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Sample records for acartia tonsa brine

  1. Effect of temperature and viscosity on swimming velocity of the copepod Acartia tonsa, brine shrimp Artemia salina and rotifer Brachionus plicatilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Scheel; Madsen, C.V.; Riisgard, H.U.

    2008-01-01

    of swimming velocity for a 10 degrees C temperature reduction) that is found to be largest for the brine shrimp Artemia salina nauplius (37 %) and the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis (26%), but negligible for the copepod Acartia tonsa (4%). We suggest that experimental data on change in swimming velocity (V......Beating cilia are important organelles for swimming in many zooplanktonic aquatic organisms, including many invertebrate larvae, rotifers and ciliates, but other planktonic organisms, such as copepods and brine shrimps, use muscle-powered swimming appendages. In recent studies we found......) due to change in kinematic viscosity (v) be correlated in terms of a power law, V proportional to v(-m). The present data on swimming velocity of copepods, brine shrimps and rotifers show values of exponent m approximate to 1.5 to 3, with a trend of decreasing values for increasing size of species...

  2. DMSP-consuming bacteria associated with the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, K.W.; Visscher, P.T.; Dam, H.G.

    2001-01-01

    DMSP-consuming bacteria (DCB) were recovered from the body and fecal pellets of the copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana). The most probable number of DCB associated with starved A. tonsa was 9.2 X 10(2) cells copepod(-1). The abundance of DCB recovered from the copepod body increased to 1.6-2.8 X 10...

  3. Blind dating - mate finding in planktonic copepods. III. Hydromechanical communication in Acartia tonsa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagoien, E.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Mate-finding behaviour in the marine copepod Acartia tonsa was examined by video analysis. A. tonsa appears to depend on hydromechanical signals in the location of mates, detected at distances of up to 5 or 7 mm. Series of up to 7 or 8 synchronised hops in closely situated individuals, interpreted...

  4. Blind dating - mate finding in planktonic copepods. III. Hydromechanical communication in Acartia tonsa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagoien, E.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Mate-finding behaviour in the marine copepod Acartia tonsa was examined by video analysis. A. tonsa appears to depend on hydromechanical signals in the location of mates, detected at distances of up to 5 or 7 mm. Series of up to 7 or 8 synchronised hops in closely situated individuals, interpreted...

  5. Guide to the meso-scale production of the copepod Acartia tonsa

    OpenAIRE

    Marchus, Nancy H.; Wilcox, Jeffrey A.

    2007-01-01

    This manual is intended as a guide for the daily production of a few million A. tonsa nauplii for feeding to marine vertebrates and invertebrates. This scale of production is greater than most research would require, but smaller than commercial production, hence the term meso-scale production. This manual will briefly describe the biology of Acartia tonsa Dana that is relevant to culture, the culture methodology for meso-scale production of their eggs and nauplii, the system co...

  6. DMSP-consuming bacteria associated with the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, K.W.; Visscher, P.T.; Dam, H.G.

    2001-01-01

    DMSP-consuming bacteria (DCB) were recovered from the body and fecal pellets of the copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana). The most probable number of DCB associated with starved A. tonsa was 9.2 X 10(2) cells copepod(-1). The abundance of DCB recovered from the copepod body increased to 1.6-2.8 X 10(4) a...... Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  7. Resting egg production induced by food limitation in the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drillet, Guillaume; Hansen, Benni W.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Three populations of the copepod Acartia tonsa, two from the Baltic Sea and one from the U.S. East Coast, were compared for resting egg production at conditions of saturating and limiting food availability. All three populations produced eggs that hatched within 72 h when incubated at 17°C (subit...

  8. Recirculating aquaculture system for high density production of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Minh Thi Thuy; Øie, Gunvor; Reinertsen, Helge

    The calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana) is one of the most promising copepod species for marine larviculture. This species has a wide tolerance to temperature and salinity, small size, can produce resting eggs. All their nauplii, copepodites and adults can be use as excellent feeds for marine f...

  9. Genetic responses of the marine copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana) to heat shock and epibiont infestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petkeviciute, Egle; Kania, Per Walter; Skovgaard, Alf

    2015-01-01

    Expression of stress-related genes was investigated in the marine copepod Acartia tonsa in relation to heat shock at two different salinities (10 and 32‰), and it was furthermore investigated whether experimentally induced epibiont infestation led to elevated expression of stress-related genes...

  10. Genetic responses of the marine copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana) to heat shock and epibiont infestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petkeviciute, Egle; Kania, Per Walter; Skovgaard, Alf

    2015-01-01

    Expression of stress-related genes was investigated in the marine copepod Acartia tonsa in relation to heat shock at two different salinities (10 and 32‰), and it was furthermore investigated whether experimentally induced epibiont infestation led to elevated expression of stress-related genes. E...

  11. Recirculating aquaculture system for high density production of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Minh Thi Thuy; Øie, Gunvor; Reinertsen, Helge

    2013-01-01

    The calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana) is one of the most promising copepod species for marine larviculture. This species has a wide tolerance to temperature and salinity, small size, can produce resting eggs. All their nauplii, copepodites and adults can be use as excellent feeds for marine...

  12. Different microbiomes associated with the copepods Acartia tonsa and Temora longicornis from the same marine environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorosz, Julia; Castro-Mejia, Josue Leonardo; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg

    2016-01-01

    Microbiomes of the neritic copepod species Acartia tonsa and Temora longicornis collected in coastal Danish waters were investigated by use of 16S rRNA gene-Amplicon highthroughput sequencing. In contrast to current assumptions and findings, microbiomes of the 2 copepod species from the same envi...

  13. Influence of algal diet on feeding and egg-production of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa Dana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støttrup, Josianne; Jensen, Johanne

    1990-01-01

    Threshold concentration, retention efficiency and egg-production in the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa Dana were examined using the algal species Isochrysis galbana clone T-iso, Dunalietta tertiolecta Butcher, Rhodomonas baltica Karsten, Ditylum brightwellii Grunow and Thalassiosira weissflogii...

  14. Changes in free amino acid content during naupliar development of the Calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rayner, Thomas Allan; Jørgensen, Niels O. G.; Drillet, Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    Changes in free amino acids (FAA) were investigated in the potentially important live feed and neritic copepod species Acartia tonsa during naupliar development. Total content of FAA in A. tonsa nauplii was around 17% of dry weight at first development stage, and declined to 6% for later stages....... Relative to body-volume and biomass, the FAA content indicated possible volume-dependent changes. However, changes in FAA with osmolytic activity could not account for this decline in FAA content, but suggests that the decline reflected degradation of residual FAAs from the embryonic stage. Glutamic acid...

  15. Prey switching behaviour in the planktonic copepod Acartia tonsa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Saiz, E.; Viitasalo, M.

    1996-01-01

    . Based on earlier observations, we also hypothesized that turbulence changes food selection towards motile prey. We tested these hypotheses by examining feeding rates and behaviour in adult females of A. tonsa feeding in mixtures of 2 prey organisms, a diatom (Thalassiosira weissflogii) and a ciliate...... (Strombidium sulcatum). Our data demonstrate prey switching in A. tonsa, both in terms of behaviour and in terms of feeding rates on the alternative prey. The time allocated to ambush and suspension feeding changed with the composition of the food, and clearance of diatoms was, accordingly, negatively related...

  16. Seasonality of the copepods Acartia hudsonica and Acartia tonsa in Narragansett Bay, RI, USA during a period of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Barbara K.; Costello, John H.; Van Keuren, D.

    2007-06-01

    Seasonality of species living at the boundaries of biogeographic zones may be more sensitive to climate change than in other regions. This is apparently the case for the ctenophore, Mnemiopsis leidyi, in Narragansett Bay, RI, which is the historical northern boundary of its distribution in the Northwest Atlantic. Seasonal advancement of population pulses of this ctenophore correlates with an increase in average annual temperatures of 1.2 °C over the last ˜50 years. Do other zooplankton in Narragansett Bay show evidence of altered phenologies? Here we examine patterns of seasonal succession of the copepod congeners, Acartia tonsa and Acartia hudsonica, for evidence of alteration over the period 1950-2004. A warming trend might be expected to limit springtime abundance of A. hudsonica, a temperate-boreal species that produces resting eggs in response to warm weather. Conversely, increasing temperatures could favor the summer dominant, A. tonsa, over its congener, allowing a shift to earlier appearance in spring, thus preserving the predator-free window that has previously allowed it a period of high production prior to ctenophore population pulses in late summer. Contrary to these predictions we found that A. hudsonica has become the dominant copepod of the congener pair. There has been no seasonal advancement of populations of A. tonsa, whose numbers have plummeted due to intensification of the predator-prey interaction with M. leidyi. In contrast, advancement of seasonal appearance of A. hudsonica is evident in sustained population increases earlier in spring (March rather than in May), although, as predicted, there is curtailment of its distribution in late spring. This latter shift is likely exacerbated by ctenophore predation. This study demonstrates the complexity of predicting individual species responses to climatic warming, even for species with well-known patterns of seasonal and geographic distribution.

  17. Inclusion of copepod Acartia tonsa nauplii in the feeding of Centropomus undecimalis larvae increases stress resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanessa de Melo-Costa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research represents the first result of studies of the common snook Centropomus undecimalis larvae from broodstock matured in captivity in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the inclusion of Acartia tonsa nauplii improves stress resistance of common snook larvae. The larvae were fed with: rotifers Brachionus plicatilis (10 to 15 mL-1; A. tonsa nauplii (0.25 to 0.5 mL-1 and rotifers (5 to 7.5 mL-1, and A. tonsa nauplii (0.12 to 0.25 mL-1. The average percentage of survival of the treatments was 11.9%. At 20 days of age, larvae were subjected to thermal stress. Subsequently, the stress resistance was evaluated. Common snook larvae fed B. plicatilis+A. tonsa reached a higher weight and length (7.5 ± 0.00 mg and 9.1 ± 0.23 mm, respectively and resisted more heat stress (87.4% than larvae fed other foods, indicating that the feed mixture is satisfactory as a starter diet for larvae of common snook. However, more research is needed to confirm these results.

  18. Inhibition of larval development of the marine copepod Acartia tonsa by four synthetic musk substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollenberger, Leah; Breitholtz, Magnus; Ole Kusk, Kresten; Bengtsson, Bengt Erik

    2003-04-15

    A nitro musk (musk ketone) and three polycyclic musks (Tonalide, Galaxolide and Celestolide) were tested for acute and subchronic effects on a marine crustacean, the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa. Sublethal effects on A. tonsa larvae were investigated with a rapid and cost effective bioassay, which is based on the easily detectable morphological change from the last nauplius to the first copepodite stage during copepod larval development. The inhibition of larval development after 5 days exposure was a very sensitive endpoint, with 5-d-EC(50)-values as low as 0.026 mg/l (Tonalide), 0.059 mg/l (Galaxolide), 0.066 mg/l (musk ketone) and 0.160 mg/l (Celestolide), respectively. These values were generally more than one order of magnitude below the 48-h-LC(50)-values found for adults, which were 0.47 mg/l (Galaxolide), 0.71 mg/l (Celestolide), 1.32 mg/l (musk ketone) and 2.5 mg/l (Tonalide). Since the synthetic musks strongly inhibited larval development in A. tonsa at low nominal concentrations, they should be considered as very toxic. The larval development test with A. tonsa is able to provide important aquatic toxicity data for the evaluation of synthetic musks, for which there is little published ecotoxicological information available regarding Crustacea. It is suggested that subchronic and chronic copepod toxicity tests should be used more frequently for risk assessment of environmental pollutants.

  19. Defecation of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) by the copepod Acartia tonsa as functions of ambient food concentration and body DMSP content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, K.W.

    2001-01-01

    The dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) defecation rate of Acartia tonsa (calanoid copepod)feeding on Tetraselmis impellucida (prasinophyte) was correlated with food concentration and copepod body DMSP content. Copepod fecal pellets represent a highly concentrated source of DMSP and thus play an im...... an important role in DMSP flux and microbial processes in the ocean.......The dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) defecation rate of Acartia tonsa (calanoid copepod)feeding on Tetraselmis impellucida (prasinophyte) was correlated with food concentration and copepod body DMSP content. Copepod fecal pellets represent a highly concentrated source of DMSP and thus play...

  20. Dealing with the presence of the ciliate Euplotes sp. in cultures of the copepod Acartia tonsa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drillet, Guillaume; Dutz, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Ciliates in live feed cultures can be a pest that lower production yields. This could dramatically affect the management and success of copepod cultures. In this study, we investigated the effect of the ciliate Euplotes sp. on egg production, specific egg production and egg hatching success...... of Acartia tonsa fed with Rhodomonas salina. We found that at a concentration of 2 cells ml-1, Euplotes sp. had no effect on the production and hatching success of eggs but increased/decreased the mortality/quality of non-subitaneous eggs. Euplotes sp. had a good fatty acid profile containing high proportion...

  1. Tolerance of un-ionized ammonia in live feed cultures of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa Dana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Per Meyer; Andersen, Claus V. B.; Schjelde, Johannes;

    2015-01-01

    No Observed Effect Concentrations (NOEC) and Lowest Observed Effect Concentrations (LOEC), which provides safety levels before cultures are affected. This study investigates the tolerance of Acartia tonsa nauplii and adults to ammonia, using mortality as the endpoint after 24, 48 and 72 h of exposure. Nauplii...

  2. Effects of adult stocking density on egg production and viability in cultures of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Per Meyer; Andersen, Nikolaj; Holm, Thue

    2007-01-01

    The effect of stocking density of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa was evaluated in a 96 h rearing experiment. Possible density-dependent egg production and egg viability were analysed at stocking densities of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 600 adults L−1. Temperature, oxygen saturation and algal conce...

  3. Resting eggs in a key player Calanoid copepod in coastal areas. The case of Acartia tonsa (Dana)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drillet, Guillaume; Hansen, Benni Winding

      Acartia tonsa is an invasive copepod of the European coastal waters, first described in France in 1926, it was found later in most of the European coastal areas. These invasions are believed to come from transport of resting eggs in ships ballast water. In this presentation, I will show the mai...

  4. The cultivation of Acartia tonsa Dana for use as a live food source for marine fish larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støttrup, Josianne; Richardson, Katherine; Kirkegaard, Eskild

    1986-01-01

    The marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa has been continuously cultivated in the laboratory at the Danish Institute for Fisheries and Marine Research for over 70 generations. A description of the cultivation procedures is presented in this paper. Adult copepods are maintained in 200–450-l tanks ...

  5. Response of Acartia tonsa to Burgers' Vortex: Deconstructing Turbulence-Copepod Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D. L.; Webster, D. R.; Yen, J.

    2014-11-01

    In situ studies suggest that in many oceanic regimes, turbulence affects the vertical position of copepods primarily by changing their behavior, and only secondarily by altering their physical position. We test the hypothesis that fine-scale turbulence alters copepod behavior, presenting as alterations in directed movement and changes in swimming kinematics. To this end, we create two Burgers' vortices, specifying the rotation rate and axial strain rate to correspond to turbulent vortices with size scale equaling the inverse wavenumber of the median viscous dissipation rate (i.e. r = 8.1 η) for typical turbulent conditions in the coastal or near surface region (i.e., mean turbulent dissipation rates of 0.009 and 0.096 cm2/s3) . The vortex flow is quantified via tomo-PIV. Behavioral assays of Acartia tonsa are conducted, generating 3D trajectories for analysis of swimming kinematics and response to hydrodynamic cues. A. tonsa did not significantly respond to the vortex corresponding to dissipation rate of 0.009 cm2/s3, but drastically altered their swimming behavior in the presence of the 0.096 cm2/s3 vortex, including increased relative swim speed, angle of alignment with the vortex axis, net-to-gross displacement ratio, and escape acceleration, along with decreased turn frequency (relative to stagnant control conditions). Further, A. tonsa escape location is preferentially in the core of the stronger vortex, indicating that the hydrodynamic cue triggering the distinctive escape behavior is vorticity.

  6. Resting eggs in a key player Calanoid copepod in coastal areas. The case of Acartia tonsa (Dana)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drillet, Guillaume; Hansen, Benni Winding

    results of 7 years of experimental work which allowed us to understand better the capacity of A. tonsa to produce resting eggs. A.tonsa has a double resting strategy, part of it is due to the capacity of the subitaneous eggs to switch to quiescence under unfavorable environmental conditions which allows......  Acartia tonsa is an invasive copepod of the European coastal waters, first described in France in 1926, it was found later in most of the European coastal areas. These invasions are believed to come from transport of resting eggs in ships ballast water. In this presentation, I will show the main...... the eggs to wait partially optimum conditions to hatch. Also some population of A. tonsa are capable of producing real diapauses eggs (or delayed hatching eggs) which are developed as a single winter based strategy and have to endure a refractory phase before hatching. Our recent findings show that food...

  7. Expression of hsp70 and ferritin in embryos of the copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana) during transition between subitaneous and quiescent state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Birgitte; Jepsen, Per Meyer; Rewitz, Kim Furbo

    2014-01-01

    Subitaneous eggs of the neritic calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana) are capable of entering a resting state called quiescence to overcome adverse environmental conditions. Although physiological changes associated with this transition have been described, the molecular mechanisms are thus far...

  8. Long-term decline in the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa in central Chesapeake Bay, USA: An indirect effect of eutrophication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, David G.; Boynton, Walter R.; Roman, Michael R.

    2012-04-01

    A long-term abundance record of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa in the Maryland portion of Chesapeake Bay was compiled from 1966 to 2002. A significant downward trend in the summertime abundance of Acartia tonsa was found in central Chesapeake Bay. We propose that environmental and food web changes occurred as the Chesapeake Bay became increasingly impacted by human activity which eventually led to the overall decline of A. tonsa. Environmental changes included a long-term rise in water temperature and the volume of hypoxic water during the summer. These changes occurred during the same time period as increases in chlorophyll a concentration, declines in the landings of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica, and declines in abundance of the sea nettle Chrysaora quinquecirrha. A CUSUM analysis showed that each time-series experienced a change point during over the past 50 years. These changes occurred sequentially, with chlorophyll a concentration increasing beginning in 1969, water temperature and hypoxic volume increasing beginning in the early 1980s, more recent Maryland C. virginica landings begin declining in the early 1980s and A. tonsa and C. quinquecirrha declining starting in 1989. A stepwise regression analysis revealed that the reduction in A. tonsa abundance appeared to be most associated with a decreasing trend in C. quinquecirrha abundance, though only when trends in the two time-series were present. The drop in C. quinquecirrha abundance is associated with reduced predation on the ctenophore, Mnemiopsis leidyi, a key predator of A. tonsa. The long-term decline of A. tonsa has likely impacted trophic transfer to fish, particularly the zooplanktivorous bay anchovy (Anchoa mitchilli). A time-series of bay anchovy juvenile index showed a negative trend and the CUSUM analysis revealed 1993 as its starting point. Total fisheries landings, excluding menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus), in Chesapeake Bay have also declined during the same period and this

  9. Applied and fundamental plankton research would benefit from more joint efforts: examples from Acartia tonsa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benni Winding; Jepsen, Per Meyer; Drillet, Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    Increased collaboration and communication is needed between the planktologists engaged in marine ecological research and those working with industrial applications. Lessening the dichotomy between “basic” and “applied” sciences will lead to increase scientific advances in both fields. Thanks...... by supporting joint efforts between scientists working across technical fields and simply by resolving some of the communication barriers. We give examples of how scientists dealing with ecological questions could gain from using and reflecting on data produced for industrial purposes and vice versa. We use two...... examples from research carried out to support aquaculture production of the cosmopolitan calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa. We argue that research questions are often answered using similar experimental approaches and quality standards; and that scientists working across different fields would gain by more...

  10. Do Acartia tonsa (Dana) eggs regulate their volume and osmolality as salinity changes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benni Winding; Drillet, Guillaume; Pedersen, Morten Foldager;

    2012-01-01

    Subitaneous eggs from an euryhaline calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa were challenged by changes in salinity within the range from full strength salinity, down to zero and up to >70 psu. Egg volume changed immediately, increasing from 2.8 × 105 μm3 at full strength salinity (35 psu) to 3.8 × 105 μm3...... at 0 psu and back to its initial volume when gradually being returned to full strength salinity. Egg osmolality followed the molality of the surrounding water when challenged within a salinity range from 2 to 50 psu. Egg respiration was not affected when eggs kept at 35 psu was exposed to low salinity...... (2 psu). These results suggest that eggs are unable to regulate their volume or osmolality when challenged with changes in salinity. Gradual changes in salinity from 35 to 2 psu and back did not harm the eggs (embryos), since the hatching success remained unaffected by such changes in salinity...

  11. Toxicity of nickel in the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa: Nickel chloride versus nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, C. [Istituto per la Protezione e Ricerca Ambientale ISPRA-STS Livorno, Piazzale dei marmi 12, 57123 Livorno (Italy); Academic Centre for Innovation and Development in the Food Industry (CAISIAL), Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, 80055 Portici (Italy); Vitiello, V. [Istituto per la Protezione e Ricerca Ambientale ISPRA-STS Livorno, Piazzale dei marmi 12, 57123 Livorno (Italy); Casals, E. [Institut Català de Nanotecnologia, Campus de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelone, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Puntes, V.F. [Institut Català de Nanotecnologia, Campus de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelone, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Institut Català de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Passeig Lluís Companys, 23, 08010 Barcelona (Spain); Iamunno, F. [Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, Napoli (Italy); Pellegrini, D. [Istituto per la Protezione e Ricerca Ambientale ISPRA-STS Livorno, Piazzale dei marmi 12, 57123 Livorno (Italy); Changwen, W. [Zhejiang Ocean University, 1 Rd. South Haida, Lincheng New Area, Dinghai District Zhoushan City, 316022 (China); Benvenuto, G. [Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, Napoli (Italy); Buttino, I., E-mail: isabella.buttino@isprambiente.it [Istituto per la Protezione e Ricerca Ambientale ISPRA-STS Livorno, Piazzale dei marmi 12, 57123 Livorno (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Acartia tonsa copepod is more sensitive to NiCl{sub 2} than to nickel nanoparticles. • At the tested concentration egg production was not affected by both form of nickel. • Egg viability is the most sensitive end-point for both form of nickel. • Nickel dissolved in seawater increased with nanoparticle concentration. • Acartia tonsa adults were able to ingest nanoparticles. - Abstract: Nickel compounds are widely used in industries and have been massively introduced in the environment in different chemical forms. Here we report the effect of two different chemical forms of nickel, NiCl{sub 2} and nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs), on the reproduction of the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa. The behavior of nickel nanoparticles was analyzed with different techniques and with two protocols. In the “sonicated experiment” (SON) NiNP solution was sonicated while in the “non-sonicated experiment” (NON-SON) the solution was vigorously shaken by hand. Final nominal concentrations of 5, 10 and 50 mg L{sup −1} and 1, 5 and 10 mg L{sup −1} NiNPs were used for the acute and semichronic tests, respectively. Nanoparticle size did not change over time except for the highest concentration of 50 mg L{sup −1} NiNPs, in which the diameter increased up to 843 nm after 48 h. The concentration of Ni dissolved in the water increased with NP concentration and was similar for SON and NON-SON solutions. Our results indicate that sonication does not modify toxicity for the copepod A. tonsa. Mean EC{sub 50} values were similar for NON-SON (20.2 mg L{sup −1}) and SON experiments (22.14 mg L{sup −1}) in the acute test. Similarly, no differences occurred between the two different protocols in the semichronic test, with an EC{sub 50} of 7.45 mg L{sup −1} and 6.97 mg L{sup −1} for NON-SON and SON experiments, respectively. Acute and semichronic tests, conducted exposing A. tonsa embryos to NiCl{sub 2} concentrations from 0.025 to 0.63 mg L{sup −1

  12. Climatic Facilitation of the Colonization of an Estuary by Acartia tonsa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaalali, Aurélie; Beaugrand, Grégory; Raybaud, Virginie; Goberville, Eric; David, Valérie; Boët, Philippe; Sautour, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Global change has become a major driving force of both terrestrial and marine systems. Located at the interface between these two realms, estuarine ecosystems are probably the place where both direct and indirect effects of human activities conspire together to affect biodiversity from phytoplankton to top predators. Among European estuarine systems, the Gironde is the largest estuary of Western Europe and many studies have provided evidence that it has been affected by a variety of anthropogenic stressors such as thermal and chemical pollution, physical alterations and exploitation, especially for maritime traffic. In such a context, species introduction is also a current major issue with the establishment of strong competitive species that could lead to ecosystem reorganization with potential decrease or even disappearance of native species. In the Gironde estuary, this hypothesis was proposed for the invasive shrimp species Palaemon macrodactylus as a decrease in the native species abundance was observed at the same time. Although species introduction often takes place via ballast water, the influence of climate-driven changes on the establishment of new species remains a key issue. The calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa, observed in the Gironde estuary for the first time in 1983, have since colonized most part of the estuary, reaching a level of abundance comparable to the dominant native species Eurytemora affinis. In this study, using both the concept of the ecological niche sensu Hutchinson (fundamental and realized niches) and statistical models, we reveal that the dynamics of the colonization of A. tonsa was facilitated by environmental conditions that have become closer to its environmental optimum with respect to temperature and salinity. PMID:24098656

  13. Increased tolerance to oil exposure by the cosmopolitan marine copepod Acartia tonsa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Kamille Elvstrøm; Dinh, Khuong V; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    2017-12-31

    Oil contamination is an environmental hazard to marine ecosystems, but marine organism tolerance to oil after many generations of exposure remains poorly known. We studied the effects of transgenerational oil exposure on fitness-related traits in a cosmopolitan neritic copepod, Acartia tonsa. Copepods were exposed to an oil compound, the PAH pyrene, at concentrations of 1, 10, 100 and 100+(the saturated pyrene concentration in seawater)nM over two generations and measured survival, sex ratio, size at maturity, grazing rate and reproductive success. Exposure to the pyrene concentration of 100+nM resulted in 100% mortality before adulthood in the first generation. At the pyrene concentration of 100nM, pyrene reduced grazing rate, increased mortality, reduced the size of females and caused lower egg production and hatching success. Importantly, we found strong evidence for increased tolerance to pyrene exposure in the second generation: the reduction in size at maturity of females was less pronounced in the second generation and survival, egg production and hatching success were recovered to control levels in the second generation. The increased tolerance of copepods to oil contamination may dampen the direct ecological consequences of a coastal oil spill, but it raises the concern whether a larger fraction of oil components accumulated in survived copepods, may be transferred up the food web. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Diet influence on egg production of the copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana, 1896

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila F. Teixeira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Egg production in the copepod Acartia tonsa was evaluated using different densities of the microalgae Thalassiosira weissflogii, Chaetoceros muelleri and Isochrysis galbana. Male and female were kept under controlled conditions (salinity 30, 20°C, photoperiod 12L:12D, acclimated to the experimental conditions and left over a period of 24 h to allow copulation. Algal densities tested were equivalent in biovolume and corresponded to 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 60.10³ cells.mL-1 of T weissflogii. Ten acclimated female were separated, transferred to glass bottles and exposed for further 24 h to the corresponding experimental medium. After this period, the eggs were fixed and counted. Copepod egg production reached a threshold value when T weissflogii, C. muelleri and I. galbana were supplied at 10.10³, 140.10³ and 640.10³ cells.mL-1, respectively. Mean egg production corresponded to 28.0 ± 0.5, 20.1 ± 1.0 and 22.0 ± 3.5 eggs.female-1 .day-1, respectively. Copepods fed T weissflogii showed the highest mean egg production while those fed I. galbana reached a maximum egg production when the algae were supplied at a density two- to fourfold higher, considering the biovolume of T weissflogii and C. muelleri. These differences are explained considering the different sizes of the microalgae used to feed the copepods.A produção de ovos do copépode Acartia tonsa foi avaliada utilizando diferentes densidades das microalgas Thalassiosira weissflogii, Chaetoceros muelleri e Isochrysis galbana. Machos e fêmeas foram colocados sob condições controladas (salinidade 30, 20°C, fotoperíodo 12L:12D, aclimatados às condições experimentais e mantidos juntos por 24 h para permitir a copula. As densidades de algas foram equivalentes em biovolume e corresponderam a 0, 2,5, 5, 10, 20, 40 e 60,10³ células.mL-1 de T. weissflogii. Dez fêmeas aclimatadas foram separadas, transferidas para frascos de vidro e expostas por mais 24 h ao meio experimental

  15. First feeding of Eugerres brasilianus (Carapeva larvae with Acartia tonsa (Copepod nauplii increases survival and resistance to acute stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanessa de Melo Costa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rotifer Brachionus sp. is commonly used for larval feeding in marine fish hatcheries. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the inclusion of Acartia tonsa nauplii in the initial diet of carapeva larvae improves their survival, growth and resistance to stress when compared to the regimen containing only rotifers. Adult copepods were collected in the wild and cultured with the microalgae Chaetoceros muelleri, Isochrysis galbana and Nannochloropsis oculata to obtain nauplii. Carapeva larvae were grown for 15 days using four treatments and three replicates: 1 Brachionus plicatilis rotifers (10 to 15/mL; 2 A. tonsa nauplii (0.25 to 0.5/mL; 3 Brachionus plicatilis rotifers (5 to 7.5/mL + A. tonsa nauplii (0.12 to 0.25/mL, and 4 no supply of live feed. After 15 days, the carapeva larvae were subjected to stress by exposure to air for 10 seconds and then returned to the source tank to evaluate survival after 24 h. Survival and stress resistance were higher in carapeva larvae fed B. plicatilis + A. tonsa nauplii (P<0.05, 20.9 ± 11.2% and 88.9%, respectively. These results confirm the positive effect of the inclusion of copepod nauplii in the diet of fish larvae. However, more research is needed to validate these results.

  16. The fate of lipids during development and cold-storage of eggs in the laboratory-reared calanoid copepod, Acartia tonsa Dana, and in response to different algal diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støttrup, Josianne; Bell, J.G.; Sargent, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    The calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa was sampled throughout one generation to examine the fate of lipids during development in culture. Effects of dietary input were examined by feeding A. tonsa for at least one generation with specific monoalgal cultures. Four different algae were tested: the cryp...

  17. Inhibition of larval development of the marine copepod Acartia tonsa by four synthetic musk substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollenberger, Leah; Breitholtz, M.; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    2003-01-01

    ketone) and 2.5 mg/l (Tonalide(TM)). Since, the synthetic musks strongly inhibited larval development in A. tonsa at low nominal concentrations, they should be considered as very toxic. The larval development test with A. tonsa is able to provide important aquatic toxicity data for the evaluation...... of synthetic musks, for which there is little published ecotoxicological information available regarding Crustacea. It is suggested that subchronic and chronic copepod toxicity tests should be used more frequently for risk assessment of environmental pollutants. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights...

  18. Accumulation of polyunsaturated aldehydes in the gonads of the copepod Acartia tonsa revealed by tailored fluorescent probes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Wolfram

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs are released by several diatom species during predation. Besides other attributed activities, these oxylipins can interfere with the reproduction of copepods, important predators of diatoms. While intensive research has been carried out to document the effects of PUAs on copepod reproduction, little is known about the underlying mechanistic aspects of PUA action. Especially PUA uptake and accumulation in copepods has not been addressed to date. To investigate how PUAs are taken up and interfere with the reproduction in copepods we developed a fluorescent probe containing the α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated aldehyde structure element that is essential for the activity of PUAs as well as a set of control probes. We developed incubation and monitoring procedures for adult females of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa and show that the PUA derived fluorescent molecular probe selectively accumulates in the gonads of this copepod. In contrast, a saturated aldehyde derived probe of an inactive parent molecule was enriched in the lipid sac. This leads to a model for PUAs' teratogenic mode of action involving accumulation and covalent interaction with nucleophilic moieties in the copepod reproductive tissue. The teratogenic effect of PUAs can therefore be explained by a selective targeting of the molecules into the reproductive tissue of the herbivores, while more lipophilic but otherwise strongly related structures end up in lipid bodies.

  19. The toxicity of the three antifouling biocides DCOIT, TPBP and medetomidine to the marine pelagic copepod Acartia tonsa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Ida; Backhaus, Thomas; Blanck, Hans; Arrhenius, Åsa

    2016-07-01

    Copepods, the largest group of pelagic grazers, are at risk from exposure to antifouling biocides. This study investigated the toxicity of the antifouling biocides 4,5-dichloro-2-octyl-1,2-thiazol-3(2H)-one (DCOIT), triphenylborane pyridine (TPBP) and 4-[1-(2,3-dimethylphenyl)ethyl]-1H-imidazole (medetomidine) to the copepod Acartia tonsa, using mortality and egg production as endpoints. The toxicity ranking for mortality was as follows: DCOIT (LC50 57 nmol l(-1)) = TPBP (LC50 56 nmol l(-1)) > medetomidine (LC50 241 nmol l(-1)). Egg production was more sensitive than mortality to TPBP (EC50 3.2 nmol l(-1)), while DCOIT and medetomidine inhibited egg production at roughly the same concentrations (72 and 186 nmol l(-1) respectively). Furthermore, TPBP seems to affect egg hatching directly which was not the case for DCOIT and medetomidine. DCOIT and medetomidine might pose an environmental risk as they have been reported to occur in different exposure scenarios or analytical surveys at concentrations only 2-3 times lower than the respective EC10. Reported environmental concentrations of TPBP are few but clearly lower than the EC10 values reported here, suggesting current risk of TPBP to copepods to be moderate.

  20. Effect of 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (BP1) on early life-stage development of the marine copepod Acartia tonsa at different temperatures and salinities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, Kresten Ole; Avdolli, Manola; Wollenberger, Leah

    2011-01-01

    Benzophenone (BP)-type ultraviolet (UV) filters are widely used in cosmetic and sunscreen products and can enter the aquatic environment. Therefore, we investigated the subchronic toxicity of 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (BP1) on the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa in an early life-stage devel......Benzophenone (BP)-type ultraviolet (UV) filters are widely used in cosmetic and sunscreen products and can enter the aquatic environment. Therefore, we investigated the subchronic toxicity of 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (BP1) on the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa in an early life......-stage development study. Since developmental endpoints depend on environmental conditions, a preceding study of A. tonsa development was performed at three temperatures, four salinities, four light:dark regimes, six food densities, and four culture densities. Times elapsed until 50% of the population had reached...... a copepodite stage (DT(½) ) at the different conditions were calculated. The DT(½) values decreased from 296 h at 15°C to 89 h at 25°C and were also affected by salinity (126 h at 15‰ and 167 h at 30‰), whereas the light:dark regime and culture density influenced development only to a minor extent. BP1...

  1. The turbidity front as a habitat for Acartia tonsa (Copepoda) in the Río de la Plata, Argentina-Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derisio, Carla; Braverman, Mara; Gaitán, Esteban; Hozbor, Constanza; Ramírez, Fernando; Carreto, José; Botto, Florencia; Gagliardini, Domingo A.; Acha, E. Marcelo; Mianzan, Hermes

    2014-01-01

    Acartia tonsa is one of the most abundant copepod species in estuaries worldwide. In the Río de la Plata, its highest densities appear to occur in an area of low quality food (detritus): the turbidity front (TF). The objective of this study was to understand how trophic and oceanographic drivers contribute to the high densities of A. tonsa in the Río de la Plata TF. The patterns of spatial distribution and density of this species were analyzed in relation to oceanographic and biological attributes of the system. The egg production rate (EPR) in the TF was evaluated as a measure of fitness, and a stable isotope analysis indicated the possible sources of organic matter in the species' diet. This study confirmed that the highest observed densities of A. tonsa were mostly associated with the TF, where high suspended matter and low Chl-a occur. Immediately offshore from the TF, decreased copepod densities and the maximum Chl-a values were found. Females close to the estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM) had a lower EPR than those closer to the high Chl-a concentrations. Within the TF, A. tonsa apparently fed on detritus close to the ETM and phytoplankton close to the edge of the TF. The report includes a discussion of how retention processes, two layered flow and the life history strategy of A. tonsa could be contributing to the development of high densities (more than 10,000 ind m- 3) of this species in the inner estuarine zone, despite the poor quality of food available for development in that area. A. tonsa can live and prosper in areas with high turbidity and low chlorophyll concentrations. This trait exemplifies the plasticity of this species and helps explain why it is a key species in many worldwide estuaries.

  2. Influence of two different green algal diets on specific dynamic action and incorporation of carbon into biochemical fractions in the copepod Acartia tonsa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thor, P.; Cervetto, G.; Besiktepe, S.

    2002-01-01

    dynamic action (SDA) of the two diets. Secondly, we wanted to investigate if any qualitative differences in the incorporation of nutritional constituents from the two diets are influencing SDA. The functional response of ingestion was very different with the two diets. Ingestion of T impellucida......Previous studies have shown that the two green algae Tetraselmis sp. (Prasinophyceae) and Dunaliella tertiolecta (Chlorophyceae) induce high and low egg production rates in Acartia tonsa. The primary goal of the present study was to investigate if this is attributable to differences in the specific...

  3. Ecological effects of scrubber water discharge on coastal plankton: Potential synergistic effects of contaminants reduce survival and feeding of the copepod Acartia tonsa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koski, Marja; Stedmon, Colin; Trapp, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    and hydrocarbons. We investigated 1) the threshold concentrations of scrubber discharge water for survival, feeding and reproduction of the copepod Acartia tonsa, 2) whether the effects depend on the exposure route and 3) whether exposure to discharge water can be detected in field-collected organisms. A direct...... exposure to discharge water increased adult copepod mortality and reduced feeding at metal concentrations which were orders of magnitude lower than the lethal concentrations in previous single-metal studies. In contrast, reproduction was not influenced by dietary uptake of contaminants. Scrubber water...

  4. Can we use laboratory reared copepods for experiments - a comparison of feeding behavior and reproduction between a field and a laboratory population of Acartia tonsa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiselius, P.; Hansen, B.; Jonsson, P.;

    1995-01-01

    Motility patterns and egg production were investigated in two populations of Acartia tonsa, field animals from the Oresund and laboratory animals from a 12-year-old (approximate to 120 generations) culture. When observed in aquaria with a layer of Thalassiosira weissflogii in the middle, laboratory...... animals displayed weak aggregation behaviour, while field animals did not aggregate at all. Both populations made longer and more frequent feeding bouts inside the patch. Egg production measurements were in accordance with the behaviour of the laboratory population if no diel feeding rhythm was assumed...

  5. Testing lagoonal sediments with early life stages of the copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana): An approach to assess sediment toxicity in the Venice Lagoon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picone, Marco; Bergamin, Martina; Delaney, Eugenia

    2018-01-01

    The early-life stages of development of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa from egg to copepodite I is proposed as an endpoint for assessing sediment toxicity by exposing newly released eggs directly onto the sediment-water interface. A preliminary study of 5 sediment samples collected in the lag......The early-life stages of development of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa from egg to copepodite I is proposed as an endpoint for assessing sediment toxicity by exposing newly released eggs directly onto the sediment-water interface. A preliminary study of 5 sediment samples collected...... with sea urchin and bivalves embryos. Sediment toxicity data highlighted the high sensitivity and the clear ability of the larval development to discriminate among sediments characterized by different levels of contamination. The data of the definitive study evidenced that inhibition of the larval...... development was not affected by grain-size and the organic carbon content of the sediment; in contrast, a strong correlation between inhibition of the larval development and the sediment concentrations of some metals (Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn), acid-volatile sulphides (AVS), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs...

  6. Effects of salinity on egg and fecal pellet production, development and survival, adult sex ratio and total life span in the calanoid copepod, Acartia tonsa: a laboratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayegan, Majid; Esmaeili Fereidouni, Abolghasem; Agh, Naser; Jani Khalili, Khosrow

    2016-07-01

    The effects of salinity on the copepod, Acartia tonsa in terms of daily egg production rate (EPR), hatching success, fecal pellet production rate (FPR), naupliar development time and survival, sex ratio, and total life span were determined in laboratory conditions through three experiments. In experiment 1, EPR, hatching success, and FPR of individual females were monitored at salinities of 13, 20, 35 and 45 during short-periods (seven consecutive days). Results show EPR was affected by salinity with the highest outputs recorded at 20 and 35, respectively, which were considerably higher than those at 13 and 45. Mean FPR was also higher in 35 and 20. In experiment 2, the same parameters were evaluated over total life span of females (long-term study). The best EPR and FPR were observed in 35, which was statistically higher than at 13 and 20. In experiment 3, survival rates of early nauplii until adult stage were lowest at a salinity of 13. The development time increased with increasing of salinity. Female percentage clearly decreased with increasing salinity. Higher female percentages (56.7% and 52.2%, respectively) were significantly observed at two salinities of 13 and 20 compared to that at 35 (25%). Total longevity of females was not affected by salinity increment. Based on our results, for mass culture we recommend that a salinity of 35 be adopted due to higher reproductive performances, better feeding, and faster development of A. tonsa.

  7. Improving cold storage of subitaneous eggs of the copepod Acartia tonsa Dana from the Gulf of Mexico (Florida, USA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drillet, Guillaume; Lindley, L.C.; Michels, A.

    2007-01-01

    . We consider that the use of antibiotics at the right dosage to be a means to increase the storage capacity of the Gulf of Mexico strain of A. tonsa eggs, which do not show any capacity to be stored for long periods of time, compared with some other strains. In addition eggs that were between 5 and 7...

  8. Cryptic diversity in the estuarine copepod Acartia tonsa: reproductive isolation and lineage-specific divergence in transcriptomic response to salinity stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plough, L. V.

    2016-02-01

    Discovery of the near ubiquity of cryptic species among planktonic taxa marks a major advance in marine science over the last two decades. However, little is known about the potential drivers of divergence among species, and particularly how cryptic taxa may respond differentially to environmental stress as climate change and ocean acidification proceed. Here we report results from experimental studies characterizing reproduction and transcriptomic response to stress in Acartia tonsa, a dominant estuarine copepod that exhibits three sympatric (but morphologically cryptic) lineages that sort by salinity along the US Atlantic coast (lineage F - fresh, S - saline, and X - intermediate). Pair crosses between F and S individuals collected from Chesapeake Bay at a common ambient salinity (13ppt) revealed that while inter-lineage (FxS) crosses produced eggs, only eggs from intra-lineage (FxF or SxS) crosses successfully hatched. Analysis of whether 'hybrid' eggs were fertilized and failed to develop or did not fertilize, which could indicate pre vs post-zygotic isolation, is ongoing. Exposing replicate groups of 2nd gen. lab-cultured F and S individuals to ambient and low salinity (7 ppt) stress produced very different patterns of gene expression measured with RNAseq. First, the dynamic range of expression was much greater in the S lineage overall (both salinities), with more differentially expressed genes (DEG's) in comparisons of low vs control salinity (232 vs 77 DEGs at 0.01 FDR level for S, and F respectively). Gene ontology analysis of DEG function revealed a more targeted response in F to ion stress (up and down regulation of genes involved in ion transport, catalytic activity, and binding) while the S lineage showed a more varied and general response (up-regulation of metabolism, nucleic acid synthesis, and general stress response). Overall, these experiments confirm reproductive isolation among two cryptic A. tonsa ineages and identify key differences in thier

  9. Effects of anti-androgens cyproterone acetate, linuron, vinclozolin, and p,p'-DDE on the reproductive organs of the copepod Acartia tonsa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watermann, Burkard T.; Albanis, Triantafyllos A.; Galassi, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    stimulated, whereas others displayed a disturbed spermatogenesis and a deformed spermatophore wall. In VIN exposed female A. tonsa, no effects were observed. Male A. tonsa exposed to p,p'-DDE displayed an impairment of spermatogenesis in all stages with increased degrees of apoptosis. In p...

  10. A comprehensive and precise quantification of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana) for intensive live feed cultures using an automated ZooImage system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Minh Thi Thuy; Jepsen, Per Meyer; Hansen, Benni Winding

    2014-01-01

    ignored. In this study, we propose a novel method for highly precise classification of development stages and biomass of A. tonsa, in intensive live feed cultures, using an automated ZooImage system, a freeware image analysis. We successfully created a training set of 13 categories, including 7 copepod...... and 6 non-copepod (debris) groups. ZooImage used this training set for automatic discrimination through a random forest algorithm with the general accuracy of 92.8%. The ZooImage showed no significant difference in classifying solitary eggs, or mixed nauplii stages and copepodites compared to personal...... microscope observation. Furthermore, ZooImage was also adapted for automatic estimation of A. tonsa biomass. This is the first study that has successfully applied ZooImage software which enables fast and reliable quantification of the development stages and the biomass of A. tonsa. As a result, relevant...

  11. Hydrodynamic signal perception in the copepod Acartia tonsa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Saiz, E.; Visser, Andre

    1999-01-01

    and the ambient water and may, therefore, be perceived by mechanoreceptory setae. We hypothesised that the threshold value for escape response to a particular component depends solely on the magnitude of the velocity difference (= signal strength) it generates. In experiments we isolated the different components...

  12. Predatory and suspension feeding of the copepod Acartia tonsa in turbulent environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saiz, E.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    )) was generated by an oscillating grid. In ambush feeding mode, low (realistic) intensities of turbulence (epsilon = 10(-3) to 10(-2) cm(2) s(- 3)) enhanced clearance rates by up to a factor of 4 above those observed in calm water. Higher intensities of turbulence (epsilon = 10(-1) to 10(1) cm(2) s(-3)) resulted...... of the 2 feeding behaviours, including the negative effects, were accurately predicted by encounter rate and feeding behaviour models proposed by Kiorboe and Saiz (1995; Mar Ecol Frog Ser 122:135-145). Because feeding behaviour is specific to the prey (phytoplankton vs motile prey), and because ambush...... it is numerically scarce relative to phytoplankton in the environment...

  13. A parameter for detecting estrogenic exposure in the copepod Acartia tonsa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Halling-Sørensen, Bent; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    1999-01-01

    in a steeper maturation profile. The proposed endpoint was identified by exposing copepods to the natural estrogen 17 beta-estradiol and the antropogenic estrogen bisphenol A. Both compounds produced significant effects at 23 and 20 mu g/L respectively. Since bisphenol A is traditionally believed to be less...

  14. Do inactivated Microbial Preparations Improve Life History Traits of the Copepod Acartia tonsa?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drillet, Guillaume; Rabarimanantsoa, Tahina; Frouel, Stéphane

    2011-01-01

    production and hatching success, HS). This was carried out because the use of copepods as live prey in aquaculture could increase the number of fish successfully raised through their entire life cycle. However, the availability of copepods is limited by their difficulty to be effectively raised. Our results...

  15. Rapid adaptation to oil exposure in the cosmopolitan copepod Acartia tonsa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause, K. E.; Dinh, Khuong Van; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    to marine copepods. The key fitness-related traits were quantified: survival, size at maturity, grazing rate and the reproductive success. Exposure to the concentration of pyrene saturated in seawater (100+ nM) resulted in 100 % mortality before adulthood in the first generation. In the other treatments...... (≤ 100nM), the first generation had a higher grazing rate than the second generation. Exposure to pyrene had no effect on the grazing rate. At the concentration of 100 nM, pyrene exposure caused reductions in survival, size at maturity of females, egg production and hatching success. The reduction...... in size at maturity of females was less pronounced in the second generation. Strikingly, both survival, egg production and hatching success were recovered in the second generation, indicating a rapid selection towards individuals with adaptations to deal with pyrene exposure. Our results show...

  16. Recent advances within intensive Recirculated Aquaculture System cultivation of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Per Meyer; Højgaard, Jacob Kring; Drillet, Guillaume;

    2014-01-01

    Danish aquaculture has within recent years focused upon rearing of new marine fish species. A major challenge for rearing of marine fish species is relevant diets for their fish larvae. Copepods and their larvae stage “nauplii” are well documented as the ideal live feed for a variety of marine...... and the nauplii can be feed to marine fish larvae. A restriction is that copepod cultures for producing eggs are after 30 years of research still not stable and in large enough scale for bulk production of eggs. Recently a unique copepod Recirculated Aquaculture System (RAS) at Roskilde University (Denmark......) was constructed as a part of the IMPAQ project “IMProvement of AQuaculture high quality fish fry production”. We present recent advance within RAS culture for copepods, and lesson learned from rearing the specie. Further we present physical and biological culture restrictions in terms of water quality (NH3...

  17. Influence of algal diet on feeding and egg-production of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa Dana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støttrup, Josianne; Jensen, Johanne

    1990-01-01

    is similar in size to R. baltica but contained only trace amounts of fatty acids higher than C-18 fatty acids. The diatoms D. brightwellii and T. fluviatilis were retained with maximal efficiency but daily egg-production and gross growth efficiency was lower for these species than for I. galbana and R...

  18. Effects of methyltestosterone, letrozole, triphenyltin and fenarimol on histology of reproductive organs of the copepod Acartia tonsa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watermann, Burkard T.; Albanis, Triantafyllos A.; Dagnac, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    and displayed deformations. In females, LET induced a disorder of oogenesis and disturbances in yolk synthesis. TPT stimulated the male reproductive system at 0.0014 and 0.0035μg TPT-SnL−1, whereas inhibiting effects were observed in the female gonad at 0.0088μg TPT-SnL−1. In FEN exposed females proliferation......, or the musculature were seen. This indicates that the effects on gonads might be caused rather by disturbance of endocrine signalling or interference with hormone metabolism than by general toxicity....

  19. Comparative oxygen consumption rates of subitaneous and delayed hatching eggs of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benni Winding; Drillet, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    Life history strategies can be adaptations to existence in e.g. unstable environments. Under stressful environmental conditions mobile species tend to migrate to more suitable places, but migration in time by dormancy is another durable strategy. More than 50 species of calanoid copepods can...... history trait allowing the spread of hatching over a period of time (a month or two), increasing the likelihood that some offspring encounter suitable environmental conditions and can contribute to the pelagic population of neritic calanoids in environmental fluctuating environments....

  20. Food size spectra, ingestion and growth of the copepod Acartia tonsa during development: implications for the determination of copepod production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggren, U.; Hansen, B.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    concentration. It equaled specific female egg-production rate at all food concentrations. The efficiency by which ingested carbon in excess of maintenance requirements was converted into body carbon was 0.44, very similar to the corresponding efficiency of egg-production in females. On the assumptions that food...

  1. Recommended feeding regime and light climate in live feed cultures of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa Dana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Per Meyer; Steensbjerg Bjørbæk, Niels; Rayner, Thomas Allan

    2017-01-01

    Understanding and optimising the parameters that controls the success for copepod cultures are the foundation for large scaled copepod cultures. Many underlying copepod culture parameters are already quantified and comprehended, but there is a lack in knowledge of optimising feeding regimes for c...

  2. A new species of Acartia (Copepoda, Calanoida) from Cochin Harbour, India, and adjacent areas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Abraham, S.

    During the course of a study of the family Acartiidae of Cochin harbour and its neighbourhood, a species of Acartia different from all other known species of Acartia, was found. Its characteristics, habitat and seasonal distribution form the theme...

  3. Population dynamics of a dominant species (Pseudocalanus, Acartia and Temora) in the Gulf of Gdansk (southern Baltic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, L.; Janecki, M.; Lemieszek, A.; Jakacki, J.; Nowicki, A.

    2012-04-01

    1 - C3 and C4 - C5 and finally the adult stage - C6. The Baltic zooplankton is composed of microzooplankton, mezozooplankton and macroplankton with characteristic ichtyoplankton forms. The structure of mezozooplankton in the Gdansk Gulf mainly consisted of four taxa: copepoda, cladocera, rotatoria and meroplankton. The most important species in the Gdansk Gulf are copepoda: Acartia spp. (i.e. A. bifilosa, A. longiremis and A. tonsa), Temora longicornis, Pseudocalanus minutus elongatus and Centropages hamatus and cladocera: Bosmina coregoni maritime and Podon polyphemoides. Copepoda dominate numerically, while in the warm season Cladocera are subdominants. The study describes numerical simulations of the seasonal dynamics of Acartia spp., Temora longicornis and Pseudocalanus minutus elongatus in the southern Baltic Sea using a three-dimensional version of the coupled ecosystem-copepod model. In the case of the Baltic Sea, food concentration and temperature are the main factors controlling copepod development, and salinity is a masking factor. The surface water salinity of the southern Baltic is constant at 7-8 PSU. It is included in the present study. The simulated population dynamics were compared with observations at the Gulf of Gdansk. This work is supported by the Polish State Committee of Scientific Research [grant number: NN306 353239 and No. N N305 111636]. The partial support for this study was also provided by the project Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBaltyk founded by European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract no. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09. Calculations were done at the Academic Computer Center in Gdansk.

  4. Embryonic cold storage capability from seven strains of Acartia spp. isolated in different geographical areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benni Winding; Buttino, Isabella; Cunha, Maria Emilia;

    2016-01-01

    Calanoid copepods from the genus Acartia are well studied because they are promising live feeds in marine larviculture. Several Acartia spp. are adapted to the occurrence of sudden unfavorable environmental conditions and can arrest their embryogenesis by entering quiescence. This trait can be us...

  5. Effect of heterotrophic versus autotrophic food on feeding and reproduction of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa : relationship with prey fatty acid composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broglio, E.; Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Calbet, A.

    2003-01-01

    Gymnodinium sanguineum. The diets were also analyzed for fatty acid contents and composition, relationships with EPE and reproductive success were determined. Clear differences were found in the fatty acid contents and the composition of the different diets offered, but these differences did not correspond...... with variability in EPE. However, egg viability was correlated with ingestion of certain prey essential fatty acids; interestingly, our data do not show that ciliates and heterotrophic dinoflagellates are nutritionally superior prey for marine copepods, contrary to general expectations....

  6. A new large egg type from the marine live feed calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana) – Perspectives for selective breeding of designer feed for hatcheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsen Hammarvold, Stian; Glud, Ronnie N.; Evjemo, Jan Ove

    2015-01-01

    were dormant, as indicated from the relatively low hatching success of 60%, within 48 h, was rejected as no significant difference was found in egg volumespecific respiration rates or histological analysis of the chorion between the two egg types. The nauplii hatched from large eggs were...

  7. A new large egg type from the marine live feed calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana)-Perspectives for selective breeding of designer feed for hatcheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammervold, Stian Halsen; Glud, Ronnie N.; Evjemo, Jan Ove

    2015-01-01

    eggs were dormant, as indicated from the relatively low hatching success of 60%, within 48 h, was rejected as no significant difference was found in egg volume-specific respiration rates or histological analysis of the chorion between the two egg types. The nauplii hatched from large eggs were...

  8. Forward Osmosis Brine Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali; Hyde, Deirdre; Beeler, David; Parodi, Jurek

    2015-01-01

    The Forward Osmosis Brine Drying (FOBD) system is based on a technique called forward osmosis (FO). FO is a membrane-based process where the osmotic potential between brine and a salt solution is equalized by the movement of water from the brine to the salt solution. The FOBD system is composed of two main elements, the FO bag and the salt regeneration system. This paper discusses the results of testing of the FO bag to determine the maximum water recovery ratio that can be attained using this technology. Testing demonstrated that the FO bag is capable of achieving a maximum brine water recovery ratio of the brine of 95%. The equivalent system mass was calculated to be 95 kg for a feed similar to the concentrated brine generated on the International Space Station and 86 kg for an Exploration brine. The results have indicated that the FOBD can process all the brine for a one year mission for between 11% to 10% mass required to bring the water needed to make up for water lost in the brine if not recycled. The FOBD saves 685 kg and when treating the International Space Station brine and it saves 829 kg when treating the Exploration brine. It was also demonstrated that saturated salt solutions achieve a higher water recovery ratios than solids salts do and that lithium chloride achieved a higher water recovery ratio than sodium chloride.

  9. Toxicity of some heavy metals to copepods Acartia spinicauda and Tortanus forcipatus

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, S.R.S.

    Copper was most toxic to the species tested followed by cadmium and zinc The estuarine species Acartia spinicauda was more sensitive to the toxicants that the marine species Tortanus forcipatus The 48 hr LC50 values are presented....

  10. Results for the Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB) Brine Processing Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzeit, Lance; Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Shaw, Hali; Kawashima, Brian; Beeler, David; Howard, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The recent Brine Processing Test compared the NASA Forward Osmosis Brine Dewatering (FOBD), Paragon Ionomer Water Processor (IWP), UMPQUA Ultrasonic Brine Dewatering System (UBDS), and the NASA Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB). This paper reports the results of the BEB. The BEB was operated at 70 deg C and a base pressure of 12 torr. The BEB was operated in a batch mode, and processed 0.4L of brine per batch. Two different brine feeds were tested, a chromic acid-urine brine and a chromic acid-urine-hygiene mix brine. The chromic acid-urine brine, known as the ISS Alternate Pretreatment Brine, had an average processing rate of 95 mL/hr with a specific power of 5kWhr/L. The complete results of these tests will be reported within this paper.

  11. The occurrence of Acartia species and their environmental characteristics at three ports in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung-Hoon

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of Acartia copepods and their environmental characteristics to identify the existence and survival of foreign species at domestic ports in Korea. Copepods samples were collected seasonally, and temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), total suspended solids (TSS), and chlorophyll- a (chl- a) were measured at the seaports Incheon, Gwangyang, and Ulsan from 2007 to 2009. No foreign species was found and all of the Acartia copepods observed had been recorded in Korean waters previously. Acartia omorii, A. hongi, and A. pacifica were found at all three seaports, whereas portspecific species were found at Incheon ( A. sinjiensis) and Ulsan ( A. steueri, A. negligens, and A. danae). When chl- a and DO were not limited, eurythermal and euryhaline A. hongi, A. omorii, and A. hudsonica occurred at TSS concentrations between 38 and 183 mg·L-1, while warm-water copepods ( A. pacifica, A. ohtsukai, A. sinjiensis, and A. erythraea) occurred at TSS concentrations <80 mg·L-1. The seasonal distributions of A. omorii, A. hongi, and A. pacifica at the three seaports were most significantly explained by temperature, salinity, DO, and TSS, and not chl- a. The variation in A. hudsonica and A. sinjiensis at Incheon was explained mainly by temperature, DO, and TSS, whereas A. erythraea at Ulsan was influenced only by chl- a. The occurrence of Acartia copepods showed spatiotemporal variation as a result of species-specific preferences or tolerances in each port environment. Multiple regression analysis indicated that temperature, salinity, DO, and TSS were better predictors of the variation in Acartia species at the seaports during the study than chl- a when food was not limiting. These results indicated that the occurrence of Acartia copepods and related environmental characteristics are crucial information for differentiating foreign species from the native community and predicting the potential for foreign copepods to become established

  12. Treatment methods for geothermal brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, S.L.; Mathur, A.K.; Garrison, W.

    1979-04-01

    A survey is made of commercially available methods currently in use as well as those which might be used to prevent scaling and corrosion in geothermal brines. More emphasis is placed on scaling. Treatments are classified as inhibitors, alterants and coagulants; they are applied to control scaling and corrosion in fresh and waste geothermal brines. Recommendations for research in brine treatment are described.

  13. Brine Distribution after Vacuum Saturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Kathrine; Andersen, Bertel Lohmann

    1999-01-01

    Experiments with the vacuum saturation method for brine in plugs of chalk showed that a homogeneous distribution of brine cannot be ensured at saturations below 20% volume. Instead of a homogeneous volume distribution the brine becomes concentrated close to the surfaces of the plugs...

  14. Observations on feeding behaviour and survival rates in the estuarine calanoid copepods Acartia spinicauda and Heliodiaptomus cinctus (Crustacea: Copepoda: Calanoida)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Srivastava, Y.; Fernandes, Brenda; Goswami, S.C.; Goswami, U.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    Experiments were conducted on the calanoid copepods, Acartia spinicauda (Acartiidae) and Heliodiaptomus cinctus (Diaptomidae) in order to determine food preference and survival rates respectively. Adults of A. spinicauda were fed monocultures...

  15. Ion association in natural brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdell, A.H.; Jones, B.F.

    1969-01-01

    Natural brines, both surface and subsurface, are highly associated aqueous solutions. Ion complexes in brines may be ion pairs in which the cation remains fully hydrated and the bond between the ions is essentially electrostatic, or coordination complexes in which one or more of the hydration water molecules are replaced by covalent bonds to the anion. Except for Cl-, the major simple ions in natural brines form ion pairs; trace and minor metals in brines form mainly coordination complexes. Limitations of the Debye-Hu??ckel relations for activity coefficients and lack of data on definition and stability of all associated species in concentrated solutions tend to produce underestimates of the degree of ion association, except where the brines contain a very high proportion of Cl-. Data and calculations on closed basin brines of highly varied composition have been coupled with electrode measurements of single-ion activities in an attempt to quantify the degree of ion association. Such data emphasize the role of magnesium complexes. Trace metal contents of closed basin brines are related to complexes formed with major anions. Alkaline sulfo- or chlorocarbonate brines (western Great Basin) carry significant trace metal contents apparently as hydroxides or hydroxy polyions. Neutral high chloride brines (Bonneville Basin) are generally deficient in trace metals. With a knowledge of the thermodynamic properties of a natural water, many possible reactions with other phases (solids, gases, other liquids) may be predicted. A knowledge of these reactions is particularly important in the study of natural brines which may be saturated with many solid phases (silicates, carbonates, sulfates, etc.), which may have a high pH and bring about dissolution of other phases (silica, amphoteric hydroxides, CO2, etc.), and which because of their high density may form relatively stable interfaces with dilute waters. ?? 1969.

  16. Enhanced Brine Dewatering System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the Enhanced Brine Dewatering System (EBDS) is to provide a scalable means of completely recovering usable water from byproducts created by reverse...

  17. Membrane Cells for Brine Electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingle, M.

    1982-01-01

    Membrane cells were developed as alternatives to mercury and diaphragm cells for the electrolysis of brine. Compares the three types of cells, focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of membrane cells. (JN)

  18. Membrane Cells for Brine Electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingle, M.

    1982-01-01

    Membrane cells were developed as alternatives to mercury and diaphragm cells for the electrolysis of brine. Compares the three types of cells, focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of membrane cells. (JN)

  19. Enhanced Brine Dewatering System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the Enhanced Brine Dewatering System (EBDS) is to provide an easily scalable means of completely recovering usable water from byproducts created by...

  20. The fate of lipids during development and cold-storage of eggs in the laboratory-reared calanoid copepod, Acartia tonsa Dana, and in response to different algal diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støttrup, Josianne; Bell, J.G.; Sargent, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    : the cryptophyte Rhodomonas baltica, the haptophyte Isochrysis galbana clone T- iso, the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii and the dinoflagellate Heterocapsa triquetra. Further, the effect of cold storage of eggs on the lipid composition of the newly hatched nauplii was examined. During development, the fatty acid...... composition changes from a tendency towards high levels of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the early developmental stages towards a tendency to accumulate more saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids in the later developmental stages. However, the content and composition of polyunsaturated fatty...... acids can be influenced by the dietary input. The highest ratio of 22:6n - 3/20:5n - 3 was achieved using H, triquetra or I. galbana. Higher levels of 20:5n - 3 were achieved by feeding with R. baltica or T. weissflogii. I. galbana and T. weissflogii were particularly suitable for increasing levels...

  1. A new large egg type from the marine live feed calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana) – Perspectives for selective breeding of designer feed for hatcheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsen Hammarvold, Stian; Glud, Ronnie N.; Evjemo, Jan Ove

    2015-01-01

    Mass cultivation ofmarine copepods as live feed requires predictable and uniform production of a standard product for the end users, the hatcheries. A previously undescribed large egg type, measuring a mean diameter of 106.5 μm, was characterized and compared to normal eggs (82.3 μm) from a conti....... The next generations' eggswere not as large as the ones they originated from suggesting that the rare large eggs represent a maternal effect. The large size eggs do however pose an interesting selection potential for designing large species-specific live feed products in aquaculture....

  2. Astaxanthin, canthaxanthin and astaxanthin esters in the copepod Acartia bifilosa (Copepoda, Calanoida during ontogenetic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria £otocka

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The contents of astaxanthin, canthaxanthin and astaxanthin esters were studied in natural populations of the copepod Acartia bifilosa from the Pomeranian Bay and Gulf of Gdansk in the southern Baltic Sea. Samples dominated by any one of three developmental groups: (1 nauplii, (2 copepodids I-III and (3 copepodids IV-V and adults of Acartia bifilosa were analysed by means of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. As ontogenetic development progressed, significant changes occurred in the proportion of particular pigments in the total pigment pool of the various developmental groups. Astaxanthin and canthaxanthin occurred in all the groups, the former being clearly dominant. However, an increasing percentage of astaxanthin esters was recorded in the copepodids I-III, and even more in the copepodids IV-V and adults group. Most probably, astaxanthin is the main pigment active in copepod lipid metabolism. Carotenoid pigments in copepods very likely act as efficient free-electron quenchers and may be involved as antioxidants in rapid lipid metabolism. The exogenously feeding stages (late nauplii and copepodids transform plant carotenoids taken from food and are evidently capable of metabolising astaxanthin by esterification and further degradation. It is emphasised that, according to literature data, astaxanthin esters may have an even higher quenching ability. It is suggested that crustacean carotenoid pigments, with their electron donor-acceptor abilities, may replace oxygen in peroxidation processes connected with lipid metabolism. The consequences of such a physiological role of astaxanthin for present-day estimations of energy balances in zooplankton communities are mentioned.

  3. Energy storage in evaporated brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, R. Ian

    2010-09-15

    We propose storage of electrical energy in brine solutions by using the energy to enhance natural evaporation. Using properties of existing industrial evaporation technologies and estimates of power regeneration from brine by pressure retarded osmosis, efficiency near 100% is calculated. Modelling indicates that systems ranging from 50kW to 50MW output may be practical, with storage capacities of hours to days. The method appears to have potential to be economically competitive with other technologies over a wide range of capacity. It may present a large new application area that could aid the development of salinity-based power generation technology.

  4. 7 CFR 58.320 - Brine tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brine tanks. 58.320 Section 58.320 Agriculture....320 Brine tanks. Brine tanks used for the treating of parchment liners shall be constructed of... liners. The tank should also be provided with a satisfactory drainage outlet....

  5. Sensitivity of Some Explosive/Brine Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    concentration in brine mixtures. 3 Friction test results of brine mixtures. 10 4 Thermal test results of brine mixtures. 11 Li 71 - INTRODUCTION A...also carried out on these impact insensitive mixtures. Of the seven mixtures only the 15% M28-Comp. B sample passed the thermal test , since smoking

  6. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1991 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Martin, M.L.; Milligan, D.J.; Sobocinski, R.W.; Lipponer, P.P.J. [International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Belski, D.S. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.

    1993-09-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) during 1991. These BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. When excavations began at the WIPP in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. Brine studies began as part of the Site Validation Program and were formalized as a program in its own right in 1985. During nine years of observations (1982--1991), evidence has mounted that the amount of brine seeping into the WIPP excavations is limited, local, and only a small fraction of that required to produce hydrogen gas by corroding the metal in the waste drums and waste inventory. The data through 1990 is discussed in detail and summarized by Deal and others (1991). The data presented in this report describes progress made during the calendar year 1991 and focuses on four major areas: (1) quantification of the amount of brine seeping across vertical surfaces in the WIPP excavations (brine ``weeps); (2) monitoring of brine inflow, e.g., measuring brines recovered from holes drilled downward from the underground drifts (downholes), upward from the underground drifts (upholes), and from subhorizontal holes; (3) further characterization of brine geochemistry; and (4) preliminary quantification of the amount of brine that might be released by squeezing the underconsolidated clays present in the Salado Formation.

  7. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1990 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Case, J.B.; Martin, M.L.; Roggenthen, W.M. [International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Belski, D.S. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.

    1991-08-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during 1990. When excavations began in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. These brine occurrences were initially described as part of the Site Validation Program. Brine studies were formalized in 1985. The BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. The brine chemistry is important because it assists in understanding the origin of the brine and because it may affect possible chemical reactions in the buried waste after sealing the repository. The volume of brine and the hydrologic system that drives the brine seepage also need to be understood to assess the long-term performance of the repository. After more than eight years of observations (1982--1990), no credible evidence exists to indicate that enough naturally occurring brine will seep into the WIPP excavations to be of practical concern. The detailed observations and analyses summarized herein and in previous BSEP reports confirm the evidence apparent during casual visits to the underground workings -- that the excavations are remarkably dry.

  8. A potential source of recruitment of Acartia pacifica nauplii:viable benthic resting eggs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guizhong; JIANG Xiaodong; LI Shaojing; WU Lisheng; WU Dingxun

    2005-01-01

    Many estuarine and coastal planktonic copepods depend on the hatching of benthic resting eggs for recruitment of nauplii to the water column population. The distribution and abundance of viable resting eggs of Acartia pacifica in the Xiamen Bay were determined by the presence of nauplii in the laboratory. The number of viable eggs varied temporally and spatially. The maximum number (9.2×104m-2) of viable eggs was in summer. In spring the average abundance of viable eggs was 5.6×104 m-2. The abundances of viable eggs in fall and winter were similar, respectively 2.7×104 and 3.3×104 m-2, which were the lowest in the year. The numbers of viable eggs inside the stations of the Xiamen Bay were higher than those outside the stations. The viable eggs were found at all depths (0~10 cm),although not in every station. The maximin number did not necessarily occur in the uppermost centimeter of the sediments but often occurred several centimeters below the water-sediment interface. The accumulation of viable eggs in the seabed of a subtropical bay constitutes a potential source of recruitment of nauplii into the pelagic population.

  9. Reduction of hydrocarbon contamination on viability of Acartia pacifica benthic resting eggs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xiaodong; WANG Guizhong; LIN Qiongwu

    2008-01-01

    The potential effect of hydrocarbon contamination on the hatching success of benthic resting eggs of Acartia pacifica in Xiamen Bay was investigated experimentally.The number of nauplii emerging from the sediment samples decreased with increasing Fuel Oil #0 concentration.The estimated rate of mortality increased markedly with the increase of Fuel Oil #0 concentration.Successive fuel Oil #0 concentrations from 50 mg/kg to 5000 mg/kg reduced the number of hatched nauplii by 3.8%-100%.The mortality of A.pacifica resting eggs due to Fuel Oil #0 contamination did not significantly increase as time progressed at each concentration level.The LC50 values of resting eggs,changing from 237.12 to 279.59 mg/kg,remained at an almost stable level in two months.The number of A.pacifica nauplii that hatched from the sediment at 10℃ was higher than those from the sediment at 30℃,which indicates that the toxicity of Fuel Oil #0 on A.pacifica resting eggs increases with increasing temperature.

  10. Distillation Brine Purification for Resource Recovery Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater processing systems for space generate residual brine that contains water and salts that could be recovered to life support consumables. The project assessed the use of ion-exchange resins to selectively remove salts from wastewater treatment brines. The resins were then regenerated for additional use. The intention would be to generate a Na/K and CI rich or purified brine that would then be processed into high value chemicals, such as acids, bases, and/or bleach.

  11. Brine disposal process for Morcinek coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tait, J.H. [Aquatech Services, Inc., Citrus Heights, CA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes the work to develop a commercial brine disposal process for the Morcinek mine, located 45 km south of the city of Katowice in Poland. Currently, brine is discharged into the Odra river and methane from the mine is released into the atmosphere. The process would use the released methane and convert a large percentage of the brine into potable water for commercial use. Thus, the proposed process has two environmental benefits. The brine salinity is about 31,100 ppm. Major brine components are Na (10,300 ppm), Ca (1,170 ppm), Mg (460 ppm), Cl (18,500 ppm) and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} (252 ppm). Present in smaller amounts are K, S, Sr, B, Ba and NO{sub 3}. The process integrates a reverse osmosis (RO) unit and a submerged combustion evaporator. Extensive studies made at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory established the pretreatment method of the brine before it enters the RO unit. Without adequate pretreatment, mineral phases in the brine would become super-saturated and would precipitate in the RO unit. The pretreatment consists of first adding sodium carbonate to increase both the pH and the carbonate concentration of the brine. This addition causes precipitation of carbonate solids containing Ca, Mg, Sr, and Ba. After filtration of these precipitates, the fluid is acidified with HCl to prevent precipitation in the RO unit as the brine increases in salinity.

  12. The fate of Listeria monocytogenes in brine and on Gouda cheese following artificial contamination during brining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wemmenhove, E.; Beumer, R.R.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.; Zwietering, M.H.; Wells-Bennik, M.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The fate of 3 different Listeria monocytogenes strains (Scott A, 2F and 6E) was studied independently in brine and on factory-scale Gouda cheeses that had been submerged in brine that was artificially contaminated with these individual strains. Viable numbers of L. monocytogenes in the brine

  13. On the physico-chemical characteristics of brines

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Rao, P.V.S.S.D.P.; Singbal, S.Y.S.

    Analyses of the natural brines form the salt lakes, salt pans and the artificial brines obtained after the solar desalination of seawater respectively, showed wide differences in their physico-chemical characteristics. The natural brines are markEd...

  14. Population dynamics of Acartia pacifica (Copepoda:Calanoida):the importance of benthic-pelagic coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xiaodong; WANG Guizhong; LI Shaojing

    2006-01-01

    The seasonal occurrence of Acartia pacifica (Copepoda: Calanoida) and their resting eggs in the sediment of Xiamen Bay were documented between October 2002 and September 2003. The number of viable eggs in the sediment increased from January to May with the increase in the number of planktonic females. When the population of A. Pacifica disappeared from the water column, the number of eggs in the sediment began to decrease and reached a low value due to lack of input. The peak of nauplii abundance occurred when the hatching potential of eggs from the sediment was high under the natural environment from February to June. The hatching of resting eggs of A. Pacifica was essentially temperature-dependent after suspension, while photoperiod regimes had no significant effect on the hatching. The mean density of subitaneous eggs was 1.122 0 g/cm3 with a standard deviation (SD) of 0.000 2 g/cm3. The mean density of diapause eggs was 1.151 2 g/cm3 with a SD of 0.000 1 g/cm3. The sinking rates of subitaneous eggs ranged from 19.55 to 26.17 m/d, while those of diapause eggs ranged from 30.29 to 31.28 m/d. The comparison of the egg deposition time and egg hatching time suggested that in most cases virtually all subitaneous eggs of A. Pacifica would settle to the bottom before their hatching even though the eggs have high potential to hatch. The evidence was provided that the seasonal dynamics of A. Pacifica is accompanied by benthic-pelagic coupling.

  15. DISTRIBUTION AND POPULATION DYNAMICS OF PARACALANUS PARVUS, PARACALANUS CRASSIROSTRIS, AND ACARTIA BIFILOSA (COPEPODA, CALANOIDA) IN THE BOHAI SEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王荣; 张鸿雁; 王克; 左涛

    2002-01-01

    Paracalanus parvus, Paracalanus crassirostris, and Acartia bifilosa ar e dominant and widely distributed in the Bohai Sea, and comprise an important part of zooplankton in terms of biomass as well as production rate. In order to understa nd their seasonal distribution and population dynamics, their stage-specific abund ance in different months of the year were analyzed based on the never analyzed yet sa mples collected in 1959. The three species showed clear and remarkable seasonal variat ion in abundance, which maximized in spring and summer, when they formed high biomas s patches or concentrations in the nearshore area. For Paracalanus parvus, two peaks were observed in the annual circle, one in June and the other in September. For Paracalanus crassirostris, one peak occurred in summer and a small one in De cember. The seasonal pattern of Acartia bifilosa was different in different regions. In Bohai Bay it had a two-peak pattern, with the first large peak occurring in May and t he second one in October. In Laizhou Bay, a winter peak in December and January cou ld be observed besides the spring one. The number of generations during the reprodu ctive season for the three species was estimated based on the annual cycle in abundanc e and ambient temperature.

  16. The Brine Shrimp's Butterfly Stroke

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Brennan; Dasi, Lakshmi Prasad

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the fluid dynamics of brine shrimp larvae swimming in this gallery of fluid motion video. Time resolved particle image velocimetry was performed using nano-particles as seeding material to measure the time dependent velocity and vorticity fields. The Reynolds number of the flow was roughly 8 and the Womerseley number (ratio of periodic forcing to viscous forcing) was about 5. Vorticity dynamics reveals the formation of a vortex ring structure at the tip of each arm at the beginning of the power stroke. This two vortex system evolves dramatically with time as the stroke progresses. The outer circulation is noted to weaken while the inner circulation strengthens over the power stroke. The gaining strength of the inner vortex correlates with the acceleration and forward movement of the larvae.

  17. Study of brine treatment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-11-01

    Available information pertinent to the treatment of geothermal brines was collected by literature search and then evaluated and summarized for use by the electric utility and geothermal industries. The information was screened from the geothermal, oil and gas, wastewater disposal, and boiler water treatment industries. The current state of knowledge and methodology concerning the treatment of geothermal brines to control scaling and corrosion in geothermal electric power production was assessed. Currently, geothermal scale in pipes and wells is removed by physical or chemical methods. There is a growing effort on developing methods to control scale formation for both fresh and spent brines, including pH adjustment and application of an electrical potential for fresh fluids, and coagulation to treat spent fluids. Current methods of corrosion control center around planned replacement of piping and other plant components, with efforts focused primarily on development of materials with improved corrosion resistance. Recommendations for additional work to improve brine treatment include the following: (1) chemical and physical characterization of brine and scale compositions, (2) basic data on the mechanism of scale formation and the effects of inhibitors, (3) development of instrumentation to monitor geothermal brine constituents, (4) correlation of laboratory results with field test data, and (5) screening of currently available commercial inhibitors for application to geothermal brines. An annotated bibliography of the reference material used in this study is included.

  18. Lithium brines: A global perspective: Chapter 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, LeeAnn; Hynek, Scott; Bradley, Dwight C.; Boutt, David; Labay, Keith A.; Jochens, Hillary; Verplanck, Philip L.; Hitzman, Murray W.

    2016-01-01

    Lithium is a critical and technologically important element that has widespread use, particularly in batteries for hybrid cars and portable electronic devices. Global demand for lithium has been on the rise since the mid-1900s and is projected to continue to increase. Lithium is found in three main deposit types: (1) pegmatites, (2) continental brines, and (3) hydrothermally altered clays. Continental brines provide approximately three-fourths of the world’s Li production due to their relatively low production cost. The Li-rich brine systems addressed here share six common characteristics that provide clues to deposit genesis while also serving as exploration guidelines. These are as follows: (1) arid climate; (2) closed basin containing a salar (salt crust), a salt lake, or both; (3) associated igneous and/or geothermal activity; (4) tectonically driven subsidence; (5) suitable lithium sources; and (6) sufficient time to concentrate brine. Two detailed case studies of Li-rich brines are presented; one on the longest produced lithium brine at Clayton Valley, Nevada, and the other on the world’s largest producing lithium brine at the Salar de Atacama, Chile.

  19. Zooplankton at deep Red Sea brine pools

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, Stein

    2016-03-02

    The deep-sea anoxic brines of the Red Sea comprise unique, complex and extreme habitats. These environments are too harsh for metazoans, while the brine–seawater interface harbors dense microbial populations. We investigated the adjacent pelagic fauna at two brine pools using net tows, video records from a remotely operated vehicle and submerged echosounders. Waters just above the brine pool of Atlantis II Deep (2000 m depth) appeared depleted of macrofauna. In contrast, the fauna appeared to be enriched at the Kebrit Deep brine–seawater interface (1466 m).

  20. Acute toxicity testing with the tropical marine copepod Acartia sinjiensis: optimisation and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissi, F; Binet, M T; Adams, M S

    2013-11-01

    Globally there is limited toxicity data for tropical marine species, and there has been a call for further research and development in the area of tropical marine ecotoxicology. An increase in developmental pressures in northern tropical Australia is causing a higher demand for toxicity test protocols with ecologically relevant species. Copepods are a diverse group of zooplankton that are major components of marine food webs. The calanoid copepod Acartia sinjiensis is widely distributed across tropical and sub-tropical brackish to marine waters of Australia and was identified in a recent comprehensive review of marine tropical toxicity testing in Australia as a suitable test organism. Through a number of optimisation steps including feeding trials, changes to culture and test conditions; a 48-h acute toxicity test with A. sinjiensis was modified to become a highly reliable and reproducible standard test protocol. Control mobility was improved significantly, and the sensitivity of A. sinjiensis to copper (EC50 of 33µg/L), ammonia (EC50 of 10mg/L) and phenol (EC50 of 13mg/L) fell within the ranges of those reported previously, indicating that the modifications did not alter its sensitivity. In a comprehensive literature search we found that this species was the most sensitive to copper out of a range of marine copepods. The test was also successfully applied in toxicity assessments of four environmental samples: two produced formations waters (PFWs) and two mine tailing liquors (MTLs). The toxicity assessments utilised toxicity data from a suite of marine organisms (bacteria, microalgae, copepods, sea urchins, oysters, prawns, and fish). For the PFWs, which were predominantly contaminated with organic chemicals, A. sinjiensis was the most sensitive species (EC50 value 2-17 times lower than for any other test species). For the predominantly metal-contaminated mine tailing liquors, its sensitivity was similar to that of other test species used. The modified 48-h acute

  1. Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA): A New Approach to Recovering Water from Wastewater Brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensinger, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    Brine water recovery represents a current technology gap in water recycling for human spaceflight. The role of a brine processor is to take the concentrated discharge from a primary wastewater processor, called brine, and recover most of the remaining water from it. The current state-of-the-art primary processor is the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) that currently achieves 70% water recovery. Recent advancements in chemical pretreatments are expected to increase this to 85% in the near future. This is a welcome improvement, yet is still not high enough for deep space transit. Mission architecture studies indicate that at least 95% is necessary for a Mars mission, as an example. Brine water recovery is the technology that bridges the gap between 85% and 95%, and moves life support systems one step closer to full closure of the water loop. Several brine water recovery systems have been proposed for human spaceflight, most of them focused on solving two major problems: operation in a weightless environment, and management and containment of brine residual. Brine residual is the leftover byproduct of the brine recovery process, and is often a viscous, sticky paste, laden with crystallized solid particles. Due to the chemical pretreatments added to wastewater prior to distillation in a primary processor, these residuals are typically toxic, which further complicates matters. Isolation of crewmembers from these hazardous materials is paramount. The Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA) is a recently developed concept from the Johnson Space Center that offers solutions to these challenges. CoBRA is centered on a softgoods evaporator that enables a passive fill with brine, and regeneration by discharging liquid brine residual to a collection bag. This evaporator is meant to be lightweight, which allows it to be discarded along with the accumulated brine solids contained within it. This paper discusses design and development of a first CoBRA prototype, and reports

  2. Brine Dewatering Using Ultrasonic Nebulization Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recovery of water from brine is critically important for manned space exploration. Resupply of water is prohibitively costly for extended missions. It is anticipated...

  3. Brine Dewatering Using Ultrasonic Nebulization Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recovery of water from brine is critically important for future manned space exploration. Resupply of water is prohibitively costly for such extended missions. Water...

  4. Space and Industrial Brine Drying Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Wisniewski, Richard S.; Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali

    2014-01-01

    This survey describes brine drying technologies that have been developed for use in space and industry. NASA has long considered developing a brine drying system for the International Space Station (ISS). Possible processes include conduction drying in many forms, spray drying, distillation, freezing and freeze drying, membrane filtration, and electrical processes. Commercial processes use similar technologies. Some proposed space systems combine several approaches. The current most promising candidates for use on the ISS use either conduction drying with membrane filtration or spray drying.

  5. Brine flow in heated geologic salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

    2013-03-01

    This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

  6. Seasonal dynamics of Pseudocalanus minutus elongatus and Acartia spp. in the southern Baltic Sea (Gdańsk Deep – numerical simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mudrak

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A population dynamics model for copepods is presented describing a seasonal dynamics of Pseudocalanus minutus elongatus and Acartia spp. in the southern Baltic Sea (Gdansk Deep. The copepod model was coupled with an one-dimensional physical and biological upper layer model for nutrients (total inorganic nitrogen, phosphate, phytoplankton, microzooplankton and an early juvenile of herring as predator. In this model, mesozooplankton (herbivorous copepods has been introduced as animals having definite patterns of growth in successive stages, reproduction and mortality. The populations are represented by 6 cohorts in different developmental stages, thus assuming, that recruitment of the next generation occurs after a fixed period of adult life. The copepod model links trophic processes and population dynamics, and simulates individual growth within cohorts and the changes in biomass between cohorts. The simulations of annual cycles of copepods contain one complete generation of Pseudocalanus and two generations of Acartia in the whole column water, and indicate the importance of growth of older stages of 6 cohorts each species to total population biomass. The peaks of copepods biomass, main, at the turn of June and July for Pseudocalanus and smaller, in July for Acartia, lag that phytoplankton by ca. two mouths due to growth of cohorts in successive stages and egg production by females. The numerical results show that the investigated species could not be the main factor limiting the spring phytoplankton bloom in the Gdansk Deep, because the initial development was slow for Acartia and faster for Pseudocalanus, but main development formed after the bloom, in both cases. However, the simulated microzooplankton biomass was enough high to conclude, in our opinion, that, in this case, it was major cause limiting phytoplankton bloom. Model presented here is a next step in understanding how the population dynamics of a dominant species in the southern

  7. Brines formed by multi-salt deliquescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, S; Rard, J; Alai, M; Staggs, K

    2005-11-04

    The FY05 Waste Package Environment testing program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory focused on determining the temperature, relative humidity, and solution compositions of brines formed due to the deliquescence of NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures. Understanding the physical and chemical behavior of these brines is important because they define conditions under which brines may react with waste canister surfaces. Boiling point experiments show that NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures form brines that transform to hydrous melts that do not truly 'dry out' until temperatures exceed 300 and 400 C, respectively. Thus a conducting solution is present for these salt assemblages over the thermal history of the repository. The corresponding brines form at lower relative humidity at higher temperatures. The NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has a mutual deliquescence relative humidity (MDRH) of 25.9% at 120 C and 10.8% at 180 C. Similarly, the KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has MDRH of 26.4% at 120 C and 20.0% at 150 C. The KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture salts also absorb some water (but do not appear to deliquesce) at 180 C and thus may also contribute to the transfer of electrons at interface between dust and the waste package surface. There is no experimental evidence to suggest that these brines will degas and form less deliquescent salt assemblages. Ammonium present in atmospheric and tunnel dust (as the chloride, nitrate, or sulfate) will readily decompose in the initial heating phase of the repository, and will affect subsequent behavior of the remaining salt mixture only through the removal of a stoichiometric equivalent of one or more anions. Although K-Na-NO{sub 3}-Cl brines form at high temperature and low relative humidity, these brines are dominated by nitrate, which is known to inhibit corrosion at lower

  8. Ice Control with Brine on Highways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolet, Lars

    During the years 1996-2006, the Division of Highways and Transportation in the former county of Funen gradually replaced pre-wetted salt with brine as de-icing agent in all her ice control activities. The replacement related to 1000 kilometres of highways. Jeopardizing neither road safety nor...

  9. Rheological Properties of Silica Nanoparticles in Brine and Brine-Surfactant Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pales, Ashley; Kinsey, Erin; Li, Chunyan; Mu, Linlin; Bai, Lingyun; Clifford, Heather; Darnault, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Rheological Properties of Silica Nanoparticles in Brine and Brine-Surfactant Systems Ashley R. Pales, Erin Kinsey, Chunyan Li, Linlin Mu, Lingyun Bai, Heather Clifford, and Christophe J. G. Darnault Department of Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, Laboratory of Hydrogeoscience and Biological Engineering, L.G. Rich Environmental Laboratory, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA Nanofluids are suspensions of nanometer sized particles in any fluid base, where the nanoparticles effect the properties of the fluid base. Commonly, nanofluids are water based, however, other bases such as ethylene-glycol, glycerol, and propylene-glycol, have been researched to understand the rheological properties of the nanofluids. This work aims to understand the fundamental rheological properties of silica nanoparticles in brine based and brine-surfactant based nanofluids with temperature variations. This was done by using variable weight percent of silica nanoparticles from 0.001% to 0.1%. Five percent brine was used to create the brine based nanofluids; and 5% brine with 2CMC of Tween 20 nonionic surfactant (Sigma-Aldrich) was used to create the brine-surfactant nanofluid. Rheological behaviors, such as shear rate, shear stress, and viscosity, were compared between these nanofluids at 20C and at 60C across the varied nanoparticle wt%. The goal of this work is to provide a fundamental basis for future applied testing for enhanced oil recovery. It is hypothesized that the addition of surfactant will have a positive impact on nanofluid properties that will be useful for enhance oil recovery. Differences have been observed in preliminary data analysis of the rheological properties between these two nanofluids indicating that the surfactant is having the hypothesized effect.

  10. Mirabilite solubility in equilibrium sea ice brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Benjamin Miles; Papadimitriou, Stathys; Santoro, Anna; Kennedy, Hilary

    2016-06-01

    The sea ice microstructure is permeated by brine channels and pockets that contain concentrated seawater-derived brine. Cooling the sea ice results in further formation of pure ice within these pockets as thermal equilibrium is attained, resulting in a smaller volume of increasingly concentrated residual brine. The coupled changes in temperature and ionic composition result in supersaturation of the brine with respect to mirabilite (Na2SO4·10H2O) at temperatures below -6.38 °C, which consequently precipitates within the sea ice microstructure. Here, mirabilite solubility in natural and synthetic seawater derived brines, representative of sea ice at thermal equilibrium, has been measured in laboratory experiments between 0.2 and -20.6 °C, and hence we present a detailed examination of mirabilite dynamics within the sea ice system. Below -6.38 °C mirabilite displays particularly large changes in solubility as the temperature decreases, and by -20.6 °C its precipitation results in 12.90% and 91.97% reductions in the total dissolved Na+ and SO42- concentrations respectively, compared to that of conservative seawater concentration. Such large non-conservative changes in brine composition could potentially impact upon the measurement of sea ice brine salinity and pH, whilst the altered osmotic conditions may create additional challenges for the sympagic organisms that inhabit the sea ice system. At temperatures above -6.38 °C, mirabilite again displays large changes in solubility that likely aid in impeding its identification in field samples of sea ice. Our solubility measurements display excellent agreement with that of the FREZCHEM model, which was therefore used to supplement our measurements to colder temperatures. Measured and modelled solubility data were incorporated into a 1D model for the growth of first-year Arctic sea ice. Model results ultimately suggest that mirabilite has a near ubiquitous presence in much of the sea ice on Earth, and illustrate the

  11. Experimental confirmation of liquid brines on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, E.; Renno, N. O.; Martinez, G.

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of water ice and perchlorates in the shallow subsurface of Mars [1,2] is interesting because they could produce aqueous liquid solutions under Mars' present-day environmental conditions. We used the Michigan Mars Environmental Chamber [3] to simulate the pressure, temperature and relative humidity during the full diurnal cycle of sol 19 at the Phoenix landing site. Sol 19 was chosen because on this sol ice found in a shallow trench (Dodo-Goldilocks) at a depth of ~5 cm was removed with little effort [4], suggesting that it was a frozen brine (softer than freshwater ice), and because oblate spheroids found on a strut of the lander, possibly a saline mud, were observed to grow and darken (suggesting liquefaction) [4]. The results of our simulations show that early in the mission the frozen brine likely found in the Dodo-Goldilocks trench could melt in the morning, temporarily forming aqueous liquid solutions when the temperature in the trench was above the eutectic temperature of the Ca(ClO4)2 salt (~199 K). In addition, the results of our simulations indicate that the spheroids observed on a strut of the Phoenix lander were most likely droplets of liquid brines. Since halophilic terrestrial bacteria thrive in brines [5], our results suggest that Mars' polar region could potentially be a habitat for microorganisms. In addition, it has been suggested that frost could form on fine-grained terrains at Gale crater during the winter [6]. If this frost gets in contact with perchlorate salts, it could melt temporarily forming liquid brines.

  12. Brine treatment test for reinjection on Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado, R.; Mercado, S.; Gamino, H. (Departamento de Geotermia, Division de Fuentes de Energia, Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Justo Sierra y Herreros Sur 2098-Altos C.P. 21020, Mexicali, B.C. (MX))

    1989-01-01

    Reinjection of disposal brine from the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Power Plant System is attractive mainly because, on top of solving the brine disposal problem, it may significantly contribute to extend the reservoir useful lifetime, through thermal and hydraulic recharge. Because the high concentration of colloidal silica in the disposal brine, laboratory and pilot plant tests were conducted in order to develop the brine treatment process. Addition of 20-40 mg/1 lime to flashed and aged brine for 10-20 minutes yields a clarified brine relatively low in suspended solids (10-30 mg/1) when the over flow rate is 38.5 1/min-m/sup 2/. 1.1 mills/kWh was the estimated cost for treatment of 800 kg/s of separated brine from the Cerro Prieto I power station.

  13. Expected brine movement at potential nuclear waste repository salt sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCauley, V.S.; Raines, G.E.

    1987-08-01

    The BRINEMIG brine migration code predicts rates and quantities of brine migration to a waste package emplaced in a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. The BRINEMIG code is an explicit time-marching finite-difference code that solves a mass balance equation and uses the Jenks equation to predict velocities of brine migration. Predictions were made for the seven potentially acceptable salt sites under consideration as locations for the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Predicted total quantities of accumulated brine were on the order of 1 m/sup 3/ brine per waste package or less. Less brine accumulation is expected at domal salt sites because of the lower initial moisture contents relative to bedded salt sites. Less total accumulation of brine is predicted for spent fuel than for commercial high-level waste because of the lower temperatures generated by spent fuel. 11 refs., 36 figs., 29 tabs.

  14. Geophysical and geochemical signatures of Gulf of Mexico seafloor brines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Joye

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical, temperature, and discrete depth-stratified geochemical data illustrate differences between an actively venting mud volcano and a relatively quiescent brine pool in the Gulf of Mexico along the continental slope. Geophysical data, including laser-line scan mosaics and sub-bottom profiles, document the dynamic nature of both environments. Temperature profiles, obtained by lowering a CTD into the brine fluid, show that the venting brine was at least 10°C warmer than the bottom water. At the brine pool, two thermoclines were observed, one directly below the brine-seawater interface and a second about one meter below the first. At the mud volcano, substantial temperature variability was observed, with the core brine temperature being either slightly (~2°C in 1997 or substantially (19°C in 1998 elevated above bottom water temperature. Geochemical samples were obtained using a device called the "brine trapper" and concentrations of dissolved gases, major ions and nutrients were determined using standard techniques. Both brines contained about four times as much salt as seawater and steep concentration gradients of dissolved ions and nutrients versus brine depth were apparent. Differences in the concentrations of calcium, magnesium and potassium between the two brine fluids suggests that the fluids are derived from different sources or that brine-sediment reactions are more important at the mud volcano than the brine pool. Substantial concentrations of methane and ammonium were observed in both brines, suggesting that fluids expelled from deep ocean brines are important sources of methane and dissolved inorganic nitrogen to the surrounding environment.

  15. Pure Culture Fermentation of Brined Cucumbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchells, J L; Costilow, R N; Anderson, T E; Bell, T A

    1964-11-01

    The relative abilities of Pediococcus cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, and several other species of lactic acid bacteria to grow and produce acid in brined cucumbers were evaluated in pure culture fermentations. Such fermentations were made possibly by the use of two techniques, gamma radiation (0.83 to 1.00 Mrad) and hot-water blanching (66 to 80 C for 5 min), designed first to rid the cucumbers of naturally occurring, interfering, and competitive microbial groups prior to brining, followed by inoculation with the desired lactic acid bacteria. Of the nine species tested, strains of the three common to cucumber fermentations, P. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, and L. brevis, grew to the highest populations, and produced the highest levels of brine acidity and the lowest pH values in fermentations at 5.4 to 5.6% NaCl by weight; also, their sequence of active development in fermentations, with the use of a three-species mixture for inoculation, was in the species order just named. This sequence of occurrence was similar to that estimated by others for natural fermentations. The rates of growth and acid production in fermentations with a mixture of P. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, and L. brevis increased as the incubation temperature was increased from 21 to 27 to 32 C; however, the maximal populations and acidities attained were essentially the same for fermentations at each temperature. Further, these same three species were found to be the most salt tolerant of those tested; their upper limit for appreciable growth and measurable acid production was about 8% salt, whereas thermophilic species such as L. thermophilus, L. lactis, L. helveticus, L. fermenti, and L. delbrueckii exhibited a much lower salt tolerance, ranging from about 2.5 to 4.0%. However, certain strains of L. delbrueckii grew very rapidly in cucumbers brined at 2.5 to 3.0% salt, and produced sufficient acid in about 30 hr at 48 C to reduce the brine pH from above 7.0 to below 4.0. An inexpensive

  16. A preliminary deposit model for lithium brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight; Munk, LeeAnn; Jochens, Hillary; Hynek, Scott; Labay, Keith A.

    2013-01-01

    This report is part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey to update existing mineral deposit models and to develop new ones. The global transition away from hydrocarbons toward energy alternatives increases demand for many scarce metals. Among these is lithium, a key component of lithium-ion batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Lithium brine deposits account for about three-fourths of the world’s lithium production. Updating an earlier deposit model, we emphasize geologic information that might directly or indirectly help in exploration for lithium brine deposits, or for assessing regions for mineral resource potential. Special attention is given to the best-known deposit in the world—Clayton Valley, Nevada, and to the giant Salar de Atacama, Chile.

  17. Grazer-induced chain lenght plasticity reduces grazing risk in a marine diatom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergkvist, Johanna; Thor, Peter; Jakobsen, Hans Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    We show that Skeletonema marinoi suppresses chain formation in response to copepod cues. The presence of three different copepod species (Acartia tonsa, Centropages hamatus, or Temora longicornis) significantly reduced chain length. Furthermore, chain length was significantly reduced when S. mari...

  18. Brine shrimp lethality assay of Bacopa monnieri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Prashanth; Deepak, Mundkinajeddu; Rani, Padmaja; Kadamboor, Sandhya; Mathew, Anjana; Chandrashekar, Arun P; Agarwal, Amit

    2002-03-01

    Successive petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water extracts, a saponin rich fraction (SRF) and bacoside A isolated from Bacopa monnieri were tested for brine shrimp lethality. Successive ethanol extracts and SRF showed potent activity. Bacoside A showed the maximum activity with a LC(50) of 38.3 microg/mL. The results confirmed the previous reports of an anticancer effect of Bacopa monnieri and suggest bacoside A as the active constituent.

  19. Effect of alternative mediums on production and proximate composition of the microalgae Chaetoceros muelleri as food in culture of the copepod Acartia sp. Efecto de medios alternativos sobre la producción y composición proximal de la microalga Chaetoceros muelleri como alimento en cultivo del copépodo Acartia sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Córdova, Luis R.; Alfredo Campaña-Torres; Marcel Martinez-Porchas; José A López-Elías; Celia O García-Sifuentes

    2012-01-01

    Microalgae Chaetoceros muelleri was cultured in three different mediums consisting on an agricultural fertilizer (Agr-F), aquacultural fertilizer (Aq-F) and a conventional medium (F/2, control). These microalgae were later used as natural food to culture the copepod Acartia sp. The productive response and chemical proximate composition of microalgae and copepods were monitored. Growth rate and final cell concentration were higher in microalgae cultured in Agr-F compared to the control. In add...

  20. Seasonal dynamics of Pseudocalanus minutus elongatus and Acartia spp. in the southern Baltic Sea (Gdańsk Deep – numerical simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dzierzbicka-Głowacka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A population dynamics model for copepods is presented, describing the seasonal dynamics of Pseudocalanus minutus elongatus and Acartia spp. in the southern Baltic Sea (Gdańsk Deep. The copepod model was coupled with a one-dimensional physical and biological upper layer model for nutrients (total inorganic nitrogen, phosphate, phytoplankton, microzooplankton, and an early juvenile of herring as a predator. In this model, mesozooplankton (herbivorous copepods has been introduced as an animal having definite patterns of growth in successive stages, reproduction and mortality. The populations are represented by 6 cohorts in different developmental stages, thus assuming that recruitment of the next generation occurs after a fixed period of adult life. The copepod model links trophic processes and population dynamics, and simulates individual growth within cohorts and the changes in biomass between cohorts. The simulations of annual cycles of copepods contain one complete generation of Pseudocalanus and two generations of Acartia in the whole column water, and indicate the importance of growth in the older stages of 6 cohorts of each species, to arrive at a total population biomass. The peaks of copepods' biomass are larger at the turn of June and July for Pseudocalanus and smaller in July for Acartia, lagging that of phytoplankton by ca. two mouths, due to the growth of cohorts in successive stages and egg production by females. The numerical results show that the investigated species could not be the main factor limiting the spring phytoplankton bloom in the Gdańsk Deep, because the initial development was slow for Acartia and faster for Pseudocalanus, but the main development formed after the bloom, in both cases. The phytoplankton bloom is very important in the diet of the adults of the copepods, but it is not particularly important for the youngest part of new generation (early nauplii. However, the simulated microzooplankton biomass was

  1. Brines as Sources of Long-term Subsurface Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, T. C.; Hunt, J. R.

    2004-12-01

    Concentrated salt solutions, i.e. brines, are source terms for environmental contaminants released into surface waters and groundwaters. Brines arise from both natural and industrial processes such as natural salt deposits, solid rocket fuel production, landfill leachates, nuclear fuel reprocessing, and acid rock drainage. Additionally, many of the in-situ remediation fluids that have been implemented at the pilot or the field scale are also classified as brines. While brines are miscible with water, mixing processes are slow in the subsurface and this constrains the dilution of contaminants present within brines and the delivery of remediation fluids to sites where reactions are needed. The mixing of brines during their vertical migration through aquifers is determined by aquifer permeability as well as differences in density and viscosity between the brine and the ambient groundwater. The stability criterion for brine displacement was predicted in 1952 by Hill and the resulting dispersion at the mixing front is quantified by a compilation of literature data and the acquisition of new experimental data. As brines sink through aquifers, they become emplaced in less accessible locations where mass transfer models predict that contaminants within brines are slowly released into flowing groundwater. For radioactive wastes and environmental contaminants with very low acceptable concentrations, groundwater quality can be impacted for decades. Field data from a cooling water disposal site suggest that a dense brine is likely still present as a source term 40 years after waste disposal was stopped. Overall, analysis of pollution sources, quantification of transport processes, generalization of laboratory data, and limited evaluation of field data indicate that brines represent long-term sources of groundwater contamination and that source control has not been seriously addressed.

  2. Geophysical and geochemical signatures of Gulf of Mexico seafloor brines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Joye

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical, temperature, and discrete depth-stratified geochemical data illustrate differences between an actively venting mud volcano and a relatively quiescent brine pool in the Gulf of Mexico along the continental slope. Geophysical data, including laser-line scan mosaics and sub-bottom profiles, document the dynamic nature of both environments. Temperature profiles, obtained by lowering a CTD into the brine fluid, show that the venting brine was at least 10°C warmer than the bottom water. At the brine pool, thermal stratification was observed and only small differences in stratification were documented between three sampling times (1991, 1997 and 1998. In contrast, at the mud volcano, substantial temperature variability was observed, with the core brine temperature being slightly higher than bottom water (by 2°C in 1997 but substantially higher than bottom water (by 19°C in 1998. Detailed geochemical samples were obtained in 2002 using a device called the 'brine trapper' and concentrations of dissolved gases, major ions and nutrients were determined. Both brines contained about four times as much salt as seawater and steep concentration gradients of dissolved ions and nutrients versus brine depth were apparent. Differences in the concentrations of calcium, magnesium and potassium between the two brine fluids suggest that the fluids are derived from different sources, have different dilution/mixing histories, or that brine-sediment reactions are more important at the mud volcano. Substantial concentrations of methane, ammonium, and silicate were observed in both brines, suggesting that fluids expelled from deep ocean brines are important sources of these constituents to the surrounding environment.

  3. Preliminary Feasibility Testing of the BRIC Brine Water Recovery Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Pensinger, Stuart; Pickering, Karen D.

    2011-01-01

    The Brine Residual In-Containment (BRIC) concept was developed as a new technology to recover water from spacecraft wastewater brines. Such capability is considered critical to closing the water loop and achieving a sustained human presence in space. The intention of the BRIC concept is to increase the robustness and efficiency of the dewatering process by performing drying inside the container used for the final disposal of the residual brine solid. Recent efforts in the development of BRIC have focused on preliminary feasibility testing using a laboratory- assembled pre-prototype unit. Observations of the drying behavior of actual brine solutions processed under BRIC-like conditions has been of particular interest. To date, experiments conducted with three types of analogue spacecraft wastewater brines have confirmed the basic premise behind the proposed application of in-place drying for these solutions. Specifically, the dried residual mass from these solutions have tended to exhibit characteristics of adhesion and flow that are expected to continue to challenge process stream management in spacecraft brine dewatering system designs. Yet, these same characteristics may favor the development of capillary- and surface-tension-based approaches envisioned as part of an ultimate microgravity-compatible BRIC design. In addition, preliminary feasibility testing of the BRIC pre-prototype confirmed that high rates of water recovery, up to 98% of the available brine water, may be possible while still removing the majority of the brine contaminants from the influent brine stream. These and other observations from testing are reported.

  4. Evaluation of Brine Processing Technologies for Spacecraft Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Hali L.; Flynn, Michael; Wisniewski, Richard; Lee, Jeffery; Jones, Harry; Delzeit, Lance; Shull, Sarah; Sargusingh, Miriam; Beeler, David; Howard, Jeanie; Howard, Kevin; Harris, Linden; Parodi, Jurek; Kawashima, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Brine drying systems may be used in spaceflight. There are several advantages to using brine processing technologies for long-duration human missions including a reduction in resupply requirements and achieving high water recovery ratios. The objective of this project was to evaluate four technologies for the drying of spacecraft water recycling system brine byproducts. The technologies tested were NASA's Forward Osmosis Brine Drying (FOBD), Paragon's Ionomer Water Processor (IWP), NASA's Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB) System, and UMPQUA's Ultrasonic Brine Dewatering System (UBDS). The purpose of this work was to evaluate the hardware using feed streams composed of brines similar to those generated on board the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration missions. The brine formulations used for testing were the ISS Alternate Pretreatment and Solution 2 (Alt Pretreat). The brines were generated using the Wiped-film Rotating-disk (WFRD) evaporator, which is a vapor compression distillation system that is used to simulate the function of the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). Each system was evaluated based on the results from testing and Equivalent System Mass (ESM) calculations. A Quality Function Deployment (QFD) matrix was also developed as a method to compare the different technologies based on customer and engineering requirements.

  5. Selective Recovery of Metals from Geothermal Brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ventura, Susanna [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bhamidi, Srinivas [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hornbostel, Marc [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Nagar, Anoop [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Perea, Elisabeth [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-12-16

    The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of developing a new generation of highly selective low-cost ion-exchange resins based on metal-ion imprinted polymers for the separation of metals from geothermal fluids. Expansion of geothermal energy production over the entire U.S. will involve exploitation of low-to-medium temperature thermal waters. Creating value streams from the recovery of critical and near-critical metals from these thermal waters will encourage geothermal expansion. Selective extraction of metals from geothermal fluids is needed to design a cost-effective process for the recovery of lithium and manganese-two near-critical metals with well-known application in the growing lithium battery industry. We have prepared new lithium- and manganese-imprinted polymers in the form of beads by crosslinking polymerization of a metal polymerizable chelate, where the metal acts as a template. Upon leaching out the metal template, the crosslinked polymer is expected to leave cavities defined by the ligand functional group with enhanced selectivity for binding the template metal. We have demonstrated that lithium- and manganese-imprinted polymer beads can be used as selective solid sorbents for the extraction of lithium and manganese from brines. The polymers were tested both in batch extractions and packed bed lab-scale columns at temperatures of 45-100°C. Lithium-imprinted polymers were found to have Li+ adsorption capacity as high as 2.8 mg Li+/g polymer at 45°C. Manganese-imprinted polymers were found to have a Mn2+ adsorption capacity of more than 23 mg Mn2+/g polymer at 75°C. The Li+ extraction efficiency of the Li-imprinted polymer was found to be more that 95% when a brine containing 390 ppm Li+, 410 ppm Na+, and 390 ppm K+ was passed through a packed bed of the polymer in a lab-scale column at 45°C. In brines containing 360 ppm Li

  6. Lithium isotope geochemistry and origin of Canadian shield brines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottomley, D J; Chan, L H; Katz, A; Starinsky, A; Clark, I D

    2003-01-01

    Hypersaline calcium/chloride shield brines are ubiquitous in Canada and areas of northern Europe. The major questions relating to these fluids are the origin of the solutes and the concentration mechanism that led to their extreme salinity. Many chemical and isotopic tracers are used to solve these questions. For example, lithium isotope systematics have been used recently to support a marine origin for the Yellowknife shield brine (Northwest Territories). While having important chemical similarities to the Yellowknife brine, shield brines from the Sudbury/Elliot Lake (Ontario) and Thompson/Snow Lake (Manitoba) regions, which are the focus of this study, exhibit contrasting lithium behavior. Brine from the Sudbury Victor mine has lithium concentrations that closely follow the sea water lithium-bromine concentration trajectory, as well as delta6Li values of approximately -28/1000. This indicates that the lithium in this brine is predominantly marine in origin with a relatively minor component of crustal lithium leached from the host rocks. In contrast, the Thompson/Snow Lake brine has anomalously low lithium concentrations, indicating that it has largely been removed from solution by alteration minerals. Furthermore, brine and nonbrine mine waters at the Thompson mine have large delta6Li variations of approximately 30/1000, which primarily reflects mixing between deep brine with delta6Li of -35 +/- 2/1000 and near surface mine water that has derived higher delta6Li values through interactions with their host rocks. The contrary behavior of lithium in these two brines shows that, in systems where it has behaved conservatively, lithium isotopes can distinguish brines derived from marine sources.

  7. Brine Transport Experiments in Granular Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Amy B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-06

    To gain confidence in the predictive capability of numerical models, experimental validation must be performed to ensure that parameters and processes are correctly simulated. The laboratory investigations presented herein aim to address knowledge gaps for heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) disposal in bedded salt that remain after examination of prior field and laboratory test data. Primarily, we are interested in better constraining the thermal, hydrological, and physicochemical behavior of brine, water vapor, and salt when moist salt is heated. The target of this work is to use run-of-mine (RoM) salt; however during FY2015 progress was made using high-purity, granular sodium chloride.

  8. Ice Control with Brine on Highways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolet, Lars

    meant that six salt barns could be phased out. This made it possible to revise the staff's duty roster and thus meet the rest hour demands raised by the health and safety at work acts. Successful pre-salting is, of course, dependent on reliable weather forecasts and on staff well trained in the art...... traffic flow the spread rate of pure sodium chloride (and thus the environmental impact) in the pre-salting operations was cut back by more than one third. Compared to neighbouring counties the use of salt is less than fifty percent per square meter. In addition, supply of brine from two mixer-plants...

  9. Photocatalytic reduction of nitrate using titanium dioxide for regeneration of ion exchange brine

    OpenAIRE

    Yang,Ting; Doudrick, Kyle; Westerhoff, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Nitrate is often removed from groundwater by ion exchange (IX) before its use as drinking water. Accumulation of nitrate in IX brine reduces the efficiency of IX regeneration and the useful life of the regeneration brine. For the first time, we present a strategy to photocatalytically reduce nitrate in IX brine, thereby extending the use of the brine. Titanium dioxide (Evonik P90), acting as photocatalyst, reduced nitrate effectively in both synthetic brines and sulfate-removed IX brine when ...

  10. The effect of brine on the creep behaviour and dissolution chemistry of evaporites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Souza, E De; Lee, R

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate operational problems in evaporite deposit utilization associated with brine, halite, sylvinite, and carnallitic ore were creep tested under unconfined conditions, both with and without added brine...

  11. Evaporation Rates of Brine on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, D. W. G.; Chittenden, J.; Moore, S. R.; Meier, A.; Kareev, M.; Farmer, C. B.

    2004-01-01

    While Mars is now largely a dry and barren place, recent data have indicated that water has flowed at specific locations within the last approx. 10(exp 6) y. This had led to a resurgence of interest in theoretical and experimental work aimed at understanding the behavior of water on Mars. There are several means whereby the stability of liquid water on Mars could be increased, one being the presence solutes that would depress the freezing point. Salt water on Earth is about 0.5M NaCl, but laboratory experiments suggest that martian salt water is quite different. We recently began a program of laboratory measurements of the stability of liquid water, ice and ice-dust mixtures under martian conditions and here report measurements of the evaporation rate of 0.25M brine.

  12. Geochemistry of Aluminum in High Temperature Brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benezeth, P.; Palmer, D.A.; Wesolowski, D.J.

    1999-05-18

    The objective ofthis research is to provide quantitative data on the equilibrium and thermodynamic properties of aluminum minerals required to model changes in permeability and brine chemistry associated with fluid/rock interactions in the recharge, reservoir, and discharge zones of active geothermal systems. This requires a precise knowledge of the thermodynamics and speciation of aluminum in aqueous brines, spanning the temperature and fluid composition rangesencountered in active systems. The empirical and semi-empirical treatments of the solubility/hydrolysis experimental results on single aluminum mineral phases form the basis for the ultimate investigation of the behavior of complex aluminosilicate minerals. The principal objective in FY 1998 was to complete the solubility measurements on boehmite (AIOOH) inNaC1 media( 1 .O and 5.0 molal ionic strength, IOO-250°C). However, additional measurements were also made on boehmite solubility in pure NaOH solutions in order to bolster the database for fitting in-house isopiestic data on this system. Preliminary kinetic Measurements of the dissolution/precipitation of boehmite was also carried out, although these were also not planned in the earlier objective. The 1999 objectives are to incorporate these treatments into existing codes used by the geothermal industry to predict the chemistry ofthe reservoirs; these calculations will be tested for reliability against our laboratory results and field observations. Moreover, based on the success of the experimental methods developed in this program, we intend to use our unique high temperature pH easurement capabilities to make kinetic and equilibrium studies of pH-dependent aluminosilicate transformation reactions and other pH-dependent heterogeneous reactions.

  13. Empirical formula for the refractive index of freezing brine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2009-01-01

    The refractive index of freezing brine is important for example in order to estimate oceanic scattering as sea ice develops. Previously, no simple continuous expression was available for estimating the refractive index of brine at subzero temperatures. I show that extrapolation of the empirical...... formula for the refractive index of seawater by Quan and Fry [Appl. Opt. 34(18), 3477-3480 (1995)] provides a good fit to the refractive index of freezing brine for temperatures above -24 degrees celsius and salinities below 180 parts per thousand....

  14. Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA) project will result in a proof-of-concept demonstration for a lightweight, compact, affordable, regenerable and disposable...

  15. Development of the brine shrimp Artemia is accelerated during spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, B. S.; Metcalf, J.; DeBell, L.; Paulsen, A.; Noren, W.; Guikema, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    Developmentally arrested brine shrimp cysts have been reactivated during orbital spaceflight on two different Space Shuttle missions (STS-50 and STS-54), and their subsequent development has been compared with that of simultaneously reactivated ground controls. Flight and control brine shrimp do not significantly differ with respect to hatching rates or larval morphology at the scanning and transmission EM levels. A small percentage of the flight larvae had defective nauplier eye development, but the observation was not statistically significant. However, in three different experiments on two different flights, involving a total of 232 larvae that developed in space, a highly significant difference in degree of flight to control development was found. By as early as 2.25 days after reactivation of development, spaceflight brine shrimp were accelerated, by a full instar, over ground control brine shrimp. Although developing more rapidly, flight shrimp grew as long as control shrimp at each developmental instar or stage.

  16. Geochemical implications of brine leakage into freshwater aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunsch, Assaf; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K; McCray, John E

    2013-01-01

    CO(2) injection into deep saline formations as a way to mitigate climate change raises concerns that leakage of saline waters from the injection formations will impact water quality of overlying aquifers, especially underground sources of drinking water (USDWs). This paper aims to characterize the geochemical composition of deep brines, with a focus on constituents that pose a human health risk and are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). A statistical analysis of the NATCARB brine database, combined with simple mixing model calculations, show total dissolved solids and concentrations of chloride, boron, arsenic, sulfate, nitrate, iron and manganese may exceed plant tolerance or regulatory levels. Twelve agricultural crops evaluated for decreased productivity in the event of brine leakage would experience some yield reduction due to increased TDS at brine-USDW ratios of United States are almost three times higher than public and domestic withdrawals.

  17. Brine Shrimp Ecology In The Great Salt Lake, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A.

    1995-01-01

    Hypersaline lakes are noted for their simple communities which facilitate understanding ecological interactions (Williams et al. 1990; Wurtsbaugh 1992; Jellison and Melack 1988). Nevertheless, we still cannot easily predict how environmental changes will effect the population dynamics in these lakes, at least in part because even these simple ecosystems may be more complex than we .realize. Many hypersaline lakes are dominated by the brine shrimp Artemia spp. The production of brine shrimp is...

  18. The effects of brine disposal on a subtidal meiofauna community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Rodrigo; Tuya, Fernando; Sacramento, Alicia; Ramos, Eva; Rodríguez, Myriam; Monterroso, Óscar

    2011-07-01

    Desalination plants generate notable (>1,000 s m 3) quantities of hypersaline brine which potentially affect the biological communities in the receiving area. We assessed whether proximity to a brine discharge point located off Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, eastern Atlantic) altered patterns in the abundance and assemblage structure of subtidal, soft-bottom, meiofauna. Samples were collected twice (May 2008 and January 2009) at 0, 15 and 30 m away from the brine discharge point, corresponding to a change in salinity from 45 to 36. Proximity to the brine discharge point affected overall meiofaunal abundances: lowest abundances were observed at 0 m (64.55 ± 39.86 ind 10 cm -2, mean ± SD) than at 15 (210.49 ± 121.01 ind 10 cm -2) and 30 m (361.88 ± 102.64 ind 10 cm -2) away from the brine discharge point. This pattern was particularly notable for the most conspicuous meiofaunal groups: nematodes and copepods, and meiofaunal assemblage structure also differed with varying proximity to the brine discharge point. Although multivariate techniques identified changes in salinity as a relevant driver of patterns in meiofaunal assemblage structure with varying proximity to the brine outfall, a shift in particle size composition between May 2008 and January 2009 also contributed to explain differences in meiofaunal abundances and assemblage structure with varying proximity to the brine discharge point. Hence, meiofauna can be considered a suitable tool to monitor environmental impacts derived from the discharge of hypersaline effluents on subtidal, soft-bottom, assemblages if potential confounding drivers, i.e. here temporal changes in particle size composition, are accounted for to avoid possible confusing interpretations.

  19. Survival of foodborne pathogens in natural cracked olive brines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Eduardo; Romero-Gil, Verónica; Garrido-Fernández, Antonio; Arroyo-López, Francisco Noé

    2016-10-01

    This work reports the survival (challenge tests) of foodborne pathogen species (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica) in Aloreña de Málaga table olive brines. The inhibitions were fit using a log-linear model with tail implemented in GInaFIT excel software. The olive brine had a considerable inhibitory effect on the pathogens. The residual (final) populations (Fp) after 24 h was below detection limit (olives for foodborne pathogenic microorganisms.

  20. Trichloroethylene Volatilization Enhancement by the Addition of a Brine Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irizarry, M. L.; Padilla, I. Y.

    2008-12-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is one of the most widely detected organic contaminants at National Priority List (NPL) sites. In many sites, TCE is trapped as a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) in formations of low permeability, and serves as long-term source of contamination. Cost effective remediation technologies that can be applied to tight formations need to be developed. This study investigates the enhancement of TCE volatilization from unsaturated clayey soils by adding a NaCl brine solution. It is postulated that the overall effect of the brine solution causing structured water around soil particles, increased relative permeability, and increased fugacity into the vapor phase, is to enhance TCE volatilization. TCE removal through the soil vapor extraction (SVE) technique can then be enhanced. Preliminary experimental work involves the use of static and dynamic flux reactors, containing TCE, water and clay. NaCl brine solution is added at different concentrations to evaluate the effect on TCE concentrations and volatilization rates. In the static flux mode, vapor concentrations in the headspace of sealed reactors are measured after a two-day period. In the dynamic flux mode, air is swept through the headspace of the reactors and TCE vapor concentrations are measured over time. Plots relating static TCE vapor concentration to brine concentration are used to show the effect of brine concentrations on TCE fugacity. Temporal concentration distributions of TCE show the effect of brine on the rate of volatilization. Keywords: Trichloroethylene (TCE), Soil vapor extraction (SVE), clay

  1. Genesis of underground brine along south coast of Laizhou Bay: hydrochemical characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xueyan; YU Zhigang; NING Jinsong; CHEN Hongtao; MI Tiezhu

    2006-01-01

    Hydrochemistry of underground brines along south coast of Laizhou Bay, Shandong, China has been analyzed. Brine samples were collected from 43 wells in this area. It was considered that the brines were originated from seawater. However, whether they were formed by seawater evaporation or seawater freezing was not fully sure. We created a simple method by plotting Na/Cl vs. seawater concentration factor (SCF) and Ca/Mg vs. SCF to determine the brine formation geochemically. Comparison of our results to previous seawater freezing and evaporation experiments indicated that the brines were formed by seawater evaporation. The ratios of HCO3/Cl of some low salinity brines in the study area were relatively higher, indicating that the brines may have mixed with other waters after the generation. The Br/Cl ratios of the brines decreased annually in the past 20 to 30 years of exploitation, indicating downward permeation of the brine from which bromine was extracted.

  2. Redox states of underground brine system along the southern coast of the Laizhou Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xueyan; YU Zhigang; NING Jinsong; CHEN Hongtao; MI Tiezhu

    2008-01-01

    Underground brine samples were collected along the southern coast of the Laizhou Bay,Shangdong,China in two field investigations in 2003.The brines are confined in the Quaternary sediment and underwent a series of geochemical changes.The redox states of these brines were assessed qualitatively based on the measurements of Eh and redox-sensitive species such as DO,NO NO3,Mn2+,Fe2+,SO2-4 in the brines.The redox condition of the underground brine is anoxic,and the redox reactions that controlled the redox potential of brines should be Fe (Ⅲ) reduction and sulfate reduction.

  3. Effects of a brine discharge over soft bottom Polychaeta assemblage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilar-Ruso, Yoana del [Dpto. de Ciencias del Mar y Biologia Aplicada, Universidad de Alicante, Campus de San Vicente del Raspeig, Ap. 99, E-03080, Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: yoana.delpilar@ua.es; Ossa-Carretero, Jose Antonio de la; Gimenez-Casalduero, Francisca; Sanchez-Lizaso, Jose Luis [Dpto. de Ciencias del Mar y Biologia Aplicada, Universidad de Alicante, Campus de San Vicente del Raspeig, Ap. 99, E-03080, Alicante (Spain)

    2008-11-15

    Desalination is a growing activity that has introduced a new impact, brine discharge, which may affect benthic communities. Although the role of polychaetes as indicators to assess organic pollution is well known, their tolerance to salinity changes has not been examined to such a great extent. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of brine discharge over soft bottom polychaete assemblage along the Alicante coast (Southeast Spain) over a two year period. Changes in the polychaete assemblage was analysed using univariate and multivariate techniques. We compared a transect in front of the discharge with two controls. At each transect we sampled at three depths (4, 10 and 15 m) during winter and summer. We have observed different sensitivity of polychaete families to brine discharges, Ampharetidae being the most sensitive, followed by Nephtyidae and Spionidae. Syllidae and Capitellidae showed some resistance initially, while Paraonidae proved to be a tolerant family. - The Polychaete assemblage is affected by the brine discharge of the Alicante desalination plant and we detect different sensitivity levels in polychaete families to brine impact.

  4. Stability of polyvinyl alcohol-coated biochar nanoparticles in brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Christopher; Daigle, Hugh

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the dispersion stability of 150 nm polyvinyl alcohol coated biochar nanoparticles in brine water. Biochar is a renewable, carbon based material that is of significant interest for enhanced oil recovery operations primarily due to its wide ranging surface properties, low cost of synthesis, and low environmental toxicity. Nanoparticles used as stabilizing agents for foams (and emulsions) or in nanofluids have emerged as potential alternatives to surfactants for subsurface applications due to their improved stability at reservoir conditions. If, however, the particles are not properly designed, they are susceptible to aggregation because of the high salinity brines typical of oil and gas reservoirs. Attachment of polymers to the nanoparticle surface, through covalent bonds, provides steric stabilization, and is a necessary step. Our results show that as the graft density of polyvinyl alcohol increases, so too does the stability of nanoparticles in brine solutions. A maximum of 34 wt% of 50,000 Da polyvinyl alcohol was grafted to the particle surface, and the size of the particles was reduced from 3500 nm (no coating) to 350 nm in brine. After 24 h, the particles had a size of 500 nm, and after 48 h completely aggregated. 100,000 Da PVA coated at 24 wt% on the biochar particles were stable in brine for over 1 month with no change in mean particle size of 330 nm.

  5. Searching for brine on Mars using Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, E.

    2016-07-01

    In the last few years, water ice and perchlorate salts capable of melting this ice and producing liquid solutions have been discovered at the surface and shallow subsurface of Mars. In addition to via melting of ice, perchlorate salts may also form liquid solutions by absorbing water vapor when the relative humidity is above a certain threshold in a process known as deliquescence. Formed either by melting or deliquescence, liquid solutions (brine) are the most likely way of liquid water activity on the Martian surface and in the shallow subsurface and are therefore important to understand the habitability of Mars. Using Raman spectroscopy, we provide reference spectra of various mixing states of liquid water, water ice and calcium perchlorate, all of which can occur during brine formation. We focus on the perchlorate symmetric stretching band and the O-H stretching vibrational band to distinguish brine from crystalline salt and water ice. We show that perchlorate brines can be identified by analyzing the peaks and their widths in the decomposed Raman spectra of the investigated samples. This serves as an important reference for future in-situ Raman spectrometers on Mars, such as those on the ExoMars and Mars 2020 rovers and can aid in the detection of brine formation on Mars. (Author)

  6. Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breunig, Hanna M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Birkholzer, Jens T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Borgia, Andrea [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Price, Phillip N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Oldenburg, Curtis M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; McKone, Thomas E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2013-06-13

    Geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) is the injection of carbon dioxide (CO2), typically captured from stationary emission sources, into deep geologic formations to prevent its entry into the atmosphere. Active pilot facilities run by regional United States (US) carbon sequestration partnerships inject on the order of one million metric tonnes (mt) CO2 annually while the US electric power sector emits over 2000 million mt-CO2 annually. GCS is likely to play an increasing role in US carbon mitigation initiatives, but scaling up GCS poses several challenges. Injecting CO2 into sedimentary basins raises fluid pressure in the pore space, which is typically already occupied by naturally occurring, or native, brine. The resulting elevated pore pressures increase the likelihood of induced seismicity, of brine or CO2 escaping into potable groundwater resources, and of CO2 escaping into the atmosphere. Brine extraction is one method for pressure management, in which brine in the injection formation is brought to the surface through extraction wells. Removal of the brine makes room for the CO2 and decreases pressurization. Although the technology required for brine extraction is mature, this form of pressure management will only be applicable if there are cost-­effective and sustainable methods of disposing of the extracted brine. Brine extraction, treatment, and disposal may increase the already substantial capital, energy, and water demands of Carbon dioxide Capture and Sequestration (CCS). But, regionally specific brine management strategies may be able to treat the extracted water as a source of revenue, energy, and water to subsidize CCS costs, while minimizing environmental impacts. By this approach, value from the extracted water would be recovered before disposing of any resulting byproducts. Until a price is placed on carbon, we expect that utilities and other CO2 sources will be

  7. Gas content of Gladys McCall reservoir brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayden, C.G.; Randolph, P.L.

    1987-05-29

    On October 8, 1983, after the first full day of production from Sand No.8 in the Gladys McCall well, samples of separator gas and separator brine were collected for laboratory P-V-T (pressure, volume, temperature) studies. Recombination of amounts of these samples based upon measured rates at the time of sample collection, and at reservoir temperature (290 F), revealed a bubble point pressure of 9200 psia. This is substantially below the reported reservoir pressure of 12,783 psia. The gas content of the recombined fluids was 30.19 SCF of dry gas/STB of brine. In contrast, laboratory studies indicate that 35.84 SCF of pure methane would dissolve in each STB of 95,000 mg/L sodium chloride brine. These results indicate that the reservoir brine was not saturated with natural gas. By early April, 1987, production of roughly 25 million barrels of brine had reduced calculated flowing bottomhole pressure to about 6600 psia at a brine rate of 22,000 STB/D. If the skin factor(s) were as high as 20, flowing pressure drop across the skin would still be only about 500 psi. Thus, some portion of the reservoir volume was believed to have been drawn down to below the bubble point deduced from the laboratory recombination of separator samples. When the pressure in a geopressured geothermal reservoir is reduced to below the bubble point pressure for solution gas, gas is exsolved from the brine flowing through the pores in the reservoir rock. This exsolved gas is trapped in the reservoir until the fractional gas saturation of pore volume becomes large enough for gas flow to commence through a continuous gas-filled channel. At the same time, the gas/brine ratio becomes smaller and the chemistry of the remaining solution gas changes for the brine from which gas is exsolved. A careful search was made for the changes in gas/brine ratio or solution gas chemistry that would accompany pressure dropping below the bubble point pressure. Changes of about the same magnitude as the scatter in

  8. Actinide (III) solubility in WIPP Brine: data summary and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borkowski, Marian; Lucchini, Jean-Francois; Richmann, Michael K.; Reed, Donald T.

    2009-09-01

    The solubility of actinides in the +3 oxidation state is an important input into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) performance assessment (PA) models that calculate potential actinide release from the WIPP repository. In this context, the solubility of neodymium(III) was determined as a function of pH, carbonate concentration, and WIPP brine composition. Additionally, we conducted a literature review on the solubility of +3 actinides under WIPP-related conditions. Neodymium(III) was used as a redox-invariant analog for the +3 oxidation state of americium and plutonium, which is the oxidation state that accounts for over 90% of the potential release from the WIPP through the dissolved brine release (DBR) mechanism, based on current WIPP performance assessment assumptions. These solubility data extend past studies to brine compositions that are more WIPP-relevant and cover a broader range of experimental conditions than past studies.

  9. Prospects of the complex development of highly parameter geothermal brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhasov, A. B.; Alkhasova, D. A.; Ramazanov, A. Sh.; Kasparova, M. A.

    2015-06-01

    The high efficiency of complex processing of high-temperature hydrothermal brines with utilization of heat energy in a binary geothermal power plant and subsequent extraction of solved chemical compounds is shown. Promising technological schemes are given, where electric power, which is generated in the binary geothermal power plant, is used in a block to recover chemistry components. The technology for integrated processing of geothermal brines of the chloride-sodium-calcium type is developed, which provides the manufacture not only of marketable products but also of practically overall reagents of processed water that are necessary to realize the technology. Priority areas for development are indicated, and the preliminary estimates for a Berikey geothermal deposit are given. It is shown that only established resources of thermal brines of the Berikey deposit make it possible to produce more than 2000 t of lithium carbonate and, thereby, to completely provide Russian industry requirements for it.

  10. Microbially mediated barite dissolution in anoxic brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Bingjie; Akob, Denise M.; Dunlap, Darren S.; Renock, Devon

    2017-01-01

    Fluids injected into shale formations during hydraulic fracturing of black shale return with extraordinarily high total-dissolved-solids (TDS) and high concentrations of barium (Ba) and radium (Ra). Barite, BaSO4, has been implicated as a possible source of Ba as well as a problematic mineral scale that forms on internal well surfaces, often in close association with radiobarite, (Ba,Ra)SO4. The dissolution of barite by abiotic processes is well quantified. However, the identification of microbial communities in flowback and produced water necessitates the need to understand barite dissolution in the presence of bacteria. Therefore, we evaluated the rates and mechanisms of abiotic and microbially-mediated barite dissolution under anoxic and hypersaline conditions in the laboratory. Barite dissolution experiments were conducted with bacterial enrichment cultures established from produced water from Marcellus Shale wells located in northcentral Pennsylvania. These cultures were dominated by anaerobic halophilic bacteria from the genus Halanaerobium. Dissolved Ba was determined by ICP-OES and barite surfaces were investigated by SEM and AFM. Our results reveal that: 1) higher amounts of barium (up to ∼5 × ) are released from barite in the presence of Halanaerobium cultures compared to brine controls after 30 days of reaction, 2) etch pits that develop on the barite (001) surface in the presence of Halanaerobium exhibit a morphology that is distinct from those that form during control experiments without bacteria, 3) etch pits that develop in the presence of Halanaerobium exhibit a morphology that is similar to the morphology of etch pits formed in the presence of strong organic chelators, EDTA and DTPA, and 4) experiments using dialysis membranes to separate barite from bacteria suggest that direct contact between the two is not required in order to promote dissolution. These results suggest that Halanaerobium increase the rate of barite dissolution in anoxic and

  11. Spectroscopy and detectability of liquid brines on mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, M.; Beck, P.; Schmitt, B.; Pommerol, A.; McEwen, A.; Chevrier, V.; Brissaud, O.; Séjourné, A.

    2014-03-01

    Recent geomorphological observations as well as chemical and thermodynamic studies demonstrate that liquid water should be stable today on the Martian surface at some times of the day. In Martian conditions, brines would be particularly more stable than pure water because salts can depress the freezing point and lower the evaporation rate of water. Despite this evidence, no clear spectral signature of liquid has been observed so far by the hyperspectral imaging spectrometers OMEGA and CRISM. However, past spectral analysis lacks a good characterization of brines' spectral signatures. This study thus aims to determine how liquid brines can be detected on Mars by spectroscopy. In this way, laboratory experiments were performed for reproducing hydration and dehydration cycles of various brines while measuring their spectral signatures. The resulting spectra first reveal a very similar spectral evolution for the various brine types and pure water, with the main difference observed at the end of the dehydration with the crystallization of various hydrated minerals from brines. The main characteristic of this spectral behavior is an important decoupling between the evolution of albedo and hydration bands depths. During most of the wetting/drying processes, spectra usually display a low albedo associated with shallow water absorption band depths. Strong water absorption band depth and high albedo are respectively only observed when the surface is very wet and when the surface is very dry. These experiments can thus explain why the currently active Martian features attributed to the action of a liquid are only associated with low albedo and very weak spectral signatures. Hydration experiments also reveal that deliquescence occurs easily even at low temperature and moderate soil water vapor pressure and could thus cause seasonal darkening on Mars. These experiments demonstrate that the absence of water absorptions in CRISM in the middle afternoon does not rule out water

  12. Toxicological investigations of Aloe ferox Mill. extracts using Brine shrimp (Artemia salina L.) assay

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abosede, Wintola Olubunmi; Sunday, Arowosegbe; Jide, Afolayan Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Cytotoxicity of the extracts of Aloe ferox using brine shrimp was evaluated. Effects of the extracts on hatchability and lethality of brine shrimps were reported in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration and LD(50) respectively...

  13. Ice Control with Brine Spread with Nozzles on Highways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolet, Lars; Fonnesbech, Jens Kristian

    2010-01-01

    . The improvements gained by the county of Funen were mainly due to the use of technologies (brine spreading with nozzles) giving a more precise spread pattern than the traditional gritting of pre-wetted salt. The spread pattern for every spreader, tested in The County of Funen, has been meassured 3 hours after...... spreading on a highway with traffic. A total of 800 spots were measured for residual salt for every spreader. The measurements and the spread pattern for brine spreading with nozzles were so precisely, that we learned: “When there is moisture, water or ice on the road, we need to take into account...

  14. Assessing Radium Activity in Shale Gas Produced Brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, W.; Hayes, K. F.; Ellis, B. R.

    2015-12-01

    The high volumes and salinity associated with shale gas produced water can make finding suitable storage or disposal options a challenge, especially when deep well brine disposal or recycling for additional well completions is not an option. In such cases, recovery of commodity salts from the high total dissolved solids (TDS) of the brine wastewater may be desirable, yet the elevated concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides such as Ra-226 and Ra-228 in produced waters (sometimes substantially greater than the EPA limit of 5 pCi/L) may concentrate during these steps and limit salt recovery options. Therefore, assessing the potential presence of these Ra radionuclides in produced water from shale gas reservoir properties is desirable. In this study, we seek to link U and Th content within a given shale reservoir to the expected Ra content of produced brine by accounting for secular equilibrium within the rock and subsequent release to Ra to native brines. Produced brine from a series of Antrim shale wells and flowback from a single Utica-Collingwood shale well in Michigan were sampled and analyzed via ICP-MS to measure Ra content. Gamma spectroscopy was used to verify the robustness of this new Ra analytical method. Ra concentrations were observed to be up to an order of magnitude higher in the Antrim flowback water samples compared to those collected from the Utica-Collingwood well. The higher Ra content in Antrim produced brines correlates well with higher U content in the Antrim (19 ppm) relative to the Utica-Collingwood (3.5 ppm). We also observed an increase in Ra activity with increasing TDS in the Antrim samples. This Ra-TDS relationship demonstrates the influence of competing divalent cations in controlling Ra mobility in these clay-rich reservoirs. In addition, we will present a survey of geochemical data from other shale gas plays in the U.S. correlating shale U, Th content with produced brine Ra content. A goal of this study is to develop a

  15. The influence of closed brine pockets and permeable brine channels on the thermo-elastic properties of saline ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchenko, Aleksey; Lishman, Ben

    2017-02-13

    A model of the thermo-elastic behaviour of saline ice is formulated, and model solutions describing thermo-elastic waves (TEW) propagating into a half-space of the ice are investigated. The model is based on a proposal that saline ice is a matrix, which encompasses both closed brine pockets and permeable channels filled with brine. Experiments on the thermal expansion of saline ice samples, and on TEW in saline ice, have been performed in the cold laboratories of the University Centre in Svalbard and in University College London. The experimental data are compared with theoretical conclusions. The experimental data support our hypothesis that the brine in saline ice is divided between closed pockets and open, permeable channels.This article is part of the themed issue 'Microdynamics of ice'.

  16. The influence of closed brine pockets and permeable brine channels on the thermo-elastic properties of saline ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchenko, Aleksey; Lishman, Ben

    2017-02-01

    A model of the thermo-elastic behaviour of saline ice is formulated, and model solutions describing thermo-elastic waves (TEW) propagating into a half-space of the ice are investigated. The model is based on a proposal that saline ice is a matrix, which encompasses both closed brine pockets and permeable channels filled with brine. Experiments on the thermal expansion of saline ice samples, and on TEW in saline ice, have been performed in the cold laboratories of the University Centre in Svalbard and in University College London. The experimental data are compared with theoretical conclusions. The experimental data support our hypothesis that the brine in saline ice is divided between closed pockets and open, permeable channels. This article is part of the themed issue 'Microdynamics of ice'.

  17. Selective oxidation of bromide in wastewater brines from hydraulic fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mei; Lowry, Gregory V; Gregory, Kelvin B

    2013-07-01

    Brines generated from oil and natural gas production, including flowback water and produced water from hydraulic fracturing of shale gas, may contain elevated concentrations of bromide (~1 g/L). Bromide is a broad concern due to the potential for forming brominated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during drinking water treatment. Conventional treatment processes for bromide removal is costly and not specific. Selective bromide removal is technically challenging due to the presence of other ions in the brine, especially chloride as high as 30-200 g/L. This study evaluates the ability of solid graphite electrodes to selectively oxidize bromide to bromine in flowback water and produced water from a shale gas operation in Southwestern PA. The bromine can then be outgassed from the solution and recovered, as a process well understood in the bromine industry. This study revealed that bromide may be selectively and rapidly removed from oil and gas brines (~10 h(-1) m(-2) for produced water and ~60 h(-1) m(-2) for flowback water). The electrolysis occurs with a current efficiency between 60 and 90%, and the estimated energy cost is ~6 kJ/g Br. These data are similar to those for the chlor-alkali process that is commonly used for chlorine gas and sodium hydroxide production. The results demonstrate that bromide may be selectively removed from oil and gas brines to create an opportunity for environmental protection and resource recovery.

  18. Brine transport in porous media self-similar solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. van Duijn (Hans); L.A. Peletier (Bert); R.J. Schotting

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we analyze a model for brine transport in porous media, which includes a mass balance for the fluid, a mass balance for salt, Darcy's law and an equation of state, which relates the fluid density to the salt mass fraction. This model incorporates the effect of local volume

  19. Solar desalination, brine and fine chemicals - a preliminary report

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Nagarajan, R.

    Solar stills put into operation by taking known quantities of sea water of different salinities varying from 27.75-36.27 x 10 super(3) during April-May 1990, indicated fresh water yield of 55-68% (av. 64). The volumes of brine as well as those...

  20. Solar desalination, brine and fine chemicals - a preliminary report

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Nagarajan, R.

    Solar stills put into operation by taking known quantities of sea water of different salinities varying from 27. 75 - 36.27 x 103 during April-May 1990, indicated fresh water yield of 55-68% (av. 64) The volumes of brine as well as those of bitterns...

  1. Aromatic hydrocarbons associated with brines from geopressured wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    The various operational wells were sampled on a monthly basis for the yield of the cryocondensate hydrocarbons. The total cryocondensate concentration as well as the concentrations in the brine and the gas after passing the separator system are summarized. The total cryocondensate yield is displayed.

  2. Brine Shrimp and Their Habitat, An Environmental Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    This environmental unit is one of a series designed for integration within the existing curriculum. The unit is self-contained and students are encouraged to work at their own speed. The philosophy of the unit is based on an experience-oriented process that encourages independent student work. This unit explores the life cycle of brine shrimp and…

  3. determination of toxicity levels of some savannah plants using brine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    were determined at 95% confidence intervals by analyzing the data on a computer loaded with .... LC50 (µg/ml ). Curcubitacea. Momordica charantia Linn. Leaves. Anti-cancer. F1. 12 (389 – 0.08) ... pesticides using the brine shrimp lethality.

  4. Uranium (VI) solubility in carbonate-free ERDA-6 brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucchini, Jean-francois [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Khaing, Hnin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reed, Donald T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    When present, uranium is usually an element of importance in a nuclear waste repository. In the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), uranium is the most prevalent actinide component by mass, with about 647 metric tons to be placed in the repository. Therefore, the chemistry of uranium, and especially its solubility in the WIPP conditions, needs to be well determined. Long-term experiments were performed to measure the solubility of uranium (VI) in carbonate-free ERDA-6 brine, a simulated WIPP brine, at pC{sub H+} values between 8 and 12.5. These data, obtained from the over-saturation approach, were the first repository-relevant data for the VI actinide oxidation state. The solubility trends observed pointed towards low uranium solubility in WIPP brines and a lack of amphotericity. At the expected pC{sub H+} in the WIPP ({approx} 9.5), measured uranium solubility approached 10{sup -7} M. The objective of these experiments was to establish a baseline solubility to further investigate the effects of carbonate complexation on uranium solubility in WIPP brines.

  5. Oil production enhancement through a standardized brine treatment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adewumi, A.; Watson, R.; Tian, S.; Safargar, S.; Heckman, S.; Drielinger, I.

    1995-08-01

    In order to permit the environmentally safe discharge of brines produced from oil wells in Pennsylvania to the surface waters of the Commonwealth and to rapidly brings as many wells as possible into compliance with the law, the Pennsylvania Oil and Gas Association (POGAM) approached the Pennsylvania State University to develop a program designed to demonstrate that a treatment process to meet acceptable discharge conditions and effluent limitations can be standardized for all potential stripper wells brine discharge. After the initial studies, the first phase of this project was initiated. A bench-scale prototype model was developed for conducting experiments in laboratory conditions. The experiments pursued in the laboratory conditions were focused on the removal of ferrous iron from synthetically made brine. Iron was selected as the primary heavy metals for studying the efficiency of the treatment process. The results of a number of experiments in the lab were indicative of the capability of the proposed brine treatment process in the removal of iron. Concurrent with the laboratory experiments, a comprehensive and extensive kinetic study was initiated. This study was necessary to provide the required data base for process modeling. This study included the investigation of the critical pH as well as the rate and order of reactions of the studied elements: aluminum, lead, zinc, and copper. In the second phase of this project, a field-based prototype was developed to evaluate and demonstrate the treatment process effectiveness. These experiments were conducted under various conditions and included the testing on five brines from different locations with various dissolved constituents. The outcome of this research has been a software package, currently based on iron`s reactivity, to be used for design purposes. The developed computer program was refined as far as possible using the results from laboratory and field experiments.

  6. Brine migration in salt and its implications in the geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenks, G.H.; Claiborne, H.C.

    1981-12-01

    This report respresents a comprehensive review and analysis of available information relating to brine migration in salt surrounding radioactive waste in a salt repository. The topics covered relate to (1) the characteristics of salt formations and waste packages pertinent to considerations of rates, amounts, and effects of brine migration, (2) experimental and theoretical information on brine migration, and (3) means of designing to minimize any adverse effects of brine migration. Flooding, brine pockets, and other topics were not considered, since these features will presumably be eliminated by appropriate site selection and repository design. 115 references.

  7. Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breunig, Hanna M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Birkholzer, Jens T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Borgia, Andrea [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Price, Phillip N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Oldenburg, Curtis M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; McKone, Thomas E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2013-06-13

    Geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) is the injection of carbon dioxide (CO2), typically captured from stationary emission sources, into deep geologic formations to prevent its entry into the atmosphere. Active pilot facilities run by regional United States (US) carbon sequestration partnerships inject on the order of one million metric tonnes (mt) CO2 annually while the US electric power sector emits over 2000 million mt-CO2 annually. GCS is likely to play an increasing role in US carbon mitigation initiatives, but scaling up GCS poses several challenges. Injecting CO2 into sedimentary basins raises fluid pressure in the pore space, which is typically already occupied by naturally occurring, or native, brine. The resulting elevated pore pressures increase the likelihood of induced seismicity, of brine or CO2 escaping into potable groundwater resources, and of CO2 escaping into the atmosphere. Brine extraction is one method for pressure management, in which brine in the injection formation is brought to the surface through extraction wells. Removal of the brine makes room for the CO2 and decreases pressurization. Although the technology required for brine extraction is mature, this form of pressure management will only be applicable if there are cost-­effective and sustainable methods of disposing of the extracted brine. Brine extraction, treatment, and disposal may increase the already substantial capital, energy, and water demands of Carbon dioxide Capture and Sequestration (CCS). But, regionally specific brine management strategies may be able to treat the extracted water as a source of revenue, energy, and water to subsidize CCS costs, while minimizing environmental impacts. By this approach, value from the extracted water would be recovered before disposing of any resulting byproducts. Until a price is placed on carbon, we expect that utilities and other CO2 sources will be

  8. Natural Oxidation of Bromide to Bromine in Evaporated Dead Sea Brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrieli, Ittai; Golan, Rotem; Lazar, Boaz; Baer, Gidi; Zakon, Yevgeni; Ganor, Jiwchar

    2016-04-01

    Highly evaporated Dead Sea brines are found in isolated sinkholes along the Dead Sea. Many of these brines reach densities of over 1.3 kg/L and pHDead Sea brine that drain into the sinkholes. The low pH and the reddish to brownish hue of these brines were an enigma until recently. Despite the rather high total alkalinity (TA) of the Dead Sea (3.826 mmol/kg) the pH of the Dead Sea brine is known to be slightly acidic with a value of ~6.3. In comparison, seawater with the same alkalinity would have a pH value well above 8.3, meaning that H+ activity is 100 fold lower than that of Dead Sea brine. In the present work we assess the apparent dissociation constant value of boric acid (K`B) for the Dead Sea brine and use it to explain the brine's low pH value. We then show that pH decreases further as the brine evaporates and salinity increases. Finally we explain the reddish hue of the hypersaline brines in the sinkholes as due to the presence of dissolved bromine. The latter is the product of oxidation of dissolved bromide, a process that is enabled by the low pH of the hypersaline brines and their high bromide concentration.

  9. Molds in Brined Cucumbers: Cause of Softening During Air-Purging of Fermentations †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costilow, Ralph N.; Gates, Karen; Lacy, Melvyn L.

    1980-01-01

    Softening of cucumbers in fermentations purged at high air-flow rates was caused by molds growing in the brined cucumbers, not in the brine. This conclusion is based on the following results: (i) no microorganisms were isolated in significant numbers from brines that caused softening of pasteurized brined cucumbers, (ii) no pectinolytic enzyme activities were produced in cucumber brines in the absence of cucumbers, (iii) the pickles in some air-purged fermentations became very soft without the appearance of any pectinolytic enzyme activity in the brine, (iv) mold hyphae were consistently observed in tissues of soft pickles, (v) molds consistently developed in cultures of slices of surface sterilized cucumbers taken from fermentations in which soft pickles were subsequently found, and (vi) molds belonging to the genera Alternaria, Fusarium, and Mucor isolated from slices all softened pasteurized brined cucumbers. Images PMID:16345619

  10. Evaluation and analysis of underground brine resources in the southern coastal area of Laizhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, M.; Zhu, H. T.; Feng, J.; Zhao, Q. S.

    2016-08-01

    The southern coastal districts of Laizhou Bay are some of the most important areas for underground brine exploitation in Shandong Province. Recently, these areas have been gradually developed by the underground brine mining industry. Such economic interest has led to brine exploitation so that underground brine resources are running out. Based on this phenomenon, this study describes the supply, runoff and draining conditions of the area by collecting and organizing the background information of the studied area. Hydrogeological parameters are then calculated according to pumping tests, and the amount of sustainable resources in the coastal areas of the Southern Bank of Laizhou Bay are then calculated based on the uniform distribution of wells. Under the circumstances of underground brine mining, the exploitation potential of the underground brine is evaluated in accordance with the calculation results of exploitation quantum. Finally, suggestions are provided for the sustainable exploitation of underground brine in the area.

  11. Salted herring brine as a coating or additive for herring (Clupea harengus) products — A source of natural antioxidants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertos, Irene; Gringer, Nina; Rico, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterise herring brine and assess its use as natural antioxidant in herring preservation. Herring brines from different marinated products (brine from fillet-ripened spice-cured herring SC, traditional barrel-salted spice-cured herring TSp and brine from...

  12. Brine Inclusions Migration in Intact Salt Crystals under Thermal Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporuscio, F.; Boukhalfa, H.

    2013-12-01

    The behavior of water contained in rock salt under the influence of thermal gradients is critical to the performance of salt as a medium for the disposal of nuclear waste. Water contained in salt can be present as discrete inclusions within intact salt crystals, at the interface between salt crystals and aggregates, and also as hydration water and structural water present in accessory minerals present in salt. Water content in pure halite salt usually rages from 0.1 to 0.5 wt. % but is significantly higher in clay rich salt, for which water content can be up to several wt. %. Under the influence of thermal gradients brine inclusions and water associated to the accessory mineral is mobilized. Previous investigations have shown brine inclusions tend to move towards the heat source through a mechanism that involves the dissolution of salt at the hot face of the brine inclusion and its precipitation at the colder side of the inclusion. Uncertainties remain on the exact parameters that define the rate of brine migration and whether it truly migrates to towards the heat source. We performed studies under controlled thermal gradients to examine the behavior of brine inclusions in single salt crystals obtained from the underground salt mine at the Waste Isolation Power Plant (WIPP). We found that the behavior of the brine inclusions under thermal gradients is dependent on the thermal gradient magnitude and the nature of the inclusion. Full inclusions (liquid only) migrate predominantly towards the heat source, but when the inclusions are large and close to the surface they fracture the salt and release water near the surface. Inclusions that migrate towards the heat source migrate through a mechanism that involves the dissolution of salt at the hot side of the inclusion and its deposition along the migration path. SEM analysis of the migration pathways shows that brine migrates through the creation of a network of square shaped hollow channels of about 10 micron diameter

  13. Influence of phytoplankton diets on the ingestion rate and egg production of Acartia clausi and A. lilljeborgii (Copepoda: Calanoida from Bahía de La Paz, Gulf of California Influencia de dietas de fitoplancton en la tasa de ingesta y producción de huevos de Acartia clausi y A. lilljeborgii (Copepoda: Calanoida de la Bahía de La Paz, Golfo de California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Johanna Band-Schmidt

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Different phytoplankton diets were tested on Acartia clausi and A. lilljeborgii from Bahía de La Paz to determine their effect on survival, egg production, and ingestion rate. Female copepods were fed diatom strains (Chaetoceros sp., Cylindrotheca closterium, Odontella longicruris, and Dytilum brightwelli, dinoflagellate strains (Scrippsiella sp., Gyrodinium sp., Prorocentrum micans, and P. rhathymum, and one Raphidophyceae (Chattonella sp.. After 24 h of incubation in darkness at 24 °C, survival with various phytoplankton diets was above 91%. Gyrodinium sp. produced the lowest survival in both copepod species (44.5% in A. clausi and 89.6% in A. lilljeborgii. Dinoflagellate diets provided the highest egg production. A. clausi had higher egg production when fed with P. rhathymum, P. micans, Gyrodinium sp., Scrippsiella sp., and Chattonella sp. A. lilljeborgii had a higher egg production with Scrippsiella sp., P. micans, Gyrodinium sp., and Chaetoceros sp. Ingestion rates were higher in both Acartia species with two diatom diets (O. longicruris and Chaetoceros sp., P. rhathymum and Chattonella sp. These results suggest that both Acartia species respond to nutritional quality of phytoplankton in a short time. Higher ingestion rates did not necessarily result in higher egg production, suggesting that the link between ingestion and egg production may be in what is eaten, rather than in how much. The response in egg production seems to be species specific, but in general was higher with dinoflagellate diets, suggesting a higher food quality compared with diatoms (excepting Chaetoceros sp..Se probaron diversas dietas de fitoplancton en Acartia clausi y A. lilljeborgii de la Bahía de La Paz, para determinar su efecto en la supervivencia, producción de huevos y tasa de ingesta. Se alimentaron hembras de copépodos con cepas de diatomeas (Chaetoceros sp., Cylindrotheca closterium, Odontella longicruris y Dytilum brightwelli, de dinoflagelados

  14. Determining the Advantages, Costs, and Trade-Offs of a Novel Sodium Channel Mutation in the Copepod Acartia hudsonica to Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PST.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Finiguerra

    Full Text Available The marine copepod Acartia hudsonica was shown to be adapted to dinoflagellate prey, Alexandrium fundyense, which produce paralytic shellfish toxins (PST. Adaptation to PSTs in other organisms is caused by a mutation in the sodium channel. Recently, a mutation in the sodium channel in A. hudsonica was found. In this study, we rigorously tested for advantages, costs, and trade-offs associated with the mutant isoform of A. hudsonica under toxic and non-toxic conditions. We combined fitness with wild-type: mutant isoform ratio measurements on the same individual copepod to test our hypotheses. All A. hudsonica copepods express both the wild-type and mutant sodium channel isoforms, but in different proportions; some individuals express predominantly mutant (PMI or wild-type isoforms (PWI, while most individuals express relatively equal amounts of each (EI. There was no consistent pattern of improved performance as a function of toxin dose for egg production rate (EPR, ingestion rate (I, and gross growth efficiency (GGE for individuals in the PMI group relative to individuals in the PWI expression group. Neither was there any evidence to indicate a fitness benefit to the mutant isoform at intermediate toxin doses. No clear advantage under toxic conditions was associated with the mutation. Using a mixed-diet approach, there was also no observed relationship between individual wild-type: mutant isoform ratios and among expression groups, on both toxic and non-toxic diets, for eggs produced over three days. Lastly, expression of the mutant isoform did not mitigate the negative effects of the toxin. That is, the reductions in EPR from a toxic to non-toxic diet for copepods were independent of expression groups. Overall, the results did not support our hypotheses; the mutant sodium channel isoform does not appear to be related to adaptation to PST in A. hudsonica. Other potential mechanisms responsible for the adaptation are discussed.

  15. Effects of low pH and raised temperature on egg production, hatching and metabolic rates of a Mediterranean copepod species (Acartia clausi under oligotrophic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ZERVOUDAKI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study includes the first information on the combined effect of low pH and raised temperature on egg production rate (EP, hatching success (HS, excretion and respiration of the Mediterranean copepod Acartia clausi. Adult individuals of A. clausi and fresh surface seawater were collected at a coastal station in Saronikos Gulf during April 2012. Four different conditions were applied: two different pH levels (present: 8.09 and future: 7.83 at two temperature values (present: 16°C and present+4 °C= 20°C. EP and HS success decreased significantly over the duration of exposure at future pH at both temperature conditions. However, the analysis of the combined effect of pH, T, chlorophyll α and the duration of the experiments on EP and HS revealed that ocean acidification had no discernible effect, whereas warming; food and the duration of exposure were more significant for the reproductive output of A. clausi. Temperature appeared to have a positive effect on respiration and excretion. Acidification had no clear effect on respiration, but a negative effect on the A. clausi excretion was observed. Acidification and warming resulted in the increase of the excretion rate and the increase was higher than that observed by warming only. Our findings showed that a direct effect of ocean acidification on copepod’s vital rates was not obvious, except maybe in the case of excretion. Therefore, the combination of acidification with the ambient oligotrophic conditions and the warming could result in species being less able to allocate resources for coping with multiple stressors.

  16. Brine crude oil interactions at the oil-water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    mechanisms. The ion specific interaction between fines and polar fractions of crude oil at the oil-water interface has been less explored. In this study the relative affinity between different ions and the oil surface was determined. The experiments prove the importance of Ca2+, SO42-, and HPO42- ions...... emulsion formation at 0.05 mol/1. The amount of emulsion formation showed significant dependency on the type of acid doped in oil. Experiments demonstrate that the brine solution can alter the micro forces at the oil-water interface, and this ion specific interaction leads to oil emulsion formation......The impact of brine salinity and its ionic composition on oil displacement efficiency has been investigated extensively in recent years due to the potential of enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Wettability alterations through relative interactions at the mineral surface have been the basis of proposed...

  17. Bioencapsulation of metronidazole in adult brine shrimp (Artemia sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allender, Matthew C; Kastura, Mike; George, Robert; Bulman, Frank; Yarbrough, Jason; Cox, Sherry

    2011-06-01

    A description of bioencapsulation of metronidazole in adult brine shrimp (Artemia) for 2.5 g/L, 5 g/L, and 10 g/L treatment baths is presented. Metronidazole was detected in adult brine shrimp tissue after enrichment periods of 15 min, 30 min, 1 hr, 2 hr, 4 hr, 8 hr, 12 hr, and 24 hr. The assays were performed using high performance liquid chromatography. There was a positive relationship in both dose and time. When evaluating percent uptake, all three baths demonstrated a similar pattern. All three bath concentrations had a high initial concentration that fell at 30 min and slowly began to increase through the end of the study. Survival of shrimp was not affected by bath concentration but decreased over time in all treatment baths comparatively. It can be concluded that metronidazole can be successfully bioencapsulated in adult Artemia.

  18. An improved brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Mu, Jun; Han, Jinyuan; Gu, Xiaojie

    2012-01-01

    This article described an improved brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test method. A simply designed connecting vessel with alternative photoperiod was used to culture and collect high yield of active Artemia parthenogenetica nauplii for brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test. Using this method, pure A. parthenogenetica nauplii suspension was easily cultured and harvested with high density about 100-150 larvae per milliliter and the natural mortality was reduced to near zero by elimination of unnecessary artificial disturbance. And its sensitivity was validated by determination of LC(50)-24 h of different reference toxicants including five antitumor agents, two pesticides, three organic pollutants, and four heavy metals salts, most of which exhibited LC(50)-24 h between 0.07 and 58.43 mg/L except for bleomycin and mitomycin C with LC(50)-24 h over 300 mg/L.

  19. Insertion sequences enrichment in extreme Red sea brine pool vent

    KAUST Repository

    Elbehery, Ali H. A.

    2016-12-03

    Mobile genetic elements are major agents of genome diversification and evolution. Limited studies addressed their characteristics, including abundance, and role in extreme habitats. One of the rare natural habitats exposed to multiple-extreme conditions, including high temperature, salinity and concentration of heavy metals, are the Red Sea brine pools. We assessed the abundance and distribution of different mobile genetic elements in four Red Sea brine pools including the world’s largest known multiple-extreme deep-sea environment, the Red Sea Atlantis II Deep. We report a gradient in the abundance of mobile genetic elements, dramatically increasing in the harshest environment of the pool. Additionally, we identified a strong association between the abundance of insertion sequences and extreme conditions, being highest in the harshest and deepest layer of the Red Sea Atlantis II Deep. Our comparative analyses of mobile genetic elements in secluded, extreme and relatively non-extreme environments, suggest that insertion sequences predominantly contribute to polyextremophiles genome plasticity.

  20. Analysis of anions in geological brines using ion chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrill, R.M.

    1985-03-01

    Ion chromatographic procedures for the determination of the anions bromide, sulfate, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, and iodide in brine samples have been developed and are described. The techniques have been applied to the analysis of natural brines, and geologic evaporites. Sample matrices varied over a range from 15,000 mg/L to 200,000 mg/L total halogens, nearly all of which is chloride. The analyzed anion concentrations ranged from less than 5 mg/L in the cases of nitrite, nitrate, and phosphate, to 20,000 mg/L in the case of sulfate. A technique for suppressing chloride and sulfate ions to facilitate the analysis of lower concentration anions is presented. Analysis times are typically less than 20 minutes for each procedure and the ion chromatographic results compare well with those obtained using more time consuming classical chemical analyses. 10 references, 14 figures.

  1. Stabilization of high mercury contaminated brine purification sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, J Ming; Lo, Tony; Walsh, Tony; Lam, Tak

    2004-09-10

    The highly leachable mercury contaminants of brine purification sludge (BPS) generated from the Hg-cell electrolysis process in chlorine production can be stabilized in the treatment procedure employing ferric-lignin derivatives (FLD) (Ligmet binder) and Portland cement (PC). The stabilization effectiveness has been examined by time-based multiple toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) tests and sequential TCLP tests. In a period of 50 days, the multiple TCLP tests showed a variation of less than 90 microg l(-1) for the leachable mercury level, and the sequential TCLP tests for the same sample displayed a declining TCLP mercury level. Based on this study, the stabilization of approximately 2000 t of brine purification sludge has been successfully processed with the ferric-lignin derivatives treatment.

  2. The determination of vanadium in brines by atomic absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump-Wiesner, Hans J.; Feltz, H.R.; Purdy, W.C.

    1971-01-01

    A standard addition method is described for the determination of vanadium in brines by atomic absorption spectroscopy with a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame. Sample pH is adjusted to 1.0 with concentrated hydrochloric acid and the vanadium is directly extracted with 5% cupferron in methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). The ketone layer is then aspirated into the flame and the recorded absorption values are plotted as a function of the concentration of the added metal. As little as 2.5 ??g l-1 of vanadium can be detected under the conditions of the procedure. Tungsten and tin interfere when present in excess of 5 and 10 ??g ml-1, respectively. The concentrations of the two interfering ions normally found in brines are well below interference levels. ?? 1971.

  3. Geochemical evolution of brines in the Salar of Uyuni, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettig, S.L.; Jones, B.F.; Risacher, F.

    1980-01-01

    Recent analyses of brines from the Salars of Uyuni and Coipasa have been compared with published data for Lakes Titicaca and Poopo to evaluate solute compositional trends in these remnants of two large Pleistocene lakes once connected by overflow from the N to the S of the Bolivian Altiplano. From Titicaca to Poopo the water shows an increase in Cl and N somewhat greater than the total solutes. Ca and SO4 increase to a lesser extent than total dissolved solids, and carbonate species are relatively constant. Between Poopo and Coipasa proportions of Ca, SO4 and CO3 continue to decrease. At Coipasa and Uyuni, the great salars frequently evaporate to halite saturation. Halite crystallization is accompanied by an increased K, Mg and SO4 in residual brines. - from Authors

  4. The origin of the Cerro Prieto geothermal brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdell, A.H.; Thompson, J.M.; Coplen, T.B.; Nehring, N.L.; Janik, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Cerro Prieto geothermal brine may have originated from mixing of Colorado River water with seawater evaporated to about six times its normal salinity. This mixture circulated deeply and was heated by magmatic processes. During deep circulation, Li, K, Ca, B, SiO2 and rare alkalis were transferred from rock minerals to the water, and Mg, SO4, and a minor quantity of Na were transferred to the rock. Similar alteration of seawater salt chemistry has been observed in coastal geothermal systems and produced in laboratory experiments. After heating and alteration the brine was further diluted to its present range of composition. Oxygen isotopes in the fluid are in equilibrium with reservoir calcite and have been affected by exploitation-induced boiling and dilution. ?? 1981.

  5. Transient heat conduction through a substrate of brine-spongy ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, S. R.; Naterer, G. F.; Muzychka, Y. S.

    2017-03-01

    An analytical model for heat conduction through brine-spongy ice is developed. This model fills a gap in knowledge related to transient heat conduction to a two-phase substrate which is crucial for modeling transient icing and deicing of cold surfaces in contact with salt water. The core of the model is based on the phase change of pure ice and brine pockets trapped in the structure of spongy ice. Freezing of brine pockets causes the release of the latent heat of fusion that is considered as the source of heat generation distributed throughout the brine-spongy ice. A nonlinear partial differential equation and a number of equations of state for ice, brine, and brine-spongy ice create governing equations of heat transfer through brine-spongy ice. A standard numerical scheme solves the set of equations in various initial conditions. The variation of temperature, volume fraction of brine and salinity of brine pockets are calculated numerically. Experimental samples of brine-spongy ice are examined under transient conditions and their surface temperatures are captured using an infrared thermal camera. The numerical results, which are for various overall salinities, are closely aligned with the measured surface temperatures.

  6. Transient heat conduction through a substrate of brine-spongy ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, S. R.; Naterer, G. F.; Muzychka, Y. S.

    2017-08-01

    An analytical model for heat conduction through brine-spongy ice is developed. This model fills a gap in knowledge related to transient heat conduction to a two-phase substrate which is crucial for modeling transient icing and deicing of cold surfaces in contact with salt water. The core of the model is based on the phase change of pure ice and brine pockets trapped in the structure of spongy ice. Freezing of brine pockets causes the release of the latent heat of fusion that is considered as the source of heat generation distributed throughout the brine-spongy ice. A nonlinear partial differential equation and a number of equations of state for ice, brine, and brine-spongy ice create governing equations of heat transfer through brine-spongy ice. A standard numerical scheme solves the set of equations in various initial conditions. The variation of temperature, volume fraction of brine and salinity of brine pockets are calculated numerically. Experimental samples of brine-spongy ice are examined under transient conditions and their surface temperatures are captured using an infrared thermal camera. The numerical results, which are for various overall salinities, are closely aligned with the measured surface temperatures.

  7. Characterization of a soil contaminated by oilfield brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Mutairi, K.; Harris, T. [Univ. of Tulsa, OH (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Brine contamination of soil is a common environmental problem associated with the onshore production of oil and gas. A site of extensive contamination in Oklahoma has been characterized using conductimetry, direct potentiometry (pH- and chloride-selective electrodes), and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (for Na{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+}) to determine the extent of the contamination and the efficacy of various remediation technologies.

  8. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonnenthal Eric

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a result of the heat released by spent nuclear fuel. Processes that are modeled include boiling of highly concentrated solutions, gas transport, and gas condensation accompanied by the dissociation of acid gases, causing low-pH condensate. Results Simple calculations are first carried out to evaluate condensate pH as a function of HCl gas fugacity and condensed water fraction for a vapor equilibrated with saturated calcium chloride brine at 50-150°C and 1 bar. The distillation of a calcium-chloride-dominated brine is then simulated with a reactive transport model using a brine composition representative of partially evaporated calcium-rich pore waters at Yucca Mountain. Results show a significant increase in boiling temperature from evaporative concentration, as well as low pH in condensates, particularly for dynamic systems where partial condensation takes place, which result in enrichment of HCl in condensates. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from other studies. Conclusion The combination of reactive transport with multicomponent brine chemistry to study evaporation, boiling, and the potential for acid gas generation at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is seen as an improvement relative to previously applied simpler batch evaporation models. This approach allows the evaluation of thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC processes in a coupled manner, and modeling of settings much more relevant to actual field conditions than the distillation experiment considered. The actual

  9. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guoxiang; Spycher, Nicolas; Sonnenthal, Eric; Steefel, Carl

    2009-11-16

    This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a result of the heat released by spent nuclear fuel. Processes that are modeled include boiling of highly concentrated solutions, gas transport, and gas condensation accompanied by the dissociation of acid gases, causing low-pH condensate. Simple calculations are first carried out to evaluate condensate pH as a function of HCl gas fugacity and condensed water fraction for a vapor equilibrated with saturated calcium chloride brine at 50-150 C and 1 bar. The distillation of a calcium-chloride-dominated brine is then simulated with a reactive transport model using a brine composition representative of partially evaporated calcium-rich pore waters at Yucca Mountain. Results show a significant increase in boiling temperature from evaporative concentration, as well as low pH in condensates, particularly for dynamic systems where partial condensation takes place, which result in enrichment of HCl in condensates. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from other studies. The combination of reactive transport with multicomponent brine chemistry to study evaporation, boiling, and the potential for acid gas generation at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is seen as an improvement relative to previously applied simpler batch evaporation models. This approach allows the evaluation of thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC) processes in a coupled manner, and modeling of settings much more relevant to actual field conditions than the distillation experiment considered. The actual and modeled distillation experiments do not represent

  10. Reverse osmosis brine for phosphorus recovery from source separated urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiujun; Wang, Guotian; Guan, Detian; Li, Jiuyi; Wang, Aimin; Li, Jin; Yu, Zhe; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Zhongguo

    2016-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) recovery from waste streams has recently been recognized as a key step in the sustainable supply of this indispensable and non-renewable resource. The feasibility of using brine from a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane unit treating cooling water as a precipitant for P recovery from source separated urine was evaluated in the present study. P removal efficiency, process parameters and precipitate properties were investigated in batch and continuous flow experiments. More than 90% of P removal was obtained from both undiluted fresh and hydrolyzed urines by mixing with RO brine (1:1, v/v) at a pH over 9.0. Around 2.58 and 1.24 Kg of precipitates could be recovered from 1 m(3) hydrolyzed and fresh urine, respectively, and the precipitated solids contain 8.1-19.0% of P, 10.3-15.2% of Ca, 3.7-5.0% of Mg and 0.1-3.5% of ammonium nitrogen. Satisfactory P removal performance was also achieved in a continuous flow precipitation reactor with a hydraulic retention time of 3-6 h. RO brine could be considered as urinal and toilet flush water despite of a marginally higher precipitation tendency than tap water. This study provides a widely available, low - cost and efficient precipitant for P recovery in urban areas, which will make P recovery from urine more economically attractive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Uranium(VI) solubility in carbonate-free WIPP brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucchini, J.F.; Borkowski, M.; Richmann, M.K.; Reed, D.T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Carlsbad, NM (United States). Earth and Environmental Sciences Div.

    2013-08-01

    The solubility of uranium(VI) was determined in WIPP-relevant brines as a function of pC{sub H+} and ionic strength, in the absence of carbonate. Carbonate concentration was below 2 x 10{sup -5} M, measured using the gas chromatography method. In the absence of carbonate, the uranium(VI) solubilities were about x 10{sup -6} M in GWB at pC{sub H+} {>=} 7 and about 10{sup -8}-10{sup -7} M in ERDA-6 brine at pC{sub H+} {>=} 8. Solubility of uranium(VI) was also measured in NaCl media at the same levels as in ERDA-6 brine. The data established a uranium solubility that was 10-100 times lower than published results from Diaz-Arocas and Grambow, and they are in good agreement with modeling results and other literature data. In the absence of carbonate, hydrolysis was the main complexation and precipitation mechanisms for uranium(VI) solubility at high ionic strength and pC{sub H+} {>=} 7. However, the effect of borate complexation was noticeable at pC{sub H+} {proportional_to} 8-9. (orig.)

  12. Design of Tomato Drying System by Utilizing Brine Geothermal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afuar, W.; Sibarani, B.; Abdurrahman, G.; Hendrarsakti, J.

    2016-09-01

    Cultivation of tomato plants in Indonesia has been started since 1961.Tomatoes generally will rot in three days if left on storage. Moreover, low quality tomatoes have cheaper price. After harvested, tomatoes need to be treated by drying process so it can last longer. Energy for drying tomatoes can be obtained by utilizing heat from geothermal brine. Purpose of this research is to design a tomato drying system by extracting heat of geothermal brine from separator with certain flow rate to heat up water by using a heat exchanger. Furthermore, this water will be used to heat up the surrounding air which is circulated by blower system to heat up the tomatoes chamber. Tomatoes drying process needs temperature range of 50-70°C to evaporate water content from 95.7% to 26%. After that treatment, the tomatoes are expected to have better durability. The objective of this study is to determine the quantity of hot brine which is needed for drying tomatoes and to design a drying system so that tomatoes can last longer.

  13. Brine shrimp cytotoxic activities of Hippophae rhamnoides Linn leaves extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JavidAli; BashirAhmad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate brine shrimp lethality assay of solvent extracts (aqueous, methanol, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-hexane) of Hippophae rhamnoides (H. rhamnoides) leaves. Methods: Brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay was used to assess the cytotoxic potential of H. rhamnoides leaves extracts. Three vials for concentration of each extract were made and 10 shrimps per vial (30 shrimps per dilution) were transferred to specific concentration of each extract. Results: The mortality of aqueous extract was 46.7%, methanol extract was 46.7%, ethanolic extract was 50.0%, ethyl acetate was 26.7%, acetone extract was 33.3%, chloroform extract was 40.0% and n-hexane extract was 33.3%. The lowest LD50 was found in methanol extracts (1199.97 µg/mL). Brine shrimp cytotoxicity of tested extracts of H. rhamnoides showed that mortality rate was concentration dependent. Conclusions: It is concluded that bioactive components are present in all leaves extracts of H. rhamnoides, which could be accounted for its pharmacological effects. Thus, the results support the uses of this plant species in traditional medicine.

  14. Microbial changes and growth of Listeria monocytogenes during chilled storage of brined shrimp (Pandalus borealis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejlholm, Ole; Kjeldgaard, Jette; Modberg, Anne; Vest, Mette Bohn; Bøknaes, Niels; Koort, Joanna; Björkroth, Johanna; Dalgaard, Paw

    2008-06-10

    Thirteen storage trials and ten challenge tests were carried out to examine microbial changes, spoilage and the potential growth of Listeria monocytogenes in brined shrimp (Pandalus borealis). Shrimp in brine as well as brined and drained shrimp in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) were produced and studied. Different recipes were used to study the effect of preserving parameters (organic acids, pH and NaCl) on growth of microorganisms and shelf life at 7-8 degrees C or 12 degrees C. Particularly, brines with different concentrations of (i) benzoic, citric and sorbic acids or (ii) acetic, citric and lactic acids were studied. Furthermore, the effect of adding diacetate to brined shrimp was evaluated. A single batch of cooked and peeled shrimp was used to study both industrially and manually processed brined shrimp with respect to the effect of process hygiene on microbial changes and the shelf life of products. Concentrations of microorganisms on newly produced brined shrimp from an industrial scale processing line were 1.0-2.3 log (CFU g(-1)) higher than comparable concentrations in manually processed samples. This resulted in a substantially shorter shelf life and a more diverse spoilage microflora of the industrially processed brined shrimp. In addition, shelf life of brined shrimp was affected by the types and concentrations of organic acids and by the storage temperature as expected. The effect of MAP was less pronounced. Eighty-two isolates from the spoilage microflora of brined shrimp were identified and they included 53 lactic acid bacteria, 6 coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp., 18 Pseudomonas fluorescens and 5 yeast isolates. After storage at 7 degrees C, P. fluorescens, Enterococcus-like isolates, E. malodoratus, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. and Lactobacillus sakei constituted the dominating microflora of shrimp in brines that contained benzoic, citric and sorbic acids as preservatives. L. sakei dominated the

  15. Effect of iron cation on geochemical trapping of CO2 in brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Maroto-Valer, Mercedes

    2014-05-01

    Carbon dioxide sequestration using brines has emerged as a promising technology to mitigate the adverse impacts of climate change due to its large storage capacity and favorable chemistries. However, the permanent storage (mineral trapping) of CO2 in brines takes significantly long periods of time as the formation and precipitation of carbonates is very slow .[1]. The main parameters reported to effect on mineral trapping of CO2 sequestration in brines are brine composition, brine pH, system temperature and pressure.[2, 3]. It is suggested that the precipitation of mineral carbonates is mostly dependent on brine pH. Previous studies by the authors concluded that iron in natural brines causes pH instability, but it was not ascertained whether ferric iron or ferrous iron caused pH instability .[4]. Accordingly, the aim of this project is to study synthetic brines mimicking the major ions found in natural brines and including different concentrations of ferric and ferrous iron. Three brines were prepared, as follows: Brine 1 was prepared with ferric Fe3+ iron, Brine 2 prepared with ferrous Fe2+ iron and Brine 3 prepared with no iron. A series of pH stability studies and carbonation reactions were conducted using the above three brines. It is concluded that the ferrous iron causes pH instability, while ferric iron might promote carbonate precipitation. .1. Garcia, S., et al., Sequestration of non-pure carbon dioxide streams in iron oxyhydroxide-containing saline repositories. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 2012. 7: p. 89-97. 2. Liu, Q. and M.M. Maroto-Valer, Investigation of the pH effect of a typical host rock and buffer solution on CO 2 sequestration in synthetic brines. Fuel Processing Technology, 2010. 91(10): p. 1321-1329. 3. Liu, Q. and M.M. MarotoValer, Parameters affecting mineral trapping of CO2 sequestration in brines. Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology, 2011. 1(3): p. 211-222. 4. Druckenmiller, M.L. and M.M. Maroto-Valer, Carbon

  16. Microbial changes and growth of Listeria monocytogenes during chilled storage of brined shrimp ( Pandalus borealis )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Ole; Kjeldgaard, J.; Modberg, A.

    2008-01-01

    Thirteen storage trials and ten challenge tests were carried out to examine microbial changes, spoilage and the potential growth of Listeria monocytogenes in brined shrimp (Pandalus borealis). Shrimp in brine as well as brined and drained shrimp in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) were produced...... and lactic acids were studied. Furthermore, the effect of adding diacetate to brined shrimp was evaluated. A single batch of cooked and peeled shrimp was used to study both industrially and manually processed brined shrimp with respect to the effect of process hygiene on microbial changes and the shelf life...... of products. Concentrations of microorganisms on newly produced brined shrimp from an industrial scale processing line were 1.0-2.3 log (CFU g(-1)) higher than comparable concentrations in manually processed samples. This resulted in a substantially shorter shelf life and a more diverse spoilage microflora...

  17. Pressurized brines in continental Antarctica as a possible analogue of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Emanuele; Dalle Fratte, Michele; Azzaro, Maurizio; Guglielmin, Mauro

    2016-09-01

    Interest in brines in extreme and cold environments has recently increased after they have been found on Mars. Those brines can be potential new subsurface habitats for peculiar ecosystems. In the McMurdo Dry Valleys of the Antarctic, the best analogue for Mars conditions, only a few cases of brines have been identified in some perennially frozen lakes and in one case in an underground aquifer. Here, we present the occurrence of pressurized brines in a shallow perennially ice-covered lake south of 70°S in an ice-free area of Victoria Land, Antarctica. For the first time, we also imaged, by means of ground penetrating radar data, the existence of a pingo-like-feature (PLF) formed by the extrusion of brines, which has also been confirmed by borehole evidence. Those brines are fed by an underground talik external to the lake basin, enhancing the possibility of unexploited ecosystems that could find an analogue in Martian environments.

  18. Potentials of converting microalgae into brine shrimp Artemia

    OpenAIRE

    Sorgeloos, P.

    1985-01-01

    High densities of brine shrimp Artemia can be cultured in flow-through systems using the effluent of microalgae cultures as a combined source of culture medium and food. It has been proven at the "St. Croix Artificial Upwelling Mariculture Project" that in comparison with the fast growing clam Tapes japonica, brine shrimp assure a much more efficient conversion of plant into animal biomass. It appears from the given examples that microalgae conversion into brine shrimp Artemia offers efficien...

  19. Results of the GCMS Effluent Gas Analysis for the Brine Processing Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzeit, Lance; Lee, Jeffrey; Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Shaw, Hali; Kawashima, Brian; Beeler, David; Harris, Linden

    2015-01-01

    The effluent gas for the Paragon Ionomer Water Processor (IWP), UMPQUA Ultrasonic Brine Dewatering System (UBDS), and the NASA Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB) were analyzed using Headspace GCMS Analysis in the recent AES FY14 Brine Processing Test. The results from the analysis describe the number and general chemical species of the chemicals produced. Comparisons were also made between the different chromatograms for each system, and an explanation of the differences in the results is reported.

  20. Estructura genética del copépodo Acartia lilljeborgii en la costa del estado de Yucatán, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Tello-Cetina

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la estructura genética poblacional y sus implicancias dentro de la cadena trófica del copépodo Acartia lilljeborgii en la costa de Yucatán, mediante el uso de isoenzimas y su posterior determinación por electroforesis. Nueve sistemas se expresaron con un máximo de 30 loci. El polimorfismo y heterocigosis de las poblaciones estudiadas, al ser comparados con otras especies de copépodos, resultaron ser bajos y de los cuatro loci que presentaron variación, solo los loci EST2 y PGM1 se expresaron en todos los sitios de muestreo. La PGM1 presentó el mayor valor de heterocigosis (0,4728 y la GPI1 fue la de menor valor (0,3200. Ningún sistema se apartó de la condición de equilibrio de Hardy-Weinberg. Los valores de FST estuvieron entre los valores de -0,0798 para PGM1 y de 0,5899 para FBP1. Las tres poblaciones de A. lilljeborgii analizadas en la costa de Yucatán, presentaron una baja variabilidad y diferenciación genética entre las poblaciones, como lo indican los valores de distancia genética de 0,0585 que fue el mayor para las poblaciones de Chelem y de Río Lagartos, lo que sugiere que estas poblaciones están parcialmente aisladas. Sin embargo, debido a que A. lilljeborgii produce huevos diapáusicos o de reposo, que pueden ser transportados fuera o dentro de éstos cuerpos de agua, es probable que esta condición mantenga las frecuencias alélicas y genotípicas similares o muy cercanas entre sí. Los resultados mostraron la existencia de flujo genético, dado a través de una dispersión pasiva de los huevos diapáusicos que produce esta especie.

  1. Chemical and isotopic characteristics of brines from three oil- and gas-producing sandstones in eastern Ohio, with applications to the geochemical tracing of brine sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, K.J.; Angelo, Clifford G.; Masters, Robert W.; Sedam, Alan C.

    1985-01-01

    Chemical and isotopic characteristics of selected inorganic constituents are reported for brines from the Berea Sandstone of Mississippian age, the Clinton sandstone, Albion Sandstone of Silurian age, and the Rose Run formation of Cambrian and Ordovician age in 24 counties in eastern Ohio. Ionic concentrations of dissolved constituents in brines from these formations generally fall in the following ranges (in millimoles per kilogram of brine): Na, Cl > 1,000; 100 Al, I, HCO3, SiO2 Mg, Na, Cl, K, SO4 and Br, and mean values of density and dissolved solids are significantly different at the 95-percent confidence level in each formation. Only potassium has a unique concentration range in each formation. Selected concentration ratios are identified as potential indicators for geochemical tracing of brines having some history of dilution. The k:Na ratios work best for identifying the source formation of an unidentified brine. Isotopic characteristics of hydrogen and oxygen indicate a meteoric origin for the water matrix of the brines. Sulfur isotopes may have utility for differentiating brines from oxidizing ground water.

  2. Electrically Conducting, Ca-Rich Brines, Rather Than Water, Expected in the Martian Subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, D. M.; Knauth, L. P.

    2003-01-01

    If Mars ever possessed a salty liquid hydrosphere, which later partly evaporated and froze down, then any aqueous fluids left near the surface could have evolved to become dense eutectic brines. Eutectic brines, by definition, are the last to freeze and the first to melt. If CaC12-rich, such brines can remain liquid until temperatures below 220 K, close to the average surface temperature of Mars. In the Martian subsurface, in intimate contact with the Ca-rich basaltic regolith, NaC1-rich early brines should have reacted to become Ca-rich. Fractional crystallization (freezing) and partial melting would also drive brines toward CaC12-rich compositions. In other words, eutectic brine compositions could be present in the shallow subsurface of Mars, for the same reasons that eutectic magma compositions are common on Earth. Don Juan Pond, Antarctica, a CaC12-rich eutectic brine, provides a possible terrestrial analog, particularly because it is fed from a basaltic aquifer. Owing to their relative density and fluid nature, brines in the Martian regolith should eventually become sandwiched between ice above and salts beneath. A thawing brine sandwich provides one explanation (among many) for the young gullies recently attributed to seepage of liquid water on Mars. Whether or not brine seepage explains the gullies phenomenon, dense, CaC12-rich brines are to be expected in the deep subsurface of Mars, although they might be somewhat diluted (temperatures permitting) and of variable salt composition. In any case, they should be good conductors of electricity.

  3. Transition and separation process in brine channels formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berti, Alessia, E-mail: alessia.berti@unibs.it [Facoltà di Ingegneria, Università e-Campus, Via Isimbardi 10, 22060 Novedrate, CO (Italy); Bochicchio, Ivana, E-mail: ibochicchio@unisa.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Universitá degli Studi di Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy); Fabrizio, Mauro, E-mail: mauro.fabrizio@unibo.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Università di Bologna, Piazza di Porta S. Donato, 40126 Bologna (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    In this paper, we discuss the formation of brine channels in sea ice. The model includes a time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation for the solid-liquid phase change, a diffusion equation of the Cahn-Hilliard kind for the solute dynamics, and the heat equation for the temperature change. The macroscopic motion of the fluid is also considered, so the resulting differential system couples with the Navier-Stokes equation. The compatibility of this system with the thermodynamic laws and a maximum theorem is proved.

  4. Isolation of Halobacterium salinarum retrieved directly from halite brine inclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mormile, Melanie R.; Biesen, Michelle A.; Gutierrez, M. Carmen; Ventosa, Antonio; Pavlovich, Justin B.; Onstott, T C.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2003-11-01

    Halite crystals were selected from a 186m subsurface core taken from the Badwater salt pan, Death Valley, California to ascertain if halophilic Archaea and their associated 16S rDNA can survive over several tens of thousands of years. Using a combined microscope microdrill/micropipette system, fluids from brine inclusions were aseptically extracted from primary, hopper texture, halite crystals from 8 and 85 metres below the surface (mbls). U-Th disequilibrium dating indicates that these halite layers were deposited at 9600 and 97000 years before present (ybp) respectively.

  5. Effect of alternative mediums on production and proximate composition of the microalgae Chaetoceros muelleri as food in culture of the copepod Acartia sp. Efecto de medios alternativos sobre la producción y composición proximal de la microalga Chaetoceros muelleri como alimento en cultivo del copépodo Acartia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis R Martínez-Córdova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae Chaetoceros muelleri was cultured in three different mediums consisting on an agricultural fertilizer (Agr-F, aquacultural fertilizer (Aq-F and a conventional medium (F/2, control. These microalgae were later used as natural food to culture the copepod Acartia sp. The productive response and chemical proximate composition of microalgae and copepods were monitored. Growth rate and final cell concentration were higher in microalgae cultured in Agr-F compared to the control. In addition, the final biomass and cellular concentration were also the highest in Agr-F. Microalgae from Agr-F and Aq-F had higher carbohydrate and lower protein contents than those in the control. No differences in lipid and ash contents were observed. Regarding copepod production, higher densities and fecundity indexes were observed for those fed with microalgae previously cultured in Agr-F and Aq-F, compared to the control. The adult-nauplii ratio was also higher in copepods fed on microalgae from Agr-F compared to Aq-F and control. Copepods fed on Agr-F and Aq-F microalgae, had higher protein content compared to those fed on control microalgae; carbohydrates were higher in copepods fed on Agr-F as compared to Aq-F microalgae. No differences in lipid and ash contents were registered. Agr-F and Aq-F were adequate alternative mediums to produce C. muelleri, which produced higher quality microalgae that increased the copepod production.La microalga Chaetoceros muelleri fue cultivada en tres medios diferentes basados en un fertilizante agrícola (Agr-F, un fertilizante acuícola (Aq-F y un medio convencional (F/2, control. Éstas microalgas fueron posteriormente utilizadas como alimento natural para cultivar el copépodo Acartia sp. La respuesta productiva y la composición proximal de las microalgas y copépodos fueron monitoreadas. La tasa de crecimiento y concentración final de células fueron mayores en la microalga cultivada en Agr-F, comparada con el control

  6. Water Recovery from Brine in the Short and Long Term: A KSC Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, Griffin; Melendez, Orlando; Anthony, Steve

    2014-01-01

    KSC has spent many years researching Hollow Fiber Membrane Bioreactors as well as research encompassing: Alternate ammonia removal, Advanced oxidation, Brine purification technologies. KSC-ISRU has built an electrolysis cell for the removal of acids in ISRU mining brines. Our goal is to combine all such technologies.

  7. Fermentation cover brine reformulation for cucumber processing with low salt to reduce the incidence of bloaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reformulation of cucumber fermentation cover brines containing calcium chloride instead of sodium chloride (NaCl) was explored as a mean to minimize the incidence of bloater defect. This study particularly focused on cover brine supplementation with calcium hydroxide, NaCl, and acids to enhance buff...

  8. Geochemistry of Salado Formation brines recovered from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abitz, R.; Myers, J.; Drez, P.; Deal, D.

    1990-01-01

    Intergranular brines recovered from the repository horizon of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) have major- and trace-element compositions that reflect seawater evaporation and diagenetic processes. Brines obtained from repository drill holes are heterogenous with respect to composition, but their compositional fields are distinct from those obtained from fluid inclusions in WIPP halite. The heterogeneity of brine compositions within the drill-hole population indicates a lack of mixing and fluid homogenization within the salt at the repository level. Compositional differences between intergranular (drill hole) and intragranular (fluid inclusions) brines is attributed to isolation of the latter from diagenetic fluids that were produced from dehydration reactions involving gypsum and clay minerals. Modeling of brine-rock equilibria indicates that equilibration with evaporite minerals controls the concentrations of major elements in the brine. Drill-hole brines are in equilibrium with the observed repository minerals halite, anhydrite, magnesite, polyhalite and quartz. The equilibrium model supports the derivation of drill-hole brines from near-field fluid, rather than large-scale vertical migration of fluids from the overlying Rustler or underlying Castile Formations. 13 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Laboratory monitoring of CO2 migration within brine-saturated reservoir rock though complex electrical impedance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirichek, O.; Ghose, R.; Heller, H.K.J.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the ability of complex electrical measurements to monitor the CO2 front propagation within brine-saturated reservoir rock. A laboratory facility has been developed to perform CO2-brine substitution experiments under reservoir conditions. In the present study, CO2 is injected into a br

  10. Antioxidative low molecular weight compounds in marinated herring (Clupea harengus) salt brine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gringer, Nina; Safafar, Hamed; du Mesnildot, Axelle;

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at unravelling the antioxidative capacity of low molecular weight compounds (LMWC) (peptides, amino acids and phenolic acids) present in salt brines from the marinated herring production. Brines were fractionated into <10 kDa fractions using dialysis and further into 94 fractions...

  11. Improving the performance of brine wells at Gulf Coast strategic petroleum reserve sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, L.B.; Quong, R. (eds.)

    1979-11-05

    At the request of the Department of Energy, field techniques were developed to evaluate and improve the injection of brine into wells at Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) sites. These wells are necessary for the disposal of saturated brine removed from salt domes where oil is being stored. The wells, which were accepting brine at 50 percent or less of their initial design rates, were impaired by saturated brine containing particulates that deposited on the sand face and in the geologic formation next to the wellbore. Corrosion of the brine-disposal pipelines and injection wells contributed to the impairment by adding significant amounts of particulates in the form of corrosion products. When tests were implemented at the SPR sites, it was found that the poor quality of injected brines was the primary cause of impaired injection; that granular-media filtration, when used with chemical pretreatment, is an effective method for removing particulates from hypersaline brine; that satisfactory injection-well performance can be attained with prefiltered brines; and that corrosion rates can be substantially reduced by oxygen-scavenging.

  12. Precipitation of halite from supersaline brine from Tønder formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arturi, Kasia; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2014-01-01

    This project deals various treatments for geothermal brine, which is a highly salty solution containing more that 50 TDS (Total Dissolved Solids). This project focuses on the brine from Tønder formation (T=73°C), which has an extraordinarily high salt content NaCl ([C] = 300-310 g/l). According...

  13. Cyanobacterial cytotoxicity versus toxicity to brine shrimp Artemia salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisem, Daniel; Hrouzek, Pavel; Tomek, Petr; Tomšíčková, Jana; Zapomělová, Eliška; Skácelová, Kateřina; Lukešová, Alena; Kopecký, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Heterocytous cyanobacteria from various habitats were screened for toxicity to brine shrimp Artemia salina and the murine lymphoblastic cell line Sp/2 in order to compare these two testing models for evaluation of risk posed by cyanobacteria to human health. Methanol extracts of biomass and cultivation media were tested for toxicity and selected extracts were fractionated to determine the active fraction. We found a significant toxic effect to A. salina and to Sp/2 cells in 5.2% and 31% of studied extracts, respectively. Only 8.6% of the tested strains were highly toxic to both A. salina and the Sp/2 cell line, and only two of the tested strains were toxic to A. salina and not to the murine cell line. Therefore, it is likely that the toxic effect of cyanobacterial secondary metabolites mostly targets basal metabolic pathways present in mammal cells and so is not manifested in A. salina. We conclude that it is insufficient to monitor cytotoxicity of cyanobacteria using only the brine shrimp bioassay as was usual in the past, since cytotoxicity is a more frequent feature in cyanobacteria in comparison with toxicity to A. salina. A. salina toxicity test should not be used when estimating the possible health risk for humans. We suggest that in vitro mammal cells be used for these purposes.

  14. BELL PEPPER CULTIVATION WITH BRINE FROM BRACKISH WATER DESALINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS EDUARDO DE MOURA ARRUDA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In desalination process, besides the potable water, highly salty and pollutant water (brine is generated, which can be used for producing crops since it is carefully monitored. In order to test this hypothesis, bell pepper plants, cv. 'Margarita', were grown in coconut fiber substrate under greenhouse and were irrigated with nutrient solutions prepared with tap water, brine from desalination plant, and its dilution with tap water at 75, 50 and 25%, giving a range of electrical conductivities of the nutrient solution (ECs of 2.6, 3.1, 6.6, 10.0 and 12.2 dS m-1 after the dilutions and fertilizers addition. Completely randomized blocks design was used with 5 treatments (salinity levels of the nutrient solutions and six replications. Leaf area, number of marketable fruit, total and marketable yield were reduced with ECs increase. The marketable yield of bell pepper 'Margarita' reduced 6.3% for each unitary increase of ECs above 2.6 dS m-1 (threshold salinity and the results suggest that in hydroponic system, the reduction of marketable yield with increasing ECs is promoted by reduction of the number of fruits per plant instead of a reduction of fruit mean weight.

  15. Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Geopressured-Geothermal Brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1989-12-01

    This white paper presents a unique plan for an Oil Industry-DOE cost sharing research project for Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery (TEOR) of medium and heavy oil using geopressured-geothermal brine. This technology would provide an environmentally clean method of recovery as opposed to the burning of crude oil or natural gas used widely by the industry, but presently under scrutiny by federal and state air quality agencies, as well as provide an alternative to the very expensive operational and mechanical problems associated with heating water on the surface for injection. An example test reservoir is a shallow, small structural reservoir about 1-l/2 miles long by 1/2 mile wide. It is presently producing heavy oil (18.6 API gravity) from 5 wells, and is marginally economic. One of three nearby geopressured-geothermal wells could be re-entered and recompleted to supply about 400 F brine from 13-16,000 feet. This brine can be used to heat and drive the heavy oil. It is anticipated that about one million barrels of oil may be recovered by this project. Over 3 million barrels are estimated to be in place; only 2.7% of the oil in place has been produced. The suggested teaming arrangement includes: (1) EG&G Idaho, Inc., which presently provides technical and management support to DOE in the Gulf EG&G would supply coordination, management and Coast Geopressured-Geothermal Program. technical support to DOE for the Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery Project. (2) A small business which would supply the field, geologic and well data, production wells, and production operation. They would cost-share the project and provide revenue from increased production (5% of increased production) to help offset DOE costs. Though DOE would cost-share brine supply and injection system, they would not assume well ownership. The small business would supply engineering and operations for brine supply, injection system, and collection of field producing and injection data. Phase 1--Geologic, reservoir

  16. Indoor tests to investigate the effect of brine depth on the performance of solar still

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Marwah A.W.; Jabbar N. Khalifa, Abdul [Nahrain University, College of Engineering, Jadiriya, P.O. Box 64040, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2013-07-01

    Many experimental and numerical studies have been done on different configurations of solar stills to optimize the design by examining the effect of climatic, operational and design parameters on its performance. One of the most important of the operational parameters that has received a considerable attention in the literature is the brine depth. This paper reports indoor experimental investigations on the effect of brine depth on the productivity and efficiency of the solar stills at four different brine depths of 1.5, 2, 4 and 5.5 cm. Indoor tests were used by simulating the solar input by proper electric heaters located at the bottom of the still for heating the water contained in the basin of the still. The present study validated the decreasing trend in productivity with the increase of brine depth and showed that the still productivity could be influenced by the brine depth by up to 24%.

  17. Impact of the brine from a desalination plant on a shallow seagrass ( Posidonia oceanica) meadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacia, Esperança; Invers, Olga; Manzanera, Marta; Ballesteros, Enric; Romero, Javier

    2007-05-01

    Although seawater desalination has increased significantly over recent decades, little attention has been paid to the impact of the main by-product (hypersaline water: brine) on ecosystems. In the Mediterranean, potentially the most affected ecosystems are meadows of the endemic seagrass Posidonia oceanica. We studied the effect of brine on a shallow P. oceanica meadow exposed to reverse osmosis brine discharge for more than 6 years. P. oceanica proved to be very sensitive to both eutrophication and high salinities derived from the brine discharge. Affected plants showed high epiphyte load and nitrogen content in the leaves, high frequencies of necrosis marks, low total non-structural carbohydrates and low glutamine synthetase activity, compared to control plants. However, there was no indication of extensive decline of the affected meadow. This is probably due to its very shallow situation, which results in high incident radiation as well as fast dilution and dispersion of the brine plume.

  18. Indoor tests to investigate the effect of brine depth on the performance of solar still

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwah AW. Ali, Abdul Jabbar N. Khalifa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many experimental and numerical studies have been done on different configurations of solar stills to optimize the design by examining the effect of climatic, operational and design parameters on its performance. One of the most important of the operational parameters that has received a considerable attention in the literature is the brine depth. This paper reports indoor experimental investigations on the effect of brine depth on the productivity and efficiency of the solar stills at four different brine depths of 1.5, 2, 4 and 5.5 cm. Indoor tests were used by simulating the solar input by proper electric heaters located at the bottom of the still for heating the water contained in the basin of the still. The present study validated the decreasing trend in productivity with the increase of brine depth and showed that the still productivity could be influenced by the brine depth by up to 24%.

  19. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during manufacture and storage of white brined cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaili, Tareq M; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Olaimat, Amin N; Shaker, Reyad R; Taha, Mohammad; Holley, Richard A

    2014-09-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a major foodborne pathogen that causes severe disease in humans. Survival of E. coli O157:H7 during processing and storage of white brined cheese was investigated. Cheeses were prepared using pasteurized milk inoculated with a 4 strain E. coli O157:H7 cocktail (7 log(10) CFU/g) with or without yogurt starter culture (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus) and stored in 10% or 15% NaCl brine at 10 and 21 ºC for 28 d. NaCl concentration, water activity (a(w)), pH, and numbers of E. coli O157:H7 and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were determined in cheese and brine. E. coli O157:H7 was able to survive in cheese stored in both brines at 10 and 21 ºC regardless of the presence of starter LAB, although the latter significantly enhanced E. coli O157:H7 reduction in cheese or its brine at 10 ºC. E. coli O157:H7 numbers were reduced by 2.6 and 3.4 log(10) CFU/g in cheese stored in 10% and 15% NaCl brine, respectively, in the presence of starter LAB and by 1.4 and 2.3 log(10) CFU/g, respectively, in the absence of starter LAB at 10 ºC. The pathogen survived, but at lower numbers in the brines. The salt concentration of cheese stored in 10% brine remained about 5% during ripening, but in 15% brine, the NaCl level increased 1.6% to 8.1% (w/w) by 28 d. Values of pH and a(w) slightly decreased 1 d after exposure to brine and reached 5.5 to 6.6 and 0.88 to 0.94, respectively, in all treatments.

  20. Oil exudation and histological structures of duck egg yolks during brining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, K M; Chung, W H; Jao, C L; Hsu, K C

    2010-04-01

    Changes in oil exudation and histological structures of salted duck egg yolks during brining up to 5 wk were investigated. During brining, the salt contents of albumen, exterior yolk (hardened portion), and interior yolk (soft or liquid portion) gradually increased accompanied by slight decreases in moisture content. The hardening ratio of salted egg yolks increased rapidly to about 60% during the first week of brining and then reached 100% at the end of brining. After brining, part of the lipids in salted egg yolk became free due to the structural changes of low-density lipoprotein induced by dehydration and increase of salt content, and more free lipids in salted egg yolk were released after the cooking process. With the brining time increased up to 5 wk, the outer region of the cooked salted yolk gradually changed into dark brown, brown, orange, and then dark brown, whereas the center region changed into light yellow, yellow, dark yellow, and then yellow again. The microstructures of cooked salted egg yolks showed that the yolk spheres in the outer and middle regions retained their original shape, with some shrinking and being packed more loosely when brining time increased, and the exuded oil filled the space between the spheres. Furthermore, the yolk spheres in the center region transformed to a round shape but still showed granulation after 4 wk of brining, whereas they were mostly disrupted after 2 to 5 wk of brining. One of the most important characteristics of cooked salted egg yolks, gritty texture, contributed to oil exudation and granulated yolk spheres were observed at the brining time of 4 wk.

  1. Hydrographic changes during 20 years in the brine-filled basins of the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anschutz, Pierre; Blanc, Gérard; Chatin, Fabienne; Geiller, Magali; Pierret, Marie-Claire

    1999-10-01

    Many of the deep basins filled by hot brines in the Red Sea have not been investigated since their discovery in the early 1970s. Twenty years later, in September 1992, six of these deeps were revisited. The temperature and salinity of the Suakin, Port Sudan, Chain B, and Nereus deeps ranged from 23.25 to 44.60°C and from 144 to 270‰. These values were approximately the same in 1972, indicating that the budget of heat and salt was quite balanced. We measured strong gradients of properties in the transition zone between brines and overlying seawater. The contribution of salinity to the density gradient was more than one order of magnitude higher than the opposite contribution of temperature across the seawater-brine interface. Therefore the interface was extemely stable, and the transfer of properties across it was considered to be controlled mostly by molecular diffusion. We calculate that the diffusional transport of salt from the brines to seawater cannot affect significantly the salinity of the brines over a 20 year period, which agrees with the observations. The brine pools can persist for centuries with no salt input. Therefore, the persisence of brines does not correspond to a steady balance between diffusional loss and continuous input of hydrothermal solutions. Deeps that experience only episodical hydrothermal brine supplies may persist for a long time with salt inherited from past inputs. The theoretical loss of heat by diffusion from the brine to seawater was higher than the observed decrease in temperature of the brine pool during the 20 year period of observation. We calculated that the heat flux out of the pools into the overlying seawater was compensated by a heat flux into the pools of about 250-600 mW/m 2. This range of values corresponds to bottom heat flow values that have been reported earlier for the axial zone of the Red Sea. In contrast to the other brine pools, the temperature and salinity of the Valdivia Deep brine increased by 4.1°C and

  2. In-situ fracture mapping using geotomography and brine tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deadrick, F.J.; Ramirez, A.L.; Lytle, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is currently assessing the capabilities of high resolution geophysical methods to characterize geologic sites for the disposal of high level nuclear waste. A successful experiment has recently been performed in which salt water tracers and high frequency electromagnetic waves were utilized to map rock mass fracture zones in-situ. Multiple cross-borehole EM transmissions were used to generate a tomographic image of the fractured rock region between two boreholes. The tomographs obtained correlate well with conventional wireline geophysical logs which can be used to infer the location of fractured zones in the rock mass. This indirect data suggests that the geotomography and brine tracer technique may have merit in mapping fractured zones between boreholes.

  3. Microprobe analysis of brine shrimp grown on meteorite extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, J. [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)]. E-mail: j.kennedy@gns.cri.nz; Mautner, M.N. [Soil, Plant and Ecological Sciences Division, Lincoln University (New Zealand) and Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Christchurch 8001 (New Zealand)]. E-mail: m.mautner@solis1.com; Barry, B. [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Markwitz, A. [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

    2007-07-15

    Nuclear microprobe methods have been used to investigate the uptake and distribution of various elements by brine shrimps and their unhatched eggs when grown in extracts of the Murchison and Allende carbonaceous meteorites, which were selected as model space resources. Measurements were carried out using a focussed 2 MeV proton beam raster scanned over the samples in order to obtain the average elemental concentrations. Line scans across the egg and shrimp samples show uptake of elements such as Mg, Ni, S and P which are present in the meteorites. The results confirmed that carbonaceous chondrite materials can provide nutrients, including high levels of the essential nutrient phosphate. The concentrations of these elements varied significantly between shrimp and eggs grown in extracts of the two meteorite types, which can help in identifying optimal growth media. Our results illustrate that nuclear microprobe techniques can determine elemental concentrations in organisms exposed to meteorite derived media and thus help in identifying useful future resources.

  4. Guiding brine shrimp through mazes by solving reaction diffusion equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singal, Krishma; Fenton, Flavio

    Excitable systems driven by reaction diffusion equations have been shown to not only find solutions to mazes but to also to find the shortest path between the beginning and the end of the maze. In this talk we describe how we can use the Fitzhugh-Nagumo model, a generic model for excitable media, to solve a maze by varying the basin of attraction of its two fixed points. We demonstrate how two dimensional mazes are solved numerically using a Java Applet and then accelerated to run in real time by using graphic processors (GPUs). An application of this work is shown by guiding phototactic brine shrimp through a maze solved by the algorithm. Once the path is obtained, an Arduino directs the shrimp through the maze using lights from LEDs placed at the floor of the Maze. This method running in real time could be eventually used for guiding robots and cars through traffic.

  5. Effect of electroosmotic flow on brine imbibition in porous media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui WANG; Xiang-an YUE; Xu WEI; Wei ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Based on Darcy's Law and the Helmholta-Smoluchowski equation, an imbibition velocity formula for the water phase with an electric field was deduced, showing that the imbibition velocity with an electric field is to various extents not only-related to the rock permeability and characteristic length, the fluid viscosity, the oil-water interface tension and the gravity of the imbibing brine, but also to the fluid dielectric permittivity, zeta potential, applied electric field direction, and strength. Imbibition experiments with electric fields that are different in direction and strength were conducted, showing that application of a positive electric field enhances the imbibition velocity and increases the imbibition recovery ratio, while application of a negative electric field reduces the imbibition velocity and decreases the imbibition recovery ratio. The imbibition recovery ratio with a positive electric field increases with the strength of the electric field, and the imbibition recovery ratio with a negative electric field is lower than that without an electric field.

  6. Quorum Quenching Bacillus sonorensis Isolated from Soya Sauce Fermentation Brine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Gan Chan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL-degrading bacterial strain, L62, was isolated from a sample of fermentation brine of Chinese soya sauce by using rich medium agar supplemented with soya sauce (10% v/v. L62, a rod-shaped Gram positive bacterium with amylolytic activity, was phylogentically related to Bacillus sonorensis by 16S ribosomal DNA and rpoB sequence analyses. B. sonorensis L62 efficiently degraded N-3-oxohexanoyl homoserine lactone and N-octanoylhomoserine lactone. However, the aiiA homologue, encoding an autoinducer inactivation enzyme catalyzing the degradation of AHLs, was not detected in L62, suggesting the presence of a different AHL-degrading gene in L62. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of AHL-degrading B. sonorensis from soya sauce liquid state fermentation.

  7. Selenium biotransformations in an engineered aquatic ecosystem for bioremediation of agricultural wastewater via brine shrimp production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Radomir; Tantoyotai, Prapakorn; Fakra, Sirine C; Marcus, Matthew A; Yang, Soo In; Pickering, Ingrid J; Bañuelos, Gary S; Hristova, Krassimira R; Freeman, John L

    2013-05-21

    An engineered aquatic ecosystem was specifically designed to bioremediate selenium (Se), occurring as oxidized inorganic selenate from hypersalinized agricultural drainage water while producing brine shrimp enriched in organic Se and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids for use in value added nutraceutical food supplements. Selenate was successfully bioremediated by microalgal metabolism into organic Se (seleno-amino acids) and partially removed via gaseous volatile Se formation. Furthermore, filter-feeding brine shrimp that accumulated this organic Se were removed by net harvest. Thriving in this engineered pond system, brine shrimp ( Artemia franciscana Kellogg) and brine fly (Ephydridae sp.) have major ecological relevance as important food sources for large populations of waterfowl, breeding, and migratory shore birds. This aquatic ecosystem was an ideal model for study because it mimics trophic interactions in a Se polluted wetland. Inorganic selenate in drainage water was metabolized differently in microalgae, bacteria, and diatoms where it was accumulated and reduced into various inorganic forms (selenite, selenide, or elemental Se) or partially incorporated into organic Se mainly as selenomethionine. Brine shrimp and brine fly larva then bioaccumulated Se from ingesting aquatic microorganisms and further metabolized Se predominately into organic Se forms. Importantly, adult brine flies, which hatched from aquatic larva, bioaccumulated the highest Se concentrations of all organisms tested.

  8. Viruses-to-mobile genetic elements skew in the deep Atlantis II brine pool sediments

    KAUST Repository

    Adel, Mustafa

    2016-09-06

    The central rift of the Red Sea has 25 brine pools with different physical and geochemical characteristics. Atlantis II (ATIID), Discovery Deeps (DD) and Chain Deep (CD) are characterized by high salinity, temperature and metal content. Several studies reported microbial communities in these brine pools, but few studies addressed the brine pool sediments. Therefore, sediment cores were collected from ATIID, DD, CD brine pools and an adjacent brine-influenced site. Sixteen different lithologic sediment sections were subjected to shotgun DNA pyrosequencing to generate 1.47 billion base pairs (1.47 × 109 bp). We generated sediment-specific reads and attempted to annotate all reads. We report the phylogenetic and biochemical uniqueness of the deepest ATIID sulfur-rich brine pool sediments. In contrary to all other sediment sections, bacteria dominate the deepest ATIID sulfur-rich brine pool sediments. This decrease in virus-to-bacteria ratio in selected sections and depth coincided with an overrepresentation of mobile genetic elements. Skewing in the composition of viruses-to-mobile genetic elements may uniquely contribute to the distinct microbial consortium in sediments in proximity to hydrothermally active vents of the Red Sea and possibly in their surroundings, through differential horizontal gene transfer.

  9. Purification of High Salinity Brine by Multi-Stage Ion Concentration Polarization Desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bumjoo; Kwak, Rhokyun; Kwon, Hyukjin J.; Pham, Van Sang; Kim, Minseok; Al-Anzi, Bader; Lim, Geunbae; Han, Jongyoon

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing need for the desalination of high concentration brine (>TDS 35,000 ppm) efficiently and economically, either for the treatment of produced water from shale gas/oil development, or minimizing the environmental impact of brine from existing desalination plants. Yet, reverse osmosis (RO), which is the most widely used for desalination currently, is not practical for brine desalination. This paper demonstrates technical and economic feasibility of ICP (Ion Concentration Polarization) electrical desalination for the high saline water treatment, by adopting multi-stage operation with better energy efficiency. Optimized multi-staging configurations, dependent on the brine salinity values, can be designed based on experimental and numerical analysis. Such an optimization aims at achieving not just the energy efficiency but also (membrane) area efficiency, lowering the true cost of brine treatment. ICP electrical desalination is shown here to treat brine salinity up to 100,000 ppm of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) with flexible salt rejection rate up to 70% which is promising in a various application treating brine waste. We also demonstrate that ICP desalination has advantage of removing both salts and diverse suspended solids simultaneously, and less susceptibility to membrane fouling/scaling, which is a significant challenge in the membrane processes. PMID:27545955

  10. Purification of High Salinity Brine by Multi-Stage Ion Concentration Polarization Desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bumjoo; Kwak, Rhokyun; Kwon, Hyukjin J.; Pham, Van Sang; Kim, Minseok; Al-Anzi, Bader; Lim, Geunbae; Han, Jongyoon

    2016-08-01

    There is an increasing need for the desalination of high concentration brine (>TDS 35,000 ppm) efficiently and economically, either for the treatment of produced water from shale gas/oil development, or minimizing the environmental impact of brine from existing desalination plants. Yet, reverse osmosis (RO), which is the most widely used for desalination currently, is not practical for brine desalination. This paper demonstrates technical and economic feasibility of ICP (Ion Concentration Polarization) electrical desalination for the high saline water treatment, by adopting multi-stage operation with better energy efficiency. Optimized multi-staging configurations, dependent on the brine salinity values, can be designed based on experimental and numerical analysis. Such an optimization aims at achieving not just the energy efficiency but also (membrane) area efficiency, lowering the true cost of brine treatment. ICP electrical desalination is shown here to treat brine salinity up to 100,000 ppm of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) with flexible salt rejection rate up to 70% which is promising in a various application treating brine waste. We also demonstrate that ICP desalination has advantage of removing both salts and diverse suspended solids simultaneously, and less susceptibility to membrane fouling/scaling, which is a significant challenge in the membrane processes.

  11. Purification of High Salinity Brine by Multi-Stage Ion Concentration Polarization Desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bumjoo; Kwak, Rhokyun; Kwon, Hyukjin J; Pham, Van Sang; Kim, Minseok; Al-Anzi, Bader; Lim, Geunbae; Han, Jongyoon

    2016-08-22

    There is an increasing need for the desalination of high concentration brine (>TDS 35,000 ppm) efficiently and economically, either for the treatment of produced water from shale gas/oil development, or minimizing the environmental impact of brine from existing desalination plants. Yet, reverse osmosis (RO), which is the most widely used for desalination currently, is not practical for brine desalination. This paper demonstrates technical and economic feasibility of ICP (Ion Concentration Polarization) electrical desalination for the high saline water treatment, by adopting multi-stage operation with better energy efficiency. Optimized multi-staging configurations, dependent on the brine salinity values, can be designed based on experimental and numerical analysis. Such an optimization aims at achieving not just the energy efficiency but also (membrane) area efficiency, lowering the true cost of brine treatment. ICP electrical desalination is shown here to treat brine salinity up to 100,000 ppm of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) with flexible salt rejection rate up to 70% which is promising in a various application treating brine waste. We also demonstrate that ICP desalination has advantage of removing both salts and diverse suspended solids simultaneously, and less susceptibility to membrane fouling/scaling, which is a significant challenge in the membrane processes.

  12. Viruses-to-mobile genetic elements skew in the deep Atlantis II brine pool sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, Mustafa; Elbehery, Ali H A; Aziz, Sherry K; Aziz, Ramy K; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Siam, Rania

    2016-09-06

    The central rift of the Red Sea has 25 brine pools with different physical and geochemical characteristics. Atlantis II (ATIID), Discovery Deeps (DD) and Chain Deep (CD) are characterized by high salinity, temperature and metal content. Several studies reported microbial communities in these brine pools, but few studies addressed the brine pool sediments. Therefore, sediment cores were collected from ATIID, DD, CD brine pools and an adjacent brine-influenced site. Sixteen different lithologic sediment sections were subjected to shotgun DNA pyrosequencing to generate 1.47 billion base pairs (1.47 × 10(9) bp). We generated sediment-specific reads and attempted to annotate all reads. We report the phylogenetic and biochemical uniqueness of the deepest ATIID sulfur-rich brine pool sediments. In contrary to all other sediment sections, bacteria dominate the deepest ATIID sulfur-rich brine pool sediments. This decrease in virus-to-bacteria ratio in selected sections and depth coincided with an overrepresentation of mobile genetic elements. Skewing in the composition of viruses-to-mobile genetic elements may uniquely contribute to the distinct microbial consortium in sediments in proximity to hydrothermally active vents of the Red Sea and possibly in their surroundings, through differential horizontal gene transfer.

  13. Alcohol Brine Freezing of Japanese Horse Mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) for Raw Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Toshimichi; Yuki, Atsuhiko; Sakurai, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Koichiro; Itoh, Nobuo; Inui, Etsuro; Seike, Kazunori; Mizukami, Yoichi; Fukuda, Yutaka; Harada, Kazuki

    In order to test the possible application of alcohol brine freezing to Japanese horse mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) for raw consumption, the quality and taste of fish frozen by direct immersion in 60% ethanol brine at -20, -25 and -30°C was compared with those by air freezing and fresh fish without freezing. Cracks were not found during the freezing. Smell of ethanol did not remain. K value, an indicator of freshness, of fish frozen in alcohol brine was less than 8.3%, which was at the same level as those by air freezing and fresh fish. Oxidation of lipid was at the same level as air freezing does, and lower than that of fresh fish. The pH of fish frozen in alcohol brine at -25 and -30°C was 6.5 and 6.6, respectively, which were higher than that by air freezing and that of fresh fish. Fish frozen in alcohol brine was better than that by air and at the same level as fresh fish in total evaluation of sensory tests. These results show that the alcohol brine freezing is superior to air freezing, and fish frozen in alcohol brine can be a material for raw consumption. The methods of thawing in tap water, cold water, refrigerator, and at room temperature were compared. Thawing in tap water is considered to be convenient due to the short thaw time and the quality of thawed fish that was best among the methods.

  14. Viruses-to-mobile genetic elements skew in the deep Atlantis II brine pool sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, Mustafa; Elbehery, Ali H. A.; Aziz, Sherry K.; Aziz, Ramy K.; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Siam, Rania

    2016-09-01

    The central rift of the Red Sea has 25 brine pools with different physical and geochemical characteristics. Atlantis II (ATIID), Discovery Deeps (DD) and Chain Deep (CD) are characterized by high salinity, temperature and metal content. Several studies reported microbial communities in these brine pools, but few studies addressed the brine pool sediments. Therefore, sediment cores were collected from ATIID, DD, CD brine pools and an adjacent brine-influenced site. Sixteen different lithologic sediment sections were subjected to shotgun DNA pyrosequencing to generate 1.47 billion base pairs (1.47 × 109 bp). We generated sediment-specific reads and attempted to annotate all reads. We report the phylogenetic and biochemical uniqueness of the deepest ATIID sulfur-rich brine pool sediments. In contrary to all other sediment sections, bacteria dominate the deepest ATIID sulfur-rich brine pool sediments. This decrease in virus-to-bacteria ratio in selected sections and depth coincided with an overrepresentation of mobile genetic elements. Skewing in the composition of viruses-to-mobile genetic elements may uniquely contribute to the distinct microbial consortium in sediments in proximity to hydrothermally active vents of the Red Sea and possibly in their surroundings, through differential horizontal gene transfer.

  15. Wettability from Capillarity of CO2-Brine-Rock Systems at Reservoir Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Menhali, Ali; Niu, Ben; Krevor, Samuel

    2015-04-01

    The wettability of CO2-brine-rock systems will have a major impact on the management of carbon sequestration in subsurface geological formations. Recent contact angle measurement studies have reported sensitivity in wetting behaviour of this system to pressure, temperature and brine salinity. We report results of an investigation into the impact of reservoir conditions on wetting through direct observations of their impact on the capillary strength of the system. Eight capillary pressure characteristic curves were measured using CO2 and brine in a single fired Berea sandstone at pressures (5 to 20 MPa), temperatures (25 to 50 °C) and ionic strengths (0 to 5 M kg-1 NaCl) representative of subsurface reservoirs. A ninth measurement using an N2-water system provided a benchmark for capillarity with a strongly water wet system. The semi-dynamic capillary pressure core flooding technique was used with in situ saturation monitoring. In all cases, the capillarity of the system, scaled by the interfacial tension, were equivalent to the N2-water system within measurement uncertainty. Thus reservoir conditions did not have a significant impact on the capillary strength of the CO2-brine system through a variation in wetting. Two steady-state relative permeability measurements with CO2 and brine and one with N2 and brine similarly show little variation between conditions, consistent with the observation that the CO2-brine-sandstone system is strongly water wetting and invariant across a wide range of reservoir conditions.

  16. Capillarity and wetting of carbon dioxide and brine during drainage in Berea sandstone at reservoir conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Menhali, Ali; Niu, Ben; Krevor, Samuel

    2015-10-01

    The wettability of CO2-brine-rock systems will have a major impact on the management of carbon sequestration in subsurface geological formations. Recent contact angle measurement studies have reported sensitivity in wetting behavior of this system to pressure, temperature, and brine salinity. We report observations of the impact of reservoir conditions on the capillary pressure characteristic curve and relative permeability of a single Berea sandstone during drainage—CO2 displacing brine—through effects on the wetting state. Eight reservoir condition drainage capillary pressure characteristic curves were measured using CO2 and brine in a single fired Berea sandstone at pressures (5-20 MPa), temperatures (25-50°C), and ionic strengths (0-5 mol kg-1 NaCl). A ninth measurement using a N2-water system provided a benchmark for capillarity with a strongly water wet system. The capillary pressure curves from each of the tests were found to be similar to the N2-water curve when scaled by the interfacial tension. Reservoir conditions were not found to have a significant impact on the capillary strength of the CO2-brine system during drainage through a variation in the wetting state. Two steady-state relative permeability measurements with CO2 and brine and one with N2 and brine similarly show little variation between conditions, consistent with the observation that the CO2-brine-sandstone system is water wetting and multiphase flow properties invariant across a wide range of reservoir conditions.

  17. Brine Organisms and the Question of Habitat Specific Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, B. Z.; Siegel, S. M.; Speitel, Thomas; Waber, Jack; Stoecker, Roy

    1984-12-01

    Among the well-known ultrasaline terrestrial habitats, the Dead Sea in the Jordan Rift Valley and Don Juan Pond in the Upper Wright Valley represent two of the most extreme. The former is a saturated sodium chloride-magnesium sulfate brine in a hot desert, the latter a saturated calcium chloride brine in an Antarctic desert. Both Dead Sea and Don Juan water bodies themselves are limited in microflora, but the saline Don Juan algal mat and muds contain abundant nutrients and a rich and varied microbiota, including Oscillatoria, Gleocapsa, Chlorella, diatoms, Penicillium and bacteria. In such environments, the existence of an array of specific adaptations is a common, and highly reasonable, presumption, at least with respect to habitat-obligate forms. Nevertheless, many years of ongoing study in our laboratory have demonstrated that lichens (e.g. Cladonia), algae (e.g. Nostoc) and fungi (e.g. Penicillium, Aspergillus) from the humid tropics can sustain metabolism down to -40°C and growth down to -10°C in simulated Dead Sea or Don Juan (or similar) media without benefit of selection or gradual acclimation. Non-selection is suggested in fungi by higher growth rates from vegetative inocula than spores. The importance of nutrient parameters was also evident in responses to potassium and reduced nitrogen compounds. In view of the saline performance of tropical Nostoc, and its presence in the Antarctic dry valley soils, its complete absence in our Don Juan mat samples was and remains a puzzle. We suggest that adaptive capability is already resident in many terrestrial life forms not currently in extreme habitats, a possible reflection of evolutionary selection for wide spectrum environmental adaptability.

  18. Weeks Island brine diffuser site study: baseline conditions and environmental assessment technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-12

    This technical report presents the results of a study conducted at two alternative brine diffuser sites (A and B) proposed for the Weeks Island salt dome, together with an analysis of the potential physical, chemical, and biological effects of brine disposal for this area of the Gulf of Mexico. Brine would result from either the leaching of salt domes to form or enlarge oil storage caverns, or the subsequent use of these caverns for crude oil storage in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program. Brine leached from the Weeks Island salt dome would be transported through a pipeline which would extend from the salt dome either 27 nautical miles (32 statute miles) for Site A, or 41 nautical miles (47 statute miles) for Site B, into Gulf waters. The brine would be discharged at these sites through an offshore diffuser at a sustained peak rate of 39 ft/sup 3//sec. The disposal of large quantities of brine in the Gulf could have a significant impact on the biology and water quality of the area. Physical and chemical measurements of the marine environment at Sites A and B were taken between September 1977 and July 1978 to correlate the existing environmental conditions with the estimated physical extent of tthe brine discharge as predicted by the MIT model (US Dept. of Commerce, 1977a). Measurements of wind, tide, waves, currents, and stratification (water column structure) were also obtained since the diffusion and dispersion of the brine plume are a function of the local circulation regime. These data were used to calculate both near- and far-field concentrations of brine, and may also be used in the design criteria for diffuser port configuration and verification of the plume model. Biological samples were taken to characterize the sites and to predict potential areas of impact with regard to the discharge. This sampling focused on benthic organisms and demersal fish. (DMC)

  19. Carbon isotopic evidence for microbial control of carbon supply to Orca Basin at the brine-seawater interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Shah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Orca Basin, an intraslope basin on the Texas–Louisiana continental slope, hosts a hypersaline, anoxic brine in its lowermost 200 m. This brine contains a large reservoir of reduced and aged carbon, and appears to be stable at decadal time scales: concentrations and the isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic (DIC and organic carbon (DOC are similar to previous reports. Both DIC and DOC are more "aged" within the brine pool than in overlying water, and the isotopic contrast between brine carbon and seawater carbon is much greater for DIC than DOC. While the stable carbon isotopic composition of brine DIC points towards a combination of methane and organic carbon re-mineralization as its source, radiocarbon and box model results point to the brine interface as the major source region for DIC with oxidation of methane diffusing upwards from sediments supplying only limited DIC to the brine. This conclusion is consistent with previous studies reporting microbial activity focused at the seawater-brine interface. Isotopic similarities between DIC and DOC suggest a different relationship between these two carbon reservoirs than is typically observed in deep ocean basins. Radiocarbon values implicate the seawater-brine interface region as the likely source region for DOC as well as DIC. Further investigations of the seawater-brine interface are needed to advance our understanding of the specific microbial processes contributing to dissolved carbon storage in the Orca Basin brine.

  20. Examination of brine contamination risk to aquatic resources from petroleum development in the Williston Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Robert A.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Smith, Bruce D.; Tangen, Brian A.; Chesley-Preston, Tara; Preston, Todd M.

    2011-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey scientists and cooperating partners are examining the potential risk to aquatic resources (for example, wetlands, streams) by contamination from saline waters (brine) produced by petroleum development in the Williston Basin of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota. The primary goals of this study are to provide a science-based approach to assess potential risk of brine contamination to aquatic systems and to help focus limited monitoring and mitigation resources on the areas of greatest need. These goals will be accomplished through field investigations that quantify brine movement and risk assessments using remotely-sensed and other spatial datasets.

  1. Buoyancy effects on upward brine displacement caused by CO2 injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Rinaldi, A.

    2010-01-15

    Upward displacement of brine from deep reservoirs driven by pressure increases resulting from CO{sub 2} injection for geologic carbon sequestration may occur through improperly sealed abandoned wells, through permeable faults, or through permeable channels between pinch-outs of shale formations. The concern about upward brine flow is that, upon intrusion into aquifers containing groundwater resources, the brine may degrade groundwater. Because both salinity and temperature increase with depth in sedimentary basins, upward displacement of brine involves lifting fluid that is saline but also warm into shallower regions that contain fresher, cooler water. We have carried out dynamic simulations using TOUGH2/EOS7 of upward displacement of warm, salty water into cooler, fresher aquifers in a highly idealized two-dimensional model consisting of a vertical conduit (representing a well or permeable fault) connecting a deep and a shallow reservoir. Our simulations show that for small pressure increases and/or high-salinity-gradient cases, brine is pushed up the conduit to a new static steady-state equilibrium. On the other hand, if the pressure rise is large enough that brine is pushed up the conduit and into the overlying upper aquifer, flow may be sustained if the dense brine is allowed to spread laterally. In this scenario, dense brine only contacts the lower-most region of the upper aquifer. In a hypothetical case in which strong cooling of the dense brine occurs in the upper reservoir, the brine becomes sufficiently dense that it flows back down into the deeper reservoir from where it came. The brine then heats again in the lower aquifer and moves back up the conduit to repeat the cycle. Parameter studies delineate steady-state (static) and oscillatory solutions and reveal the character and period of oscillatory solutions. Such oscillatory solutions are mostly a curiosity rather than an expected natural phenomenon because in nature the geothermal gradient prevents the

  2. Synthesis of hydroxy sodalite from coal fly ash using waste industrial brine solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musyoka, Nicholas M; Petrik, Leslie F; Balfour, Gillian; Gitari, Wilson M; Hums, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The effect of using industrial waste brine solution instead of ultra pure water was investigated during the synthesis of zeolites using three South African coal fly ashes as Si feedstock. The high halide brine was obtained from the retentate effluent of a reverse osmosis mine water treatment plant. Synthesis conditions applied were; ageing of fly ash was at 47 ° C for 48 hours, and while the hydrothermal treatment temperature was set at 140 ° C for 48 hours. The use of brine as a solvent resulted in the formation of hydroxy sodalite zeolite although unconverted mullite and hematite from the fly ash feedstock was also found in the synthesis product.

  3. A sulfate conundrum: Dissolved sulfates of deep-saline brines and carbonate-associated sulfates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labotka, Dana M.; Panno, Samuel V.; Locke, Randall A.

    2016-10-01

    Sulfates in deeply circulating brines and carbonate-associated sulfates (CAS) within sedimentary units of the Cambrian strata in the Illinois Basin record a complex history. Dissolved sulfate within the Mt. Simon Sandstone brines exhibits average δ34SSO4 values of 35.4‰ and δ18OSO4 values of 14.6‰ and appears to be related to Cambrian seawater sulfate, either original seawater or sourced from evaporite deposits such as those in the Michigan Basin. Theoretical and empirical relationships based on stable oxygen isotope fractionation suggest that sulfate within the lower depths of the Mt. Simon brines has experienced a long period of isolation, possibly several tens of millions of years. Comparison with brines from other stratigraphic units shows the Mt. Simon brines are geochemically unique. Dissolved sulfate from brines within the Ironton-Galesville Sandstone averages 22.7‰ for δ34SSO4 values and 13.0‰ for δ18OSO4 values. The Ironton-Galesville brine has mixed with younger groundwater, possibly of Ordovician to Devonian age and younger. The Eau Claire Formation lies between the Mt. Simon and Ironton-Galesville Sandstones. The carbonate units of the Eau Claire and stratigraphically equivalent Bonneterre Formation contain CAS that appears isotopically related to the Late Pennsylvanian-Early Permian Mississippi Valley-type ore pulses that deposited large sulfide minerals in the Viburnum Trend/Old Lead Belt ore districts. The δ34SCAS values range from 21.3‰ to 9.3‰, and δ18OCAS values range from +1.4‰ to -2.6‰ and show a strong covariance (R2 = 0.94). The largely wholesale replacement of Cambrian seawater sulfate signatures in these dolomites does not appear to have affected the sulfate signatures in the Mt. Simon brines even though these sulfide deposits are found in the stratigraphically equivalent Lamotte Sandstone to the southwest. On the basis of this and previous studies, greater fluid densities of the Mt. Simon brines may have prevented the

  4. Impact of pressure and temperature on CO2-brine-mica contact angles and CO2-brine interfacial tension: Implications for carbon geo-sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Muhammad; Al-Yaseri, Ahmed Z; Barifcani, Ahmed; Lebedev, Maxim; Iglauer, Stefan

    2016-01-15

    Precise characterization of wettability of CO2-brine-rock system and CO2-brine interfacial tension at reservoir conditions is essential as they influence capillary sealing efficiency of caprocks, which in turn, impacts the structural and residual trapping during CO2 geo-sequestration. In this context, we have experimentally measured advancing and receding contact angles for brine-CO2-mica system (surface roughness ∼12nm) at different pressures (0.1MPa, 5MPa, 7MPa, 10MPa, 15MPa, 20MPa), temperatures (308K, 323K, and 343K), and salinities (0wt%, 5wt%, 10wt%, 20wt% and 30wt% NaCl). For the same experimental matrix, CO2-brine interfacial tensions have also been measured using the pendant drop technique. The results indicate that both advancing and receding contact angles increase with pressure and salinity, but decrease with temperature. On the contrary, CO2-brine interfacial tension decrease with pressure and increase with temperature. At 20MPa and 308K, the advancing angle is measured to be ∼110°, indicating CO2-wetting. The results have been compared with various published literature data and probable factors responsible for deviations have been highlighted. Finally we demonstrate the implications of measured data by evaluating CO2 storage heights under various operating conditions. We conclude that for a given storage depth, reservoirs with lower pressures and high temperatures can store larger volumes and thus exhibit better sealing efficiency.

  5. Encounter rates and swimming behavior of pause-travel and cruise larval fish predators in calm and turbulent laboratory environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    We observed the feeding and swimming behavior of freely swimming cod (Gadus morhua) and herring (Clupea harengus) larvae in calm and turbulent (epsilon = similar to 7.4 x 10(-8) m(2) s(-3)) laboratory environments at limiting and satiating abundances of Acartia tonsa prey. Attack position rates (...

  6. Juvenile Salmonid and Baitfish Distribution, Abundance and Prey Resources in Selected Areas of Grays Harbor, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    Hydrozoa , Spionidiae (polychaetes), Calanus spp., Epilabidocera a.mphi- 2 trites, Acartia tonsa, Harpacticoida (copepods), Neotmysis mercedis, Leucon...justified on the basis of their low occurrence and excessive biomass. Based upon the revised data set, juvenile and adult Crangon franciscorum

  7. Interim report for defining brine and oil threats in the Patoka River National Wildlife Refuge [2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following interim report is a list of activities being performed in conjunction with the study of oil brine effects on crayfish in the Patoka River National...

  8. Biological screening of selected Pacific Northwest forest plants using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) toxicity bioassay

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karchesy, Yvette M; Kelsey, Rick G; Constantine, George; Karchesy, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    The brine shrimp (Artemia salina) bioassay was used to screen 211 methanol extracts from 128 species of Pacific Northwest plants in search of general cytotoxic activity. Strong toxicity (LC50 < 100 µg/ml...

  9. THE BRINE SHRIMP (ARTEMIA SALINA) LETHALITY OF Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    OpenAIRE

    O.T. TÜZÜN, E. GÜRKAN, F. HIRLAK,

    2015-01-01

    This work covers up the bio-activities of the five fractions obtained from the ethanolic extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Cruciferae).Key Words: Brassica oleracea var. capitata, Brine shrimp (Artemia salina)

  10. Bead Evaporator for Complete Water and Salt Recovery from Brine Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A microgravity-compatible Brine Evaporation and Mineralization System (BEMS) is proposed for 100% water recovery from highly contaminated wastewater as well as water...

  11. Primary proteolysis of white brined goat cheese monitored by high molarity Tris buffer SDS- PAGE system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Milenko Smiljanić; Mirjana B. Pešić; Miroljub B. Barać; Sladjana P. Stanojević; Snežana T. Jovanović; Ognjen D. Maćej

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate primary proteolysis of white brined goat cheese prepared from raw milk and to correlate with the results obtained with high-molarity Tris buffer electrophoretic system...

  12. Brine shrimp lethality and antibacterial activity of extracts from the bark of Schleichera oleosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laxman Pokhrel; Bigyan Sharma; Gan B Bajracharya

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the antibacterial efficacy and brine shrimp toxicity of extracts (hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water) obtained from the bark of Schleichera oleosa. Methods: The powdered bark sample was Soxhlet extracted sequentially in hexanes, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Antibacterial evaluation was carried out by following the agar diffusion method and amoxicillin disc was used as a reference. Slightly modified Meyer’s method was used to determine the toxicity of the extracts in brine shrimps. Results: Among the nine bacterial strains tested, the methanolic and aqueous extracts showed promising antibacterial efficacy against Serratia marcescens, Escherarichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus. None of the extracts were found significantly toxic to brine shrimps. Conclusions: Strong antibacterial activity and low brine shrimp toxicity of methanolic and aqueous extracts can provide new antibacterial compounds.

  13. Laboratory and field studies on an Indian strain of the brine shrimp Artemia

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royan, J.P.

    The Tuticorin strain of the brine shrimp @iArtemia@@ was studied under both laboratory and field conditions. Studies on the survival of the nauplii at different temperatures and salinities revealed that the nauplii preferred a salinity of 35 ppt...

  14. Chemical aspects of a brine pool at the East Flower Garden bank, northwestern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, J.M.; Bright, T.J.; Bernard, B.B.; Schwab, C.R.

    1979-07-01

    A small pool on the flank of the East Flower Garden bank at a depth of 72 m in the Gulf of Mexico contains anoxic, hypersaline (approx. 200 g.kg/sup -1/) water. The flux of brine into and out of the pool contributes to erosional processes on the bank. The bulk ionic composition of the brine is similar to that of the Orca Basin brine, but differences between the two in gaseous hydrocarbon and carbon isotope content indicate different modes of origin. High levels of bacterial activity in the brine are indicated by ATP (> 80 ng.liter/sup -1/), hydrogen sulfide (> 2000 ..mu..mol.liter/sup -1/), isotopically light ..sigma..CO/sub 2/ (delta/sup 13/C =-23/sup 0///sub 00/ and the apparent generaton of elemental sulfur.

  15. Use of a Brine Shrimp Assay to Study Herbal Teas in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opler, Annette; Mizell, Rebecca; Robert, Alexander; Cervantes-Cervantes, Miguel; Kincaid, Dwight; Kennelly, Edward J.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a brine shrimp assay to demonstrate the effects of the biological activity of herbal remedies. Describes two protocols, one using aqueous extracts and the other using methanol extracts. (Contains 21 references.) (YDS)

  16. Interim report for defining brine and oil threats in the Patoka River National Wildlife Refuge [2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following interim report is a list of activities being performed in conjunction with the study of oil brine effects on crayfish in the Patoka River National...

  17. Brine shrimp lethality and antibacterial activity of extracts from the bark of Schleichera oleosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxman Pokhrel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the antibacterial efficacy and brine shrimp toxicity of extracts (hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water obtained from the bark of Schleichera oleosa. Methods: The powdered bark sample was Soxhlet extracted sequentially in hexanes, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Antibacterial evaluation was carried out by following the agar diffusion method and amoxicillin disc was used as a reference. Slightly modified Meyer’s method was used to determine the toxicity of the extracts in brine shrimps. Results: Among the nine bacterial strains tested, the methanolic and aqueous extracts showed promising antibacterial efficacy against Serratia marcescens, Escherarichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus. None of the extracts were found significantly toxic to brine shrimps. Conclusions: Strong antibacterial activity and low brine shrimp toxicity of methanolic and aqueous extracts can provide new antibacterial compounds.

  18. Effect of Brine Composition on Wettability Alteration and Oil Recovery from Oil-wet Carbonate Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purswani, P.; Karpyn, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Brine composition is known to affect the effectiveness of waterflooding during enhanced oil recovery from carbonate reservoirs. Recent studies have identified Mg2+, Ca2+ and SO42- as critical ions, responsible for incremental oil recovery via wettability alteration. To investigate the underlying mechanism of wettability alteration and, to evaluate the individual contribution of these ions towards improving oil recovery, a series of coreflooding experiments are performed. Various characterization techniques like zeta potential (ZP), drop angle analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) analysis are performed to evaluate the surface interactions taking place at the carbonate core samples, brine solution and crude oil interfaces. Total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity measurements confirm the ionic strength of the brine samples. Acid number calculations, ZP and contact angle measurements confirm the initial oil-wetting state of the core. ICP MS analysis of the effluent brine, confirm the relationship between the ionic interactions and oil recovery.

  19. Utilization of Brine Sludge in Nonstructural Building Components: A Sustainable Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mridul Garg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The characterization and influence of brine sludge on the properties of cement-fly ash-sludge binders are presented. The reaction products formed during the hydration of binder provide an interlocking framework to physically encapsulate the waste particles and are responsible for the development of strength. The utilization of brine sludge in making paver blocks and bricks and the effect of sludge concentration on the engineering properties of these products are also discussed. These results clearly exhibited that brine sludge up to 35 and 25% can safely be utilized for making paver blocks and bricks, respectively. The leachability studies confirm that the metals ions and impurities in the sludge are substantially fixed in the matrix and do not readily leach from there. The utilization of brine sludge in construction materials could serve as an alternative solution to disposal and reduce pollution.

  20. USE OF REJECT BRINE FROM DESALINATION ON DIFFERENT DEVELOPMENT STAGES OF HYDROPONIC LETTUCE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    NILDO DA SILVA DIAS; FRANCISCO AÉCIO DE LIMA; CLÁUDIO RICARDO DA SILVA; OSVALDO NOGUEIRA DE SOUSA NETO; HANS RAJ GHEYI

    2011-01-01

    In order to evaluated the impact of the high salinity reject brine from reverse osmosis desalination on hydroponics lettuce cultivated in greenhouse an investigation was carried out in Mossoro, Northeast of Brazil (5º11...

  1. Sampling of brine in cores of Precambrian granite from northern Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, Rex A.; Seitz, Martin G.; Steindler, Martin J.

    1983-09-01

    The composition of groundwater in deep-seated rocks is of great interest, both geochemically and in connection with the disposal of radioactive waste. However, sampling of deep-seated groundwater is expensive and often difficult. We describe here a simple technique for the elution of pore fluid (groundwater) from cores of igneous rocks, and we describe brine eluted from a core of Precambrian granite from Northern Illinois drill hole UPH-3. The brine is predominantly NaCl and CaCl2, with a Ca/Na mole ratio of about 0.05 to 0.1. From analysis of soluble chloride in a crushed sample the chloride concentration in the pore water is estimated as 2.3 M. The brine is similar to brine in the Illinois Basin, and it was probably derived from the overlying sediments.

  2. USE OF BRINE SHRIMP (ARTEMIA IN THE FEEDING OF STURGEON JUVENILES (ACIPENSERIDAE (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Simon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review scientific sources on the technological and biological characteristics of the use of brine shrimp (Artemia in the feeding of sturgeon juvenilse (Acipenseridae. To highlight the common biotechnological bases of the enrichment of brine shrimp with biologically active substances necessary for the full development of sturgeon juveniles. Findings. The review of scientific papers showed that the technology is the use of brine shrimp in the feeding of sturgeon speices not only had not lost its relevance in aquaculture, but also continued to evolve in response to new challenges. The review contains a description of the peculiarities of the biological structure of brine shrimp eggs and methods of their quality assessment in the field. It describes the nutritional characteristics of Artemia. It is shown that brine shrimp is the best food organism for the use in the feeding of sturgeon fingerlings. The calculation scheme for Artemia decapsulation and incubation is provided. The main technological stages of of the preparation of shrimps before their use in feeding – activation, hydration, decapsulation, incubation, dehydration were described. The effect of brine shrimp nauplia enriched with biologically active substances enriched brine shrimp on sturgeon juveniles was highlighted. Practical value. Fish farm owners search for cost-effective, easy to use, and available food that is preferred by sturgeon juveniles (Acipenseridae. Brine shrimp nauplii obtained from cysts can be readil used to feed fish just after one-day incubation. Instar I (the nauplii that just hatched and contain large yolk reserves in their body and instar II nauplii (the nauplii after first moult and with functional digestive tracts are more widely used in aquaculture, because they are easy for operation, rich in nutrients, and small, which makes them suitable for feeding fish larvae as live feed or after drying. The generalized information will be important for

  3. Antagonism Between Osmophilic Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeasts in Brine Fermentation of Soy Sauce

    OpenAIRE

    NODA, FUMIO; Hayashi, Kazuya; Mizunuma, Takeji

    1980-01-01

    Brine fermentation by osmophilic lactic acid bacteria and yeasts for long periods of time is essential to produce a good quality of shoyu (Japanese fermented soy sauce). It is well known that lactic acid fermentation by osmophilic lactic acid bacteria results in the depression of alcoholic fermentation by osmophilic yeasts, but the nature of the interaction between osmophilic lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in brine fermentation of shoyu has not been revealed. The inhibitory effect of osmophi...

  4. Study of thermal-gradient-induced migration of brine inclusions in salt. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olander, D.R.

    1984-08-01

    Natural salt deposits, which are being considered for high-level waste disposal, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine (the all-liquid inclusions) migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms, which is undesirable. Therefore it is important to consider the migration of brine inclusions in salt under imposed temperature gradients to properly evaluate the performance of a future salt repository for nuclear wastes. The migration velocities of the inclusions were found to be dependent on temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion shape and size. The velocities were also dictated by the interfacial mass transfer resistance at brine/solid interface. This interfacial resistance depends on the dislocation density in the crystal, which in turn, depends on the axial compressive loading of the crystal. At low axial loads, the dependence between the velocity and temperature gradient is nonlinear. At high axial loads, the interfacial resistance is reduced and the migration velocity depends linearly on the temperature gradient. All-liquid inclusions filled with mixed brines were also studied. For gas-liquid inclusions, helium, air and argon were compared. Migration studies were also conducted on single crystallites of natural salt as well as in polycrystalline natural salt samples. The behavior of the inclusions at large-ange grain boundaries was observed.

  5. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program 1992--1993 report and summary of BSEP data since 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J. [I. T. Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States); Belski, D.S. [USDOE Albuquerque Operations Office, Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Project Office

    1995-04-01

    This report is the last one that is currently scheduled in the sequence of reports of new data, and therefore, also includes summary comments referencing important data obtained by BSEP since 1983. These BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the (WIPP) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. A project concern is that enough brine might be present after sealing and closure to generate large quantities of hydrogen gas by corroding the metal in the waste drums and waste inventory. This report describes progress made during the calendar years 1992 and 1993 and focuses on four major areas: (1) monitoring of brine inflow, e.g., measuring brines recovered from holes drilled downward from the underground drifts (downholes), upward from the underground drifts (upholes), and from subhorizontal holes from the underground drifts; (2) observations of weeps in the Air Intake Shaft (AIS); (3) further characterization of brine geochemistry; and (4) additional characterization of the hydrologic conditions in the fractured zone beneath the excavations.

  6. Cryogenic formation of brine and sedimentary mirabilite in submergent coastal lake basins, Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasby, Stephen E.; Rod Smith, I.; Bell, Trevor; Forbes, Donald L.

    2013-06-01

    Two informally named basins (Mirabilite Basins 1 and 2) along a submergent coastline on Banks Island, Canadian Arctic Archipelago, host up to 1 m-thick accumulations of mirabilite (Na2SO4·10H2O) underlying stratified water bodies with basal anoxic brines. Unlike isostatically uplifting coastlines that trap seawater in coastal basins, these basins formed from freshwater lakes that were transgressed by seawater. The depth of the sill that separates the basins from the sea is shallow (1.15 m), such that seasonal sea ice formation down to 1.6 m isolates the basins from open water exchange through the winter. Freezing of seawater excludes salts, generating dense brines that sink to the basin bottom. Progressive freezing increases salinity of residual brines to the point of mirabilite saturation, and as a result sedimentary deposits of mirabilite accumulate on the basin floors. Brine formation also leads to density stratification and bottom water anoxia. We propose a model whereby summer melt of the ice cover forms a temporary freshwater lens, and rather than mixing with the underlying brines, it is exchanged with seawater once the ice plug that separates the basins from the open sea melts. This permits progressive brine development and density stratification within the basins.

  7. Numerical simulations of lab-scale brine-water mixing experiments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, Imane; Webb, Stephen Walter

    2006-10-01

    Laboratory-scale experiments simulating the injection of fresh water into brine in a Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) cavern were performed at Sandia National Laboratories for various conditions of injection rate and small and large injection tube diameters. The computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code FLUENT was used to simulate these experiments to evaluate the predictive capability of FLUENT for brine-water mixing in an SPR cavern. The data-model comparisons show that FLUENT simulations predict the mixing plume depth reasonably well. Predictions of the near-wall brine concentrations compare very well with the experimental data. The simulated time for the mixing plume to reach the vessel wall was underpredicted for the small injection tubes but reasonable for the large injection tubes. The difference in the time to reach the wall is probably due to the three-dimensional nature of the mixing plume as it spreads out at the air-brine or oil-brine interface. The depth of the mixing plume as it spreads out along the interface was within a factor of 2 of the experimental data. The FLUENT simulation results predict the plume mixing accurately, especially the water concentration when the mixing plume reaches the wall. This parameter value is the most significant feature of the mixing process because it will determine the amount of enhanced leaching at the oil-brine interface.

  8. Comparison of the Wear Behavior of UHMWPE Lubricated by Human Plasma and Brine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shi-bo; GE Shi-rong; NORM Gitis; MICHAEL Vinogradov; XIAO Jun

    2007-01-01

    The effect of plasma and brine lubricants on the friction and wear behavior of UHMWPE were studied by using the geometry of a Si3N4 ball sliding on a UHMWPE disc under patterns of uni-directional reciprocation and bi-directional sliding motions. The worn surface and wear particles produced in these two lubricants were analyzed. Sliding motion pattern affected the friction coefficients lubricated with plasma, while seldom affected that lubricated with brine. UHMWPE lubricated with plasma showed about half of the wear rate of that lubricated with brine. The two rates were 0.75 pg/m and 2.19 pg/m for the two motion patterns, respectively. However, wear particles generated in plasma included a greater amount of small particles, compared to that in brine. In uni-directional reciprocation, the main wear mechanism is ploughing both in plasma and in brine. In bi-directional sliding modes, the significant characteristic is ripples on the worn surface in plasma, while there are oriented fibers on the worn surface in brine.

  9. Actinide biocolloid formation in brine by halophilic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Harris, R.; Beveridge, T.J. [Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Brady, P.V.; Papenguth, H.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The authors examined the ability of a halophilic bacterium (WIPP 1A) isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to accumulate uranium in order to determine the potential for biocolloid facilitated actinide transport. The bacterial cell surface functional groups involved in the complexation of the actinide were determined by titration. Uranium, added as uranyl nitrate, was removed from solution at pH 5 by cells but at pH 7 and 9 very little uranium was removed due to its limited solubility. Although present as soluble species, uranyl citrate at pH 5, 7, and 9, and uranyl carbonate at pH 9 were not removed by the bacterium because they were not bioavailable due to their neutral or negative charge. Addition of uranyl EDTA to brine at pH 5, 7, and 9 resulted in the immediate precipitation of U. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that uranium was not only associated with the cell surface but also accumulated intracellularly as uranium-enriched granules. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis of the bacterial cells indicated the bulk sample contained more than one uranium phase. Nevertheless these results show the potential for the formation of actinide bearing bacterial biocolloids that are strictly regulated by the speciation and bioavailability of the actinide.

  10. ACTINIDE BIOCOLLOID FORMATION IN BRINE BY HALOPHILIC BACTERIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GILLOW,J.B.; FRANCIS,A.J.; DODGE,C.J.; HARRIS,R.; BEVERIDGE,T.J.; BRADY,P.B.; PAPENGUTH,H.W.

    1998-11-09

    The authors examined the ability of a halophilic bacterium (WIPP 1A) isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to accumulate uranium in order to determine the potential for biocolloid facilitated actinide transport. The bacterial cell surface functional groups involved in the complexation of the actinide were determined by titration. Uranium, added as uranyl nitrate, was removed from solution at pH 5 by cells but at pH 7 and 9 very little uranium was removed due to its limited solubility. Although present as soluble species, uranyl citrate at pH 5, 7, and 9, and uranyl carbonate at pH 9 were not removed by the bacterium because they were not bioavailable due to their neutral or negative charge. Addition of uranyl EDTA to brine at pH 5, 7, and 9 resulted in the immediate precipitation of U. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that uranium was not only associated with the cell surface but also accumulated intracellularly as uranium-enriched granules. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis of the bacterial cells indicated the bulk sample contained more than one uranium phase. Nevertheless these results show the potential for the formation of actinide bearing bacterial biocolloids that are strictly regulated by the speciation and bioavailability of the actinide.

  11. Actinide Biocolloid Formation in Brine by Halophilic Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.; Harris, R.; Beveridge, T.J.; Brady, P.V.; Papenguth, H.W.

    1999-07-28

    We examined the ability of a halophilic bacterium (WFP 1A) isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to accumulate uranium in order to determine the potential for biocolloid facilitated actinide transport. The bacterial cell Surface functional groups involved in the complexation of the actinide were determined by titration. Uranium, added as uranyl nitrate, was removed from solution at pH 5 by cells but at pH 7 and 9 very little uranium was removed due to its limited volubility. Although present as soluble species, uranyl citrate at pH 5, 7, and 9, and uranyl carbonate at pH 9 were not removed by the bacterium because they were not bioavailable due to their neutral or negative charge. Addition of uranyl EDTA to brine at pH 5, 7, and 9 resulted in the immediate precipitation of U. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that uranium was not only associated with the cell surface but also accumulated intracellulary as uranium-enriched granules. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis, of the bacterial cells indicated the bulk sample contained more than one uranium phase. Nevertheless these results show the potential for the formation of actinide bearing bacterial biocolloids that are strictly regulated by the speciation and bioavailability of the actinide.

  12. Predictive modeling of selenium accumulation in brine shrimp in saline environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron, Earl R; Ohlendorf, Harry M; Redman, Aaron; Adams, William J; Marden, Brad; Grosell, Martin; Brooks, Marjorie L

    2011-07-01

    Great Salt Lake, Utah, is a large, terminal, hypersaline lake consisting of a northern more saline arm and a southern arm that is less saline. The southern arm supports a seasonally abundant fauna of low diversity consisting of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana), 7 species of brine flies, and multiple species of algae. Although fish cannot survive in the main body of the lake, the lake is highly productive, and brine shrimp and brine fly populations support large numbers of migratory waterfowl and shorebirds, as well as resident waterfowl, shorebirds, and gulls. Selenium and other trace elements, metals, and nutrients are contaminants of concern for the lake because of their concentrations in municipal and industrial outfalls and runoff from local agriculture and the large urban area of Salt Lake City. As a consequence, the State of Utah recently recommended water quality standards for Se for the southern arm of Great Salt Lake based on exposure and risk to birds. The tissue-based recommendations (as measured in bird eggs) were based on the understanding that Se toxicity is predominately expressed through dietary exposure, and that the breeding shorebirds, waterfowl, and gulls of the lake are the receptors of most concern. The bird egg-based recommended standards for Se require a model to link bird egg Se concentrations to their dietary concentrations and water column values. This study analyzes available brine shrimp tissue Se data from a variety of sources, along with waterborne and water particulate (potential brine shrimp diet) Se concentrations, in an attempt to develop a model to predict brine shrimp Se concentrations from the Se concentrations in surrounding water. The model can serve as a tool for linking the tissue-based water quality standards of a key dietary item to waterborne concentrations. The results were compared to other laboratory and field-based models to predict brine shrimp tissue Se concentrations from ambient water and their diet. No

  13. Measurement and modeling of CO2 solubility in NaCl brine and CO2–saturated NaCl brine density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Huang, Shengli; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2011-01-01

    Phase equilibrium for CO2–NaCl brine is of general interest to many scientific disciplines and technical areas. The system is particularly important to CO2 sequestration in deep saline aquifers and CO2 enhanced oil recovery, two techniques discussed intensively in recent years due to the concerns...

  14. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume III. Biological oceanography. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    The Department of Energy's Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program began discharging brine into the Gulf of Mexico from its West Hackberry site near Cameron, Louisiana in May 1981. The brine originates from underground salt domes being leached with water from the Intracoastal Waterway, making available vast underground storage caverns for crude oil. The effects of brine discharge on aquatic organisms are presented in this volume. The topics covered are: benthos; nekton; phytoplankton; zooplankton; and data management.

  15. Effects of brine migration on waste storage systems. Final report. [Thermomechanical effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaffney, E.S.; Nickell, R.E.

    1979-05-15

    Processes which can lead to mobilization of brine adjacent to spent fuel or nuclear waste canisters and some of the thermomechanical consequences have been investigated. Velocities as high as 4 x 10/sup -7/ m s/sup -1/ (13 m y/sup -1/) are calculated at the salt/canister boundary. As much as 40 liters of pure NaCl brine could accumulate around each canister during a 10-year storage period. Accumulations of bittern brines would probably be less, in the range of 2 to 5 liters. With 0.5% water, NaCl brine accumulation over a 10-year storage cycle around a spent fuel canister producing 0.6 kW of heat is expected to be less than 1 liter for centimeter-size inclusions and less than 0.5 liter for millimeter-size inclusions. For bittern brines, about 25 years would be required to accumulate 0.4 liter. The most serious mechanical consequence of brine migration would be the increased mobility of the waste canister due to pressure solution. In pressure solution enhanced deformation, the existence of a thin film of fluid either between grains or between media (such as between a canister and the salt) provides a pathway by which the salt can be redistributed leading to a marked increase in strain rates in wet rock relative to dry rock. In salt, intergranular water will probably form discontinuous layers rather than films so that they would dominate pressure solution. A mathematical model of pressure solution indicates that pressure solution will not lead to appreciable canister motions except possibly in fine grained rocks (less than 10/sup -4/ m). In fine grained salts, details of the contact surface between the canister and the salt bed may lead to large pressure solution motions. A numerical model indicates that heat transfer in the brine layer surrounding a spent fuel canister is not conduction dominated but has a significant convective component.

  16. MR imaging of heterogeneity in partially frozen brine and their effect on ultrasonic wave propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, O.; Matsushima, J.; Suzuki, M.

    2012-12-01

    Methane hydrate bearing sediment possesses unique seismic wave propagation properties. Both high seismic wave velocity and high wave attenuation are observed in methane hydrate bearing sediment. We used brine with salinity 2% in analogous to methane hydrate for conducting laboratory waveform measurement and characterization by using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique. When brine undergoes freezing, only pure water freezes into ice and salt remains in solution with successively increasing salinity and decreasing freezing point of the solution. Unfrozen brine is enclosed inside micro pores in ice, with exhibiting solid-liquid coexisting system. We used conventional pulse transmission technique to measure compressional wave velocity in partially frozen brine when brine is subjected cooling down to -12oC. Waveform measurement shows sudden increase in compressional wave velocity at temperature -3oC. Below -3oC, velocity increases slightly. Largest wave attenuation is observed at around -3oC. We conducted MRI experiment by using instrument Varian Unity Inova 4.7T. T1 weighted and diffusion weighted (DW) MR images were prepared by applying magnetic field gradient of 0.3 gauss/cm. We observe the spatial distribution of pores, microstructures and heterogeneity in partially frozen brine sample slices. Two dimensional apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps are prepared from DW images with b-values 0 and 81 s/mm2 respectively. We estimate porosity quantitatively from each MR slices at temperature -3, -5, -7 and -12oC by using image analysis technique. Gassmann equation is applied to calculate compressional wave velocity from the porosity data and compared with the measured velocity obtained by waveform analysis technique. The NMR results show the existence of high and low mobility unfrozen brine in the pore space. MR imaging shows the heterogeneously distributed porosity values within a single slice with low porosity and high

  17. Aerobic methanotrophic communities at the Red Sea brine-seawater interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehab Z. Abdallah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The central rift of the Red Sea contains 25 brine pools with different physicochemical conditions, dictating the diversity and abundance of the microbial community. Three of these pools, the Atlantis II, Kebrit and Discovery Deeps, are uniquely characterized by a high concentration of hydrocarbons. The brine-seawater interface, described as an anoxic-oxic (brine-seawater boundary, is characterized by a high methane concentration, thus favoring aerobic methane oxidation. The current study analyzed the aerobic free–living methane-oxidizing bacterial communities that potentially contribute to methane oxidation at the brine-seawater interfaces of the three aforementioned brine pools, using metagenomic pyrosequencing, 16S rRNA pyrotags and pmoA library constructs. The sequencing of 16S rRNA pyrotags revealed that these interfaces are characterized by high microbial community diversity. Signatures of aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria were detected in the Atlantis II Interface (ATII-I and the Kebrit Deep Upper (KB-U and Lower (KB-L brine-seawater interfaces. Through phylogenetic analysis of pmoA, we further demonstrated that the ATII-I aerobic methanotroph community is highly diverse. We propose four ATII-I pmoA clusters. Most importantly, cluster 2 groups with marine methane seep methanotrophs, and cluster 4 represent a unique lineage of an uncultured bacterium with divergent alkane monooxygenases. Moreover, non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS based on the ordination of putative enzymes involved in methane metabolism showed that the Kebrit interface layers were distinct from the ATII-I and DD-I brine-seawater interfaces.

  18. Design Status of the Capillary Brine Residual in Containment Water Recovery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargusingh, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    One of the goals of the AES Life Support System (LSS) Project is to achieve 98% water loop closure for long duration human exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. To meet this objective, the AES LSS Project is developing technologies to recover water from wastewater brine; highly concentrated waste products generated from a primary water recovery system. The state of the art system used aboard the International Space Station (ISS) has the potential to recover up to 85% water from unine wastewater, leaving a significant amounts of water in the waste brine, the recovery of which is a critical technology gap that must be filled in order to enable long duration human exploration. Recovering water from the urine wastewater brine is complicated by the concentration of solids as water is removed from the brine, and the concentration of the corrosive, toxic chemicals used to stabilize the urine which fouls and degrades water processing hardware, and poses a hazard to operators and crew. Brine Residual in Containment (BRIC) is focused on solids management through a process of "in-place" drying - the drying of brines within the container used for final disposal. Application of in-place drying has the potential to improve the safety and reliability of the system by reducing the exposure to crew and hardware to the problematic brine residual. Through a collaboration between the NASA Johnson Space Center and Portland Status University, a novel water recovery system was developed that utilizes containment geometry to support passive capillary flow and static phase separation allowing free surface evaporation to take place in a microgravity environment. A notional design for an ISS demonstration system was developed. This paper describes the concept for the system level design.

  19. Modeling brine and nutrient dynamics in Antarctic sea ice: the case of dissolved silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancoppenolle, M.; Goosse, H.; de Montety, A.; Fichefet, T.; Tremblay, B.; Tison, J.

    2009-12-01

    Sea ice ecosystems are characterized by micro-algae living in brine inclusions. The growth rate of ice algae depends on light and nutrient supply. Here, the interactions between nutrients and brine dynamics under the influence of algae are investigated using a one-dimensional model. The model includes snow and ice thermodynamics with brine physics and an idealized sea ice biological component, characterized by one nutrient, namely dissolved silica (DSi). In the model, DSi follows brine motion and is consumed by ice algae. Depending on physical ice characteristics, the brine flow is either advective, diffusive or turbulent. The vertical profiles of ice salinity and DSi concentration are solutions of advection-diffusion equations. The model is configured to simulate the typical thermodynamic regimes of first-year Antarctic pack ice. The simulated vertical profiles of salinity and DSi qualitatively reproduce observations. Analysis of results highlights the role of convection in the lowermost 5-10 cm of ice. Convection mixes saline, nutrient-poor brine with comparatively fresh, nutrient-rich seawater. This implies a rejection of salt to the ocean and a flux of DSi to the ice. In presence of growing algae, the simulated ocean-to-ice DSi flux increases by 0-115% compared to an abiotic situation. In turn, primary production and brine convection act in synergy to form a nutrient pump. The other important processes are the flooding of the surface by seawater and the percolation of meltwater. The former refills nutrients near the ice surface in spring. The latter, if present, tends to expell nutrients from the ice in summer. Sketch of salt (left) and nutrient (right) exchanges at the ice-ocean interface proposed in this paper.

  20. Using fluorescence to characterize dissolved organic matter in Antarctic sea ice brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedmon, Colin A.; Thomas, David N.; Papadimitriou, Stathys; Granskog, Mats A.; Dieckmann, Gerhard S.

    2011-09-01

    Sea ice plays a dynamic role in the air-sea exchange of CO2. In addition to abiotic inorganic carbon fluxes, an active microbial community produces and remineralizes organic carbon, which can accumulate in sea ice brines as dissolved organic matter (DOM). In this study, the characteristics of DOM fluorescence in Antarctic sea ice brines from the western Weddell Sea were investigated. Two humic-like components were identified, which were identical to those previously found to accumulate in the deep ocean and represent refractory material. Three amino-acid-like signals were found, one of which was unique to the brines and another that was spectrally very similar to tryptophan and found both in seawater and in brine samples. The tryptophan-like fluorescence in the brines exhibited intensities higher than could be explained by conservative behavior during the freezing of seawater. Its fluorescence was correlated with the accumulation of nitrogen-rich DOM to concentrations up to 900 μmol L-1 as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and, thus, potentially represented proteins released by ice organisms. A second, nitrogen-poor DOM fraction also accumulated in the brines to concentrations up to 200 μmol L-1 but was not correlated with any of the fluorescence signals identified. Because of the high C:N ratio and lack of fluorescence, this material is thought to represent extracellular polymeric substances, which consist primarily of polysaccharides. The clear grouping of the DOM pool into either proteinaceous or carbohydrate-dominated material indicates that the production and accumulation of these two subpools of DOM in sea ice brines is, to some extent, decoupled.

  1. Bacterial virulence analysis using brine shrimp as an infection model in relation to the importance of quorum sensing and proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Nan; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Li, Xi-Hui; Lee, Joon-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Brine shrimp are aquatic crustaceans belonging to a genus of Artemia. This organism is widely used for testing the toxicity of chemicals. In this study, brine shrimp were evaluated as an infection model organism to study bacterial virulence. Artemia nauplii were infected with various pathogenic bacteria, such as Vibrio vulnificus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia vietnamiensis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli, and the susceptibility to these bacteria was investigated by counting the survival of the infected nauplii. While all of the tested bacteria have significant virulence to brine shrimp, killing the nauplii in a few days, V. vulnificus showed the strongest virulence. P. aeruginosa also showed a dose-dependent virulence to brine shrimp, but the virulence was weaker than that of V. vulnificus. The virulence tests using the virulence-attenuated mutants of V. vulnificus and P. aeruginosa, such as quorum sensing (QS) mutants or protease-deficient mutants showed a significant attenuation of virulence, demonstrating that the QS mechanism is important in the virulence of these bacteria to brine shrimp. B. vietnamiensis, S. aureus, and E. coli were also virulent to brine shrimp and the virulence was correlated with dosage within 24 h under our conditions. Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and Bacillus subtilis were also virulent to brine shrimp, but the virulence was weak and slowly exerted compared with that of other bacteria. Taken together, we suggest that brine shrimp are a good infection model to assay bacterial virulence, especially for V. vulnificus and P. aeruginosa, and QS is important in the bacterial virulence to brine shrimp.

  2. The brine shrimp artemia: adapted to critical life conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajardo, Gonzalo M; Beardmore, John A

    2012-01-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia is a micro-crustacean, well adapted to the harsh conditions that severely hypersaline environments impose on survival and reproduction. Adaptation to these conditions has taken place at different functional levels or domains, from the individual (molecular-cellular-physiological) to the population level. Such conditions are experienced by very few equivalent macro-planktonic organisms; thus, Artemia can be considered a model animal extremophile offering a unique suite of adaptations that are the focus of this review. The most obvious is a highly efficient osmoregulation system to withstand up to 10 times the salt concentration of ordinary seawater. Under extremely critical environmental conditions, for example when seasonal lakes dry-out, Artemia takes refuge by producing a highly resistant encysted gastrula embryo (cyst) capable of severe dehydration enabling an escape from population extinction. Cysts can be viewed as gene banks that store a genetic memory of historical population conditions. Their occurrence is due to the evolved ability of females to "perceive" forthcoming unstable environmental conditions expressed by their ability to switch reproductive mode, producing either cysts (oviparity) when environmental conditions become deleterious or free-swimming nauplii (ovoviviparity) that are able to maintain the population under suitable conditions. At the population level the trend is for conspecific populations to be fragmented into locally adapted populations, whereas species are restricted to salty lakes in particular regions (regional endemism). The Artemia model depicts adaptation as a complex response to critical life conditions, integrating and refining past and present experiences at all levels of organization. Although we consider an invertebrate restricted to a unique environment, the processes to be discussed are of general biological interest. Finally, we highlight the benefits of understanding the stress response of

  3. The brine shrimp Artemia: adapted to critical life conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo M Gajardo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The brine shrimp Artemia is a micro-crustacean, well adapted to the harsh conditions that severely hypersaline environments impose on survival and reproduction. Adaptation to these conditions has taken place at different functional levels or domains, from the individual (molecular-cellular-physiological to the population level. Such conditions are experienced by very few equivalent macro-planktonic organisms; thus, Artemia can be considered a model animal extremophile offering a unique suite of adaptations that are the focus of this review. The most obvious is a highly efficient osmoregulation system to withstand up to 10 times the salt concentration of ordinary seawater. Under extremely critical environmental conditions, for example when seasonal lakes dry out, Artemia takes refuge by producing a highly resistant encysted gastrula embryo (cyst capable of severe dehydration enabling an escape from population extinction. Cysts can be viewed as gene banks that store a genetic memory of historical population conditions. Their occurrence is due to the evolved ability of females to perceive forthcoming unstable environmental conditions expressed by their ability to switch reproductive mode, producing either cysts (oviparity when environmental conditions become deleterious or free-swimming nauplii (ovoviviparity that are able to maintain the population under suitable conditions.At the population level the trend is for conspecific populations to be fragmented into locally adapted populations, whereas species are restricted to salty lakes in particular regions (regional endemism. The Artemia model depicts adaptation as a complex response to critical life conditions, integrating and refining past and present experiences at all levels of organization. Although we consider an invertebrate restricted to a unique environment, the processes to be discussed are of general biological interest. Finally, we highlight the benefits of understanding the stress

  4. Experimental Work Conducted on MgO Inundated Hydration in WIPP-Relevant Brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, H.; Xiong, Y.; Nemer, M. B.; Johnsen, S.

    2009-12-01

    Magnesium oxide (MgO) is being emplaced in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as an engineered barrier to mitigate the effect of microbial CO2 generation on actinide mobility in a postclosure repository environment. MgO will sequester CO2 and consume water in brine or water vapor in the gaseous phase. Martin Marietta (MM) MgO is currently being emplaced in the WIPP. A fractional-factorial experiment has been performed to study the inundated-hydration of MM MgO as a function of its particle size, solid-to-liquid ratio, and brine type. MgO hydration experiments have been carried out with three MgO particle sizes and two solid-to-liquid ratios in three WIPP-related brines: ERDA-6, GWB and simplified GWB. ERDA-6 is a synthetic NaCl-rich brine typical of a Castile brine reservoir below the repository. GWB is a synthetic MgCl2- and NaCl-rich brine representative of intergranular brines from the Salado Formation at or near the stratigraphic horizon of the repository. Simplified GWB contains amounts of Mg, Na, and Cl similar to those in GWB without other minor constituents. The hydration products include brucite (Mg(OH)2) and phase 5 (Mg3(OH)5Cl4H2O). In addition to phase 5, MgO hydration in GWB or simplified GWB produces brucite, whereas MgO hydrated in ERDA-6 only produces brucite. The MgO particle size has had a significant effect on the formation of hydration products: small MgO particles have hydrated before the large particles. MgO has hydrated faster in simplified GWB than in the other two brines. In ERDA-6, the solid-to-liquid ratio has affected the brine pH due to the presence of CaO (~1 wt %) as an impurity in MM MgO. GWB has sufficient dissolved Mg to buffer pH despite small amounts of CaO. Both our results and thermodynamic modeling indicate that phase-5 is the stable Mg-OH-Cl phase in Mg-Na-Cl-dominated brines with ionic strengths and chemical compositions similar to that of GWB. In contrast, phase-3 (Mg2(OH)3Cl4H2O) is the stable phase in the MgCl2

  5. Experimental study of the stability and activity of brines on the surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altheide, Travis S.

    This work contributes to the understanding of liquid water stability, with an emphasis on the role that dissolved solutes may have had on liquid water formation on Mars, past and present. In chapter 2, the stability of liquid water under martian conditions is explored through experiments on ferric sulfate brines. First, it is demonstrated that such brines can be formed starting from typical martian mineralogy. Ferric sulfates are quite soluble, up to 48 wt%, and can form solutions which remain liquid down to 205 +/-1 K at the eutectic. As a result of low water activities, these solutions exhibit evaporation rates 20 times lower than pure water. The combination of a low eutectic point and low evaporation rates allow subsurface liquids to be stable at high martian latitudes, where the majority of gullies and viscous flow features are located. Thus, the characteristics of ferric sulfate brines were further investigated in chapter 3, where the viscous properties of such solutions were measured, with respect to changing temperature and concentration. Using these results, the viscosity of these solutions on the formation of gullies was considered, where calculated fluid flow velocities were found to be in accordance with some estimates from image analyses of gully formations. In chapter 4, other Mars-relevant brines were studied and characterized under martian surface conditions. Magnesium and ferrous sulfate, and magnesium and ferric chloride brines were found to stabilize water, through lower evaporation rates and freezing point depression, much like the ferric sulfate brines. For these sulfate brines, it was found that the thermodynamic process of phase change, i.e. ice formation and/or salt crystallization, can affect the kinetic process of evaporation, through very low water activities in solution. Furthermore, in chapter 5 these studies were extended to recent results from the Phoenix mission, by examining the stability of perchlorate brines under conditions

  6. Meltability and Stretchability of White Brined Cheese: Effect of Emulsifier Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Abu-Alruz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study was based on the hypothesis that by adding low concentrations of emulsifier salts, may specifically act on the cross linking bonds of the protein matrix, to the original brine (storage medium it would be possible to induce meltability and stretchability in white brined cheese. Approach: A new apparatus for measuring the actual stretchability was designed and constructed; measurements on different cheese samples proved its validity and reliability to measure stretchability. The apparatus was used to evaluate the effect of five types of emulsifier salts under different processing conditions. Results: It was found that by adding 0.2% (w/w Puromelt C1 or Monosodium phosphate to the brine of white brined cheese, higher levels of stretchability and meltability were induced after 2-4 weeks of storage. Conclusion: Addition of emulsifying salts was proved to be effective method in inducing meltability and stretchability of white brined cheese. Type of salt, its concentration, type of cheese and soaking time are factors that should be controlled to attain the optimum results.

  7. Environmental safety of underground injection of oil field brines in Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conger, R.M.

    1986-09-01

    Louisiana contains almost 4000 brine injection wells that dispose an estimated 1 billion bbl of brine each year, making underground injection that state's most widely practiced method of oil field brine disposal. Louisiana has had no known contamination of a public water supply from underground brine injection; however, the magnitude of this activity presents a potential for contamination if proper disposal practices are not followed. Following the earliest discovery of oil, the petroleum industry has been improving methods to protect ground-water aquifers from underground injection. Although economic incentives spurred the earliest use of underground injection, the technology has progressed to become a method providing environmental safety to ground-water aquifers. Complex reservoir modeling, developed for use in secondary and enhanced recovery techniques, has been applied to simulate pressure effects and vertical migration potential for underground injection reservoirs. Conventional well designs that allow monitoring of well conditions have replaced older, unreliable designs. Improvements in wireline logging make it possible to test the isolation of injected brines from vertical movement along the well bore.

  8. Distinctive Microbial Community Structure in Highly Stratified Deep-Sea Brine Water Columns

    KAUST Repository

    Bougouffa, Salim

    2013-03-29

    Atlantis II and Discovery are two hydrothermal and hypersaline deep-sea pools in the Red Sea rift that are characterized by strong thermohalo-stratification and temperatures steadily peaking near the bottom. We conducted comprehensive vertical profiling of the microbial populations in both pools and highlighted the influential environmental factors. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes revealed shifts in community structures vis-à-vis depth. High diversity and low abundance were features of the deepest convective layers despite the low cell density. Surprisingly, the brine interfaces had significantly higher cell counts than the overlying deep-sea water, yet they were lowest in diversity. Vertical stratification of the bacterial populations was apparent as we moved from the Alphaproteobacteria-dominated deep sea to the Planctomycetaceae- or Deferribacteres-dominated interfaces to the Gammaproteobacteria-dominated brine layers. Archaeal marine group I was dominant in the deep-sea water and interfaces, while several euryarchaeotic groups increased in the brine. Across sites, microbial phylotypes and abundances varied substantially in the brine interface of Discovery compared with Atlantis II, despite the near-identical populations in the overlying deep-sea waters. The lowest convective layers harbored interestingly similar microbial communities, even though temperature and heavy metal concentrations were very different. Multivariate analysis indicated that temperature and salinity were the major influences shaping the communities. The harsh conditions and the low-abundance phylotypes could explain the observed correlation in the brine pools.

  9. Design calculations for a combined ventilation and brine injection experiment at the Grimsel Rock Laboratory, Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finsterle, S.; Pruess, K.

    1993-07-01

    A combined ventilation and brine injection test is planned at the Grimsel Test Site. The objective of the experiment is to study the transport of liquid and gas in the vicinity of a ventilated drift in order to evaluate the impact of the drying process on the characterization of the rock matrix. The proposed test sequence includes a desaturation-resaturation cycle. In addition, brine and fresh water will be injected from a borehole as trace electrolytes in order to better track the propagation of the individual phases. Results of design calculations using the TOUGH2 code show that injection of brine may significantly influence the unsaturated flow behavior by changing the pressure and saturation distribution around the borehole. Transport velocity is predicted to be very slow, requiring several months for the brine to reach the draft wall. However, the presence of preferential flow paths may reduce travel time and alter brine content and saturation distribution so that certain sensors may respond earlier or not at all.

  10. A deep sea community at the Kebrit brine pool in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Vestheim, Hege

    2015-02-26

    Approximately 25 deep sea brine pools occur along the mid axis of the Red Sea. These hypersaline, anoxic, and acidic environments have previously been reported to host diverse microbial communities. We visited the Kebrit brine pool in April 2013 and found macrofauna present just above the brine–seawater interface (~1465 m). In particular, inactive sulfur chimneys had associated epifauna of sea anemones, sabellid type polychaetes, and hydroids, and infauna consisting of capitellid polychaetes, gastropods of the genus Laeviphitus (fam. Elachisinidae), and top snails of the family Cocculinidae. The deep Red Sea generally is regarded as extremely poor in benthos. We hypothesize that the periphery along the Kebrit holds increased biomass and biodiversity that are sustained by prokaryotes associated with the brine pool or co-occurring seeps.

  11. Salinity fluctuation of the brine discharge affects growth and survival of the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrote-Moreno, A; Fernández-Torquemada, Y; Sánchez-Lizaso, J L

    2014-04-15

    The increase of seawater desalination plants may affect seagrasses as a result of its hypersaline effluents. There are some studies on the salinity tolerance of seagrasses under controlled laboratory conditions, but few have been done in situ. To this end, Cymodocea nodosa shoots were placed during one month at four localities: two close to a brine discharge; and the other two not affected by the discharge, and this experiment was repeated four times. The results obtained showed a decrease in growth and an increased mortality at the localities affected by the brine discharge. An increase was detected in the percentage of horizontal shoots in respect to vertical shoots at the impacted localities. It is probably that not only the average salinity, but also the constant salinity fluctuations and slightly higher temperatures associated with the brine that may have caused physiological stress thus reducing C. nodosa growth and survival.

  12. Imaged brine inclusions in young sea ice—Shape, distribution and formation timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galley, R.J.; Else, B.G.T.; Geilfus, Nicolas-Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Liquid inclusions in sea ice are variable and dependent on the myriad of physical conditions of the atmosphere– sea ice environment in which the sea ice was grown, and whether or not melting processes affected the sea ice. In that light, there exist relatively few observations and resultant...... quantification of the morphology and vertical dis- tribution of brine inclusions in sea ice. Using a magnetic (3.0 T) resonance (MR) imager using constructive inter- ference steady state gradient echo sequence, we show that it is possible to image brine channels and pockets in an 18.5 cm young sea ice core...... in three-dimensions in only four and a half minutes following core storage at − 20 °C. We present a three-dimensional image of a brine drainage channel feature in a young sea ice core, give the phys- ical context for its formation by presenting the physical conditions of the atmosphere and water/sea ice...

  13. Brine migration resulting from pressure increases in a layered subsurface system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfs, Jens-Olaf; Nordbeck, Johannes; Bauer, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Brine originating from the deep subsurface impairs parts of the freshwater resources in the North German Basin. Some of the deep porous formations (esp. Trias and Jurassic) exhibit considerable storage capacities for waste fluids (CO2, brine from oil production or cavern leaching), raising concerns among water providers that this type of deep subsurface utilization might impair drinking water supplies. On the one hand, overpressures induced by fluid injections and the geothermal gradient support brine migration from deep into shallow formations. On the other hand, the rising brine is denser than the surrounding less-saline formation waters and, therefore, tends to settle down. Aim of this work is to investigate the conditions under which pressurized formation brine from deep formations can reach shallow freshwater resources. Especially, the role of intermediate porous formations between the storage formation and the groundwater is studied. For this, complex thermohaline simulations using a coupled numerical process model are necessary and performed in this study, in which fluid density depends on fluid pressure, temperature and salt content and the governing partial differential equations are coupled. The model setup is 2D and contains a hypothetic series of aquifers and barriers, each with a thickness of 200 m. Formation pressure is increased at depths of about 2000 m in proximity to a salt wall and a permeable fault. The domain size reaches up to tens of kilometers horizontally to the salt wall. The fault connects the injection formation and the freshwater aquifer such that conditions can be considered as extremely favorable for induced brine migration (worst case scenarios). Brine, heat, and salt fluxes are quantified with reference to hydraulic permeabilities, storage capacities (in terms of domain size), initial salt and heat distribution, and operation pressures. The simulations reveal the development of a stagnation point in the fault region in each

  14. Prediction of oxygen solubility in pure water and brines up to high temperatures and pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    GENG, Ming; DUAN, Zhenhao

    2010-10-01

    A thermodynamic model is presented to calculate the oxygen solubility in pure water (273-600 K, 0-200 bar) and natural brines containing Na +, K +, Ca 2+, Mg 2+, Cl -, SO 42-, over a wide range of temperature, pressure and ionic strength with or close to experimental accuracy. This model is based on an accurate equation of state to calculate vapor phase chemical potential and a specific particle interaction model for liquid phase chemical potential. With this approach, the model can not only reproduce the existing experimental data, but also extrapolate beyond the data range from simple aqueous salt system to complicated brine systems including seawater. Compared with previous models, this model covers much wider temperature and pressure space in variable composition brine systems. A program for this model can be downloaded from the website: http://www.geochem-model.org.

  15. FIELD IMPLEMENTATION PLAN FOR A WILLISTON BASIN BRINE EXTRACTION AND STORAGE TEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamling, John; Klapperich, Ryan; Stepan, Daniel; Sorensen, James; Pekot, Lawrence; Peck, Wesley; Jacobson, Lonny; Bosshart, Nicholas; Hurley, John; Wilson, William; Kurz, Marc; Burnison, Shaughn; Salako, Olarinre; Musich, Mark; Botnen, Barry; Kalenze, Nicholas; Ayash, Scott; Ge, Jun; Jiang, Tao; Dalkhaa, Chantsalmaa; Oster, Benjamin; Peterson, Kyle; Feole, Ian; Gorecki, Charles; Steadman, Edward

    2016-03-31

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) successfully completed all technical work of Phase I, including development of a field implementation plan (FIP) for a brine extraction and storage test (BEST) in the North Dakota portion of the Williston Basin. This implementation plan was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) as a proxy for managing formation pressure plumes and measuring/monitoring the movement of differential pressure and CO2 plumes in the subsurface for future saline CO2 storage projects. BEST comprises the demonstration and validation of active reservoir management (ARM) strategies and extracted brine treatment technologies. Two prospective commercial brine injection sites were evaluated for BEST to satisfy DOE’s goals. Ultimately, an active saltwater disposal (SWD) site, Johnsons Corner, was selected because it possesses an ideal combination of key factors making it uniquely suited to host BEST. This site is located in western North Dakota and operated by Nuverra Environmental Solutions (Nuverra), a national leader in brine handling, treatment, and injection. An integrated management approach was used to incorporate local and regional geologic characterization activities with geologic and simulation models, inform a monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) plan, and to conduct a risk assessment. This approach was used to design a FIP for an ARM schema and an extracted brine treatment technology test bed facility. The FIP leverages an existing pressure plume generated by two commercial SWD wells. These wells, in conjunction with a new brine extraction well, will be used to conduct the ARM schema. Results of these tests will be quantified based on their impact on the performance of the existing SWD wells and the surrounding reservoir system. Extracted brine will be injected into an underlying deep saline formation through a new injection well. The locations of proposed

  16. A study of the corrosion products of mild steel in high ionic strength brines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Moore, R C; Felmy, A R; Mason, M J; Kukkadapu, R K

    2001-01-01

    The corrosion layer on steel surfaces that formed after exposure to waste isolation pilot plant (WIPP) brines under anoxic conditions was characterized for chemical composition, thickness and phase composition. The chemical composition of the corrosion layer was determined both by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and by chemical analysis of acid solutions used to remove the corrosion layer. Atomic force microscopic (AFM) images indicated that the brine-corroded surface layer shows extensive granulation along the contours of the steel surface that is characteristic of sharp polishing marks. The corrosion layer seemed to be porous and could be dissolved and detached in dilute hydrochloric acid. The corrosion layer appears to be composed of iron oxides with some ionic substitutions from the brines. The 77 K Mössbauer spectrum recorded for iron powder leached under similar conditions indicated the corrosion layer was comprised principally of green rust.

  17. Laboratory flow experiments for visualizing carbon dioxide-induced, density-driven brine convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneafsey, T.; Pruess, K.

    2009-09-01

    Injection of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) into saline aquifers confined by low-permeability cap rock will result in a layer of CO{sub 2} overlying the brine. Dissolution of CO{sub 2} into the brine increases the brine density, resulting in an unstable situation in which more-dense brine overlies less-dense brine. This gravitational instability could give rise to density-driven convection of the fluid, which is a favorable process of practical interest for CO{sub 2} storage security because it accelerates the transfer of buoyant CO{sub 2} into the aqueous phase, where it is no longer subject to an upward buoyant drive. Laboratory flow visualization tests in transparent Hele-Shaw cells have been performed to elucidate the processes and rates of this CO{sub 2} solute-driven convection (CSC). Upon introduction of CO{sub 2} into the system, a layer of CO{sub 2}-laden brine forms at the CO{sub 2}-water interface. Subsequently, small convective fingers form, which coalesce, broaden, and penetrate into the test cell. Images and time-series data of finger lengths and wavelengths are presented. Observed CO{sub 2} uptake of the convection system indicates that the CO{sub 2} dissolution rate is approximately constant for each test and is far greater than expected for a diffusion-only scenario. Numerical simulations of our system show good agreement with the experiments for onset time of convection and advancement of convective fingers. There are differences as well, the most prominent being the absence of cell-scale convection in the numerical simulations. This cell-scale convection observed in the experiments is probably initiated by a small temperature gradient induced by the cell illumination.

  18. Brine assemblages of ultrasmall microbial cells within the ice cover of Lake Vida, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Emanuele; Ichimura, Andrew S; Peng, Vivian; Fritsen, Christian H; Trubl, Gareth; Doran, Peter T; Murray, Alison E

    2014-06-01

    The anoxic and freezing brine that permeates Lake Vida's perennial ice below 16 m contains an abundance of very small (≤0.2-μm) particles mixed with a less abundant population of microbial cells ranging from >0.2 to 1.5 μm in length. Fluorescent DNA staining, electron microscopy (EM) observations, elemental analysis, and extraction of high-molecular-weight genomic DNA indicated that a significant portion of these ultrasmall particles are cells. A continuous electron-dense layer surrounding a less electron-dense region was observed by EM, indicating the presence of a biological membrane surrounding a cytoplasm. The ultrasmall cells are 0.192 ± 0.065 μm, with morphology characteristic of coccoid and diplococcic bacterial cells, often surrounded by iron-rich capsular structures. EM observations also detected the presence of smaller unidentified nanoparticles of 0.020 to 0.140 μm among the brine cells. A 16S rRNA gene clone library from the brine 0.1- to 0.2-μm-size fraction revealed a relatively low-diversity assemblage of Bacteria sequences distinct from the previously reported >0.2-μm-cell-size Lake Vida brine assemblage. The brine 0.1- to 0.2-μm-size fraction was dominated by the Proteobacteria-affiliated genera Herbaspirillum, Pseudoalteromonas, and Marinobacter. Cultivation efforts of the 0.1- to 0.2-μm-size fraction led to the isolation of Actinobacteria-affiliated genera Microbacterium and Kocuria. Based on phylogenetic relatedness and microscopic observations, we hypothesize that the ultrasmall cells in Lake Vida brine are ultramicrocells that are likely in a reduced size state as a result of environmental stress or life cycle-related conditions.

  19. Effects of copper, cadmium, and zinc on the hatching success of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brix, K V; Gerdes, R M; Adams, W J; Grosell, M

    2006-11-01

    Previous studies indicate that the hatching success of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) cysts is surprisingly sensitive to ambient metal concentrations. These studies estimated median effective concentrations (EC50s) of 7, 5, and 28 microg l-1 for Cd, Cu, and Zn, suggesting that the hatching end point for A. franciscana is the most sensitive tested to date for Cd and Zn in saline environments and comparable in sensitivity with the most sensitive tested to date for Cu. Furthermore, these data suggest that brine shrimp are at significant risk from Cu and Zn in Great Salt Lake (GSL), UT, where ambient concentrations as high as 10 and 14 microg l-1, respectively, have been measured. Given that brine shrimp appear to be successfully reproducing in GSL, we hypothesized that these toxicity values were either biased low as a result of an artifact of the test method used or that site-specific water-quality conditions in the lake had decreased metal bioavailability such that brine shrimp could successfully reproduce. To test these hypotheses, we initiated a step-wise series of experiments. First we investigated the effects of pretreatment of brine shrimp cysts with antibiotics on brine shrimp sensitivity to metals because previous investigators as part of their test methods have used antibiotics. Next we considered the effect of ionic composition of the artificial test media on sensitivity. Finally, we evaluated the effects of the site-specific water quality of the GSL on metal bioavailability and toxicity. Results indicate that pretreatment of cysts with antibiotics had no effect on sensitivity. However, we were unable to repeat the previous values for Cd and Zn, obtaining EC50s of 11,859 and 289 microg l-1 for Cd and Zn, respectively. For Cu, however, we estimated an EC50 of 12 microg l-1, so we conducted further testing on the artificial media, adjusting the media composition to better reflect the Ca2+ and HCO3- concentration of normal seawater. This increased the EC50

  20. The brine shrimp ( Artemia parthenogenetica) as encapsulation organism for prophylactic chemotherapy of fish and prawn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ji-Xiang; Bian, Bo-Zhong; Li, Ming-Ren

    1996-06-01

    Brine shrimp ( Artemia parthenogenetica) which had ingested three water-insoluble antibacterial drugs i.e. sulfadiazine(SD), oxytetracycline (OTC) and erythromycin estolate (ERY-Es) were fed to Tilapia and Mysis III of Penaeus orientalis K. The drug contents in the predators were then determined. After administration of drugs to Tilapia and Mysis III, through the bio-encapsulation of the brine shrimp, efficacious therapeutical concentration of OTC and ERY-Es (but not SD) in the predators could be reached and maintained for more than 8 hours.

  1. Phylogenetic analysis of bacteria in sea ice brine sampled from the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Bacterial diversity in sea ice brine samples which collected from four stations located at the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean was analyzed by PCR-DGGE. Twenty-three 16S rDNA sequences of bacteria obtained from DGGE bands were cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis clustered these sequences within γ-proteobacteria, Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides (CFB) group, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. The phylotype of Pseudoalteromonas in the γ-proteobacteria was predominant and members of the CFB group and γ-proteobacteria were highly abundant in studied sea ice brine samples.

  2. Modeling Coupled THM Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, Jonny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Blanco-Martin, Laura [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Molins, Sergi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Trebotich, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    In this report, we present FY2015 progress by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) related to modeling of coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in salt and their effect on brine migration at high temperatures. This is a combined milestone report related to milestone Salt R&D Milestone “Modeling Coupled THM Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures” (M3FT-15LB0818012) and the Salt Field Testing Milestone (M3FT-15LB0819022) to support the overall objectives of the salt field test planning.

  3. Nature and origin of RSL: Spectroscopy and detectability of liquid brines in the near-infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, Marion; Beck, Pierre; Schmitt, Bernard; Pommerol, Antoine; McEwen, Alfred; Chevrier, Vincent; Brissaud, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    If water has likely flowed on Mars in its early history, the current presence of liquid water is debatable. However, some recently discovered fea-tures named "Recurrent Slope Lineae" (RSL) suggest that superficial liquid can occur on present day Mars in a transient state [McEwen et al., 2011]. RSL are dark (up to 40% darker than the surrounding areas), narrow (0.5-5 m) and are mostly found in the southern mid-latitudes. Repeated MRO/HiRISE images reveal that they appear and grow during warm seasons and fade and disappear during cold seasons. They develop on steep slopes (25°-40°), favoring equator-facing slopes, times and places with peak temperatures of ~250-300K. The most likely formation process of RSL involves the presence of liquid brines near the surface. Brines are more stable on Mars than pure water [e.g. Chevrier et al., 2009] because salts can depress the freezing point of water by up to 70 K. However, this hypothesis suffers from the lack of clear identification of brines with the high resolution CRISM spectra. The mineralogical characterization of RSL is challenging because RSL are much smaller than the ~18 m pixel scale of CRISM data but spectral features diagnostic of water or brines [Hanley et al., 2010] are not observable even on the largest RSL. The goal of our study is to reproduce with laboratory experiments some hydration and dehydration cycles of different kind of brines mixed with basaltic soil. These experiments aim to understand the spectroscopic behavior of brines during these processes and to determine the diagnostic spectral features that we can expected to find for Martian RSL. We found that, if the surface displays a low albedo from the beginning of the hydration to the end of the dehydration, diagnostic brines absorption bands are only observed when the liquid film is formed. This is consistent with our current RSL observations. In the future, we need to acquire some new CRISM data when the formation of liquid brines is the most

  4. Chemical Characterization, Antioxidant and Enzymatic Activity of Brines from Scandinavian Marinated Herring Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gringer, Nina; Osman, Ali; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch

    2014-01-01

    Brines generated during the last marination step in the production of marinated herring (Clupea harengus) were chemically characterized and analyzed for antioxidant and enzyme activities. The end-products were vinegar cured, spice cured and traditional barrel-salted herring with either salt...... or spices. The chemical characterization encompassed pH, dry matter, ash, salt, fatty acids, protein, polypeptide pattern, iron and nitrogen. The antioxidant activity was tested with three assays measuring: iron chelation, reducing power and radical scavenging activity. The enzymatic activity for peroxidase...... with biological activity from brines from the marinated herring production was demonstrated in this work....

  5. In-Situ X-ray Tomography Study of Cement Exposed to CO2 Saturated Brine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chavez Panduro, E. A.; Torsæter, M.; Gawel, K.

    2017-01-01

    saturated brine is required. Here, we report in situ X-ray micro computed tomography (μ-CT) studies visualizing the microstructural changes upon exposure of cured Portland cement with an artificially engineered leakage path (cavity) to CO2 saturated brine at high pressure. Carbonation of the bulk cement......, self-healing of the leakage path in the cement specimen, and leaching of CaCO3 were thus directly observed. The precipitation of CaCO3, which is of key importance as a possible healing mechanism of fractured cement, was found to be enhanced in confined regions having limited access to CO2...

  6. Dependence of CO2-Brine Interfacial Tension on Aquifer Pressure, Temperature and Water Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachu, S.; Bennion, B.

    2007-12-01

    Carbon dioxide storage in deep saline aquifers is a climate-change mitigation strategy that has significant potential in the short-to-medium term. The displacement of formation water by CO2 (drainage) and of CO2 by invading aquifer brine (imbibition) depend on the interfacial tension (IFT) of the CO2-brine system. To provide needed data, an extensive laboratory program was conducted for the measurement of the interfacial tension between CO2 and water or brine covering the ranges of 2 to 27 MPa pressure, 20°C to 125°C temperature, and 0 to 334,000 mg/l water salinity. The laboratory experiments were conducted using the pendant drop method combined with the Laplace solution for the profile of the brine drop in the CO2-rich environment. The analysis of the resulting set of 294 IFT measurements reveals that: 1) for conditions of constant temperature and water salinity, IFT decreases steeply with increasing pressure in the range PPc, with an asymptotic trend towards a constant value for high pressures; 2) for the same conditions of constant pressure and temperature, IFT increases with increasing water salinity, reflecting decreasing CO2 solubility in brine as salinity increases; 3) the dependence of IFT on temperature is more complex, depending on the CO2 phase. For TTc, with an asymptotic trend towards a constant value for high temperatures. These results indicate that, in the case of CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers, the formation water displacement by injected CO2 during the injection phase of CO2 storage and the CO2 displacement by invading brine during the CO2 migration phase depend on the in-situ conditions of pressure, temperature and water salinity through the effects that these primary variables have on the IFT between CO2 and aquifer brine. Since the IFT of CO2-brine systems affects relative permeability and capillary pressure, it is essential that the in-situ conditions and their effect of secondary variables are properly taken into account when

  7. Mathematical Simulation of Evaporating Brine by Solar Radiation for the Production of Salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.Z.Zhang; C.D.Li; 等

    1993-01-01

    A computer simulation model of salt pan is presented.The transient behavior and the effects of various parameters of the salt pans,such as the depth of the brine layer,the absorptance of the soil surface,the thermal properties of the soil beneath the brine layer and the depth of the underground water table,on the evaporation process of salt pans are discussed.The effects of extra insulation layer and the intensity of solar radiation are also examined.

  8. Multiphase flow of carbon dioxide and brine in dual porosity carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentland, Christopher; Oedai, Sjaam; Ott, Holger

    2014-05-01

    The storage of carbon dioxide in subsurface formations presents a challenge in terms of multiphase flow characterisation. Project planning requires an understanding of multiphase flow characteristics such as the relationship between relative permeability and saturation. At present there are only a limited number of relative permeability relations for carbon dioxide-brine fluid systems, most of which are measured on sandstone rocks. In this study coreflood experiments are performed to investigate the relative permeability of carbon dioxide and brine in two dual porosity carbonate systems. Carbon dioxide is injected into the brine saturated rocks in a primary drainage process. The rock fluid system is pre-equilibrated to avoid chemical reactions and physical mass transfer between phases. The pressure drop across the samples, the amount of brine displaced and the saturation distribution within the rocks are measured. The experiments are repeated on the same rocks for the decane-brine fluid system. The experimental data is interpreted by simulating the experiments with a continuum scale Darcy solver. Selected functional representations of relative permeability are investigated, the parameters of which are chosen such that a least squares objective function is minimised (i.e. the difference between experimental observations and simulated response). The match between simulation and measurement is dependent upon the form of the functional representations. The best agreement is achieved with the Corey [Brooks and Corey, 1964] or modified Corey [Masalmeh et al., 2007] functions which best represent the relative permeability of brine at low brine saturations. The relative permeability of carbon dioxide is shown to be lower than the relative permeability of decane over the saturation ranges investigated. The relative permeability of the brine phase is comparable for the two fluid systems. These observations are consistent with the rocks being water-wet. During the experiment

  9. VARIATIONS IN ISOTOPIC COMPOSITIONS OF CHLORINE IN EVAPORATION-CONTROLLED SALT LAKE BRINES OF QAIDAM BASIN,CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The variations in the isotopic compositions of chlorine in evaporation-controlled saline lake brines were determined by using an improved procedure for precise measurement of chlorine isotopes based on Cs2Cl+ ion by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The results showed that variation in δ37Cl values in these evaporation-controlled brines are attributable to evaporation of brine accompanied by the deposition of saline minerals. The isotopic fractionation of chlorine between the deposited saline mineral and the co-existing brine caused the variation of δ37Cl values in the brine. In general the isotopic fractionation of chlorine in nature indicates enrichment of 37Cl in the solid phase relative to 35Cl. The reverse isotopic fractionation of chlorine in which 35Cl is enriched in the solid phase, was observed to some extent during quick deposition under laboratory conditions as well as in nature. The mechanism of isotopic fractionation of chlorine during evaporation deposition was studied.

  10. Simulation of the high-pressure phase equilibria of hydrocarbon-water/brine systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuo, You-Xiang; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Guo, Tian-Min

    1996-01-01

    The major objectives of this work are: (1) extend the modified Patel-Teja (MPT) equation of state proposed for aqueous electrolyte systems (Zuo and Guo, 1991) to describe the liquid-liquid and vapor-liquid-liquid equilibria of hydrocarbon-water/brine systems through introducing an unconventional ...

  11. Biological screening of selected Pacific Northwest forest plants using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) toxicity bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karchesy, Yvette M; Kelsey, Rick G; Constantine, George; Karchesy, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    The brine shrimp (Artemia salina) bioassay was used to screen 211 methanol extracts from 128 species of Pacific Northwest plants in search of general cytotoxic activity. Strong toxicity (LC50  1000 µg/ml). Our subsequent studies of conifer heartwoods with strong activity confirm the assay's value for identifying new investigational leads for materials with insecticidal and fungicidal activity.

  12. A novel fucosyl glycosphingolipid of brine shrimp that is highly sensitive to endoglycoceramidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xu; Horibata, Yasuhiro; Inagaki, Masanori; Hama, Yoichiro; Sakaguchi, Keishi; Goda, Hatsumi M; Okino, Nozomu; Ito, Makoto

    2009-12-01

    Endoglycoceramidase (EGCase; EC 3.2.1.123) is a glycohydrolase that hydrolyzes the glycosidic linkage between the oligosaccharide and ceramide of various glycosphingolipids. We previously reported that hydra produced EGCase to digest glycosphingolipids of brine shrimp (Artemia salina), a type of aquatic crustacean used as a diet for the culture of hydra (Horibata Y, Sakaguchi K, Okino N, Iida H, Inagaki M, Fujisawa T, Hama Y, Ito M. 2004. J Biol Chem. 279:33379-33389). We report here that a major glycosphingolipid of brine shrimp is unique in structure and highly sensitive to EGCase. The glycosphingolipid was extracted from freshly hatched brine shrimp by Folch's partition, followed by mild alkaline hydrolysis and purification with a Sep-Pak plus silica cartridge. The structure of brine shrimp glycosphingolipid was determined by gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, fast-atom bombardment mass spectrometry, and (1)H-NMR spectrometry to be GlcNAcalpha1-2Fucalpha1-3Manbeta1-4Glcbeta1-1'Cer. Two major molecular species of the glycosphingolipid were identified; the sugar and sphingoid base of each were the same but the major fatty acid was C22:0 and 2-hydroxy C22:0, respectively. This is the first report describing the glycosphingolipid that has an internal fucosyl residue substituted with alpha1-2 N-acetylglucosaminyl residue. This study also suggests the biological relevance of the glycosphingolipid as a dietary source of hydra which possesses EGCase as a digestion enzyme.

  13. Characterization of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activities of Red Radish Brines during Lactic Acid Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu Jing

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Red radish (Raphanus L. pickles are popular appetizers or spices in Asian-style cuisine. However, tons of radish brines are generated as wastes from industrial radish pickle production. In this study, we evaluated the dynamic changes in colour properties, phenolics, anthocyanin profiles, phenolic acid composition, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties in radish brines during lactic acid fermentation. The results showed that five flavonoids detected were four anthocyanins and one kaempferol derivative, including pelargonidin-3-digluoside-5-glucoside derivatives acylated with p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric and manolic acids, or ferulic and malonic acids. Amounts ranged from 15.5–19.3 µg/mL in total monomeric anthocyanins, and kaempferol-3,7-diglycoside (15–30 µg/mL. 4-Hydroxy-benzoic, gentisic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic and salicylic acids were detected in amounts that varied from 70.2–92.2 µg/mL, whereas the total phenolic content was 206–220 µg/mL. The change in colour of the brine was associated with the accumulation of lactic acid and anthocyanins. The ORAC and Fe2+ chelation capacity of radish brines generally decreased, whereas the reducing power measured as FRAP values was increased during the fermentation from day 5 to day 14. This study provided information on the phytochemicals and the antioxidative activities of red radish fermentation waste that might lead to further utilization as nutraceuticals or natural colorants.

  14. Manufacture of Boron-free Magnesia with High Purity from Residual Brine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fa Qiang LI; Bao Ping LING; Pei Hua MA

    2004-01-01

    A novel method for removing boron with ion exchange resin from residual brines to manufacture boron-free magnesia is described. The concentration of boron in the target magnesia manufactured thereby from Qinghai salt lakes is lower than 5μg/g, and the typical D50 size of product is 10.625μm.

  15. Aerobic methanotrophic communities at the Red Sea brine-seawater interface

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Rehab Z.

    2014-09-23

    Abdallah RZ, Adel M, Ouf A, Sayed A, Ghazy MA, Alam I, Essack M, Lafi FF, Bajic VB, El-Dorry H and Siam R (2014) Aerobic methanotrophic communities at the Red Sea brine-seawater interface. Front. Microbiol. 5:487. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2014.00487

  16. Generation of porphyry copper deposits by gas-brine reaction in volcanic arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundy, J.; Mavrogenes, J.; Tattitch, B.; Sparks, S.; Gilmer, A.

    2015-03-01

    Porphyry copper deposits, that is, copper ore associated with hydrothermal fluids rising from a magma chamber, supply 75% of the world's copper. They are typically associated with intrusions of magma in the crust above subduction zones, indicating a primary role for magmatism in driving mineralization. However, it is not clear that a single, copper-rich magmatic fluid could trigger both copper enrichment and the subsequent precipitation of sulphide ore minerals within a zone of hydrothermally altered rock. Here we draw on observations of modern subduction zone volcanism to propose an alternative process for porphyry copper formation. We suggest that copper enrichment initially involves metalliferous, magmatic hyper-saline liquids, or brines, that exsolve from large, magmatic intrusions assembled in the shallow crust over tens to hundreds of thousands of years. In a subsequent step, sulphide ore precipitation is triggered by the interaction of the accumulated brines with sulphur-rich gases, liberated in short-lived bursts from the underlying mafic magmas. We use high-temperature and high-pressure laboratory experiments to simulate such gas-brine interactions. The experiments yield copper-iron sulphide minerals and hydrogen chloride gas at magmatic temperatures of 700-800 °C, with textural and chemical characteristics that resemble those in porphyry copper deposits. We therefore conclude that porphyry copper ore forms in a two-stage process of brine enrichment followed by gas-induced precipitation.

  17. Grain Size Data from the Brine Disposal Program, Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are part of the Brine Disposal Program funded by NOAA in the US Gulf of Mexico, compiled by NOAA/CEAS and partially conducted by R. W. Hann of Texas A and...

  18. Diverse methane concentrations in anoxic brines and underlying sediments, eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karisiddaiah, S.M.

    Elevated methane (CH sub(4)) concentrations (128-2692x10 sup(3) nM) occur in the hypersaline anoxic brine pools of Bannock and Urania Basins, eastern Mediterranean Sea, compared to low concentrations (17-80x10 sup(3) nM) in the sediments below...

  19. Biological screening of Annonaceous Brazilian Medicinal Plants using Artemia salina (brine shrimp test).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Pimenta, L P; Pinto, G B; Takahashi, J A; e Silva, L G F; Boaventura, M A D

    2003-03-01

    Eighteen different extracts from five Annona species collected in Minas Gerais state, Brazil, were submitted to the brine shrimp lethality test in order to detect potential sources of novel cytotoxic, antitumor, pesticidal and anti-Trypanosoma cruzi compounds. All of the Annonaceous species tested showed good larvicidal activity as compared to a reference compounds and literature data.

  20. Isolation and identification of oxidation products of guaiacol from brines and heated meat matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bölicke, Sarah-Maria; Ternes, Waldemar

    2016-07-01

    In this study we investigated the formation of the oxidation products of guaiacol in brines and heated meat matrix: 6-nitrosoguaiacol, 4-nitroguaiacol and 6-nitroguaiacol. For this purpose we applied a newly developed HPLC-UV and LC-MS method. For the first time, 6-nitrosoguaiacol was determined in brine and meat (containing guaiacol and sodium nitrite), which had been heated to 80°C and subsequently subjected to simulated digestion. Application of 500mg/L ascorbic acid to the brines reduced guaiacol degradation at pH3 and simultaneously inhibited the formation of 6-nitrosoguaiacol compared to brines containing only 100mg/L of ASC. The oxidation products were isolated with a new extraction method from meat samples containing 400mg/kg sodium nitrite at pH3.6 following simulated digestion. When oxygen was added, 6-nitrosoguaiacol was determined even at legally allowed levels (150mg/kg) of the curing agent. Finally, we developed a new LC-MS method for the separation and qualitative determination of the four main smoke methoxyphenols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Origin, migration and mixing of oilfield brines: Stable iso-topic evidence from Kuqa Foreland Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡春芳; 汪集旸; 曾凡刚; 何宏

    2001-01-01

    87Sr/86Sr, 8 D and δ180 together with chemistry of oilfield brines, were measured from Cambrian to Neogene strata in the Kuqa Foreland Basin, northwest China. The brines have 87Sr/86Sr ratios ranging from 0.70944 to 0.71716, 8D values from -33‰ to -67‰ and δ18O from -9.0‰ to 3.9‰. The most radiogenic 87Sr brines have relatively heavy δ18O in the Cambro- Ordo-vician carbonates, and are suggested to originate from crystalline basement. 8 D and δ18O sys-tematics show that all the brines slope to Global Meteoric Water Line, and intersect at 8 D = -60‰ and δ18O = -8.8‰, close to that of present-day local meteoric water, suggesting that meteoric water has mixed with evaporated ancient meteoric water. More saline samples have the lowest δD and δ180 contents and molar Na/CI ratios of more than 0.9, resulting from salt dissolution.

  2. A study of hydrocarbons associated with brines from DOE geopressured wells. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeley, D.F.

    1993-07-01

    Accomplishments are summarized on the following tasks: distribution coefficients and solubilities, DOE design well sampling, analysis of well samples, review of theoretical models of geopressured reservoir hydrocarbons, monitor for aliphatic hydrocarbons, development of a ph meter probe, DOE design well scrubber analysis, removal and disposition of gas scrubber equipment at Pleasant Bayou Well, and disposition of archived brines.

  3. A study of hydrocarbons associated with brines from DOE geopressured wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeley, D.F.

    1993-01-01

    Accomplishments are summarized on the following tasks: distribution coefficients and solubilities, DOE design well sampling, analysis of well samples, review of theoretical models of geopressured reservoir hydrocarbons, monitor for aliphatic hydrocarbons, development of a ph meter probe, DOE design well scrubber analysis, removal and disposition of gas scrubber equipment at Pleasant Bayou Well, and disposition of archived brines.

  4. Aromatic hydrocarbons associated with brines from geopressured wells. Annual report, [December 28, 1990--December 16, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    The various operational wells were sampled on a monthly basis for the yield of the cryocondensate hydrocarbons. The total cryocondensate concentration as well as the concentrations in the brine and the gas after passing the separator system are summarized. The total cryocondensate yield is displayed.

  5. Long term plutonium solubility and speciation studies in a synthetic brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitsche, Heino; Roberts, K.; Xi, Ruihua [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1993-12-31

    The rate at which elements can be transported in groundwater systems is governed in part by the solubility of the element in the groundwater. This report documents plutonium solubility experiments in a brine simulant relevant to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Approximately 1 to 2.5 mL of five stock solutions containing single oxidation states of plutonium (Pu(IV)-polymer, Pu{sup 3+}, Pu{sup 4+}, PuO{sub 2}{sup +}, and PuO{sub 2}{sup 2+}) were added to {approximately}75 mL of synthetic H-17 Brine in five reaction vessels. Initial plutonium concentrations ranged from 1.3 {times} l0{sup {minus}4} to 5.l {times} l0{sup {minus}4} M (moles per liter) total plutonium. Because these initial concentrations were far above the plutonium solubility limit in H-17 Brine, plutonium-containing solids precipitated. Aqueous plutonium concentrations were measured over time until steady-state was reached, requiring over 300 days in H-17 Brine.

  6. The Effect of Synthetic Brine Constituents on the Rate of Arsenic Release from Arsenopyrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, H.; Dzombak, D. A.; Karamalidis, A.

    2013-12-01

    Geologic carbon dioxide storage (GCS) in deep saline sedimentary formations is a potential method for mitigating increased levels of atmospheric CO2. Injection of CO2 in those formations may induce dissolution of reservoir minerals. Leakage of CO2-saturated brines and native brines could impact overlying drinking water aquifers by contaminating them with toxic constituents. Of particular concern is the effect of CO2 on the rates of dissolution of arsenic and other toxic metals from reservoir minerals. The most common pure phase arsenic mineral in sedimentary geologic formations is arsenopyrite (FeAsS). Natural brines have high salinities (up to 7M), with high concentrations of Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and K+. The focus of this study is to examine the effect of brine components on the dissolution rate of arsenic from arsenopyrite. A small-scale flow-through column system was constructed for this purpose and is being used to measure arsenic release rates from arsenopyrite. Influent solutions of NaCl, CaCl2, and MgCl2 at equal ionic strengths were used to examine the effect of the cationic species. A cleaning procedure to remove prior surface oxidation on the surface of the arsenopyrite particles was also developed. Preliminary results with NaCl and CaCl2 at an ionic strength of 0.011M indicate that the rate of dissolution of arsenic is dependent on the cationic species but independent of ionic strength.

  7. 40 CFR 436.120 - Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory. 436.120 Section 436.120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT...

  8. Origin of brine in the Kangan gasfield: isotopic and hydrogeochemical approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagheri, R.; Nadri, A.; Raeisi, E.; Kazemi, G.A.; Eggenkamp, H.G.M.; Montaseri, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Kangan Permo-Triassic brine aquifer and the overlying gas reservoir in the southern Iran are located in Kangan and Dalan Formations, consisting dominantly of limestone, dolomite, and to a lesser extent, shale and anhydrite. The gasfield, 2,900 m in depth and is exploited by 36 wells, some of whi

  9. Microbial diversity and activity in seafloor brine lake sediments (Alaminos Canyon block 601, Gulf of Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Medina, M; Bowles, M W; Samarkin, V A; Hunter, K S; Joye, S B

    2016-09-01

    The microbial communities thriving in deep-sea brines are sustained largely by energy rich substrates supplied through active seepage. Geochemical, microbial activity, and microbial community composition data from different habitats at a Gulf of Mexico brine lake in Alaminos Canyon revealed habitat-linked variability in geochemistry that in turn drove patterns in microbial community composition and activity. The bottom of the brine lake was the most geochemically extreme (highest salinity and nutrient concentrations) habitat and its microbial community exhibited the highest diversity and richness indices. The habitat at the upper halocline of the lake hosted the highest rates of sulfate reduction and methane oxidation, and the largest inventories of dissolved inorganic carbon, particulate organic carbon, and hydrogen sulfide. Statistical analyses indicated a significant positive correlation between the bacterial and archaeal diversity in the bottom brine sample and NH4+ inventories. Other environmental factors with positive correlation with microbial diversity indices were DOC, H2 S, and DIC concentrations. The geochemical regime of different sites within this deep seafloor extreme environment exerts a clear selective force on microbial communities and on patterns of microbial activity.

  10. Design of the Brine Evaporation Bag for Increased Water Recovery in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Anna L.; Delzeit, Lance D.

    2015-01-01

    The existing water recovery system on the International Space Station (ISS) is limited to 75% reclamation; consequently, long duration space missions are currently unfeasible due to the large quantity of water necessary to sustain the crew. The Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB) is a proposed system to supplement the existing water recovery system aboard the ISS that can to increase water recovery to 99%. The largest barrier to high water recovery is mineral scaling inside the water recovery equipment, which leads to equipment failure; therefore, some water must remain to keep the minerals dissolved. This waste stream is liquid brine containing salts, acids, organics, and water. The BEB is designed to recover this remaining water while protecting the equipment from scale. The BEB consists of a sealed bag containing a hydrophobic membrane that allows water vapor and gas to pass through. It is operated under vacuum, heated, and continuously filled with brine to boil away the water. The water vapor is recovered and the solids are contained inside the bag for disposal. The BEB can dry the brine to a solid block. Ongoing work includes improving the design of the BEB and the evaporator to prevent leaks, maximize the rate of water removal, and minimize energy use and weight. Additional testing will determine whether designs are heat- or mass-transfer limited and the optimal water recovery rate.

  11. Effect of gas field production and CO2 injection on brine flow and salt precipitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeve, D.; Tambach, T.J.; Hofstee, C.; Plug, W.J.; Maas, J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports modeling of gas field produc-tion and CO2 injection from a theoretical reser-voir based on characteristics of the P18 gas field in the Dutch offshore, which consists of four geological deposits with different petrophysical properties. We especially focus on the brine flow during

  12. Effect of CO2 injection on brine flow and salt precipitation after gas field production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambach, T.J.; Loeve, D.; Hofstee, C.; Plug, W.J.; Maas, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports modeling of gas field production and CO2 injection in a theoretical reservoir based on characteristics of the P18 gas field in the Dutch offshore, which consists of four geological deposits with different petrophysical properties. We especially focus on the brine flow during and

  13. Characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers in the brine shrimp Artemia (Branchiopoda, Anostraca)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Joaquin; Green, Andy J.; Figuerola, Jordi;

    2009-01-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia is a complex genus containing sexual species and parthenogenetic lineages. Artemia franciscana is native to America and its cysts (diapausing eggs) are used worldwide as a food source in aquaculture. As a consequence, this anostracan has become an invasive species in many...

  14. Advancements in Spacecraft Brine Water Recovery: Development of a Radial Vaned Capillary Drying Tray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Pickerin, Karen D.; Weislogel, Mark M.

    2013-01-01

    Technology improvements in the recovery of water from brine are critical to establishing closedloop water recovery systems, enabling long duration missions, and achieving a sustained human presence in space. A genre of 'in-place drying' brine water recovery concepts, collectively referred to herein as Brine Residual In-Containment (BRIC), are under development which aim to increase the overall robustness and reliability of the brine recovery process by performing drying inside the container used for final disposal of the solid residual waste. Implementation of in-place drying techniques have been demonstrated for applications where gravity is present and phase separation occurs naturally by buoyancy induced effects. In this work, a microgravity compatible analogue of the gravity-driven phase separation process is considered by exploiting capillarity in the form of surface wetting, surface tension, and container geometry. The proposed design consists of a series of planar radial vanes aligned about a central slotted core. Preliminary testing of the fundamental geometry in a reduced gravity environment has shown the device to spontaneously fill and saturate rapidly creating a free surface from which evaporation and phase separation can occur similar to a 1-g like 'cylindrical pool' of fluid. Mathematical modeling and analysis of the design suggest predictable rates of filling and stability of fluid containment as a function of relevant system dimensions, e.g., number of vanes, vane length, width, and thickness. A description of the proposed capillary design solution is presented along with preliminary results from testing, modeling and analysis of the system.

  15. Toxigenicity of enniatins from Western Australian Fusarium species to brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Diana C; Flematti, Gavin R; Ghisalberti, Emilio L; Sivasithamparam, Krishnapillai; Barbetti, Martin J

    2011-04-01

    The high prevalence (14 of 24 isolates) of enniatin-producing isolates from Western Australian Fusarium species isolated from pasture legumes associated with sheep feed refusal and rat deaths, and the high toxicity of their crude extracts to brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) from a previous study warranted further investigation of this class of mycotoxin. Crude extracts from Fusarium acuminatum, Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium tricinctum and Fusarium sambucinum, along with enniatins A, A1, B and B1 purified from a Western Australian strain of F. acuminatum using semi-preparative HPLC, were bioassayed using brine shrimp. All Fusarium isolates produced both enniatins B and B1, except for F. tricinctum WAC 8019, and 11 of the 17 isolates produced enniatin A1. Overall, all of the F. avenaceum isolates produced high amounts of enniatins, in particular enniatin B. One isolate of F. acuminatum (WAC 5715) and of F. tricinctum (WAC 11486) also produced high amounts of both enniatins B and B1. Only F. acuminatum WAC 5715 produced enniatin A among the tested isolates. All four purified enniatins A, A1, B, B1, individually and in combination, caused brine shrimp toxicity after 6 h of exposure, implicating that this emerging class of mycotoxin as a cause of the acute toxicity to brine shrimp observed. The mixture of all four enniatins was the most toxic to brine shrimp compared to purified individual enniatins, where the relative toxicity order was B > B1 > A1 > A. Enniatin B was the individual most toxic enniatin with some bioactivity at 5 μg/mL and almost 100% brine shrimp death at 50 μg/mL after 24 h of exposure. This study is the first report to confirm the acute toxicity of enniatins A, A1, B and B1 to brine shrimp, and also highlights the need for further investigation of the potential toxicity of these cyclic hexadepsipeptides to animals and humans.

  16. Generation of porphyry copper deposits by gas-brine reaction in volcanic arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundy, Jon; Mavrogenes, John; Tattitch, Brian; Sparks, Steve; Gilmer, Amy

    2014-05-01

    Porphyry copper deposits (PCDs) are characterised by a close spatial and temporal association with small, hypabyssal intrusions of silicic magmas in volcanic arcs. PCD formation requires elevated chlorine and water to concentrate copper in magmatic hypersaline liquids (or brines), and elevated sulphur to precipitate copper-rich sulphides. These twin requirements are hard to reconcile with experimental and petrological evidence that voluminous chlorine-rich, hydrous silicic magmas, of the variety favourable to copper enrichment, lack sufficient sulphur to precipitate directly the requisite quantities of sulphides. These features are, however, consistent with observations of active volcanic arcs whereby PCDs can be viewed as roots of dome volcanoes above shallow reservoirs where silicic magmas accumulate over long time spans. During protracted periods of dormancy metal-enriched dense brines accumulate in and above the silicic reservoir through slow, low-pressure degassing. Meanwhile cogenetic volatile-rich mafic magmas and their exsolved, sulphur and CO2-rich fluids accumulate in deeper reservoirs. Periodic destabilisation of these reservoirs leads to short-lived bursts of volcanism liberating sulphurous gases, which react with the shallow-stored brines to form copper-rich sulphides and acidic vapours. We test this hypothesis with a novel set of 'porphyry in a capsule' experiments designed to simulate low-pressure (1-2 kbar) interaction of basalt-derived, sulphur-rich gases with brine-saturated, copper-bearing, but sulphur-free, granite. Experiments were run at 720-850 ° C in cold-seal apparatus with basaltic andesite, loaded with H2O and S, situated below dacite, loaded with H2O, Cl and Cu. At run conditions both compositions are substantially degassed and crystallized. S-rich gas from the basaltic andesite ascends to react with Cu-rich brines exsolved from the dacite, Our experiments reveal the direct precipitation of copper-sulphide minerals, in vugs and veins

  17. Brine production strategy modeling for active and integrated management of water resources in CCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Court, B.; Celia, M. A.; Nordbotten, J. M.; Buscheck, T. A.; Elliot, T. J.; Bandilla, K.; Dobossy, M.

    2010-12-01

    Our society is at present highly dependent on coal, which will continue to play a major role in baseload electricity production in the coming decades. Most projected climate change mitigation strategies require CO2 Capture and Sequestration (CCS) as a vital element to stabilize CO2 atmospheric emissions. In these strategies, CCS will have to expand in the next two decades by several orders of magnitude compared to current worldwide implementation. At present the interactions among freshwater extraction, CO2 injection, and brine management are being considered too narrowly across CCS operations, and in the case of freshwater almost completely overlooked. Following the authors’ recently published overview of these challenges, an active and integrated management of water resources throughout CCS operations was proposed to avoid overlooking critical challenges that may become major obstacles to CCS implementation. Water resources management is vital for several reasons including that a coal-fired power plant retrofitted for CCS requires twice as much cooling water as the original plant. However this increased demand may be accommodated by brine extraction and treatment, which would concurrently function as large-scale pressure management and a potential source of freshwater. Synergistic advantages of such proactive integration that were identified led the authors to concluded that: Active management of CCS operations through an integrated approach -including brine production, treatment, use for cooling, and partial reinjection- can address challenges simultaneously with several synergistic advantages; and, that freshwater and brine must be linked to CO2 and pressure as key decision making parameters throughout CCS operations while recognizing scalability and potential pore space competition challenges. This work presents a detailed modeling investigation of a potential integration opportunity resulting from brine production. Technical results will focus solely on the

  18. Brine contamination to aquatic resources from oil and gas development in the Williston Basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Robert A.; Contributions by Chesley-Preston, Tara L.; Coleman, James L.; Haines, Seth S.; Jenni, Karen E.; Nieman, Timothy L.; Peterman, Zell E.; van der Burg, Max Post; Preston, Todd M.; Smith, Bruce D.; Tangen, Brian A.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Gleason, Robert A.; Tangen, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    The Williston Basin, which includes parts of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota in the United States and the provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan in Canada, has been a leading domestic oil and gas producing region for more than one-half a century. Currently, there are renewed efforts to develop oil and gas resources from deep geologic formations, spurred by advances in recovery technologies and economic incentives associated with the price of oil. Domestic oil and gas production has many economic benefits and provides a means for the United States to fulfill a part of domestic energy demands; however, environmental hazards can be associated with this type of energy production in the Williston Basin, particularly to aquatic resources (surface water and shallow groundwater) by extremely saline water, or brine, which is produced with oil and gas. The primary source of concern is the migration of brine from buried reserve pits that were used to store produced water during recovery operations; however, there also are considerable risks of brine release from pipeline failures, poor infrastructure construction, and flow-back water from hydraulic fracturing associated with modern oilfield operations. During 2008, a multidisciplinary (biology, geology, water) team of U.S. Geological Survey researchers was assembled to investigate potential energy production effects in the Williston Basin. Researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey participated in field tours and met with representatives from county, State, tribal, and Federal agencies to identify information needs and focus research objectives. Common questions from agency personnel, especially those from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, were “are the brine plumes (plumes of brine-contaminated groundwater) from abandoned oil wells affecting wetlands on Waterfowl Production Areas and National Wildlife Refuges?” and “are newer wells related to Bakken and Three Forks development different than the older

  19. RO brine treatment and recovery by biological activated carbon and capacitive deionization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Guihe; Viswanath, Bala; Kekre, Kiran; Lee, Lai Yoke; Ng, How Yong; Ong, Say Leong; Seah, Harry

    2011-01-01

    The generation of brine solutions from dense membrane (reverse osmosis, RO or nanofiltration, NF) water reclamation systems has been increasing worldwide, and the lack of cost effective disposal options is becoming a critical water resources management issue. In Singapore, NEWater is the product of a multiple barrier water reclamation process from secondary treated domestic effluent using MF/UF-RO and UV technologies. The RO brine (concentrates) accounts for more than 20% of the total flow treated. To increase the water recovery and treat the RO brine, a CDI based process with BAC as pretreatment was tested. The results show that ion concentrations in CDI product were low except SiO2 when compared with RO feed water. CDI product was passed through a RO and the RO permeate was of better quality including low SiO2 as compared to NEWater quality. It could be beneficial to use a dedicated RO operated at optimum conditions with better performance to recover the water. BAC was able to achieve 15-27% TOC removal of RO brine. CDI had been tested at a water recovery ranging from 71.6 to 92.3%. CDI based RO brine treatment could improve overall water recovery of NEWater production over 90%. It was found that calcium phosphate scaling and organic fouling was the major cause of CDI pressure increase. Ozone disinfection and sodium bisulfite dosing were able to reduce CDI fouling rate. For sustainable operation of CDI organic fouling control and effective organic fouling cleaning should be further studied.

  20. Review of the impacts of leaking CO 2 gas and brine on groundwater quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qafoku, Nikolla P.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Bacon, Diana H.; Zheng, Liange; Kyle, Jennifer; Brown, Christopher F.

    2017-06-01

    This review paper provides a synthetic view of the existing knowledge and summarizes data and findings of the recent literature on the subject of the potential leaking of CO2 from the deep subsurface storage reservoirs and the effects on aquifer quality. New ideas and concepts are developed and insights are also provided. The objectives of this paper are to: 1) present and discuss potential risks for groundwater degradation due to CO2 gas and brine exposure; 2) identify the set of geochemical data required to assess and predict aquifer responses to CO2 and brine leakage. Specifically, this paper will discuss the following issues: 1) Aquifer responses (such as changes in aqueous phase/groundwater chemical composition; changes in solid phase chemistry and mineralogy; changes in the extent and rate of reactions and processes and possible establishment of a new network of reactions and processes affecting or controlling overall mobility of major, minor, and trace elements; development of conceptual and reduced order models (ROMs) to describe and predict aquifer responses); 2) The degree of impact such as significant or insignificant changes in pH and major, minor, and trace element release that depend on the following controlling variables; the effect of leaking plume characteristics (gas composition, pure CO2 and/or CO2 -CH4 -H2S mixtures and brine concentration and composition (trace metals); aquifer properties [such as initial aqueous phase conditions and mineralogy: minerals controlling sediments’ response (e.g., calcite, Si bearing minerals, etc.)]; overview of relevant hydrogeological and geochemical processes related to the impact of CO2 gas and brine on groundwater quality; the fate of the elements released from sediments or transported with brine (such as precipitation/incorporation into minerals (calcite and other minerals), adsorption, electron transfer reactions, the role of natural attenuation; whether or not the release of metals following exposure to

  1. Assessment of brine migration along vertical pathways due to CO2 injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissinger, Alexander; Class, Holger

    2016-04-01

    Global climate change, shortage of resources and the growing usage of renewable energy sources has lead to a growing demand for the utilization of subsurface systems which may create conflicts with essential public interests such as water supply from aquifers. For example, brine migration into potential drinking water aquifers due to the injection of CO2 into deep saline aquifers is perceived as a potential threat resulting from the Carbon Capture and Storage Technology (CCS). In this work, we focus on the large scale impacts of CO2 storage on brine migration but the methodology and the obtained results may also apply to other fields like waste water disposal, where large amounts of fluid are injected into the subsurface. We consider a realistic (but not real) on-shore site in the North German Basin with characteristic geological features. In contrast to modeling on the reservoir scale, the spatial scale in this work is much larger in both vertical and lateral direction, since the regional hydrogeology is considered as well. Structures such as fault zones, hydrogeological windows in the Rupelian clay or salt wall flanks are considered as potential pathways for displaced fluids into shallow systems and their influence needs to be taken into account. Simulations on this scale always require a compromise between the accuracy of the description of the relevant physical processes, data availability and computational resources. Therefore, we test different model simplifications and discuss them with respect to the relevant physical processes and the expected data availability. The simplifications in the models are concerned with the role of salt-induced density differences on the flow, with injection of brine (into brine) instead of CO2 into brine, and with simplifying the geometry of the site.

  2. Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study of Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Their Mixture in the Presence of Brine

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yafan

    2017-10-03

    We perform molecular dynamics simulation study of CO2, methane, and their mixture in the presence of brine over a broad range of temperature (311–473 K), pressure (up to about 100 MPa), and NaCl concentration (up to about 14 wt %). The general decrease in the interfacial tension (IFT) values of the CH4–brine system with pressure and temperature is similar to that obtained for the corresponding CH4–water system. The IFT of methane and brine is a linearly increasing function of salt concentration, and the resulting slopes are dependent on the pressure. A similar behavior as methane is observed for such systems containing CO2 and CO2–CH4 mixture. The IFT of CO2 and brine increases linearly with increasing salt content; however, the resulting slopes are independent of pressure. The simulations show that the presence of CO2 decreases the IFT values of the CH4–water and CH4–brine systems, but the degree of reduction depends on the amount of CO2 in each sample, which is consistent with experimental evidence. These IFT values show a linear correlation with the amount of CO2, and the resulting slopes are dependent on the temperature and pressure. Furthermore, our results for the mole fractions of the different species in the CO2–CH4–water system at 323 K and 9 MPa are in agreement with those of experiments. The mole fractions of methane and CO2 in the water-rich phase decrease with increasing salt concentration, whereas that of H2O in the methane- or CO2-rich phases remains almost unaffected in all of the studied cases. Our results could be useful because of the importance of carbon dioxide sequestration and shale gas production.

  3. Advances in Spacecraft Brine Water Recovery: Development of a Radial Vaned Capillary Drying Tray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Pickering, Karen D.; Weislogel, Mark M.

    2014-01-01

    Technology improvements in the recovery of water from brine are critical to establishing closed-loop water recovery systems, enabling long-duration missions, and achieving a sustained human presence in space. A genre of 'in-place drying' brine water recovery concepts, collectively referred to herein as Brine Residual In-Containment, are under development. These brine water recovery concepts aim to increase the overall robustness and reliability of the brine recovery process by performing drying inside the container used for final disposal of the solid residual waste. Implementation of in-place drying techniques have been demonstrated for applications where gravity is present and phase separation occurs naturally by buoyancy-induced effects. In this work, a microgravity-compatible analogue of the gravity-driven phase separation process is considered by exploiting capillarity in the form of surface wetting, surface tension, and container geometry. The proposed design consists of a series of planar radial vanes aligned about a central slotted core. Preliminary testing of the fundamental geometry in a reduced gravity environment has shown the device to spontaneously fill and saturate rapidly, thereby creating a free surface from which evaporation and phase separation can occur similar to a terrestrial-like 'cylindrical pool' of fluid. Mathematical modeling and analysis of the design suggest predictable rates of filling and stability of fluid containment as a function of relevant system dimensions; e.g., number of vanes, vane length, width, and thickness. A description of the proposed capillary design solution is presented along with preliminary results from testing, modeling, and analysis of the system.

  4. Shelf life determination of the brined golden mullet Liza aurata during vacuum refrigerated storage using some quality aspect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mariyam

    2012-01-01

    Salted fi sh products are popular in many countries around the world. Salting is one of the oldest techniques for fi sh preservation, and is essentially intended to increase the shelf-life of the product depressing water activity by means of dehydration and salt uptake by the fi sh muscle. However, the current demand for salted fi sh is driven more by the flavour of the product than for preservation purposes. Vacuum-packaging represents a static form of hypobaric storage. It is widely used in the food industry because of its effectiveness in reducing oxidative reactions in the product at relatively low cost. Low temperature storage is one of the primary methods to maintain fi sh quality, based on the reduction in the rates of microbiological, chemical and biochemical changes. Fresh Golden mullets were rapidly beheaded, scaled, gutted and immediately washed with tap water then, samples were taken to the laboratory in ice box for chemical and microbial analysis of fresh fish, other samples were put in the brine (6 liter water and 2160 g salt was used for brine solution). After 14 days of brining, fish were taken out of brine solution and drained, then they were Vacuum Packed and labelled (each pack contained two fish about 1500 g weight). All the packs were stored in a refrigerator 4°C. Some quality aspects including Total Volatile Nitrogen (TVN), Peroxide Value (PV), Thiobarbituric Acid (TBA), Total Viable Count (TVC), Halophilic Bacteria (HB) and presence of Clostridium Botulinum were determined in fresh mullets, fresh brined mullets after 14 days of brining, and in (Vacuum Packed) VP samples stored at 4°C at intervals of 30, 60 and 90 days. TVN increased from ten mg/100 g in fresh brined after 14 days to 30.80 mg/100 g in VP brined Golden mullet after 90 days of storage at 4°C, PV increased after brining from 1.50 meq/kg in fresh brined to 28.90 meq/kg in VP brined Golden mullet after 90 days of storage at 4°C, TBA increased from 0.07 mg MDA/kg in fresh brined

  5. Shelf life determination of the brined golden mullet Liza aurata during vacuum refrigerated storage using some quality aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariyam Ali

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Salted fish products are popular in many countries around the world. Salting is one of the oldest techniques for fish preservation, and is essentially intended to increase the shelf-life of the product depressing water activity by means of dehydration and salt uptake by the fish muscle. However, the current demand for salted fish is driven more by the flavour of the product than for preservation purposes. Vacuum-packaging represents a static form of hypobaric storage. It is widely used in the food industry because of its effectiveness in reducing oxidative reactions in the product at relatively low cost. Low temperature storage is one of the primary methods to maintain fish quality, based on the reduction in the rates of microbiological, chemical and biochemical changes. Material  and methods. Fresh Golden mullets were rapidly beheaded, scaled, gutted and immediately washed with tap water then, samples were taken to the laboratory in ice box for chemical and microbial analysis of fresh fish, other samples were put in the brine (6 liter water and 2160 g salt was used for brine solution. After 14 days of brining, fish were taken out of brine solution and drained, then they were Vacuum Packed and labelled (each pack contained two fish about 1500 g weight. All the packs were stored in a refrigerator 4°C. Some quality aspects including Total Volatile Nitrogen (TVN, Peroxide Value (PV, Thiobarbituric Acid (TBA, Total Viable Count (TVC, Halophilic Bacteria (HB and presence of Clostridium Botulinum were determined in fresh mullets, fresh brined mullets after 14 days of brining, and in (Vacuum Packed VP samples stored at 4°C at intervals of 30, 60 and 90 days. Results.  TVN increased from ten mg/100 g in fresh brined after 14 days to 30.80 mg/100 g in VP brined Golden mullet after 90 days of storage at 4°C, PV increased after brining from 1.50 meq/kg in fresh brined to 28.90 meq/kg in VP brined Golden mullet after 90 days of storage at 4

  6. Investigation of oil injection into brine for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve : hydrodynamics and mixing experiments with SPR liquids.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda, Jaime N.; Cote, Raymond O.; Torczynski, John Robert; O' Hern, Timothy John

    2004-05-01

    An experimental program was conducted to study a proposed approach for oil reintroduction in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The goal was to assess whether useful oil is rendered unusable through formation of a stable oil-brine emulsion during reintroduction of degassed oil into the brine layer in storage caverns. An earlier report (O'Hern et al., 2003) documented the first stage of the program, in which simulant liquids were used to characterize the buoyant plume that is produced when a jet of crude oil is injected downward into brine. This report documents the final two test series. In the first, the plume hydrodynamics experiments were completed using SPR oil, brine, and sludge. In the second, oil reinjection into brine was run for approximately 6 hours, and sampling of oil, sludge, and brine was performed over the next 3 months so that the long-term effects of oil-sludge mixing could be assessed. For both series, the experiment consisted of a large transparent vessel that is a scale model of the proposed oil-injection process at the SPR. For the plume hydrodynamics experiments, an oil layer was floated on top of a brine layer in the first test series and on top of a sludge layer residing above the brine in the second test series. The oil was injected downward through a tube into the brine at a prescribed depth below the oil-brine or sludge-brine interface. Flow rates were determined by scaling to match the ratio of buoyancy to momentum between the experiment and the SPR. Initially, the momentum of the flow produces a downward jet of oil below the tube end. Subsequently, the oil breaks up into droplets due to shear forces, buoyancy dominates the flow, and a plume of oil droplets rises to the interface. The interface was deflected upward by the impinging oil-brine plume. Videos of this flow were recorded for scaled flow rates that bracket the equivalent pumping rates in an SPR cavern during injection of degassed oil. Image-processing analyses were

  7. Disposal/recovery options for brine waters from oil and gas production in New York State. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, M.R.; Atkinson, J.F.; Bunn, M.D.; Hodge, D.S.

    1996-03-01

    Produced water from oil and gas operations, or brine as it is typically referred, may be characterized as being highly saline, with total dissolved solids greater than 100 g/L. If these bribes are disposed improperly there may be severe adverse environmental effects. Thus, it is important that brine be disposed using environmentally sound methods. Unfortunately, costs for the disposal of brine water are a significant burden to oil and gas producers in New York State. These costs and the relatively low market price of oil and natural gas have contributed to the decline in gas and oil production in New York State during the past 10 years. The objectives of this study were to evaluate new and existing options for brine disposal in New York State, examine the technical and economic merits of these options, and assess environmental impacts associated with each option. Two new disposal options investigated for New York State oil and gas producers included construction of a regional brine treatment facility to treat brine prior to discharge into a receiving water and a salt production facility that utilizes produced water as a feed stock. Both options are technically feasible; however, their economic viability depends on facility size and volume of brine treated.

  8. Development of a cost effective environment compliance technology for stripper brine wells. [Annual] report, January 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adewumi, M.A.; Watson, R.W.; Tian, S.; Heckman, S.; Safargar, S.; Drielinger, I.

    1994-03-08

    The specific objective of the research is to demonstrate that the characteristics of wastewater from stripper oil wells and marginal gas wells are sufficiently similar to be treated under a standardized treatment methodology, that the environmental impacts of the discharge of treated brines from both stripper oil and marginal gas wells can be adequately regulated, and that the inclusion of marginal gas wells in the same category as stripper oil wells is appropriate, especially for wells operating in the Appalachian Basin. The work accomplished during 1992 for both the field-scale and the laboratory-scale treatment facilities focused on iron removal from the field and synthetic brines. The laboratory work also included single-element kinetics studies to determine the effect of one metal on another with respect to the rates of the various reactions. The laboratory process studies investigated such parameters as the sand bed thickness, the temperature of the system, the angle of the aeration unit, and the presence of the retention tank. All of these laboratory parametric studies provided insight into how each component of the treatment process contributes to the removal of iron from the synthetic brine. Similar studies have begun for investigating copper removal effectiveness. As for the field work, several brines from sandstone formations in Pennsylvania, such as the Red Valley brine and the Warren brine, were treated with the field unit. The results of our analyses indicated that the field unit effectively removes iron from these field brines.

  9. Experimental biological effects assessment associated with on-shore brine discharge from the creation of gas storage caverns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintino, Victor; Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Freitas, Rosa; Ré, Ana

    2008-09-01

    Most of the studies on biological and ecological effects associated with brine discharge into the marine environment are related to the operation of desalination plants, for the production of freshwater. In this study we analysed the biological effects of a brine effluent from a completely different source, produced from the lixiviation of rock salt caves, for the creation of natural gas storage caverns. Lethal and sub-lethal endpoints following exposure to the brine were studied in a range of macrofauna species characteristic of the soft and hard bottom habitats in the vicinity of the discharge area, namely the isopod Eurydice pulchra, the annelids Sabellaria alveolata and Ophelia radiata, the sea-urchin Paracentrotus lividus and the bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis. In a first series of experiments, brine, with salinity above 300, was diluted in distilled water to a salinity value close to that of the seawater in the discharge area (salinity 36) and, surprisingly, none of the exposed species was able to survive or develop into viable larvae. A second series of experiments exposed the species to brine diluted with seawater, simulating more realistic discharge circumstances. All the tested species at all the measured endpoints (adult survival, larval abnormal development, sperm fertilization success) showed negative biological effects in brine solutes always at a lower salinity than that of a salinity control obtained with concentrated seawater. The sub-lethal experiments with larval development of P. lividus, S. alveolata and M. galloprovincialis, and the fertilization success of P. lividus gave EC 50 values for the brine solute with salinity in the range of 40.9-43.5, whereas the EC 50 values for the concentrated seawater were in the range of salinity 44.2-49.0. It is hypothesised that differences in the ionic composition of the brine cause the inability of the species to tolerate the exposure to brine.

  10. Numerical analysis of seawater circulation in carbonate platforms: II. The dynamic interaction between geothermal and brine reflux circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G.D.; Whitaker, F.F.; Smart, P.L.; Sanford, W.E.

    2004-01-01

    Density-driven seawater circulation may occur in carbonate platforms due to geothermal heating and / or reflux of water of elevated salinity. In geothermal circulation lateral contrasts in temperature between seawater and platform groundwaters warmed by the geothermal heat flux result in upward convective flow, with colder seawater drawn into the platform at depth. With reflux circulation, platform-top waters concentrated by evaporation flow downward, displacing less dense underlying groundwaters. We have used a variable density groundwater flow model to examine the pattern, magnitude and interaction of these two different circulation mechanisms, for mesosaline platform-top waters (50???) and brines concentrated up to saturation with respect to gypsum (150???) and halite (246???). Geothermal circulation, most active around the platform margin, becomes restricted and eventually shut-off by reflux of brines from the platform interior towards the margin. The persistence of geothermal circulation is dependent on the rate of brine reflux, which is proportional to the concentration of platform-top brines and also critically dependent on the magnitude and distribution of permeability. Low permeability evaporites can severely restrict reflux whereas high permeability units in hydraulic continuity enhance brine transport. Reduction in permeability with depth and anisotropy of permeability (kv < < kh) focuses flow laterally in the shallow subsurface (<1 km), resulting in a horizontally elongated brine plume. Aquifer porosity and dispersivity are relatively minor controls on reflux. Platform brines can entrain surficial seawater when brine generating conditions cease but the platform-top remains submerged, a variant of reflux we term "latent reflux". Brines concentrated up to gypsum saturation have relatively long residence times of at least 100 times the duration of the reflux event. They thus represent a long-term control on post-reflux groundwater circulation, and

  11. Application of a Re-Pd bimetallic catalyst for treatment of perchlorate in waste ion-exchange regenerant brine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinyong; Choe, Jong Kwon; Sasnow, Zachary; Werth, Charles J; Strathmann, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    Concentrated sodium chloride (NaCl) brines are often used to regenerate ion-exchange (IX) resins applied to treat drinking water sources contaminated with perchlorate (ClO(4)(-)), generating large volumes of contaminated waste brine. Chemical and biological processes for ClO(4)(-) reduction are often inhibited severely by high salt levels, making it difficult to recycle waste brines. Recent work demonstrated that novel rhenium-palladium bimetallic catalysts on activated carbon support (Re-Pd/C) can efficiently reduce ClO(4)(-) to chloride (Cl(-)) under acidic conditions, and here the applicability of the process for treating waste IX brines was examined. Experiments conducted in synthetic NaCl-only brine (6-12 wt%) showed higher Re-Pd/C catalyst activity than in comparable freshwater solutions, but the rate constant for ClO(4)(-) reduction measured in a real IX waste brine was found to be 65 times lower than in the synthetic NaCl brine. Through a series of experiments, co-contamination of the IX waste brine by excess NO(3)(-) (which the catalyst reduces principally to NH(4)(+)) was found to be the primary cause for deactivation of the Re-Pd/C catalyst, most likely by altering the immobilized Re component. Pre-treatment of NO(3)(-) using a different bimetallic catalyst (In-Pd/Al(2)O(3)) improved selectivity for N(2) over NH(4)(+) and enabled facile ClO(4)(-) reduction by the Re-Pd/C catalyst. Thus, sequential catalytic treatment may be a promising strategy for enabling reuse of waste IX brine containing NO(3)(-) and ClO(4)(-).

  12. Effect of brine marination on survival and growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria during processing and subsequent storage of ready-to-eat shrimp (Pandalus borealis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Ole; Devitt, Tina D.; Dalgaard, Paw

    2012-01-01

    and growth during processing and subsequent storage of brined and drained shrimp in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). Different brines with (i) acetic and lactic acids (AL) or (ii) benzoic, citric and sorbic acids (BCS) were studied. V. parahaemolyticus was inactivated in brine AL without shrimp whereas...... of the examined pathogens was able to grow at 7°C in brined and drained MAP shrimp that resembled commercial products. However, reducing the concentration of acetic and lactic acids by 50% resulted in relatively fast growth of L. monocytogenes in brined and drained MAP shrimp at 7°C. Growth of S. aureus...... and Salmonella was observed in similar products stored at 15°C. V. parahaemolyticus was reduced in brined and drained MAP shrimp stored at both 7 and 15°C. Based on the results of the present study, L. monocytogenes was identified as the greatest potential risk with respect to the safety of brined and drained...

  13. CO2-brine-mineral Reactions in Geological Carbon Storage: Results from an EOR Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, H.; Wigley, M.; Bickle, M.; Kampman, N.; Dubacq, B.; Galy, A.; Ballentine, C.; Zhou, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Dissolution of CO2 in brines and reactions of the acid brines ultimately dissolving silicate minerals and precipitating carbonate minerals are the prime long-term mechanisms for stabilising the light supercritical CO2 in geological carbon storage. However the rates of dissolution are very uncertain as they are likely to depend on the heterogeneity of the flow of CO2, the possibility of convective instability of the denser CO2-saturated brines and on fluid-mineral reactions which buffer brine acidity. We report the results of sampling brines and gases during a phase of CO2 injection for enhanced oil recovery in a small oil field. Brines and gases were sampled at production wells daily for 3 months after initiation of CO2 injection and again for two weeks after 5 months. Noble gas isotopic spikes were detected at producing wells within days of initial CO2 injection but signals continued for weeks, and at some producers for the duration of the sampling period, attesting to the complexity of gas-species pathways. Interpretations are complicated by the previous history of the oil field and re-injection of produced water prior to injection of CO2. However water sampled from some producing wells during the phase of CO2 injection showed monotonic increases in alkalinity and in concentrations of major cations to levels in excess of those in the injected water. The marked increase in Na, and smaller increases in Ca, Mg, Si, K and Sr are interpreted primarily to result from silicate dissolution as the lack of increase in S and Cl concentrations preclude additions of more saline waters. Early calcite dissolution was followed by re-precipitation. 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the waters apparently exceed the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of acetic and hydrochloric acid leaches of carbonate fractions of the reservoir rocks and the silicate residues from the leaching. This may indicate incongruent dissolution of Sr or larger scale isotopic heterogeneity of the reservoir. This is being investigated

  14. Co-Sequestration Geochemical Modeling: Simple Brine Solution + CO2-O2-SO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verba, C.; Kutchko, B. G.; Reed, M. H.

    2012-12-01

    Class H well cement (LaFarge) was exposed to supercritical CO2 to evaluate the impact of brine chemistry on the well cement. Simulated experimental downhole conditions include a pressure of 28.6 MPa and a temperature of 50oC. Brine composition was formulated from the NETL NATCARB database, resulting in a simple solution of 1 M (NaCl, MgCl2, CaCl2). It was determined that the brine chemistry plays a vital role in determining the degree and type of alteration of cement in carbon sequestration conditions. The implications of co-sequestration (CO2/O2/SO2 mixtures) from of oxy-fueled combustion, coal gasification and sour gas have been considered. Geochemical modeling was conducted to understand the interaction between formation brine, cement and co-contaminant gases, using a gas composition of 95.5% CO2, 4% O2, and 1.5% SO2. The modeling results are significant in determining the validity of co-sequestering coal flue gas containing SOx gases or sour hydrocarbon gas which could potentially produce pyrite or other sulfur-bearing species in the cement via mineralization trapping. Thermodynamic components of aqueous species, gases, and minerals were used to calculate the pH and mineral saturation indices using CHIM-XPT. The computed pH of the solution is 4.34. The total sulfate molality within the brine is 0.0095 M. In experimental conditions of 600 mL of brine, 0.0057 moles of sulfate will be converted into 5.7 mL of sulfuric acid. The modeling shows that an excess of 31% O2 forms, indicating that H2S from SO2 disporportionation is oxidized to sulfate, thus no gaseous H2S will form. Remaining SO2 in the experimental headspace has a predicted mole fraction is 10-46. Additional SO2 gas added to the system produces the reaction to precipitate gypsum. Additional gas reactions precipitate gypsum, anhydrite, calcite, and dolomite.

  15. Investigation of oil injection into brine for the strategic petroleum reserve : hydrodynamics experiments with simulant liquids.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda, Jaime N.; Shollenberger, Kim Ann (California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA); Torczynski, John Robert; Cote, Raymond O.; Barney, Jeremy; O' Hern, Timothy John

    2003-10-01

    An experimental program is being conducted to study a proposed approach for oil reintroduction in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The goal is to assess whether useful oil is rendered unusable through formation of a stable oil-brine emulsion during reintroduction of degassed oil into the brine layer in storage caverns. This report documents the first stage of the program, in which simulant liquids are used to characterize the buoyant plume that is produced when a jet of crude oil is injected downward from a tube into brine. The experiment consists of a large transparent vessel that is a scale model of the proposed oil injection process at the SPR. An oil layer is floated on top of a brine layer. Silicon oil (Dow Corning 200{reg_sign} Fluid, 5 cSt) is used as the simulant for crude oil to allow visualization of the flow and to avoid flammability and related concerns. Sodium nitrate solution is used as the simulant for brine because it is not corrosive and it can match the density ratio between brine and crude oil. The oil is injected downward through a tube into the brine at a prescribed depth below the oil-brine interface. Flow rates are determined by scaling to match the ratio of buoyancy to momentum between the experiment and the SPR. Initially, the momentum of the flow produces a downward jet of oil below the tube end. Subsequently, the oil breaks up into droplets due to shear forces, buoyancy dominates the flow, and a plume of oil droplets rises to the interface. The interface is deflected upward by the impinging oil-brine plume. Two different diameter injection tubes were used (1/2-inch and 1-inch OD) to vary the scaling. Use of the 1-inch injection tube also assured that turbulent pipe flow was achieved, which was questionable for lower flow rates in the 1/2-inch tube. In addition, a 1/2-inch J-tube was used to direct the buoyant jet upwards rather than downwards to determine whether flow redirection could substantially reduce the oil-plume size and the

  16. Survival of Bifidobacterium longum and its effect on physicochemical properties and sensorial attributes of white brined cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursoy, Oguz; Gokce, Ramazan; Con, Ahmet Hilmi; Kinik, Ozer

    2014-11-01

    Survival of the probiotic adjunct culture Bifidobacterium longum and cheese starters during ripening of white brined cheese, effect of the probiotic culture on physicochemical properties and sensorial attributes of cheeses were investigated throughout 90 d of ripening. Bifidobacterium longum were able to survive at higher levels (>10(7 )cfu/g cheese) than the therapeutic minimum (10(6)-10(7 )cfu/g cheese) after 90 d and did not have any negative effect on the survival of Streptococcus spp. (including common cheese starters). Incorporation of the probiotic adjunct into white brined cheese and high levels of their survival rates during ripening had an insignificant effect on the composition of cheeses. Results indicated that white brined cheese is a suitable food matrix for the delivery of B. longum used in this study, and white brined cheeses with B. longum may be considered as a probiotic dairy product.

  17. Variations in isotopic compositions of chlorine in evaporation-controlled salt lake brines of Qaidam Basin, China

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Xiao, Ying-kai; Liu, Wei-guo; Zhou, Y.M.; Wang, Yun-hui; Shirodkar, P.V.

    The variations in the isotopic compositions of chlorine in evaporation-controlled saline lake brines were determined by using an improved procedure for precise measurement of chlorine isotopes based on Cs sub(2) Cl sup(+) ion by thermal ionization...

  18. NASA TechPort Entry for Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA) CL IR&D Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensinger, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    The Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA) project will result in a proof-of-concept demonstration for a lightweight, compact, affordable, regenerable and disposable solution to brine water recovery. The heart of CoBRA is an evaporator that produces water vapor from brine. This evaporator leverages a novel design that enables passive transport of brine from place to place within the system. While it will be necessary to build or modify a system for testing the CoBRA concept, the emphasis of this project will be on developing the evaporator itself. This project will utilize a “test early, test often” approach, building at least one trial evaporator to guide the design of the final product.

  19. Methanotrophy and sulfate reduction at the interface between Mediterranean seawater and the MgCl2-dominated Kryos brine basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinle, Lea; Felber, Nicole; Casalino, Claudia; de Lange, Gert J.; Lehmann, Moritz F.; Stadnitskaia, Alina; Sinninghe Damste, Jaap S.; Tessarolo, Chiara; Treude, Tina; Zopfi, Jakob; Niemann, Helge

    2014-05-01

    The Kryos brine basin is located at ˜3000m water depth in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. The anoxic brine originates from subsurface Messinian evaporites and is dominated by very high concentrations of MgCl2-equivalents (˜5M), making this environment challenging for live. The strong density difference between the brine and the overlying Mediterranean seawater impedes mixing, and the seawater-brine interface is thus characterized by a strong redox gradient. In the redoxcline, we observed sharp sulfate, sulfide and methane concentration gradients, from seawater background concentrations to high concentrations in the brine (˜150 mM sulfate, ˜250 μM sulfide, ˜50 μM methane). Right at the interface, under micro-oxic conditions, we determined methane oxidation rates of up to 60 nM/day, and sulfate reduction rates of up to 15 μM/day. Our findings of 13C-depleted biomarkers typical for aerobic methanotrophs (diplopterol, fatty acid C16:1ω8) indicate an aerobic mode of methane oxidation independent of sulfate reduction. Below the interface (within the anoxic brine), the presence of both methane and sulfate would make the anaerobic oxidation of methane with sulfate (AOM) thermodynamically feasible. However, while sulfate reduction rates were very high (500 μM/day), methane oxidation rates were not detectable suggesting inhibition of AOM. In the brine, we detected high concentrations of an unusual fatty acid (10Me-C16:0) indicative for sulfate reducing bacteria, which might be responsible for the high sulfate reduction rates. In addition, we also found archaeal lipids (archaeol, PMI) moderately depleted in 13C. Considering the absence of AOM activity, these lipids suggest a methanogenic, rather than methanotrophic origin of the archaea within the brine. All these results provide new and exciting insight into life in an extreme environment.

  20. Valorisation of Ca and Mg by-products from mining and seawater desalination brines for water treatment applications

    OpenAIRE

    Casas Garriga, Sandra; Aladjem, Carlos; Larrotcha, Enric; Gibert Agulló, Oriol; Valderrama Angel, César Alberto; Cortina Pallás, José Luís

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUNDBrines from the drainage of potash mine tailings and from seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination were previously evaluated as sources of NaCl for the chlor-alkali industry. Valorisation of NaCl as raw material is required to meet the membrane electrolysis specifications of NaCl saturation and control of interferences (Ca, Mg and sulphate). Brines concentration in NaCl was previously achieved for SWRO brines using electrodialysis (ED). In this work, valorisation of Ca and Mg by...

  1. Inland Treatment of the Brine Generated from Reverse Osmosis Advanced Membrane Wastewater Treatment Plant Using Epuvalisation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qurie, Mohannad; Abbadi, Jehad; Scrano, Laura; Mecca, Gennaro; Bufo, Sabino A.; Khamis, Mustafa; Karaman, Rafik

    2013-01-01

    The reverse osmosis (RO) brine generated from the Al-Quds University wastewater treatment plant was treated using an epuvalisation system. The advanced integrated wastewater treatment plant included an activated sludge unit, two consecutive ultrafiltration (UF) membrane filters (20 kD and 100 kD cutoffs) followed by an activated carbon filter and a reverse osmosis membrane. The epuvalisation system consisted of salt tolerant plants grown in hydroponic channels under continuous water flowing in a closed loop system, and placed in a greenhouse at Al-Quds University. Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) plants were selected, and underwent two consecutive hydroponic flowing stages using different brine-concentrations: an adaptation stage, in which a 1:1 mixture of brine and fresh water was used; followed by a functioning stage, with 100% brine. A control treatment using fresh water was included as well. The experiment started in April and ended in June (2012). At the end of the experiment, analysis of the effluent brine showed a remarkable decrease of electroconductivity (EC), PO43−, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and K+ with a reduction of 60%, 74%, 70%, and 60%, respectively, as compared to the influent. The effluent of the control treatment showed 50%, 63%, 46%, and 90% reduction for the same parameters as compared to the influent. Plant growth parameters (plant height, fresh and dry weight) showed no significant difference between fresh water and brine treatments. Obtained results suggest that the epuvalisation system is a promising technique for inland brine treatment with added benefits. The increasing of channel number or closed loop time is estimated for enhancing the treatment process and increasing the nutrient uptake. Nevertheless, the epuvalisation technique is considered to be simple, efficient and low cost for inland RO brine treatment. PMID:23823802

  2. Inland Treatment of the Brine Generated from Reverse Osmosis Advanced Membrane Wastewater Treatment Plant Using Epuvalisation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohannad Qurie

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The reverse osmosis (RO brine generated from the Al-Quds University wastewater treatment plant was treated using an epuvalisation system. The advanced integrated wastewater treatment plant included an activated sludge unit, two consecutive ultrafiltration (UF membrane filters (20 kD and 100 kD cutoffs followed by an activated carbon filter and a reverse osmosis membrane. The epuvalisation system consisted of salt tolerant plants grown in hydroponic channels under continuous water flowing in a closed loop system, and placed in a greenhouse at Al-Quds University. Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum plants were selected, and underwent two consecutive hydroponic flowing stages using different brine-concentrations: an adaptation stage, in which a 1:1 mixture of brine and fresh water was used; followed by a functioning stage, with 100% brine. A control treatment using fresh water was included as well. The experiment started in April and ended in June (2012. At the end of the experiment, analysis of the effluent brine showed a remarkable decrease of electroconductivity (EC, PO43−, chemical oxygen demand (COD and K+ with a reduction of 60%, 74%, 70%, and 60%, respectively, as compared to the influent. The effluent of the control treatment showed 50%, 63%, 46%, and 90% reduction for the same parameters as compared to the influent. Plant growth parameters (plant height, fresh and dry weight showed no significant difference between fresh water and brine treatments. Obtained results suggest that the epuvalisation system is a promising technique for inland brine treatment with added benefits. The increasing of channel number or closed loop time is estimated for enhancing the treatment process and increasing the nutrient uptake. Nevertheless, the epuvalisation technique is considered to be simple, efficient and low cost for inland RO brine treatment.

  3. Inland treatment of the brine generated from reverse osmosis advanced membrane wastewater treatment plant using epuvalisation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qurie, Mohannad; Abbadi, Jehad; Scrano, Laura; Mecca, Gennaro; Bufo, Sabino A; Khamis, Mustafa; Karaman, Rafik

    2013-07-03

    The reverse osmosis (RO) brine generated from the Al-Quds University wastewater treatment plant was treated using an epuvalisation system. The advanced integrated wastewater treatment plant included an activated sludge unit, two consecutive ultrafiltration (UF) membrane filters (20 kD and 100 kD cutoffs) followed by an activated carbon filter and a reverse osmosis membrane. The epuvalisation system consisted of salt tolerant plants grown in hydroponic channels under continuous water flowing in a closed loop system, and placed in a greenhouse at Al-Quds University. Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) plants were selected, and underwent two consecutive hydroponic flowing stages using different brine-concentrations: an adaptation stage, in which a 1:1 mixture of brine and fresh water was used; followed by a functioning stage, with 100% brine. A control treatment using fresh water was included as well. The experiment started in April and ended in June (2012). At the end of the experiment, analysis of the effluent brine showed a remarkable decrease of electroconductivity (EC), PO43-, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and K+ with a reduction of 60%, 74%, 70%, and 60%, respectively, as compared to the influent. The effluent of the control treatment showed 50%, 63%, 46%, and 90% reduction for the same parameters as compared to the influent. Plant growth parameters (plant height, fresh and dry weight) showed no significant difference between fresh water and brine treatments. Obtained results suggest that the epuvalisation system is a promising technique for inland brine treatment with added benefits. The increasing of channel number or closed loop time is estimated for enhancing the treatment process and increasing the nutrient uptake. Nevertheless, the epuvalisation technique is considered to be simple, efficient and low cost for inland RO brine treatment.

  4. Valorisation of Ca and Mg by-products from mining and seawater desalination brines for water treatment applications

    OpenAIRE

    Casas Garriga, Sandra; Aladjem, Carlos; Larrotcha, Enric; Gibert Agulló, Oriol; Valderrama Angel, César Alberto; Cortina Pallás, José Luís

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUNDBrines from the drainage of potash mine tailings and from seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination were previously evaluated as sources of NaCl for the chlor-alkali industry. Valorisation of NaCl as raw material is required to meet the membrane electrolysis specifications of NaCl saturation and control of interferences (Ca, Mg and sulphate). Brines concentration in NaCl was previously achieved for SWRO brines using electrodialysis (ED). In this work, valorisation of Ca and Mg by...

  5. Chemistry of brines in salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), southeastern New Mexico: a preliminary investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, C.L.; Krumhansl, J.L.

    1986-03-01

    We present here analyses of macro- and microscopic (intracrystalline) brines observed within the WIPP facility and in the surrounding halite, with interpretations regarding the origin and history of these fluids and their potential effect(s) on long-term waste storage. During excavation, several large fluid inclusions were recovered from an area of highly recrystallized halite in a thick salt bed at the repository horizon (2150 ft below ground level). In addition, 52 samples of brine ''weeps'' were collected from walls of recently excavated drifts at the same stratigraphic horizon from which the fluid inclusion samples are assumed to have been taken. Analyses of these fluids show that they differ substantially in composition from the inclusion fluids and cannot be explained by mixing of the fluid inclusion populations. Finally, holes in the facility floor that filled with brine were sampled but with no stratographic control; therefore it is not possible to interpret the compositions of these brines with any accuracy, except insofar as they resemble the weep compositions but with greater variation in both K/Mg and Na/Cl ratios. However, the Ca and SO/sub 4/ values for the floor holes are relatively close to the gypsum saturation curve, suggesting that brines filling floor holes have been modified by the presence of gypsum or anhydrite, possibly even originating in one or more of the laterally continuous anhydrite units referred to in the WIPP literature as marker beds. In conclusion, the wide compositional variety of fluids found in the WIPP workings suggest that (1) an interconnected hydrologic system which could effectively transport radonuclides away from the repository does not exist; (2) brine migration studies and experiments must consider the mobility of intergranular fluids as well as those in inclusions; and (3) near- and far-field radionuclide migration testing programs need to consider a wide range of brine compositions rather than a

  6. Short-lived brine infiltration during upper amphibolite facies metamorphism in the continental collision zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashino, Fumiko; Kawakami, Tetsuo; Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi; Satish-Kumar, Madhusoodhan; Ishikawa, Masahiro; Grantham, Geoffrey; Sakata, Shuhei; Hirata, Takafumi

    2017-04-01

    The importance of brine is increasingly recognized because of its role on mass transportation at the mid- to lower-crustal pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions (e.g., Newton & Manning, 2010). However, the passage and residence times of brine are not well understood. This study deals with garnet-hornblende (Grt-Hbl) veins, discordantly cutting the gneissose structure of garnet-orthopyroxene-hornblende gneiss from the central Sør Rondane Mountains (SRM), East Antarctica. The Cl contents of hornblende and biotite, K content of hornblende, and the thickness of Na-richer rims of plagioclase decreased with distance from the Grt-Hbl vein. The P-T conditions of the vein formation were estimated to be 680 °C, 0.69 GPa (Higashino et al., under review). In the wall rock in the vicinity of the vein, addition of Li, Cu, Rb, Ba, Pb, and U, which tend to be mobile in brines rather than in melts is observed, using Zr as an immobile element (Higashino et al., 2015). This indicates that the Grt-Hbl vein was formed by the infiltration of NaCl-KCl brine. Trace element concentrations in the wall rock minerals decrease with distance from the vein, and in most cases show concave up/down profiles. Distances where these concentrations in each mineral species become constant are dependent on elements, and not on mineral species. These profiles can be best modelled by diffusion equations, suggesting that the diffusion is the major process transferring the trace elements perpendicular to the vein. Although plagioclase does not show significant trace element zoning within each single grain, the discontinuous drop of anorthite content at rims is preserved. Thin brine films in grain boundaries presumably caused dissolution-reprecipitation (e.g., Ruiz-Agudo et al., 2014), and lattice diffusion in plagioclase would have followed this to form homogeneous trace element zonings. Therefore, the main process of brine infiltration into the wall rock is possibly grain boundary diffusion in wet

  7. Toxicity testing of restorative dental materials using brine shrimp larvae (Artemia salina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhem, Manar M; Al-Hiyasat, Ahmad S; Darmani, Homa

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of extracts of different composites, glass ionomer cement (GIC)s and compomers on the viability of brine shrimp larvae. Ethanolic extracts of four dental composites (Z-100; Solitaire 2; Filtek P60 and Synergy), a conventional GIC (Ketac-Fil), a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitremer), two compomers (F2000; Dyract AP), and a flowable compomer (Dyract Flow) were prepared from each material. Following evaporation of the ethanol, the extracts were resuspended in distilled water, which was then used to test the effects on the viability of brine shrimp larvae. For the composites, the extract of Synergy was the least toxic (88% viability) followed by the extracts of Solitaire 2, Z100 and P60 (75%, 67.5% and 50% viability, respectively). One-way ANOVA revealed highly significant differences between the resin composite materials (pbrine shrimp larvae followed by GICs and then composites.

  8. Interactive effect of selenium and mercury on development and mortality of brine shrimp, Artemia sp.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsythe, B.L. II; Bailey, F.C.; Klaine, S.J. [Clemson Univ., Pendleton, SC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The interactions between organic mercury and selenium derivatives are well documented. Inorganic mercury has been shown to have a deleterious effect on the development of brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana while selenate has no effect. In this study, concentrations as low as 0.1 mg/l Hg (as Hg(NO{sub 3})2) slowed the rate of development. Selenate concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 5.0 mg/l as Se decreased the effect of Hg on brine shrimp developmental rate. Both selenate and inorganic mercury alone produced a dose-response with respect to nauplii mortality. Preliminary data suggest that combinations of selenate and inorganic mercury act antagonistically to lower this mortality.

  9. Aromatic hydrocarbons associated with brines from geopressured wells. Annual report, fiscal 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeley, D.F.; Meriwether, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    Samples of cryocondensates - materials condensed at - 78.5/sup 0/C were taken on a regular basis from the gas stream for the USDOE geopressured wells. Most of the data has been taken from the Gladys McCall well as it has flowed on a regular and almost continous basis. The cryocondensates, not the ''condensate'' from gas wells, are almost exclusively aromatic hydrocarbons, primarily benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and the xylenes, but contain over 95 compounds, characterized using gas chromatographic-mass spectroscopy. The solubility in water and brine of benezene, toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene, some of the components of the cryocondensate, as well as distribution coefficients between water or brine and a standard oil have been measured. 25 refs.

  10. Efficient acetylation of primary amines and amino acids in environmentally benign brine solution using acetyl chloride

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kaushik Basu; Suchandra Chakraborty; Achintya Kumar Sarkar; Chandan Saha

    2013-05-01

    Acetyl chloride is one of the most commonly available and cheap acylating agent but its high reactivity and concomitant instability in water precludes its use to carry out acetylation in aqueous medium. The present methodology illustrates the efficient acetylation of primary amines and amino acids in brine solution by means of acetyl chloride under weakly basic condition in the presence of sodium acetate and/or triethyl amine followed by trituration with aqueous saturated bicarbonate solution. This effort represents the first efficient use of this most reactive but cheap acetylating agent to acetylate amines in excellent yields in aqueous medium. This is a potentially useful green chemical transformation where reaction takes place in environment-friendly brine solution leading to easy work-up and isolation of the amide derivatives. Mechanistic rationale of this methodology is also important.

  11. Phylogeography and local endemism of the native Mediterranean brine shrimp Artemia salina (Branchiopoda: Anostraca)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Joaquin; Gómez, Africa; Green, Andy J.;

    2008-01-01

    There has been a recent appreciation of the ecological impacts of zooplanktonic species invasions. The North American brine shrimp Artemia franciscana is one such alien invader in hyper-saline water ecosystems at a global scale. It has been shown to outcompete native Artemia species, leading...... to their local extinction. We used partial sequences of the mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit 1 (COI or cox1) gene to investigate the genetic diversity and phylogeography of A. salina, an extreme halophilic sexual brine shrimp, over its known distribution range (Mediterranean Basin and South Africa......) and to assess the extent of local endemism, the degree of population structure and the potential impact of traditional human saltpan management on this species. We also examined the phylogenetic relationships in the genus Artemia using COI sequences. Our results show extensive regional endemism and indicate...

  12. Corrosion Behavior of Titanium Grade 7 in Fluoride-Containing NaCl Brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, T; Whalen, M T; Wong, L

    2004-10-25

    The effects of fluoride on the corrosion behavior of Titanium Grade 7 (0.12-0.25% Pd) have been investigated. Up to 0.1 mol/L fluoride was added to the NaCl brines at 95 C, and three pH values of 4, 8, and 11 were selected for studying pH dependence of fluoride effects. It was observed that fluoride significantly altered the anodic polarization behavior, at all three pH values of 4, 8, and 11. Under acidic condition fluoride caused active corrosion. The corrosion of Titanium grade 7 was increased by three orders of magnitude when a 0.1 mol/L fluoride was added to the NaCl brines at pH 4, and the Pd ennoblement effect was not observed in acidic fluoride-containing environments. The effects of fluoride were reduced significantly when pH was increased to 8 and above.

  13. Microbial succession and the functional potential during the fermentation of Chinese soy sauce brine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanita eSulaiman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The quality of traditional Chinese soy sauce is determined by microbial communities and their inter-related metabolic roles in the fermentation tank. In this study, traditional Chinese soy sauce brine samples were obtained periodically to monitor the transitions of the microbial population and functional properties during the six months of fermentation process. Whole genome shotgun (WGS method revealed that the fermentation brine was dominated by the bacterial genus Weissella and later dominated by the fungal genus Candida. Metabolic reconstruction of the metagenome sequences demonstrated a characteristic profile of heterotrophic fermentation of proteins and carbohydrates. This was supported by the detection of ethanol with stable decrease of pH values. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that explores the temporal changes in microbial successions over a period of six months, through metagenome shotgun sequencing in traditional Chinese soy sauce fermentation and the biological processes therein.

  14. Bacterial use of choline to tolerate salinity shifts in sea-ice brines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Firth, E.; Carpenter, S. D.; Sørensen, H. L.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria within the brine network of sea ice experience temperature-driven fluctuations in salinity on both short and long temporal scales, yet their means of osmoprotection against such fluctuations is poorly understood. One mechanism used to withstand the ion fluxes caused by salinity shifts...... brines drained from sea ice in Kanajorsuit Bay (2013) and Kobbefjord (2014), Greenland, we measured the utilization of 14C-choline (precursor to glycine betaine, a common compatible solute) at -1°C upon salinity shifts to double and to half the starting salinity. In all cases and across a range...... of starting salinities, when salinity was increased, 14C-solute (choline or derivatives) was preferentially retained as an intracellular osmolyte; when salinity was decreased, 14C-choline was preferentially respired to 14CO2. Additional experiments with cold-adapted bacteria in culture indicated...

  15. Antioxidant activities and functional properties of protein and peptide fractions isolated from salted herring brine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taheri, Ali; Farvin, Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    to delay iron catalyzed lipid oxidation in 5% fish oil in water emulsions and the 10–50kDa fraction was the best. These results show the potential of proteins and peptide fractions recovered from waste water from the herring industry as source of natural antioxidants for use in food products.......In the present study proteins isolated from herring brine, which is a by-product of marinated herring production were evaluated for their functional properties and antioxidant activity. Herring brine was collected from the local herring industry and proteins were precipitated by adjusting the p......H to 4.5 and the obtained supernatant was further fractionated by using ultrafiltration membranes with molecular weight cut offs of 50, 10 and 1kDa. The obtained >50kDa, 50–10kDa, 10–1kDa fractions and pH precipitated fraction were studied for their functional properties and antioxidant activity...

  16. Microbiology of the Red Sea (and other) deep-sea anoxic brine lakes

    KAUST Repository

    Antunes, Andre

    2011-05-30

    Summary: The Red Sea harbours approximately 25 deep-sea anoxic brine pools. They constitute extremely unique and complex habitats with the conjugation of several extreme physicochemical parameters rendering them some of the most inhospitable environments on Earth. After 50 years of research mostly driven by chemists, geophysicists and geologists, the microbiology of the brines has been receiving increased interest in the last decade. Recent molecular and cultivation-based studies have provided us with a first glimpse on the enormous biodiversity of the local microbial communities, the identification of several new taxonomic groups, and the isolation of novel extremophiles that thrive in these environments. This review presents a general overview of these unusual biotopes and compares them with other similar environments in the Mediterranean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, with a focus on their microbial ecology. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Chemistry and geothermometry of brine produced from the Salton Sea Scientific drill hole, Imperial Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J.M.; Fournier, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    The December 29-30, 1985, flow test of the State 2-14 well, also known as the Salton Sea Scientific drill hole, produced fluid from a depth of 1865-1877 m at a reservoir temperature of 305????5??C. Samples were collected at five different flashing pressures. The brines are Na-Ca-K-Cl-type waters with very high metal and low SO4 and HCO3 contents. Compositions of the flashed brines were normalized relative to the 25??C densities of the solutions, and an ionic charge balance was achieved by adjusting the Na concentration. Calculated Na/K geothermometer temperatures, using equations suggested by different investigators, range from 326?? to 364??C. The Mg/K2 method gives a temperature of about 350??C, Mg/Li2 about 282??, and Na/Li 395??-418??C. -from Authors

  18. Geochemistry of hydropressured brines in South Louisiana: potential for reaction with injected geopressured waste waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanor, J.S.; Bebout, D.G.; Bachman, A.L. (eds.)

    1981-01-01

    Hydropressured, saline-water sands are being considered as possible sites for the disposal of geopressured-geothermal waste waters in South Louisiana. Probable injection horizons would most likely contain native brines of 120 to 140 g/l TDS. These brines show wide ranges in concentration of dissolved Ca, Sr, Ba, Fe, SO/sub 4/, and HCO/sub 3/, even within a restricted range of salinities. The probability is high that mineral precipitation will occur if untreated geopressured wastes are mixed with these waters. Clay migration and additional plugging of the injection well is possible if the injected wastes are significantly less saline than the native fluids. Costs of site-specific geochemical evaluation and chemical pre-treatment are thus factors which must be considered in the economic evaluation of deep well disposal of geopressured wastes in South Louisiana.

  19. Recovery Act: Molecular Simulation of Dissolved Inorganic Carbons for Underground Brine CO2 Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goddard, William

    2012-11-30

    To further our understanding and develop the method for measuring the DICs under geological sequestration conditions, we studied the infrared spectra of DICs under high pressure and temperature conditions. First principles simulations of DICs in brine conditions were performed using a highly optimized ReaxFF-DIC forcefield. The thermodynamics stability of each species were determined using the 2PT method, and shown to be consistent with the Reax simulations. More importantly, we have presented the IR spectra of DIC in real brine conditions as a function of temperature and pressure. At near earth conditions, we find a breaking of the O-C-O bending modes into asymmetric and symmetric modes, separated by 100cm{sup -1} at 400K and 5 GPa. These results can now be used to calibrate FTIR laser measurements.

  20. West Hackberry Brine Disposal Project pre-discharge characterization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C. (eds.)

    1982-01-01

    The physical, chemical and biological attributes are described for: (1) a coastal marine environment centered about a Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) brine disposal site 11.4 km off the southwest coast of Louisiana; and (2) the lower Calcasieu and Sabine estuarine systems that provide leach waters for the SPR project. A three month sampling effort, February through April 1981, and previous investigations from the study area are integrated to establish baseline information for evaluation of impacts from brine disposal in the nearshore marine waters and from freshwater withdrawal from the coastal marsh of the Chenier Plain. January data are included for some tasks that sampled while testing and mobilizing their instruments prior to the February field effort. The study addresses the areas of physical oceanography, estuarine hydrology and hydrography, water and sediment quality, benthos, nekton, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and data management.

  1. Determination of the protein content in brine from salted herring using near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, V.T.; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch; Bro, Rasmus

    2004-01-01

    Near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy in the spectral range of 1000-2500 nm, was measured directly on brine from barrel salted herring, to investigate the potential of NIR as a fast method to determine the protein content. A principal component analysis performed on the NIR spectra shows two...... clearly indicate that NIR spectroscopy has a potential as a fast and noninvasive method for assessing the protein content in brine from barrel salted herring, which again may be used as an indicator for the ripening quality of barrel salted herring....... groups, separating the first 100 days of storage from the storage time exceeding 100 days. A partial least-squares regression model between selected regions of the NIR spectra and the protein content yields a correlation coefficient of 0.93 and a prediction error (RMSECV) of 0.25 g/100 g. The results...

  2. Linking near- and far-field hydrodynamic models for simulation of desalination plant brine discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, D A; Barry, M E; Collecutt, G C; Brook, J; Wiltshire, D

    2013-01-01

    A desalination plant is proposed to be the major water supply to the Olympic Dam Expansion Mining project. Located in the Upper Spencer Gulf, South Australia, the site was chosen due to the existence of strong currents and their likely advantages in terms of mixing and dilution of discharged return water. A high-resolution hydrodynamic model (Estuary, Lake and Coastal Ocean Model, ELCOM) was constructed and, through a rigorous review process, was shown to reproduce the intricate details of the Spencer Gulf dynamics, including those characterising the discharge site. Notwithstanding this, it was found that deploying typically adopted 'direct insertion' techniques to simulate the brine discharge within the hydrodynamic model was problematic. Specifically, it was found that in this study the direct insertion technique delivered highly conservative brine dilution predictions in and around the proposed site, and that these were grid and time-step dependent. To improve the predictive capability, a strategy to link validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions to hydrodynamic simulations was devised. In this strategy, environmental conditions from ELCOM were used to produce boundary conditions for execution of a suite of CFD simulations. In turn, the CFD simulations provided the brine dilutions and flow rates to be applied in ELCOM. In order to conserve mass in a system-wide sense, artificial salt sinks were introduced to the ELCOM model such that salt quantities were conserved. As a result of this process, ELCOM predictions were naturally very similar to CFD predictions near the diffuser, whilst at the same time they produced an area of influence (further afield) comparable to direct insertion methods. It was concluded that the linkage of the models, in comparison to direct insertion methods, constituted a more realistic and defensible alternative to predict the far-field dispersion of outfall discharges, particularly with regards to the estimation of brine

  3. Recovery of biomolecules from marinated herring (Clupea harengus) brine using ultrafiltration through ceramic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gringer, Nina; Hosseini, Seyed Vali; Svendsen, Tore;

    2015-01-01

    on recovery of high value biomolecules such as proteins, fatty acids, minerals, and phenolic compounds. Chemical and biological oxygen demand (COD, BOD5) as well as total suspended solids (TSS) were also measured to follow the performance of the ultrafiltration. The retentates contained 75-82% (95% TSS...... that ceramic ultrafiltration can recover biomolecules from marinated herring brines although pre-filtration optimization is still needed....

  4. Brines in Seepage Channels as Eluants for Subsurface Relict Biomolecules on Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn-Williams, David D.; Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Grin, Edmond A.; Haberle, Robert M.; Stoker, Carol R.

    2001-06-01

    Water, vital for life, not only maintains the integrity of structural and metabolic biomolecules, it also transports them in solution or colloidal suspension. Any flow of water through a dormant or fossilized microbial community elutes molecules that are potentially recognizable as biomarkers. We hypothesize that the surface seepage channels emanating from crater walls and cliffs in Mars Orbiter Camera images result from fluvial erosion of the regolith as low-temperature hypersaline brines. We propose that, if such flows passed through extensive subsurface catchments containing buried and fossilized remains of microbial communities from the wet Hesperian period of early Mars (~3.5 Ga ago), they would have eluted and concentrated relict biomolecules and delive red them to the surface. Life-supporting low-temperature hypersaline brines in Antarctic desert habitats provide a terrestrial analog for such a scenario. As in the Antarctic, salts would likely have accumulated in water-filled depressions on Mars by seasonal influx and evaporation. Liquid water in the Antarctic cold desert analogs occurs at -80°C in the interstices of shallow hypersaline soils and at -50°C in salt-saturated ponds. Similarly, hypersaline brines on Mars could have freezing points depressed below -50°C. The presence of hypersaline brines on Mars would have extended the amount of time during which life might have evolved. Phototrophic communities are especially important for the search for life because the distinctive structures and longevity of their pigments make excellent biomarkers. The surface seepage channels are therefore not only of geomorphological significance, but also provide potential repositories for biomolecules that could be accessed by landers.

  5. Density-driven free-convection model for isotopically fractionated geogenic nitrate in sabkha brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Warren W.; Böhlke, John Karl

    2017-01-01

    Subsurface brines with high nitrate (NO3−) concentration are common in desert environments as atmospheric nitrogen is concentrated by the evaporation of precipitation and little nitrogen uptake. However, in addition to having an elevated mean concentration of ∼525 mg/L (as N), NO3− in the coastal sabkhas of Abu Dhabi is enriched in 15N (mean δ15N ∼17‰), which is an enigma. A NO3− solute mass balance analysis of the sabkha aquifer system suggests that more than 90% of the nitrogen is from local atmospheric deposition and the remainder from ascending brine. In contrast, isotopic mass balances based on Δ17O, δ15N, and δ18O data suggest approximately 80 to 90% of the NO3− could be from ascending brine. As the sabkha has essentially no soil, no vegetation, and no anthropogenic land or water use, we propose to resolve this apparent contradiction with a density-driven free-convection transport model. In this conceptual model, the density of rain is increased by solution of surface salts, transporting near-surface oxygenated NO3− bearing water downward where it encounters reducing conditions and mixes with oxygen-free ascending geologic brines. In this environment, NO3− is partially reduced to nitrogen gas (N2), thus enriching the remaining NO3− in heavy isotopes. The isotopically fractionated NO3− and nitrogen gas return to the near-surface oxidizing environment on the upward displacement leg of the free-convection cycle, where the nitrogen gas is released to the atmosphere and new NO3− is added to the system from atmospheric deposition. This recharge/recycling process has operated over many cycles in the 8000-year history of the shallow aquifer, progressively concentrating and isotopically fractionating the NO3−.

  6. Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow S.

    1994-11-22

    A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed, The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts, For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates.

  7. Extreme Red Sea: Life in the deep-sea anoxic brine lakes

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Tectonic splitting of the Arabian and African plates originated the Red Sea together with one of the most unique, remote, and extreme environments on Earth: deep-sea anoxic brine lakes. They combine multiple extremes namely increased salinity (7-fold), temperature (up to 70°C), concentration of heavy metals (1,000- to 10,000-fold), and hydrostatic pressure [1]. Despite such harsh conditions, they harbor an unexpectedly high biodiversity and are teeming with life. Increased i...

  8. Choice of optimal working fluid for binary power plants at extremely low temperature brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.; Sorokina, E. V.

    2016-12-01

    The geothermal energy development problems based on using binary power plants utilizing lowpotential geothermal resources are considered. It is shown that one of the possible ways of increasing the efficiency of heat utilization of geothermal brine in a wide temperature range is the use of multistage power systems with series-connected binary power plants based on incremental primary energy conversion. Some practically significant results of design-analytical investigations of physicochemical properties of various organic substances and their influence on the main parameters of the flowsheet and the technical and operational characteristics of heat-mechanical and heat-exchange equipment for binary power plant operating on extremely-low temperature geothermal brine (70°C) are presented. The calculation results of geothermal brine specific flow rate, capacity (net), and other operation characteristics of binary power plants with the capacity of 2.5 MW at using various organic substances are a practical interest. It is shown that the working fluid selection significantly influences on the parameters of the flowsheet and the operational characteristics of the binary power plant, and the problem of selection of working fluid is in the search for compromise based on the priorities in the field of efficiency, safety, and ecology criteria of a binary power plant. It is proposed in the investigations on the working fluid selection of the binary plant to use the plotting method of multiaxis complex diagrams of relative parameters and characteristic of binary power plants. Some examples of plotting and analyzing these diagrams intended to choose the working fluid provided that the efficiency of geothermal brine is taken as main priority.

  9. Influence of milk centrifugation, brining and ripening conditions in preventing gas formation by Clostridium spp. in Gouda cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y C; Ingham, S C

    2000-03-25

    This study examined milk centrifugation, increased salt concentration, and low ripening temperature as potential strategies to prevent late blowing caused by gas-forming Clostridium spp. in Gouda cheese. The survival of clostridia spores in cheese brine and their ability to enter Gouda cheese during brining was also evaluated. Centrifugation (3000 x g for 30 s) of contaminated milk resulted in > 60% spore reduction, with increased spore reduction at greater centrifugal forces. Low levels of C. tyrobutyricum and C. sporogenes spores survived in saturated (23%, w/v) brine with 2% (v/v) added whey at 15 degrees C for 63 days, while C. beijerinckii and C. butyricum spores were not detectable on days 4 and 35, respectively. Spores of C. tyrobutyricum in brine infiltrated Gouda cheese during 2 h of brining at 13 degrees C resulted in production of small gas holes during ripening. In Gouda cheese slurry stored at 13 degrees C, three C. tyrobutyricum strains plus one of three C. sporogenes strains germinated in the slurry with no added salt. Of three C. tyrobutyricum strains stored at 13 degrees C in slurries with higher water-phase salt concentrations of 2.4 and 3.6%, two strains and one strain germinated, respectively. No germination of spores was detected in any cheese slurry stored at 5 or 8 degrees C. Milk centrifugation, increased percent water-phase salt, absence of spores in brine, and decreased ripening temperature are all potentially important measures against gas production by Clostridium spp. in Gouda cheese.

  10. Strontium isotope systematics of mixing groundwater and oil-field brine at Goose Lake in northeastern Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Zell E.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Futa, Kiyoto; Preston, Todd

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater, surface water, and soil in the Goose Lake oil field in northeastern Montana have been affected by Cl−-rich oil-field brines during long-term petroleum production. Ongoing multidisciplinary geochemical and geophysical studies have identified the degree and local extent of interaction between brine and groundwater. Fourteen samples representing groundwater, surface water, and brine were collected for Sr isotope analyses to evaluate the usefulness of 87Sr/86Sr in detecting small amounts of brine. Differences in Sr concentrations and 87Sr/86Sr are optimal at this site for the experiment. Strontium concentrations range from 0.13 to 36.9 mg/L, and corresponding 87Sr/86Sr values range from 0.71097 to 0.70828. The local brine has 168 mg/L Sr and a 87Sr/86Sr value of 0.70802. Mixing relationships are evident in the data set and illustrate the sensitivity of Sr in detecting small amounts of brine in groundwater. The location of data points on a Sr isotope-concentration plot is readily explained by an evaporation-mixing model. The model is supported by the variation in concentrations of most of the other solutes.

  11. Understanding the role of brine ionic composition on oil recovery by assessment of wettability from colloidal forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshakhs, Mohammed J; Kovscek, Anthony R

    2016-07-01

    The impact of injection brine salinity and ionic composition on oil recovery has been an active area of research for the past 25years. Evidence from laboratory studies and field tests suggests that implementing certain modifications to the ionic composition of the injection brine leads to greater oil recovery. The role of salinity modification is attributed to its ability to shift wettability of a rock surface toward water wetness. The amount of trapped oil released depends on the nature of rock, oil, and brine surface interactions. Reservoir rocks exhibit different affinities to fluids. Carbonates show stronger adsorption of oil films as opposed to the strongly water-wet and mixed-wet sandstones. The concentration of divalent ions and total salinity of the injection brine are other important factors to consider. Accordingly, this paper provides a review of laboratory and field studies of the role of brine composition on oil recovery from carbonaceous rock as well as rationalization of results using DLVO (Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey and Overbeek) theory of surface forces. DLVO evaluates the contribution of each component of the oil/brine/rock system to the wettability. Measuring zeta potential of each pair of surfaces by a charged particle suspension method is used to estimate double layer forces, disjoining pressure, and contact-angle. We demonstrate the applicability of the DLVO approach by showing a comprehensive experimental study that investigates the effect of divalent ions in carbonates, and uses disjoining pressure results to rationalize observations from core flooding and direct contact-angle measurements.

  12. Conceptual design of the Truscott brine lake solar-pond system, volume 1: Utility-independent scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    A conceptual design was performed for a series of solar pond systems to provide pumping power for chloride control in the Red River Basin. In the chloride control project, briny waters are diverted so as not to pollute portable water. The diverted brine is stored in a dammed natural basin where, with the aid of natural evaporation, the brine is concentrated to the salinities required for the solar ponds. The brine is transferred to the ponds and injected at the proper levels to establish the gradients and storage layers. The solar ponds are to be located within the Truscott, Texas brine impoundment lake. Heat will be extracted from the ponds and used to drive organic Rankine-cycle turbine generators. The electricity produced will serve the pumping needs of the chloride control project, pump brine from the natural source to the evaporation ponds, pump concentrated brine from the evaporation ponds to the solar ponds, maintain the solar ponds, and supply all system parasitic loads. It was found that five solar ponds with eight organic Rankine-cycle turbine-generators would serve both the average and peaking power requirements of the pumping stations in the Truscott area as they come on-line.

  13. Partition behavior of virgin olive oil phenolic compounds in oil-brine mixtures during thermal processing for fish canning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, Raffaele; Paduano, Antonello; Fiore, Francesca; Della Medaglia, Dorotea; Ambrosino, Maria Luisa; Medina, Isabel

    2002-05-08

    The chemical modifications and partitioning toward the brine phase (5% salt) of major phenol compounds of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) were studied in a model system formed by sealed cans filled with oil-brine mixtures (5:1, v/v) simulating canned-in-oil food systems. Filled cans were processed in an industrial plant using two sterilization conditions commonly used during fish canning. The partitioning of phenolic compounds toward brine induced by thermal processing was studied by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the phenol fraction extracted from oils and brine. Hydroxytyrosol (1), tyrosol (2), and the complex phenolic compounds containing 1 and 2 (i.e., the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl oleuropein aglycon 3, the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl ligstroside aglycon 4, and the oleuropein aglycon 6) decreased in the oily phase after sterilization with a marked partitioning toward the brine phase. The increase of the total amount of 1 and 2 after processing, as well as the presence of elenolic acid 7 released in brine, revealed the hydrolysis of the ester bond of hydrolyzable phenolic compounds 3, 4, and 6 during thermal processing. Both phenomena (partitioning toward the water phase and hydrolysis) contribute to explain the loss of phenolic compounds exhibited by EVOO used as filling medium in canned foods, as well as the protection of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned-in-EVOO fish products.

  14. Toxicological investigations of Aloe ferox Mill. extracts using Brine shrimp (Artemia salina L.) assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abosede, Wintola Olubunmi; Sunday, Arowosegbe; Jide, Afolayan Anthony

    2015-03-01

    Cytotoxicity of the extracts of Aloe ferox using brine shrimp was evaluated. Effects of the extracts on hatchability and lethality of brine shrimps were reported in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration and LD(50) respectively. The hatching success was in the order: aqueous root extract (39.8%) >aqueous leaf (26.5%) >acetone leaf (13.7%) > ethanol leaf extracts (2.5%). Hatchability in incubations of ethanol and acetone extracts was found to be dose - dependent, with hatching success decreasing as the concentration of the extracts increased. The lethality of extracts was in the order: aqueous leaf extract (4.7%) >aqueous root extract (4.2%) >acetone leaf extract (3.5%) >ethanol root extract (2.6%) > ethanol leaf extract (1.8%) >acetone root extract (0.7%). Mean mortality of nauplii in the control was higher (6.7%) than that of all the extracts. Based on Meyer's index of toxicity, the acetone leaf extract with LD(50) >1.0mg/mL could be considered as non toxic, while the ethanol root extract (LD(50) brine shrimp. Since the extracts of A. ferox have consistently exhibited significant pharmaceutical properties in-vitro, the non-toxic extracts could further be exploited for the development of plant-based pharmaceuticals.

  15. Tolerance to cadmium and cadmium-binding ligands in Great Salt Lake brine shrimp (Artemia salina)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayasekara, S.; Drown, D.B.; Sharma, R.P.

    1986-02-01

    Information on the accumulation of cadmium in cytosolic proteins of Great Lake brine shrimp (Artemia salina) was obtained from animals collected directly from the lake and also from animal hatched and maintained in three sublethal concentrations of cadmium (0.5, 2.0, 5.0 ppm) in saltwater aquaria. Brine shrimp growth under these conditions was monitored by measuring body lengths during a 7-day exposure period. Heat-stable, cadmium-binding ligands were isolated and identified by Sephadex G-75 chromatography and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Cadmium was found to be equally distributed between high and low molecular weight proteins in animals collected from the lake and the 0.5 ppm cadmium group. There was also a slight growth stimulation noted in the 0.5-pm group. Higher cadmium incorporation was noted in low molecular weight fractions with increasing cadmium concentration in the exposure media. Low molecular weight fractions were also found to have high uv absorption characteristics at 250 nm and low absorption at 280 nm. Molecular weight of the cadmium-binding ligands was found to be 11,000 as estimated by the gel filtration method. De novo synthesis of this protein was increased as a function of cadmium concentration in the media. However, slow accumulation of cadmium in other protein fractions was also noticed in higher cadmium exposure groups, suggesting the existence of possible tolerance mechanisms in brine shrimp exposed to suspected acute cadmium concentrations.

  16. Toxicity assessment of fumonisins using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, M; Humpf, H U

    2000-12-01

    The Fusarium mycotoxins fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) (1) and B(2) (FB(2)) (2), their hydrolysed analogues HFB(1) (3) and HFB(2) (4) and the recently discovered fumonisin derivatives N-palmitoyl-HFB(1) (5) and N-carboxymethyl-FB(1) (6) were compared for their toxicity in a short term bioassay using brine shrimp (Artemia salina). The brine shrimp were hatched in artificial sea water and exposed to the fumonisins in microwell plates with a mortality endpoint after 48 hours. LC(50) values were calculated after Probit transformation of the resulting data. Of the substances tested, fumonisin B(1) emerged to be the most toxic whereas its N-carboxymethyl analogue was 100-fold less effective. The hydrolysed fumonisins showed a four- to sixfold reduced toxicity compared to FB(1). N-Palmitoyl-HFB(1) had a higher LC(50) value than its precursor HFB(1). The brine shrimp assay proved to be a convenient and rapid system for toxicity assessment of this group of mycotoxins.

  17. Effect of brining on the drying rate of tilapia in a solar tunnel dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kituu, G.M.; Shitanda, D.; Kanali, C.L.; Mailutha, J.T. [Jomo Kenyatta Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi (Kenya). BEED

    2008-07-01

    In addition to being a source of protein, fish is an important source of local and foreign currency earnings in Kenya. A substantial amount of fish production is exported. Approximately 30 per cent is exported to the European Union, the United States, and countries in the Middle East, but nearly half of the total annual fish harvest in Kenya goes to waste due to poor processing and preservation. Measures must be taken to ensure the fish industry is protected and waste is minimized, since the livelihood of over 500,000 people depends on fish as a source of proteins and employment. Therefore, it is necessary to implement appropriate and affordable processing and preservation techniques for fish at the artisanal landing sites in order to reduce the wastage and spoilage of fish during oversupply, and to enhance long storage. This paper presented studies that were conducted to determine the effect of brining on the drying rate of tilapia in a solar tunnel dryer. The paper discussed the materials and methods, including a description of the solar tunnel dryer system; the brining process of fish; the fish drying process; and data analysis. It was concluded that limiting the amount of salt used in brining, and subsequently dehydrating fish with a solar tunnel dryer achieves a more stable and suitable dried fish product than osmotic dehydration or solar drying process separately. 19 refs., 5 figs., 2 appendices.

  18. Downstream processing of reverse osmosis brine: Characterisation of potential scaling compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Masuduz; Birkett, Greg; Pratt, Christopher; Stuart, Bruce; Pratt, Steven

    2015-09-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) brine produced at a full-scale coal seam gas (CSG) water treatment facility was characterized with spectroscopic and other analytical techniques. A number of potential scalants including silica, calcium, magnesium, sulphates and carbonates, all of which were present in dissolved and non-dissolved forms, were characterized. The presence of spherical particles with a size range of 10-1000 nm and aggregates of 1-10 microns was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Those particulates contained the following metals in decreasing order: K, Si, Sr, Ca, B, Ba, Mg, P, and S. Characterization showed that nearly one-third of the total silicon in the brine was present in the particulates. Further, analysis of the RO brine suggested supersaturation and precipitation of metal carbonates and sulphates during the RO process should take place and could be responsible for subsequently capturing silica in the solid phase. However, the precipitation of crystalline carbonates and sulphates are complex. X-ray diffraction analysis did not confirm the presence of common calcium carbonates or sulphates but instead showed the presence of a suite of complex minerals, to which amorphous silica and/or silica rich compounds could have adhered. A filtration study showed that majority of the siliceous particles were less than 220 nm in size, but could still be potentially captured using a low molecular weight ultrafiltration membrane.

  19. Geochemistry of Brines from Salt Ore Deposits in Western Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马万栋; 马海州; 谭红兵; 董亚萍; 张西营; 孙国芳

    2004-01-01

    In the geological evolution of the Tarim Basin, many transgressions and relictions happened. So there have been plentiful sources of salt. Moreover, because of uttermost drought, a lot of salt has been deposited. It is possible to find potash salt in this area. In our fieldwork, we have found salt and brine in western Tarim Basin. Based on a geological survey and the characteristics of sedimentary facies and paleogeography, this paper deals with the geochemical parameters and discusses the possibility of formation of potash salt in terms of the chemical analyses of samples collected from western Tarim Basin. Results of brine analysis lead to some conclusions: most of these salt brines have eluviated from very thick halite beds, mainly chloride-type salt and this kind of halite does not reach the stage of potash deposition in all aspects; WKSL (Wukeshalu) occupies a noticeable place, and we should attach importance to this district because there have been some indicators of the occurrence of potash deposits as viewed from the contents of Br and K. Finally, low Br contents are recognized in the Tarim Basin as a result of salt aggradation, and this point of view has been proved by the results of this experiment and the data available. It cannot depend upon the index of Br to judge the evolution stage of halite. We must look for other facies of potash except marine facies.

  20. Enrichment of extremophilic exoelectrogens in microbial electrolysis cells using Red Sea brine pools as inocula

    KAUST Repository

    Shehab, Noura A.

    2017-05-03

    Applying microbial electrochemical technologies for the treatment of highly saline or thermophilic solutions is challenging due to the lack of proper inocula to enrich for efficient exoelectrogens. Brine pools from three different locations (Valdivia, Atlantis II and Kebrit) in the Red Sea were investigated as potential inocula sources for enriching exoelectrogens in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) under thermophilic (70°C) and hypersaline (25% salinity) conditions. Of these, only the Valdivia brine pool produced high and consistent current 6.8 ± 2.1 A/m2-anode in MECs operated at a set anode potential of +0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl (+0.405 V vs. standard hydrogen electrode). These results show that exoelectrogens are present in these extreme environments and can be used to startup MEC under thermophilic and hypersaline conditions. Bacteroides was enriched on the anode of the Valdivia MEC, but it was not detected in the open circuit voltage reactor seeded with the Valdivia brine pool.

  1. Genomic and Transcriptomic Evidence for Carbohydrate Consumption among Microorganisms in a Cold Seep Brine Pool

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Weipeng

    2016-11-15

    The detailed lifestyle of microorganisms in deep-sea brine environments remains largely unexplored. Using a carefully calibrated genome binning approach, we reconstructed partial to nearly-complete genomes of 51 microorganisms in biofilms from the Thuwal cold seep brine pool of the Red Sea. The recovered metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) belong to six different phyla: Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Candidatus Cloacimonetes, Candidatus Marinimicrobia, Bathyarchaeota, and Thaumarchaeota. By comparison with close relatives of these microorganisms, we identified a number of unique genes associated with organic carbon metabolism and energy generation. These genes included various glycoside hydrolases, nitrate and sulfate reductases, putative bacterial microcompartment biosynthetic clusters (BMC), and F420H2 dehydrogenases. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the acquisition of these genes probably occurred through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Metatranscriptomics illustrated that glycoside hydrolases are among the most highly expressed genes. Our results suggest that the microbial inhabitants are well adapted to this brine environment, and anaerobic carbohydrate consumption mediated by glycoside hydrolases and electron transport systems (ETSs) is a dominant process performed by microorganisms from various phyla within this ecosystem.

  2. Core-scale electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) monitoring of CO2-brine mixture in Fontainebleau sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, David; Ledo, Juanjo; Queralt, Pilar; Bellmunt, Fabian; Luquot, Linda; Gouze, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    The main goal of the monitoring stage of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is to obtain an accurate estimation of the subsurface CO2 accumulation and to detect any possible leakage. Laboratory experiments are necessary to investigate the small scale processes governing the CO2-brine-rock interaction. They also provide a means to calibrate the results coming from field scale geophysical methods. In this work we set up an experimental system which is able to perform Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) measurements on centimeter-scale rock samples at various P-T conditions. We present the results of two new experiments related to CO2 monitoring, performed on a cylindrical (4 × 8 cm) Fontainebleau rock sample. In the first one, we have quantified the CO2 saturation at different volume fractions, representing zones from a deep saline aquifer with varying degrees of saturation. In the second one, we have monitored and quantified the effect of CO2 dissolution in the brine at a pressure of 40 bar during eight days, emulating the invasion of CO2 into a shallow aquifer. Results highlight the importance of accounting for the contribution of surface conductivity in highly CO2-saturated regions, even in clay-free rocks, and also for brine conductivity variation due to CO2 dissolution. Ignoring any of these effects will end up in a CO2 saturation underestimation. We present a modified CO2 saturation equation to account for these two influences.

  3. Microbial metabolism in ice and brine at -5°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakermans, Corien; Skidmore, Mark L

    2011-08-01

    Metabolic activity, but not growth, has been observed in ice at temperatures from -5°C to -32°C. To improve understanding of metabolism in ice, we simultaneously examined various aspects of metabolism ((14) C-acetate utilization, macromolecule syntheses and viability via reduction of CTC) of the glacial isolates Sporosarcina sp. B5 and Chryseobacterium sp. V3519-10 during incubation in nutrient-rich ice and brine at -5°C for 50 days. Measured rates of acetate utilization and macromolecule syntheses were high in the first 20 days suggesting adjustment to the lower temperatures and higher salt concentrations of both the liquid vein network in the ice and the brine. Following this adjustment, reproductive growth of both organisms was evident in brine, and suggested for Sporosarcina sp. B5 in ice by increases in cell numbers and biomass. Chryseobacterium sp. V3519-10 cells incubated in ice remained active. These data indicate that neither low temperature nor high salt concentrations prohibit growth in ice, but some other aspect of living within ice slows growth to within the detection limits of current methodologies. These results imply that microbial growth is plausible in natural ice systems with comparable temperatures and sufficient nutrients, such as debris-rich basal ices of glaciers and ice masses. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Assessment of Contaminated Brine Fate and Transport in MB139 at WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Applied Systems Analysis and Research Dept.; Malama, Bwalya [Sandia National Lab., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Performance Assessment Dept.

    2014-07-01

    Following the radionuclide release event of February 14, 2014 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), actinide contamination has been found on the walls and floor in Panel 7 as a result of a release in Room 7 of Panel 7. It has been proposed to decontaminate Panel 7 at the WIPP by washing contaminated surfaces in the underground with fresh water. A cost-effective cleanup of this contamination would allow for a timely return to waste disposal operations at WIPP. It is expected that the fresh water used to decontaminate Panel 7 will flow as contaminated brine down into the porosity of the materials under the floor – the run-of-mine (ROM) salt above Marker Bed 139 (MB139) and MB139 itself – where its fate will be controlled by the hydraulic and transport properties of MB139. Due to the structural dip of MB139, it is unlikely that this brine would migrate northward towards the Waste-Handling Shaft sump. A few strategically placed shallow small-diameter observation boreholes straddling MB139 would allow for monitoring the flow and fate of this brine after decontamination. Additionally, given that flow through the compacted ROM salt floor and in MB139 would occur under unsaturated (or two-phase) conditions, there is a need to measure the unsaturated flow properties of crushed WIPP salt and salt from the disturbed rock zone (DRZ).

  5. USE OF REJECT BRINE FROM DESALINATION ON DIFFERENT DEVELOPMENT STAGES OF HYDROPONIC LETTUCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NILDO DA SILVA DIAS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluated the impact of the high salinity reject brine from reverse osmosis desalination on hydroponics lettuce cultivated in greenhouse an investigation was carried out in Mossoro, Northeast of Brazil (5º11'S, 37º20'O and 18m above sea. Two lettuce cultivars ('Verônica' and 'Babá de verão' were cultivated with a basic nutrient solution with 1.1 dS m-1 (control during the crop cycle (1-28 days after transplanting - DAT - T0 and with basic nutrient solution containing 50% of the reject water from desalinization with 4.8 dS m-1 exposed during 1-7, 21-28, 7-14 e 1-28 DAT (T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively. The addition of 50% of brine reject from desalination into the hydroponic nutrient solution allows grow only 'Verônica' lettuce with no reduction in fresh biomass. This lettuce cultivar shows to be more tolerant to salinity for all exposure time with reject brine in the nutrition solution, despite the fact that 'Babá de Verão' cultivar is more productive.

  6. Reservoir engineering to accelerate dissolution of stored CO{sub 2} in brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, D.W.; Hassanzadeh, H.; Pooladi-Darvish, M. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

    2005-07-01

    Although deep aquifers are an important class of geologic storage system due to their large capacity, their storage efficiency and security pose considerable uncertainties in assessing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage. Efficiency stipulates the fraction of total aquifer capacity that can be accessed for storage, while security refers to the possibility that stored CO{sub 2} will escape from the aquifer system by upward migration through natural or artificial weaknesses in the capping formation. The GEM (2003) simulator from Computer Modeling Group was used in this study to model the flow of multi-phase, multi-component fluids. Since the CO{sub 2} injected into a saline reservoir is 10-30 per cent less dense than the resident brines, it will flow horizontally in a horizontal aquifer, spreading under the caprock, and then flow upwards through any high permeability zone or artificial penetration. The free-phase CO{sub 2} eventually dissolves in the brines or is trapped as residual gas. Once dissolved, the resulting CO{sub 2}-rich brines are slightly denser than undersaturated brines, rendering them negatively buoyant, and reducing or eliminating the possibility of leakage. This study considered that the only relevant risk of leakage stems from mobile free-phase CO{sub 2}. As such, the storage performance depends on the likelihood that free-phase CO{sub 2} will leak out of the storage formation or alternatively the timescale over which significant leakage is expected to occur; and, the rate at which free-phase CO{sub 2} is immobilized by dissolution in the reservoir fluids or residual gas trapping. This study focused on increasing the rate of dissolution as a means of increasing the volumetric storage efficiency; steer large-scale movement of the free-phase CO{sub 2} bubble away from a known weakness in the caprock; accelerate dissolution through the development of density driven convection within the brine; and, decrease reservoir pressures near the point of

  7. Accessible reactive surface area and abiotic redox reactivity of iron oxyhydroxides in acidic brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehlau, Jennifer H.; Toner, Brandy M.; Arnold, William A.; Penn, R. Lee

    2017-01-01

    The reactivity of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles in low pH and high ionic strength solutions was quantified to assess abiotic contributions to oxidation-reduction chemistry in acidic brine environments, such as mine groundwater seepage, lakes in Western Australia, and acid mine drainage settings, which are of global interest for their environmental impacts and unique geomicrobiology. Factors expected to influence accessible and reactive surface area, including Fe(II) adsorption and aggregate size, were measured as a function of pH and CaCl2 concentration and related to the kinetics of redox reactions in aqueous suspensions of synthetic goethite (α-FeOOH), akaganeite (β-FeOOH), and ferrihydrite (Fe10O14(OH)2) nanoparticles. Aqueous conditions and iron oxyhydroxides were chosen based on characterization of natural iron-rich mine microbial mats located in Soudan Underground Mine State Park, Minnesota, USA. Quinone species were used as redox sensors because they are well-defined probes and are present in natural organic matter. Fe(II) adsorption to the iron oxyhydroxide mineral surfaces from aqueous solution was measurable only at pH values above 4 and either decreased or was not affected by CaCl2 concentration. Concentrations at or above 0.020 M CaCl2 in acetate buffer (pH 4.5) induced particle aggregation. Assessment of Fe(II) adsorption and particle aggregation in acidic brine suggested that accessible reactive surface area may be limited in acidic brines. This was supported by observations of decreasing benzoquinone reduction rate by adsorbed Fe(II) at high CaCl2 concentration. In contrast, the hydroquinone oxidation rate increased at high CaCl2 concentrations, which may be due to suppressed adsorption of Fe(II) generated by the reaction. Results suggest that iron geochemical cycling in acidic brine environments will be substantially different than for iron oxyhydroxides in low-saline waters with circumneutral pH. These findings have implications for acidic

  8. Detrimental effect of CO2-driven seawater acidification on a crustacean brine shrimp, Artemia sinica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chao-qun; Jeswin, Joseph; Shen, Kai-li; Lablche, Meghan; Wang, Ke-jian; Liu, Hai-peng

    2015-03-01

    The effects of the decline in ocean pH, termed as ocean acidification due to the elevated carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, on calcifying organisms such as marine crustacean are unclear. To understand the possible effects of ocean acidification on the physiological responses of a marine model crustacean brine shrimp, Artemia sinica, three groups of the cysts or animals were raised at different pH levels (8.2 as control; 7.8 and 7.6 as acidification stress according to the predictions for the end of this century and next century accordingly) for 24 h or two weeks, respectively, followed by examination of their hatching success, morphological appearance such as deformity and microstructure of animal body, growth (i.e. body length), survival rate, expression of selected genes (involved in development, immunity and cellular activity etc), and biological activity of several key enzymes (participated in antioxidant responses and physiological reactions etc). Our results clearly demonstrated that the cysts hatching rate, growth at late stage of acidification stress, and animal survival rate of brine shrimp were all reduced due to lower pH level (7.6 & 7.8) on comparison to the control group (pH 8.2), but no obvious change in deformity or microstructure of brine shrimp was present under these acidification stress by microscopy observation and section analysis. In addition, the animals subjected to a lower pH level of seawater underwent changes on their gene expressions, including Spätzle, MyD88, Notch, Gram-negative bacteria binding protein, prophenoloxidase, Apoptosis inhibitor 5, Trachealess, Caveolin-1 and Cyclin K. Meanwhile, several key enzyme activities, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase, were also affected by acidified seawater stress. Taken together, our findings supports the idea that CO2-driven seawater acidification indeed has a detrimental effect, in case of hatching success, growth and survival, on

  9. Hydrogeochemical characterization and groundwater quality assessment in intruded coastal brine aquifers (Laizhou Bay, China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoying; Miao, Jinjie; Hu, Bill X; Liu, Hongwei; Zhang, Hanxiong; Ma, Zhen

    2017-07-20

    The aquifer in the coastal area of the Laizhou Bay is affected by salinization processes related to intense groundwater exploitation for brine resource and for agriculture irrigation during the last three decades. As a result, the dynamic balances among freshwater, brine, and seawater have been disturbed and the quality of groundwater has deteriorated. To fully understand the groundwater chemical distribution and evolution in the regional aquifers, hydrogeochemical and isotopic studies have been conducted based on the water samples from 102 observation wells. Groundwater levels and salinities in four monitoring wells are as well measured to inspect the general groundwater flow and chemical patterns and seasonal variations. Chemical components such as Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Sr(2+), Cl(-), SO4(2-), HCO3(-), NO3(-), F(-), and TDS during the same period are analyzed to explore geochemical evolution, water-rock interactions, sources of salt, nitrate, and fluoride pollution in fresh, brackish, saline, and brine waters. The decreased water levels without typical seasonal variation in the southeast of the study area confirm an over-exploitation of groundwater. The hydrogeochemical characteristics indicate fresh-saline-brine-saline transition pattern from inland to coast where evaporation is a vital factor to control the chemical evolution. The cation exchange processes are occurred at fresh-saline interfaces of mixtures along the hydraulic gradient. Meanwhile, isotopic data indicate that the brine in aquifers was either originated from older meteoric water with mineral dissolution and evaporation or repeatedly evaporation of retained seawater with fresher water recharge and mixing in geological time. Groundwater suitability for drinking is further evaluated according to water quality standard of China. Results reveal high risks of nitrate and fluoride contamination. The elevated nitrate concentration of 560 mg/L, which as high as 28 times of the standard content in

  10. Storage quality in different brines of pickled capers (Capparis spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan, Musa

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Middle sized buds of Capparis spinosa L. var. spinosa and Capparis ovata Desf. var. canescens (Coss. Heywood collected from wild plants were pickled for two months. The buds after the fermentation were processed in 10% and 20% brines. Storage stability of the fermented capers was determined by physical, chemical and microbiological analysis at certain interval in 10 and 20% old or fresh brines 180 days. Storaged in 10% and 20% old or fresh brines for 180 days of pickled buds of both species maintained the product quality in all samples. Acidity was higher in old brine during storage. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB growth was observed only in 10% fresh brine, it decreased from initial and 30 days at C. ovata and C. spinosa, respectively. C. spinosa, compared with C. ovata was desirable due to low sediment and more firm texture. During storage of buds in fresh brines, sediment and off-flavour were not observed for both species. Pickled products can be stored in fresh brine long-term containing at least 10% salt concentration.

    Se encurtieron durante dos meses botones florales de tamaño intermedio de Capparis spinosa L. var. spinosa y Capparis ovata Desf. var. canescens (Coss recogidos de plantas silvestres. Las alcaparras después de la fermentación se conservaron en salmueras del 10% y 20%. Las alcaparras fermentadas fueron mantenidas durante 180 días en salmueras usadas o recién preparadas (frescas del 10 y 20%, determinándose a intervalos la estabilidad durante la conservación por análisis físicos, químicos y microbiológicos. La calidad del producto se mantuvo en todas las muestras de alcaparras fermentadas durante los 180 días, tanto en 10% como en 20% y en salmueras usadas o frescas. La acidez durante la conservación fue mayor en salmueras usadas. El crecimiento de bacterias del ácido láctico se observó sólo en salmueras frescas del 10

  11. High epibenthic foraminiferal δ13C in the Recent deep Arctic Ocean: Implications for ventilation and brine release during stadials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackensen, Andreas

    2013-09-01

    Low planktic and benthic δ18O and δ13C values in sediments from the Nordic seas of cold stadials of the last glaciation have been attributed to brines, formed similar to modern ones in the Arctic Ocean. To expand on the carbon isotopes of this hypothesis, I investigated benthic δ13C from the modern Arctic Ocean. I show that mean δ13C values of live epibenthic foraminifera from the deep Arctic basins are higher than mean δ13C values of upper slope epibenthic foraminifera. This agrees with mean high δ13C values of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in Arctic Bottom Water (ABW), which are higher than mean δ13CDIC values from shallower water masses of mainly Atlantic origin. However, adjustments for oceanic 13C Suess depletion raise subsurface and intermediate water δ13CDIC values over ABW δ13CDIC ones. Accordingly, during preindustrial Holocene times, the δ13CDIC of ABW was as high or even higher than today but lower than the δ13CDIC of younger subsurface and intermediate water. If brine-enriched water significantly ventilated ABW, brines should have had high δ13CDIC values. Analogously, high-δ13CDIC brines may have been formed in the Nordic seas during warm interstadials. During cold stadials, when most of the Arctic Ocean was perennially sea ice covered, a cessation of high-δ13CDIC brine rejection may have lowered δ13CDIC values of ABW, and ultimately the δ13CDIC in Nordic seas intermediate and deep water. So in contrast to the idea of enhanced brine formation during cold stadials, the results of this investigation imply that a cessation of brine rejection would be more likely.

  12. Reactive-transport modeling of fly ash-wate-brines interactions from laboratory-scale column studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbugua, John M.; Catherine Ngila, J.; Kindness, Andrew; Demlie, Molla

    Dynamic leaching tests are important studies that provide more insights into time-dependent leaching mechanisms of any given solid waste. Hydrogeochemical modeling using PHREEQC was applied for column modeling of two ash recipes and brines generated from South African coal utility plants, Sasol and Eskom. The modeling results were part of a larger ash-brine study aimed at acquiring knowledge on (i) quantification and characterization of the products formed when ash is in contact with wate-brines in different scenarios, (ii) the mineralogical changes associated with wate-brine-ash interactions over time, (iii) species concentration, and (iv) leaching and transport controlling factors. The column modeling was successfully identified and quantified as important reactive mineralogical phases controlling major, minor and trace elements' release. The pH of the solution was found to be a very important controlling factor in leaching chemistry. The highest mineralogical transformation took place in the first 10 days of ash contact with either water or brines, and within 0.1 m from the column inflow. Many of the major and trace elements Ca, Mg, Na, K, Sr, S(VI), Fe, are leached easily into water systems and their concentration fronts were high at the beginning (within 0.1 m from the column inflow and within the first 10 days) upon contact with the liquid phase. However, their concentration decreased with time until a steady state was reached. Modeling results also revealed that geochemical reactions taking place during ash-wate-brine interactions does affect the porosity of the ash, whereas the leaching processes lead to increased porosity. Besides supporting experimental data, modeling results gave predictive insights on leaching of elements which may directly impact on the environment, particularly ground water. These predictions will help develop scenarios and offer potential guide for future sustainable waste management practices as a way of addressing the co

  13. Effects of NaCl on Fermentative Metabolism of Mature Green Tomatoes cv. Ailsa Craig in Brine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotirios Fragkostefanakis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of osmotic strength on gene expression and activity of the major enzymes of fermentative metabolism of mature green tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Ailsa Craig has been studied by exposing fruit to brine containing 0 (water, 5 and 10 % NaCl. The fruits were surface sterilized prior to treatment to prevent the growth of microbes naturally present on the skin of the fruit. Changes in fruit expression of fermentation genes and the activity of the respective enzymes as well as physicochemical quality characteristics (soluble solid content, titratable acidity, pH and firmness were studied in both fruit and brine for 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 7 and 14 days. Discrepancies in responses that resulted from the different salt concentrations were obtained at molecular and quality levels. The complex kinetics of solutes between the fruit and the surrounding solution due to osmotic potential has led to different responses of the tissue to fermentation. Tomato fruit showed cracking soon after storage in water; water-stored fruit had higher titratable acidity, lower soluble solid content, and higher induction of anaerobic metabolism as indicated by the expression or the activity of the fermentation enzymes compared to fruit stored in brine with 5 or 10 % NaCl. No cracking was observed in fruit stored in 5 (isotonic or 10 % NaCl (hypertonic brine, though in the latter, signs of dehydration were observed. The presence of salt in brine reduced the intensity of fermentative metabolism as indicated by the lower gene expression and enzyme activity. However, fruit stored in brine with 5 % NaCl survived longer than with 0 or 10 % NaCl. The presence of 5 % NaCl in brine caused mild changes of both the fermentative metabolism and the physicochemical characteristics and prevented fruit deterioration during storage.

  14. Profiling of Indigenous Microbial Community Dynamics and Metabolic Activity During Enrichment in Molasses-Supplemented Crude Oil-Brine Mixtures for Improved Understanding of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Pedersen, Dorthe Skou; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic incubations using crude oil and brine from a North Sea reservoir were conducted to gain increased understanding of indigenous microbial community development, metabolite production, and the effects on the oil–brine system after addition of a complex carbon source, molasses, with or with......Anaerobic incubations using crude oil and brine from a North Sea reservoir were conducted to gain increased understanding of indigenous microbial community development, metabolite production, and the effects on the oil–brine system after addition of a complex carbon source, molasses...... of molasses has potential as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) strategy in North Sea oil reservoirs....

  15. Man-induced hydrological changes, metazooplankton communities and invasive species in the Berre Lagoon (Mediterranean Sea, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpy, Floriane; Pagano, Marc; Blanchot, Jean; Carlotti, François; Thibault-Botha, Delphine

    2012-09-01

    The Berre Lagoon has been under strong anthropogenic pressure since the early 1950s. The opening of the hydroelectric EDF power plant in 1966 led to large salinity drops. The zooplankton community was mainly composed of two common brackish species: Acartia tonsa and Brachionus plicatilis. Since 2006, European litigation has strongly constrained the input of freshwater, maintaining the salinity above 15. A study was performed between 2008 and 2010 to evaluate how these modifications have impacted the zooplankton community. Our results show that the community is more diverse and contains several coastal marine species (i.e., Centropages typicus, Paracalanus parvus and Acartia clausi). A. tonsa is still present but is less abundant, whereas B. plicatilis has completely disappeared. Strong predatory marine species, such as chaetognaths, the large conspicuous autochtonous jellyfish Aurelia aurita and the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, are now very common as either seasonal or permanent features of the lagoon. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Active CO2 Reservoir Management: A Strategy for Controlling Pressure, CO2 and Brine Migration in Saline-Formation CCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscheck, T. A.; Sun, Y.; Hao, Y.; Court, B.; Celia, M. A.; Wolery, T.; Tompson, A. F.; Aines, R. D.; Friedmann, J.

    2010-12-01

    CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) in deep geological formations is regarded as a promising means of lowering the amount of CO2 emitted to the atmosphere and thereby mitigate global warming. The most promising systems for CCS are depleted oil reservoirs, particularly those suited to CO2-based Enhanced Oil Recovery (CCS-EOR), and deep saline formations, both of which are well separated from the atmosphere. For conventional, industrial-scale, saline-formation CCS, pressure buildup can have a limiting effect on CO2 storage capacity. To address this concern, we analyze Active CO2 Reservoir Management (ACRM), which combines brine extraction and residual-brine reinjection with CO2 injection, comparing it with conventional saline-formation CCS. We investigate the influence of brine extraction on pressure response and CO2 and brine migration using the NUFT code. By extracting brine from the lower portion of the storage formation, from locations progressively further from the center of injection, we can counteract buoyancy that drives CO2 to the top of the formation, which is useful in dipping formations. Using “push-pull” manipulation of the CO2 plume, we expose less of the caprock seal to CO2 and more of the storage formation to CO2, with more of the formation utilized for trapping mechanisms. Plume manipulation can also counteract the influence of heterogeneity. We consider the impact of extraction ratio, defined as net extracted brine volume (extraction minus reinjection) divided by injected CO2 volume. Pressure buildup is reduced with increasing extraction ratio, which reduces CO2 and brine migration, increases CO2 storage capacity, and reduces other risks, such as leakage up abandoned wells, caprock fracturing, fault activation, and induced seismicity. For a 100-yr injection period, a 10-yr delay in brine extraction does not diminish the magnitude of pressure reduction. Moreover, it is possible to achieve pressure management with just a few brine-extraction wells

  17. PILOT TESTING: PRETREATMENT OPTIONS TO ALLOW RE-USE OF FRAC FLOWBACK AND PRODUCED BRINE FOR GAS SHALE RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, David

    2012-12-31

    The goal of the A&M DOE NETL Project No. DE-FE0000847 was to develop a mobile, multifunctional water treatment capability designed specifically for “pre-treatment” of field waste brine. The project consisted of constructing s mobile “field laboratory” incorporating new technology for treating high salinity produced water and using the lab to conduct a side-by-side comparison between this new technology and that already existing in field operations. A series of four field trials were performed utilizing the mobile unit to demonstrate the effectiveness of different technology suitable for use with high salinity flow back brines and produced water. The design of the mobile unit was based on previous and current work at the Texas A&M Separation Sciences Pilot Plant. The several treatment techniques which have been found to be successful in both pilot plant and field tests had been tested to incorporate into a single multifunctional process train. Eight different components were evaluated during the trials, two types of oil and grease removal, one BTEX removal step, three micro-filters, and two different nanofilters. The performance of each technique was measured by its separation efficiency, power consumption, and ability to withstand fouling. The field trials were a success. Four different field brines were evaluated in the first trial in New York. Over 16,000 gallons of brine were processed. Using a power cost of $.10 per kWh, media pretreatment power use averaged $0.004 per barrel, solids removal $.04 per barrel and brine “softening” $.84 per barrel. Total power cost was approximately $1.00 per barrel of fluid treated. In Pennsylvania, brines collected from frac ponds were tested in two additional trials. Each of the brines was converted to an oil-free, solids-free brine with no biological activity. Brines were stable over time and would be good candidates for use as a make-up fluid in a subsequent fracturing fluid design. Reports on all of the field

  18. Regional-scale brine migration along vertical pathways due to CO2 injection - Part 1: The participatory modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Dirk; Konrad, Wilfried; Class, Holger; Kissinger, Alexander; Knopf, Stefan; Noack, Vera

    2017-06-01

    Saltwater intrusion into potential drinking water aquifers due to the injection of CO2 into deep saline aquifers is one of the potential hazards associated with the geological storage of CO2. Thus, in a site selection process, models for predicting the fate of the displaced brine are required, for example, for a risk assessment or the optimization of pressure management concepts. From the very beginning, this research on brine migration aimed at involving expert and stakeholder knowledge and assessment in simulating the impacts of injecting CO2 into deep saline aquifers by means of a participatory modeling process. The involvement exercise made use of two approaches. First, guideline-based interviews were carried out, aiming at eliciting expert and stakeholder knowledge and assessments of geological structures and mechanisms affecting CO2-induced brine migration. Second, a stakeholder workshop including the World Café format yielded evaluations and judgments of the numerical modeling approach, scenario selection, and preliminary simulation results. The participatory modeling approach gained several results covering brine migration in general, the geological model sketch, scenario development, and the review of the preliminary simulation results. These results were included in revised versions of both the geological model and the numerical model, helping to improve the analysis of regional-scale brine migration along vertical pathways due to CO2 injection.

  19. Effects of a Pre-Filter and Electrolysis Systems on the Reuse of Brine in the Chinese Cabbage Salting Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Ho; Yoo, Jae Yeol; Jang, Keum-Il

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the effects of a pre-filter system and electrolysis system on the safe and efficient reuse of brine in the cabbage salting process were investigated. First, sediment filter-electrolyzed brine (SF-EB) was selected as brine for reuse. Then, we evaluated the quality and microbiological properties of SF-EB and Chinese cabbage salted with SF-EB. The salinity (9.4%) and pH (4.63) of SF-EB were similar to those of control brine (CB). SF-EB turbidity was decreased (from 0.112 to 0.062) and SF-EB residual chlorine (15.86 ppm) was higher than CB residual chlorine (0.31 ppm), and bacteria were not detected. Salinity (2.0%), pH (6.21), residual chlorine (0.39 ppm), chromaticity, hardness, and chewiness of cabbage salted with SF-EB were similar to those of cabbage salted with CB. The total bacterial count in cabbage salted with CB was increased as the number of reuses increased (from 6.55 to 8.30 log CFU/g), whereas bacteria in cabbage salted with SF-EB was decreased (from 6.55 to 5.21 log CFU/g). These results show that SF-EB improved the reusability of brine by removing contaminated materials and by sterilization.

  20. A Novel Ion Exchange System to Purify Mixed ISS Waste Water Brines for Chemical Production and Enhanced Water Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, Griffin; Spencer, LaShelle; Ruby, Anna-Maria; McCaskill, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Current International Space Station water recovery regimes produce a sizable portion of waste water brine. This brine is highly toxic and water recovery is poor: a highly wasteful proposition. With new biological techniques that do not require waste water chemical pretreatment, the resulting brine would be chromium-free and nitrate rich which can allow possible fertilizer recovery for future plant systems. Using a system of ion exchange resins we can remove hardness, sulfate, phosphate and nitrate from these brines to leave only sodium and potassium chloride. At this point modern chlor-alkali cells can be utilized to produce a low salt stream as well as an acid and base stream. The first stream can be used to gain higher water recovery through recycle to the water separation stage while the last two streams can be used to regenerate the ion exchange beds used here, as well as other ion exchange beds in the ISS. Conveniently these waste products from ion exchange regeneration would be suitable as plant fertilizer. In this report we go over the performance of state of the art resins designed for high selectivity of target ions under brine conditions. Using ersatz ISS waste water we can evaluate the performance of specific resins and calculate mass balances to determine resin effectiveness and process viability. If this system is feasible then we will be one step closer to closed loop environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) for current or future applications.

  1. Natural heat storage in a brine-filled solar pond in the Tully Valley of central New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Brett; Kappel, William M.

    2014-01-01

    The Tully Valley, located in southern Onondaga County, New York, has a long history of unusual natural hydrogeologic phenomena including mudboils (Kappel, 2009), landslides (Tamulonis and others, 2009; Pair and others, 2000), landsurface subsidence (Hackett and others, 2009; Kappel, 2009), and a brine-filled sinkhole or “Solar pond” (fig. 1), which is documented in this report. A solar pond is a pool of salty water (brine) which stores the sun’s energy in the form of heat. The saltwater naturally forms distinct layers with increasing density between transitional zones (haloclines) of rapidly changing specific conductance with depth. In a typical solar pond, the top layer has a low salt content and is often times referred to as the upper convective zone (Lu and others, 2002). The bottom layer is a concentrated brine that is either convective or temperature stratified dependent on the surrounding environment. Solar insolation is absorbed and stored in the lower, denser brine while the overlying halocline acts as an insulating layer and prevents heat from moving upwards from the lower zone (Lu and others, 2002). In the case of the Tully Valley solar pond, water within the pond can be over 90 degrees Fahrenheit (°F) in late summer and early fall. The purpose of this report is to summarize observations at the Tully Valley brine-filled sinkhole and provide supplemental climate data which might affect the pond salinity gradients insolation (solar energy).

  2. Fate and impact of organics in an immersed membrane bioreactor applied to brine denitrification and ion exchange regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, Ewan J; Pawlett, Mark; Judd, Simon J

    2010-01-01

    The application of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) to brine denitrification for ion exchange regeneration has been studied. The developed culture was capable of complete brine denitrification at 50 gNaCl.l(-1). Denitrification reduced to c.60% and c.70% when salinity was respectively increased to 75 and 100g.l(-1), presumed to be due to reduced growth rate and the low imposed solids retention time (10 days). Polysaccharide secretion was not induced by stressed cells following salt shocking, implying that cell lysis did not occur. Fouling propensity, monitored by critical flux, was steady at 12-15l.m(-2).h(-1) during salinity shocking and after brine recirculation, indicating that the system was stable following perturbation. Low molecular weight polysaccharide physically adsorbed onto the nitrate selective anion exchange resin during regeneration reducing exchange capacity by c.6.5% when operating up to complete exhaustion. However, based on a breakthrough threshold of 10 mgNO(3)(-)-N.l(-1) the exchange capacity was comparative to that determined when using freshly produced brine for regeneration. It was concluded that a denitrification MBR was an appropriate technology for IEX spent brine recovery and reuse.

  3. Minimizing the Environmental Impact of Sea Brine Disposal by Coupling Desalination Plants with Solar Saltworks: A Case Study for Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stylianos Gialis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The explosive increase in world population, along with the fast socio-economic development, have led to an increased water demand, making water shortage one of the greatest problems of modern society. Countries such as Greece, Saudi Arabia and Tunisia face serious water shortage issues and have resorted to solutions such as transporting water by ships from the mainland to islands, a practice that is expensive, energy-intensive and unsustainable. Desalination of sea-water is suitable for supplying arid regions with potable water, but extensive brine discharge may affect marine biota. To avoid this impact, we explore the option of directing the desalination effluent to a solar saltworks for brine concentration and salt production, in order to achieve a zero discharge desalination plant. In this context, we conducted a survey in order to evaluate the potential of transferring desalination brine to solar saltworks, so that its disposal to the sea is avoided. Our analysis showed that brine transfer by trucks is prohibitively expensive. In order to make the zero discharge desalination plant economically feasible, efforts should be directed into developing a more efficient technology that will result in the production of only a fraction of the brine that is produced from our systems today.

  4. Chemical and isotopic constrains on the origin of brine and saline groundwater in Hetao plain, Inner Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Chen, Zongyu; Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Yilong; Li, Zhenghong; Xu, Jiaming; Peng, Yurong

    2016-08-01

    The origin and evolution of brine and saline groundwater have always been a challenged work for geochemists and hydrogeologists. Chemical and isotopic data of brine and saline waters were used to trace the sources of salinity and therefore to understand the transport mechanisms of groundwater in Xishanzui, Inner Mongolia. Both Cl/Br (molar) versus Na/Br (molar) and Cl (meq/L) versus Na (meq/L) indicated that salinity was from halite dissolution or at least a significant impact by halite dissolution. The logarithmic plot of the concentration trends of Cl (mg/L) versus Br (mg/L) for the evaporation of seawater and the Qinghai Salt Lake showed that the terrestrial halite dissolution was the dominated contribution for the salinity of this brine. The stable isotope ratios of hydrogen and oxygen suggested that the origin of brine was from paleorecharge water which experienced mixing of modern water in shallow aquifer. δ(37)Cl values ranged from -0.02 to 3.43 ‰ (SMOC), and reflecting mixing of different sources. The Cl isotopic compositions suggest that the dissolution of halite by paleometeoric water had a great contribution to the salinity of brine, and the contributions of the residual seawater and the dissolution of halite by the Yellow River water could be excluded.

  5. Formation and Persistence of Brine on Mars: Experimental Simulations throughout the Diurnal Cycle at the Phoenix Landing Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, E; Martínez, G M; Rennó, N O

    2016-12-01

    In the last few years, water ice and salts capable of melting this ice and producing liquid saline water (brine) have been detected on Mars. Moreover, indirect evidence for brine has been found in multiple areas of the planet. Here, we simulate full diurnal cycles of temperature and atmospheric water vapor content at the Phoenix landing site for the first time and show experimentally that, in spite of the low Mars-like chamber temperature, brine forms minutes after the ground temperature exceeds the eutectic temperature of salts in contact with water ice. Moreover, we show that the brine stays liquid for most of the diurnal cycle when enough water ice is available to compensate for evaporation. This is predicted to occur seasonally in areas of the polar region where the temperature exceeds the eutectic value and frost or snow is deposited on saline soils, or where water ice and salts coexist in the shallow subsurface. This is important because the existence of liquid water is a key requirement for habitability. Key Words: Mars-Ice-Perchlorates-Brine-Water-Raman spectroscopy. Astrobiology 16, 937-948.

  6. Combined cycle power unit with a binary system based on waste geothermal brine at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.; Nikol'skii, A. I.; Semenov, V. N.

    2016-06-01

    The Russian geothermal power systems developed in the last few decades outperform their counterparts around the world in many respects. However, all Russian geothermal power stations employ steam as the geothermal fluid and discard the accompanying geothermal brine. In reality, the power of the existing Russian geothermal power stations may be increased without drilling more wells, if the waste brine is employed in combined cycle systems with steam and binary turbine units. For the example of the 50 MW Mutnovsk geothermal power plant, the optimal combined cycle power unit based on the waste geothermal brine is considered. It is of great interest to determine how the thermodynamic parameters of the secondary steam in the expansion unit and the pressure in the condenser affect the performance of the equipment in the combined cycle power unit at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant. For the utilization of the waste geothermal brine at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant, the optimal air temperature in the condensers of the combined cycle power unit is +5°C. The use of secondary steam obtained by flashing of the geothermal brine at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant 1 at a pressure of 0.2 MPa permits the generation of up to 8 MW of electric power in steam turbines and additional power of 5 MW in the turbines of the binary cycle.

  7. Advanced oxidation of iodinated X-ray contrast media in reverse osmosis brines: the influence of quenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azerrad, Sara P; Gur-Reznik, Shirra; Heller-Grossman, Lilly; Dosoretz, Carlos G

    2014-10-01

    Among the main restrictions for the implementation of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for removal of micropollutants present in reverse osmosis (RO) brines of secondary effluents account the quenching performed by background organic and inorganic constituents. Natural organic matter (NOM) and soluble microbial products (SMP) are the main effluent organic matter constituents. The inorganic fraction is largely constituted by chlorides and bicarbonate alkalinity with sodium and calcium as main counterions. The quenching influence of these components, separately and their mixture, in the transformation of model compounds by UVA/TiO2 was studied applying synthetic brines solutions mimicking 2-fold concentrated RO secondary effluents brines. The results were validated using fresh RO brines. Diatrizoate (DTZ) and iopromide (IOPr) were used as model compound. They have been found to exhibit relative high resistance to oxidation process and therefore represent good markers for AOPs techniques. Under the conditions applied, oxidization of DTZ in the background of RO brines was strongly affected by quenching effects. The major contribution to quenching resulted from organic matter (≈70%) followed by bicarbonate alkalinity (≈30%). NOM displayed higher quenching than SMP in spite of its relative lower concentration. Multivalent cations, i.e., Ca(+2), were found to decrease effectiveness of the technique due to agglomeration of the catalyst. However this influence was lowered in presence of NOM. Different patterns of transformation were found for each model compound in which a delayed deiodination was observed for iopromide whereas diatrizoate oxidation paralleled deiodination.

  8. The impact of interfacial tension on multiphase flow in the CO2-brine-sandstone system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, C. A.; Blunt, M. J.; Krevor, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    Two dominant controls on continuum scale multiphase flow properties are interfacial tension (IFT) and wetting. In hydrocarbon-brine systems, relative permeability is known to increase with decreasing IFT, while residual trapping is controlled by the wetting properties of a permeable rock and the hysteresis between drainage and imbibtion (Amaefule & Handy, 1982; Bardon & Longeron, 1980; Juanes et al., 2006). Fluid properties of the CO2-brine system, such as viscosity, density and interfacial tension, are well characterised and have known dependencies on temperature, pressure and brine salinity. Interest in this particular fluid system is motivated by CO2 storage and enhanced oil recovery. Despite increased interest in CO2 storage, the response of the CO2-brine relative permeability to varying IFT has yet to be comprehensively evaluated. Additionally the wide range of thermophysical properties (density, viscosity etc.) that exist across a relatively small range of pressures and temperatures makes it an ideal system with which to investigate the physics of multiphase flow in general. This is the first systematic study to investigate the impact of IFT on drainage and imbibition relative permeability for the CO2-brine-sandstone system. The experimental design has been adapted from a traditional steady state core flood in two ways. First, while conditions may be easily selected to obtain a range of interfacial tensions, isolating the independent impact of interfacial tension on relative permeability is less simple. Thus experimental conditions are selected so as to vary interfacial tension, while minimising the variation in viscosity ratio between CO2 and brine. Second, in order to attribute the impacts of changing conditions, it is necessary to have precise results such that small shifts in observations can be identified. Multiphase flow theory is used to both design the conditions of the test and interpret the observations, leading to a much higher precision in

  9. Effective Wettability Measurements of CO2-Brine-Sandstone System at Different Reservoir Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Menhali, Ali; Krevor, Samuel

    2014-05-01

    The wetting properties of CO2-brine-rock systems will have a major impact on the management of CO2 injection processes. The wettability of a system controls the flow and trapping efficiency during the storage of CO2 in geological formations as well as the efficiency of enhanced oil recovery operations. Despite its utility in EOR and the continued development of CCS, little is currently known about the wetting properties of the CO2-brine system on reservoir rocks, and no investigations have been performed assessing the impact of these properties on CO2 flooding for CO2 storage or EOR. The wetting properties of multiphase fluid systems in porous media have major impacts on the multiphase flow properties such as the capillary pressure and relative permeability. While recent studies have shown CO2 to generally act as a non-wetting phase in siliciclastic rocks, some observations report that the contact angle varies with pressure, temperature and water salinity. Additionally, there is a wide range of reported contact angles for this system, from strongly to weakly water-wet. In the case of some minerals, intermediate wet contact angles have been observed. Uncertainty with regard to the wetting properties of CO2-brine systems is currently one of the remaining major unresolved issues with regards to reservoir management of CO2 storage. In this study, we make semi-dynamic capillary pressure measurements of supercritical CO2 and brine at reservoir conditions to observe shifts in the wetting properties. We utilize a novel core analysis technique recently developed by Pini et al in 2012 to evaluate a core-scale effective contact angle. Carbon dioxide is injected at constant flow rate into a core that is initially fully saturated with water, while maintaining a constant outlet pressure. In this scenario, the pressure drop across the core corresponds to the capillary pressure at the inlet face of the core. When compared with mercury intrusion capillary pressure measurements

  10. Chemical Composition and Enzymes Inhibitory, Brine Shrimp Larvae Toxicity, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Caloplaca biatorina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Valadbeigi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background This study evaluated the brine shrimp larvae toxicity and enzymes inhibitory especially anti-diabetic potential of Caloplaca biatorina via in vitro inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase using the methanol extracts. Also aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidase enzymes inhibitory, cytotoxicity, and antioxidant activities of the species were determined. Methods In this experimental study, different concentrations of the extracts (0.2, 5.0, 1 and 1.5 mg/mL were incubated with enzyme substrate solution and the percentage of enzyme inhibitory activity and IC50 was calculated. Folin- Ciocalteu reagent and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods were used to estimate total phenolic and flavonoid content of extracts. The toxicity of the extract was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined. High-performance liquid chromatography and Thin-layer chromatography analysis were evaluated. The data were analyzed by SPSS V.21 software. Results Parietin, Emodin, 1,8-Dihydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl-6- methoxy-9.10-anthracenedione and Rhein were identified. The extract showed strong α-glucosidase, aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities with IC50 value of 17.12, 40.09 and 11.02 µg/mL respectively. Also methanol extract displayed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging and brine shrimp toxicity (IC50 = 91.11 properties. Conclusions The result obtained suggests that the C. biatorina extract can be classified as non-toxic. Also, it revealed the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of the lichen.

  11. Confounding response of macrofauna from a confluence of impacts:brine and sewage pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rodrigo Riera; Fernando Tuya; Myriam Rodrguez; scar Monterroso; Eva Ramos

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the shores of the world, a confluence of different sources of pollution is common, e.g., through outlets releasing brine, industrial, and domestic sewage. In this study, we assessed whether a combined disposal of domestic sewage and brine altered the patterns of abundance and assemblage structure of sub-tidal macrofauna inhabiting sandy seabeds on the south coast of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, NE Atlantic Ocean). Samples were collected in two surveys (May 2008 and January 2009) at three distances (0, 15, and 30 m) away from the discharge point. Macrofaunal abundances showed different patterns with varying proximity from the disposal point in the two surveys. In May 2008, lower abundances were observed at 0 m (53.89±46.82 ind.) than at 15 m (120±91.7 ind.) and 30 m (283.89±189.33 ind.) away from the dis-posal point. In January 2009, however, higher abundances were observed at 0 m (131.33±58.69 ind.) than at 30 m (100±24.44 ind.) and 15 m (84.78±58.39 ind.) away from the disposal point. Significant differ-ences in macrofaunal assemblage structure were found with varying proximity from the discharge point in both surveys. The effect of proximity from the disposal point was confounded by changes in sedimen-tary composition between surveys, which contributed to explain differences in macrofaunal abundances and assemblage structure with varying proximity from the discharge point. As a result, confounding driver-s of macrofaunal assemblage structure, here, changes in sediment composition, accounted for changes in macrofaunal abundances and assemblage structure with varying proximity from a combined disposal point of brine and sewage.

  12. The Effect of adjusting PH on Stretchability and Meltability to White Brined Nabulsi Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman S. Mazahreh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Boiled white brined (Nabulsi cheese is the mostly consumed in Jordan; this cheese should show meltability and high stretchability in order to fit in the production of high quality Kunafa and other popular local sweets and pastries.The most outstanding characteristic of Nabulsi cheese is the long keeping ability (more than one year without cooling, since it is preserved in concentrated brine (up to 25%. Approach: This work was based on the hypothesis that it would be possible to imply meltability and stretchability to the cheese by adjusting pH to the original brine that may specifically act on cross linking bonds of casein. A new apparatus for measuring the actual stretchability was designed and constructed; measurements on different cheeses proved its validity and reliability to measurement stretchability up to 80cm. Detailed treatments revealed the success of the proposed assumption in inducing meltability and stretchability to cheese processed and preserved according to the traditional methods. Results: The following results were obtained: It is possible to imply a low but acceptable level of stretchability and meltability through adjustment of the pH in the range of 5.4-5.8 by adding calculated amount of citric acid considering the buffering capacity of the cheese and storing it for few weeks to reach equilibrium. Conclusion: Conformational experiments proved the applicability of the new method on commercial Nabulsi cheese samples. Sensory evaluation revealed the superiority of pH adjusting treatment specifically at pH 5.4 and 5.8 as well as commercial Mashmouleh cheese that has high meltability and stretchability when used in Kunafa making.

  13. Heat pump for purification of geothermal brines; Bomba de calor para purificacion de salmuera geotermica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoyo-Gutierrez, S; Barragan-Reyes, R.M; Holland, F.A [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: rmb@iie.org.mx

    2007-01-15

    Integrated use of geothermal resources is one of the most important goals for the future. Presently geothermal heat pumps offer two benefits: using heat from residual brines and converting these brines into very pure water. Designs and descriptions are presented of an experimental system to purify geothermal brines integrated to an adsorption heat-pump. The system was constructed and tested in the IIE (Institute for Electrical Research) facilities. During the experimental stage, pure water was obtained. Maximum capacity for pure water was 4.3 kg per hour, presenting an Actual Coefficient of Performance (COP)A of 1.4. The results are encouraging to project units at an industrial level for operating with geothermal and/or solar heat. [Spanish] El aprovechamiento integral de los recursos geotermicos en todas sus formas es una de las metas importantes a lograr en los proximos anos. Hoy en dia, el uso de las bombas de calor en la geotermia ofrece un doble beneficio: aprovechan el calor de los fluidos de desecho y tienen la capacidad de transformar la salmuera geotermica en agua de alta pureza. Se presenta el diseno y descripcion de un sistema experimental para purificacion de salmuera geotermica integrado a una bomba de calor por absorcion, el cual fue construido y probado en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas. En toda la etapa de experimentacion se obtuvo agua pura. La capacidad maxima alcanzada de produccion de agua pura de este sistema fue de 4.3 kg por hora, mostrando un rendimiento en terminos del Coeficiente Real de Rendimiento (COP)A de 1.4. Estos resultados se consideran alentadores para la proyeccion de unidades a escala industrial que puedan ser operadas con calor geotermico y/o solar.

  14. Toxicity Testing of Restorative Dental Materials Using Brine Shrimp Larvae (Artemia salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manar M. Milhem

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of extracts of different composites, glass ionomer cement (GICs and compomers on the viability of brine shrimp larvae. Ethanolic extracts of four dental composites (Z-100; Solitaire 2; Filtek P60 and Synergy, a conventional GIC (Ketac-Fil, a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitremer, two compomers (F2000; Dyract AP, and a flowable compomer (Dyract Flow were prepared from each material. Following evaporation of the ethanol, the extracts were resuspended in distilled water, which was then used to test the effects on the viability of brine shrimp larvae. For the composites, the extract of Synergy was the least toxic (88% viability followed by the extracts of Solitaire 2, Z100 and P60 (75%, 67.5% and 50% viability, respectively. One-way ANOVA revealed highly significant differences between the resin composite materials (p<0.001. Follow-up comparison between the composite groups by Tukey's pairwise multiple-comparison test (α =0.05 showed that the extract of Synergy was significantly less toxic than the extracts of all the other materials except that of Solitaire 2. The compomers showed 100% lethality, while the percentage of viable larvae for the extracts of Ketac-Fil, and Vitremer were 32.3%, and 37.0%, respectively. One-way ANOVA revealed highly significant differences between the groups of materials (p<0.001. Follow-up comparison between the groups by Tukey's test (α = 0.05 showed that the toxic effect of the extracts of the compomers were significantly greater than that of Ketac-Fil, and Vitremer. The differences in the toxic effects of Vitremer and Ketac-Fil were not statistically significant. In conclusion, the toxicity of composite materials varied according to their chemical composition. Compomers were the most lethal materials to brine shrimp larvae followed by GICs and then composites.

  15. Mg/Al HYDROTALCITE-LIKE SYNTHESIZED FROM BRINE WATER FOR EOSIN YELLOW REMOVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Heraldy

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to synthesis of Mg/Al HTlc using magnesium from several raw material resources are widely investigated. One of raw material would purpose as source of magnesium to synthesis of Mg/Al HTlc is brine water which is well known as the desalination process wastewater. Mg/Al HTlc are widely investigated for their potential applications in research and industrial processes as adsorbents, anionic exchange, catalysts and /or catalyst precursors for the preparation of inorganic materials and pharmaceutical industry excipients. As adsorbents, Mg/Al HTlc are receiving greater interests in the environmental community due to their high adsorption capacity. However, there is no literature available on the synthesis of Mg/Al HTlc from brine water except from artificial seawater. The objective of this research is to synthesis of Mg/Al HTlc from brine water and its ability tested for eosin yellow (EY removal. Characterization of the Mg/Al HTlc synthesized was confirmed through X-ray Diffraction and FT-IR Spectroscopy. The effect of various experimental parameters was investigated using a batch adsorption technique. In this manner, the adsorption isotherms, adsorption kinetics, and pH effects upon EY adsorption on Mg/Al HTlc were examined. The result showed that EY data fit well with the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The isothermal data could be well described by the Freundlich equation. The adsorption capacity was 2.41 × 10-1 mol g-1, and adsorption energy of EY was 24.89 kJ mol-1.

  16. Toxicоlogical evaluation of the plant products using Brine Shrimp (Artemia salina L. model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Меntor R. Hamidi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many natural products could serve as the starting point in the development of modern medicines because of their numerous biological and pharmacological activities. However, some of them are known to carry toxicological properties as well. In order to achieve a safe treatment with plant products, numerous research studies have recently been focused on both pharmacology and toxicity of medicinal plants. Moreover, these studies employed efforts for alternative biological assays. Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay is the most convenient system for monitoring biological activities of various plant species. This method is very useful for preliminary assessment of toxicity of the plant extracts. Rapidness, simplicity and low requirements are several advantages of this assay. However, several conditions need to be completed, especially in the means of standardized experimental conditions (temperature, pH of the medium, salinity, aeration and light. The toxicity of herbal extracts using this assay has been determined in a concentration range of 10, 100 and 1000 µg/ml of the examined herbal extract. Most toxicity studies which use the Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay determine the toxicity after 24 hours of exposure to the tested sample. The median lethal concentration (LC50 of the test samples is obtained by a plot of percentage of the dead shrimps against the logarithm of the sample concentration. LC50 values are estimated using a probit regression analysis and compared with either Meyer’s or Clarkson’s toxicity criteria. Furthermore, the positive correlation between Meyer’s toxicity scale for Artemia salina and Gosselin, Smith and Hodge’s toxicity scale for higher animal models confirmed that the Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay is an excellent predictive tool for the toxic potential of plant extracts in humans.

  17. Antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp toxicity of extracts of Terminalia brownii roots and stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapingu Modest C

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ternimalia brownii Fresen (Combretaceae is widely used in traditional medicine to treat bacterial, fungal and viral infections. There is a need to evaluate extracts of this plant in order to provide scientific proof for it's wide application in traditional medicine system. Methods Extraction of stem bark, wood and whole roots of T. brownii using solvents of increasing polarity, namely, Pet ether, dichloromethane, dichloromethane: methanol (1:1, methanol and aqua, respectively, afforded dry extracts. The extracts were tested for antifungal and antibacterial activity and for brine shrimp toxicity test. Results Extracts of the stem bark, wood and whole roots of T. brownii exhibited antibacterial activity against standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, and Bacillus anthracis and the fungi, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Aqueous extracts exhibited the strongest activity against both bacteria and fungi. Extracts of the roots and stem bark exhibited relatively mild cytotoxic activity against brine shrimp larvae with LC50 values ranging from 113.75–4356.76 and 36.12–1458.81 μg/ml, respectively. The stem wood extracts exhibited the highest toxicity against the shrimps (LC50 values 2.58–14.88 μg/ml, while that of cyclophosphamide, a standard anticancer drug, was 16.33 (10.60–25.15 μg/ml. Conclusion These test results support traditional medicinal use of, especially, aqueous extracts for the treatment of conditions such as diarrhea, and gonorrhea. The brine shrimp results depict the general trend among plants of the genus Terminalia, which are known to contain cytotoxic compounds such as hydrolysable tannins. These results warrant follow-up through bioassay-directed isolation of the active principles.

  18. Influences of the Basin Brines on Extractable Bitumen of Kupferschiefer from southwestern Poland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玉壮

    2000-01-01

    A study of the influences of the basin brines on hydrocarbon generation of the Kupferschiefer in southwestern Poland has been carried out.The samples from the Konrad and Polkowics mines were analyzed by orgainc geochemical,microscopic and FTIR methods.The results indicate that organic matter of Kupferschiefer tends to decrease with the ascending,oxidizing brines,In the Konrad profile,the Kupferschiefer was strongly oxidized.The extract yields were depleted up to 50mg Ext/g Corg.Gas chromatography(GC) and gas chromatography-mass spctrometry(GC/MS) data indicate that the depletion occureed predominantly in saturated hydrocarbon compounds.The identified n-alkanes in smpale KD1 were depleted at least to 5000μg/g Corg.The aromatic compounds show a fidderent trend of variation.The concentrations of phenanthrene+ alkylphenanthrenes(Ph-PAH) and naphthalene+alkylnaphthalenes(Na-PAH) show a decrease,whereas sulfur polyaromatic hydrocarbons(S-PAH)and oxygen polyaromatic hydrocarbons(O-PAH) show an incrase under the influences of oxidizing brines,In the Polkowice profile,organic matter under the influences of oxidizing fluids shows a simlar trend of varation as in the Konrad mine.Analyses of polar compounds shed light on the oxidation processes at the molecule level.The dominant products of oxidation are aliphatic acid.alcohol and ester.FTIR results indicate that the oxidation of organic matter led to a decrease in aliphatic CH3 and an increase in C-O,C=O bands.

  19. First results of an integrated monitoring concept to detect brine migration processes in freshwater aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, M.; Schmidt-Hattenberger, C.; Wagner, F.; Schröder, S.

    2012-04-01

    The reduction of new carbon dioxide emissions is an important contribution to realise climate change mitigation solutions. One possibility consists in the long-term storage of industrial produced greenhouse gas in deep saline aquifers. The most important research focus of the multidisciplinary integrated project BRINE is to ensure the safe storage operation. This research work refers to an area in eastern Brandenburg (Germany). However, the analysis can be applied to regions with comparable geological characteristics. The relevant reservoir horizon is located within a classic anticlinal structure, generated by salt tectonic processes. Due to the local geological site specifics, the CO2 injection could cause a pressure build-up and thus a brine migration in the reservoir layer. For this reason, an adequate monitoring system for the observation of possible brine displacement into upper freshwater aquifers is essential. For both the qualitatively and quantitatively investigation a combination of several geophysical methods is needed. The electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is a measurement method with a comparatively high spatial resolution on small scales. Therefore it will be generally used for borehole and near subsurface investigations. The presented monitoring concept focusses on three potential pathways. Beside regional fault-zones, also formation defects in the upper aquitards and leakages around the wellbore could promote a saltwater migration. The main objective is to find an optimal combination of several electrode arrays like surface, surface-downhole and cross-borehole configurations to detect time-lapse effects of the resistivity distribution in the subsurface. By means of numerical modelling studies of different salinisation scenarios, we have tested several standard and several adapted electrode arrays. In order to further improve the results, an inversion code based on the measured resistance ratios is used. Parallel to the large-scale modelling

  20. Host-specific and pH-dependent microbiomes of copepods in an extensive rearing system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Alf; Castro Mejia, Josue Leonardo; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg

    2015-01-01

    gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, a clear difference was found between the microbiomes of the two copepod species, Acartia tonsa and Centropages hamatus, present in the system. This pattern was corroborated through 454/FLX-based 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of copepod microbiomes, which...... furthermore showed that the abiotic parameters pH and oxygen concentration in rearing tank water were the key factors influencing composition of copepod microbiomes....

  1. Host-specific and pH-dependent microbiomes of copepods in an extensive rearing system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Alf; Castro Mejia, Josue Leonardo; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg;

    2015-01-01

    gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, a clear difference was found between the microbiomes of the two copepod species, Acartia tonsa and Centropages hamatus, present in the system. This pattern was corroborated through 454/FLX-based 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of copepod microbiomes, which...... furthermore showed that the abiotic parameters pH and oxygen concentration in rearing tank water were the key factors influencing composition of copepod microbiomes....

  2. Economic feasibility of copepod production for commercial use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gedefaw Abate, Tenaw; Nielsen, Rasmus; Nielsen, Max

    2015-01-01

    of producing copepods for commercial application. This is the first empirical study to investigate the economic feasibility of copepod production for commercial use. To this end, a standard cost-benefit analysis based on a prototype production facility of Acartia tonsa (Dana) eggs at Roskilde University...... production for marine finfish aquaculture. Furthermore, the study also highlights the economic benefits of production and utilization of copepods on productivity and species diversification in marine finfish aquaculture....

  3. Brine migration test for Asse Mine, Federal Republic of Germany: final test plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-07-01

    The United States and the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) will conduct a brine migration test in the Asse Salt Mine in the FRG as part of the US/FRG Cooperative Radioactive Waste Management Agreement. Two sets of two tests each will be conducted to study both liquid inclusion migration and vapor migration in the two salt types chosen for the experiments: (1) pure salt, for its characteristics similar to the salt that might occur in potential US repositories, and (2) transitional salt, for its similarity to the salt that might occur in potential repositories in Germany.

  4. Radiation chemistry of salt-mine brines and hydrates. [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenks, G.H.; Walton, J.R.; Bronstein, H.R.; Baes, C.F. Jr.

    1981-07-01

    Certain aspects of the radiation chemistry of NaCl-saturated MgCl/sub 2/ solutions and MgCl/sub 2/ hydrates at temperatures in the range of 30 to 180/sup 0/C were investigated through experiments. A principal objective was to establish the values for the yields of H/sub 2/ (G(H/sub 2/)) and accompanying oxidants in the gamma-ray radiolysis of concentrated brines that might occur in waste repositories in salt. We concluded that G(H/sub 2/) from gamma-irradiated brine solution into a simultaneously irradiated, deaerated atmosphere above the solution is between 0.48 and 0.49 over most of the range 30 to 143/sup 0/C. The yield is probably somewhat lower at the lower end of this range, averaging 0.44 at 30 to 45/sup 0/C. Changes in the relative amounts of MgCl/sub 2/ and NaCl in the NaCl-saturated solutions have negligible effects on the yield. The yield of O/sub 2/ into the same atmosphere averages 0.13, independent of the temperature and brine composition, showing that only about 50% of the radiolytic oxidant that was formed along with the H/sub 2/ was present as O/sub 2/. We did not identify the species that compose the remainder of the oxidant. We concluded that the yield of H/sub 2/ from a gamma-irradiated brine solution into a simultaneously irradiated atmosphere containing 5 to 8% air in He may be greater than the yield in deaerated systems by amounts ranging from 0% for temperatures of 73 to 85/sup 0/C, to about 30 and 40% for temperatures in the ranges 100 to 143/sup 0/C and 30 to 45/sup 0/C, respectively. We did not establish the mechanism whereby the air affected the yields of H/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/. The values found in this work for G(H/sub 2/) in deaerated systems are in approximate agreement with the value of 0.44 for the gamma-irradiation yield of H/sub 2/ in pure H/sub 2/O at room temperature. They are also in agreement with the values predicted by extrapolation from the findings of previous researchers for the value for G(H/sub 2/) in 2 M NaCl solutions

  5. Impact of brine-induced stratification on the glacial carbon cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bouttes

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available During the cold period of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, about 21 000 years ago atmospheric CO2 was around 190 ppm, much lower than the pre-industrial concentration of 280 ppm. The causes of this substantial drop remain partially unresolved, despite intense research. Understanding the origin of reduced atmospheric CO2 during glacial times is crucial to comprehend the evolution of the different carbon reservoirs within the Earth system (atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere and ocean. In this context, the ocean is believed to play a major role as it can store large amounts of carbon, especially in the abyss, which is a carbon reservoir that is thought to have expanded during glacial times. To create this larger reservoir, one possible mechanism is to produce very dense glacial waters, thereby stratifying the deep ocean and reducing the carbon exchange between the deep and upper ocean. The existence of such very dense waters has been inferred in the LGM deep Atlantic from sediment pore water salinity and δ18O inferred temperature. Based on these observations, we study the impact of a brine mechanism on the glacial carbon cycle. This mechanism relies on the formation and rapid sinking of brines, very salty water released during sea ice formation, which brings salty dense water down to the bottom of the ocean. It provides two major features: a direct link from the surface to the deep ocean along with an efficient way of setting a strong stratification. We show with the CLIMBER-2 carbon-climate model that such a brine mechanism can account for a significant decrease in atmospheric CO2 and contribute to the glacial-interglacial change. This mechanism can be amplified by low vertical diffusion resulting from the brine-induced stratification. The modeled glacial distribution of oceanic δ13C as well as the deep ocean salinity are substantially improved and better agree with reconstructions from

  6. Impact of brine-induced stratification on the glacial carbon cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bouttes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available During the cold period of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, about 21 000 years ago atmospheric CO2 was around 190 ppm (Monnin et al., 2001, much lower than the pre-industrial concentration of 280 ppm. The causes of this substantial drop remain partially unresolved, despite intense research. Understanding the origin of reduced atmospheric CO2 during glacial times is crucial to comprehend the evolution of the different carbon reservoirs within the Earth system (atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere and ocean. In this context, the ocean is believed to play a major role as it can store large amounts of carbon (Sigman and Boyle, 2000, especially in the abyss, which is a carbon reservoir that is thought to have expanded during glacial times. To create this larger reservoir, one possible mechanism is to produce very dense glacial waters, thereby stratifying the deep ocean and reducing the carbon exchange between the deep and surface ocean (Paillard and Parrenin, 2004. The existence of such very dense waters has been inferred in the LGM deep Atlantic from sediment pore water salinity (Adkins et al., 2002. Based on these observations, we study the impact of a brine mechanism on the glacial carbon cycle. This mechanism relies on the formation and rapid sinking of brines, very salty water released during sea ice formation, which brings salty dense water down to the bottom of the ocean. It provides two major features: a direct link from the surface to the deep ocean along with an efficient way of setting a strong stratification. We show with the CLIMBER-2 coupled carbon-climate model (Petoukhov et al., 2000 that such a brine mechanism can account for a significant decrease in atmospheric CO2 and contribute to the glacial-interglacial change. This mechanism can be amplified by low vertical diffusion resulting from the brine-induced stratification. The results obtained substantially improve the modeled glacial distribution of oceanic

  7. Comparative effects and metabolism of two microcystins and nodularin in the brine shrimp Artemia salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Kenneth A; Ressler, Judith; Wiegand, Claudia; Krause, Eberhard; Codd, Geoffrey A; Steinberg, Christian E W; Pflugmacher, Stephan

    2003-02-12

    The toxicity and metabolism of the cyanobacterial toxins microcystin-LR (MCLR), Dhb-microcystin-HtyR and nodularin were investigated in the cysts, nauplii and adults of the brine shrimp Artemia salina. The presence of the phase II detoxication system glutathione S-transferase (sGST) in these stages was shown using different substrates. Exposure of adult A. salina to the toxins led to an elevation of GST activity in vivo. All three toxins were conjugated to glutathione via GST, which has been shown as an initial step of microcystin and nodularin detoxication.

  8. Effect of Added Brine on the Physico Chemical Studies of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate and Aqueous Gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jinu; Sreejith, Lisa

    2011-10-01

    Effect of added brine on the structural transitions of SDS, in different compositions of gelatin has been investigated by viscosity, circular dichroism, TGA and DSC. The slow and steady growth of the normal spherical micelles to the higher order aggregates were predicted by viscosity and conductivity measurements. The large negative value for ellipticity observed from CD measurements indicated absence of any conformational change for gelatin. Other measurements were used to study the molecular packing in the micellar aggregates. The complex formed exhibits fantastic properties to be explored in the field of smart gels.

  9. Evaluation of larvicidal activity and brine shrimp toxicity of rhizome extracts of Zingiber zerumbet (L. Smith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Bucker

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In this study, we used dichloromethane (DCM and methanol (MeOH extracts of the Zingiber zerumbet rhizome to evaluate brine shrimp lethality and larvicidal activity on Aedes aegypti and Anopheles nuneztovari mosquitoes. Methods Bioassays were performed by exposing third-instar larvae of each mosquito species to the DCM or MeOH extracts. Results Probit analysis with DCM and MeOH extracts demonstrated efficient larvicidal activity against A. aegypti and A. nuneztovari larvae. Conclusions The DCM and MeOH extracts showed higher activity against A. nuneztovari larvae than against A. aegypti larvae, suggesting that the extracts have species-specific activity.

  10. USE OF REJECT BRINE FROM DESALINATION ON DIFFERENT DEVELOPMENT STAGES OF HYDROPONIC LETTUCE

    OpenAIRE

    NILDO DA SILVA DIAS; FRANCISCO AÉCIO DE LIMA; CLÁUDIO RICARDO DA SILVA; OSVALDO NOGUEIRA DE SOUSA NETO; HANS RAJ GHEYI

    2011-01-01

    In order to evaluated the impact of the high salinity reject brine from reverse osmosis desalination on hydroponics lettuce cultivated in greenhouse an investigation was carried out in Mossoro, Northeast of Brazil (5º11'S, 37º20'O and 18m above sea). Two lettuce cultivars ('Verônica' and 'Babá de verão') were cultivated with a basic nutrient solution with 1.1 dS m-1 (control) during the crop cycle (1-28 days after transplanting - DAT) - T0 and with basic nutrient solution containing 50% of th...

  11. Uji Toksisitas Ekstrak Daun Pandan Wangi (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. Dengan Metode Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dede Sukandar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian untuk mengetahui toksisitas dari ekstrak daun pandan wangimenggunakan metode Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT. Ekstrak dibuat dengan cara maserasimenggunakan tiga macam pelarut, yaitu butanol, etil asetat, dan petroleum eter. Uji toksisitasdilakukan dengan menggunakan larva udang Artemia salina Leach yang berumur 48 jam. Efektoksik masing-masing ekstrak diidentifikasi dengan presentase kematian larva udangmenggunakan analisis probit (LC50. Ekstrak aktif kemudian diuji kandungan fitokimianya dansenyawa bioaktif yang terkandung di dalamnya dengan menggunakan GC-MS. Hasilnyamenunjukkan ekstrak etil asetat bersifat toksik (LC50 : 288,4 ppm. Senyawa yang terkandungdalam ekstrak etil asetat adalah senyawa terpenoid dan steroid.

  12. Advanced biochemical processes for geothermal brines FY 1998 annual operating plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    As part of the overall Geothermal Energy Research which is aimed at the development of economical geothermal resources production systems, the aim of the Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines (ABPGB) effort is the development of economic and environmentally acceptable methods for disposal of geothermal wastes and conversion of by-products to useful forms. Methods are being developed for dissolution, separation and immobilization of geothermal wastes suitable for disposal, usable in inert construction materials, suitable for reinjection into the reservoir formation, or used for recovery of valuable metals.

  13. Diversity and characterization of mercury-resistant bacteria in snow, freshwater and sea-ice brine from the High Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Annette; Barkay, Tamar; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed;

    2011-01-01

    It is well-established that atmospheric deposition transports mercury from lower latitudes to the Arctic. The role of bacteria in the dynamics of the deposited mercury, however, is unknown. We characterized mercury-resistant bacteria from High Arctic snow, freshwater and sea-ice brine. Bacterial...... densities were 9.4 × 10(5), 5 × 10(5) and 0.9-3.1 × 10(3) cells mL(-1) in freshwater, brine and snow, respectively. Highest cultivability was observed in snow (11.9%), followed by freshwater (0.3%) and brine (0.03%). In snow, the mercury-resistant bacteria accounted for up to 31% of the culturable bacteria, but...

  14. Minimizing chemical interference errors for the determination of lithium in brines by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Xianming; MA Peihua; ZHU Geqin; WU Zhiming

    2006-01-01

    Chemical interferences (ionization and oxide/hydroxide formation) on the atomic absorbance signal of lithium in FAAS analysis of brine samples are elaborated in this article. It is suggested that inadequate or overaddition of deionization buffers can lead to loss of sensitivities under particular operating conditions. In the analysis of brine samples, signal enhancing and oxide/hydroxide formation inducing signal reduction resulting from overaddition of deionization buffers can be seen with varying amounts of chemical buffers. Based on experimental results, the authors have arrived at the op timized operating conditions for the detection of lithium, under which both ionization and stable compound formation can be suppressed. This is a simplified and quick method with adequate accuracy and precision for the determination of lithium in routine brine samples from chemical plants or R&D laboratories, which contain comparable amounts of lithium with some other components.

  15. Attempt at determining selected parameters of gravitational transport of ash and water or ash-brine mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postawa, J.

    1984-03-01

    This paper discusses results of laboratory investigations into hydraulic transport of hardening mixtures which are used for stowing in underground coal mines in Poland. Two types of hardening mixtures are used: fly ash from the Jaworzno I power plant or the Leg power plant and water or fly ash and brine. The following proportions of fly ash and water are used: 1.5:1, 2:1, 2.5:1 and 3.0:1. Proportion of fly ash and brine ranges from 1.5:1 to 2.5:1. Critical transport velocity of mixtures depending on physical properties of fly ash, proportion of fly ash and water or brine and pipeline diameter is determined. Equations for calculating the optimum conditions of hydraulic transport of hardening stowing are derived. Factors which influence range of hydraulic stowing and stowing efficiency are analyzed. The results of analyses are given in 6 diagrams and 4 tables. (4 refs.) (In Polish)

  16. Diversity and characterization of mercury-resistant bacteria in snow, freshwater and sea-ice brine from the High Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Annette K; Barkay, Tamar; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed; Sørensen, Søren J; Skov, Henrik; Kroer, Niels

    2011-03-01

    It is well-established that atmospheric deposition transports mercury from lower latitudes to the Arctic. The role of bacteria in the dynamics of the deposited mercury, however, is unknown. We characterized mercury-resistant bacteria from High Arctic snow, freshwater and sea-ice brine. Bacterial densities were 9.4 × 10(5), 5 × 10(5) and 0.9-3.1 × 10(3) cells mL(-1) in freshwater, brine and snow, respectively. Highest cultivability was observed in snow (11.9%), followed by freshwater (0.3%) and brine (0.03%). In snow, the mercury-resistant bacteria accounted for up to 31% of the culturable bacteria, but Arctic food chains.

  17. Crystallographic structure of sea ice along a salinity gradient and environmental control of microalgae in the brine cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legendre, L.; Aota, M.; Shirasawa, K.; Martineau, M.-J.; Ishikawa, M.

    1991-08-01

    Duplicate ice cores were taken in southeastern Hudson Bay (Canadian Arctic), at 8 stations along a transect, from the mouth of the Great Whale River to saline waters 25 km offshore. One core from each station was cut into 10-cm sections, which were melted at room temperature for determinations of salinity, nutrients, algal pigments and taxonomic composition of the microalgal assemblages. On the second core, thin sections were cut every 2 cm to optically determine the ratio of brine/gas pockets to the total sections. Relative volumes of brine in melted samples were computed from the observed ratios and calculated values, and used to convert per unit brine volume the concentrations of pigments, nutrients and algal cells, initially measured per unit volume of melted sample. Salinity of the melted samples indicate the presence of freshwater beneath the sea ice close to shore throughout the growth season, and the vertical salinity profiles suggest intermittent intrusions of freshwater. Nutrient concentrations in the brine were high, suggesting that microalgae in the brine cells were generally not nutrient limited. Concentrations of ice algae in the brine cells reached relatively high values, that are often of the same order as those reported for eutrophic marine waters. Statistical analyses identified the rate of ice growth as the most important factor controlling the vertical and horizontal distributions of algal biomass and taxonomic composition in the sea ice, along the salinity gradient. Higher biomasses were generally associated with slower ice growth and also possibly lower grazing activity. In addition, the rate of ice growth influenced the distribution of microalgal assemblages, with nitrogen limitation potentially playing a secondary role in some instances.

  18. Metabolomics and the Legacy of Previous Ecosystems: a Case Study from the Brine of Lake Vida (Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, L.; Kenig, F. P. H.; Murray, A. E.; Doran, P. T.; Fritsen, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica are regarded as one of the best Earth analogs for astrobiological investigations of icy worlds. In the dry valleys, Lake Vida contains an anoxic and aphotic ice-sealed brine that has been isolated for millennia and yet is hosting a population of active microbes at -13˚ C. The biogeochemical processes used by these slow-growing microbes are still unclear. We attempt to elucidate the microbial processes responsible for the survivability of these organisms using metabolomics. Preliminary investigations of organic compounds of Lake Vida Brine (LVBr) was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) GC-MS. LVBr contains a vast variety of lipids and is dominated by low molecular weight compounds. Many of these compounds are biomarkers of processes that took place in Lake Vida prior to evaporation and its cryo-encapsulation. These compounds include dimethylsulfide that is derived from the photosynthate dimethylsulfoniopropionate, dihydroactinidiolide that is derived from a diatom pigment, and 2-methyl-3-ethyl-maleimide that is derived from chlorophyll. These compounds, which dominate the lipid reservoir, represent a legacy from an ecosystem that is different from the current bacterial ecosystem of the brine. The abundance of the legacy compounds in the brine is most likely a reflection of the very slow metabolism of the bacterial community in the cold brine. It is important, thus, to be able to distinguish the legacy metabolites and their diagenetic products from the metabolites of the current ecosystem. This legacy issue is specific to a slow growing microbial ecosystem that cannot process the legacy carbon completely. It applies not only to Lake Vida brine, but other slow growing ecosystems such as other subglacial Antarctic lakes, the Arctic regions, and the deep biosphere.

  19. Study and testing of direct contact heat exchangers for geothermal brines. Final report, June 1975--July 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suratt, W.B.; Hart, G.K.

    1977-01-01

    The object of the work reported herein was to assess the technical and economic feasibility of preheating and evaporating a secondary fluid via direct contact with hot geothermal brine. The work covered a period of 12 months and included the design, construction, and testing of a unit which heats and vaporizes 10 gpm of isobutane by direct contact with 325/sup 0/F brine. The analytical and experimental efforts explored design and economic characteristics, including anticipated problem areas such as working fluid loss in the brine, production of a stable dispersion of the working fluid in brine, fluids separation, axial mixing and carry-over of water vapor with the working fluid. Isobutane was selected as the working fluid for tests primarily because of the favorable amount of net work produced per pound of geothermal brine and the low amount and cost of working fluid lost in the heat exchange process. The Elgin Spray Tower concept was selected for the preheater and boiler. The test apparatus includes a separate boiler and a separate preheater, each 6'' diameter by 6' high. Brine enters the top of each vessel and leaves the bottom. Isobutane enters the bottom of the preheater through a distributor plate to produce 0.15 inch diameter drops. The experimental unit operated with no major problems and demonstrated its hydraulic and thermal capabilities. Volumetric heat transfer coefficients obtained ranged up to 4000 BTU/hr /sup 0/F ft/sup 3/. Boiling heat transfer coefficients of as high as 17,000 BTU/hr /sup 0/F ft/sup 3/ were obtained with a design value of 10,000 BTU/hr /sup 0/F ft/sup 3/. Amount of isobutane in a 21 percent NaCl solution leaving the preheater was less than 40 ppM. A conceptual design and cost estimate was prepared for a direct contact heat exchange system sized for a 50 MW power plant.

  20. Distinguishing seawater from geologic brine in saline coastal groundwater using radium-226; an example from the Sabkha of the UAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Thomas F.; Wood, Warren W.; Sanford, Ward E.

    2014-01-01

    Sabkhat (Salt flats) are common geographic features of low-lying marine coastal areas that develop under hyper-arid climatic conditions. They are characterized by the presence of highly concentrated saline solutions and evaporitic minerals, and have been cited in the geologic literature as present-day representations of hyper-arid regional paleohydrogeology, paleoclimatology, coastal processes, and sedimentation in the geologic record. It is therefore important that a correct understanding of the origin and development of these features be achieved. Knowledge of the source of solutes is an important first step in understanding these features. Historically, two theories have been advanced as to the main source of solutes in sabkha brines: an early concept entailing seawater as the obvious source, and a more recent and dynamic theory involving ascending geologic brine forced upward into the base of the sabkha by a regional hydraulic gradient in the underlying formations. Ra-226 could uniquely distinguish between these sources under certain circumstances, as it is typically present at elevated activity of hundreds to thousands of Bq/m3 (Becquerels per cubic meter) in subsurface formation brines; at exceedingly low activities in open ocean and coastal water; and not significantly supplied to water from recently formed marine sedimentary framework material. The coastal marine sabkha of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi was used to test this hypothesis. The distribution of Ra-226 in 70 samples of sabkha brine (mean: 700 Bq/m3), 7 samples of underlying deeper formation brine (mean: 3416 Bq/m3), the estimated value of seawater (< 16 Bq/m3) and an estimate of supply from sabkha sedimentary framework grains (<~6 Bq/m3) provide the first direct evidence that ascending geologic brine contributes significantly to the solutes of this sabkha system.

  1. Experimental Investigations into the Production Behavior of Methane Hydrate in Porous Sediment under Ethylene Glycol Injection and Hot Brine Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaosen; Li, Gang

    2010-01-01

    1 2 3 The flowing of hot water or hot brine injected in the vessel can be regarded as the moving of a piston from the inlet to the outlet. The hydrate dissociation process is divided into three stages: free gas production, hydrate dissociation and residual gas production. The process of the hydrate dissociation is a process of the temperature decrease in the presence of the brine solution. The duration of the hydrate dissociation is shortened and the degree of the depth of the temperature dro...

  2. Permeability in Rotliegend gas sandstones to gas and brine as predicted from NMR, mercury injection and image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbrand, Esther; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Fisher, Quentin

    2015-01-01

    Permeability characterisation of low permeability, clay-rich gas sandstones is part of production forecasting and reservoir management. The physically based Kozeny (1927) equation linking permeability with porosity and pore size is derived for a porous medium with a homogeneous pore size, whereas...... and mercury injection data. To estimate which pores control permeability to gas, gas permeability was calculated for each pore size increment by using the Kozeny equation. Permeability to brine is modelled by assuming a bound water layer on the mineral pore interface. The measured brine permeabilities...

  3. A preliminary investigation on lanthanoids, thorium and uranium in brine and deposit of a salt lake in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, Teruyuki [Musashi Inst. of Tech., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Lab.; Yui, Mitsuaki; Kikawada, Yoshikazu; Oi, Takao

    1998-06-01

    A brine sample and two deposit samples of a salt lake in China were analyzed for their contents of lanthanoids (Ln`s), thorium and uranium by neutron activation analysis. Five Ln`s were determined at sub ppb levels. Th and U contents were at about the same levels as those of Ln`s. The lanthanoid abundance patterns (Ln pattern) of the three samples are similar to each other, each having a negative slope in the light Ln region. There seems no substantial difference in distribution between the solution (brine) and solid (deposit) phases among Ln`s. (author)

  4. Determining CO2-brine relative permeability and capillary pressure simultaneously: an insight to capillary entrance and end effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Kianinejad, A.; DiCarlo, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    CO2-brine relative permeability relations are important parameters in modeling scenarios such as CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers and CO2 enhanced recovery in oil reservoir. Many steady-state experimental studies on CO2-brine relative permeability showed that the CO2-brine relative permeability differs greatly from typical oil-brine relative permeability. Particularly, they reported a very small endpoint CO2 relative permeability of 0.1~0.2 at a relative high residual water saturation of 0.4~0.6. In this study, we hypothesize the measured low endpoint CO2 relative permeability in previous studies was an experimental artifact that is primary due to low CO2 viscosity. We conducted steady-state CO2 drainage experiments by co-injecting equlibrated CO2 and brine into a long (60.8 cm) and low permeability (116-mD) Berea sandstone core at 20 °C and 1500 psi. During every experiment, both the overall pressure drop across the core and the pressure drops of the five independent and continuous sections of the core were monitored. The in-situ saturation was measured with a medical X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) scanner. In the center three sections where saturation was uniform, we determined the relative permeability to both brine and CO2 phases. In the entrance and exit sections, both measured pressure gradients and saturation were non-uniform. To cope with this, we make several self-consistent assumptions that reveal the nature of capillary entrance and effect in steady-state two-phase core flooding experiments. Based on these assumptions we determined the relative permeability to CO2 and CO2-brine capillary pressure simultaneously using measured pressure drops. We found: (1) a much higher endpoint CO2 relative permeability of 0.58 at a water saturation of 48%, (2) the entrance region with non-uniform saturation expanded CO2 relative permeability data to much lower water saturation, (3) the determined CO2-brine capillary pressure curve is self-consistent and matches

  5. Relative permeability experiments of carbon dioxide displacing brine and their implications for carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Jonathan S; Goldberg, David S; Lackner, Klaus S; Matter, Juerg M; Supp, Michael G; Ramakrishnan, T S

    2014-01-01

    To mitigate anthropogenically induced climate change and ocean acidification, net carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere must be reduced. One proposed option is underground CO2 disposal. Large-scale injection of CO2 into the Earth's crust requires an understanding of the multiphase flow properties of high-pressure CO2 displacing brine. We present laboratory-scale core flooding experiments designed to measure CO2 endpoint relative permeability for CO2 displacing brine at in situ pressures, salinities, and temperatures. Endpoint drainage CO2 relative permeabilities for liquid and supercritical CO2 were found to be clustered around 0.4 for both the synthetic and natural media studied. These values indicate that relative to CO2, water may not be strongly wetting the solid surface. Based on these results, CO2 injectivity will be reduced and pressure-limited reservoirs will have reduced disposal capacity, though area-limited reservoirs may have increased capacity. Future reservoir-scale modeling efforts should incorporate sensitivity to relative permeability. Assuming applicability of the experimental results to other lithologies and that the majority of reservoirs are pressure limited, geologic carbon sequestration would require approximately twice the number of wells for the same injectivity.

  6. Alkaloid presence and brine shrimp (Artemia salina) bioassay of medicinal species of eastern Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Felix G; Parikh, Dimpi M; Johnson, Caley A

    2010-04-01

    We used an alkaloid test and a brine shrimp bioassay to assess the bioactivity of the medicinal plants used by eastern Nicaraguan healers in traditional medicine. Ethnomedicinal uses were obtained from interviews of traditional healers. Aqueous extracts derived from 30 species of angiosperms were assayed for the presence of alkaloids and toxicity. Species tested are distributed in 30 genera and 21 families. Of the 30 species tested for alkaloids with Dragendorff's reagent, 29 contained alkaloids. Toxicological analysis was conducted using the brine shrimp lethal assay (BSLA). Biological activity using BSLA was recorded as the median lethal concentration (LC50) that kills 50% of the larvae within 24 h of contact with the aqueous plant extracts. The LC50 of the shrimp was less than 2500 microg/mL for 3 (10%) species, 2500-5000 microg/mL for 9 (30%), 5001-7500 microg/mL for 7 (23%), 7501-10000 microg/mL for 3 (10%), and greater than 10000 microg/mL for 8 (27%) of the species. The members of the orders Santales and Rubiales in general contained species with greater toxicity than any other group. Struthanthus cassythoides (Struthanthus cassythoides Millsp.(Loranthaceae)). (LC50 1574 microg/mL) and Alibertia edulis (Rich.) A. Rich. (Rubiaceae) (LC50 1741 microg/mL) were the most toxic.

  7. Toxicity of organophosphates on morphology and locomotor behavior in brine shrimp, Artemia salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswara Rao, J; Kavitha, P; Jakka, N M; Sridhar, V; Usman, P K

    2007-08-01

    The acute toxicity and hatching success of four organophosphorus insecticides--acephate (ACEP), chlorpyrifos (CPP), monocrotophos (MCP), and profenofos (PF)--was studied in a short-term bioassay using brine shrimp, Artemia salina. Fifty percent hatchability inhibition concentration and median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values were calculated after probit transformation of the resulting data. Among the insecticides tested, CPP is found to be the most toxic and also to inhibit hatching success of A. salina cysts in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, the effect of these pesticides on locomotor behavior (swimming speed) and morphologic differences were studied in LC(50)-exposed nauplii after 24 hours. The in vivo effect of these insecticides on acetylcholinesterase (Enzyme commission number (EC 3.1.1.7) activity was also determined in LC(50)-exposed nauplii after 24 hours. Maximum percent decrease in their swimming speed and significant morphologic alterations were noticed in CPP-exposed brine shrimps. The order of toxicity was CPP > PF > MCP > ACEP in all the parameters studied.

  8. Embryonic diapause in two species of brine shrimp: Artemia monica and Artemia franciscana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drinkwater, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    The brine shrimp, Artemia, has the capacity to produce encysted embryos which are resistant to severe environmental conditions. Upon release from the ovisac, these embryos, or cysts, do not hatch, but remain in a state of developmental arrest imposed by some unknown endogenous mechanism. However, once the proper abiotic signal is received, the embryo is free to resume development. Regulation of this embryonic diapause in two related species of brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana and Artemia monica, is studied. The abiotic cues which terminate diapause and the possibility of a regulatory mechanism involving depressed intracellular pH (pH/sub i/) are investigated. /sup 31/P-NMR studies show that pH/sub i/ of diapause cysts of both species is alkaline, greater than or equal to 7.9, essentially the same as that of activated cysts. A franciscana, which inhabits an unpredictable environment, is activated by several cues: low temperature, dehydration, and elevated levels of CO/sub 2/. A. monica, found in a fairly stable body of water with regular seasonal changes in temperature, breaks diapause only upon exposure to low temperature. Induction of anoxybiosis in diapause and activated cysts is studied using /sup 31/P-NMR to reveal that diapause cysts acidify rapidly in response to anoxia; pH/sub i/ falls to about 7.2 in 30 minutes, much like activated cysts, indicating the presence of a fairly active metabolism. The effects of salinity on cyst activation, hatching, water content, and carbohydrate metabolism are examined.

  9. Estimation of cytotoxic potency by brine shrimp lethality bioassay application of Clerodendrum infortunatum Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talukdar Muhammad Waliullah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To learn a scientific and systematic knowledge of anticancer, antimicrobial and pharmacological activities of natural products and estimate cytotoxic potency by using ethanol and chloroform extracts of root, leaf and stem of Clerodendrum infortunatum (Verbenaceae due to its random use in customary and traditional medicine to cure common ailments such as intestinal disorder, diarrhea, tuberculosis and respiratory problems etc. Methods: The in vitro application was carried out with the bench-top bioassay method by using brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Results: All of the crude extracts were found to be lethal and effective. The LC50 value of ethyl alcohol fraction of root was 20.845 mg/L compared to the standard drug tetracycline of 14.675 mg/L to brine shrimp nauplii, indicating that the extracts were biologically active. Conclusions: The cytotoxic study of LC50 value showed that a good correlation with the antibiotic tetracycline. From the comparative correlation error bars and percentage, we understood that ethyl alcohol fraction of root extract was very effective. This study serves as a basis for further research to lead compounds to be isolated so that it may be as a template for the implications of these results for bioactivity and drug discovery potential of herbal products.

  10. MS-BWME: a wireless real-time monitoring system for brine well mining equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xinqing; Zhu, Tianyu; Qi, Lin; Moga, Liliana Mihaela; Zhang, Xiaoshuan

    2014-10-23

    This paper describes a wireless real-time monitoring system (MS-BWME) to monitor the running state of pumps equipment in brine well mining and prevent potential failures that may produce unexpected interruptions with severe consequences. MS-BWME consists of two units: the ZigBee Wireless Sensors Network (WSN) unit and the real-time remote monitoring unit. MS-BWME was implemented and tested in sampled brine wells mining in Qinghai Province and four kinds of indicators were selected to evaluate the performance of the MS-BWME, i.e., sensor calibration, the system's real-time data reception, Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) and sensor node lifetime. The results show that MS-BWME can accurately judge the running state of the pump equipment by acquiring and transmitting the real-time voltage and electric current data of the equipment from the spot and provide real-time decision support aid to help workers overhaul the equipment in a timely manner and resolve failures that might produce unexpected production down-time. The MS-BWME can also be extended to a wide range of equipment monitoring applications.

  11. MS-BWME: A Wireless Real-Time Monitoring System for Brine Well Mining Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinqing Xiao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a wireless real-time monitoring system (MS-BWME to monitor the running state of pumps equipment in brine well mining and prevent potential failures that may produce unexpected interruptions with severe consequences. MS-BWME consists of two units: the ZigBee Wireless Sensors Network (WSN unit and the real-time remote monitoring unit. MS-BWME was implemented and tested in sampled brine wells mining in Qinghai Province and four kinds of indicators were selected to evaluate the performance of the MS-BWME, i.e., sensor calibration, the system’s real-time data reception, Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI and sensor node lifetime. The results show that MS-BWME can accurately judge the running state of the pump equipment by acquiring and transmitting the real-time voltage and electric current data of the equipment from the spot and provide real-time decision support aid to help workers overhaul the equipment in a timely manner and resolve failures that might produce unexpected production down-time. The MS-BWME can also be extended to a wide range of equipment monitoring applications.

  12. Analysis of Exoelectrogenic Bacterial Communities Present in Different Brine Pools of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Ortiz Medina, Juan F.

    2014-05-01

    One contemporary issue experienced worldwide is the climate change due to the combustion of fossil fuels. Microbial Electrochemical Systems pose as an alternative for energy generation. In this technology, microorganisms are primarily responsible for electricity production. To improve the performance it is reasonable to think that bacteria from diverse environments, such as the brine pools of the Red Sea, can be utilized in these systems. Samples from three brine pools: Atlantis II, Valdivia, and Kebrit Deeps, were analyzed using Microbial Electrochemical Cells, with a poised potential at +0.2 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and acetate as electron donor, to evaluate the exoelectrogenic activity by the present microorganisms. Only samples from Valdivia Deep were able to produce a noticeable current of 6 A/m2. This result, along with acetate consumption and changes on the redox activity measured with cyclic voltammetry, provides arguments to con rm the presence of exoelectrogenic bacteria in this environment. Further characterization using microscopy and molecular biology techniques is required, to obtain the most amount of information about these microorganisms and their potential use in bioelectrochemical technologies.

  13. Isolation and identification of oxidation products of syringol from brines and heated meat matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bölicke, Sarah-Maria; Ternes, Waldemar

    2016-08-01

    In this study we developed new extraction and detection methods (using HPLC-UV and LC-MS), making it possible to analyze the smoke phenol syringol and its oxidation products nitrososyringol, nitrosyringol, and the syringol dimer 3,3',5,5'-tetramethoxy-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diol, which were identified in heated meat for the first time. Preliminary brine experiments performed with different concentrations of ascorbic acid showed that high amounts of this antioxidant also resulted in almost complete degradation of syringol and to formation of the oxidation products when the brines were heated at low pH values. Heat treatment (80°C) and subsequent simulated digestion applied to meat samples containing syringol, ascorbic acid and different concentrations of sodium nitrite produced 3,3',5,5'-tetramethoxy-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diol even at a low nitrite level in the meat matrix, while nitroso- and nitrosyringol were isolated only after the digestion experiments. Increasing amounts of oxygen in the meat matrix decreased the syringol concentration and enhanced the formation of the reaction products in comparison to the samples without added oxygen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Modeling Coupled THMC Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Blanco Martin, Laura; Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

    2014-08-14

    In this report, we present FY2014 progress by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) related to modeling of coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in salt and their effect on brine migration at high temperatures. LBNL’s work on the modeling of coupled THMC processes in salt was initiated in FY2012, focusing on exploring and demonstrating the capabilities of an existing LBNL modeling tool (TOUGH-FLAC) for simulating temperature-driven coupled flow and geomechanical processes in salt. This work includes development related to, and implementation of, essential capabilities, as well as testing the model against relevant information and published experimental data related to the fate and transport of water. we provide more details on the FY2014 work, first presenting updated tools and improvements made to the TOUGH-FLAC simulator, and the use of this updated tool in a new model simulation of long-term THM behavior within a generic repository in a salt formation. This is followed by the description of current benchmarking and validations efforts, including the TSDE experiment. We then present the current status in the development of constitutive relationships and the dual-continuum model for brine migration. We conclude with an outlook for FY2015, which will be much focused on model validation against field experiments and on the use of the model for the design studies related to a proposed heater experiment.

  15. Primary proteolysis of white brined goat cheese monitored by high molarity Tris buffer SDS- PAGE system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenko Smiljanić

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate primary proteolysis of white brined goat cheese prepared from raw milk and to correlate with the results obtained with high-molarity Tris buffer electrophoretic system. Proteolytic changes of white brined cheese were monitored by three parameters, the total protein, the water soluble proteins and the degree of proteolysis, whereas the change of major casein fractions was followed by electrophoresis in reducing conditions. Ripening caused a decrease of the total protein content, whereas in the first forty days the water soluble protein and the degree of proteolysis increased. Both casein fractions (αs- and β-casein of goat cheese were susceptible to primary proteolysis but to the different extent. αs1- casein disappeared during processing, whereas during 60-days of ripening the content of αs2 and β-casein was reduced by 38.90 %, and 30.72 %, respectively. Such trends of major casein fractions were strongly correlated with the degree of proteolysis and the moisture content, whereas no correlation was found between them and the water soluble protein content. The results of our investigation clearly suggested that SDS-PAGE method based on high-molarity Tris-buffer system could be a very useful for purposes of monitoring the white goat cheese proteolysis.

  16. Rapid and controlled transformation of nitrate in water and brine by stabilized iron nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhong; Zhao, Dongye; Pan, Gang

    2009-05-01

    Highly reactive zero-valent iron (ZVI) nanoparticles stabilized with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were tested for reduction of nitrate in fresh water and brine. Batch kinetic tests showed that the pseudo first-order rate constant ( k obs) with the stabilized nanoparticles was five times greater than that for non-stabilized counterparts. The stabilizer not only increased the specific surface area of the nanoparticles, but also increased the reactive particle surface. The allocation between the two reduction products, NH4 + and N2, can be manipulated by varying the ZVI-to-nitrate molar ratio and/or applying a Cu-Pd bimetallic catalyst. Greater CMC-to-ZVI ratios lead to faster nitrate reduction. Application of a 0.05 M HEPES buffer increased the k obs value by 15 times compared to that without pH control. Although the presence of 6% NaCl decreased k obs by 30%, 100% nitrate was transformed within 2 h in the saline water. The technology provides a powerful alternative for treating water with concentrated nitrate such as ion exchange brine.

  17. CONTAMINATION POTENTIAL OF SPECIFIC IONS IN SOIL TREATED WITH REJECT BRINE FROM DESALINATION PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDLER MILTON PAIVA DE OLIVEIRA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Percolation columns constructed in the Laboratory can predict the degree of contamination in soil due to reject brine disposal and can be a tool for reducing environmental impacts. This study aim to evaluate the mobilization of ions in reject brine from desalination process by reverse osmosis. The mobilization of the contaminant ions in the saline waste was studied in glass percolation columns, which were filled with soil of contrasting textures (eutrophic CAMBISOL, typic dystrophic Red OXISOL, ENTISOL Quartzipsamment. Experiments ware repeated three times each, and the initial and final concentrations of the ion contaminants were analyzed. The pollution potential of this wastewater was determined by the retardation factor and dispersion-diffusion coefficient of K+, Cl- and Na+ for each studied soil. The differences in the displacement curves of the ions present in the saline waste among various soil types were analyzed. The Entisol Quartzipsamment showed a higher forward speed of the ions K+ and Cl- (greater retardation factor, i.e., greater power of the subsurface contamination for these ions. In typic dystrophic Red OXISOL, the ions move with greater ease and therefore produced greater groundwater contamination. In eutrophic CAMBISOL, the low coefficient of diffusion-dispersion in all ions was evaluated (i.e., reduced ion mobility is directly influenced by their exchangeable levels.

  18. Optimal Planning and Design of Seawater RO Brine Outfalls under Environmental Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalouf, S.; Yeh, W. W.

    2012-12-01

    Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination has emerged as the technology of choice, adopted in most arid and semi-arid coastal regions around the world to alleviate shortages in freshwater supply. Depleted traditional water resources, population growth, frequent droughts in these regions and climate change, are among a myriad of factors that have forced coastal communities to seek alternative reliable sources of potable water. The abundance of seawater (about 97% of the volume of water on earth) makes SWRO desalination an attractive supply source of potable water for coastal communities. SWRO desalination plants, however, create hypersaline brine disposal challenges. These challenges are due to elevated Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) concentration levels, of about twice of that of the receiving seawater body, and densities that are higher than the ambient seawater density. We present a model that is applied to optimize the design of a SWRO brine discharge system. We also address the need to develop a simulation-optimization framework that can be used to find the least-cost design of a multiport marine outfall system, while meeting regulatory constraints. Given the uncertainty of some of the input parameters, such as current speed, wind speed and ambient temperature, we demonstrate how one of these parameters is treated as a random variable in the development of the simulation-optimization framework. Finally, we present numerical results of a real-world problem.

  19. Brine migration test report: Asse Salt Mine, Federal Republic of Germany: Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, A.J.; Eckert, J.; Kalia, H.

    1987-01-01

    This report presents a summary of Brine Migration Tests which were undertaken at the Asse mine of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) under a bilateral US/FRG agreement. This experiment simulates a nuclear waste repository at the 800-m (2624-ft) level of the Asse salt mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. This report describes the Asse salt mine, the test equipment, and the pretest properties of the salt in the mine and in the vicinity of the test area. Also included are selected test data (for the first 28 months of operation) on the following: brine migration rates, thermomechaical behavior of the salt (including room closure, stress reading, and thermal profiles), borehole gas pressures, and borehole gas analyses. In addition to field data, laboratory analyses of pretest salt properties are included in this report. The operational phase of these experiments was completed on October 4, 1985, with the commencement of cooldown and the start of posttest activities. 7 refs., 68 figs., 48 tabs.

  20. Radiolysis and corrosion of 238Pu-doped UO2 pellets in chloride brine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Kelm; E Bohnert

    2002-12-01

    Deaerated 5 M NaCl solution is irradiated in the presence of UO2 pellets with a-radiation from 238Pu. Experiments are conducted with 238Pu doped pellets and others with 238Pu dissolved in the brine. The radiolysis products and yields of mobilized U and Pu from the oxidative dissolution of UO2 are determined. Results found for radiolysis products and for the oxidation/dissolution of pellets immersed in Pu containing brine are similar to results for Pu doped pellets, where the radiation chemical processes occur only in the liquid layer of some 10 m thickness adjacent to the pellet. The yield of radiolysis products is comparable to earlier results, that of mobilized U from the pellets is < 1% of the total amount of oxidized species. Thus, the radiation chemical yield (-value) for mobilized hexavalent U is < 0.01 ions/100 eV. In spite of the low radiation yield for the corrosion, the rate of UO2 dissolution is higher than expected for the concentrations of long-lived oxidizing radiolysis compounds found in the solutions.

  1. Molecular simulation of carbon dioxide, brine, and clay mineral interactions and determination of contact angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenney, Craig M; Cygan, Randall T

    2014-01-01

    Capture and subsequent geologic storage of CO2 in deep brine reservoirs plays a significant role in plans to reduce atmospheric carbon emission and resulting global climate change. The interaction of CO2 and brine species with mineral surfaces controls the ultimate fate of injected CO2 at the nanoscale via geochemistry, at the pore-scale via capillary trapping, and at the field-scale via relative permeability. We used large-scale molecular dynamics simulations to study the behavior of supercritical CO2 and aqueous fluids on both the hydrophilic and hydrophobic basal surfaces of kaolinite, a common clay mineral. In the presence of a bulk aqueous phase, supercritical CO2 forms a nonwetting droplet above the hydrophilic surface of kaolinite. This CO2 droplet is separated from the mineral surface by distinct layers of water, which prevent the CO2 droplet from interacting directly with the mineral surface. Conversely, both CO2 and H2O molecules interact directly with the hydrophobic surface of kaolinite. In the presence of bulk supercritical CO2, nonwetting aqueous droplets interact with the hydrophobic surface of kaolinite via a mixture of adsorbed CO2 and H2O molecules. Because nucleation and precipitation of minerals should depend strongly on the local distribution of CO2, H2O, and ion species, these nanoscale surface interactions are expected to influence long-term mineralization of injected carbon dioxide.

  2. Biopreservation of Brined Shrimp (Pandalus borealis) by Bacteriocins from Lactic Acid Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsson, H; Lauzon, H L

    1995-02-01

    In brined shrimp (ca. 3% NaCl), the effects of three different lactic acid bacteria bacteriocins (crude [6.54 x 10(sup10) U of bacteriocin activity {BU}/g] and purified [8.13 x 10(sup23) BU/g] nisin Z, carnocin UI49 [2.32 x 10(sup4) BU/g], and crude bavaricin A [2.78 BU/g]) on bacterial growth and shelf life were compared with those of a benzoate-sorbate solution (0.1% each [wt/wt]) and a control with no preservatives. The shelf life of shrimp subjected to the control treatment was found to be 10 days. Carnocin UI49 did not extend the shelf life, while crude bavaricin A (a cell-free supernatant of Lactobacillus bavaricus MI 401) resulted in a shelf life of 16 days, as opposed to 31 days with nisin Z for both its crude and purified forms. The benzoate-sorbate solution preserved the brined shrimp for the whole storage period (59 days). In the control, carnocin UI49, and crude bavaricin A treatments, a gram-positive flora dominated towards the end of the storage period while in the nisin Z treatment a gram-negative flora was more pronounced.

  3. Fluid sampling and chemical modeling of geopressured brines containing methane. Final report, March 1980-February 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudak, B.; Galbraith, R.; Hansen, L.; Sverjensky, D.; Weres, O.

    1982-07-01

    The development of a flowthrough sampler capable of obtaining fluid samples from geopressured wells at temperatures up to 400/sup 0/F and pressures up to 20,000 psi is described. The sampler has been designed, fabricated from MP35N alloy, laboratory tested, and used to obtain fluid samples from a geothermal well at The Geysers, California. However, it has not yet been used in a geopressured well. The design features, test results, and operation of this device are described. Alternative sampler designs are also discussed. Another activity was to review the chemistry and geochemistry of geopressured brines and reservoirs, and to evaluate the utility of available computer codes for modeling the chemistry of geopressured brines. The thermodynamic data bases for such codes are usually the limiting factor in their application to geopressured systems, but it was concluded that existing codes can be updated with reasonable effort and can usefully explain and predict the chemical characteristics of geopressured systems, given suitable input data.

  4. Ozone-biological activated carbon as a pretreatment process for reverse osmosis brine treatment and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lai Yoke; Ng, How Yong; Ong, Say Leong; Hu, Jiang Yong; Tao, Guihe; Kekre, Kiran; Viswanath, Balakrishnan; Lay, Winson; Seah, Harry

    2009-09-01

    Ozonation was used in this study to improve biodegradability of RO brine from water reclamation facilities. An ozone dosage ranging from 3 to 10 mg O(3)/L and contact times of 10 and 20 min in batch studies were found to increase the biodegradability (BOD(5)/TOC ratio) of the RO brine by 1.8-3.5 times. At the same time, total organic carbon (TOC) removal was in the range of 5.3-24.5%. The lab-scale ozone-biological activated carbon (BAC) at an ozone dosage of 6.0mg O(3)/L with 20-min contact time was able to achieve 3 times higher TOC removal compared to using BAC alone. Further processing with Capacitive Deionization (CDI) process was able to generate a product water with better water quality than the RO feed water, i.e., with more than 80% ions removal and a lower TOC concentration. The ozone-BAC pretreatment has the potential of reducing fouling in the CDI process.

  5. Estimation of cytotoxic potency by brine shrimp lethality bioassay application of Clerodendrum infortunatum Linn.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Talukdar Muhammad Waliullah; Akter MstYeasmin; Ashraful MdAlam; Wahedul Md Islam; Parvez Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To learn a scientific and systematic knowledge of anticancer, antimicrobial and pharmacological activities of natural products and estimate cytotoxic potency by using ethanol and chloroform extracts of root, leaf and stem of Clerodendrum infortunatum (Verbenaceae) due to its random use in customary and traditional medicine to cure common ailments such as intestinal disorder, diarrhea, tuberculosis and respiratory problems etc. Methods: The in vitro application was carried out with the bench-top bioassay method by using brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Results: All of the crude extracts were found to be lethal and effective. The LC50 value of ethyl alcohol fraction of root was 20.845 mg/L compared to the standard drug tetracycline of 14.675 mg/L to brine shrimp nauplii, indicating that the extracts were biologically active. Conclusions: The cytotoxic study of LC50 value showed that a good correlation with the antibiotic tetracycline. From the comparative correlation error bars and percentage, we understood that ethyl alcohol fraction of root extract was very effective. This study serves as a basis for further research to lead compounds to be isolated so that it may be as a template for the implications of these results for bioactivity and drug discovery potential of herbal products.

  6. Determination of the corrosive power of acid pH brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duhalt K., A.; Mendoza C., M.; Cortes M., C.

    1970-03-01

    The basic function of hydrochloric acid (aqueous solution 15 to 28% by wt) when injected into an oil well is to react with the carbonates which make up the formation, to improve the interconnection between pores (permeability), and create drainage channels for the fluids contained in the rock. However, this chemical reaction creates brines which may be damaging to tools, tubing, and surface equipment, if they are not withdrawn immediately. The present study presents the results (in graphical representations) of a study of the corrosive aggressiveness of different brines with acid pH. From the results of this study and of the technical discussion included, the following conclusions were reached: (1) at ambient temperatures (40/sup 0/C), the corrosion is acceptable in case of fluids with a pH of 3; (2) at a subsurface temperature of 80/sup 0/C, corrosion is acceptable when the fluid has a pH of 5; (3) there is no economic justification to look for a pH of 7 in the spent acid, because the aggressiveness does not greatly decrease between pH 5 and pH 7; and (4) in view of the above, it is considered necessary to clean out the well until the fluid reaches a pH of 5, with the consequent saving of time in operation of equipment.

  7. Metabolic traits of an uncultured archaeal lineage -MSBL1- from brine pools of the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwirichia, Romano; Alam, Intikhab; Rashid, Mamoon; Vinu, Manikandan; Ba-Alawi, Wail; Anthony Kamau, Allan; Kamanda Ngugi, David; Göker, Markus; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Bajic, Vladimir; Stingl, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The candidate Division MSBL1 (Mediterranean Sea Brine Lakes 1) comprises a monophyletic group of uncultured archaea found in different hypersaline environments. Previous studies propose methanogenesis as the main metabolism. Here, we describe a metabolic reconstruction of MSBL1 based on 32 single-cell amplified genomes from Brine Pools of the Red Sea (Atlantis II, Discovery, Nereus, Erba and Kebrit). Phylogeny based on rRNA genes as well as conserved single copy genes delineates the group as a putative novel lineage of archaea. Our analysis shows that MSBL1 may ferment glucose via the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway. However, in the absence of organic carbon, carbon dioxide may be fixed via the ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase, Wood-Ljungdahl pathway or reductive TCA cycle. Therefore, based on the occurrence of genes for glycolysis, absence of the core genes found in genomes of all sequenced methanogens and the phylogenetic position, we hypothesize that the MSBL1 are not methanogens, but probably sugar-fermenting organisms capable of autotrophic growth. Such a mixotrophic lifestyle would confer survival advantage (or possibly provide a unique narrow niche) when glucose and other fermentable sugars are not available.

  8. Solubilities and speciation of radionuclides in brines: Technical program plan, Fiscal years 1988, 1989: Revised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucher, J.; Edelstein, N.

    1987-06-26

    The objective of this program is to identify and obtain appropriate thermodynamic testing data on the solubilities of compounds and on the solution complexes of important waste radionuclides which are likely to form in the salt repository. Information on the chemical behavior of the waste radionuclides is important for site selection and characterization, and is necessary for demonstrating that the expected performance of the repository site will be in compliance with technical criteria stated in 10CFR60. Basic thermodynamic test data will be obtained on the nature and solubilities of specific compounds in brines, and on the formation constants of specific solution complexes for the waste radionuclides which are pertinent to salt repositories. Such information is needed for the thermodynamic data base to be used in predictive geochemical models and for the interpretation of site specific measurements. Although data could be obtained with salt cores for specific sites, there is a very wide variation in the components of various salt cores even from the same site. Thus, from such measurements it is impossible to determine the important factors affecting the solubilities and speciation of the radionuclides. However by the use of synthetic brine solutions, where all the components are known and controlled, it is possible to determine for experimental measurements the important components which control the solubilities and transport of the key radionuclides. Such data can then be used for predictive modeling of radionuclide solubility and transport under repository conditions.

  9. Acute Oral Toxicity and Brine Shrimp Lethality of Elaeis guineensis Jacq., (Oil Palm Leaf Methanol Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeng Chen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae is widely used in West African traditional medicine for treating various ailments. An evaluation on the toxicity of extracts of this plant is crucial to support the therapeutic claims. The acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of a methanolic extract of this plant was tested. Oral administration of crude extract at the highest dose of 5,000 mg/kg resulted in no mortalities or evidence of adverse effects, implying that E. guineensis is nontoxic. Normal behavioral pattern, clinical signs and histology of vital organs confirm this evidence. The E. guineensis extracts screened for toxicity against brine shrimp had 50% lethal concentration (LC50 values of more than 1.0 mg/mL (9.00 and 3.87 mg/mL, at 6 and 24 h, respectively, confirming that the extract was not toxic. Maximum mortalities occurred at 100 mg/mL concentration while the least mortalities happened to be at 0.195 mg/mL concentration. The results of both tests confirm that E. guineensis is nontoxic and hence safe for commercial utilization.

  10. Acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of Elaeis guineensis Jacq., (oil palm leaf) methanol extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahmi, Abdul Rani Muhamad; Vijayarathna, Soundararajan; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga; Kwan, Yuet Ping; Lau, Yee Ling; Shin, Lai Ngit; Chen, Yeng

    2010-11-10

    Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae) is widely used in West African traditional medicine for treating various ailments. An evaluation on the toxicity of extracts of this plant is crucial to support the therapeutic claims. The acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of a methanolic extract of this plant was tested. Oral administration of crude extract at the highest dose of 5,000 mg/kg resulted in no mortalities or evidence of adverse effects, implying that E. guineensis is nontoxic. Normal behavioral pattern, clinical signs and histology of vital organs confirm this evidence. The E. guineensis extracts screened for toxicity against brine shrimp had 50% lethal concentration (LC₅₀) values of more than 1.0 mg/mL (9.00 and 3.87 mg/mL, at 6 and 24 h, respectively), confirming that the extract was not toxic. Maximum mortalities occurred at 100 mg/mL concentration while the least mortalities happened to be at 0.195 mg/mL concentration. The results of both tests confirm that E. guineensis is nontoxic and hence safe for commercial utilization.

  11. Antimicrobial, antityrosinase and brine shrimp lethality test of Bauhinia rufescens Lam (Fabaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aminu Muhammad; Hasnah Mohd Sirat

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate leaves and stem bark extracts of Bauhinia rufescens for antimicrobial activities, tyrosinase enzyme inhibition potentials and lethality to brine shrimp larvae (Artemiasalina ). Methods: The plant materials were extracted based on polarity gradient of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol. The extracts were investigated for their antimicrobial, antityrosinase and cytotoxicity potentials.Results:The antimicrobial results indicated that the extracts inhibited the microbial growth in the range of 6.00-12.57 mm (450-1 800 µg/mL) for bacterial strains and 7.33-14.03 mm (225-1 800 µg/mL) for fungal strains. While the tyrosinase enzyme inhibition assay of the extracts showed that both the petroleum ether leaves and stem bark extracts exhibited a moderate inhibition (39.60%and 39.89%) towards the action of mushroom tyrosinase enzyme on L-DOPA. In the brine shrimp lethality assay, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the leaves of the plant were found toxic to the Artemia salina with IC50 values of 0.059 mg/mL and 0.389 mg/mL. However, both the petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts of the stem bark were nontoxic to the larvae.Conclusions:The result of the present study suggest the presence of phytochemicals possessing antimicrobial and antityrosinase activity as well as cytotoxic agents.

  12. Metabolic traits of an uncultured archaeal lineage -MSBL1- from brine pools of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Mwirichia, Romano

    2016-01-13

    The candidate Division MSBL1 (Mediterranean Sea Brine Lakes 1) comprises a monophyletic group of uncultured archaea found in different hypersaline environments. Previous studies propose methanogenesis as the main metabolism. Here, we describe a metabolic reconstruction of MSBL1 based on 32 single-cell amplified genomes from Brine Pools of the Red Sea (Atlantis II, Discovery, Nereus, Erba and Kebrit). Phylogeny based on rRNA genes as well as conserved single copy genes delineates the group as a putative novel lineage of archaea. Our analysis shows that MSBL1 may ferment glucose via the Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas pathway. However, in the absence of organic carbon, carbon dioxide may be fixed via the ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase, Wood-Ljungdahl pathway or reductive TCA cycle. Therefore, based on the occurrence of genes for glycolysis, absence of the core genes found in genomes of all sequenced methanogens and the phylogenetic position, we hypothesize that the MSBL1 are not methanogens, but probably sugar-fermenting organisms capable of autotrophic growth. Such a mixotrophic lifestyle would confer survival advantage (or possibly provide a unique narrow niche) when glucose and other fermentable sugars are not available.

  13. Lithium recovery from brine using a λ-MnO2/activated carbon hybrid supercapacitor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seoni; Lee, Jaehan; Kang, Jin Soo; Jo, Kyusik; Kim, Seonghwan; Sung, Yung-Eun; Yoon, Jeyong

    2015-04-01

    Lithium is one of the most important elements in various fields including energy storage, medicine manufacturing and the glass industry, and demands for lithium are constantly increasing these days. The lime soda evaporation process using brine lake water is the major extraction method for lithium, but this process is not only inefficient and time-consuming but also causes a few environmental problems. Electrochemical recovery processes of lithium ions have been proposed recently, but the better idea for the silver negative electrodes used in these systems is required to reduce its cost or increase long term stability. Here, we report an electrochemical lithium recovery method based on a λ-MnO2/activated carbon hybrid supercapacitor system. In this system, lithium ions and counter anions are effectively captured at each electrode with low energy consumption in a salt solution containing various cationic species or simulated Salar de Atacama brine lake water in Chile. Furthermore, we designed this system as a flow process for practical applications. By experimental analyses, we confirmed that this system has high selectivity and long-term stability, with its performance being retained even after repetitive captures and releases of lithium ions.

  14. Determination of 5-log pathogen reduction times for heat-processed, acidified vegetable brines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidt, F; Hayes, J S; Osborne, J A; McFeeters, R F

    2005-02-01

    Recent outbreaks of acid-resistant food pathogens in acid foods, including apple cider and orange juice, have raised concerns about the safety of acidified vegetable products. We determined pasteurization times and temperatures needed to assure a 5-log reduction in the numbers of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella strains in acidified cucumber pickle brines. Cocktails of five strains of each pathogen were (separately) used for heat-inactivation studies between 50 and 60 degrees C in brines that had an equilibrated pH value of 4.1. Salmonella strains were found to be less heat resistant than E. coli O157:H7 or L. monocytogenes strains. The nonlinear killing curves generated during these studies were modeled using a Weibull function. We found no significant difference in the heat-killing data for E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes (P = 0.9709). The predicted 5-log reduction times for E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes were found to fit an exponential decay function. These data were used to estimate minimum pasteurization times and temperatures needed to ensure safe processing of acidified pickle products and show that current industry pasteurization practices offer a significant margin of safety.

  15. Brine and Gas Flow Patterns Between Excavated Areas and Disturbed Rock Zone in the 1996 Performance Assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for a Single Drilling Intrusion that Penetrates Repository and Castile Brine Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ECONOMY,KATHLEEN M.; HELTON,JON CRAIG; VAUGHN,PALMER

    1999-10-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is located in southeastern New Mexico, is being developed for the geologic disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Waste disposal will take place in panels excavated in a bedded salt formation approximately 2000 ft (610 m) below the land surface. The BRAGFLO computer program which solves a system of nonlinear partial differential equations for two-phase flow, was used to investigate brine and gas flow patterns in the vicinity of the repository for the 1996 WIPP performance assessment (PA). The present study examines the implications of modeling assumptions used in conjunction with BRAGFLO in the 1996 WIPP PA that affect brine and gas flow patterns involving two waste regions in the repository (i.e., a single waste panel and the remaining nine waste panels), a disturbed rock zone (DRZ) that lies just above and below these two regions, and a borehole that penetrates the single waste panel and a brine pocket below this panel. The two waste regions are separated by a panel closure. The following insights were obtained from this study. First, the impediment to flow between the two waste regions provided by the panel closure model is reduced due to the permeable and areally extensive nature of the DRZ adopted in the 1996 WIPP PA, which results in the DRZ becoming an effective pathway for gas and brine movement around the panel closures and thus between the two waste regions. Brine and gas flow between the two waste regions via the DRZ causes pressures between the two to equilibrate rapidly, with the result that processes in the intruded waste panel are not isolated from the rest of the repository. Second, the connection between intruded and unintruded waste panels provided by the DRZ increases the time required for repository pressures to equilibrate with the overlying and/or underlying units subsequent to a drilling intrusion. Third, the large and areally extensive DRZ void volumes is a

  16. On-line tests of organic additives for the inhibition of the precipitation of silica from hypersaline geothermal brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrar, J.E.; Locke, F.E.; Lorensen, L.E.; Otto, C.H. Jr.; Deutscher, S.B.; Frey, W.P.; Lim, R.

    1979-04-03

    A number of compounds have been screened as potential scale control agents by examining their effect on the precipitation of silica from Magmamax No. 1 brine. The substances were tested using the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory scale-control test system at the Niland, California, test site. Solutions of the test substances were injected into flowing brine at approx. 200/sup 0/C, the brine was flashed at 125/sup 0/C, and then the kinetics of solids and silica precipitation from effluent brine held at 90/sup 0/C were measured. Compounds tested include a variety of cellulose derivatives, ethylene oxide polymers, several polyethoxylated surfactants, and a phosphonate. The ethylene oxide moiety was confirmed as the source of activity in substances that inhibit the precipitation of silica at 90/sup 0/C, and the polyethylene glycols in the molecular weight range of approximately 10,000 to 100,000 are the most effective. A brief, in-plant scaling test with the most promising precipitation inhibitor showed that, although it significantly retarded scaling at 90/sup 0/C, there was no improvement at 125/sup 0/C or higher, and at 125/sup 0/C there may have been a slight increase in scaling rate.

  17. Chemical composition and distribution of lithium-rich brines in salar de Uyuni and nearby salars in southwestern Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericksen, G.E.; Vine, J.D.; Raul, Ballon A.

    1978-01-01

    Preliminary investigations at Salar de Uyuni and the nearby salars (salt pans) of Coipasa and Empexa in the southern part of the Bolivian Altiplano show the presence of widespread lithium-rich brines. Widely scattered brine samples from Salar de Uyuni, which has an area of about 9000 km2 and is the largest salt pan on earth, show lithium values ranging from 80 to 1500 ppm. High values of 300-700 ppm are most prevalent in an area of about 2500 km2 in the east-central and southeastern part of the salar. A few brine samples in small areas in Coipasa and Empexa Salars have values ranging from 170 to 580 ppm Li. All the brines are essentially saturated with halite and are moderately high in sulfate (5000-15,000 ppm SO4) but low in carbonate (Altiplano during late Pleistocene time, augmented by saline material carried to the salars by streams since final drying of this lake. Thermal springs associated with rhyolitic volcanic rocks of Quaternary age may have been a major source of the lithium. ?? 1978.

  18. Antityrosinase, antioxidative activities, and brine shrimp lethality of ethanolic extracts from Protium serratum (Wall. ex Colebr.) Engl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patcharawan Tanamatayarat

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate all parts of Protium serratum (Wall. ex Colebr.) Engl. (P. serratum) for their phytochemistry and biological activities including antityrosinase, antioxidant, and brine shrimp lethality. Methods: Nine ethanolic extracts from different P. serratum parts such as twig, whole fruit, pericarp, and root were investigated for their phytochemical screening and bio-logical activities in terms of tyrosinase inhibition, antioxidant against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radicals, and lethality to brine shrimp larvae. Results: Phytochemical screening also revealed the presence of flavonoids, condensed tannins, alkaloids, triterpenoids, steroids, and sugars in P. serratum. The root extract was the most effective for antityrosinase activity with IC50 of (21.63 ± 0.31) mg/mL, and the leaf extract exhibited the highest antioxidation activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radical scavenging methods, with IC50 of (4.34 ± 0.09) and (119.80 ± 1.01) mg/mL, respectively. The essential oil extracted from the whole fruit displayed the highest toxicity against brine shrimp, with LC50 of (3.57 ± 1.82) mg/mL. Conclusions: This study indicates that ethanolic extracts from each P. serratum part have differences in phytochemistry and biological activities (antityrosinase, antioxidant, and brine shrimp lethality). Some parts of the plant should be considered in the further study.

  19. Treatment of the Cerro Prieto I brines for use in reinjection. 2. Results of the pilot plant tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado J, R. (Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Mexicali, Mexico); Mercado G, S.; Rocha C, E.; Gamino O, H.; Garibaldi P, F.

    1981-01-01

    Silica removal experiments have been carried out both in the laboratory and in pilot scale tests. The results obtained to date are presented, with special emphasis on the pilot tests with or without the use of flocculants. Previous studies on brine treatment are described briefly.

  20. Genome sequence of Haloplasma contractile, an unusual contractile bacterium from a deep-sea anoxic brine lake.

    KAUST Repository

    Antunes, Andre

    2011-09-01

    We present the draft genome of Haloplasma contractile, isolated from a deep-sea brine and representing a new order between Firmicutes and Mollicutes. Its complex morphology with contractile protrusions might be strongly influenced by the presence of seven MreB/Mbl homologs, which appears to be the highest copy number ever reported.