WorldWideScience

Sample records for acc synthase expression

  1. Wound-induced ethylene synthesis and expression and formation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase, ACC oxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, and peroxidase in wounded mesocarp tissue of Cucurbita maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, M; Hayakawa, Y; Hyodo, H; Ikoma, Y; Yano, M

    2000-04-01

    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase was rapidly induced in mesocarp tissue of Cucurbita maxima after wounding in the cut surface layer in 1 mm thickness (ca. 9 cells) (first layer) in both the enzyme activity and the levels of transcript. This led to a rapid accumulation of ACC and hence ethylene production. In the inside tissue (1-2 mm) (second layer), no significant induction of ACC synthase was observed, which resulted in a low level of ACC, although ethylene was evolved at a much lower rate than the first one. In contrast to ACC synthase, ACC oxidase was induced markedly in both the first and second layers and the development of its activity and the levels of mRNA remained high until later stages. It was considered that wound ethylene was closely associated with the development of ACC oxidase, since 2,5-norbornadiene (NBD), an inhibitor of ethylene action, substantially suppressed it. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) greatly increased in activity after wounding similarly to that of ACC synthase, in which increase in PAL activity occurred predominantly in the first layer. Induction of peroxidase activity after wounding had a close correlation in profile with that of ACC oxidase in that marked increases in the activity were observed in both the first and second layers and were strongly suppressed by NBD application. Four peroxidase isozymes were found by PAGE, among which a fraction was newly detected after wounding.

  2. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) concentration and ACC synthase expression in soybean roots, root tips, and soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines)-infected roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Mark L; Xue, Ping; Yang, Ronghui

    2010-01-01

    Colonization of plant roots by root knot and cyst nematodes requires a functional ethylene response pathway. However, ethylene plays many roles in root development and whether its role in nematode colonization is direct or indirect, for example lateral root initiation or root hair growth, is not known. The temporal requirement for ethylene and localized synthesis of ethylene during the life span of soybean cyst nematode (SCN) on soybean roots was further investigated. Although a significant increase in ethylene evolution was not detected from SCN-colonized roots, the concentration of the immediate precursor to ethylene, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), was higher in SCN-colonized root pieces and root tips than in other parts of the root. Moreover, expression analysis of 17 ACC synthase (ACS) genes indicated that a select set of ACS genes is expressed in SCN-colonized root pieces that is clearly different from the set of genes expressed in non-colonized roots or root tips. Semi-quantitative real-time PCR indicated that ACS transcript accumulation correlates with the high concentration of ACC in root tips. In addition, an ACS-like sequence was found in the public SCN nucleotide database. Acquisition of a full-length sequence for this mRNA (accession GQ389647) and alignment with transcripts for other well-characterized ACS proteins indicated that the nematode sequence is missing a key element required for ACS activity and therefore probably is not a functional ACS. Moreover, no significant amount of ACC was found in any growth stage of SCN that was tested.

  3. Analysis of MaACS2, a stress-inducible ACC Synthase Gene in Musa acuminata AAA Group Cultivar Pisang Ambon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resnanti Utami Handayani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene has an important function in plant growth and development. Ethylene production generally increases in response to pathogen attacks and other environmental stress conditions. The synthesis of this phytohormone is regulated by two enzymes, ACC synthase (ACS and ACC oxidase (ACO. ACC synthase is encoded by a multigene that regulates the production of ACC, after which this precursor is converted into ethylene by ACO. Pisang Ambon (Musa sp. AAA group, a banana cultivar originating from Indonesia, has nine ACS genes (MaACS 1-9 and one ACO gene (MaACO. One of the banana ACS genes, MaACS2, is stress-inducible. In this research, we have investigated the expression profile of MaACS2 in the roots and leaf tissues of infected tissue culture plants. Quantification of gene expression was analyzed using Real-Time PCR (qPCR using Ma18srRNA and MaGAPDH as reference genes. The results showed nine-to ten fold higher MaACS2 expression levels in the infected roots tissues compared to the uninfected roots tissues. However, MaACS2 expression in the leaves was only detected in infected tissue.

  4. Genetical polymorphism of acc synthase and ACC oxidase in Apple selections bred in Čačak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Slađana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The work on breeding new apple cultivars, of improved quality and longer storage life has been going on for a long time at the Fruit and Grape Research Centre in Čačak. As a result nine promising apple selections, that show the range of fruit storage capability (J/l/7, J/l/20, J/2/12, J/2/14, J/ll/31, J/54/53/59, J/60/7/63, Šumatovka 1 O.P. and Šumatovka 2 O.P., were singled out. Fruit ripening is genetically programmed, complex physiological process with the important role of plant hormone ethylene. Allelic polymorphism of the genes encoding ACC synthase and ACC oxidase, enzymes on ethylene biosynthetic pathway, was studied in promising apple selections and compared to their storage life. Polymorphism was detected by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR method and restriction analysis with 6 restriction enzymes. Two alleles of the gene encoding ACC synthase (ACS1-1 and ACS1-2, three alleles of the ACC oxidase gene (a, b and n were identified and a positive test for early seedling selection, the fruits of which will be characterized by long storage life, was indicated.

  5. ACC synthase genes are polymorphic in watermelon (Citrullus spp.) and differentially expressed in flowers and in response to auxin and gibberellin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman-Minkov, Ayelet; Levi, Amnon; Wolf, Shmuel; Trebitsh, Tova

    2008-05-01

    The flowering pattern of watermelon species (Citrullus spp.) is either monoecious or andromonoecious. Ethylene is known to play a critical role in floral sex determination of cucurbit species. In contrast to its feminizing effect in cucumber and melon, in watermelon ethylene promotes male flower development. In cucumber, the rate-limiting enzyme of ethylene biosynthesis, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase (ACS), regulates unisexual flower development. To investigate the role of ethylene in flower development, we isolated four genomic sequences of ACS from watermelon (CitACS1-4). Both CitACS1 and CitACS3 are expressed in floral tissue. CitACS1 is also expressed in vegetative tissue and it may be involved in cell growth processes. Expression of CitACS1 is up-regulated by exogenous treatment with auxin, gibberellin or ACC, the immediate precursor of ethylene. No discernible differential floral sex-dependent expression pattern was observed for this gene. The CitACS3 gene is expressed in open flowers and in young staminate floral buds (male or hermaphrodite), but not in female flowers. CitACS3 is also up-regulated by ACC, and is likely to be involved in ethylene-regulated anther development. The expression of CitACS2 was not detected in vegetative or reproductive organs but was up-regulated by auxin. CitACS4 transcript was not detected under our experimental conditions. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequence tagged site (STS) marker analyses of the CitACS genes showed polymorphism among and within the different Citrullus groups, including watermelon cultivars, Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus, the central subspecies Citrullus lanatus var. citroides, and the desert species Citrullus colocynthis (L).

  6. Effects of small interfering RNA targeting thymidylate synthase on survival of ACC3 cells from salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirasaki, Takashi; Maruya, Shin-ichiro; Mizukami, Hiroki; Kakehata, Seiji; Kurotaki, Hidekachi; Yagihashi, Soroku; Shinkawa, Hideichi

    2008-01-01

    Thymidylate synthase (TS) is an important target for chemotherapeutic treatment of cancer and high expression of TS has been associated with poor prognosis or refractory disease in several cancers including colorectal and head and neck cancer. Although TS is known to regulate cell cycles and transcription factors, its potency as a therapeutic target has not been fully explored in adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). An ACC cell line (ACC3) was transfected with siRNA targeting the TS gene and inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis-associated molecules were evaluated in vitro. In addition, the in vivo effect of TS siRNA on tumor progression was assessed using a xenograft model. Our results demonstrated that ACC3 cells showed significantly higher TS expression than non-cancer cell lines and the induction of TS siRNA led to inhibition of cell proliferation. The effect was associated with an increase in p53, p21, and active caspase-3 and S-phase accumulation. We also found up-regulation of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT), a polyamine metabolic enzyme. Furthermore, treatment with TS siRNA delivered by atelocollagen showed a significant cytostatic effect through the induction of apoptosis in a xenograft model. TS may be an important therapeutic target and siRNA targeting TS may be of potential therapeutic value in ACC

  7. Dynamic 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate-synthase and -oxidase transcript accumulation patterns during pollen tube growth in tobacco styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weterings, Koen; Pezzotti, Mario; Cornelissen, Marc; Mariani, Celestina

    2002-11-01

    In flowering plants, pollination of the stigma sets off a cascade of responses in the distal flower organs. Ethylene and its biosynthetic precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) play an important role in regulating these responses. Because exogenous application of ethylene or ACC does not invoke the full postpollination syndrome, the pollination signal probably consists of a more complex set of stimuli. We set out to study how and when the pollination signal moves through the style of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) by analyzing the expression patterns of pistil-expressed ACC-synthase and -oxidase genes. Results from this analysis showed that pollination induces high ACC-oxidase transcript levels in all cells of the transmitting tissue. ACC-synthase mRNA accumulated only in a subset of transmitting tract cells and to lower levels as compared with ACC-oxidase. More significantly, we found that although ACC-oxidase transcripts accumulate to uniform high levels, the ACC-synthase transcripts accumulate in a wave-like pattern in which the peak coincides with the front of the ingrowing pollen tube tips. This wave of ACC-synthase expression can also be induced by incongruous pollination and (partially) by wounding. This indicates that wounding-like features of pollen tube invasion might be part of the stimuli evoking the postpollination response and that these stimuli are interpreted differently by the regulatory mechanisms of the ACC-synthase and -oxidase genes.

  8. Molecular characterisation and expression analysis of acc oxidase gene from guzmania ruiz and pav

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jianxin, L.; Huaqiao, D.; Weiyong, W.; Danqing, T.

    2017-01-01

    ACC oxidase is the last key enzyme of ethylene synthesis pathway, while ethylene is a key factor affecting flowering in ornamental bromeliad. To understand ACC oxidase gene's characteristics and its effect on ornamental bromeliad flowering, we cloned 1504bp full-length cDNA sequence (GenBank: JX972145) and 2546bp corresponding genomic sequence (GenBank: JX972146)of GoACO1 (ACC oxidase gene) from Guzmania variety: Ostara. Prokaryotic expression study showed that expression of GoACO1 can produced a 41 KD protein precipitation in Escherichia coli DE3(BL-21); Real-time quantitative analysis showed that GoACO1 can express in all tested tissues including floral organ, bract, leaf and scape, and expression quantity in bract was the highest. Through constructing plant overexpression vector, transforming into Arabidopsis thaliana, and investigating blossom character of T2 generation seeds, we found that first flowering time of the goal Arabidopsis thaliana was 1.5 days earlier, and their peak flowering time(the number of flowering more than 50%) was 1.8 days earlier, compared with wild type one. Taken together, our results suggested that GoACO1can express in all kinds of tissues and seems to promote Arabidopsis thaliana flowering earlier. (author)

  9. Beta-Glucan Synthase Gene Expression in Pleurotus sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhar Mohamad; Nie, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Pleurotus sp. is a popular edible mushroom, containing various functional component, in particular, Beta-glucan. Beta-glucans is a part of glucan family of polysaccharides and supposedly contribute to medicinal and nutritional value of Pleurotus.sp. In order to understand the distribution of Beta-glucan in Pleurotus.sp, the Beta-glucan synthase gene expression was determined and compared in different part of Pleurotus, namely mycelium, stripe and cap. The Pleurotus.sp RNA was extracted using commercial kit, employing Tissuelyser ll (Qiagen, USA) to disrupt the cell walls. Then the RNA was quantified by Nano drop (Thermo Fisher, USA) and visualized using denaturing agarose gel. RNA with good OD 260.280 reading (∼2.0) was chosen and converted to cDNA. Using Laccase synthase gene as home keeping gene, Beta-glucan synthase gene expression was quantified using CFX 96 Real Time PCR detection system (Biorad, USA). Preliminary result shows that Beta-glucan synthase was relatively expressed the most in stripe, followed by mycelium and barely in cap. (author)

  10. Ethylene biosynthesis genes are differentially expressed during carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower senescence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Have, ten A.; Woltering, E.J.

    1997-01-01

    Ethylene production and expression patterns of an 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase (CARAO1) and of two ACC synthase (EC 4.4.1.14) genes (CARACC3 and CARAS1) were studied in floral organs of cut carnation flowers (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) cv. White Sim. During the vase life and

  11. Regulation of Expression of the prb-1b / ACC Deaminase gene by UV-B in Transgenic tomatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamot, B.K.; Pauls, K.P.; Glick, R.

    2003-01-01

    Transgenic tomato plants with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase gene from Enterobacter cloacae UWA4 under the control of a pathogenesis-related promoter (prb-1b) from tobacco were challenged by abiotic stresses to determine the expression patterns of the transgene. No ACC deaminase RNA or protein was detected bu RT-PCR and in western blots prepared from leaf proteins of transgenic plants after wounding or treatment with alpha-amino butyric acid, xylanase, ethephon, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid , ethylene, or ethylene plus jasmonic acid. However, expression of the ACC deaminase transgene was observed in leaves and roots of transformed tomato lines exposed to UV light. The UV response required a minimum of 48 h of exposure and was specific to UV-B light

  12. Arabidopsis ETO1 specifically interacts with and negatively regulates type 2 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saito Koji

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Arabidopsis, ETO1 (ETHYLENE-OVERPRODUCER1 is a negative regulator of ethylene evolution by interacting with AtACS5, an isoform of the rate-limiting enzyme, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthases (ACC synthase or ACS, in ethylene biosynthetic pathway. ETO1 directly inhibits the enzymatic activity of AtACS5. In addition, a specific interaction between ETO1 and AtCUL3, a constituent of a new type of E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, suggests the molecular mechanism in promoting AtACS5 degradation by the proteasome-dependent pathway. Because orthologous sequences to ETO1 are found in many plant species including tomato, we transformed tomato with Arabidopsis ETO1 to evaluate its ability to suppress ethylene production in tomato fruits. Results Transgenic tomato lines that overexpress Arabidopsis ETO1 (ETO1-OE did not show a significant delay of fruit ripening. So, we performed yeast two-hybrid assays to investigate potential heterologous interaction between ETO1 and three isozymes of ACC synthases from tomato. In the yeast two-hybrid system, ETO1 interacts with LE-ACS3 as well as AtACS5 but not with LE-ACS2 or LE-ACS4, two major isozymes whose gene expression is induced markedly in ripening fruits. According to the classification of ACC synthases, which is based on the C-terminal amino acid sequences, both LE-ACS3 and AtACS5 are categorized as type 2 isozymes and possess a consensus C-terminal sequence. In contrast, LE-ACS2 and LE-ACS4 are type 1 and type 3 isozymes, respectively, both of which do not possess this specific C-terminal sequence. Yeast two-hybrid analysis using chimeric constructs between LE-ACS2 and LE-ACS3 revealed that the type-2-ACS-specific C-terminal tail is required for interaction with ETO1. When treated with auxin to induce LE-ACS3, seedlings of ETO1-OE produced less ethylene than the wild type, despite comparable expression of the LE-ACS3 gene in the wild type. Conclusion These results suggest that ETO1

  13. Purification of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase from apple fruits using s-adenosyl [3,414C]-methionine (SAM) as a probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yip, Wingkip; Dong, Jianguo; Yang, Shang Fa

    1989-01-01

    Tomato ACC synthase is inactivated by its substrate SAM, with the moiety of aminobutyrate being covalently linked to ACC synthase during the catalytic reactions. A partial purified ACC synthase (the catalytic activity 100 μmol/h·mg protein) from pellets of apple extract was incubated with [3,4 14 C] SAM. Only one radioactive peak was revealed in a C-4 reverse phase HPLC and one radioactive band on SDS-PAGE with an M.W. of 48 kDa. Apple ACC synthase in native form is resistant to V8, α-chromtrypsin and carboxylpeptidase A digestion, but effectively inactivated by trypsin and ficin, as demonstrated by both the activity assay and SAM labeling. The radioactive protein cut from the SDS-PAGE was injected to three mice, two of the mice showed responses to the protein in western blot analysis. The antibodies from mice is currently under characterization

  14. Molecular cloning and functional expression of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase from Coleus forskohlii Briq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawamukai Makoto

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP, a common biosynthetic precursor to the labdane diterpene forskolin, has been biosynthesised via a non-mevalonate pathway. Geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP synthase is an important branch point enzyme in terpenoid biosynthesis. Therefore, GGPP synthase is thought to be a key enzyme in biosynthesis of forskolin. Herein we report the first confirmation of the GGPP synthase gene in Coleus forskohlii Briq. Results The open reading frame for full-length GGPP synthase encodes a protein of 359 amino acids, in which 1,077 nucleotides long with calculated molecular mass of 39.3 kDa. Alignments of C. forskohlii GGPP synthase amino acid sequences revealed high homologies with other plant GGPP synthases. Several highly conserved regions, including two aspartate-rich motifs were identified. Transient expression of the N-terminal region of C. forskohlii GGPP synthase-GFP fusion protein in tobacco cells demonstrated subcellular localization in the chloroplast. Carotenoid production was observed in Escherichia coli harboring pACCAR25ΔcrtE from Erwinia uredovora and plasmid carrying C. forskohlii GGPP synthase. These results suggested that cDNA encoded functional GGPP synthase. Furthermore, C. forskohlii GGPP synthase expression was strong in leaves, decreased in stems and very little expression was observed in roots. Conclusion This investigation proposed that forskolin was synthesised via a non-mevalonate pathway. GGPP synthase is thought to be involved in the biosynthesis of forskolin, which is primarily synthesised in the leaves and subsequently accumulates in the stems and roots.

  15. [Cloning, expression and transcriptional analysis of biotin carboxyl carrier protein gene (accA) from Amycolatopsis mediterranei U32 ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jie; Yao, Yufeng; Jiang, Weihong; Jiao, Ruishen

    2003-02-01

    Acetyl CoA carboxylase (EC 6.4.1.2, ACC) catalyzes the ATP-dependent carboxylation of acetyl CoA to yield malonyl CoA, which is the first committed step in fatty acid synthesis. A pair of degenerate PCR primers were designed according to the conserved amino acid sequence of AccA from M. tuberculosis and S. coelicolor. The product of the PCR amplification, a DNA fragment of 250bp was used as a probe for screening the U32 genomic cosmid library and its gene, accA, coding the biotinylated protein subunit of acetyl CoA carboxylase, was successfully cloned from U32. The accA ORF encodes a 598-amino-acid protein with the calculated molecular mass of 63.7kD, with 70.1% of G + C content. A typical Streptomyces RBS sequence, AGGAGG, was found at the - 6 position upstream of the start codon GTG. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence showed the presence of biotin-binding site and putative ATP-bicarbonate interaction region, which suggested the U32 AccA may act as a biotin carboxylase as well as a biotin carrier protein. Gene accA was then cloned into the pET28 (b) vector and expressed solubly in E. coli BL21 (DE3) by 0.1 mmol/L IPTG induction. Western blot confirmed the covalent binding of biotin with AccA. Northern blot analyzed transcriptional regulation of accA by 5 different nitrogen sources.

  16. Cloning and expression of pineapple sucrose- phosphate synthase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-12-06

    Dec 6, 2010 ... phosphate; EDTA, ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid; Ivr, invertase; SS .... phenolics, tannins and artifacts due to differences of tissue composition ..... Banana sucrose-phosphate synthase gene expression during fruit ripening.

  17. Reduced methylation of the thromboxane synthase gene is correlated with its increased vascular expression in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Ahmad A; Strauss, Jerome F; Walsh, Scott W

    2012-06-01

    Preeclampsia is characterized by increased thromboxane and decreased prostacyclin levels, which predate symptoms, and can explain some of the clinical manifestations of preeclampsia, including hypertension and thrombosis. In this study, we examined DNA methylation of the promoter region of the thromboxane synthase gene (TBXAS1) and the expression of thromboxane synthase in systemic blood vessels of normal pregnant and preeclamptic women. Thromboxane synthase is responsible for the synthesis of thromboxane A(2), a potent vasoconstrictor and activator of platelets. We also examined the effect of experimentally induced DNA hypomethylation on the expression of thromboxane synthase in a neutrophil-like cell line (HL-60 cells) and in cultured vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells. We found that DNA methylation of the TBXAS1 promoter was decreased and thromboxane synthase expression was increased in omental arteries of preeclamptic women as compared with normal pregnant women. Increased thromboxane synthase expression was observed in vascular smooth muscles cells, endothelial cells, and infiltrating neutrophils. Experimentally induced DNA hypomethylation only increased expression of thromboxane synthase in the neutrophil-like cell line, whereas tumor necrosis factor-α, a neutrophil product, increased its expression in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. Our study suggests that epigenetic mechanisms and release of tumor necrosis factor-α by infiltrating neutrophils could contribute to the increased expression of thromboxane synthase in maternal systemic blood vessels, contributing to the hypertension and coagulation abnormalities associated with preeclampsia.

  18. Decreased NOS1 expression in the anterior cingulate cortex in depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Shang-Feng; Qi, Xin-Rui; Zhao, Juan; Balesar, Rawien; Bao, Ai-Min; Swaab, Dick F.

    2013-01-01

    Decreased function of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is crucially involved in the pathogenesis of depression. A key role of nitric oxide (NO) has also been proposed. We aimed to determine the NO content in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the expression of NO synthase (NOS) isoforms, that is,

  19. Aspirin inhibits interleukin 1-induced prostaglandin H synthase expression in cultured endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, K.K.; Sanduja, R.; Tsai, A.L.; Ferhanoglu, B.; Loose-Mitchell, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    Prostaglandin H (PGH) synthase is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxane, and prostacyclin. In cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells, interleukin 1 (IL-1) is known to induce the synthesis of this enzyme, thereby raising the level of PGH synthase protein severalfold over the basal level. Pretreatment with aspirin at low concentrations inhibited more than 60% of the enzyme mass and also the cyclooxygenase activity in IL-1-induced cells with only minimal effects on the basal level of the synthase enzyme in cells without IL-1. Sodium salicylate exhibited a similar inhibitory action whereas indomethacin had no apparent effect. Similarly low levels of aspirin inhibited the increased L-[ 35 S]methionine incorporation into PGH synthase that was induced by IL0-1 and also suppressed expression of the 2.7-kilobase PGH synthase mRNA. These results suggest that in cultured endothelial cells a potent inhibition of eicosanoid biosynthetic capacity can be effected by aspirin or salicylate at the level of PGH synthase gene expression. The aspirin effect may well be due to degradation of salicylate

  20. Real time expression of ACC oxidase and PR-protein genes mediated by Methylobacterium spp. in tomato plants challenged with Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, W J; Kim, K Y; Lee, Y W; Sundaram, S P; Lee, Y; Sa, T M

    2014-07-15

    Biotic stress like pathogenic infection increases ethylene biosynthesis in plants and ethylene inhibitors are known to alleviate the severity of plant disease incidence. This study aimed to reduce the bacterial spot disease incidence in tomato plants caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (XCV) by modulating stress ethylene with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity of Methylobacterium strains. Under greenhouse condition, Methylobacterium strains inoculated and pathogen challenged tomato plants had low ethylene emission compared to pathogen infected ones. ACC accumulation and ACC oxidase (ACO) activity with ACO related gene expression increased in XCV infected tomato plants over Methylobacterium strains inoculated plants. Among the Methylobacterium spp., CBMB12 resulted lowest ACO related gene expression (1.46 Normalized Fold Expression), whereas CBMB20 had high gene expression (3.42 Normalized Fold Expression) in pathogen challenged tomato. But a significant increase in ACO gene expression (7.09 Normalized Fold Expression) was observed in the bacterial pathogen infected plants. In contrast, Methylobacterium strains enhanced β-1,3-glucanase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) enzyme activities in pathogen challenged tomato plants. The respective increase in β-1,3-glucanase related gene expressions due to CBMB12, CBMB15, and CBMB20 strains were 66.3, 25.5 and 10.4% higher over pathogen infected plants. Similarly, PAL gene expression was high with 0.67 and 0.30 Normalized Fold Expression, in pathogen challenged tomato plants inoculated with CBMB12 and CBMB15 strains. The results suggest that ethylene is a crucial factor in bacterial spot disease incidence and that methylobacteria with ACC deaminase activity can reduce the disease severity with ultimate pathogenesis-related protein increase in tomato. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Expression of prostaglandin synthases (pgds and pges) during zebrafish gonadal differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Nielsen, John E; Nielsen, Betina Frydenlund

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed at elucidating whether the expression pattern of the membrane bound form of prostaglandin E2 synthase (pges) and especially the lipocalin-type prostaglandin D2 synthase (pgds) indicates involvement in gonadal sex differentiation in zebrafish as has previously been found....... In this study, a sexually dimorphic expression of pgds was found in gonads of adult zebrafish with expression in testis but not in ovaries. To determine whether the sex-specific expression pattern of pgds was present in gonads of juvenile zebrafish and therefore could be an early marker of sex in zebrafish, we...... microdissected gonads from four randomly selected individual zebrafish for every second day in the period 2-20 days post hatch (dph) and 0-1 dph. The temporal expression of pgds and pges was investigated in the microdissected gonads, however, no differential expression that could indicate sex-specific difference...

  2. Chondrogenic potential of canine articular cartilage derived cells (cACCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the potential of canine articular cartilage-derived cells (cACCs for chondrogenic differentiation was evaluated. The effectiveness of cACCs’ lineage commitment was analyzed after 14 days of culture in chondorgenic and non-chondrogenic conditions. Formation of proteoglycan-rich extracellular matrix was assessed using histochemical staining – Alcian Blue and Safranin-O, while elemental composition was determined by means of SEM-EDX. Additionally, ultrastructure of cACCs was evaluated using TEM. The expression of genes involved in chondrogenesis was monitored with quantitative Real Time PCR. Results obtained indicate that the potential of cACCs for cartilagous extracellular matrix formation may be maintained only in chondrogenic cultures. The formation of specific chondro-nodules was not observed in a non-chondrogenic culture environment. The analysis of cACCs’ ultrastructure, both in non-chondrogenic and chondrogenic cultures, revealed well-developed rough endoplasmatic reticulum and presence of mitochondria. The cACCs in chondrogenic medium shed an increased number of microvesicles. Furthermore, it was shown that the extracellular matrix of cACCs in chondrogenic cultures is rich in potassium and molybdenum. Additionally, it was determined that gene expression of collagen type II, aggrecan and SOX-9 was significantly increased during chondrogenic differentiation of cACCs. Results obtained indicate that the culture environment may significantly influence the cartilage phenotype of cACCs during long term culture.

  3. Expression of ACC oxidase promoter-GUS fusions in tomato and Nicotiana plumbaginifolia regulated by developmental and environmental stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, B; Grierson, D

    1997-10-01

    The enzyme ACC oxidase, catalysing the last step in the biosynthesis of the plant hormone ethylene, is encoded by a small multigene family in tomato, comprising three members, LEACO1, LEACO2 and LEACO3. LEACO1 is the major gene expressed during ripening, leaf senescence, and wounding (Barry et al., 1996). To investigate the transcriptional regulation of ACC oxidase gene expression, chimeric fusions between the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene and 97 bp of 5' UTR plus 124, 396 and 1825 bp, respectively, of 5' untranscribed LEACO1 sequence were constructed and introduced into Lycopersicon esculentum (Mill cv. Ailsa Craig) and Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. Analysis of transgenic tomatoes indicated that the region containing nucleotides -124 to +97 of the LEACO1 gene is sufficient to confer a marked increase in GUS activity during fruit ripening, albeit at very low levels. Fusion of 396 and 1825 bp of LEACO1 upstream sequence resulted in strong and specific induction of GUS expression in situations known to be accompanied by enhanced ethylene production. Reporter gene expression was similar to that of the endogenous LEACO1 gene, with major increases especially during fruit ripening, senescence and abscission of leaves and, to a lesser extent, of flowers. Analysis of transgenic N. plumbaginifolia plants confirmed the pattern of LEACO1 promoter activity detected in tomato leaves and flowers. Reporter gene expression was also induced following wounding, treatment with ethylene, and pathogen infection. Histochemical analysis illustrated localized GUS activity in the pericarp of ripening fruit, abscission zones of senescent petioles and unfertilized flowers, and at wound sites. These results demonstrate that ACC oxidase is regulated at the transcriptional level in a wide range of cell types at different developmental stages and in response to several external stimuli.

  4. Seasonal influence on gene expression of monoterpene synthases in Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grausgruber-Gröger, Sabine; Schmiderer, Corinna; Steinborn, Ralf; Novak, Johannes

    2012-03-01

    Garden sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is one of the most important medicinal and aromatic plants and possesses antioxidant, antimicrobial, spasmolytic, astringent, antihidrotic and specific sensorial properties. The essential oil of the plant, formed mainly in very young leaves, is in part responsible for these activities. It is mainly composed of the monoterpenes 1,8-cineole, α- and β-thujone and camphor synthesized by the 1,8-cineole synthase, the (+)-sabinene synthase and the (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, respectively, and is produced and stored in epidermal glands. In this study, the seasonal influence on the formation of the main monoterpenes in young, still expanding leaves of field-grown sage plants was studied in two cultivars at the level of mRNA expression, analyzed by qRT-PCR, and at the level of end-products, analyzed by gas chromatography. All monoterpene synthases and monoterpenes were significantly influenced by cultivar and season. 1,8-Cineole synthase and its end product 1,8-cineole remained constant until August and then decreased slightly. The thujones increased steadily during the vegetative period. The transcript level of their corresponding terpene synthase, however, showed its maximum in the middle of the vegetative period and declined afterwards. Camphor remained constant until August and then declined, exactly correlated with the mRNA level of the corresponding terpene synthase. In summary, terpene synthase mRNA expression and respective end product levels were concordant in the case of 1,8-cineole (r=0.51 and 0.67 for the two cultivars, respectively; p<0.05) and camphor (r=0.75 and 0.82; p<0.05) indicating basically transcriptional control, but discordant for α-/β-thujone (r=-0.05 and 0.42; p=0.87 and 0.13, respectively). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. 2-Methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) synthase expression in Nostoc punctiforme leads to over production of phytols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Dinesh; Ip, Tina; Summers, Michael L; Basu, Chhandak

    2015-01-01

    Phytol is a diterpene alcohol of medicinal importance and it also has potential to be used as biofuel. We found over production of phytol in Nostoc punctiforme by expressing a 2-Methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) synthase gene. MBO synthase catalyzes the conversion of dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP) into MBO, a volatile hemiterpene alcohol, in Pinus sabiniana. The result of enhanced phytol production in N. punctiforme, instead of MBO, could be explained by one of the 2 models: either the presence of a native prenyltransferase enzyme with a broad substrate specificity, or appropriation of a MBO synthase metabolic intermediate by a native geranyl diphosphate (GDP) synthase. In this work, an expression vector with an indigenous petE promoter for gene expression in the cyanobacterium N. punctiforme was constructed and MBO synthase gene expression was successfully shown using reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR and SDS-PAGE. Gas chromatography--mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS) was performed to confirm phytol production from the transgenic N. punctiforme strains. We conclude that the expression of MBO synthase in N. punctiforme leads to overproduction of an economically important compound, phytol. This study provides insights about metabolic channeling of isoprenoids in cyanobacteria and also illustrates the challenges of bioengineering non-native hosts to produce economically important compounds.

  6. Altered expression of the caffeine synthase gene in a naturally caffeine-free mutant of Coffea arabica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Perez Maluf

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we studied the biosynthesis of caffeine by examining the expression of genes involved in this biosynthetic pathway in coffee fruits containing normal or low levels of this substance. The amplification of gene-specific transcripts during fruit development revealed that low-caffeine fruits had a lower expression of the theobromine synthase and caffeine synthase genes and also contained an extra transcript of the caffeine synthase gene. This extra transcript contained only part of exon 1 and all of exon 3. The sequence of the mutant caffeine synthase gene revealed the substitution of isoleucine for valine in the enzyme active site that probably interfered with enzymatic activity. These findings indicate that the absence of caffeine in these mutants probably resulted from a combination of transcriptional regulation and the presence of mutations in the caffeine synthase amino acid sequence.

  7. Expression of prostaglandin synthases (pgds and pges) duringzebrafishgonadal differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Nielsen, John E.; Nielsen, Betina F.

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed at elucidating whether the expression pattern of the membrane bound form of prostaglandin E-2 synthase (pges) and especially the lipocalin-type prostaglandin D-2 synthase (pgds) indicates involvement in gonadal sex differentiation in zebrafish as has previously been found...... In this study, a sexually dimorphic expression of pgds was found in gonads of adult zebrafish with expression in testis but not in ovaries. To determine whether the sex-specific expression pattern of pgds was present in gonads of juvenile zebrafish and therefore could be an early marker of sex in zebrafish, we...... microdissected gonads from four randomly selected individual zebrafish for every second day in the period 2-20 days post hatch (dph) and 0-1 dph The temporal expression of pgds and pges was investigated in the microdissected gonads, however, no differential expression that could indicate sex-specific difference...

  8. 1-11C-acetate as a PET radiopharmaceutical for imaging fatty acid synthase expression in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vāvere, Amy L; Kridel, Steven J; Wheeler, Frances B; Lewis, Jason S

    2008-02-01

    Although it is accepted that the metabolic fate of 1-(11)C-acetate is different in tumors than in myocardial tissue because of different clearance patterns, the exact pathway has not been fully elucidated. For decades, fatty acid synthesis has been quantified in vitro by the incubation of cells with (14)C-acetate. Fatty acid synthase (FAS) has been found to be overexpressed in prostate carcinomas, as well as other cancers, and it is possible that imaging with 1-(11)C-acetate could be a marker for its expression. In vitro and in vivo uptake experiments in prostate tumor models with 1-(11)C-acetate were performed both with and without blocking of fatty acid synthesis with either C75, an inhibitor of FAS, or 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid (TOFA), an inhibitor of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). FAS levels were measured by Western blot and immunohistochemical techniques for comparison. In vitro studies in 3 different prostate tumor models (PC-3, LNCaP, and 22Rv1) demonstrated blocking of 1-(11)C-acetate accumulation after treatment with both C75 and TOFA. This was further shown in vivo in PC-3 and LNCaP tumor-bearing mice after a single treatment with C75. A positive correlation between 1-(11)C-acetate uptake into the solid tumors and FAS expression levels was found. Extensive involvement of the fatty acid synthesis pathway in 1-(11)C-acetate uptake in prostate tumors was confirmed, leading to a possible marker for FAS expression in vivo by noninvasive PET.

  9. Use of heterologous expressed polyketide synthase and small molecule foldases to make aromatic and cyclic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    A method for producing individual or libraries of tri- to pentadecaketide-derived aromatic compounds of interest by heterologous expression of polyketide synthase and aromatase/cyclase in a recombinant host cell.......A method for producing individual or libraries of tri- to pentadecaketide-derived aromatic compounds of interest by heterologous expression of polyketide synthase and aromatase/cyclase in a recombinant host cell....

  10. Isolation and expression of the Pneumocystis carinii thymidylate synthase gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edman, U; Edman, J C; Lundgren, B

    1989-01-01

    The thymidylate synthase (TS) gene from Pneumocystis carinii has been isolated from complementary and genomic DNA libraries and expressed in Escherichia coli. The coding sequence of TS is 891 nucleotides, encoding a 297-amino acid protein of Mr 34,269. The deduced amino acid sequence is similar...

  11. Monoterpene synthases from common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce (Pullman, WA); Wise, Mitchell Lynn (Pullman, WA); Katahira, Eva Joy (Pullman, WA); Savage, Thomas Jonathan (Christchurch 5, NZ)

    1999-01-01

    cDNAs encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase from common sage (Salvia officinalis) have been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequences has been determined. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences (SEQ ID No:1; SEQ ID No:3 and SEQ ID No:5) are provided which code for the expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2), 1,8-cineole synthase (SEQ ID No:4) and (+)-sabinene synthase SEQ ID No:6), respectively, from sage (Salvia officinalis). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of the aforementioned recombinant monoterpene synthases that may be used to facilitate their production, isolation and purification in significant amounts. Recombinant (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase may be used to obtain expression or enhanced expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase, or the production of their products.

  12. Nitric oxide synthase expression and enzymatic activity in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, H; Andersen, B; Wanscher, B

    2004-01-01

    We used post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance to obtain paired biopsies from the brains of four patients with clinical definite multiple sclerosis (MS). Samples were analyzed for the immunoreactivity (IR) of the three nitric oxide (NO) synthase isoforms [inducible, neuronal......NOS expressing cells in active lesions. NOS IR expressing cells were widely distributed in plaques, in white and gray matter that appeared normal macroscopically, and on MR. Endothelial NOS (eNOS) was highly expressed in intraparenchymal vascular endothelial cells of MS patients. A control group matched for age...

  13. Impact of drought stress on specialised metabolism: Biosynthesis and the expression of monoterpene synthases in sage (Salvia officinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Alzahraa; Kleinwächter, Maik; Selmar, Dirk

    2017-09-01

    In previous experiments, we demonstrated that the amount of monoterpenes in sage is increased massively by drought stress. Our current study is aimed to elucidate whether this increase is due, at least in part, to elevated activity of the monoterpene synthases responsible for the biosynthesis of essential oils in sage. Accordingly, the transcription rates of the monoterpene synthases were analyzed. Salvia officinalis plants were cultivated under moderate drought stress. The concentrations of monoterpenes as well as the expression of the monoterpene synthases were analyzed. The amount of monoterpenes massively increased in response to drought stress; it doubled after just two days of drought stress. The observed changes in monoterpene content mostly match with the patterns of monoterpene synthase expressions. The expression of bornyl diphosphate synthase was strongly up-regulated; its maximum level was reached after two days. Sabinene synthase increased gradually and reached a maximum after two weeks. In contrast, the transcript level of cineole synthase continuously declined. This study revealed that the stress related increase of biosynthesis is not only due to a "passive" shift caused by the stress related over-reduced status, but also is due - at least in part-to an "active" up-regulation of the enzymes involved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization and sequencing of the active site of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yip, Wing-Kin; Dong, Jian-Guo; Yang, S.F.; Kenny, J.W.; Thompson, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase the key enzyme in ethylene biosynthesis, is inactivated by its substrate S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet). Apple ACC synthase was purified with an immunoaffinity gel, and its active site was probed with NaB 3 H 4 or Ado[ 14 C]Met. Peptide sequencing of both 3 H- and 14 C-labeled peptides revealed a common dodecapeptide of Ser-Leu-Ser-Xaa-Asp-Leu-Gly-Leu-Pro-Gly-Phe-Arg, where Xaa was the modified, radioactive residue in each case. Acid hydrolysis of the 3 H-labeled enzyme released radioactive N-pyridoxyllysine, indicating that the active-site peptide contained lysine at position 4. Mass spectrometry of the 14 C-labeled peptide indicated a protonated molecular ion at m/z 1390.6, from which the mass of Xaa was calculated to be 229, a number that is equivalent to the mass of a lysine residue alkylated by the 2-aminobutyrate portion of AdoMet, as we previously proposed. These results indicate that the same active-site lysine binds the PLP and convalently links to the 2-aminobutyrate portion of AdoMet during inactivation. The active site of tomato ACC synthase was probed in the same manner with Ado [ 14 C]Met. Sequencing of the tomato active-site peptide revealed two highly conserved dodecapeptides; the minor peptide possessed a sequence identical to that of the apple enzyme, whereas the major peptide differed from the minor peptide in that methionine replaced leucine at position 6

  15. ACCES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikitin, Artyom; Laoudias, Christos; Chatzimilioudis, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    In this demonstration we present ACCES, a novel framework that enables quality assessment of arbitrary fingerprint maps and offline accuracy estimation for the task of fingerprint-based indoor localization. Our framework considers collected fingerprints disregarding the physical origin of the data...... will be able to use our service directly to collect signal measurements over the venue using an Android smartphone; and (ii) Reflection Mode, where attendees will be able to observe the collected measurements and the respective ACCES accuracy estimations in the form of an overlay heatmap....

  16. Application of a Colorimetric Assay to Identify Putative Ribofuranosylaminobenzene 5'-Phosphate Synthase Genes Expressed with Activity in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bechard Matthew E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetrahydromethanopterin (H4MPT is a tetrahydrofolate analog originally discovered in methanogenic archaea, but later found in other archaea and bacteria. The extent to which H4MPT occurs among living organisms is unknown. The key enzyme which distinguishes the biosynthetic pathways of H4MPT and tetrahydrofolate is ribofuranosylaminobenzene 5'-phosphate synthase (RFAP synthase. Given the importance of RFAP synthase in H4MPT biosynthesis, the identification of putative RFAP synthase genes and measurement of RFAP synthase activity would provide an indication of the presence of H4MPT in untested microorganisms. Investigation of putative archaeal RFAP synthase genes has been hampered by the tendency of the resulting proteins to form inactive inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli. The current work describes a colorimetric assay for measuring RFAP synthase activity, and two modified procedures for expressing recombinant RFAP synthase genes to produce soluble, active enzyme. By lowering the incubation temperature during expression, RFAP synthase from Archaeoglobus fulgidus was produced in E. coli and purified to homogeneity. The production of active RFAP synthase from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus was achieved by coexpression of the gene MTH0830 with a molecular chaperone. This is the first direct biochemical identification of a methanogen gene that codes for an active RFAP synthase.

  17. Application of a Colorimetric Assay to Identify Putative Ribofuranosylaminobenzene 5'-Phosphate Synthase Genes Expressed with Activity in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechard, Matthew E.; Chhatwal, Sonya; Garcia, Rosemarie E.; Rasche, Madeline E.

    2003-01-01

    Tetrahydromethanopterin (H(4)MPT) is a tetrahydrofolate analog originally discovered in methanogenic archaea, but later found in other archaea and bacteria. The extent to which H(4)MPT occurs among living organisms is unknown. The key enzyme which distinguishes the biosynthetic pathways of H(4)MPT and tetrahydrofolate is ribofuranosylaminobenzene 5'-phosphate synthase (RFAP synthase). Given the importance of RFAP synthase in H(4)MPT biosynthesis, the identification of putative RFAP synthase genes and measurement of RFAP synthase activity would provide an indication of the presence of H(4)MPT in untested microorganisms. Investigation of putative archaeal RFAP synthase genes has been hampered by the tendency of the resulting proteins to form inactive inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli. The current work describes a colorimetric assay for measuring RFAP synthase activity, and two modified procedures for expressing recombinant RFAP synthase genes to produce soluble, active enzyme. By lowering the incubation temperature during expression, RFAP synthase from Archaeoglobus fulgidus was produced in E. coli and purified to homogeneity. The production of active RFAP synthase from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus was achieved by coexpression of the gene MTH0830 with a molecular chaperone. This is the first direct biochemical identification of a methanogen gene that codes for an active RFAP synthase.

  18. Identification of a novel CoA synthase isoform, which is primarily expressed in Brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemazanyy, Ivan; Panasyuk, Ganna; Breus, Oksana; Zhyvoloup, Alexander; Filonenko, Valeriy; Gout, Ivan T.

    2006-01-01

    CoA and its derivatives Acetyl-CoA and Acyl-CoA are important players in cellular metabolism and signal transduction. CoA synthase is a bifunctional enzyme which mediates the final stages of CoA biosynthesis. In previous studies, we have reported molecular cloning, biochemical characterization, and subcellular localization of CoA synthase (CoASy). Here, we describe the existence of a novel CoA synthase isoform, which is the product of alternative splicing and possesses a 29aa extension at the N-terminus. We termed it CoASy β and originally identified CoA synthase, CoASy α. The transcript specific for CoASy β was identified by electronic screening and by RT-PCR analysis of various rat tissues. The existence of this novel isoform was further confirmed by immunoblot analysis with antibodies directed to the N-terminal peptide of CoASy β. In contrast to CoASy α, which shows ubiquitous expression, CoASy β is primarily expressed in Brain. Using confocal microscopy, we demonstrated that both isoforms are localized on mitochondria. The N-terminal extension does not affect the activity of CoA synthase, but possesses a proline-rich sequence which can bring the enzyme into complexes with signalling proteins containing SH3 or WW domains. The role of this novel isoform in CoA biosynthesis, especially in Brain, requires further elucidation

  19. Effects of aminoisobutyric acid on 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid uptake, ethylene production and content of ACC in water-stressed tomato plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalantari, Kh.M.; Bolourani, P.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of water stress on the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis has not yet clearly been established. Both the formation and utilization of aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, ACC, are considered to be major regulatory points in ethylene biosynthesis. There is evidence that ACC synthase is the key control enzyme in response to various stimuli associated with the induction of ethylene biosynthesis. It has been reported that aminoisobutyric acid, AIB, inhibits ethylene production in some plants and AIB may inhibit the conversion of ACC to ethylene. For this reason, the possibility of inhibition of ACC uptake in the presence of AIB was examined. It was observed that the rate of 14 C-ACC uptake decreased with an increase in the concentration of AIB in the solution. Calculating the percentage of ACC converted to ethylene on the basis of uptake shows that AIB inhibits the conversion of 14 C-ACC to ethylene and that this inhibition is increased with an increase in the concentration of AIB in the solution. This suggests that a portion of the inhibition of the conversion of ACC to ethylene in the presence of AIB is partly due to the competition for absorption. However, the ability of AIB to inhibit ethylene production in leaf tissue without an exogenous supply of ACC clearly indicates that AIB inhibits ethylene production. The present study was undertaken to elucidate the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis in water-stressed plants and the results are discussed

  20. Genetic profiling reveals cross-contamination and misidentification of 6 adenoid cystic carcinoma cell lines: ACC2, ACC3, ACCM, ACCNS, ACCS and CAC2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janyaporn Phuchareon

    Full Text Available Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC is the second most common malignant neoplasm of the salivary glands. Most patients survive more than 5 years after surgery and postoperative radiation therapy. The 10 year survival rate, however, drops to 40%, due to locoregional recurrences and distant metastases. Improving long-term survival in ACC requires the development of more effective systemic therapies based on a better understanding of the biologic behavior of ACC. Much preclinical research in this field involves the use of cultured cells and, to date, several ACC cell lines have been established. Authentication of these cell lines, however, has not been reported. We performed DNA fingerprint analysis on six ACC cell lines using short tandem repeat (STR examinations and found that all six cell lines had been contaminated with other cells. ACC2, ACC3, and ACCM were determined to be cervical cancer cells (HeLa cells, whereas the ACCS cell line was composed of T24 urinary bladder cancer cells. ACCNS and CAC2 cells were contaminated with cells derived from non-human mammalian species: the cells labeled ACCNS were mouse cells and the CAC2 cells were rat cells. These observations suggest that future studies using ACC cell lines should include cell line authentication to avoid the use of contaminated or non-human cells.

  1. Oxide Synthase Expression by p38 MAP Kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuija Turpeinen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of dual specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1 in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression in A549 human pulmonary epithelial cells, J774 mouse macrophages and primary mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs was investigated. iNOS expression was induced by a cytokine mixture (TNF, IFNγ and IL-1β in A549 cells and by LPS in J774 cells, and it was inhibited by p38 MAPK inhibitors SB202190 and BIRB 796. Stimulation with cytokine mixture or LPS enhanced also DUSP1 expression. Down-regulation of DUSP1 by siRNA increased p38 MAPK phosphorylation and iNOS expression in A549 and J774 cells. In addition, LPS-induced iNOS expression was enhanced in BMMs from DUSP1(−/− mice as compared to that in BMMs from wild-type mice. The results indicate that DUSP1 suppresses iNOS expression by limiting p38 MAPK activity in human and mouse cells. Compounds that enhance DUSP1 expression or modulate its function may be beneficial in diseases complicated with increased iNOS-mediated NO production.

  2. Microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer and association with thymidylate synthase and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren A; Vainer, Ben; Kruhøffer, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    unclarified. The association of MSI and MMR status with outcome and with thymidylate synthase (TS) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) expression in colorectal cancer were evaluated. METHODS: MSI in five reference loci, MMR enzymes (hMSH2, hMSH6, hMLH1 and hPMS2), thymidylate synthase (TS....... Absence of repair protein expression was assessed in 52 (17.0%) tumors, which had primarily lost hMLH1 in 39 (12.7%), hMSH2 in 5 (1.6%), and hMSH6 in 8 (2.6%) tumors. In multivariate analysis MSI (instable) compared to MSS (stable) tumors were significantly associated with lower risk of recurrence (hazard...

  3. Inducible expression of trehalose synthase in Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Youran; Gu, Zhenghua; Zhang, Liang; Ding, Zhongyang; Shi, Guiyang

    2017-02-01

    Trehalose synthase (TreS) could transform maltose into trehalose via isomerization. It is a crucial enzyme in the process of trehalose enzymatical transformation. In this study, plasmid-based inducible expression systems were constructed to produce Thermomonospora curvata TreS in B. licheniformis. Xylose operons from B. subtilis, B. licheniformis and B. megaterium were introduced to regulate the expression of the gene encoding TreS. It was functionally expressed, and the BlsTs construct yielded the highest enzyme activity (12.1 U/mL). Furthermore, the effect of different cultural conditions on the inducible expression of BlsTs was investigated, and the optimal condition was as follows: 4% maltodextrin, 0.4% soybean powder, 1% xylose added after 10 h of growth and an induction time of 12 h at 37 °C. As a result, the maximal yield reached 24.7 U/mL. This study contributes to the industrial application of B. licheniformis, a GRAS workhorse for enzyme production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Unchanged gene expression of glycogen synthase in muscle from patients with NIDDM following sulphonylurea-induced improvement of glycaemic control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, H; Lund, S; Bjørbaek, C

    1995-01-01

    We have previously shown that the mRNA expression of muscle glycogen synthase is decreased in non-insulin-dependent diabetic (NIDDM) patients; the objective of the present protocol was to examine whether the gene expression of muscle glycogen synthase in NIDDM is affected by chronic sulphonylurea...... as enhanced beta-cell responses to an oral glucose load. During euglycaemic, hyperinsulinaemic clamp (2 mU x kg-1 x min-1) in combination with indirect calorimetry, a 35% (p=0.005) increase in whole-body insulin-stimulated glucose disposal rate, predominantly due to an increased non-oxidative glucose....... In conclusion, improved blood glucose control in gliclazide-treated obese NIDDM patients has no impact on the gene expression of muscle glycogen synthase....

  5. Identification and characterization of an Apis cerana cerana Delta class glutathione S-transferase gene ( AccGSTD) in response to thermal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Huiru; Jia, Haihong; Wang, Xiuling; Gao, Hongru; Guo, Xingqi; Xu, Baohua

    2013-02-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are members of a multifunctional enzyme super family that plays a pivotal role in both insecticide resistance and protection against oxidative stress. In this study, we identified a single-copy gene, AccGSTD, as being a Delta class GST in the Chinese honey bee ( Apis cerana cerana). A predicted antioxidant response element, CREB, was found in the 1,492-bp 5'-flanking region, suggesting that AccGSTD may be involved in oxidative stress response pathways. Real-time PCR and immunolocalization studies demonstrated that AccGSTD exhibited both developmental- and tissue-specific expression patterns. During development, AccGSTD transcript was increased in adults. The AccGSTD expression level was the highest in the honey bee brain. Thermal stress experiments demonstrated that AccGSTD could be significantly upregulated by temperature changes in a time-dependent manner. It is hypothesized that high expression levels might be due to the increased levels of oxidative stress caused by the temperature challenges. Additionally, functional assays of the recombinant AccGSTD protein revealed that AccGSTD has the capability to protect DNA from oxidative damage. Taken together, these data suggest that AccGSTD may be responsible for antioxidant defense in adult honey bees.

  6. Cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of dihydrodipicolinate synthase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, Sarah C.; Dogovski, Con; Dobson, Renwick C. J.; Perugini, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Dihydrodipicolinate synthase from the plant pathogen A. tumefaciens has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized in its unliganded form, in the presence of its substrate pyruvate and in the presence of pyruvate and the allosteric inhibitor lysine. Diffraction data for the crystals were collected to a maximum resolution of 1.40 Å. Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) catalyzes the first committed step of the lysine-biosynthesis pathway in bacteria, plants and some fungi. This study describes the cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of DHDPS (NP-354047.1) from the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens (AgT-DHDPS). Enzyme-kinetics studies demonstrate that AgT-DHDPS possesses DHDPS activity in vitro. Crystals of AgT-DHDPS were grown in the unliganded form and in forms with substrate bound and with substrate plus allosteric inhibitor (lysine) bound. X-ray diffraction data sets were subsequently collected to a maximum resolution of 1.40 Å. Determination of the structure with and without substrate and inhibitor will offer insight into the design of novel pesticide agents

  7. Co-expression of peppermint geranyl diphosphate synthase small subunit enhances monoterpene production in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jun-Lin; Wong, Woon-Seng; Jang, In-Cheol; Chua, Nam-Hai

    2017-02-01

    Monoterpenes are important for plant survival and useful to humans. In addition to their function in plant defense, monoterpenes are also used as flavors, fragrances and medicines. Several metabolic engineering strategies have been explored to produce monoterpene in tobacco but only trace amounts of monoterpenes have been detected. We investigated the effects of Solanum lycopersicum 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (SlDXS), Arabidopsis thaliana geranyl diphosphate synthase 1 (AtGPS) and Mentha × piperita geranyl diphosphate synthase small subunit (MpGPS.SSU) on production of monoterpene and geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) diversities, and plant morphology by transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana and overexpression in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum. We showed that MpGPS.SSU could enhance the production of various monoterpenes such as (-)-limonene, (-)-linalool, (-)-α-pinene/β-pinene or myrcene, in transgenic tobacco by elevating geranyl diphosphate synthase (GPS) activity. In addition, overexpression of MpGPS.SSU in tobacco caused early flowering phenotype and increased shoot branching by elevating contents of GA 3 and cytokinins due to upregulated transcript levels of several plastidic 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway genes, geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases 3 (GGPPS3) and GGPPS4. Our method would allow the identification of new monoterpene synthase genes using transient expression in N. benthamiana and the improvement of monoterpene production in transgenic tobacco plants. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Gibberellin overproduction promotes sucrose synthase expression and secondary cell wall deposition in cotton fibers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Qin Bai

    Full Text Available Bioactive gibberellins (GAs comprise an important class of natural plant growth regulators and play essential roles in cotton fiber development. To date, the molecular base of GAs' functions in fiber development is largely unclear. To address this question, the endogenous bioactive GA levels in cotton developing fibers were elevated by specifically up-regulating GA 20-oxidase and suppressing GA 2-oxidase via transgenic methods. Higher GA levels in transgenic cotton fibers significantly increased micronaire values, 1000-fiber weight, cell wall thickness and cellulose contents of mature fibers. Quantitative RT-PCR and biochemical analysis revealed that the transcription of sucrose synthase gene GhSusA1 and sucrose synthase activities were significantly enhanced in GA overproducing transgenic fibers, compared to the wild-type cotton. In addition, exogenous application of bioactive GA could promote GhSusA1 expression in cultured fibers, as well as in cotton hypocotyls. Our results suggested that bioactive GAs promoted secondary cell wall deposition in cotton fibers by enhancing sucrose synthase expression.

  9. Tuning OpenACC loop execution

    KAUST Repository

    Feki, Saber

    2017-01-07

    The purpose of this chapter is to help OpenACC developer who is already familiar with the basic and essential directives to further improve his code performance by adding more descriptive clauses to OpenACC loop constructs. At the end of this chapter the reader will: • Have a better understanding of the purpose of the OpenACC loop construct and its associated clauses illustrated with use cases • Use the acquired knowledge in practice to further improve the performance of OpenACC accelerated codes

  10. Controlling Citrate Synthase Expression by CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Editing for n-Butanol Production in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heo, Min-Ji; Jung, Hwi-Min; Um, Jaeyong

    2017-01-01

    Genome editing using CRISPR/Cas9 was successfully demonstrated in Esherichia coli to effectively produce n-butanol in a defined medium under microaerobic condition. The butanol synthetic pathway genes including those encoding oxygen-tolerant alcohol dehydrogenase were overexpressed in metabolically...... prediction program, UTR designer, and modified using the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing method to reduce its expression level. E. coli strains with decreased citrate synthase expression produced more butanol and the citrate synthase activity was correlated with butanol production. These results demonstrate...

  11. Effects of the inoculations using bacteria producing ACC deaminase on ethylene metabolism and growth of wheat grown under different soil water contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guozhuang; Sun, Yonglin; Sheng, Hao; Li, Haichao; Liu, Xiping

    2018-04-01

    Crop growth and productivity are often impacted by the increased ethylene content induced by adverse environmental conditions such drought. Inoculations with bacteria producing ACC deaminase is considered as a potential biological approach to improve the growth and tolerance of stressed plants by lowering endogenous ethylene level. In this study, germinated wheat seeds were inoculated using three species of the rhizobacteria, which were isolated from the rhizosphere of wheat growing in dryland, and sown in pots. After three weeks, wheat seedlings were exposed to non-limiting water condition, medium drought and severe drought, respectively, for six weeks. The results showed that, irrespective of rhizobacterial inoculations, decreased soil water contents stimulated wheat ethylene metabolism, which was reflected by the significantly increased activity of ACC synthetase and ACC oxidase, besides an increased content of ACC both in the roots and leaves, and an enhanced capacity of leaves to release ethylene, concomitant with a significant decline in shoot and roots biomass. The inoculations of all three rhizobacterial species under each water condition reduced ACC content in wheat leaves, but effects of the inoculations on ACC synthase and ACC oxidase activity in the leaves and roots, ACC content in the roots, the capacity of leaves to release ethylene, and wheat growth varied with water conditions and bacterial species. Hence, both soil water conditions and rhizobacterial inoculations acted on all the processes of ethylene metabolism, with the former being dominant. The inoculations under non-limiting water condition and medium drought promoted shoot and root growth of wheat plants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Strengthening Triterpene Saponins Biosynthesis by Over-Expression of Farnesyl Pyrophosphate Synthase Gene and RNA Interference of Cycloartenol Synthase Gene in Panax notoginseng Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To conform to the multiple regulations of triterpene biosynthesis, the gene encoding farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPS was transformed into Panax notoginseng (P. notoginseng cells in which RNA interference (RNAi of the cycloartenol synthase (CAS gene had been accomplished. Transgenic cell lines showed both higher expression levels of FPS and lower expression levels of CAS compared to the wild-type (WT cells. In the triterpene and phytosterol analysis, transgenic cell lines provided a higher accumulation of total triterpene saponins, and a lower amount of phytosterols in comparison with the WT cells. Compared with the cells in which RNAi of the CAS gene was achieved, the cells with simultaneously over-expressed FPS and silenced CAS showed higher triterpene contents. These results demonstrate that over-expression of FPS can break the rate-limiting reaction catalyzed by FPS in the triterpene saponins biosynthetic pathway; and inhibition of CAS expression can decrease the synthesis metabolic flux of the phytosterol branch. Thus, more precursors flow in the direction of triterpene synthesis, and ultimately promote the accumulation of P. notoginseng saponins. Meanwhile, silencing and over-expressing key enzyme genes simultaneously is more effective than just manipulating one gene in the regulation of saponin biosynthesis.

  13. Bifunctional effects of fucoidan on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jin Won; Yoon, Se Young; Oh, Soo Jin; Kim, Sang Kyum; Kang, Keon Wook

    2006-01-01

    Algal fucoidan is a marine sulfated polysaccharide with a wide variety of biological activities including anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory effects. This study evaluated the effect of fucoidan on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in a macrophage cell line, RAW264.7. Low concentration range of fucoidan (10 μg/ml) increased the basal expression level of iNOS in quiescent macrophages. However, we found for the first time that fucoidan inhibited the release of nitric oxide (NO) in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Western blot analysis revealed that fucoidan suppressed the LPS-induced expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene. Moreover, the activation of both nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) are key steps in the transcriptional activation of the iNOS gene. Here, it was revealed that fucoidan selectively suppressed AP-1 activation, and that the activation of AP-1 appears to be essential for the induction of iNOS in activated macrophages. This inhibitory effect on AP-1 activation by fucoidan might be associated with its NO blocking and anti-inflammatory effects

  14. Optimization of expression and properties of the recombinant acetohydroxyacid synthase of Thermotoga maritima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Eram

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The data provide additional support of the characterization of the biophysical and biochemical properties of the enzyme acetohydroxyacid synthase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima (Eram et al., 2015 [1]. The genes encoding the enzyme subunits have been cloned and expressed in the mesophilic host Escherichia coli. Detailed data include information about the optimization of the expression conditions, biophysical properties of the enzyme and reconstitution of the holoenzyme from individually expressed and purified subunits.

  15. Regulation of galactan synthase expression to modify galactan content in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    None

    2017-08-22

    The disclosure provides methods of engineering plants to modulate galactan content. Specifically, the disclosure provides methods for engineering a plant to increase the galactan content in a plant tissue by inducing expression of beta-1,4-galactan synthase (GALS), modulated by a heterologous promoter. Further disclosed are the methods of modulating expression level of GALS under the regulation of a transcription factor, as well as overexpression of UDP-galactose epimerse in the same plant tissue. Tissue specific promoters and transcription factors can be used in the methods are also provided.

  16. Cell-Specific Expression of Homospermidine Synthase, the Entry Enzyme of the Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Pathway in Senecio vernalis, in Comparison with Its Ancestor, Deoxyhypusine Synthase1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Stefanie; Anke, Sven; Kahmann, Uwe; Hänsch, Robert; Hartmann, Thomas; Ober, Dietrich

    2002-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are constitutive plant defense compounds with a sporadic taxonomic occurrence. The first committed step in PA biosynthesis is catalyzed by homospermidine synthase (HSS). Recent evidence confirmed that HSS evolved by gene duplication from deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS), an enzyme involved in the posttranslational activation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A. To better understand the evolutionary relationship between these two enzymes, which are involved in completely different biological processes, we studied their tissue-specific expression. RNA-blot analysis, reverse transcriptase-PCR, and immunolocalization techniques demonstrated that DHS is constitutively expressed in shoots and roots of Senecio vernalis (Asteraceae), whereas HSS expression is root specific and restricted to distinct groups of endodermis and neighboring cortex cells located opposite to the phloem. All efforts to detect DHS by immunolocalization failed, but studies with promoter-β-glucuronidase fusions confirmed a general expression pattern, at least in young seedlings of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The expression pattern for HSS differs completely from its ancestor DHS due to the adaptation of HSS to the specific requirements of PA biosynthesis. PMID:12226485

  17. Expression, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic study of octaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase from Helicobacter pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jinyong; Zhang, Xiaoli; Mao, Xuhu; Zou, Quanming; Li, Defeng

    2011-01-01

    Octaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase from H. pylori has been expressed, purified and crystallized, and a diffraction data set was collected to 2.00 Å resolution. Octaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase (OPPs) is involved in the synthesis of the side chains of ubiquinone and menaquinone and catalyzes consecutive condensation reactions of farnesyl pyrophosphate with isopentenyl pyrophosphate to generate polyprenyl pyrophosphate and pyrophosphate. In order to investigate the roles played by OPPs in the metabolism of ubiquinone and menaquinone and the enzymatic mechanisms of these enzymes, analysis of the structure–function relationship of OPPs from Helicobacter pylori was initiated. The gene for OPPs was cloned, the protein was expressed, purified and crystallized and a diffraction data set was collected to 2.00 Å resolution. The crystals belonged to space group P4 1 2 1 2 or P4 3 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 109.33, c = 103.41 Å

  18. Enhanced Toxic Metal Accumulation in Engineered Bacterial Cells Expressing Arabidopsis thaliana Phytochelatin Synthase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauge-Merle, Sandrine; Cuiné, Stéphan; Carrier, Patrick; Lecomte-Pradines, Catherine; Luu, Doan-Trung; Peltier, Gilles

    2003-01-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are metal-binding cysteine-rich peptides, enzymatically synthesized in plants and yeasts from glutathione in response to heavy metal stress by PC synthase (EC 2.3.2.15). In an attempt to increase the ability of bacterial cells to accumulate heavy metals, the Arabidopsis thaliana gene encoding PC synthase (AtPCS) was expressed in Escherichia coli. A marked accumulation of PCs was observed in vivo together with a decrease in the glutathione cellular content. When bacterial cells expressing AtPCS were placed in the presence of heavy metals such as cadmium or the metalloid arsenic, cellular metal contents were increased 20- and 50-fold, respectively. We discuss the possibility of using genes of the PC biosynthetic pathway to design bacterial strains or higher plants with increased abilities to accumulate toxic metals, and also arsenic, for use in bioremediation and/or phytoremediation processes. PMID:12514032

  19. A colorimetric assay of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) based on ninhydrin reaction for rapid screening of bacteria containing ACC deaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Chang, S; Lin, L; Li, Y; An, Q

    2011-08-01

    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity is an efficient marker for bacteria to promote plant growth by lowering ethylene levels in plants. We aim to develop a method for rapidly screening bacteria containing ACC deaminase, based on a colorimetric ninhydrin assay of ACC. A reliable colorimetric ninhydrin assay was developed to quantify ACC using heat-resistant polypropylene chimney-top 96-well PCR plates, having the wells evenly heated in boiling water, preventing accidental contamination from boiling water and limiting evaporation. With this method to measure bacterial consumption of ACC, 44 ACC-utilizing bacterial isolates were rapidly screened out from 311 bacterial isolates that were able to grow on minimal media containing ACC as the sole nitrogen source. The 44 ACC-utilizing bacterial isolates showed ACC deaminase activities and belonged to the genus Burkholderia, Pseudomonas or Herbaspirillum. Determination of bacterial ACC consumption by the PCR-plate ninhydrin-ACC assay is a rapid and efficient method for screening bacteria containing ACC deaminase from a large number of bacterial isolates. The PCR-plate ninhydrin-ACC assay extends the utility of the ninhydrin reaction and enables a rapid screening of bacteria containing ACC deaminase from large numbers of bacterial isolates. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Advanced Cruise Control (ACC).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Advanced Cruise Control (ACC), ook bekend als Adaptive, Active of Intelligent Cruise Control, handhaaft niet alleen de door de bestuurder ingestelde rijsnelheid, maar stemt ook de snelheid van het voertuig af op die van de voorligger. ACC helpt op deze manier om een vooraf bepaalde volgtijd tot de

  1. Germacrene A Synthase in Yarrow (Achillea millefolium Is an Enzyme with Mixed Substrate Specificity: Gene Cloning, Functional Characterization and Expression Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila ePazouki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Terpenoid synthases constitute a highly diverse gene family producing a wide range of cyclic and acyclic molecules consisting of isoprene (C5 residues. Often a single terpene synthase produces a spectrum of molecules of given chain length, but some terpene synthases can use multiple substrates, producing products of different chain length. Only a few such enzymes has been characterized, but the capacity for multiple-substrate use can be more widespread than previously thought. Here we focused on germacrene A synthase (GAS that is a key cytosolic enzyme in the sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis pathway in the important medicinal plant Achillea millefolium (AmGAS. The full length encoding gene was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3, functionally characterized, and its in vivo expression was analyzed. The recombinant protein catalyzed formation of germacrene A with the C15 substrate farnesyl diphosphate (FDP, while acyclic monoterpenes were formed with the C10 substrate geranyl diphosphate (GDP and cyclic monoterpenes with the C10 substrate neryl diphosphate (NDP. Although monoterpene synthesis has been assumed to be confined exclusively to plastids, AmGAS can potentially synthesize monoterpenes in cytosol when GDP or NDP become available. AmGAS enzyme had high homology with GAS sequences from other Asteraceae species, suggesting that multi-substrate use can be more widespread among germacrene A synthases than previously thought. Expression studies indicated that AmGAS was expressed in both autotrophic and heterotrophic plant compartments with the highest expression levels in leaves and flowers. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the cloning and characterization of germacrene A synthase coding gene in A. millefolium, and multi-substrate use of GAS enzymes.

  2. Advanced Cruise Control (ACC).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Advanced Cruise Control (ACC), also known as adaptive or intelligent cruise control, not only maintains the driver-set vehicle speed, but also adjusts the vehicle's speed to that of a preceding vehicle, and helps to maintain a pre-selected headway time to the vehicle ahead. ACC systems can have a

  3. Influence of gibberellin and daminozide on the expression of terpene synthases and on monoterpenes in common sage (Salvia officinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiderer, Corinna; Grausgruber-Gröger, Sabine; Grassi, Paolo; Steinborn, Ralf; Novak, Johannes

    2010-07-01

    Common sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is one of the most important medicinal and aromatic plants, with antioxidant, antimicrobial, spasmolytic, astringent, antihidrotic and specific sensorial properties. The essential oil of the plant, composed mainly of the monoterpenes 1,8-cineole, alpha-thujone, beta-thujone and camphor, is responsible for some of these effects. Gibberellins regulate diverse physiological processes in plants, such as seed germination, shoot elongation and cell division. In this study, we analyzed the effect of exogenously applied plant growth regulators, namely gibberellic acid (GA(3)) and daminozide, on leaf morphology and essential oil formation of two leaf stages during the period of leaf expansion. Essential oil content increased with increasing levels of gibberellins and decreased when gibberellin biosynthesis was blocked with daminozide. With increasing levels of gibberellins, 1,8-cineole and camphor contents increased. Daminozide blocked the accumulation of alpha- and beta-thujone. GA(3) at the highest level applied also led to a significant decrease of alpha- and beta-thujone. Monoterpene synthases are a class of enzymes responsible for the first step in monoterpene biosynthesis, competing for the same substrate geranylpyrophosphate. The levels of gene expression of the three most important monoterpene synthases in sage were investigated, 1,8-cineole synthase leading directly to 1,8-cineole, (+)-sabinene synthase responsible for the first step in the formation of alpha- and beta-thujone, and (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, the first step in camphor biosynthesis. The foliar application of GA(3) increased, while daminozide significantly decreased gene expression of the monoterpene synthases. The amounts of two of the end products, 1,8-cineole and camphor, were directly correlated with the levels of gene expression of the respective monoterpene synthases, indicating transcriptional control, while the formation of alpha- and beta

  4. Effects of acetoacetyl-CoA synthase expression on production of farnesene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tippmann, Stefan; Ferreira, Raphael; Siewers, Verena

    2017-01-01

    to overcome the thermodynamic constraint imposed on the first reaction, in which acetoacetyl-CoA is produced from two moles of acetyl-CoA by acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase. Recently, a novel acetoacetyl-CoA synthase (nphT7) has been identified from Streptomyces sp. strain CL190, which catalyzes the irreversible...... functionality of the bypass was limited by the efficiency of acetoacetyl-CoA synthase (nphT7). Besides modulation of the expression level, which could be used as a means to partially restore the phenotype, nphT7 from Streptomyces glaucescens showed clearly higher efficiency compared to Streptomyces sp. strain...

  5. CTP limitation increases expression of CTP synthase in Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, C.M.; Hammer, Karin; Martinussen, Jan

    2003-01-01

    CTP synthase is encoded by the pyrG gene and catalyzes the conversion of UTP to CTP. A Lactococcus lactis pyrG mutant with a cytidine requirement was constructed, in which beta-galactosidase activity in a pyrG-lacLM transcriptional fusion was used to monitor gene expression of pyrG. A 10-fold...... decrease in the CTP pool induced by cytidine limitation was found to immediately increase expression of the L. lactis pyrG gene. The final level of expression of pyrG is 37-fold higher than the uninduced level. CTP limitation has pronounced effects on central cellular metabolism, and both RNA and protein...... for regulation of the pyrG gene. It is possible to fold the pyrG leader in an alternative structure that would prevent the formation of the terminator. We suggest a model for pyrG regulation in L. lactis, and probably in other gram-positive bacteria as well, in which pyrG expression is directly dependent...

  6. Expression of an (E-β-farnesene synthase gene from Asian peppermint in tobacco affected aphid infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiudao Yu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aphids are major agricultural pests that cause significant yield losses in crop plants each year. (E-β-farnesene (EβF is the main or only component of an alarm pheromone involved in chemical communication within aphid species and particularly in the avoidance of predation. EβF also occurs in the essential oil of some plant species, and is catalyzed by EβF synthase. By using oligonucleotide primers designed from the known sequence of an EβF synthase gene from black peppermint (Mentha × piperita, two cDNA sequences, MaβFS1 and MaβFS2, were isolated from Asian peppermint (Mentha asiatica. Expression pattern analysis showed that the MaβFS1 gene exhibited higher expression in flowers than in roots, stems and leaves at the transcriptional level. Overexpression of MaβFS1 in tobacco plants resulted in emission of pure EβF ranging from 2.62 to 4.85 ng d− 1 g− 1 of fresh tissue. Tritrophic interactions involving peach aphids (Myzus persicae, and predatory lacewing (Chrysopa septempunctata larvae demonstrated that transgenic tobacco expressing MaβFS1 had lower aphid infestation. This result suggested that the EβF synthase gene from Asian peppermint could be a good candidate for genetic engineering of agriculturally important crop plants.

  7. [Inhibitory effect and underlying mechanism of total saponins from Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis on the proliferation of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma ACC-83 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiumin, He; Biao, Xu; Weihong, Wang; Chongyun, Bao; Shaowei, Hu

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the inhibitory effect and underlying mechanism of total saponins from Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis on the proliferation of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma ACC-83 cells. In vitro cell culture was performed. The proliferation of ACC-83 cells treated with different concentrations (5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 μg·mL⁻¹) of total saponins from Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis was observed using CCK-8 assay. Meanwhile, the apoptosis of ACC-83 cells treated with different concentrations (25, 50, 100 μg·mL⁻¹) of the total saponins was observed using flow cytometry. The expression levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and CD74 were measured using Western blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The total saponins from Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis induced apoptosis and expressed dose-effect relationship. ACC-83 cells expressed MIF and CD74, and the total saponins suppressed MIF and CD74 expression in ACC-83 cells. The total saponins from Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis can significantly inhibit the proliferation, suppress MIF and CD74 expression, and promote apoptosis in ACC-83 cells. This study provides a theoretical basis for the treatment of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma using Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis.
.

  8. Tuning OpenACC loop execution

    KAUST Repository

    Feki, Saber; Smaoui, Malek

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to help OpenACC developer who is already familiar with the basic and essential directives to further improve his code performance by adding more descriptive clauses to OpenACC loop constructs. At the end

  9. Cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of dihydrodipicolinate synthase from the grapevine Vitis vinifera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, Sarah C.; Dogovski, Con; Newman, Janet; Dobson, Renwick C. J.; Perugini, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    Dihydrodipicolinate synthase from the common grapevine V. vinifera has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized in the presence of the substrate pyruvate by in-drop hexahistidine-tag cleavage. A diffraction data set has been collected to a resolution of 2.2 Å. Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) catalyses the first committed step of the lysine-biosynthesis pathway in bacteria, plants and some fungi. This study describes the cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of DHDPS from the grapevine Vitis vinifera (Vv-DHDPS). Following in-drop cleavage of the hexahistidine tag, cocrystals of Vv-DHDPS with the substrate pyruvate were grown in 0.1 M Bis-Tris propane pH 8.2, 0.2 M sodium bromide, 20%(w/v) PEG 3350. X-ray diffraction data in space group P1 at a resolution of 2.2 Å are presented. Preliminary diffraction data analysis indicated the presence of eight molecules per asymmetric unit (V M = 2.55 Å 3 Da −1 , 52% solvent content). The pending crystal structure of Vv-DHDPS will provide insight into the molecular evolution in quaternary structure of DHDPS enzymes

  10. list of genes methylated by DRM

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... EXPRESSED DURING: 11 growth stages; Has 149 Blast hits to 146 proteins in 39 .... 333, AT1G24070, cellulose synthase-like A10 [Source:TAIR_LOCUS ...... 714, AT1G56600, galactinol synthase 2 [Source:TAIR_LOCUS;Acc:AT1G56600].

  11. (+)-(10R)-Germacrene A synthase from goldenrod, Solidago canadensis; cDNA isolation, bacterial expression and functional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Ian; Phillips, Andy L; Gittings, Simon; Lewis, Mervyn J; Hooper, Antony M; Pickett, John A; Beale, Michael H

    2002-08-01

    Profiling of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons in extracts of goldenrod, Solidago canadensis, by GC-MS revealed the presence of both enantiomers of germacrene D and lesser amounts of germacrene A, alpha-humulene, and beta-caryophyllene. A similarity-based cloning strategy using degenerate oligonucleotide primers, based on conserved amino acid sequences in known plant sesquiterpene synthases and RT-PCR, resulted in the isolation of a full length sesquiterpene synthase cDNA. Functional expression of the cDNA in E. coli, as an N-terminal thioredoxin fusion protein using the pET32b vector yielded an enzyme that was readily purified by nickel-chelate affinity chromatography. Chiral GC-MS analysis of products from of (3)H- and (2)H-labelled farnesyl diphosphate identified the enzyme as (+)-(10R)-germacrene A synthase. Sequence analysis and molecular modelling was used to compare this enzyme with the mechanistically related epi-aristolochene synthase from tobacco.

  12. Characterization of a Decapentapletic Gene (AccDpp from Apis cerana cerana and Its Possible Involvement in Development and Response to Oxidative Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilin Li

    Full Text Available To tolerate many acute and chronic oxidative stress-producing agents that exist in the environment, organisms have evolved many classes of signal transduction pathways, including the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ signal pathway. Decapentapletic gene (Dpp belongs to the TGFβ superfamily, and studies on Dpp have mainly focused on its role in the regulation of development. No study has investigated the response of Dpp to oxidative pressure in any organism, including Apis cerana cerana (A. cerana cerana. In this study, we identified a Dpp gene from A. cerana cerana named AccDpp. The 5΄ flanking region of AccDpp had many transcription factor binding sites that relevant to development and stress response. AccDpp was expressed at all stages of A. cerana cerana, with its highest expression in 15-day worker bees. The mRNA level of AccDpp was higher in the poison gland and midgut than other tissues. Furthermore, the transcription of AccDpp could be repressed by 4°C and UV, but induced by other treatments, according to our qRT-PCR analysis. It is worth noting that the expression level of AccDpp protein was increased after a certain time when A. cerana cerana was subjected to all simulative oxidative stresses, a finding that was not completely consistent with the result from qRT-PCR. It is interesting that recombinant AccDpp restrained the growth of Escherichia coli, a function that might account for the role of the antimicrobial peptides of AccDpp. In conclusion, these results provide evidence that AccDpp might be implicated in the regulation of development and the response of oxidative pressure. The findings may lay a theoretical foundation for further genetic studies of Dpp.

  13. Cloning, expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray data analysis of norcoclaurine synthase from Thalictrum flavum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquo, Alessandra; Bonamore, Alessandra; Franceschini, Stefano; Macone, Alberto; Boffi, Alberto; Ilari, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    The cloning, expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray data analysis of norcoclaurine synthase from T. flavum, a protein which catalyzes the first committed step in the biosynthesis of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, are reported. Norcoclaurine synthase (NCS) catalyzes the condensation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine (dopamine) and 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (4-HPAA) as the first committed step in the biosynthesis of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids in plants. The protein was cloned, expressed and purified. Crystals were obtained at 294 K by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride as precipitant agents and diffract to better than 3.0 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. The crystals belong to the trigonal space group P3 1 21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 86.31, c = 118.36 Å. A selenomethionine derivative was overexpressed, purified and crystallized in the same space group. A complete MAD data set was collected at 2.7 Å resolution. The model is under construction

  14. Intermittent pneumatic compression regulates expression of nitric oxide synthases in skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiangling; Qi, Wen-Ning; Gu, Xiaosong; Urbaniak, James R; Chen, Long-En

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) on expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms in compressed (anterior tibialis, AT) and uncompressed (cremaster muscles, CM) skeletal muscles. Following IPC application of 0.5, 1, and 5h on both legs of rats, the endothelial NOS (eNOS) mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated to 1.2-, 1.8, and 2.7-fold from normal, respectively, in both AT and CM, and protein expression increased more than 1.5-fold of normal at each time point. Similarly, neuronal NOS expression was up-regulated, but to a lesser degree. In contrast, inducible NOS expression was significantly and time-dependently down-regulated in both muscles. After IPC cessation, eNOS levels returned to normal in both AT and CM. The results confirm our hypothesis that IPC-induced vasodilation is mediated by regulating expression of NOS isoforms, in particular eNOS, in both compressed and uncompressed skeletal muscles. The results also suggest the importance of precisely characterizing expression of each NOS isoform in tissue pathophysiology.

  15. Abundance and diversity of archaeal accA gene in hot springs in Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhao-Qi; Wang, Li; Wang, Feng-Ping; Jiang, Hong-Chen; Chen, Jin-Quan; Zhou, En-Min; Liang, Feng; Xiao, Xiang; Li, Wen-Jun

    2013-09-01

    It has been suggested that archaea carrying the accA gene, encoding the alpha subunit of the acetyl CoA carboxylase, autotrophically fix CO2 using the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate pathway in low-temperature environments (e.g., soils, oceans). However, little new information has come to light regarding the occurrence of archaeal accA genes in high-temperature ecosystems. In this study, we investigated the abundance and diversity of archaeal accA gene in hot springs in Yunnan Province, China, using DNA- and RNA-based phylogenetic analyses and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that archaeal accA genes were present and expressed in the investigated Yunnan hot springs with a wide range of temperatures (66-96 °C) and pH (4.3-9.0). The majority of the amplified archaeal accA gene sequences were affiliated with the ThAOA/HWCG III [thermophilic ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA)/hot water crenarchaeotic group III]. The archaeal accA gene abundance was very close to that of AOA amoA gene, encoding the alpha subunit of ammonia monooxygenase. These data suggest that AOA in terrestrial hot springs might acquire energy from ammonia oxidation coupled with CO2 fixation using the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate pathway.

  16. The Regulation of Nitric Oxide Synthase Isoform Expression in Mouse and Human Fallopian Tubes: Potential Insights for Ectopic Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junting Hu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is highly unstable and has a half-life of seconds in buffer solutions. It is synthesized by NO-synthase (NOS, which has been found to exist in the following three isoforms: neuro nitric oxide synthase (nNOS, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS. NOS activity is localized in the reproductive tracts of many species, although direct evidence for NOS isoforms in the Fallopian tubes of mice is still lacking. In the present study, we investigated the expression and regulation of NOS isoforms in the mouse and human Fallopian tubes during the estrous and menstrual cycles, respectively. We also measured isoform expression in humans with ectopic pregnancy and in mice treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Our results confirmed the presence of different NOS isoforms in the mouse and human Fallopian tubes during different stages of the estrous and menstrual cycles and showed that iNOS expression increased in the Fallopian tubes of women with ectopic pregnancy and in LPS-treated mice. Elevated iNOS activity might influence ovulation, cilia beats, contractility, and embryo transportation in such a manner as to increase the risk of ectopic pregnancy. This study has provided morphological and molecular evidence that NOS isoforms are present and active in the human and mouse Fallopian tubes and suggests that iNOS might play an important role in both the reproductive cycle and infection-induced ectopic pregnancies.

  17. Clinical significance of Phosphatidyl Inositol Synthase overexpression in oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Jatinder; Sawhney, Meenakshi; DattaGupta, Siddartha; Shukla, Nootan K; Srivastava, Anurag; Ralhan, Ranju

    2010-01-01

    We reported increased levels of Phosphatidyl Inositol synthase (PI synthase), (enzyme that catalyses phosphatidyl inositol (PI) synthesis-implicated in intracellular signaling and regulation of cell growth) in smokeless tobacco (ST) exposed oral cell cultures by differential display. This study determined the clinical significance of PI synthase overexpression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and premalignant lesions (leukoplakia), and identified the downstream signaling proteins in PI synthase pathway that are perturbed by smokeless tobacco (ST) exposure. Tissue microarray (TMA) Immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, Confocal laser scan microscopy, RT-PCR were performed to define the expression of PI synthase in clinical samples and in oral cell culture systems. Significant increase in PI synthase immunoreactivity was observed in premalignant lesions and OSCCs as compared to oral normal tissues (p = 0.000). Further, PI synthase expression was significantly associated with de-differentiation of OSCCs, (p = 0.005) and tobacco consumption (p = 0.03, OR = 9.0). Exposure of oral cell systems to smokeless tobacco (ST) in vitro confirmed increase in PI synthase, Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and cyclin D1 levels. Collectively, increased PI synthase expression was found to be an early event in oral cancer and a target for smokeless tobacco

  18. [A novel gene (Aa-accA ) encoding acetyl-CoA carboxyltransferase alpha-subunit of Alkalimonas amylolytica N10 enhances salt and alkali tolerance of Escherichia coli and tobacco BY-2 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Mingjie; Zhai, Lei; Zhong, Naiqin; Ma, Yiwei; Xue, Yanfen; Ma, Yanhe

    2013-08-04

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) catalyzes the first step of fatty acid synthesis. In most bacteria, ACC is composed of four subunits encoded by accA, accB, accC, and accD. Of them, accA encodes acetyl-CoA carboxyltransferase alpha-subunit. Our prior work on proteomics of Alkalimonas amylolytica N10 showed that the expression of the Aa-accA has a remarkable response to salt and alkali stress. This research aimed to find out the Aa-accA gene contributing to salt and alkali tolerance. The Aa-accA was amplified by PCR from A. amylolytica N10 and expressed in E. coli K12 host. The effects of Aa-accA expression on the growth of transgenic strains were examined under different NaCl concentration and pH conditions. Transgenic tobacco BY-2 cells harboring Aa-accA were also generated via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The viability of BY-2 cells was determined with FDA staining method after salt and alkali shock. The Aa-accA gene product has 318 amino acids and is homologous to the carboxyl transferase domain of acyl-CoA carboxylases. It showed 76% identity with AccA (acetyl-CoA carboxylase carboxyltransferase subunit alpha) from E. coli. Compared to the wild-type strains, transgenic E. coli K12 strain containing Aa-accA showed remarkable growth superiority when grown in increased NaCl concentrations and pH levels. The final cell density of the transgenic strains was 2.6 and 3.5 times higher than that of the control type when they were cultivated in LB medium containing 6% (W/V) NaCl and at pH 9, respectively. Complementary expression of Aa-accA in an accA-depletion E. coli can recover the tolerance of K12 delta accA to salt and alkali stresses to some extent. Similar to the transgenic E. coli, transgenic tobacco BY-2 cells showed higher percentages of viability compared to the wild BY-2 cells under the salt or alkali stress condition. We found that Aa-accA from A. amylolytica N10 overexpression enhances the tolerance of both transgenic E. coli and tobacco BY-2 cells to

  19. Lattice QCD simulations using the OpenACC platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, Pushan

    2016-01-01

    In this article we will explore the OpenACC platform for programming Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). The OpenACC platform offers a directive based programming model for GPUs which avoids the detailed data flow control and memory management necessary in a CUDA programming environment. In the OpenACC model, programs can be written in high level languages with OpenMP like directives. We present some examples of QCD simulation codes using OpenACC and discuss their performance on the Fermi and Kepler GPUs. (paper)

  20. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in trigeminal ganglion cells during culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen-Olesen, Inger; Zhou, MingFang; Zinck, Tina Jovanovic

    2005-01-01

    RNA and protein could be detected. The data suggest that iNOS expression may be a molecular mechanism mediating the adaptive response of trigeminal ganglia cells to the serum free stressful stimulus the culture environment provides. It may act as a cellular signalling molecule that is expressed after cell......Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signalling molecule that has been suggested to be a key molecule for induction and maintenance of migraine attacks based on clinical studies, animal experimental studies and the expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) immunoreactivity within the trigeminovascular......, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. In trigeminal ganglia cells not subjected to culture, endothelial (e) and neuronal (n) but not inducible (i) NOS mRNA and protein were detected. Culture of rat neurones resulted in a rapid axonal outgrowth of NOS positive...

  1. A first insight into the occurrence and expression of functional amoA and accA genes of autotrophic and ammonia-oxidizing bathypelagic Crenarchaeota of Tyrrhenian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakimov, Michail M.; Cono, Violetta La; Denaro, Renata

    2009-05-01

    The autotrophic and ammonia-oxidizing crenarchaeal assemblage at offshore site located in the deep Mediterranean (Tyrrhenian Sea, depth 3000 m) water was studied by PCR amplification of the key functional genes involved in energy (ammonia mono-oxygenase alpha subunit, amoA) and central metabolism (acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha subunit, accA). Using two recently annotated genomes of marine crenarchaeons, an initial set of primers targeting archaeal accA-like genes was designed. Approximately 300 clones were analyzed, of which 100% of amoA library and almost 70% of accA library were unambiguously related to the corresponding genes from marine Crenarchaeota. Even though the acetyl-CoA carboxylase is phylogenetically not well conserved and the remaining clones were affiliated to various bacterial acetyl-CoA/propionyl-CoA carboxylase genes, the pool of archaeal sequences was applied for development of quantitative PCR analysis of accA-like distribution using TaqMan ® methodolgy. The archaeal accA gene fragments, together with alignable gene fragments from the Sargasso Sea and North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (ALOHA Station) metagenome databases, were analyzed by multiple sequence alignment. Two accA-like sequences, found in ALOHA Station at the depth of 4000 m, formed a deeply branched clade with 64% of all archaeal Tyrrhenian clones. No close relatives for residual 36% of clones, except of those recovered from Eastern Mediterranean, was found, suggesting the existence of a specific lineage of the crenarchaeal accA genes in deep Mediterranean water. Alignment of Mediterranean amoA sequences defined four cosmopolitan phylotypes of Crenarchaeota putative ammonia mono-oxygenase subunit A gene occurring in the water sample from the 3000 m depth. Without exception all phylotypes fell into Deep Marine Group I cluster that contain the vast majority of known sequences recovered from global deep-sea environment. Remarkably, three phylotypes accounted for 91% of all Mediterranean

  2. The Effect of Electroacupuncture on PKMzeta in the ACC in Regulating Anxiety-Like Behaviors in Rats Experiencing Chronic Inflammatory Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junying Du

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammatory pain can induce emotional diseases. Electroacupuncture (EA has effects on chronic pain and pain-related anxiety. Protein kinase Mzeta (PKMzeta has been proposed to be essential for the maintenance of pain and may interact with GluR1 to maintain CNS plasticity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. We hypothesized that the PKMzeta-GluR1 pathway in the ACC may be involved in anxiety-like behaviors of chronic inflammatory pain and that the mechanism of EA regulation of pain emotion may involve the PKMzeta pathway in the ACC. Our results showed that chronic inflammatory pain model decreased the paw withdrawal threshold (PWT and increased anxiety-like behaviors. The protein expression of PKCzeta, p-PKCzeta (T560, PKMzeta, p-PKMzeta (T560, and GluR1 in the ACC of the model group were remarkably enhanced. EA increased PWT and alleviated anxiety-like behaviors. EA significantly inhibited the protein expression of p-PKMzeta (T560 in the ACC, and only a downward trend effect for other substances. Further, the microinjection of ZIP remarkably reversed PWT and anxiety-like behaviors. The present study provides direct evidence that the PKCzeta/PKMzeta-GluR1 pathway is related to pain and pain-induced anxiety-like behaviors. EA treatment both increases pain-related somatosensory behavior and decreases pain-induced anxiety-like behaviors by suppressing PKMzeta activity in the ACC.

  3. Expression analysis of cellulose synthase and main cytoskeletal protein genes in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinousky, Dmitry; Padvitski, Tsimafei; Bayer, Galina; Pirko, Yaroslav; Pydiura, Nikolay; Anisimova, Natallia; Nikitinskaya, Tatyana; Khotyleva, Liubov; Yemets, Alla; Kilchevsky, Aleksandr; Blume, Yaroslav

    2017-08-09

    Fiber flax is an important source of natural fiber and a comprehensive model for the plant fiber biogenesis studies. Cellulose-synthase (CesA) and cytoskeletal genes are known to be important for the cell wall biogenesis in general and for the biogenesis of flax fibers in particular. Currently, knowledge about activity of these genes during the plant growth is limited. In this study, we have investigated flax fiber biogenesis by measuring expression of CesA and cytoskeletal genes at two stages of the flax development (seedlings and stems at the rapid growth stage) in several flax subspecies (elongatum, mediterraneum, crepitans). RT-qPCR has been used to quantify the expression of LusСesA1, LusСesA4, LusСesA7, LusСesA6, Actin, and α-Tubulin genes in plant samples. We report that CesA genes responsible for the secondary cell wall synthesis (LusCesA4, LusCesA7) have different expression pattern compared with CesA genes responsible for the primary cell wall synthesis (LusCesA1, LusCesA6): an average expression of LusCesA4 and LusCesA7 genes is relatively high in seedlings and further increases in stems at the rapid growth stage, whereas an average expression of LusCesA1 and LusCesA6 genes decreases. Interestingly, LusCesA1 is the only studied gene with different expression dynamics between the flax subspecies: its expression decreases by 5.2-10.7 folds in elongatum and mediterraneum but does not change in crepitans subspecies when the rapid growth stage and seedlings are compared. The expression of cytoskeleton genes (coding actin and α-tubulin) is relatively stable and significantly higher than the expression of cellulose-synthase genes in all the studied samples. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  4. Isolation and functional characterization of a τ-cadinol synthase, a new sesquiterpene synthase from Lavandula angustifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jullien, Frédéric; Moja, Sandrine; Bony, Aurélie; Legrand, Sylvain; Petit, Cécile; Benabdelkader, Tarek; Poirot, Kévin; Fiorucci, Sébastien; Guitton, Yann; Nicolè, Florence; Baudino, Sylvie; Magnard, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we characterize three sTPSs: a germacrene D (LaGERDS), a (E)-β-caryophyllene (LaCARS) and a τ-cadinol synthase (LaCADS). τ-cadinol synthase is reported here for the first time and its activity was studied in several biological models including transiently or stably transformed tobacco species. Three dimensional structure models of LaCADS and Ocimum basilicum γ-cadinene synthase were built by homology modeling using the template structure of Gossypium arboreum δ-cadinene synthase. The depiction of their active site organization provides evidence of the global influence of the enzymes on the formation of τ-cadinol: instead of a unique amino-acid, the electrostatic properties and solvent accessibility of the whole active site in LaCADS may explain the stabilization of the cadinyl cation intermediate. Quantitative PCR performed from leaves and inflorescences showed two patterns of expression. LaGERDS and LaCARS were mainly expressed during early stages of flower development and, at these stages, transcript levels paralleled the accumulation of the corresponding terpene products (germacrene D and (E)-β-caryophyllene). By contrast, the expression level of LaCADS was constant in leaves and flowers. Phylogenetic analysis provided informative results on potential duplication process leading to sTPS diversification in lavender.

  5. Human uroporphyrinogen III synthase: Molecular cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of a full-length cDNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Shihfeng; Bishop, D.F.; Desnick, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    Uroporphyrinogen III synthase, the fourth enzyme in the heme biosynthetic pathway, is responsible for conversion of the linear tetrapyrrole, hydroxymethylbilane, to the cyclic tetrapyrrole, uroporphyrinogen III. The deficient activity of URO-synthase is the enzymatic defect in the autosomal recessive disorder congenital erythropoietic porphyria. To facilitate the isolation of a full-length cDNA for human URO-synthase, the human erythrocyte enzyme was purified to homogeneity and 81 nonoverlapping amino acids were determined by microsequencing the N terminus and four tryptic peptides. Two synthetic oligonucleotide mixtures were used to screen 1.2 x 10 6 recombinants from a human adult liver cDNA library. Eight clones were positive with both oligonucleotide mixtures. Of these, dideoxy sequencing of the 1.3 kilobase insert from clone pUROS-2 revealed 5' and 3' untranslated sequences of 196 and 284 base pairs, respectively, and an open reading frame of 798 base pairs encoding a protein of 265 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 28,607 Da. The isolation and expression of this full-length cDNA for human URO-synthase should facilitate studies of the structure, organization, and chromosomal localization of this heme biosynthetic gene as well as the characterization of the molecular lesions causing congenital erythropoietic porphyria

  6. Prostacyclin synthase expression and epigenetic regulation in nonsmall cell lung cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cathcart, Mary-Clare

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostacyclin synthase (PGIS) metabolizes prostaglandin H(2), into prostacyclin. This study aimed to determine the expression profile of PGIS in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and examine potential mechanisms involved in PGIS regulation. METHODS: PGIS expression was examined in human NSCLC and matched controls by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western analysis, and immunohistochemistry. A 204-patient NSCLC tissue microarray was stained for PGIS and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) expression. Staining intensity was correlated with clinical parameters. Epigenetic mechanisms underpinning PGIS promoter expression were examined using RT-PCR, methylation-specific PCR, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis. RESULTS: PGIS expression was reduced\\/absent in human NSCLC protein samples (P < .0001), but not mRNA relative to matched controls. PGIS tissue expression was higher in squamous cell carcinoma (P = .004) and in male patients (P < .05). No significant correlation of PGIS or COX2 expression with overall patient survival was observed, although COX2 was prognostic for short-term (2-year) survival (P < .001). PGIS mRNA expression was regulated by DNA CpG methylation and histone acetylation in NSCLC cell lines, with chromatin remodeling taking place directly at the PGIS gene. PGIS mRNA expression was increased by both demethylation agents and histone deacetylase inhibitors. Protein levels were unaffected by demethylation agents, whereas PGIS protein stability was negatively affected by histone deacetylase inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: PGIS protein expression is reduced in NSCLC, and does not correlate with overall patient survival. PGIS expression is regulated through epigenetic mechanisms. Differences in expression patterns between mRNA and protein levels suggest that PGIS expression and protein stability are regulated post-translationally. PGIS protein stability may have an important therapeutic role in NSCLC.

  7. Microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer and association with thymidylate synthase and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Søren A; Vainer, Ben; Kruhøffer, Mogens; Sørensen, Jens B

    2009-01-01

    Microsatellite instability (MSI) refers to mutations in short motifs of tandemly repeated nucleotides resulting from replication errors and deficient mismatch repair (MMR). Colorectal cancer with MSI has characteristic biology and chemosensitivity, however the molecular basis remains unclarified. The association of MSI and MMR status with outcome and with thymidylate synthase (TS) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) expression in colorectal cancer were evaluated. MSI in five reference loci, MMR enzymes (hMSH2, hMSH6, hMLH1 and hPMS2), thymidylate synthase (TS) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) expression were assessed in paraffin embedded tumor specimens, and associated with outcome in 340 consecutive patients completely resected for colorectal cancer stages II-IV and subsequently receiving adjuvant 5-fluorouracil therapy. MSI was found in 43 (13.8%) tumors. Absence of repair protein expression was assessed in 52 (17.0%) tumors, which had primarily lost hMLH1 in 39 (12.7%), hMSH2 in 5 (1.6%), and hMSH6 in 8 (2.6%) tumors. In multivariate analysis MSI (instable) compared to MSS (stable) tumors were significantly associated with lower risk of recurrence (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.3; 95% CI: 0.2–0.7; P = 0.0007) and death (HR = 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2–0.9; P = 0.02) independently of the TS and DPD expressions. A direct relationship between MSI and TS intensity (P = 0.001) was found, while there was no significant association with DPD intensity (P = 0.1). The favourable outcome of MSI colorectal carcinomas is ascribed mainly to the tumor biology and to a lesser extent to antitumor response to 5-fluorouracil therapy. There is no evidence that differential TS or DPD expression may account for these outcome characteristics

  8. An In Planta-Expressed Polyketide Synthase Produces (R)-Mellein in the Wheat Pathogen Parastagonospora nodorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krill, Christian; Barrow, Russell A.; Chen, Shasha; Trengove, Robert; Oliver, Richard P.; Solomon, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Parastagonospora nodorum is a pathogen of wheat that affects yields globally. Previous transcriptional analysis identified a partially reducing polyketide synthase (PR-PKS) gene, SNOG_00477 (SN477), in P. nodorum that is highly upregulated during infection of wheat leaves. Disruption of the corresponding SN477 gene resulted in the loss of production of two compounds, which we identified as (R)-mellein and (R)-O-methylmellein. Using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast heterologous expression system, we successfully demonstrated that SN477 is the only enzyme required for the production of (R)-mellein. This is the first identification of a fungal PKS that is responsible for the synthesis of (R)-mellein. The P. nodorum ΔSN477 mutant did not show any significant difference from the wild-type strain in its virulence against wheat. However, (R)-mellein at 200 μg/ml inhibited the germination of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barrel medic (Medicago truncatula) seeds. Comparative sequence analysis identified the presence of mellein synthase (MLNS) homologues in several Dothideomycetes and two sodariomycete genera. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the MLNSs in fungi and bacteria evolved convergently from fungal and bacterial 6-methylsalicylic acid synthases. PMID:25326302

  9. A phycocyanin·phellandrene synthase fusion enhances recombinant protein expression and β-phellandrene (monoterpene) hydrocarbons production in Synechocystis (cyanobacteria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formighieri, Cinzia; Melis, Anastasios

    2015-11-01

    Cyanobacteria can be exploited as photosynthetic platforms for heterologous generation of terpene hydrocarbons with industrial applications. Transformation of Synechocystis and heterologous expression of the β-phellandrene synthase (PHLS) gene alone is necessary and sufficient to confer to Synechocystis the ability to divert intermediate terpenoid metabolites and to generate the monoterpene β-phellandrene during photosynthesis. However, terpene synthases, including the PHLS, have a slow Kcat (low Vmax) necessitating high levels of enzyme concentration to enable meaningful rates and yield of product formation. Here, a novel approach was applied to increase the PHLS protein expression alleviating limitations in the rate and yield of β-phellandrene product generation. Different PHLS fusion constructs were generated with the Synechocystis endogenous cpcB sequence, encoding for the abundant in cyanobacteria phycocyanin β-subunit, expressed under the native cpc operon promoter. In one of these constructs, the CpcB·PHLS fusion protein accumulated to levels approaching 20% of the total cellular protein, i.e., substantially higher than expressing the PHLS protein alone under the same endogenous cpc promoter. The CpcB·PHLS fusion protein retained the activity of the PHLS enzyme and catalyzed β-phellandrene synthesis, yielding an average of 3.2 mg product g(-1) dry cell weight (dcw) versus the 0.03 mg g(-1)dcw measured with low-expressing constructs, i.e., a 100-fold yield improvement. In conclusion, the terpene synthase fusion-protein approach is promising, as, in this case, it substantially increased the amount of the PHLS in cyanobacteria, and commensurately improved rates and yield of β-phellandrene hydrocarbons production in these photosynthetic microorganisms. Copyright © 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Heterooligomeric phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    2004-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains five phosphoribosyl diphosphate (PRPP) synthase-homologous genes (PRS1-5), which specify PRPP synthase subunits 1-5. Expression of the five S. cerevisiae PRS genes individually in an Escherichia coli PRPP-less strain (Deltaprs) showed that a single PRS...

  11. CAPS OpenACC Compilers: Performance and Portability

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    The announcement late 2011 of the new OpenACC directive-based programming standard supported by CAPS, CRAY and PGI compilers has open up the door to more scientific applications that can be ported on many-core systems. Following a porting methodology, this talk will first review the principles of programming with OpenACC and then the advanced features available in the CAPS compilers to further optimize OpenACC applications: library integration, tuning directives with auto-tune mechanisms to build applications adaptive to different GPUs. CAPS compilers use hardware vendors' backends such as NVIDIA CUDA and OpenCL making them the only OpenACC compilers supporting various many-core architectures. About the speaker Stéphane Bihan is co-funder and currently Director of Sales and Marketing at CAPS enterprise. He has held several R&D positions in companies such as ARC international plc in London, Canon Research Center France, ACE compiler experts in Amsterdam and the INRIA r...

  12. Stable expression of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase in cultured preadipocytes impairs adipogenesis program independently of endogenous prostanoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Mohammad Salim; Chowdhury, Abu Asad; Rahman, Mohammad Sharifur [Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shimane University, 1060 Nishikawatsu-cho, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504 (Japan); Nishimura, Kohji [Department of Molecular and Functional Genomics, Center for Integrated Research in Science, Shimane University, 1060 Nishikawatsu-cho, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504 (Japan); Jisaka, Mitsuo; Nagaya, Tsutomu [Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shimane University, 1060 Nishikawatsu-cho, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504 (Japan); Shono, Fumiaki [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, 180 Yamashiro-cho, Tokushima-shi, Tokushima 770-8514 (Japan); Yokota, Kazushige, E-mail: yokotaka@life.shimane-u.ac.jp [Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shimane University, 1060 Nishikawatsu-cho, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS) expressed preferentially in adipocytes is responsible for the synthesis of PGD{sub 2} and its non-enzymatic dehydration products, PGJ{sub 2} series, serving as pro-adipogenic factors. However, the role of L-PGDS in the regulation of adipogenesis is complex because of the occurrence of several derivatives from PGD{sub 2} and their distinct receptor subtypes as well as other functions such as a transporter of lipophilic molecules. To manipulate the expression levels of L-PGDS in cultured adipocytes, cultured preadipogenic 3T3-L1 cells were transfected stably with a mammalian expression vector having cDNA encoding murine L-PGDS oriented in the sense direction. The isolated cloned stable transfectants with L-PGDS expressed higher levels of the transcript and protein levels of L-PGDS, and synthesized PGD{sub 2} from exogenous arachidonic acid at significantly higher levels. By contrast, the synthesis of PGE{sub 2} remained unchanged, indicating no influence on the reactions of cyclooxygenase (COX) and PGE synthase. Furthermore, the ability of those transfectants to synthesize {Delta}{sup 12}-PGJ{sub 2} increased more greatly during the maturation phase. The sustained expression of L-PGDS in cultured stable transfectants hampered the storage of fats during the maturation phase of adipocytes, which was accompanied by the reduced gene expression of adipocyte-specific markers reflecting the down-regulation of the adipogenesis program. The suppressed adipogenesis was not rescued by either exogenous aspirin or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) agonists including troglitazone and {Delta}{sup 12}-PGJ{sub 2}. Taken together, the results indicate the negative regulation of the adipogenesis program by the enhanced expression of L-PGDS through a cellular mechanism involving the interference of the PPAR{gamma} signaling pathway without the contribution of endogenous pro-adipogenic prostanoids

  13. Thymidylate synthase protein expression levels remain stable during paclitaxel and carboplatin treatment in non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jan Nyrop; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric; Sørensen, Jens Benn

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thymidylate synthase (TS) is a potential predictive marker for efficacy of treatment with pemetrexed. The current study aimed at investigating whether TS expression changes during non-pemetrexed chemotherapy of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), thus making rebiopsy necessary for dec...

  14. Cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of dihydrodipicolinate synthase from the psychrophile Shewanella benthica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wubben, Jacinta M.; Dogovski, Con; Dobson, Renwick C. J.; Codd, Rachel; Gerrard, Juliet A.; Parker, Michael W.; Perugini, Matthew A.

    2010-01-01

    Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) is an essential oligomeric enzyme of interest to antibiotic discovery research and studies probing the importance of quaternary structure to protein function, stability and dynamics. The cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of DHDPS from the psychrophilic (cold-dwelling) bacterium Shewanella benthica are described. Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) is an oligomeric enzyme that catalyzes the first committed step of the lysine-biosynthesis pathway in plants and bacteria, which yields essential building blocks for cell-wall and protein synthesis. DHDPS is therefore of interest to drug-discovery research as well as to studies that probe the importance of quaternary structure to protein function, stability and dynamics. Accordingly, DHDPS from the psychrophilic (cold-dwelling) organism Shewanella benthica (Sb-DHDPS) was cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. The best crystals of Sb-DHDPS were grown in 200 mM ammonium sulfate, 100 mM bis-tris pH 5.0–6.0, 23–26%(w/v) PEG 3350, 0.02%(w/v) sodium azide and diffracted to beyond 2.5 Å resolution. Processing of diffraction data to 2.5 Å resolution resulted in a unit cell with space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 and dimensions a = 73.1, b = 84.0, c = 143.7 Å. These studies of the first DHDPS enzyme to be characterized from a bacterial psychrophile will provide insight into the molecular evolution of enzyme structure and dynamics

  15. Quinclorac resistance induced by the suppression of the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase and ACC oxidase genes in Echinochloa crus-galli var. zelayensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Li, Jun; Pan, Xukun; Liu, Dingrong; Napier, Richard; Dong, Liyao

    2018-04-01

    We previously reported that the mechanism of quinclorac resistance in Echinochloa crus-galli var. zelayensis may be closely related to ethylene biosynthesis and the detoxification of cyanide. Differences in EcCAS gene sequences and expression levels may result in higher capacity to detoxify cyanide in resistant biotypes, which may avoid cyanide accumulation and avoid more ethylene and cyanide production and then avoid damage. In the present study, we focused on the mechanism of resistance related to ethylene biosynthesis in E. crus-galli var. zelayensis. The fresh weight of susceptible and moderately resistant biotypes were significantly reduced after treatment with quinclorac. However, AOA, an ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor, reduced the impact of quinclorac. On pretreatment with AOA, ethylene production was significantly reduced in the three biotypes. The highly resistant biotype produced less ethylene compared to the other two biotypes. Three ACS and seven ACO genes, which are the key genes in ethylene biosynthesis, were obtained. The expression levels of EcACS-like, EcACS7, and EcACO1 varied in the three biotypes upon treatment with quinclorac, which could be manipulated by AOA. In summary, it is inferred that the expression of EcACS-like, EcACS7, and EcACO1 can be stimulated to varying extent after quinclorac treatment in three E. crus-galli var. zelayensis biotypes, which consequently results in varying levels of ethylene production. Lower expression of these three genes results in more resistance to quinclorac, which may also be related to quinclorac resistance in E. crus-galli var. zelayensis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Expression Patterns, Activities and Carbohydrate-Metabolizing Regulation of Sucrose Phosphate Synthase, Sucrose Synthase and Neutral Invertase in Pineapple Fruit during Development and Ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiu-Mei; Wang, Wei; Du, Li-Qing; Xie, Jiang-Hui; Yao, Yan-Li; Sun, Guang-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Differences in carbohydrate contents and metabolizing-enzyme activities were monitored in apical, medial, basal and core sections of pineapple (Ananas comosus cv. Comte de paris) during fruit development and ripening. Fructose and glucose of various sections in nearly equal amounts were the predominant sugars in the fruitlets, and had obvious differences until the fruit matured. The large rise of sucrose/hexose was accompanied by dramatic changes in sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose synthase (SuSy) activities. By contrast, neutral invertase (NI) activity may provide a mechanism to increase fruit sink strength by increasing hexose concentrations. Furthermore, two cDNAs of Ac-sps (accession no. GQ996582) and Ac-ni (accession no. GQ996581) were first isolated from pineapple fruits utilizing conserved amino-acid sequences. Homology alignment reveals that the amino acid sequences contain some conserved function domains. Transcription expression analysis of Ac-sps, Ac-susy and Ac-ni also indicated distinct patterns related to sugar accumulation and composition of pineapple fruits. It suggests that differential expressions of multiple gene families are necessary for sugar metabolism in various parts and developmental stages of pineapple fruit. A cycle of sucrose breakdown in the cytosol of sink tissues could be mediated through both Ac-SuSy and Ac-NI, and Ac-NI could be involved in regulating crucial steps by generating sugar signals to the cells in a temporally and spatially restricted fashion. PMID:22949808

  17. High polyhydroxybutyrate production in Pseudomonas extremaustralis is associated with differential expression of horizontally acquired and core genome polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela V Catone

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas extremaustralis produces mainly polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB, a short chain length polyhydroxyalkanoate (sclPHA infrequently found in Pseudomonas species. Previous studies with this strain demonstrated that PHB genes are located in a genomic island. In this work, the analysis of the genome of P. extremaustralis revealed the presence of another PHB cluster phbFPX, with high similarity to genes belonging to Burkholderiales, and also a cluster, phaC1ZC2D, coding for medium chain length PHA production (mclPHA. All mclPHA genes showed high similarity to genes from Pseudomonas species and interestingly, this cluster also showed a natural insertion of seven ORFs not related to mclPHA metabolism. Besides PHB, P. extremaustralis is able to produce mclPHA although in minor amounts. Complementation analysis demonstrated that both mclPHA synthases, PhaC1 and PhaC2, were functional. RT-qPCR analysis showed different levels of expression for the PHB synthase, phbC, and the mclPHA synthases. The expression level of phbC, was significantly higher than the obtained for phaC1 and phaC2, in late exponential phase cultures. The analysis of the proteins bound to the PHA granules showed the presence of PhbC and PhaC1, whilst PhaC2 could not be detected. In addition, two phasin like proteins (PhbP and PhaI associated with the production of scl and mcl PHAs, respectively, were detected. The results of this work show the high efficiency of a foreign gene (phbC in comparison with the mclPHA core genome genes (phaC1 and phaC2 indicating that the ability of P. extremaustralis to produce high amounts of PHB could be explained by the different expression levels of the genes encoding the scl and mcl PHA synthases.

  18. Reward salience and risk aversion underlie differential ACC activity in substance dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, William H; Fukunaga, Rena; Finn, Peter; Brown, Joshua W

    2015-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex, especially the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), has long been implicated in cognitive control and error processing. Although the association between ACC and behavior has been established, it is less clear how ACC contributes to dysfunctional behavior such as substance dependence. Evidence from neuroimaging studies investigating ACC function in substance users is mixed, with some studies showing disengagement of ACC in substance dependent individuals (SDs), while others show increased ACC activity related to substance use. In this study, we investigate ACC function in SDs and healthy individuals performing a change signal task for monetary rewards. Using a priori predictions derived from a recent computational model of ACC, we find that ACC activity differs between SDs and controls in factors related to reward salience and risk aversion between SDs and healthy individuals. Quantitative fits of a computational model to fMRI data reveal significant differences in best fit parameters for reward salience and risk preferences. Specifically, the ACC in SDs shows greater risk aversion, defined as concavity in the utility function, and greater attention to rewards relative to reward omission. Furthermore, across participants risk aversion and reward salience are positively correlated. The results clarify the role that ACC plays in both the reduced sensitivity to omitted rewards and greater reward valuation in SDs. Clinical implications of applying computational modeling in psychiatry are also discussed.

  19. Cloning and expression of pineapple sucrosephosphate synthase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 1132-base pairs (bp) polymerase-chain-reaction product of sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) (EC 2.3.1.14) from pineapple (Ananas comosus cv. Comte de paris) fruit was cloned and nominated as Ac- SPS1. The sequence encodes a putative 377 amino acids protein containing two serine conserved features that had ...

  20. Predictive Performance Tuning of OpenACC Accelerated Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiqui, Shahzeb; Feki, Saber

    2014-01-01

    , with the introduction of high level programming models such as OpenACC [1] and OpenMP 4.0 [2], these devices are becoming more accessible and practical to use by a larger scientific community. However, performance optimization of OpenACC accelerated applications usually

  1. Genotype-specific enrichment of ACC deaminase-positive bacteria in winter wheat rhizospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacteria that produce ACC deaminase promote plant growth and development by lowering levels of the stress hormone ethylene through deamination of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), the immediate precursor of ethylene. Therefore, it is hypothesized that ACC deaminase positive (ACC+) bacteri...

  2. Effects and mechanism of acid rain on plant chloroplast ATP synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingwen; Hu, Huiqing; Li, Yueli; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2016-09-01

    Acid rain can directly or indirectly affect plant physiological functions, especially photosynthesis. The enzyme ATP synthase is the key in photosynthetic energy conversion, and thus, it affects plant photosynthesis. To clarify the mechanism by which acid rain affects photosynthesis, we studied the effects of acid rain on plant growth, photosynthesis, chloroplast ATP synthase activity and gene expression, chloroplast ultrastructure, intracellular H(+) level, and water content of rice seedlings. Acid rain at pH 4.5 remained the chloroplast structure unchanged but increased the expression of six chloroplast ATP synthase subunits, promoted chloroplast ATP synthase activity, and increased photosynthesis and plant growth. Acid rain at pH 4.0 or less decreased leaf water content, destroyed chloroplast structure, inhibited the expression of six chloroplast ATP synthase subunits, decreased chloroplast ATP synthase activity, and reduced photosynthesis and plant growth. In conclusion, acid rain affected the chloroplast ultrastructure, chloroplast ATPase transcription and activity, and P n by changing the acidity in the cells, and thus influencing the plant growth and development. Finally, the effects of simulated acid rain on the test indices were found to be dose-dependent.

  3. The primary defect in glycogen synthase activity is not based on increased glycogen synthase kinase-3a activity in diabetic myotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael; Brusgaard, Klaus; Handberg, Aa.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanism responsible for the diminished activation of glycogen synthase (GS) in diabetic myotubes remains unclear, but may involve increased activity and/or expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3). In myotubes established from type 2 diabetic and healthy control subjects we determined...

  4. Obesity Drives Th17 Cell Differentiation by Inducing the Lipid Metabolic Kinase, ACC1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Yusuke; Asou, Hikari K; Matsugae, Nao; Hirahara, Kiyoshi; Shinoda, Kenta; Tumes, Damon J; Tokuyama, Hirotake; Yokote, Koutaro; Nakayama, Toshinori

    2015-08-11

    Chronic inflammation due to obesity contributes to the development of metabolic diseases, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. Reciprocal interactions between metabolic systems and immune cells have pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated diseases, although the mechanisms regulating obesity-associated inflammatory diseases are still unclear. In the present study, we performed transcriptional profiling of memory phenotype CD4 T cells in high-fat-fed mice and identified acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1, the gene product of Acaca) as an essential regulator of Th17 cell differentiation in vitro and of the pathogenicity of Th17 cells in vivo. ACC1 modulates the DNA binding of RORγt to target genes in differentiating Th17 cells. In addition, we found a strong correlation between IL-17A-producing CD45RO(+)CD4 T cells and the expression of ACACA in obese subjects. Thus, ACC1 confers the appropriate function of RORγt through fatty acid synthesis and regulates the obesity-related pathology of Th17 cells. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Alternative splicing of the porcine glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β gene with differential expression patterns and regulatory functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linjie Wang

    Full Text Available Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3α and GSK3β are serine/threonine kinases involved in numerous cellular processes and diverse diseases including mood disorders, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, and cancer. However, in pigs, the information on GSK3 is very limited. Identification and characterization of pig GSK3 are not only important for pig genetic improvement, but also contribute to the understanding and development of porcine models for human disease prevention and treatment.Five different isoforms of GSK3β were identified in porcine different tissues, in which three isoforms are novel. These isoforms had differential expression patterns in the fetal and adult of the porcine different tissues. The mRNA expression level of GSK3β isoforms was differentially regulated during the course of the insulin treatment, suggesting that different GSK3β isoforms may have different roles in insulin signaling pathway. Moreover, GSK3β5 had a different role on regulating the glycogen synthase activity, phosphorylation and the expression of porcine GYS1 and GYS2 gene compared to other GSK3β isoforms.We are the first to report five different isoforms of GSK3β identified from the porcine different tissues. Splice variants of GSK3β exhibit differential activity towards glycogen synthase. These results provide new insight into roles of the GSK3β on regulating glycogen metabolism.

  6. Asian Care Certificate (ACC): a care quality assurance framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaie, Tony

    2018-04-16

    Purpose Quality assuring elderly care through a viable and feasible standard framework is a major challenge for Asian governments. Although several attempts have been made to tackle foreign care worker (FCW) shortage, assuring the quality of the care they provide has been overlooked. The original framework allowed a better control over service quality to assure the elderly about their care according to the agreed standards. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach Through several Japanese Governmental meetings, a new Asian Care Certificate (ACC) program is discussed based on the Japanese Care Certificate (JCC). The governments' representatives adopted the JCC to form the ACC, which enables the ACC board to evaluate care workers and to intervene whenever the desired quality level is not achieved. Findings The author describes a new program. The findings of this paper will be confirmed when the ACC is implemented. Practical implications Using the ACC framework, the challenge in providing a high-quality care service using FCWs across Asia would be partly resolved. FCWs' quality of life might also gradually improve especially regarding to their human rights. Originality/value The ACC provides a new framework. Its value is recognized if one considers that many Asian populations are rapidly aging and many governments compromise quality by employing overseas workers to solve care worker shortages.

  7. Manipulation of saponin biosynthesis by RNA interference-mediated silencing of β-amyrin synthase gene expression in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Kyoko; Nishizawa, Keito; Hirose, Aya; Kita, Akiko; Ishimoto, Masao

    2011-10-01

    Soybean seeds contain substantial amount of diverse triterpenoid saponins that influence the seed quality, although little is known about the physiologic functions of saponins in plants. We now describe the modification of saponin biosynthesis by RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing targeted to β-amyrin synthase, a key enzyme in the synthesis of a common aglycon of soybean saponins. We identified two putative β-amyrin synthase genes in soybean that manifested distinct expression patterns with regard to developmental stage and tissue specificity. Given that one of these genes, GmBAS1, was expressed at a much higher level than the other (GmBAS2) in various tissues including the developing seeds, we constructed two RNAi vectors that encode self-complementary hairpin RNAs corresponding to the distinct regions of GmBAS1 under the control of a seed-specific promoter derived from the soybean gene for the α' subunit of the seed storage protein β-conglycinin. These vectors were introduced independently into soybean. Six independent transgenic lines exhibited a stable reduction in seed saponin content, with the extent of saponin deficiency correlating with the β-amyrin synthase mRNA depletion. Although some transgenic lines produced seeds almost devoid of saponins, no abnormality in their growth was apparent and the antioxidant activity of their seeds was similar to that of control seeds. These results suggest that saponins are not required for seed development and survival, and that soybean seeds may therefore be amenable to the modification of triterpenoid saponin content and composition through molecular biologic approaches.

  8. Ethylene-Related Gene Expression Networks in Wood Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Seyfferth

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Thickening of tree stems is the result of secondary growth, accomplished by the meristematic activity of the vascular cambium. Secondary growth of the stem entails developmental cascades resulting in the formation of secondary phloem outwards and secondary xylem (i.e., wood inwards of the stem. Signaling and transcriptional reprogramming by the phytohormone ethylene modifies cambial growth and cell differentiation, but the molecular link between ethylene and secondary growth remains unknown. We addressed this shortcoming by analyzing expression profiles and co-expression networks of ethylene pathway genes using the AspWood transcriptome database which covers all stages of secondary growth in aspen (Populus tremula stems. ACC synthase expression suggests that the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC is synthesized during xylem expansion and xylem cell maturation. Ethylene-mediated transcriptional reprogramming occurs during all stages of secondary growth, as deduced from AspWood expression profiles of ethylene-responsive genes. A network centrality analysis of the AspWood dataset identified EIN3D and 11 ERFs as hubs. No overlap was found between the co-expressed genes of the EIN3 and ERF hubs, suggesting target diversification and hence independent roles for these transcription factor families during normal wood formation. The EIN3D hub was part of a large co-expression gene module, which contained 16 transcription factors, among them several new candidates that have not been earlier connected to wood formation and a VND-INTERACTING 2 (VNI2 homolog. We experimentally demonstrated Populus EIN3D function in ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. The ERF hubs ERF118 and ERF119 were connected on the basis of their expression pattern and gene co-expression module composition to xylem cell expansion and secondary cell wall formation, respectively. We hereby establish data resources for ethylene-responsive genes and

  9. Fish Oil Supplementation and Fatty Acid Synthase Expression in the Prostate: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    controls, Menendez et al demonstrated that addition of omega-3 fatty acids (-3 FA), docosahexanoic acid ( DHA ), alpha- linolenic acid , and -6 FA, γ...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-04-1-0296 TITLE: Fish Oil Supplementation and Fatty Acid ...COVERED 1 March 2010 – 30 June 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Fish Oil Supplementation and Fatty Acid Synthase Expression in the

  10. Analisis de correlación canonica (ACC e investigacion cientifica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badii, M.H.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Analysis of Canonical Correlation (ACC is given. The basic conditions, initial questions, and main objectives are provided. The fundamentals of ACC design and the adjustments are touched upon. Field application of ACC is highlighted. The intricacies involving the profiling, validation, and redundant variables of the method are discussed. Finally, the statistical significance and theoretical interpretation of the model are explained.

  11. Genetic profile of adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC) with high-grade transformation versus solid type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, A.F.; Altemani, A.; Vékony, H.; Bloemena, E.; Fresno, F.; Suárez, C.; Llorente, J.L.; Hermsen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: ACC can occasionally undergo dedifferentiation also referred to as high-grade transformation (ACC-HGT). However, ACC-HGT can also undergo transformation to adenocarcinomas which are not poorly differentiated. ACC-HGT is generally considered to be an aggressive variant of ACC, even more

  12. Localization of nitric oxide synthase in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Ulrik; Lopez-Figueroa, M.; Hellsten, Ylva

    1996-01-01

    The present study investigated the cellular localization of the neuronal type I and endothelial type III nitric oxide synthase in human skeletal muscle. Type I NO synthase immunoreactivity was found in the sarcolemma and the cytoplasm of all muscle fibres. Stronger immunoreactivity was expressed...

  13. Molecular cloning and expression of Chimonanthus praecox farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase gene and its possible involvement in the biosynthesis of floral volatile sesquiterpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Lin; Zhao, Kaige; Chen, Longqing

    2010-01-01

    Farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) synthase catalyzes the biosynthesis of FPP, which is the precursors of sesquiterpenoids such as floral scent volatiles, from isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP). cDNA encoding wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox L.) FPP synthase was isolated by the RT-PCR and RACE methods. The deduced amino acid sequence showed a high identity to plant FPP synthases. Expression of the gene in Escherichia coli yielded FPPS activity that catalyzed the synthesis of FPP as a main product. Tissue-specific and developmental analyses of the mRNA levels of CpFPPS and volatile sesquiterpenoids levels in C. praecox flowers revealed that the FPPS may play a regulatory role in floral volatile sesquiterpenoids of wintersweet. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Optimization of the expression of phaC2 encoding poly (3-hydroxyalkanoate synthase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PTCC1310 in Fad B deleted Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryoush Abedi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: We obtained functional expression of the phaC2 gene and investigated various conditions that could influence the expression of protein to optimize production of PHA synthase enzymes. This would allow us to study PHA production in large quantities.

  15. Down regulation by a low-zinc diet in gene expression of rat prostatic thymidylate synthase and thymidine kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sassa Shuji

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zinc has a wide spectrum of biological activities and its deficiency is related to various abnormalities of cell metabolism. Methods Wistar male rats, at age of 4 weeks, were fed a low-zinc diet for six weeks. The levels of bromodeoxyuridine incorporated into the prostatic DNA and the mRNA expression levels of prostate thymidylate synthase and thymidine kinase were examined. Result The low-zinc diet caused a marked reduction in the body growth and organ weights, resulted in a low hematopoiesis, hypo-albuminemia and hypocholesterolemia. Although there were few differences in plasma biochemical markers, plasma levels of luteinizing hormone and testosterone were reduced by the low-zinc diet. Bromodeoxyuridine-immunoreactive (S-phase cells and mRNA expression levels of thymidylate synthase and thymidine kinase in the prostate cells were markedly affected by the low-zinc diet. Conclusion A low-zinc diet appears to reduce the body growth and organ weights including prostate, causing low plasma levels of luteinizing hormone and testosterone and reduction in prostate DNA replication in growing-rats.

  16. Discovery and optimization of antibacterial AccC inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Cliff C.; Shipps, Jr., Gerald W.; Yang, Zhiwei; Sun, Binyuan; Kawahata, Noriyuki; Soucy, Kyle A.; Soriano, Aileen; Orth, Peter; Xiao, Li; Mann, Paul; Black, Todd; (SPRI)

    2010-09-17

    The biotin carboxylase (AccC) is part of the multi-component bacterial acetyl coenzyme-A carboxylase (ACCase) and is essential for pathogen survival. We describe herein the affinity optimization of an initial hit to give 2-(2-chlorobenzylamino)-1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-5-carboxamide (1), which was identified using our proprietary Automated Ligand Identification System (ALIS). The X-ray co-crystal structure of 1 was solved and revealed several key interactions and opportunities for further optimization in the ATP site of AccC. Structure Based Drug Design (SBDD) and parallel synthetic approaches resulted in a novel series of AccC inhibitors, exemplified by (R)-2-(2-chlorobenzylamino)-1-(2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-yl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine-5-carboxamide (40). This compound is a potent and selective inhibitor of bacterial AccC with an IC{sub 50} of 20 nM and a MIC of 0.8 {micro}g/mL against a sensitized strain of Escherichia coli (HS294 E. coli).

  17. Predictive Performance Tuning of OpenACC Accelerated Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiqui, Shahzeb

    2014-05-04

    Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) are gradually becoming mainstream in supercomputing as their capabilities to significantly accelerate a large spectrum of scientific applications have been clearly identified and proven. Moreover, with the introduction of high level programming models such as OpenACC [1] and OpenMP 4.0 [2], these devices are becoming more accessible and practical to use by a larger scientific community. However, performance optimization of OpenACC accelerated applications usually requires an in-depth knowledge of the hardware and software specifications. We suggest a prediction-based performance tuning mechanism [3] to quickly tune OpenACC parameters for a given application to dynamically adapt to the execution environment on a given system. This approach is applied to a finite difference kernel to tune the OpenACC gang and vector clauses for mapping the compute kernels into the underlying accelerator architecture. Our experiments show a significant performance improvement against the default compiler parameters and a faster tuning by an order of magnitude compared to the brute force search tuning.

  18. Zinc affects differently growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities and phytochelatin synthase expression of four marine diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Deroche, Thi Le Nhung; Caruso, Aurore; Le, Thi Trung; Bui, Trang Viet; Schoefs, Benoît; Tremblin, Gérard; Morant-Manceau, Annick

    2012-01-01

    Zinc-supplementation (20 μM) effects on growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase), and the expression of phytochelatin synthase gene were investigated in four marine diatoms (Amphora acutiuscula, Nitzschia palea, Amphora coffeaeformis and Entomoneis paludosa). Zn-supplementation reduced the maximum cell density. A linear relationship was found between the evolution of gross photosynthesis and total chlorophyll content. The Zn treatment decreased the electron transport rate except in A. coffeaeformis and in E. paludosa at high irradiance. A linear relationship was found between the efficiency of light to evolve oxygen and the size of the light-harvesting antenna. The external carbonic anhydrase activity was stimulated in Zn-supplemented E. paludosa but was not correlated with an increase of photosynthesis. The total activity of the antioxidant enzymes did not display any clear increase except in ascorbate peroxidase activity in N. palea. The phytochelatin synthase gene was identified in the four diatoms, but its expression was only revealed in N. palea, without a clear difference between control and Zn-supplemented cells. Among the four species, A. paludosa was the most sensitive and A. coffeaeformis, the most tolerant. A. acutiuscula seemed to be under metal starvation, whereas, to survive, only N. palea developed several stress responses.

  19. Zinc Affects Differently Growth, Photosynthesis, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Phytochelatin Synthase Expression of Four Marine Diatoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Le Nhung Nguyen-Deroche

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc-supplementation (20 μM effects on growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, and the expression of phytochelatin synthase gene were investigated in four marine diatoms (Amphora acutiuscula, Nitzschia palea, Amphora coffeaeformis and Entomoneis paludosa. Zn-supplementation reduced the maximum cell density. A linear relationship was found between the evolution of gross photosynthesis and total chlorophyll content. The Zn treatment decreased the electron transport rate except in A. coffeaeformis and in E. paludosa at high irradiance. A linear relationship was found between the efficiency of light to evolve oxygen and the size of the light-harvesting antenna. The external carbonic anhydrase activity was stimulated in Zn-supplemented E. paludosa but was not correlated with an increase of photosynthesis. The total activity of the antioxidant enzymes did not display any clear increase except in ascorbate peroxidase activity in N. palea. The phytochelatin synthase gene was identified in the four diatoms, but its expression was only revealed in N. palea, without a clear difference between control and Zn-supplemented cells. Among the four species, A. paludosa was the most sensitive and A. coffeaeformis, the most tolerant. A. acutiuscula seemed to be under metal starvation, whereas, to survive, only N. palea developed several stress responses.

  20. Chlorophyll Synthase under Epigenetic Surveillance Is Critical for Vitamin E Synthesis, and Altered Expression Affects Tocopherol Levels in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunyu; Zhang, Wei; Ren, Guodong; Li, Delin; Cahoon, Rebecca E; Chen, Ming; Zhou, Yongming; Yu, Bin; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2015-08-01

    Chlorophyll synthase catalyzes the final step in chlorophyll biosynthesis: the esterification of chlorophyllide with either geranylgeranyl diphosphate or phytyl diphosphate (PDP). Recent studies have pointed to the involvement of chlorophyll-linked reduction of geranylgeranyl by geranylgeranyl reductase as a major pathway for the synthesis of the PDP precursor of tocopherols. This indirect pathway of PDP synthesis suggests a key role of chlorophyll synthase in tocopherol production to generate the geranylgeranyl-chlorophyll substrate for geranylgeranyl reductase. In this study, contributions of chlorophyll synthase to tocopherol formation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) were explored by disrupting and altering expression of the corresponding gene CHLOROPHYLL SYNTHASE (CHLSYN; At3g51820). Leaves from the homozygous chlysyn1-1 null mutant were nearly devoid of tocopherols, whereas seeds contained only approximately 25% of wild-type tocopherol levels. Leaves of RNA interference lines with partial suppression of CHLSYN displayed marked reductions in chlorophyll but up to a 2-fold increase in tocopherol concentrations. Cauliflower mosaic virus35S-mediated overexpression of CHLSYN unexpectedly caused a cosuppression phenotype at high frequencies accompanied by strongly reduced chlorophyll content and increased tocopherol levels. This phenotype and the associated detection of CHLSYN-derived small interfering RNAs were reversed with CHLSYN overexpression in rna-directed rna polymerase6 (rdr6), which is defective in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase6, a key enzyme in sense transgene-induced small interfering RNA production. CHLSYN overexpression in rdr6 had little effect on chlorophyll content but resulted in up to a 30% reduction in tocopherol levels in leaves. These findings show that altered CHLSYN expression impacts tocopherol levels and also, show a strong epigenetic surveillance of CHLSYN to control chlorophyll and tocopherol synthesis. © 2015 American Society of

  1. Prostacyclin Synthase: Upregulation during Renal Development and in Glomerular Disease as well as Its Constitutive Expression in Cultured Human Mesangial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Klein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostacyclin (PGI2 plays a critical role in nephrogenesis and renal physiology. However, our understanding of how prostacyclin release in the kidney is regulated remains poorly defined. We studied expression of prostacyclin synthase (PGIS in developing and adult human kidneys, and also in selected pediatric renal diseases. We also examined PGI2 formation in human mesangial cells in vitro. We observed abundant expression of PGIS in the nephrogenic cortex in humans and in situ hybridization revealed an identical pattern in mice. In the normal adult kidney, PGIS-immunoreactive protein and mRNA appear to localize to mesangial fields and endothelial and smooth muscle cells of arteries and peritubular capillaries. In kidney biopsies taken from pediatric patients, enhanced expression of PGIS-immunoreactive protein was noted mainly in endothelial cells of patients with IgA-nephropathy. Cultured human mesangial cells produce primarily PGI2 and prostaglandin E2, followed by prostaglandin F2α Cytokine stimulation increased PGI2 formation 24-fold. Under these conditions expression of PGIS mRNA and protein remained unaltered whereas mRNA for cyclooxygenase-2 was markedly induced. In contrast to its constitutive expression in vitro, renal expression of prostacyclin-synthase appears to be regulated both during development and in glomerular disease. Further research is needed to identify the factors involved in regulation of PGIS-expression.

  2. [Effect of adaptation to hypoxia on expression of NO synthase isoforms in rat myocardium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryacheva, A V; Terekhina, O L; Abramochkin, D V; Budanova, O P; Belkina, L M; Smirin, B V; Downey, H F; Malyshev, I Yu; Manukhina, E B

    2015-01-01

    Previously we have shown that adaptation to hypoxia (AH) is cardio- and vasoprotective in myocardial ischemic and reperfusion injury and this protection is associated with restriction of nitrosative stress. The present study was focused on further elucidation of NO-dependent mechanisms of AH by identifying specific NO synthases (NOS) that could play the major role in AH protection. AH was performed in a normobaric hypoxic chamber by breathing hypoxic gas mixture (9.5-10% O2) for 5-10 min with intervening 4 min normoxia (5-8 cycles daily for 21 days). Expression of neuronal (nNOS), inducible (iNOS), and endothelial (eNOS) protein was measured in the left ventricular myocardium using Western blot analysis with respective antibodies. AH educed iNOS protein expression by 71% (p < 0.05) whereas eNOS protein expression tended to be reduced by 41% compared to control (p < 0.05). nNOS protein expression remained unchanged after AH. Selective iNOS inhibition can mimic the AH-induced protection. Therefore protective effects of AH could be at least partially due to restriction of iNOS and, probably, eNOS expression.

  3. Portable LQCD Monte Carlo code using OpenACC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonati, Claudio; Calore, Enrico; Coscetti, Simone; D'Elia, Massimo; Mesiti, Michele; Negro, Francesco; Fabio Schifano, Sebastiano; Silvi, Giorgio; Tripiccione, Raffaele

    2018-03-01

    Varying from multi-core CPU processors to many-core GPUs, the present scenario of HPC architectures is extremely heterogeneous. In this context, code portability is increasingly important for easy maintainability of applications; this is relevant in scientific computing where code changes are numerous and frequent. In this talk we present the design and optimization of a state-of-the-art production level LQCD Monte Carlo application, using the OpenACC directives model. OpenACC aims to abstract parallel programming to a descriptive level, where programmers do not need to specify the mapping of the code on the target machine. We describe the OpenACC implementation and show that the same code is able to target different architectures, including state-of-the-art CPUs and GPUs.

  4. Alpha-tryptophan synthase of Isatis tinctoria: gene cloning and expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvini, M; Boccardi, T M; Sani, E; Bernardi, R; Tozzi, S; Pugliesi, C; Durante, M

    2008-07-01

    Indole producing reaction is a crux in the regulation of metabolite flow through the pathways and the coordination of primary and secondary product biosynthesis in plants. Indole is yielded transiently from indole-3-glycerol phosphate and immediately condensed with serine to give tryptophan, by the enzyme tryptophan synthase (TS). There is evidence that plant TS, like the bacterial complex, functions as an alpha beta heteromer. In few species, e.g. maize, are known enzymes, related with the TS alpha-subunit (TSA), able to catalyse reaction producing indole, which is free to enter the secondary metabolite pathways. In this contest, we searched for TSA and TSA related genes in Isatis tinctoria, a species producing the natural blue dye indigo. The It-TSA cDNA and the full-length exons/introns genomic region were isolated. The phylogenetic analysis indicates that It-TSA is more closely related to Arabidopsis thaliana At-T14E10.210 TSA (95.7% identity at the amino acid level) with respect to A. thaliana At-T10P11.11 TSA1-like (63%), Zea mays indole-3-glycerol phosphate lyase (54%), Z. mays TSA (53%), and Z. mays indole synthase (50%). The It-TSA cDNA was also able to complement an Escherichia coli trpA mutant. To examine the involvement of It-TSA in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolism compounds, It-TSA expression was tested in seedling grown under different light conditions. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed an increase in the steady-state level of It-TSA mRNA, paralleled by an increase of indigo and its precursor isatan B. Our results appear to indicate an involvement for It-TSA in indigo precursor synthesis and/or tryptophan biosynthesis.

  5. Linking expression of fructan active enzymes, cell wall invertases and sucrose transporters with fructan profiles in growing taproot of chicory (Cichorium intybus: Impact of hormonal and environmental cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Wei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In chicory taproot, the inulin-type fructans serve as carbohydrate reserve. Inulin metabolism is mediated by fructan active enzymes (FAZYs: sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST; fructan synthesis, fructan:fructan-1-fructosyltransferase (1-FFT; fructan synthesis and degradation, and fructan 1-exohydrolases (1-FEH1/2a/2b; fructan degradation. In developing taproot, fructan synthesis is affected by source-to-sink sucrose transport and sink unloading. In the present study, expression of FAZYs, sucrose transporter and CWI isoforms, vacuolar invertase and sucrose synthase was determined in leaf blade, petiole and taproot of young chicory plants (taproot diameter: 2cm and compared with taproot fructan profiles for the following scenarios: i N-starvation, ii abscisic acid (ABA treatment, iii ethylene treatment (via 1-aminoyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid [ACC], and iv cold treatment. Both N-starvation and ABA treatment induced an increase in taproot oligofructans. However, while under N-starvation this increase reflected de novo synthesis, under ABA treatment gene expression profiles indicated a role for both de novo synthesis and degradation of long-chain fructans. Conversely, under ACC and cold treatment oligofructans slightly decreased, correlating with reduced expression of 1-SST and 1-FFT and increased expression of FEHs and VI. Distinct SUT and CWI expression profiles were observed, indicating a functional alignment of SUT and CWI expression with taproot fructan metabolism under different source-sink scenarios.

  6. Effect of quercetin on metallothionein, nitric oxide synthases and cyclooxygenase-2 expression on experimental chronic cadmium nephrotoxicity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, Ana I.; Vicente-Sanchez, Cesar; Jerkic, Mirjana; Santiago, Jose M.; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Penelope D.; Perez-Barriocanal, Fernando; Lopez-Novoa, Jose M.

    2006-01-01

    Inflammation can play a key role in Cd-induced dysfunctions. Quercetin is a potent oxygen free radical scavenger and a metal chelator. Our aim was to study the effect of quercetin on Cd-induced kidney damage and metallothionein expression. The study was performed in Wistar rats that were administered during 9 weeks with either cadmium (1.2 mg Cd/kg/day, s.c.), quercetin (50 mg/kg/day, i.p.) or cadmium + quercetin. Renal toxicity was evaluated by measuring blood urea nitrogen concentration and urinary excretion of enzymes marker of tubular damage. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) renal expression were assessed by Western blot. Renal expression of metallothionein 1 and 2 (MT-1, MT-2) and eNOS mRNA was assessed by Northern blot. Our data demonstrated that Cd-induced renal toxicity was markedly reduced in rats that also received quercetin. MT-1 and MT-2 mRNA levels in kidney were substantially increased during treatment with Cd, being even higher when the animals received Cd and quercetin. Renal eNOS expression was significantly higher in rats receiving Cd and quercetin than in animals receiving Cd alone or in control rats. In the group that received Cd, COX-2 and iNOS expression was markedly higher than in control rats. In the group Cd + quercetin, no changes in COX-2 and iNOS expression were observed compared with the control group. Our results demonstrate that quercetin treatment prevents Cd-induced overexpression of iNOS and COX-2, and increases MT expression. These effects can explain the protection by quercetin of Cd-induced nephrotoxicity

  7. Genetic profile of adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC) with high-grade transformation versus solid type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, A.F.; Altemani, A.; Vékony, H.; Bloemena, E.; Fresno, F.; Suárez, C.; Llorente, J.L.; Hermsen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: ACC can occasionally undergo dedifferentiation also referred to as high-grade transformation (ACCHGT). However, ACC-HGT can also undergo transformation to adenocarcinomas which are not poorly differentiated. ACC-HGTis generally considered to be an aggressive variant of ACC, even more

  8. Heterologous co-expression of accA, fabD, and thioesterase genes for improving long-chain fatty acid production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunhee; Jeon, Eunyoung; Jung, Yeontae; Lee, Jinwon

    2012-05-01

    The goal of the present study was to increase the content of intracellular long-chain fatty acids in two bacterial strains, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 and Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655, by co-overexpressing essential enzymes that are involved in the fatty acid synthesis metabolic pathway. Recently, microbial fatty acids and their derivatives have been receiving increasing attention as an alternative source of fuel. By introducing two genes (accA and fabD) of P. aeruginosa into the two bacterial strains and by co-expressing with them the fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase gene of Streptococcus pyogenes (strain MGAS10270), we have engineered recombinant strains that are efficient producers of long-chain fatty acids (C16 and C18). The recombinant strains exhibit a 1.3-1.7-fold increase in the production of long-chain fatty acids over the wild-type strains. To enhance the production of total long-chain fatty acids, we researched the carbon sources for optimized culture conditions and results were used for post-culture incubation period. E. coli SGJS17 (containing the accA, fabD, and thioesterase genes) produced the highest content of intracellular total fatty acids; in particular, the unsaturated fatty acid content was about 20-fold higher than that in the wild-type E. coli.

  9. Recombinant expression of a functional myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase (MIPS) in Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinyi; Hernick, Marcy

    2015-10-01

    Myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase (MIPS, E.C. 5.5.1.4) catalyzes the first step in inositol production-the conversion of glucose-6-phosphate (Glc-6P) to myo-inositol-1-phosphate. While the three dimensional structure of MIPS from Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been solved, biochemical studies examining the in vitro activity have not been reported to date. Herein we report the in vitro activity of mycobacterial MIPS expressed in E. coli and Mycobacterium smegmatis. Recombinant expression in E. coli yields a soluble protein capable of binding the NAD(+) cofactor; however, it has no significant activity with the Glc-6P substrate. In contrast, recombinant expression in M. smegmatis mc(2)4517 yields a functionally active protein. Examination of structural data suggests that MtMIPS expressed in E. coli adopts a fold that is missing a key helix containing two critical (conserved) Lys side chains, which likely explains the inability of the E. coli expressed protein to bind and turnover the Glc-6P substrate. Recombinant expression in M. smegmatis may yield a protein that adopts a fold in which this key helix is formed enabling proper positioning of important side chains, thereby allowing for Glc-6P substrate binding and turnover. Detailed mechanistic studies may be feasible following optimization of the recombinant MIPS expression protocol in M. smegmatis.

  10. Generation and Functional Evaluation of Designer Monoterpene Synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srividya, N; Lange, I; Lange, B M

    2016-01-01

    Monoterpene synthases are highly versatile enzymes that catalyze the first committed step in the pathways toward terpenoids, the structurally most diverse class of plant natural products. Recent advancements in our understanding of the reaction mechanism have enabled engineering approaches to develop mutant monoterpene synthases that produce specific monoterpenes. In this chapter, we are describing protocols to introduce targeted mutations, express mutant enzyme catalysts in heterologous hosts, and assess their catalytic properties. Mutant monoterpene synthases have the potential to contribute significantly to synthetic biology efforts aimed at producing larger amounts of commercially attractive monoterpenes. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification, functional characterization and developmental regulation of sesquiterpene synthases from sunflower capitate glandular trichomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ro Dae-Kyun

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sesquiterpene lactones are characteristic metabolites of Asteraceae (or Compositae which often display potent bioactivities and are sequestered in specialized organs such as laticifers, resin ducts, and trichomes. For characterization of sunflower sesquiterpene synthases we employed a simple method to isolate pure trichomes from anther appendages which facilitated the identification of these genes and investigation of their enzymatic functions and expression patterns during trichome development. Results Glandular trichomes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. were isolated, and their RNA was extracted to investigate the initial steps of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Reverse transcription-PCR experiments led to the identification of three sesquiterpene synthases. By combination of in vitro and in vivo characterization of sesquiterpene synthase gene products in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively, two enzymes were identified as germacrene A synthases, the key enzymes of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Due to the very low in vitro activity, the third enzyme was expressed in vivo in yeast as a thioredoxin-fusion protein for functional characterization. In in vivo assays, it was identified as a multiproduct enzyme with the volatile sesquiterpene hydrocarbon δ-cadinene as one of the two main products with α-muuorlene, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene and α-copaene as minor products. The second main compound remained unidentified. For expression studies, glandular trichomes from the anther appendages of sunflower florets were isolated in particular developmental stages from the pre- to the post-secretory phase. All three sesquiterpene synthases were solely upregulated during the biosynthetically active stages of the trichomes. Expression in different aerial plant parts coincided with occurrence and maturity of trichomes. Young roots with root hairs showed expression of the sesquiterpene synthase genes

  12. Expression of Clarkia S-linalool synthase in transgenic petunia plant results in the accumulation of S-linalyl-b-D-glucopyranoside

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lücker, J.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Schwab, W.; Blaas, J.; Plas, van der L.H.W.; Verhoeven, H.A.

    2001-01-01

    Petunia hybrida W115 was transformed with a Clarkia breweri S-linalool synthase cDNA (lis). Lis was expressed in all tissues analysed, and linalool was detected in leaves, sepals, corolla, stem and ovary, but not in nectaries, roots, pollen and style. However, the S-linalool produced by the plant in

  13. Dynamic modulation of thymidylate synthase gene expression and fluorouracil sensitivity in human colorectal cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Wakasa

    Full Text Available Biomarkers have revolutionized cancer chemotherapy. However, many biomarker candidates are still in debate. In addition to clinical studies, a priori experimental approaches are needed. Thymidylate synthase (TS expression is a long-standing candidate as a biomarker for 5-fluorouracil (5-FU treatment of cancer patients. Using the Tet-OFF system and a human colorectal cancer cell line, DLD-1, we first constructed an in vitro system in which TS expression is dynamically controllable. Quantitative assays have elucidated that TS expression in the transformant was widely modulated, and that the dynamic range covered 15-fold of the basal level. 5-FU sensitivity of the transformant cells significantly increased in response to downregulated TS expression, although being not examined in the full dynamic range because of the doxycycline toxicity. Intriguingly, our in vitro data suggest that there is a linear relationship between TS expression and the 5-FU sensitivity in cells. Data obtained in a mouse model using transformant xenografts were highly parallel to those obtained in vitro. Thus, our in vitro and in vivo observations suggest that TS expression is a determinant of 5-FU sensitivity in cells, at least in this specific genetic background, and, therefore, support the possibility of TS expression as a biomarker for 5-FU-based cancer chemotherapy.

  14. Expressions of ABCG2, CD133, and Podoplanin in Salivary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuwei Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC is one of the most common salivary gland malignant tumors with a high risk of recurrence and metastasis. Current studies on cancer stem cells (CSCs have verified that CSCs are the driving force behind tumor initiation and progression, suggesting that new cancer therapies may be established by effectively targeting and killing the CSCs. The primary goal of this study is to investigate the expression patterns of ABCG2, CD133, and podoplanin in ACC of minor salivary glands by immunohistochemistry analysis. We found that ABCG2 was weakly expressed in normal looking salivary gland tissues. A significant upregulation of ABCG2 expression in ACC was observed with a similar expression pattern of Ki-67. CD133 was detected in apical membrane of epithelial cells and podoplanin was expressed positively in myoepithelial cells of both normal looking tissue and ACC. However, no significant difference was found of the expression pattern of CD133 and podoplanin between normal looking tissues and ACC. Our observations suggest that CSCs may exist in quiescent cells with ABCG2 positive staining, which are surrounded by cells with positive expression of ABCG2 and Ki-67 in ACC, and costaining with ABCG2 and Ki-67 may help predict the location of CSCs.

  15. Influence of thymidylate synthase expression on survival in patients with colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinjal K Gajjar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thymidylate synthase (TS plays a critical role in nucleotide metabolism and is an important target for 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, the standard chemotherapeutic drug for treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC. Aims and Methods: The present study aimed to evaluate TS variable number tandem repeat sequences (VNTR polymorphism by polymerase chain reaction and TS protein expression by immunohistochemistry and its association with clinicopathological parameters in untreated CRC patients (n = 100. Further, the prognostic and predictive role of TS has been evaluated. Results: For TS VNTR polymorphism, the observed frequencies of 2R/2R, 2R/3R, and 3R/3R genotypes were 22%, 51%, and 27%, respectively. When immunohistochemical localization was studied, cytoplasmic staining for TS was observed in 70% of patients. A significant inverse correlation was noted between TS protein expression and tumor, node, metastasis staging (P = 0.027, Dukes' staging (P = 0.039, and lymph node status (P = 0.012 of CRC patients. However, there was no significant correlation between TS VNTR polymorphism and TS protein expression. On survival analysis, a significantly shorter overall survival (OS was seen in CRC patients with negative protein expression (P = 0.031. Moreover, the subgroup of CRC patients treated only with surgery also showed a trend of poor OS in patients with negative TS protein expression (P = 0.058. However, neither TS polymorphism nor its protein expression was able to predict relapse-free survival. Conclusion: Negative TS protein expression may be related to unfavorable clinical outcome in CRC patients. However, further studies in a larger set of patients are necessary to better assess TS as a prognostic and predictive marker for 5-FU response in CRC patients.

  16. Cytidine triphosphate synthase activity and mRNA expression in normal human blood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuur, A. C.; van Gennip, A. H.; Muller, E. J.; Voûte, P. A.; Vreken, P.; van Kuilenburg, A. B.

    1999-01-01

    Cytidine triphosphate (CTP) synthase is one of the key enzymes in pyrimidine nucleotide anabolic pathways. The activity of this enzyme is elevated in various malignancies including acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). In this study we investigated the activity of CTP synthase in various human blood

  17. Nitric oxide synthase-I containing cortical interneurons co-express antioxidative enzymes and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 following focal ischemia: evidence for direct and indirect mechanisms towards their resistance to neuropathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidmon, H J; Emde, B; Kowalski, T; Schmitt, M; Mayer, B; Kato, K; Asayama, K; Witte, O W; Zilles, K

    2001-09-01

    Neuronal nitric oxide-I is constitutively expressed in approximately 2% of cortical interneurons and is co-localized with gamma-amino butric acid, somatostatin or neuropeptide Y. These interneurons additionally express high amounts of glutamate receptors which mediate the glutamate-induced hyperexcitation following cerebral injury, under these conditions nitric oxide production increases contributing to a potentiation of oxidative stress. However, perilesional nitric oxide synthase-I containing neurons are known to be resistant to ischemic and excitotoxic injury. In vitro studies show that nitrosonium and nitroxyl ions inactivate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, resulting in neuroprotection. The question remains of how these cells are protected against their own high intracellular nitric oxide production after activation. In this study, we investigated immunocytochemically nitric oxide synthase-I containing cortical neurons in rats after unilateral, cortical photothrombosis. In this model of focal ischemia, perilesional, constitutively nitric oxide synthase-I containing neurons survived and co-expressed antioxidative enzymes, such as manganese- and copper-zinc-dependent superoxide dismutases, heme oxygenase-2 and cytosolic glutathione peroxidase. This enhanced antioxidant expression was accompanied by a strong perinuclear presence of the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein. No colocalization was detectable with upregulated heme oxygenase-1 in glia and the superoxide and prostaglandin G(2)-producing cyclooxygenase-2 in neurons. These results suggest that nitric oxide synthase-I containing interneurons are protected against intracellular oxidative damage and apoptosis by Bcl-2 and several potent antioxidative enzymes. Since nitric oxide synthase-I positive neurons do not express superoxide-producing enzymes such as cyclooxygenase-1, xanthine oxidase and cyclooxygenase-2 in response to injury, this may additionally contribute to their resistance by reducing their internal

  18. Steady-state kinetics of substrate binding and iron release in tomato ACC oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrower, J S; Blalock, R; Klinman, J P

    2001-08-14

    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACC oxidase) catalyzes the last step in the biosynthetic pathway of the plant hormone, ethylene. This unusual reaction results in the oxidative ring cleavage of 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylate (ACC) into ethylene, cyanide, and CO2 and requires ferrous ion, ascorbate, and molecular oxygen for catalysis. A new purification procedure and assay method have been developed for tomato ACC oxidase that result in greatly increased enzymatic activity. This method allowed us to determine the rate of iron release from the enzyme and the effect of the activator, CO2, on this rate. Initial velocity studies support an ordered kinetic mechanism where ACC binds first followed by O2; ascorbate can bind after O2 or possibly before ACC. This kinetic mechanism differs from one recently proposed for the ACC oxidase from avocado.

  19. Advanced cruise control (ACC) : gewenste beleidsmaatregelen bij de invoering van ACC. In opdracht van het Directoraat-Generaal Rijkswaterstaat, Adviesdienst Verkeer en Vervoer AVV.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, H.-l.

    1999-01-01

    Advanced Cruise Control (ACC) concerns an `ordinary' cruise control in which the desired speed is fixed manually, but also in which the headway to the vehicle in front is taken into account. Such an ACC system is meant for use on rural roads that are not too busy. The system is not meant to avoid a

  20. Cyclooxygenase 2 and neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression in the renal cortex are not interdependent in states of salt deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castrop, H; Kammerl, M; Mann, Birgitte

    2000-01-01

    Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in the kidney are localized to the cortical thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle (cTALH), including the macula region, and increase after salt restriction. Because of the similar localization and regulation of n...... excretion. These findings suggest that under these conditions the control of nNOS and COX-2 gene expression in the macula densa regions of the kidney cortex are not dependent on each other....

  1. Chlorophyll Synthase under Epigenetic Surveillance Is Critical for Vitamin E Synthesis, and Altered Expression Affects Tocopherol Levels in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunyu; Zhang, Wei; Ren, Guodong; Li, Delin; Cahoon, Rebecca E.; Chen, Ming; Zhou, Yongming; Yu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Chlorophyll synthase catalyzes the final step in chlorophyll biosynthesis: the esterification of chlorophyllide with either geranylgeranyl diphosphate or phytyl diphosphate (PDP). Recent studies have pointed to the involvement of chlorophyll-linked reduction of geranylgeranyl by geranylgeranyl reductase as a major pathway for the synthesis of the PDP precursor of tocopherols. This indirect pathway of PDP synthesis suggests a key role of chlorophyll synthase in tocopherol production to generate the geranylgeranyl-chlorophyll substrate for geranylgeranyl reductase. In this study, contributions of chlorophyll synthase to tocopherol formation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) were explored by disrupting and altering expression of the corresponding gene CHLOROPHYLL SYNTHASE (CHLSYN; At3g51820). Leaves from the homozygous chlysyn1-1 null mutant were nearly devoid of tocopherols, whereas seeds contained only approximately 25% of wild-type tocopherol levels. Leaves of RNA interference lines with partial suppression of CHLSYN displayed marked reductions in chlorophyll but up to a 2-fold increase in tocopherol concentrations. Cauliflower mosaic virus35S-mediated overexpression of CHLSYN unexpectedly caused a cosuppression phenotype at high frequencies accompanied by strongly reduced chlorophyll content and increased tocopherol levels. This phenotype and the associated detection of CHLSYN-derived small interfering RNAs were reversed with CHLSYN overexpression in rna-directed rna polymerase6 (rdr6), which is defective in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase6, a key enzyme in sense transgene-induced small interfering RNA production. CHLSYN overexpression in rdr6 had little effect on chlorophyll content but resulted in up to a 30% reduction in tocopherol levels in leaves. These findings show that altered CHLSYN expression impacts tocopherol levels and also, show a strong epigenetic surveillance of CHLSYN to control chlorophyll and tocopherol synthesis. PMID:26048882

  2. Advanced Cruise Control ACC in the Netherlands: a critical review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoetink, A.E.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this literature study is to identify the needs and the demands of the stakeholders in the Netherlands with respect to ACC and to assess its safety impact. To assess the safety impact of ACC, three aspects should be considered: functional system safety, human machine interaction, and

  3. Identification of a melatonin receptor type 1A gene ( AccMTNR1A) in Apis cerana cerana and its possible involvement in the response to low temperature stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guilin; Zhang, Yanming; Ni, Yong; Wang, Ying; Xu, Baohua; Guo, Xingqi

    2018-04-01

    It is known that melatonin plays an indispensable role in the defense against some environment-induced stresses. The melatonin receptor (MTNR) is also closely linked to the environmental stress response in mammals. However, little is known about the function of the MTNR in insects, including honeybees. In this study, we identified a MTNR from Apis cerana cerana named AccMTNR1A, which contained a typical seven-transmembrane domain common to this family of receptors. A subcellular localization analysis showed that AccMTNR1A was localized in the cytomembrane. Additionally, we found that cold stress apparently boosted AccMTNR1A transcription, indicating that AccMTNR1A possibly connects to the cold stress response. The knockdown of AccMTNR1A attenuated the expression level of some genes associated with the cold stress response, suggesting that AccMTNR1A likely plays an analogous role with these genes during low temperature stress response. Moreover, silencing of AccMTNR1A also suppressed the transcription of some antioxidant genes, prompting the possibility that the response of AccMTNR1A to cold stress response may be related to antioxidant signaling pathways. Collectively, the findings presented here provide evidence that AccMTNR1A may play essential roles in protecting Apis cerana cerana from cold stress.

  4. Systems reconsolidation reveals a selective role for the anterior cingulate cortex in generalized contextual fear memory expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsson, Einar Ö; Pors, Jennifer; Nader, Karim

    2015-01-01

    After acquisition, hippocampus-dependent memories undergo a systems consolidation process, during which they become independent of the hippocampus and dependent on the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) for memory expression. However, consolidated remote memories can become transiently hippocampus-dependent again following memory reactivation. How this systems reconsolidation affects the role of the ACC in remote memory expression is not known. Using contextual fear conditioning, we show that the expression of 30-day-old remote memory can transiently be supported by either the ACC or the dorsal hippocampus following memory reactivation, and that the ACC specifically mediates expression of remote generalized contextual fear memory. We found that suppression of neural activity in the ACC with the AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) impaired the expression of remote, but not recent, contextual fear memory. Fear expression was not affected by this treatment if preceded by memory reactivation 6 h earlier, nor was it affected by suppression of neural activity in the dorsal hippocampus with the GABA-receptor agonist muscimol. However, simultaneous targeting of both the ACC and the dorsal hippocampus 6 h after memory reactivation disrupted contextual fear memory expression. Second, we observed that expression of a 30-day-old generalized contextual fear memory in a novel context was not affected by memory reactivation 6 h earlier. However, intra-ACC CNQX infusion before testing impaired contextual fear expression in the novel context, but not the original training context. Together, these data suggest that although the dorsal hippocampus may be recruited during systems reconsolidation, the ACC remains necessary for the expression of generalized contextual fear memory.

  5. Calcium-mediated signaling and calmodulin-dependent kinase regulate hepatocyte-inducible nitric oxide synthase expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baochun; Crankshaw, Will; Nesemeier, Ryan; Patel, Jay; Nweze, Ikenna; Lakshmanan, Jaganathan; Harbrecht, Brian G

    2015-02-01

    Induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is induced in hepatocytes by shock and inflammatory stimuli. Excessive NO from iNOS mediates shock-induced hepatic injury and death, so understanding the regulation of iNOS will help elucidate the pathophysiology of septic shock. In vitro, cytokines induce iNOS expression through activation of signaling pathways including mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor κB. Cytokines also induce calcium (Ca(2+)) mobilization and activate calcium-mediated intracellular signaling pathways, typically through activation of calmodulin-dependent kinases (CaMK). Calcium regulates NO production in macrophages but the role of calcium and calcium-mediated signaling in hepatocyte iNOS expression has not been defined. Primary rat hepatocytes were isolated, cultured, and induced to produce NO with proinflammatory cytokines. Calcium mobilization and Ca(2+)-mediated signaling were altered with ionophore, Ca(2+) channel blockers, and inhibitors of CaMK. The Ca(2+) ionophore A23187 suppressed cytokine-stimulated NO production, whereas Ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid and nifedipine increased NO production, iNOS messenger RNA, and iNOS protein expression. Inhibition of CaMK with KN93 and CBD increased NO production but the calcineurin inhibitor FK 506 decreased iNOS expression. These data demonstrate that calcium-mediated signaling regulates hepatocyte iNOS expression and does so through a mechanism independent of calcineurin. Changes in intracellular calcium levels may regulate iNOS expression during hepatic inflammation induced by proinflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression in porcine macula densa with chronic nitric oxide synthase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kommareddy, M; McAllister, R M; Ganjam, V K; Turk, J R; Laughlin, M Harold

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in the macula densa (MD) of swine, as well as the effects on expression of related proteins. Adult female Yucatan swine were given either tap water (control, n = 6) or water with N (G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 mg/liter, n = 5) for a minimum of 30 days. Duplicate samples of kidney were fixed or snap frozen. There was a significant (P = .0082) upregulation of COX-2 mRNA expression in the MD of L-NAME, as well as an apparent increase in COX-2 protein. Plasma renin activity also increased with L-NAME treatment (control, 0.34 ± 0.08 ng/ml; L-NAME, 1.26 ± 0.03 ng/ml; P = .00000003). There were no differences between groups in expression of either inducible NOS or renin protein or in serum electrolyte concentrations. In conclusion, with chronic inhibition of NOS, COX-2 in MD is upregulated, perhaps to compensate for loss of nitric oxide. Increases in COX-2 products may counteract renal arteriolar constriction and sustain renin release.

  7. Canine placental prostaglandin E2 synthase: expression, localization, and biological functions in providing substrates for prepartum PGF2alpha synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram, Aykut; Fox, Barbara; Büchler, Urs; Boos, Alois; Hoffmann, Bernd; Kowalewski, Mariusz P

    2014-12-01

    The prepartum output of PGF2alpha in the bitch is associated with increased placental PGE2-synthase (PTGES) mRNA levels. Contrasting with this is a decreased expression of PGF2alpha-synthase (PGFS/AKR1C3) in uteroplacental compartments during prepartum luteolysis, suggesting an involvement of alternative synthetic pathways in PGF2alpha synthesis, for example, conversion of PGE2 to PGF2alpha. However, because the expression and possible functions of the respective PTGES proteins remained unknown, no further conclusion could be drawn. Therefore, a canine-specific PTGES antibody was generated and used to investigate the expression, cellular localization, and biochemical activities of canine uteroplacental PTGES throughout pregnancy and at prepartum luteolysis. Additionally, the biochemical activities of these tissues involved in the conversion of PGE2 to PGF2alpha were investigated. The endometrial PTGES was localized in the uterine surface epithelium at preimplantation and in superficial and deep uterine glands, endothelial cells, and myometrium throughout pregnancy and at parturition. Placental signals were mostly in the trophoblast. The biochemical properties of recombinant PTGES protein were confirmed. Additionally, expression of two PGE2-receptors, PTGER2/EP2 and PTGER4/EP4, revealed their decreasing expression during luteolysis. In contrast, the uteroplacental expression of prostaglandin transporter (PGT) was strongly elevated prior to parturition. These localization patterns resembled that of PTGES. The increased expression of PTGES and PGT at parturition, together with the accompanying decreased levels of PGE2-receptors and the capability of canine uterine and placental homogenates to take part in the conversion of PGE2 to PGF2alpha, as found in this study, suggest that PGE2 could be used locally as a substrate for prepartum PGF2alpha synthesis in the dog. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  8. Recalibration of the ACC/AHA Risk Score in Two Population-Based German Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Las Heras Gala, Tonia; Geisel, Marie Henrike; Peters, Annette; Thorand, Barbara; Baumert, Jens; Lehmann, Nils; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Moebus, Susanne; Erbel, Raimund; Meisinger, Christine; Mahabadi, Amir Abbas; Koenig, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines introduced an algorithm for risk assessment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) within 10 years. In Germany, risk assessment with the ESC SCORE is limited to cardiovascular mortality. Applicability of the novel ACC/AHA risk score to the German population has not yet been assessed. We therefore sought to recalibrate and evaluate the ACC/AHA risk score in two German cohorts and to compare it to the ESC SCORE. We studied 5,238 participants from the KORA surveys S3 (1994-1995) and S4 (1999-2001) and 4,208 subjects from the Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR) Study (2000-2003). There were 383 (7.3%) and 271 (6.4%) first non-fatal or fatal ASCVD events within 10 years in KORA and in HNR, respectively. Risk scores were evaluated in terms of calibration and discrimination performance. The original ACC/AHA risk score overestimated 10-year ASCVD rates by 37% in KORA and 66% in HNR. After recalibration, miscalibration diminished to 8% underestimation in KORA and 12% overestimation in HNR. Discrimination performance of the ACC/AHA risk score was not affected by the recalibration (KORA: C = 0.78, HNR: C = 0.74). The ESC SCORE overestimated by 5% in KORA and by 85% in HNR. The corresponding C-statistic was 0.82 in KORA and 0.76 in HNR. The recalibrated ACC/AHA risk score showed strongly improved calibration compared to the original ACC/AHA risk score. Predicting only cardiovascular mortality, discrimination performance of the commonly used ESC SCORE remained somewhat superior to the ACC/AHA risk score. Nevertheless, the recalibrated ACC/AHA risk score may provide a meaningful tool for estimating 10-year risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease in Germany.

  9. SUMO-fusion, purification, and characterization of a (+)-zizaene synthase from Chrysopogon zizanioides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartwig, S.; Frister, T.; Alemdar, S.; Li, Z.; Scheper, T.; Beutel, S.

    2015-01-01

    An uncharacterized plant cDNA coding for a polypeptide presumably having sesquiterpene synthase activity, was expressed in soluble and active form. Two expression strategies were evaluated in Escherichia coli. The enzyme was fused to a highly soluble SUMO domain, in addition to being produced in an unfused form by a cold-shock expression system. Yields up to ∼325 mg/L −1 were achieved in batch cultivations. The 6x-His-tagged enzyme was purified employing an Ni 2+ -IMAC-based procedure. Identity of the protein was established by Western Blot analysis as well as peptide mass fingerprinting. A molecular mass of 64 kDa and an isoelectric point of pI 4.95 were determined by 2D gel electrophoresis. Cleavage of the fusion domain was possible by digestion with specific SUMO protease. The synthase was active in Mg 2+ containing buffer and catalyzed the production of (+)-zizaene (syn. khusimene), a precursor of khusimol, from farnesyl diphosphate. Product identity was confirmed by GC–MS and comparison of retention indices. Enzyme kinetics were determined by measuring initial reaction rates for the product, using varying substrate concentrations. By assuming a Michaelis–Menten model, kinetic parameters of K M  = 1.111 μM (±0.113), v max  = 0.3245 μM min −1 (±0.0035), k cat  = 2.95 min −1 , as well as a catalytic efficiency k cat /K M  = 4.43 × 10 4  M −1 s −1 were calculated. Fusion to a SUMO moiety can substantially increase soluble expression levels of certain hard to express terpene synthases in E. coli. The kinetic data determined for the recombinant synthase are comparable to other described plant sesquiterpene synthases and in the typical range of enzymes belonging to the secondary metabolism. This leaves potential for optimizing catalytic parameters through methods like directed evolution. - Highlights: • Uncharacterized (+)-zizaene synthase from C. zizanoides was cloned and expressed. • Fusion to SUMO and cold-shock induction

  10. SUMO-fusion, purification, and characterization of a (+)-zizaene synthase from Chrysopogon zizanioides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwig, S.; Frister, T.; Alemdar, S.; Li, Z.; Scheper, T.; Beutel, S., E-mail: beutel@iftc.uni-hannover.de

    2015-03-20

    An uncharacterized plant cDNA coding for a polypeptide presumably having sesquiterpene synthase activity, was expressed in soluble and active form. Two expression strategies were evaluated in Escherichia coli. The enzyme was fused to a highly soluble SUMO domain, in addition to being produced in an unfused form by a cold-shock expression system. Yields up to ∼325 mg/L{sup −1} were achieved in batch cultivations. The 6x-His-tagged enzyme was purified employing an Ni{sup 2+}-IMAC-based procedure. Identity of the protein was established by Western Blot analysis as well as peptide mass fingerprinting. A molecular mass of 64 kDa and an isoelectric point of pI 4.95 were determined by 2D gel electrophoresis. Cleavage of the fusion domain was possible by digestion with specific SUMO protease. The synthase was active in Mg{sup 2+} containing buffer and catalyzed the production of (+)-zizaene (syn. khusimene), a precursor of khusimol, from farnesyl diphosphate. Product identity was confirmed by GC–MS and comparison of retention indices. Enzyme kinetics were determined by measuring initial reaction rates for the product, using varying substrate concentrations. By assuming a Michaelis–Menten model, kinetic parameters of K{sub M} = 1.111 μM (±0.113), v{sub max} = 0.3245 μM min{sup −1} (±0.0035), k{sub cat} = 2.95 min{sup −1}, as well as a catalytic efficiency k{sub cat}/K{sub M} = 4.43 × 10{sup 4} M{sup −1} s{sup −1} were calculated. Fusion to a SUMO moiety can substantially increase soluble expression levels of certain hard to express terpene synthases in E. coli. The kinetic data determined for the recombinant synthase are comparable to other described plant sesquiterpene synthases and in the typical range of enzymes belonging to the secondary metabolism. This leaves potential for optimizing catalytic parameters through methods like directed evolution. - Highlights: • Uncharacterized (+)-zizaene synthase from C. zizanoides was cloned

  11. Driver's behavioral adaptation to adaptive cruise control (ACC): the case of speed and time headway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi Piccinini, Giulio Francesco; Rodrigues, Carlos Manuel; Leitão, Miguel; Simões, Anabela

    2014-06-01

    The Adaptive Cruise Control is an Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) that allows maintaining given headway and speed, according to settings pre-defined by the users. Despite the potential benefits associated to the utilization of ACC, previous studies warned against negative behavioral adaptations that might occur while driving with the system activated. Unfortunately, up to now, there are no unanimous results about the effects induced by the usage of ACC on speed and time headway to the vehicle in front. Also, few studies were performed including actual users of ACC among the subjects. This research aimed to investigate the effect of the experience gained with ACC on speed and time headway for a group of users of the system. In addition, it explored the impact of ACC usage on speed and time headway for ACC users and regular drivers. A matched sample driving simulator study was planned as a two-way (2×2) repeated measures mixed design, with the experience with ACC as between-subjects factor and the driving condition (with ACC and manually) as within-subjects factor. The results show that the usage of ACC brought a small but not significant reduction of speed and, especially, the maintenance of safer time headways, being the latter result greater for ACC users, probably as a consequence of their experience in using the system. The usage of ACC did not cause any negative behavioral adaptations to the system regarding speed and time headway. Based on this research work, the Adaptive Cruise Control showed the potential to improve road safety for what concerns the speed and the time headway maintained by the drivers. The speed of the surrounding traffic and the minimum time headway settable through the ACC seem to have an important effect on the road safety improvement achievable with the system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Air pollution alters brain and pituitary endothelin-1 and inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Errol M; Kumarathasan, Prem; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Vincent, Renaud

    2007-10-01

    Recent work suggests that air pollution is a risk factor for cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative disease. Effects of inhaled pollutants on the production of vasoactive factors such as endothelin (ET) and nitric oxide (NO) in the brain may be relevant to disease pathogenesis. Inhaled pollutants increase circulating levels of ET-1 and ET-3, and the pituitary is a potential source of plasma ET, but the effects of pollutants on the expression of ET and NO synthase genes in the brain and pituitary are not known. In the present study, Fischer-344 rats were exposed by nose-only inhalation to particles (0, 5, 50mg/m3 EHC-93), ozone (0, 0.4, 0.8 ppm), or combinations of particles and ozone for 4 h. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to measure mRNA levels in the cerebral hemisphere and pituitary 0 and 24 h post-exposure. Ozone inhalation significantly increased preproET-1 but decreased preproET-3 mRNAs in the cerebral hemisphere, while increasing mRNA levels of preproET-1, preproET-3, and the ET-converting enzyme (ECE)-1 in the pituitary. Inducible NO synthase (iNOS) was initially decreased in the cerebral hemisphere after ozone inhalation, but increased 24 h post-exposure. Particles decreased tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha mRNA in the cerebral hemisphere, and both particles and ozone decreased TNF-alpha mRNA in the pituitary. Our results show that ozone and particulate matter rapidly modulate the expression of genes involved in key vasoregulatory pathways in the brain and pituitary, substantiating the notion that inhaled pollutants induce cerebrovascular effects.

  13. Developmental evolution of flowering plant pollen tube cell walls: callose synthase (CalS gene expression patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abercrombie Jason M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of innovations underlie the origin of rapid reproductive cycles in angiosperms. A critical early step involved the modification of an ancestrally short and slow-growing pollen tube for faster and longer distance transport of sperm to egg. Associated with this shift are the predominantly callose (1,3-β-glucan walls and septae (callose plugs of angiosperm pollen tubes. Callose synthesis is mediated by callose synthase (CalS. Of 12 CalS gene family members in Arabidopsis, only one (CalS5 has been directly linked to pollen tube callose. CalS5 orthologues are present in several monocot and eudicot genomes, but little is known about the evolutionary origin of CalS5 or what its ancestral function may have been. Results We investigated expression of CalS in pollen and pollen tubes of selected non-flowering seed plants (gymnosperms and angiosperms within lineages that diverged below the monocot/eudicot node. First, we determined the nearly full length coding sequence of a CalS5 orthologue from Cabomba caroliniana (CcCalS5 (Nymphaeales. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated low CcCalS5 expression within several vegetative tissues, but strong expression in mature pollen. CalS transcripts were detected in pollen tubes of several species within Nymphaeales and Austrobaileyales, and comparative analyses with a phylogenetically diverse group of sequenced genomes indicated homology to CalS5. We also report in silico evidence of a putative CalS5 orthologue from Amborella. Among gymnosperms, CalS5 transcripts were recovered from germinating pollen of Gnetum and Ginkgo, but a novel CalS paralog was instead amplified from germinating pollen of Pinus taeda. Conclusion The finding that CalS5 is the predominant callose synthase in pollen tubes of both early-diverging and model system angiosperms is an indicator of the homology of their novel callosic pollen tube walls and callose plugs. The data suggest that CalS5 had transient expression

  14. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic study of molybdopterin synthase from Thermus thermophilus HB8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaujia, Shankar Prasad; Ranjani, Chellamuthu Vasuki; Jeyakanthan, Jeyaraman; Ohmori, Miwa; Agari, Kazuko; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Baba, Seiki; Ebihara, Akio; Shinkai, Akeo; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Shiro, Yoshitsugu; Sekar, Kanagaraj; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2007-01-01

    The molybdopterin synthase from T. thermophilus HB8 was cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals belong to space group P2 1 and diffracted to a resolution of 1.64 Å. Thermus thermophilus is a Gram-negative aerobic thermophilic eubacterium which can grow at temperatures ranging from 323 to 355 K. In addition to their importance in thermostability or adaptation strategies for survival at high temperatures, the thermostable enzymes in thermophilic organisms contribute to a wide range of biotechnological applications. The molybdenum cofactor in all three kingdoms consists of a tricyclic pyranopterin termed molybdopterin that bears the cis-dithiolene group responsible for molybdenum ligation. The crystals of molybdopterin synthase from T. thermophilus HB8 belong to the primitive monoclinic space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 33.94, b = 103.32, c = 59.59 Å, β = 101.3°. Preliminary studies and molecular-replacement calculations reveal the presence of three monomers in the asymmetric unit

  15. Expression of Cyclic GMP-AMP Synthase in Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jie; Durcan, Laura; Karr, Reynold M; Briggs, Tracy A; Rice, Gillian I; Teal, Thomas H; Woodward, Joshua J; Elkon, Keith B

    2017-04-01

    Type I interferon (IFN) is implicated in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and interferonopathies such as Aicardi-Goutières syndrome. A recently discovered DNA-activated type I IFN pathway, cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), has been linked to Aicardi-Goutières syndrome and mouse models of lupus. The aim of this study was to determine whether the cGAS pathway contributes to type I IFN production in patients with SLE. SLE disease activity was measured by the Safety of Estrogens in Lupus Erythematosus National Assessment version of the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index. Expression of messenger RNA for cGAS and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. Cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) levels were examined by multiple reaction monitoring with ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Expression of cGAS in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was significantly higher in SLE patients than in normal controls (n = 51 and n = 20 respectively; P < 0.01). There was a positive correlation between cGAS expression and the IFN score (P < 0.001). The expression of cGAS in PBMCs showed a dose response to type I IFN stimulation in vitro, consistent with it being an ISG. Targeted measurement of cGAMP by tandem mass spectrometry detected cGAMP in 15% of the SLE patients (7 of 48) but none of the normal (0 of 19) or rheumatoid arthritis (0 of 22) controls. Disease activity was higher in SLE patients with cGAMP versus those without cGAMP. Increased cGAS expression and cGAMP in a proportion of SLE patients indicates that the cGAS pathway should be considered as a contributor to type I IFN production. Whereas higher cGAS expression may be a consequence of exposure to type I IFN, detection of cGAMP in patients with increased disease activity indicates potential involvement of this pathway in disease expression. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  16. In vivo inhibition of the mitochondrial H+-ATP synthase in neurons promotes metabolic preconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formentini, Laura; Pereira, Marta P; Sánchez-Cenizo, Laura; Santacatterina, Fulvio; Lucas, José J; Navarro, Carmen; Martínez-Serrano, Alberto; Cuezva, José M

    2014-04-01

    A key transducer in energy conservation and signaling cell death is the mitochondrial H(+)-ATP synthase. The expression of the ATPase inhibitory factor 1 (IF1) is a strategy used by cancer cells to inhibit the activity of the H(+)-ATP synthase to generate a ROS signal that switches on cellular programs of survival. We have generated a mouse model expressing a mutant of human IF1 in brain neurons to assess the role of the H(+)-ATP synthase in cell death in vivo. The expression of hIF1 inhibits the activity of oxidative phosphorylation and mediates the shift of neurons to an enhanced aerobic glycolysis. Metabolic reprogramming induces brain preconditioning affording protection against quinolinic acid-induced excitotoxicity. Mechanistically, preconditioning involves the activation of the Akt/p70S6K and PARP repair pathways and Bcl-xL protection from cell death. Overall, our findings provide the first in vivo evidence highlighting the H(+)-ATP synthase as a target to prevent neuronal cell death.

  17. Cloning and expression analysis of two dehydrodolichyl diphosphate synthase genes from Tripterygium wilfordii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Hui Gao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To clone and investigate two dehydrodolichyl diphosphate synthase genes of Tripterygium wilfordii by bioinformatics and tissue expression analysis. Materials and Methods: According to the T. wifordii transcriptome database, specific primers were designed to clone the TwDHDDS1 and TwDHDDS2 genes via PCR. Based on the cloned sequences, protein structure prediction, multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree construction were performed. The expression levels of the genes in different tissues of T. wilfordii were measured by real-time quantitative PCR. Results: The TwDHDDS1 gene encompassed a 873 bp open reading frame (ORF and encoded a protein of 290 amino acids. The calculated molecular weight of the translated protein was about 33.46 kDa, and the theoretical isoelectric point (pI was 8.67. The TwDHDDS2 encompassed a 768 bp ORF, encoding a protein of 255 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of about 21.19 kDa, and a theoretical isoelectric point (pI of 7.72. Plant tissue expression analysis indicated that TwDHDDS1 and TwDHDDS2 both have relatively ubiquitous expression in all sampled organ tissues, but showed the highest transcription levels in the stems. Conclusions: The results of this study provide a basis for further functional studies of TwDHDDS1 and TwDHDDS2. Most importantly, these genes are promising genetic targets for the regulation of the biosynthetic pathways of important bioactive terpenoids such as triptolide.

  18. Molecular cloning and expression levels of the monoterpene synthase gene (ZMM1 in Cassumunar ginger (Zingiber montanum (Koenig Link ex Dietr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bua-In Saowaluck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassumunar ginger (Zingiber montanum (Koenig Link ex Dietr. is a native Thai herb with a high content and large variety of terpenoids in its essential oil. Improving the essential oil content and quality of cassumunar ginger is difficult for a breeder due to its clonally propagated nature. In this research, we describe the isolation and expression level of the monoterpene synthase gene that controls the key step of essential oil synthesis in this plant and evaluate the mechanical wounding that may influence the transcription level of the monoterpene synthase gene. To isolate the gene, the selected clones from DNA derived from young leaves were sequenced and analyzed and the monoterpene synthase gene from cassumunar ginger (ZMM1 was identified. The ZMM1 CDS containing 1 773 bp (KF500399 is predicted to encode a protein of 590 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence is 40-74% identical with known sequences of other angiosperm monoterpene synthases belonging to the isoprenoid biosynthesis C1 superfamily. A transcript of ZMM1 was detected almost exclusively in the leaves and was related to leaf wounding. The results of this research offer insight into the control of monoterpene synthesis in this plant. This finding can be applied to breeding programs or crop management of cassumunar ginger for better yield and quality of essential oil.

  19. Pu-erh Tea Reduces Nitric Oxide Levels in Rats by Inhibiting Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression through Toll-Like Receptor 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Wang, Guan; Li, Chunjie; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Hang; Sheng, Jun; Shi, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Pu-erh tea undergoes a unique fermentation process and contains theabrownins, polysaccharides and caffeine; although it is unclear about which component is associated with the down regulation of nitric oxide levels or how this process is mediated. To address this question we examined the effects of pu-erh tea on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) genes. Cohorts of rats were separately given four-week treatments of water as control, pu-erh tea, or the tea components: theabrownins, caffeine or polysaccharides. Five experimental groups were injected with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to induce nitric oxide (NO) production, while the corresponding five control groups were injected with saline as a negative control. The serum and liver NO concentrations were examined and the NOS expression of both mRNA and protein was measured in liver. The results showed that the rats which were fed pu-erh tea or polysaccharides had lower levels of NO which corresponded with the down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. We further demonstrate that this effect is mediated through reduction of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling. Thus we find that the polysaccharide components in pu-erh tea reduce NO levels in an animal model by inhibiting the iNOS expression via signaling through TLR4. PMID:22837686

  20. Artichoke, Cynarin and Cyanidin Downregulate the Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Human Coronary Smooth Muscle Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ning Xia; Andrea Pautz; Ursula Wollscheid; Gisela Reifenberg; Ulrich Förstermann; Huige Li

    2014-01-01

    Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is one of the world’s oldest medicinal plants with multiple health benefits. We have previously shown that artichoke leaf extracts and artichoke flavonoids upregulate the gene expression of endothelial-type nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in human endothelial cells. Whereas NO produced by the eNOS is a vasoprotective molecule, NO derived from the inducible iNOS plays a pro-inflammatory role in the vasculature. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects ...

  1. Cloning and Expression of the PHA Synthase Gene From a Locally Isolated Chromobacterium sp. USM2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhubalan, K.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromobacterium sp. USM2, a locally isolated bacterium was found to synthesize poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate, P(3HB-co-3HV copolymer with high 3HV monomer composition. The PHA synthase gene was cloned and expressed in Cupriavidus necator PHB¯4 to investigate the possibilities of incorporating other monomer. The recombinant successfully incorporated 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3HHx monomer when fed with crude palm kernel oil (CPKO as the sole carbon source. Approximately 63 ± 2 wt% of P(3HB-co-3HHx copolymer with 4 mol% of 3HHx was synthesized from 5 g/L of oil after 48 h of cultivation. In addition, P(3HB-co-3HV-co-3HHx terpolymer with 9 mol% 3HV and 4 mol% 3HHx could be synthesized with a mixture of CPKO and sodium valerate. The presence of 3HV and 3HHx monomers in the copolymer and terpolymer was further confirmed with +H-NMR analysis. This locally isolated PHA synthase has demonstrated its ability to synthesize P(3HB-co-3HHx copolymer from a readily available and renewable carbon source; CPKO, without the addition of 3HHx precursors.

  2. Valencene synthase from the heartwood of Nootka cypress (Callitropsis nootkatensis) for biotechnological production of valencene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekwilder, Jules; van Houwelingen, Adèle; Cankar, Katarina; van Dijk, Aalt D J; de Jong, René M; Stoopen, Geert; Bouwmeester, Harro; Achkar, Jihane; Sonke, Theo; Bosch, Dirk

    2014-02-01

    Nootkatone is one of the major terpenes in the heartwood of the Nootka cypress Callitropsis nootkatensis. It is an oxidized sesquiterpene, which has been postulated to be derived from valencene. Both valencene and nootkatone are used for flavouring citrus beverages and are considered among the most valuable terpenes used at commercial scale. Functional evaluation of putative terpene synthase genes sourced by large-scale EST sequencing from Nootka cypress wood revealed a valencene synthase gene (CnVS). CnVS expression in different tissues from the tree correlates well with nootkatone content, suggesting that CnVS represents the first dedicated gene in the nootkatone biosynthetic pathway in C. nootkatensis The gene belongs to the gymnosperm-specific TPS-d subfamily of terpenes synthases and its protein sequence has low similarity to known citrus valencene synthases. In vitro, CnVS displays high robustness under different pH and temperature regimes, potentially beneficial properties for application in different host and physiological conditions. Biotechnological production of sesquiterpenes has been shown to be feasible, but productivity of microbial strains expressing valencene synthase from Citrus is low, indicating that optimization of valencene synthase activity is needed. Indeed, expression of CnVS in Saccharomyces cerevisiae indicated potential for higher yields. In an optimized Rhodobacter sphaeroides strain, expression of CnVS increased valencene yields 14-fold to 352 mg/L, bringing production to levels with industrial potential. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Insight into Biochemical Characterization of Plant Sesquiterpene Synthases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manczak, Tom; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2016-01-01

    A fast and reproducible protocol was established for enzymatic characterization of plant sesquiterpene synthases that can incorporate radioactivity in their products. The method utilizes the 96-well format in conjunction with cluster tubes and enables processing of >200 samples a day. Along...... with reduced reagent usage, it allows further reduction in the use of radioactive isotopes and flammable organic solvents. The sesquiterpene synthases previously characterized were expressed in yeast, and the plant-derived Thapsia garganica kunzeaol synthase TgTPS2 was tested in this method. KM for TgTPS2...... was found to be 0.55 μM; the turnover number, kcat, was found to be 0.29 s-1, kcat for TgTPS2 is in agreement with that of terpene synthases of other plants, and kcat/KM was found to be 0.53 s-1 μM-1 for TgTPS2. The kinetic parameters were in agreement with previously published data....

  4. Accès à l'information et protection des renseignements personnels ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le Centre de recherches pour le développement international (CRDI) appuie ... morale présente au Canada le droit d'accéder aux documents qui relèvent du CRDI, ... à la disposition du public, indiquant ainsi l'importance de l'accès informel.

  5. Inducing salt tolerance in maize through ACC-deaminase biotechnology (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahroona, B.; Arshad, M.; Zahir, Z.A.

    2005-01-01

    Ethylene is one of the five established classes of phytohormones. Its involvement in evoking physiological responses in plants exposed to any kind of environmental stresses (such as salinity, drought and metal toxicity stresses) is well established, thus it has also been designated as 'stress' hormone. It is generally believed that stress induces accelerated synthesis of ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), which subsequently results in the out burst of ethylene production and plant responds to this higher level of ethylene. Thus any check on this accelerated ethylene production in plants exposed to salinity stress could help in minimizing the negative impact of this stress and plants might survive better. There are some soil bacteria which carry ACC-deaminase enzyme and their presence on root surface results in lowering the accelerated production of ethylene. Trials were conducted under axenic condition to study the effect of inoculation with ACC-deaminase containing rhizobacteria to ameliorate the effect of salinity on seedling growth. Maize seedlings were exposed to different salinity levels and results indicated that inoculation with ACC-deaminase containing rhizobacteria significantly increased root elongation, shoot length, fresh and dry weight of seedlings at all the salinity levels. (author)

  6. Polyamines and ethylene interact in rice grains in response to soil drying during grain filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tingting; Xu, Yunji; Wang, Jingchao; Wang, Zhiqin; Yang, Jianchang; Zhang, Jianhua

    2013-05-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the interaction between polyamines and ethylene may mediate the effects of soil drying on grain filling of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Two rice cultivars were pot grown. Three treatments, well-watered, moderate soil drying (MD), and severe soil drying (SD), were imposed from 8 d post-anthesis until maturity. The endosperm cell division rate, grain-filling rate, and grain weight of earlier flowering superior spikelets showed no significant differences among the three treatments. However, those of the later flowering inferior spikelets were significantly increased under MD and significantly reduced under SD when compared with those which were well watered. The two cultivars showed the same tendencies. MD increased the contents of free spermidine (Spd) and free spermine (Spm), the activities of S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase and Spd synthase, and expression levels of polyamine synthesis genes, and decreased the ethylene evolution rate, the contents of 1-aminocylopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and hydrogen peroxide, the activities of ACC synthase, ACC oxidase, and polyamine oxidase, and the expression levels of ethylene synthesis genes in inferior spikelets. SD exhibited the opposite effects. Application of Spd, Spm, or an inhibitor of ethylene synthesis to rice panicles significantly reduced ethylene and ACC levels, but significantly increased Spd and Spm contents, grain-filling rate, and grain weight of inferior spikelets. The results were reversed when ACC or an inhibitor of Spd and Spm synthesis was applied. The results suggest that a potential metabolic interaction between polyamines and ethylene biosynthesis responds to soil drying and mediates the grain filling of inferior spikelets in rice.

  7. Characterization of D-myo-inositol 3-phosphate synthase gene expression in two soybean low phytate mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Fengjie; Dong Dekun; Li Baiquan; Yu Xiaomin; Fu Xujun; Zhu Danhua; Zhu Shenlong; Yang Qinghua

    2013-01-01

    1D-myo-inositol 3-phosphate synthase (MIPS) gene plays a significant role in phytic acid biosynthesis. In this study, we used two low phytic acid mutants Gm-lpa-TW-1, Gm-lpa-ZC-2 and their respective wild type parents Taiwan75 and Zhechun No.3 to analyze the expression pattern and characterization of MIPS1 gene. The results showed that there was a common expression pattern of MIPS1 in soybean developing seeds. Expression was weak as detected by RT-PCR in initial stage, increased in the following stages, and the peak expression was appeared in 22 day after flowering (DAF). The expression of MIPS1 gene of non-seed tissues in mutant Gm-lpa-TW-1 and its wildtype Taiwan75 was very weak. In the developing seeds, the MIPS1 expression by qRT-PCR revealed a significant reduction in 22 DAF in mutant Gm-lpa-TW-1 as compared with the wildtype. Similarly, the expression of MIPS1 gene in non-seed tissue of Zhenchun No.3 and Gm-lpa-ZC-2 was very weak. However, stronger expression in developing seeds of the mutant Gm-lpa-ZC-2 than Zhechun No.3 was found. We concluded that the MIPS1 gene expression in the developing seed exhibited an up-regulation pattern in mutant Gm-lpa-ZC-2, but a down-regulation pattern in the mutant Gm-lpa-TW-1. (authors)

  8. Regulation of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 and isochorismate synthase gene expression in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia J R Hunter

    Full Text Available RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs function in anti-viral silencing in Arabidopsis thaliana and other plants. Salicylic acid (SA, an important defensive signal, increases RDR1 gene expression, suggesting that RDR1 contributes to SA-induced virus resistance. In Nicotiana attenuata RDR1 also regulates plant-insect interactions and is induced by another important signal, jasmonic acid (JA. Despite its importance in defense RDR1 regulation has not been investigated in detail.In Arabidopsis, SA-induced RDR1 expression was dependent on 'NON-EXPRESSER OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES 1', indicating regulation involves the same mechanism controlling many other SA- defense-related genes, including pathogenesis-related 1 (PR1. Isochorismate synthase 1 (ICS1 is required for SA biosynthesis. In defensive signal transduction RDR1 lies downstream of ICS1. However, supplying exogenous SA to ics1-mutant plants did not induce RDR1 or PR1 expression to the same extent as seen in wild type plants. Analysing ICS1 gene expression using transgenic plants expressing ICS1 promoter:reporter gene (β-glucuronidase constructs and by measuring steady-state ICS1 transcript levels showed that SA positively regulates ICS1. In contrast, ICS2, which is expressed at lower levels than ICS1, is unaffected by SA. The wound-response hormone JA affects expression of Arabidopsis RDR1 but jasmonate-induced expression is independent of CORONATINE-INSENSITIVE 1, which conditions expression of many other JA-responsive genes. Transiently increased RDR1 expression following tobacco mosaic virus inoculation was due to wounding and was not a direct effect of infection. RDR1 gene expression was induced by ethylene and by abscisic acid (an important regulator of drought resistance. However, rdr1-mutant plants showed normal responses to drought.RDR1 is regulated by a much broader range of phytohormones than previously thought, indicating that it plays roles beyond those already suggested in virus

  9. ACC International Academic Collaborative receives special award

    OpenAIRE

    Felker, Susan B.

    2006-01-01

    The Atlantic Coast Conference's new International Academic Collaborative (ACC/IAC) has been singled out by the New York-based Institute of International Education (IIE) for a special award for innovation in international education.

  10. [Effects of cytosolic bacteria on cyclic GMP-AMP synthase expression in human gingival tissues and periodontal ligament cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaojun, Yang; Yongmei, Tan; Zhihui, Tian; Ting, Zhou; Wanghong, Zhao; Jin, Hou

    2017-04-01

    This work aims to determine the effect of cytosolic bacteria on the expression of cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) in human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) and gingival tissues. The ability of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) to invade hPDLCs was detected using laser scanning confocal microscope assay at a multiplicity of infection of 10. P. gingivalis-infected cells were sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Then, quantitative real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot were used to detect cGAS expression in infected cells. Finally, the location and expression of cGAS in inflammatory and normal gingival tissues were investigated by immunohistochemistry. P. gingivalis actively invaded hPDLCs. Moreover, cGAS expression significantly increased in P. gingivalis-infected cells. Although cGAS was expressed in the epithelial and subepithelial cells of both inflamed and normal gingival tissues, cGAS expression significantly increased in inflamed gingival tissues. Cytosolic bacteria can upregulate cGAS expression in infected cells. These data suggest that cGAS may act as pattern-recognition receptors and participate in recognizing cytosolic nucleic acid pathogen-associated molecular patterns.
.

  11. Réseaux d'accès communautaire : faire accéder à Internet un ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    En dépit des récents progrès en diffusion de la technologie mobile, plus de quatre milliards de personnes n'ont pas de connexion Internet et ont un accès limité à l'infrastructure mondiale des télécommunications. Le coût de mettre en œuvre une infrastructure de connectivité dans les régions mal desservies demeure un ...

  12. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of latent, active and recombinantly expressed aurone synthase, a polyphenol oxidase, from Coreopsis grandiflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molitor, Christian; Mauracher, Stephan Gerhard; Rompel, Annette, E-mail: annette.rompel@univie.ac.at [Universität Wien, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Wien (Austria)

    2015-05-22

    Latent and active aurone synthase purified from petals of C. grandiflora (cgAUS1) were crystallized. The crystal quality of recombinantly expressed latent cgAUS1 was significantly improved by co-crystallization with the polyoxotungstate Na{sub 6}[TeW{sub 6}O{sub 24}] within the liquid–liquid phase-separation zone. Aurone synthase (AUS), a member of a novel group of plant polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), catalyzes the oxidative conversion of chalcones to aurones. Two active cgAUS1 (41.6 kDa) forms that differed in the level of phosphorylation or sulfation as well as the latent precursor form (58.9 kDa) were purified from the petals of Coreopsis grandiflora. The differing active cgAUS1 forms and the latent cgAUS1 as well as recombinantly expressed latent cgAUS1 were crystallized, resulting in six different crystal forms. The active forms crystallized in space groups P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} and P12{sub 1}1 and diffracted to ∼1.65 Å resolution. Co-crystallization of active cgAUS1 with 1,4-resorcinol led to crystals belonging to space group P3{sub 1}21. The crystals of latent cgAUS1 belonged to space group P12{sub 1}1 and diffracted to 2.50 Å resolution. Co-crystallization of recombinantly expressed pro-AUS with the hexatungstotellurate(VI) salt Na{sub 6}[TeW{sub 6}O{sub 24}] within the liquid–liquid phase separation zone significantly improved the quality of the crystals compared with crystals obtained without hexatungstotellurate(VI)

  13. Altering the expression of two chitin synthase genes differentially affects the growth and morphology of Aspergillus oryzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Christian; Hjort, C.M.; Hansen, K.

    2002-01-01

    In Aspergillus oryzae, one full-length chitin synthase (chsB) and fragments of two other chitin synthases (csmA and chsC) were identified. The deduced amino acid sequence of chsB was similar (87% identity) to chsB from Aspergillus nidulans, which encodes a class III chitin synthase. The sequence...

  14. Overexpression of biotin synthase and biotin ligase is required for efficient generation of sulfur-35 labeled biotin in E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delli-Bovi, Teegan A; Spalding, Maroya D; Prigge, Sean T

    2010-10-11

    Biotin is an essential enzyme cofactor that acts as a CO2 carrier in carboxylation and decarboxylation reactions. The E. coli genome encodes a biosynthetic pathway that produces biotin from pimeloyl-CoA in four enzymatic steps. The final step, insertion of sulfur into desthiobiotin to form biotin, is catalyzed by the biotin synthase, BioB. A dedicated biotin ligase (BirA) catalyzes the covalent attachment of biotin to biotin-dependent enzymes. Isotopic labeling has been a valuable tool for probing the details of the biosynthetic process and assaying the activity of biotin-dependent enzymes, however there is currently no established method for 35S labeling of biotin. In this study, we produced [35S]-biotin from Na35SO4 and desthiobiotin with a specific activity of 30.7 Ci/mmol, two orders of magnitude higher than previously published methods. The biotinylation domain (PfBCCP-79) from the Plasmodium falciparum acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) was expressed in E. coli as a biotinylation substrate. We found that overexpression of the E. coli biotin synthase, BioB, and biotin ligase, BirA, increased PfBCCP-79 biotinylation 160-fold over basal levels. Biotinylated PfBCCP-79 was purified by affinity chromatography, and free biotin was liberated using acid hydrolysis. We verified that we had produced radiolabeled biologically active [D]-biotin that specifically labels biotinylated proteins through reuptake in E. coli. The strategy described in our report provides a simple and effective method for the production of [35S]-biotin in E. coli based on affinity chromatography.

  15. Riboflavin accumulation and characterization of cDNAs encoding lumazine synthase and riboflavin synthase in bitter melon (Momordica charantia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Kim, Jae Kwang; Lee, Sanghyun; Chae, Soo Cheon; Park, Sang Un

    2012-12-05

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is the universal precursor of the coenzymes flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide--cofactors that are essential for the activity of a wide variety of metabolic enzymes in animals, plants, and microbes. Using the RACE PCR approach, cDNAs encoding lumazine synthase (McLS) and riboflavin synthase (McRS), which catalyze the last two steps in the riboflavin biosynthetic pathway, were cloned from bitter melon (Momordica charantia), a popular vegetable crop in Asia. Amino acid sequence alignments indicated that McLS and McRS share high sequence identity with other orthologous genes and carry an N-terminal extension, which is reported to be a plastid-targeting sequence. Organ expression analysis using quantitative real-time RT PCR showed that McLS and McRS were constitutively expressed in M. charantia, with the strongest expression levels observed during the last stage of fruit ripening (stage 6). This correlated with the highest level of riboflavin content, which was detected during ripening stage 6 by HPLC analysis. McLS and McRS were highly expressed in the young leaves and flowers, whereas roots exhibited the highest accumulation of riboflavin. The cloning and characterization of McLS and McRS from M. charantia may aid the metabolic engineering of vitamin B2 in crops.

  16. Genome-wide analysis of the grapevine stilbene synthase multigenic family: genomic organization and expression profiles upon biotic and abiotic stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vannozzi Alessandro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant stilbenes are a small group of phenylpropanoids, which have been detected in at least 72 unrelated plant species and accumulate in response to biotic and abiotic stresses such as infection, wounding, UV-C exposure and treatment with chemicals. Stilbenes are formed via the phenylalanine/polymalonate-route, the last step of which is catalyzed by the enzyme stilbene synthase (STS, a type III polyketide synthase (PKS. Stilbene synthases are closely related to chalcone synthases (CHS, the key enzymes of the flavonoid pathway, as illustrated by the fact that both enzymes share the same substrates. To date, STSs have been cloned from peanut, pine, sorghum and grapevine, the only stilbene-producing fruiting-plant for which the entire genome has been sequenced. Apart from sorghum, STS genes appear to exist as a family of closely related genes in these other plant species. Results In this study a complete characterization of the STS multigenic family in grapevine has been performed, commencing with the identification, annotation and phylogenetic analysis of all members and integration of this information with a comprehensive set of gene expression analyses including healthy tissues at differential developmental stages and in leaves exposed to both biotic (downy mildew infection and abiotic (wounding and UV-C exposure stresses. At least thirty-three full length sequences encoding VvSTS genes were identified, which, based on predicted amino acid sequences, cluster in 3 principal groups designated A, B and C. The majority of VvSTS genes cluster in groups B and C and are located on chr16 whereas the few gene family members in group A are found on chr10. Microarray and mRNA-seq expression analyses revealed different patterns of transcript accumulation between the different groups of VvSTS family members and between VvSTSs and VvCHSs. Indeed, under certain conditions the transcriptional response of VvSTS and VvCHS genes appears to be

  17. Differential accumulation of β-carotene and tissue specific expression of phytoene synthase (MaPsy) gene in banana (Musa sp) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhandapani, R; Singh, V P; Arora, A; Bhattacharya, R C; Rajendran, Ambika

    2017-12-01

    An experiment was conducted with twelve major Indian banana cultivars to investigate the molecular relationship between the differential accumulation of β-carotene in peel and pulp of the banana fruit and carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes. The high performance liquid chromatography showed that all banana cultivars accumulated two-three fold more β-carotene in non-edible portion of the banana fruit. However, Nendran , a famous orange fleshed cultivar of South India, had high β-carotene content (1362 µg/100 g) in edible pulp. The gene encoding Musa accuminata phytoene synthase ( MaPsy ) was successfully amplified using a pair of degenerate primers designed from Oncidium orchid. The deduced amino acid sequences shared a high level of identity to phytoene synthase gene from other plants. Gene expression analysis confirmed the presence of two isoforms ( MaPsy1 and MaPsy2 ) of MaPsy gene in banana fruits. Presence of two isoforms of MaPsy gene in peel and one in pulp confirmed the differential accumulation of β-carotene in banana fruits. However, Nendran accumulated more β-carotene in edible pulp due to presence of both the isoforms of MaPsy gene. Thus, carotenoid accumulation is a tissue specific process strongly dependent on differential expression pattern of two isoforms of MaPsy gene in banana.

  18. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of dihydrodipicolinate synthase from Bacillus anthracis in the presence of pyruvate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, Jarrod E.; Scally, Stephen W.; Taylor, Nicole L.; Dogovski, Con; Alderton, Malcolm R.; Hutton, Craig A.; Gerrard, Juliet A.; Parker, Michael W.; Dobson, Renwick C. J.; Perugini, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) catalyses an important step in lysine biosynthesis. Here, the expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary diffraction analysis to 2.15 Å resolution of DHDPS from B. anthracis soaked with the substrate pyruvate are reported. Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) catalyses the first committed step in the lysine-biosynthesis pathway in bacteria, plants and some fungi. In this study, the expression of DHDPS from Bacillus anthracis (Ba-DHDPS) and the purification of the recombinant enzyme in the absence and presence of the substrate pyruvate are described. It is shown that DHDPS from B. anthracis purified in the presence of pyruvate yields greater amounts of recombinant enzyme with more than 20-fold greater specific activity compared with the enzyme purified in the absence of substrate. It was therefore sought to crystallize Ba-DHDPS in the presence of the substrate. Pyruvate was soaked into crystals of Ba-DHDPS prepared in 0.2 M sodium fluoride, 20%(w/v) PEG 3350 and 0.1 M bis-tris propane pH 8.0. Preliminary X-ray diffraction data of the recombinant enzyme soaked with pyruvate at a resolution of 2.15 Å are presented. The pending crystal structure of the pyruvate-bound form of Ba-DHDPS will provide insight into the function and stability of this essential bacterial enzyme

  19. Pathological Lesions and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expressions in the Liver of Mice Experimentally Infected with Clonorchis sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing-Li; Shen, Ji-Qing; Xue, Yan; Cheng, Xiao-Bing; Jiang, Zhi-Hua; Yang, Yi-Chao; Chen, Ying-Dan; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2015-12-01

    The nitric oxide (NO) formation and intrinsic nitrosation may be involved in the possible mechanisms of liver fluke-associated carcinogenesis. We still do not know much about the responses of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) induced by Clonorchis sinensis infection. This study was conducted to explore the pathological lesions and iNOS expressions in the liver of mice with different infection intensity levels of C. sinensis. Extensive periductal inflammatory cell infiltration, bile duct hyperplasia, and fibrosis were commonly observed during the infection. The different pathological responses in liver tissues strongly correlated with the infection intensity of C. sinensis. Massive acute spotty necrosis occurred in the liver parenchyma after a severe infection. The iNOS activity in liver tissues increased, and iNOS-expressing cells with morphological differences were observed after a moderate or severe infection. The iNOS-expressing cells in liver tissues had multiple origins.

  20. Distal truncation of KCC3 in non-French Canadian HMSN/ACC families.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salin-Cantegrel, A.; Riviere, J.B.; Dupre, N.; Charron, F.M.; Shekarabi, M.; Karemera, L.; Gaspar, C.; Horst, J. van der; Tekin, M.; Deda, G.; Krause, A.; Lippert, M.M.; Willemsen, M.A.A.P.; Jarrar, R.; Lapointe, J.Y.; Rouleau, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with agenesis of the corpus callosum (HMSN/ACC) is a severe and progressive autosomal recessive polyneuropathy. Mutations in the potassium-chloride cotransporter 3 gene (KCC3) were identified as responsible for HMSN/ACC in the French Canadian (FC)

  1. Gene expression profiles of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cytokines in Leishmania major-infected macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells treated with gallic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radtke, O.A.; Kiderlen, A.F.; Kayser, Oliver; Kolodziej, H

    2004-01-01

    The effects of gallic acid on the gene expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the cytokines interleukin (IL)-1, IL-10, IL-12, IL-18, TNF-alpha, and interferon (IFN)-gamma were investigated by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The experiments were performed

  2. Plasmodium falciparum avoids change in erythrocytic surface expression of phagocytosis markers during inhibition of nitric oxide synthase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempel, Casper; Kohnke, Hannes; Maretty, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) accumulates in Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes. It may be produced by a parasite NO synthase (NOS) or by nitrate reduction. The parasite's benefit of NO accumulation is not understood. We investigated if inhibiting the P. falciparum NOS with specific and unspecific NOS...... increased the fraction of phosphatidyl serine exposing cells significantly. The infection did not change the level of expression of neither total CD47 nor its oxidized form. Unrelated to NOS inhibition, incubation with caveolin-1 scaffolding domain peptide lead to a decrease in oxidized CD47. In conclusion...

  3. UVB-irradiated keratinocytes induce melanoma-associated ganglioside GD3 synthase gene in melanocytes via secretion of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Maiko [Department of Life and Medical Sciences, Chubu University Faculty of Life and Health Sciences, Matsumoto, Kasugai 487-8501 (Japan); Department of Biochemistry II, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-0065 (Japan); Ichihara, Masatoshi; Tajima, Orie; Sobue, Sayaka; Kambe, Mariko [Department of Life and Medical Sciences, Chubu University Faculty of Life and Health Sciences, Matsumoto, Kasugai 487-8501 (Japan); Sugiura, Kazumitsu [Department of Dermatology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-0065 (Japan); Furukawa, Koichi, E-mail: koichi@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry II, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-0065 (Japan); Furukawa, Keiko [Department of Life and Medical Sciences, Chubu University Faculty of Life and Health Sciences, Matsumoto, Kasugai 487-8501 (Japan); Department of Biochemistry II, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-0065 (Japan)

    2014-03-07

    Highlights: • Melanocytes showed low ST8SIA1 and high B3GALT4 levels in contrast with melanomas. • Direct UVB irradiation of melanocytes did not induce ganglioside synthase genes. • Culture supernatants of UVB-irradiated keratinocytes induced ST8SIA1 in melanocytes. • TNFα and IL-6 secreted from keratinocytes enhanced ST8SIA1 expression in melanocytes. • Inflammatory cytokines induced melanoma-related ST8SIA1 in melanocytes. - Abstract: Although expression of gangliosides and their synthetic enzyme genes in malignant melanomas has been well studied, that in normal melanocytes has been scarcely analyzed. In particular, changes in expression levels of glycosyltransferase genes responsible for ganglioside synthesis during evolution of melanomas from melanocytes are very important to understand roles of gangliosides in melanomas. Here, expression of glycosyltransferase genes related to the ganglioside synthesis was analyzed using RNAs from cultured melanocytes and melanoma cell lines. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that melanomas expressed high levels of mRNA of GD3 synthase and GM2/GD2 synthase genes and low levels of GM1/GD1b synthase genes compared with melanocytes. As a representative exogenous stimulation, effects of ultraviolet B (UVB) on the expression levels of 3 major ganglioside synthase genes in melanocytes were analyzed. Although direct UVB irradiation of melanocytes caused no marked changes, culture supernatants of UVB-irradiated keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) induced definite up-regulation of GD3 synthase and GM2/GD2 synthase genes. Detailed examination of the supernatants revealed that inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα and IL-6 enhanced GD3 synthase gene expression. These results suggest that inflammatory cytokines secreted from UVB-irradiated keratinocytes induced melanoma-associated ganglioside synthase genes, proposing roles of skin microenvironment in the promotion of melanoma-like ganglioside profiles in melanocytes.

  4. UVB-irradiated keratinocytes induce melanoma-associated ganglioside GD3 synthase gene in melanocytes via secretion of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyata, Maiko; Ichihara, Masatoshi; Tajima, Orie; Sobue, Sayaka; Kambe, Mariko; Sugiura, Kazumitsu; Furukawa, Koichi; Furukawa, Keiko

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Melanocytes showed low ST8SIA1 and high B3GALT4 levels in contrast with melanomas. • Direct UVB irradiation of melanocytes did not induce ganglioside synthase genes. • Culture supernatants of UVB-irradiated keratinocytes induced ST8SIA1 in melanocytes. • TNFα and IL-6 secreted from keratinocytes enhanced ST8SIA1 expression in melanocytes. • Inflammatory cytokines induced melanoma-related ST8SIA1 in melanocytes. - Abstract: Although expression of gangliosides and their synthetic enzyme genes in malignant melanomas has been well studied, that in normal melanocytes has been scarcely analyzed. In particular, changes in expression levels of glycosyltransferase genes responsible for ganglioside synthesis during evolution of melanomas from melanocytes are very important to understand roles of gangliosides in melanomas. Here, expression of glycosyltransferase genes related to the ganglioside synthesis was analyzed using RNAs from cultured melanocytes and melanoma cell lines. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that melanomas expressed high levels of mRNA of GD3 synthase and GM2/GD2 synthase genes and low levels of GM1/GD1b synthase genes compared with melanocytes. As a representative exogenous stimulation, effects of ultraviolet B (UVB) on the expression levels of 3 major ganglioside synthase genes in melanocytes were analyzed. Although direct UVB irradiation of melanocytes caused no marked changes, culture supernatants of UVB-irradiated keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) induced definite up-regulation of GD3 synthase and GM2/GD2 synthase genes. Detailed examination of the supernatants revealed that inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα and IL-6 enhanced GD3 synthase gene expression. These results suggest that inflammatory cytokines secreted from UVB-irradiated keratinocytes induced melanoma-associated ganglioside synthase genes, proposing roles of skin microenvironment in the promotion of melanoma-like ganglioside profiles in melanocytes

  5. Biotin augments acetyl CoA carboxylase 2 gene expression in the hypothalamus, leading to the suppression of food intake in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Hideyuki; Kamiyama, Shin; Higuchi, Mutsumi; Fujino, Kaho; Kubo, Shizuka; Miyazawa, Masami; Shirato, Saya; Hiroi, Yuka; Shiozawa, Kota

    2016-07-29

    It is known that biotin prevents the development of diabetes by increasing the functions of pancreatic beta-cells and improving insulin sensitivity in the periphery. However, its anti-obesity effects such as anorectic effects remain to be clarified. Acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC), a biotin-dependent enzyme, has two isoforms (ACC1 and ACC2) and serves to catalyze the reaction of acetyl CoA to malonyl CoA. In the hypothalamus, ACC2 increases the production of malonyl CoA, which acts as a satiety signal. In this study, we investigated whether biotin increases the gene expression of ACC2 in the hypothalamus and suppresses food intake in mice administered excessive biotin. Food intake was significantly decreased by biotin, but plasma regulators of appetite, including glucose, ghrelin, and leptin, were not affected. On the other hand, biotin notably accumulated in the hypothalamus and enhanced ACC2 gene expression there, but it did not change the gene expression of ACC1, malonyl CoA decarboxylase (a malonyl CoA-degrading enzyme), and AMP-activated protein kinase α-2 (an ACC-inhibitory enzyme). These findings strongly suggest that biotin potentiates the suppression of appetite by upregulating ACC2 gene expression in the hypothalamus. This effect of biotin may contribute to the prevention of diabetes by biotin treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Structural Basis of Catalysis in the Bacterial Monoterpene Synthases Linalool Synthase and 1,8-Cineole Synthase

    OpenAIRE

    Karuppiah, Vijaykumar; Ranaghan, Kara E.; Leferink, Nicole G. H.; Johannissen, Linus O.; Shanmugam, Muralidharan; Ní Cheallaigh, Aisling; Bennett, Nathan J.; Kearsey, Lewis J.; Takano, Eriko; Gardiner, John M.; van der Kamp, Marc W.; Hay, Sam; Mulholland, Adrian J.; Leys, David; Scrutton, Nigel S.

    2017-01-01

    Terpenoids form the largest and stereochemically most diverse class of natural products, and there is considerable interest in producing these by biocatalysis with whole cells or purified enzymes, and by metabolic engineering. The monoterpenes are an important class of terpenes and are industrially important as flavors and fragrances. We report here structures for the recently discovered Streptomyces clavuligerus monoterpene synthases linalool synthase (bLinS) and 1,8-cineole synthase (bCinS)...

  7. Expression, purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) from Halothermothrix orenii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynh, Frederick; Tan, Tien-Chye; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam; Patel, Bharat K. C.

    2004-01-01

    The first crystallographic study of a sucrose phosphate synthase from H. orenii, an organism that is both thermophilic and halophilic, is reported. The protein crystal diffracts X-rays to 3.01 Å. This is the first report of the crystallization of a sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS; EC 2.4.1.14). It also constitutes the first study of a sucrose phosphate synthase from a non-photosynthetic thermohalophilic anaerobic bacterium, Halothermothrix orenii. The purified recombinant spsA protein has been crystallized in the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 154.2, b = 47.9, c = 72.3 Å, β = 103.16°, using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystal diffracts X-rays to a resolution limit of 3.01 Å. Heavy-metal and halide-soaking trials are currently in progress to solve the structure

  8. Effects of cavernous nerve reconstruction on expression of nitric oxide synthase isoforms in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Boris; Matiasek, Kaspar; Saur, Dieter; Gratzke, Christian; Bauer, Ricarda M; Herouy, Yared; Arndt, Christian; Blesch, Armin; Hartung, Rudolf; Stief, Christian G; Weidner, Norbert; May, Florian

    2010-12-01

    To evaluate the expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms after various reconstruction techniques in rats, to improve the understanding of neuronal repair mechanisms after radical prostatectomy, as Schwann cell-seeded guidance tubes have been shown to promote cavernous nerve regeneration, and glial cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)-overexpressing Schwann cells enhance nerve regenerative capacity. Segments (5 mm) of the cavernous nerve were excised bilaterally, followed by immediate bilateral microsurgical reconstruction. In four rats per group, the eight nerves were reconstructed by autologous nerve grafting (A), interposition of Schwann cell-seeded silicon tubes (B), or silicon tubes seeded with GDNF-hypersecreting Schwann cells (C). Further rats were either sham-operated (D) or had nerve excision without repair (E). Erectile function was evaluated after 6 weeks by re-laparotomy, electrical nerve stimulation and morphological evaluation of reconstructed nerves. NOS isoform mRNA expression was analysed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in tissue specimens taken from the corpora cavernosa. GDNF-transduced Schwann cell grafts restored erectile function better than untransduced Schwann cell and autologous nerve grafts (88% vs 75% vs 38%; not significant). Tissue specimens in group C had the highest expression of neuronal NOS mRNA in relation to the neuronal marker PGP9.5 among all treatment groups (not significant). Compared to nerve grafts (A) and negative controls (E) nNOS/PGP9.5 expression was significantly higher (P Schwann cell grafts (P < 0.05). Restoration of erectile function is paralleled by an increase of neuronal NOS expression in rats. Further experiments will determine the physiological role of neuronal NOS in erectile nerve repair processes. © 2010 THE AUTHORS. JOURNAL COMPILATION © 2010 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  9. Sesquiterpene Synthase-3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Synthase Fusion Protein Responsible for Hirsutene Biosynthesis in Stereum hirsutum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Christopher M; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia

    2018-06-01

    The wood-rotting mushroom Stereum hirsutum is a known producer of a large number of namesake hirsutenoids, many with important bioactivities. Hirsutenoids form a structurally diverse and distinct class of sesquiterpenoids. No genes involved in hirsutenoid biosynthesis have yet been identified or their enzymes characterized. Here, we describe the cloning and functional characterization of a hirsutene synthase as an unexpected fusion protein of a sesquiterpene synthase (STS) with a C-terminal 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA) synthase (HMGS) domain. Both the full-length fusion protein and truncated STS domain are highly product-specific 1,11-cyclizing STS enzymes with kinetic properties typical of STSs. Complementation studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae confirmed that the HMGS domain is also functional in vivo Phylogenetic analysis shows that the hirsutene synthase domain does not form a clade with other previously characterized sesquiterpene synthases from Basidiomycota. Comparative gene structure analysis of this hirsutene synthase with characterized fungal enzymes reveals a significantly higher intron density, suggesting that this enzyme may be acquired by horizontal gene transfer. In contrast, the HMGS domain is clearly related to other fungal homologs. This STS-HMGS fusion protein is part of a biosynthetic gene cluster that includes P450s and oxidases that are expressed and could be cloned from cDNA. Finally, this unusual fusion of a terpene synthase to an HMGS domain, which is not generally recognized as a key regulatory enzyme of the mevalonate isoprenoid precursor pathway, led to the identification of additional HMGS duplications in many fungal genomes, including the localization of HMGSs in other predicted sesquiterpenoid biosynthetic gene clusters. IMPORTANCE Hirsutenoids represent a structurally diverse class of bioactive sesquiterpenoids isolated from fungi. Identification of their biosynthetic pathways will provide

  10. Opposite effect of oxidative stress on inducible nitric oxide synthase and haem oxygenase-1 expression in intestinal inflammation: anti-inflammatory effect of carbon monoxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Gerard; Blokzijl, Hans; Bok, Lisette; Homan, Manon; van Goor, Harry; Faber, Klaas Nico; Jansen, Peter L. M.; Moshage, Han

    2004-01-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is expressed in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) of patients with active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and in IEC of endotoxaemic rats. The induction of iNOS in IEC is an element of the NF-kappaB-mediated survival pathway. Haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an

  11. Nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) expression in histologically normal margins of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelatto, Rosana; Itoiz, María-Elina; Guiñazú, Natalia; Piccini, Daniel; Gea, Susana; López-de Blanc, Silvia

    2014-05-01

    The activity of Nitric Oxide Synthase 2 (NOS2) was found in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) but not in normal mucosa. Molecular changes associated to early carcinogenesis have been found in mucosa near carcinomas, which is considered a model to study field cancerization. The aim of the present study is to analyze NOS2 expression at the histologically normal margins of OSCC. Eleven biopsy specimens of OSCC containing histologically normal margins (HNM) were analyzed. Ten biopsies of normal oral mucosa were used as controls. The activity of NOS2 was determined by immunohistochemistry. Salivary nitrate and nitrite as well as tobacco and alcohol consumption were also analyzed. The Chi-squared test was applied. Six out of the eleven HNM from carcinoma samples showed positive NOS2 activity whereas all the control group samples yielded negative (p=0.005). No statistically significant association between enzyme expression and tobacco and/or alcohol consumption and salivary nitrate and nitrite was found. NOS2 expression would be an additional evidence of alterations that may occur in a state of field cancerization before the appearance of potentially malignant morphological changes.

  12. HAEM SYNTHASE AND COBALT PORPHYRIN SYNTHASE IN VARIOUS MICRO-ORGANISMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PORRA, R J; ROSS, B D

    1965-03-01

    1. The preparation of a crude extract of Clostridium tetanomorphum containing cobalt porphyrin synthase but little haem-synthase activity is described. 2. The properties of cobalt porphyrin synthase in the clostridial extracts is compared with the properties of a haem synthase present in crude extracts of the yeast Torulopsis utilis. 3. Cobalt porphyrin synthase in extracts of C. tetanomorphum inserts Co(2+) ions into the following dicarboxylic porphyrins in descending order of rate of insertion: meso-, deutero- and proto-porphyrins. Esterification renders meso- and deutero-porphyrins inactive as substrates. Neither the tetracarboxylic (coproporphyrin III) nor the octacarboxylic (uroporphyrin III) compounds are converted into cobalt porphyrins by the extract, but the non-enzymic incorporation of Co(2+) ions into these two porphyrins is rapid. These extracts are unable to insert Mn(2+), Zn(2+), Mg(2+) or Cu(2+) ions into mesoporphyrin. 4. Crude extracts of T. utilis readily insert both Co(2+) and Fe(2+) ions into deutero-, meso, and proto-porphyrins. Unlike the extracts of C. tetanomorphum, these preparations catalyse the insertion of Co(2+) ions into deuteroporphyrin more rapidly than into mesoporphyrin. This parallels the formation of haems by the T. utilis extract. 5. Cobalt porphyrin synthase is present in the particulate fraction of the extracts of C. tetanomorphum but requires a heat-stable factor present in the soluble fraction. This soluble factor can be replaced by GSH. 6. Cobalt porphyrin synthase in the clostridial extract is inhibited by iodoacetamide and to a smaller extent by p-chloromercuribenzoate and N-ethylmaleimide. The haem synthases of T. utilis and Micrococcus denitrificans are also inhibited by various thiol reagents.

  13. The Tomato Terpene Synthase Gene Family1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falara, Vasiliki; Akhtar, Tariq A.; Nguyen, Thuong T.H.; Spyropoulou, Eleni A.; Bleeker, Petra M.; Schauvinhold, Ines; Matsuba, Yuki; Bonini, Megan E.; Schilmiller, Anthony L.; Last, Robert L.; Schuurink, Robert C.; Pichersky, Eran

    2011-01-01

    Compounds of the terpenoid class play numerous roles in the interactions of plants with their environment, such as attracting pollinators and defending the plant against pests. We show here that the genome of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) contains 44 terpene synthase (TPS) genes, including 29 that are functional or potentially functional. Of these 29 TPS genes, 26 were expressed in at least some organs or tissues of the plant. The enzymatic functions of eight of the TPS proteins were previously reported, and here we report the specific in vitro catalytic activity of 10 additional tomato terpene synthases. Many of the tomato TPS genes are found in clusters, notably on chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 8, and 10. All TPS family clades previously identified in angiosperms are also present in tomato. The largest clade of functional TPS genes found in tomato, with 12 members, is the TPS-a clade, and it appears to encode only sesquiterpene synthases, one of which is localized to the mitochondria, while the rest are likely cytosolic. A few additional sesquiterpene synthases are encoded by TPS-b clade genes. Some of the tomato sesquiterpene synthases use z,z-farnesyl diphosphate in vitro as well, or more efficiently than, the e,e-farnesyl diphosphate substrate. Genes encoding monoterpene synthases are also prevalent, and they fall into three clades: TPS-b, TPS-g, and TPS-e/f. With the exception of two enzymes involved in the synthesis of ent-kaurene, the precursor of gibberellins, no other tomato TPS genes could be demonstrated to encode diterpene synthases so far. PMID:21813655

  14. Increased expressions of ADAMTS-13, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, and neurofilament correlate with severity of neuropathology in Border disease virus-infected small ruminants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gungor Cagdas Dincel

    Full Text Available Border Disease (BD, caused by Pestivirus from the family Flaviviridae, leads to serious reproductive losses and brain anomalies such as hydranencephaly and cerebellar hypoplasia in aborted fetuses and neonatal lambs. In this report it is aimed to investigate the expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS, A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease with Thrombospondin type I repeats-13 (ADAMTS-13, and neurofilament (NF in the brain tissue in small ruminants infected with Border Disease Virus (BDV and to identify any correlation between hypomyelinogenesis and BD neuropathology. Results of the study revealed that the levels of ADAMTS-13 (p<0.05, nNOS (p<0.05, and NF (p<0.05 were remarkably higher in BDV-infected brain tissue than in the uninfected control. It was suggested that L-arginine-NO synthase pathway is activated after infection by BDV and that the expression of NF and nNOS is associated with the severity of BD. A few studies have focused on ADAMTS-13 expression in the central nervous system, and its function continues to remain unclear. The most prominent finding from our study was that ADAMTS-13, which contain two CUB domains, has two CUB domains and its high expression levels are probably associated with the development of the central nervous system (CNS. The results also clearly indicate that the interaction of ADAMTS-13 and NO may play an important role in the regulation and protection of the CNS microenvironment in neurodegenerative diseases. In addition, NF expression might indicate the progress of the disease. To the best of the authors'knowledge, this is the first report on ADAMTS-13 expression in the CNS of BDV-infected small ruminants.

  15. Effects of Acute Exercise and Chronic Exercise on the Liver Leptin-AMPK-ACC Signaling Pathway in Rats with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejie Yi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the effects of acute and chronic exercise on glucose and lipid metabolism in liver of rats with type 2 diabetes caused by a high fat diet and low dose streptozotocin (STZ. Methods. Animals were classified into control (CON, diabetes (DC, diabetic chronic exercise (DCE, and diabetic acute exercise (DAE groups. Results. Compared to CON, the leptin levels in serum and liver and ACC phosphorylation were significantly higher in DC, but the levels of liver leptin receptor, AMPKα1/2, AMPKα1, and ACC proteins expression and phosphorylation were significantly lower in DC. In addition, the levels of liver glycogen reduced significantly, and the levels of TG and FFA increased significantly in DC compared to CON. Compared to DC, the levels of liver AMPKα1/2, AMPKα2, AMPKα1, and ACC phosphorylation significantly increased in DCE and DAE. However, significant increase of the level of liver leptin receptor and glycogen as well as significant decrease of the level of TG and FFA were observed only in DEC. Conclusion. Our study demonstrated that both acute and chronic exercise indirectly activated the leptin-AMPK-ACC signaling pathway and increased insulin sensitivity in the liver of type 2 diabetic rats. However, only chronic and long-term exercise improved glucose and lipid metabolism of the liver.

  16. Expression, Purification, and Characterisation of Dehydroquinate Synthase from Pyrococcus furiosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Negron

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dehydroquinate synthase (DHQS catalyses the second step of the shikimate pathway to aromatic compounds. DHQS from the archaeal hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus was insoluble when expressed in Escherichia coli but was partially solubilised when KCl was included in the cell lysis buffer. A purification procedure was developed, involving lysis by sonication at 30∘C followed by a heat treatment at 70∘C and anion exchange chromatography. Purified recombinant P. furiosus DHQS is a dimer with a subunit Mr of 37,397 (determined by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry and is active over broad pH and temperature ranges. The kinetic parameters are KM (3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate 3.7 μM and kcat 3.0 sec-1 at 60∘C and pH 6.8. EDTA inactivates the enzyme, and enzyme activity is restored by several divalent metal ions including (in order of decreasing effectiveness Cd2+, Co2+, Zn2+, and Mn2+. High activity of a DHQS in the presence of Cd2+ has not been reported for enzymes from other sources, and may be related to the bioavailability of Cd2+ for P. furiosus. This study is the first biochemical characterisation of a DHQS from a thermophilic source. Furthermore, the characterisation of this hyperthermophilic enzyme was carried out at elevated temperatures using an enzyme-coupled assay.

  17. ACCTuner: OpenACC Auto-Tuner For Accelerated Scientific Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Alzayer, Fatemah

    2015-05-17

    We optimize parameters in OpenACC clauses for a stencil evaluation kernel executed on Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) using a variety of machine learning and optimization search algorithms, individually and in hybrid combinations, and compare execution time performance to the best possible obtained from brute force search. Several auto-tuning techniques – historic learning, random walk, simulated annealing, Nelder-Mead, and genetic algorithms – are evaluated over a large two-dimensional parameter space not satisfactorily addressed to date by OpenACC compilers, consisting of gang size and vector length. A hybrid of historic learning and Nelder-Mead delivers the best balance of high performance and low tuning effort. GPUs are employed over an increasing range of applications due to the performance available from their large number of cores, as well as their energy efficiency. However, writing code that takes advantage of their massive fine-grained parallelism requires deep knowledge of the hardware, and is generally a complex task involving program transformation and the selection of many parameters. To improve programmer productivity, the directive-based programming model OpenACC was announced as an industry standard in 2011. Various compilers have been developed to support this model, the most notable being those by Cray, CAPS, and PGI. While the architecture and number of cores have evolved rapidly, the compilers have failed to keep up at configuring the parallel program to run most e ciently on the hardware. Following successful approaches to obtain high performance in kernels for cache-based processors using auto-tuning, we approach this compiler-hardware gap in GPUs by employing auto-tuning for the key parameters “gang” and “vector” in OpenACC clauses. We demonstrate results for a stencil evaluation kernel typical of seismic imaging over a variety of realistically sized three-dimensional grid configurations, with different truncation error orders

  18. Ceramide synthases expression and role of ceramide synthase-2 in the lung: insight from human lung cells and mouse models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Petrache

    Full Text Available Increases in ceramide levels have been implicated in the pathogenesis of both acute or chronic lung injury models. However, the role of individual ceramide species, or of the enzymes that are responsible for their synthesis, in lung health and disease has not been clarified. We now show that C24- and C16-ceramides are the most abundant lung ceramide species, paralleled by high expression of their synthetic enzymes, ceramide synthase 2 (CerS2 and CerS5, respectively. Furthermore, the ceramide species synthesis in the lung is homeostatically regulated, since mice lacking very long acyl chain C24-ceramides due to genetic deficiency of CerS2 displayed a ten-fold increase in C16-ceramides and C16-dihydroceramides along with elevation of acid sphingomyelinase and CerS5 activities. Despite relatively preserved total lung ceramide levels, inhibition of de novo sphingolipid synthesis at the level of CerS2 was associated with significant airflow obstruction, airway inflammation, and increased lung volumes. Our results suggest that ceramide species homeostasis is crucial for lung health and that CerS2 dysfunction may predispose to inflammatory airway and airspace diseases.

  19. Isolation and characterization of terpene synthases in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chang-Qing; Wu, Xiu-Ming; Ruan, Ju-Xin; Hu, Wen-Li; Mao, Yin-Bo; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Wang, Ling-Jian

    2013-12-01

    Cotton plants accumulate gossypol and related sesquiterpene aldehydes, which function as phytoalexins against pathogens and feeding deterrents to herbivorous insects. However, to date little is known about the biosynthesis of volatile terpenes in this crop. Herein is reported that 5 monoterpenes and 11 sesquiterpenes from extracts of a glanded cotton cultivar, Gossypium hirsutum cv. CCRI12, were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). By EST data mining combined with Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE), full-length cDNAs of three terpene synthases (TPSs), GhTPS1, GhTPS2 and GhTPS3 were isolated. By in vitro assays of the recombinant proteins, it was found that GhTPS1 and GhTPS2 are sesquiterpene synthases: the former converted farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) into β-caryophyllene and α-humulene in a ratio of 2:1, whereas the latter produced several sesquiterpenes with guaia-1(10),11-diene as the major product. By contrast, GhTPS3 is a monoterpene synthase, which produced α-pinene, β-pinene, β-phellandrene and trace amounts of other monoterpenes from geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP). The TPS activities were also supported by Virus Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS) in the cotton plant. GhTPS1 and GhTPS3 were highly expressed in the cotton plant overall, whereas GhTPS2 was expressed only in leaves. When stimulated by mechanical wounding, Verticillium dahliae (Vde) elicitor or methyl jasmonate (MeJA), production of terpenes and expression of the corresponding synthase genes were induced. These data demonstrate that the three genes account for the biosynthesis of volatile terpenes of cotton, at least of this Upland cotton. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fatty acid synthase inhibition in human breast cancer cells leads to malonyl-CoA-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thupari, J N; Pinn, M L; Kuhajda, F P

    2001-07-13

    Inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FAS) induces apoptosis in human breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo without toxicity to proliferating normal cells. We have previously shown that FAS inhibition causes a rapid increase in malonyl-CoA levels identifying malonyl-CoA as a potential trigger of apoptosis. In this study we further investigated the role of malonyl-CoA during FAS inhibition. We have found that: [i] inhibition of FAS with cerulenin causes carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) inhibition and fatty acid oxidation inhibition in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells likely mediated by elevation of malonyl-CoA; [ii] cerulenin cytotoxicity is due to the nonphysiological state of increased malonyl-CoA, decreased fatty acid oxidation, and decreased fatty acid synthesis; and [iii] the cytotoxic effect of cerulenin can be mimicked by simultaneous inhibition of CPT-1, with etomoxir, and fatty acid synthesis with TOFA, an acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) inhibitor. This study identifies CPT-1 and ACC as two new potential targets for cancer chemotherapy. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  1. Le Service Accueil et Contrôle d'Accès

    CERN Document Server

    Ducastel, C

    1999-01-01

    L'utilisateur qui vient au CERN pour la première fois, est accueilli généralement par les membres du service 'Accueil et Contrôle d'Accès'. Cet utilisateur sera tout d'abord orienté vers un des postes d'hôtesses d'accueil en charge de l'enregistrement et de la délivrance de cartes CERN. Les informations seront saisies et immédiatement disponibles et transmises, via le système AMS, aux équipements de contrôle d'accès et à la Centrale de Surveillance des accès, chargée de la supervision de tout le dispositif de contrôle d'accès au domaine. Ces contrôles aux entrées et accueil des visiteurs individuels sont complétés par des missions de surveillance à l'intérieur du Domaine pour les agents, et par des travaux de gestions de dossiers administratifs (service enregistrement) pour les hôtesses. Un contrat commun assure une uniformité de formation des agents et hôtesses. Ce contrat est assorti d'une clause de Bonus Malus afin de tendre vers une optimisation des performances.

  2. Towards personalised automated driving: Prediction of preferred ACC behaviour based on manual driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, E. de; Cara, I.; Uittenbogaard, J.; Kroon, L.; Iersel, S. van; Hogema, J.

    2016-01-01

    More and more Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADASs) are entering the market for improving both safety and comfort. Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) is an ADAS application that has high interaction with the driver. ACC systems use limited sensor input and have only few configuration possibilities.

  3. Molecular cloning and expression levels of the monoterpene synthase gene (ZMM1) in Cassumunar ginger (Zingiber montanum (Koenig) Link ex Dietr.)

    OpenAIRE

    Bua-In Saowaluck; Paisooksantivatana Yingyong; Weimer Bart C.; Chowpongpang Srimek

    2014-01-01

    Cassumunar ginger (Zingiber montanum (Koenig) Link ex Dietr.) is a native Thai herb with a high content and large variety of terpenoids in its essential oil. Improving the essential oil content and quality of cassumunar ginger is difficult for a breeder due to its clonally propagated nature. In this research, we describe the isolation and expression level of the monoterpene synthase gene that controls the key step of essential oil synthesis in this plant an...

  4. Use of octaketide synthases to produce kermesic acid and flavokermesic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A method for producing an octaketide derived aromatic compound of interest (e.g. carminic acid), wherein the method comprises (I): heterologous expression of a recombinantly introduced Type III polyketide synthase (PKS) gene encoding an octaketide synthase (OKS) to obtain non-reduced octaketide...... in vivo within the recombinant host cell and (II): converting in vivo the non-reduced octaketide of step (I) into a C14-C34 aromatic compound of interest (e.g. carminic acid)....

  5. Use of octaketide synthases to produce kermesic acid and flavokermesic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    A method for producing an octaketide derived aromatic compound of interest (e.g. carminic acid), wherein the method comprises (I): heterologous expression of a recombinantly introduced Type III polyketide synthase (PKS) gene encoding an octaketide synthase (OKS) to obtain non-reduced octaketide...... in vivo within the recombinant host cell and (II): converting in vivo the non-reduced octaketide of step (I) into a C14-C34 aromatic compound of interest (e.g. carminic acid)....

  6. Distinct UV-B and UV-A/blue light signal transduction pathways induce chalcone synthase gene expression in Arabidopsis cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christie, J.M.; Jenkins, G.I.

    1996-01-01

    UV and blue light control the expression of flavonoid biosynthesis genes in a range of higher plants. To investigate the signal transduction processes involved in the induction of chalcone synthase (CHS) gene expression by UV-B and UV-A/blue light, we examined the, effects of specific agonists and inhibitors of known signaling components in mammalian systems in a photomixotrophic Arabidopsis cell suspension culture. CHS expression is induced specifically by these wavelengths in the cell culture, in a manner similar to that in mature Arabidopsis leaf tissue. Both the UV-B and UV-A/blue phototransduction processes involve calcium, although the elevation of cytosolic calcium is insufficient on its own to stimulate CHS expression. The UV-A/blue light induction of CHS expression does not appear to involve calmodulin, whereas the UV-B response does; this difference indicates that the signal transduction pathways are, at least in part, distinct. We provide evidence that both pathways involve reversible protein phosphorylation and require protein synthesis. The UV-B and UV-A/blue light signaling pathways are therefore different from the phytochrome signal transduction pathway regulating CHS expression in other species

  7. Application of a Colorimetric Assay to Identify Putative Ribofuranosylaminobenzene 5'-Phosphate Synthase Genes Expressed with Activity in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Bechard, Matthew E.; Chhatwal, Sonya; Garcia, Rosemarie E.; Rasche, Madeline E.

    2003-01-01

    Tetrahydromethanopterin (H4MPT) is a tetrahydrofolate analog originally discovered in methanogenic archaea, but later found in other archaea and bacteria. The extent to which H4MPT occurs among living organisms is unknown. The key enzyme which distinguishes the biosynthetic pathways of H4MPT and tetrahydrofolate is ribofuranosylaminobenzene 5'-phosphate synthase (RFAP synthase). Given the importance of RFAP synthase in H4MPT biosynthesis, the identification of putative RFAP synthase genes and...

  8. Driver behavior analysis during ACC activation and deactivation in a real traffic environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauwelussen, J.; Feenstra, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    For the development of a traffic-simulation model to estimate the effect of adaptive cruise control (ACC) systems on traffic safety, throughput, and environment, data of a field operational test (FOT) were analyzed, in which vehicles were equipped with ACC and lane-departure warning (LDW) systems.

  9. Effects of Chinese yellow wine on nitric oxide synthase and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expressions in rat vascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fei; Ji, Zheng; Chi, Jufang; Tang, Weiliang; Zhai, Xiaoya; Meng, Liping; Guo, Hangyuan

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine similarities in the effect of yellow wine as compared to statin and the possibility that yellow wine inhibits tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in cultured rat vascular endothelial cells (VECs). We isolated VECs, and cultivated and purified Sprague Dawley (SD) rat thoracic aortas in vitro. We selected the optimal wine concentration using clonogenic and MTT assays to measure cell survival. Next, we divided the cells into 9 groups: (1) control, (2) TNF-α, (3) TNF-α + rosuvastatin (10 μmol/L), (4) TNF-α + ethanol 0.5%, (5) TNF-α + yellow wine 0.5%, (6) TNF-α + ethanol 1.0%, (7) TNF-α + yellow wine 1.0%, (8) TNF-α + ethanol 1.5%, and (9) TNF-α + yellow wine 1.5% and they were given the corresponding treatment for 24 h. We determined NO production with nitrate reductase. We then measured eNOS activity, and detected eNOS, iNOS, and ICAM-1 protein levels by Western blotting. Compared with the TNF-α group, NO production, eNOS activity, and eNOS protein expression in the rosuvastatin, and yellow wine 1.0%, and 1.5% groups were significantly increased. Protein expression of iNOS and ICAM-1 in the rosuvastatin, yellow wine 1.0%, and 1.5% groups were significantly decreased. Compared with the rosuvastatin group, eNOS, iNOS, and ICAM-1 protein expression in the yellow wine (0.5% -1.5%) groups were significantly different. Treatment with yellow wine increased NO production, eNOS activity, and eNOS protein expression, which decreases iNOS and ICAM-1 protein expression. We conclude that yellow wine may have similar beneficial effects as rosuvastatin on the cardiovascular system. These effects may be attributed to their anti-atherosclerotic actions.

  10. Cloning and heterologous expression of a novel subgroup of class IV polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase genes from the genus Bacillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Kouhei; Kihara, Takahiro; Tsuge, Takeharu; Lundgren, Benjamin R; Sarwar, Zaara; Pinto, Atahualpa; Nomura, Christopher T

    2017-01-01

    Many microorganisms harbor genes necessary to synthesize biodegradable plastics known as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). We surveyed a genomic database and discovered a new cluster of class IV PHA synthase genes (phaRC). These genes are different in sequence and operon structure from any previously reported PHA synthase. The newly discovered PhaRC synthase was demonstrated to produce PHAs in recombinant Escherichia coli.

  11. RNAi and Homologous Over-Expression Based Functional Approaches Reveal Triterpenoid Synthase Gene-Cycloartenol Synthase Is Involved in Downstream Withanolide Biosynthesis in Withania somnifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smrati Mishra

    Full Text Available Withania somnifera Dunal, is one of the most commonly used medicinal plant in Ayurvedic and indigenous medicine traditionally owing to its therapeutic potential, because of major chemical constituents, withanolides. Withanolide biosynthesis requires the activities of several enzymes in vivo. Cycloartenol synthase (CAS is an important enzyme in the withanolide biosynthetic pathway, catalyzing cyclization of 2, 3 oxidosqualene into cycloartenol. In the present study, we have cloned full-length WsCAS from Withania somnifera by homology-based PCR method. For gene function investigation, we constructed three RNAi gene-silencing constructs in backbone of RNAi vector pGSA and a full-length over-expression construct. These constructs were transformed in Agrobacterium strain GV3101 for plant transformation in W. somnifera. Molecular and metabolite analysis was performed in putative Withania transformants. The PCR and Southern blot results showed the genomic integration of these RNAi and overexpression construct(s in Withania genome. The qRT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of WsCAS gene was considerably downregulated in stable transgenic silenced Withania lines compared with the non-transformed control and HPLC analysis showed that withanolide content was greatly reduced in silenced lines. Transgenic plants over expressing CAS gene displayed enhanced level of CAS transcript and withanolide content compared to non-transformed controls. This work is the first full proof report of functional validation of any metabolic pathway gene in W. somnifera at whole plant level as per our knowledge and it will be further useful to understand the regulatory role of different genes involved in the biosynthesis of withanolides.

  12. Identification of a Fungal 1,8-Cineole Synthase from Hypoxylon sp. with Specificity Determinants in Common with the Plant Synthases*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jeffrey J.; Berbasova, Tetyana; Sasaki, Tomoaki; Jefferson-George, Kyra; Spakowicz, Daniel J.; Dunican, Brian F.; Portero, Carolina E.; Narváez-Trujillo, Alexandra; Strobel, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Terpenes are an important and diverse class of secondary metabolites widely produced by fungi. Volatile compound screening of a fungal endophyte collection revealed a number of isolates in the family Xylariaceae, producing a series of terpene molecules, including 1,8-cineole. This compound is a commercially important component of eucalyptus oil used in pharmaceutical applications and has been explored as a potential biofuel additive. The genes that produce terpene molecules, such as 1,8-cineole, have been little explored in fungi, providing an opportunity to explore the biosynthetic origin of these compounds. Through genome sequencing of cineole-producing isolate E7406B, we were able to identify 11 new terpene synthase genes. Expressing a subset of these genes in Escherichia coli allowed identification of the hyp3 gene, responsible for 1,8-cineole biosynthesis, the first monoterpene synthase discovered in fungi. In a striking example of convergent evolution, mutational analysis of this terpene synthase revealed an active site asparagine critical for water capture and specificity during cineole synthesis, the same mechanism used in an unrelated plant homologue. These studies have provided insight into the evolutionary relationship of fungal terpene synthases to those in plants and bacteria and further established fungi as a relatively untapped source of this important and diverse class of compounds. PMID:25648891

  13. A New Characterization of ACC0 and Probabilistic CC0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Koucký, Michal

    2010-01-01

    Barrington, Straubing & Thérien (1990) conjectured that the Boolean And function can not be computed by polynomial size constant depth circuits built from modular counting gates, i.e., by CC0 circuits. In this work we show that the And function can be computed by uniform probabilistic CC0 circuits...... that use only O(log n) random bits. This may be viewed as evidence contrary to the conjecture. As a consequence of our construction we get that all of ACC0 can be computed by probabilistic CC0 circuits that use only O(log n) random bits. Thus, if one were able to derandomize such circuits, one would obtain...... a collapse of circuit classes giving ACC0 = CC0. We present a derandomization of probabilistic CC0 circuits using And and Or gates to obtain ACC0 = And ο Or ο CC0 = Or ο And ο CC0. (And and Or gates of sublinear fan-in suffice in non-uniform setting.) Both these results hold for uniform as well as non...

  14. Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Sean; Freeborn, Dana; Crichton, Dan; Law, Emily; Kay-Im, Liz

    2011-01-01

    Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE) is JPL's internal investment to improve the return on airborne missions. Improve development performance of the data system. Improve return on the captured science data. The investment is to develop a common science data system capability for airborne instruments that encompasses the end-to-end lifecycle covering planning, provisioning of data system capabilities, and support for scientific analysis in order to improve the quality, cost effectiveness, and capabilities to enable new scientific discovery and research in earth observation.

  15. Accès au savoir en Afrique australe : le libre accès à la recherche à l ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Access to Knowledge Southern Africa (A2KSA) a pour but de mieux comprendre les différentes contraintes entourant l'accès des universités d'Afrique australe au savoir à des fins de recherche et d'enseignement. Le projet, une collaboration de recherche entre la Southern African Regional Universities Association ...

  16. Gene structure, phylogeny and expression profile of the sucrose synthase gene family in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fupeng; Hao, Chaoyun; Yan, Lin; Wu, Baoduo; Qin, Xiaowei; Lai, Jianxiong; Song, Yinghui

    2015-09-01

    In higher plants, sucrose synthase (Sus, EC 2.4.1.13) is widely considered as a key enzyme involved in sucrose metabolism. Although, several paralogous genes encoding different isozymes of Sus have been identified and characterized in multiple plant genomes, to date detailed information about the Sus genes is lacking for cacao. This study reports the identification of six novel Sus genes from economically important cacao tree. Analyses of the gene structure and phylogeny of the Sus genes demonstrated evolutionary conservation in the Sus family across cacao and other plant species. The expression of cacao Sus genes was investigated via real-time PCR in various tissues, different developmental phases of leaf, flower bud and pod. The Sus genes exhibited distinct but partially redundant expression profiles in cacao, with TcSus1, TcSus5 and TcSus6, being the predominant genes in the bark with phloem, TcSus2 predominantly expressing in the seed during the stereotype stage. TcSus3 and TcSus4 were significantly detected more in the pod husk and seed coat along the pod development, and showed development dependent expression profiles in the cacao pod. These results provide new insights into the evolution, and basic information that will assist in elucidating the functions of cacao Sus gene family.

  17. Genome-Wide Identification, Evolutionary and Expression Analyses of the GALACTINOL SYNTHASE Gene Family in Rapeseed and Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghai Fan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Galactinol synthase (GolS is a key enzyme in raffinose family oligosaccharide (RFO biosynthesis. The finding that GolS accumulates in plants exposed to abiotic stresses indicates RFOs function in environmental adaptation. However, the evolutionary relationships and biological functions of GolS family in rapeseed (Brassica napus and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum remain unclear. In this study, we identified 20 BnGolS and 9 NtGolS genes. Subcellular localization predictions showed that most of the proteins are localized to the cytoplasm. Phylogenetic analysis identified a lost event of an ancient GolS copy in the Solanaceae and an ancient duplication event leading to evolution of GolS4/7 in the Brassicaceae. The three-dimensional structures of two GolS proteins were conserved, with an important DxD motif for binding to UDP-galactose (uridine diphosphate-galactose and inositol. Expression profile analysis indicated that BnGolS and NtGolS genes were expressed in most tissues and highly expressed in one or two specific tissues. Hormone treatments strongly induced the expression of most BnGolS genes and homologous genes in the same subfamilies exhibited divergent-induced expression. Our study provides a comprehensive evolutionary analysis of GolS genes among the Brassicaceae and Solanaceae as well as an insight into the biological function of GolS genes in hormone response in plants.

  18. Studies on the Active Site of Deacetoxycephalosporin C Synthase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lloyd, Matthew D.; Lee, Hwei-Jen; Harlos, Karl; Zhang, Zhi-Hong; Baldwin, Jack E.; Schofield, Christopher J.; Charnock, John M.; Garner, C. David; Hara, Takane; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Anke C.; Valegård, Karin; Viklund, Jenny A.C.; Hajdu, Janos; Andersson, Inger; Danielsson, Åke; Bhikhabhai, Rama

    1999-01-01

    The Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase deacetoxycephalosporin C synthase (DAOCS) from Streptomyces clavuligerus was expressed at ca 25% of total soluble protein in Escherichia coli and purified by an efficient large-scale procedure. Purified protein catalysed the conversions of

  19. The expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a subcomplex of the peripheral stalk of ATP synthase from bovine mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvester, Jocelyn A.; Kane Dickson, Veronica; Runswick, Michael J.; Leslie, Andrew G. W.; Walker, John E.

    2006-01-01

    A recombinant subcomplex of the peripheral stalk or stator domain of the ATP synthase from bovine mitochondria has been crystallized and a native data set has been collected to 2.8 Å resolution. A subcomplex of the peripheral stalk or stator domain of the ATP synthase from bovine mitochondria has been expressed to high levels in a soluble form in Escherichia coli. The subcomplex consists of residues 79–184 of subunit b, residues 1–124 of subunit d and the entire F 6 subunit (76 residues). It has been purified and crystallized by vapour diffusion. The morphology and diffraction properties of the crystals of the subcomplex were improved by the presence of thioxane or 4-methylpyridine in the crystallization liquor. With a synchrotron-radiation source, these crystals diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution. They belong to the monoclinic space group P2 1

  20. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of three terpene synthases from unripe fruit of black pepper (Piper nigrum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhehao; Kwon, Moonhyuk; Lee, Ah-Reum; Ro, Dae-Kyun; Wungsintaweekul, Juraithip; Kim, Soo-Un

    2018-01-15

    To identify terpene synthases (TPS) responsible for the biosynthesis of the sesquiterpenes that contribute to the characteristic flavors of black pepper (Piper nigrum), unripe peppercorn was subjected to the Illumina transcriptome sequencing. The BLAST analysis using amorpha-4,11-diene synthase as a query identified 19 sesquiterpene synthases (sesqui-TPSs), of which three full-length cDNAs (PnTPS1 through 3) were cloned. These sesqui-TPS cDNAs were expressed in E. coli to produce recombinant enzymes for in vitro assays, and also expressed in the engineered yeast strain to assess their catalytic activities in vivo. PnTPS1 produced β-caryophyllene as a main product and humulene as a minor compound, and thus was named caryophyllene synthase (PnCPS). Likewise, PnTPS2 and PnTPS3 were, respectively, named cadinol/cadinene synthase (PnCO/CDS) and germacrene D synthase (PnGDS). PnGDS expression in yeast yielded β-cadinene and α-copaene, the rearrangement products of germacrene D. Their k cat /K m values (20-37.7 s -1  mM -1 ) were comparable to those of other sesqui-TPSs. Among three PnTPSs, the transcript level of PnCPS was the highest, correlating with the predominant β-caryophyllene biosynthesis in the peppercorn. The products and rearranged products of three PnTPSs could account for about a half of the sesquiterpenes in number found in unripe peppercorn. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Les grands accélérateurs de particules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patoux, A.; Perot, J.

    1991-02-01

    The different types of accelerators are recalled with emphasis on the most powerful : the synchrotron particle colliders. The use of superconductors in accelerator magnets as well as in RF cavities is discussed. The characteristics of the large accelerators, existing and planned, are given together with the level of industry involvement in their construction. Details concerning superconducting magnets and cryogenic plants are investigated. Finally, detectors, the most important tool for physics, are mentionned. Après avoir rappelé les différents types d'accélérateurs utilisés, l'accent est mis sur les plus puissants, c'est-à-dire les synchrotrons fonctionnant en anneaux de collision. Le rôle des supraconducteurs est analysé aussi bien pour les aimants que pour les cavités accélératrices. Les caractéristiques des principaux accélérateurs existants ou en projet sont données ainsi que l'implication de l'industrie dans leur fabrication. On insiste plus particulièrement sur les aimants supraconducteurs et les installations cryogéniques. Enfin les détecteurs, éléments indispensables à la physique, sont également évoqués.

  2. Identification of genes involved in the ACC-mediated control of root cell elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markakis Marios

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Along the root axis of Arabidopsis thaliana, cells pass through different developmental stages. In the apical meristem repeated cycles of division increase the numbers of cells. Upon leaving the meristem, these cells pass the transition zone where they are physiologically and mechanically prepared to undergo subsequent rapid elongation. During the process of elongation epidermal cells increase their length by 300% in a couple of hours. When elongation ceases, the cells acquire their final size, shape and functions (in the differentiation zone. Ethylene administered as its precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC is capable of inhibiting elongation in a concentration-dependent way. Using a microarray analysis, genes and/or processes involved in this elongation arrest are identified. Results Using a CATMA-microarray analysis performed on control and 3h ACC-treated roots, 240 differentially expressed genes were identified. Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR analysis of the 10 most up and down regulated genes combined with literature search confirmed the accurateness of the analysis. This revealed that inhibition of cell elongation is, at least partly, caused by restricting the events that under normal growth conditions initiate elongation and by increasing the processes that normally stop cellular elongation at the end of the elongation/onset of differentiation zone. Conclusions ACC interferes with cell elongation in the Arabidopsis thaliana roots by inhibiting cells from entering the elongation process and by immediately stimulating the formation of cross-links in cell wall components, diminishing the remaining elongation capacity. From the analysis of the differentially expressed genes, it becomes clear that many genes identified in this response, are also involved in several other kind of stress responses. This suggests that many responses originate from individual elicitors, but that somewhere in the downstream

  3. Minocycline attenuates experimental colitis in mice by blocking expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and matrix metalloproteinases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, T.-Y.; Chu, H.-C.; Lin, Y.-L.; Lin, C.-K.; Hsieh, T.-Y.; Chang, W.-K.; Chao, Y.-C.; Liao, C.-L.

    2009-01-01

    In addition to its antimicrobial activity, minocycline exerts anti-inflammatory effects in several disease models. However, whether minocycline affects the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease has not been determined. We investigated the effects of minocycline on experimental colitis and its underlying mechanisms. Acute and chronic colitis were induced in mice by treatment with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) or trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS), and the effect of minocycline on colonic injury was assessed clinically and histologically. Prophylactic and therapeutic treatment of mice with minocycline significantly diminished mortality rate and attenuated the severity of DSS-induced acute colitis. Mechanistically, minocycline administration suppressed inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and nitrotyrosine production, inhibited proinflammatory cytokine expression, repressed the elevated mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2, 3, 9, and 13, diminished the apoptotic index in colonic tissues, and inhibited nitric oxide production in the serum of mice with DSS-induced acute colitis. In DSS-induced chronic colitis, minocycline treatment also reduced body weight loss, improved colonic histology, and blocked expression of iNOS, proinflammatory cytokines, and MMPs from colonic tissues. Similarly, minocycline could ameliorate the severity of TNBS-induced acute colitis in mice by decreasing mortality rate and inhibiting proinflammatory cytokine expression in colonic tissues. These results demonstrate that minocycline protects mice against DSS- and TNBS-induced colitis, probably via inhibition of iNOS and MMP expression in intestinal tissues. Therefore, minocycline is a potential remedy for human inflammatory bowel diseases.

  4. Cloning and expression analysis of carboxyltransferase of acetyl-coA carboxylase from Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wu-Wei; Gao, Shun; Wang, Sheng-Hua; Zhu, Jin-Qiu; Xu, Ying; Tang, Lin; Chen, Fang

    2010-01-01

    A full-length cDNA of the carboxyltransferase (accA) gene of acetyl-coenzym A (acetyl-CoA) carboxylase from Jatropha curcas was cloned and sequenced. The gene with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1149 bp encodes a polypeptide of 383 amino acids, with a molecular mass of 41.9 kDa. Utilizing fluorogenic real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the expression levels of the accA gene in leaves and fruits at early, middle and late stages under pH 7.0/8.0 and light/darkness stress were investigated. The expression levels of the accA gene in leaves at early, middle and late stages increased significantly under pH 8.0 stress compared to pH 7.0. Similarly, the expression levels in fruits showed a significant increase under darkness condition compared to the control. Under light stress, the expression levels in the fruits at early, middle and late stages showed the largest fluctuations compared to those of the control. These findings suggested that the expression levels of the accA gene are closely related to the growth conditions and developmental stages in the leaves and fruits of Jatropha curcas.

  5. An Arabidopsis callose synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Lars; Petersen, Morten; Mattsson, Ole

    2002-01-01

    in the Arabidopsis mpk4 mutant which exhibits systemic acquired resistance (SAR), elevated beta-1,3-glucan synthase activity, and increased callose levels. In addition, AtGsl5 is a likely target of salicylic acid (SA)-dependent SAR, since AtGsl5 mRNA accumulation is induced by SA in wild-type plants, while...... expression of the nahG salicylate hydroxylase reduces AtGsl5 mRNA levels in the mpk4 mutant. These results indicate that AtGsl5 is likely involved in callose synthesis in flowering tissues and in the mpk4 mutant....

  6. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of SAICAR synthase from Streptococcus suis serotype 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Xia; Lu, Guangwen; Qi, Jianxun; Cheng, Hao; Gao, Feng; Wang, Jundong; Yan, Jinghua

    2010-01-01

    Crystals of SAICAR synthase from S. suis serotype 2 were obtained in the presence of 40 mM aspartic acid substrate; they belonged to space group P2 and diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution. Phosphoribosylaminoimidazole-succinocarboxamide synthase (SAICAR synthase) plays an essential role in the de novo biosynthesis of purine nucleotides. In this study, the SAICAR synthase from Streptococcus suis was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The subsequent product was purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution and belonged to space group P2, with unit-cell parameters a = 70.2, b = 52.2, c = 153.9 Å, β = 102.8°

  7. Accès au savoir en Afrique australe : le libre accès à la recherche à l ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Access to Knowledge Southern Africa (A2KSA) a pour but de mieux comprendre les différentes contraintes entourant l'accès des universités d'Afrique australe au savoir à des fins de recherche et ... A new website and resource library will help improve developing country registration and information systems for vital events.

  8. Citrate effects on amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) structure, stability, and crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobler, Dominique Jeanette; Rodriguez Blanco, Juan Diego; Dideriksen, Knud

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the role of citrate in the crystallization kinetics of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is essential to explain the formation mechanisms, stabilities, surface properties, and morphologies of CaCO3 biominerals. It also contributes to deeper insight into fluid-mineral inte......Understanding the role of citrate in the crystallization kinetics of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is essential to explain the formation mechanisms, stabilities, surface properties, and morphologies of CaCO3 biominerals. It also contributes to deeper insight into fluid...

  9. Geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases from Scoparia dulcis and Croton sublyratus. cDNA cloning, functional expression, and conversion to a farnesyl diphosphate synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, N; Sitthithaworn, W; Viroonchatapan, E; Suh, D Y; Iwanami, N; Hayashi, T; Sankaw, U

    2000-07-01

    cDNAs encoding geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPPS) of two diterpene producing plants, Scoparia dulcis and Croton sublyratus, were isolated using the homology-based polymerase chain reaction method. Both cloned genes showed high amino acid sequence homology (60-70%) to other plant GGPPSs and contained highly conserved aspartate-rich motifs. The obtained clones were functionally expressed in Escherichia coli and showed sufficient GGPPS activity to catalyze the condensation of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) and isopentenyl diphosphate to form geranylgeranyl diphosphate. To investigate the factor determining the product chain length of plant GGPPSs, S. dulcis GGPPS mutants in which either the small amino acids at the fourth and fifth positions before the first aspartate-rich motif (FARM) were replaced with aromatic amino acids or in which two additional amino acids in FARM were deleted were constructed. Both mutants behaved like FPPS-like enzymes and almost exclusively produced FPP when dimethylallyl diphosphate was used as a primer substrate, and failed to accept FPP as a primer substrate. These results indicate that both small amino acids at the fourth and fifth positions before FARM and the amino acid insertion in FARM play essential roles in product length determination in plant GGPPSs.

  10. Impaired Voluntary Control in PTSD: Probing Self-Regulation of the ACC With Real-Time fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Zweerings

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is characterized by deficits in the self-regulation of cognitions and emotions. Neural networks of emotion regulation may exhibit reduced control mediated by the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, contributing to aberrant limbic responses in PTSD.Methods: Real-time fMRI neurofeedback (rt-fMRI NF assessed self-regulation of the ACC in nine patients with PTSD after single trauma exposure and nine matched healthy controls. All participants were instructed to train ACC upregulation on three training days.Results: Both groups achieved regulation, which was associated with wide-spread brain activation encompassing the ACC. Compared to the controls, regulation amplitude and learning rate was lower in patients, correlating with symptom severity. In addition, a frontopolar activation cluster was associated with self-regulation efforts in patients.Conclusions: For the first time, we tested self-regulation of the ACC in patients with PTSD. The observed impairment supports models of ACC-mediated regulation deficits that may contribute to the psychopathology of PTSD. Controlled trials in a larger sample are needed to confirm our findings and to directly investigate whether training of central regulation mechanisms improves emotion regulation in PTSD.

  11. Constant Width Planar Computation Characterizes ACC0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt

    2006-01-01

    We obtain a characterization of ACC0 in terms of a natural class of constant width circuits, namely in terms of constant width polynomial size planar circuits. This is shown via a characterization of the class of acyclic digraphs which can be embedded on a cylinder surface in such a way that all...

  12. The effect of inoculation with mycorrhizal arbuscular fungi on expression of limonene synthase in Mentha spicata L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Shabani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Spearmint (Mentha spicata L. is an important economical and medicinal plant from Lamiaceae family, which has gained research attraction as a model for biosynthesis of essential oils due to its high capability for synthesis of monoterpenes. Limonene is a simple monoterpene and its biosynthesis is catalyzed by limonene synthase a key regulatory enzyme in the biosynthesis pathway of monoterpenes in spearmint plant. This study was concerned with the effect of colonization of roots with Funneliformis mosseae and F. etunicatum fungi on spearmint plant growth indices, leaf essential oils and changes in the expression of limonene synthase (LS gene. This study also explained the application of GADPH gene as the internal standard for real-time quantitative PCR (RTqPCR analysis of LS in spearmints. Our results showed that essential oil content of leaf in spearmint genotype Meybod inoculated with F. etunicatum was higher than that of genotypes from populations Kashan and Bojnourd and was 130% higher than the control. According to the results of this study, increase in transcript accumulation of the LS gene in leaves of spearmint plants inoculated with F. etunicatum was concordant with the increased essential oil contents and was dependent on the plant genotype.

  13. Technologies omniprésentes et accès au savoir (A2K) | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... à la commercialisation de masse ont eu une influence majeure sur l'accès au savoir (A2K). ... Le mouvement pour l'accès au savoir cherche à promouvoir de nouvelles ... [President] for and on behalf of Centre For Internet And Society.

  14. Accès à l'eau

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Grâce à la modélisation par ordinateur faisant appel à des techniques de pointe et à la consultation des collectivités, l'organisme bolivien Agua Sustentable a trouvé des solu- tions politiques à des conflits qui auraient pu s'avérer désastreux au sujet de l'accès à l'eau. Cet organisme de recherche subventionné par le CRDI ...

  15. gamma-Aminobutyric acid stimulates ethylene biosynthesis in sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathiresan, A.; Tung, P.; Chinnappa, C.C.; Reid, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), a nonprotein amino acid, is often accumulated in plants following environmental stimuli that can also cause ethylene production. We have investigated the relationship between GABA and ethylene production in excised sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) tissues. Exogenous GABA causes up to a 14-fold increase in the ethylene production rate after about 12 h. Cotyledons fed with [14C]GABA did not release substantial amounts of radioactive ethylene despite its chemical similarity to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), indicating that GABA is not likely to be an alternative precursor for ethylene. GABA causes increases in ACC synthase mRNA accumulation, ACC levels, ACC oxidase mRNA levels, and in vitro ACC oxidase activity. In the presence of aminoethoxyvinylglycine or alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, GABA did not stimulate ethylene production. We therefore conclude that GABA stimulates ethylene biosynthesis mainly by promoting ACC synthase transcript abundance. Possible roles of GABA as a signal transducer are suggested

  16. Combined treatment of adenoid cystic carcinoma with cetuximab and IMRT plus C12 heavy ion boost: ACCEPT [ACC, Erbitux® and particle therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinke Axel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Local control in adjuvant/definitive RT of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC is largely dose-dependent leading to the establishment of particle therapy in this indication. However, even modern techniques leave space for improvement of local control by intensification of local treatment. Radiation sensitization by exploitation of high EGFR-expression in ACC with the EGFR receptor antibody cetuximab seems promising. Methods/design The ACCEPT trial is a prospective, mono-centric, phase I/II trial evaluating toxicity (primary endpoint: acute and late effects and efficacy (secondary endpoint: local control, distant control, disease-free survival, overall survival of the combined treatment with IMRT/carbon ion boost and weekly cetuximab in 49 patients with histologically proven (≥R1-resected, inoperable or Pn+ ACC. Patients receive 18 GyE carbon ions (6 fractions and 54 Gy IMRT (2.0 Gy/fraction in combination with weekly cetuximab throughout radiotherapy. Discussion The primary objective of ACCEPT is to evaluate toxicity and feasibility of cetuximab and particle therapy in adenoid cystic carcinoma. Trial Registration Clinical Trial Identifier: NCT 01192087 EudraCT number: 2010 - 022425 - 15

  17. Combined treatment of adenoid cystic carcinoma with cetuximab and IMRT plus C12 heavy ion boost: ACCEPT [ACC, Erbitux® and particle therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Alexandra D; Nikoghosyan, Anna; Hinke, Axel; Debus, Jürgen; Münter, Marc W

    2011-01-01

    Local control in adjuvant/definitive RT of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is largely dose-dependent leading to the establishment of particle therapy in this indication. However, even modern techniques leave space for improvement of local control by intensification of local treatment. Radiation sensitization by exploitation of high EGFR-expression in ACC with the EGFR receptor antibody cetuximab seems promising. The ACCEPT trial is a prospective, mono-centric, phase I/II trial evaluating toxicity (primary endpoint: acute and late effects) and efficacy (secondary endpoint: local control, distant control, disease-free survival, overall survival) of the combined treatment with IMRT/carbon ion boost and weekly cetuximab in 49 patients with histologically proven (≥R1-resected, inoperable or Pn+) ACC. Patients receive 18 GyE carbon ions (6 fractions) and 54 Gy IMRT (2.0 Gy/fraction) in combination with weekly cetuximab throughout radiotherapy. The primary objective of ACCEPT is to evaluate toxicity and feasibility of cetuximab and particle therapy in adenoid cystic carcinoma. Clinical Trial Identifier: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01192087 EudraCT number: 2010 - 022425 - 15

  18. [Isolation, identification and characterization of ACC deaminase-containing endophytic bacteria from halophyte Suaeda salsa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Songshan; Liu, Yanping; Zhao, Lei

    2010-11-01

    We Isolated and characterized 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase-containing endophytic bacteria from halophyte Suaeda salsa to understand the interactions between endophytes and halophyte. ACC deaminase-containing endophytic bacteria were isolated from root, stalk and leaf of Suaeda salsa and were identified based on morphological, physiological-biochemical properties, API and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Isolates were evaluated for their ACC deaminase, antifungal, protease activity, siderophores and phytohormones, such as indole-3-acetic acid, gibberellic acid and abscisic acid production, as well as atmospheric nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization. Four ACC deaminase-containing endophytic bacteria strains named as LP11, SS12, TW1 and TW2 were isolated and identified as Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, Pseudomonas sp., Pantoea agglomerans and Pseudomonas putida respectively. All the strains possessed the phosphate-solubilizing ability and could produce siderophores and phytohormones more or less. None of them could fix atmospheric nitrogen or produce protease. Only strain SS12 showed antagonism against two phytopathogenic fungi viz Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans and F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum. ACC deaminase-containing endophytic bacteria of Pseudomonas sp. and Pantoea sp. isolated from halophyte Suaeda salsa have abundant biological characteristics related to plant growth promotion, stress homeostasis regulation and biocontrol activity.

  19. Immunohistochemical properties of the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in placenta in its dysfunction in women with iron deficiency anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Ancheva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The pertinence of the study is related to a large prevalence of dysfunction of the placenta in pregnant women suffering from anemia. To evaluate the immunohistochemical expression characteristics of endothelial NO-synthase (eNOS in the placenta during its dysfunction in women against the background of anemia 30 samples of placental tissue were studied with the use of immunohistochemical and micrometer methods. Materials and results. It was found that the expression of eNOS in patients with iron defi ciency anemia in the cytoplasm of syncytium of villi and fetal capillary endothelium as well as decidual vessels decreases, with the most pronounced changes in the expression of eNOS observed in the presence of the combination of placental dysfunction and iron defi ciency anemia in the form of paradoxical increase in expression. Conclusion. This indicates the necessity for correction of endothelial function in women with anemia during pregnancy.

  20. Distinct cell-specific expression of homospermidine synthase involved in pyrrolizidine alkaloid biosynthesis in three species of the boraginales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemüller, Daniel; Reimann, Andreas; Ober, Dietrich

    2012-07-01

    Homospermidine synthase (HSS) is the first specific enzyme in pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) biosynthesis, a pathway involved in the plant's chemical defense. HSS has been shown to be recruited repeatedly by duplication of a gene involved in primary metabolism. Within the lineage of the Boraginales, only one gene duplication event gave rise to HSS. Here, we demonstrate that the tissue-specific expression of HSS in three boraginaceous species, Heliotropium indicum, Symphytum officinale, and Cynoglossum officinale, is unique with respect to plant organ, tissue, and cell type. Within H. indicum, HSS is expressed exclusively in nonspecialized cells of the lower epidermis of young leaves and shoots. In S. officinale, HSS expression has been detected in the cells of the root endodermis and in leaves directly underneath developing inflorescences. In young roots of C. officinale, HSS is detected only in cells of the endodermis, but in a later developmental stage, additionally in the pericycle. The individual expression patterns are compared with those within the Senecioneae lineage (Asteraceae), where HSS expression is reproducibly found in specific cells of the endodermis and the adjacent cortex parenchyma of the roots. The individual expression patterns within the Boraginales species are discussed as being a requirement for the successful recruitment of HSS after gene duplication. The diversity of HSS expression within this lineage adds a further facet to the already diverse patterns of expression that have been observed for HSS in other PA-producing plant lineages, making this PA-specific enzyme one of the most diverse expressed proteins described in the literature.

  1. Organiser l'accès électronique à des périodiques : Analyse des outils et proposition pour la mise en place d'une solution d'accès à la bibliothèque d'HEC

    OpenAIRE

    Boutin, Christine

    2007-01-01

    Ce mémoire est centré sur l'organisation de l'accès aux périodiques et l'offre du marché dans ce domaine. Pour circonscrire l'ensemble de la problématique, les différentes offres de périodiques, les besoins en accès des utilisateurs et les contraintes posées par les modalités d'accès sont définis. Sont alors présentés quelques produits ayant vocation à l'unification de l'accès aux périodiques. Puis une évaluation de ces outils est menée à partir du cas de la bibliothèque d'HEC : elle est l'oc...

  2. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the testis and epididymis of rats with a dihydrotestosterone (DHT) deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasa, Agnieszka; Marchlewicz, Mariola; Kurzawa, Rafał; Głabowski, Wojciech; Trybek, Grzegorz; Wenda-Rózewicka, Lidia; Wiszniewska, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    In our previous studies, we showed that a finasteride-induced DHT deficiency may cause changes in the morphology of the seminiferous epithelium without any morphological alteration of the epididymis. In this study, we demonstrated the constitutive immunoexpression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the testis and epididymis of Wistar rats treated with finasteride for 28 days (the duration of two cycles of the seminiferous epithelium) and 56 days (the duration of one spermatogenesis). We noted that a 56-day finasteride treatment mainly caused a decrease in the level of circulating DHT, as well as a statistically insignificant decrease in the level of T. The hormone deficiency also led to a change in the iNOS immnoexpression in the testis and epididymis of the finasteride-treated rats. In vitro, DHT did not modify NO production by the epithelial cells of the caput epididymis even when stimulated with LPS and IFNgamma, but it did give rise to an increase in NO production by the epithelial cells of the cauda epididymis without the stimulation. DHT did not have a statistically significant influence on estradiol production by cultured, LPS- and IFNgamma-stimulated epithelial cells from the caput and cauda epididymis. In conclusion, our data clearly indicates that a finasterideinduced DHT deficiency intensifies the constitutive expression of iNOS in most rat testicular and epididymal cells, so it can be expected that the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) could be regulated by DHT. On the other hand, the profile of the circulating DHT and T levels strongly suggests that the regulation of constitutive iNOS expression is complex and needs more detailed study.

  3. Rapport annuel au Parlement Loi sur l'accès à l'information Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    leonardi

    accès à l'information. Source. Nombre de demandes. 0. Médias. 1. Rapport statistique sur la Loi sur l'accès à l'information. Nom de l'institution : Centre de recherches pour le développement international. Période visée par le ...

  4. Glucose-Modulated Mitochondria Adaptation in Tumor Cells: A Focus on ATP Synthase and Inhibitor Factor 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Mavelli

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Warburg’s hypothesis has been challenged by a number of studies showing that oxidative phosphorylation is repressed in some tumors, rather than being inactive per se. Thus, treatments able to shift energy metabolism by activating mitochondrial pathways have been suggested as an intriguing basis for the optimization of antitumor strategies. In this study, HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells were cultivated with different metabolic substrates under conditions mimicking “positive” (activation/biogenesis or “negative” (silencing mitochondrial adaptation. In addition to the expected up-regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, glucose deprivation caused an increase in phosphorylating respiration and a rise in the expression levels of the ATP synthase β subunit and Inhibitor Factor 1 (IF1. Hyperglycemia, on the other hand, led to a markedly decreased level of the transcriptional coactivator PGC-α suggesting down-regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, although no change in mitochondrial mass and no impairment of phosphorylating respiration were observed. Moreover, a reduction in mitochondrial networking and in ATP synthase dimer stability was produced. No effect on β-ATP synthase expression was elicited. Notably, hyperglycemia caused an increase in IF1 expression levels, but it did not alter the amount of IF1 associated with ATP synthase. These results point to a new role of IF1 in relation to high glucose utilization by tumor cells, in addition to its well known effect upon mitochondrial ATP synthase regulation.

  5. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, caspase-3 and production of reactive oxygen intermediate on endothelial cells culture (HUVECs treated with P. falciparum infected erythrocytes and tumour necrosis factor-α

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loeki E. Fitri

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Cytoadherence of P. falciparum infected erythrocytes on endothelial cells is a key factor in development of severe malaria. This process may associated with the activation of local immune that was enhanced by tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α. This study was conducted to see the influence of P.falciparum infected erythrocytes cytoadherence and TNF-α treatment in inducing endothelial cells activation in vitro. inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and caspase-3 expression, also reactive oxygen intermediate (ROI production were used as parameters. An Experimental laboratory study had been done to observe endothelial cells activation (HUVECs after treatment with TNF-α for 20 hours or P. falciparum infected erythrocytes for 1 hour or both of them. Normal endothelial cells culture had been used as a control. Using immunocytochemistry local immune activation of endothelial cells was determined by iNOS and caspase-3 expression. Nitro Blue Tetrazolium reduction-assay was conducted to see the ROI production semi quantitatively. inducible nitric oxide synthase expression only found on endothelial cells culture treated with P. falciparum infected erythrocytes or both P. falciparum infected erythrocytes and TNF-α. Caspase-3 expression found slightly on normal endothelial cells culture. This expression increased significantly on endothelial cells culture treated with both P.falciparum infected erythrocytes and TNF-α (p=0.000. The normal endothelial cells release low level of ROI in the presence of non-specific trigger, PMA. In the presence of P. falciparum infected erythrocytes or TNF-α or both of them, some cells showed medium to high levels of ROI. Cytoadherence of P. falciparum infected erythrocytes and TNF α treatment on endothelial cells can induce activation of local immune marked by increase inducible nitric oxide synthase and release of free radicals that cause cell damage. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:151-6 Keywords: P.falciparum ,HUVECs, TNF-α, i

  6. Neuronal expression of glucosylceramide synthase in central nervous system regulates body weight and energy homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordström, Viola; Willershäuser, Monja; Herzer, Silke; Rozman, Jan; von Bohlen Und Halbach, Oliver; Meldner, Sascha; Rothermel, Ulrike; Kaden, Sylvia; Roth, Fabian C; Waldeck, Clemens; Gretz, Norbert; de Angelis, Martin Hrabě; Draguhn, Andreas; Klingenspor, Martin; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; Jennemann, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Hypothalamic neurons are main regulators of energy homeostasis. Neuronal function essentially depends on plasma membrane-located gangliosides. The present work demonstrates that hypothalamic integration of metabolic signals requires neuronal expression of glucosylceramide synthase (GCS; UDP-glucose:ceramide glucosyltransferase). As a major mechanism of central nervous system (CNS) metabolic control, we demonstrate that GCS-derived gangliosides interacting with leptin receptors (ObR) in the neuronal membrane modulate leptin-stimulated formation of signaling metabolites in hypothalamic neurons. Furthermore, ganglioside-depleted hypothalamic neurons fail to adapt their activity (c-Fos) in response to alterations in peripheral energy signals. Consequently, mice with inducible forebrain neuron-specific deletion of the UDP-glucose:ceramide glucosyltransferase gene (Ugcg) display obesity, hypothermia, and lower sympathetic activity. Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated Ugcg delivery to the arcuate nucleus (Arc) significantly ameliorated obesity, specifying gangliosides as seminal components for hypothalamic regulation of body energy homeostasis.

  7. Ethylene emission and PR protein synthesis in ACC deaminase producing Methylobacterium spp. inoculated tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) challenged with Ralstonia solanacearum under greenhouse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Woojong; Seshadri, Sundaram; Kim, Kiyoon; Lee, Gillseung; Sa, Tongmin

    2013-06-01

    Bacteria of genus Methylobacterium have been found to promote plant growth and regulate the level of ethylene in crop plants. This work is aimed to test the induction of defense responses in tomato against bacterial wilt by stress ethylene level reduction mediated by the ACC deaminase activity of Methylobacterium strains. Under greenhouse conditions, the disease index value in Methylobacterium sp. inoculated tomato plants was lower than control plants. Plants treated with Methylobacterium sp. challenge inoculated with Ralstonia solanacearum (RS) showed significantly reduced disease symptoms and lowered ethylene emission under greenhouse condition. The ACC and ACO (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase) accumulation in tomato leaves were significantly reduced with Methylobacterium strains inoculation. While ACC oxidase gene expression was found higher in plants treated with R. solanacearum than Methylobacterium sp. treatment, PR proteins related to induced systemic resistance like β-1,3-glucanase, PAL, PO and PPO were increased in Methylobacterium sp. inoculated plants. A significant increase in β-1,3-glucanase and PAL gene expression was found in all the Methylobacterium spp. treatments compared to the R. solanacearum treatment. This study confirms the activity of Methylobacterium sp. in increasing the defense enzymes by modulating the ethylene biosynthesis pathway and suggests the use of methylotrophic bacteria as potential biocontrol agents in tomato cultivation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Expression of beclin 1 in primary salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma and its relation to Bcl-2 and p53 and prognosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, L.C.; Huang, S.Y.; Zhang, D.S.; Zhang, S.H.; Li, W.G.; Zheng, P.H.; Chen, Z.W. [Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Jinan, China, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan (China)

    2014-03-03

    Beclin 1 plays a critical role in autophagy and functions as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor. The expression and prognostic significance of beclin 1 in head and neck adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) are largely unexplored. Therefore, we investigated the expression of beclin 1, Bcl-2, and p53 in head and neck ACC tissue. Tissue samples from 35 cases (15 females, 20 males) of head and neck ACC were utilized for immunohistochemistry. Beclin 1 expression was observed in 32 cases (91.4%) and considered to be high in 15 cases (42.9%) and low in 20 cases (57.1%). Beclin 1 expression was significantly correlated with a histological growth pattern (P=0.046) and histological grade (P=0.037). Beclin 1 expression was inversely correlated with Bcl-2 expression (P=0.013) and significantly associated with overall survival (P=0.006). Bcl-2 and p53 expression were observed in 21 cases (60.0%) and 16 cases (45.7%). Bcl-2 expression was significantly correlated with perineural invasion (P=0.041) and not associated with overall survival (P=0.053). p53 expression was directly correlated with beclin 1 expression (P=0.044). Our results indicated that beclin 1 may be a novel, promising prognostic factor for clinical outcome in head and neck ACC patients and may play a part in the development of head and neck ACC by interacting with Bcl-2 and p53.

  9. Expression of Prostacyclin-Synthase in Human Breast Cancer: Negative Prognostic Factor and Protection against Cell Death In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Klein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Endogenously formed prostacyclin (PGI2 and synthetic PGI2 analogues have recently been shown to regulate cell survival in various cell lines. To elucidate the significance of PGI2 in human breast cancer, we performed immunohistochemistry to analyze expression of prostacyclin-synthase (PGIS in 248 human breast cancer specimens obtained from surgical pathology files. We examined patients’ 10-year survival retrospectively by sending a questionnaire to their general practitioners and performed univariate analysis to determine whether PGIS expression correlated with patient survival. Lastly, the effects of PGI2 and its analogues on cell death were examined in a human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7 and a human T-cell leukemia cell line (CCRF-CEM. PGIS expression was observed in tumor cells in 48.7% of samples and was associated with a statistically significant reduction in 10-year survival (P=0.038; n=193. Transient transfection of PGIS into MCF-7 cells exposed to sulindac increased cell viability by 50% and exposure to carbaprostacyclin protected against sulindac sulfone induced apoptosis in CCRF-CEM cells. Expression of PGIS is correlated with a reduced patient survival and protects against cell death in vitro, suggesting that PGIS is a potential therapeutic target in breast cancer.

  10. Glycogen synthase from the parabasalian parasite Trichomonas vaginalis: An unusual member of the starch/glycogen synthase family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Wayne A; Pradhan, Prajakta; Madhan, Nayasha; Gist, Galen C; Brittingham, Andrew

    2017-07-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, a parasitic protist, is the causative agent of the common sexually-transmitted infection trichomoniasis. The organism has long been known to synthesize substantial glycogen as a storage polysaccharide, presumably mobilizing this compound during periods of carbohydrate limitation, such as might be encountered during transmission between hosts. However, little is known regarding the enzymes of glycogen metabolism in T. vaginalis. We had previously described the identification and characterization of two forms of glycogen phosphorylase in the organism. Here, we measure UDP-glucose-dependent glycogen synthase activity in cell-free extracts of T. vaginalis. We then demonstrate that the TVAG_258220 open reading frame encodes a glycosyltransferase that is presumably responsible for this synthetic activity. We show that expression of TVAG_258220 in a yeast strain lacking endogenous glycogen synthase activity is sufficient to restore glycogen accumulation. Furthermore, when TVAG_258220 is expressed in bacteria, the resulting recombinant protein has glycogen synthase activity in vitro, transferring glucose from either UDP-glucose or ADP-glucose to glycogen and using both substrates with similar affinity. This protein is also able to transfer glucose from UDP-glucose or ADP-glucose to maltose and longer oligomers of glucose but not to glucose itself. However, with these substrates, there is no evidence of processivity and sugar transfer is limited to between one and three glucose residues. Taken together with our earlier work on glycogen phosphorylase, we are now well positioned to define both how T. vaginalis synthesizes and utilizes glycogen, and how these processes are regulated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  11. Artichoke, Cynarin and Cyanidin Downregulate the Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Human Coronary Smooth Muscle Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Xia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L. is one of the world’s oldest medicinal plants with multiple health benefits. We have previously shown that artichoke leaf extracts and artichoke flavonoids upregulate the gene expression of endothelial-type nitric oxide synthase (eNOS in human endothelial cells. Whereas NO produced by the eNOS is a vasoprotective molecule, NO derived from the inducible iNOS plays a pro-inflammatory role in the vasculature. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of artichoke on iNOS expression in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMC. Incubation of HCASMC with a cytokine mixture led to an induction of iNOS mRNA expression. This iNOS induction was concentration- and time-dependently inhibited by an artichoke leaf extract (1–100 µg/mL, 6 h or 24 h. Consistently, the artichoke leaf extract also reduced cytokine-induced iNOS promoter activation and iNOS protein expression. In addition, treatment of HCASMC with four well-known artichoke compounds (cynarin > cyanidin > luteolin ≈ cynaroside led to a downregulation iNOS mRNA and protein expression, with cynarin being the most potent one. In conclusion, artichoke contains both eNOS-upregulating and iNOS-downregulating compounds. Such compounds may contribute to the beneficial effects of artichoke and may per se have therapeutic potentials.

  12. Artichoke, cynarin and cyanidin downregulate the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in human coronary smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ning; Pautz, Andrea; Wollscheid, Ursula; Reifenberg, Gisela; Förstermann, Ulrich; Li, Huige

    2014-03-24

    Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is one of the world's oldest medicinal plants with multiple health benefits. We have previously shown that artichoke leaf extracts and artichoke flavonoids upregulate the gene expression of endothelial-type nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in human endothelial cells. Whereas NO produced by the eNOS is a vasoprotective molecule, NO derived from the inducible iNOS plays a pro-inflammatory role in the vasculature. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of artichoke on iNOS expression in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMC). Incubation of HCASMC with a cytokine mixture led to an induction of iNOS mRNA expression. This iNOS induction was concentration- and time-dependently inhibited by an artichoke leaf extract (1-100 µg/mL, 6 h or 24 h). Consistently, the artichoke leaf extract also reduced cytokine-induced iNOS promoter activation and iNOS protein expression. In addition, treatment of HCASMC with four well-known artichoke compounds (cynarin > cyanidin > luteolin ≈ cynaroside) led to a downregulation iNOS mRNA and protein expression, with cynarin being the most potent one. In conclusion, artichoke contains both eNOS-upregulating and iNOS-downregulating compounds. Such compounds may contribute to the beneficial effects of artichoke and may per se have therapeutic potentials.

  13. Functional Characterization of Sesquiterpene Synthase from Polygonum minus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Fang Ee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygonum minus is an aromatic plant, which contains high abundance of terpenoids, especially the sesquiterpenes C15H24. Sesquiterpenes were believed to contribute to the many useful biological properties in plants. This study aimed to functionally characterize a full length sesquiterpene synthase gene from P. minus. P. minus sesquiterpene synthase (PmSTS has a complete open reading frame (ORF of 1689 base pairs encoding a 562 amino acid protein. Similar to other sesquiterpene synthases, PmSTS has two large domains: the N-terminal domain and the C-terminal metal-binding domain. It also consists of three conserved motifs: the DDXXD, NSE/DTE, and RXR. A three-dimensional protein model for PmSTS built clearly distinguished the two main domains, where conserved motifs were highlighted. We also constructed a phylogenetic tree, which showed that PmSTS belongs to the angiosperm sesquiterpene synthase subfamily Tps-a. To examine the function of PmSTS, we expressed this gene in Arabidopsis thaliana. Two transgenic lines, designated as OE3 and OE7, were further characterized, both molecularly and functionally. The transgenic plants demonstrated smaller basal rosette leaves, shorter and fewer flowering stems, and fewer seeds compared to wild type plants. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the transgenic plants showed that PmSTS was responsible for the production of β-sesquiphellandrene.

  14. Citrus nobiletin suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression in interleukin-1β-treated hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshigai, Emi [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization (R-GIRO), Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Machida, Toru [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Okuyama, Tetsuya [Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization (R-GIRO), Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Mori, Masatoshi; Murase, Hiromitsu; Yamanishi, Ryota [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Okumura, Tadayoshi [Research Organization of Science and Technology, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Department of Surgery, Kansai Medical University, Hirakata, Osaka (Japan); Ikeya, Yukinobu [Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Nishino, Hoyoku [Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization (R-GIRO), Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Department of Biochemistry, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Nishizawa, Mikio, E-mail: nishizaw@sk.ritsumei.ac.jp [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan)

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •Nobiletin is a polymethoxylated flavone that is abundant in citrus peels. •Nobiletin is a major constituent of the Citrus unshiu peel extract. •Nobiletin suppresses induction of NO and reduces iNOS expression in hepatocytes. •Nobiletin reduces the iNOS promoter activity and the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB. -- Abstract: Background: Nobiletin is a polymethoxylated flavone that is abundant in the peels of citrus fruits, such as Citrus unshiu (Satsuma mandarin) and Citrus sinensis. The dried peels of C. unshiu (chinpi) have been included in several formulae of Japanese Kampo medicines. Nobiletin may suppress the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which synthesizes the inflammatory mediator nitric oxide (NO) in hepatocytes. Methods: A C. unshiu peel (CUP) extract was prepared. Primary cultured rat hepatocytes were treated with the CUP extract or nobiletin in the presence of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), which induces iNOS expression. NO production and iNOS gene expression were analyzed. Results: High-performance liquid chromatography analyses revealed that the nobiletin content in the CUP extract was 0.14%. Nobiletin dose-dependently reduced the NO levels and decreased iNOS expression at the protein, mRNA and antisense transcript levels. Flavone, which does not contain any methoxy groups, also suppressed iNOS induction. Nobiletin reduced the transcriptional activity of iNOS promoter-luciferase constructs and the DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) in the nuclei. Conclusions: The suppression of iNOS induction by nobiletin suggests that nobiletin may be responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of citrus peels and have a therapeutic potential for liver diseases.

  15. The transformation of amorphous calcium carbonate, ACC, to crystalline phases as function of time and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Hermann; Happel, Marian; Niedermayr, Andrea; Immenhauser, Adrian

    2017-04-01

    We present results from a structural study of the transformation of freeze dried amorphous calcium carbonate, ACC, in crystalline material using pair distribution function analysis, PDF analysis, of X-ray powder diffraction data, XPD data. PDF analysis allows for the analysis of local order of structural subunit in the range between molecular unit (1. and 2. coordination sphere) and long range periodicity as in crystalline materials. ACC was precipitated from aqueous solutions at 298 K and 278 K using different amounts of Mg cations as stabilizer. The samples were immediately separated from the solution and freeze dried. For the transformation study, the samples were heated and analysed using XPD until they were crystallized. The radial distribution obtained from the XPD data were compared to simulated radial distributions of the calcium carbonate polymorphs and their hydrated phases. An ACC precipitated from a solution with Ca:Mg:CO3 = 1:5:4 at 298 K (ration in mmol, pH = 8.2) and freeze dried right after isolation from the solution revealed a close resemblance with ikaite in its local order. Another ACC with Ca:Mg:CO3 = 1:10:1.4 (T = 298, pH = 8.7) showed distinctly different local order resembling monohydrocalcite. Both ACC, however, still had considerable amounts of water dominating the Ca-coordination sphere. During the transformation to calcite, the structural changes in the sample concerned the hydrate water coordinating Ca which was removed and replaced by the carbonate oxygens. The study shows that ACC obtained from different starting solutions show specific local order. Freeze drying leads to solid ACC powder which still contain considerable amounts of hydrate water. Structural subunits are distinct in ACC and different from the crystalline phase. The study supplements recent reports presented by Konrad et al., Purgstaller et al., and Tobler et al.. F. Konrad et al., Cryst. Growth Des. 16, 6310-6317(2016) B. Purgstaller et al., Geochimica et Cosmochimica

  16. A halotolerant Enterobacter sp. displaying ACC deaminase activity promotes rice seedling growth under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Anumita; Ghosh, Pallab Kumar; Pramanik, Krishnendu; Mitra, Soumik; Soren, Tithi; Pandey, Sanjeev; Mondal, Monohar Hossain; Maiti, Tushar Kanti

    2018-01-01

    Agricultural productivity is proven to be hampered by the synthesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and production of stress-induced ethylene under salinity stress. One-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) is the direct precursor of ethylene synthesized by plants. Bacteria possessing ACC deaminase activity can use ACC as a nitrogen source preventing ethylene production. Several salt-tolerant bacterial strains displaying ACC deaminase activity were isolated from rice fields, and their plant growth-promoting (PGP) properties were determined. Among them, strain P23, identified as an Enterobacter sp. based on phenotypic characteristics, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry data and the 16S rDNA sequence, was selected as the best-performing isolate for several PGP traits, including phosphate solubilization, IAA production, siderophore production, HCN production, etc. Enterobacter sp. P23 was shown to promote rice seedling growth under salt stress, and this effect was correlated with a decrease in antioxidant enzymes and stress-induced ethylene. Isolation of an acdS mutant strain enabled concluding that the reduction in stress-induced ethylene content after inoculation of strain P23 was linked to ACC deaminase activity. Copyright © 2017 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. L'accès à l'information gagne du terrain en Afrique | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    29 mars 2012 ... Il est largement reconnu que l'accès à l'information est l'une des pierres angulaires de la bonne gouvernance ainsi qu'un important outil de lutte contre la corruption. Près d'une centaine de pays, dont 10 en Afrique, ont adopté des lois ou des décrets nationaux qui reconnaissent le droit du public à l'accès ...

  18. Characterization of the human gene (TBXAS1) encoding thromboxane synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, A; Yokoyama, C; Ihara, H; Bandoh, S; Takeda, O; Takahashi, E; Tanabe, T

    1994-09-01

    The gene encoding human thromboxane synthase (TBXAS1) was isolated from a human EMBL3 genomic library using human platelet thromboxane synthase cDNA as a probe. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that the human thromboxane synthase gene spans more than 75 kb and consists of 13 exons and 12 introns, of which the splice donor and acceptor sites conform to the GT/AG rule. The exon-intron boundaries of the thromboxane synthase gene were similar to those of the human cytochrome P450 nifedipine oxidase gene (CYP3A4) except for introns 9 and 10, although the primary sequences of these enzymes exhibited 35.8% identity each other. The 1.2-kb of the 5'-flanking region sequence contained potential binding sites for several transcription factors (AP-1, AP-2, GATA-1, CCAAT box, xenobiotic-response element, PEA-3, LF-A1, myb, basic transcription element and cAMP-response element). Primer-extension analysis indicated the multiple transcription-start sites, and the major start site was identified as an adenine residue located 142 bases upstream of the translation-initiation site. However, neither a typical TATA box nor a typical CAAT box is found within the 100-b upstream of the translation-initiation site. Southern-blot analysis revealed the presence of one copy of the thromboxane synthase gene per haploid genome. Furthermore, a fluorescence in situ hybridization study revealed that the human gene for thromboxane synthase is localized to band q33-q34 of the long arm of chromosome 7. A tissue-distribution study demonstrated that thromboxane synthase mRNA is widely expressed in human tissues and is particularly abundant in peripheral blood leukocyte, spleen, lung and liver. The low but significant levels of mRNA were observed in kidney, placenta and thymus.

  19. Characterization of three chalcone synthase-like genes from apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahyaa, Mosaab; Ali, Samah; Davidovich-Rikanati, Rachel; Ibdah, Muhammad; Shachtier, Alona; Eyal, Yoram; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Ibdah, Mwafaq

    2017-08-01

    Apple (Malus x domestica Brokh.) is a widely cultivated deciduous tree species of significant economic importance. Apple leaves accumulate high levels of flavonoids and dihydrochalcones, and their formation is dependent on enzymes of the chalcone synthase family. Three CHS genes were cloned from apple leaves and expressed in Escherichia coli. The encoded recombinant enzymes were purified and functionally characterized. In-vitro activity assays indicated that MdCHS1, MdCHS2 and MdCHS3 code for proteins exhibiting polyketide synthase activity that accepted either p-dihydrocoumaroyl-CoA, p-coumaroyl-CoA, or cinnamoyl-CoA as starter CoA substrates in the presence of malonyl-CoA, leading to production of phloretin, naringenin chalcone, and pinocembrin chalcone. MdCHS3 coded a chalcone-dihydrochalcone synthase enzyme with narrower substrate specificity than the previous ones. The apparent Km values of MdCHS3 for p-dihydrocoumaryl-CoA and p-coumaryl-CoA were both 5.0 μM. Expression analyses of MdCHS genes varied according to tissue type. MdCHS1, MdCHS2 and MdCHS3 expression levels were associated with the levels of phloretin accumulate in the respective tissues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Role of ethylene and related gene expression in the interaction between strawberry plants and the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elías, J M; Guerrero-Molina, M F; Martínez-Zamora, M G; Díaz-Ricci, J C; Pedraza, R O

    2018-05-01

    Induced systemic resistance (ISR) is one of the indirect mechanisms of growth promotion exerted by plant growth-promoting bacteria, and can be mediated by ethylene (ET). We assessed ET production and the expression of related genes in the Azospirillum-strawberry plant interaction. Ethylene production was evaluated by gas chromatography in plants inoculated or not with A. brasilense REC3. Also, plants were treated with AgNO 3 , an inhibitor of ET biosynthesis; with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), a precursor of ET biosynthesis; and with indole acetic acid (IAA). Plant dry biomass and the growth index were determined to assess the growth-promoting effect of A. brasilense REC3 in strawberry plants. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to analyse relative expression of the genes Faetr1, Faers1 and Faein4, which encode ET receptors; Factr1 and Faein2, involved in the ET signalling pathway; Faacs1 encoding ACC synthase; Faaco1 encoding ACC oxidase; and Faaux1 and Faami1 for IAA synthesis enzymes. Results showed that ET acts as a rapid and transient signal in the first 12 h post-treatment. A. brasilense REC3-inoculated plants had a significantly higher growth index compared to control plants. Modulation of the genes Faetr1, Faers1, Faein4, Factr1, Faein2 and Faaco1 indicated activation of ET synthesis and signalling pathways. The up-regulation of Faaux1 and Faami1 involved in IAA synthesis suggested that inoculation with A. brasilense REC3 induces production of this auxin, modulating ET signalling. Ethylene production and up-regulation of genes associated with ET signalling in strawberry plants inoculated with A. brasilense REC3 support the priming activation characteristic of ISR. This type of resistance and the activation of systemic acquired resistance previously observed in this interaction indicate that both are present in strawberry plants, could act synergistically and increase protection against pathogens. © 2018 German Society

  1. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the bacillaene synthase trans-acting acyltransferase PksC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuskin, Fiona; Solovyova, Alexandra S.; Lewis, Richard J.; Race, Paul R.

    2011-01-01

    The expression, purification and crystallization of the trans-acting acyltransferase PksC from the bacillaene hybrid polyketide synthase/nonribosomal peptide synthetase is described. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 and diffracted to 1.44 Å resolution. The antibiotic bacillaene is biosynthesized in Bacillus subtilis by a hybrid type 1 modular polyketide synthase/nonribosomal peptide synthetase of the trans-acyltransferase (trans-AT) class. Within this system, the essential acyl-group loading activity is provided by the action of three free-standing trans-acting acyltransferases. Here, the recombinant expression, purification and crystallization of the bacillaene synthase trans-acting acyltransferase PksC are reported. A diffraction data set has been collected from a single PksC crystal to 1.44 Å resolution and the crystal was found to belong to the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2 1

  2. Jiao Tai Wan Attenuates Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoyi Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Jiao Tai Wan (JTW, a Chinese herbal formula containing Rhizoma Coptidis and Cortex Cinnamomi, has been used for diabetic treatment for many years. The aim of this study was to determine the main components in JTW and to investigate the effects of JTW on hepatic lipid accumulation in diabetic rats and humans. JTW extract was prepared and the main components were assayed by HPLC. An animal model of diabetes mellitus was established and JTW was administered intragastrically. In the clinical study, diabetic patients with poor glycemic control were treated with JTW. Blood glucose and lipid parameters, liver histology, hepatic triglyceride content and lipogenic gene expression were examined. Our data demonstrated that JTW significantly improved hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and hepatic lipid accumulation in diabetic rats. This was accompanied by the down-regulation of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC and fatty acid synthase (FAS protein expressions, and the up-regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and phosphorylated-ACC (pACC protein expressions in the liver tissues. Diabetic patients also exhibited decreases in their hepatic triglyceride content. The results suggest that JTW attenuates hepatic lipid accumulation in diabetic rats and humans. These beneficial effects are possibly associated with the inhibition of lipogenic gene expression in the liver.

  3. [Expression of enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis and polyketide synthase gene-expressing Escherichia coli in colorectal adenoma patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, L L; Wu, N; Zhu, Y M; Qiu, X Y; Chen, G D; Zhang, L M; Liu, Y L

    2016-03-29

    To investigate the distribution of various bacteria in adenoma tissue of colorectal adenoma (T/CRA), normal colonic mucosa tissue adjacent to the adenoma (N/CRA), and healthy colonic mucosa tissue (N/H) by comparing the number of total bacteria, Bacteroides fragilis (BF), enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF), polyketide synthase (pks) gene-expressing Escherichia coli(E.coli)(pks(+) E. coli)among the above 3 types of tissues. A total of 36 patients diagnosed with colorectal adenoma by colonoscopy and pathology in Department of Gastroenterology, Peking University People's Hospital from September 2011 to September 2013 were selected into this study. T/CRA and N/CRA tissues from the 36 patients and N/H tissues from 18 healthy controls were collected for DNA extraction. The number of total bacteria, BF, ETBF, pks(+) E. coli was detected by quantitative real time PCR, and their correlation with colorectal adenoma was analyzed. (1) The number of total bacteria decreased gradually from N/H, N/CRA, to T/CRA, with the median values being 3.18×10(8,) 1.57×10(8,) and 7.91×10(7) copies/g, respectively, and with significant difference among the three groups and between each two groups (all PCRA, to T/CRA, the median values being 6.03×10(5,) 4.28×10(4,) and 5.48×10(3) copies/g, respectively, and with significant difference among the three groups and between each two groups (all PCRA, to T/CRA, the relative expression being 1.73±0.30, 6.15±1.52, and 8.54±1.80, respectively. Significant difference was found between the T/CRA and N/H tissue (P=0.003), but not between any other two groups. (4) The expression of clbB in pks(+) E.coli was highest in T/CRA colonic tissue (2.96±0.28), followed by the N/CRA (2.79±0.19) and N/H tissue (1.06±0.08). Significant difference was found between T/CRA and N/H tissues, as well as between N/CRA and N/H tissues (both PCRA and N/CRA tissues. The number of total bacteria is markedly reduced in the colonic mucosa of CRA patients

  4. WASTE-ACC: A computer model for analysis of waste management accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabelssi, B.K.; Folga, S.; Kohout, E.J.; Mueller, C.J.; Roglans-Ribas, J.

    1996-12-01

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, Argonne National Laboratory has developed WASTE-ACC, a computational framework and integrated PC-based database system, to assess atmospheric releases from facility accidents. WASTE-ACC facilitates the many calculations for the accident analyses necessitated by the numerous combinations of waste types, waste management process technologies, facility locations, and site consolidation strategies in the waste management alternatives across the DOE complex. WASTE-ACC is a comprehensive tool that can effectively test future DOE waste management alternatives and assumptions. The computational framework can access several relational databases to calculate atmospheric releases. The databases contain throughput volumes, waste profiles, treatment process parameters, and accident data such as frequencies of initiators, conditional probabilities of subsequent events, and source term release parameters of the various waste forms under accident stresses. This report describes the computational framework and supporting databases used to conduct accident analyses and to develop source terms to assess potential health impacts that may affect on-site workers and off-site members of the public under various DOE waste management alternatives

  5. Historic Learning Approach for Auto-tuning OpenACC Accelerated Scientific Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiqui, Shahzeb

    2015-04-17

    The performance optimization of scientific applications usually requires an in-depth knowledge of the hardware and software. A performance tuning mechanism is suggested to automatically tune OpenACC parameters to adapt to the execution environment on a given system. A historic learning based methodology is suggested to prune the parameter search space for a more efficient auto-tuning process. This approach is applied to tune the OpenACC gang and vector clauses for a better mapping of the compute kernels onto the underlying architecture. Our experiments show a significant performance improvement against the default compiler parameters and drastic reduction in tuning time compared to a brute force search-based approach.

  6. Potential US Population Impact of the 2017 ACC/AHA High Blood Pressure Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntner, Paul; Carey, Robert M; Gidding, Samuel; Jones, Daniel W; Taler, Sandra J; Wright, Jackson T; Whelton, Paul K

    2018-01-09

    The 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults provides recommendations for the definition of hypertension, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) thresholds for initiation of antihypertensive medication, and BP target goals. This study sought to determine the prevalence of hypertension, implications of recommendations for antihypertensive medication, and prevalence of BP above the treatment goal among US adults using criteria from the 2017 ACC/AHA guideline and the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC7). The authors analyzed data from the 2011 to 2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (N = 9 623). BP was measured 3 times following a standardized protocol and averaged. Results were weighted to produce US population estimates. According to the 2017 ACC/AHA and JNC7 guidelines, the crude prevalence of hypertension among US adults was 45.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 43.6% to 47.6%) and 31.9% (95% CI: 30.1% to 33.7%), respectively, and antihypertensive medication was recommended for 36.2% (95% CI: 34.2% to 38.2%) and 34.3% (95% CI: 32.5% to 36.2%) of US adults, respectively. Nonpharmacological intervention is advised for the 9.4% of US adults with hypertension who are not recommended for antihypertensive medication according to the 2017 ACC/AHA guideline. Among US adults taking antihypertensive medication, 53.4% (95% CI: 49.9% to 56.8%) and 39.0% (95% CI: 36.4% to 41.6%) had BP above the treatment goal according to the 2017 ACC/AHA and JNC7 guidelines, respectively. Compared with the JNC7 guideline, the 2017 ACC/AHA guideline results in a substantial increase in the prevalence of hypertension, a small increase in the percentage of US adults recommended for antihypertensive medication, and more intensive BP lowering for many

  7. Novel class III phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthase: structure and properties of the tetrameric, phosphate-activated, non-allosterically inhibited enzyme from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadziola, Anders; Jepsen, Clemens H; Johansson, Eva

    2005-01-01

    The prs gene encoding phosphoribosyl diphosphate (PRPP) synthase of the hyperthermophilic autotrophic methanogenic archaeon Methanocaldococcus jannaschii has been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Subsequently, M.jannaschii PRPP synthase has been purified, characterised, crystallised, and...

  8. Expression of phytoene synthase1 and carotene desaturase crtI genes result in an increase in the total carotenoids content in transgenic elite wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Ling; Wang, Cheng; Chen, Ling; Liu, Huijuan; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2009-09-23

    Dietary micronutrient deficiencies, such as the lack of vitamin A, are a major source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Carotenoids in food can function as provitamin A in humans, while grains of Chinese elite wheat cultivars generally have low carotenoid contents. To increase the carotenoid contents in common wheat endosperm, transgenic wheat has been generated by expressing the maize y1 gene encoding phytoene synthase driven by a endosperm-specific 1Dx5 promoter in the elite wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety EM12, together with the bacterial phytoene desaturase crtI gene from Erwinia uredovora under the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter control. A clear increase of the carotenoid content was detected in the endosperms of transgenic wheat that visually showed a light yellow color. The total carotenoids content was increased up to 10.8-fold as compared with the nontransgenic EM12 cultivar. To test whether the variability of total carotenoid content in different transgenic lines was due to differences in the transgene copy number or expression pattern, Southern hybridization and semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analyses were curried out. The results showed that transgene copy numbers and transcript levels did not associate well with carotenoid contents. The expression patterns of endogenous carotenoid genes, such as the phytoene synthases and carotene desaturases, were also investigated in wild-type and transgenic wheat lines. No significant changes in expression levels of these genes were detected in the transgenic endosperms, indicating that the increase in carotenoid transgenic wheat endosperms resulted from the expression of transgenes.

  9. Effect of alkylglycerone phosphate synthase on the expression profile of circRNAs in the human thyroid cancer cell line FRO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Shasha; Tan, Jian; Yang, Bing; He, Lu; Zhu, Yu

    2018-05-01

    Thyroid cancer is a common primary tumor in China. Therefore, it is important to investigate the underlying molecular mechanism of thyroid cancer in order to achieve effective individualized treatments. In our previous study, a positive correlation between the expression of alkylglycerone phosphate synthase (AGPS) and the malignant phenotype of thyroid cancer cell lines was identified. The inactivation of AGPS was able to decrease the malignancy of cancer, and inhibit tumor growth and invasion. However, the function of AGPS on thyroid cancer was unclear. In the present study, it was revealed that AGPS was able to regulate the expression of circular RNAs (circRNAs), which may be the mechanism of its anticancer activity. Therefore, the effects of AGPS silencing and knockout on circRNA expression in the thyroid cancer cell line FRO were investigated using circRNAs microarray, and Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analyses were performed in order to investigate the underlying molecular mechanism of AGPS for the regulation of thyroid cancer through circRNAs.

  10. L'accès à l'information gagne du terrain en Afrique | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    29 mars 2012 ... Les trois pays où se déroule le projet en sont à divers stades de cette démarche. ... La loi sur l'accès à l'information de l'Ouganda a été promulguée en ... en matière d'accès à l'information dans les secteurs de l'énergie et des ...

  11. Influence of Magnesium Content on the Local Structure of Amorphous Calcium Carbonate (ACC): Real Time Determination by In Situ PDF Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergelsberg, S. T.; Ulrich, R. N.; Michel, F. M.; Dove, P. M.

    2016-12-01

    Calcium carbonate minerals are an essential component in the exoskeletons of crustaceans and mollusks. The onset of exoskeleton mineralization includes the precipitation of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) as a reactive intermediate that later transforms to produce diverse structures. Despite the importance of ACC as a critical phase during skeleton formation, the chemical and physical properties are not well characterized at conditions that approximate biological environments. Of particular interest are the solubility of ACC, the short-range structure at the time of formation, and the evolution of ACC structure to final products. Recent advances showing the widespread occurrence of multistep pathways to mineralization in biological and geological settings (De Yoreo et al., 2015) underline the importance of understanding amorphous intermediates. Using quantitative laboratory techniques developed by our research group (Blue et al., 2013; Blue and Dove, 2015; Blue et al., in press), this experimental study quantifies the solubility of ACC in parallel with the physical characterization of the corresponding structure. We measured ACC solubility at specific time points during the precipitation and during its subsequent evolution under the mild pH conditions that approximate biological and environmental conditions. In parallel experiments, structural data were collected from in situ pair distribution function (PDF) analyses were conducted to follow the evolution of individual samples from initial precipitation to final product. The measurements are leading to a quantitative solubility function for ACC with variable Mg contents and an x-ray based understanding of ACC structure in the same particles. We are also finding temporal changes in the short-range order of ACC after precipitation and this order is dependent upon Mg content. Moreover, the data show Mg distribution through the ACC particles is dependent upon total alkalinity. Insights from this study hold promise

  12. Occurrence of theobromine synthase genes in purine alkaloid-free species of Camellia plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Mariko; Kitao, Naoko; Mizuno, Kouichi; Tanikawa, Natsu; Kato, Misako

    2009-02-01

    Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) and theobromine (3,7-dimethylxanthine) are purine alkaloids that are present in high concentrations in plants of some species of Camellia. However, most members of the genus Camellia contain no purine alkaloids. Tracer experiments using [8-(14)C]adenine and [8-(14)C]theobromine showed that the purine alkaloid pathway is not fully functional in leaves of purine alkaloid-free species. In five species of purine alkaloid-free Camellia plants, sufficient evidence was obtained to show the occurrence of genes that are homologous to caffeine synthase. Recombinant enzymes derived from purine alkaloid-free species showed only theobromine synthase activity. Unlike the caffeine synthase gene, these genes were expressed more strongly in mature tissue than in young tissue.

  13. The clinical significance of thymidylate synthase expression in human papillomavirus-related oropharyngeal squamous carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hisayuki; Yui, Takehiro; Okada, Tatsuyoshi; Urano, Makoto; Sakurai, Kazuo; Naito, Kensei; Yamamoto, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    The focus of human papilloma virus (HPV), particulary HPV 16 is on the role of carcinogenic and prognostic factors on oropharyngeal squamous carcinoma (OSCC). However, it remains unclear why patients with HPV-positive tumors have better outcomes than those with HPV-negative tumors. Thymidylate synthase (TS) is one of the initial key enzymes in the 5-fluouracil (5-FU) metabolic pathway. Clinical studies showed that intratumoural TS level was related to the response to 5-FU-based chemotherapy in patients with several types of cancer such as gastroenterological and head and neck cancers. We investigated the prevalence of HPV infection and TS expression in the patients with OSCC and evaluated the prognostic implications according to the HPV status and TS expression. We evaluated for high-risk HPV types (HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 51, 52, 58) using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay on archival biopsies from 54 patients with OSCC. Immunohistochemical assessments for TS were also performed. HPV was positive in 22 (40.7%) of 54 samples. Of these positive cases, 21 (95%) carried HPV 16 and only 1 (5%) HPV58 sequences. TS was overexpressed in 25 (46.3%) of 54 samples. Of these, 19 (76.0%) had an HPV-negative status and 21 (84.0%) were heavy smokers. TS overexpression was associated with the patients with HPV-negative tumors (P=0.02) and heavy smokers (p=0.012). Univariate analysis revealed that HPV positive status (77.3% vs. 29.0%; p=0.006) significantly improved overall survival. Conversely, no remarkable prognostic difference was observed on immunohistochemical analysis of TS expression. A multivariate analysis using Cox's proportional hazard model showed that early T stage (T1-2), early N stage (N0-1), and positive HPV status were significantly independent predictors for superior overall survival. Our studies suggested that positive HPV status was most strongly associated with a favorable prognosis in the patients with OSCC. TS expression has an unusual aspect

  14. Novel polyhydroxyalkanoate copolymers produced in Pseudomonas putida by metagenomic polyhydroxyalkanoate synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jiujun; Charles, Trevor C

    2016-09-01

    Bacterially produced biodegradable polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) with versatile properties can be achieved using different PHA synthases (PhaCs). This work aims to expand the diversity of known PhaCs via functional metagenomics and demonstrates the use of these novel enzymes in PHA production. Complementation of a PHA synthesis-deficient Pseudomonas putida strain with a soil metagenomic cosmid library retrieved 27 clones expressing either class I, class II, or unclassified PHA synthases, and many did not have close sequence matches to known PhaCs. The composition of PHA produced by these clones was dependent on both the supplied growth substrates and the nature of the PHA synthase, with various combinations of short-chain-length (SCL) and medium-chain-length (MCL) PHA. These data demonstrate the ability to isolate diverse genes for PHA synthesis by functional metagenomics and their use for the production of a variety of PHA polymer and copolymer mixtures.

  15. Pre- and posttranslational upregulation of muscle-specific glycogen synthase in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, H; Andersen, P H; Lund, S

    1994-01-01

    Expression of muscle-specific glycogen synthase (GS) and phosphofructokinase (PFK) was analyzed in seven athletes and eight control subjects who were characterized using the euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic (2 mU.kg-1.min-1) clamp technique in combination with indirect calorimetry and biopsy sampling...

  16. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of an octaketide-producing plant type III polyketide synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Hiroyuki [Mitsubishi Kagaku Institute of Life Sciences (MITILS), 11 Minamiooya, Machida, Tokyo 194-8511 (Japan); Kondo, Shin; Kato, Ryohei [Innovation Center Yokohama, Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation, 1000 Kamoshida, Aoba, Yokohama, Kanagawa 227-8502 (Japan); Wanibuchi, Kiyofumi; Noguchi, Hiroshi [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); Sugio, Shigetoshi, E-mail: sugio.shigetoshi@mw.m-kagaku.co.jp [Innovation Center Yokohama, Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation, 1000 Kamoshida, Aoba, Yokohama, Kanagawa 227-8502 (Japan); Abe, Ikuro, E-mail: sugio.shigetoshi@mw.m-kagaku.co.jp [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Kohno, Toshiyuki, E-mail: sugio.shigetoshi@mw.m-kagaku.co.jp [Mitsubishi Kagaku Institute of Life Sciences (MITILS), 11 Minamiooya, Machida, Tokyo 194-8511 (Japan)

    2007-11-01

    Octaketide synthase from A. arborescens has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data have been collected to 2.6 Å. Octaketide synthase (OKS) from Aloe arborescens is a plant-specific type III polyketide synthase that produces SEK4 and SEK4b from eight molecules of malonyl-CoA. Recombinant OKS expressed in Escherichia coli was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to space group I422, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 110.2, c = 281.4 Å, α = β = γ = 90.0°. Diffraction data were collected to 2.6 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation at BL24XU of SPring-8.

  17. Expression of the Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Isoform in Chorionic Villi in the Early Spontaneous Abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the early spontaneous abortion. , in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the expression of iNOS in trophoblasts in the early pregnancy with and without spontaneous abortion (group Ⅰ and group Ⅱ ). By light microscopy and computer color magic image analysis system (CMIAS), light density (D) and the positive cell number per statistic square (N/S) in situ hybridization were used to analyze the positive cell index, while total positive cells (N) and the positive unit (Pu) were used in immunohistochemistry. By in situ hybridization, D and N/S in trophoblasts were 0. 35±0. 028, 0. 07±0. 011 respectively in group Ⅰ and 0. 18±0. 016,0. 015±0. 003 in group Ⅱ . In terms of immunohistochemical staining, N and Pu were 0. 058±±0. 007, 11. 94±2. 01 in group Ⅰ and 0. 013±0. 009, 1. 08±0. 35 in group Ⅱ in trophoblasts. Significant differences existed between two groups. It is concluded that the higher nitric oxide produced by the higher expression of iNOS in trophoblasts might play an important role in the early spontaneous abortion.

  18. Nitric oxide synthase during early embryonic development in silkworm Bombyx mori: Gene expression, enzyme activity, and tissue distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitta, Ryo; Kuwamoto, Marina; Yamahama, Yumi; Mase, Keisuke; Sawada, Hiroshi

    2016-12-01

    To elucidate the mechanism for embryonic diapause or the breakdown of diapause in Bombyx mori, we biochemically analyzed nitric oxide synthase (NOS) during the embryogenesis of B. mori. The gene expression and enzyme activity of B. mori NOS (BmNOS) were examined in diapause, non-diapause, and HCl-treated diapause eggs. In the case of HCl-treated diapause eggs, the gene expression and enzyme activity of BmNOS were induced by HCl treatment. However, in the case of diapause and non-diapause eggs during embryogenesis, changes in the BmNOS activity and gene expressions did not coincide except 48-60 h after oviposition in diapause eggs. The results imply that changes in BmNOS activity during the embryogenesis of diapause and non-diapause eggs are regulated not only at the level of transcription but also post-transcription. The distribution and localization of BmNOS were also investigated with an immunohistochemical technique using antibodies against the universal NOS; the localization of BmNOS was observed mainly in the cytoplasm of yolk cells in diapause eggs and HCl-treated diapause eggs. These data suggest that BmNOS has an important role in the early embryonic development of the B. mori. © 2016 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  19. Effects of Intracerebroventricularly (ICV) Injected Ghrelin on Cardiac Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity/Expression in Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudar Milovanovic, E; Jovanovic, A; Misirkic-Marjanovic, M; Vucicevic, Lj; Janjetovic, K; Isenovic, E R

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of ghrelin on regulation of cardiac inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity/expression in high fat (HF), obese rats.For this study, male Wistar rats fed with HF diet (30% fat) for 4 weeks were injected every 24 h for 5 days intracerebroventricularly (ICV) with ghrelin (0.3 nmol/5 µl) or with an equal volume of phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Control rats were ICV injected with an equal volume of PBS. Glucose, insulin and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations were measured in serum, while arginase activity and citrulline concentrations were measured in heart lysate. Protein iNOS and regulatory subunit of nuclear factor-κB (NFκB-p65), phosphorylation of enzymes protein kinase B (Akt) at Ser(473), and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) at Tyr(202)/Tyr(204) were determined in heart lysate by Western blot. For gene expression of iNOS qRT-PCR was used.Results show significantly (parginase activity (pactivity of cardiac iNOS via Akt phosphorylation followed by NFκB activation in HF rats. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. The Influence of Hyperoxia On Heat Shock Proteins Expression and Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity – the Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szyller Jakub

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Any stay in an environment with an increased oxygen content (a higher oxygen partial pressure, pO2 and an increased pressure (hyperbaric conditions leads to an intensification of oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species (ROS damage the molecules of proteins, nucleic acids, cause lipid oxidation and are engaged in the development of numerous diseases, including diseases of the circulatory system, neurodegenerative diseases, etc. There are certain mechanisms of protection against unfavourable effects of oxidative stress. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems belong to them. The latter include, among others, heat shock proteins (HSP. Their precise role and mechanism of action have been a subject of intensive research conducted in recent years. Hyperoxia and hyperbaria also have an effect on the expression and activity of nitrogen oxide synthase (NOS. Its product - nitrogen oxide (NO can react with reactive oxygen species and contribute to the development of nitrosative stress. NOS occurs as isoforms in various tissues and exhibit different reactions to the discussed factors. The authors have prepared a brief review of research determining the effect of hyperoxia and hyperbaria on HSP expression and NOS activity.

  1. ACCE/ACS National Educator and Leader of the Year Winners: AEC Congratulates These Outstanding Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Educational Computing, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the ACCE/ACS National Educator and Leader of the Year winners. Anne Mirtschin is the recipient of the ACCE/ACS 2012 Educator of the Year Award. Mirtschin is an innovative teacher at Hawkesdale P-12 College a small rural school that is isolated culturally and geographically. She uses online tools and technology to create…

  2. Benzalacetone Synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuro eAbe

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Benzalacetone synthase, from the medicinal plant Rheum palmatum (Polygonaceae (RpBAS, is a plant-specific chalcone synthase (CHS superfamily of type III polyketide synthase (PKS. RpBAS catalyzes the one-step, decarboxylative condensation of 4-coumaroyl-CoA with malonyl-CoA to produce the C6-C4 benzalacetone scaffold. The X-ray crystal structures of RpBAS confirmed that the diketide-forming activity is attributable to the characteristic substitution of the conserved active-site "gatekeeper" Phe with Leu. Furthermore, the crystal structures suggested that RpBAS employs novel catalytic machinery for the thioester bond cleavage of the enzyme-bound diketide intermediate and the final decarboxylation reaction to produce benzalacetone. Finally, by exploiting the remarkable substrate tolerance and catalytic versatility of RpBAS, precursor-directed biosynthesis efficiently generated chemically and structurally divergent, unnatural novel polyketide scaffolds. These findings provided a structural basis for the functional diversity of the type III PKS enzymes.

  3. The effects of deactivation and (re)activation of ACC on driver behaviour analyzed in real traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauwelussen, J.; Minderhoud, M.

    2008-01-01

    For the development of a micro-simulation model to estimate the effect of Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) systems on traffic safety, throughput and environment, data of a Field Operational Test (FOT) was analyzed in which vehicles were equipped with ACC and Lane Departure Warning (LDW) systems. The

  4. Molecular cloning and expression of heteromeric ACCase subunit genes from Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Keyu; Chiam, Huihui; Tian, Dongsheng; Yin, Zhongchao

    2011-04-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) catalyzes the biotin-dependent carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to produce malonyl-CoA, which is the essential first step in the biosynthesis of long-chain fatty acids. ACCase exists as a multi-subunit enzyme in most prokaryotes and the chloroplasts of most plants and algae, while it is present as a multi-domain enzyme in the endoplasmic reticulum of most eukaryotes. The heteromeric ACCase of higher plants consists of four subunits: an α-subunit of carboxyltransferase (α-CT, encoded by accA gene), a biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP, encoded by accB gene), a biotin carboxylase (BC, encoded by accC gene) and a β-subunit of carboxyltransferase (β-CT, encoded by accD gene). In this study, we cloned and characterized the genes accA, accB1, accC and accD that encode the subunits of heteromeric ACCase in Jatropha (Jatropha curcas), a potential biofuel plant. The full-length cDNAs of the four subunit genes were isolated from a Jatropha cDNA library and by using 5' RACE, whereas the genomic clones were obtained from a Jatropha BAC library. They encode a 771 amino acid (aa) α-CT, a 286-aa BCCP1, a 537-aa BC and a 494-aa β-CT, respectively. The single-copy accA, accB1 and accC genes are nuclear genes, while the accD gene is located in chloroplast genome. Jatropha α-CT, BCCP1, BC and β-CT show high identity to their homologues in other higher plants at amino acid level and contain all conserved domains for ACCase activity. The accA, accB1, accC and accD genes are temporally and spatially expressed in the leaves and endosperm of Jatropha plants, which are regulated by plant development and environmental factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Eukaryotic beta-alanine synthases are functionally related but have a high degree of structural diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gojkovic, Zoran; Sandrini, Michael; Piskur, Jure

    2001-01-01

    no pyrimidine catabolic pathway, it enabled growth on N-carbamyl- beta -alanine as the sole nitrogen source. The D. discoideum and D. melanogaster PYD3 gene products are similar to mammalian beta -alanine synthases. In contrast, the S. kluyveri protein is quite different from these and more similar to bacterial......beta -Alanine synthase (EC 3.5.1.6), which catalyzes the final step of pyrimidine catabolism, has only been characterized in mammals. A Saccharomyces kluyveri pyd3 mutant that is unable to grow on N-carbamy-beta -alanine as the sole nitrogen source and exhibits diminished beta -alanine synthase...... N- carbamyl amidohydrolases. All three beta -alanine synthases are to some degree related to various aspartate transcarbamylases, which catalyze the second step of the de novo pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway. PYD3 expression in yeast seems to be inducible by dihydrouracil and N...

  6. The chalcone synthase multigene family of Petunia hybrida (V30): differential, light-regulated expression during flower development and UV light induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koes, R.E.; Spelt, C.E.; Mol, J.N.M.

    1989-01-01

    We have analysed the expression of the 8-10 members of the gene family encoding the flavonoid biosynthetic enzyme chalcone synthase (CHS) from Petunia hybrida. During normal plant development only two members of the gene family (CHS-A and CHS-J) are expressed. Their expression is restricted to floral tissues mainly. About 90% of the total CHS mRNA pool is transcribed from CHS-A, wheares CHS-J delivers about 10% in flower corolla, tube and anthers. Expression of CHS-A and CHS-J during flower development is coordinated and (red) light-dependent. In young seedlings and cell suspension cultures expression of CHS-A and CHS-J can be induced with UV light. In addition to CHS-A and CHS-J, expression of another two CHS genes (CHS-B and CHS-G) is induced in young seedlings by UV light, albeit at a low level. In contrast to CHS genes from Leguminoseae, Petunia CHS genes are not inducible by phytopathogen-derived elicitors. Expression of CHS-A and CHS-J is reduced to a similar extent in a regulatory CHS mutant, Petunia hybrida Red Star, suggesting that both genes are regulated by the same trans-acting factors. Comparison of the promoter sequences of CHS-A and CHS-J reveals some striking homologies, which might represent cis-acting regulatory sequences. (author)

  7. An Analysis of OpenACC Programming Model: Image Processing Algorithms as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Mišić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Graphics processing units and similar accelerators have been intensively used in general purpose computations for several years. In the last decade, GPU architecture and organization changed dramatically to support an ever-increasing demand for computing power. Along with changes in hardware, novel programming models have been proposed, such as NVIDIA’s Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA and Open Computing Language (OpenCL by Khronos group. Although numerous commercial and scientific applications have been developed using these two models, they still impose a significant challenge for less experienced users. There are users from various scientific and engineering communities who would like to speed up their applications without the need to deeply understand a low-level programming model and underlying hardware. In 2011, OpenACC programming model was launched. Much like OpenMP for multicore processors, OpenACC is a high-level, directive-based programming model for manycore processors like GPUs. This paper presents an analysis of OpenACC programming model and its applicability in typical domains like image processing. Three, simple image processing algorithms have been implemented for execution on the GPU with OpenACC. The results were compared with their sequential counterparts, and results are briefly discussed.

  8. A Dual Repeat Cis-Element Determines Expression of GERANYL DIPHOSPHATE SYNTHASE for Monoterpene Production in Phalaenopsis Orchids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chen Chuang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Phalaenopsis bellina is a scented orchid emitting large amount of monoterpenes. GERANYL DIPHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (PbGDPS is the key enzyme for monoterpene biosynthesis, and shows concomitant expression with the emission of monoterpenes during flower development in P. bellina. Here, we identified a dual repeat cis-element in the GDPS promoter that is critical for monoterpene biosynthesis in Phalaenopsis orchids. A strong correlation between the dual repeat and the monoterpene production was revealed by examination of the GDPS promoter fragments over 12 Phalaenopsis species. Serial-deletion of the 2-kb GDPS promoter fragments demonstrated that the integrity of the dual repeat was crucial for its promoter activities. By screening the Arabidopsis transcription factors (TFs cDNA library using yeast one-hybrid assay, AtbZIP18, a member of group I of bZIP TFs, was identified to be able to bind the dual repeat. We then identified PbbZIP4 in the transcriptome of P. bellina, showing 83% identity in the DNA binding region with that of AtbZIP18, and the expression level of PbbZIP4 was higher in the scented orchids. In addition, PbbZIP4 transactivated the GDPS promoter fragment containing the dual repeat in dual luciferase assay. Furthermore, transient ectopic expression of PbbZIP4 induced a 10-fold production of monoterpenoids in the scentless orchid. In conclusion, these results indicate that the dual repeat is a real TF-bound cis-element significant for GDPS gene expression, and thus subsequent monoterpene biosynthesis in the scented Phalaenopsis orchids.

  9. High expression of Polycomb group protein EZH2 predicts poor survival in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vékony, H.; Raaphorst, F.M.; Otte, A.P.; van Lohuizen, M.; Leemans, C.R.; van der Waal, I.; Bloemena, E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The prognosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), a malignant salivary gland tumour, depends on clinicopathological parameters. To decipher the biological behaviour of ACC, and to identify patients at risk of developing metastases, additional markers are needed. Methods: Expression of the

  10. Angiotensin II-induced hypertension blunts thick ascending limb NO production by reducing NO synthase 3 expression and enhancing threonine 495 phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramseyer, Vanesa D; Gonzalez-Vicente, Agustin; Carretero, Oscar A; Garvin, Jeffrey L

    2015-01-15

    Thick ascending limbs reabsorb 30% of the filtered NaCl load. Nitric oxide (NO) produced by NO synthase 3 (NOS3) inhibits NaCl transport by this segment. In contrast, chronic angiotensin II (ANG II) infusion increases net thick ascending limb transport. NOS3 activity is regulated by changes in expression and phosphorylation at threonine 495 (T495) and serine 1177 (S1177), inhibitory and stimulatory sites, respectively. We hypothesized that NO production by thick ascending limbs is impaired by chronic ANG II infusion, due to reduced NOS3 expression, increased phosphorylation of T495, and decreased phosphorylation of S1177. Rats were infused with 200 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1) ANG II or vehicle for 1 and 5 days. ANG II infusion for 5 days decreased NOS3 expression by 40 ± 12% (P thick ascending limbs from ANG II-infused animals [ANG II -0.01 ± 0.06 arbitrary fluorescence units (AFU)/min vs. 0.17 ± 0.02 AFU/min in controls; P thick ascending limbs is impaired due to decreased NOS3 expression and altered phosphorylation. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 participates in the regulation of fatty acid synthase expression in colorectal neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J N; Mahmoud, M A; Han, W F; Ripple, M; Pizer, E S

    2000-11-25

    Endogenous fatty acid synthesis has been observed in certain rapidly proliferating normal and neoplastic tissues. Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are transcription factors that regulate the expression of lipogenic genes including fatty acid synthase (FAS), the major biosynthetic enzyme for fatty acid synthesis. We have previously shown that SREBP-1, FAS, and Ki-67, a proliferation marker, colocalized in the crypts of the fetal gastrointestinal tract epithelium. This study sought to determine whether SREBP-1 participates in the regulation of proliferation-associated fatty acid synthesis in colorectal neoplasia. An immunohistochemical analysis of SREBP-1, FAS, and Ki-67 expression in 25 primary human colorectal carcinoma specimens showed colocalization in 22 of these. To elucidate a functional linkage between SREBP-1 activation and proliferation-associated FA synthesis, SREBP-1 and FAS content were assayed during the adaptive response of cultured HCT116 colon carcinoma cells to pharmacological inhibition of FA synthesis. Cerulenin and TOFA each inhibited the endogenous synthesis of fatty acids in a dose-dependent manner and each induced increases in both precursor and mature forms of SREBP-1. Subsequently, both the transcriptional activity of the FAS promoter in a luciferase reporter gene construct and the FAS expression increased. These results demonstrate that tumor cells recognize and respond to a deficiency in endogenous fatty acid synthesis by upregulating both SREBP-1 and FAS expression and support the model that SREBP-1 participates in the transcriptional regulation of lipogenic genes in colorectal neoplasia. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  12. Glycogen Phosphorylase and Glycogen Synthase: Gene Cloning and Expression Analysis Reveal Their Role in Trehalose Metabolism in the Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stål (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Wang, Huijuan; Chen, Jianyi; Shen, Qida; Wang, Shigui; Xu, Hongxing; Tang, Bin

    2017-01-01

    RNA interference has been used to study insects' gene function and regulation. Glycogen synthase (GS) and glycogen phosphorylase (GP) are two key enzymes in carbohydrates' conversion in insects. Glycogen content and GP and GS gene expression in several tissues and developmental stages of the Brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens Stål (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) were analyzed in the present study, using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction to determine their response to double-stranded trehalases (dsTREs), trehalose-6-phosphate synthases (dsTPSs), and validamycin injection. The highest expression of both genes was detected in the wing bud, followed by leg and head tissues, and different expression patterns were shown across the developmental stages analyzed. Glycogen content significantly decreased 48 and 72 h after dsTPSs injection and 48 h after dsTREs injection. GP expression increased 48 h after dsTREs and dsTPSs injection and significantly decreased 72 h after dsTPSs, dsTRE1-1, and dsTRE1-2 injection. GS expression significantly decreased 48 h after dsTPS2 and dsTRE2 injection and 72 h after dsTRE1-1 and dsTRE1-2 injection. GP and GS expression and glycogen content significantly decreased 48 h after validamycin injection. The GP activity significantly decreased 48 h after validamycin injection, while GS activities of dsTPS1 and dsTRE2 injection groups were significantly higher than that of double-stranded GFP (dsGFP) 48 h after injection, respectively. Thus, glycogen is synthesized, released, and degraded across several insect tissues according to the need to maintain stable trehalose levels. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  13. Salinomycin enhances cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in human lung cancer cells via down-regulation of AKT-dependent thymidylate synthase expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jen-Chung; Zheng, Hao-Yu; Chen, Wen-Ching; Peng, Yi-Shuan; Wu, Chia-Hung; Wei, Chia-Li; Chen, Jyh-Cheng; Lin, Yun-Wei

    2016-12-15

    Salinomycin, a polyether antibiotic, acts as a highly selective potassium ionophore and has anticancer activity on various cancer cell lines. Cisplatin has been proved as chemotherapy drug for advanced human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Thymidylate synthase (TS) is a key enzyme in the pyrimidine salvage pathway, and increased expression of TS is thought to be associated with resistance to cisplatin. In this study, we showed that salinomycin (0.5-2μg/mL) treatment down-regulating of TS expression in an AKT inactivation manner in two NSCLC cell lines, human lung adenocarcinoma A549 and squamous cell carcinoma H1703 cells. Knockdown of TS using small interfering RNA (siRNA) or inhibiting AKT activity with PI3K inhibitor LY294002 enhanced the cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition of salinomycin. A combination of cisplatin and salinomycin resulted in synergistic enhancement of cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition in NSCLC cells, accompanied with reduced activation of phospho-AKT, and TS expression. Overexpression of a constitutive active AKT (AKT-CA) expression vector reversed the salinomycin and cisplatin-induced synergistic cytotoxicity. In contrast, pretreatment with LY294002 further decreased the cell viability in salinomycin and cisplatin cotreated cells. Our findings suggested that the down-regulation of AKT-mediated TS expression by salinomycin enhanced the cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in NSCLC cells. These results may provide a rationale to combine salinomycin with cisplatin for lung cancer treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The human ACC2 CT-domain C-terminus is required for full functionality and has a novel twist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madauss, Kevin P. [Department of Computational and Structural Chemistry, GlaxoSmithKline Inc., Five Moore Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Burkhart, William A.; Consler, Thomas G. [Department of Biochemical Reagents and Assay Development, GlaxoSmithKline Inc., Five Moore Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Cowan, David J. [Department of Chemistry in the Center for Excellence in Metabolic Pathways Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline Inc., Five Moore Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Gottschalk, William K. [Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy and Department of Medicine, Division of Neurology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Miller, Aaron B. [Department of Computational and Structural Chemistry, GlaxoSmithKline Inc., Five Moore Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Short, Steven A. [Department of Biochemical Reagents and Assay Development, GlaxoSmithKline Inc., Five Moore Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Tran, Thuy B. [Department of Physiology, UNC School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27515 (United States); Williams, Shawn P., E-mail: shawn.p.williams@gsk.com [Department of Computational and Structural Chemistry, GlaxoSmithKline Inc., Five Moore Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

    2009-05-01

    The use of biophysical assays permitted the identification of a specific human ACC2 carboxyl transferase (CT) domain mutant that binds inhibitors and crystallizes in their presence. This mutant led to determination of the human ACC2 CT domain–CP-640186 complex crystal structure, which revealed differences in the inhibitor conformation from the yeast protein complex that are caused by differing residues in the binding pocket. Inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) may prevent lipid-induced insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, making the enzyme an attractive pharmaceutical target. Although the enzyme is highly conserved amongst animals, only the yeast enzyme structure is available for rational drug design. The use of biophysical assays has permitted the identification of a specific C-terminal truncation of the 826-residue human ACC2 carboxyl transferase (CT) domain that is both functionally competent to bind inhibitors and crystallizes in their presence. This C-terminal truncation led to the determination of the human ACC2 CT domain–CP-640186 complex crystal structure, which revealed distinctions from the yeast-enzyme complex. The human ACC2 CT-domain C-terminus is comprised of three intertwined α-helices that extend outwards from the enzyme on the opposite side to the ligand-binding site. Differences in the observed inhibitor conformation between the yeast and human structures are caused by differing residues in the binding pocket.

  15. Isolation of MA-ACS Gene Family and Expression Study of MA-ACS1 Gene in Musa acuminata Cultivar Pisang Ambon Lumut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LISTYA UTAMI KARMAWAN

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Musa acuminata cultivar pisang ambon lumut is a native climacteric fruit from Indonesia. Climacteric fruit ripening process is triggered by the gaseous plant hormone ethylene. The rate limiting enzyme involved in ethylene biosynthesis is ACC synthase (ACS which is encoded by ACS gene family. The objective of this study is to identify MA-ACS gene family in M. acuminata cultivar pisang ambon lumut and to study the MA-ACS1 gene expression. The result showed that there were nine M. acuminata ACS gene family members called MA-ACS1–9. Two of them (MA-ACS1 and MA-ACS2 were assessed using reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR for gene expression study and it was only MA-ACS1 correlated with fruit ripening. The MA-ACS1 gene fragment has been successfully isolated and characterized and it has three introns, four exons, and one stop codon. It also shows highest homology with MACS1 gene from M. acuminata cultivar Hsian Jien Chiao (GenBank accession number AF056164. Expression analysis of MA-ACS1 using quantitative PCR (qPCR showed that MA-ACS1 gene expression increased significantly in the third day, reached maximum at the fifth day, and then decreased in the seventh day after harvesting. The qPCR expression analysis result correlated with the result of physical analysis during fruit ripening.

  16. Identification and characterization of two bisabolene synthases from linear glandular trichomes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Kwon, Moonhyuk; Conrad, Jürgen; Ro, Dae-Kyun; Spring, Otmar

    2016-04-01

    Sunflower is known to produce a variety of bisabolene-type sesquiterpenes and accumulates these substances in trichomes of leaves, stems and flowering parts. A bioinformatics approach was used to identify the enzyme responsible for the initial step in the biosynthesis of these compounds from its precursor farnesyl pyrophosphate. Based on sequence similarity with a known bisabolene synthases from Arabidopsis thaliana AtTPS12, candidate genes of Helianthus were searched in EST-database and used to design specific primers. PCR experiments identified two candidates in the RNA pool of linear glandular trichomes of sunflower. Their sequences contained the typical motifs of sesquiterpene synthases and their expression in yeast functionally characterized them as bisabolene synthases. Spectroscopic analysis identified the stereochemistry of the product of both enzymes as (Z)-γ-bisabolene. The origin of the two sunflower bisabolene synthase genes from the transcripts of linear trichomes indicates that they may be involved in the synthesis of sesquiterpenes produced in these trichomes. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of the sunflower bisabolene synthases showed high similarity with sesquiterpene synthases from other Asteracean species and indicated putative evolutionary origin from a β-farnesene synthase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhanced insulin signaling in human skeletal muscle and adipose tissue following gastric bypass surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albers, Peter Hjorth; Bojsen-Moller, Kirstine N; Dirksen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) leads to increased peripheral insulin sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of RYGB on expression and regulation of proteins involved in regulation of peripheral glucose metabolism. Skeletal muscle and adipose tissue biopsies from glucose...... tolerant and type 2 diabetic subjects at fasting and during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp before as well as 1 week, 3 and 12 months after RYGB were analyzed for relevant insulin effector proteins/signaling components. Improvement in peripheral insulin sensitivity mainly occurred at 12 months post-surgery...... and glycogen synthase activity were enhanced 12 months post-surgery. In adipose tissue, protein expression of GLUT4, Akt2, TBC1D4 and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), phosphorylated levels of AMP-activated protein kinase and ACC as well as insulin-induced changes in phosphorylation of Akt and TBC1D4 were enhanced...

  18. Cloning expression and analysis of phytochelatin synthase (pcs) gene from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 offering multiple stress tolerance in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaurasia, Neha; Mishra, Yogesh; Rai, Lal Chand

    2008-01-01

    Phytochelatin synthase (PCS) is involved in the synthesis of phytochelatins (PCs), plays role in heavy metal detoxification. The present study describes for first time the functional expression and characterization of pcs gene of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 in Escherichia coli in terms of offering protection against heat, salt, carbofuron (pesticide), cadmium, copper, and UV-B stress. The involvement of pcs gene in tolerance to above abiotic stresses was investigated by cloning of pcs gene in expression vector pGEX-5X-2 and its transformation in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The E. coli cells transformed with pGEX-5X-pcs showed better growth than control cells (pGEX-5X-2) under temperature (47 deg. C), NaCl (6% w/v), carbofuron (0.025 mg ml -1 ), CdCl 2 (4 mM), CuCl 2 (1 mM), and UV-B (10 min) exposure. The enhanced expression of pcs gene revealed by RT-PCR analysis under above stresses at different time intervals further advocates its role in tolerance against above abiotic stresses

  19. ACC/AHA guidelines superior to ESC/EAS guidelines for primary prevention with statins in non-diabetic Europeans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Martin Bødtker; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Afzal, Shoaib

    2017-01-01

    Aim We compared the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) and the 2016 European Society of Cardiology/European Atherosclerosis Society (ESC/EAS) guidelines on prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) using different risk prediction models [US......-calibrated around decision thresholds for statin therapy. For a Class I recommendation, 42% of individuals qualified for statins using the ACC/AHA guidelines vs. 6% with the ESC/EAS guidelines. Using ACC/AHA- vs. ESC/EAS-defined statin eligibility led to a substantial gain in sensitivity (+62% for any ASCVD and+76......% for fatal ASCVD) with a smaller loss in specificity (-35% for any ASCVD and -36% for fatal ASCVD). Similar differences between the ACC/AHA and ESC/EAS guidelines were found for men and women separately, and for Class IIa recommendations. The sensitivity and specificity of a US-PCE risk of 5% were similar...

  20. Establishing the solubility and local structure(s) of Amorphous Calcium Carbonate (ACC): Toward an understanding of invertebrate biomineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergelsberg, S. T.; Ulrich, R. N.; Michel, F. M.; Dove, P. M.

    2017-12-01

    Recent advances in high-resolution imaging show the widespreadd occurrence of multistep pathways to mineralization in biological and geological settings (De Yoreo et al., 2015, Science). For example, carbonate biomineralization often involves precipitation of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) as a reactive intermediate that subsequently transforms to crystalline products with diverse structures. Although current carbonate mineral proxies are based upon the composition of final crystalline products, the final signatures may be recording the properties of the initial amorphous phase. Thus, it is critical to establish the physical properties of ACC and understand the factors that influence its evolution to final products at conditions that approximate biological environments. This disconnect limits our ability to build a process-based understanding of when/how minor and trace elements are recorded in mineral composition proxies. In this experimental study, we quantified the chemical and physical properties of ACC and its evolution to final products. We first determined ACC solubility under controlled chemical conditions using a new type of flow-through reactor developed by our research group (Blue and Dove, 2015, GCA; Blue et al., 2017, GCA). The experimental design varied Mg concentration and total alkalinity while maintaining a mild pH that approximates biological environments. ACC solubility was measured at specific time points during the precipitation (from super- and undersaturated conditions) and during its subsequent evolution. Parallel experiments characterized the structure of the corresponding amorphous products using in situ pair distribution function (PDF) and small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) analyses. The measurements demonstrate at least two types of ACC can be produced by tuning Mg concentration and alkalinity. Each "phase" exhibits distinct short-range ordering that demonstrates structure-specific solubility. We also find temporal changes in the

  1. Isolation and Characterization of Three New Monoterpene Synthases from Artemisia annua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Ju-Xin; Li, Jian-Xu; Fang, Xin; Wang, Ling-Jian; Hu, Wen-Li; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Yang, Chang-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia annua, an annual herb used in traditional Chinese medicine, produces a wealth of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, including the well-known sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin, an active ingredient in the treatment for malaria. Here we report three new monoterpene synthases of A. annua. From a glandular trichome cDNA library, monoterpene synthases of AaTPS2, AaTPS5, and AaTPS6, were isolated and characterized. The recombinant proteins of AaTPS5 and AaTPS6 produced multiple products with camphene and 1,8-cineole as major products, respectively, and AaTPS2 produced a single product, β-myrcene. Although both Mg2+ and Mn2+ were able to support their catalytic activities, altered product spectrum was observed in the presence of Mn2+ for AaTPS2 and AaTPS5. Analysis of extracts of aerial tissues and root of A. annua with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry detected more than 20 monoterpenes, of which the three enzymes constituted more than 1/3 of the total. Mechanical wounding induced the expression of all three monoterpene synthase genes, and transcript levels of AaTPS5 and AaTPS6 were also elevated after treatments with phytohormones of methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, and gibberellin, suggesting a role of these monoterpene synthases in plant–environment interactions. The three new monoterpene synthases reported here further our understanding of molecular basis of monoterpene biosynthesis and regulation in plant. PMID:27242840

  2. Isolation and characterization of three new monoterpene synthases from Artemisia annua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Xin eRuan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua, an annual herb used in traditional Chinese medicine, produces a wealth of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, including the well-known sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin, an active ingredient in the treatment for malaria. Here we report three new monoterpene synthases of A. annua. From a glandular trichome cDNA library, monoterpene synthases of AaTPS2, AaTPS5 and AaTPS6, were isolated and characterized. The recombinant proteins of AaTPS5 and AaTPS6 produced multiple products with camphene and 1,8-cineole as major products, respectively, and AaTPS2 produced a single product, β-myrcene. Although both Mg2+ and Mn2+ were able to support their catalytic activities, altered product spectrum was observed in the presence of Mn2+ for AaTPS2 and AaTPS5. Analysis of extracts of aerial tissues and root of A. annua with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS detected more than 20 monoterpenes, of which the three enzymes constituted more than 1/3 of the total. Mechanical wounding induced the expression of all three monoterpene synthase genes, and transcript levels of AaTPS5 and AaTPS6 were also elevated after treatments with phytohormones of methyl jasmonate (MeJA, salicylic acid (SA and gibberellin (GA, suggesting a role of these monoterpene synthases in plant-environment interactions. The three new monoterpene synthases reported here further our understanding of molecular basis of monoterpene biosynthesis and regulation in plant.

  3. Thymidilate synthase and p53 primary tumour expression as predictive factors for advanced colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, A; Simone, G; Petroni, S; Leone, B; Vallejo, C; Lacava, J; Romero, A; Machiavelli, M; De Lena, M; Allegra, C J; Johnston, P G

    2000-02-01

    The purpose of this work was to analyse the ability of p53 and thymidilate synthase (TS) primary tumour expression to retrospectively predict clinical response to chemotherapy and long-term prognosis in patients with advanced colorectal cancers homogeneously treated by methotrexate (MTX)-modulated-5-fluorouracil (5-FU-FA). A total of 108 advanced colorectal cancer patients entered the present retrospective study. Immunohistochemical p53 (pAb 1801 mAb) and TS (TS106 mAb) expression on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary tumour specimens was related to probability of clinical response to chemotherapy, time to progression and overall survival. p53 was expressed in 53/108 (49%) tumours, while 54/108 (50%) showed TS immunostaining. No relationship was demonstrated between p53 positivity and clinical response to chemotherapy (objective response (OR): 20% vs 23%, in p53+ and p53- cases respectively) or overall survival. Percent of OR was significantly higher in TS-negative with respect to TS-positive tumours (30% vs 15% respectively; P < 0.04); simultaneous analysis of TS and p53 indicated 7% OR for p53-positive/TS-positive tumours vs 46% for p53-positive/TS-negative tumours (P < 0.03). Logistic regression analysis confirmed a significant association between TS tumour status and clinical response to chemotherapy (hazard ratio (HR): 2.91; 95% confidence interval (CI) 8.34-1.01; two-sided P < 0.05). A multivariate analysis of overall survival showed that only a small number of metastatic sites was statistically relevant (HR 1.89; 95% CI 2.85-1.26; two-sided P < 0.03). Our study suggests that immunohistochemical expression of p53 and TS could assist the clinician in predicting response of colorectal cancer patients to modulated MTX-5-FU therapy.

  4. Constant Width Planar Computation Characterizes ACC0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K.A.

    2004-01-01

    We obtain a characterization of ACC 0 in terms of a natural class of constant width circuits, namely in terms of constant width polynomial size planar circuits. This is shown via a characterization of the class of acyclic digraphs which can be embedded on a cylinder surface in such a way that all...

  5. Glycogen synthase kinase 3: more than a namesake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayasam, Geetha Vani; Tulasi, Vamshi Krishna; Sodhi, Reena; Davis, Joseph Alex; Ray, Abhijit

    2009-03-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), a constitutively acting multi-functional serine threonine kinase is involved in diverse physiological pathways ranging from metabolism, cell cycle, gene expression, development and oncogenesis to neuroprotection. These diverse multiple functions attributed to GSK3 can be explained by variety of substrates like glycogen synthase, tau protein and beta catenin that are phosphorylated leading to their inactivation. GSK3 has been implicated in various diseases such as diabetes, inflammation, cancer, Alzheimer's and bipolar disorder. GSK3 negatively regulates insulin-mediated glycogen synthesis and glucose homeostasis, and increased expression and activity of GSK3 has been reported in type II diabetics and obese animal models. Consequently, inhibitors of GSK3 have been demonstrated to have anti-diabetic effects in vitro and in animal models. However, inhibition of GSK3 poses a challenge as achieving selectivity of an over achieving kinase involved in various pathways with multiple substrates may lead to side effects and toxicity. The primary concern is developing inhibitors of GSK3 that are anti-diabetic but do not lead to up-regulation of oncogenes. The focus of this review is the recent advances and the challenges surrounding GSK3 as an anti-diabetic therapeutic target.

  6. c-Kit Expression is Rate-Limiting for Stem Cell Factor-Mediated Disease Progression in Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Salivary Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janyaporn Phuchareon

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC is an aggressive malignant neoplasm of the salivary glands in which c-Kit is overexpressed and activated, although the mechanism for this is as yet unclear. We analyzed 27 sporadic ACC tumor specimens to examine the biologic and clinical significance of c-Kit activation. Mutational analysis revealed expression of wild-type c-Kit in all, eliminating gene mutation as a cause of activation. Because stem cell factor (SCF is c-Kit's sole ligand, we analyzed its expression in the tumor cells and their environment. Immunohistochemistry revealed its presence in c-Kit–positive tumor cells, suggesting an activation of autocrine signaling. We observed a significant induction of ERK1/2 in the cells. SCF staining was also found in other types of non-cancerous cells adjacent to tumors within salivary glands, including stromal fibroblasts, neutrophils, peripheral nerve, skeletal muscle, vascular endothelial cells, mucous acinar cells, and intercalated ducts. Quantitative PCR showed that the top quartile of c-Kit mRNA expression distinguished ACCs from normal salivary tissues and was cross-correlated with short-term poor prognosis. Expression levels of SCF and c-Kit were highly correlated in the cases with perineural invasion. These observations suggest that c-Kit is potentially activated by receptor dimerization upon stimulation by SCF in ACC, and that the highest quartile of c-Kit mRNA expression could be a predictor of poor prognosis. Our findings may support an avenue for c-Kit-targeted therapy to improve disease control in ACC patients harboring the top quartile of c-Kit mRNA expression.

  7. In Vivo Roles of Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Enzymes in Biosynthesis of Biotin and α-Lipoic Acid in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Masato; Nagashima, Takashi; Nakamura, Eri; Kato, Ryosuke; Ohshita, Masakazu; Hayashi, Mikiro; Takeno, Seiki

    2017-10-01

    For fatty acid biosynthesis, Corynebacterium glutamicum uses two type I fatty acid synthases (FAS-I), FasA and FasB, in addition to acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase (ACC) consisting of AccBC, AccD1, and AccE. The in vivo roles of the enzymes in supplying precursors for biotin and α-lipoic acid remain unclear. Here, we report genetic evidence demonstrating that the biosynthesis of these cofactors is linked to fatty acid biosynthesis through the FAS-I pathway. For this study, we used wild-type C. glutamicum and its derived biotin vitamer producer BFI-5, which was engineered to express Escherichia coli bioBF and Bacillus subtilis bioI Disruption of either fasA or fasB in strain BFI-5 led to decreased production of biotin vitamers, whereas its amplification contributed to increased production, with a larger impact of fasA in both cases. Double disruptions of fasA and fasB resulted in no biotin vitamer production. The acc genes showed a positive effect on production when amplified simultaneously. Augmented fatty acid biosynthesis was also reflected in pimelic acid production when carbon flow was blocked at the BioF reaction. These results indicate that carbon flow down the FAS-I pathway is destined for channeling into the biotin biosynthesis pathway, and that FasA in particular has a significant impact on precursor supply. In contrast, fasB disruption resulted in auxotrophy for lipoic acid or its precursor octanoic acid in both wild-type and BFI-5 strains. The phenotypes were fully complemented by plasmid-mediated expression of fasB but not fasA These results reveal that FasB plays a specific physiological role in lipoic acid biosynthesis in C. glutamicum IMPORTANCE For the de novo biosynthesis of fatty acids, C. glutamicum exceptionally uses a eukaryotic multifunctional type I fatty acid synthase (FAS-I) system comprising FasA and FasB, in contrast to most bacteria, such as E. coli and B. subtilis , which use an individual nonaggregating type II fatty acid synthase

  8. Differential regulation of glomerular and interstitial endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression in the kidney of hibernating ground squirrel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandovici, Maria; Henning, Robert H; Hut, Roelof A; Strijkstra, Arjen M; Epema, Anne H; van Goor, Harry; Deelman, Leo E

    2004-09-01

    Hibernating animals transiently reduce renal function during their hypothermic periods (torpor), while completely restoring it during their periodical rewarming to euthermia (arousal). Moreover, structural integrity of the kidney is preserved throughout the hibernation. Nitric oxide (NO) generated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is a crucial vasodilatory mediator and a protective factor in the kidney. We investigated renal NOS expression in hibernating European ground squirrels after 1 day and 7 days of torpor (torpor short, TS, and torpor long, TL, respectively), at 1.5 and at 10 h of rewarming (arousal short, AS, and arousal long, AL, respectively), and in continuously euthermic animals after hibernation (EU). For that purpose, we performed NOS activity assay, immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR analysis. Immunohistochemistry revealed a decreased glomerular eNOS expression in hibernating animals (TS, TL, AS, and AL) compared to non-hibernating animals (EU, p EU. In all methods used, torpid and aroused squirrels did not differ. These results demonstrate differential regulation of eNOS in glomeruli and interstitium of hibernating animals, which is unaffected during arousal. The differential regulation of eNOS may serve to reduce ultrafiltration without jeopardizing tubular structures during hibernation.

  9. Report of the Annual Scientific Session of the American College of Cardiology (ACC) 2018, Orlando.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takuya; Ako, Junya

    2018-04-28

    The 67 th Annual Scientific Session and Expo of the American College of Cardiology (ACC) were held at the Orange County Convention Center, Orlando, from March 10-12, 2018. This meeting offered 2,700 accepted abstracts presented in oral and poster sessions by 2,100 experts and 37 Late-Breaking Clinical Trials and Featured Clinical Research presentations. This report introduces the key presentations and highlights from the ACC 2018 Scientific Session.

  10. cDNA cloning and expression analyses of phytoene synthase 1, phytoene desaturase and ζ-carotene desaturase genes from Solanum lycopersicum KKU-T34003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krittaya Supathaweewat

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We report on the cloning of Psy1, Pds and Zds cDNAs encoding the enzymes responsible for lycopene biosynthesis,namely phytoene synthase 1 (PSY1, phytoene desaturase (PDS and -carotene desaturase (ZDS, respectively, from high-lycopene tomato cultivar, Solanum lycopersicum KKU-T34003. DNA sequence analyses showed that the complete openreading frames of Psy1, Pds and Zds cDNAs were 1,239, 1,752 and 1,767 base pairs in length and encoded proteins of 412,583 and 588 amino acids, respectively. Phylogenetic and the conserved domain analyses suggest that PSY1, PDS and ZDSfrom S. lycopersicum KKU-T34003 potentially have similar structures and biological functions to the corresponding proteinsfrom other plants. Gene expression studies showed that Psy1 was expressed only in the petal and the breaker fruit, whereasthe expressions of Pds and Zds were observed in the petal, the breaker fruit and the leaf. The highest expression level for allgenes was detected in the breaker-stage fruit, suggesting that carotenoid accumulation was developmentally regulated inthe chromoplast-containing tissues.

  11. GNC and CGA1 Modulate Chlorophyll Biosynthesis and Glutamate Synthase (GLU1/Fd-GOGAT) Expression in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Darryl; Guevara, David; Yaish, Mahmoud W.; Hannam, Carol; Long, Nykoll; Clarke, Joseph D.; Bi, Yong-Mei; Rothstein, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Chloroplast development is an important determinant of plant productivity and is controlled by environmental factors including amounts of light and nitrogen as well as internal phytohormones including cytokinins and gibberellins (GA). The paralog GATA transcription factors GNC and CGA1/GNL up-regulated by light, nitrogen and cytokinin while also being repressed by GA signaling. Modifying the expression of these genes has previously been shown to influence chlorophyll content in Arabidopsis while also altering aspects of germination, elongation growth and flowering time. In this work, we also use transgenic lines to demonstrate that GNC and CGA1 exhibit a partially redundant control over chlorophyll biosynthesis. We provide novel evidence that GNC and CGA1 influence both chloroplast number and leaf starch in proportion to their transcript level. GNC and CGA1 were found to modify the expression of chloroplast localized GLUTAMATE SYNTHASE (GLU1/Fd-GOGAT), which is the primary factor controlling nitrogen assimilation in green tissue. Altering GNC and CGA1 expression was also found to modulate the expression of important chlorophyll biosynthesis genes (GUN4, HEMA1, PORB, and PORC). As previously demonstrated, the CGA1 transgenic plants demonstrated significantly altered timing to a number of developmental events including germination, leaf production, flowering time and senescence. In contrast, the GNC transgenic lines we analyzed maintain relatively normal growth phenotypes outside of differences in chloroplast development. Despite some evidence for partial divergence, results indicate that regulation of both GNC and CGA1 by light, nitrogen, cytokinin, and GA acts to modulate nitrogen assimilation, chloroplast development and starch production. Understanding the mechanisms controlling these processes is important for agricultural biotechnology. PMID:22102866

  12. Mechanisms of suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in RAW 264.7 cells by andrographolide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Wen-Fei; Chen, Chieh-Fu; Lin, Jin-Jung

    2000-01-01

    Andrographolide, an active component found in leaves of Andrographis paniculata, has been reported to exhibit nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory property in endotoxin-stimulated macrophages, however, the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study we investigated the effect of andrographolide on the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity in RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus interferon-γ (IFN-γ).RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with LPS/IFN-γ activated NO production; in this condition andrographolide (1–100 μM) inhibited NO production in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 17.4±1.1 μM. Andrographolide also reduces the expression of iNOS protein level but without a significant effect on iNOS mRNA. The reduction of iNOS activity is thought to be caused by decreased expression of iNOS protein.In a protein stability assay, andrographolide moderately but significantly reduced the amount of iNOS protein as suggested by accelerating degradation. Furthermore, andrographolide also inhibited total protein de novo synthesis as demonstrated by [35S]-methionine incorporation.As a whole, these data suggest that andrographolide inhibits NO synthesis in RAW 264.7 cells by reducing the expression of iNOS protein and the reduction could occur through two additional mechanisms: prevention of the de novo protein synthesis and decreasing the protein stability via a post-transcriptional mechanism. It is also possible that inhibition of iNOS protein expression and NO production under immune stimulation and/or bacteria infection may explain, in part, the beneficial effects of andrographolide as an anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:10780958

  13. The kinetics and mechanisms of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) crystallization to calcite, via vaterite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Blanco, Juan Diego; Shaw, Samuel; Benning, Liane G

    2011-01-01

    The kinetics and mechanisms of nanoparticulate amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) crystallization to calcite, via vaterite, were studied at a range of environmentally relevant temperatures (7.5-25 °C) using synchrotron-based in situ time-resolved Energy Dispersive X-ray Diffraction (ED-XRD) in conjunction with high-resolution electron microscopy, ex situ X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. The crystallization process occurs in two stages; firstly, the particles of ACC rapidly dehydrate and crystallize to form individual particles of vaterite; secondly, the vaterite transforms to calcite via a dissolution and reprecipitation mechanism with the reaction rate controlled by the surface area of calcite. The second stage of the reaction is approximately 10 times slower than the first. Activation energies of calcite nucleation and crystallization are 73±10 and 66±2 kJ mol(-1), respectively. A model to calculate the degree of calcite crystallization from ACC at environmentally relevant temperatures (7.5-40 °C) is also presented.

  14. Soybean seeds expressing feedback-insensitive cystathionine γ-synthase exhibit a higher content of methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shikui; Hou, Wensheng; Godo, Itamar; Wu, Cunxiang; Yu, Yang; Matityahu, Ifat; Hacham, Yael; Sun, Shi; Han, Tianfu; Amir, Rachel

    2013-04-01

    Soybean seeds provide an excellent source of protein for human and livestock nutrition. However, their nutritional quality is hampered by a low concentration of the essential sulfur amino acid, methionine (Met). In order to study factors that regulate Met synthesis in soybean seeds, this study used the Met-insensitive form of Arabidopsis cystathionine γ-synthase (AtD-CGS), which is the first committed enzyme of Met biosynthesis. This gene was expressed under the control of a seed-specific promoter, legumin B4, and used to transform the soybean cultivar Zigongdongdou (ZD). In three transgenic lines that exhibited the highest expression level of AtD-CGS, the level of soluble Met increased significantly in developing green seeds (3.8-7-fold). These seeds also showed high levels of other amino acids. This phenomenon was more prominent in two transgenic lines, ZD24 and ZD91. The total Met content, which including Met incorporated into proteins, significantly increased in the mature dry seeds of these two transgenic lines by 1.8- and 2.3-fold, respectively. This elevation was accompanied by a higher content of other protein-incorporated amino acids, which led to significantly higher total protein content in the seeds of these two lines. However, in a third transgenic line, ZD01, the level of total Met and the level of other amino acids did not increase significantly in the mature dry seeds. This line also showed no significant change in protein levels. This suggests a positive connection between high Met content and the synthesis of other amino acids that enable the synthesis of more seed proteins.

  15. Selective Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitor Reversed Zinc Chloride-Induced Spatial Memory Impairment via Increasing Cholinergic Marker Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizian, Kaveh; Azami, Kian; Belaran, Maryam; Soodi, Maliheh; Abdi, Khosrou; Fanoudi, Sahar; Sanati, Mehdi; Mottaghi Dastjerdi, Negar; Soltany Rezaee-Rad, Mohammad; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad

    2016-10-01

    Zinc, an essential micronutrient and biochemical element of the human body, plays structural, catalytic, and regulatory roles in numerous physiological functions. In the current study, the effects of a pretraining oral administration of zinc chloride (10, 25, and 50 mg/kg) for 14 consecutive days and post-training bilateral intra-hippocampal infusion of 1400W as a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor (10, 50, and 100 μM/side), alone and in combination, on the spatial memory retention in Morris water maze (MWM) were investigated. Animals were trained for 4 days and tested 48 h after completion of training. Also, the molecular effects of these compounds on the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), as a cholinergic marker in the CA1 region of the hippocampus and medial septal area (MSA), were evaluated. Behavioral and molecular findings of this study showed that a 2-week oral administration of zinc chloride (50 mg/kg) impaired spatial memory retention in MWM and decreased ChAT expression. Immunohistochemical analysis of post-training bilateral intra-hippocampal infusion of 1400W revealed a significant increase in ChAT immunoreactivity. Furthermore, post-training bilateral intra-hippocampal infusion of 1400W into the CA1 region of the hippocampus reversed zinc chloride-induced spatial memory impairment in MWM and significantly increased ChAT expression in comparison with zinc chloride-treated animals. Taken together, these results emphasize the role of selective iNOS inhibitors in reversing zinc chloride-induced spatial memory deficits via modulation of cholinergic marker expression.

  16. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of mannosyl-3-phosphoglycerate synthase from Rubrobacter xylanophilus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sá-Moura, Bebiana; Albuquerque, Luciana; Empadinhas, Nuno; Costa, Milton S. da; Pereira, Pedro José Barbosa; Macedo-Ribeiro, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    The enzyme mannosyl-3-phosphoglycerate synthase from R. xylanophilus has been expressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals belong to the hexagonal space group P6 5 22 and diffract to 2.2 Å resolution. Rubrobacter xylanophilus is the only Gram-positive bacterium known to synthesize the compatible solute mannosylglycerate (MG), which is commonly found in hyperthermophilic archaea and some thermophilic bacteria. Unlike the salt-dependent pattern of accumulation observed in (hyper)thermophiles, in R. xylanophilus MG accumulates constitutively. The synthesis of MG in R. xylanophilus was tracked from GDP-mannose and 3-phosphoglycerate, but the genome sequence of the organism failed to reveal any of the genes known to be involved in this pathway. The native enzyme was purified and its N-terminal sequence was used to identify the corresponding gene (mpgS) in the genome of R. xylanophilus. The gene encodes a highly divergent mannosyl-3-phosphoglycerate synthase (MpgS) without relevant sequence homology to known mannosylphosphoglycerate synthases. In order to understand the specificity and enzymatic mechanism of this novel enzyme, it was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. The crystals thus obtained belonged to the hexagonal space group P6 5 22 and contained two protein molecules per asymmetric unit. The structure was solved by SIRAS using a mercury derivative

  17. Characterization of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate (ACC) Deaminase-Containing Pseudomonas spp. in the Rhizosphere of Salt-Stressed Canola

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akhgar, A.; Arzanlou, M.; Bakker, Peter; Hamidpour, M.

    2014-01-01

    When exposed to biotic or abiotic stress conditions, plants produce ethylene from its immediate precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1- carboxylate (ACC), leading to retarded root growth and senescence. Many plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria contain the enzyme ACC deaminase and this enzyme can cleave

  18. CYP2W1 is highly expressed in adrenal glands and is positively associated with the response to mitotane in adrenocortical carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina L Ronchi

    Full Text Available Adrenocortical tumors comprise frequent adenomas (ACA and rare carcinomas (ACC. Human cytochrome P450 2W1 (CYP2W1 is highly expressed in some cancers holding the potential to activate certain drugs into tumor cytotoxins.To investigate the CYP2W1 expression in adrenal samples and its relationship with clinical outcome in ACC.CYP2W1 expression was investigated by qRT-PCR in 13 normal adrenal glands, 32 ACA, 25 ACC, and 9 different non-adrenal normal tissue samples and by immunohistochemistry in 352 specimens (23 normal adrenal glands, 33 ACA, 239 ACC, 67 non-adrenal normal or neoplastic samples.CYP2W1 mRNA expression was absent/low in normal non-adrenal tissues, but high in normal and neoplastic adrenal glands (all P<0.01 vs non-adrenal normal tissues. Accordingly, CYP2W1 immunoreactivity was absent/low (H-score 0-1 in 72% of non-adrenal normal tissues, but high (H-score 2-3 in 44% of non-adrenal cancers, in 65% of normal adrenal glands, in 62% of ACAs and in 50% of ACCs (all P<0.001 vs non-adrenal normal tissues, being significantly increased in steroid-secreting compared to non-secreting tumors. In ACC patients treated with mitotane only, high CYP2W1 immunoreactivity adjusted for ENSAT stage was associated with longer overall survival and time to progression (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively, and with a better response to therapy both as palliative (response/stable disease in 42% vs 6%, P<0.01 or adjuvant option (absence of disease recurrence in 69% vs 45%, P<0.01.CYP2W1 is highly expressed in both normal and neoplastic adrenal glands making it a promising tool for targeted therapy in ACC. Furthermore, CYP2W1 may represent a new predictive marker for the response to mitotane treatment.

  19. Chitinase-like (CTL) and cellulose synthase (CESA) gene expression in gelatinous-type cellulosic walls of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) bast fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokshina, Natalia; Gorshkova, Tatyana; Deyholos, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    Plant chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14) and chitinase-like (CTL) proteins have diverse functions including cell wall biosynthesis and disease resistance. We analyzed the expression of 34 chitinase and chitinase-like genes of flax (collectively referred to as LusCTLs), belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 19 (GH19). Analysis of the transcript expression patterns of LusCTLs in the stem and other tissues identified three transcripts (LusCTL19, LusCTL20, LusCTL21) that were highly enriched in developing bast fibers, which form cellulose-rich gelatinous-type cell walls. The same three genes had low relative expression in tissues with primary cell walls and in xylem, which forms a xylan type of secondary cell wall. Phylogenetic analysis of the LusCTLs identified a flax-specific sub-group that was not represented in any of other genomes queried. To provide further context for the gene expression analysis, we also conducted phylogenetic and expression analysis of the cellulose synthase (CESA) family genes of flax, and found that expression of secondary wall-type LusCESAs (LusCESA4, LusCESA7 and LusCESA8) was correlated with the expression of two LusCTLs (LusCTL1, LusCTL2) that were the most highly enriched in xylem. The expression of LusCTL19, LusCTL20, and LusCTL21 was not correlated with that of any CESA subgroup. These results defined a distinct type of CTLs that may have novel functions specific to the development of the gelatinous (G-type) cellulosic walls.

  20. Crocin Suppresses LPS-Stimulated Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase by Upregulation of Heme Oxygenase-1 via Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hee Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crocin is a water-soluble carotenoid pigment that is primarily used in various cuisines as a seasoning and coloring agent, as well as in traditional medicines for the treatment of edema, fever, and hepatic disorder. In this study, we demonstrated that crocin markedly induces the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 which leads to an anti-inflammatory response. Crocin inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression and nitric oxide production via downregulation of nuclear factor kappa B activity in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. These effects were abrogated by blocking of HO-1 expression or activity. Crocin also induced Ca2+ mobilization from intracellular pools and phosphorylation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 4 (CAMK4. CAMK4 knockdown and kinase-dead mutant inhibited crocin-mediated HO-1 expression, Nrf2 activation, and phosphorylation of Akt, indicating that HO-1 expression is mediated by CAMK4 and that Akt is a downstream mediator of CAMK4 in crocin signaling. Moreover, crocin-mediated suppression of iNOS expression was blocked by CAMK4 inhibition. Overall, these results suggest that crocin suppresses LPS-stimulated expression of iNOS by inducing HO-1 expression via Ca2+/calmodulin-CAMK4-PI3K/Akt-Nrf2 signaling cascades. Our findings provide a novel molecular mechanism for the inhibitory effects of crocin against endotoxin-mediated inflammation.

  1. Ervaringen met Advanced Cruise Control (ACC) in een korte praktijkproef.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, H.-l.

    2003-01-01

    Experiences with Advanced Cruise Control in traffic; a limited experiment. Advanced Cruise Control (ACC) is an ordinary cruise control in which the desired speed is installed manually, but in which the headway time to the vehicle in front is also taken into account. If the headway time becomes less

  2. Health Literacy: Readability of ACC/AHA Online Patient Education Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Karan; George, Praveen; Evans, Matthew C; Miller, Weldon J; Liu, Stanley S

    To determine whether the online patient education material offered by the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and the American Heart Association (AHA) is written at a higher level than the 6th-7th grade level recommended by the National Institute of Health (NIH). Online patient education material from each website was subjected to reading grade level (RGL) analysis using the Readability Studio Professional Edition. One-sample t testing was used to compare the mean RGLs obtained from 8 formulas to the NIH-recommended 6.5 grade level and 8th grade national mean. In total, 372 articles from the ACC website and 82 from the AHA were studied. Mean (±SD) RGLs for the 454 articles were 9.6 ± 2.1, 11.2 ± 2.1, 11.9 ± 1.6, 10.8 ± 1.6, 9.7 ± 2.1, 10.8 ± 0.8, 10.5 ± 2.6, and 11.7 ± 3.5 according to the Flesch-Kincaid grade level (FKGL), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG Index), Coleman-Liau Index (CLI), Gunning-Fog Index (GFI), New Dale-Chall reading level formula (NDC), FORCAST, Raygor Readability Estimate (RRE), and Fry Graph (Fry), respectively. All analyzed articles had significantly higher RGLs than both the NIH-recommended grade level of 6.5 and the national mean grade level of 8 (p education material provided on the ACC and AHA websites is written above the NIH-recommended 6.5 grade level and 8th grade national mean reading level. Additional studies are required to demonstrate whether lowering the RGL of this material improves outcomes among patients with cardiovascular disease. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. The cellulose synthase companion proteins act non-redundantly with CELLULOSE SYNTHASE INTERACTING1/POM2 and CELLULOSE SYNTHASE 6

    OpenAIRE

    Endler, Anne; Schneider, Rene; Kesten, Christopher; Lampugnani, Edwin R.; Persson, Staffan

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose is a cell wall constituent that is essential for plant growth and development, and an important raw material for a range of industrial applications. Cellulose is synthesized at the plasma membrane by massive cellulose synthase (CesA) complexes that track along cortical microtubules in elongating cells of Arabidopsis through the activity of the protein CELLULOSE SYNTHASE INTERACTING1 (CSI1). In a recent study we identified another family of proteins that also are associated with the ...

  4. The biosynthetic origin of irregular monoterpenes in Lavandula: isolation and biochemical characterization of a novel cis-prenyl diphosphate synthase gene, lavandulyl diphosphate synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Zerihun A; Erland, Lauren A E; Rheault, Mark R; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2013-03-01

    Lavender essential oils are constituted predominantly of regular monoterpenes, for example linalool, 1,8-cineole, and camphor. However, they also contain irregular monoterpenes including lavandulol and lavandulyl acetate. Although the majority of genes responsible for the production of regular monoterpenes in lavenders are now known, enzymes (including lavandulyl diphosphate synthase (LPPS)) catalyzing the biosynthesis of irregular monoterpenes in these plants have not been described. Here, we report the isolation and functional characterization of a novel cis-prenyl diphosphate synthase cDNA, termed Lavandula x intermedia lavandulyl diphosphate synthase (LiLPPS), through a homology-based cloning strategy. The LiLPPS ORF, encoding for a 305-amino acid long protein, was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant protein was purified by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. The approximately 34.5-kDa bacterially produced protein specifically catalyzed the head-to-middle condensation of two dimethylallyl diphosphate units to LPP in vitro with apparent Km and kcat values of 208 ± 12 μm and 0.1 s(-1), respectively. LiLPPS is a homodimeric enzyme with a sigmoidal saturation curve and Hill coefficient of 2.7, suggesting a positive co-operative interaction among its catalytic sites. LiLPPS could be used to modulate the production of lavandulol and its derivatives in plants through metabolic engineering.

  5. Different stress-related gene expression in depression and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J; Qi, X-R; Gao, S-F; Lu, J; van Wamelen, D J; Kamphuis, W; Bao, A-M; Swaab, D F

    2015-09-01

    Suicide occurs in some, but not all depressed patients. So far, it remains unknown whether the studied stress-related candidate genes change in depression, suicide or both. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in, among other things, impulse control and inhibitory behavior and plays an important role in both suicide and depression. We have employed qPCR to study 124 anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) brain samples, obtained from two brain banks, from: i) young depressed patients (average age 43 years) who committed suicide (MDD-S) and depressed patients who died from causes other than suicide (MDD-NS) and from ii) elderly depressed patients (average age 75 years) who did not commit suicide (DEP). Both cohorts were individually matched with non-psychiatric non-suicide control subjects. We determined the transcript levels of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis-regulating molecules (corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), CRH receptors, CRH binding protein, mineralocorticoid receptor/glucocorticoid receptor), transcription factors that regulate CRH expression, CRH-stimulating cytokines, chaperone proteins, retinoid signaling, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tropomyosin-related kinase B, cytochrome proteins, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and monoamines. In the MDD-S group, expression levels of CRH and neuronal NOS-interacting DHHC domain-containing protein with dendritic mRNA (NIDD) were increased. Other changes were only present in the DEP group, i.e. decreased NIDD, and increased and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A (5-HT1A) expression levels. Changes were found to be more pronounced in the anterior cingulate cortex than in the dorsolateral PFC. Depressed patients who committed suicide have different gene expression patterns than depressed patients who died of causes other than suicide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Regulation of Banana Phytoene Synthase (MaPSY) Expression, Characterization and Their Modulation under Various Abiotic Stress Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Navneet; Pandey, Ashutosh; Shivani; Kumar, Prateek; Pandey, Pankaj; Kesarwani, Atul K.; Mantri, Shrikant S.; Awasthi, Praveen; Tiwari, Siddharth

    2017-01-01

    Phytoene synthase (PSY) is a key regulatory enzyme of carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in plants. The present study examines the role of PSY in carotenogenesis and stress management in banana. Germplasm screening of 10 Indian cultivars showed that Nendran (3011.94 μg/100 g dry weight) and Rasthali (105.35 μg/100 g dry weight) contained the highest and lowest amounts of β-carotene, respectively in ripe fruit-pulp. Nendran ripe pulp also showed significantly higher antioxidant activity as compared to Rasthali. Meta-analysis of three banana PSY genes (MaPSY1, MaPSY2, and MaPSY3) was performed to identify their structural features, subcellular, and chromosomal localization in banana genome. The distinct expression patterns of MaPSY1, MaPSY2, and MaPSY3 genes were observed in various tissues, and fruit developmental stages of these two contrasting cultivars, suggesting differential regulation of the banana PSY genes. A positive correlation was observed between the expression of MaPSY1 and β-carotene accumulation in the ripe fruit-peel and pulp of Nendran. The presence of stress responsive cis-regulatory motifs in promoter region of MaPSY genes were correlated with the expression pattern during various stress (abscisic acid, methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid and dark) treatments. The positive modulation of MaPSY1 noticed under abiotic stresses suggested its role in plant physiological functions and defense response. The amino acid sequence analysis of the PSY proteins in contrasting cultivars revealed that all PSY comprises conserved domains related to enzyme activity. Bacterial complementation assay has validated the functional activity of six PSY proteins and among them PSY1 of Nendran (Nen-PSY1) gave the highest activity. These data provide new insights into the regulation of PSY expression in banana by developmental and stress related signals that can be explored in the banana improvement programs. PMID:28421096

  7. Effect of food deprivation and hormones of glucose homeostasis on the acetyl CoA carboxylase activity in mouse brain: a potential role of acc in the regulation of energy balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukherjee Amrita

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We studied the regulation of brain acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC activity during food deprivation and under the influence of hormones of glucose homeostasis: glucagon and insulin. Mice were deprived of food and water for time periods of 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 hours and were then allowed to re-feed for 5, 30 and 60 minutes. Mice that were deprived for up to 6 h, and then re-fed for 60 min, consumed the same amount of food compared to the ad libitum (control animals. However, after 9 h of deprivation, mice consumed only 50% of food present even after 1 h of re-feeding, compared to the controls. The ACC activity was measured in the whole mouse brain of controls and after 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 h of food deprivation. Brain extracts assayed from control mice expressed an ACC activity of 0.988 ± 0.158 fmol/min/mg tissue without citrate and 0.941 ± 0.175 fmol/min/mg tissue with citrate. After 1 h of food deprivation, the total ACC activity without citrate decreased to 0.575 ± 0.087 fmol/min/mg and in the presence of citrate, 0.703 ± 0.036 fmol/min/mg activity was measured. The citrate-dependent ACC activity decreased over time, with only 0.478 ± 0.117 fmol/min/mg of activity remaining after 24 h. Intraperitoneal (i.p. injections of insulin, glucagon and phosphate buffered saline (PBS were performed and whole brain ACC activity measured. After hormone administration, there were no significant differences in ACC activity in the presence of citrate. However, in the absence of citrate, there was a significant 20% decrease in ACC activity with glucagon (1.36 ± 0.09 fmol/min/mg and a 33% increase with insulin (2.49 ± 0.11 fmol/min/mg injections compared to PBS controls (1.67 ± 0.08 fmol/min/mg. Neuropeptide Y (NPY levels of corresponding brain extracts were measured by ELISA (OD using anti-NPY antibody and showed an 18% decrease upon insulin injection (0.093 ± 0.019 and a 50% increase upon glucagon injection (0.226 ± 0.084 as compared to

  8. Distinct Cell-Specific Expression of Homospermidine Synthase Involved in Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Three Species of the Boraginales1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemüller, Daniel; Reimann, Andreas; Ober, Dietrich

    2012-01-01

    Homospermidine synthase (HSS) is the first specific enzyme in pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) biosynthesis, a pathway involved in the plant’s chemical defense. HSS has been shown to be recruited repeatedly by duplication of a gene involved in primary metabolism. Within the lineage of the Boraginales, only one gene duplication event gave rise to HSS. Here, we demonstrate that the tissue-specific expression of HSS in three boraginaceous species, Heliotropium indicum, Symphytum officinale, and Cynoglossum officinale, is unique with respect to plant organ, tissue, and cell type. Within H. indicum, HSS is expressed exclusively in nonspecialized cells of the lower epidermis of young leaves and shoots. In S. officinale, HSS expression has been detected in the cells of the root endodermis and in leaves directly underneath developing inflorescences. In young roots of C. officinale, HSS is detected only in cells of the endodermis, but in a later developmental stage, additionally in the pericycle. The individual expression patterns are compared with those within the Senecioneae lineage (Asteraceae), where HSS expression is reproducibly found in specific cells of the endodermis and the adjacent cortex parenchyma of the roots. The individual expression patterns within the Boraginales species are discussed as being a requirement for the successful recruitment of HSS after gene duplication. The diversity of HSS expression within this lineage adds a further facet to the already diverse patterns of expression that have been observed for HSS in other PA-producing plant lineages, making this PA-specific enzyme one of the most diverse expressed proteins described in the literature. PMID:22566491

  9. Cyclophilin D Promotes Brain Mitochondrial F1FO ATP Synthase Dysfunction in Aging Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauba, Esha; Guo, Lan; Du, Heng

    2017-01-01

    Brain aging is the known strongest risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). In recent years, mitochondrial deficits have been proposed to be a common mechanism linking brain aging to AD. Therefore, to elucidate the causative mechanisms of mitochondrial dysfunction in aging brains is of paramount importance for our understanding of the pathogenesis of AD, in particular its sporadic form. Cyclophilin D (CypD) is a specific mitochondrial protein. Recent studies have shown that F1FO ATP synthase oligomycin sensitivity conferring protein (OSCP) is a binding partner of CypD. The interaction of CypD with OSCP modulates F1FO ATP synthase function and mediates mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening. Here, we have found that increased CypD expression, enhanced CypD/OSCP interaction, and selective loss of OSCP are prominent brain mitochondrial changes in aging mice. Along with these changes, brain mitochondria from the aging mice demonstrated decreased F1FO ATP synthase activity and defective F1FO complex coupling. In contrast, CypD deficient mice exhibited substantially mitigated brain mitochondrial F1FO ATP synthase dysfunction with relatively preserved mitochondrial function during aging. Interestingly, the aging-related OSCP loss was also dramatically attenuated by CypD depletion. Therefore, the simplest interpretation of this study is that CypD promotes F1FO ATP synthase dysfunction and the resultant mitochondrial deficits in aging brains. In addition, in view of CypD and F1FO ATP synthase alterations seen in AD brains, the results further suggest that CypD-mediated F1FO ATP synthase deregulation is a shared mechanism linking mitochondrial deficits in brain aging and AD.

  10. L'intégration des accélérateurs du CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Chemli, S; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2008-01-01

    L?intégration du LHC a ouvert des perspectives pour une gestion plus complète des accélérateurs du CERN. La base de données LAYOUT a permis d'assurer la continuité des phases de définition optique du projet, d'intégration 3D et de contrôles de conformité des installations. Les scans et modélisations 3D en couches des installations réalisées constituent un outil déterminant pour la préparation des interventions dans le cadre des procédures de sécurité ALARA. Il est proposé de reproduire cette méthodologie pour les nouveaux projets comme pour les accélérateurs existants. La mise à jour de l'anneau SPS dans LAYOUT semble être la priorité. La base de données SURVEY contient déjà une vue d'ensemble des accélérateurs, chaque composant étant référencé dans le Système de Coordonnées du CERN, selon les définitions théoriques "sources" au 1/100 mm. Base pour l'alignement, elle stocke également les positions réelles des machines. Elle complète ainsi l'information linéaire de LAY...

  11. Nitric Oxide Synthase Enzymes in the Airways of Mice Exposed to Ovalbumin: NOS2 Expression Is NOS3 Dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Bratt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives and Design. The function of the airway nitric oxide synthase (NOS isoforms and the lung cell types responsible for its production are not fully understood. We hypothesized that NO homeostasis in the airway is important to control inflammation, which requires upregulation, of NOS2 protein expression by an NOS3-dependent mechanism. Materials or Subjects. Mice from a C57BL/6 wild-type, NOS1−/−, NOS2−/−, and NOS3−/− genotypes were used. All mice strains were systemically sensitized and exposed to filtered air or ovalbumin (OVA aerosol for two weeks to create a subchronic model of allergen-induced airway inflammation. Methods. We measured lung function, lung lavage inflammatory and airway epithelial goblet cell count, exhaled NO, nitrate and nitrite concentration, and airway NOS1, NOS2, and NOS3 protein content. Results. Deletion of NOS1 or NOS3 increases NOS2 protein present in the airway epithelium and smooth muscle of air-exposed animals. Exposure to allergen significantly reduced the expression of NOS2 protein in the airway epithelium and smooth muscle of the NOS3−/− strain only. This reduction in NOS2 expression was not due to the replacement of epithelial cells with goblet cells as remaining epithelial cells did not express NOS2. NOS1−/− animals had significantly reduced goblet cell metaplasia compared to C57Bl/6 wt, NOS2−/−, and NOS3−/− allergen-exposed mice. Conclusion. The airway epithelial and smooth muscle cells maintain a stable airway NO concentration under noninflammatory conditions. This “homeostatic” mechanism is unable to distinguish between NOS derived from the different constitutive NOS isoforms. NOS3 is essential for the expression of NOS2 under inflammatory conditions, while NOS1 expression contributes to allergen-induced goblet cell metaplasia.

  12. Nitric Oxide Synthase Enzymes in the Airways of Mice Exposed to Ovalbumin: NOS2 Expression Is NOS3 Dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratt, Jennifer M.; Williams, Keisha; Rabowsky, Michelle F.; Last, Michael S.; Franzi, Lisa M.; Last, Jerold A.; Kenyon, Nicholas J.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives and Design. The function of the airway nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms and the lung cell types responsible for its production are not fully understood. We hypothesized that NO homeostasis in the airway is important to control inflammation, which requires upregulation, of NOS2 protein expression by an NOS3-dependent mechanism. Materials or Subjects. Mice from a C57BL/6 wild-type, NOS1−/−, NOS2−/−, and NOS3−/− genotypes were used. All mice strains were systemically sensitized and exposed to filtered air or ovalbumin (OVA) aerosol for two weeks to create a subchronic model of allergen-induced airway inflammation. Methods. We measured lung function, lung lavage inflammatory and airway epithelial goblet cell count, exhaled NO, nitrate and nitrite concentration, and airway NOS1, NOS2, and NOS3 protein content. Results. Deletion of NOS1 or NOS3 increases NOS2 protein present in the airway epithelium and smooth muscle of air-exposed animals. Exposure to allergen significantly reduced the expression of NOS2 protein in the airway epithelium and smooth muscle of the NOS3−/− strain only. This reduction in NOS2 expression was not due to the replacement of epithelial cells with goblet cells as remaining epithelial cells did not express NOS2. NOS1−/− animals had significantly reduced goblet cell metaplasia compared to C57Bl/6 wt, NOS2−/−, and NOS3−/− allergen-exposed mice. Conclusion. The airway epithelial and smooth muscle cells maintain a stable airway NO concentration under noninflammatory conditions. This “homeostatic” mechanism is unable to distinguish between NOS derived from the different constitutive NOS isoforms. NOS3 is essential for the expression of NOS2 under inflammatory conditions, while NOS1 expression contributes to allergen-induced goblet cell metaplasia. PMID:20953358

  13. Use of linalool synthase in genetic engineering of scent production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichersky, Eran

    1998-01-01

    A purified S-linalool synthase polypeptide from Clarkia breweri is disclosed as is the recombinant polypeptide and nucleic acid sequences encoding the polypeptide. Also disclosed are antibodies immunoreactive with the purified peptide and with recombinant versions of the polypeptide. Methods of using the nucleic acid sequences, as well as methods of enhancing the smell and the flavor of plants expressing the nucleic acid sequences are also disclosed.

  14. Mechanistic studies of 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid 8-phosphate synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dotson, G.D.; Woodard, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    The enzyme 3-deOXY-D-manno-octulosonic acid 8-phosphate synthase (KDO 8-P synthase) catalyses the condensation of arabinose 5-phosphate (A 5-P) with phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to give the unique eight-carbon acidic sugar 3-deoxy-D-nianno-octulosonic acid 8-phosphate (KDO 8-P) found only in gram-negative bacteria and required for lipid A maturation and cellular growth. The E. coli gene kdsA that encodes KDO 8-P synthase has been amplified by standard PCR methodologies. The synthetic gene, subcloned into the expression vector pT7-7 was used to infect E. coli BL 21 (DE 3). Purification of crude supernatant from this transformant on Q Sepharose yields >200 mg of near-homogeneous KDO 8-P synthase per liter of cell culture. To explore the mechanism of KDO 8-P synthase, we prepared (E)- and (Z)-(3 2 H)PEP, (2- 13 C)PEP, and (2- 13 C, 18 O)PEP chemically from the appropriately labeled 3-bromopyruvates by reaction with trimethylphosphite under Perkow reaction conditions. Our 1 H-NMR analysis of the stereochemistry at C3 of the KDO 8-Ps, obtained by separate incubation of (E)- and (Z)-(3- 2 H)PEP with A 5-P in the presence of KDO 8-P synthase, demonstrated that the reaction is stereospecific with respect to both the C3 of PEP and the C1 carbonyl of A 5-P. (Z)-(3- 2 H)PEP gave predominantly (3S)-(3 2 H)KDO 8-P and (E)-(3- 2 H)PEP gave predominantly (3R)-(3 2 H)KDO-8P, which indicates condensation of the si face of PEP upon the re face of A 5-P-an orientation analogous to that seen with the similar aldehyde Iyase DAH 7-P synthase. The fate of the enolic oxygen of (2- 13 C, 18 O)PEP, during the course of the KDO 8-P synthase-catalyzed reaction as monitored by both 13 C- and 31 P-NMR spectroscopy demonstrated that the inorganic phosphate (Pi) and not the KDO 8-P contained the 18 O

  15. Mechanistic studies of 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid 8-phosphate synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotson, G.D.; Woodard, R.W. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The enzyme 3-deOXY-D-manno-octulosonic acid 8-phosphate synthase (KDO 8-P synthase) catalyses the condensation of arabinose 5-phosphate (A 5-P) with phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to give the unique eight-carbon acidic sugar 3-deoxy-D-nianno-octulosonic acid 8-phosphate (KDO 8-P) found only in gram-negative bacteria and required for lipid A maturation and cellular growth. The E. coli gene kdsA that encodes KDO 8-P synthase has been amplified by standard PCR methodologies. The synthetic gene, subcloned into the expression vector pT7-7 was used to infect E. coli BL 21 (DE 3). Purification of crude supernatant from this transformant on Q Sepharose yields >200 mg of near-homogeneous KDO 8-P synthase per liter of cell culture. To explore the mechanism of KDO 8-P synthase, we prepared (E)- and (Z)-(3{sup 2}H)PEP, (2-{sup 13}C)PEP, and (2-{sup 13}C,{sup 18}O)PEP chemically from the appropriately labeled 3-bromopyruvates by reaction with trimethylphosphite under Perkow reaction conditions. Our {sup 1}H-NMR analysis of the stereochemistry at C3 of the KDO 8-Ps, obtained by separate incubation of (E)- and (Z)-(3-{sup 2}H)PEP with A 5-P in the presence of KDO 8-P synthase, demonstrated that the reaction is stereospecific with respect to both the C3 of PEP and the C1 carbonyl of A 5-P. (Z)-(3-{sup 2}H)PEP gave predominantly (3S)-(3{sup 2}H)KDO 8-P and (E)-(3-{sup 2}H)PEP gave predominantly (3R)-(3{sup 2}H)KDO-8P, which indicates condensation of the si face of PEP upon the re face of A 5-P-an orientation analogous to that seen with the similar aldehyde Iyase DAH 7-P synthase. The fate of the enolic oxygen of (2-{sup 13}C, {sup 18}O)PEP, during the course of the KDO 8-P synthase-catalyzed reaction as monitored by both {sup 13}C- and {sup 31}P-NMR spectroscopy demonstrated that the inorganic phosphate (Pi) and not the KDO 8-P contained the {sup 18}O.

  16. Converting S-limonene synthase to pinene or phellandrene synthases reveals the plasticity of the active site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinkun; Ai, Ying; Wang, Jianhui; Xu, Jingwei; Zhang, Yongkang; Yang, Dong

    2017-05-01

    S-limonene synthase is a model monoterpene synthase that cyclizes geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP) to form S-limonene. It is a relatively specific enzyme as the majority of its products are composed of limonene. In this study, we converted it to pinene or phellandrene synthases after introducing N345A/L423A/S454A or N345I mutations. Further studies on N345 suggest the polarity of this residue plays a critical role in limonene production by stabilizing the terpinyl cation intermediate. If it is mutated to a non-polar residue, further cyclization or hydride shifts occurs so the carbocation migrates towards the pyrophosphate, leading to the production of pinene or phellandrene. On the other hand, mutant enzymes that still possess a polar residue at this position produce limonene as the major product. N345 is not the only polar residue that may stabilize the terpinyl cation because it is not strictly conserved among limonene synthases across species and there are also several other polar residues in this area. These residues could form a "polar pocket" that may collectively play this stabilizing role. Our study provides important insights into the catalytic mechanism of limonene synthases. Furthermore, it also has wider implications on the evolution of terpene synthases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular cloning and expression of a novel trehalose synthase gene from Enterobacter hormaechei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Ming

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trehalose synthase (TreS which converts maltose to trehalose is considered to be a potential biocatalyst for trehalose production. This enzymatic process has the advantage of simple reaction and employs an inexpensive substrate. Therefore, new TreS producing bacteria with suitable enzyme properties are expected to be isolated from extreme environment. Results Six TreS producing strains were isolated from a specimen obtained from soil of the Tibetan Plateau using degenerate PCR. A novel treS gene from Enterobacter hormaechei was amplified using thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR. The gene contained a 1626 bp open reading frame encoding 541 amino acids. The gene was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant TreS was purified and characterized. The purified TreS had a molecular mass of 65 kDa and an activity of 18.5 U/mg. The optimum temperature and pH for the converting reaction were 37°C and 6, respectively. Hg2+, Zn2+, Cu2+and SDS inhibited the enzyme activity at different levels whereas Mn2+ showed an enhancing effect by 10%. Conclusion In this study, several TreS producing strains were screened from a source of soil bacteria. The characterization of the recombinant TreS of Enterobacter hormaechei suggested its potential application. Consequently, a strategy for isolation of TreS producing strains and cloning of novel treS genes from natural sources was demonstrated.

  18. Ectopic Terpene Synthase Expression Enhances Sesquiterpene Emission in Nicotiana attenuata without Altering Defense or Development of Transgenic Plants or Neighbors1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuman, Meredith C.; Palmer-Young, Evan C.; Schmidt, Axel; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2014-01-01

    Sesquiterpenoids, with approximately 5,000 structures, are the most diverse class of plant volatiles with manifold hypothesized functions in defense, stress tolerance, and signaling between and within plants. These hypotheses have often been tested by transforming plants with sesquiterpene synthases expressed behind the constitutively active 35S promoter, which may have physiological costs measured as inhibited growth and reduced reproduction or may require augmentation of substrate pools to achieve enhanced emission, complicating the interpretation of data from affected transgenic lines. Here, we expressed maize (Zea mays) terpene synthase10 (ZmTPS10), which produces (E)-α-bergamotene and (E)-β-farnesene, or a point mutant ZmTPS10M, which produces primarily (E)-β-farnesene, under control of the 35S promoter in the ecological model plant Nicotiana attenuata. Transgenic N. attenuata plants had specifically enhanced emission of target sesquiterpene(s) with no changes detected in their emission of any other volatiles. Treatment with herbivore or jasmonate elicitors induces emission of (E)-α-bergamotene in wild-type plants and also tended to increase emission of (E)-α-bergamotene and (E)-β-farnesene in transgenics. However, transgenics did not differ from the wild type in defense signaling or chemistry and did not alter defense chemistry in neighboring wild-type plants. These data are inconsistent with within-plant and between-plant signaling functions of (E)-β-farnesene and (E)-α-bergamotene in N. attenuata. Ectopic sesquiterpene emission was apparently not costly for transgenics, which were similar to wild-type plants in their growth and reproduction, even when forced to compete for common resources. These transgenics would be well suited for field experiments to investigate indirect ecological effects of sesquiterpenes for a wild plant in its native habitat. PMID:25187528

  19. Ethylene production, ACC and MACC content of freesia buds and florets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spikman, G.

    1988-01-01

    Changes in ethylene production, ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) and MACC (1-(malonylamino)-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) content of buds and florets of detached inflorescences were studied. Most of the ethylene produced by the inflorescences came from small buds at the apex. This

  20. Historic Learning Approach for Auto-tuning OpenACC Accelerated Scientific Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiqui, Shahzeb; Alzayer, Fatemah; Feki, Saber

    2015-01-01

    on a given system. A historic learning based methodology is suggested to prune the parameter search space for a more efficient auto-tuning process. This approach is applied to tune the OpenACC gang and vector clauses for a better mapping of the compute

  1. Friedelin Synthase from Maytenus ilicifolia: Leucine 482 Plays an Essential Role in the Production of the Most Rearranged Pentacyclic Triterpene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Moreira, Tatiana M.; Alves, Thaís B.; Pinheiro, Karina A.; Felippe, Lidiane G.; de Lima, Gustavo M. A.; Watanabe, Tatiana F.; Barbosa, Cristina C.; Santos, Vânia A. F. F. M.; Lopes, Norberto P.; Valentini, Sandro R.; Guido, Rafael V. C.; Furlan, Maysa; Zanelli, Cleslei F.

    2016-11-01

    Among the biologically active triterpenes, friedelin has the most-rearranged structure produced by the oxidosqualene cyclases and is the only one containing a cetonic group. In this study, we cloned and functionally characterized friedelin synthase and one cycloartenol synthase from Maytenus ilicifolia (Celastraceae). The complete coding sequences of these 2 genes were cloned from leaf mRNA, and their functions were characterized by heterologous expression in yeast. The cycloartenol synthase sequence is very similar to other known OSCs of this type (approximately 80% identity), although the M. ilicifolia friedelin synthase amino acid sequence is more related to β-amyrin synthases (65-74% identity), which is similar to the friedelin synthase cloned from Kalanchoe daigremontiana. Multiple sequence alignments demonstrated the presence of a leucine residue two positions upstream of the friedelin synthase Asp-Cys-Thr-Ala-Glu (DCTAE) active site motif, while the vast majority of OSCs identified so far have a valine or isoleucine residue at the same position. The substitution of the leucine residue with valine, threonine or isoleucine in M. ilicifolia friedelin synthase interfered with substrate recognition and lead to the production of different pentacyclic triterpenes. Hence, our data indicate a key role for the leucine residue in the structure and function of this oxidosqualene cyclase.

  2. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SUCROSE SYNTHASE 2 GENE (Sus2 IN DURUM WHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariateresa eVolpicella

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose transport is the central system for the allocation of carbon resources in vascular plants. Sucrose synthase, which reversibly catalyzes sucrose synthesis and cleavage, represents a key enzyme in the control of the flow of carbon into starch biosynthesis. In the present study the genomic identification and characterization of the Sus2-2A and Sus2-2B genes coding for sucrose synthase in durum wheat (cultivars Ciccio and Svevo is reported. The genes were analyzed for their expression in different tissues and at different seed maturation stages, in four tetraploid wheat genotypes (Svevo, Ciccio, Primadur and 5-BIL42. The activity of the encoded proteins was evaluated by specific activity assays on endosperm extracts and their structure established by modelling approaches. The combined results of SUS2 expression and activity levels were then considered in the light of their possible involvement in starch yield.

  3. Dopamine D1 receptor-dependent regulation of extracellular citrulline level in the rat nucleus accumbens during conditioned fear response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulskaya, Natalia B; Fofonova, Nellia V; Sudorghina, Polina V; Saveliev, Sergey A

    2008-08-01

    Nucleus accumbens (N.Acc) contains a subclass of nitric oxide (NO)-generating interneurons that are presumably regulated by the dopamine input. Receptor mechanisms underlying dopamine-NO interaction in the N.Acc are poorly understood. In the current study, we used in vivo microdialysis combined with high-performance liquid chromatography to examine participation of dopamine D1 receptors in regulation of extracellular levels of citrulline (an NO co-product) in the medial N.Acc of Sprague-Dawley rats during both pharmacological challenge and a conditioned fear response. The intraaccumbal infusion of the D1 receptor agonist SKF-38393 (100-500 microM) increased dose-dependently the local dialysate citrulline levels. The SKF-38393-induced increase in extracellular citrulline was prevented by intraaccumbal infusions of 500 microM 7-nitroindazole, a neuronal NO synthase inhibitor. In behavioral microdialysis experiment, the accumbal levels of extracellular citrulline markedly increased in rats given a mild footshock paired with tone. The presentation of the tone previously paired with footshock (the conditioned fear response) produced a "conditioned" rise of extracellular citrulline levels in the N.Acc which was attenuated by intraaccumbal infusion of 100 microM SCH-23390, a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, and prevented by intraaccumbal infusion of 500 microM 7-nitroindazole. The results suggest that in the N.Acc, the dopamine D1 receptors might regulate the neuronal NO synthase activity; this dopamine-dependent mechanism seems to participate in activation of the neuronal NO synthase and probably NO formation in this brain area during the conditioned fear response.

  4. Global Transcriptomic Analysis of Targeted Silencing of Two Paralogous ACC Oxidase Genes in Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yan; Kuan, Chi; Chiu, Chien-Hsiang; Chen, Xiao-Jing; Do, Yi-Yin; Huang, Pung-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Among 18 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase homologous genes existing in the banana genome there are two genes, Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2, that participate in banana fruit ripening. To better understand the physiological functions of Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2, two hairpin-type siRNA expression vectors targeting both the Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2 were constructed and incorporated into the banana genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The generation of Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2 RNAi transgenic banana plants was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. To gain insights into the functional diversity and complexity between Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2, transcriptome sequencing of banana fruits using the Illumina next-generation sequencer was performed. A total of 32,093,976 reads, assembled into 88,031 unigenes for 123,617 transcripts were obtained. Significantly enriched Gene Oncology (GO) terms and the number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with GO annotation were ‘catalytic activity’ (1327, 56.4%), ‘heme binding’ (65, 2.76%), ‘tetrapyrrole binding’ (66, 2.81%), and ‘oxidoreductase activity’ (287, 12.21%). Real-time RT-PCR was further performed with mRNAs from both peel and pulp of banana fruits in Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2 RNAi transgenic plants. The results showed that expression levels of genes related to ethylene signaling in ripening banana fruits were strongly influenced by the expression of genes associated with ethylene biosynthesis. PMID:27681726

  5. From bacterial to human dihydrouridine synthase: automated structure determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whelan, Fiona, E-mail: fiona.whelan@york.ac.uk; Jenkins, Huw T., E-mail: fiona.whelan@york.ac.uk [The University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Griffiths, Samuel C. [University of Oxford, Headington, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Byrne, Robert T. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Feodor-Lynen-Strasse 25, 81377 Munich (Germany); Dodson, Eleanor J.; Antson, Alfred A., E-mail: fiona.whelan@york.ac.uk [The University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-30

    The crystal structure of a human dihydrouridine synthase, an enzyme associated with lung cancer, with 18% sequence identity to a T. maritima enzyme, has been determined at 1.9 Å resolution by molecular replacement after extensive molecular remodelling of the template. The reduction of uridine to dihydrouridine at specific positions in tRNA is catalysed by dihydrouridine synthase (Dus) enzymes. Increased expression of human dihydrouridine synthase 2 (hDus2) has been linked to pulmonary carcinogenesis, while its knockdown decreased cancer cell line viability, suggesting that it may serve as a valuable target for therapeutic intervention. Here, the X-ray crystal structure of a construct of hDus2 encompassing the catalytic and tRNA-recognition domains (residues 1–340) determined at 1.9 Å resolution is presented. It is shown that the structure can be determined automatically by phenix.mr-rosetta starting from a bacterial Dus enzyme with only 18% sequence identity and a significantly divergent structure. The overall fold of the human Dus2 is similar to that of bacterial enzymes, but has a larger recognition domain and a unique three-stranded antiparallel β-sheet insertion into the catalytic domain that packs next to the recognition domain, contributing to domain–domain interactions. The structure may inform the development of novel therapeutic approaches in the fight against lung cancer.

  6. From bacterial to human dihydrouridine synthase: automated structure determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, Fiona; Jenkins, Huw T.; Griffiths, Samuel C.; Byrne, Robert T.; Dodson, Eleanor J.; Antson, Alfred A.

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structure of a human dihydrouridine synthase, an enzyme associated with lung cancer, with 18% sequence identity to a T. maritima enzyme, has been determined at 1.9 Å resolution by molecular replacement after extensive molecular remodelling of the template. The reduction of uridine to dihydrouridine at specific positions in tRNA is catalysed by dihydrouridine synthase (Dus) enzymes. Increased expression of human dihydrouridine synthase 2 (hDus2) has been linked to pulmonary carcinogenesis, while its knockdown decreased cancer cell line viability, suggesting that it may serve as a valuable target for therapeutic intervention. Here, the X-ray crystal structure of a construct of hDus2 encompassing the catalytic and tRNA-recognition domains (residues 1–340) determined at 1.9 Å resolution is presented. It is shown that the structure can be determined automatically by phenix.mr-rosetta starting from a bacterial Dus enzyme with only 18% sequence identity and a significantly divergent structure. The overall fold of the human Dus2 is similar to that of bacterial enzymes, but has a larger recognition domain and a unique three-stranded antiparallel β-sheet insertion into the catalytic domain that packs next to the recognition domain, contributing to domain–domain interactions. The structure may inform the development of novel therapeutic approaches in the fight against lung cancer

  7. Accès à des accouchements sans risques en Tanzanie (ISMEA ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    accès en temps utile aux services assurant des accouchements sans risques. Par ailleurs, on constate des lacunes sur le plan du soutien et du mentorat offerts par le personnel plus expérimenté, le manque de motivation à participer à des cours de ...

  8. Chitin synthases from Saprolegnia are involved in tip growth and represent a potential target for anti-oomycete drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gea Guerriero

    Full Text Available Oomycetes represent some of the most devastating plant and animal pathogens. Typical examples are Phytophthora infestans, which causes potato and tomato late blight, and Saprolegnia parasitica, responsible for fish diseases. Despite the economical and environmental importance of oomycete diseases, their control is difficult, particularly in the aquaculture industry. Carbohydrate synthases are vital for hyphal growth and represent interesting targets for tackling the pathogens. The existence of 2 different chitin synthase genes (SmChs1 and SmChs2 in Saprolegnia monoica was demonstrated using bioinformatics and molecular biology approaches. The function of SmCHS2 was unequivocally demonstrated by showing its catalytic activity in vitro after expression in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant SmCHS1 protein did not exhibit any activity in vitro, suggesting that it requires other partners or effectors to be active, or that it is involved in a different process than chitin biosynthesis. Both proteins contained N-terminal Microtubule Interacting and Trafficking domains, which have never been reported in any other known carbohydrate synthases. These domains are involved in protein recycling by endocytosis. Enzyme kinetics revealed that Saprolegnia chitin synthases are competitively inhibited by nikkomycin Z and quantitative PCR showed that their expression is higher in presence of the inhibitor. The use of nikkomycin Z combined with microscopy showed that chitin synthases are active essentially at the hyphal tips, which burst in the presence of the inhibitor, leading to cell death. S. parasitica was more sensitive to nikkomycin Z than S. monoica. In conclusion, chitin synthases with species-specific characteristics are involved in tip growth in Saprolegnia species and chitin is vital for the micro-organisms despite its very low abundance in the cell walls. Chitin is most likely synthesized transiently at the apex of the cells before cellulose, the major

  9. Quantitative proteomic analysis of human lung tumor xenografts treated with the ectopic ATP synthase inhibitor citreoviridin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsuan Wu

    Full Text Available ATP synthase is present on the plasma membrane of several types of cancer cells. Citreoviridin, an ATP synthase inhibitor, selectively suppresses the proliferation and growth of lung cancer without affecting normal cells. However, the global effects of targeting ectopic ATP synthase in vivo have not been well defined. In this study, we performed quantitative proteomic analysis using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ and provided a comprehensive insight into the complicated regulation by citreoviridin in a lung cancer xenograft model. With high reproducibility of the quantitation, we obtained quantitative proteomic profiling with 2,659 proteins identified. Bioinformatics analysis of the 141 differentially expressed proteins selected by their relative abundance revealed that citreoviridin induces alterations in the expression of glucose metabolism-related enzymes in lung cancer. The up-regulation of enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis and storage of glucose indicated that citreoviridin may reduce the glycolytic intermediates for macromolecule synthesis and inhibit cell proliferation. Using comprehensive proteomics, the results identify metabolic aspects that help explain the antitumorigenic effect of citreoviridin in lung cancer, which may lead to a better understanding of the links between metabolism and tumorigenesis in cancer therapy.

  10. Warm Water Pathways in the Northeastern North Atlantic ACCE RAFOS Float Data Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Furey, Heather

    2001-01-01

    ...). The RAFOS float component of ACCE, entitled "Warm Water Pathways and Intergyre Exchange in the Northeastern North Atlantic", was designed to measure the warm water currents entering the northeastern...

  11. TNF-Mediated Restriction of Arginase 1 Expression in Myeloid Cells Triggers Type 2 NO Synthase Activity at the Site of Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Schleicher

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Neutralization or deletion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF causes loss of control of intracellular pathogens in mice and humans, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here, we found that TNF antagonized alternative activation of macrophages and dendritic cells by IL-4. TNF inhibited IL-4-induced arginase 1 (Arg1 expression by decreasing histone acetylation, without affecting STAT6 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. In Leishmania major-infected C57BL/6 wild-type mice, type 2 nitric oxide (NO synthase (NOS2 was detected in inflammatory dendritic cells or macrophages, some of which co-expressed Arg1. In TNF-deficient mice, Arg1 was hyperexpressed, causing an impaired production of NO in situ. A similar phenotype was seen in L. major-infected BALB/c mice. Arg1 deletion in hematopoietic cells protected these mice from an otherwise lethal disease, although their disease-mediating T cell response (Th2, Treg was maintained. Thus, deletion or TNF-mediated restriction of Arg1 unleashes the production of NO by NOS2, which is critical for pathogen control.

  12. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a novel plant type III polyketide synthase that produces pentaketide chromone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Hiroyuki [Mitsubishi Kagaku Institute of Life Sciences (MITILS), 11 Minamiooya, Machida, Tokyo 194-8511 (Japan); Kondo, Shin [ZOEGENE Corporation, 1000 Kamoshida, Aoba, Yokohama, Kanagawa 227-8502 (Japan); Abe, Tsuyoshi; Noguchi, Hiroshi [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and the COE21 Program, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); Sugio, Shigetoshi, E-mail: ssugio@rc.m-kagaku.co.jp [ZOEGENE Corporation, 1000 Kamoshida, Aoba, Yokohama, Kanagawa 227-8502 (Japan); Abe, Ikuro, E-mail: ssugio@rc.m-kagaku.co.jp [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and the COE21 Program, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Kohno, Toshiyuki, E-mail: ssugio@rc.m-kagaku.co.jp [Mitsubishi Kagaku Institute of Life Sciences (MITILS), 11 Minamiooya, Machida, Tokyo 194-8511 (Japan)

    2006-09-01

    Pentaketide chromone synthase from A. arborescens has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data have been collected to 1.6 Å. Pentaketide chromone synthase (PCS) from Aloe arborescens is a novel plant-specific type III polyketide synthase that catalyzes the formation of 5,7-dihydroxy-2-methylchromone from five molecules of malonyl-CoA. Recombinant PCS expressed in Escherichia coli was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 73.2, b = 88.4, c = 70.0 Å, α = γ = 90.0, β = 95.6°. Diffraction data were collected to 1.6 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation at BL24XU of SPring-8.

  13. Two Cycloartenol Synthases for Phytosterol Biosynthesis in Polygala tenuifolia Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Mei Lan; Lee, Woo Moon; Kim, Ok Tae

    2017-11-15

    Oxidosqualene cyclases (OSCs) are enzymes that play a key role in control of the biosynthesis of phytosterols and triterpene saponins. In order to uncover OSC genes from Polygala tenuifolia seedlings induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA), RNA-sequencing analysis was performed using the Illumina sequencing platform. A total of 148,488,632 high-quality reads from two samples (control and the MeJA treated) were generated. We screened genes related to phytosterol and triterpene saponin biosynthesis and analyzed the transcriptional changes of differentially expressed unigene (DEUG) values calculated by fragments per kilobase million (FPKM). In our datasets, two full-length cDNAs of putative OSC genes, PtCAS1 , and PtCAS2 , were found, in addition to the PtBS (β-amyrin synthase) gene reported in our previous studies and the two cycloartenol synthase genes of P. tenuifolia . All genes were isolated and characterized in yeast cells. The functional expression of the two PtCAS genes in yeast cells showed that the genes all produce a cycloartenol as the sole product. When qRT-PCR analysis from different tissues was performed, the expressions of PtCAS1 and PtCAS2 were highest in flowers and roots, respectively. After MeJA treatment, the transcripts of PtCAS1 and PtCAS2 genes increased by 1.5- and 2-fold, respectively. Given these results, we discuss the potential roles of the two PtCAS genes in relation to triterpenoid biosynthesis.

  14. Two Cycloartenol Synthases for Phytosterol Biosynthesis in Polygala tenuifolia Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Lan Jin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Oxidosqualene cyclases (OSCs are enzymes that play a key role in control of the biosynthesis of phytosterols and triterpene saponins. In order to uncover OSC genes from Polygala tenuifolia seedlings induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA, RNA-sequencing analysis was performed using the Illumina sequencing platform. A total of 148,488,632 high-quality reads from two samples (control and the MeJA treated were generated. We screened genes related to phytosterol and triterpene saponin biosynthesis and analyzed the transcriptional changes of differentially expressed unigene (DEUG values calculated by fragments per kilobase million (FPKM. In our datasets, two full-length cDNAs of putative OSC genes, PtCAS1, and PtCAS2, were found, in addition to the PtBS (β-amyrin synthase gene reported in our previous studies and the two cycloartenol synthase genes of P. tenuifolia. All genes were isolated and characterized in yeast cells. The functional expression of the two PtCAS genes in yeast cells showed that the genes all produce a cycloartenol as the sole product. When qRT-PCR analysis from different tissues was performed, the expressions of PtCAS1 and PtCAS2 were highest in flowers and roots, respectively. After MeJA treatment, the transcripts of PtCAS1 and PtCAS2 genes increased by 1.5- and 2-fold, respectively. Given these results, we discuss the potential roles of the two PtCAS genes in relation to triterpenoid biosynthesis.

  15. Functional expression and characterization of five wax ester synthases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and their utility for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Shuobo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wax ester synthases (WSs can synthesize wax esters from alcohols and fatty acyl coenzyme A thioesters. The knowledge of the preferred substrates for each WS allows the use of yeast cells for the production of wax esters that are high-value materials and can be used in a variety of industrial applications. The products of WSs include fatty acid ethyl esters, which can be directly used as biodiesel. Results Here, heterologous WSs derived from five different organisms were successfully expressed and evaluated for their substrate preference in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We investigated the potential of the different WSs for biodiesel (that is, fatty acid ethyl esters production in S. cerevisiae. All investigated WSs, from Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1, Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus DSM 8798, Rhodococcus opacus PD630, Mus musculus C57BL/6 and Psychrobacter arcticus 273-4, have different substrate specificities, but they can all lead to the formation of biodiesel. The best biodiesel producing strain was found to be the one expressing WS from M. hydrocarbonoclasticus DSM 8798 that resulted in a biodiesel titer of 6.3 mg/L. To further enhance biodiesel production, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase was up-regulated, which resulted in a 30% increase in biodiesel production. Conclusions Five WSs from different species were functionally expressed and their substrate preference characterized in S. cerevisiae, thus constructing cell factories for the production of specific kinds of wax ester. WS from M. hydrocarbonoclasticus showed the highest preference for ethanol compared to the other WSs, and could permit the engineered S. cerevisiae to produce biodiesel.

  16. Contexte de l'accès au matériel didactique dans les universités des ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les étudiants ont de plus en plus accès à tout ce dont ils ont besoin, dans une ... de textes électroniques soumis à aucun contrôle et auquel l'on a accès sans ... et de la dynamique des politiques, de même qu'au mouvement émergent en ce qui ... IWRA/CRDI sur les changements climatiques et la gestion adaptive de l'eau.

  17. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK-3) influences epithelial barrier function by regulating Occludin, Claudin-1 and E-cadherin expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severson, Eric A.; Kwon, Mike; Hilgarth, Roland S.; Parkos, Charles A.; Nusrat, Asma

    2010-01-01

    The Apical Junctional Complex (AJC) encompassing the tight junction (TJ) and adherens junction (AJ) plays a pivotal role in regulating epithelial barrier function and epithelial cell proliferative processes through signaling events that remain poorly characterized. A potential regulator of AJC protein expression is Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3). GSK-3 is a constitutively active kinase that is repressed during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In the present study, we report that GSK-3 activity regulates the structure and function of the AJC in polarized model intestinal (SK-CO15) and kidney (Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK)) epithelial cells. Reduction of GSK-3 activity, either by small molecule inhibitors or siRNA targeting GSK-3 alpha and beta mRNA, resulted in increased permeability to both ions and bulk solutes. Immunofluorescence labeling and immunoblot analyses revealed that the barrier defects correlated with decreased protein expression of AJC transmembrane proteins Occludin, Claudin-1 and E-cadherin without influencing other TJ proteins, Zonula Occludens-1 (ZO-1) and Junctional Adhesion Molecule A (JAM-A). The decrease in Occludin and E-cadherin protein expression correlated with downregulation of the corresponding mRNA levels for these respective proteins following GSK-3 inhibition. These observations implicate an important role of GSK-3 in the regulation of the structure and function of the AJC that is mediated by differential modulation of mRNA transcription of key AJC proteins, Occludin, Claudin-1 and E-cadherin.

  18. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK-3) influences epithelial barrier function by regulating Occludin, Claudin-1 and E-cadherin expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severson, Eric A.; Kwon, Mike; Hilgarth, Roland S.; Parkos, Charles A. [Epithelial Pathobiology Research Unit, Dept. of Pathology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Nusrat, Asma, E-mail: anusrat@emory.edu [Epithelial Pathobiology Research Unit, Dept. of Pathology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States)

    2010-07-02

    The Apical Junctional Complex (AJC) encompassing the tight junction (TJ) and adherens junction (AJ) plays a pivotal role in regulating epithelial barrier function and epithelial cell proliferative processes through signaling events that remain poorly characterized. A potential regulator of AJC protein expression is Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3). GSK-3 is a constitutively active kinase that is repressed during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In the present study, we report that GSK-3 activity regulates the structure and function of the AJC in polarized model intestinal (SK-CO15) and kidney (Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK)) epithelial cells. Reduction of GSK-3 activity, either by small molecule inhibitors or siRNA targeting GSK-3 alpha and beta mRNA, resulted in increased permeability to both ions and bulk solutes. Immunofluorescence labeling and immunoblot analyses revealed that the barrier defects correlated with decreased protein expression of AJC transmembrane proteins Occludin, Claudin-1 and E-cadherin without influencing other TJ proteins, Zonula Occludens-1 (ZO-1) and Junctional Adhesion Molecule A (JAM-A). The decrease in Occludin and E-cadherin protein expression correlated with downregulation of the corresponding mRNA levels for these respective proteins following GSK-3 inhibition. These observations implicate an important role of GSK-3 in the regulation of the structure and function of the AJC that is mediated by differential modulation of mRNA transcription of key AJC proteins, Occludin, Claudin-1 and E-cadherin.

  19. Comparison of Ecological Micro-Expression Recognition in Patients with Depression and Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanlin Zhu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have focused on the characteristics of ordinary facial expressions in patients with depression, and have not investigated the processing characteristics of ecological micro-expressions (MEs, i.e., MEs that presented in different background expressions in these patients. Based on this, adopting the ecological MEs recognition paradigm, this study aimed to comparatively evaluate facial ME recognition in depressed and healthy individuals. The findings of the study are as follows: (1 background expression: the accuracy (ACC in the neutral background condition tended to be higher than that in the fear background condition, and the reaction time (RT in the neutral background condition was significantly longer than that in other backgrounds. The type of ME and its interaction with the type of background expression could affect participants’ ecological MEs recognition ACC and speed. Depression type: there was no significant difference between the ecological MEs recognition ACC of patients with depression and healthy individuals, but the patients’ RT was significantly longer than that of healthy individuals; and (2 patients with depression judged happy MEs that were presented against different backgrounds as neutral and judged neutral MEs that were presented against sad backgrounds as sad. The present study suggested the following: (1 ecological MEs recognition was influenced by background expressions. The ACC of happy MEs was the highest, of neutral ME moderate and of sadness and fear the lowest. The response to the happy MEs was significantly shorter than that of identifying other MEs. It is necessary to conduct research on ecological MEs recognition; (2 the speed of patients with depression in identifying ecological MEs was slower than of healthy individuals; indicating that the patients’ cognitive function was impaired; and (3 the patients with depression showed negative bias in the ecological MEs recognition task, reflecting

  20. Cloning of a sesquiterpene synthase from Lavandula x intermedia glandular trichomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Lukman S; Demissie, Zerihun A; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2013-11-01

    The essential oil (EO) of Lavandula is dominated by monoterpenes, but can also contain small amounts of sesquiterpenes, depending on species and environmental conditions. For example, the sesquiterpene 9-epi-caryophyllene can make up to 8 % of the EO in a few species, including those commercially propagated for EO production. Here, we report the cloning and functional characterization of 9-epi-caryophyllene synthase (LiCPS) from the glandular trichomes of Lavandula x intermedia, cv. Grosso. The 1,617 bp open reading frame of LiCPS, which did not encode a transit peptide, was expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein purified by Ni-NTA agarose affinity chromatography. The ca. 60 kDa recombinant protein specifically converted farnesyl diphosphate to 9-epi-caryophyllene. LiCPS also produced a few monoterpenes when assayed with the monoterpene precursor geranyl diphosphate (GPP), but--unlike most monoterpene synthases--was not able to derive detectable amounts of any products from the cis isomer of GPP, neryl diphosphate. The LiCPS transcripts accumulated in developing L. x intermedia flowers and were highly enriched in glandular trichomes, but were not detected in leaves suggesting that the transcriptional expression of this gene is spatially and developmentally regulated.

  1. Phenotype commitment in vascular smooth muscle cells derived from coronary atherosclerotic plaques: differential gene expression of endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ML Rossi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Unstable angina and myocardial infarction are the clinical manifestations of the abrupt thrombotic occlusion of an epicardial coronary artery as a result of spontaneous atherosclerotic plaque rupture or fissuring, and the exposure of highly thrombogenic material to blood. It has been demonstrated that the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs and impaired bioavailabilty of nitric oxide (NO are among the most important mechanisms involved in the progression of atherosclerosis. It has also been suggested that a NO imbalance in coronary arteries may be involved in myocardial ischemia as a result of vasomotor dysfunction triggering plaque rupture and the thrombotic response. We used 5’ nuclease assays (TaqMan™ PCRs to study gene expression in coronary plaques collected by means of therapeutic directional coronary atherectomy from 15 patients with stable angina (SA and 15 with acute coronary syndromes (ACS without ST elevation. Total RNA was extracted from the 30 plaques and the cDNA was amplified in order to determine endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS gene expression. Analysis of the results showed that the expression of eNOS was significantly higher (p<0.001 in the plaques from the ACS patients. Furthermore, isolated VSMCs from ACS and SA plaques confirmed the above pattern even after 25 plating passages. In situ RT-PCR was also carried out to co-localize the eNOS messengers and the VSMC phenotype.

  2. A Comparison of the Effects of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition on Cartilage Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat Selim Gokay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of selective inducible nitric oxide synthase and neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on cartilage regeneration. The study involved 27 Wistar rats that were divided into five groups. On Day 1, both knees of 3 rats were resected and placed in a formalin solution as a control group. The remaining 24 rats were separated into 4 groups, and their right knees were surgically damaged. Depending on the groups, the rats were injected with intra-articular normal saline solution, neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (50 mg/kg, inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor amino-guanidine (30 mg/kg, or nitric oxide precursor L-arginine (200 mg/kg. After 21 days, the right and left knees of the rats were resected and placed in formalin solution. The samples were histopathologically examined by a blinded evaluator and scored on 8 parameters. Although selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibition exhibited significant (P=0.044 positive effects on cartilage regeneration following cartilage damage, it was determined that inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibition had no statistically significant effect on cartilage regeneration. It was observed that the nitric oxide synthase activation triggered advanced arthrosis symptoms, such as osteophyte formation. The fact that selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors were observed to have mitigating effects on the severity of the damage may, in the future, influence the development of new agents to be used in the treatment of cartilage disorders.

  3. Expression of Nitric Oxide Synthase Isoenzyme in Lung Tissue of Smokers with and without Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ting Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been demonstrated that only 10%-20% cigarette smokers finally suffer chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The underlying mechanism of development remains uncertain so far. Nitric oxide (NO has been found to be closely associated with the pathogenesis of COPD, the alteration of NO synthase (NOS expression need to be revealed. The study aimed to investigate the alterations of NOS isoforms expressions between smokers with and without COPD, which might be helpful for identifying the susceptibility of smokers developing into COPD. Methods: Peripheral lung tissues were obtained from 10 nonsmoker control subjects, 15 non-COPD smokers, and 15 smokers with COPD. Neuronal NOS (nNOS, inducible NOS (iNOS, and endothelial NOS (eNOS mRNA and protein levels were measured in each sample by using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Results: INOS mRNA was significantly increased in patients with COPD compared with nonsmokers and smokers with normal lung function (P < 0.001, P = 0.001, respectively. iNOS protein was also higher in COPD patients than nonsmokers and smokers with normal lung function (P < 0.01 and P = 0.01, respectively. However, expressions of nNOS and eNOS did not differ among nonsmokers, smokers with and without COPD. Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between iNOS protein level and lung function parameters forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 (% predicted (r = −0.549, P = 0.001 and FEV 1 /forced vital capacity (%, r = −0.535, P = 0.001. Conclusions: The expression of iNOS significantly increased in smokers with COPD compared with that in nonsmokers or smokers without COPD. The results suggest that iNOS might be involved in the pathogenesis of COPD, and may be a potential marker to identify the smokers who have more liability to suffer COPD.

  4. Disruption of ATCSLD5 results in reduced growth, reduced xylan and homogalacturonan synthase activity and altered xylan occurrence in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernal Giraldo, Adriana Jimena; Jensen, Jacob Krüger; Harholt, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    Members of a large family of cellulose synthase-like genes (CSLs) are predicted to encode glycosyl transferases (GTs) involved in the biosynthesis of plant cell walls. The CSLA and CSLF families are known to contain mannan and glucan synthases, respectively, but the products of other CSLs...... are unknown. Here we report the effects of disrupting ATCSLD5 expression in Arabidopsis. Both stem and root growth were significantly reduced in ATCSLD5 knock-out plants, and these plants also had increased susceptibility to the cellulose synthase inhibitor isoxaben. Antibody and carbohydrate-binding module...

  5. Dietary α-lactalbumin induced fatty liver by enhancing nuclear liver X receptor αβ/sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c/PPARγ expression and minimising PPARα/carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 expression and AMP-activated protein kinase α phosphorylation associated with atherogenic dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance and oxidative stress in Balb/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Oliva, María Elvira; Garcimartin, Alba; Muñoz-Martínez, Emilia

    2017-12-01

    The effect and the role played by dietary α-lactalbumin (α-LAC) on hepatic fat metabolism are yet to be fully elucidated. We reported previously that α-LAC intake induced atherogenic dyslipidaemia in Balb/c mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate if this atherogenic effect could be due to a possible α-LAC-induced hepatic steatosis. We examine the ability of dietary α-LAC to induce liver steatosis, identifying the molecular mechanisms underlying hepatic lipid metabolism in association with the lipid profile, peripheral insulin resistance (IR) and changes in the hepatic oxidative environment. Male Balb/c mice (n 6) were fed with diets containing either chow or 14 % α-LAC for 4 weeks. The α-LAC-fed mice developed abdominal adiposity and IR. Moderate liver steatosis with increased TAG and NEFA contents was correlated with atherogenic dyslipidaemia. There was increased nuclear expression of liver X receptor αβ (LXRαβ), sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) and PPARγ transcription factors and of the cytosolic enzymes acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) and fatty acid synthase involved in the hepatic de novo lipogenesis. The opposite was found for the nuclear receptor PPARα and the mitochondrial enzyme carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1), leading to reduced fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO). These changes were associated with a significant decrease in both p-Thr172-AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) (inactivation) and p-Ser79-ACC1 (activation) and with a more oxidative liver environment increasing lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation and reducing GSH:GSSG ratio in the α-LAC-fed mice. In conclusion, 4 weeks of 14 % α-LAC feeding induced liver steatosis associated with atherogenic dyslipidaemia, IR and oxidative stress by enhancing nuclear LXRαβ/SREBP-1c/PPARγ expression and diminishing PPARα/CPT-1 expression and AMPKα phosphorylation shifting the hepatic FAO toward fatty acid synthesis in Balb/c mice.

  6. Thrombosis in Hb Taybe [codons 38/39 (-ACC) (α1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Maja Bech; Vestergaard, Hanne; Petersen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Hb Taybe is a highly unstable hemoglobin (Hb) variant caused by a 3 bp deletion at codons 38/39 (-ACC) on the α1-globin gene. We report for the first time, a patient with a compound heterozygosity for Hb Taybe and a 5 bp deletion at the splice donor site of IVS-I on the α2-globin gene and ischemic...

  7. Molecular cloning of a seed specific multifunctional RFO synthase/ galactosylhydrolase in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman eGangl

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Stachyose is among the raffinose family oligosaccharides one of the major water-soluble carbohydrates next to sucrose in seeds of a number of plant species. Especially in leguminous seeds, e.g. chickpea, stachyose is reported as the major component. In contrast to their ambiguous potential as essential source of carbon for germination, raffinose family oligosaccharides are indigestible for humans and can contribute to diverse abdominal disorders.In the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana, six putative raffinose synthase genes are reported, whereas little is known about these putative raffinose synthases and their biochemical characteristics or their contribution to the raffinose family oligosaccharide physiology in A. thaliana.In this paper, we report on the molecular cloning, functional expression in Escherichia coli and purification of recombinant AtRS4 from A. thaliana and the biochemical characterisation of the putative stachyose synthase (AtSTS, At4g01970 as a raffinose and high affinity stachyose synthase (Km for raffinose 259.2 ± 21.15 µM as well as stachyose and galactinol specific galactosylhydrolase. A T-DNA insertional mutant in the AtRS4 gene was isolated. Only sqPCR from WT siliques showed a specific transcriptional AtRS4 PCR product. Metabolite measurements in seeds of ΔAtRS4 mutant plants revealed a total loss of stachyose in ΔAtRS4 mutant seeds. We conclude that AtRS4 is the only stachyose synthase in the genome of A. thaliana that AtRS4 represents a key regulation mechanism in the raffinose family oligosaccharide physiology of A. thaliana due to its multifunctional enzyme activity and that AtRS4 is possibly the second seed specific raffinose synthase beside AtRS5, which is responsible for Raf-accumulation under abiotic stress.

  8. A highly prevalent equine glycogen storage disease is explained by constitutive activation of a mutant glycogen synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maile, C A; Hingst, Janne Rasmuss; Mahalingan, K K

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Equine type 1 polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM1) is associated with a missense mutation (R309H) in the glycogen synthase (GYS1) gene, enhanced glycogen synthase (GS) activity and excessive glycogen and amylopectate inclusions in muscle. METHODS: Equine muscle biochemical...... had significantly higher glycogen content than control horse muscle despite no difference in GS expression. GS activity was significantly higher in muscle from homozygous mutants than from heterozygote and control horses, in the absence and presence of the allosteric regulator, glucose 6 phosphate (G6...

  9. Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 in rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina eKorotkova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1 is a well recognized target for the development of novel anti-inflammatory drugs that can reduce symptoms of inflammation in rheumatic diseases and other inflammatory conditions. In this review, we focus on mPGES-1 in rheumatic diseases with the aim to cover the most recent advances in the understanding of mPGES-1 in rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and inflammatory myopathies. Novel findings regarding regulation of mPGES1 cell expression as well as enzyme inhibitors are also summarized.

  10. CTP synthase forms cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou, Ke-Mian; Chang, Chia-Chun; Shen, Qing-Ji; Sung, Li-Ying; Liu, Ji-Long

    2014-01-01

    CTP synthase is an essential metabolic enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of CTP. Multiple studies have recently showed that CTP synthase protein molecules form filamentous structures termed cytoophidia or CTP synthase filaments in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, as well as in bacteria. Here we report that CTP synthase can form cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm, but also in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Both glutamine deprivation and glutamine analog treatment promote formation of cytoplasmic cytoophidia (C-cytoophidia) and nuclear cytoophidia (N-cytoophidia). N-cytoophidia are generally shorter and thinner than their cytoplasmic counterparts. In mammalian cells, both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 can form cytoophidia. Using live imaging, we have observed that both C-cytoophidia and N-cytoophidia undergo multiple rounds of fusion upon glutamine analog treatment. Our study reveals the coexistence of cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus, therefore providing a good opportunity to investigate the intracellular compartmentation of CTP synthase. - Highlights: • CTP synthase forms cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus. • Glutamine deprivation and Glutamine analogs promotes cytoophidium formation. • N-cytoophidia exhibit distinct morphology when compared to C-cytoophidia. • Both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 form cytoophidia in mammalian cells. • Fusions of cytoophidia occur in the cytoplasm and nucleus

  11. CTP synthase forms cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou, Ke-Mian [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom); State Key Laboratory for Agrobiotechnology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Chang, Chia-Chun [Institute of Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shen, Qing-Ji [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom); Sung, Li-Ying, E-mail: liyingsung@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, Ji-Long, E-mail: jilong.liu@dpag.ox.ac.uk [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-15

    CTP synthase is an essential metabolic enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of CTP. Multiple studies have recently showed that CTP synthase protein molecules form filamentous structures termed cytoophidia or CTP synthase filaments in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, as well as in bacteria. Here we report that CTP synthase can form cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm, but also in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Both glutamine deprivation and glutamine analog treatment promote formation of cytoplasmic cytoophidia (C-cytoophidia) and nuclear cytoophidia (N-cytoophidia). N-cytoophidia are generally shorter and thinner than their cytoplasmic counterparts. In mammalian cells, both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 can form cytoophidia. Using live imaging, we have observed that both C-cytoophidia and N-cytoophidia undergo multiple rounds of fusion upon glutamine analog treatment. Our study reveals the coexistence of cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus, therefore providing a good opportunity to investigate the intracellular compartmentation of CTP synthase. - Highlights: • CTP synthase forms cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus. • Glutamine deprivation and Glutamine analogs promotes cytoophidium formation. • N-cytoophidia exhibit distinct morphology when compared to C-cytoophidia. • Both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 form cytoophidia in mammalian cells. • Fusions of cytoophidia occur in the cytoplasm and nucleus.

  12. Manipulation of carbon flux into fatty acid biosynthesis pathway in Dunaliella salina using AccD and ME genes to enhance lipid content and to improve produced biodiesel quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Farhad Talebi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Advanced generations of biofuels basically revolve around non-agricultural energy crops. Among those, microalgae owing to its unique characteristics i.e. natural tolerance to waste and saline water, sustainable biomass production and high lipid content (LC, is regarded by many as the ultimate choice for the production of various biofuels such as biodiesel. In the present study, manipulation of carbon flux into fatty acid biosynthesis pathway in Dunaliella salina was achieved using pGH plasmid harboring AccD and ME genes to enhance lipid content and to improve produced biodiesel quality. The stability of transformation was confirmed by PCR after several passages. Southern hybridization of AccD probe with genomic DNA revealed stable integration of the cassette in the specific positions in the chloroplast genome with no read through transcription by indigenous promoters. Comparison of the LC and fatty acid profile of the transformed algal cell line and the control revealed the over-expression of the ME/AccD genes in the transformants leading to 12% increase in total LC and significant improvements in biodiesel properties especially by increasing algal oil oxidation stability. The whole process successfully implemented herein for transforming algal cells by genes involved in lipid production pathway could be helpful for large scale biodiesel production from microalgae.

  13. Flavonoids from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) up-regulate endothelial-type nitric-oxide synthase gene expression in human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huige; Xia, Ning; Brausch, Isolde; Yao, Ying; Förstermann, Ulrich

    2004-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) produced by endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) represents an antithrombotic and anti-atherosclerotic principle in the vasculature. Hence, an enhanced expression of eNOS in response to pharmacological interventions could provide protection against cardiovascular diseases. In EA.hy 926 cells, a cell line derived from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), an artichoke leaf extract (ALE) increased the activity of the human eNOS promoter (determined by luciferase reporter gene assay). An organic subfraction from ALE was more potent in this respect than the crude extract, whereas an aqueous subfraction of ALE was without effect. ALE and the organic subfraction thereof also increased eNOS mRNA expression (measured by an RNase protection assay) and eNOS protein expression (determined by Western blot) both in EA.hy 926 cells and in native HUVECs. NO production (measured by NO-ozone chemiluminescence) was increased by both extracts. In organ chamber experiments, ex vivo incubation (18 h) of rat aortic rings with the organic subfraction of ALE enhanced the NO-mediated vasodilator response to acetylcholine, indicating that the up-regulated eNOS remained functional. Caffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids are two major groups of constituents of ALE. Interestingly, the flavonoids luteolin and cynaroside increased eNOS promoter activity and eNOS mRNA expression, whereas the caffeoylquinic acids cynarin and chlorogenic acid were without effect. Thus, in addition to the lipid-lowering and antioxidant properties of artichoke, an increase in eNOS gene transcription may also contribute to its beneficial cardiovascular profile. Artichoke flavonoids are likely to represent the active ingredients mediating eNOS up-regulation.

  14. Glycogen synthase activation by sugars in isolated hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciudad, C J; Carabaza, A; Bosch, F; Gòmez I Foix, A M; Guinovart, J J

    1988-07-01

    We have investigated the activation by sugars of glycogen synthase in relation to (i) phosphorylase a activity and (ii) changes in the intracellular concentration of glucose 6-phosphate and adenine nucleotides. All the sugars tested in this work present the common denominator of activating glycogen synthase. On the other hand, phosphorylase a activity is decreased by mannose and glucose, unchanged by galactose and xylitol, and increased by tagatose, glyceraldehyde, and fructose. Dihydroxyacetone exerts a biphasic effect on phosphorylase. These findings provide additional evidence proving that glycogen synthase can be activated regardless of the levels of phosphorylase a, clearly establishing that a nonsequential mechanism for the activation of glycogen synthase occurs in liver cells. The glycogen synthase activation state is related to the concentrations of glucose 6-phosphate and adenine nucleotides. In this respect, tagatose, glyceraldehyde, and fructose deplete ATP and increase AMP contents, whereas glucose, mannose, galactose, xylitol, and dihydroxyacetone do not alter the concentration of these nucleotides. In addition, all these sugars, except glyceraldehyde, increase the intracellular content of glucose 6-phosphate. The activation of glycogen synthase by sugars is reflected in decreases on both kinetic constants of the enzyme, M0.5 (for glucose 6-phosphate) and S0.5 (for UDP-glucose). We propose that hepatocyte glycogen synthase is activated by monosaccharides by a mechanism triggered by changes in glucose 6-phosphate and adenine nucleotide concentrations which have been described to modify glycogen synthase phosphatase activity. This mechanism represents a metabolite control of the sugar-induced activation of hepatocyte glycogen synthase.

  15. Nicotianamine synthase overexpression positively modulates iron homeostasis-related genes in high iron rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng eWang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Nearly one-third of the world population, mostly women and children, suffer from iron malnutrition and its consequences, such as anemia or impaired mental development. Biofortification of rice, which is a staple crop for nearly half of the world’s population, can significantly contribute in alleviating iron deficiency. NFP rice (transgenic rice expressing nicotianamine synthase, ferritin and phytase genes has a more than six-fold increase in iron content in polished rice grains, resulting from the synergistic action of nicotianamine synthase (NAS and ferritin transgenes. We investigated iron homeostasis in NFP plants by analyzing the expression of 28 endogenous rice genes known to be involved in the homeostasis of iron and other metals, in iron-deficient and iron-sufficient conditions. RNA was collected from different tissues (roots, flag leaves, grains and at three developmental stages during grain filling. NFP plants showed increased sensitivity to iron-deficiency conditions and changes in the expression of endogenous genes involved in nicotianamine (NA metabolism, in comparison to their non-transgenic siblings. Elevated transcript levels were detected in NFP plants for several iron transporters. In contrast, expression of OsYSL2, which encodes a member of Yellow Stripe-like protein family, and a transporter of the NA-Fe(II complex was reduced in NFP plants under low iron conditions, indicating that expression of OsYSL2 is regulated by the endogenous iron status. Expression of the transgenes did not significantly affect overall iron homeostasis in NFP plants, which establishes the engineered push-pull mechanism as a suitable strategy to increase rice endosperm iron content.

  16. Qualité, portée et incidence de l'édition savante en libre accès en ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Une meilleure compréhension du libre accès aux recherches savantes aidera à déterminer en quoi il contribue à accroître la circulation des connaissances et la diffusion des résultats de recherche en Amérique latine. Le libre accès (le fait de pouvoir consulter, sans restriction aucune, des articles publiés dans des revues ...

  17. Droits des femmes et accès à la terre au Sénégal : une citoyenneté ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Incidence de l'accès des femmes au foncier dans le développement local : le cas des femmes du GIE Seydy Ababacar Sy de Ross Bethio dans la vallée du fleuve Sénégal. Download PDF. Papers. Plaquette de présentation du projet Droits des femmes et accès au foncier : une citoyenneté à conquérir. Download PDF.

  18. Antisense repression of sucrose phosphate synthase in transgenic muskmelon alters plant growth and fruit development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Hongmei; Ma, Leyuan; Zhao, Cong; Hao, Hui; Gong, Biao; Yu, Xiyan; Wang, Xiufeng

    2010-01-01

    To unravel the roles of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), we reduced its activity in transgenic muskmelon plants by an antisense approach. For this purpose, an 830 bp cDNA fragment of muskmelon sucrose phosphate synthase was expressed in antisense orientation behind the 35S promoter of the cauliflower mosaic virus. The phenotype of the antisense plants clearly differed from that of control plants. The transgenic plant leaves were markedly smaller, and the plant height and stem diameter were obviously shorter and thinner. Transmission electron microscope observation revealed that the membrane degradation of chloroplast happened in transgenic leaves and the numbers of grana and grana lamella in the chloroplast were significantly less, suggesting that the slow growth and weaker phenotype of transgenic plants may be due to the damage of the chloroplast ultrastructure, which in turn results in the decrease of the net photosynthetic rate. The sucrose concentration and levels of sucrose phosphate synthase decreased in transgenic mature fruit, and the fruit size was smaller than the control fruit. Together, our results suggest that sucrose phosphate synthase may play an important role in regulating the muskmelon plant growth and fruit development.

  19. Antisense repression of sucrose phosphate synthase in transgenic muskmelon alters plant growth and fruit development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Hongmei; Ma, Leyuan; Zhao, Cong; Hao, Hui; Gong, Biao [College of Horticulture Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai' an, Shandong 271018 (China); Yu, Xiyan, E-mail: yuxiyan@sdau.edu.cn [College of Horticulture Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai' an, Shandong 271018 (China); Wang, Xiufeng, E-mail: xfwang@sdau.edu.cn [College of Horticulture Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai' an, Shandong 271018 (China)

    2010-03-12

    To unravel the roles of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), we reduced its activity in transgenic muskmelon plants by an antisense approach. For this purpose, an 830 bp cDNA fragment of muskmelon sucrose phosphate synthase was expressed in antisense orientation behind the 35S promoter of the cauliflower mosaic virus. The phenotype of the antisense plants clearly differed from that of control plants. The transgenic plant leaves were markedly smaller, and the plant height and stem diameter were obviously shorter and thinner. Transmission electron microscope observation revealed that the membrane degradation of chloroplast happened in transgenic leaves and the numbers of grana and grana lamella in the chloroplast were significantly less, suggesting that the slow growth and weaker phenotype of transgenic plants may be due to the damage of the chloroplast ultrastructure, which in turn results in the decrease of the net photosynthetic rate. The sucrose concentration and levels of sucrose phosphate synthase decreased in transgenic mature fruit, and the fruit size was smaller than the control fruit. Together, our results suggest that sucrose phosphate synthase may play an important role in regulating the muskmelon plant growth and fruit development.

  20. Exendin-4 Inhibits Hepatic Lipogenesis by Increasing β-Catenin Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Hae Seo

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate whether the beneficial effect of exendin-4 on hepatic steatosis is mediated by β-catenin signaling. After the HepG2 human hepatoma cells were treated with PA for 24 hours, total triglycerides levels were increased in a dose-dependent manner, and the expression levels of perilipin family members were upregulated in cells treated with 400 μM PA. For our in vitro model of hepatic steatosis, HepG2 cells were treated with 400 μM palmitic acid (PA in the presence or absence of 100 nM exendin-4 for 24 hours. PA increased the expression of lipogenic genes, such as sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1, fatty acid synthase (FAS, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC and triglyceride synthesis-involved genes, such as diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1 and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2 in HepG2 cells, whereas exendin-4 treatment significantly prevented the upregulation of SREBP-1c, PPARγ, SCD1, FAS, ACC, DGAT1 and DGAT2. Moreover, exendin-4 treatment increased the expression of phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3β in the cytosolic fraction and the expression of β-catenin and transcription factor 4 (TCF4 in the nuclear fraction. In addition, siRNA-mediated inhibition of β-catenin upregulated the expression of lipogenic transcription factors. The protective effects of exendin-4 on intracellular triglyceride content and total triglyceride levels were not observed in cells treated with the β-catenin inhibitor IWR-1. These data suggest that exendin-4 treatment improves hepatic steatosis by inhibiting lipogenesis via activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

  1. The role of hexokinases from grape berries (Vitis vinifera L.) in regulating the expression of cell wall invertase and sucrose synthase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X Q; Li, L M; Yang, P P; Gong, C L

    2014-02-01

    In plants, hexokinase (HXK, EC 2.7.1.1) involved in hexose phosphorylation, plays an important role in sugar sensing and signaling. In this study, we found that at Phase I of grape berry development, lower hexose (glucose or fructose) levels were concomitant with higher HXK activities and protein levels. After the onset of ripening, we demonstrated a drastic reduction in HXK activity and protein levels accompanied by a rising hexose level. Therefore, our results revealed that HXK activity and protein levels had an inverse relationship with the endogenous glucose or fructose levels during grape berry development. A 51 kDa HXK protein band was detected throughout grape berry development. In addition, HXK located in the vacuoles, cytoplasm, nucleus, proplastid, chloroplast, and mitochondrion of the berry flesh cells. During grape berry development, HXK transcriptional level changed slightly, while cell wall invertase (CWINV) and sucrose synthase (SuSy) expression was enhanced after véraison stage. Intriguingly, when sliced grape berries were incubated in different glucose solutions, CWINV and SuSy expression was repressed by glucose, and the intensity of repression depended on glucose concentration and incubation time. After sliced, grape berries were treated with different glucose analogs, CWINV and SuSy expression analyses revealed that phosphorylation of hexoses by hexokinase was an essential component in the glucose-dependent CWINV and SuSy expression. In the meantime, mannoheptulose, a specific inhibitor of hexokinase, blocked the repression induced by glucose on CWINV and SuSy expression. It suggested that HXK played a major role in regulating CWINV and SuSy expression during grape berry development.

  2. Sequence heterogeneity of cannabidiolic- and tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-synthase in Cannabis sativa L. and its relationship with chemical phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onofri, Chiara; de Meijer, Etienne P M; Mandolino, Giuseppe

    2015-08-01

    Sequence variants of THCA- and CBDA-synthases were isolated from different Cannabis sativa L. strains expressing various wild-type and mutant chemical phenotypes (chemotypes). Expressed and complete sequences were obtained from mature inflorescences. Each strain was shown to have a different specificity and/or ability to convert the precursor CBGA into CBDA and/or THCA type products. The comparison of the expressed sequences led to the identification of different mutations, all of them due to SNPs. These SNPs were found to relate to the cannabinoid composition of the inflorescence at maturity and are therefore proposed to have a functional significance. The amount of variation was found to be higher within the CBDAS sequence family than in the THCAS family, suggesting a more recent evolution of THCA-forming enzymes from the CBDAS group. We therefore consider CBDAS as the ancestral type of these synthases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Preparation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the methionine synthase (MetE) from Streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Tian-Min; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Lan-Fen; Liang, Yu-He; Su, Xiao-Dong

    2006-01-01

    Methionine synthase (MetE) from S. mutans was expressed, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data have been collected to 2.2 Å resolution. The Streptococcus mutans metE gene encodes methionine synthase (MetE), which catalyzes the direct transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine in the last step of methionine synthesis. metE was cloned into pET28a and the gene product was expressed at high levels in the Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3). MetE was purified to homogeneity using Ni 2+ -chelating chromatography followed by size-exclusion chromatography. Crystals of the protein were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and diffracted to 2.2 Å resolution. The crystal belongs to space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 52.85, b = 99.48, c = 77.88 Å, β = 94.55°

  4. Gene expression profile of sodium channel subunits in the anterior cingulate cortex during experimental paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willias Masocha

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Paclitaxel, a chemotherapeutic agent, causes neuropathic pain whose supraspinal pathophysiology is not fully understood. Dysregulation of sodium channel expression, studied mainly in the periphery and spinal cord level, contributes to the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. We examined gene expression of sodium channel (Nav subunits by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC at day 7 post first administration of paclitaxel, when mice had developed paclitaxel-induced thermal hyperalgesia. The ACC was chosen because increased activity in the ACC has been observed during neuropathic pain. In the ACC of vehicle-treated animals the threshold cycle (Ct values for Nav1.4, Nav1.5, Nav1.7, Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 were above 30 and/or not detectable in some samples. Thus, comparison in mRNA expression between untreated control, vehicle-treated and paclitaxel treated animals was done for Nav1.1, Nav1.2, Nav1.3, Nav1.6, Nax as well as Navβ1–Navβ4. There were no differences in the transcript levels of Nav1.1–Nav1.3, Nav1.6, Nax, Navβ1–Navβ3 between untreated and vehicle-treated mice, however, vehicle treatment increased Navβ4 expression. Paclitaxel treatment significantly increased the mRNA expression of Nav1.1, Nav1.2, Nav1.6 and Nax, but not Nav1.3, sodium channel alpha subunits compared to vehicle-treated animals. Treatment with paclitaxel significantly increased the expression of Navβ1 and Navβ3, but not Navβ2 and Navβ4, sodium channel beta subunits compared to vehicle-treated animals. These findings suggest that during paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain (PINP there is differential upregulation of sodium channels in the ACC, which might contribute to the increased neuronal activity observed in the area during neuropathic pain.

  5. Potential U.S. Population Impact of the 2017 ACC/AHA High Blood Pressure Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntner, Paul; Carey, Robert M; Gidding, Samuel; Jones, Daniel W; Taler, Sandra J; Wright, Jackson T; Whelton, Paul K

    2018-01-16

    The 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults provides recommendations for the definition of hypertension, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) thresholds for initiation of antihypertensive medication, and BP target goals. This study sought to determine the prevalence of hypertension, implications of recommendations for antihypertensive medication, and prevalence of BP above the treatment goal among U.S. adults using criteria from the 2017 ACC/AHA guideline and the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC7). The authors analyzed data from the 2011 to 2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (N = 9,623). BP was measured 3 times following a standardized protocol and averaged. Results were weighted to produce U.S. population estimates. According to the 2017 ACC/AHA and JNC7 guidelines, the crude prevalence of hypertension among U.S. adults was 45.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 43.6% to 47.6%) and 31.9% (95% CI: 30.1% to 33.7%), respectively, and antihypertensive medication was recommended for 36.2% (95% CI: 34.2% to 38.2%) and 34.3% (95% CI: 32.5% to 36.2%) of U.S. adults, respectively. Nonpharmacological intervention is advised for the 9.4% of U.S. adults with hypertension who are not recommended for antihypertensive medication according to the 2017 ACC/AHA guideline. Among U.S. adults taking antihypertensive medication, 53.4% (95% CI: 49.9% to 56.8%) and 39.0% (95% CI: 36.4% to 41.6%) had BP above the treatment goal according to the 2017 ACC/AHA and JNC7 guidelines, respectively. Compared with the JNC7 guideline, the 2017 ACC/AHA guideline results in a substantial increase in the prevalence of hypertension, a small increase in the percentage of U.S. adults recommended for antihypertensive medication, and more intensive BP

  6. Analysis of an ACC System for Sliding Mode and MPC under Transitional Manoeuvers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Ali Memon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Two different control algorithms, sliding mode and MPC (Model Predictive Control are employed to analyse the performance of a linear vehicle model equipped with an ACC (Adaptive Cruise Control system. Both controllers are analysed under critical TM (Transitional Maneuvers to investigate their suitability for the ACC system. The simulation results, for the same scenario, from both controllers\\' approach have been compared. The results show that the MPC is more robust than the SMC (Sliding Model Controller. The results show that the SMC algorithm is not suitable for the proposed vehicle model. The shortcomings of the SMC have been highlighted and the comparisons are made with the previous studies. The proposed approach can be useful for the selection of the appropriate controller for the given application.

  7. Threonine phosphorylation of rat liver glycogen synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arino, J.; Arro, M.; Guinovart, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    32 P-labeled glycogen synthase specifically immunoprecipitated from 32 P-phosphate incubated rat hepatocytes contains, in addition to [ 32 P] phosphoserine, significant levels of [ 32 P] phosphothreonine. When the 32 P-immunoprecipitate was cleaved with CNBr, the [ 32 P] phosphothreonine was recovered in the large CNBr fragment (CB-2, Mapp 28 Kd). Homogeneous rat liver glycogen synthase was phosphorylated by all the protein kinases able to phosphorylate CB-2 in vitro. After analysis of the immunoprecipitated enzyme for phosphoaminoacids, it was observed that only casein kinase II was able to phosphorylate on threonine and 32 P-phosphate was only found in CB-2. These results demonstrate that rat liver glycogen synthase is phosphorylated at threonine site(s) contained in CB-2 and strongly indicate that casein kinase II may play a role in the ''in vivo'' phosphorylation of liver glycogen synthase. This is the first protein kinase reported to phosphorylate threonine residues in liver glycogen synthase

  8. Sequencing of allotetraploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. acc. TM-1) provides a resource for fiber improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianzhen; Hu, Yan; Jiang, Wenkai; Fang, Lei; Guan, Xueying; Chen, Jiedan; Zhang, Jinbo; Saski, Christopher A; Scheffler, Brian E; Stelly, David M; Hulse-Kemp, Amanda M; Wan, Qun; Liu, Bingliang; Liu, Chunxiao; Wang, Sen; Pan, Mengqiao; Wang, Yangkun; Wang, Dawei; Ye, Wenxue; Chang, Lijing; Zhang, Wenpan; Song, Qingxin; Kirkbride, Ryan C; Chen, Xiaoya; Dennis, Elizabeth; Llewellyn, Danny J; Peterson, Daniel G; Thaxton, Peggy; Jones, Don C; Wang, Qiong; Xu, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Hua; Wu, Huaitong; Zhou, Lei; Mei, Gaofu; Chen, Shuqi; Tian, Yue; Xiang, Dan; Li, Xinghe; Ding, Jian; Zuo, Qiyang; Tao, Linna; Liu, Yunchao; Li, Ji; Lin, Yu; Hui, Yuanyuan; Cao, Zhisheng; Cai, Caiping; Zhu, Xiefei; Jiang, Zhi; Zhou, Baoliang; Guo, Wangzhen; Li, Ruiqiang; Chen, Z Jeffrey

    2015-05-01

    Upland cotton is a model for polyploid crop domestication and transgenic improvement. Here we sequenced the allotetraploid Gossypium hirsutum L. acc. TM-1 genome by integrating whole-genome shotgun reads, bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-end sequences and genotype-by-sequencing genetic maps. We assembled and annotated 32,032 A-subgenome genes and 34,402 D-subgenome genes. Structural rearrangements, gene loss, disrupted genes and sequence divergence were more common in the A subgenome than in the D subgenome, suggesting asymmetric evolution. However, no genome-wide expression dominance was found between the subgenomes. Genomic signatures of selection and domestication are associated with positively selected genes (PSGs) for fiber improvement in the A subgenome and for stress tolerance in the D subgenome. This draft genome sequence provides a resource for engineering superior cotton lines.

  9. Plant oxidosqualene metabolism: cycloartenol synthase-dependent sterol biosynthesis in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gas-Pascual, Elisabet; Berna, Anne; Bach, Thomas J; Schaller, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    The plant sterol pathway exhibits a major biosynthetic difference as compared with that of metazoans. The committed sterol precursor is the pentacyclic cycloartenol (9β,19-cyclolanost-24-en-3β-ol) and not lanosterol (lanosta-8,24-dien-3β-ol), as it was shown in the late sixties. However, plant genome mining over the last years revealed the general presence of lanosterol synthases encoding sequences (LAS1) in the oxidosqualene cyclase repertoire, in addition to cycloartenol synthases (CAS1) and to non-steroidal triterpene synthases that contribute to the metabolic diversity of C30H50O compounds on earth. Furthermore, plant LAS1 proteins have been unambiguously identified by peptidic signatures and by their capacity to complement the yeast lanosterol synthase deficiency. A dual pathway for the synthesis of sterols through lanosterol and cycloartenol was reported in the model Arabidopsis thaliana, though the contribution of a lanosterol pathway to the production of 24-alkyl-Δ(5)-sterols was quite marginal (Ohyama et al. (2009) PNAS 106, 725). To investigate further the physiological relevance of CAS1 and LAS1 genes in plants, we have silenced their expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. We used virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) based on gene specific sequences from a Nicotiana tabacum CAS1 or derived from the solgenomics initiative (http://solgenomics.net/) to challenge the respective roles of CAS1 and LAS1. In this report, we show a CAS1-specific functional sterol pathway in engineered yeast, and a strict dependence on CAS1 of tobacco sterol biosynthesis.

  10. Cloning and functional expression of the small subunit of acetolactate synthase from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, H P; Schwartz, L J; Gale, J P; Abell, L M

    1999-07-01

    Acetolactate synthase (ALS) is the first committed step of branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis in plants and bacteria. The bacterial holoenzyme has been well characterized and is a tetramer of two identical large subunits (LSUs) of 60 kDa and two identical small subunits (SSUs) ranging in molecular mass from 9 to 17 kDa depending on the isozyme. The enzyme from plants is much less well characterized. Attempts to purify the protein have yielded an enzyme which appears to be an oligomer of LSUs, with the potential existence of a SSU for the plant enzyme remaining a matter of considerable speculation. We report here the discovery of a cDNA clone that encodes a SSU of plant ALS based upon the homology of the encoded peptide with various bacterial ALS SSUs. The plant ALS SSU is more than twice as large as any of its prokaryotic homologues and contains two domains that each encode a full-length copy of the prokaryotic SSU polypeptide. The cDNA clone was used to express Nicotiana plumbaginifolia SSU in Escherichia coli. Mixing a partially purified preparation of this SSU with the LSU of ALS from either N. plumbaginifolia or Arabidopsis thaliana results in both increased specific activity and increased stability of the enzymic activity. These results are consistent with those observed for the bacterial enzyme in similar experiments and represent the first functional demonstration of the existence of a SSU for plant ALS.

  11. Nitric oxide synthase expression and apoptotic cell death in brains of AIDS and AIDS dementia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincent, V. A.; de Groot, C. J.; Lucassen, P. J.; Portegies, P.; Troost, D.; Tilders, F. J.; van Dam, A. M.

    1999-01-01

    To determine the occurrence and cellular localization of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), NOS activity and its association with cell death in brains of AIDS and AIDS dementia complex (ADC) patients. Post-mortem cerebral cortex tissue of eight AIDS patients, eight ADC patients and eight

  12. Cloning, expression, and characterization of recombinant nitric oxide synthase-like protein from Bacillus anthracis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midha, Shuchi; Mishra, Rajeev; Aziz, M.A.; Sharma, Meenakshi; Mishra, Ashish; Khandelwal, Puneet; Bhatnagar, Rakesh

    2005-01-01

    Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is amongst a family of evolutionarily conserved enzymes, involved in a multi-turnover process that results in NO as a product. The significant role of NO in various pathological and physiological processes has created an interest in this enzyme from several perspectives. This study describes for the first time, cloning and expression of a NOS-like protein, baNOS, from Bacillus anthracis, a pathogenic bacterium responsible for causing anthrax. baNOS was expressed in Escherichia coli as a soluble and catalytically active enzyme. Homology models generated for baNOS indicated that the key structural features that are involved in the substrate and active site interaction have been highly conserved. Further, the behavior of baNOS in terms of heme-substrate interactions and heme-transitions was studied in detail. The optical perturbation spectra of the heme domain demonstrated that the ligands perturb the heme site in a ligand specific manner. baNOS forms a five-coordinate, high-spin complex with L-arginine analogs and a six-coordinate low-spin complex with inhibitor imidazole. Studies indicated that the binding of L-arginine, N ω -hydroxy-L-arginine, and imidazole produces various spectroscopic species that closely correspond to the equivalent complexes of mammalian NOS. The values of spectral binding constants further corroborated these results. The overall conservation of the key structural features and the correlation of heme-substrate interactions in baNOS and mammalian NOS, thus, point towards an interesting phenomenon of convergent evolution. Importantly, the NO generated by NOS of mammalian macrophages plays a potent role in antimicrobicidal activity. Because of the existence of high structural and behavioral similarity between mammalian NOS and baNOS, we propose that NO produced by B. anthracis may also have a pivotal pathophysiological role in anthrax infection. Therefore, this first report of characterization of a NOS-like protein

  13. Cross-species complementation of bacterial- and eukaryotic-type cardiolipin synthases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Gottier

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The glycerophospholipid cardiolipin is a unique constituent of bacterial and mitochondrial membranes. It is involved in forming and stabilizing high molecular mass membrane protein complexes and in maintaining membrane architecture. Absence of cardiolipin leads to reduced efficiency of the electron transport chain, decreased membrane potential, and, ultimately, impaired respiratory metabolism. For the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei cardiolipin synthesis is essential for survival, indicating that the enzymes involved in cardiolipin production represent potential drug targets. T. brucei cardiolipin synthase (TbCLS is unique as it belongs to the family of phospholipases D (PLD, harboring a prokaryotic-type cardiolipin synthase (CLS active site domain. In contrast, most other eukaryotic CLS, including the yeast ortholog ScCrd1, are members of the CDP-alcohol phosphatidyl­ transferase family. To study if these mechanistically distinct CLS enzymes are able to catalyze cardiolipin production in a cell that normally expresses a different type of CLS, we expressed TbCLS and ScCrd1 in CLS-deficient yeast and trypanosome strains, respectively. Our results show that TbCLS complemented cardiolipin production in CRD1 knockout yeast and partly restored wild-type colony forming capability under stress conditions. Remarkably, CL remodeling appeared to be impaired in the transgenic construct, suggesting that CL production and remodeling are tightly coupled processes that may require a clustering of the involved proteins into specific CL-synthesizing domains. In contrast, no complementation was observed by heterologous expression of ScCrd1 in conditional TbCLS knockout trypanosomes, despite proper mitochondrial targeting of the protein.

  14. Induction and requirement of gene expression in the anterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex for the consolidation of inhibitory avoidance memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Memory consolidation is a process to stabilize short-term memory, generating long-term memory. A critical biochemical feature of memory consolidation is a requirement for gene expression. Previous studies have shown that fear memories are consolidated through the activation of gene expression in the amygdala and hippocampus, indicating essential roles of these brain regions in memory formation. However, it is still poorly understood whether gene expression in brain regions other than the amygdala/hippocampus is required for the consolidation of fear memory; however, several brain regions are known to play modulatory roles in fear memory formation. Results To further understand the mechanisms underlying the formation of fear memory, we first identified brain regions where gene expression is activated after learning inhibitory avoidance (IA by analyzing the expression of the immediately early genes c-fos and Arc as markers. Similarly with previous findings, the induction of c-fos and Arc expression was observed in the amygdala and hippocampus. Interestingly, we also observed the induction of c-fos and Arc expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC: prelimbic (PL and infralimbic (IL regions and Arc expression in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. We next examined the roles of these brain regions in the consolidation of IA memory. Consistent with previous findings, inhibiting protein synthesis in the hippocampus blocked the consolidation of IA memory. More importantly, inhibition in the mPFC or ACC also blocked the formation of IA memory. Conclusion Our observations indicated that the formation of IA memory requires gene expression in the ACC and mPFC as well as in the amygdala and hippocampus, suggesting essential roles of the ACC and mPFC in IA memory formation.

  15. Functional characterization of ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase from Andrographis paniculata with putative involvement in andrographolides biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qinqin; Li, Lixia; Jiang, Yu; Wang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    To characterize the ent-copalyl diphosphate (ent-CPP) synthase involved in the biosynthetic pathway of andrographolides in a medicinal plant, Andrographis paniculata. The ent-CPP synthase (ent-CPS) gene was cloned from A. paniculata and its encoded ApCPS was demonstrated to react with (E,E,E)-geranylgeranyl diphosphate to form ent-CPP through recombinant expression in Escherichia coli. Site-directed mutagenesis of the Asp to Ala in the conserved DXDD motif of ApCPS resulted in loss of function. One Arg is located in the conserved position close to DXDD motif indicating the involvement of ApCPS in specialized metabolism. In addition, RT-PCR analysis revealed that ApCPS was expressed in all tissues of A. paniculata at all growth stages, which is consistent with andrographolides accumulating in these organs. Methyl jasmonate induced ApCPS gene expression, matching inducible accumulation of andrographolides in vivo. ApCPS is the first ent-CPS characterized in A. paniculata and is suggested to be involved in biosynthesis of andrographolides that have high pharmaceutical values.

  16. Identifying the catalytic components of cellulose synthase and the maize mixed-linkage beta-glucan synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas C Carpita

    2009-04-20

    Five specific objectives of this project are to develop strategies to identify the genes that encode the catalytic components of "mixed-linkage" (1→3),(1→4)-beta-D-glucans in grasses, to determine the protein components of the synthase complex, and determine the biochemical mechanism of synthesis. We have used proteomic approaches to define intrinsic and extrinsic polypeptides of Golgi membranes that are associated with polysaccharide synthesis and trafficking. We were successful in producing recombinant catalytic domains of cellulose synthase genes and discovered that they dimerize upon concentration, indicating that two CesA proteins form the catalytic unit. We characterized a brittle stalk2 mutant as a defect in a COBRA-like protein that results in compromised lignin-cellulose interactions that decrease tissue flexibility. We used virus-induced gene silencing of barley cell wall polysaccharide synthesis by BSMV in an attempt to silence specific members of the cellulose synthase-like gene family. However, we unexpectedly found that regardless of the specificity of the target gene, whole gene interaction networks were silenced. We discovered the cause to be an antisense transcript of the cellulose synthase gene initiated small interfering RNAs that spread silencing to related genes.

  17. Doctors' knowledge, attitudes, and compliance with 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines for prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Sajita; Fung, Selwyn Sze-Wang; Waters, David D

    2015-01-01

    There is an unmet need for strategies to prevent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in Singapore. The main objective of this study was to investigate Singapore physicians' response to the 2013 American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines for treatment of cholesterol and their impact on clinical practice. This survey was conducted in two stages, qualitative and quantitative. Physicians were initially screened on the basis of an initial screener questionnaire, and eligible physicians were then included in the study. Qualitative (n=19) and quantitative (n=66) surveys were completed by eligible physicians from Singapore. Physicians were less familiar with the 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines (35%) as compared with the Singapore Ministry of Health (MoH) lipid guidelines 2006 (49%). Of the physicians whose opinion was sought on the ACC/AHA guidelines, more than 50% disagreed with the definition of high-, moderate-, and low-intensity statin therapy; recommendation of atorvastatin 40-80 mg and rosuvastatin 20-40 mg as medications for high-intensity statin therapy; and classification of individuals who would benefit from moderate- to high-intensity statin therapy. Most physicians assumed that Asians may be intolerant to high-intensity statin therapy. Although embracing the 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines in clinical practice is expected to provide better clinical care to patients, our study revealed high reluctance by physicians, especially in the use of high-dose statins. However, ACC/AHA guidelines can be easily adopted in Asia as there is a wealth of data available for atorvastatin in primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease with similar efficacy and safety profiles in the white and Asian populations.

  18. Doctors’ knowledge, attitudes, and compliance with 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines for prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Sajita; Fung, Selwyn Sze-Wang; Waters, David D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose There is an unmet need for strategies to prevent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in Singapore. The main objective of this study was to investigate Singapore physicians’ response to the 2013 American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines for treatment of cholesterol and their impact on clinical practice. Methods This survey was conducted in two stages, qualitative and quantitative. Physicians were initially screened on the basis of an initial screener questionnaire, and eligible physicians were then included in the study. Results Qualitative (n=19) and quantitative (n=66) surveys were completed by eligible physicians from Singapore. Physicians were less familiar with the 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines (35%) as compared with the Singapore Ministry of Health (MoH) lipid guidelines 2006 (49%). Of the physicians whose opinion was sought on the ACC/AHA guidelines, more than 50% disagreed with the definition of high-, moderate-, and low-intensity statin therapy; recommendation of atorvastatin 40–80 mg and rosuvastatin 20–40 mg as medications for high-intensity statin therapy; and classification of individuals who would benefit from moderate- to high-intensity statin therapy. Most physicians assumed that Asians may be intolerant to high-intensity statin therapy. Conclusion Although embracing the 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines in clinical practice is expected to provide better clinical care to patients, our study revealed high reluctance by physicians, especially in the use of high-dose statins. However, ACC/AHA guidelines can be easily adopted in Asia as there is a wealth of data available for atorvastatin in primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease with similar efficacy and safety profiles in the white and Asian populations. PMID:26082642

  19. MicroRNA-433 negatively regulates the expression of thymidylate synthase (TYMS) responsible for 5-fluorouracil sensitivity in HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotanda, Keisuke; Hirota, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Nozomi; Ieiri, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Thymidylate synthase (TYMS) is an important folate-dependent enzyme in DNA synthesis and an important target for cancer chemotherapy. High TYMS expression levels in tumors are generally associated with resistance to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The cause of the variability in TYMS expression is still not fully understood, however, only a small proportion of the TYMS expression can be explained by TYMS genetic polymorphisms. The purpose of this study is to identify novel microRNAs (miRNAs) which regulate the expression of TYMS and to determine whether miRNAs binding to the 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of TYMS mRNA affect the proliferation of HeLa cells treated with 5-FU. An in silico search was performed to find potential binding sites of miRNAs in TYMS mRNA. The efficacy of predicted miRNAs at the 3′-UTR of TYMS mRNA was evaluated using a dual-luciferase reporter assay. TYMS mRNA and protein expression in HeLa cells was quantified with real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The effects of miR-433 on cell proliferative activity were determined by WST-8 assay. The overexpression of miR-433 was associated with significantly decreased reporter activity in the plasmid containing the 3′-UTR of TYMS mRNA (P < 0.01). The levels of TYMS mRNA and protein in HeLa cells were significantly decreased by the overexpression of miR-433 (P < 0.05). Furthermore, miR-433 increased inhibition of cell proliferation in HeLa cells treated with 5-FU at over 2.0 μM. The results indicate that miR-433 post-transcriptionally regulates the expression of TYMS mRNA and protein, and increases sensitivity to 5-FU in HeLa cells. This is the first report showing that a miRNA regulating TYMS expression has a significant impact on sensitivity to 5-FU treatment

  20. Characterization of differential gene expression in adrenocortical tumors harboring beta-catenin (CTNNB1) mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Julien; Lampron, Antoine; Mazzuco, Tania L; Chapman, Audrey; Bourdeau, Isabelle

    2011-07-01

    Mutations of β-catenin gene (CTNNB1) are frequent in adrenocortical adenomas (AA) and adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC). However, the target genes of β-catenin have not yet been identified in adrenocortical tumors. Our objective was to identify genes deregulated in adrenocortical tumors harboring CTNNB1 genetic alterations and nuclear accumulation of β-catenin. Microarray analysis identified a dataset of genes that were differently expressed between AA with CTNNB1 mutations and wild-type (WT) tumors. Within this dataset, the expression profiles of five genes were validated by real time-PCR (RT-PCR) in a cohort of 34 adrenocortical tissues (six AA and one ACC with CTNNB1 mutations, 13 AA and four ACC with WT CTNNB1, and 10 normal adrenal glands) and two human ACC cell lines. We then studied the effects of suppressing β-catenin transcriptional activity with the T-cell factor/β-catenin inhibitors PKF115-584 and PNU74654 on gene expression in H295R and SW13 cells. RT-PCR analysis confirmed the overexpression of ISM1, RALBP1, and PDE2A and the down-regulation of PHYHIP in five of six AA harboring CTNNB1 mutations compared with WT AA (n = 13) and normal adrenal glands (n = 10). RALBP1 and PDE2A overexpression was also confirmed at the protein level by Western blotting analysis in mutated tumors. ENC1 was specifically overexpressed in three of three AA harboring CTNNB1 point mutations. mRNA expression and protein levels of RALBP1, PDE2A, and ENC1 were decreased in a dose-dependent manner in H295R cells after treatment with PKF115-584 or PNU74654. This study identified candidate genes deregulated in CTNNB1-mutated adrenocortical tumors that may lead to a better understanding of the role of the Wnt-β-catenin pathway in adrenocortical tumorigenesis.

  1. Starch granules size distribution in superior and inferior grains of wheat is related to enzyme activities and their gene expressions during grain filling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chuanhui; Jiang, Dong; Liu, Fulai

    2010-01-01

    with the temporally change patterns of starch synthase activities and relative gene expression levels. For instance, activities of soluble and granule-bound starch synthases (designated SSS and GBSS) peaked at 20 and 24 DAF. Genes encoding isoforms of starch synthases expressed at different grain filling periods...

  2. Glycogen Synthase in Sertoli Cells: More Than Glycogenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Rodrigo; Mancilla, Héctor; Villarroel-Espíndola, Franz; Slebe, Felipe; Slebe, Juan Carlos; Méndez, Raúl; Guinovart, Joan J; Concha, Ilona I

    2016-11-01

    Sertoli cell metabolism actively maintains the nutritional needs of germ cells. It has been described that after glucose incorporation in Sertoli cells, less than 1% is converted to glycogen suggesting low levels of glycogen synthase activity. Phosphorylation of muscle glycogen synthase (MGS) at serine 640 (pS640MGS) decreases its activity, and this form of the enzyme was discovered as a non-ribosomal protein that modulates the translation of a subset of transcripts in HeLa cells. The aim of our study was to functionally characterize MGS in cultured Sertoli cells, as well as to explore this new feature related to RNA molecules. We detected MGS in the cytoplasm of Sertoli cells as well as in the nuclei. The activity rates of the enzyme were extremely low indicating that MGS is expressed but almost inactive. Protein targeting to glycogen (PTG) overexpression was performed to activate MGS by dephosphorylation. PTG induced glycogen synthesis massively, confirming that this enzyme is present but inactive. This finding correlates with high levels of pS640MGS, which were assayed by phosphatase treatment. To explore a putative new function for MGS in Sertoli cells, we performed RNA immunoprecipitation coupled to microarray studies. The results revealed that MGS co-immunoprecipitated with the several mRNAs and also rRNAs. These findings indicate that MGS is expressed Sertoli cells but in an inactive form, and also support a possibly novel feature of this metabolic enzyme associated with RNA-related molecules. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2597-2607, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Politique CERN pour le contrôle d'accès à son domaine et description de l'implantation en cours

    CERN Document Server

    Jacot, C

    1998-01-01

    Une volonté politique claire émanant de la direction du CERN et de l'Access Control Panel a chargé la section ST/MC/AC de mettre en place un concept de contrôle d'accès global et cohérent pour l'ensemble des accès au domaine et aux sites de ses accélérateurs. Cela implique que depuis l'accueil et l'enregistrement des personnes jusqu'à la gestion, la surveillance du domaine ainsi que les installations techniques de contrôle d'accès, tous ces services qui sont complémentaires sont désormais rassemblés dans une seule section. Un projet de management des autorisations fortement informatisé ainsi que la productions des cartes CERN sont en cours d'installation. De nombreuses autres installations de contrôle d'accès sont opérationnelles et d'autres sont en cours de réalisation. Toutes seront ensuite intégrées et supervisées depuis une centrale située dans le bâtiment 120, cette dernière est exploitée par une société de surveillance au bénéfice d'un contrat avec le CERN.

  4. Baseline Blood Pressure, the 2017 ACC/AHA High Blood Pressure Guidelines, and Long-Term Cardiovascular Risk in SPRINT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Pareek, Manan; Qamar, Arman

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The 2017 ACC/AHA guidelines include lower thresholds to define hypertension than previous guidelines. Little is known about the impact of these guideline changes in patients with or at high risk for cardiovascular disease. METHODS: In this exploratory analysis using baseline blood...... pressure assessments in SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial), we evaluated the prevalence and associated cardiovascular prognosis of patients newly reclassified with hypertension based on the 2017 ACC/AHA (SBP≥130mmHg or DBP≥80mmHg) compared with the JNC 7 guidelines (SBP≥140mmHg or DBP≥90mm.......4%) were newly reclassified as having hypertension based on the 2017 ACC/AHA guidelines. Over 3.3-year median follow-up, 319 patients experienced the primary endpoint (87 of whom were newly reclassified with hypertension based on the revised guidelines). Patients with hypertension based on prior guidelines...

  5. Influence of age-related changes in nitric oxide synthase-expressing neurons in the rat supraoptic nucleus on inhibition of salivary secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takehiko; Tamada, Yoshitaka; Suwa, Fumihiko

    2008-02-01

    Age-related inhibition of salivary secretion has been demonstrated in rats, and the nitric oxide (NO) present in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and the medial septal area has been reported to play an inhibitory role in the regulation of salivary secretion. In the present study, we investigated the age-related changes occurring in the NO synthase (NOS)-expressing neurons in the SON, which is related to the production of NO, and discussed the interrelation between the age-related changes in the NOS-expressing neurons and the age-related inhibition of salivary secretion. Nissl staining and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemistry were performed for young adult and aged rats. Quantitative analysis was also performed using the Nissl-stained and NADPH-d-positive neurons. Although the numbers of the Nissl-stained neurons did not change, significant age-related increases were detected in cell number, cell size and reactive density of the NADPH-d-positive neurons. Therefore, the production of NO in the SON neurons increased with age. We concluded that the age-related increase in the NO in the SON might be a factor that contributes to the age-related inhibition of salivary secretion.

  6. Isolation and characterization of an oxidosqualene cyclase gene encoding a β-amyrin synthase involved in Polygala tenuifolia Willd. saponin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Mei Lan; Lee, Dae Young; Um, Yurry; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Park, Chun Geun; Jetter, Reinhard; Kim, Ok Tae

    2014-03-01

    Expression of PtBS (Polygala tenuifolia β-amyrin synthase) led to the production of β-amyrin as sole product. Polygala tenuifolia Willdenow is a rich source of triterpene saponins, onjisaponins and polygalasaponins, used as herbal medicine to treat phlegms and for detumescence in traditional Asian healing. The Polygala saponins share the oleanane backbone structure and are, therefore, likely synthesized via β-amyrin as a common precursor. We hypothesized that, in analogy to diverse other plant species, this central intermediate should be formed by a β-amyrin synthase catalyzing the complex cyclization of oxidosqualene. This member of the oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC) family of enzymes is thus defining an important branch point between primary and secondary metabolisms, and playing a crucial role in the control of oleanane-type triterpene saponin biosynthesis. From P. tenuifolia roots, we isolated an OSC cDNA containing a reading frame of 2,289 bp nucleotides. The predicted protein of 763 amino acids (molecular weight 87.353 kDa) showed particularly high amino acid sequence identities to known β-amyrin synthases (85-87 %) and was, therefore, named PtBS. Expression of PtBS in the triterpenoid synthase-deficient yeast mutant GIL77 led to the production of β-amyrin as sole product. qRT-PCR analysis of various P. tenuifolia organs showed that PtBS transcript levels were highest in the roots, consistent with onjisaponin accumulation patterns. Therefore, we conclude that PtBS is the β-amyrin synthase enzyme catalyzing the first committed step in the biosynthesis of onjisaponins and polygalasaponins in P. tenuifolia.

  7. Expression of glycogen synthase and phosphofructokinase in muscle from type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients before and after intensive insulin treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, H; Andersen, P H; Lund, S

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether short-term appropriate insulinization of Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients in long-term poor glycaemic control (HbA1C > 9.5%) was associated with an adaptive regulation of the activity and gene expression of key proteins in muscle...... glycogen storage and glycolysis: glycogen synthase and phosphofructokinase, respectively. In nine diabetic patients biopsies of quadriceps muscle were taken before and 24-h after intensified insulin therapy and compared to findings in eight control subjects. Subcutaneous injections of rapid acting insulin...... were given at 3-h intervals to improve glycaemic control in diabetic patients (fasting plasma glucose decreased from 20.8 +/- 0.8 to 8.7 +/- 0.8 mmol/l whereas fasting serum insulin increased from 59 +/- 8 to 173 +/- 3 pmol/l). Before intensified insulin therapy, analysis of muscle biopsies from...

  8. Preparation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the methionine synthase (MetE) from Streptococcus mutans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Tian-Min; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Lan-Fen; Liang, Yu-He, E-mail: liangyh@pku.edu.cn; Su, Xiao-Dong [National Laboratory of Protein Engineering and Plant Genetic Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2006-10-01

    Methionine synthase (MetE) from S. mutans was expressed, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data have been collected to 2.2 Å resolution. The Streptococcus mutans metE gene encodes methionine synthase (MetE), which catalyzes the direct transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine in the last step of methionine synthesis. metE was cloned into pET28a and the gene product was expressed at high levels in the Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3). MetE was purified to homogeneity using Ni{sup 2+}-chelating chromatography followed by size-exclusion chromatography. Crystals of the protein were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and diffracted to 2.2 Å resolution. The crystal belongs to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 52.85, b = 99.48, c = 77.88 Å, β = 94.55°.

  9. Contribution du warrantage à l'accès des petits producteurs au ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contribution du warrantage à l'accès des petits producteurs au marché des intrants et des produits agricoles dans les communes rurales de Kléla, Fama et Zebala dans la région de Sikasso au Mali. D Sogodogo, O Dembele, S Konate, S Koumare ...

  10. The Balance of Expression of Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase and Flavonol Synthase Regulates Flavonoid Biosynthesis and Red Foliage Coloration in Crabapples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ji; Han, Zhen-yun; Zhang, Jie; Hu, YuJing; Song, Tingting; Yao, Yuncong

    2015-07-20

    Red leaf color is an attractive trait of Malus families, including crabapple (Malus spp.); however, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate the coloration. Dihydroflavonols are intermediates in the production of both colored anthocyanins and colorless flavonols, and this current study focused on the gene expression balance involved in the relative accumulation of these compounds in crabapple leaves. Levels of anthocyanins and the transcript abundances of the anthocyanin biosynthetic gene, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (McDFR) and the flavonol biosynthetic gene, flavonol synthase (McFLS), were assessed during the leaf development in two crabapple cultivars, 'Royalty' and 'Flame'. The concentrations of anthocyanins and flavonols correlated with leaf color and we propose that the expression of McDFR and McFLS influences their accumulation. Further studies showed that overexpression of McDFR, or silencing of McFLS, increased anthocyanin production, resulting in red-leaf and red fruit peel phenotypes. Conversely, elevated flavonol production and green phenotypes in crabapple leaves and apple peel were observed when McFLS was overexpressed or McDFR was silenced. These results suggest that the relative activities of McDFR and McFLS are important determinants of the red color of crabapple leaves, via the regulation of the metabolic fate of substrates that these enzymes have in common.

  11. Changes in gene expression and sensitivity of cocaine reward produced by a continuous fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Gandía, M Carmen; Aracil-Fernández, Auxiliadora; Montagud-Romero, Sandra; Aguilar, Maria A; Manzanares, Jorge; Miñarro, José; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta

    2017-08-01

    Preclinical studies report that free access to a high-fat diet (HFD) alters the response to psychostimulants. The aim of the present study was to examine how HFD exposure during adolescence modifies cocaine effects. Gene expression of CB1 and mu-opioid receptors (MOr) in the nucleus accumbens (N Acc) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) and ghrelin receptor (GHSR) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) were assessed. Mice were allowed continuous access to fat from PND 29, and the locomotor (10 mg/kg) and reinforcing effects of cocaine (1 and 6 mg/kg) on conditioned place preference (CPP) were evaluated on PND 69. Another group of mice was exposed to a standard diet until the day of post-conditioning, on which free access to the HFD began. HFD induced an increase of MOr gene expression in the N Acc, but decreased CB1 receptor in the N Acc and PFC. After fat withdrawal, the reduction of CB1 receptor in the N Acc was maintained. Gene expression of GHSR in the VTA decreased during the HFD and increased after withdrawal. Following fat discontinuation, mice exhibited increased anxiety, augmented locomotor response to cocaine, and developed CPP for 1 mg/kg cocaine. HFD reduced the number of sessions required to extinguish the preference and decreased sensitivity to drug priming-induced reinstatement. Our results suggest that consumption of a HFD during adolescence induces neurobiochemical changes that increased sensitivity to cocaine when fat is withdrawn, acting as an alternative reward.

  12. The bZIP transcription factor HY5 interacts with the promoter of the monoterpene synthase gene QH6 in modulating its rhythmic expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fei; Sun, Tian-Hu; Zhao, Lei; Pan, Xi-Wu; Lu, Shan

    2015-01-01

    The Artemisia annua L. β-pinene synthase QH6 was previously determined to be circadian-regulated at the transcriptional level, showing a rhythmic fluctuation of steady-state transcript abundances. Here we isolated both the genomic sequence and upstream promoter region of QH6. Different regulatory elements, such as G-box (TGACACGTGGCA, -421 bp from the translation initiation site) which might have effects on rhythmic gene expression, were found. Using the yeast one-hybrid and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), we confirmed that the bZIP transcription factor HY5 binds to this motif of QH6. Studies with promoter truncations before and after this motif suggested that this G-box was important for the diurnal fluctuation of the transgenic β-glucuronidase gene (GUS) transcript abundance in Arabidopsis thaliana. GUS gene driven by the promoter region immediately after G-box showed an arrhythmic expression in both light/dark (LD) and constant dark (DD) conditions, whereas the control with G-box retained its fluctuation in both LD and DD. We further transformed A. thaliana with the luciferase gene (LUC) driven by an 1400 bp fragment upstream QH6 with its G-box intact or mutated, respectively. The luciferase activity assay showed that a peak in the early morning disappeared in the mutant. Gene expression analysis also demonstrated that the rhythmic expression of LUC was abolished in the hy5-1 mutant.

  13. Analysis of metabolic networks of Streptomyces leeuwenhoekii C34 by means of a genome scale model: Prediction of modifications that enhance the production of specialized metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmilic, Valeria; Castro, Jean F; Andrews, Barbara; Asenjo, Juan A

    2018-07-01

    The first genome scale model (GSM) for Streptomyces leeuwenhoekii C34 was developed to study the biosynthesis pathways of specialized metabolites and to find metabolic engineering targets for enhancing their production. The model, iVR1007, consists of 1,722 reactions, 1,463 metabolites, and 1,007 genes, it includes the biosynthesis pathways of chaxamycins, chaxalactins, desferrioxamines, ectoine, and other specialized metabolites. iVR1007 was validated using experimental information of growth on 166 different sources of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous, showing an 83.7% accuracy. The model was used to predict metabolic engineering targets for enhancing the biosynthesis of chaxamycins and chaxalactins. Gene knockouts, such as sle03600 (L-homoserine O-acetyltransferase), and sle39090 (trehalose-phosphate synthase), that enhance the production of the specialized metabolites by increasing the pool of precursors were identified. Using the algorithm of flux scanning based on enforced objective flux (FSEOF) implemented in python, 35 and 25 over-expression targets for increasing the production of chaxamycin A and chaxalactin A, respectively, that were not directly associated with their biosynthesis routes were identified. Nineteen over-expression targets that were common to the two specialized metabolites studied, like the over-expression of the acetyl carboxylase complex (sle47660 (accA) and any of the following genes: sle44630 (accA_1) or sle39830 (accA_2) or sle27560 (bccA) or sle59710) were identified. The predicted knockouts and over-expression targets will be used to perform metabolic engineering of S. leeuwenhoekii C34 and obtain overproducer strains. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Lithium ameliorates open-field and elevated plus maze behaviors, and brain phospho-glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta expression in fragile X syndrome model mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Sun, Weiwen; Pan, Ying; Yang, Quan; Cao, Kaiyi; Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Yizhi; Chen, Mincong; Chen, Feidi; Huang, Yueling; Dai, Lijun; Chen, Shengqiang

    2013-10-01

    To investigate whether lithium modifies open-field and elevated plus maze behavior, and brain phospho-glycogen synthase kinase 3 (P-GSK3beta) expression in Fmr1 knockout mice. One hundred and eighty FVB mice, including knockout and wild type, with an age of 30 days were used. An open-field and elevated plus maze was utilized to test behavior, while western blot was used to measure the P-GSK3beta expression. Six groups were formed: control (saline), lithium chloride 30, 60, 90, 120, and 200 mg/kg. The experiments were carried out in the Institute of Neuroscience, Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China between January and June 2012. Lithium significantly decreased total distance, crossing, central area time, and center entry in the open-field test (popen-arm tracking, open-arm entry, and open-arm time in the elevated plus maze (popen-field and elevated plus maze behaviors of Fmr1 knockout mice. This effect may be related to its enhancement of P-GSK3beta expression. Our findings suggest that lithium might have a therapeutic effect in fragile X syndrome.

  15. GATEWAY Report Brief: Tunable-White Lighting at the ACC Care Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-09-30

    Summary of a GATEWAY program report that documented the performance of tunable-white LED lighting systems installed in several spaces within the ACC Care Center, a senior-care facility in Sacramento, CA. The project results included energy savings and improved lighting quality, as well as other possible health-related benefits that may have been attributable, at least in part, to the lighting changes.

  16. Isolation and characterization of novel bacteria containing acc deaminase from the rhizosphere resource on dry-farming lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, P.; Tian, L.; Chen, F.; Cui, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Soil-microbe-plant interactions are known to be intricate and they can greatly influence the crop vigor and yield. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) containing ACC deaminase can markedly affect plant metabolic processes under stress conditions. In the present study, we isolated 300 bacterial strains from the rhizosphere of maize or apple grown in drought-hit soil including four different locations of the Loess Plateau, China. Of all isolated strains, four with ACC deaminase activity (ranging from 28.88 to 155.12 nmol alpha-ketobutyrate mg-1 h-1) were further studied by determining their biological characters and sequencing the 16S rRNA gene. All four strains showed positive performance in terms of arabinose, citrate utilization, urease, indol, glucose and melibiose. In connection with the results of biochemical characters and phylogenetic analysis, these strains commonly belong to three different genera: Klebsiella, Pseudomonas and Raoultella and four different species: Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella variicola, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Raoultella planticola. Although some researchers have reported their performance under stress conditions, we are the first to report Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella variicola and Raoultella planticola containing ACC deaminase under drought stress. These findings are a reasonable explanation to their superb ability of causing stress-resistance in maize (Zea mays) or apple (Malus domestica) plants. The presence of diverse PGPR possessing potential ACC deaminase activity may be beneficial for enhancing crop production under different stress conditions. (author)

  17. Inhibition by sodium nitroprusside of the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in rat neutrophils.

    OpenAIRE

    Mariotto, S; Cuzzolin, L; Adami, A; Del Soldato, P; Suzuki, H; Benoni, G

    1995-01-01

    A well-known nitric oxide (NO)-releasing compound, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), decreases in a dose-dependent manner NO synthase (NOS) activity induced in rat neutrophils by treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This inhibitory action of SNP seems not to be due to its direct effect on the enzyme activity. The strong nitrosonium ion (NO+) character of SNP could be responsible for its inhibition of NOS induction in neutrophils.

  18. Macrophages in lung tissue from patients with pulmonary emphysema express both inducible and endothelial nitric oxide synthase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Straaten, JFM; Postma, DS; Coers, W; Noordhoek, JA; Kauffman, HF; Timens, W

    To provide information concerning a possible biologic role of nitric oxide (NO) in smoking-related emphysema, we performed immunohistochemical studies in lung tissue from control subjects and patients with mild and severe emphysema We studied the presence of inducible and endothelial NO synthases

  19. Sound the Alarm: The Effect of Narcissism on Retaliatory Aggression Is Moderated by dACC Reactivity to Rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, David S; DeWall, C Nathan

    2016-06-01

    Narcissists behave aggressively when their egos are threatened by interpersonal insults. This effect has been explained in terms of narcissists' motivation to reduce the discrepancy between their grandiose self and its threatened version, though no research has directly tested this hypothesis. If this notion is true, the link between narcissism and retaliatory aggression should be moderated by neural structures that subserve discrepancy detection, such as the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). This study tested the hypothesis that narcissism would only predict greater retaliatory aggression in response to social rejection when the dACC was recruited by the threat. Thirty participants (15 females; Mage  = 18.86, SD = 1.25; 77% White) completed a trait narcissism inventory, were socially accepted and then rejected while undergoing fMRI, and then could behave aggressively toward one of the rejecters by blasting him or her with unpleasant noise. When narcissists displayed greater dACC activation during rejection, they behaved aggressively. But there was only a weak or nonsignificant relation between narcissism and aggression among participants with a blunted dACC response. Narcissism's role in aggressive retaliation to interpersonal threats is likely determined by the extent to which the brain's discrepancy detector registers the newly created gap between the grandiose and threatened selves. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase from Scoparia dulcis and Croton sublyratus. Plastid localization and conversion to a farnesyl diphosphate synthase by mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitthithaworn, W; Kojima, N; Viroonchatapan, E; Suh, D Y; Iwanami, N; Hayashi, T; Noji, M; Saito, K; Niwa, Y; Sankawa, U

    2001-02-01

    cDNAs encoding geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPPS) of two diterpene-producing plants, Scoparia dulcis and Croton sublyratus, have been isolated using the homology-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Both clones contained highly conserved aspartate-rich motifs (DDXX(XX)D) and their N-terminal residues exhibited the characteristics of chloroplast targeting sequence. When expressed in Escherichia coli, both the full-length and truncated proteins in which the putative targeting sequence was deleted catalyzed the condensation of farnesyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate to produce geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP). The structural factors determining the product length in plant GGPPSs were investigated by constructing S. dulcis GGPPS mutants on the basis of sequence comparison with the first aspartate-rich motif (FARM) of plant farnesyl diphosphate synthase. The result indicated that in plant GGPPSs small amino acids, Met and Ser, at the fourth and fifth positions before FARM and Pro and Cys insertion in FARM play essential roles in determination of product length. Further, when a chimeric gene comprised of the putative transit peptide of the S. dulcis GGPPS gene and a green fluorescent protein was introduced into Arabidopsis leaves by particle gun bombardment, the chimeric protein was localized in chloroplasts, indicating that the cloned S. dulcis GGPPS is a chloroplast protein.

  1. Expression of mismatch repair gene PMS2 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma and regulation by glycogen synthase kinase-3β in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jugao; Lei, Wenbin; Huang, Xiaoming; Li, Pingdong; Chen, Xiaohong; Zhu, Xiaolin; Wen, Weiping; Li, Huabin

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the expression of mismatch repair gene PMS2 in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) tissues and evaluate the effect of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β on PMS2 production in vivo and in vitro. The expression of PMS2 and inactivated phosphorylated GSK-3β(s9) was examined by immunohistochemical staining in 25 NPC tissues and the relation was determined by correlation analysis. The effect of GSK-3β transfection in CNE-2 cells on PMS2 production as well as cell apoptosis and chemosensitization were evaluated using small interference RNA (siRNA), immunoblotting and flow cytometric analysis in vitro. The expression of inactivated phosphorylated GSK-3β(s9) was found to negative correlated with PMS2 in vivo. And transfected GSK-3β was found to be able to enhance PMS2 production, and increase cell apoptosis in CNE-2 cells in combination with cisplatin administration in vitro. Inactivation of GSK-3β might be important for NPC tumorgenesis through negatively regulating PMS2 production, and enhanced PMS2 production by GSK-3β is beneficial for understanding the NPC tumorgenesis and developing potential strategy for future therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Examination of thromboxane synthase as a prognostic factor and therapeutic target in non-small cell lung cancer

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cathcart, Mary-Clare

    2011-03-09

    Abstract Background Thromboxane synthase (TXS) metabolises prostaglandin H2 into thromboxanes, which are biologically active on cancer cells. TXS over-expression has been reported in a range of cancers, and associated with a poor prognosis. TXS inhibition induces cell death in-vitro, providing a rationale for therapeutic intervention. We aimed to determine the expression profile of TXS in NSCLC and if it is prognostic and\\/or a survival factor in the disease. Methods TXS expression was examined in human NSCLC and matched controls by western analysis and IHC. TXS metabolite (TXB2) levels were measured by EIA. A 204-patient NSCLC TMA was stained for COX-2 and downstream TXS expression. TXS tissue expression was correlated with clinical parameters, including overall survival. Cell proliferation\\/survival and invasion was examined in NSCLC cells following both selective TXS inhibition and stable TXS over-expression. Results TXS was over-expressed in human NSCLC samples, relative to matched normal controls. TXS and TXB2 levels were increased in protein (p < 0.05) and plasma (p < 0.01) NSCLC samples respectively. TXS tissue expression was higher in adenocarcinoma (p < 0.001) and female patients (p < 0.05). No significant correlation with patient survival was observed. Selective TXS inhibition significantly reduced tumour cell growth and increased apoptosis, while TXS over-expression stimulated cell proliferation and invasiveness, and was protective against apoptosis. Conclusion TXS is over-expressed in NSCLC, particularly in the adenocarcinoma subtype. Inhibition of this enzyme inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis. Targeting thromboxane synthase alone, or in combination with conventional chemotherapy is a potential therapeutic strategy for NSCLC.

  3. Heterologous Expression of the Clostridium carboxidivorans CO Dehydrogenase Alone or Together with the Acetyl Coenzyme A Synthase Enables both Reduction of CO2 and Oxidation of CO by Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Ellinor D; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T

    2017-08-15

    With recent advances in synthetic biology, CO 2 could be utilized as a carbon feedstock by native or engineered organisms, assuming the availability of electrons. Two key enzymes used in autotrophic CO 2 fixation are the CO dehydrogenase (CODH) and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) synthase (ACS), which form a bifunctional heterotetrameric complex. The CODH/ACS complex can reversibly catalyze CO 2 to CO, effectively enabling a biological water-gas shift reaction at ambient temperatures and pressures. The CODH/ACS complex is part of the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway (WLP) used by acetogens to fix CO 2 , and it has been well characterized in native hosts. So far, only a few recombinant CODH/ACS complexes have been expressed in heterologous hosts, none of which demonstrated in vivo CO 2 reduction. Here, functional expression of the Clostridium carboxidivorans CODH/ACS complex is demonstrated in the solventogen Clostridium acetobutylicum , which was engineered to express CODH alone or together with the ACS. Both strains exhibited CO 2 reduction and CO oxidation activities. The CODH reactions were interrogated using isotopic labeling, thus verifying that CO was a direct product of CO 2 reduction, and vice versa. CODH apparently uses a native C. acetobutylicum ferredoxin as an electron carrier for CO 2 reduction. Heterologous CODH activity depended on actively growing cells and required the addition of nickel, which is inserted into CODH without the need to express the native Ni insertase protein. Increasing CO concentrations in the gas phase inhibited CODH activity and altered the metabolite profile of the CODH-expressing cells. This work provides the foundation for engineering a complete and functional WLP in nonnative host organisms. IMPORTANCE Functional expression of CO dehydrogenase (CODH) from Clostridium carboxidivorans was demonstrated in C. acetobutylicum , which is natively incapable of CO 2 fixation. The expression of CODH, alone or together with the C. carboxidivorans

  4. Production of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid from cannabigerolic acid by whole cells of Pichia (Komagataella) pastoris expressing Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase from Cannabis sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirpel, Bastian; Stehle, Felix; Kayser, Oliver

    2015-09-01

    The Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase (THCAS) from Cannabis sativa was expressed intracellularly in different organisms to investigate the potential of a biotechnological production of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) using whole cells. Functional expression of THCAS was obtained in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia (Komagataella) pastoris using a signal peptide from the vacuolar protease, proteinase A. No functional expression was achieved in Escherichia coli. The highest volumetric activities obtained were 98 pkat ml(-1) (intracellular) and 44 pkat ml(-1) (extracellular) after 192 h of cultivation at 15 °C using P. pastoris cells. Low solubility of CBGA prevents the THCAS application in aqueous cell-free systems, thus whole cells were used for a bioconversion of cannabigerolic acid (CBGA) to THCA. Finally, 1 mM (0.36 g THCA l(-1)) THCA could be produced by 10.5 gCDW l(-1) before enzyme activity was lost. Whole cells of P. pastoris offer the capability of synthesizing pharmaceutical THCA production.

  5. Microsatellite instability and the association with plasma homocysteine and thymidylate synthase in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Henrik; Lindebjerg, Jan; Crüger, Dorthe G.

    2008-01-01

    , carcinoembryonic antigen, vitamin B12, and folate. Microsatellite instability of tumors was associated with higher levels of plasma homocysteine (p = 0.008) and higher protein expression of thymidylate synthase (p ... factors. CEA was not associated with neither homocysteine nor microsatellite instability. The data suggests that there is a more pronounced methyl unit deficiency in microsatellite instable tumors....

  6. Caveolin versus calmodulin. Counterbalancing allosteric modulators of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, J B; Feron, O; Sase, K; Prabhakar, P; Michel, T

    1997-10-10

    Nitric oxide is synthesized in diverse mammalian tissues by a family of calmodulin-dependent nitric oxide synthases. The endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is targeted to the specialized signal-transducing membrane domains termed plasmalemmal caveolae. Caveolin, the principal structural protein in caveolae, interacts with eNOS and leads to enzyme inhibition in a reversible process modulated by Ca2+-calmodulin (Michel, J. B., Feron, O., Sacks, D., and Michel, T. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 15583-15586). Caveolin also interacts with other structurally distinct signaling proteins via a specific region identified within the caveolin sequence (amino acids 82-101) that appears to subserve the role of a "scaffolding domain." We now report that the co-immunoprecipitation of eNOS with caveolin is completely and specifically blocked by an oligopeptide corresponding to the caveolin scaffolding domain. Peptides corresponding to this domain markedly inhibit nitric oxide synthase activity in endothelial membranes and interact directly with the enzyme to inhibit activity of purified recombinant eNOS expressed in Escherichia coli. The inhibition of purified eNOS by the caveolin scaffolding domain peptide is competitive and completely reversed by Ca2+-calmodulin. These studies establish that caveolin, via its scaffolding domain, directly forms an inhibitory complex with eNOS and suggest that caveolin inhibits eNOS by abrogating the enzyme's activation by calmodulin.

  7. Inhibition by sodium nitroprusside of the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in rat neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotto, S; Cuzzolin, L; Adami, A; Del Soldato, P; Suzuki, H; Benoni, G

    1995-01-01

    A well-known nitric oxide (NO)-releasing compound, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), decreases in a dose-dependent manner NO synthase (NOS) activity induced in rat neutrophils by treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This inhibitory action of SNP seems not to be due to its direct effect on the enzyme activity. The strong nitrosonium ion (NO+) character of SNP could be responsible for its inhibition of NOS induction in neutrophils. PMID:7542530

  8. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of an acridone-producing novel multifunctional type III polyketide synthase from Huperzia serrata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Hiroyuki [Mitsubishi Kagaku Institute of Life Sciences (MITILS), 11 Minamiooya, Machida, Tokyo 194-8511 (Japan); Kondo, Shin; Kato, Ryohei [Innovation Center Yokohama, Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation, 1000 Kamoshida, Aoba, Yokohama, Kanagawa 227-8502 (Japan); Wanibuchi, Kiyofumi; Noguchi, Hiroshi [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka and the COE21 Program, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); Sugio, Shigetoshi [Innovation Center Yokohama, Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation, 1000 Kamoshida, Aoba, Yokohama, Kanagawa 227-8502 (Japan); Abe, Ikuro [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka and the COE21 Program, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Kohno, Toshiyuki [Mitsubishi Kagaku Institute of Life Sciences (MITILS), 11 Minamiooya, Machida, Tokyo 194-8511 (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    An acridone-producing novel type III polyketide synthase from H. serrata has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data have been collected to 2.0 Å. Polyketide synthase 1 (PKS1) from Huperzia serrata is a plant-specific type III polyketide synthase that shows an unusually versatile catalytic potential, producing various aromatic tetraketides, including chalcones, benzophenones, phlorogulucinols and acridones. Recombinant H. serrata PKS1 expressed in Escherichia coli was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to space group I222 or I2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 73.3, b = 85.0, c = 137.7 Å, α = β = γ = 90.0°. Diffraction data were collected to 2.0 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation at BL24XU of SPring-8.

  9. Chromium downregulates the expression of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase 1 gene in lipogenic tissues of domestic goats: a potential strategy for meat quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafpanah, Mohammad Javad; Sadeghi, Mostafa; Zali, Abolfazl; Moradi-Shahrebabak, Hossein; Mousapour, Hojatollah

    2014-06-15

    Acetyl CoA Carboxylase 1 (ACC1) is a biotin-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the carboxylation of Acetyl CoA to form Malonyl CoA, the key intermediate metabolite in fatty acid synthesis. In this study, the mRNA expression of the ACC1 gene was evaluated in four different tissues (liver, visceral fat, subcutaneous fat, and longissimus muscle) of the domestic goat (Capra hircus) kids feeding on four different levels of trivalent chromium (0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5mg/day) as food supplementation. RT-qPCR technique was used for expression analyses and heat shock protein 90 gene (HSP-90) was considered as reference gene for data normalization. Our results revealed that 1.5mg/day chromium significantly reduced the expression of the ACC1 gene in liver, visceral fat, and subcutaneous fat tissues, but not in longissimus muscles (Pmeat quality in domestic animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Rapport annuel au Parlement Loi sur l'Acces à l'information

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    leonardi

    1 juil. 1983 ... recherche, la production, la programmation de l'ordinateur, la préparation, le support de substitution et la reproduction des différents documents. Les droits en vigueur sont précisés dans le Règlement sur l'accès à l'information. Seuls les droits de 5 $ exigibles au moment de la présentation des demandes.

  11. Tuning the light in senior care: Evaluating a trial LED lighting system at the ACC Care Center in Sacramento, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Robert G.; Wilkerson, Andrea M.; Samla, Connie; Bisbee, Dave

    2016-08-31

    This report summarizes the results from a trial installation of light-emitting diode (LED) lighting systems in several spaces within the ACC Care Center in Sacramento, CA. The Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) coordinated the project and invited the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to document the performance of the LED lighting systems as part of a GATEWAY evaluation. DOE tasked the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to conduct the investigation. SMUD and ACC staff coordinated and completed the design and installation of the LED systems, while PNNL and SMUD staff evaluated the photometric performance of the systems. ACC staff also track behavioral and health measures of the residents; some of those results are reported here, although PNNL staff were not directly involved in collecting or interpreting those data. The trial installation took place in a double resident room and a single resident room, and the corridor that connects those (and other) rooms to the central nurse station. Other spaces in the trial included the nurse station, a common room called the family room located near the nurse station, and the ACC administrator’s private office.

  12. Reduced AMPK-ACC and mTOR signaling in muscle from older men, and effect of resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengyao; Verdijk, Lex B; Sakamoto, Kei; Ely, Brian; van Loon, Luc J C; Musi, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key energy-sensitive enzyme that controls numerous metabolic and cellular processes. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is another energy/nutrient-sensitive kinase that controls protein synthesis and cell growth. In this study we determined whether older versus younger men have alterations in the AMPK and mTOR pathways in skeletal muscle, and examined the effect of a long term resistance type exercise training program on these signaling intermediaries. Older men had decreased AMPKα2 activity and lower phosphorylation of AMPK and its downstream signaling substrate acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). mTOR phosphylation also was reduced in muscle from older men. Exercise training increased AMPKα1 activity in older men, however, AMPKα2 activity, and the phosphorylation of AMPK, ACC and mTOR, were not affected. In conclusion, older men have alterations in the AMPK-ACC and mTOR pathways in muscle. In addition, prolonged resistance type exercise training induces an isoform-selective up regulation of AMPK activity. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. The expression of endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase and apoptosis in intestinal ischemia and reperfusion injury under the action of ischemic preconditioning and pentoxifylline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Teresinha Regina Ribeiro de; Oliveira, Geraldo Ferreira de; Simões, Ricardo Santos; Feitosa, Suellen Maurim; Tikazawa, Eduardo Hiroshi; Monteiro, Hugo Pequeno; Fagundes, Djalma José; Taha, Murched Omar

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and apoptosis associated with ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and pentoxifylline (PTX) in intestinal ischemia (I) and reperfusion (R) injury. Thirty male rats were assigned to 5 groups: (CG), no clamping of the superior mesenteric artery (90 minutes); (IR-SS) saline + ischemia (30 minutes) + reperfusion (60 minutes); (IR-PTX) PTX + ischemia (30 minutes) + reperfusion (60 minutes); (IPC-IR-SS) 5 minutes of ischemia + 5 minutes of reperfusion (IPC) + saline + I(30 minutes)+R(60 minutes); and (IPC-IR-PTX) IPC + PTX + I(30 minutes)+ R(60 minutes). The application of IPC and PTX showed a significantly lower immunohistochemistry reaction for active caspase-3 (P0.05). The NOS-2 expression (qRTPCR) in the IR-PTX group (P<0.05) was higher than the values for the IPC+IR-SS and IPC-IR-PTX groups. The NOS-3 expression was significantly upper in the IPC-IR-PTX group than in the CG (P<0.05), the IR-SS (P<0.05) and the IR-PTX (P<0.05) groups. The BCL-2 and active caspase-3 showed beneficial effects on PTX and IPC. The expression of NOS-2 and NOS-3 in the IPC and IPC-PTX groups showed no synergistic effect.

  14. Molecular and biochemical characterization of caffeine synthase and purine alkaloid concentration in guarana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimpl, Flávia Camila; Kiyota, Eduardo; Mayer, Juliana Lischka Sampaio; Gonçalves, José Francisco de Carvalho; da Silva, José Ferreira; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2014-09-01

    Guarana seeds have the highest caffeine concentration among plants accumulating purine alkaloids, but in contrast with coffee and tea, practically nothing is known about caffeine metabolism in this Amazonian plant. In this study, the levels of purine alkaloids in tissues of five guarana cultivars were determined. Theobromine was the main alkaloid that accumulated in leaves, stems, inflorescences and pericarps of fruit, while caffeine accumulated in the seeds and reached levels from 3.3% to 5.8%. In all tissues analysed, the alkaloid concentration, whether theobromine or caffeine, was higher in young/immature tissues, then decreasing with plant development/maturation. Caffeine synthase activity was highest in seeds of immature fruit. A nucleotide sequence (PcCS) was assembled with sequences retrieved from the EST database REALGENE using sequences of caffeine synthase from coffee and tea, whose expression was also highest in seeds from immature fruit. The PcCS has 1083bp and the protein sequence has greater similarity and identity with the caffeine synthase from cocoa (BTS1) and tea (TCS1). A recombinant PcCS allowed functional characterization of the enzyme as a bifunctional CS, able to catalyse the methylation of 7-methylxanthine to theobromine (3,7-dimethylxanthine), and theobromine to caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine), respectively. Among several substrates tested, PcCS showed higher affinity for theobromine, differing from all other caffeine synthases described so far, which have higher affinity for paraxanthine. When compared to previous knowledge on the protein structure of coffee caffeine synthase, the unique substrate affinity of PcCS is probably explained by the amino acid residues found in the active site of the predicted protein. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of centrally administered C75, a fatty acid synthase inhibitor, on gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lai-Fu; Lu, Yan-Yu; Xiong, Wei; Liu, Juan-Ying; Chen, Qiang

    2008-10-24

    The central or systemic administration of 3-carboxy-4-octyl-2-methylenebutyrolactone (C75), a synthetic inhibitor of fatty acid synthase (FAS), causes anorexia and profound weight loss in rodents. The amount of food intake and gastrointestinal mobility are closely related. In this study, an attempt has been made to investigate the effects and mechanisms of C75 on gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit after intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection in mice. Our data showed that C75 (1, 5, 10 microg/mouse) dose-dependently delayed gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit in fasted mice. 10 microg C75 delayed gastric emptying by about 21.4% and reduced gastrointestinal transit by about 31.0% compared with vehicle control group. Administration (i.c.v.) of 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid (TOFA, an acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) inhibitor) or ghrelin attenuated the delayed gastrointestinal mobility effect induced by 10 microg C75. Taken together, C75 is able to decrease gastrointestinal mobility and it seems possible that malonyl-CoA and ghrelin might play an intermediary role in these processes.

  16. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 regulates expression of nuclear factor-erythroid-2 related transcription factor-1 (Nrf1) and inhibits pro-survival function of Nrf1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Madhurima; Kwong, Erick K.; Park, Eujean; Nagra, Parminder; Chan, Jefferson Y., E-mail: jchan@uci.edu

    2013-08-01

    Nuclear factor E2-related factor-1 (Nrf1) is a basic leucine zipper transcription factor that is known to regulate antioxidant and cytoprotective gene expression. It was recently shown that Nrf1 is regulated by SCF–Fbw7 ubiquitin ligase. However our knowledge of upstream signals that targets Nrf1 for degradation by the UPS is not known. We report here that Nrf1 expression is negatively regulated by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) in Fbw7-dependent manner. We show that GSK3 interacts with Nrf1 and phosphorylates the Cdc4 phosphodegron domain (CPD) in Nrf1. Mutation of serine residue in the CPD of Nrf1 to alanine (S350A), blocks Nrf1 from phosphorylation by GSK3, and stabilizes Nrf1. Knockdown of Nrf1 and expression of a constitutively active form of GSK3 results in increased apoptosis in neuronal cells in response to ER stress, while expression of the GSK3 phosphorylation resistant S350A–Nrf1 attenuates apoptotic cell death. Together these data suggest that GSK3 regulates Nrf1 expression and cell survival function in response to stress activation. Highlights: • The effect of GSK3 on Nrf1 expression was examined. • GSK3 destabilizes Nrf1 protein via Fbw7 ubiquitin ligase. • GSK3 binds and phosphorylates Nrf1. • Protection from stress-induced apoptosis by Nrf1 is inhibited by GSK3.

  17. Myo-inositol phosphate synthase expression in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): effect of seawater acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalujnaia, Svetlana; Hazon, Neil; Cramb, Gordon

    2016-08-01

    A single MIPS gene (Isyna1/Ino1) exists in eel and tilapia genomes with a single myo-d-inositol 3-phosphate synthase (MIPS) transcript identified in all eel tissues, although two MIPS spliced variants [termed MIPS(s) and MIPS(l)] are found in all tilapia tissues. The larger tilapia transcript [MIPS(l)] results from the inclusion of the 87-nucleotide intron between exons 5 and 6 in the genomic sequence. In most tilapia tissues, the MIPS(s) transcript exhibits much higher abundance (generally >10-fold) with the exception of white skeletal muscle and oocytes, in which the MIPS(l) transcript predominates. SW acclimation resulted in large (6- to 32-fold) increases in mRNA expression for both MIPS(s) and MIPS(l) in all tilapia tissues tested, whereas in the eel, changes in expression were limited to a more modest 2.5-fold increase and only in the kidney. Western blots identified a number of species- and tissue-specific immunoreactive MIPS proteins ranging from 40 to 67 kDa molecular weight. SW acclimation failed to affect the abundance of any immunoreactive protein in any tissue tested from the eel. However, a major 67-kDa immunoreactive protein (presumed to be MIPS) found in tilapia tissues exhibited 11- and 54-fold increases in expression in gill and fin samples from SW-acclimated fish. Immunohistochemical investigations revealed specific immunoreactivity in the gill, fin, skin, and intestine taken from only SW-acclimated tilapia. Immunofluorescence indicated that MIPS was expressed within gill chondrocytes and epithelial cells of the primary filaments, basal epithelial cell layers of the skin and fin, the cytosol of columnar intestinal epithelial and mucous cells, as well as unknown entero-endocrine-like cells. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Examination of thromboxane synthase as a prognostic factor and therapeutic target in non-small cell lung cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cathcart, Mary-Clare

    2011-03-01

    Thromboxane synthase (TXS) metabolises prostaglandin H2 into thromboxanes, which are biologically active on cancer cells. TXS over-expression has been reported in a range of cancers, and associated with a poor prognosis. TXS inhibition induces cell death in-vitro, providing a rationale for therapeutic intervention. We aimed to determine the expression profile of TXS in NSCLC and if it is prognostic and\\/or a survival factor in the disease.

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of strictosidine synthase from Rauvolfia: the first member of a novel enzyme family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xueyan; Koepke, Juergen; Fritzsch, Günter; Diem, Ralf; Kutchan, Toni M; Michel, Hartmut; Stöckigt, Joachim

    2004-10-01

    Strictosidine synthase is a central enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of almost all plant monoterpenoid indole alkaloids. Strictosidine synthase from Rauvolfia serpentina was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. Crystals of the purified recombinant enzyme have been obtained by the hanging-drop technique at 303 K with potassium sodium tartrate tetrahydrate as precipitant. The crystals belong to the space group R3 with cell dimensions of a=b=150.3 A and c=122.4 A. Under cryoconditions (120 K), the crystals diffract to about 2.95 A.

  20. The Eucalyptus terpene synthase gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külheim, Carsten; Padovan, Amanda; Hefer, Charles; Krause, Sandra T; Köllner, Tobias G; Myburg, Alexander A; Degenhardt, Jörg; Foley, William J

    2015-06-11

    Terpenoids are abundant in the foliage of Eucalyptus, providing the characteristic smell as well as being valuable economically and influencing ecological interactions. Quantitative and qualitative inter- and intra- specific variation of terpenes is common in eucalypts. The genome sequences of Eucalyptus grandis and E. globulus were mined for terpene synthase genes (TPS) and compared to other plant species. We investigated the relative expression of TPS in seven plant tissues and functionally characterized five TPS genes from E. grandis. Compared to other sequenced plant genomes, Eucalyptus grandis has the largest number of putative functional TPS genes of any sequenced plant. We discovered 113 and 106 putative functional TPS genes in E. grandis and E. globulus, respectively. All but one TPS from E. grandis were expressed in at least one of seven plant tissues examined. Genomic clusters of up to 20 genes were identified. Many TPS are expressed in tissues other than leaves which invites a re-evaluation of the function of terpenes in Eucalyptus. Our data indicate that terpenes in Eucalyptus may play a wider role in biotic and abiotic interactions than previously thought. Tissue specific expression is common and the possibility of stress induction needs further investigation. Phylogenetic comparison of the two investigated Eucalyptus species gives insight about recent evolution of different clades within the TPS gene family. While the majority of TPS genes occur in orthologous pairs some clades show evidence of recent gene duplication, as well as loss of function.

  1. Genome-wide identification, classification and expression profiling of nicotianamine synthase (NAS) gene family in maize

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Xiaojin; Li, Suzhen; Zhao, Qianqian; Liu, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Shaojun; Sun, Cheng; Fan, Yunliu; Zhang, Chunyi; Chen, Rumei

    2013-01-01

    Background Nicotianamine (NA), a ubiquitous molecule in plants, is an important metal ion chelator and the main precursor for phytosiderophores biosynthesis. Considerable progress has been achieved in cloning and characterizing the functions of nicotianamine synthase (NAS) in plants including barley, Arabidopsis and rice. Maize is not only an important cereal crop, but also a model plant for genetics and evolutionary study. The genome sequencing of maize was completed, and many gene families ...

  2. Comparative effectiveness of ACC-deaminase and/or nitrogen-fixing rhizobacteria in promotion of maize (Zea mays L.) growth under lead pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Waseem; Bano, Rizwana; Bashir, Farhat; David, Julie

    2014-09-01

    Lead (Pb) pollution is appearing as an alarming threat nowadays. Excessive Pb concentrations in agricultural soils result in minimizing the soil fertility and health which affects the plant growth and leads to decrease in crop production. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are beneficial bacteria which can protect the plants against many abiotic stresses, and enhance the growth. The study aimed to identify important rhizobacterial strains by using the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) enrichment technique and examine their inoculation effects in the growth promotion of maize, under Pb pollution. A pot experiment was conducted and six rhizobacterial isolates were used. Pb was added to 2 kg soil in each pot (with 4 seeds/pot) using Pb(NO3)2 at the rate of 0, 100, 200, 300, and 400 mg kg(-1) Pb with three replications in completely randomized design. Rhizobacterial isolates performed significantly better under all Pb levels, i.e., 100 to 400 Pb mg kg(-1) soil, compared to control. Comparing the efficacy of the rhizobacterial isolates under different Pb levels, rhizobacterial isolates having both ACC-deaminase and nitrogen-fixing activities (AN8 and AN12) showed highest increase in terms of the physical, chemical and enzymatic growth parameters of maize, followed by the rhizobacterial isolates having ACC-deaminase activity only (ACC5 and ACC8), and then the nitrogen-fixing rhizobia (Azotobacter and RN5). However, the AN8 isolate showed maximum efficiency, and highest shoot and root length (14.2 and 6.1 cm), seedling fresh and dry weights (1.91 and 0.14 g), chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids (24.1, 30.2 and 77.7 μg/l), protein (0.82 mg/g), proline (3.42 μmol/g), glutathione S-transferase, peroxidase and catalase (12.3, 4.2 and 7.2 units/mg protein), while the lowest Pb uptake in the shoot and root (0.83 and 0.48 mg/kg) were observed under this rhizobial isolate at the highest Pb level (i.e., 400 Pb mg kg(-1) soil). The results revealed that PGPR

  3. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in endotoxemic rat hepatocytes is dependent on the cellular glutathione status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, TA; van Goor, H; Tuyt, L; de Jager-Krikken, A; Leuvenink, R; Kuipers, F; Jansen, PLM; Moshage, H

    The inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) promoter contains nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) binding sites. NF-kappa B activation is determined, in part, by the intracellular redox status, The aim of this study was to determine the importance of the cellular glutathione status in relation to

  4. The bZIP transcription factor HY5 interacts with the promoter of the monoterpene synthase gene QH6 in modulating its rhythmic expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei eZhou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Artemisia annua L. β-pinene synthase QH6 was previously determined to be circadian-regulated at the transcriptional level, showing a rhythmic fluctuation of steady-state transcript abundances. Here we isolated both the genomic sequence and upstream promoter region of QH6. Different regulatory elements, such as G-box (TGACACGTGGCA, -421 bp from the translation initiation site which might have effects on rhythmic gene expression, were found. Using the yeast one-hybrid and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA, we confirmed that the bZIP transcription factor HY5 binds to this motif of QH6. Studies with promoter truncations before and after this motif suggested that this G-box was important for the diurnal fluctuation of the transgenic β-glucuronidase gene (GUS transcript abundance in Arabidopsis thaliana. GUS gene driven by the promoter region immediately after G-box showed an arrhythmic expression in both light/dark (LD and constant dark (DD conditions, whereas the control with G-box retained its fluctuation in both LD and DD. We further transformed A. thaliana with the luciferase gene (LUC driven by an 1400 bp fragment upstream QH6 with its G-box intact or mutated, respectively. The luciferase activity assay showed that a peak in the early morning disappeared in the mutant. Gene expression analysis also demonstrated that the rhythmic expression of LUC was abolished in the hy5-1 mutant.

  5. Formation of wood secondary cell wall may involve two type cellulose synthase complexes in Populus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Wang; Song, Dongliang; Sun, Jiayan; Shen, Junhui; Li, Laigeng

    2017-03-01

    Cellulose biosynthesis is mediated by cellulose synthases (CesAs), which constitute into rosette-like cellulose synthase complexe (CSC) on the plasma membrane. Two types of CSCs in Arabidopsis are believed to be involved in cellulose synthesis in the primary cell wall and secondary cell walls, respectively. In this work, we found that the two type CSCs participated cellulose biosynthesis in differentiating xylem cells undergoing secondary cell wall thickening in Populus. During the cell wall thickening process, expression of one type CSC genes increased while expression of the other type CSC genes decreased. Suppression of different type CSC genes both affected the wall-thickening and disrupted the multilaminar structure of the secondary cell walls. When CesA7A was suppressed, crystalline cellulose content was reduced, which, however, showed an increase when CesA3D was suppressed. The CesA suppression also affected cellulose digestibility of the wood cell walls. The results suggest that two type CSCs are involved in coordinating the cellulose biosynthesis in formation of the multilaminar structure in Populus wood secondary cell walls.

  6. Changes in hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism-related parameters in domestic pigeon (Columba livia) during incubation and chick rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, X P; Xie, P; Bu, Z; Zou, X T

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism-related parameters of adult male and female White King pigeons (Columba livia) during incubation and chick rearing. At day 4 (I4), 10 (I10) and 17 (I17) of incubation and day 1 (R1), 7 (R7), 15 (R15) and 25 (R25) of chick rearing, livers were sampled from six pigeons for each sex. Glycogen and fat contents, activities of glycolytic enzymes (hexokinase, HK; 6-phosphofructokinase, 6-PFK), and genes expressions of key enzymes involved in glycolysis (pyruvate kinase, PK; glucokinase, GK), gluconeogenesis (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase cytosolic, PCK1; fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, FBP1; glucose-6-phosphatase, G6Pase), fatty acid synthesis (fatty acid synthase, FAS; acetyl-CoA carboxylase, ACC) and fatty acid β-oxidation (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, CPT1; acyl-CoA 1, ACO) were measured. In male and female pigeon livers, glycogen content and HK activity dramatically increased after I17 and after R1, respectively; expressions of FBP1 and G6Pase genes were maximized at R15; activity of 6-PFK and expressions of PK and CPT1 genes were highest at R7; fat content and expressions of FAS and ACC genes steeply increased from I10 to R1. In females, hepatic expressions of GK and PCK1 genes were greatest at R7 and I17, respectively; however, in males, both of them were maximized at R15. Hepatic expression of ACO gene was significantly enhanced at R1 compared to I17 and R7 in males, whereas it was notably up-regulated at I17 and R7 in females. Furthermore, expressions of PCK1, GK, FAS and ACC genes were in significant relation to fat content in the livers of female pigeons, while fat content in male pigeons was highly correlated with expression of PCK1, ACC, CPT1 and ACO genes. In conclusion, regulations of glucose and lipid metabolic processes were enhanced in parent pigeon livers from terminal phases of incubation to mid phase of chick rearing with sexual effects. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Molecular cloning and expression profile of ß-ketoacyl-acp synthase gene from tung tree (Vernicia fordii Hemsl.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung tree (Vernicia fordii) is an important woody oil tree. Tung tree seeds contain 50-60% oil with approximately 80 mole a-eleostearic acid (9cis, 11trans, 13trans octadecatrienoic acid). Fatty acid synthesis is catalyzed by the concerted action of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase, a ...

  8. Eckmaxol, a Phlorotannin Extracted from Ecklonia maxima, Produces Anti-β-amyloid Oligomer Neuroprotective Effects Possibly via Directly Acting on Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jialing; Zheng, Jiachen; Huang, Chunhui; Zhao, Jiaying; Lin, Jiajia; Zhou, Xuezhen; Naman, C Benjamin; Wang, Ning; Gerwick, William H; Wang, Qinwen; Yan, Xiaojun; Cui, Wei; He, Shan

    2018-04-10

    Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that mainly affects the elderly. Soluble β-amyloid oligomer, which can induce neurotoxicity, is generally regarded as the main neurotoxin in Alzheimer's disease. Here we report that eckmaxol, a phlorotannin extracted from the brown alga Ecklonia maxima, could produce neuroprotective effects in SH-SY5Y cells. Eckmaxol effectively prevented but did not rescue β-amyloid oligomer-induced neuronal apoptosis and increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Eckmaxol also significantly reversed the decreased expression of phospho-Ser9-glycogen synthase kinase 3β and increased expression of phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase, which was induced by Aβ oligomer. Moreover, both glycogen synthase kinase 3β and mitogen activated protein kinase inhibitors produced neuroprotective effects in SH-SY5Y cells. Furthermore, eckmaxol showed favorable interaction in the ATP binding site of glycogen synthase kinase 3β and mitogen activated protein kinase. These results suggested that eckmaxol might produce neuroprotective effects via concurrent inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3β and extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathways, possibly via directly acting on glycogen synthase kinase 3β and mitogen activated protein kinase. Based on the central role that β-amyloid oligomers play in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and the high annual production of Ecklonia maxima for alginate and other nutritional ingredients, this report represents a new candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, and also expands the potential application of Ecklonia maxima and its constituents in the field of pharmacology.

  9. [Cellulose synthase genes that control the fiber formation of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinovskiĭ, D V; Anisimova, N V; Raĭskiĭ, A P; Leont'ev, V N; Titok, V V; Hotyleva, L V

    2014-01-01

    Four cellulose synthase genes were identified by analysis of their class-specific regions (CSRII) in plants of fiber flax during the "rapid growth" stage. These genes were designated as LusCesA1, LusCesA4, LusCesA7 and LusCesA9. LusCesA4, LusCesA7, and LusCesA9 genes were expressed in the stem; LusCesA1 and LusCesA4 genes were expressed in the apex part of plants, and the LusCesA4 gene was expressed in the leaves of fiber flax. The expression of the LusCesA7 and LusCesA9 genes was specific to the stems of fiber flax. These genes may influence the quality of the flax fiber.

  10. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) contributes to neuropathic spontaneous pain-related aversion via NR2B receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Le; Wang, Gongming; Ma, Jinben; Liu, Chengxiao; Liu, Xijiang; Zhan, Yufeng; Zhang, Mengyuan

    2016-10-01

    The rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) plays an important role in pain affect. Previous investigations have reported that the rACC mediates the negative affective component of inflammatory pain and contributed to the aversive state of nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an activity-dependent neuromodulator in the adult brain, is believed to play a role in the development and maintenance of inflammatory and neuropathic pain in the spinal cord. However, whether and how BDNF in the rACC regulates pain-related aversion due to peripheral nerve injury is largely unknown. Behaviorally, using conditioned place preference (CPP) training in rats, which is thought to reveal spontaneous pain-related aversion, we found that CPP was acquired following spinal clonidine in rats with partial sciatic nerve transection. Importantly, BDNF was upregulated within the rACC in of rats with nerve injury and enhanced the CPP acquisition, while a local injection of a BDNF-tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) antagonist into the rACC completely blocked this process. Finally, we demonstrated that the BDNF/TrkB pathway exerted its function by activating the NR2B receptor, which is widely accepted to be a crucial factor contributing to pain affect. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the BDNF/TrkB-mediated signaling pathway in the rACC is involved in the development of neuropathic spontaneous pain-related aversion and that this process is dependent upon activation of NR2B receptors. These findings suggest that suppression of the BDNF-related signaling pathway in the rACC may provide a novel strategy to overcome pain-related aversion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Morphological alterations and NO-synthase expression in the heart after continuous light exposure of rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paulis, L.; Važan, R.; Šimko, F.; Pecháňová, Olga; Styk, J.; Babál, P.; Janega, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 56, Suppl.2 (2007), S71-S76 ISSN 0862-8408 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 1/3429/06; VEGA(SK) 2/6148/26; VEGA(SK) 2/5110/25; -(SK) 29/2007; -(SK) 30/2007; -(SK) SP51/0280900/0280901; -(SK) APVT-51-027404; -(SK) APVT51-018004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : myocardium * collagen I/III * nitric oxide synthase Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 1.505, year: 2007

  12. Chrysanthemum expressing a linalool synthase gene 'smells good', but 'tastes bad' to western flower thrips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Ting; Stoopen, Geert; Thoen, Manus

    2013-01-01

    Herbivore-induced plant volatiles are often involved in direct and indirect plant defence against herbivores. Linalool is a common floral scent and found to be released from leaves by many plants after herbivore attack. In this study, a linalool/nerolidol synthase, FaNES1, was overexpressed...... less preferred by WFT. Considering the common occurrence of linalool and its glycosides in plant tissues, it suggests that plants may balance attractive fragrance with 'poor taste' using the same precursor compound....

  13. Optimatization of transient transformation methods to study gene expression in Musa acuminata (AAA group) cultivar Ambon Lumut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayuni, Kinasih; Dwivany, Fenny M.

    2015-09-01

    Banana is classified as a climateric fruit, whose ripening is regulated by ethylene. Ethylene is synthesized from ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) by ACC oxidase enzyme which is encoded by ACO gene. Controling an important gene expression in ethylene biosynthesis pathway has became a target to delay the ripening process. Therefore in the previous study we have designed a MaACO-RNAi construct to control MaACO gene expression. In this research, we study the effectiveness of different transient transformation methods to deliver the construct. Direct injection, with or no vaccum infiltration methods were used to deliver MaACO-RNAi construct. All of the methods succesfully deliver the construct into banana fruits based on RT-PCR result.

  14. Transcriptome mining, functional characterization, and phylogeny of a large terpene synthase gene family in spruce (Picea spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dullat Harpreet K

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In conifers, terpene synthases (TPSs of the gymnosperm-specific TPS-d subfamily form a diverse array of mono-, sesqui-, and diterpenoid compounds, which are components of the oleoresin secretions and volatile emissions. These compounds contribute to defence against herbivores and pathogens and perhaps also protect against abiotic stress. Results The availability of extensive transcriptome resources in the form of expressed sequence tags (ESTs and full-length cDNAs in several spruce (Picea species allowed us to estimate that a conifer genome contains at least 69 unique and transcriptionally active TPS genes. This number is comparable to the number of TPSs found in any of the sequenced and well-annotated angiosperm genomes. We functionally characterized a total of 21 spruce TPSs: 12 from Sitka spruce (P. sitchensis, 5 from white spruce (P. glauca, and 4 from hybrid white spruce (P. glauca × P. engelmannii, which included 15 monoterpene synthases, 4 sesquiterpene synthases, and 2 diterpene synthases. Conclusions The functional diversity of these characterized TPSs parallels the diversity of terpenoids found in the oleoresin and volatile emissions of Sitka spruce and provides a context for understanding this chemical diversity at the molecular and mechanistic levels. The comparative characterization of Sitka spruce and Norway spruce diterpene synthases revealed the natural occurrence of TPS sequence variants between closely related spruce species, confirming a previous prediction from site-directed mutagenesis and modelling.

  15. Attenuation of pCREB and Egr1 expression in the insular and anterior cingulate cortices associated with enhancement of CFA-evoked mechanical hypersensitivity after repeated forced swim stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbe, Hiroki; Kimura, Akihisa

    2017-09-01

    The perception and response to pain are severely impacted by exposure to stressors. In some animal models, stress increases pain sensitivity, which is termed stress-induced hyperalgesia (SIH). The insular cortex (IC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which are typically activated by noxious stimuli, affect pain perception through the descending pain modulatory system. In the present study, we examined the expression of phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) and early growth response 1 (Egr1) in the IC and ACC at 3h (the acute phase of peripheral tissue inflammation) after complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injection in naïve rats and rats preconditioned with forced swim stress (FS) to clarify the effect of FS, a stressor, on cortical cell activities in the rats showing SIH induced by FS. The CFA injection into the hindpaw induced mechanical hypersensitivity and increased the expression of the pCREB and Egr1 in the IC and ACC at 3h after the injection. FS (day 1, 10min; days 2-3, 20min) prior to the CFA injection enhanced the CFA-induced mechanical hypersensitivity and attenuated the increase in the expression of pCREB and Egr1 in the IC and ACC. These findings suggested that FS modulates the CFA injection-induced neuroplasticity in the IC and ACC to enhance the mechanical hypersensitivity. These findings are thought to signify stressor-induced dysfunction of the descending pain modulatory system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A comparison of native GPU computing versus OpenACC for implementing flow-routing algorithms in hydrological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Antonio J.; Noguera, José M.; Luque, Adrián

    2016-02-01

    In recent years GPU computing has gained wide acceptance as a simple low-cost solution for speeding up computationally expensive processing in many scientific and engineering applications. However, in most cases accelerating a traditional CPU implementation for a GPU is a non-trivial task that requires a thorough refactorization of the code and specific optimizations that depend on the architecture of the device. OpenACC is a promising technology that aims at reducing the effort required to accelerate C/C++/Fortran code on an attached multicore device. Virtually with this technology the CPU code only has to be augmented with a few compiler directives to identify the areas to be accelerated and the way in which data has to be moved between the CPU and GPU. Its potential benefits are multiple: better code readability, less development time, lower risk of errors and less dependency on the underlying architecture and future evolution of the GPU technology. Our aim with this work is to evaluate the pros and cons of using OpenACC against native GPU implementations in computationally expensive hydrological applications, using the classic D8 algorithm of O'Callaghan and Mark for river network extraction as case-study. We implemented the flow accumulation step of this algorithm in CPU, using OpenACC and two different CUDA versions, comparing the length and complexity of the code and its performance with different datasets. We advance that although OpenACC can not match the performance of a CUDA optimized implementation (×3.5 slower in average), it provides a significant performance improvement against a CPU implementation (×2-6) with by far a simpler code and less implementation effort.

  17. Yeast PAH1-encoded phosphatidate phosphatase controls the expression of CHO1-encoded phosphatidylserine synthase for membrane phospholipid synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Gil-Soo; Carman, George M

    2017-08-11

    The PAH1 -encoded phosphatidate phosphatase (PAP), which catalyzes the committed step for the synthesis of triacylglycerol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae , exerts a negative regulatory effect on the level of phosphatidate used for the de novo synthesis of membrane phospholipids. This raises the question whether PAP thereby affects the expression and activity of enzymes involved in phospholipid synthesis. Here, we examined the PAP-mediated regulation of CHO1 -encoded phosphatidylserine synthase (PSS), which catalyzes the committed step for the synthesis of major phospholipids via the CDP-diacylglycerol pathway. The lack of PAP in the pah1 Δ mutant highly elevated PSS activity, exhibiting a growth-dependent up-regulation from the exponential to the stationary phase of growth. Immunoblot analysis showed that the elevation of PSS activity results from an increase in the level of the enzyme encoded by CHO1 Truncation analysis and site-directed mutagenesis of the CHO1 promoter indicated that Cho1 expression in the pah1 Δ mutant is induced through the inositol-sensitive upstream activation sequence (UAS INO ), a cis -acting element for the phosphatidate-controlled Henry (Ino2-Ino4/Opi1) regulatory circuit. The abrogation of Cho1 induction and PSS activity by a CHO1 UAS INO mutation suppressed pah1 Δ effects on lipid synthesis, nuclear/endoplasmic reticulum membrane morphology, and lipid droplet formation, but not on growth at elevated temperature. Loss of the DGK1 -encoded diacylglycerol kinase, which converts diacylglycerol to phosphatidate, partially suppressed the pah1 Δ-mediated induction of Cho1 and PSS activity. Collectively, these data showed that PAP activity controls the expression of PSS for membrane phospholipid synthesis. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Selection of efficient salt-tolerant bacteria containing ACC deaminase for promotion of tomato growth under salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannika Chookietwattana* and Kedsukon Maneewan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available For successful application of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB in salt-affected soil, bioinoculant with salt-tolerant property is required in order to provide better survival and perform well in the field. The present study aimed to select the most efficient salt-tolerant bacterium containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC deaminase from eighty four bacterial strains and to investigate the effects of the selected bacterium on the germination and growth of tomato (Licopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Seeda under saline conditions. The Bacillus licheniformis B2r was selected for its ability to utilize ACC as a sole nitrogen source under salinity stress. It also showed a high ACC deaminase activity at 0.6 M NaCl salinity. Tomato plants inoculated with the selected bacterium under various saline conditions (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM NaCl revealed a significant increase in the germination percentage, germination index, root length, and seedling dry weight especially at salinity levels ranging from 30-90 mM NaCl. The work described in this report is an important step in developing an efficient salt-tolerant bioinoculant to facilitate plant growth in saline soil.

  19. Cloning and functional characterization of β-phellandrene synthase from Lavandula angustifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Zerihun A; Sarker, Lukman S; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2011-04-01

    En route to building genomics resources for Lavandula, we have obtained over 14,000 ESTs for leaves and flowers of L. angustifolia, a major essential oil crop, and identified a number of previously uncharacterized terpene synthase (TPS) genes. Here we report the cloning, expression in E. coli, and functional characterization of β-phellandrene synthase, LaβPHLS. The ORF--excluding the transit peptide--for this gene encoded a 62.3 kDa protein that contained all conserved motifs present in plant TPSs. Expression in bacteria resulted in the production of a soluble protein that was purified by Ni-NTA agarose affinity chromatography. While the recombinant LaβPHLS did not utilize FPP as a substrate, it converted GPP (the preferred substrate) and NPP into β-phellandrene as the major product, with K (m) and k (cat) of 6.55 μM and 1.75 × 10(-2) s(-1), respectively, for GPP. The LaβPHLS transcripts were highly abundant in young leaves where β-phellandrene is produced, but were barely detectable in flowers and older leaves, where β-phellandrene is not synthesized in significant quantities. This data indicate that β-phellandrene biosynthesis is transcriptionally and developmentally regulated. We also cloned and expressed in E. coli a second TPS-like protein, LaTPS-I, that lacks an internal stretch of 73 amino acids, including the signature DDxxD divalent metal binding motif, compared to other plant TPSs. The recombinant LaTPS-I did not produce detectable products in vitro when assayed with GPP, NPP or FPP as substrates. The lack of activity is most likely due to the absence of catalytically important amino acid residues within the missing region.

  20. Genomic Analysis of Terpene Synthase Family and Functional Characterization of Seven Sesquiterpene Synthases from Citrus sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Alquézar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Citrus aroma and flavor, chief traits of fruit quality, are derived from their high content in essential oils of most plant tissues, including leaves, stems, flowers, and fruits. Accumulated in secretory cavities, most components of these oils are volatile terpenes. They contribute to defense against herbivores and pathogens, and perhaps also protect tissues against abiotic stress. In spite of their importance, our understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and genetic regulation of citrus terpene volatiles is still limited. The availability of the sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck genome sequence allowed us to characterize for the first time the terpene synthase (TPS family in a citrus type. CsTPS is one of the largest angiosperm TPS families characterized so far, formed by 95 loci from which just 55 encode for putative functional TPSs. All TPS angiosperm families, TPS-a, TPS-b, TPS-c, TPS-e/f, and TPS-g were represented in the sweet orange genome, with 28, 18, 2, 2, and 5 putative full length genes each. Additionally, sweet orange β-farnesene synthase, (Z-β-cubebene/α-copaene synthase, two β-caryophyllene synthases, and three multiproduct enzymes yielding β-cadinene/α-copaene, β-elemene, and β-cadinene/ledene/allo-aromandendrene as major products were identified, and functionally characterized via in vivo recombinant Escherichia coli assays.

  1. Memory-enhancing intra-basolateral amygdala infusions of clenbuterol increase Arc and CaMKII-alpha protein expression in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal M Holloway-Erickson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Activation of β-adrenoceptors in the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA modulates memory through interactions with multiple memory systems. The cellular mechanisms for this interaction remain unresolved. Memory-modulating BLA manipulations influence expression of the protein product of the immediate early gene activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc in the dorsal hippocampus, and hippocampal expression of Arc protein is critically involved in memory consolidation and long-term potentiation. The present studies examined whether this influence of the BLA is specific to the hippocampus and to Arc protein. Like the hippocampus, the rostral portion of the anterior cingulate cortex (rACC is involved in the consolidation of inhibitory avoidance (IA memory, and IA training increases Arc protein in the rACC. Because the BLA interacts with the rACC in the consolidation of IA memory, the rACC is a potential candidate for further studies of BLA modulation of synaptic plasticity. The alpha isoform of the Calcium/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKIIα and the immediate early gene c-Fos are involved in long-term potentiation and memory. Both Arc and CaMKIIα proteins can be translated in isolated synapses, where the mRNA is localized, but c-Fos protein remains in the soma. To examine the influence of memory-modulating manipulations of the BLA on expression of these memory and plasticity-associated proteins in the rACC, male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained on an IA task and given intra-BLA infusions of either clenbuterol or lidocaine immediately after training. Findings suggest that noradrenergic stimulation of the BLA may modulate memory consolidation through effects on both synaptic proteins Arc and CaMKIIα, but not the somatic protein c-Fos. Furthermore, protein changes observed in the rACC following BLA manipulations suggest that the influence of the BLA on synaptic proteins is not limited to those in the dorsal

  2. Gene structure, phylogeny and expression profile of the sucrose ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gene structure, phylogeny and expression profile of the sucrose synthase gene family in .... 24, 701–713. Bate N. and Twell D. 1998 Functional architecture of a late pollen .... Manzara T. and Gruissem W. 1988 Organization and expression.

  3. Uteroplacental insufficiency down regulates insulin receptor and affects expression of key enzymes of long-chain fatty acid (LCFA metabolism in skeletal muscle at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puglianiello Antonella

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have revealed a relationship between early growth restriction and the subsequent development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Ligation of the uterine arteries in rats mimics uteroplacental insufficiency and serves as a model of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR and subsequent developmental programming of impaired glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemia and adiposity in the offspring. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of uterine artery ligation on the skeletal muscle expression of insulin receptor and key enzymes of LCFA metabolism. Methods Bilateral uterine artery ligation was performed on day 19 of gestation in Sprague-Dawley pregnant rats. Muscle of the posterior limb was dissected at birth and processed by real-time RT-PCR to analyze the expression of insulin receptor, ACCα, ACCβ (acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha and beta subunits, ACS (acyl-CoA synthase, AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase, alpha2 catalytic subunit, CPT1B (carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 beta subunit, MCD (malonyl-CoA decarboxylase in 14 sham and 8 IUGR pups. Muscle tissue was treated with lysis buffer and Western immunoblotting was performed to assay the protein content of insulin receptor and ACC. Results A significant down regulation of insulin receptor protein (p Conclusion Our data suggest that uteroplacental insufficiency may affect skeletal muscle metabolism down regulating insulin receptor and reducing the expression of key enzymes involved in LCFA formation and oxidation.

  4. Disequilibrium of flavonol synthase and dihydroflavonol-4-reductase expression associated tightly to white versus red color flower formation in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping eLuo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flower colour is the main character throughout the plant kingdom. Though substantial information exists regarding the structural and regulatory genes involved in anthocyanin and flavonol biosynthesis, little is known that what make a diverse white versus red color flower in natural species. Here, the contents of pigments in seven species from varied phylogenetic location in plants with red and white flowers.were determined. Flavonols could be detected in red and white flowers, but anthocyanins were almost undetectable in the white cultivar. Comparisons of expression patterns of gene related to the flavonoid biosynthesis indicated that disequilibrium expression of flavonol synthase (FLS and dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR genes determined the accumulation of flavonols and anothcyanins in both red and white flowers of seven species. To further investigate the role of such common regulatory patterns in determining flower color, FLS genes were isolated from Rosa rugosa (RrFLS1, Prunus persica (PpFLS and Petunia hybrida (PhFLS, and DFR genes were isolated from Rosa rugosa (RrDFR1 and Petunia hybrida (PhDFR. Heterologous expression of the FLS genes within tobacco host plants demonstrated conservation of function, with the transgenes promoting flavonol biosynthesis and inhibiting anthocyanin accumulation, so resulting in white flowers. Conversely, overexpression of DFR genes in tobacco displayed down-regulation of the endogenous NtFLS gene, and the promotion of anthocyanin synthesis. On this basis, we propose a model in which FLS and DFR gene-products compete for common substrates in order to direct the biosynthesis of flavonols and anthocyanins, respectively, thereby determining white versus red coloration of flowers.

  5. Arabidopsis thaliana sucrose phosphate synthase (sps) genes are expressed differentially in organs and tissues, and their transcription is regulated by osmotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís-Guzmán, María Gloria; Argüello-Astorga, Gerardo; López-Bucio, José; Ruiz-Herrera, León Francisco; López-Meza, Joel Edmundo; Sánchez-Calderón, Lenin; Carreón-Abud, Yazmín; Martínez-Trujillo, Miguel

    2017-11-01

    Sucrose is synthesized from UDP-Glc and Fru-6-phosphate via the activity of sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) enzymes, which produce Suc-6-phosphate. Suc-6-phosphate is rapidly dephosphorylated by phosphatases to produce Suc and inorganic phosphate. Arabidopsis has four sps genes encoding SPS enzymes. Of these enzymes, AtSPS1F and AtSPS2F have been grouped with other dicotyledonous SPS enzymes, while AtSPS3F and AtSPS4F are included in groups with both dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous SPS enzymes. In this work, we generated Arabidopsis thaliana transformants containing the promoter region of each sps gene fused to gfp::uidA reporter genes. A detailed characterization of expression conferred by the sps promoters in organs and tissues was performed. We observed expression of AtSPS1F, AtSPS2F and AtSPS3F in the columella roots of the plants that support sucrose synthesis. Hence, these findings support the idea that sucrose synthesis occurs in the columella cells, and suggests that sucrose has a role in this tissue. In addition, the expression of AtSPS4F was identified in embryos and suggests its participation in this developmental stage. Quantitative transcriptional analysis of A. thaliana plants grown in media with different osmotic potential showed that AtSPS2F and AtSPS4F respond to osmotic stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cloning, Expression Profiling and Functional Analysis of CnHMGS, a Gene Encoding 3-hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Synthase from Chamaemelum nobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuiyuan Cheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Roman chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile L. is renowned for its production of essential oils, which major components are sesquiterpenoids. As the important enzyme in the sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis pathway, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase (HMGS catalyze the crucial step in the mevalonate pathway in plants. To isolate and identify the functional genes involved in the sesquiterpene biosynthesis of C. nobile L., a HMGS gene designated as CnHMGS (GenBank Accession No. KU529969 was cloned from C. nobile. The cDNA sequence of CnHMGS contained a 1377 bp open reading frame encoding a 458-amino-acid protein. The sequence of the CnHMGS protein was highly homologous to those of HMGS proteins from other plant species. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that CnHMGS clustered with the HMGS of Asteraceae in the dicotyledon clade. Further functional complementation of CnHMGS in the mutant yeast strain YSC6274 lacking HMGS activity demonstrated that the cloned CnHMGS cDNA encodes a functional HMGS. Transcript profile analysis indicated that CnHMGS was preferentially expressed in flowers and roots of C. nobile. The expression of CnHMGS could be upregulated by exogenous elicitors, including methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid, suggesting that CnHMGS was elicitor-responsive. The characterization and expression analysis of CnHMGS is helpful to understand the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenoid in C. nobile at the molecular level and also provides molecular wealth for the biotechnological improvement of this important medicinal plant.

  7. Cloning, Expression Profiling and Functional Analysis of CnHMGS, a Gene Encoding 3-hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Synthase from Chamaemelum nobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shuiyuan; Wang, Xiaohui; Xu, Feng; Chen, Qiangwen; Tao, Tingting; Lei, Jing; Zhang, Weiwei; Liao, Yongling; Chang, Jie; Li, Xingxiang

    2016-03-08

    Roman chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile L.) is renowned for its production of essential oils, which major components are sesquiterpenoids. As the important enzyme in the sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis pathway, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase (HMGS) catalyze the crucial step in the mevalonate pathway in plants. To isolate and identify the functional genes involved in the sesquiterpene biosynthesis of C. nobile L., a HMGS gene designated as CnHMGS (GenBank Accession No. KU529969) was cloned from C. nobile. The cDNA sequence of CnHMGS contained a 1377 bp open reading frame encoding a 458-amino-acid protein. The sequence of the CnHMGS protein was highly homologous to those of HMGS proteins from other plant species. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that CnHMGS clustered with the HMGS of Asteraceae in the dicotyledon clade. Further functional complementation of CnHMGS in the mutant yeast strain YSC6274 lacking HMGS activity demonstrated that the cloned CnHMGS cDNA encodes a functional HMGS. Transcript profile analysis indicated that CnHMGS was preferentially expressed in flowers and roots of C. nobile. The expression of CnHMGS could be upregulated by exogenous elicitors, including methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid, suggesting that CnHMGS was elicitor-responsive. The characterization and expression analysis of CnHMGS is helpful to understand the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenoid in C. nobile at the molecular level and also provides molecular wealth for the biotechnological improvement of this important medicinal plant.

  8. Terpene synthases from Cannabis sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Judith K; Page, Jonathan E; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) plants produce and accumulate a terpene-rich resin in glandular trichomes, which are abundant on the surface of the female inflorescence. Bouquets of different monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes are important components of cannabis resin as they define some of the unique organoleptic properties and may also influence medicinal qualities of different cannabis strains and varieties. Transcriptome analysis of trichomes of the cannabis hemp variety 'Finola' revealed sequences of all stages of terpene biosynthesis. Nine cannabis terpene synthases (CsTPS) were identified in subfamilies TPS-a and TPS-b. Functional characterization identified mono- and sesqui-TPS, whose products collectively comprise most of the terpenes of 'Finola' resin, including major compounds such as β-myrcene, (E)-β-ocimene, (-)-limonene, (+)-α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, and α-humulene. Transcripts associated with terpene biosynthesis are highly expressed in trichomes compared to non-resin producing tissues. Knowledge of the CsTPS gene family may offer opportunities for selection and improvement of terpene profiles of interest in different cannabis strains and varieties.

  9. Expression of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 in intestinal type gastric adenocarcinoma and in gastric cancer cell lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rees, Bastiaan P.; Sivula, Anna; Thorén, Staffan; Yokozaki, Hiroshi; Jakobsson, Per-Johan; Offerhaus, G. Johan A.; Ristimäki, Ari

    2003-01-01

    Gastrointestinal carcinomas synthesize elevated levels of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), which has been mechanistically linked to carcinogenesis. Recently, microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) was cloned, which seems to be inducible and linked to cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) in the biosynthesis

  10. The Dictyostelium discoideum cellulose synthase: Structure/function analysis and identification of interacting proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard L. Blanton

    2004-02-19

    OAK-B135 The major accomplishments of this project were: (1) the initial characterization of dcsA, the gene for the putative catalytic subunit of cellulose synthase in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum; (2) the detection of a developmentally regulated event (unidentified, but perhaps a protein modification or association with a protein partner) that is required for cellulose synthase activity (i.e., the dcsA product is necessary, but not sufficient for cellulose synthesis); (3) the continued exploration of the developmental context of cellulose synthesis and DcsA; (4) the isolation of a GFP-DcsA-expressing strain (work in progress); and (5) the identification of Dictyostelium homologues for plant genes whose products play roles in cellulose biosynthesis. Although our progress was slow and many of our results negative, we did develop a number of promising avenues of investigation that can serve as the foundation for future projects.

  11. Enhancement of fracture healing in the rat, modulated by compounds that stimulate inducible nitric oxide synthase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajfer, R. A.; Kilic, A.; Neviaser, A. S.; Schulte, L. M.; Hlaing, S. M.; Landeros, J.; Ferrini, M. G.; Ebramzadeh, E.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We investigated the effects on fracture healing of two up-regulators of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in a rat model of an open femoral osteotomy: tadalafil, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, and the recently reported nutraceutical, COMB-4 (consisting of L-citrulline, Paullinia cupana, ginger and muira puama), given orally for either 14 or 42 days. Materials and Methods Unilateral femoral osteotomies were created in 58 male rats and fixed with an intramedullary compression nail. Rats were treated daily either with vehicle, tadalafil or COMB-4. Biomechanical testing of the healed fracture was performed on day 42. The volume, mineral content and bone density of the callus were measured by quantitative CT on days 14 and 42. Expression of iNOS was measured by immunohistochemistry. Results When compared with the control group, the COMB-4 group exhibited 46% higher maximum strength (t-test, p = 0.029) and 92% higher stiffness (t-test, p = 0.023), but no significant changes were observed in the tadalafil group. At days 14 and 42, there was no significant difference between the three groups with respect to callus volume, mineral content and bone density. Expression of iNOS at day 14 was significantly higher in the COMB-4 group which, as expected, had returned to baseline levels at day 42. Conclusion This study demonstrates an enhancement in fracture healing by an oral natural product known to augment iNOS expression. Cite this article: R. A. Rajfer, A. Kilic, A. S. Neviaser, L. M. Schulte, S. M. Hlaing, J. Landeros, M. G. Ferrini, E. Ebramzadeh, S-H. Park. Enhancement of fracture healing in the rat, modulated by compounds that stimulate inducible nitric oxide synthase: Acceleration of fracture healing via inducible nitric oxide synthase. Bone Joint Res 2017:6:–97. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.62.BJR-2016-0164.R2. PMID:28188129

  12. Isolation and characterization of a copalyl diphosphate synthase gene promoter from Salvia miltiorrhiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Szymczyk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The promoter, 5' UTR, and 34-nt 5' fragments of protein encoding region of the Salvia miltiorrhiza copalyl diphosphate synthase gene were cloned and characterized. No tandem repeats, miRNA binding sites, or CpNpG islands were observed in the promoter, 5' UTR, or protein encoding fragments. The entire isolated promoter and 5' UTR is 2235 bp long and contains repetitions of many cis-active elements, recognized by homologous transcription factors, found in Arabidopsis thaliana and other plant species. A pyrimidine-rich fragment with only 6 non-pyrimidine bases was localized in the 33-nt stretch from nt 2185 to 2217 in the 5' UTR. The observed cis-active sequences are potential binding sites for trans-factors that could regulate spatio-temporal CPS gene expression in response to biotic and abiotic stress conditions. Obtained results are initially verified by in silico and co-expression studies based on A. thaliana microarray data. The quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed that the entire 2269-bp copalyl diphosphate synthase gene fragment has the promoter activity. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis was used to study changes in CPS promoter activity occurring in response to the application of four selected biotic and abiotic regulatory factors; auxin, gibberellin, salicylic acid, and high-salt concentration.

  13. Droits d'auteur et accès au savoir en Afrique | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    incidence de celles-ci est loin de faire l'unanimité. La question de l'équilibre entre la protection des intérêts des producteurs et l'accès aux produits du savoir, comme le matériel didactique, inquiète particulièrement les pays en développement.

  14. Expression analysis of a heat-inducible, Myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase (MIPS) gene from wheat and the alternatively spliced variants of rice and Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Neetika; Chauhan, Harsh; Khurana, Paramjit

    2012-01-01

    Molecular dissection and a deeper analysis of the heat stress response mechanism in wheat have been poorly understood so far. This study delves into the molecular basis of action of TaMIPS, a heat stress-inducible enzyme that was identified through PCR-select subtraction technology, which is named here as TaMIPS2. MIPS (L-Myo-inositol-phosphate synthase) is important for the normal growth and development in plants. Expression profiling showed that TaMIPS2 is expressed during different developing seed stages upon heat stress. Also, the transcript levels increase in unfertilized ovaries and significant amounts are present during the recovery period providing evidence that MIPS is crucial for its role in heat stress recovery and flower development. Alternatively spliced forms from rice and Arabidopsis were also identified and their expression analysis revealed that apart from heat stress, some of the spliced variants were also inducible by drought, NaCl, Cold, ABA, BR, SA and mannitol. In silico promoter analysis revealed various cis-elements that could contribute for the differential regulation of MIPS in different plant systems. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that MIPS are highly conserved among monocots and dicots and TaMIPS2 grouped specifically with monocots. Comparative analyses was undertaken by different experimental approaches, i.e., semi-quantitative RT-PCR, quantitative RT-PCR, Genevestigator as a reference expression tool and motif analysis to predict the possible function of TaMIPS2 in regulating the different aspects of plant development under abiotic stress in wheat.

  15. Comprehensive Analysis of the COBRA-Like (COBL) Gene Family in Gossypium Identifies Two COBLs Potentially Associated with Fiber Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Erli; Shang, Xiaoguang; Cheng, Chaoze; Bao, Jianghao; Zeng, Yanda; Cai, Caiping; Du, Xiongming; Guo, Wangzhen

    2015-01-01

    COBRA-Like (COBL) genes, which encode a plant-specific glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored protein, have been proven to be key regulators in the orientation of cell expansion and cellulose crystallinity status. Genome-wide analysis has been performed in A. thaliana, O. sativa, Z. mays and S. lycopersicum, but little in Gossypium. Here we identified 19, 18 and 33 candidate COBL genes from three sequenced cotton species, diploid cotton G. raimondii, G. arboreum and tetraploid cotton G. hirsutum acc. TM-1, respectively. These COBL members were anchored onto 10 chromosomes in G. raimondii and could be divided into two subgroups. Expression patterns of COBL genes showed highly developmental and spatial regulation in G. hirsutum acc. TM-1. Of them, GhCOBL9 and GhCOBL13 were preferentially expressed at the secondary cell wall stage of fiber development and had significantly co-upregulated expression with cellulose synthase genes GhCESA4, GhCESA7 and GhCESA8. Besides, GhCOBL9 Dt and GhCOBL13 Dt were co-localized with previously reported cotton fiber quality quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and the favorable allele types of GhCOBL9 Dt had significantly positive correlations with fiber quality traits, indicating that these two genes might play an important role in fiber development. PMID:26710066

  16. N-acetylglutamate synthase deficiency: an insight into the genetics, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caldovic L

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Nicholas Ah Mew, Ljubica CaldovicCenter for Genetic Medicine Research, Children’s Research Institute, Children’s National Medical Center, Washington DC, USAAbstract: The conversion of ammonia into urea by the human liver requires the coordinated function of the 6 enzymes and 2 transporters of the urea cycle. The initial and rate-limiting enzyme of the urea cycle, carbamylphosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1, requires an allosteric activator, N-acetylglutamate (NAG. The formation of this unique cofactor from glutamate and acetyl Coenzyme-A is catalyzed by N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS. An absence of NAG as a consequence of NAGS deficiency may compromise flux through CPS1 and result in hyperammonemia. The NAGS gene encodes a 528-amino acid protein, consisting of a C-te