestinal epithelium. However, there is no method to maintain primary human small intestinal epithelium in culture over a prolonged period of time. Similarly no method has been published that describes isolation and support of human intestinal epithelium in an in vivo model. We describe a technique to isolate and maintain human small intestinal epithelium in vitro from surgical specimens. We also describe a novel method to maintain human intestinal epithelium subcutaneously in a mouse model for a prolonged period of time. Our methods require various growth factors and the intimate interaction between intestinal sub-epithelial myofibroblasts (ISEMFs and the intestinal epithelial cells to support the epithelial in vitro and in vivo growth. Absence of these myofibroblasts precluded successful maintenance of epithelial cell formation and proliferation beyond just a few days, even in the presence of supportive growth factors. We believe that the methods described here can be used to explore the molecular basis of human intestinal stem cell support, maintenance, and growth.

  20. Santa Fe Accelerator Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The 10th USA National Particle Accelerator Conference was hosted this year by the Los Alamos National Laboratory in Santa Fe from 21-23 March. It was a resounding success in emphasizing the ferment of activity in the accelerator field. About 900 people registered and about 500 papers were presented in invited and contributed talks and poster sessions

  1. Relativistic Shock Acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, P.; Downes, T.P.; Gallant, Y.A.; Kirk, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we briefly review the basic theory of shock waves in relativistic hydrodynamics and magneto-hydrodynamics, emphasising some astrophysically interesting cases. We then present an overview of the theory of particle acceleration at such shocks describing the methods used to calculate the spectral indices of energetic particles. Recent results on acceleration at ultra-relativistic shocks are discussed. (author)

  2. CERN Accelerator School

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1986-01-15

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) offers a regular course on general accelerator physics. The first basic course was given in September 1984 at Orsay, France, and last September the advanced course was jointly organized by CAS, Oxford's Nuclear Physics Laboratory and the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, and held at The Queen's College, Oxford.

  3. Accelerator for nuclear transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schapira, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    A review on nuclear transmutation of radioactive wastes using particle accelerators is given. Technical feasibility, nuclear data, costs of various projects are discussed. It appears that one high energy accelerator (1500 MeV, 300 mA proton) could probably handle the amount of actinides generated by the actual French nuclear program [fr

  4. Diagnostics for induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1996-04-01

    The induction accelerator was conceived by N. C. Christofilos and first realized as the Astron accelerator that operated at LLNL from the early 1960's to the end of 1975. This accelerator generated electron beams at energies near 6 MeV with typical currents of 600 Amperes in 400 ns pulses. The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) built at Livermore's Site 300 produced 10,000 Ampere beams with pulse widths of 70 ns at energies approaching 50 MeV. Several other electron and ion induction accelerators have been fabricated at LLNL and LBNL. This paper reviews the principal diagnostics developed through efforts by scientists at both laboratories for measuring the current, position, energy, and emittance of beams generated by these high current, short pulse accelerators. Many of these diagnostics are closely related to those developed for other accelerators. However, the very fast and intense current pulses often require special diagnostic techniques and considerations. The physics and design of the more unique diagnostics developed for electron induction accelerators are presented and discussed in detail

  5. Diagnostics for induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    The induction accelerator was conceived by N. C. Christofilos and first realized as the Astron accelerator that operated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) from the early 1960s to the end of 1975. This accelerator generated electron beams at energies near 6 MeV with typical currents of 600 Amperes in 400-ns pulses. The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) built at Livermore close-quote s Site 300 produced 10,000-Ampere beams with pulse widths of 70 ns at energies approaching 50 MeV. Several other electron and ion induction accelerators have been fabricated at LLNL and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). This paper reviews the principal diagnostics developed through efforts by scientists at both laboratories for measuring the current, position, energy, and emittance of beams generated by these high-current, short-pulse accelerators. Many of these diagnostics are closely related to those developed for other accelerators. However, the very fast and intense current pulses often require special diagnostic techniques and considerations. The physics and design of the more unique diagnostics developed for electron induction accelerators are presented and discussed in detail. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  6. Hamburg Accelerator Conference (2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Edmund J.N. [CERN Accelerator School (Switzerland)

    1992-11-15

    From 20-24 July, Hamburg welcomed the Fifteenth International Conference on High Energy Accelerators (HEACC). The HEACC Conference traditionally reviews the status of all major accelerator projects whether they are already running like clockwork, still in the construction phase, or waiting impatiently for financial approval.

  7. Charged particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakawa, Kazuo.

    1969-01-01

    An accelerator is disclosed having a device which permits the electrodes of an accelerator tube to be readily conditioned in an uncomplicated manner before commencing operation. In particle accelerators, it is necessary to condition the accelerator electrodes before a stable high voltage can be applied. Large current accelerators of the cockcroft-walton type require a complicated manual operation which entails applying to the electrodes a low voltage which is gradually increased to induce a vacuum discharge and then terminated. When the discharge attains an extremely low level, the voltage is again impressed and again raised to a high value in low current type accelerators, a high voltage power supply charges the electrodes once to induce discharge followed by reapplying the voltage when the vacuum discharge reaches a low level, according to which high voltage is automatically applied. This procedure, however, requires that the high voltage power supply be provided with a large internal resistance to limit the current to within several milliamps. The present invention connects a high voltage power supply and an accelerator tube through a discharge current limiting resistor wired in parallel with a switch. Initially, the switch is opened enabling the power supply to impress a voltage limited to a prescribed value by a suitably chosen resistor. Conditioning is effected by allowing the voltage between electrodes to increase and is followed by closing the switch through which high voltage is applied directly to the accelerator for operation. (K.J. Owens)

  8. Asia honours accelerator physicists

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    "Steve Meyers of Cern and Jie Wei of Beijing's Tsinghua University are the first recipients of a new prize for particle physics. The pair were honoured for their contributions to numerous particle-accelerator projects - including Cern's Large Hadron Collider - by the Asian Committee for Future Accelerators (ACFA)..." (1 paragraph)

  9. Accelerators Beyond The Tevatron?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lach, Joseph; /Fermilab

    2010-07-01

    Following the successful operation of the Fermilab superconducting accelerator three new higher energy accelerators were planned. They were the UNK in the Soviet Union, the LHC in Europe, and the SSC in the United States. All were expected to start producing physics about 1995. They did not. Why?

  10. CERN Accelerator School

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) offers a regular course on general accelerator physics. The first basic course was given in September 1984 at Orsay, France, and last September the advanced course was jointly organized by CAS, Oxford's Nuclear Physics Laboratory and the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, and held at The Queen's College, Oxford

  11. Thoughts on accelerator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    A brief, subjective review is given of mechanisms that may be limiting electrostatic accelerator tubes to present levels of performance. Suggestions are made for attacking these limitations with the purpose of stimulating the thinking of designers and users of electrostatic accelerators

  12. KEK digital accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Iwashita

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The High Energy Accelerator Research Organization KEK digital accelerator (KEK-DA is a renovation of the KEK 500 MeV booster proton synchrotron, which was shut down in 2006. The existing 40 MeV drift tube linac and rf cavities have been replaced by an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR ion source embedded in a 200 kV high-voltage terminal and induction acceleration cells, respectively. A DA is, in principle, capable of accelerating any species of ion in all possible charge states. The KEK-DA is characterized by specific accelerator components such as a permanent magnet X-band ECR ion source, a low-energy transport line, an electrostatic injection kicker, an extraction septum magnet operated in air, combined-function main magnets, and an induction acceleration system. The induction acceleration method, integrating modern pulse power technology and state-of-art digital control, is crucial for the rapid-cycle KEK-DA. The key issues of beam dynamics associated with low-energy injection of heavy ions are beam loss caused by electron capture and stripping as results of the interaction with residual gas molecules and the closed orbit distortion resulting from relatively high remanent fields in the bending magnets. Attractive applications of this accelerator in materials and biological sciences are discussed.

  13. Thoughts of accelerator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    A brief, subjective review is given of mechanisms that may be limiting electrostatic accelerator tubes to present levels of performance. Suggestions are made for attacking these limitations with the purpose of stimulating the thinking of designers and users of electrostatic accelerators

  14. Racetrack linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, C.H.; Wilton, M.S. de.

    1979-01-01

    An improved recirculating electron beam linear accelerator of the racetrack type is described. The system comprises a beam path of four straight legs with four Pretzel bending magnets at the end of each leg to direct the beam into the next leg of the beam path. At least one of the beam path legs includes a linear accelerator. (UK)

  15. Linear Accelerator (LINAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... uses microwave technology (similar to that used for radar) to accelerate electrons in a part of the accelerator called the "wave guide," then allows ... risk of accidental exposure is extremely low. top of page This page was ... No Please type your comment or suggestion into the following text ...

  16. Hamburg Accelerator Conference (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Edmund J.N.

    1992-01-01

    From 20-24 July, Hamburg welcomed the Fifteenth International Conference on High Energy Accelerators (HEACC). The HEACC Conference traditionally reviews the status of all major accelerator projects whether they are already running like clockwork, still in the construction phase, or waiting impatiently for financial approval

  17. Optimization of accelerator control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiljev, N.D.; Mozin, I.V.; Shelekhov, V.A.; Efremov, D.V.

    1992-01-01

    Expensive exploitation of charged particle accelerators is inevitably concerned with requirements of effectively obtaining of the best characteristics of accelerated beams for physical experiments. One of these characteristics is intensity. Increase of intensity is hindered by a number of effects, concerned with the influence of the volume charge field on a particle motion dynamics in accelerator's chamber. However, ultimate intensity, determined by a volume charge, is almost not achieved for the most of the operating accelerators. This fact is caused by losses of particles during injection, at the initial stage of acceleration and during extraction. These losses are caused by deviations the optimal from real characteristics of the accelerating and magnetic system. This is due to a number of circumstances, including technological tolerances on structural elements of systems, influence of measuring and auxiliary equipment and beam consumers' installations, placed in the closed proximity to magnets, and instability in operation of technological systems of accelerator. Control task consists in compensation of deviations of characteristics of magnetic and electric fields by optimal selection of control actions. As for technical means, automatization of modern accelerators allows to solve optimal control problems in real time. Therefore, the report is devoted to optimal control methods and experimental results. (J.P.N.)

  18. Accelerator breeder concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomew, G.A.; Fraser, J.S.; Garvey, P.M.

    1978-10-01

    The principal components and functions of an accelerator breeder are described. The role of the accelerator breeder as a possible long-term fissile production support facility for CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) thorium advanced fuel cycles and the Canadian research and development program leading to such a facility are outlined. (author)

  19. Semiconductor acceleration sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueyanagi, Katsumichi; Kobayashi, Mitsuo; Goto, Tomoaki

    1996-09-01

    This paper reports a practical semiconductor acceleration sensor especially suited for automotive air bag systems. The acceleration sensor includes four beams arranged in a swastika structure. Two piezoresistors are formed on each beam. These eight piezoresistors constitute a Wheatstone bridge. The swastika structure of the sensing elements, an upper glass plate and a lower glass plate exhibit the squeeze film effect which enhances air dumping, by which the constituent silicon is prevented from breakdown. The present acceleration sensor has the following features. The acceleration force component perpendicular to the sensing direction can be cancelled. The cross-axis sensitivity is less than 3 percent. And, the erroneous offset caused by the differences between the thermal expansion coefficients of the constituent materials can be canceled. The high aspect ratio configuration realized by plasma etching facilitates reducing the dimensions and improving the sensitivity of the acceleration sensor. The present acceleration sensor is 3.9 mm by 3.9 mm in area and 1.2 mm in thickness. The present acceleration sensor can measure from -50 to +50 G with sensitivity of 0.275 mV/G and with non-linearity of less than 1 percent. The acceleration sensor withstands shock of 3000 G.

  20. Molecular ion acceleration using tandem accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Yuichi; Mizuhashi, Kiyoshi; Tajima, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1996-12-01

    In TIARA compound beam radiation system, cluster beams have been produced using 3 MV tandem accelerator (9SDH-2) to supply them to various radiation on injection experiments. Till now, productions of C{sub 2-8}, Si{sub 2-4} and O{sub 2} and their accelerations up to 6 MeV have been succeeded. This study aimed at production and acceleration of B{sub 2-4} and LiF. Anion clusters were produced using the conventional ion source of cesium sputter type. The proportions of atoms, molecules and clusters elicited from the ion source were varied depending on the material`s properties and the operating conditions of ion source such as sample temperature, sputter voltage and the shape of sample. The anion clusters were accelerated toward the high voltage terminal in the center of tandem accelerator, leading to cations through losing their electrons by the collision to N{sub 2} gas in a charge conversion cell at the terminal. Positively charged cluster ions could be obtained by modulating the pressure of N{sub 2} gas. Thus, B{sub 2} (64 nA), B{sub 3} (4.4 nA) and B{sub 4} (2.7 nA) have been produced and their maximum survival probabilities were higher than those of carbon or silicon clusters. In addition, the relationship between beam current and gas pressure was investigated for Bn (n = 2-4) and LiF. (M.N.)

  1. Prematurity reduces functional adaptation to intestinal resection in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunsholt, Lise; Thymann, Thomas; Qvist, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Background: Necrotizing enterocolitis and congenital gastrointestinal malformations in infants often require intestinal resection, with a subsequent risk of short bowel syndrome (SBS). We hypothesized that immediate intestinal adaptation following resection of the distal intestine with placement ...

  2. Bioactive Milk for Intestinal Maturation in Preterm Neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yanqi

    The fetal small intestine grows dramatically fast during the second and third trimester of human pregnancy. Many intestinal functions are therefore affected by preterm birth, including gastrointestinal motility, digestive and absorptive function, mucosal barrier function, and the intestinal...

  3. Redistribution of intestinal microcirculatory oxygenation during acute hemodilution in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarte, Lothar A.; Fournell, Artur; van Bommel, Jasper; Ince, Can

    2005-01-01

    Acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) compromizes intestinal microcirculatory oxygenation; however, the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. We hypothesized that contributors herein include redistribution of oxygen away from the intestines and shunting of oxygen within the intestines.

  4. Intestinal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas, Rene; Haro, Elfa

    2002-01-01

    The paper present the diagnosic sensitivit of gastro esophagic scintigraphy (GCE) in children with suspiction of gastro esophagic reflux (RGE), as well as to evidence bronchial aspiratin in cases with suspected RGE. There was studied two groups of children: group A: Include 73 childs with documented diagnosis of RGE, by meas of cine esophagography. Group B: Include 22 children with symptoms of suspiction of. (The author)

  5. Probiotic Mixture Golden Bifido Prevents Neonatal Escherichia coli K1 Translocation via Enhancing Intestinal Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zeng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli (E. coli K1 sepsis and meningitis is a severe infection characterized by high mortality in neonates. Successful colonization and translocation across the intestinal mucosa have been regarded as the critical steps for E. coli K1 sepsis and meningitis. We recently reported that the probiotic mixture, Golden Bifido (containing live Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Bifidobacterium, and Streptococcus thermophilus, LBS has a preventive role against neonatal E. coli K1 bacteremia and meningitis. However, the interaction between the neonatal gut barrier, probiotics and E. coli K1 is still not elucidated. The present study aims to investigate how LBS exerts its protective effects on neonatal gut barrier during E. coli K1 infection. The beneficial effects of LBS were explored in vitro and in vivo using human colon carcinoma cell lines HT-29 and rat model of neonatal E. coli K1 infection, respectively. Our results showed that stimulation with E. coli K1 was able to cause intestinal barrier dysfunction, which were reflected by E. coli K1-induced intestinal damage and apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells, reduction of mucin, immunoglobulin A (IgA and tight junction proteins expression, as well as increase in intestinal permeability, all these changes facilitate E. coli K1 intestinal translocation. However, these changes were alleviated when HT-29 cells were treated with LBS before E. coli K1 infection. Furthermore, we found that LBS-treated neonatal rats (without E. coli K1 infection have showed higher production of mucin, ZO-1, IgA, Ki67 in intestinal mucosa as well as lower intestinal permeability than that of non-treated rats, indicating that LBS could accelerate the development of neonatal intestinal defense. Taken together, our results suggest that enhancement of the neonatal intestinal defense to fight against E. coli K1 translocation could be the potential mechanism to elucidate how LBS confers a protective effect against neonatal E

  6. Plasma based accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, Allen [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    The concept of laser-induced plasma wakefields as a technique to accelerate charged particles was introduced 35 years ago as a means to go beyond the accelerating gradients possible with metallic cavities supporting radio frequency electromagnetic fields. Significant developments in laser technology have made possible the pulse intensity needed to realize this concept, and rapid progress is now underway in the realization of laser-driven plasma wakefield acceleration. It has also been realized that similar accelerating gradients can be produced by particle beams propagating in plasmas, and experimental programs have also been undertaken to study this possibility. Positive results have been achieved with electron-driven plasma wakefields, and a demonstration experiment with proton-driven wakefields is under construction at CERN. The concepts behind these different schemes and their pros and cons are described, as well as the experimental results achieved. An outlook for future practical uses of plasma based accelerators will also be given.

  7. TIARA electrostatic accelerator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, Satoshi; Takada, Isao; Mizuhashi, Kiyoshi; Uno, Sadanori; Ohkoshi, Kiyonori; Nakajima, Yoshinori; Saitoh, Yuichi; Ishii, Yasuyuki; Kamiya, Tomihiro

    1996-07-01

    In order to promote the Advanced Radiation Technology Project, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute constructed TIARA facility composed of four ion accelerators at Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment for the period from 1988 to 1993. A 3MV tandem accelerator and an AVF cycrotron were completed in 1991 as the first phase of the construction, and a 3MV single-ended accelerator and a 400kV ion implanter were completed in 1993 as the second phase. Three electrostatic accelerators, the tandem, the single-ended and the implanter, were installed in the Multiple-beam facility of TIARA and have been operated for various experiments with using single, dual and triple beams without any serious trouble. This report describes the constructive works, machine performances, control systems, safety systems and accessory equipments of the electrostatic accelerators. (author)

  8. 2016 Accelerators meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiro, Michel; Revol, Jean-Luc; Biarrotte, Jean-Luc; Napoly, Olivier; Jardin, Pascal; Chautard, Frederic; Thomas, Jean Charles; Petit, Eric

    2016-09-01

    The Accelerators meeting is organised every two years by the Accelerators division of the French Society of Physics (SFP). It brings together about 50 participants during a one-day meeting. The morning sessions are devoted to scientific presentations while the afternoon is dedicated to technical visits of facilities. This document brings together the available presentations (slides): 1 - Presentation of the Ganil - Grand accelerateur national d'ions lourds/Big national heavy-ion accelerator, Caen (Jardin, Pascal); 2 - Presentation of the Accelerators division of the French Society of Physics (Revol, Jean-Luc); 3 - Forward-looking and Prospective view (Napoly, Olivier); 4 - Accelerators at the National Institute of Nuclear and particle physics, situation, Forward-looking and Prospective view (Biarrotte, Jean-Luc); 5 - GANIL-SPIRAL2, missions and goals (Thomas, Jean Charles); 6 - The SPIRAL2 project (Petit, Eric)

  9. Collinear wake field acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.L.F.; Chen, P.; Wilson, P.B.

    1985-04-01

    In the Voss-Weiland scheme of wake field acceleration a high current, ring-shaped driving bunch is used to accelerate a low current beam following along on axis. In such a structure, the transformer ratio, i.e., the ratio of maximum voltage that can be gained by the on-axis beam and the voltage lost by the driving beam, can be large. In contrast, it has been observed that for an arrangement in which driving and driven bunches follow the same path, and where the current distribution of both bunches is gaussian, the transformer ratio is not normally greater than two. This paper explores some of the possibilities and limitations of a collinear acceleration scheme. In addition to its application to wake field acceleration in structures, this study is also of interest for the understanding of the plasma wake field accelerator. 11 refs., 4 figs

  10. Standing wave accelerating structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavadtsev, A.A.; Zverev, B.V.; Sobepin, N.P.

    1984-01-01

    Accelerating ELA structures are considered and chosen for applied purposes of special designation. Accelerating structures with the standing wave are considered most effective for small size ELA. Designs and results of experimental investigation of two new accelerating structures are described. These are structures of the ''ring'' type with a decreased number of excitinq oscillation types and strucuture with transverse rods with a twice smaller transverse size as compared with the biperiodical structure with internal connection resonators. The accelerating biperiodical structures of the conventional type by the fact that the whole structure is not a linear chain of connected resonators, but a ring one. Model tests have shown that the homogeneous structure with transverse rods (STR) at the frequency of 2.8 GHz in the regime of the standing wave has an effective shunt resistance equalling 23 MOhm/m. It is shown that the small transverse size of biperiodic STR makes its application in logging linear electron accelerators

  11. Lymphoma Caused by Intestinal Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuko L. Yamamoto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota and gut immune system must constantly communicate to maintain a balance between tolerance and activation: on the one hand, our immune system should protect us from pathogenic microbes and on the other hand, most of the millions of microbes in and on our body are innocuous symbionts and some can even be beneficial. Since there is such a close interaction between the immune system and the intestinal microbiota, it is not surprising that some lymphomas such as mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma have been shown to be caused by the presence of certain bacteria. Animal models played an important role in establishing causation and mechanism of bacteria-induced MALT lymphoma. In this review we discuss different ways that animal models have been applied to establish a link between the gut microbiota and lymphoma and how animal models have helped to elucidate mechanisms of microbiota-induced lymphoma. While there are not a plethora of studies demonstrating a connection between microbiota and lymphoma development, we believe that animal models are a system which can be exploited in the future to enhance our understanding of causation and improve prognosis and treatment of lymphoma.

  12. Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Scott L; Lacy, Brian E

    2013-06-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIP) is a rare and serious disorder of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract characterized as a motility disorder with the primary defect of impaired peristalsis; symptoms are consistent with a bowel obstruction, although mechanical obstruction cannot be identified. CIP is classified as a neuropathy, myopathy, or mesenchymopathy; it is a neuropathic process in the majority of patients. The natural history of CIP is generally that of a progressive disorder, although occasional patients with secondary CIP note significant symptomatic improvement when the underlying disorder is identified and treated. Symptoms vary from patient to patient depending on the location of the luminal GI tract involved and the degree of involvement; however, the small intestine is nearly always involved. Common symptoms include dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, bloating, abdominal distension, constipation or diarrhea, and involuntary weight loss. Unfortunately, these symptoms are nonspecific, which can contribute to misdiagnosis or a delay in diagnosis and treatment. Since many of the symptoms and signs suggest a mechanical bowel obstruction, diagnostic tests typically focus on uncovering a mechanical obstruction, although routine tests do not identify an obstructive process. Nutrition supplementation is required for many patients with CIP due to symptoms of dysphagia, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. This review discusses the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with CIP, with an emphasis on nutrition assessment and treatment options for patients with nutrition compromise.

  13. Period 2 Mutation Accelerates ApcMin/+ Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Patricia A.; Yang, Xiaoming; Taber, Andrew; Oh, Eun-Young; Ansell, Christine; Ayers, Stacy E.; Al-Assaad, Ziad; Carnevale, Kevin; Berger, Franklin G.; Peña, Maria Marjorette O.; Hrushesky, William J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer risk is increased in shift workers with presumed circadian disruption. Intestinal epithelial cell proliferation is gated throughout each day by the circadian clock. Period 2 (Per2) is a key circadian clock gene. Per2 mutant (Per2m/m) mice show an increase in lymphomas and deregulated expression of cyclin D and c-Myc genes that are key to proliferation control. We asked whether Per2 clock gene inactivation would accelerate intestinal and colonic tumorigenesis. The effects of PER2 on cell proliferation and β-catenin were studied in colon cancer cell lines by its down-regulation following RNA interference. The effects of Per2 inactivation in vivo on β-catenin and on intestinal and colonic polyp formation were studied in mice with Per2 mutation alone and in combination with an Apc mutation using polyp-prone ApcMin/+ mice. Down-regulation of PER2 in colon cell lines (HCT116 and SW480) increases β-catenin, cyclin D, and cell proliferation. Down-regulation of β-catenin along with Per2 blocks the increase in cyclin D and cell proliferation. Per2m/m mice develop colonic polyps and show an increase in small intestinal mucosa β-catenin and cyclin D protein levels compared with wild-type mice. ApcMin/+Per2m/m mice develop twice the number of small intestinal and colonic polyps, with more severe anemia and splenomegaly, compared with ApcMin/+ mice. These data suggest that Per2 gene product suppresses tumorigenesis in the small intestine and colon by down-regulation of β-catenin and β-catenin target genes, and this circadian core clock gene may represent a novel target for colorectal cancer prevention and control. PMID:19010825

  14. A prospective randomized controlled study of erythromycin on gastric and small intestinal distention: Implications for MR enterography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharucha, Adil E., E-mail: bharucha.adil@mayo.edu [Clinical Enteric Neuroscience Translational and Epidemiological Research (C.E.N.T.E.R.) Program, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St. S.W., Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Fidler, Jeff L., E-mail: fidler.jeff@mayo.edu [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St. S.W., Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Huprich, James E., E-mail: huprich@mayo.edu [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St. S.W., Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Ratuapli, Shiva K., E-mail: ratuapli.shiva@mayo.edu [Clinical Enteric Neuroscience Translational and Epidemiological Research (C.E.N.T.E.R.) Program, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St. S.W., Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Holmes, David R., E-mail: holmes.david3@mayo.edu [Biomedical Imaging Resource, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St. S.W., Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Riederer, Stephen J., E-mail: riederer@mayo.edu [MR Research Laboratory, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St. S.W., Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Zinsmeister, Alan R., E-mail: zinsmeis@mayo.edu [Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St. S.W., Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Suboptimal small intestinal distention limits jejunal visualization during MRI. • In this controlled study, erythromycin increased gastric emptying measured with MRI. • However, effects on small intestinal dimensions were variable. - Abstract: Objectives: To assess if erythromycin increases gastric emptying and hence improves small intestinal distention during MR enterography. Methods: Gastric, small intestinal, and large intestinal volumes were assessed with MR after neutral oral contrast (1350 ml in 45 min) and balanced randomization to erythromycin (200 mg i.v., age 31 ± 3y, 13 females), or placebo (37 ± 3y, 13 females) in 40 healthy asymptomatic volunteers. Fat-suppressed T2-weighted MR images of the abdomen were acquired on a 1.5 T magnet at standard delay times for enterography. Gastric, small, and large intestinal volumes were measured by specialized software. In addition, two radiologists manually measured diameters and percentage distention of jejunal and ileal loops. Treatment effects were evaluated by an ITT analysis based on ANCOVA models. Results: All subjects tolerated erythromycin. MRI scans of the stomach and intestine were obtained at 62 ± 2 (mean ± SEM) and 74 ± 2 min respectively after starting oral contrast. Gastric volumes were lower (P < 0.0001) after erythromycin (260 ± 49 ml) than placebo (688 ± 63 ml) but jejunal, ileal, and colonic volumes were not significantly different. However, maximum (76–100%) jejunal distention was more frequently observed (P = 0.03) after erythromycin (8/20 subjects [40%]) than placebo (2/20 subjects [10%]). The diameter of a representative ileal loop was greater (P = 0.001) after erythromycin (18.8 ± 4.3 mm) than placebo (17.3 ± 2.8 mm) infusion. Conclusions: After ingestion of oral contrast, erythromycin accelerated gastric emptying but effects on small intestinal dimensions were variable. In balance, erythromycin did not substantially enhance small intestinal distention during

  15. A prospective randomized controlled study of erythromycin on gastric and small intestinal distention: Implications for MR enterography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharucha, Adil E.; Fidler, Jeff L.; Huprich, James E.; Ratuapli, Shiva K.; Holmes, David R.; Riederer, Stephen J.; Zinsmeister, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Suboptimal small intestinal distention limits jejunal visualization during MRI. • In this controlled study, erythromycin increased gastric emptying measured with MRI. • However, effects on small intestinal dimensions were variable. - Abstract: Objectives: To assess if erythromycin increases gastric emptying and hence improves small intestinal distention during MR enterography. Methods: Gastric, small intestinal, and large intestinal volumes were assessed with MR after neutral oral contrast (1350 ml in 45 min) and balanced randomization to erythromycin (200 mg i.v., age 31 ± 3y, 13 females), or placebo (37 ± 3y, 13 females) in 40 healthy asymptomatic volunteers. Fat-suppressed T2-weighted MR images of the abdomen were acquired on a 1.5 T magnet at standard delay times for enterography. Gastric, small, and large intestinal volumes were measured by specialized software. In addition, two radiologists manually measured diameters and percentage distention of jejunal and ileal loops. Treatment effects were evaluated by an ITT analysis based on ANCOVA models. Results: All subjects tolerated erythromycin. MRI scans of the stomach and intestine were obtained at 62 ± 2 (mean ± SEM) and 74 ± 2 min respectively after starting oral contrast. Gastric volumes were lower (P < 0.0001) after erythromycin (260 ± 49 ml) than placebo (688 ± 63 ml) but jejunal, ileal, and colonic volumes were not significantly different. However, maximum (76–100%) jejunal distention was more frequently observed (P = 0.03) after erythromycin (8/20 subjects [40%]) than placebo (2/20 subjects [10%]). The diameter of a representative ileal loop was greater (P = 0.001) after erythromycin (18.8 ± 4.3 mm) than placebo (17.3 ± 2.8 mm) infusion. Conclusions: After ingestion of oral contrast, erythromycin accelerated gastric emptying but effects on small intestinal dimensions were variable. In balance, erythromycin did not substantially enhance small intestinal distention during

  16. Is nonoperative management of adhesive intestinal obstruction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nonoperative management of adhesive intestinal obstruction gives good results in adults but there are scant studies on its outcome in children. This study reports outcomes and experiences with nonoperative and operative management of adhesive intestinal obstruction in children in a resource-poor country.

  17. A CLINICAL STUDY OF ADHESIVE INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Haricharan; Murali Krishna; Koti Reddy; Nara Hari

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Adhesive intestinal obstruction is an inevitable complication of abdominal surgeries. It has high morbidity with associated poor quality of life and predisposition to repeated hospitalization. Commonest cause of bowel obstruction in developed countries is postoperative adhesions with extrinsic compression of the intestine. Most of them can be managed conservatively. METHODS: A retrospective study of 30 patients admit...

  18. Intestinal lymphangiectasia mimicking primary peritoneal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steines, Jennifer C; Larson, Joshua H; Wilkinson, Neal; Kirby, Patricia; Goodheart, Michael J

    2010-10-01

    Intestinal lymphangiectasia is an obstruction of the lymphatic system. We report on a patient with mesenteric adenopathy and an elevated CA125 level, which were suspicious for peritoneal carcinoma. Further evaluation and bowel resection identified intestinal lymphangiectasia. This disease should be considered in patients with mesenteric adenopathy and a small bowel mass. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Intestinal cholesterol secretion: future clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakulj, L.; Besseling, J.; Stroes, E. S. G.; Groen, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Together with the liver, the intestine serves as a homeostatic organ in cholesterol metabolism. Recent evidence has substantiated the pivotal role of the intestine in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). RCT is a fundamental antiatherogenic pathway, mediating the removal of cholesterol from tissues

  20. Intestinal cholesterol secretion : future clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakulj, L.; Besseling, J.; Stroes, E. S. G.; Groen, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Together with the liver, the intestine serves as a homeostatic organ in cholesterol metabolism. Recent evidence has substantiated the pivotal role of the intestine in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). RCT is a fundamental antiatherogenic pathway, mediating the removal of cholesterol from tissues

  1. Radiodiagnosis of diseases of the small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Roentgenological image of diseases, development anomalies, various diseases of the small intestine is presented. Roentgenological semiotics of chronic enterocolotis, absorption failure syndrome, Crohn's disease, tuberculosis, abdominal actinomycosis, carcenoid, benign tumors, small intestine cancer, is given. To state final correct diagnosis a complex investigation, comprising angiography, computer tomography and ultrasound diagnosis, is necessary

  2. Ruminal and Intestinal Digestibility of Leucaena Foliage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pramote

    2013-12-30

    Dec 30, 2013 ... Keywords: Intestinal digestibility, protein fodder, mobile nylon bag, a three-step technique ... A potential strategy for increasing the quality and availability of feed for small ruminants in the dry ... to measure intestinal disappearance of DM and CP using the mobile bag method described by De Boer et al.

  3. Ectoparasites and intestinal helminths of speckled pigeon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ectoparasites and intestinal helminths of speckled pigeon ( Columba guinea Hartlaub and Finsch 1870) in Zaria, Nigeria. ... Science World Journal ... A total of 30 (20 males and 10 females) Speckled Pigeons trapped from the wild in Zaria and its environs, Nigeria, were examined for ectoparasites and intestinal helminths, ...

  4. Laparoscopic Treatment of Intestinal Malrotation in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooms, N.; Matthyssens, L.E.; Draaisma, J.M.T.; Blaauw, I. de; Wijnen, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Intestinal malrotation is a congenital intestinal rotation anomaly, which can be treated by either laparotomy or laparoscopy. Our hypothesis is that laparoscopic treatment leads to less small bowel obstruction because of the fewer adhesions in comparison to laparotomy, without increasing the

  5. Monozygotic twins with discordant intestinal rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Vance L.; Nwomeh, Benedict C.; Long, Frederick

    2006-01-01

    Previous case reports have suggested a strong concordance of intestinal malrotation among identical twins. This has led to the recommendation that the asymptomatic twin undergo screening when malrotation is discovered in the identical sibling. We present a case of monozygotic twins in which one twin presented with intestinal malrotation with midgut volvulus while the other twin was found to have normal gastrointestinal anatomy. (orig.)

  6. Monozygotic twins with discordant intestinal rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Vance L.; Nwomeh, Benedict C. [Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Columbus Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States); Long, Frederick [Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Radiology, Columbus Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Previous case reports have suggested a strong concordance of intestinal malrotation among identical twins. This has led to the recommendation that the asymptomatic twin undergo screening when malrotation is discovered in the identical sibling. We present a case of monozygotic twins in which one twin presented with intestinal malrotation with midgut volvulus while the other twin was found to have normal gastrointestinal anatomy. (orig.)

  7. Intestinal malrotation and volvulus in adult life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haak, Bastiaan W.; Bodewitz, Sander T.; Kuijper, Caroline F.; de Widt-Levert, Louise M.

    2014-01-01

    Midgut volvulus due to intestinal malrotation is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction when occurring in adult life. This paper documents the difficulties in reaching an early diagnosis. We describe the case of an 85-year-old man with non-specific abdominal complaints for 20 years, who presented

  8. Regional specialization within the intestinal immune system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowat, Allan M.; Agace, William Winston

    2014-01-01

    The intestine represents the largest compartment of the immune system. It is continually exposed to antigens and immunomodulatory agents from the diet and the commensal microbiota, and it is the port of entry for many clinically important pathogens. Intestinal immune processes are also increasingly...... implicated in controlling disease development elsewhere in the body. In this Review, we detail the anatomical and physiological distinctions that are observed in the small and large intestines, and we suggest how these may account for the diversity in the immune apparatus that is seen throughout...... the intestine. We describe how the distribution of innate, adaptive and innate-like immune cells varies in different segments of the intestine and discuss the environmental factors that may influence this. Finally, we consider the implications of regional immune specialization for inflammatory disease...

  9. Multispectral tissue characterization for intestinal anastomosis optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jaepyeong; Shademan, Azad; Le, Hanh N. D.; Decker, Ryan; Kim, Peter C. W.; Kang, Jin U.; Krieger, Axel

    2015-10-01

    Intestinal anastomosis is a surgical procedure that restores bowel continuity after surgical resection to treat intestinal malignancy, inflammation, or obstruction. Despite the routine nature of intestinal anastomosis procedures, the rate of complications is high. Standard visual inspection cannot distinguish the tissue subsurface and small changes in spectral characteristics of the tissue, so existing tissue anastomosis techniques that rely on human vision to guide suturing could lead to problems such as bleeding and leakage from suturing sites. We present a proof-of-concept study using a portable multispectral imaging (MSI) platform for tissue characterization and preoperative surgical planning in intestinal anastomosis. The platform is composed of a fiber ring light-guided MSI system coupled with polarizers and image analysis software. The system is tested on ex vivo porcine intestine tissue, and we demonstrate the feasibility of identifying optimal regions for suture placement.

  10. ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS: THERAPEUTICAL TACTICS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Surkov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute intestinal infections are quite common among children. Their clinical presentations include intoxication syndrome (drowsiness, low appetite, fever etc, infectious toxic syndrome (toxicosis with exicosis, neurotoxicosi, hypovolemic or infectious-toxic shockand diarrhea syndrome. Sometimes intestinal infections can be quite severe and even lethal. However disease duration and outcome depend on timelines and adequacy of prescribed treatment. Main guidelines of intestinal infections treatment include probiotics. That is why the right choice of probiotics is important for a pediatrician. The article contains basic information upon etiopathogenesis, classification, diagnostic criteria and acute pediatric intestinal infections treatment guidelines.Key words: acute intestinal infections, etiopathogenesis, diagnostic criteria, treatment, probiotics, children. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. — 2011; 10 (6: 141–147

  11. Co-ordinate regulation of Salmonella typhimurium invasion genes by environmental and regulatory factors is mediated by control of hilA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, V; Lucas, R L; Hwang, C; Lee, C A

    1996-11-01

    During infection of their hosts, salmonellae enter intestinal epithelial cells. It has been proposed that when Salmonella typhimurium is present in the intestinal lumen, several environmental and regulatory conditions modulate the expression of invasion factors required for bacterial entry into host cells. We report here that the expression of six different S. typhimurium invasion genes encoded on SPI1 (Salmonella pathogenicity island 1) is co-ordinately regulated by oxygen, osmolarity, pH, PhoPQ, and HilA. HilA is a transcriptional activator of the OmpR/ToxR family that is also encoded on SPI1. We have found that HilA plays a central role in the co-ordinated regulation of invasion genes by environmental and regulatory conditions. HilA can activate the expression of two invasion gene-lacZY fusions on reporter plasmids in Escherichia coll, suggesting that HilA acts directly at invasion-gene promoters in S. typhimurium. We have found that the regulation of invasion genes by oxygen, osmolarity, pH, and PhoPQ is indirect and is mediated by regulation of hilA expression by these environmental and regulatory factors. We hypothesize that the complex and co-ordinate regulation of Invasion genes by HilA is an important feature of salmonella pathogenesis and allows salmonellae to enter intestinal epithelial cells.

  12. Analyzing radial acceleration with a smartphone acceleration sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Patrik; Kuhn, Jochen

    2013-03-01

    This paper continues the sequence of experiments using the acceleration sensor of smartphones (for description of the function and the use of the acceleration sensor, see Ref. 1) within this column, in this case for analyzing the radial acceleration.

  13. Collective ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, B.B.; Faehl, R.J.; Newberger, B.S.; Shanahan, W.R.; Thode, L.E.

    1977-01-01

    Progress achieved in the understanding and development of collective ion acceleration is presented. Extensive analytic and computational studies of slow cyclotron wave growth on an electron beam in a helix amplifier were performed. Research included precise determination of linear coupling between beam and helix, suppression of undesired transients and end effects, and two-dimensional simulations of wave growth in physically realizable systems. Electrostatic well depths produced exceed requirements for the Autoresonant Ion Acceleration feasibility experiment. Acceleration of test ions to modest energies in the troughs of such waves was also demonstrated. Smaller efforts were devoted to alternative acceleration mechanisms. Langmuir wave phase velocity in Converging Guide Acceleration was calculated as a function of the ratio of electron beam current to space-charge limiting current. A new collective acceleration approach, in which cyclotron wave phase velocity is varied by modulation of electron beam voltage, is proposed. Acceleration by traveling Virtual Cathode or Localized Pinch was considered, but appears less promising. In support of this research, fundamental investigations of beam propagation in evacuated waveguides, of nonneutral beam linear eigenmodes, and of beam stability were carried out. Several computer programs were developed or enhanced. Plans for future work are discussed

  14. Multicavity proton cyclotron accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Hirshfield

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A mechanism for acceleration of protons is described, in which energy gain occurs near cyclotron resonance as protons drift through a sequence of rotating-mode TE_{111} cylindrical cavities in a strong nearly uniform axial magnetic field. Cavity resonance frequencies decrease in sequence from one another with a fixed frequency interval Δf between cavities, so that synchronism can be maintained between the rf fields and proton bunches injected at intervals of 1/Δf. An example is presented in which a 122 mA, 1 MeV proton beam is accelerated to 961 MeV using a cascade of eight cavities in an 8.1 T magnetic field, with the first cavity resonant at 120 MHz and with Δf=8 MHz. Average acceleration gradient exceeds 40 MV/m, average effective shunt impedance is 223 MΩ/m, but maximum surface field in the cavities does not exceed 7.2 MV/m. These features occur because protons make many orbital turns in each cavity and thus experience acceleration from each cavity field many times. Longitudinal and transverse stability appear to be intrinsic properties of the acceleration mechanism, and an example to illustrate this is presented. This acceleration concept could be developed into a proton accelerator for a high-power neutron spallation source, such as that required for transmutation of nuclear waste or driving a subcritical fission burner, provided a number of significant practical issues can be addressed.

  15. The miniature accelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    The image that most people have of CERN is of its enormous accelerators and their capacity to accelerate particles to extremely high energies. But thanks to some cutting-edge studies on beam dynamics and radiofrequency technology, along with innovative construction techniques, teams at CERN have now created the first module of a brand-new accelerator, which will be just 2 metres long. The potential uses of this miniature accelerator will include deployment in hospitals for the production of medical isotopes and the treatment of cancer. It’s a real David-and-Goliath story.   Serge Mathot, in charge of the construction of the "mini-RFQ", pictured with the first of the four modules that will make up the miniature accelerator. The miniature accelerator consists of a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ), a component found at the start of all proton accelerator chains around the world, from the smallest to the largest. The LHC is designed to produce very high-intensity beams ...

  16. Large electrostatic accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The increasing importance of energetic heavy ion beams in the study of atomic physics, nuclear physics, and materials science has partially or wholly motivated the construction of a new generation of large electrostatic accelerators designed to operate at terminal potentials of 20 MV or above. In this paper, the author briefly discusses the status of these new accelerators and also discusses several recent technological advances which may be expected to further improve their performance. The paper is divided into four parts: (1) a discussion of the motivation for the construction of large electrostatic accelerators, (2) a description and discussion of several large electrostatic accelerators which have been recently completed or are under construction, (3) a description of several recent innovations which may be expected to improve the performance of large electrostatic accelerators in the future, and (4) a description of an innovative new large electrostatic accelerator whose construction is scheduled to begin next year. Due to time and space constraints, discussion is restricted to consideration of only tandem accelerators.

  17. Large electrostatic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The increasing importance of energetic heavy ion beams in the study of atomic physics, nuclear physics, and materials science has partially or wholly motivated the construction of a new generation of large electrostatic accelerators designed to operate at terminal potentials of 20 MV or above. In this paper, the author briefly discusses the status of these new accelerators and also discusses several recent technological advances which may be expected to further improve their performance. The paper is divided into four parts: (1) a discussion of the motivation for the construction of large electrostatic accelerators, (2) a description and discussion of several large electrostatic accelerators which have been recently completed or are under construction, (3) a description of several recent innovations which may be expected to improve the performance of large electrostatic accelerators in the future, and (4) a description of an innovative new large electrostatic accelerator whose construction is scheduled to begin next year. Due to time and space constraints, discussion is restricted to consideration of only tandem accelerators

  18. Superconductivity and future accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danby, G.T.; Jackson, J.W.

    1963-01-01

    For 50 years particle accelerators employing accelerating cavities and deflecting magnets have been developed at a prodigious rate. New accelerator concepts and hardware ensembles have yielded great improvements in performance and GeV/$. The great idea for collective acceleration resulting from intense auxiliary charged-particle beams or laser light may or may not be just around the corner. In its absence, superconductivity (SC) applied both to rf cavities and to magnets opened up the potential for very large accelerators without excessive energy consumption and with other economies, even with the cw operation desirable for colliding beams. HEP has aggressively pioneered this new technology: the Fermilab single ring 1 TeV accelerator - 2 TeV collider is near the testing stage. Brookhaven National Laboratory's high luminosity pp 2 ring 800 GeV CBA collider is well into construction. Other types of superconducting projects are in the planning stage with much background R and D accomplished. The next generation of hadron colliders under discussion involves perhaps a 20 TeV ring (or rings) with 40 TeV CM energy. This is a very large machine: even if the highest practical field B approx. 10T is used, the radius is 10x that of the Fermilab accelerator. An extreme effort to get maximum GeV/$ may be crucial even for serious consideration of funding

  19. Accelerator programme at CAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamurthi, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    The Accelerator Programme at the Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT), Indore, has very broad based concept under which all types of accelerators are to be taken up for design and fabrication. This centre will be housing a wide variety of accelerators to serve as a common facility for the universities, national laboratories in addition to laboratories under the Department of Atomic Energy. In the first phase of the programme, a series of electron accelerators are designed and fabricated. They are synchrotron radiation sources of 450 MeV (INDUS-I) and of 2 GeV (INDUS-II), microtron upto energy of 20 MeV, linear accelerator upto 20 MeV, and DC Accelerator for industrial irradiation upto 750 KeV and 20 KW. A proton accelerator of 300 MeV with 20 MeV linac injector is also designed. CAT is also developing a strong base for support technologies like ultra high vacuum, radio frequency and microwaves, DC pulsed and superconducting magnets, power supplies and controls etc. These technologies are very useful for other industrial applications also. To develop user groups to utilise INDUS-II synchrotron radiation source, a batch production of rotating Anode X-ray generators with power supplies has been initiated. So also, the sputter ion pumps, electron guns, turbo molecular pumps are brought into batch production. (author)

  20. Minimally Invasive Parathyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee F. Starker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP is an operative approach for the treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT. Currently, routine use of improved preoperative localization studies, cervical block anesthesia in the conscious patient, and intraoperative parathyroid hormone analyses aid in guiding surgical therapy. MIP requires less surgical dissection causing decreased trauma to tissues, can be performed safely in the ambulatory setting, and is at least as effective as standard cervical exploration. This paper reviews advances in preoperative localization, anesthetic techniques, and intraoperative management of patients undergoing MIP for the treatment of pHPT.

  1. New accelerator ideas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    In the past, providing higher particle beam energies meant building bigger accelerators. It is now universally accepted that with the current generation of accelerator projects either under construction (such as LEP at CERN) or proposed (such as the Superconducting Super Collider in the US), conventional techniques are reaching their practical limit. With the growing awareness that progress in particle physics requires new methods to accelerate particles, workshops and study groups are being set up across the world to search for ideas for the machines of tomorrow

  2. The auroral electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, D.A.; Hall, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    A model of the auroral electron acceleration process is presented in which the electrons are accelerated resonantly by lower-hybrid waves. The essentially stochastic acceleration process is approximated for the purposes of computation by a deterministic model involving an empirically derived energy transfer function. The empirical function, which is consistent with all that is known of electron energization by lower-hybrid waves, allows many, possibly all, observed features of the electron distribution to be reproduced. It is suggested that the process occurs widely in both space and laboratory plasmas. (author)

  3. ACCELERATORS: School report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1987-12-15

    The expanded 1987 US Particle Accelerator School, held at Fermilab from 20 July to 14 August, included two two-week sessions. In the first, 101 students covered three university-style courses, listed as upper-division University of Chicago physics, covering the fundamentals of particle beams, magnetic optics and acceleration; relativistic electronics; and high energy storage rings. The 180 participants in the second session profited from 24 short courses presented by experts and covering a wide variety of topics in the physics and technology of particle accelerators.

  4. Hadron accelerators in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaldi, U.

    1996-01-01

    The application of hadron accelerators (protons and light ions) in cancer therapy is discussed. After a brief introduction on the rationale for the use of heavy charged particles in radiation therapy, a discussion is given on accelerator technology and beam delivery systems. Next, existing and planned facilities are briefly reviewed. The Italian Hadron-therapy Project is then described in some detail, with reference ro both the National Centre for Oncological Hadron-therapy and the design of different types of compact proton accelerators aimed at introducing proton therapy in a large umber of hospitals. (author)

  5. Maximum Acceleration Recording Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Coarsely digitized maximum levels recorded in blown fuses. Circuit feeds power to accelerometer and makes nonvolatile record of maximum level to which output of accelerometer rises during measurement interval. In comparison with inertia-type single-preset-trip-point mechanical maximum-acceleration-recording devices, circuit weighs less, occupies less space, and records accelerations within narrower bands of uncertainty. In comparison with prior electronic data-acquisition systems designed for same purpose, circuit simpler, less bulky, consumes less power, costs and analysis of data recorded in magnetic or electronic memory devices. Circuit used, for example, to record accelerations to which commodities subjected during transportation on trucks.

  6. ACCELERATORS: School prizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Dedicated to its goal of encouraging scientists and students to work in the field of particle accelerators, the US Particle Accelerator School (operating since 1981) has switched to a new format. Starting this year, it will offer in alternate years basic accelerator physics plus advanced subjects in both university and symposium styles over four weeks. Expanding the school from two to four weeks gives additional flexibility, and undergraduate participation should be encouraged by university credits being offered for particular courses. In the intervening years, the school will organize six-day topical courses

  7. Accelerator Toolbox for MATLAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terebilo, Andrei

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces Accelerator Toolbox (AT)--a collection of tools to model particle accelerators and beam transport lines in the MATLAB environment. At SSRL, it has become the modeling code of choice for the ongoing design and future operation of the SPEAR 3 synchrotron light source. AT was designed to take advantage of power and simplicity of MATLAB--commercially developed environment for technical computing and visualization. Many examples in this paper illustrate the advantages of the AT approach and contrast it with existing accelerator code frameworks

  8. RF linear accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Wangler, Thomas P

    2008-01-01

    Thomas P. Wangler received his B.S. degree in physics from Michigan State University, and his Ph.D. degree in physics and astronomy from the University of Wisconsin. After postdoctoral appointments at the University of Wisconsin and Brookhaven National Laboratory, he joined the staff of Argonne National Laboratory in 1966, working in the fields of experimental high-energy physics and accelerator physics. He joined the Accelerator Technology Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1979, where he specialized in high-current beam physics and linear accelerator design and technology. In 2007

  9. Auroral electron acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, D.A.

    1989-10-01

    Two theories of auroral electron acceleration are discussed. Part 1 examines the currently widely held view that the acceleration is an ordered process in a quasi-static electric field. It is suggested that, although there are many factors seeming to support this theory, the major qualifications and uncertainties that have been identified combine to cast serious doubt over its validity. Part 2 is devoted to a relatively new interpretation in terms of stochastic acceleration in turbulent electric fields. This second theory, which appears to account readily for most known features of the electron distribution function, is considered to provide a more promising approach to this central question in magnetospheric plasma physics. (author)

  10. New accelerator ideas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1985-05-15

    In the past, providing higher particle beam energies meant building bigger accelerators. It is now universally accepted that with the current generation of accelerator projects either under construction (such as LEP at CERN) or proposed (such as the Superconducting Super Collider in the US), conventional techniques are reaching their practical limit. With the growing awareness that progress in particle physics requires new methods to accelerate particles, workshops and study groups are being set up across the world to search for ideas for the machines of tomorrow.

  11. Advanced Accelerator Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemann, Robert

    1998-04-01

    Current particle accelerators rely on conventional or superconducting radio frequency cavities to accelerate beams of protons or electrons for nuclear and particle research and for medical and materials science studies. New methods for achieving larger accelerating gradients have been proposed and are being studied. These include the use of high power lasers, laser driven plasmas, wake fields generated by intense low energy beams, and millimeter wavelength EM structures. The studies to date, and the prospects for practical applications of these new ideas will be discussed.

  12. Accelerators Spanish steps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    In September, the CERN Accelerator School (CAS) held its third General Accelerator Physics Course, the venue this time being Salamanca, the oldest university in Spain. Spain, which rejoined CERN in 1982, now has a vigorous and steadily growing high energy physics community making substantial contributions to physics detector development and successfully involving Spanish industry. However the embryonic accelerator community cannot yet generate an equivalent level of activity, and this important channel for introducing new high technology into industry has yet to be fully exploited

  13. [Neovagina with intestine: 13 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, A; Molina, E; Cerdá, J; Cañizo, A; Rodriguez, A; Laín, A; Fanjul, M; Vázquez, J

    2008-01-01

    The absence or hipoplasia vaginal can turn out to be isolated, associated with ambiguous genitalia, or as anatomical variant in a syndrome of sewer. The fundamental aim in the creation of a new vagina is: to obtain a good aesthetic result, to fulfil functional criteria (elasticity, sensibility, physiological inclination) and to improve the quality of life of the patients avoiding the use of molds and minimizing the morbidity of the zones donors. In this work let's sense beforehand our experience in the accomplishment of neovaginas with intestine. We analyze the clinical record of 13 patients treated surgically in the last ten years. We differentiate two groups according to the age, the diagnosis and the type of surgery: a) the first group of 8 patients present syndrome of insensibility to the androgens (4), syndrome of Rokitansky (2), extrofia of sewer (1) and mixed gonadal disgenesia (1). This group of patients were controlled in the adolescence by an average of age of 19 years (11-35 years), they fulfilling a neovagina with sigma; b) the second group of 5 patients with sewer (3), extrofia of sewer (1) and congenital suprarrenal hiperplasia (1). This group was controlled prematurely by a middle ages of one year (4 months-3 years). The intestinal segment used as neovagina was sigma (2), ileon (2) and rectum (1), and was performed during the surgical correction of her congenital malformation. Two patients have presented intestinal obstruction in the postoperatory immediate one. Four patients have needed removal of a small vaginal prolapse, and three have needed vaginal transitory expansions for introit stenosis. The long-term evolution has been favorable with an excellent aesthetic aspect. Four patients recount sexual fully satisfactory relations. We believe that the neovagina with sigma is at present the best option in patients with absence or hipoplasia vaginal. The advantages are the possibility of precocious and one time correction, a neovagina of dimensions and

  14. Laparoscopic intestinal derotation: original technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Mario; Federici, Orietta; Tarantino, Enrico; Corona, Francesco; Garofalo, Alfredo

    2009-06-01

    The intestinal derotation technique, introduced by Cattel and Valdoni 40 years ago, is carried out using a laparoscopic procedure, which is described here for the first time. The method is effective in the treatment of malign lesions of the III and IV duodenum and during laparoscopic subtotal colectomy with anastomosis between the ascending colon and the rectum. Ultimately, the procedure allows for the verticalization of the duodenal C and the anterior positioning of the mesenteric vessels, facilitating biopsy and resection of the III and IV duodenal portions and allowing anastomosis of the ascending rectum, avoiding both subtotal colectomy and the risk of torsion of the right colic loop. Although the procedure calls for extensive experience with advanced video-laparoscopic surgery, it is both feasible and repeatable. In our experience we have observed no mortality or morbidity.

  15. Intestinal and external parasites of raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in western Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osten-Sacken, Natalia; Słodkowicz-Kowalska, Anna; Pacoń, Jarosław; Skrzypczak, Łukasz; Werner, Anna

    Parasites of an invasive species, the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from western Poland were investigated to clarify poorly known ecological key aspects of the species. The research was conducted in two study areas: the Ujście Warty National Park and the Bogdaniec Forestry District. Intestinal samples were collected from the intestinal tracks of 39 dead animals and 51 faecal samples were collected in all seasons from latrines of raccoon dogs. Macro-parasites, their eggs and protozoan parasites were investigated to assess the taxonomic composition of parasites, the level of infection and the risk of potential transfer of dangerous parasites from raccoon dogs to people and native species. Among parasites potentially dangerous for human and native mammal species, Toxocara canis was found in the intestines and T. canis eggs, Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts and Entamoeba sp. cysts were identified in faecal samples. Sarcoptic mange was observed in the skin of two animals, whereas Diptera larvae (probably from the family Gasterophilidae) were found in the intestines of two other animals. This latter finding is very interesting, because Gasterophilidae are the typical parasites in horses and ungulates, but so far were never found in raccoon dogs.

  16. Relation between radiation-induced tissue injury and its carcinogenesis of the rat small intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsubouchi, S [Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya (Japan). Research Inst.; Matsuzawa, T

    1975-06-01

    This study was undertaken to make clear the relationships between radiation-induced tissue injury and its carcinogenesis in the rat small intestine. The abdomens of Wistar rats were irradiated locally with 1000 to 2000 rads. Approximately 2 months following irradiation, visible nodules were found in the intestines of the groups receiving irradiation. Nodule incidence was 80 to 100% in groups that received 1750 or 2000 rads, 50% in the 1500-rad groups, and 3% in the 1000-rad groups, respectively. The histology of the nodules within 70 days postirradiation, revealed adenomatous hyperplasia, including invasion of submucosa, muscle layers, and serosa of the small intestine accompanied by an area of fibrous tissue resulting from desmoplastic reaction by irradiation injury. The nodule within 140 to 300 days postirradiation induced advanced tissue injuried, that is, a polypoid lesion in histology and intestinal nodular adhesion in macroscopic anatomy. Running parallel with the advance of the above mentioned tissue injuries, the nodules in 3 out of 18 rat during 200 to 300 days postirradiation showed mucoid adenocarcinoma.

  17. Relation between radiation-induced tissue injury and its carcinogenesis of the rat small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsubouchi, Susumu; Matsuzawa, Taiju.

    1975-01-01

    This study was undertaken to make clear the relationships between radiation-induced tissue injury and its carcinogenesis in the rat small intestine. The abdomens of Wistar rats were irradiated locally with 1000 to 2000 rads. Approximately 2 months following irradiation, visible nodules were found in the intestines of the groups receiving irradiation. Nodule incidence was 80 to 100% in groups that received 1750 or 2000 rads, 50% in the 1500-rad groups, and 3% in the 1000-rad groups, respectively. The histology of the nodules within 70 days postirradiation, revealed adenomatous hyperplasia, including invasion of submucosa, muscle layers, and serosa of the small intestine accompanied by an area of fibrous tissue resulting from desmoplastic reaction by irradiation injury. The nodule within 140-300 days postirradiation induced advanced tissue injuried, that is, a polypoid lesion in histology and intestinal nodular adhesion in macroscopic anatomy. Running parallel with the advance of the above mentioned tissue injuries, the nodules in 3 out of 18 rat during 200-300 days postirradiation showed mucoid adenocarcinoma. (author)

  18. Joint International Accelerator School

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    2014-01-01

    The CERN and US Particle Accelerator Schools recently organised a Joint International Accelerator School on Beam Loss and Accelerator Protection, held at the Hyatt Regency Hotel, Newport Beach, California, USA from 5-14 November 2014. This Joint School was the 13th in a series of such schools, which started in 1985 and also involves the accelerator communities in Japan and Russia.   Photo courtesy of Alfonse Pham, Michigan State University.   The school attracted 58 participants representing 22 different nationalities, with around half from Europe and the other half from Asia and the Americas. The programme comprised 26 lectures, each of 90 minutes, and 13 hours of case study. The students were given homework each day and had an opportunity to sit a final exam, which counted towards university credit. Feedback from the participants was extremely positive, praising the expertise and enthusiasm of the lecturers, as well as the high standard and quality of their lectures. Initial dis...

  19. Future accelerators: physics issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1977-11-01

    High energy physics of the future using future accelerators is discussed. The proposed machines and instruments, physics issues and opportunities including brief sketches of outstanding recent results, and the way the proposed machines address these issues are considered. 42 references

  20. Compact particle accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.

    2017-08-29

    A compact particle accelerator having an input portion configured to receive power to produce particles for acceleration, where the input portion includes a switch, is provided. In a general embodiment, a vacuum tube receives particles produced from the input portion at a first end, and a plurality of wafer stacks are positioned serially along the vacuum tube. Each of the plurality of wafer stacks include a dielectric and metal-oxide pair, wherein each of the plurality of wafer stacks further accelerate the particles in the vacuum tube. A beam shaper coupled to a second end of the vacuum tube shapes the particles accelerated by the plurality of wafer stacks into a beam and an output portion outputs the beam.

  1. The accelerator breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, E.

    1986-01-01

    Interactions of high-energy particles with atomic nuclei, in particular heavy ones, leads to a strong emission of neutrons. Preferably these high-energy particles are protons or deuterons obtained from a linear accelerator. The neutrons emitted are utilized in the conversion of U238 to Pu239 or of Th232 to U233. The above is the basis of the accelerator breeder, a concept studied abroad in many variants. No such breeder has, however, so far been built, but there exists vast practical experience on the neutron production and on the linear accelerator. Some of the variants mentioned are described in the report, after a presentation of general characteristics for the particle-nucleus interaction and for the linear accelerator. (author)

  2. Accelerate Water Quality Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is committed to accelerating water quality improvement and minimizing negative impacts to aquatic life from contaminants and other stressors in the Bay Delta Estuary by working with California Water Boards to strengthen water quality improvement plans.

  3. Rejuvenating CERN's Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    In the coming years and especially in 2005, CERN's accelerators are going to receive an extensive renovation programme to ensure they will perform reliably and effectively when the LHC comes into service.

  4. Wake field acceleration experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Where and how will wake field acceleration devices find use for other than, possibly, accelerators for high energy physics? I don't know that this can be responsibly answered at this time. What I can do is describe some recent results from an ongoing experimental program at Argonne which support the idea that wake field techniques and devices are potentially important for future accelerators. Perhaps this will spawn expanded interest and even new ideas for the use of this new technology. The Argonne program, and in particular the Advanced Accelerator Test Facility (AATF), has been reported in several fairly recent papers and reports. But because this is a substantially new audience for the subject, I will include a brief review of the program and the facility before describing experiments. 10 refs., 7 figs

  5. Accelerated test program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, F. E.; Harkness, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    A brief discussion on the accelerated testing of batteries is given. The statistical analysis and the various aspects of the modeling that was done and the results attained from the model are also briefly discussed.

  6. SSC accelerator availability allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, K.T.; Franciscovich, J.

    1991-03-01

    Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) operational availability is an area of major concern, judged by the Central Design Group to present such risk that use of modern engineering tools would be essential to program success. Experience has shown that as accelerator beam availability falls below about 80%, efficiency of physics experiments degrades rapidly due to inability to maintain adequate coincident accelerator and detector operation. For this reason, the SSC availability goal has been set at 80%, even though the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory accelerator, with a fraction of the SSC's complexity, has only recently approached that level. This paper describes the allocation of the top-level goal to part-level reliability and maintainability requirements, and it gives the results of parameter sensitivity studies designed to help identify the best approach to achieve the needed system availability within funding and schedule constraints. 1 ref., 12 figs., 4 tabs

  7. IAE pulsed electrostatic accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, V.P.; Ganzhelyuk, M.L.; Kozlov, L.D.; Koltypin, E.A.; Molchanov, Yu.D.; Otroshchenko, G.A.; Yan'kov, G.B.

    1976-01-01

    The modernized pulse electrostatic accelerator using the klystron ion grouping and the beam interruption system prior to acceleration is described. The accelerator is modernized in order to improve parameters of a current pulse and to decrease the background in the measurement room. The ion beam of needed dimensions is obtained with the help of a high-frequency source and a beam grouping and deflection system. The general view of the beam grouping and deflection system is shown. The ion beam forming process is considered in detail. The modernized electrostatic accelerator permits to obtain a pulse current with a pulse length of 1.5 ns and an amplitude of 1.5 - 2 μA. With the repetition frequency of 2 MHz, the average target current is about 6 μA

  8. Ionization front accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, C.L.

    1975-01-01

    In a recently proposed linear collective accelerator, ions are accelerated in a steep, moving potential well created at the head of an intense relativistic electron beam. The steepness of the potential well and its motion are controlled by the external ionization of a suitable background gas. Calculations concerning optimum choices for the background gas and the ionization method are presented; a two-step photoionization process employing Cs vapor is proposed. In this process, a super-radiant light source is used to excite the gas, and a UV laser is used to photoionize the excited state. The appropriate line widths and coupled ionization growth rate equations are discussed. Parameter estimates are given for a feasibility experiment, for a 1 GeV proton accelerator, and for a heavy ion accelerator (50 MeV/nucleon uranium). (auth)

  9. HEAVY ION LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Atta, C.M.; Beringer, R.; Smith, L.

    1959-01-01

    A linear accelerator of heavy ions is described. The basic contributions of the invention consist of a method and apparatus for obtaining high energy particles of an element with an increased charge-to-mass ratio. The method comprises the steps of ionizing the atoms of an element, accelerating the resultant ions to an energy substantially equal to one Mev per nucleon, stripping orbital electrons from the accelerated ions by passing the ions through a curtain of elemental vapor disposed transversely of the path of the ions to provide a second charge-to-mass ratio, and finally accelerating the resultant stripped ions to a final energy of at least ten Mev per nucleon.

  10. Advances in electrostatic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegner, H.E.

    1975-01-01

    Advances in the design and performance of electrostatic accelerators since 1969 are reviewed with special emphasis on the ''forefront'' accelerators that are currently leading in voltage capability. A comparison of the acceleration tube design offered by the National Electrostatics Corporation and the High Voltage Engineering Corporation is also made. Other methods of increasing heavy ion energy by means of dual foil stripping are discussed as well as the performance of a newly developed sputter ion source for the production of negative heavy ions with reliability and flexibility that greatly exceeds all other present systems. Finally, new developments in terms of both booster systems and very high voltage electrostatic accelerators (25 to 60 MV) are discussed. (U.S.)

  11. Diffused and sustained inhibitory effects of intestinal electrical stimulation on intestinal motility mediated via sympathetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaotuan; Yin, Jieyun; Wang, Lijie; Chen, Jiande D Z

    2014-06-01

    The aims were to investigate the energy-dose response effect of intestinal electrical stimulation (IES) on small bowel motility, to compare the effect of forward and backward IES, and to explore the possibility of using intermittent IES and mechanism of IES on intestinal motility. Five dogs implanted with a duodenal cannula and one pair of intestinal serosal electrodes were studied in five sessions: 1) energy-dose response study; 2) forward IES; 3) backward IES; 4) intermittent IES vs. continuous IES; 5) administration of guanethidine. The contractile activity and tonic pressure of the small intestine were recorded. The duration of sustained effect after turning off IES was manually calculated. 1) IES with long pulse energy dose dependently inhibited contractile activity and tonic pressure of the small intestine (p intestine depended on the energy of IES delivered (p intestine. 5) Guanethidine blocked the inhibitory effect of IES on intestinal motility. IES with long pulses inhibits small intestinal motility; the effect is energy-dose dependent, diffused, and sustained. Intermittent IES has the same efficacy as the continuous IES in inhibiting small intestinal motility. Forward and backward IES have similar inhibitory effects on small bowel motility. This IES-induced inhibitory effect is mediated via the sympathetic pathway. © 2013 International Neuromodulation Society.

  12. Iteration and accelerator dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peggs, S.

    1987-10-01

    Four examples of iteration in accelerator dynamics are studied in this paper. The first three show how iterations of the simplest maps reproduce most of the significant nonlinear behavior in real accelerators. Each of these examples can be easily reproduced by the reader, at the minimal cost of writing only 20 or 40 lines of code. The fourth example outlines a general way to iteratively solve nonlinear difference equations, analytically or numerically

  13. High energy medical accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandrillon, P.

    1990-01-01

    The treatment of tumours with charged particles, ranging from protons to 'light ions' (carbon, oxygen, neon), has many advantages, but up to now has been little used because of the absence of facilities. After the successful pioneering work carried out with accelerators built for physics research, machines dedicated to this new radiotherapy are planned or already in construction. These high energy medical accelerators are presented in this paper. (author) 15 refs.; 14 figs.; 8 tabs

  14. Vancouver Accelerator Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1985-06-15

    Anyone who contends that particle physics is conducted in an ivory tower, not contributing to other fields of science or to humanity at large, should have attended the 1985 Particle Accelerator Conference in Vancouver. Over a thousand participants contributed 781 papers and only a fraction were actually related to accelerators for high energy physics. The majority of present developments are in the service of other fields of science, for alternative power sources, for medicine, for industrial applications, etc.

  15. A symmetrical rail accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igenbergs, E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the symmetrical rail accelerator that has four rails, which are arranged symmetrically around the bore. The opposite rails have the same polarity and the adjacent rails the opposite polarity. In this configuration the radial force acting upon the individual rails is significantly smaller than in a conventional 2-rail configuration and a plasma armature is focussed towards the axis of the barrel. Experimental results indicate a higher efficiency compared to a conventional rail accelerator

  16. Ion optics for accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enge, H.A.

    1974-01-01

    A review is given of ion-optic devices used in particle accelerators, including electrostatic lenses, magnetic quadrupoles, and deflecting magnets. Tube focusing in dc accelerators is also treated, and a novel scheme for shaping the electrodes to produce strong focusing is described. The concepts of emittance (phase space) and emittance conservation are briefly discussed. Chromatic and spatial aberrations are introduced, and it is shown how they can be calculated and sometimes substantially reduced. Some examples are given

  17. An active particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, T.

    1991-01-01

    Although a static charge is difficult to maintain on macroscopic particles, it is straightforward to construct a small object with a regularly oscillating electric dipole moment. For objects of a given size, one may then construct an accelerator by appropriately matching the frequency and separations of an external array of electrodes to this size. Physically feasible size ranges, an accelerator design, and possible applications of such systems are discussed. 8 refs., 9 figs

  18. Vancouver Accelerator Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    Anyone who contends that particle physics is conducted in an ivory tower, not contributing to other fields of science or to humanity at large, should have attended the 1985 Particle Accelerator Conference in Vancouver. Over a thousand participants contributed 781 papers and only a fraction were actually related to accelerators for high energy physics. The majority of present developments are in the service of other fields of science, for alternative power sources, for medicine, for industrial applications, etc

  19. CEBAF Accelerator Achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Y C; Drury, M; Hovater, C; Hutton, A; Krafft, G A; Poelker, M; Reece, C; Tiefenback, M

    2011-01-01

    In the past decade, nuclear physics users of Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) have benefited from accelerator physics advances and machine improvements. As of early 2011, CEBAF operates routinely at 6 GeV, with a 12 GeV upgrade underway. This article reports highlights of CEBAF's scientific and technological evolution in the areas of cryomodule refurbishment, RF control, polarized source development, beam transport for parity experiments, magnets and hysteresis handling, beam breakup, and helium refrigerator operational optimization.

  20. Collective field accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luce, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    A collective field accelerator which operates with a vacuum diode and utilizes a grooved cathode and a dielectric anode that operates with a relativistic electron beam with a ν/γ of approx. 1, and a plurality of dielectric lenses having an axial magnetic field thereabout to focus the collectively accelerated electrons and ions which are ejected from the anode. The anode and lenses operate as unoptimized r-f cavities which modulate and focus the beam

  1. Injectable biomaterials for minimally invasive orthopedic treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabalan, M; Shalumon, K T; Mitha, M K

    2009-06-01

    Biodegradable and injectable hydroxy terminated-poly propylene fumarate (HT-PPF) bone cement was developed. The injectable formulation consisting HT-PPF and comonomer, n-vinyl pyrrolidone, calcium phosphate filler, free radical catalyst, accelerator and radiopaque agent sets rapidly to hard mass with low exothermic temperature. The candidate bone cement attains mechanical strength more than the required compressive strength of 5 MPa and compressive modulus 50 MPa. The candidate bone cement resin elicits cell adhesion and cytoplasmic spreading of osteoblast cells. The cured bone cement does not induce intracutaneous irritation and skin sensitization. The candidate bone cement is tissue compatible without eliciting any adverse tissue reactions. The candidate bone cement is osteoconductive and inductive and allow osteointegration and bone remodeling. HT-PPF bone cement is candidate bone cement for minimally invasive radiological procedures for the treatment of bone diseases and spinal compression fractures.

  2. CEBAF: Accelerating cavities look good

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1990-09-15

    The first assembled pairs of superconducting accelerating cavities from German supplier Interatom for the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia, have exceeded performance specifications.

  3. CEBAF: Accelerating cavities look good

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The first assembled pairs of superconducting accelerating cavities from German supplier Interatom for the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia, have exceeded performance specifications

  4. JAERI 20 MV tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, Kineo; Harada, Kichinosuke

    1977-01-01

    Accelerators have been developed as the experimental apparatuses for the studies on nuclei and elementary particles. One direction of the development is the acceleration of protons and electrons to more and more high energy, and another direction is the acceleration of heavy ions up to uranium to several MeV up to several hundreds MeV. However recently, accelerators are used as the useful tools for the studies in wider fields. There are electrostatic acceleration and high frequency acceleration in ion acceleration, and at present, super-large accelerators are high frequency acceleration type. In Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, it was decided in 1975 to construct an electrostatic accelerator of tandem type in order to accelerate heavy ions. In case of the electrostatic acceleration, the construction is relatively simple, the acceleration of heavy ions is easy, the property of the ion beam is very good, and the energy is stable. Especially, the tandem type is convenient for obtaining high energy. The tandem accelerator of 20 MV terminal voltage was ordered from the National Electrostatics Corp., USA, and is expected to be completed in 1978. The significance of heavy ion acceleration in the development and research of atomic energy, tandem van de Graaff accelerators, the JAERI 20MV tandem accelerator, and the research project with this accelerator are described. (Kako, I.)

  5. APT accelerator technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, J. David

    1996-01-01

    The proposed accelerator production of tritium (APT) project requires an accelerator that provides a cw proton beam of 100 m A at 1300 MeV. Since the majority of the technical risk of a high-current cw (continuous-wave, 100% DF) accelerator resides in the low-energy section, Los Alamos is building a 20 MeV duplicate of the accelerator front end to confirm design codes, beam performance, and demonstrate operational reliability. We report on design details of this low-energy demonstration accelerator (LEDA) and discuss the integrated design of the full accelerator for the APT plant. LEDA's proton injector is under test and has produced more than 130 mA at 75 keV. Fabrication is proceeding on a 6.7- MeV, 8-meter-long RFQ, and detailed design is underway on coupled-cavity drift-tube linac (CCDTL) structures. In addition, detailed design and technology experiments are underway on medium-beta superconducting cavities to assess the feasibility of replacing the conventional (room-temperature copper) high-energy linac with a linac made of niobium superconducting RF cavities. (author)

  6. Laser wakefield acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esarey, E.; Ting, A.; Sprangle, P.

    1989-01-01

    The laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) is a novel plasma based electron acceleration scheme which utilizes a relativistic optical guiding mechanism for laser pulse propagation. In the LWFA, a short, high power, single frequency laser pulse is propagated through a plasma. As the laser pulse propagates, its radial and axial ponderomotive forces nonresonantly generate large amplitude plasma waves (wakefields) with a phase velocity equal to the group velocity of the pulse. A properly phased electron bunch may then be accelerated by the axial wakefield and focused by the transverse wakefield. Optical guiding of the laser pulse in the plasma is necessary in order to achieve high energies in a single stage of acceleration. At sufficiently high laser powers, optical guiding may be achieved through relativistic effects associated with the plasma electrons. Preliminary analysis indicates that this scheme may overcome some of the difficulties present in the plasma beat wave accelerator and in the plasma wakefield accelerator. Analytical and numerical calculations are presented which study both laser pulse propagation within a plasma as well as the subsequent generation of large amplitude plasma waves. In addition, the generation of large amplitude plasma waves in regimes where the plasma waves become highly nonlinear is examined

  7. Quantifying the invasiveness of species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Colautti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The success of invasive species has been explained by two contrasting but non-exclusive views: (i intrinsic factors make some species inherently good invaders; (ii species become invasive as a result of extrinsic ecological and genetic influences such as release from natural enemies, hybridization or other novel ecological and evolutionary interactions. These viewpoints are rarely distinguished but hinge on distinct mechanisms leading to different management scenarios. To improve tests of these hypotheses of invasion success we introduce a simple mathematical framework to quantify the invasiveness of species along two axes: (i interspecific differences in performance among native and introduced species within a region, and (ii intraspecific differences between populations of a species in its native and introduced ranges. Applying these equations to a sample dataset of occurrences of 1,416 plant species across Europe, Argentina, and South Africa, we found that many species are common in their native range but become rare following introduction; only a few introduced species become more common. Biogeographical factors limiting spread (e.g. biotic resistance, time of invasion therefore appear more common than those promoting invasion (e.g. enemy release. Invasiveness, as measured by occurrence data, is better explained by inter-specific variation in invasion potential than biogeographical changes in performance. We discuss how applying these comparisons to more detailed performance data would improve hypothesis testing in invasion biology and potentially lead to more efficient management strategies.

  8. Radionuclide studies in upper gastro-intestinal ulceration - are they reliable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carstens, A.J.; Iturralde, M.; Fourie, P.A.; Pilloy, W.; Van Wyk, A.

    1985-01-01

    Endoscopy is at present the diagnostic technique of choice in the evaluation and detection of upper gastro-intestinal tract ulceration. Because of the physical discomfort, suffered by patients during endoscopic examination, the search for better and less invasive methods of examination (especially in the unco-operative and seriously ill patient) continues. According to reports from the Orient, sucralfate (Ulsanic; Continental Ethicals) has prominent ulceravid properties. These properties are being used in conjunction with a tagging agent, in this case technetium-99m, as a diagnostic method for the detection and localization of upper gastro-intestinal ulceration. In this pilot study on 6 patients the positive findings of others regarding the specificity and promise of this method could not be confirmed

  9. Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Mitsiakos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia, first described by Waldmann et al. in 1961, is a rare congenital malformation of the lymphatics, presented with generalized edema, hypoproteinemia and lymphopenia. Diagnosis is based on endoscopy findings and pathology.We present here a case of a male neonate, second child of an indigenous woman, delivered by caesarean section. Prenatally, multiple cystic abdominal masses were identified by ultrasound. The patient was treated successfully with enterectomy and anastomosis. Histopathology revealed primary intestinal lymphangiectasia with no features of malignancy.Intestinal lymphangiectasia is a rare pathology, which should be differentiated while exploring abdominal masses, hypoproteinemia and edema especially in neonates.

  10. Photon acceleration in laser wakefield accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trines, R. M. G. M.

    2007-01-01

    If the index of a refraction of a dispersive medium, such as a plasma, changes in time, it can be used to change the frequency of light propagating through the medium. This effect is called photon acceleration. It has been predicted in both theory and simulations, and also been demonstrated experimentally for the case of moving ionization fronts in gases (the so-called ionization blueshift) as well as for laser-driven wakefields.Here, we present studies of photon acceleration in laser-driven plasma wakefields. The unique spectral characteristics of this process will be discussed, to distinguish it from e.g. photon acceleration by ionization fronts, frequency domain interferometry or self-phase modulation. The dynamics of the photons in laser-wakefield interaction are studied through both regular particle-in-cell and wave-kinetic simulations. The latter approach provides a powerful, versatile, and easy-to-use method to track the propagation of individual spectral components, providing new insight into the physics of laser-plasma interaction. Theory, simulations and experimental results will be brought together to provide a full understanding of the dynamics of a laser pulse in its own wakefield.Even though the wave-kinetic approach mentioned above has mainly been developed for the description of laser-plasma interaction, it can be applied to a much wider range of fast wave-slow wave interaction processes: Langmuir waves-ion acoustic waves, drift waves-zonal flow, Rossby waves-zonal flow, or even photons-gravitational waves. Several recent results in these areas will be shown, often with surprising results

  11. A comparison of non-invasive versus invasive methods of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Puneet Khanna

    for Hb estimation from the laboratory [total haemoglobin mass (tHb)] and arterial blood gas (ABG) machine (aHb), using ... A comparison of non-invasive versus invasive methods of haemoglobin estimation in patients undergoing intracranial surgery. 161 .... making decisions for blood transfusions based on these results.

  12. Optimal Solution Volume for Luminal Preservation: A Preclinical Study in Porcine Intestinal Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltean, M; Papurica, M; Jiga, L; Hoinoiu, B; Glameanu, C; Bresler, A; Patrut, G; Grigorie, R; Ionac, M; Hellström, M

    2016-03-01

    Rodent studies suggest that luminal solutions alleviate the mucosal injury and prolong intestinal preservation but concerns exist that excessive volumes of luminal fluid may promote tissue edema. Differences in size, structure, and metabolism between rats and humans require studies in large animals before clinical use. Intestinal procurement was performed in 7 pigs. After perfusion with histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK), 40-cm-long segments were cut and filled with 13.5% polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 solution as follows: V0 (controls, none), V1 (0.5 mL/cm), V2 (1 mL/cm), V3 (1.5 mL/cm), and V4 (2 mL/cm). Tissue and luminal solutions were sampled after 8, 14, and 24 hours of cold storage (CS). Preservation injury (Chiu score), the apical membrane (ZO-1, brush-border maltase activity), and the electrolyte content in the luminal solution were studied. In control intestines, 8-hour CS in HTK solution resulted in minimal mucosal changes (grade 1) that progressed to significant subepithelial edema (grade 3) by 24 hours. During this time, a gradual loss in ZO-1 was recorded, whereas maltase activity remained unaltered. Moreover, variable degrees of submucosal edema were observed. Luminal introduction of high volumes (2 mL/mL) of PEG solution accelerated the development of the subepithelial edema and submucosal edema, leading to worse histology. However, ZO-1 was preserved better over time than in control intestines (no luminal solution). Maltase activity was reduced in intestines receiving luminal preservation. Luminal sodium content decreased in time and did not differ between groups. This PEG solution protects the apical membrane and the tight-junction proteins but may favor water absorption and tissue (submucosal) edema, and luminal volumes >2 mL/cm may result in worse intestinal morphology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Accelerator business in Japan expanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Accelerators have become to be used increasingly in Japan in such fields as medicine, physics research and industry. This has caused stiff competition for market share by the manufacturers of accelerators. Electron beam accelerators for industrial use provide an indispensable means for adding values to products, for example, electric cables with incombustible insulators. Linear accelerators for the nondestructive inspection of nuclear components have been widely installed at equipment manufacturing plants. Active efforts have been exerted to develop small synchrotron radiation accelerators for next generation electronic industry. Cyclotrons for producing short life radioisotopes for medical diagnosis and electron beam accelerators for radiation therapy are also used routinely. The suppliers of accelerators include the companies manufacturing heavy electric machinery, heavy machinery and the engineering division of steelmakers. Accelerator physics is being formed, but universities do not yet offer the course regarding accelerators. Accelerator use in Japan and the trend of accelerator manufacturers are reported. (K.I.)

  14. Beam transport through electrostatic accelerators and matching into post accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Ion beam transport through electrostatic acceleration is briefly reviewed. Topics discussed include injection, matching into the low-energy acceleration stage, matching from the terminal stripper into the high-energy stage, transport to a post accelerator, space charge, bunching isochronism, dispersion and charge selection. Beam transport plans for the proposed Vivitron accelerator are described. (orig.)

  15. Klebsiella pneumoniae Invasive Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Evangelista

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae invasive syndrome (KPIS is a rare clinical condition characterized by primary liver abscess associated with metastatic infection. Most case reports are from Southeast Asia, with only one case described in Portugal. The Authors present the case of a 44-year-old man with a history of fever, dry cough and cervicalgia. A thoracic computed tomography (CT scan showed multiple pulmonary and hepatic nodules, suggestive of metastatic malignancy. Both blood cultures and bronchoalveolar lavage were positive for Klebsiella pneumoniae. Imaging studies were repeated during his hospital stay, showing a reduction in both number and volume of identified lesions, thus revealing their infectious nature. This case illustrates how much this entity can mimic other illnesses.

  16. In vitro inhibition of Eimeria tenella sporozoite invasion into host cells by probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessenberger, S; Schatzmayr, G; Teichmann, K

    2016-10-15

    The aim was to study the effects of probiotics isolated from the intestinal tract of livestock animals on Eimeria tenella invasion into Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells in vitro. E. tenella sporozoites were purified and labeled with 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate N-succinimidyl ester before seeding on cell cultures, and invasion was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy. Two protocols (A and B) were used. In protocol A, Enterococcus faecium # 589 or Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius # 505 were added together with sporozoites to MDBK cell cultures and invasion was evaluated after incubation for approximately 20h. Viable, dead, or spent culture supernatants of probiotics were tested. In protocol B, viable probiotics were incubated with MDBK cells for one hour before sporozoites were added and invasion was evaluated after two more hours of incubation. Parasite invasion of viable, dead, or spent culture supernatant of E. faecium # 589 was assessed. Using protocol A, it was shown that parasite invasion was inhibited by viable (80%) or dead (75%) E. faecium # 589. While inhibition by viable L. salivarius subsp. salivarius # 505 was not valid at the highest concentration and not significant at the other test concentrations, dead cells inhibited parasite invasion up to 45%. Spent culture supernatants of both probiotics had no influence on parasite invasion. Using protocol B, it was shown that viable Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. animalis # 503, E. faecium # 497, E. faecium # 589, L. reuteri # 514, L. salivarius subsp. salivarius # 505, and Bacillus subtilis # 588 inhibited parasite invasion into MDBK cells up to 80%. Anticoccidial activity was strain-specific for E. faecium strains, and the strongest effect was shown by E. faecium # 589. Anticoccidial effects of some of the tested probiotics have already been shown in vivo, which makes them candidates to prevent coccidiosis. These findings have now been confirmed in vitro. The used parasite invasion

  17. Assessment of lymphovascular invasion in gastric carcinoma; do they always indicate lymph node metastasis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kricha Pande

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stomach cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death. The grading and staging of this cancer plays an important prognostic role. Lymphovascular invasion predicts poor outcome in gastric cancer. Among the others, lymphovascular invasion provides useful information for the clinical management of patients with gastric cancer. Nevertheless, data about lymphovascular invasion in early-stage and in lymph node-positive gastric cancer are lacking. Hence, significance of lymphovascular invasion to metastatic lymph nodes impacting nodal status in gastric cancer has been studied in this study.Materials and methods: This is a retrospective analysis of twenty nine (29 histologically confirmed gastric carcinoma cases received in the department of Pathology at NMCTH dating from October 2014 to September 2016.Results:  There was male preponderance to gastric carcinoma with male to female ratio of 2.2:1. The age varied from 31- 84 years. There were 17 cases (59% of intestinal type and 11 cases (38% of diffuse type of gastric carcinoma and 1 case (3% of adeno-neuroendocrine carcinoma. Microscopic evaluation for depth of invasion showed tumor invasion till the subserosal connective tissue layer (69% suggesting pT3 stage.  lymphovascular invasion was identified in 21 cases (72%. There was statistically significant correlation (p value 0.01 between   lymphovascular invasion and nodal status (N0 status. Conclusion: Presence of lymphovascular invasion is considered as poor prognostic marker in case of gastric adenocarcinoma. Pathologist have been reporting their presence or absence in each gastrectomy reports related to gastric carcinoma.This study has established a significant relation between presence of lymphovascular invasion and nodal staging of gastric carcinoma.

  18. Intestinal Leiomyositis: A Cause of Chronic Intestinal Pseudo?Obstruction in 6 Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Zacuto, A.C.; Pesavento, P.A.; Hill, S.; McAlister, A.; Rosenthal, K.; Cherbinsky, O.; Marks, S.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Intestinal leiomyositis is a suspected autoimmune disorder affecting the muscularis propria layer of the gastrointestinal tract and is a cause of chronic intestinal pseudo?obstruction in humans and animals. Objective To characterize the clinical presentation, histopathologic features, and outcome of dogs with intestinal leiomyositis in an effort to optimize treatment and prognosis. Animals Six client?owned dogs. Methods Retrospective case series. Medical records were reviewed to de...

  19. Interactions between the intestinal microbiota and innate lymphoid cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Vincent L; Kasper, Dennis L

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian intestine must manage to contain 100 trillion intestinal bacteria without inducing inappropriate immune responses to these microorganisms. The effects of the immune system on intestinal microorganisms are numerous and well-characterized, and recent research has determined that the microbiota influences the intestinal immune system as well. In this review, we first discuss the intestinal immune system and its role in containing and maintaining tolerance to commensal organisms. We next introduce a category of immune cells, the innate lymphoid cells, and describe their classification and function in intestinal immunology. Finally, we discuss the effects of the intestinal microbiota on innate lymphoid cells. PMID:24418741

  20. Dietary Flexibility Aids Asian Earthworm Invasion in North American Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    On a local scale, invasiveness of introduced species and invasibility of habitats together determine invasion success. A key issue in invasion ecology has been how to quantify the contribution of species invasiveness and habitat invasibility separately. Conventional approaches, s...

  1. Experiencing sexuality after intestinal stoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Boccara de Paula

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Identify the Social Representations (SR of ostomized people in terms of sexuality after the stoma. METHODS: An exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study using the Social Representation Theory with 15 ostomized people (8 females, mean age of 57.9 years, between August and September 2005. Data obtained from transcribed interviews were submitted to content analysis, resulting in the thematic unit "Giving new meaning to sexuality" and subthemes. RESULTS: The study demonstrated that the intestinal stoma interferes in the sexuality experience, showing that the meanings attributed to this experience are based on individual life stories, quality of personal relationships established in practice and perception of sexuality, despite the stoma. CONCLUSIONS: The Social Representations, in terms of experiencing sexuality after the stoma, are based on meanings attributed to the body, associated with daily life and present in the social imaginary. It is influenced by other factors, such as physiological changes resulting from the surgery and the fact of having or not a partner. Care taken during sexual practices provide greater security and comfort in moments of intimacy, resembling the closest to what ostomized people experienced before the stoma. The self-irrigation technique associated or not with the use of artificial occluder, has been attested by its users as a positive element that makes a difference in sexual practice after the stoma. The support to ostomized people should be comprehensive, not limited to technical care and disease, which are important, but not sufficient. The interdisciplinary health team should consider all aspects of the person, seeking a real meeting between subjects.OBJETIVO: Identificar as Representações Sociais (RS da pessoa estomizada intestinal sobre vivência da sexualidade após confecção do estoma. MÉTODOS: Estudo exploratório, descritivo, qualitativo do ponto de vista do referencial da Representa

  2. Microbial ecology of biological invasions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Putten, W.H.; Klironomos, J.N.; Wardle, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Invasive microbes, plants and animals are a major threat to the composition and functioning of ecosystems; however, the mechanistic basis of why exotic species can be so abundant and disruptive is not well understood. Most studies have focused on invasive plants and animals, although few have

  3. Non-invasive gas monitoring in newborn infants using diode laser absorption spectroscopy: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Patrik; Svanberg, Emilie K.; Cocola, Lorenzo; Lewander, Märta; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Jahr, John; Fellman, Vineta; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune

    2012-03-01

    Non-invasive diode laser spectroscopy was, for the first time, used to assess gas content in the intestines and the lungs of a new-born, 4 kg, baby. Two gases, water vapor and oxygen, were studied with two low-power tunable diode lasers, illuminating the surface skin tissue and detecting the diffusely emerging light a few centimeters away. The light, having penetrated into the tissue, had experienced absorption by gas located in the lungs and in the intestines. Very distinct water vapor signals were obtained from the intestines while imprint from oxygen was lacking, as expected. Detectable, but minor, signals of water vapor were also obtained from the lungs, illuminating the armpit area and detecting below the collar bone. Water vapor signals were seen but again oxygen signals were lacking, now due to the difficulties of penetration of the oxygen probing light into the lungs of this full-term baby. Ultra-sound images were obtained both from the lungs and from the stomach of the baby. Based on dimensions and our experimental findings, we conclude, that for early pre-term babies, also oxygen should be detectable in the lungs, in addition to intestine and lung detection of water vapor. The present paper focuses on the studies of the intestines while the lung studies will be covered in a forthcoming paper.

  4. Intestinal Iron Homeostasis and Colon Tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatrik M. Shah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths in industrialized countries. Understanding the mechanisms of growth and progression of CRC is essential to improve treatment. Iron is an essential nutrient for cell growth. Iron overload caused by hereditary mutations or excess dietary iron uptake has been identified as a risk factor for CRC. Intestinal iron is tightly controlled by iron transporters that are responsible for iron uptake, distribution, and export. Dysregulation of intestinal iron transporters are observed in CRC and lead to iron accumulation in tumors. Intratumoral iron results in oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, protein modification and DNA damage with consequent promotion of oncogene activation. In addition, excess iron in intestinal tumors may lead to increase in tumor-elicited inflammation and tumor growth. Limiting intratumoral iron through specifically chelating excess intestinal iron or modulating activities of iron transporter may be an attractive therapeutic target for CRC.

  5. Diversity and functions of intestinal mononuclear phagocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joeris, Thorsten; Müller-Luda, K; Agace, William Winston

    2017-01-01

    The intestinal lamina propria (LP) contains a diverse array of mononuclear phagocyte (MNP) subsets, including conventional dendritic cells (cDC), monocytes and tissue-resident macrophages (mφ) that collectively play an essential role in mucosal homeostasis, infection and inflammation. In the curr......The intestinal lamina propria (LP) contains a diverse array of mononuclear phagocyte (MNP) subsets, including conventional dendritic cells (cDC), monocytes and tissue-resident macrophages (mφ) that collectively play an essential role in mucosal homeostasis, infection and inflammation....... In the current review we discuss the function of intestinal cDC and monocyte-derived MNP, highlighting how these subsets play several non-redundant roles in the regulation of intestinal immune responses. While much remains to be learnt, recent findings also underline how the various populations of MNP adapt...

  6. Pterostilbene Prevents Intestinal Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups as follows: Control group; intestinal .... excitation wavelength (485 nm) and emission wavelength (528 nm). The results ... Ethanolic phase of the tissue homogenate was extracted using ...

  7. Gastro-intestinal phytobezoars in Zimbabwean Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, C M; Gelfand, M

    1985-01-01

    The clinical features of 10 African patients with gastro-intestinal phytobezoars are described. These were similar to those described with persimmon bezoars and we postulate that the fruit of locally found trees, also of the genus Diospyros, are responsible.

  8. Intestinal Colonization Dynamics of Vibrio cholerae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Almagro-Moreno

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To cause the diarrheal disease cholera, Vibrio cholerae must effectively colonize the small intestine. In order to do so, the bacterium needs to successfully travel through the stomach and withstand the presence of agents such as bile and antimicrobial peptides in the intestinal lumen and mucus. The bacterial cells penetrate the viscous mucus layer covering the epithelium and attach and proliferate on its surface. In this review, we discuss recent developments and known aspects of the early stages of V. cholerae intestinal colonization and highlight areas that remain to be fully understood. We propose mechanisms and postulate a model that covers some of the steps that are required in order for the bacterium to efficiently colonize the human host. A deeper understanding of the colonization dynamics of V. cholerae and other intestinal pathogens will provide us with a variety of novel targets and strategies to avoid the diseases caused by these organisms.

  9. Epidemiology of small intestinal atresia in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Best, Kate E; Tennant, Peter W G; Addor, Marie-Claude

    2012-01-01

    The epidemiology of congenital small intestinal atresia (SIA) has not been well studied. This study describes the presence of additional anomalies, pregnancy outcomes, total prevalence and association with maternal age in SIA cases in Europe....

  10. Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome and intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS), also called 'Ondine's curse', is characterised by an abnormal ventilatory response to progressive hypercapnia and sustained hypoxaemia. Neonates with this condition experience hypoventilation or apnoea while asleep. Patients may also have congenital intestinal aganglionosis (CIA), ...

  11. Mesenteric lipoma causing recurrent intestinal obstruction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-01-12

    Jan 12, 2013 ... vomiting, constipation, and central abdominal mass. ... Mesenteric lipoma may cause abdominal pain by complete intestinal .... Kaniklides C, Frykberg T, Lundkvist K. Pediatric mesenteric lipoma: An unusual cause of repeated ...

  12. Inflammasome in Intestinal Inflammation and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Nunes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The activation of specific cytosolic pathogen recognition receptors, the nucleotide-binding-oligomerization-domain- (NOD- like receptors (NLRs, leads to the assembly of the inflammasome, a multimeric complex platform that activates caspase-1. The caspase-1 pathway leads to the upregulation of important cytokines from the interleukin (IL-1 family, IL-1β, and IL-18, with subsequent activation of the innate immune response. In this review, we discuss the molecular structure, the mechanisms behind the inflammasome activation, and its possible role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases and intestinal cancer. Here, we show that the available data points towards the importance of the inflammasome in the innate intestinal immune response, being the complex involved in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis, correct intestinal barrier function and efficient elimination of invading pathogens.

  13. ORNL pellet acceleration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, C.A.; Milora, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) pellet fueling program is centered around developing equipment to accelerate large pellets of solidified hydrogen to high speeds. This equipment will be used to experimentally determine pellet-plasma interaction physics on contemporary tokamaks. The pellet experiments performed on the Oak Ridge Tokamak (ORMAK) indicated that much larger, faster pellets would be advantageous. In order to produce and accelerate pellets of the order of 1 to 6 mm in diameter, two apparatuses have been designed and are being constructed. The first will make H 2 pellets by extruding a filament of hydrogen and mechanically chopping it into pellets. The pellets formed will be mechanically accelerated with a high speed arbor to a speed of 950 m/sec. This technique may be extended to speeds up to 5000 m/sec, which makes it a prime candidate for a reactor fueling device. In the second technique, a hydrogen pellet will be formed, loaded into a miniature rifle, and accelerated by means of high pressure hydrogen gas. This technique should be capable of speeds of the order of 1000 m/sec. While this technique does not offer the high performance of the mechanical accelerator, its relative simplicity makes it attractive for near-term experiments

  14. Accelerator development at Bates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargent, C.P.

    1983-01-01

    The past year has seen the completion of a major expansion of the Bates Accelerator Laboratory. A second experimental hall, South Hall, and several magnetic spectrometers have been constructed. The accelerator's maximum energy has been raised from 400 to 750 MeV by means of beam recirculation. A current two-year project for the fabrication of an additional RF transmitter plus a 30% increase in RF peak power capability will increase energy further to ca. 1 GeV. During the same period pulse-to-pulse beam sharing between the high-resolution spectrometer area and South Hall will become available. In January 1981 the Laboratory submitted their ''Proposal for a Long-Range Expansion Program'' to DOE-NSF. The proposed development consists of three stages. Stage I calls for the addition of a pulse stretcher ring to furnish a CW beam to the South Hall beam lines. Additional experimental space for internal target experiments and photon tagging research are also included. Stage II increases the accelerator energy to 2.1 GeV (at 140 microamps) by means of a five-pass head-to-tail recirculator. Stage III is, at this time, a plan rather than a proposal. It increases accelerator energy to 4 GeV by extending the accelerator length and power and adds another pulse stretcher ring and three new experimental areas for the higher energy work. This paper discusses each of these stages in detail and recommends their funding and scheduling

  15. High energy plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.

    1985-05-01

    Colinear intense laser beams ω 0 , kappa 0 and ω 1 , kappa 1 shone on a plasma with frequency separation equal to the electron plasma frequency ω/sub pe/ are capable of creating a coherent large longitudinal electric field E/sub L/ = mc ω/sub pe//e of the order of 1GeV/cm for a plasma density of 10 18 cm -3 through the laser beat excitation of plasma oscillations. Accompanying favorable and deleterious physical effects using this process for a high energy beat-wave accelerator are discussed: the longitudinal dephasing, pump depletion, the transverse laser diffraction, plasma turbulence effects, self-steepening, self-focusing, etc. The basic equation, the driven nonlinear Schroedinger equation, is derived to describe this system. Advanced accelerator concepts to overcome some of these problems are proposed, including the plasma fiber accelerator of various variations. An advanced laser architecture suitable for the beat-wave accelerator is suggested. Accelerator physics issues such as the luminosity are discussed. Applications of the present process to the current drive in a plasma and to the excitation of collective oscillations within nuclei are also discussed

  16. Linear induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, R.J.

    1986-06-01

    The development of linear induction accelerators has been motivated by applications requiring high-pulsed currents of charged particles at voltages exceeding the capability of single-stage, diode-type accelerators and at currents too high for rf accelerators. In principle, one can accelerate charged particles to arbitrarily high voltages using a multi-stage induction machine, but the 50-MeV, 10-kA Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) at LLNL is the highest voltage machine in existence at this time. The advent of magnetic pulse power systems makes sustained operation at high-repetition rates practical, and this capability for high-average power is very likely to open up many new applications of induction machines in the future. This paper surveys the US induction linac technology with primary emphasis on electron machines. A simplified description of how induction machines couple energy to the electron beam is given, to illustrate many of the general issues that bound the design space of induction linacs

  17. Accelerators for atomic energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Tokushi

    1999-01-01

    The research and educational activities accomplished using accelerators for atomic energy research were studied. The studied items are research subjects, facility operation, the number of master theses and doctor theses on atomic energy research using accelerators and the future role of accelerators in atomic energy research. The strategy for promotion of the accelerator facility for atomic energy research is discussed. (author)

  18. Accelerators in Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kailas, S

    2002-01-01

    Accelerators built for basic research in frontier areas of science have become important and inevitable tools in many areas of science and technology. Accelerators are examples of science driven high technology development. Accelerators are used for a wide ranging applications, besides basic research. Accelerator based multidisciplinary research holds great promise

  19. Plasma-based accelerator structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, Carl B.

    1999-01-01

    Plasma-based accelerators have the ability to sustain extremely large accelerating gradients, with possible high-energy physics applications. This dissertation further develops the theory of plasma-based accelerators by addressing three topics: the performance of a hollow plasma channel as an accelerating structure, the generation of ultrashort electron bunches, and the propagation of laser pulses is underdense plasmas

  20. Invasive tightly coupled processor arrays

    CERN Document Server

    LARI, VAHID

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces new massively parallel computer (MPSoC) architectures called invasive tightly coupled processor arrays. It proposes strategies, architecture designs, and programming interfaces for invasive TCPAs that allow invading and subsequently executing loop programs with strict requirements or guarantees of non-functional execution qualities such as performance, power consumption, and reliability. For the first time, such a configurable processor array architecture consisting of locally interconnected VLIW processing elements can be claimed by programs, either in full or in part, using the principle of invasive computing. Invasive TCPAs provide unprecedented energy efficiency for the parallel execution of nested loop programs by avoiding any global memory access such as GPUs and may even support loops with complex dependencies such as loop-carried dependencies that are not amenable to parallel execution on GPUs. For this purpose, the book proposes different invasion strategies for claiming a desire...

  1. Neuroimmune regulation during intestinal development and homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Fernandes, Henrique; Pachnis, Vassilis

    2017-02-01

    Interactions between the nervous system and immune system are required for organ function and homeostasis. Evidence suggests that enteric neurons and intestinal immune cells share common regulatory mechanisms and can coordinate their responses to developmental challenges and environmental aggressions. These discoveries shed light on the physiology of system interactions and open novel perspectives for therapy designs that target underappreciated neurological-immunological commonalities. Here we highlight findings that address the importance of neuroimmune cell units (NICUs) in intestinal development, homeostasis and disease.

  2. Non-Meckel Small Intestine Diverticulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamim Ejaz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-Meckel small intestine diverticulitis can have many manifestations and its management is not well-defined. We report 4 unselect cases of small intestine diverticulitis; all patients were seen by the same physician at the Emergency Center at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center between 1999 and 2014. The median age at diagnosis of these patients was 82 years (range, 76–87 years. All 4 patients presented with acute onset of abdominal pain, and computed tomography scans showed characteristics of small intestine diverticulitis unrelated to cancer. Most of the diverticula were found in the region of the duodenum and jejuno-ileal segments of the small intestine. The patients, even those with peripancreatic inflammation and localized perforation, were treated conservatively. Non-Meckel diverticulitis can be overlooked in the initial diagnosis because of the location of the diverticulosis, the age of the patient, and the rarity of the disease. Because patients with non-Meckel small intestine diverticulitis can present with acute abdominal pain, non-Meckel small intestine diverticulitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with acute abdominal pain, and computed tomography scans can help identify the condition. Because of the rarity of non-Meckel small intestine diverticulitis, few studies have been published, and the data are inconclusive about how best to approach these patients. Our experience with these 4 elderly patients indicates that non-Meckel small intestine diverticulitis can be treated conservatively, which avoids the potential morbidity and mortality of a surgical approach.

  3. Spectrum of diseases in acute intestinal obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masud, M.; Khan, A.; Gondal, Z.I.; Adil, M.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the etiological spectrum of acute intestinal obstruction in our clinical setup Military Hospital Rawalpindi. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Surgical department of Military Hospital, Rawalpindi from Jul 2012 to Jul 2013, over a period of about 1 year. Material and Methods: A total of 120 patients with acute mechanical intestinal obstruction who underwent laparotomy were included in our study while those with non-mechanical intestinal obstruction like history of trauma and paralytic ileus were excluded from the study. All the patients were selected by non-probability purposive sampling technique. Emergency laparotomy was done and operative findings were recorded. Results: A total of 120 patients with mechanical intestinal obstruction were included in this study out of which 93 (69.17%) were female and remaining 27 (30.83%) were males. Male to female ratio was 1:2.24. Age range of patients was 22-85 years. Out of 120 patients operated for acute intestinal obstruction post-op adhesions were found in 37 (30.83%) patients followed by intestinal tuberculosis in 23 (19.17%) patients, obstructed inguinal hernias in 13 (10.83%), gut malignancies in 15 (12.5%) , Meckel's diverticulum with bands in 7 (5.83%), volvulus in 7 (5.83%), perforated appendix in 6 (5%), intussusception in 2 (1.7%), inflammatory bands in 5 (4.17%), trichobezoar and faecal impaction in 2 (1.7%) while in 3 (2.5%) patients no definite cause was found. Conclusion: Post-op adhesions are the commonest cause of mechanical intestinal obstruction in our setup followed by intestinal tuberculosis as second most common clinical pattern of presentation. (author)

  4. Acceleration of magnetized plasma rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, D.; Eddleman, J.; Hammer, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    One scheme is considered, acceleration of a ring between coaxial electrodes by a B/sub theta/ field as in a coaxial rail-gun. If the electrodes are conical, a ring accelerated towards the apex of the cone undergoes self-similar compression (focussing) during acceleration. Because the allowable acceleration force F/sub a/ = kappa U/sub m//R (kappa - 2 , the accelerating distance for conical electrodes is considerably shortened over that required for coaxial electrodes. In either case however, since the accelerating flux can expand as the ring moves, most of the accelerating field energy can be converted into kinetic energy of the ring leading to high efficiency

  5. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F. S.; de Castro, Francisco Gomes; Miller, Wagner Peitl; de Lima, Raphael Rodrigues; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). Conclusion In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation. PMID:27818542

  6. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F.S.; Castro, Francisco Gomes de; Miller, Wagner Peitl; Lima, Raphael Rodrigues de; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results: None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). Conclusion: In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation. (author)

  7. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F S; de Castro, Francisco Gomes; Miller, Wagner Peitl; de Lima, Raphael Rodrigues; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle

    2016-01-01

    To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation.

  8. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F.S.; Castro, Francisco Gomes de; Miller, Wagner Peitl; Lima, Raphael Rodrigues de; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle, E-mail: gabrielnicolodi@gmail.com [Hospital Sao Vicente - Funef, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    Objective: To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results: None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). Conclusion: In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation. (author)

  9. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Cleve Nicolodi

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results: None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases, increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases, identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases, and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case. Conclusion: In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation.

  10. Lynch syndrome-related small intestinal adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Sun-Young; Lee, Eui-Jin; Kim, Mi-Ju; Chun, Sung Min; Bae, Young Kyung; Hong, Soon Uk; Choi, Jene; Kim, Joon Mee; Jang, Kee-Taek; Kim, Jung Yeon; Kim, Gwang Il; Jung, Soo Jin; Yoon, Ghilsuk; Hong, Seung-Mo

    2017-03-28

    Lynch syndrome is an autosomal-dominant disorder caused by defective DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes and is associated with increased risk of malignancies in multiple organs. Small-intestinal adenocarcinomas are common initial manifestations of Lynch syndrome. To define the incidence and characteristics of Lynch syndrome-related small-intestinal adenocarcinomas, meticulous familial and clinical histories were obtained from 195 patients with small-intestinal adenocarcinoma, and MMR protein immunohistochemistry, microsatellite instability, MLH1 methylation, and germline mutational analyses were performed. Lynch syndrome was confirmed in eight patients (4%), all of whom had synchronous/metachronous malignancies without noticeable familial histories. Small-intestinal adenocarcinomas were the first clinical manifestation in 37% (3/8) of Lynch syndrome patients, and second malignancies developed within 5 years in 63% (5/8). The patients with accompanying Lynch syndrome were younger (≤50 years; P=0.04) and more likely to have mucinous adenocarcinomas (P=0.003), and tended to survive longer (P=0.11) than those with sporadic cases. A meticulous patient history taking, MMR protein immunolabeling, and germline MMR gene mutational analysis are important for the diagnosis of Lynch syndrome-related small-intestinal adenocarcinomas. Identifying Lynch syndrome in patients with small-intestinal adenocarcinoma can be beneficial for the early detection and treatment of additional Lynch syndrome-related cancers, especially in patients who are young or have mucinous adenocarcinomas.

  11. Need for accelerating electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerst, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Photons for nuclear disintegration experiments were not abundantly available in the early days of nuclear physics, whereas accelerated ions led the way. When electrons could be accelerated into the 20--30 MeV range, they found application not only to nuclear disintegration of the elements of the periodic table but also to x-ray radiography and to deep therapy. Energies of interest for probing nuclear structure by electron scattering and for meson production followed soon after. The elementary nature of the electron has now made it a valuable tool for present day particle physics; and the synchrotron radiation, which is an obstacle for some accelerating processes, has become a much sought after source of photons for experiments at atomic structure energies

  12. Artificial seismic acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felzer, Karen R.; Page, Morgan T.; Michael, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    In their 2013 paper, Bouchon, Durand, Marsan, Karabulut, 3 and Schmittbuhl (BDMKS) claim to see significant accelerating seismicity before M 6.5 interplate mainshocks, but not before intraplate mainshocks, reflecting a preparatory process before large events. We concur with the finding of BDMKS that their interplate dataset has significantly more fore- shocks than their intraplate dataset; however, we disagree that the foreshocks are predictive of large events in particular. Acceleration in stacked foreshock sequences has been seen before and has been explained by the cascade model, in which earthquakes occasionally trigger aftershocks larger than themselves4. In this model, the time lags between the smaller mainshocks and larger aftershocks follow the inverse power law common to all aftershock sequences, creating an apparent acceleration when stacked (see Supplementary Information).

  13. Superconducting Accelerator Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Mess, K H; Wolff, S

    1996-01-01

    The main topic of the book are the superconducting dipole and quadrupole magnets needed in high-energy accelerators and storage rings for protons, antiprotons or heavy ions. The basic principles of low-temperature superconductivity are outlined with special emphasis on the effects which are relevant for accelerator magnets. Properties and fabrication methods of practical superconductors are described. Analytical methods for field calculation and multipole expansion are presented for coils without and with iron yoke. The effect of yoke saturation and geometric distortions on field quality is studied. Persistent magnetization currents in the superconductor and eddy currents the copper part of the cable are analyzed in detail and their influence on field quality and magnet performance is investigated. Superconductor stability, quench origins and propagation and magnet protection are addressed. Some important concepts of accelerator physics are introduced which are needed to appreciate the demanding requirements ...

  14. Incineration by accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cribier, M.; FIoni, G.; Legrain, R.; Lelievre, F.; Leray, S.; Pluquet, A.; Safa, H.; Spiro, M.; Terrien, Y.; Veyssiere, Ch.

    1997-01-01

    The use MOX fuel allows to hope a stabilization of plutonium production around 500 tons for the French park. In return, the flow of minor actinides is increased to several tons. INCA (INCineration by Accelerator), dedicated instrument, would allow to transmute several tons of americium, curium and neptunium. It could be able to reduce nuclear waste in the case of stopping nuclear energy use. This project needs: a protons accelerator of 1 GeV at high intensity ( 50 m A), a window separating the accelerator vacuum from the reactor, a spallation target able to produce 30 neutrons by incident proton, an incineration volume where a part of fast neutrons around the target are recovered, and a thermal part in periphery with flows at 2.10 15 n/cm 2 .s; a chemical separation of elements burning in thermal (americium) from the elements needing a flow of fast neutrons. (N.C.)

  15. Universality of accelerating change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo; Shlesinger, Michael F.

    2018-03-01

    On large time scales the progress of human technology follows an exponential growth trend that is termed accelerating change. The exponential growth trend is commonly considered to be the amalgamated effect of consecutive technology revolutions - where the progress carried in by each technology revolution follows an S-curve, and where the aging of each technology revolution drives humanity to push for the next technology revolution. Thus, as a collective, mankind is the 'intelligent designer' of accelerating change. In this paper we establish that the exponential growth trend - and only this trend - emerges universally, on large time scales, from systems that combine together two elements: randomness and amalgamation. Hence, the universal generation of accelerating change can be attained by systems with no 'intelligent designer'.

  16. Future accelerators in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toge, Nobu

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a brief report on the present status of future accelerator projects at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK), Japan. The KEK laboratory has been successfully operating the TRISTAN accelerator complex since 1986. It consists of a 2.5 GeV electron/positron linac, an 8 GeV Accumulation Ring (AR) and a 29 GeV Main Ring (MR). Concurrently with this operation, in response to recommendations by the Japanese High Energy Physics Committee, survey studies have been continued on new accelerator facilities at KEK. They have two major future projects, namely, the asymmetric e + e - B-factory based on TRISTAN (TRISTAN-II) and the Japan Linear Collider (JLC). The purpose of this paper is to outline those research activities and to present an update on their status

  17. Medical uses of accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, J.N.

    1981-01-01

    A variety of particle accelerators have either potential or already demonstrated uses in connection with medically-related research, diagnosis, and treatment. For cancer radiotherapy, nuclear particles including protons, neutrons, heavy ions, and negative pi mesons have advantages compared to conventional radiations in terms of dose localization and/or biological effectiveness. Clinical evaluations of these particles are underway at a number of institutions. Accelerator-produced radionuclides are in widespread use for research and routine diagnostic purposes. Elemental analysis techniques with charged particles and neutrons are being applied to bone, blood, and other tissues. Finally, low-dose medical imaging can be accomplished with accelerated protons and heavy ions. The status and future of these programs are discussed

  18. JKJ accelerator timing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmori, C.; Mori, Y.; Yoshii, M.; Yamamoto, M.

    2001-01-01

    The JKJ (JAERl-KEK Joint Project) accelerator complex consists of the linear accelerator, 3 GeV and 50 GeV synchrotrons. To minimize the beam loss during the beam transfer from the 3 GeV synchrotron to the 50 GeV one, the synchronization of the two RF system of the rings is very important. To reduce the background from the high and low momentum neutron, the neutron beam chopper will be employed. The 3 GeV RF will be also synchronized to the chopper timing when the beam goes to the neutron facility. The whole timing control system of these accelerators and chopper will be described. (author)

  19. Accelerators for therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohlit, W.

    1994-01-01

    In the past decades circular and linear electron accelerators have been developed for clinical use in radiation therapy of tumors with the aim of achieving a high radiation dose in the tumor and as low as possible dose in the adjacent normal tissues. Today about one thousand accelerators are in medical use throughout the world and many hundred thousand patients are treated every day with accelerator-produced radiation. There exists, however, a large number of patients who cannot be treated satisfactorily in this way. New types of radiations such as neutrons, negative pions, protons and heavy ions were therefore tested recently. The clinical experience with these radiations and with new types of treatment procedures indicate that in future the use of a scanning beam of high energy protons might be optimal for the treatment of tumors. (orig.)

  20. Superconducting accelerator magnet design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, S.

    1994-01-01

    Superconducting dipoles, quadrupoles and correction magnets are necessary to achieve the high magnetic fields required for big accelerators presently in construction or in the design phase. Different designs of superconducting accelerator magnets are described and the designs chosen at the big accelerator laboratories are presented. The most frequently used cosθ coil configuration is discussed in detail. Approaches for calculating the magnetic field quality including coil end fields are presented. Design details of the cables, coils, mechanical structures, yokes, helium vessels and cryostats including thermal radiation shields and support structures used in superconducting magnets are given. Necessary material properties are mentioned. Finally, the main results of magnetic field measurements and quench statistics are presented. (orig.)

  1. Accelerator technology in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kustom, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    This article presents the similarities in the technology required for high energy accelerators and tokamak fusion devices. The tokamak devices and R and D programs described in the text represent only a fraction of the total fusion program. The technological barriers to producing successful, economical tokamak fusion power plants are as many as the plasma physics problems to be overcome. With the present emphasis on energy problems in this country and elsewhere, it is very likely that fusion technology related R and D programs will vigorously continue; and since high energy accelerator technology has so much in common with fusion technology, more scientists from the accelerator community are likely to be attracted to fusion problems

  2. Accelerating the culture change!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klunk, S W; Panetta, J; Wooten, J

    1996-11-01

    Exide Electronics, a major supplier of uninterruptible power system equipment, embarked on a journey of changing a culture to improve quality, enhance customer responsiveness, and reduce costs. This case study examines the evolution of change over a period of seven years, with particular emphasis on the most recent years, 1992 through 1995. The article focuses on the Raleigh plant operations and describes how each succeeding year built on the successes and fixed the shortcomings of the prior years to accelerate the culture change, including corrective action and continuous improvement processes, organizational structures, expectations, goals, achievements, and pitfalls. The real challenge to changing the culture was structuring a dynamic approach to accelerate change! The presentation also examines how the evolutionary process itself can be created and accelerated through ongoing communication, regular feedback of progress and goals, constant evaluation and direction of the process, and measuring and paying for performance.

  3. Studies of accelerated compact toruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, C.W.; Eddleman, J.; Hammer, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    In an earlier publication we considered acceleration of plasma rings (Compact Torus). Several possible accelerator configurations were suggested and the possibility of focusing the accelerated rings was discussed. In this paper we consider one scheme, acceleration of a ring between coaxial electrodes by a B/sub theta/ field as in a coaxial rail-gun. If the electrodes are conical, a ring accelerated towards the apex of the cone undergoes self-similar compression (focusing) during acceleration. Because the allowable acceleration force, F/sub a/ = kappaU/sub m//R where (kappa - 2 , the accelerating distance for conical electrodes is considerably shortened over that required for coaxial electrodes. In either case, however, since the accelerating flux can expand as the ring moves, most of the accelerating field energy can be converted into kinetic energy of the ring leading to high efficiency

  4. Microelectromechanical acceleration-sensing apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robb M [Albuquerque, NM; Shul, Randy J [Albuquerque, NM; Polosky, Marc A [Albuquerque, NM; Hoke, Darren A [Albuquerque, NM; Vernon, George E [Rio Rancho, NM

    2006-12-12

    An acceleration-sensing apparatus is disclosed which includes a moveable shuttle (i.e. a suspended mass) and a latch for capturing and holding the shuttle when an acceleration event is sensed above a predetermined threshold level. The acceleration-sensing apparatus provides a switch closure upon sensing the acceleration event and remains latched in place thereafter. Examples of the acceleration-sensing apparatus are provided which are responsive to an acceleration component in a single direction (i.e. a single-sided device) or to two oppositely-directed acceleration components (i.e. a dual-sided device). A two-stage acceleration-sensing apparatus is also disclosed which can sense two acceleration events separated in time. The acceleration-sensing apparatus of the present invention has applications, for example, in an automotive airbag deployment system.

  5. CERN: Accelerator school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: Jyvaskyla, a university town in central Finland, was the setting for last year's General Accelerator School organized by the CERN Accelerator School. Well over a hundred students - more than for some time - followed two weeks of lectures on a broad spectrum of accelerator topics, the first step en route to becoming the designers, builders and operators of the surprisingly large number of, accelerators of all kinds either built or planned throughout Europe and further afield. This was the fifth such school organized by CAS in a biennial cycle which alternates this introductory level with more advanced tuition. The next, advanced, school will be from 20 October - 1 November, hosted by Athens University on the Greek Island of Rhodes. (Application details will become available in Spring but would-be participants should already reserve the dates.) After Finland, the CAS caravan moved to Benalmadena near Malaga in Spain where, together with Seville University, they organized one of the joint US-CERN schools held every two years and focusing on frontier accelerator topics. This time the subject was electron-positron factories - machines for high luminosity experiments in phi, tau-charm, beauty and Z physics. Experts from both sides of the Atlantic and from Japan shared their knowledge with an equally representative audience and probed the many intensity related phenomena which must be mastered to reach design performance. A number of these topics will receive extended coverage in the next specialist CAS School which is a repeat - by public demand - of the highly successful radiofrequency course held in Oxford in 1991. This school will be in Capri, Italy, with the support of the University of Naples from 29 April to 5 May. Details and application forms are now available by e-mail (CASRF@CERNVM.CERN.CH), by fax (+41 22 7824836) or from Suzanne von Wartburg, CERN Accelerator School, 1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland

  6. Interfacing to accelerator instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shea, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    As the sensory system for an accelerator, the beam instrumentation provides a tremendous amount of diagnostic information. Access to this information can vary from periodic spot checks by operators to high bandwidth data acquisition during studies. In this paper, example applications will illustrate the requirements on interfaces between the control system and the instrumentation hardware. A survey of the major accelerator facilities will identify the most popular interface standards. The impact of developments such as isochronous protocols and embedded digital signal processing will also be discussed

  7. Acceleration of polarized particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buon, J.

    1992-05-01

    The spin kinetics of polarized beams in circular accelerators is reviewed in the case of spin-1/2 particles (electrons and protons) with emphasis on the depolarization phenomena. The acceleration of polarized proton beams in synchrotrons is described together with the cures applied to reduce depolarization, including the use of 'Siberian Snakes'. The in-situ polarization of electrons in storage rings due to synchrotron radiation is studied as well as depolarization in presence of ring imperfections. The applications of electron polarization to accurately calibrate the rings in energy and to use polarized beams in colliding-beam experiments are reviewed. (author) 76 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab

  8. Spallator - accelerator breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, M.

    1985-01-01

    The concept involves the use of spallation neutrons produced by interaction of a high energy proton (1 to 2 GeV) from a linear accelerator (LINAC) with a heavy metal target (uranium). The principal spallator concept is based on generating fissile fuel for use in LWR nuclear power plants. The spallator functions in conjunction with a reprocessing plant to regenerate and produce the Pu-239 or U-233 for fabrication into fresh LWR reactor fuel elements. Advances in proton accelerator technology has provided a solid base for predicting performance and optimizing the design of a reliable, continuous wave, high-current LINAC required by a fissile fuel production machine

  9. Accelerated cyclic corrosion tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prošek T.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated corrosion testing is indispensable for material selection, quality control and both initial and residual life time prediction for bare and painted metallic, polymeric, adhesive and other materials in atmospheric exposure conditions. The best known Neutral Salt Spray (NSS test provides unrealistic conditions and poor correlation to exposures in atmosphere. Modern cyclic accelerated corrosion tests include intermittent salt spray, wet and dry phases and eventually other technical phases. They are able to predict the material performance in service more correctly as documented on several examples. The use of NSS should thus be restricted for quality control.

  10. Electrostatic accelerator dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, C.M.

    1989-05-01

    High voltage insulation problems in electrostatic accelerators are discussed. The aim of the analysis is to broaden the knowledge, highlight the characteristics of insulation technology and design strategies to improve use. The basic geometry of the insulation in accelerators is considered. A detailed description of each of the insulation regions is provided. The gas gap insulation of the terminal voltage is found to be sensitive to regions of high electric stress. In order to obtain satisfactory performance from solid support insulation, the attention is focused on the electric stress value and distribution. Potential subjects for discussion and further investigations are given

  11. Remarks on stochastic acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graeff, P.

    1982-12-01

    Stochastic acceleration and turbulent diffusion are strong turbulence problems since no expansion parameter exists. Hence the problem of finding rigorous results is of major interest both for checking approximations and for reference models. Since we have found a way of constructing such models in the turbulent diffusion case the question of the extension to stochastic acceleration now arises. The paper offers some possibilities illustrated by the case of 'stochastic free fall' which may be particularly interesting in the context of linear response theory. (orig.)

  12. Monoenergetic laser wakefield acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Andreev

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Three dimensional test particle simulations are applied to optimization of the plasma-channeled laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA operating in a weakly nonlinear regime. Electron beam energy spread, emittance, and luminosity depend upon the proportion of the electron bunch size to the plasma wavelength. This proportion tends to improve with the laser wavelength increase. We simulate a prospective two-stage ∼1GeV LWFA with controlled energy spread and emittance. The input parameters correspond to realistic capabilities of the BNL Accelerator Test Facility that features a picosecond-terawatt CO_{2} laser and a high-brightness electron gun.

  13. High intensity hadron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, L.C.

    1989-05-01

    This rapporteur report consists mainly of two parts. Part I is an abridged review of the status of all High Intensity Hadron Accelerator projects in the world in semi-tabulated form for quick reference and comparison. Part II is a brief discussion of the salient features of the different technologies involved. The discussion is based mainly on my personal experiences and opinions, tempered, I hope, by the discussions I participated in in the various parallel sessions of the workshop. In addition, appended at the end is my evaluation and expression of the merits of high intensity hadron accelerators as research facilities for nuclear and particle physics

  14. Photocathodes in accelerator applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, J.S.; Sheffield, R.L.; Gray, E.R.; Giles, P.M.; Springer, R.W.; Loebs, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    Some electron accelerator applications require bursts of short pulses at high microscopic repetition rates and high peak brightness. A photocathode, illuminated by a mode-locked laser, is well suited to filling this need. The intrinsic brightness of a photoemitter beam is high; experiments are under way at Los Alamos to study the brightness of short bunches with high space charge after acceleration. A laser-illuminated Cs 3 Sb photoemitter is located in the first rf cavity of an injector linac. Diagnostics include a pepper-pot emittance analyzer, a magnetic spectrometer, and a streak camera

  15. "Light sail" acceleration reexamined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchi, Andrea; Veghini, Silvia; Pegoraro, Francesco

    2009-08-21

    The dynamics of the acceleration of ultrathin foil targets by the radiation pressure of superintense, circularly polarized laser pulses is investigated by analytical modeling and particle-in-cell simulations. By addressing self-induced transparency and charge separation effects, it is shown that for "optimal" values of the foil thickness only a thin layer at the rear side is accelerated by radiation pressure. The simple "light sail" model gives a good estimate of the energy per nucleon, but overestimates the conversion efficiency of laser energy into monoenergetic ions.

  16. 'Light Sail' Acceleration Reexamined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macchi, Andrea; Veghini, Silvia; Pegoraro, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    The dynamics of the acceleration of ultrathin foil targets by the radiation pressure of superintense, circularly polarized laser pulses is investigated by analytical modeling and particle-in-cell simulations. By addressing self-induced transparency and charge separation effects, it is shown that for 'optimal' values of the foil thickness only a thin layer at the rear side is accelerated by radiation pressure. The simple 'light sail' model gives a good estimate of the energy per nucleon, but overestimates the conversion efficiency of laser energy into monoenergetic ions.

  17. Accelerating time to benefit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Geraldi, Joana; Grex, Sara

    Despite the ubiquitous pressure for speed, our approaches to accelerate projects remain constrained to the old-fashioned understanding of the project as a vehicle to deliver products and services, not value. This article explores an attempt to accelerate time to benefit. We describe and deconstruct...... of the time. Although all cases valued speed and speed to benefit, and implemented most practices proposed by the methodology, only three of the five projects were more successful in decreasing time to speed. Based on a multi-case study comparison between these five different projects and their respective...

  18. Plasma wave accelerator. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, W.; Joshi, C.; Dawson, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    It was shown that the insertion of a cross magnetic field prevents the particles from getting out of phase with the electric field of the plasma wave in the beat wave accelerator scheme. Thus, using a CO 2 laser, n/sub c//n/sub e/ = (ω 0 /ω/sub p/) 2 approx. 35, and a 300 kG magnetic field, electrons can be (in principle) accelerated to 100 GeV in 2 meters. For comparison without the magnetic field, the same energies may be obtained in a n/sub c//n/sub e/ approx. 10 5 plasma over a distance of 100 meters

  19. An accelerator technology legacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heighway, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    Accelerator technology has been a major beneficiary of the investment made over the last decade. It is the intention of this paper to provide the reader with a glimpse of the broad nature of those advances. Development has been on a broad front and this paper can highlight only a few of those. Two spin-off applications will be outlined -- a concept for a compact, active, beam probe for solar body exploration and the concept for an accelerator-driven transmutation system for energy production

  20. Sex-dependent Differences in Intestinal Tumorigenesis Induced in Apc1638N/+ Mice by Exposure to {gamma} Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trani, Daniela [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Maastricht Radiation Oncology (MaastRO) Lab, GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, University of Maastricht (Netherlands); Moon, Bo-Hyun [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Kallakury, Bhaskar; Hartmann, Dan P. [Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Datta, Kamal [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Fornace, Albert J., E-mail: af294@georgetown.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Center of Excellence in Genomic Medicine Research (CEGMR), King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of 1 and 5 Gy radiation doses and to investigate the interplay of gender and radiation with regard to intestinal tumorigenesis in an adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutant mouse model. Methods and Materials: Apc1638N/+ female and male mice were exposed whole body to either 1 Gy or 5 Gy of {gamma} rays and euthanized when most of the treated mice became moribund. Small and large intestines were processed to determine tumor burden, distribution, and grade. Expression of proliferation marker Ki-67 and estrogen receptor (ER)-{alpha} were also assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results: We observed that, with both 1 Gy and 5 Gy of {gamma} rays, females displayed reduced susceptibility to radiation-induced intestinal tumorigenesis compared with males. As for radiation effect on small intestinal tumor progression, although no substantial differences were found in the relative frequency and degree of dysplasia of adenomas in irradiated animals compared with controls, invasive carcinomas were found in 1-Gy- and 5-Gy-irradiated animals. Radiation exposure was also shown to induce an increase in protein levels of proliferation marker Ki-67 and sex-hormone receptor ER-{alpha} in both non tumor mucosa and intestinal tumors from irradiated male mice. Conclusions: We observed important sex-dependent differences in susceptibility to radiation-induced intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc1638N/+ mutants. Furthermore, our data provide evidence that exposure to radiation doses as low as 1 Gy can induce a significant increase in intestinal tumor multiplicity as well as enhance tumor progression in vivo.