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Sample records for acari tetranichus urticae

  1. Biological and ecological characterization of two mites (Tetranychus Urticae and Phytoseiulus Persimilis) occurring in some agro-ecosystems; Caratterizzazione biologica ed ecologica di due acari (Tetranichus Urticae e Phytoseiulus Persimilis) interagenti in alcuni ecosistemi agrari

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    Calvitti, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Roma (Italy). Dip. Innovazione

    1995-12-01

    This work is a brief review of the actual knowledge about biological and ecological characteristics of two species of mites: Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina Tetranychidae) (two-spotted spider mite) and the predaceous mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias Henriot (Acarina Phytoseiidae). Success obtained in biological control of spider mite, by mass release of P. persimilis, has increased the interest in biological and ecological study of these mites. Particularly, the following biological and ecological aspects of both P. persimilis and T. urticae are hereby discussed: reproductive biology; population dynamics (spider mites outbreaks) and natural regulation of the trophic interaction; feeding behaviour; biological control of two-spotted spider mite by P. persimilis. In this report experimental data obtained in laboratory have been integrated with bibliographic information concerning studies produced in natural conditions.

  2. Acaricide resistance in Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) populations from Cyprus.

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    Vassiliou, Vassilis A; Kitsis, Pavlos

    2013-08-01

    Five field and greenhouse populations of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), were collected from five different districts across the island of Cyprus, both in field and greenhouse crops, and tested to determine levels of resistance. Standard leaf-disk spray application bioassay procedures were used to determine the LC50s for five chemicals: abamectin, acrinathrin, fenazaquin, pirimiphos methyl, and bifenazate. Selection of these compounds was based on the widespread use by farmers as well as on the frequent control failures against T. urticae reported in the past. Resistance of T. urticae was detected to abamectin, acrinathrin, fenazaquin, and pirimiphos methyl. The resistance ratios were calculated relative to the German susceptible reference strain. The highest resistance ratios at LC50 value were recorded for abamectin in a greenhouse rose population (RR = 3822), followed by a field bean (RR = 1356) and field tomato population (RR = 1320). Significantly high resistance levels were also found for acrinathrin where the highest resistance ratios at LC50 were recorded in a field bean T. urticae population (RR = 903). For fenazaquin, the highest resistance levels were recorded in a field tomato population (RR = 310). Lower resistance levels were found for pirimiphos methyl (13.3 < RR < 77.4) in all populations. Low susceptibility of T. urticae was observed for bifenazate (2.7 < RR < 24.4) in all populations. These results suggest that at least the use of abamectin and acrinathrin should be avoided or minimized for the control of T. urticae populations in indoor and outdoor environments.

  3. The presence of webbing affects the oviposition rate of two-spotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae)

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    Oku, K.; Magalhães, S.; Dicke, M.

    2009-01-01

    Several species of tetranychid mites including Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) construct complicated three-dimensional webs on plant leaves. These webs provide protection against biotic and abiotic stress. As producing web is likely to entail a cost, mites that arrive on a leaf with

  4. Reproductive parameters of Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks fed with Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae in laboratory

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    G. C. Souza-Pimentel

    Full Text Available Abstract Predatory mites that belong to the Phytoseiidae family are one of the main natural enemies of phytophagous mites, thus allowing for their use as a biological control. Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks, 1904 (Acari: Phytoseiidae is among the main species of predatory mites used for this purpose. Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae is considered to be one of the most important species of mite pests and has been described as attacking over 1,100 species of plants in 140 families with economic value. The objective of the present study was to investigate, in the laboratory, the reproductive parameters of the predatory mite P. macropilis when fed T. urticae. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions at 25 ± 2 °C of temperature, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hours of photophase. In addition, biological aspects were evaluated and a fertility life table was established. The results of these experiments demonstrated that the longevity of adult female was 27.5 days and adult male was 29.0 days. The population was estimated to increase approximately 27 times (Ro in mean generation time (T, which was 17.7 days. Lastly, the mite population grew 1.2 times/day (λ and doubled every 3.7 days (TD.

  5. Multiple resistance and biochemical mechanisms of pyridaben resistance in Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

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    Kim, Young-Joon; Park, Hyung-Man; Cho, Jum-Rae; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2006-06-01

    A field colony of Tetranychus urticae (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae) resistant to pyridaben was selected with pyridaben successively for 20 generations to produce the PR-20 strain. Resistance and multiple resistance levels of the PR-20 strain to 15 acaricides were determined using a spray bioassay. The PR-20 strain was extremely resistant to pyridaben (resistance ratio [RR] = 240]. The strain exhibited extremely strong resistance to fenpyroximate (RR=373) and acrinathrin (RR=329) and strong resistance to benzoximate (RR=84). An RR = 10-40 was observed with abamectin, fenazaquin, fenbutatin oxide, fenpropathrin, and tebufenpyrad. The PR-20 strain showed low levels of resistance (RR <10) to azocyclotin, bromopropylate, chlorfenapyr, dicofol, milbemectin, and propargite. Synergist experiments with different metabolic inhibitors revealed that piperonyl butoxide (PBO), a mixed function oxidase (MFO) inhibitor, had the greatest effect on pyridaben resistance. PBO significantly caused pyridaben resistance in the PR-20 strain to drop to the full susceptibility level of the susceptible (S) strain. However, there was no significant difference in MFO activities measured using a model substrate between the S and PR-20 strains. These results suggest that use of certain acaricides with little multiple resistance or PBO will be useful for the management of pyridaben resistance in the field.

  6. Desiccation tolerance in diapausing spider mites Tetranychus urticae and T. kanzawai (Acari: Tetranychidae).

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    Ghazy, Noureldin Abuelfadl; Suzuki, Takeshi

    2014-05-01

    We investigated the effects of changes in vapor pressure deficit (VPD) on the survival of diapausing (winter form) and non-diapausing (summer form) spider mites Tetranychus urticae Koch and Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae). Adult females of both species were kept without food at VPDs of 0.0, 0.4, 0.7, 1.5, 1.9, or 2.7 kPa for 3, 6, 9, 12, or 15 days at 25 °C. Diapausing females of both species kept at a VPD of ≥0.4 kPa for ≥6 days clearly tolerated desiccation. Under water-saturated conditions (VPD = 0.0 kPa), in which no desiccation occurred, diapausing females showed high starvation tolerance: 90 % survived for up to 15 days. No interspecific differences in tolerance to desiccation or starvation were observed under most conditions. These results indicate that diapause functions increase tolerance to desiccation and starvation. Such multiple tolerances to harsh environments might support winter survival in spider mites.

  7. Primer registro del hongo Neozygites sp. (Zygomycota: Entomophthorales, patógeno de Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae en la República Argentina First record of Neozygites sp. (Zygomycota: Entomophthorales, pathogen of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae in Argentina

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    Ana C. Scorsetti

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se cita por primera vez para la Argentina la presencia del hongo entomopatógeno Neozygites cf. floridana (Zygomycota: Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales como patógeno de la «arañuela roja», Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae, importante plaga de cultivos hortícolas en la región. Los muestreos fueron realizados en el cinturón hortícola del Gran La Plata sobre cultivos de tomate, pimiento, berenjena, y otras hortalizas. El material de herbario, como preparaciones microscópicas y ácaros infectados fue depositado en el Herbario del Instituto de Botánica C. Spegazzini y en el herbario micológico del CEPAVE. Este trabajo contribuye a ampliar la distribución y el espectro de hospedadores de Neozygites , así como ampliar la información de los hongos entomopatógenos en la Argentina.In this paper, the presence of the fungi Neozygites cf. floridana (Zygomycota: Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales, as pathogen of the mite Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae, is recorded for first time in Argentina. Samplings were carried out in La Plata , on tomato, pepper, egg-plant, and other horticultural crops. Microscopic slides and mites infected were placed in the Herbarium of the Institute of Botany C. Spegazzini and in the Herbarium of CEPAVE. This work contributes to further expand the distribution and the host range of Neozygites as well as the information of entomopathogenic fungi in Argentina.

  8. Repellent effect of santalol from sandalwood oil against Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

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    Roh, Hyun Sik; Park, Kye Chung; Park, Chung Gyoo

    2012-04-01

    Thirty-four essential oils were screened for their repellent activities against the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae), at 0.1% concentration level using choice and no-choice laboratory bioassays. Of these, 20 essential oils showed significant repellencies against T. urticae in the choice tests. In subsequent no-choice tests using these 20 essential oils, only sandalwood oil showed significant repellency against T. urticae. Total number of eggs oviposited by T. urticae was significantly lower than controls in the choice tests when the kidney bean leaves were treated with 1 of 14 essential oils. The significant repellency of sandalwood oil against T. urticae lasted at least for 5 h at the 0.1% concentration level. Our GC-MS analysis indicated that the major components of the sandalwood oil were alpha-santalol (45.8%), beta-santalol (20.6%), beta-sinensal (9.4%), and epi-beta-santalol (3.3%). Santanol, a mixture of the two main components in the sandalwood oil, appears to be responsible for the repellency of sandalwood oil against T. urticae.

  9. Binomial and enumerative sampling of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on peppermint in California.

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    Tollerup, Kris E; Marcum, Daniel; Wilson, Rob; Godfrey, Larry

    2013-08-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is an economic pest on peppermint [Mentha x piperita (L.), 'Black Mitcham'] grown in California. A sampling plan for T. urticae was developed under Pacific Northwest conditions in the early 1980s and has been used by California growers since approximately 1998. This sampling plan, however, is cumbersome and a poor predictor of T. urticae densities in California. Between June and August, the numbers of immature and adult T. urticae were counted on leaves at three commercial peppermint fields (sites) in 2010 and a single field in 2011. In each of seven locations per site, 45 leaves were sampled, that is, 9 leaves per five stems. Leaf samples were stratified by collecting three leaves from the top, middle, and bottom strata per stem. The on-plant distribution of T. urticae did not significantly differ among the stem strata through the growing season. Binomial and enumerative sampling plans were developed using generic Taylor's power law coefficient values. The best fit of our data for binomial sampling occurred using a tally threshold of T = 0. The optimum number of leaves required for T urticae at the critical density of five mites per leaf was 20 for the binomial and 23 for the enumerative sampling plans, respectively. Sampling models were validated using Resampling for Validation of Sampling Plan Software.

  10. Resistance mechanisms to mitochondrial electron transport inhibitors in a field-collected strain of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae).

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    Van Pottelberge, S; Van Leeuwen, T; Nauen, R; Tirry, L

    2009-02-01

    A Belgian field strain (MR-VP) of Tetranychus urticae (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae) exhibits different levels of resistance to four frequently used METI (mitochondrial electron transport inhibitor)-acaricides, i.e. tebufenpyrad, fenpyroximate, pyridaben and fenazaquin. Resistance factors for these compounds were 184, 1547, 5971 and 35, respectively. A 23.5-fold increase in 7-ethoxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin O-deethylation activity suggested that metabolic resistance through elevated levels of cytochrome P450 dependent monooxygenase-activity is a possible resistance mechanism.However, synergism studies with different metabolic inhibitors revealed some contrasting resistance mechanisms between the METI-acaricides. Tebufenpyrad resistance could only be synergized after pre-treatment with the monooxygenase inhibitor piperonyl butoxide (PBO), whereas pyridaben resistance was strongly synergized both by PBO and the esterase inhibitor S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF). Resistance levels to fenpyroximate could neither be suppressed by PBO nor by DEF. Although METI-acaricides are structurally related, these findings probably reflect a different role of esterases and mono-oxygenases in metabolic detoxification between these compounds. The overall lack of synergism by diethylmaleate (DEM) suggests that glutathione-S-transferases are not an important factor in resistance to METIs.Reciprocal crosses between susceptible females and resistant males showed no maternal effect, and resistance to METI-acaricides was inherited generally as a dominant trait. Backcrosses with F1 females revealed striking differences in the mode of inheritance. Although resistance to fenpyroximate and pyridaben was under monogenic control, resistance to tebufenpyrad was under control of more than one gene.

  11. Acaricidal activity of Annonaceae fractions against Tetranychus tumidus and Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae and the metabolite profile of Duguetia lanceolata (Annonaceae using GC-MS

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    Dejane Santos Alves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Species of the Tetranychus genus feed on plant tissues, which reduces the rate of photosynthesis and can lead to the death of plant tissues. As a result, considerable production losses are caused by these arthropods. Thus, in order to aid in the development of new products for the control of Tetranychus tumidus Banks and Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae, the initial objective of this study was to select Annonaceae derived fractions that were soluble in dichloromethane and have acaricidal activity. Then, an exploratory analysis of the metabolite profile of the most successful fraction was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Among the dichloromethane soluble fractions derived from Annona cacans Warm., Annona coriacea Mart., Annona neolaurifolia H. Rainer, Annona sylvatica A.St.-Hil., Duguetia lanceolata A.St.-Hil., Guatteria australis A.St.-Hil., Xylopia brasiliensis Spreng., Xylopia emarginata Mart. and Xylopia sericea A.St.-Hil., only the fraction from D. lanceolata stem bark reduced the survival of T. tumidus females. However, ovicidal activity was not detected when D. lanceolata stem bark was evaluated against T. tumidus eggs. Further, we studied the effect of dichloromethane soluble fractions from D. lanceolata leaves, berry fruits and stem bark on T. urticae, and the stem bark was found to be the most active fraction against T. urticae. The metabolite profile analysis of D. lanceolata stem bark by GC-MS, suggested that the main constituents were 2,4,5-trimethoxystyrene and trans-asarone.

  12. Fenpyroximate resistance in Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae): cross-resistance and biochemical resistance mechanisms.

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    Kim, Young-Joon; Lee, Si-Hyeock; Lee, Si-Woo; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2004-10-01

    A field colony of the Two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Koch), resistant to fenpyroximate was further selected with fenpyroximate 5SC for 20 generations at a selection pressure of 30-50% mortality (designated as FR-20 strain). Resistance and cross-resistance levels of the FR-20 strain to 18 acaricides were determined using a spray method. The FR-20 strain was extremely resistant to fenpyroximate [resistance ratio (RR) 252]. The strain exhibited extremely strong positive cross-resistance to acrinathrin (RR 196), and high levels of resistance to benzoximate (RR 55) and propargite (RR 64). Moderate levels of cross-resistance (RR 11-40) to abamectin, fenbutatin oxide, fenpropathrin, pyridaben, pyridaben + bifenthrin and tebufenpyrad were observed. The FR-20 strain showed low levels of resistance (RR fenazaquin and milbemectin. Synergist experiments with different metabolic inhibitors revealed that piperonyl butoxide had the greatest effect on the efficacy of fenpyroximate, followed by iprobenfos and triphenyl phosphate. In a comparative assay with detoxifying enzymes, the FR-20 strain showed 2.5-fold higher activity in p-nitroanisole-O-demethylation, and 2.5- and 2.2-fold higher activities in alpha- and beta-naphthyl acetate hydrolysis, respectively. These results suggested that enhanced activities of both mixed-function oxidases and esterases likely contribute to the fenpyroximate resistance of the FR-20 strain of T urticae.

  13. Ocorrência de Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Acari, Tenuipalpidae, Tetranychus urticae (Koch (Acari, Tetranychidae e Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks (Acari, Tarsonemidae sobre folhas de Ipomoea cairica (Linnaeus Sweet (Solanales, Convolvulaceae Occurrence of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Acari, Tenuipalpidae, Tetranychus urticae (Koch (Acari, Tetranychidae and Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks (Acari, Tarsonemidae on leaves of I. cairica (Linnaeus Sweet (Solanales, Convolvulaceae

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    Ozana M. de A. Maia

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de três espécies acarinas fitófagas é relatada pela primeira vez sobre folhas de Ipomoea cairica. As espécies Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, Tetranychus urticae (Koch e Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks, foram coletadas sobre folhas de I. cairica nas imediações da Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil, em 20 de janeiro de 2005.The first occurrence of three phytophagus mites on Ipomoea cairica, is reported. The species Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, Tetranychus urticae (Koch and Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks were caught on leaves of I. cairica, around Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, in January 20th, 2005.

  14. Stage-Specific Expression of Resistance to Different Acaricides in Four Field Populations of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

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    Tang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Youjun; Wu, Qingjun; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli

    2014-10-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is a worldwide crop pest. The resistance to commonly applied acaricides (in this report, "acaricide" refers to both acaricides and insecticides that are toxic to mites) has seriously impaired T. urticae control in the field. Here, the sensitivity of eggs, larvae, and adults of laboratory and field populations of T. urticae to various acaricides was investigated. Based on data obtained with an acaricide-sensitive laboratory strain collected in 2009, abamectin was the most toxic of the tested acaricides. For each acaricide, susceptibility was greatest for larvae, least for adults, and intermediate for eggs. The egg was the most sensitive stage to abamectin, bifenazate, and hexythiazox; the larva was the most sensitive stage to abamectin, hexythiazox, bifenazate, propargite, and chlorfenapyr; and the adult was the most sensitive stage to abamectin, bifenazate, and chlorfenapyr. Based on the results obtained with the acaricide-sensitive laboratory strain, acaricides were selected to test against eggs, larvae, and adults of four field populations of T. urticae from Beijing, China. Although the field populations differed in their resistance to the acaricides in laboratory bioassays, the eggs, larvae, and adults of the four populations were sensitive to bifenazate and highly resistant to abamectin. Field trials for control of T. urticae in Beijing, China, should be conducted with bifenazate and other acaricides rather than with abamectin. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  15. Incidence and inheritance of resistance to METI-acaricides in European strains of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) (Acari: Tetranychidae).

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    Devine, G J; Barber, M; Denholm, I

    2001-05-01

    A strain of Tetranychus urticae (Koch; Acari: Tetranychidae), collected from hops (Humulus humuli L; Cannabaceae) in England with a short history of tebufenpyrad use, exhibited resistance to four METI (mitochondrial electron transport inhibitor)-acaricides; tebufenpyrad, pyridaben, fenazaquin and fenpyroximate. Resistance factors for these compounds in a microimmersion assay were 46, 346, 168 and 77 respectively, and corresponded to those exhibited by a Japanese METI-acaricide-resistant reference strain. Levels of resistance remained stable without further selection, and selection with tebufenpyrad did not increase them. The UK strain was also resistant (c 6-fold) to bifenthrin. Crosses of homozygous, diploid females with hemizygous, haploid males showed that, in the UK strain, METI-acaricide resistance was paternally and maternally inherited, and was an incompletely dominant trait. Another tebufenpyrad-resistant strain from the UK, originating from a chrysanthemum nursery (Chrysanthemum foeniculaceum Giseke; Asteraceae) was collected eight months later at a site c 210 km distant from the first. These are the first published incidences of METI-acaricide resistance in Europe and implications for the future use of these compounds are discussed.

  16. Management of apple orchards to conserve generalist phytoseiid mites suppresses two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

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    Funayama, Ken; Komatus, Michiyo; Sonoda, Shoji; Takahashi, Isao; Hara, Kazuko

    2015-01-01

    To improve the success of integrated pest management (IPM) in apple orchards, we investigated whether generalist phytoseiid mites have suppressed the occurrence of Tetranychus urticae. In Akita Prefecture, northern Japan, in 2012 and 2013, two types of experimental plot were compared. Conservation plots had been managed for the conservation of generalist phytoseiid mites by selective chemical spraying without mowing since 2009. Conventional plots were managed by non-selective chemical spraying with regular mowing. The conservation plots had significantly fewer T. urticae adult females per tree in both years. Two species of generalist phytoseiid mites-Typhlodromus vulgaris and Amblyseius tsugawai-were continuously present in the conservation plots, with only a few T. urticae. The conservation plots had significantly more A. tsugawai adult females in the undergrowth in both years, and significantly more T. vulgaris adult females on apple leaves in 2012. Typhlodromus vulgaris was continuously present in the conservation plots but was scarce from late May to early August in the conventional plots. In the presence of T. vulgaris, low numbers of T. urticae did not increase on apple leaves. These results indicate that the generalist phytoseiid mites serve as important biological control agents in IPM in apple orchards.

  17. Standardization of a rearing procedure of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): plant age and harvest time; Padronizacao da criacao de Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) em feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris): idade da planta e tempo de colheita

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    Bustos, Alexander; Cantor, Fernando; Cure, Jose R; Rodriguez, Daniel [Universidade Militar Nueva Granada, Bogota (Colombia). Facutad de Ciencias. Programa de Biologia Aplicada], e-mail: fernando.cantor@unimilitar.edu.co

    2009-09-15

    A rearing technique was standardized to produce Tetranychus urticae Koch on Phaseolus vulgaris (ICA Cerinza variety) as a prey of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. Two assays were conducted to assess the following variables: the most suitable plant age for mite infestation, and the best time to harvest the mites and re infest the plants. In the first experiment, four, five, six, and seven-week-old plants of P. vulgaris were infested with six T. urticae per foliole. The lower plant stratum exhibited the largest number of mites regardless of plant age. However, four-week old plants had the larger average number of individuals. In the second experiment four-week-old plants were infested with 0.5 female mite/cm{sup 2} of leaf. The number of individuals per instar of T. urticae was recorded weekly. The highest mite production occurred between four and five weeks after infestation, indicating this to be the most suitable for mite harvesting and for plant reinfestation. (author)

  18. Seleções para resistência e suscetibilidade, detecção e monitoramento da resistência de Tetranychus urticae ao acaricida clorfenapir Selections for resistance and susceptibility, detection and monitoring of resistance to the acaricide chlorfenapyr in Tetranychus urticae koch (Acari: Tetranychidae

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    Mário Eidi Sato

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Problemas com resistência de ácaro-rajado, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae, a acaricidas têm sido registrados em diversos países, inclusive no Brasil. O estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar a resistência de T. urticae ao acaricida clorfenapir e avaliar a freqüência de resistência a esse composto em áreas comerciais de seis culturas no Estado de São Paulo. Seleções para resistência e suscetibilidade a clorfenapir foram realizadas em laboratório, utilizando-se uma população de T. urticae coletada em 2002 de um cultivo comercial de crisântemo em Holambra (SP. Após seis seleções para resistência e cinco seleções para suscetibilidade, foram obtidas as linhagens suscetível (S e resistente (R de T. urticae a clorfenapir. A razão de resistência (CL50 R/ CL50 S obtida alcançou valores de 571 vezes. Estabeleceu-se uma concentração discriminatória de 37,4 mg L-1 de ingrediente ativo (i.a. para o monitoramento da resistência de T. urticae a clorfenapir. O monitoramento foi realizado coletando-se 21 populações de ácaros em áreas comerciais de diferentes culturas (mamão, morango, feijão, tomate, crisântemo, rosa, em vários municípios do Estado de São Paulo. Arenas confeccionadas com folha de feijão foram infestadas com ácaros T. urticae e pulverizadas com clorfenapir, na sua concentração discriminatória, em torre de Potter. Os resultados indicaram grande variabilidade entre as populações com relação à suscetibilidade a clorfenapir. Foram observadas populações com freqüências de resistência entre 0,0 e 65,4%. As maiores freqüências de resistência foram observadas para populações coletadas de crisântemo em Holambra (SP.Problems associated with acaricide resistance in Tetranychus urticae Koch have been recorded in several countries including Brazil. The objective of this study was to characterize the resistance of T. urticae to the acaricide chlorfenapyr and to evaluate the resistance

  19. Atmospheric Humidity Influences Oviposition Rate of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) Through Morphological Responses of Host Cucumis sativus Leaves.

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    Shibuya, T; Itagaki, K; Ueyama, S; Hirai, N; Endo, R

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the effects of morphology of host cucumber, Cucumis sativus L., leaves acclimatized to different atmospheric humidity levels on oviposition by adult females of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch. Cucumber seedlings were grown at a vapor pressure deficit (VPD) of 0.4, 1.9, or 3.0 kPa at 28°C (90%, 50%, or 20% relative humidity, respectively) in growth chambers until the second true leaves had expanded. Adult females of T. urticae were released on the adaxial surfaces of leaf squares cut from first and second true leaves in each treatment group, and held in the same humidity condition. Eggs were counted 2 d after release. The lower acclimatization humidity (higher VPD) increased trichome (leaf hair) density of the host leaves and oviposition rate, but the relationship between the trichome and oviposition differed between leaf positions. The leaf mass per area (LMA) was greater in first true leaves than in second true leaves, but was not influenced by VPD. A linear regression model with oviposition rate as the dependent variable and trichome density and LMA as independent variables showed that both variables influenced the oviposition rate approximately equally. We conclude that oviposition was accelerated under low humidity (high VPD) conditions indirectly probably through an increase in the trichome density of host leaves.

  20. An analysis of potential resistance of the phytophagous mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae to four botanical pesticides

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    Attia, S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Synthetic acaricides have been widely used to manage Tetranychus urticae. Due to the excessive use of biocide and the associated problems of pesticide resistance and environmental pollution, there is an increasing demand for sustainable, environmentally-friendly control methods. Among the current alternative strategies aimed at decreasing the pest populations, the pesticides based on plant extracts are currently one of the most promising methods. Essential oils with acaricidal properties have been categorized as green pesticides because they are biodegradable and predominantly non-toxic to vertebrates. Objectives. With an aim to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides, they represent a promising approach for eco-chemical control of mites. Method. The aim of the present work was to analyze the risk of resistance emergence of T. urticae to repeated treatments with four plant extracts: Deverra scoparia Coss. & Durieu (Araliales: Apiaceae, Hertia cheirifolia (L. Kuntze (Asterales: Ateraceae, Santolina africana Jord. & Fourr. (Asterales: Asteraceae essential oils and garlic distillate Allium sativum L. (Asparagales: Alliaceae after 20 generations. Results. Repeated treatments with S. africana essential oil during 20 generations did not provoke an emergence of resistance while a low development of resistance was observed with H. cheirifolia, A. sativum and D. scoparia extracts. Conclusions. The efficacy of these extracts against the two spotted spider mite and their low development of resistance make them a promising use for pest management.

  1. Efeitos do nim sobre tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae e os predadores Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks e Neoseiulus californicus (Mcgregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae

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    Daniele Cristine Hoffmann Schlesener

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de controle e os efeitos adversos de dois produtos à base de nim Azamax® (Azadiractina A/B 12g/L e Neemseto® (Azadiractina A/B, Nimbina e Salanina 2,389 g/L sobre o ácaro-rajado Tetranychus urticae e os predadores Phytoseiulus macropilis e Neoseiulus californicus em laboratório. Para o ácaro-rajado, foram consideradas as variáveis mortalidade, fecundidade, efeito ovicida e persistência biológica, enquanto para os fitoseídeos consideraram-se mortalidade e fecundidade. A mortalidade máxima observada para o ácaro-rajado foi de 89,7% e 91,5% para Azamax® e Neemseto®, respectivamente, na concentração de 0,5% após a reaplicação do produto no sétimo dia. Também foram observados efeitos adversos sobre a fecundidade e a viabilidade dos ovos quando tratados com os produtos comerciais (p.c.. A persistência biológica dos produtos foi de aproximadamente três dias após a pulverização. As formulações apresentaram seletividade em relação aos fitoseídeos, porém causaram redução da fecundidade dos mesmos.

  2. Microsatellites reveal a strong subdivision of genetic structure in Chinese populations of the mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae

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    Sun Jing-Tao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two colour forms of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch coexist in China: a red (carmine form, which is considered to be native and a green form which is considered to be invasive. The population genetic diversity and population genetic structure of this organism were unclear in China, and there is a controversy over whether they constitute distinct species. To address these issues, we genotyped a total of 1,055 individuals from 18 red populations and 7 green populations in China using eight microsatellite loci. Results We identified 109 alleles. We found a highly significant genetic differentiation among the 25 populations (global FST = 0.506, global FST {ENA} = 0.473 and a low genetic diversity in each population. In addition, genetic diversity of the red form mites was found to be higher than the green form. Pearson correlations between statistics of variation (AR and HE and geographic coordinates (latitude and longitude showed that the genetic diversity of the red form was correlated with latitude. Using Bayesian clustering, we divided the Chinese mite populations into five clades which were well congruent with their geographic distributions. Conclusions Spider mites possess low levels of genetic diversity, limit gene flow between populations and significant and IBD (isolation by distance effect. These factors in turn contribute to the strong subdivision of genetic structure. In addition, population genetic structure results don't support the separation of the two forms of spider mite into two species. The morphological differences between the two forms of mites may be a result of epigenetic effects.

  3. Efeitos do nim sobre tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae e os predadores Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks e Neoseiulus californicus (Mcgregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae Effects of neem on tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae and the predators Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks and Neoseiulus Californicus (Mcgregor (Acari: phytoseiidae

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    Daniele Cristine Hoffmann Schlesener

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de controle e os efeitos adversos de dois produtos à base de nim Azamax® (Azadiractina A/B 12g/L e Neemseto® (Azadiractina A/B, Nimbina e Salanina 2,389 g/L sobre o ácaro-rajado Tetranychus urticae e os predadores Phytoseiulus macropilis e Neoseiulus californicus em laboratório. Para o ácaro-rajado, foram consideradas as variáveis mortalidade, fecundidade, efeito ovicida e persistência biológica, enquanto para os fitoseídeos consideraram-se mortalidade e fecundidade. A mortalidade máxima observada para o ácaro-rajado foi de 89,7% e 91,5% para Azamax® e Neemseto®, respectivamente, na concentração de 0,5% após a reaplicação do produto no sétimo dia. Também foram observados efeitos adversos sobre a fecundidade e a viabilidade dos ovos quando tratados com os produtos comerciais (p.c.. A persistência biológica dos produtos foi de aproximadamente três dias após a pulverização. As formulações apresentaram seletividade em relação aos fitoseídeos, porém causaram redução da fecundidade dos mesmos.The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of control and adverse effects of two neem based products: Azamax TM (Azadirachtin A/B 12g/L and Neemseto TM (Azadirachtin A/B, Nimbin and Salanin 2,389 g/L over two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae and the predators Phytoseiulus macropilis and Neoseiulus californicus in laboratory. Effects over the mortality, fecundity, eggs and biological persistence of the two-spotted spider mite when treated with neem based products were evaluated. For the phytoseiids the effects on mortality and fecundity were evaluated. The maximum mortality of two-spotted spider mites rates observed were 89.7% and 91.5% for Azamax TM and Neemseto TM respectively, on the 0.5% concentration after reapplying the product on the seventh day. Adverse effects were also observed over the fecundity and viability of the eggs when treated with

  4. Nouvelle technique d'élevage de l'acarien phyllophage Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari : Tetranychidae et son application à l'étude de l'efficacité de quelques acaricides sur pomme de terre (Solarium tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badegana, AM.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A New Rearing Technique of Phytophagous Mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari : Tetranychida and its Application in the Study of the Efficacy of some Acaricides on Potato [Solanum tuberosum L.. A 5 cm diameter leaf disc of potato or another host plant (or four on 2.5 cm diameter was used in a Petri dish of 9 cm diameter for the rearing technique. This leaf disc, pierced in its centre, slides along a rustproof pin and floats on a 1 mm thick lamina of demineralized fresh water. Water is a "strong barrier" which confines the tetranychid mites on the leaf disc, even if this one does not corne from a host plant (tetranychid mites deprived of food. This rearing technique was used as a bioassay to test the effectiveness of acaricides (pyrimiphos-methyl, bromopropylate, fenpropathrin, dienochlor on the developmental stages of Tetranychus urticae. The ovicidal activity against the eggs of one, three, seven days old (the eggs incubation duration being 8.1 ±0.15 days was also studied. The results obtained show that bromopropylate, fenpropathrin and dienochlor have an ovicidal activity against the eggs of the different ages, but dienochlor has the highest efficiency (90 % mortality. Pyrimiphos-methyl is only active against the seven-day old eggs and bromopropylate has a high efficiency only on the one-day old eggs. Concerning the other developmental stages such as chrysalis (protochrysalis, deu-tochrysalis, teleiochrysalis and mobile stages (larva, protonymph, deutonymph and adult female, pyrimiphos-methyl has de highest efficiency (90 % mortality ; dienochlor also, except mobile stages. Bromopropylate has no activity against the chrysalis and mobile stages and fenpropathrin has a remarkable repulsive effect.

  5. Effect of gamma radiation on the toxicity of milbemectin and chlorfenapyr in acaricide resistant and susceptible strains of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicastro, Roberto L.; Arthur, Valter; Machi, Andre R., E-mail: rnicastro@cena.usp.br, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Laboratorio de Radiobiologia e Ambiente (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Sato, Mario E., E-mail: mesato@biologico.sp.gov.br [Laboratorio de Acarologia, Instituto Biologico, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch is considered one of the most important phytophagous mites, causing considerable damage in several agricultural crops. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on the toxicity of the acaricides milbemectin and chlorfenapyr in resistant and susceptible strains of T. urticae. The R and S strains for milbemectin and chlorfenapyr were irradiated with gamma radiation at Gamma cell-220 source at doses of 5, 10, 20, 40 e 80 Gy. Five concentrations of milbemectin and chlorfenapyr were evaluated, making applications 24 hours after irradiation. Mites of the controls were sprayed with the same acaricide concentrations used for the R and S strains but they were not exposed to gamma radiation. Experiments on the effects of gamma radiation on the growth rates of mites for acaricide resistant and susceptible strains of T. urticae were also carried out. Tests with the Milbemectin S strain showed an increased susceptibility to the acaricide milbemectin, when the mites were irradiated (20 Gy), in comparison with the control (non irradiated mites). For the Milbemectin R strain, there was no significant influence of gamma irradiation on the toxicity of milbemectin to the mites of this strain. For the Chlorfenapyr S strain, the effect of gamma radiation was similar to that observed for Milbemectin S strain, with increased toxicity of chlorfenapyr to the mites of this susceptible strain. In the case of the Chlorfenapyr R strain, the mites exposed to gamma radiation showed to be more tolerant to chlorfenapyr, considering the LC{sub 10} values. The same trend was observed for the LC{sub 50} values, however, there was no significant difference with the control. The experiments showed that doses of 200 and 300 Gy eliminated the mite populations of acaricide resistant and susceptible strains of T. urticae, in a period of ten days. The dose of 100 Gy did not lead to total elimination of the mite populations, but reduced

  6. A comparative study of the dynamics of Wolbachia infection in different populations of Tetranychus urticae (Acari : Tetranychidae)%共生菌Wolbachia在中国二斑叶螨种群中的扩散规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢蓉蓉; 陈小琳; 孙荆涛; 洪晓月

    2013-01-01

    共生菌Wolbachia在中国二斑叶螨Tetranychus urticae Koch中分布广泛,所有的地理种群中均感染Wolbachia.以二斑叶螨湖南长沙(HN),辽宁兴城(LN)和江苏徐州(JS)3个地理种群为实验材料,经筛选获得100%感染和不感染Wolbachia的品系后,人工设置Wolbachia感染率为50%的品系,通过PCR技术检测二斑叶螨连续世代Wolbachia感染率动态变化,研究Wolbachia在二斑叶螨种群中的扩散规律.结果表明:3个地理种群的垂直传播效率都为100%;HN种群Wolbachia感染率上升速度最快,F7代达到100%感染;LN种群F12达到100%感染;而JS地理种群中Wolbachia感染率速度上升最慢,在F20代达到100%感染,其后感染率均能稳定在100%.LN种群Wolbachia通过诱导胞质不亲和的策略,JS种群的Wolbachia通过提高寄主适合度的策略,而HN种群Wolbachia则通过诱导胞质不亲和与提高寄主适合度两者相结合的策略,最终达到在二斑叶螨中维持感染状态并扩散传播的目的.本研究结果为今后利用Wolbachia的扩散规律控制有害生物及疾病传播提供了基础.%Maternally inherited Wolbachia bacteria are widely distributed in Chinese populations of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari; Tetranychidae). All populations were found to be infected with Wolbachia. Using the Hunan ( HN) , Liaoning ( LN ) and Jiangsu ( JS) populations of T. urticae as experimental subjects, 100% Wolbachia-infected and 100% uninfected spider mite lines were obtained by screening. This study investigated the dynamics of Wolbachia spread in the two-spotted spider mite. Infection frequencies of Wolbachia among the progenies of the artificial populations, initiated with 50% infected and 50% uninfected female adults, were monitored by PCR. The results show 100% maternal transmission in all three populations. The rate of spread was fastest in the HN population in which the infection rate reached 100% by the F7

  7. Efficacy of five selected acaricides against Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and their side effects on relevant natural enemies occurring in citrus orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbaneja, Alberto; Pascual-Ruiz, Sara; Pina, Tatiana; Abad-Moyano, Raquel; Vanaclocha, Pilar; Montón, Helga; Dembilio, Oscar; Castañera, Pedro; Jacas, Josep A

    2008-08-01

    Three groups of natural enemies are fundamental in citrus IPM in Spain: coccinellid and phytoseiid predators and hymenopteran parasitoids. Tetranychus urticae Koch is an important pest affecting citrus, for which biological control has not yet been achieved; therefore, acaricides are commonly used to control it. The goal of this study was to measure the efficacy of different acaricides on this mite and their side effects on three natural enemies relevant for citrus (Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant, Neoseiulus californicus McGregor and Aphidius colemani Viereck). Some products proved highly effective against T. urticae and harmless to A. colemani (mineral oil, tebufenpyrad, clofentezine and fenazaquin). However, almost all products tested were slightly harmful for both the predators considered. Fenazaquin was even moderately harmful for N. californicus. Further studies, like that presented here, are necessary to gain a better understanding of integrating biological and chemical controls. When considering both efficacy and side effects on beneficial arthropods, the best options would seem to be mineral oil, tebufenpyrad and clofentezine. However, it is urgent to complete testing of the side effects of the acaricides used in citrus. This question is crucial if the fact that two recently introduced Tetranychidae are being controlled in citrus by chemical means exclusively is considered.

  8. Criterios para el manejo de Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae con el ácaro depredador Amblyseius (Neoseiulus sp. (Acari: Phytoseiidae en cultivos de rosas

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    Forero Gabriel

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    En cultivos de rosas en la Sabana de Bogotá, se ha registrado Amblyseius sp. como un ácaro depredador de Tetranychus urticae. Con el fin de evaluar el potencial de este ácaro en el manejo de T. urticae, se comparó en cultivos comerciales de rosa, bajo el sistema de agobio, la efectividad de liberaciones de Amblyseius sp. frente a la aplicación de productos de síntesis química, teniendo en cuenta los siguientes criterios de evaluación: presencia-ausencia del ácaro fitófago, porcentaje de daño causado en hojas y tipo de foco de T. urticae. Además, se evaluó la presencia del ácaro depredador ocho días después de las liberaciones. Se realizaron ensayos de respuesta funcional con densidades crecientes en los tres estados de desarrollo: huevo, larva o ninfas de la presa, bajo condiciones controladas y de invernadero. Se encontró menor cantidad (19,4% de ácaros fitófagos con la aplicación de productos químicos. Sin embargo, el porcentaje de daño en la hoja fue menor (índice de daño 1 y 3, 8% y 13% menos, respectivamente con las liberaciones de Amblyseius sp. Se evidenciaron diferencias en el tipo de foco para ambas estrategias de manejo y se registró una presencia semanal promedio del 23% para el ácaro depredador. La capacidad de consumo (respuesta funcional a las 24 horas por parte de Amblyseius sp. fue de 6,66 huevos, 18,06 larvas y 19,15 ninfas bajo condiciones controladas, y de 4,56 huevos, 12,65 larvas y 15,71 ninfas bajo invernadero.

  9. Effect Of Agrotechnical Measures And Varieties On Seasonal Dynamics Of Tetranychus Urticae Koch (Acari, Trombidiformes, Tetranychidae On High Tunnel-Cultivated Garden Strawberries

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    Salmane Ineta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the seasonal pattern of two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae on strawberries cultivated in polythene-covered high tunnels in temperate climatic conditions. Various cultivars were used and the effect of modification of plant covering indices on abundance and incidence of these mites was also tested. The number of two-spotted spider mites was relatively low at the beginning of the vegetation season and started to increase when average air temperature rose above 20 to 25 °C. In the experiment two types of tunnels differing in additional plant cover were used. The maximum mite abundance did not significantly vary between varieties in tunnel 1 conditions, but it was significantly lower for variety 'Sonata' in tunnel 2 conditions. Mite numbers significantly declined after strawberry foliage mowing and removal of polythene cover. Mite development was prolonged in tunnel 1, where additional cover of plants was used and higher early season air temperature was recorded in comparison to tunnel 2. It was concluded that increase in early season temperature can increase two-spotted spider mite abundance and have a more negative effect on strawberry plants in respect of foliage damage by mites.

  10. Comparison and Characterization of Garlic (Allium sativum L. Bulbs Extracts and Their Effect on Mortality and Repellency of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae Comparación y Caracterización de Extractos de Bulbos de Ajo (Allium sativum L. y su Efecto en a Mortalidad y Repelencia de Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Hincapié Ll

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Tetranychus urticae Koch is a pest that causes great economic losses because it attacks a wide range of host plants. Also, some populations have developed resistance against commercial acaricides. This work compares different extracts from garlic (Allium sativum L. bulbs measuring their toxicity and repellency effects on T. urticae. Extracts were obtained using as solvents CO2 in supercritical conditions (CSC, ethanol and petroleum ether using soxhlet and soaking methods and soaking in water. The supercritical fluid extraction technique allows for obtaining extracts at low temperature using high pressures, avoiding compound degradation and making possible solvent separation by exposing the extract at room temperature. Mites were bred on bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a laboratory environment in Laureles Campus, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Medellín, Colombia. Mortality was evaluated putting 10 mites in P. vulgaris 3 cm diameter leaf discs previously submersed in the extract. The lowest mean lethal concentrations (LC50 were obtained with the CSC method (8.1188, 5.4105, 2.8206 mg g-1 at 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Extracts were characterized using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS, finding vinyl dithiins (63.11%, diallyl disulfide (10.88% and diallyl trisulfide (10.4% as the main compounds in the CSC extract. The main conclusion is that, in comparison with other techniques of extraction from garlic bulbs used in this study, supercritical fluids allow for obtaining extracts with a higher concentration of biologically active compounds against T. urticae.Tetranychus urticae Koch es una plaga que causa grandes pérdidas económicas porque ataca un numeroso grupo de cultivos. Además, algunas poblaciones han desarrollado resistencia a acaricidas comerciales. Este trabajo compara diferentes extractos a partir de bulbos de ajo (Allium sativum L. a través de su toxicidad y repelencia sobre T. urticae. Los extractos se

  11. Toxicity of spiromesifen and natural acaricides to Tetranychus urticae koch and compatibility with Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks

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    José Vargas de Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae, is one important pest of cotton crop due to reductions in cotton yield and fiber quality. Thus, this work evaluated the toxicity of the synthetic acaricide spiromesifen and natural products on T. urticae and the compatibility with the predatory mite Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks (Acari: Phytoseiidae. Spiromesifen and the natural products Azadirachtin A/B, Azadirachtin 1%, Jatropha curcas L. and Ricinus communis L. oils were used at different concentrations; the leaf dipping method was employed. The mortality of T. urticae females and eggs was evaluated 48 and 96 h after treatment to calculate the lethal concentrations. The effect on P. macropilis was studied using the LC50s obtained to T. urticae. All acaricides tested were effective in controlling females and eggs of T. urticae. However, according to the LC50s and LC90s calculated, spiromesifen was the most toxic acaricide to females and J. curcas oil presented the higher toxicity to eggs. Spiromesifen, J. curcas oil and Azadiractina 1% caused side effects on P. macropilis. However, only espiromesifeno was classified as harmful to the predator, whereas Azadirachtin A/B and R. communis oil were slightly harmful. R. communis and Azadirachtin A/B were effective in controlling the two-spotted spider mite and promising for the management of this pest in cotton considering their low toxicity to the predator.

  12. Sexual selection and mating behavior in spider mites of the genus Tetranychus (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oku, K.

    2014-01-01

    As sexual selection is a coevolutionary process between males and females, various morphological and behavioral traits have evolved in each sex. In the tetranychid mites Tetranychus urticae Koch and T. kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae), males can mate repeatedly, whereas females normally

  13. Sexual selection and mating behavior in spider mites of the genus Tetranychus (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oku, K.

    2014-01-01

    As sexual selection is a coevolutionary process between males and females, various morphological and behavioral traits have evolved in each sex. In the tetranychid mites Tetranychus urticae Koch and T. kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae), males can mate repeatedly, whereas females normally accep

  14. Acari; Tetranychidae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    do not specifically target T. urticae in terms of control but use insecticides at high dosages ... leaves were taken from the plants and sprayed with serial dilutions of the ... The LD50 values and slopes were determined using probit analysis and ...

  15. 二斑叶螨两种群中Wolbachia诱导的胞质不亲和作用的影响因子比较研究%A comparative study of factors influencing the expression of Wolbachiainduced cytoplasmic incompatibility in two populations of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch ( Acari: Tetranychidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆明红; 谢蓉蓉; 赵臻君; 于明志; 薛晓峰; 洪晓月

    2011-01-01

    The cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) is the most common effect of Wolbachia on the reproduction of its arthropod hosts, and the expression of CI differs greatly among different populations. Using the Jiangsu (JS) and Liaoning (LN) populations of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) , as experimental materials, 100% infected and uninfected Wolbachia lines were obtained by screening. The present study tried to evaluate some factors influencing the expression of CI in the spider mite by crossing experiment and Real-time quantitative PCR. These factors include age of host, temperature, host genes and Wolbachia density. The 1, 3, 5, 7-day-old virgin males were used to investigate the influence of host age on Wolbachia-induced CI. The results showed no effect of age on CI, suggesting that host age does not reduce the sperm modification induced by Wolbachia. The effect of temperatures (20℃, 25℃ and 30℃ ) on the CI induced by Wolbachia was also checked. Neither high nor low temperatures influenced the expression of CI. Wolbachia density in males of the JS population, as measured by quantitative PCR using the wsp (surface protein of Wolbachia) gene, was significantly higher than that in the LN population. In addition, in both the JS and LN populations, Wolbachia density increased with the age of male hosts. Wolbachia density also showed no effect on CI. We estimated the variability of CI expression between the JS and LN population of T. Urticae was due to the interaction between Wolbachia and host genotypes. The results might provide foundation for understanding the mechanisms of reproductive manipulation induced by Wolbachia.%Wolbachia诱导胞质不亲和(cytoplasmic incompatibility,CI)是对寄主的生殖调控中最常见的一种方式,在不同种群中CI表达的差异较大.以二斑叶螨Tetranychus urticae辽宁兴城(LN)和江苏徐州(JS)两个地理种群为实验材料,经筛选获得100%感染Wolbachia和不感

  16. Aislamiento y caracterización de cepas de Bacillus spp. con actividad contra Tetranychus urticae Koch en cultivos comerciales de rosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Larrea-Izurieta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the species of mites that cause considerable qualitative and quantitative losses in roses growing under greenhouses in Ecuador is Tetranychus urticae, where conventional agrochemicals control is not effective; therefore seeks to identify strains of Bacillus spp. Isolated from T. urticae and determine their anatomical pathogenic scenarios for future control with bacteria. The field phase took place in Naranjo Roses S.A. in Latacunga in a growing roses under organic conditions, where they were collected sheets of each third of six plants with presence of T. urticae Koch. The samples were taken to be processed in Plantsphere Laboratories (PSL in Quito. They were identified and quantified the different stages of the pest and some individuals were isolated for the presence of pathogenic strains of Bacillus spp., which were isolated, purified and identified. Check treatments of pathogenic were strains, distilled water (control and Bacillus thuringiensis biovar acari (positive control. Pathogenic events were evaluated in adult females of T. urticae by citohistochemistry, where breakout of the outer walls, precipitation of cell contents and cuticular malformations were reported. It was determined that the largest numbers of pest individuals are located in the lower third (59.4% with greater presence of eggs (63.3%. Using principal component analysis (PCA of the treatments, the PSL 104, 113, 114 and Bacillus thuringiensis biovar acari was determined as the most efficient Biocatalytic Effectors (EBc©.

  17. INTERACCIÓN ENTRE DOS ÁCAROS DEPREDADORES DE Tetranychus urticae KOCH (ACARIFORMES: TETRANYCHIDAE EN LABORATORIO Interaction Between Two Predator Mites of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acariformes: Tetranychidae in Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGÉLICA ARGÜELLES R

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae es una de las principales plagas de cultivos ornamentales, entre las especies más utilizadas para su control se encuentran Neoseiulus californicus y Phytoseiulus persimilis (Parasitiformes: Phytoseiidae. En el presente trabajo se propone el manejo de la plaga mediante el empleo de liberaciones simultáneas de los dos fitoseidos. Se evaluaron varias situaciones, por un lado se estudiaron las interacciones cuando un depredador se encuentra en una densidad baja mientras que el otro depredador se presenta en alta densidad (esta situación se analizó tanto en presencia como en ausencia de la presa. Por otro lado, se evaluaron las interacciones cuando los P. persimilis y N. californicus dos están presentes en igual densidad y en presencia de T. urticae. Cuando uno de los depredadores está en mayor densidad y hay presencia de la presa, se observa que al incrementar la edad del depredador que tiene menor densidad, aumenta también la interferencia en el consumo de presas por parte de los depredadores que están en mayor densidad. Además cuando disminuye el consumo de T. urticae se incrementa el consumo intraguilda. Phytoseiulus persimilis en ausencia de T. urticae y en presencia de N. californicus adopta un comportamiento de depredación intraguilda sobre todos los estados de desarrollo de su conespecifico, mientras que N. californicus únicamente consume larvas de conespecíficos en ausencia del fitófago y en presencia de P. persimilis. Cuando se encontraban los dos depredadores en el mismo montaje y la misma densidad de población, no se observó un mayor consumo de T. urticae que cuando cada depredador es empleado por separado.Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae is an important pest of ornamental crops. A species of predatory mite used for its control is Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae. This research proposes the use of joint releases of the two cited

  18. INTERACCIÓN ENTRE DOS ÁCAROS DEPREDADORES DE Tetranychus urticae KOCH (ACARIFORMES: TETRANYCHIDAE EN LABORATORIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGÉLICA ARGÜELLES R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae es una de las principales plagas de cultivos ornamentales, entre las especies más utilizadas para su control se encuentran Neoseiulus californicus y Phytoseiulus persimilis (Parasitiformes: Phytoseiidae. En el presente trabajo se propone el manejo de la plaga mediante el empleo de liberaciones simultáneas de los dos fitoseidos. Se evaluaron varias situaciones, por un lado se estudiaron las interac- ciones cuando un depredador se encuentra en una densidad baja mientras que el otro depredador se presenta en alta densidad (esta situación se analizó tanto en presencia como en ausencia de la presa. Por otro lado, se evaluaron las interacciones cuando los P. persimilis y N. californicus dos están presentes en igual densidad y en presencia de T. urticae. Cuando uno de los depredadores está en mayor densidad y hay presencia de la presa, se observa que al incrementar la edad del depredador que tiene menor densidad, aumenta también la interferencia en el consumo de presas por parte de los depre- dadores que están en mayor densidad. Además cuando disminuye el consumo de T. urticae se incrementa el consumo intraguilda. Phytoseiulus persimilis en ausencia de T. urticae y en presencia de N. californicus adopta un comportamiento de depredación intraguilda sobre todos los estados de desarrollo de su conespecifico, mientras que N. californicus únicamente consume larvas de conespecíficos en ausencia del fitófago y en presencia de P. persimilis. Cuando se encontraban los dos depredadores en el mismo montaje y la misma densidad de población, no se observó un mayor consumo de T. urticae que cuando cada depredador es empleado por separado.

  19. Occurrence of Two-Spotted Spider Mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch on Potentilla fruticosa Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szafranek Piotr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Potentilla fruticosa L. (Rosaceae Juss. is one of the most popular deciduous shrubs cultivated in Poland. Among pests identified so far on P. fruticosa, a serious threat is caused by two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae. During three-year study, the occurrence of two-spotted spider mite T. urticae on four cultivars of P. fruticosa: ‘Goldfinger’, ‘McKay’s White’, ‘Uman’ and ‘Pink Beauty’ grown in field conditions was compared. While conducting experiment, weather conditions were monitored. The number of eggs and motile forms of two-spotted spider mite were recorded separately. The most attractive cultivar to spider mite was ‘Goldfinger’. The largest amount of motile forms of mites and their eggs were found on the leaves of this cultivar in all three years of study. The least number of pests occurred on the cv. ‘Pink Beauty’. However, differences in the abundance of this pest on all studied cultivars were variable during the growing seasons.

  20. Toxicity of essential oils of Piper marginatum Jacq. against Tetranychus urticae Koch and Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolle Ribeiro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae is an economically important pest of agricultural and ornamental crops worldwide. It has been shown that many of natural plant-based pesticides have fewer side effects compared with synthetic chemicals. The essential oils of plants have been broadly studied for pest-control, including toxic and repellent effects, antifeedant, ovicidal, and other properties. Essential oils from stems, flowers, and leaves of Piper marginatum Jacq. were evaluated in the laboratory regarding their acaricidal potential against the two-spotted spider mite (T. urticae and the results were compared with eugenol as a positive control. The oils were also evaluated with regard to the susceptibility of the natural enemy of T. urticae (Neoseiulus californicus McGregor. Based on LC50 estimates, oils from stems and flowers exhibited the same toxicity and differed significantly from the leaf oil with LC50 0.37, 0.56, and 3.77 μL L-1, respectively. None of the oils tested exhibited toxicity greater than or equal to that of the positive control. The oil mortality rate was significantly lower for N. californicus (50% to 70% than for T. urticae (> 95%. The P. marginatum oils also deterred oviposition. Among the chemical constituents tested, sesquiterpenes were more toxic with an LC50 of 2.89 μL L-1 than phenylpropanoids Z-asarone and E-asarone with LC50 6.64 and 8.51 μL L-1, respectively. The acaricidal properties, oviposition deterrence and selectivity make these oils strong candidates for use as the active ingredient in a plant-based acaricidal agent.

  1. Acari in archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Anne S

    2009-10-01

    Mites and ticks (Acari) have been found in a variety of archaeological situations. Their identification has enabled data on habitat and dietary preferences to be obtained, and these have been used to interpret study sites. Despite this, Acari are not routinely considered in analyses in the way that other environmental components are. Like forensic science, archaeology draws on biological material to rebuild past human activity, and acarology has the potential to provide a much greater amount of evidence to both than is currently the case. As an aid to workers in these fields, an overview is presented of the Acari that have been extracted from archaeological samples, the situations in which they were found and the contribution their presence can make to the interpretation of sites.

  2. ACARI, CIDADE (MAIS) LIMPA

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Luiza de Medeiros Galvão

    2013-01-01

    Este trabalho tem por objetivo realizar uma breve reflexão acerca da concepção empírica de Acari como a cidade mais limpa do Brasil, assim referenciada na década de 70 do século XX. Como introdução, desenvolvemos considerações iniciais sobre cidade, tendo como recurso metodológico os conhecimentos adquiridos com a disciplina Arquitetura e Cidade no Brasil. Dando sequência ao texto, refletimos conceitualmente sobre cidade, espaço balizador para compreensão de Acari - cidade mais limpa; territó...

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae): high genome rearrangement and extremely truncated tRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ming-Long; Wei, Dan-Dan; Wang, Bao-Jun; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2010-10-23

    The family Tetranychidae (Chelicerata: Acari) includes ~1200 species, many of which are of agronomic importance. To date, mitochondrial genomes of only two Tetranychidae species have been sequenced, and it has been found that these two mitochondrial genomes are characterized by many unusual features in genome organization and structure such as gene order and nucleotide frequency. The scarcity of available sequence data has greatly impeded evolutionary studies in Acari (mites and ticks). Information on Tetranychidae mitochondrial genomes is quite important for phylogenetic evaluation and population genetics, as well as the molecular evolution of functional genes such as acaricide-resistance genes. In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Panonychus citri (Family Tetranychidae), a worldwide citrus pest, and provide a comparison to other Acari. The mitochondrial genome of P. citri is a typical circular molecule of 13,077 bp, and contains the complete set of 37 genes that are usually found in metazoans. This is the smallest mitochondrial genome within all sequenced Acari and other Chelicerata, primarily due to the significant size reduction of protein coding genes (PCGs), a large rRNA gene, and the A + T-rich region. The mitochondrial gene order for P. citri is the same as those for P. ulmi and Tetranychus urticae, but distinctly different from other Acari by a series of gene translocations and/or inversions. The majority of the P. citri mitochondrial genome has a high A + T content (85.28%), which is also reflected by AT-rich codons being used more frequently, but exhibits a positive GC-skew (0.03). The Acari mitochondrial nad1 exhibits a faster amino acid substitution rate than other genes, and the variation of nucleotide substitution patterns of PCGs is significantly correlated with the G + C content. Most tRNA genes of P. citri are extremely truncated and atypical (44-65, 54.1 ± 4.1 bp), lacking either the T- or D-arm, as found in P. ulmi

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae: high genome rearrangement and extremely truncated tRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dou Wei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family Tetranychidae (Chelicerata: Acari includes ~1200 species, many of which are of agronomic importance. To date, mitochondrial genomes of only two Tetranychidae species have been sequenced, and it has been found that these two mitochondrial genomes are characterized by many unusual features in genome organization and structure such as gene order and nucleotide frequency. The scarcity of available sequence data has greatly impeded evolutionary studies in Acari (mites and ticks. Information on Tetranychidae mitochondrial genomes is quite important for phylogenetic evaluation and population genetics, as well as the molecular evolution of functional genes such as acaricide-resistance genes. In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Panonychus citri (Family Tetranychidae, a worldwide citrus pest, and provide a comparison to other Acari. Results The mitochondrial genome of P. citri is a typical circular molecule of 13,077 bp, and contains the complete set of 37 genes that are usually found in metazoans. This is the smallest mitochondrial genome within all sequenced Acari and other Chelicerata, primarily due to the significant size reduction of protein coding genes (PCGs, a large rRNA gene, and the A + T-rich region. The mitochondrial gene order for P. citri is the same as those for P. ulmi and Tetranychus urticae, but distinctly different from other Acari by a series of gene translocations and/or inversions. The majority of the P. citri mitochondrial genome has a high A + T content (85.28%, which is also reflected by AT-rich codons being used more frequently, but exhibits a positive GC-skew (0.03. The Acari mitochondrial nad1 exhibits a faster amino acid substitution rate than other genes, and the variation of nucleotide substitution patterns of PCGs is significantly correlated with the G + C content. Most tRNA genes of P. citri are extremely truncated and atypical (44-65, 54.1 ± 4.1 bp, lacking

  5. Acari uit Ambon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudemans, A.C.

    1927-01-01

    Prof. Dr. E. D. VAN OORT, Directeur van 's Rijks Museum van Natuurlijke Historie te Leiden, was zoo vriendelijk, het materiaal aan Acari, door den Gouvernements-Arts Dr. PH. F. KOPSTEIN, thans te Weltevreden bij Batavia, gedurende zijn verblijf op Ambon 1922 en 1923 verzameld, mij ter determineering

  6. Life history of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) fed with castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) pollen in laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marafeli, P P; Reis, P R; Silveira, E C da; Souza-Pimentel, G C; de Toledo, M A

    2014-08-01

    The predatory mite, Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is one of the principal natural enemies of tetranychid mites in several countries, promoting efficient control of those mites in several food and ornamental crops. Pest attacks such as that of the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the problems faced by farmers, especially in the greenhouse, due to the difficulty of its control with the use of chemicals because of the development of fast resistance making it hard to control it. The objective of this work was to study the life history of the predatory mite N. californicus as a contribution to its mass laboratory rearing, having castor bean plant [Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae)] pollen as food, for its subsequent use as a natural enemy of T. urticae on a cultivation of greenhouse rosebushes. The studies were carried out in the laboratory, at 25 ± 2°C of temperature, 70 ± 10% RH and a 14 hour photophase. The biological aspects and the fertility life table were appraised. Longevity of 32.9 days was verified for adult females and 40.4 days for males. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was 0.2 and the mean generation time (T) was 17.2 days. The population doubled every 4.1 days. The results obtained were similar to those in which the predatory mite N. californicus fed on T. urticae.

  7. Plant-Herbivore Interaction: Dissection of the Cellular Pattern of Tetranychus urticae Feeding on the Host Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensoussan, Nicolas; Santamaria, M. Estrella; Zhurov, Vladimir; Diaz, Isabel; Grbić, Miodrag; Grbić, Vojislava

    2016-01-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the most polyphagous herbivores feeding on cell contents of over 1100 plant species including more than 150 crops. It is being established as a model for chelicerate herbivores with tools that enable tracking of reciprocal responses in plant-spider mite interactions. However, despite their important pest status and a growing understanding of the molecular basis of interactions with plant hosts, knowledge of the way mites interface with the plant while feeding and the plant damage directly inflicted by mites is lacking. Here, utilizing histology and microscopy methods, we uncovered several key features of T. urticae feeding. By following the stylet path within the plant tissue, we determined that the stylet penetrates the leaf either in between epidermal pavement cells or through a stomatal opening, without damaging the epidermal cellular layer. Our recordings of mite feeding established that duration of the feeding event ranges from several minutes to more than half an hour, during which time mites consume a single mesophyll cell in a pattern that is common to both bean and Arabidopsis plant hosts. In addition, this study determined that leaf chlorotic spots, a common symptom of mite herbivory, do not form as an immediate consequence of mite feeding. Our results establish a cellular context for the plant-spider mite interaction that will support our understanding of the molecular mechanisms and cell signaling associated with spider mite feeding. PMID:27512397

  8. Plant-herbivore interaction: dissection of the cellular pattern of Tetranychus urticae feeding on the host plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Bensoussan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae, is one of the most polyphagous herbivores feeding on cell contents of over 1,100 plant species including more than 150 crops. It is being established as a model for chelicerate herbivores with tools that enable tracking of reciprocal responses in plant-spider mite interactions. However, despite their important pest status and a growing understanding of the molecular basis of interactions with plant hosts, knowledge of the way mites interface with the plant while feeding and the plant damage directly inflicted by mites is lacking. Here, utilizing histology and microscopy methods, we uncovered several key features of T. urticae feeding. By following the stylet path within the plant tissue, we determined that the stylet penetrates the leaf either in between epidermal pavement cells or through a stomatal opening, without damaging the epidermal cellular layer. Our recordings of mite feeding established that duration of the feeding event ranges from several minutes to more than half an hour, during which time mites consume a single mesophyll cell in a pattern that is common to both bean and Arabidopsis plant hosts. In addition, this study determined that leaf chlorotic spots, a common symptom of mite herbivory, do not form as an immediate consequence of mite feeding. Our results establish a cellular context for the plant-spider mite interaction that will support our understanding of the molecular mechanisms and cell signaling associated with spider mite feeding.

  9. Plant-Herbivore Interaction: Dissection of the Cellular Pattern of Tetranychus urticae Feeding on the Host Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensoussan, Nicolas; Santamaria, M Estrella; Zhurov, Vladimir; Diaz, Isabel; Grbić, Miodrag; Grbić, Vojislava

    2016-01-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the most polyphagous herbivores feeding on cell contents of over 1100 plant species including more than 150 crops. It is being established as a model for chelicerate herbivores with tools that enable tracking of reciprocal responses in plant-spider mite interactions. However, despite their important pest status and a growing understanding of the molecular basis of interactions with plant hosts, knowledge of the way mites interface with the plant while feeding and the plant damage directly inflicted by mites is lacking. Here, utilizing histology and microscopy methods, we uncovered several key features of T. urticae feeding. By following the stylet path within the plant tissue, we determined that the stylet penetrates the leaf either in between epidermal pavement cells or through a stomatal opening, without damaging the epidermal cellular layer. Our recordings of mite feeding established that duration of the feeding event ranges from several minutes to more than half an hour, during which time mites consume a single mesophyll cell in a pattern that is common to both bean and Arabidopsis plant hosts. In addition, this study determined that leaf chlorotic spots, a common symptom of mite herbivory, do not form as an immediate consequence of mite feeding. Our results establish a cellular context for the plant-spider mite interaction that will support our understanding of the molecular mechanisms and cell signaling associated with spider mite feeding.

  10. ACARI, CIDADE (MAIS LIMPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Medeiros Galvão

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo realizar uma breve reflexão acerca da concepção empírica de Acari como a cidade mais limpa do Brasil, assim referenciada na década de 70 do século XX. Como introdução, desenvolvemos considerações iniciais sobre cidade, tendo como recurso metodológico os conhecimentos adquiridos com a disciplina Arquitetura e Cidade no Brasil. Dando sequência ao texto, refletimos conceitualmente sobre cidade, espaço balizador para compreensão de Acari - cidade mais limpa; território, para compreensão da cidade como construção histórica; e o Ambiente, cujo propósito foi associar o tema do trabalho à sustentabilidade socioambiental. Utilizamos dois contextos: o primeiro de crise e divulgação do título cidade mais limpa. O segundo, dizendo respeito à legislação urbanística e códigos de postura elaborados nos períodos imperial e republicano, que ordenaram o território de Acari nos dois últimos séculos, marcando a tradição de asseio, limpeza e higiene urbanas.

  11. Tetranychus urticae allergy in a population without occupational exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, N; Iraola, V; Plácido, J L

    2014-07-01

    Tetranychus urticae is a phytophagus mite found in the leaves of numerous plants. High sensitization rates have been demonstrated, however, provocation tests have only been performed in an occupational setting. To assess accuracy of skin prick tests and clinical relevance of T. urticae sensitization by means of conjunctival provocation tests (CPT) in a population without occupational exposure and to evaluate possible environmental risk factors for T. urticae allergy. Patients ≥ 18 years old sensitized to T. urticae (n = 12) and a non-sensitized control group (n = 12) were invited to perform CPT with T. urticae and fulfill a questionnaire including demographic data, questions on environmental exposure to T. urticae and allergy symptoms/diagnosis. A single-blinded placebo-controlled CPT with T. urticae (Leti®) was performed with increasing concentrations (0.002, 0.02, 0.2 and 2 mg/mL) and considered positive if conjunctival hyperemia, palpebral edema or lacrimation were observed in the tested eye. Of T. urticae sensitized patients (mean wheal 4.4 ± 1.5 mm), 9 had a positive CPT, including 3 monosensitized. A good diagnostic accuracy was found for skin prick tests: AUC = 0.952, sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 80%, positive likelihood ratio = 5 and negative likelihood ratio = 0 for a 3 mm wheal. No differences were found between allergic and non-allergic subjects regarding atopy, allergic disease or farming activities. A high prevalence of allergy to Tetranychus urticae was found in the north of Portugal. Future studies with a larger number of patients are needed to evaluate its relation to clinical symptoms and the impact of environmental factors.

  12. Sublethal effects of fenazaquin on life table parameters of the predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alinejad, Marzieh; Kheradmand, Katayoon; Fathipour, Yaghoub

    2014-11-01

    Knowledge of the impact of acaricides on predatory mites is crucial for integrated pest management programs. The present study evaluated the sublethal effect of fenazaquin (Pride(®) 20 % SC, Behavar, Iran) on life table parameters of the subsequent generation of the predatory mite, Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae), fed on Tetranychus urticae Koch under laboratory conditions [26 ± 1 °C, 70 ± 3 % RH and 16:8 (L:D) h]. The sublethal concentrations including LC10, LC20 and LC30 were determined using a dose-effect assay. The total development time of both sexes enhanced with an increase in concentration. The oviposition period and total fecundity decreased in dose-dependent manner. The intrinsic rate of increase (r) and finite rate of increase (λ) significantly descended with concentration enhancing from LC10 to LC30, compared with the control. The net reproductive rate (R 0) ranged between 2.76 and 7.37 offspring. Overall, the results indicated that fenazaquin had negative effects on development and life table parameters of the subsequent generation of A. swirskii. In conclusion, fenazaquin is not a compatible acaricide with A. swirskii and should not be used with this predatory mite in integrated management of T. urticae.

  13. Resistance to the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) by acylsucroses of wild tomato (Solanum pimpinellifolium) trichomes studied in a recombinant inbred line population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Juan Manuel; Montserrat, Marta; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Trichome-based host plant resistance is a complex mechanism that could be used in tomato breeding to control arthropod pests. The aims of this work were to evaluate the plant traits (density of trichomes and acylsucrose production) and the functional relationships of these traits with mortality, repellence, and oviposition of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). We used a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross between the wild tomato, Solanum pimpinellifolium L. 'TO-937', and the cultivated tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L. Multiple regression analyses showed that high acylsucrose content and high type-IV trichome density increased mortality and repellence, and reduced oviposition of T. urticae. Single regression analyses showed that a logistic model best explained the relationship between mortality or repellence and acylsucrose content, whereas a negative-exponential model best described the relationship between oviposition and acylsucrose content. Linear models were the best-fits for the three resistance variables with trichome IV density. Probit analysis was used to estimate acylsucrose effective doses, and revealed that 31 and 10% of the RILs produced acylsucrose above the effective doses for 90% mortality or repellence, respectively. Altogether, these results indicate that S. pimpinellifolium may be a suitable genetic source of resistance to spider mites to be used in cultivated tomato.

  14. The genome of Tetranychus urticae reveals herbivorous pest adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grbić, Miodrag; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Clark, Richard M.; Rombauts, Stephane; Rouzé, Pierre; Grbić, Vojislava; Osborne, Edward J.; Dermauw, Wannes; Ngoc, Phuong Cao Thi; Ortego, Félix; Hernández-Crespo, Pedro; Diaz, Isabel; Martinez, Manuel; Navajas, Maria; Sucena, Élio; Magalhães, Sara; Nagy, Lisa; Pace, Ryan M.; Djuranović, Sergej; Smagghe, Guy; Iga, Masatoshi; Christiaens, Olivier; Veenstra, Jan A.; Ewer, John; Villalobos, Rodrigo Mancilla; Hutter, Jeffrey L.; Hudson, Stephen D.; Velez, Marisela; Yi, Soojin V.; Zeng, Jia; Pires-daSilva, Andre; Roch, Fernando; Cazaux, Marc; Navarro, Marie; Zhurov, Vladimir; Acevedo, Gustavo; Bjelica, Anica; Fawcett, Jeffrey A.; Bonnet, Eric; Martens, Cindy; Baele, Guy; Wissler, Lothar; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Aminael; Tirry, Luc; Blais, Catherine; Demeestere, Kristof; Henz, Stefan R.; Gregory, T. Ryan; Mathieu, Johannes; Verdon, Lou; Farinelli, Laurent; Schmutz, Jeremy; Lindquist, Erika; Feyereisen, René; Van de Peer, Yves

    2016-01-01

    The spider mite Tetranychus urticae is a cosmopolitan agricultural pest with an extensive host plant range and an extreme record of pesticide resistance. Here we present the completely sequenced and annotated spider mite genome, representing the first complete chelicerate genome. At 90 megabases T. urticae has the smallest sequenced arthropod genome. Compared with other arthropods, the spider mite genome shows unique changes in the hormonal environment and organization of the Hox complex, and also reveals evolutionary innovation of silk production. We find strong signatures of polyphagy and detoxification in gene families associated with feeding on different hosts and in new gene families acquired by lateral gene transfer. Deep transcriptome analysis of mites feeding on different plants shows how this pest responds to a changing host environment. The T. urticae genome thus offers new insights into arthropod evolution and plant–herbivore interactions, and provides unique opportunities for developing novel plant protection strategies. PMID:22113690

  15. Sex ratio variation and sex determination in Urtica dioica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glawe, Grit Anja

    2006-01-01

    This thesis will first document on variation in progeny sex ratios among individual female plants of Urtica dioica at our field site in Meijendel (Chapter 2). Next, we show that there is also considerable sex ratio variation among male and female flowering shoots in 26 natural populations studied

  16. Two new secolignans from the roots of Urtica mairei Levl.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wang; Xing Guo Yan; Li Xin Duan; Yuan Zhou; Ling Tang; Yong Qi Wang; Bao Min Feng

    2008-01-01

    Twonew secolignans(1 and 2)were isolated from the roots of Urtica mairei Levl.The structures of these two compounds were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic methods including HR-E1-MS.1D and 2D NMR experiments.

  17. The genome of Tetranychus urticae reveals herbivorous pest adaptations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grbić, M.; Van Leeuwen, T.; Clark, R.M.; Rombauts, S.; Grbić, V.; Osborne, E.J.; Dermauw, W.; Phuong, C.T.N.; Ortego, F.; Hernández-Crespo, P.; Diaz, I.; Martinez, M.; Navajas, M.; Sucena, E.; Magalhães, S.; Nagy, L.; Pace, R.M.; Djuranović, S.; Smagghe, G.; Iga, M.; Christiaens, O.; Veenstra, J.A.; Ewer, J.; Villalobos, R.M.; Hutter, J.L.; Hudson, S.D.; Velez, M.; Yi, S.V.; Zeng, J.; Pires-dasilva, A.; Roch, F.; Cazaux, M.; Navarro, M.; Zhurov, V.; Acevedo, G.; Bjelica, A.; Fawcett, J.A.; Bonnet, E.; Martens, C.; Baele, G.; Wissler, L.; Sanchez-Rodriguez, A.; Tirry, L.; Blais, C.; Demeestere, K.; Henz, S.R.; Gregory, T.R.; Mathieu, J.; Verdon, L.; Farinelli, L.; Schmutz, J.; Lindquist, E.; Feyereisen, R.; Van de Peer, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The spider mite Tetranychus urticae is a cosmopolitan agricultural pest with an extensive host plant range and an extreme record of pesticide resistance. Here we present the completely sequenced and annotated spider mite genome, representing the first complete chelicerate genome. At 90 megabases T.

  18. Sex ratio variation and sex determination in Urtica dioica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glawe, Grit Anja

    2006-01-01

    This thesis will first document on variation in progeny sex ratios among individual female plants of Urtica dioica at our field site in Meijendel (Chapter 2). Next, we show that there is also considerable sex ratio variation among male and female flowering shoots in 26 natural populations studied (C

  19. Resistance in Cucumis sativus L. to tetranychus urticae Koch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponti, de O.M.B.

    1980-01-01

    Chapter 1The role of plant breeding and particularly of host plant resistance in integrated control is discussed. Host plant resistance to insects and mites, especially to Tetranychus urticae is reviewed. A standard terminology for disease and pest resistance is recommended.Chapter 2The relationship

  20. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Iris pseudacorus and Urtica dioica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ramtin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study, the effects of antibacterial activity of Urtica dioica and Iris pseudacorus essential oils, native plant northern of Iran, were investigated for some selected bacteria. Material and Methods: The influence of essential oils was tested by the using of disk diffusion and micro-broth dilution methods against standard strains of the picked out bacteria. Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS analysis, bioactivity determination, Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of essential oils were utilized for this goal. Results: This study showed that, Inhibition zone diameter varied from 11 to 19 mm and 9 to 17 mm for Urtica dioica and Iris pseudacorus respectively. In contrast, this figure fluctuated from 19 to 28 mm and 7 to 17 mm for gentamicin and ampicillin separately. By the application of micro-broth dilution technique, MICs for 1% essential oils were 1.8-7.5 μg/ml and 3.75-15 μg/ml for, Urtica dioica and Iris pseudacorus against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria individually. Furthermore, the MBCs of herbal essences were 1.8-15 μg/ml for, Urtica dioica and 15-30 μg/ml for Iris. Conclusion: The application of essential oils for the bio-control of diseases, as a novel emerging alternative to antimicrobial treatments, lead to safer and more environmental management for infective diseases4T.4T

  1. The genome of Tetranychus urticae reveals herbivorous pest adaptations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grbić, M.; Van Leeuwen, T.; Clark, R.M.; Rombauts, S.; Grbić, V.; Osborne, E.J.; Dermauw, W.; Phuong, C.T.N.; Ortego, F.; Hernández-Crespo, P.; Diaz, I.; Martinez, M.; Navajas, M.; Sucena, E.; Magalhães, S.; Nagy, L.; Pace, R.M.; Djuranović, S.; Smagghe, G.; Iga, M.; Christiaens, O.; Veenstra, J.A.; Ewer, J.; Villalobos, R.M.; Hutter, J.L.; Hudson, S.D.; Velez, M.; Yi, S.V.; Zeng, J.; Pires-dasilva, A.; Roch, F.; Cazaux, M.; Navarro, M.; Zhurov, V.; Acevedo, G.; Bjelica, A.; Fawcett, J.A.; Bonnet, E.; Martens, C.; Baele, G.; Wissler, L.; Sanchez-Rodriguez, A.; Tirry, L.; Blais, C.; Demeestere, K.; Henz, S.R.; Gregory, T.R.; Mathieu, J.; Verdon, L.; Farinelli, L.; Schmutz, J.; Lindquist, E.; Feyereisen, R.; Van de Peer, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The spider mite Tetranychus urticae is a cosmopolitan agricultural pest with an extensive host plant range and an extreme record of pesticide resistance. Here we present the completely sequenced and annotated spider mite genome, representing the first complete chelicerate genome. At 90 megabases T.

  2. Effects of Insecticides and Fungicides Commonly Used in Tomato Production on Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phtyoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditillo, J L; Kennedy, G G; Walgenbach, J F

    2016-12-01

    The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is an important pest of tomatoes in North Carolina. Resident populations of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis have recently been detected on field-grown tomatoes in central North Carolina, and potentially can be a useful biological control agent against T. urticae Laboratory bioassays were used to assess lethal and reproductive effects of 10 insecticides and five fungicides commonly used in commercial tomato production (chlorantraniliprole, spinetoram, permethrin, imidacloprid, dimethoate, dinotefuran, thiamethoxam, bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, azoxystrobin, chlorothalonil, boscalid, cyazofamid, and mancozeb) on P. persimilis adult females and eggs. Insecticides were tested using concentrations equivalent to 1×, 0.5×, and 0.1× of the recommended field rates. Fungicides were tested at the 1× rate only. Dimethoate strongly impacted P. persimilis with high adult mortality, reduced fecundity, and reduced hatch of eggs laid by treated adults, particularly at high concentrations. The pyrethroids lambda-cyhalothrin, bifenthrin, and fenpropathrin were associated with repellency and reproductive effects at high concentrations. Bifenthrin additionally caused increased mortality at high concentrations. Chlorantraniliprole, dinotefuran, and permethrin did not significantly affect mortality or reproduction. Imidacloprid significantly reduced fecundity and egg viability, but was not lethal to adult P. persimilis Thiamethoxam negatively impacted fecundity at the 1× rate. There were no negative effects associated with fungicide exposure with the exception of mancozeb, which impacted fecundity. Field trials were conducted to explore the in vivo impacts of screened insecticides on P. persimilis populations in the field. Field trials supported the incompatibility of dimethoate with P. persimilis populations. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf

  3. Identification of phytosterins in Urtica dioica L. (overground part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Smoylovska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Long since Urtica dioica L. was used in folk medicine as vitamin and hemostatic agents. Nowadays hypotensive, diuretic, antitumoral effects of medicines obtained from plant based raw materials from Urtica were experimentally proved. Pharmacologic activity is due to vitamins K1 and C, flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids, carbonic acids, polysaccharides containing in the leaves of plant. Using underground organs of plant as antineoplastic drugs is connected with phytosterins accumulation. Studying composition and assessment of phytosterins in overground part of plant is urgent now. The aim of research is to identify components and to assess phytosterins content in leaves and herb of Urtica dioica L. in Ukrainian flora. Materials and Methods. For chromato-mass spectrometry leaves and herb gathered in blossoming period have been used. The samples have been extracted with methylene chloride in presence of tridecane inner standard, and then the samples have been concentrated and submitted to chromatography on chromatograph Agilent Technology 6890N. The components have been identified using register for mass spectra NIST02 and WILEY2007 in combination with identification programs AMDIS and NIST. Results and Discussion. In both types of raw materials from Urtica dioica L. it has been revealed identical compounds related to olefins, higher aliphatic carbohydrates, phytosterins and so on. The total amount of biologically active substances extracted from the leaves is 529.76 mg/kg, from herbs it is 516.91 mg/kg. Untriacontane, nonocosane and trans-neophytadiene were predominant. Phytosterins stigmas-3,5,7-triene, campesterol, β-sitosterol presented in leaves 16.14 mg/kg, in herb they presented 15.42 mg/kg, that forms 3% approximately Conclusions. Composition and amount of phytosterins containing in leaves and herb of Urtica dioica L. study has been performed by chromate-mass-spectrometry. As a result three compounds of steroid nature have been identified

  4. Induced response of tomato plants to injury by green and red strains of Tetranychus urticae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takabayashi, J.; Shimoda, T.; Dicke, M.; Ashihara, W.; Takafuji, A.

    2000-01-01

    We studied the induced response of tomato plants to the green strain and the red strain of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae. We focused on the olfactory response of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis to volatiles from T. urticae-infested tomato leaves in a Y-tube olfactometer. Tomato leav

  5. Resistance to acaricides in Italian strains of Tetranychus urticae : toxicological and enzymatic assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tirello, P.; Pozebon, A.; Cassanelli, S.; Van Leeuwen, T.; Duso, C.

    2012-01-01

    Problems with Tetranychus urticae are frequently reported in protected crops in Italy, particularly in roses where many introduced acaricides show a progressive loss of effectiveness. We have conducted bioassays to assess the response of some Italian strains of T. urticae to a number of acaricides.

  6. Translational Medicine Study on Extraction and Determination of Urtica Polysaccharides and Their Anti-Oxidation Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Zhi-tao; LI Shan-shan; WANG Tong-fang; CHEN Xiao-feng

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Translational medicine study on extraction and determination of urtica polysaccharides and their anti-oxidation effect. Methods: Water-soluble alcohol sedimentation technique was used to extract the urtica polysaccharides, and ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry was applied to determine their content. The influence of polysaccharides on the activities of glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), malondialdéhyde (MDA) and superoxyde dismutase (SOD) in mice with H22-loaded tumors was observed. Results: The purity of urtica polysaccharides was 61.39% after extraction and puriifcation. After administration of high-, moderate- and low-dose urtica polysaccharides, the activity of serum GSH, CAT and SOD was markedly higher while MDA content was prominently lower in mice with H22-loaded tumors than those in model group. Conclusion: Urtica polysaccharides can strengthen the anti-oxidation effect and inhibit the lipid peroxidation reaction in body.

  7. Atlas van de Nederlandse watermijten (Acari: Hydrachnidia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.; Hammen, van der H.

    2000-01-01

    Atlas of the Dutch water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia) Few biogeographic studies have been published on water mites. Only Lundblad (1962) has published an atlas of the Swedish water mites. So far, there are no complete publications on the distribution of Dutch water mites. Acarologists who worked on D

  8. Biological control of Tetranychus urticae by Phytoseiulus macropilis and Macrolophus pygmaeus in tomato greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigon, Vincent; Camps, Cédric; Le Corff, Josiane

    2016-01-01

    Biological control against phytophagous arthropods has been widely used under greenhouse conditions. Its success is dependent on a number of factors related to the abiotic conditions and to the interactions between pests and biological control agents. In particular, when multiple predator species are introduced to suppress one pest, competitive interactions might occur, including intraguild predation (IGP). In tomato crops, the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch is a very problematic phytophagous mite and its control is not yet satisfactory. In 2012 and 2013, the ability of a potential new predatory mite Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks) was assessed, alone and in the presence of Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur. Macrolophus pygmaeus is a polyphagous mirid supposed to predate on P. macropilis. Both years, under greenhouse conditions, the effectiveness of the two predators was compared between the following treatments: T. urticae, T. urticae + P. macropilis, T. urticae + M. pygmaeus, and T. urticae + P. macropilis + M. pygmaeus. The number of arthropods per tomato plant over time indicated that P. macropilis well-controlled the population of T. urticae, whereas M. pygmaeus had a very limited impact. Furthermore, there was no evidence of IGP between the two predators but in the presence of M. pygmaeus, P. macropilis tended to have a more clumped spatial distribution. Further studies should clarify the number and location of inoculation points to optimize the control of T. urticae by P. macropilis.

  9. Toxicity, inheritance and biochemistry of clofentezine resistance in Tetranychus urticae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Recep Ay; Fatma Ebru Kara

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the toxicological and biochemical response of two-spotted spider mites to clofentezine selection pressure. The mortality rate of Tetranychus urticae in adult females depends on increased clofentezine concentration and clofentezine was found to be effective against females. The resistance rate of the CUM strain selected 12 times once per generation with clofentezine was increased from 1.28- to 105.27-fold. The interaction of some synergists with clofentezine was analyzed in the clofentezine-resistant CLOF 12 strain. Synergists had no effect on clofentezine toxicity. The clofentezine-resistant CLOF 12 strain showed resistance against chlorpyrifos, abamectin, propargite, fenpyroximate and amitraz. The modes of inheritance of resistance to clofentezine were found to be incompletely dominant and not sex-linked. Esterase enzyme activity was detected both by gel electrophoresis and microplate reader methods, while glutathione S-transferase (GST and monooxygenase (P450) activity were detected only by the microplate reader method During the selection period the esterase, the GST and the P450 enzymes activities were raised from 7.69, 7.09 and 0.003 3 to 18.40, 13.11 and 0.003 7 milli-optical density/mir/mg proteins, respectively. An increase was observed in the band intensity of esterases and esterase enzymes may plav a role in clofentezine resistance in T. urticae.

  10. Cryptic speciation in the Acari: a function of species lifestyles or our ability to separate species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are approximately 55,000 described Acari species, accounting for almost half of all known Arachnida species, but total estimated Acari diversity is reckoned to be far greater. One important source of currently hidden Acari diversity is cryptic speciation, which poses challenges to taxonomists ...

  11. [Anti-aging Effect of Urtica Polysaccharides in D-galactose Induced Aging Mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Bo; Lv, Cheng; Li, Shun-xu; FU, Mei-ling; Yin, Zhong-qiong

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the anti-aging effect of polysaccharides from Urtica lobatifolia (Urtica polysaccharides) on subacute aging mice induced by D-galactose. 90 mice were randomly divided into six groups: normal group, aging mice model group, V(E) group [100 mg/(kg x d), ig], high level of Urtica polysaccharides group [200 mg/(kg x d), ig], medium level of Urtica polysaccharides group [100 mg/(kg x d), ig] and low level of Urtica polysaccharides group [50 mg/(kg x d), ig]. The normal group was injected saline [10 mL/(kg x d), sc], while the other groups were injected D-galactose [150 mg/(kg x d), sc]. After six weeks, all the animals were weighed. After eight arm maze experiment and swimming endurance experiment, serum, liver and brain was collected. The content of protein in serum,liver and brain was detected. Total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), activities of total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in liver and brain samples were evaluated by kits. Compared with the model group, Urtica polysaccharides groups mice had larger body weight, longer swimming time, shorter time out of the maze and fewer numbers of error, as well as higher protein content in serum, liver and brain. The capacity of T-AOC, the activities of SOD and GSH-Px of polysaccharides groups in brain and liver tissue were increased significantly, and the MDA content was decreased significantly. Polysaccharides from Urtica lobatifolia has anti-aging effects on aging model mice, and the mechanism may be related to its antioxidant effect.

  12. Qualitative and quantitative variation between volatile profiles induced by Tetranychus urticae feeding on different plants of various families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, van den C.E.M.; Beek, van T.A.; Posthumus, M.A.; Groot, de Æ.; Dicke, M.

    2004-01-01

    Many plant species are known to emit herbivore-induced volatiles in response to herbivory. The spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch is a generalist that can feed on several hundreds of host plant species. Volatiles emitted by T. urticae-infested plants of 11 species were compared: soybean (Glycine m

  13. Qualitative and quantitative variation between volatile profiles induced by Tetranychus urticae feeding on different plants of various families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, van den C.E.M.; Beek, van T.A.; Posthumus, M.A.; Groot, de Æ.; Dicke, M.

    2004-01-01

    Many plant species are known to emit herbivore-induced volatiles in response to herbivory. The spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch is a generalist that can feed on several hundreds of host plant species. Volatiles emitted by T. urticae-infested plants of 11 species were compared: soybean (Glycine m

  14. Acaricidal activity of different extracts from Syzygium cumini L. Skeels (Pomposia) against Tetranychus urticae Koch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abd El-Moneim MR Afify; Hossam S El-Beltagi; Sayed A Fayed; Emad A Shalaby

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the acaricidal activity of different extracts from Syzygium cumini (S.cumini) (Pomposia) againsst Tetranychus urticae Koch (T. urticae) and the biochemical changes in antioxidants enzymes. Methods: Six extracts of S. cumini (Pomposia) at concentrations of 75, 150 and 300μg/mL were used to control T. urticae (Koch). Results: The ethanol extract showed the most efficient acaricidal activity agent against T. urticae (98.5%) followed by hexane extract (94.0%), ether and ethyl acetate extract (90.0%). The LC50 values of the promising extract were 85.0, 101.0, 102.0 and 98.0μg/mL, respectively. The activities of enzymes including ascorbate peroxidase (APX), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in susceptible mites were increased. The activities of all antioxidant enzymes reach the maximum value in mites at LC50 with ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts, respectively. Conclusions: The extract of S. cumini has acaricidal acivity against T. urticae, and the ethanol extract is the most efficient.

  15. Increased activities of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase enhance cassava resistance to Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiao; Chen, Qing; Lu, Hui; Wu, Chunling; Lu, Fuping; Tang, Jihong

    2017-03-01

    In order to study the function of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in cassava resistance to spider mites, we tested the changes of transcription levels and activities of these two protective enzymes in both cassava and Tetranychus urticae (=T. cinnabarinus) during the interaction. The results showed that after damage of the mite-susceptible cassava cultivar BRA900 by T. urticae for 1 and 8 days, the transcription levels of MePOD and MePPO and the activities of POD and PPO showed no significant difference compared with those in undamaged leaves. However, the corresponding transcription levels and activities in 1- and 8-day-damaged leaves of mite-resistant cassava cultivar C1115 increased to a significant level of approximately twofold. When T. urticae fed on BRA900 for 1 and 8 days, the transcription levels of TcPPO and TcPOD and the activities of PPO and POD showed no significant difference compared with those before feeding. However, the corresponding transcription levels and activities of these two protective enzymes in T. urticae feeding on C1115 significantly decreased by about half. This study preliminarily validates the function of POD and PPO in cassava resistance to T. urticae, and provides candidate gene resource for molecular breeding of spider mite-resistant cassava.

  16. Tetranychus urticae-triggered responses promote genotype-dependent conspecific repellence or attractiveness in citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agut, Blas; Gamir, Jordi; Jaques, Josep A; Flors, Victor

    2015-08-01

    The citrus rootstocks sour orange and Cleopatra mandarin display differential resistance against Tetranychus urticae. Sour orange plants support reduced oviposition, growth rates and damage compared with Cleopatra mandarin plants. Jasmonic acid signalling and flavonoid accumulation have been revealed as key mechanisms for the enhanced resistance of sour orange plants. In this study, we observed that the release of T. urticae herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) from sour orange plants has a marked repellent effect on conspecific mites associated with the production of the terpenes α-ocimene, α-farnesene, pinene and d-limonene, and the green leaf volatile 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone. By contrast, T. urticae HIPVs from Cleopatra mandarin plants promote conspecific mite attraction associated with an increase in (2-butoxyethoxy) ethanol, benzaldehyde and methyl salicylate levels. HIPVs released from sour orange plants following T. urticae infestation induce resistance in Cleopatra mandarin plants, thereby reducing oviposition rates and stimulating the oxylipin biosynthetic gene lipoxygenase2 (LOX2). Cleopatra HIPVs do not affect the response to T. urticae of these rootstocks. We conclude that sour orange plants promote herbivore-induced resistance in Cleopatra mandarin plants and, despite the weak basal resistance of these rootstocks, herbivore resistance can be induced through the combination of HIPVs, such as α-ocimene and d-limonene.

  17. The anthelmintic effect of Urtica dioica and Tanacetum vulgare L. on Protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer lokman Omer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current study evaluated the effects of alcoholic (Ethanol extracts and aquaus extract of leaves Urtica dioica and extract of both leaves and flowers of Tanacetum vulgare on the viability of Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices in vitro. Three different concentrations of each extract (I, 2, 4 micrograms /ml were used. The mortality of Protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus by using aqueous extract of two plants was increased with the increasing the concentration and duration of exposure; reach 96.2% and 97.8% at concentration of 4 micrograms/ml for 30 minutes for Urtica dioica and Tanacetum volgare respectively. However, it was found that the effec of these plants by ethanol were decreased with the same concentration when the time of exposure is increased. The mortality rate of protocoleces decreased from 69% to 4.2% when exposed to Urtica dioica extract for 10 and 30 min respectively at 1mg/ml.

  18. Control of Tetranychus urticae Koch by extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abd El-Moneim MR Afify; Fatma S Ali; Turky AF

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the acaricidal activity of extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus against Tetranychus urticae (T. urticae) Koch. Methods: Extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus with different concentrations (0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 3.0% and 4.0%) were used to control T. urticae Koch. Results: The results showed that chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) represented the most potent efficient acaricidal agent against Tetranychus followed by marjoram (Marjorana hortensis) and Eucalyptus. The LC50 values of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus for adults were 0.65, 1.84 and 2.18, respectively and for eggs 1.17, 6.26 and 7.33, respectively. Activities of enzymes including glutathione-S-transferase, esterase (α-esterase and α-esterase) and alkaline phosphatase in susceptible mites were determined and activities of enzymes involved in the resistance of acaricides were proved. Protease enzyme was significantly decreased at LC50 of both chamomile and marjoram compared with positive control. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) proved that the major compositions of Chamomilla recutita are α-bisabolol oxide A (35.251%), and trans-α-farersene (7.758%), while the main components of Marjorana hortensis are terpinene-4-ol (23.860%),p-cymene (23.404%) and sabinene (10.904%). Conclusions: It can be concluded that extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus possess acaricidal activity against T.urticae.

  19. Differences among plant species in acceptance by the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, van den C.E.M.; Beek, van T.A.; Dicke, M.

    2003-01-01

    The spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch has a broad range of host plants. However, the spider mite does not accept all plants to the same degree because of differences in nutritive and toxic constituents. Other factors, such as the induction of secondary metabolites, the morphology of a leaf surfac

  20. A genomic approach to investigate resistance mechanisms in the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demaeght, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    The two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) is a global and important crop pest that is mainly controlled by acaricides. Its rapid development, high fecundity and haplo-diploid reproduction all contribute to the fast development of resistance. Resistance to acaricides can arise due to modifica

  1. Acaricide resistance and resistance mechanisms in Tetranychus urticae populations from rose greenhouses in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khajehali, J.; Van Nieuwenhuyse, P.; Demaeght, P.; Tirry, L.; Van Leeuwen, T.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spider mites are important crop pests that rapidly develop resistance to acaricides. To investigate whether acaricide resistance is a threat to greenhouse rose culture in the Netherlands, the susceptibility of 15 strains of Tetranychus urticae was tested to several currently used acarici

  2. THE PROSPECTS OF THE USE OF DRUGS BASED ON RHIZOMES AND ROOTS OF URTICA DIOICA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Balagozyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L. from the Urticaceae family is one of the popular medicinal plants. The leaves of Urtica doica L. are used in our country as a hemostatic agent. The rhizomes and roots are the base for the drugs for prostatic adenoma treatment in foreign countries. Earlier we studied acute toxicity, and diuretic activity of an extract of the rootstock with roots of Urtica doica L. We have conducted a study of antimicrobial activity of water and alcohol-water extracts from the rhizomes and roots of Urtica dioica L. The determination of a minimal inhibiting concentration was conducted by using a method of double series broth dilution. Bacillus cereus, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus microorganisms were used as testing cultures. The study showed that the broth and liquid extract of the nettle, obtained on the basis of 70% ethanol do not stop the growth of microorganisms. The liquid nettle extract obtained by 40% ethanol is characterized by the weak antimicrobial activity.

  3. Characterization and comparison of mitochondrial DNAs and rRNAs from Penicillium urticae and P. chrysogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, J; Ohsaki, T; Yamamoto, H; Koichi, K; Shida, T

    1990-03-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA) from a patulin producer, Penicillium urticae (synonym P. griseofulvum), was 27.8 kb +/- 0.6 kb in size by electron microscopy and 27.2 kb by agarose gel electrophoresis. Restriction endonuclease maps for nine restriction enzymes were constructed, and eleven fragments which covered the total range of the mt DNA were cloned into the Escherichia coli plasmid vector pUC19. Southern analysis of the native genomes of P. urticae and P. chrysogenum with six of the cloned fragments as probes indicated similar genome arrangements as well as similar restriction maps. Both the large and small rRNA genes of P. urticae and P. chrysogenum were located on these restriction maps using Southern hybridization, and the result also supported the similar arrangement. Agarose/formaldehyde gel electrophoresis indicated that the small rRNA was 1.5 kb in size in both species; but, surprisingly, the large rRNA was 4.2 kb in size for P. urticae and 3.5 kb for P. chrysogenum. These sizes were, respectively, 1.1 kb and 0.4 kb larger than those from the very closely related Aspergillus nidulans.

  4. Functional characterization of glutathione S-transferases associated with insecticide resistance in Tetranychus urticae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlidi, N.; Tseliou, V.; Riga, M.; Nauen, R.; Van Leeuwen, T.; Labrou, N.E.; Vontas, J.

    2015-01-01

    The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is one of the most important agricultural pests world-wide. It is extremely polyphagous and develops resistance to acaricides. The overexpression of several glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) has been associated with insecticide resistance. Here, we fun

  5. Functional characterization of glutathione S-transferases associated with insecticide resistance in Tetranychus urticae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlidi, N.; Tseliou, V.; Riga, M.; Nauen, R.; Van Leeuwen, T.; Labrou, N.E.; Vontas, J.

    2015-01-01

    The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is one of the most important agricultural pests world-wide. It is extremely polyphagous and develops resistance to acaricides. The overexpression of several glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) has been associated with insecticide resistance. Here, we

  6. Acaricide resistance and resistance mechanisms in Tetranychus urticae populations from rose greenhouses in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khajehali, J.; Van Nieuwenhuyse, P.; Demaeght, P.; Tirry, L.; Van Leeuwen, T.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spider mites are important crop pests that rapidly develop resistance to acaricides. To investigate whether acaricide resistance is a threat to greenhouse rose culture in the Netherlands, the susceptibility of 15 strains of Tetranychus urticae was tested to several currently used

  7. Differences among plant species in acceptance by the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, van den C.E.M.; Beek, van T.A.; Dicke, M.

    2003-01-01

    The spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch has a broad range of host plants. However, the spider mite does not accept all plants to the same degree because of differences in nutritive and toxic constituents. Other factors, such as the induction of secondary metabolites, the morphology of a leaf surfac

  8. Differences among plant species in acceptance by the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, van den C.E.M.; Beek, van T.A.; Dicke, M.

    2003-01-01

    The spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch has a broad range of host plants. However, the spider mite does not accept all plants to the same degree because of differences in nutritive and toxic constituents. Other factors, such as the induction of secondary metabolites, the morphology of a leaf

  9. [Anti-inflammatory effect of Urtica dioica folia extract in comparison to caffeic malic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obertreis, B; Giller, K; Teucher, T; Behnke, B; Schmitz, H

    1996-01-01

    Urtica dioica extract is a traditionary used adjuvant therapeutic in rheumatoid arthritis. The antiphlogistic effects of the urtica dioica folia extract IDS 23 (Extractum Urticae dioicae foliorum) and the main phenolic ingredient caffeic malic acid were tested concerning the inhibitory potential on biosynthesis of arachidonic acid metabolites in vitro. The caffeic malic acid was isolated from Urtica folia extract using gel exclusion- and high performance liquid chromatography and identified by mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. Concerning the 5-lipoxygenase products IDS 23 showed a partial inhibitory effect. The isolated phenolic acid inhibited the synthesis of the leukotriene B4 in a concentration dependent manner. The concentration for halfmaximal inhibition (IC50) was 83 microns/ml in the used assay. IDS 23 showed a strong concentration dependent inhibition of the synthesis of cyclooxygenase derived reactions. The IC50 were 92 micrograms/ml for IDS 23 and 38 micrograms/ml for the caffeic malic acid. Calculating the content in IDS 23 the caffeic malic acid is a possible but not the only active ingredient of the plant extract in the tested assay systems. It is demonstrated that the phenolic component showed a different enzymatic target compared with IDS 23. The antiphlogistic effects observed in vitro may give an explanation for the pharmacological and clinical effects of IDS 23 in therapie of rheumatoid diseases.

  10. Can Urtica dioica supplementation attenuate mercury intoxication in Wistar rats?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa Siouda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of nettle Urtica dioica (UD against Hg-induced toxicity. Materials and Methods: A total of 28 rats were equally divided into four groups: the control, the Hg (0.8 g HgCl2/kg in the diet, the UD (1.5 ml UD/rat by gavage, and the Hg+UD group. HgCl2 was daily dissolved in distilled water and immediately mixed with the standard diet. A solution of daily infused fresh nettle leaves in boiling water (16 g in 25 ml was obtained and then it was administrated by gavage. Biochemical and reproductive markers, in addition to glutathione (GSH level (liver, kidney and testis and the histological profiles (testis and epididymis were evaluated after 1 month exposure. Results: Compared to the control, the levels of glucose, triglycerides, urea, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were significantly raised in the Hg group. In the latter group, the concentrations of Mg, Fe, and Ca were significantly decreased. Besides, Hg+UD group has only showed raised AST activity and reduced Mg level. Concerning the fertility markers, Hg has provoked a significant decrease in the spermatozoa’s concentration and motility and in plasma testosterone level as well. Furthermore, hepatic, renal and testicular GSH concentrations have declined significantly in the Hg treated rat compared to the control. A remarkable enhancement of the GSH level was observed in all organs of the UD group. The histological examinations of the Hg group have revealed marked testicular degeneration of the most seminiferous tubules, and showed few sperms in the lumen of epididymis ducts. However, the Hg+UD rats have demonstrated an improved histological structure with the presence of important numbers of sperms in the lumen. In addition, a clear stabilization of organized seminiferous tubules and an increased sperms’ numbers were noted in the UD

  11. Verified and potential pathogens of predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schütte, C.; Dicke, M.

    2008-01-01

    Several species of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae), including species of the genera Amblyseius, Galendromus, Metaseiulus, Neoseiulus, Phytoseiulus and Typhlodromus, are currently reared for biological control of various crop pests and/or as model organisms for the study of predator¿prey inter

  12. First record of Typhlodromus (Anthoseius transvaalensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia CÉDOLA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez de la Argentina a Typhlodromus (Anthoseius transvaalensis Nesbitt (Acari: Phytoseiidae sobre Capsicum annuum L. y Lycopersicum esculentum L. (Solanaceae en la localidad de Concordia, Entre Ríos. Se proporcionan datos morfométricos de los ejemplares argentinos.

  13. Screening antimicrobial activity of various extracts of Urtica dioica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Modarresi-Chahardehi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Urtica dioica or stinging nettle is traditionally used as an herbal medicine in Western Asia. The current study represents the investigation of antimicrobial activity of U. dioica from nine crude extracts that were prepared using different organic solvents, obtained from two extraction methods: the Soxhlet extractor (Method I, which included the use of four solvents with ethyl acetate and hexane, or the sequential partitions (Method II with a five solvent system (butanol. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of crude extracts were tested against 28 bacteria, three yeast strains and seven fungal isolates by the disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. Amoxicillin was used as positive control for bacteria strains, vancomycin for Streptococcus sp., miconazole nitrate (30µg/mL as positive control for fungi and yeast, and pure methanol (v/v as negative control. The disc diffusion assay was used to determine the sensitivity of the samples, whilst the broth dilution method was used for the determination of the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC. The ethyl acetate and hexane extract from extraction method I (EA I and HE I exhibited highest inhibition against some pathogenic bacteria such as Bacillus cereus, MRSA and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A selection of extracts that showed some activity was further tested for the MIC and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC. MIC values of Bacillus subtilis and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA using butanol extract of extraction method II (BE II were 8.33 and 16.33mg/mL, respectively; while the MIC value using ethyl acetate extract of extraction method II (EAE II for Vibrio parahaemolyticus was 0.13mg/mL. Our study showed that 47.06% of extracts inhibited Gram-negative (8 out of 17, and 63.63% of extracts also inhibited Gram-positive bacteria (7 out of 11; besides, statistically the frequency of antimicrobial activity was 13.45% (35 out of 342 which in this among 21.71% belongs to

  14. Effect of ozone on the interference of Urtica urens L. and Chenopodium album L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelius, R.; Markan, K.

    1984-01-01

    Interference between two annual species (Urtica urens L. and Chenopodium album L.) was tested in a replacement experiment. Interactions between the plants were additionally described by their life-cycle and reproductory success. Influence of ozone on the development of pure stands and mixtures was tested by fumigations under field conditions. Chenopodium proved to be non-sensitive to ozone. Due to its ruderal population strategy which is well adapted to disturbance, Urtica could cope very well with ozone induced necroses of its leaves. Fumigation modified the interference between the two species. Leaves of the annual species Impatiens parviflora DC. showed high sensitivity to ozone which could be demonstrated by fumigations with different concentrations.

  15. Antipredator responses in Tetranychus urticae differ with predator specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine Kramer; Alexakis, I.; Sigsgaard, Lene

    2016-01-01

    and control treatments. No interaction effect was found between plant species and prey fecundity, while significantly more eggs were laid on bean than on strawberry. Predator cues irrespective of predator specialization resulted in more prey dispersal than in the control. Findings emphasize the importance......The behavioural response of Tetranychus urticae to chemical cues from specialist predatory mites, Phytoseiulus persimilis, or generalist predatory bugs, Orius majusculus, on either bean or strawberry was studied in experimental arenas. Predators were placed on the leaf disc for 24 h and removed...... before T. urticae females were introduced. After 24 h, prey fecundity (number of eggs laid) and dispersal (number of prey drowned in the water barrier) were assessed. Chemical cues from the specialist predator resulted in reduced prey fecundity, significantly different from the generalist predator...

  16. Natural Micronised Clinoptilolite and Clinoptilolite Mixtures with Urtica dioica L. Extract as Possible Antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    Šverko, Višnja; Sobočanec, Sandra; Balog, Tihomir; Colić, Miroslav; Marotti, Tatjana

    2004-01-01

    In this study the in vivo effect of natural micronised clinoptilolite and clinoptilolite forte (clinoptilolite + 40 % extract of pulverised dried leaves of Urtica dioica L.) on the lipid peroxidation and antioxidative capacity in mice was examined. This was done by measuring the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and total superoxide dismutase content in the liver homogenate, and total antioxidant status in the plasma. The results obtained showed that the 12.5 % of tribo...

  17. Protective effect of Urtica dioica methanol extract against experimentally induced urinary calculi in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiying; Li, Ning; Li, Kun; Li, Peng

    2014-12-01

    Renal calculi formation is one of the most common urological disorders. Urinary stone disease is a common disease, which affects 10‑12% of the population in industrialized countries. In males, the highest prevalence of the disease occurs between the age of 20 and 40 years, while in females, the highest incidence of the disease occurs later. Previous studies have shown that long‑term exposure to oxalate is toxic to renal epithelial cells and results in oxidative stress. In the present study, a methanolic extract of aerial parts of Urtica dioica was screened for antiurolithiatic activity against ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride‑induced calcium oxalate renal stones in male rats. In the control rats, ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride administration was observed to cause an increase in urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine levels, as well as an increase in renal calcium and oxalate deposition. Histopathological observations revealed calcium oxalate microcrystal deposits in the kidney sections of the rats treated with ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride, indicating the induction of lithiasis. In the test rats, treatment with the methanolic extract of Urtica dioica was found to decrease the elevated levels of urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine, and significantly decrease the renal deposition of calcium and oxalate. Furthermore, renal histological observations revealed a significant reduction in calcium oxalate crystal deposition in the test rats. Phytochemical analysis of the Urtica dioica extract was also performed using liquid chromatography‑electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection, to determine the chemical composition of the extract. The eight chemical constituents identified in the extract were protocatechuic acid, salicylic acid, luteolin, gossypetin, rutin, kaempferol‑3‑O‑rutinoside, kaempferol‑3‑O‑glucoside and chlorogenic acid. In conclusion

  18. Application of Two-spotted Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae for Plant-pest Interaction Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrave, Tara; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Grbic, Vojislava; Grbic, Miodrag

    2014-01-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is a ubiquitous polyphagous arthropod herbivore that feeds on a remarkably broad array of species, with more than 150 of economic value. It is a major pest of greenhouse crops, especially in Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae (e.g., tomatoes, eggplants, peppers, cucumbers, zucchini) and greenhouse ornamentals (e.g., roses, chrysanthemum, carnations), annual field crops (such as maize, cotton, soybean, and sugar beet), and in perennial cultures (alfalfa, strawberries, grapes, citruses, and plums)1,2. In addition to the extreme polyphagy that makes it an important agricultural pest, T. urticae has a tendency to develop resistance to a wide array of insecticides and acaricides that are used for its control3-7. T. urticae is an excellent experimental organism, as it has a rapid life cycle (7 days at 27 °C) and can be easily maintained at high density in the laboratory. Methods to assay gene expression (including in situ hybridization and antibody staining) and to inactivate expression of spider mite endogenous genes using RNA interference have been developed8-10. Recently, the whole genome sequence of T. urticae has been reported, creating an opportunity to develop this pest herbivore as a model organism with equivalent genomic resources that already exist in some of its host plants (Arabidopsis thaliana and the tomato Solanum lycopersicum)11. Together, these model organisms could provide insights into molecular bases of plant-pest interactions. Here, an efficient method for quick and easy collection of a large number of adult female mites, their application on an experimental plant host, and the assessment of the plant damage due to spider mite feeding are described. The presented protocol enables fast and efficient collection of hundreds of individuals at any developmental stage (eggs, larvae, nymphs, adult males, and females) that can be used for subsequent experimental application. PMID:25046103

  19. Development of microsatellite markers for six Tetranychus species by transfer from Tetranychus urticae genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia; Sun, Jing-Tao; Jin, Peng-Yu; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2016-09-01

    Microsatellite markers are frequently used to explore the population genetic structure of organisms. Spider mites (genus Tetranychus) are important agricultural pests. Several markers have been developed for T. urticae, but for other spider mites, few such markers are available, hampering studies of their population genetics. In this study, we developed and characterized microsatellite markers for six non-model spider mite species (T. truncatus, T. kanzawai, T. ludeni, T. piercei, T. phaselus and T. pueraricola) by cross-species amplification of markers in the T. urticae genome, in order to better understand the population structure of Tetranychus species. Among 228 screened loci, many were polymorphic, including 13 loci in T. urticae, 11 loci in T. truncatus, 15 loci in T. pueraricola, 23 loci in T. kanzawai, 19 loci in T. piercei, 11 loci in T. phaselus and 9 loci in T. ludeni. Sequence analysis determined that the fragment length variations of the transferred microsatellites were mainly due to the variations of the numbers of repeats. These new microsatellite markers should be useful for studying the population genetics of the seven Tetranychus species.

  20. Trophic Interactions between Generalist Predators and the Two Spotted Spide Mite, Tetranychus urticae in, Strawberry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine Kramer

    specifically defined predator-prey interactions (Manuscript II and III) and interactions occurring between groups of natural enemies (Manuscript IV). Cropping practice influenced the density of T. urticae profoundly, with a ten times higher abundance found in conventional compared to organic strawberry fields...... the recommended ratio for biological pest control of T. urticae. The abundance of insect predators was not different between the two cropping systems, while the abundance of hymenopteran parasitoids was. A higher species richness of predatory mites was found in the conventional field margins compared...... influence the resulting trophic dynamics in strawberry agroecosystems. Findings confirm the important role of cropping system on pest and natural enemies, and the resulting infestation levels point to the potential role of generalist insect predators to control of T. urticae in strawberry. It furthermore...

  1. Renal and vascular studies of aqueous extract of Urtica dioica in rats and rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.F. Dizaye

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Urtica dioica has a variety of uses in traditional medicine for genitourinary ailments kidney disorders, allergies, diabetes, anemia, gastrointestinal tract ailments, musculoskeletal aches and alopecia. However, only a few of these uses have scientific bases that support their clinical uses. This study was done to evaluate some of the in vivo and in vitro pharmacological actions of this plant. Eighteen local domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus were used for in vitro studies (effect of the plant extract on isolated pulmonary arteries and isolated urinary bladder smooth muscle and in vivo studies (effect of the extract on renal function. Six male albino rats were used for studying the effects of the plant extract on blood pressure and heart rate. Urtica dioica extract produced a significant increase in urine volume and urinary Na+ excretion without significant changes in K+ excretion rates in experimental rabbits. No changes occurred in Glomerular filtration rate and %Na+ reabsorption of filtered load. Neither vasodilatation nor vasoconstriction of isolated pulmonary arteries of the rabbit was seen after applying the aqueous extract of U. dioica. Besides it could not reverse the vasoconstrictor effect of phenylephrine. Urtica dioica has no detectable effects on the isolated bladder; moreover it did not reverse the contraction that was produced by pilocarpine. In experimental rats, the plant extract produced a profound drop in blood pressure associated with decreased heart rate. In conclusion the aqueous extract of U. dioica produced diuretic and natriuretic effects with out significant effect on the K+ excretion rate in rabbits. Moreover it produced a profound drop in blood pressure and heart rate.

  2. Stably expressed housekeeping genes across developmental stages in the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao Yang

    Full Text Available Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR is a reliable and reproducible technique for measuring mRNA expression. To facilitate gene expression studies and obtain more accurate qRT-PCR analysis, normalization relative to stable housekeeping genes is mandatory. In this study, ten housekeeping genes, including beta-actin (Actin , elongation factor 1 α (EF1A , glyceralde hyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH , ribosomal protein L13 (RPL13 , ribosomal protein 49 (RP49 , α-tubulin (Tubulin , vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (v-ATPase , succinate dehydrogenase subunit A (SDHA , 28S ribosomal RNA (28S , and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S from the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, were selected as the candidate reference genes. Four algorithms, geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and the ΔCt method, were used to evaluate the performance of these candidates as endogenous controls across different developmental stages. In addition, RefFinder, which integrates the above-mentioned software tools, provided the overall ranking of the stability/suitability of these candidate reference genes. Among them, PRL13 and v-ATPase were the two most stable housekeeping genes across different developmental stages. This work is the first step toward establishing a standardized qRT-PCR analysis in T. urticae following the MIQE guideline. With the recent release of the T. urticae genome, results from this study provide a critical piece for the subsequent genomics and functional genomics research in this emerging model system.

  3. Can Euseius alatus DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae) prey on Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) in coconut palm?; Pode Euseius alatus DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae) predar Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) em coqueiro?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Jose W. da S.; Domingos, Cleiton A.; Gondim Junior, Manoel G.C. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia. Area de Fitossanidade]. E-mail: mguedes@depa.ufrpe.br; Moraes, Gilberto J. de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola]. E-mail: gjmoraes@carpa.ciagri.usp.br

    2009-01-15

    Mites of the genus Euseius are generally considered specialist as pollen feeders. Euseius alatus DeLeon is one of the six species of phytoseiid mites most commonly found on coconut plants in northeast Brazil associated with Aceria guerreronis Keifer. Although the morphology of E. alatus does not favor the exploitation of the meristematic area of the fruit inhabited by A. guerreronis, the predator may have some role in the control of this eriophyid during the dispersion process. The objective of this work was to evaluate the development and reproduction of E. alatus on the following diets: A. guerreronis, Ricinus communis pollen (Euphorbiaceae), and Tetranychus urticae Koch (Tetranychidae) + R. communis pollen + honey solution 10%. Euseius alatus developed slightly faster and had slightly higher oviposition rate when feeding on the diet composed of T. urticae + pollen + honey. However, life table parameters were very similar on all diets, suggesting that E. alatus may contribute in reducing the population of A. guerreronis in the field. (author)

  4. Effect of Host Plant on the Chemical Composition of Tetranychus urticae (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae): Variability in Soluble Protein, Anions, and Carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical analyses of two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Koch), and 3 of their host plants, Phaseolus vulgaris L., Phaseolus lunatus L., and Vigna unguiculata L. show that the content of total soluble protein, carbohydrates, and anions in the mites varies independently from the concentrat...

  5. Influence of mowing on dynamics of native phytoseiid mites and Tetranychus urticae in apple orchards in northern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funayama, Ken

    2016-09-01

    To support practical integrated pest management in commercial apple orchards, I investigated the influence of mowing on the occurrence of Tetranychus urticae and native phytoseiid mites in apple orchards sprayed with selective insecticides in Akita Prefecture, northern Japan, from 2013 to 2015. The orchards were not mown in 2013, and unmown and mown plots were compared in 2014 and 2015. There were significantly fewer Typhlodromus vulgaris on apple leaves and Amblyseius tsugawai in the undergrowth in mown plots than in unmown plots in both years. Conversely, there were significantly more T. urticae on leaves and undergrowth in mown plots than in unmown plots. The reason for the decreased populations of these phytoseiid mites may be a lack of food (pollen) needed for reproduction on apple trees and in the undergrowth due to mowing. These results indicate that mowing strongly influences generalist phytoseiid mites in apple orchards. Moreover, mowing might increase the density of T. urticae in apple trees because increased nitrogen in the leaves increases fecundity; in addition, drought might promote the increase of mite numbers. Thus, retention of undergrowth suppresses T. urticae in apple orchards.

  6. New records of water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Halacaroidea) from Patagonia (Chile)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pešić, V.; Smit, H.; Datry, T.

    2010-01-01

    New records of water mite species (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Halacaroidea) from Patagonia (Southern Chile) are reported. Four species, Anisitsiellides australis Smit, 2002, Peregrinacarus falklandensis Bartsch, 2001, Lobohalacarus weberi (Romijn & Viets, 1924) and Soldanellonyx monardi Walter, 1919 are

  7. A new genus and species Mangalaus krishianusandhanus (Acari: Eriophyidae) from India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalaus ikrishianusandhanus n. gen., n. sp., (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea), collected from erineum on the underside of leaves of Cordia dichotoma (Boraginaceae) is described and illustrated from specimens collected at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) in New Delhi, India....

  8. New records of water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia) from Malaysia, with descriptions of three new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pesic, V.; Smit, H.

    2010-01-01

    New records of water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia) from Malaysia are presented. Three species new to science, Torrenticola haliki, Monatractides cameronensis and Atractides cameronensis are described; first records are given for Monatractides parviventris (K. Viets, 1935) and M. roseus (Lundblad, 1941

  9. PATOGENICIDADE DE BEAUVERIA BASSIANA (BALS. VUILL. AO ÁCARO Tetranychus urticae KOCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamai Marco Antonio

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo da patogenicidade de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. ao ácaro Tetranychus urticae Koch foi desenvolvido a 25 ± 2°C, 70 ± 5% UR e 12 horas de fotofase, utilizando-se fêmeas recém-emergidas. Os ácaros foram mantidos durante seis dias em discos de folha de Canavalia ensiformis (L. DC. inoculadas com B. bassiana, isolado 447, nas concentrações: 5x106, 1x107, 5x107, 1x108, 5x108 e 1x109 conídios/ml. Este isolado mostrou-se patogênico a T. urticae, apresentando aumento nos valores das mortalidades acumuladas (total, corrigida e confirmada à medida que a suspensão de conídios se tornou mais concentrada. Nas seis concentrações testadas, os valores de mortalidade corrigida ao sexto dia, foram inferiores a 50%, sendo observada apenas na concentração de 1x109 conídios/ml, mortalidade total superior a 50%.

  10. Inter-population variation for Wolbachia induced reproductive incompatibility in the haplodiploid mite Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Eunho; Sim, Cheolho; Park, Jung-Joon; Cho, Kijong

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed diverse patterns of cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) induced by Wolbachia in the two spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch). The mechanism of CI consists of two steps: modification (mod) of sperm of infected males and the rescue (resc) of these chromosomes by Wolbachia in the egg, which results in female embryonic mortality (FM), male development (MD) or no CI. Our study reports that Wolbachia infections were highly prevalent infecting all T. urticae populations from various crops in 14 commercial greenhouses in Korea, with two Wolbachia strains expressing distinctive phenotypic effects on hosts. Analyses for wsp gene sequences obtained from collected mite populations revealed all sequences were categorized into two groups (group W1 and W2) discriminated by three diagnostic nucleotides while all Wolbachia strains belonged to the subgroup Ori in Wolbachia supergroup B. Host plants of each mite population were also generally correlated this grouping. Various mating experiments with two mite populations from each group showed that CI patterns and host plants of the mite populations were completely matched with the grouping; no CI (mod(-)resc(+)) for group W1 and mixed pattern of FM and MD (mod(+)resc(+)) for group W2. No distinct changes in fecundity or sex ratio due to Wolbachia infections were observed in four mite populations regardless of Wolbachia grouping. Our study suggests a potential correlation between phenotypic effect of Wolbachia infection and its genetic diversity associated with host plants in Korean mite populations.

  11. Study of stinging nettle (urtica dioica l.) Fibers reinforced green composite materials : a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agus Suryawan, I. G. P.; Suardana, N. P. G.; Suprapta Winaya, I. N.; Budiarsa Suyasa, I. W.; Tirta Nindhia, T. G.

    2017-05-01

    Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L., latin) is a wild plant that grows in Indonesia, Asia, and Europe. Nettle in Bali, Indonesia is called as Lateng, Jelatang. Nettle plant has a very strong fiber and high fixed carbon. Nettle plants are covered with fine hairs, especially in the leaves and stems. When it is touched, it will release chemicals, sting and trigger inflammation that causes redness, itching, bumps and irritation to the skin. Nettle plants grow in the wild, regarded as a weed in the agricultural industry, easy to grow and snatch food from the parent plant. The main objective of this paper is to review of the potential nettle fibers and then explain about the potential of local nettle plant in Indonesia. Nettle is a plant group at the end of bast. Its plant fibers taken from the bark, as reinforcement in composite materials. Nettle fibers have three main advantages such as strong, lightweight and low environmental impact.

  12. Effects of Various Doses of Selenite on Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Beklova

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of selenium (Se on the growth, accumulation and possible mechanisms of Se transport in certain parts (roots, leaves, stamp and apex of nettle (Urtica dioica L. plants. Se was supplemented by one-shot and two repeated doses to the soil (2.0 and 4.0 mg Se per kg of substrate. Selenium content in roots increased linearly with dose and was significantly higher compared to other plant parts of interest. However, growth of the above-ground parts of plant as well as roots was slightly inhibited with increasing selenium concentration in comparison to the untreated plants. The content of phytochelatin2, a low molecular mass peptide containing a sulfhydryl group, correlated well with the Se content. This suggests a possible stimulation of synthesis of this plant peptide by Se.

  13. Natural Micronised Clinoptilolite and Clinoptilolite Mixtures with Urtica dioica L. Extract as Possible Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Sobočanec

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the in vivo effect of natural micronised clinoptilolite and clinoptilolite forte (clinoptilolite + 40 % extract of pulverised dried leaves of Urtica dioica L. on the lipid peroxidation and antioxidative capacity in mice was examined. This was done by measuring the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and total superoxide dismutase content in the liver homogenate, and total antioxidant status in the plasma. The results obtained showed that the 12.5 % of tribomechanically micronised mineral zeolite forte supplemented to food during 3 weeks significantly reduced lipid peroxidation process in the liver. This was paralleled with a significant increase of total superoxide dismutase content, which was observed with both clinoptilolite and clinoptilolite forte. This study demonstrates that clinoptilolite forte might be a novel class of lipid peroxidation inhibitors and potent antioxidant.

  14. Biochemical analysis of a chlorfenapyr-selected resistant strain of Tetranychus urticae Koch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Van Pottelberge, Steven; Tirry, Luc

    2006-05-01

    Tetranychus urticae Koch has recently developed resistance to chlorfenapyr in Australia and Japan, but no attempt has yet been made to describe the biochemical mechanisms involved in chlorfenapyr resistance. In this study a laboratory-selected chlorfenapyr-resistant strain was investigated. Resistance to chlorfenapyr was associated with a strong increase in esterase activity and P450 mono-oxygenase (MO) activity but a decrease in 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMBZ) peroxidation activity. Differences in esterase activities between susceptible and resistant strains increased with increasing carbon number of the aliphatic side-chain of the nitrophenol substrate. A 4.4-fold increase in the O-deethylation of 7-ethoxy-4-trifluoromethyl coumarin (7-EFC) mediated by P450 MOs was detected. Remarkably, the resistant strain showed only half of the total TMBZ peroxidation activity found in the susceptible strain. The activity of these enzymes was further determined on different crosses and back-crosses of both strains. Results indicated that activities correlated with chlorfenapyr susceptibility and could be considered as biochemical markers. Esterase isozymes of both strains and their crosses were separated with isoelectric focusing (IEF) and visualised after activity staining. It was clear that two distinct zones of enhanced esterase activity were present in the chlorfenapyr-resistant strain (EST 11, pI = 4.88 and EST 16, pI = 4.71). EST 11 was identified with inhibitors as a carboxylesterase. The relative presence and intensity of these esterase zones changed in the different crosses and could be seen as a marker for chlorfenapyr resistance. Glutathione-S-transferase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities were not significantly different between strains. A twofold decrease in TMBZ peroxidase activity in the resistant strain could reflect decreased activation of chlorfenapyr. On the basis of these results the involvement of P450 MOs and esterases in the

  15. A link between host plant adaptation and pesticide resistance in the polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermauw, Wannes; Wybouw, Nicky; Rombauts, Stephane; Menten, Björn; Vontas, John; Grbic, Miodrag; Clark, Richard M; Feyereisen, René; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2013-01-08

    Plants produce a wide range of allelochemicals to defend against herbivore attack, and generalist herbivores have evolved mechanisms to avoid, sequester, or detoxify a broad spectrum of natural defense compounds. Successful arthropod pests have also developed resistance to diverse classes of pesticides and this adaptation is of critical importance to agriculture. To test whether mechanisms to overcome plant defenses predispose the development of pesticide resistance, we examined adaptation of the generalist two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, to host plant transfer and pesticides. T. urticae is an extreme polyphagous pest with more than 1,100 documented hosts and has an extraordinary ability to develop pesticide resistance. When mites from a pesticide-susceptible strain propagated on bean were adapted to a challenging host (tomato), transcriptional responses increased over time with ~7.5% of genes differentially expressed after five generations. Whereas many genes with altered expression belonged to known detoxification families (like P450 monooxygenases), new gene families not previously associated with detoxification in other herbivores showed a striking response, including ring-splitting dioxygenase genes acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Strikingly, transcriptional profiles of tomato-adapted mites resembled those of multipesticide-resistant strains, and adaptation to tomato decreased the susceptibility to unrelated pesticide classes. Our findings suggest key roles for both an expanded environmental response gene repertoire and transcriptional regulation in the life history of generalist herbivores. They also support a model whereby selection for the ability to mount a broad response to the diverse defense chemistry of plants predisposes the evolution of pesticide resistance in generalists.

  16. Functional characterization of glutathione S-transferases associated with insecticide resistance in Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidi, Nena; Tseliou, Vasilis; Riga, Maria; Nauen, Ralf; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Labrou, Nikolaos E; Vontas, John

    2015-06-01

    The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is one of the most important agricultural pests world-wide. It is extremely polyphagous and develops resistance to acaricides. The overexpression of several glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) has been associated with insecticide resistance. Here, we functionally expressed and characterized three GSTs, two of the delta class (TuGSTd10, TuGSTd14) and one of the mu class (TuGSTm09), which had been previously associated with striking resistance phenotypes against abamectin and other acaricides/insecticides, by transcriptional studies. Functional analysis showed that all three GSTs were capable of catalyzing the conjugation of both 1-chloro-2,4 dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene(DCNB) to glutathione (GSH), as well as exhibiting GSH-dependent peroxidase activity toward Cumene hydroperoxide (CumOOH). The steady-state kinetics of the T. urticae GSTs for the GSH/CDNB conjugation reaction were determined and compared with other GSTs. The interaction of the three recombinant proteins with several acaricides and insecticides was also investigated. TuGSTd14 showed the highest affinity toward abamectin and a competitive type of inhibition, which suggests that the insecticide may bind to the H-site of the enzyme. The three-dimensional structure of the TuGSTd14 was predicted based on X-ray structures of delta class GSTs using molecular modeling. Structural analysis was used to identify key structural characteristics and to provide insights into the substrate specificity and the catalytic mechanism of TuGSTd14.

  17. Identification of Onosma visianii Roots Extract and Purified Shikonin Derivatives as Potential Acaricidal Agents against Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sut, Stefania; Pavela, Roman; Kolarčik, Vladislav; Cappellacci, Loredana; Petrelli, Riccardo; Maggi, Filippo; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Benelli, Giovanni

    2017-06-16

    There is an increasing need for the discovery of reliable and eco-friendly pesticides and natural plant-derived products may play a crucial role as source of new active compounds. In this research, a lipophilic extract of Onosma visianii roots extract containing 12% of shikonin derivatives demonstrated significant toxicity and inhibition of oviposition against Tetranychus urticae mites. Extensive chromatographic separation allowed the isolation of 11 naphthoquinone derivatives that were identified by spectral techniques and were tested against Tetranychus urticae. All the isolated compounds presented effects against the considered mite and isobutylshikonin (1) and isovalerylshikonin (2) were the most active, being valuable model compounds for the study of new anti-mite agents.

  18. Integrated pest management of two-spotted mite Tetranychus urticae on greenhouse roses using petroleum spray oil and the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicetic; Watson, D M; Beattie, G A; Meats, A; Zheng, J

    2001-01-01

    From 1995 to 1999, four experiments were conducted on greenhouse roses to assess the effectiveness of the nC24 petroleum spray oil (PSO), D-C-Tron Plus, against two-spotted mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae), and to determine how the oil could be most efficiently and effectively used in combination with the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) in an integrated pest management program. The results showed that 0.5% PSO applied fortnightly to roses gave excellent protection from T urticae infestation when the mite population was not already established. However, PSO applied after roses were infested with T. urticae above the economic threshold only stabilised populations without reducing them below that threshold. Populations of P. persimilis in the upper and lower canopies were unchanged after two sprays of PSO at 7-day intervals, and application of PSO to the upper canopy was as effective in controlling T. urticae in the presence of P persimilis as spraying the entire plant. Combining PSO with P. persimilis gave better control of T. urticae than using P. persimilis alone. The most cost-effective use of PSO in the presence of P. persimilis is, therefore, to apply spray only to the upper canopy. This will not affect control of powdery mildew with PSO. Comparison of a control program for T urticae based on the monitored use of synthetic miticides with that based on calendar application of PSO revealed that both gave equally effective control. The benefits of combining PSO and P. persimilis in an integrated pest management program for T. urticae on roses over a program based on synthetic fungicides are discussed.

  19. Toxicidade de compostos sintéticos e naturais sobre Tetranychus urticae e o predador Phytoseiulus macropilis

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    Bruce Veronez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a toxicidade de compostos sintéticos e naturais sobre Tetranychus urticae e o predador Phytoseiulus macropilis. A mortalidade e a taxa de crescimento de T. urticae e seu predador foram avaliadas após a aplicação de: abamectina, clofentezina, fenpropatrina, fenpiroximato, propargito, enxofre e espiromesifeno, nas concentrações recomendadas; óleos de nim (Natuneem e Sempre Verde Killer Neem a 1%; e extratos aquosos a 10% de Dieffenbachia brasiliensis, Annona squamosa, Ruta graveolens, Agave angustifolia, Melia azedarach, Sonchus oleraceus, Mentha spicata x M. suaveolens, Allium cepa, Laurus nobilis e Eucalyptus saligna. A toxicidade aguda e a influência dos compostos sobre a taxa de crescimento instantâneo dos ácaros foram avaliadas em laboratório. Extratos de A. cepa, A. angustifolia, produtos à base de óleo de nim, espiromesifeno, propargito, fenpiroximato, abamectina e fenpropatrina causaram mortalidade superior a 83% em T. urticae. Extrato de A. angustifolia, Natuneem e clofentezina não causaram mortalidade significativa em P. macropilis. Agave angustifolia e Natuneem não afetaram significativamente a taxa de crescimento deste predador. Propargito, fenpiroximato, abamectina, fenpropatrina, espiromesifeno e extrato de L. nobilis afetaram severamente a população de P. macropilis.

  20. Antidiabetic Effect of Hydroalcholic Urtica dioica Leaf Extract in Male Rats with Fructose-Induced Insulin Resistance

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    Akram Ahangarpour

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urtica dioica has been used as antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic herbal medicine. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica on fructose-induced insulin resistance rats. Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups including control, fructose, extract 50, extract 100 and extract 200. The control rat received vehicle, the fructose and extract groups received fructose 10% for eight weeks. The extract groups received single daily injection of vehicle, 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg/day for the two weeks. Blood glucose, insulin, last fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI, serum triglyceride (TG, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, alanin trasaminase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, leptin and LDL/HDL ratio were determined.Results: Compared to control group, daily administration of fructose was associated with significant increase in FIRI, blood glucose and insulin, significant decrease in lepin, and no significant change in TG, HDL, LDL, LDL/HDL ratio, VLDL, ALT, and ALP. The extract significantly decreased serum glucose, insulin, LDL and leptin, and LDL/HDL ratio and FIRI. It also significantly increased serum TG, VLDL, and AST, but did not change serum ALP.Conclusion: We suggest that Urtica dioica extract, by decreasing serum glucose, and FIRI, may be useful to improve type 2 diabetes mellitus. Also, by positive effect on lipid profile and by decreasing effect on leptin, it may improve metabolic syndrome.

  1. AROMA PROFILE AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF ALCOHOLIC AND AQUEOUS EXTRACTS FROM ROOT, LEAF AND STALK OF NETTLE (Urtica dioica L.

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    Razzagh Mahmoudi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plant can be considered as a great source of new antimicrobial agents due to their enormous therapeutic potential and limited side effects. Nettle (Urtica dioica L. is a widespread and common medicinal plant widely used in traditional medicine. The present study investigates the antimicrobial potency of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Urtica dioica on some gram positive and negative bacteria and also a particular type of fungi and analyzes the extracts to find the active ingredients by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS method. Results from disc diffusion assay indicated that water extract of root, leaf and stalk had the highest antimicrobial activity respectively and caused significant inhibition zones in P. vulgaris, L. monocytogenes and K. pneumoniae cultures. Antimicrobial efficacy of ethanol extracts was higher in root extract which caused high growth inhibition zones in P. vulgaris, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus cultures. MBC and MIC experiments of the ethanol extract illustrated that the most powerful antimicrobial effect was related to the stem organ extract on K. pnuomonae and S. aureus bacteria. Highest level of antibacterial effects in root can be due to its higher concentration of contents compared to other organs. Based on these results it can be suggested that Urtica dioica and its water and ethanol extracts have noticeable antimicrobial effects against gram negative, positive and Candida albicans fungi that may be applicable as a prophylactic or therpeutic antimicrobial agent in both human and animals.

  2. Laboratory and field evaluation of an entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria cateniannulata strain 08XS‐1, against Tetranychus urticae (Koch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaona; Zou, Xiao; Guo, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND The two‐spotted mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is one of the most serious mite pests of crops throughout the world. Biocontrol of the mite with fungal agents has long been paid much attention because of the development of insecticide resistance and the severe restriction of chemical pesticides. In this study, the efficacy of submerged conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria cateniannulata strain 08XS‐1 against T. urticae eggs, larvae and female adults was evaluated at different temperatures and humidity in the laboratory and under field conditions. RESULTS The results showed that a suspension of 2 × 107 submerged conidia mL −1 caused the highest mortalities of mite eggs, larvae and females (100, 100 and 70% respectively) at 100% relative humidity and 25 °C in the laboratory. In the field experiments against the mites, a suspension of 2 × 108 submerged conidia mL −1 achieved significant efficiency – the relative control effects were 88.6, 83.8 and 83%, respectively, in cucumber, eggplant and bean fields after 10 days of treatment. CONCLUSION The results suggest that the I. cateniannulata strain 08XS‐1 is a potential fungal agent, with acceptable production cost of conidia, against T. urticae in the field in an area such as southwestern China with higher air humidity. © 2016 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:26775712

  3. Acaricidal Potentials of the Terpene-rich Essential Oils of Two Iranian Eucalyptus Species against Tetranychus urticae Koch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadollahi, Asgar; Sendi, Jalal Jalali; Maroufpoor, Mostafa; Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi

    2017-03-01

    There is a rapid growth in the screening of plant materials for finding new bio-pesticides. In the present study, the essential oils of E. oleosa and E. torquata leaves were extracted using a Clevenger apparatus and their chemical profiles were investigated by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Among identified compounds, the terpenes had highest amount for both essential oils; 93.59% for E. oleosa and 97.69% for E. torquata. 1,8-Cineole (31.96%), α-pinene (15.25%) and trans-anethole (7.32%) in the essential oil of E. oleosa and 1,8-cineole (28.57%), α-pinene (15.74%) and globulol (13.11%) in the E. torquata essential oil were identified as the main components. The acaricidal activity of the essential oils of E. oleosa and E. torquata were examined using fumigation methods against the adult females of Tetranychus urticae Koch. The essential oils have potential acaricidal effects on T. urticae. The essential oil of E. oleosa with LC50 value of 2.42 µL/L air was stronger than E. torquata. A correlation between log concentration and mite mortality has been observed. Based on the results of present study, it can be stated that the essential oils of E. oleosa and E. torquata have a worthy potential in the management of T. urticae.

  4. Prey-related odor preference of the predatory mites Typhlodromalus manihoti and Typhlodromalus aripo (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanvossou, Désiré; Hanna, Rachid; Dicke, Marcel

    2002-01-01

    Typhlodromalus manihoti and Typhlodromalus aripo are exotic predators of the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa in Africa. In an earlier paper, we showed that the two predators were attracted to odors from M. tanajoa-infested cassava leaves. In addition to the key prey species, M. tanajoa, two alternative prey mite species, Oligonychus gossypii and Tetranychus urticae also occur in the cassava agroecosystem. Here, we used a Y-tube olfactometer to determine the attraction of the predators to odors from O. gossypii- or T. urticae-infested cassava leaves and their prey-related odor preference. T. aripo but not T. manihoti was slightly attracted to odors from O. gossypii-infested leaves. Both predator species showed a stronger response to odors from cassava leaves infested by M. tanajoa over odors from cassava leaves infested by O. gossypii. Neither predator species was attracted to odors from T. urticae-infested leaves and the predators preferred the odors from M. tanajoa-infested leaves over those from T. urticae-infested leaves. When O. gossypii was present together with M. tanajoa on the same leaves or on different sets of leaves offered together as an odor source the two predators were attracted. In contrast, after mixing non-attractive odors from T. urticae-infested leaves with attractive odors from M. tanajoa-infested leaves, neither T. aripo nor T. manihoti was attracted. Ecological advantages and disadvantages of the predators' behavior and possible implications for biological control of M. tanajoa are discussed.

  5. KEMAMPUAN REPRODUKSI TUNGAU PREDATOR FAMILI PHYTOSEIIDAE PADA BERBAGAI KEPADATAN TETRANYCHUS URTICAE DAN POLEN TANAMAN DI SEKITAR TANAMAN SINGKONG (MANIHOT ESCULENTA CRANTZ

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    Bambang Heru Budianto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The predatory mite of Phytoseiidae family have extensive cruising range that is not only found in cassava, but also a variety of weeds in cassava plants, such as Ageratum conyzoides and Cyperus cyperus. Extensive cruising range is also well explain the survival rate of the Phytoseiidae family at the time of the density of T. urticae decreased. The research objective is to determine the development period, fecundity and survival rate of Phytoseiidae predatory mite populations at different relative densities T. urticae and pollen. The research method used is an experimental laboratory. The procedure include the provision of A. conyzoides and C. rotundus pollen, the multiplication of predatory mite families Phytoseiidae, the determination of the development period, fecundity and survival rate of predatory mite families Phytoseiidae. The results showed that the length of time the development of predatory mites Amblyseius sp. and Phytoseius sp. faster one day of feeding on egg T. urticae feeding compared to the two types of pollen. Predatory mites survival rate Phytoseius sp. higher than the predatory mites Amblyseius sp. eggs fed T. urticae and both types of pollen. Similarly, the fecundity Phytoseius sp. higher than the mites Amblyseius sp. either fed eggs T. urticae as well as to two types of pollen.

  6. Characterization of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of nettle leaves (Urtica dioica L.

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    Kukrić Zoran Z.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of stinging nettle or common nettle (Urtica dioica L. were collected from the area of Banja Luka. To measure and evaluate the content of chlorophyll (a and b, carotenoids, and soluble proteins, as well as peroxidase activity (POD, EC 1.11.1.7., fresh nettle leaves of different developmental stages were used. Dried nettle leaves were used to obtain ethanol extract. The dry residue of ethanol extract was dissolved in methanol and the obtained solution was used to determine the content of total phenols, flavonoids, flavonols, as well as non-enzymatic antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity. The non-enzymatic antioxidant activity was determined by different methods: FRAP, DPPH, and ABTS. The results were compared to those of standard substances like vitamin C, BHT, and BHA. Antimicrobial activity was screened by using macrodilution method. The obtained results showed insignificantly higher content of chlorophyll, carotenoids, and proteins in young nettle leaves as well as an increase in the soluble peroxidase activities. Native electrophoresis of the soluble fraction showed the presence of two peroxidase isophorms in the soluble protein fraction of nettle leaves. The total phenolic content in nettle extracts amounted to 208.37 mg GAE/gdw, the content of total flavonoids was 20.29 mg QE/gdw, and the content of total flavonols was 22.83 mg QE/gdw. The antioxidant activity determined by FRAP method was 7.50 mM Fe(II/gdw, whereas the antioxidant activity measured by using DPPH and ABTS methods, with IC50 values, were 31.38 and 23.55 μg mL-1, respectively. These results showed the weak and moderate antioxidant capacity of stinging nettle. Extract of Urtica dioica L. was tested for antibacterial acivity against various Grampositive and Gram-negative bacteria: Bacillus subtilis IP 5832, Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (Lp299v, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli isolated from food and Escherichia coli isolated from urine samples

  7. Myrmecophilous pygmephoroid mites (Acari: Pygmephoroidea) associated with Lasius flavus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaustov, Alexander A

    2015-11-19

    Twenty four species of pygmephoroid mites (Acari: Pygmephoroidea: Neopygmephoridae, Scutacaridae, Microdispidae) are recorded from the ant Lasius flavus (Fabricius) or from its nests from Western Siberia and Crimea. Four of them of the genus Scutacarus Gros, 1845 (Acari: Scutacaridae), S. insolitus sp. nov., S. heterotrichus sp. nov., S. moseri sp. nov. and S. sibiriensis sp. nov. are described as new for science. Four species of scutacarid mites are recorded for the first time in Russia. The comparison of pygmephoroid mite communities associated with Lasius flavus from Crimean and West Siberian populations and notes on phoresy of pygmephoroid mites on ants are provided.

  8. Phytocystatins: Defense Proteins against Phytophagous Insects and Acari

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Manuel; Santamaria, Maria Estrella; Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Arnaiz, Ana; Carrillo, Laura; Ortego, Felix; Diaz, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    This review deals with phytocystatins, focussing on their potential role as defence proteins against phytophagous arthropods. Information about the evolutionary, molecular and biochemical features and inhibitory properties of phytocystatins are presented. Cystatin ability to inhibit heterologous cysteine protease activities is commented on as well as some approaches of tailoring cystatin specificity to enhance their defence function towards pests. A general landscape on the digestive proteases of phytophagous insects and acari and the remarkable plasticity of their digestive physiology after feeding on cystatins are highlighted. Biotechnological approaches to produce recombinant cystatins to be added to artificial diets or to be sprayed as insecticide–acaricide compounds and the of use cystatins as transgenes are discussed. Multiple examples and applications are included to end with some conclusions and future perspectives. PMID:27775606

  9. Phytocystatins: Defense Proteins against Phytophagous Insects and Acari

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    Manuel Martinez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This review deals with phytocystatins, focussing on their potential role as defence proteins against phytophagous arthropods. Information about the evolutionary, molecular and biochemical features and inhibitory properties of phytocystatins are presented. Cystatin ability to inhibit heterologous cysteine protease activities is commented on as well as some approaches of tailoring cystatin specificity to enhance their defence function towards pests. A general landscape on the digestive proteases of phytophagous insects and acari and the remarkable plasticity of their digestive physiology after feeding on cystatins are highlighted. Biotechnological approaches to produce recombinant cystatins to be added to artificial diets or to be sprayed as insecticide–acaricide compounds and the of use cystatins as transgenes are discussed. Multiple examples and applications are included to end with some conclusions and future perspectives.

  10. Phytocystatins: Defense Proteins against Phytophagous Insects and Acari.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Manuel; Santamaria, Maria Estrella; Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Arnaiz, Ana; Carrillo, Laura; Ortego, Felix; Diaz, Isabel

    2016-10-20

    This review deals with phytocystatins, focussing on their potential role as defence proteins against phytophagous arthropods. Information about the evolutionary, molecular and biochemical features and inhibitory properties of phytocystatins are presented. Cystatin ability to inhibit heterologous cysteine protease activities is commented on as well as some approaches of tailoring cystatin specificity to enhance their defence function towards pests. A general landscape on the digestive proteases of phytophagous insects and acari and the remarkable plasticity of their digestive physiology after feeding on cystatins are highlighted. Biotechnological approaches to produce recombinant cystatins to be added to artificial diets or to be sprayed as insecticide-acaricide compounds and the of use cystatins as transgenes are discussed. Multiple examples and applications are included to end with some conclusions and future perspectives.

  11. Mineral Properties and Dietary Value of Raw and Processed Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.

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    Laban K. Rutto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L. has a long history of usage and is currently receiving attention as a source of fiber and alternative medicine. In many cultures, nettle is also eaten as a leafy vegetable. In this study, we focused on nettle yield (edible portion and processing effects on nutritive and dietary properties. Actively growing shoots were harvested from field plots and leaves separated from stems. Leaf portions (200 g were washed and processed by blanching (1 min at 96–98°C or cooking (7 min at 98-99°C with or without salt (5 g·. Samples were cooled immediately after cooking and kept in frozen storage before analysis. Proximate composition, mineral, amino acid, and vitamin contents were determined, and nutritive value was estimated based on 100 g serving portions in a 2000 calorie diet. Results show that processed nettle can supply 90%–100% of vitamin A (including vitamin A as β-carotene and is a good source of dietary calcium, iron, and protein. We recommend fresh or processed nettle as a high-protein, low-calorie source of essential nutrients, minerals, and vitamins particularly in vegetarian, diabetic, or other specialized diets.

  12. Gamma irradiation used on adult Tetranychus urticae Koch as a quarantine treatment

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    Osouli Shiva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of gamma radiation with 0, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, and 450 Gy intensities on the longevity, total number of eggs, and the percent of hatched eggs laid by irradiated females of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Tetranychidae was evaluated. Two different groups (0–24 h old and 48–72 h old of adult females were irradiated. The results showed that 350 and 300 Gy doses significantly reduced the longevity of the 0–24 h old females and the 48–72 h old females. The younger females were more tolerant at lower dose rates than the older females. There was a quadratic relationship between dose rates and young females, while it was linear in older females. The total number of eggs laid by females of both ages was significantly reduced with a linear trend by 250 Gy irradiation. The eggs laid by females of both the 0–24 h olds and the 48–72 h olds lost their hatchability when the dose rate was 350 Gy. It was concluded, that applying a dose rate of 320 Gy on one of the mates (male or female before mating, or a 300 Gy on both of them, would be sufficient to cause sterility in adult mites.

  13. Aphidophagous guilds on nettle (Urtica dioica) strips close to fields of green pea, rape and wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AMMAR ALHMEDI; ERIC HAUBRUGE; BERNARD BODSON; FR(E)D(E)RIC FRANCIS

    2007-01-01

    The common nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is a perennial and cosmopolitan plant species and is known to be the source of food for a great diversity of insects. To understand the importance of the nettle in agro-ecosystems, a field experiment was carried out in an experimental farm at Gembloux (Belgium) to study the effect of nettle margin strips on aphid and aphidophagous populations in close field crops, namely wheat (Triticum aestivum L.),green pea (Pisum sativum L.) and rape (Brassicae napus L.). The aphids and related beneficial populations were weekly assessed, from March to August 2005, by visual observations in two plots per field crop. A higher abundance of aphidophagous beneficials was collected in nettle strips when compared to the field crops. Particularly, the presence of predatory anthocorids, mirids and green lacewings was observed on nettle only. Nevertheless,the most abundant aphid predatory family, the Coccinellidae, was distributed in both environments, in nettle strips and in crop fields. The field margin supported a significantly higher density of Harmonia axyridis than the field crops. In contrast, the field crops, green pea particularly, supported a higher density of Coccinella septempunctata. The distribution of the aphidophagous species, mainly the ladybirds, was discussed in relation to the host plant and related aphid species and their potential effect on integrated pest management.

  14. Evaluation of alpha- amylase inhibition by Urtica dioica and Juglans regia extracts

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    Mahsa Rahimzadeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:One strategy for the treatment of diabetes is inhibition of pancreatic α- amylase. Plants contains different chemical constituents with potential for inhibition of α-amylase and hence maybe used as therapeutic. Materials and Methods: Urtica dioica and Juglans regia Linn were tested for α-amylase inhibition. Different concentrations of leaf aqueous extracts were incubated with enzyme substrate solution and the activity of enzyme was measured. For determination of the type of inhibition, Dixon plot was depicted. Acarbose was used as the standard inhibitor. Results: Both plant extracts showed time and concentration dependent inhibition of α-amylase. 60% inhibition was seen with 2 mg/ml of U. dioica and0.4 mg/ml of J. regia aqueous extract. Dixon plots revealed the type of α-amylase inhibition by these two extracts as competitive inhibition. Conclusion: Determination of the type of α-amylase inhibition by these plant extracts could provide by successful use of plant chemicals as drug targets.

  15. Acaricidal activity and repellency of essential oil from Piper aduncum and its components against Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Mário J C; Câmara, Cláudio A G; Born, Flávia S; Moraes, Marcílio M; Badji, César A

    2012-06-01

    The chemical composition of essential oil of leaves of Piper aduncum L., growing wild in a fragment of the Atlantic Rainforest biome in northeastern Brazil, was determined through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The acaricidal activity and repellency of the essential oil and its components [dillapiole (0.28 g/ml), α-humulene (0.016 g/ml), (E)-nerolidol (0.0007 g/ml) and β-caryophyllene (0.0021 g/ml)] were evaluated in the laboratory against adults of Tetranychus urticae Koch. The mites were more susceptible to the oil in fumigation tests (LC(50) = 0.01 μl/l of air) than in contact test with closed Petri dish (LC(50) = 7.17 μl/ml); mortality was reduced by approximately 50 % in the latter test. The repellent action of the oil and toxicity by fumigation and contact did not differ significantly from the positive control (eugenol). The repellent activity was attributed to the components (E)-nerolidol, α-humulene and β-caryophyllene, whereas toxicity by fumigation and contact was attributed to β-caryophyllene. The effect of Piper oil and the role of its components regarding host plant preference with a two-choice leaf disk test are also discussed.

  16. Highly virulent Beauveria bassiana strains against the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, show no pathogenicity against five phytoseiid mite species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengyong; Xie, Haicui; Li, Maoye; Xu, Xuenong; Lei, Zhongren

    2016-12-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi and predatory mites can independently contribute to suppressing the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch. It is important to assess the risk of possible fungal infections in predators when a combination of them are being considered as a tandem control strategy for suppressing T. urticae. The first part of this study tested 12 Beauveria bassiana isolates for virulence in T. urticae. Strains SCWJ-2, SDDZ-9, LNSZ-26, GZGY-1-3 and WLMQ-32 were found to be the most potent, causing 37.6-49.5% adult corrected mortality at a concentration of 1 × 10(7) m/L conidia 4 days post-treatment. The second part evaluated the pathogenicity of these five strains in five species of predatory phytoseiid mites. The bioassay results indicated that all adult predatory mite mortalities ranged from 7.5 to 9.1% 4 days post-treatment. No viable fungal hyphae were found on predator cadavers. Observations with scanning electron microscopy revealed that conidia were attached to the cuticle of predatory mites within 2-12 h after spraying with strain LNSZ-26, and had germinated within 24-36 h. After 48 h, conidia had gradually been shed from the mites, after none of the conidia had penetrated the cuticular surfaces. In contrast, the germinated conidia successfully penetrated the cuticle of T. urticae, and within 60 h the fungus colonized the mite's body. Our study demonstrated that although several B. bassiana strains displayed a high virulence in T. urticae there was no evident pathogenicity to phytoseiid mites. These findings support the potential use of entomopathogenic fungus in combination with predatory mites in T. urticae control programs.

  17. Second contribution to the knowledge of water mites from the Comoros, with the description of one new species (Acari: Hydrachnidia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.; Pesic, V.; Mary-Sasal, N.

    2010-01-01

    New records of water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia) from the Comoros are presented. One species new to science, Africasia comorosensis is described; first records are given for Torrenticola sp. and Atractides thoracatus Koenike, 1898.

  18. Influence of leaf pubescence on the behavior of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae and the European red mite (Panonychus ulmi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Warabieda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Movement behavior of two mite species: two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae and European red mite (Panonychus ulmi on leaves of some apple cultivars (´Greensleeves´, ´Spartan' and SA 455-2 selection with different density of pubescence was analysed. Assessment of the leaf pubescence density was performed using an originally developed quick method based on digital pubescence mage analysis. For P.ulmi, both stop time and average speed did not depend on kind of leaf. In contrary. T.urticae revealed higher movement activity on slight pubescent leaves compared to leaves with high leaf hair density.

  19. First detection of chlorfenapyr (Secure) resistance in two-spotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) from nectarines in an Australian orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, G A; Rophail, J

    2003-01-01

    Chlorfenapyr resistance (2.9- and 19.9-fold respectively at LC50 and LC99 level) was detected in Tetranychus urticae Koch causing control failure following a single application of product to nectarines.

  20. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for arthropods for microscope examination: Mites (Arachnida: Acari)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of mites (Arachnida: Acari) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare mite specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, specimen clearing, use...

  1. Investigations of Gamasina mites in natural and man-affected soils in Latvia (Acari: Mesostigmata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmane, I.

    2003-01-01

    Investigations of Gamasina mites in natural and man-affected soils in Latvia (Acari: Mesostigmata) A short overview is presented on Gamasina material collected in 22 natural and man-disturbed habitats in Latvia. Species diversity, average density and species dominance were investigated. Altogether 1

  2. Role of excreta in predator avoidance by the Kanzawa spider mite, Tetranychus kanzawai (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oku, K.

    2008-01-01

    The Kanzawa spider mite, Tetranychus kanzawai (Acari: Tetranychidae) constructs webs over leaf surfaces and usually lives under these webs. T. kanzawai produces two types of excreta, black and yellow pellets, and uses its webs as a place for excretion. T. kanzawai also uses its webs as a refuge when

  3. Evaluation of four bed bug traps for surveillances of brown dog ticks (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brown dog tick can be a serious residential pest due to its unique ability, among ticks, to complete its lifecycle indoors. A single engorged and fertilized female tick can oviposit around 4,000 eggs, allowing indoor establishment to be rapid and easy to miss in early-stage infestations. Acari...

  4. Recovery of some of the missing wrappers of Berlese's Acari, Myriopoda et Scorpiones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammen, van der L.

    1986-01-01

    Reproductions are given of the original wrappers of A. Berlese's Acari, Myriopoda et Scorpiones, fasc. II, IV, VI, VII and XIV. These wrappers (on some of which the first descriptions of new species are published) could not be included in the 1979 reprint edition of the work, as no extant copies of

  5. De corticole fauna van platanen: i. Arachniden (Arachnida: Araneae, Pseudoscorpiones, Acari)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordijk, J.; Berg, M.P.

    2001-01-01

    The corticolous fauna of plane trees: I. Arachnids (Arachnida: Araneae, Pseudoscorpiones, Acari) From February until September 2000 an inventory was made of the bark-dwelling arthropod fauna of more than 400 plane trees (Platanus hybrida), all over the Netherlands. Arthropods were collected from bar

  6. Water mite species of the genus Hydrodroma Koch (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Hydrodromidae) from Australia. Part II.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pesic, V.; Smit, H.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Two new water mite species of the genus Hydrodroma Koch (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Hydrodromidae), characterized by single or absence of swimming setae on II-L-5, are reported from Australia: Hydrodroma wilesi sp. nov. and H. cooki sp. nov. New information is provided for H. tonapii Cook from I

  7. A new species of the genus Acarothrix (Acari: Halacaridae) from Brunei Darussalam and India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterjee, T.; Marshall, D.J.; Guru, B.C.; Ingole B.S.; Pesic V.

    ) in mangroves of Singapore. I. Description of three species. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 54: 83-92. Proches S. 2002. New species of Copidognathinae (Acari: Halacaridae) from southern Africa. Journal of Natural History, 36: 999-1007. 6    Figure 1...

  8. Effects of radiation (Cobalt-60) on the elimination of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) Cardinum endosymbiont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) is a polyphagous mite with worldwide distribution and it is also a vector of several plant viruses. In citrus, B. phoenicis transmits Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV), the causal agent of leprosis, a disease that costs millions of dollars/year for ...

  9. The formation of collective silk balls in the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendoline Clotuche

    Full Text Available Tetranychus urticae is a phytophagous mite that forms colonies of several thousand individuals. These mites construct a common web to protect the colony. When plants become overcrowded and food resources become scarce, individuals gather at the plant apex to form a ball composed of mites and their silk threads. This ball is a structure facilitating group dispersal by wind or animal transport. Until now, no quantitative study had been done on this collective form of migration. This is the first attempt to understand the mechanisms that underlie the emergence and growth of the ball. We studied this collective behaviour under laboratory conditions on standardized infested plants. Our results show that the collective displacement and the formation of balls result from a recruitment process: by depositing silk threads on their way up to the plant apex, mites favour and amplify the recruitment toward the balls. A critical threshold (quorum response in the cumulative flow of mites must be reached to observe the emergence of a ball. At the beginning of the balls formation, mites form an aggregate. After 24 hours, the aggregated mites are trapped inside the silk balls by the complex network of silk threads and finally die, except for recently arrived individuals. The balls are mainly composed of immature stages. Our study reconstructs the key events that lead to the formation of silk balls. They suggest that the interplay between mites' density, plant morphology and plant density lead to different modes of dispersions (individual or collective and under what conditions populations might adopt a collective strategy rather than one that is individually oriented. Moreover, our results lead to discuss two aspects of the cooperation and altruism: the importance of Allee effects during colonization of new plants and the importance of the size of a founding group.

  10. Effect of nettle (Urtica dioica) extract on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in male rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nadia Abdulkarim Salih

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the antioxidant effect of an orally administered ethanol extract of nettle (Urtica dioica) and its protective role in preventing or ameliorating oxidative stress as a major factor in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in male rabbits. Methods: Twenty rabbits were divided into 4 equal groups: (G1) control group, (G2) gentamicin treated group (100 mg/kg), (G3) nettle treated group (100 mg/kg), (G4) combination treated group with both gentamicin (100 mg/kg) and nettle (100 mg/kg) for 10 days. The antioxidant properties of nettle were evaluated using different antioxidant tests, such as determination of glutathione and malondialdehyde levels and total phenolic content analysis. Results: Biochemical and histopathological study revealed that gentamicin caused nephrotoxicity observed clearly in the histopathological section of the kidney in the gentamicin treated group. Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were biochemical indicators for nephrotoxicity which increased significantly in gentamicin treated group; other groups have no significant change in these two parameters. Nettle extract protected the rabbits from alteration in the level of blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine when given after inducing of gentamicin nephrotoxicity. The nettle treated group showed a great effect as an antioxidant factor by increasing the glutathione level and reducing malondialdehyde level. No significant changes in biochemical parameters and no renal histopathological changes observed in the groups treated with nettle extract, which meant nettle had powerful antioxidant activity. Conclusions: Therefore, it can be assumed that the nephroprotective effect shown by nettle in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity can reserve intracellular levels of biological pathways and supportively enhance excretion of toxic levels of gentamicin.

  11. Characterization of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Urtica dioica Linn. leaves and their synergistic effects with antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Jyoti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In continuation of the efforts for synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs by green chemistry route, here we report a facile bottom-up ‘green’ route for the synthesis of AgNPs using aqueous leaves extract of Urtica dioica (Linn.. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Zeta-sizer and Zeta-potential, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM and Selected area electron diffraction (SAED. The results obtained from various characterizations revealed that AgNPs were in the size range of 20–30 nm and crystallized in face-centered-cubic structure. The antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens and Salmonella typhimurium bacterial pathogens was demonstrated by synthesized nanoparticles. Further, synergistic effects of AgNPs with various antibiotics were evaluated against above mentioned bacterial pathogens. The results showed that AgNPs in combination with antibiotics have better antibacterial effect as compared with AgNPs alone and hence can be used in the treatment of infectious diseases caused by bacteria. The maximum effect, with a 17.8 fold increase in inhibition zone, was observed for amoxicillin with AgNPs against S. marcescens proving the synergistic role of AgNPs. Therefore, it may be used to augment the activities of antibiotics.

  12. Effect of nettle(Urtica dioica) extract on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in male rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nadia; Abdulkarim; Salih

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the antioxidant ef ect of an orally administered ethanol extract of nettle(Urtica dioica) and its protective role in preventing or ameliorating oxidative stress as a major factor in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in male rabbits. Methods: Twenty rabbits were divided into 4 equal groups:(G1) control group,(G2) gentamicin treated group(100 mg/kg),(G3) nettle treated group(100 mg/kg),(G4) combination treated group with both gentamicin(100 mg/kg) and nettle(100 mg/kg) for 10 days. The antioxidant properties of nettle were evaluated using dif erent antioxidant tests, such as determination of glutathione and malondialdehyde levels and total phenolic content analysis. Results: Biochemical and histopathological study revealed that gentamicin caused nephrotoxicity observed clearly in the histopathological section of the kidney in the gentamicin treated group. Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were biochemical indicators for nephrotoxicity which increased signii cantly in gentamicin treated group; other groups have no signii cant change in these two parameters. Nettle extract protected the rabbits from alteration in the level of blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine when given after inducing of gentamicin nephrotoxicity. The nettle treated group showed a great ef ect as an antioxidant factor by increasing the glutathione level and reducing malondialdehyde level. No signii cant changes in biochemical parameters and no renal histopathological changes observed in the groups treated with nettle extract, which meant nettle had powerful antioxidant activity. Conclusions: Therefore, it can be assumed that the nephroprotective ef ect shown by nettle in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity can reserve intracellular levels of biological pathways and supportively enhance excretion of toxic levels of gentamicin.

  13. Re-visiting the Aphidius urticae s. str. group: re-description of Aphidius rubi Starý and A. silvaticus Starý (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamhour, Aiman; Mitrović, Milana; Petrović, Andjeljko; Starý, Petr; Tomanović, Željko

    2016-10-24

    Here we tested Aphidius urticae s. str. host-associated lineages from Microlophium carnosum (Buckton), Amphorophora rubi (Kaltenbach), Macrosiphum funestum (Macchiati) and Aulacorthum vaccinii Hille Ris Lambers with the barcoding region of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene used to analyse population differences and elucidate phylogenetic relationships between the separated taxa. This molecular marker has been shown to be the most informative molecular marker in resolving species complexes in aphidiine parasitoids. Analyses of the mitochondrial sequences revealed the existence of three clearly separated mitochondrial lineages of A. urticae s. str. group associated with: i) Macrosiphum funestum and Aulacorthum vaccinii aphid hosts, ii) Microlophium carnosum and iii) Amphorophora rubi. This corresponds to the initial descriptions of A. rubi, A. silvaticus and A. urticae and their aphid host associations prior to synonymization of A. rubi and A. silvaticus with A. urticae. On the other hand, significant evolutionary distances ranging from 2.3 to 9.2% between the three mitochondrial lineages were not accompanied by clear morphological differences. Therefore, re-descriptions of A. rubi and A. silvaticus are presented, together with their morphological differentiation in a key, as well as their phylogenetic relationships and genetical differentiation.

  14. Vitamin A deficiency modifies response of predatory mite Amblyseius potentillae to volatile kairomone of two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicke, M.; Sabelis, M.W.; Groeneveld, A.

    1986-01-01

    volatile kairomone of the two-spotted spider mite,Tetranychus urticae, elicits a searching response of the phytoseiid predatorAmblyseius potentillae, only when the predator is reared on a carotenoid-free diet. However, after addition of crystalline betta-carotene or vitamin A acetate to the predator

  15. A horizontally transferred cyanase gene in the spider mite Tetranychus urticae is involved in cyanate metabolism and is differentially expressed upon host plant chang

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Wybouw; V. Balabanidou; D.J. Ballhorn; W. Dermauw; M. Grbić; J. Vontas; T. Van Leeuwen

    2012-01-01

    The genome of the phytophagous two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae was recently sequenced, representing the first complete chelicerate genome, but also the first genome of a highly polyphagous agricultural pest. Genome analysis revealed the presence of an unexpected high number of cases of p

  16. RAPD-PCR and real-time PCR HRM based genetic variation evaluations of Urtica dioica parts, ecotypes and evaluations of morphotypes in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzonur, Irem; Akdeniz, Gamze; Katmer, Zeynep; Ersoy, Seyda Karaman

    2013-01-01

    Urtica dioica is an ethnobotanically and medicinally important Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) plant worldwide and in Turkey; 90 % of herbal CAM applications depend on it in Turkey. It has a wide range of habitats in nearly all continents. It is found in all three phytogeographical regions in Turkey (Euro-Siberian, Irano-Turanian, Mediterranean) with high adaptivity to heterogeneous geographies such as climate, soil types and altitudes. This fact in relation to the assessment of chemical constituents of the plant and combining with further genetic and morphological variation data can assist and enhance the works for the utility and reliability of CAM applications in effect and activity of this plant species. In this work we have made some preliminary experiments with novel approaches to reveal the ecotypes and genetic variation of mighty ecotypes of Urtica dioica from different phytogeographical regions of Turkey (Euro-Siberian and Mediterranean). The ecotypes have heterogeneity in both its parts (leaf, stem, root) as revealed by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR) using random primers and High-resolution Melt (HRM) analysis using Urtica dioica specific primers and universal chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) primers and morphological traits such as phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of plants' leaf infusions as used in medicinal applications in Turkey. This work will contribute a lot for the development of molecular markers to detect the genetic variation and heterogeneity of Urtica dioica to further relate with expected phenotypes that are most useful and relevant in CAM applications.

  17. Comparative genome-wide transcriptome analysis of Vitis vinifera responses to adapted and non-adapted strains of two-spotted spider mite, Tetranyhus urticae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Díaz-Riquelme, Jose; Zhurov, Vladimir; Rioja, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is an extreme generalist plant pest. Even though mites can feed on many plant species, local mite populations form host races that do not perform equally well on all potential hosts. An acquisition of the ability to evade plant defense...

  18. Comparative genome-wide transcriptome analysis of Vitis vinifera responses to adapted and non-adapted strains of two-spotted spider mite, Tetranyhus urticae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Díaz-Riquelme, J.; Zhurov, V.; Rioja, C.; Pérez-Moreno, I.; Torres-Pérez, R.; Grimplet, J.; Carbonell-Bejerano, P.; Bajda, S.; Van Leeuwen, T.; Martínez-Zapater, J.M.; Grbic, M.; Grbic, V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is an extreme generalist plant pest. Even though mites can feed on many plant species, local mite populations form host races that do not perform equally well on all potential hosts. An acquisition of the ability to evade plant defenses

  19. Feeding Behaviour on Host Plants May Influence Potential Exposure to Bt Maize Pollen of Aglais Urticae Larvae (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-target butterfly larvae may be harmed by feeding on host plants dusted with Bt maize pollen. Feeding patterns of larvae and their utilization of host plants can affect the adverse Bt impact because the maize pollen is distributed unequally on the plant. In a field study, we investigated the feeding of larvae of the Small Tortoiseshell, Aglais urticae, on nettles, Urtica dioica. Young larvae used smaller host plants than older larvae. In general, the position of the larvae was in the top part of the host plant, but older larvae showed a broader vertical distribution on the nettles. Leaf blades and leaf tips were the plant parts most often consumed. Leaf veins were consumed but midribs were fed on to a lesser extent than other plant veins, particularly by young larvae. The feeding behavior of the larvae may increase possible exposure to Bt maize pollen because pollen densities are expected to be higher on the top parts and along leaf veins of nettles.

  20. Evaluation of the efficacy and selectivity of Oberon (Spiromesifen) for the control of Tetranychus urticae on strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanigliulo, A; Filí, V; Colella, T; Crescenzi, A

    2010-01-01

    A study was performed in the period June to July 2009 by Bioagritest test facility according to EPPO guidelines and Principles of Good Experimental Practice (GEP), in the campaign of Tursi (MT), southern Italy, in order to evaluate the efficacy and selectivity of Spiromesifen on strawberry for the control of Tetranyichus urticae. Two different dosages of OBERON (a.i. Spiromesifen)--45 and 60 ml/hl--were compared with a unique dosage of two commercial formulates: VERTIMEC (a.i. Abamectine, Syngenta Crop Protection), 60 ml/hl, and MAGISTER (a.i. Fenazaquin, Dow AgroSciences), 60 ml/hl. The study has achieved the purpose of evaluating/measuring with a single application the activity of Spiromesifen (Oberon) to control T. urticae on strawberry and its selectivity on phytoseiids. All the treatments differed significantly from the checks and showed high ability to control mites, on all stages of the population. About selectivity on phytoseiids, only Spiromesifen (at both doses) has demonstrated a good selectivity, while Abamectine (in part) and Fenazaquin (totally), have limited the population of the predator. The study confirmed the usefulness, indeed the need for the new compounds, to get confirmation of their selectivity against the useful entomofauna. The experiment has allowed to demonstrate the suitability of Spiromesifen to be included in strategies for strawberry integrated pest management.

  1. Systemic resistance in citrus to Tetranychus urticae induced by conspecifics is transmitted by grafting and mediated by mobile amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agut, Blas; Gamir, Jordi; Jaques, Josep A; Flors, Victor

    2016-10-01

    Recent research suggests that systemic signalling and communication between roots and leaves plays an important role in plant defence against herbivores. In the present study, we show that the oviposition of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae in the systemic leaves of citrus rootstock Citrus aurantium (sour orange) was reduced by 50% when a lower leaf was previously infested with conspecifics. Metabolomic and gene expression analysis of the root efflux revealed a strong accumulation of glutamic acid (Glu) that triggered the expression of the citrus putative glutamate receptor (GRL) in the shoots. Additionally, uninfested sour orange systemic leaves showed increased expression of glutamate receptors and higher amounts of jasmonic acid (JA) and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid in plants that were previously infested. Glu perception in the shoots induced the JA pathway, which primed LOX-2 gene expression when citrus plants were exposed to a second infestation. The spider mite-susceptible citrus rootstock Cleopatra mandarin (C. unshiu) also expressed systemic resistance, although the resistance was less effective than the resistance in sour orange. Surprisingly, the mobile signal in Cleopatra mandarin was not Glu, which suggests a strong genotype-dependency for systemic signalling in citrus. When the cultivar Clemenules (C. clementina) was grafted onto sour orange, there was a reduction in symptomatic leaves and T. urticae populations compared to the same cultivar grafted onto Cleopatra mandarin. Thus, systemic resistance is transmitted from the roots to the shoots in citrus and is dependent on rootstock resistance.

  2. New quill mites of the family Syringophilidae (Acari: Cheyletoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkov, A V; Fain, A; Skoracki, M

    2004-02-01

    Five new species and two new genera belonging to the family Syringophilidae (Acari: Cheyletoidea) are described from birds that died in the Antwerp Zoo during their quarantine: Charadriaulobia vanelli n. g., n. sp. from Vanellus chilensis (Charadriiformes: Charadriidae) in Brazil; Fritschisyringophilus lonchurae n. g., n. sp. from Lonchura punctulata (Passeriformes: Estrildidae) in India; Mironovia coturnae n. sp. from Coturnix coturnix (Galliformes: Phasianidae) in Europe; Syringophiloidus daberti n. sp. from Passerina ciris (Passeriformes: Emberizidae) in Mexico; and S. serini n. sp. from Serinus mozambicus (Passeriformes: Fringillidae) in Central Africa. Charadriaulobia n. g. differs from the closely related Aulobia Kethley, 1970, in both sexes, by the divergent epimeres I; in females, by the absence of protuberances on the hypostomal apex and by the situation of the bases of setae l4 distinctly anterior the bases of setae d4. Fritschisyringophilus n. g. differs from the closely related Syringophiloidus Kethley, 1972, in both sexes, by the presence of setae vs ' on legs II, the absence of setae dT on legs III and IV; in females, by the presence of median hypostomal protuberances and by short setae l1, l2 and l3. The relationships between the Syringophilidae and their hosts are briefly discussed. A list of all known syringophilid genera and their distribution on bird families is provided.

  3. New Wolbachia supergroups detected in quill mites (Acari: Syringophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowska, Eliza; Dragun-Damian, Anna; Dabert, Miroslawa; Gerth, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Wolbachia is the most abundant intracellular bacterial genus infecting a wide range of arthropods and filarial nematodes. Wolbachia have evolved parasitic, mutualistic and commensal relationships with their hosts but in arthropods generally act as reproductive parasites, inducing a wide range of phenotypic effects such as cytoplasmic incompatibility, parthenogenesis, feminization and male-killing. Up to now, the genus has been divided into 14 supergroups successively named A-O. Here, we describe two new Wolbachia supergroups from syringophilid mites (Acari: Cheyletoidea). These obligatory ectoparasites of birds inhabit the quills of feathers in many avian groups. The species of this family reproduce in a haplodiploid mode sensu arrhenotoky and are usually strongly female-biased. Based on the sequences of four protein-coding genes (ftsZ, gltA and groEL and coxA) and the 16S rRNA we identified strains of three Wolbachia supergroups (F and two distinct, yet undescribed ones) in five quill mite species. Our results suggest that in some cases the distribution of the bacteria can be better correlated with the mite's bird host rather than with mite taxonomy as such. The discovery of two new Wolbachia supergroups not only broadens the knowledge of the diversity of this bacterium but also raises questions about potential effects induced in quill mites and transmission mechanisms of the endosymbionts in this peculiar bacteria-quill mite-bird system.

  4. Variabilidad de cepas de Hirsutella thompsonii, a partir de ácaros fitófagos en tres sistemas terrestres del estado de Colima, México Variability of Hirsutella thompsonii strains, isolated from phytophagous mites from three terrestrial systems in the State of Colima, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Rosas-Acevedo

    2006-06-01

    to var. sinematosa, with a flat appearance, white to yellow. The hosts were two-spotted spider mite (Tetranichus urticae, Eriophidae (Aceria guerreronis and Phyllocoptruta oleivora and Brevipalpidae (Brevipalpus phoenicis, Citrus spp. being the host of the acari in 8 of the 10 isolations. Of the 10 strains, only one HtM130 strain of H. thompsonii var. thompsonii displayed exudate formation in the sporulative phase, characteristic that gives it greater potential for implementation in management strategies for the control of phytophagous acari. Strain coloration and growth are not correlated with the terrestrial system where they were found, nor to prevailing climatic conditions in the system. This contribution demonstrates the importance of assessing the presence of native natural enemies, before introducing commercial microorganisms or isolations from elsewhere so as not to affect the natural regulatory systems.

  5. Antirheumatoid Arthritis Activities and Chemical Compositions of Phenolic Compounds-Rich Fraction from Urtica atrichocaulis, an Endemic Plant to China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengyue Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Urtica atrichocaulis, an endemic plant to China, is commonly used to treat rheumatoid arthritis even though its pharmaceutical activities and chemical constituents were not studied. Herein, we reported our investigations on the chemical compositions of the phenolic compounds-rich fraction from U. atrichocaulis (TFUA and their antirheumatoid arthritis activities. We found that the TFUA significantly inhibited the adjuvant-induced rats arthritis, carrageenin-induced rats paw edema, cotton pellet-induced mice granuloma, and the acetic acid-induced mice writhing response. Our phytochemical investigations on the TFUA resulted in the first-time isolation and identification of 17 phenolic constituents and a bis (5-formylfurfuryl ether. The extensive HPLC analysis also revealed the chemical compositions of TFUA. Our further biological evaluation of the main phenolic components, individually and collectively, indicated that the antirheumatoid arthritis activities of TFUA were the combined effect of multiple phenolic constituents.

  6. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (ACARI: IXODIDAE) BITING A HUMAN BEING IN PORTOALEGRE CITY, RIO GRANDE DO SUL, BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENTZ, Márcia Bohrer; TROMBKA, Marcelo; da SILVA, Guilherme Liberato; SILVA, Carlos Eugênio

    2016-01-01

    We report the finding of a female brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) on the scalp of a male patient in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Human parasitism by this tick is rare and has seldomly been reported in the literature, despite its recognized importance since it can act as a vector of Rickettsia rickettsii, the agent of spotted fever. PMID:27074329

  7. A large parasitengonid mite (Acari, Erythraeoidea from the Early Cretaceous Crato Formation of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Dunlop

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A new large, fossil mite (Arachnida: Acari, Pararainbowia martilli n. gen. n. sp., is described from the Early Cretaceous (Aptian Crato Formation from Ceará State, Brazil. It is assigned to the Cohort Parasitengona and the superfamily Erythraeoidea, some extant members of which can reach up to seven millimetres in body length. Given that doubts have been raised about the identity of putative Crato feather mite eggs, this new fossil represents the first unequivocal record of Acari from the Crato Formation, the first non-amber record of an erythraeoid mite and the oldest named example of this superfamily. Fossil erythraeoids from Mesozoic and Tertiary ambers are briefly reviewed – including a widely overlooked Late Cretaceous species – with comments on Mesozoic mites in general. Thirteen Baltic amber erythraeoids have been formally described, but much unstudied material from various amber sources remains. Ein neues großes Milbenfossil (Arachnida: Acari, Pararainbowia martilli n. gen. n. sp., wird aus der Crato Formation (Unterkreide, Aptium des Ceará Gebietes in Brasilien beschrieben. Es wird der Kohorte Parasitengona und der Überfamilie Erythraeoidea zugeordnet; die modernen Vertreter erreichen eine Körperlänge bis zu sieben mm. Weil die Identität von Federmilbeneiern aus der Crato Formation in Frage gestellt wurde, ist dieser Neufund der erste klare Hinweis von Acari aus der Crato Formation. Es ist die erste erythraeoide Milbe, die nicht aus dem Bernstein stammt sowie das älteste genannte Beispiel dieser Überfamilie. Fossile erythraeoide Milben aus dem Bernstein des Mesozoikum und des Tertiärs werden kurz zusammengefasst – u. a. eine weitgehend übersehene Art aus der Oberkreide – mit allgemeinen Anmerkungen zu den mesozoischen Milben. Dreizehn erythraeoide Milbenarten sind aus dem baltischen Bernstein genannt und beschrieben worden, aber weiteres unbearbeitetes Material von verschiedenen Bernstein-Fundpunkten liegt noch vor

  8. De corticole fauna van platanen: i. Arachniden (Arachnida: Araneae, Pseudoscorpiones, Acari)

    OpenAIRE

    Noordijk, J.; Berg, M.P.

    2001-01-01

    The corticolous fauna of plane trees: I. Arachnids (Arachnida: Araneae, Pseudoscorpiones, Acari) From February until September 2000 an inventory was made of the bark-dwelling arthropod fauna of more than 400 plane trees (Platanus hybrida), all over the Netherlands. Arthropods were collected from bark and under the ‘loose’ bark fragments at a height of 160-175 cm from the ground. Algae, mosses and fungi are important resources for the corticolous fauna. Crevices in the tree trunk and loose bar...

  9. 异株荨麻(Urtica dioica L.)研究及开发利用进展%Research and Utilization Progress of Stinging Nettle (Urticadioica L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱涛涛; 朱爱国; 余永廷; 孙凯; 毛虎龙; 陈权

    2015-01-01

    异株荨麻(Urtica dioica L)是荨麻科(Urticaceae)荨麻属(Urtica)的一种多年生草本植物,其根、茎、叶及种子均具有较高的开发利用价值.目前,异株荨麻的科研及商业价值已经引起部分欧美国家的重视,我国也有科研院所对其进行了一定研究,但尚处于起步阶段.综述了目前国内外有关异株荨麻的研究及开发利用进展,并对我国种植及开发利用异株荨麻提出一些建议.

  10. Dispersal behavior of Tetranychus evansi and T. urticae on tomato at several spatial scales and densities: implications for integrated pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azandémè-Hounmalon, Ginette Y; Fellous, Simon; Kreiter, Serge; Fiaboe, Komi K M; Subramanian, Sevgan; Kungu, Miriam; Martin, Thibaud

    2014-01-01

    Studying distribution is necessary to understand and manage the dynamics of species with spatially structured populations. Here we studied the distribution in Tetranychus evansi and T. urticae, two mite pests of tomato, in the scope of evaluating factors that can influence the effectiveness of Integrated Pest Management strategies. We found greater positive density-dependent distribution with T. evansi than T. urticae when assayed on single, detached tomato leaves. Indeed, T. evansi distribution among leaflets increased with initial population density while it was high even at low T. urticae densities. Intensity and rate of damage to whole plants was higher with T. evansi than T. urticae. We further studied the circadian migration of T. evansi within plant. When T. evansi density was high the distribution behavior peaked between 8 am and 3 pm and between 8 pm and 3 am local time of Kenya. Over 24 h the total number of mites ascending and descending was always similar and close to the total population size. The gregarious behavior of T. evansi combined with its rapid population growth rate, may explain why few tomato plants can be severely damaged by T. evansi and how suddenly all the crop can be highly infested. However the localisation and elimination of the first infested plants damaged by T. evansi could reduce the risk of outbreaks in the entire crop. These findings suggest also that an acaricide treated net placed on the first infested plants could be very effective to control T. evansi. Moreover circadian migration would therefore accentuate the efficiency of an acaricide treated net covering the infested plants.

  11. Efficacy of Metarhizium anisopliae in controlling the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae on common bean in screenhouse and field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugeme, David Mugisho; Knapp, Markus; Ekesi, Sunday; Chabi-Olaye, Adenirin; Boga, Hamadi Iddi; Maniania, Nguya Kalemba

    2015-02-01

    The efficacy of aqueous and emulsifiable formulations of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae isolate ICIPE78 was evaluated on the population density of Tetranychus urticae infesting common bean plants under screenhouse and field conditions. Synthetic acaricide abamectin was included as a check. Bean plants were artificially infested with T. urticae and allowed to multiply. Three treatments were applied in the screenhouse and 1 treatment in field trials. Mite density was recorded 2 d before spraying and weekly postspraying. The number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, and the dry weight of seeds per plant were recorded only in the screenhouse trials. In both screenhouse and field trials, fungal formulations applied at the concentration of 10(8) conidia/mL and the acaricide reduced the population density of mites as compared to the controls. There were significant differences in T. urticae population densities between the treatments at the various post-spraying sampling dates. In the screenhouse, the mite densities were near zero from 3-week postspraying in the treated leaves. At 4-week postspraying, there were no more leaves in the untreated control (T1) and in the control water + Silwet-L77 (T2). Fungal formulations were as effective as abamectin in reducing mite densities in both screenhouse and field experiments. There were significant differences in the production parameters during the 2 screenhouse trials, with fungal and abamectin treatments generally having the highest yield. Results of this study underline the potential of the M. anisopliae isolate ICIPE78 as an alternative to acaricides for T. urticae management.

  12. A horizontally transferred cyanase gene in the spider mite Tetranychus urticae is involved in cyanate metabolism and is differentially expressed upon host plant change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wybouw, N; Balabanidou, V; Ballhorn, D J; Dermauw, W; Grbić, M; Vontas, J; Van Leeuwen, T

    2012-12-01

    The genome of the phytophagous two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae was recently sequenced, representing the first complete chelicerate genome, but also the first genome of a highly polyphagous agricultural pest. Genome analysis revealed the presence of an unexpected high number of cases of putative horizontal gene transfers, including a gene that encodes a cyanase or cyanate lyase. In this study we show by recombinant expression that the T. urticae cyanase remained functionally active after horizontal gene transfer and has a high affinity for cyanate. Cyanases were also detected in other plant parasitic spider mites species such as Tetranychus evansi and Panonychus citri, suggesting that an ancient gene transfer occurred before the diversification within the Tetranychidae family. To investigate the potential role of cyanase in the evolution of plant parasitic spider mites, we studied cyanase expression patterns in T. urticae in relation to host plant range and cyanogenesis, a common plant defense mechanism. Spider mites can alter cyanase expression levels after transfer to several new host plants, including the cyanogenic Phaseolus lunatus. However, the role of cyanase is probably not restricted to cyanide response, but likely to the plant nutritional quality as a whole. We finally discuss potential interactions between cyanase activity and pyrimidine and amino acid synthesis.

  13. 荨麻鞣质的提取和含量测定%Extraction and Content Determination of Total Tannin from Guangxi Urtica Fissa E. Pritz

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑莹; 江培; 杜明伟; 高尚

    2014-01-01

    研究广西荨麻中鞣质的提取并测定其含量。采用超声波法提取广西荨麻的总鞣质,用络合滴定法测定其总鞣质的含量。最后结果为广西荨麻总鞣质的含量为0.1706%,RSD=2.34%(n=5)。说明采用超声法提取操作程序简便、迅速,络合滴定法含量测定方法安全可靠,准确度和精密度较高,可用于广西荨麻中总鞣质的提取及含量测定。%Study on extracting total tannin from Guangxi Urtica fissa E. Pritz. and determining the content of total tannin. It was adopted the optimum ultrasonic extraction technique to extract the total tannin from Urtica fissa E. Pritz. Complexime-try was applied to determine the content of total tannin. The final results is the content of total tannin was 0.1706%, RSD was 2.34%. It explains that ultrasonic extraction technique is simple and rapid, content determination of complexometric titration method is safe and reliable. The method was available for extraction and content determination of total tannin from Guangxi Urtica fissa E. Pritz.

  14. Native Phytoremediation Potential of Urtica dioica for Removal of PCBs and Heavy Metals Can Be Improved by Genetic Manipulations Using Constitutive CaMV 35S Promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viktorova, Jitka; Jandova, Zuzana; Madlenakova, Michaela; Prouzova, Petra; Bartunek, Vilem; Vrchotova, Blanka; Lovecka, Petra; Musilova, Lucie; Macek, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Although stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) has been shown to reduce HM (heavy metal) content in soil, its wider phytoremediation potential has been neglected. Urtica dioica was cultivated in soils contaminated with HMs or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). After four months, up to 33% of the less chlorinated biphenyls and 8% of HMs (Zn, Pb, Cd) had been removed. Bacteria were isolated from the plant tissue, with the endophytic bacteria Bacillus shackletonii and Streptomyces badius shown to have the most significant effect. These bacteria demonstrated not only benefits for plant growth, but also extreme tolerance to As, Zn and Pb. Despite these results, the native phytoremediation potential of nettles could be improved by biotechnologies. Transient expression was used to investigate the functionality of the most common constitutive promoter, CaMV 35S in Urtica dioica. This showed the expression of the CUP and bphC transgenes. Collectively, our findings suggest that remediation by stinging nettle could have a much wider range of applications than previously thought.

  15. The relative contribution of target-site mutations in complex acaricide resistant phenotypes as assessed by marker assisted backcrossing in Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riga, Maria; Bajda, Sabina; Themistokleous, Christos; Papadaki, Stavrini; Palzewicz, Maria; Dermauw, Wannes; Vontas, John; Leeuwen, Thomas Van

    2017-08-23

    The mechanisms underlying insecticide and acaricide resistance in insects and mites are often complex, including additive effects of target-site insensitivity, increased metabolism and transport. The extent to which target-site resistance mutations contribute to the resistance phenotype is, however, not well studied. Here, we used marker-assisted backcrossing to create 30 congenic lines carrying nine mutations (alone, or in combination in a few cases) associated with resistance to avermectins, pyrethroids, mite growth inhibitors and mitochondrial complex III inhibitors (QoI) in a polyphagous arthropod pest, the spider mite Tetranychus urticae. Toxicity tests revealed that mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel, chitin synthase 1 and cytochrome b confer high levels of resistance and, when fixed in a population, these mutations alone can result in field failure of acaricide treatment. In contrast, although we confirmed the implication of mutations in glutamate-gated chloride channels in abamectin and milbemectin insensitivity, these mutations do not lead to the high resistance levels that are often reported in abamectin resistant strains of T. urticae. Overall, this study functionally validates reported target-site resistance mutations in T. urticae, by uncoupling them from additional mechanisms, allowing to finally investigate the strength of the conferred phenotype in vivo.

  16. A new species of Atractides Koch, 1837 (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Hygrobatidae from Ethiopia, with a discussion on the biodiversity of the genus Atractides in the Afrotropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Pesic

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Atractides Koch, 1837 (Acari, Hydrachnidia is described from Ethiopia. The world number of Atractides now tallies 297 species. The diversity of the genus Atractides in the Afrotropical region is briefly discussed.

  17. Photosynthetic response of soybean to twospotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychydae injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeney de Freitas Bueno

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The twospotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch is a common pest on soybean plants. To clarify plant-arthropod interaction on mite-soybean system, leaf fluorescence, photosynthetic responses to variable carbon dioxide levels, and chlorophyll content were evaluated. Significant photosynthetic rate reduction was observed due to stomatal limitation. Stomatal closure was the major plant physiological response. As a consequence, there was reduction in photosynthetic rates. Surprisingly, plants did not show chlorophyll content reduction associated with photosynthetic impairment. No differences in fluorescence data indicate that T. urticae injury did not impair the function of light harvesting and photoelectron transport. These results showed that T. urticae could be a serious pest of soybean even on lower infestation, at least when photosynthesis was determinant to yield.O ácaro-rajado, Tetranychus urticae Koch é uma praga comum em plantas de soja. Para elucidar a interação entre o artrópode e a planta no sistema soja-ácaro, a fluorescência, as respostas fotossintéticas em diferentes concentrações internas de CO2 e o conteúdo de clorofila foram avaliados. Observou-se redução na capacidade fotossintética das plantas infestadas e o fechamento dos estômatos foi a principal causa dessa redução. As plantas infestadas não mostraram redução no conteúdo de clorofila. Também, nenhuma diferença foi encontrada na leitura de fluorescência, o que mostra que a injúria causada pelo ácaro não prejudica a coleta de luz nem o transporte de elétrons. Estes resultados mostram que T. urticae pode ser uma praga séria na cultura da soja mesmo em baixas infestações, principalmente nas situações em que a fotossíntese é fator determinante na produção.

  18. Ticks (Acari: Ixodida) on wild carnivores in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Jorge, Rodrigo S P; Sana, Dênis A; Jácomo, Anah Tereza A; Kashivakura, Cyntia K; Furtado, Mariana M; Ferro, Claudia; Perez, Samuel A; Silveira, Leandro; Santos, Tarcísio S; Marques, Samuel R; Morato, Ronaldo G; Nava, Alessandra; Adania, Cristina H; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Gomes, Albério A B; Conforti, Valéria A; Azevedo, Fernando C C; Prada, Cristiana S; Silva, Jean C R; Batista, Adriana F; Marvulo, Maria Fernanda V; Morato, Rose L G; Alho, Cleber J R; Pinter, Adriano; Ferreira, Patrícia M; Ferreira, Fernado; Barros-Battesti, Darci M

    2005-01-01

    The present study reports field data of ticks infesting wild carnivores captured from July 1998 to September 2004 in Brazil. Additional data were obtained from one tick collection and from previous published data of ticks on carnivores in Brazil. During field work, a total of 3437 ticks were collected from 89 Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox), 58 Chrysocyon brachyurus (maned wolf), 30 Puma concolor (puma), 26 Panthera onca (jaguar), 12 Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon), 4 Speothos venaticus (bush dog), 6 Pseudalopex vetulus (hoary fox), 6 Nasua nasua (coati), 6 Leopardus pardalis (ocelot), 2 Leopardus tigrinus (oncilla), 1 Leopardus wiedii (margay), 1 Herpailurus yagouaroundi (jaguarundi), 1 Oncifelis colocolo (pampas cat), 1 Eira barbara (tayara), 1 Galictis vittata (grison), 1 Lontra longicaudis (neotropical otter), and 1 Potus flavus (kinkajou). Data obtained from the Acari Collection IBSP included a total of 381 tick specimens collected on 13 C. thous, 8 C. brachyurus, 3 P. concolor, 10 P. onca, 3 P. cancrivorus, 4 N. nasua, 1 L. pardalis, 1 L. wiedii, 4 H. yagouaroundi, 1 Galictis cuja (lesser grison), and 1 L. longicaudis. The only tick-infested carnivore species previously reported in Brazil, for which we do not present any field data are Pseudalopex gymnocercus (pampas fox), Conepatus chinga (Molina's hog-nosed skunk), and Conepatus semistriatus (striped hog-nosed skunk). We report the first tick records in Brazil on two Felidae species (O. colocolo, H. yagouaroundi), two Canidae species (P. vetulus, S. venaticus), one Procyonidae species (P. flavus) and one Mustelidae (E. barbara). Tick infestation remains unreported for 5 of the 26 Carnivora species native in Brazil: Oncifelis geoffroyi (Geoffroy's cat), Atelocynus microtis (short-eared dog), Pteronura brasiliensis (giant otter), Mustela africana (Amazon weasel), and Bassaricyon gabbii (olingo). Our field data comprise 16 tick species represented by the genera Amblyomma (12 species), Ixodes (1

  19. Acaricidal activity against Tetranychus urticae and essential oil composition of four Croton species from Caatinga biome in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Ilzenayde Araújo; da Camara, Claudio Augusto Gomes

    2011-06-01

    Volatile components of essential oils from the leaves and stems of Croton jacobinensis, C. rhamnifolius, C. muscicapa and C. micans, which are medicinal plants found in the Caatinga biome of northeastern Brazil, were analyzed using GC and GC/MS. The acaricidal activity of these oils against Tetranychus urticae was evaluated using the fumigation method. Oil yields from the Croton species ranged from 1.1 +/- 0.0 to 0.6 +/- 0.0%, w/w, for leaves and 0.7 +/- 0.0 to 0.1 +/- 0.0% for stems. Sesquiterpenoids were dominant in all oils, except the stem oil from C. rhamnifolius, which exhibited a high monoterpene content, and the leaf and stem oils from C. muscicapa, which were rich in phenylpropanoids. The major volatile components of the leaf and stem oils from C. jacobinensis were (Z)-alpha-atlantone (24.3 +/- 0.4%) and trans-isolongifolanone (22.8 +/- 0.5%), respectively. The most abundant constituents detected in C. rhamnifolius were alpha-cedrene epoxide (23.3 +/- 0.1%) and caryophyllene oxide (21.9 +/- 0.0%) in the leaf oil, and camphor (16.6 +/- 0.5%) and tricyclene (12.8 +/- 0.1%) in the stem oil. Foenicolin was the main compound identified in the leaf (50.6 +/- 0.2%) and stem (72.7 +/- 0.6%) oils of C. muscicapa, while alpha-bulnesene (32.9 +/- 0.2%) and guaiol (17.9 +/- 0.7%) were the principal components of C. micans oils. These oils exhibited a high degree of toxicity in the fumigation assay. The stem oils from C. jacobinensis and C. rhamnifolius exhibited high lethality rates, with LC50 values of 0.3 and 0.2 microL/L of air after 24 h, respectively. The results suggest the potential use of stem essential oil, especially from C. rhamnifolius and C. jacobinensis, for the integrated control of Tetranychus urticae.

  20. Effect of coconut palm proximities and Musa spp. germplasm resistance to colonization by Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is the predominant host for Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), false spider mite infestations do occur on bananas and plantains (Musa spp. Colla). Since its introduction, the banana and plantain industries have been negatively impacted to different deg...

  1. The first record of the watermite Arrenurus beolinensis from the Netherlands, with the first description of the female (Acari: Hydrachnidia).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.; Didderen, K.; Wiggers, R.

    2007-01-01

    De watermijt Arrenurus berolinensis in Nederland, met de eerste beschrijving van het vrouwtje (Acari: Hydrachnidia) De zeer zeldzame watermijt Arrenurus berolinensis is in 2006 voor het eerst in Nederland gevonden, in een petgat in de Wieden (Overijssel). Tot nu toe was deze soort slechts twee keer

  2. Novel bacterial pathogen Acaricomes phytoseiuli causes severe disease symptoms and histopathological changes in the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari, Phytoseiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schütte, C.; Gols, R.; Kleespies, R.G.; Poitevin, O.J.L.; Dicke, M.

    2008-01-01

    Adult female Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari, Phytoseiidae) of a laboratory population show a set of characteristic symptoms, designated as non-responding (NR) syndrome. Mature predators shrink, cease oviposition and die. They show a lower degree of attraction to herbivore-induced

  3. New Australian hygrobatids (Acari: Hydrachnidia: Hygrobatidae), with the description of two new genera and three new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.

    2009-01-01

    Two new genera of the water mite family Hygrobatidae (Acari: Hydrachnidia) are described from Australia, Ioannibates gen. nov. and Pseudoaustraliobates gen. nov.. In addition, three new species are described, Ioannibates papillosus sp. nov., Pseudoaustraliobates flindersi sp. nov. and the second spe

  4. Heritability and artificial selection on ambulatory dispersal distance in Tetranychus urticae: effects of density and maternal effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellyn Valery Bitume

    Full Text Available Dispersal distance is understudied although the evolution of dispersal distance affects the distribution of genetic diversity through space. Using the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, we tested the conditions under which dispersal distance could evolve. To this aim, we performed artificial selection based on dispersal distance by choosing 40 individuals (out of 150 that settled furthest from the home patch (high dispersal, HDIS and 40 individuals that remained close to the home patch (low dispersal, LDIS with three replicates per treatment. We did not observe a response to selection nor a difference between treatments in life-history traits (fecundity, survival, longevity, and sex-ratio after ten generations of selection. However, we show that heritability for dispersal distance depends on density. Heritability for dispersal distance was low and non-significant when using the same density as the artificial selection experiments while heritability becomes significant at a lower density. Furthermore, we show that maternal effects may have influenced the dispersal behaviour of the mites. Our results suggest primarily that selection did not work because high density and maternal effects induced phenotypic plasticity for dispersal distance. Density and maternal effects may affect the evolution of dispersal distance and should be incorporated into future theoretical and empirical studies.

  5. Investigations on the Effects of Five Different Plant Extracts on the Two-Spotted Mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Arachnida: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pervin Erdogan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-spotted mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Arac.: Tetranychidae, is an economic pest worldwide including Turkey, causing serious damage to vegetables, flowers, and fruit crops. In recent years, broad-spectrum insecticides/miticides have been used to control this pest in Turkey. Control is difficult mainly due to resistance to conventional pesticides. This study was conducted to determine efficacy of pesticides extracted from five different plants [i.e., Allium sativum L. (Amaryllidaceae, Rhododendron luteum S. (Ericaceae, Helichrysum arenarium L. (Asteraceae, Veratrum album L. (Liliaceae, and Tanacetum parthenium L. (Asteraceae] against this mite. Bioassays were tested by two different methods to determine the effects of varying concentrations. Experiments were performed using 3 cm diameter leaf disk from unsprayed bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. In addition, the effects of the extracts on reproduction and oviposition were investigated. The extract yielded high mortality. In the lowest-concentration bioassays, the adult mites laid lower numbers of eggs compared to the untreated control. No ovicidal effect was observed.

  6. Major histocompatibility class I molecules present Urtica dioica agglutinin, a superantigen of vegetal origin, to T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, P; Buckle, M; Abastado, J P; Peumans, W J; Truffa-Bachi, P

    1999-05-01

    The Urtica dioica agglutinin (UDA) shares with the superantigens the property of activating T cell subsets bearing particular Vbeta segments of the TCR. However, UDA is a lectin capable of binding to many glycoproteins on cell membranes. The implication of MHC versus other glycoproteins in UDA presentation was presently studied. Using mutant mice lacking MHC class I (MHC-I), MHC class II (MHC-II) or both MHC antigens, we provided evidence that MHC-I and MHC-II molecules serve as UDA receptors. Presentation by either one of these molecules ensured similar T cell responses and co-stimulatory signals were mandatory for optimal T cell activation and proliferation both in MHC-I and MHC-II contexts. Remarkably, in the absence of MHC molecules, UDA could not be efficiently presented to T cells by other glycosylated proteins. Surface plasmon resonance studies were used to confirm the binding of UDA to MHC-I molecules using a fusion protein consisting of MHC-I domains and beta2-microglobulin. The results indicated that the interaction between UDA and MHC-I molecules implicated lectin-binding site(s) of UDA. Taken together, our data demonstrate that, in addition to MHC-II antigens, MHC-I molecules serve as an alternative ligand for UDA.

  7. Anti-Oxidant activity of 80% methanol extracts from Clerodendron myricoides, Satureja punctata, Urtica dioica, Ajuga remota and Gnidia stenophylla

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    Ibrahim Nasser

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El estrés oxidativo está involucrado en el desarrollo de muchas enfermedades, como: aterosclerosis, hipertensión, asma, diabetes mellitus, y muchas más. La necesidad de nuevos antioxidantes o mezclas de nuevos antioxidantes tiene una gran importancia en el manejo de enfermedades crónicas. Los extractos crudos de Clerodendron myricoides, Satureja punctata, Urtica sciemensis, Ajuga remota and Gnidia stenophylla en metanol (80% fueron estudiadas para evaluar sus propiedades antioxidantes usando el radical libre 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH y ácido ascórbico como estándares. La actividad secuestradora del radical fue expresada como la cantidad de extractos activos necesarios para disminuir la absorbancia inicial DPPH (50%. Todos los extractos de las plantas mostraron una actividad antioxidante significativa. C. myricoides fue la más potente, seguida en orden descendente por S. punctata, U. dioica, A. remota and G. stenophylla. La concentración iniciall 50 (CI50 de los extractos estuvo en el rango entre 6.5 - 9.1 ¿g/mL y para el ácido ascórbico fue 8.6 ¿g/mL. Los ensayos fitoquímicos de los extractos de las plantas investigadas indicaron la presencia de polifenoles, alcaloides, taninos y flavonoides. Se ha reprtado que estos compuestos poseen una potente actividad antioxidante.

  8. Purification and characterization of polyphenol oxidase from nettle (Urtica dioica L.) and inhibitory effects of some chemicals on enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güllçin, Ilhami; Küfrevioğlu, O Irfan; Oktay, Münir

    2005-06-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) of nettle (Urtica dioica L.) was extracted and purified through (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, dialysis, and CM-Sephadex ion-exchange chromatography and was used for its characterization. The PPO showed activity to catechol, 4-methylcatechol, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), L-tyrosine, p-cresol, pyrogallol, catechin and trans-cinnamic acid. For each of these eight substrates, optimum conditions such as pH and temperature were determined and L-tyrosine was found to be one of the most suitable substrates. Optimum pH and temperature were found at pH 4.5 and 30 degrees C respectively and Km and Vmax values were 7.90 x 10(-4) M, and 11290 EU/mL for with L-tyrosine as substrate. The inhibitory effect of several inhibitors, L-cysteine chloride, sodium azide, sodium cyanide, benzoic acid, salicylic acid, L-ascorbic acid, glutathione, thiourea, sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate, beta-mercaptoethanol and sodium metabisulfite were tested. The most effective was found to be sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate which acted as a competitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 1.79 x 10(-9)M. In addition one isoenzyme of PPO was detected by native polacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis.

  9. Effect of Urtica Dioica Extract on Histological and Histometrical Changes of Testis of Hamster after Testosteron Administration

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    Hassan Morovvati

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperactivity of testosterone is one cause of infertility and its incorrect use can produces reproductive disorders. Nettle (Urtica dioica has antiandrogenic effect and may antagonized effect of testosterone. In present study structure of testes of golden hamster was evaluated after testosterone and extract. Materials and Methods: In this experimental and animal modeling study, twenty male mature hamsters were divided to 4 groups, group 1 was control, group 2 received testosterone at dose 3 mg/kg subcutaneously, group 3 received nettle extract dose 30 mg/kg orally and group 4 received testosterone and nettle for 30 days daily. The hamsters were euthanized and testes were removed and detected macroscopic parameters (weight, height, wide and volume and fixed with formalin. The samples were sectioned and colored with H & E. Results: The volume, weight, length and wide of testes was at least in testosterone group and statistically was lesser than control and testosterone -nettle group (p<0.05, but did not the height epithelium of seminifer tubules, compact of spermatogenic cells and number of serotolli cells in testosterone group was lesser than control group significantly (p<0.05.Conclusion: The nettle extract decreased histological changes of testes by testosterone and improved its structure.

  10. A rare finding of mites (Arachnida: Acari: Leeuwenhoekiidae) parasitising a whip spider (Arachnida: Amblypygi: Charinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Souza, Thiago; Giupponi, Alessandro P L; Hernandes, Fabio A

    2014-04-01

    Twelve larvae of unidentified species of Odontacarus Ewing, 1929 (Acari: Leeuwenhoekiidae) were found parasitising an adult male whip spider Charinus brasilianus Weygoldt (Charinidae) in Santa Teresa, mountainous region of Espirito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. These larvae occurred in the intersegmental membrane of prosoma and legs. This is the first report of ectoparasitic mites infecting a charinid whip spider and the first record of leeuwenhoekiid mites parasitising an invertebrate host. We suggest that future studies are essential to understand the reasons why these events of parasitism are so rare in the order Amblypygi.

  11. New and little known species of Halolaelaps (Acari: Mesostigmata: Halolaelapidae) from Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trach, Viacheslav A

    2016-08-23

    A new species of the family Halolaelapidae (Acari: Mesostigmata), Halolaelaps euxinus sp. nov. is described from Black Sea coast. Adult mites were found in seaweed, while deutonymphs were collected from the amphipod Talorchestia deshayesii and from seaweed. The adult female of Halolaelaps saproincisus Hirschmann & Götz, 1968 is recorded in new localities of Ukraine for the first time, in soil and bird faeces in chicken coops, and new morphological information is provided. The adult male (collected from chicken coops) and the deutonymph (collected from chicken coops and on dung-beetles) of H. saproincisus are described for the first time.

  12. Mites (Acari Associated with the Desert Seed Harvester Ant, Messor pergandei (Mayr

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    Kaitlin A. Uppstrom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mites (Acari associated with the seed harvester ant Messor pergandei were investigated in the Sonoran desert of Arizona. At least seven representatives of the mite genera Armacarus, Lemanniella, Petalomium, Forcellinia, Histiostoma, Unguidispus, and Cosmoglyphus are phoretically associated with M. pergandei. Most of these morphospecies show preference for specific phoretic attachment sites and primarily use female alates rather than male alates for dispersal. Five mite morphospecies were found in low numbers inhabiting the chaff piles: Tydeidae sp., Procaeculus sp., Anystidae sp., Bakerdania sp., and Tetranychidae sp. The phoretic Petalomium sp. was observed consuming fungus growing on a dead queen, but the roles of the other mite species remain mostly unresolved.

  13. Description of Lyrifissella gen. n. and Lyrifissellidae fam. n. (Acari, Oribatei

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    Adilson D. Paschoal

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Lyrifissella new genus and Lyrifissellidae new family (Acari, Oribatei are described. The type species, Pedrocortesella latoclava Hammer, 1966, from Milford, New Zealand, is fully redescribed from the holotype. The congeneric species, Pedrocortesella cryptonota Hammer, 1966, Lake Ratoitis, New Zealand, is compared with the type species and transferred to the new genus. Plateremaeus vestitus Tragardh, 1931, the species thought to be very close to Plateremaeus ornatissimus (Berlese, and which was erroneously used to characterize Plateremaeus and Plateremaeidae, causing them to be misunderstood for about five decades, is now placed in Lyrifissella.

  14. Conservation biological control in strawberry: effect of different pollen on development, survival, and reproduction of Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugole Ottaviano, María F; Cédola, Claudia V; Sánchez, Norma E; Greco, Nancy M

    2015-12-01

    Wild vegetation surrounding crops may provide temporary habitat and potential food sources for phytoseiids in different seasons. Monthly vegetation samples of wild plants adjacent to strawberry plants and wild plants in a vegetation strip close to the crop were taken. The frequency of Neoseiulus californicus, Tetranychus urticae and other mites and insects was recorded. In addition, in a laboratory assay, the survival, developmental time and fecundity of females fed on pollen of strawberry and pollen of wild plants where N. californicus was recorded during their flowering, were estimated. Pollen from Urtica urens, Lamium amplexicaule, Convolvulus arvensis, Sonchus oleraceous, Galega officinalis, and Fragaria x ananassa (strawberry) allowed development of N. californicus to adult, but not reproduction. Survival was 70-80 % when fed on pollen from S. oleraceus, G. officinalis and C. arvensis, 80-90 % when fed on pollen from U. urens and F. x ananassa, and more than 90 % when fed on T. urticae and on pollen from L. amplexicaule. In autumn and winter, U. urens, L. amplexicaule and S. oleraceous could promote the persistence of N. californicus when prey density in strawberry is low, offering T. urticae, thrips and pollen. In summer, pollen of C. arvensis and G. officinalis would contribute to the persistence of N. californicus when the strawberry crop is ending and offers scarce food resources. Although the pollen of these plants would not enable the predator population to increase, the presence of these plants in the vicinity of strawberry could contribute to the persistence of N. californicus population and help to limit T. urticae growth when this pest begins to colonize the crop.

  15. Chlorfenapyr resistance in two-spotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) from Australian cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, G A; Rophail, J; Wilson, L J

    2004-01-01

    The responses of Tetranychus urticae Koch from Australian cotton to chlorfenapyr has been monitored since the 1997--1998 growing season. Resistance was first detected in the 2001--2002 season and then increased quickly in both level and proportion of resistant strains detected. In response, the resistance management strategy for chlorfenapyr use in cotton was altered and now recommends a further restriction of use from two to one spray per season. There was no evidence of negative cross-resistance to the pyrethroid bifenthrin, but chlorfenapyr was associated with an undefined negative cross-resistance.

  16. A study on possible use of Urtica dioica (common nettle) plants as uranium ((234)U, (238)U) contamination bioindicator near phosphogypsum stockpile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Grzegorz; Boryło, Alicja; Skwarzec, Bogdan

    The aim of this study was to determine uranium concentrations in common nettle (Urtica dioica) plants and corresponding soils samples which were collected from the area of phosphogypsum stockpile in Wiślinka (northern Poland). The uranium concentrations in roots depended on its concentrations in soils. Calculated BCF and TF values showed that soils characteristics and air deposition affect uranium absorption and that different uranium species have different affinities to U. dioica plants. The values of (234)U/(238)U activity ratio indicate natural origin of these radioisotopes in analyzed plants. Uranium concentration in plants roots is negatively weakly correlated with distance from phosphogypsum stockpile.

  17. Phytoseiid mites of the Canary Islands (Acari, Phytoseiidae. II. Tenerife and La Gomera Islands

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    Ferragut, F.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoseiid mites (Acari, Phytoseiidae inhabiting plants in natural ecosystems from Tenerife and La Gomera islands (Canary Islands have been studied. Surveys were conducted from 1997 to 2002. Eleven species were collected, one of them being reported for the first time from the Canary Islands and six of them reported for the first time from Tenerife and La Gomera islands. Euseius machadoi n. sp. collected from woody plants in the Canarian laurisilva is proposed as a new species.

    En muestreos realizados desde 1997 hasta 2002 se ha estudiado la fauna de ácaros fitoseidos (Acari, Phytoseiidae asociada a plantas de ecosistemas naturales de las islas de Tenerife y La Gomera (Islas Canarias. Se han recolectado un total de 11 especies, siendo una de ellas citada por vez primera en las islas Canarias y seis de ellas citadas por primera vez en las islas de Tenerife y La Gomera. Euseius machadoi n. sp., recolectado en plantas leñosas de la laurisilva canaria, se propone como una nueva especie.

  18. Repellent efficacy of DEET, Icaridin, and EBAAP against Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes scapularis nymphs (Acari, Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchel, Kerstin; Bendin, Juliane; Gharbi, Amina; Rahlenbeck, Sibylle; Dautel, Hans

    2015-06-01

    Repellent efficacy of 10% EBAAP (3-[N-butyl-N-acetyl]-aminopropionic acid, ethyl ester) and 10% Icaridin ((2-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperidinecarboxylic acid 1-methylpropyl ester)) were evaluated against 20% DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) in human subject trials against ticks. Responses of host-seeking nymphs of the European castor bean tick (Ixodes ricinus L.; Acari: Ixodidae) and the North American blacklegged tick (I. scapularis Say; Acari: Ixodidae) were compared. Tests were carried out according to the US-EPA standard protocol with ethanolic solutions of the active ingredients of repellents being applied to the forearm of 10 volunteers. The upward movement of ticks was monitored until repellent failure taking up to 12.5 h. Application of 20% DEET resulted in median complete protection times (CPT; Kaplan-Meier median) between 4 and 4.5 h, while 10% EBAAP yielded CPTs of 3.5-4h. No significant differences were found between the efficacies of two repellents nor between the two species tested. The median of the CPT of a 10% Icaridin solution was 5h in nymphs of I. scapularis, but 8h in those of I. ricinus (Prepellent activity against nymphs of the two Ixodes ticks with Icaridin demonstrating particularly promising results against I. ricinus. Future research should investigate whether similar results occur when adult Ixodes ticks or other tick species are tested.

  19. Deciphering the metabolic changes associated with diapause syndrome and cold acclimation in the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae.

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    Samira Khodayari

    Full Text Available Diapause is a common feature in several arthropod species that are subject to unfavorable growing seasons. The range of environmental cues that trigger the onset and termination of diapause, in addition to associated hormonal, biochemical, and molecular changes, have been studied extensively in recent years; however, such information is only available for a few insect species. Diapause and cold hardening usually occur together in overwintering arthropods, and can be characterized by recording changes to the wealth of molecules present in the tissue, hemolymph, or whole body of organisms. Recent technological advances, such as high throughput screening and quantification of metabolites via chromatographic analyses, are able to identify such molecules. In the present work, we examined the survival ability of diapausing and non-diapausing females of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, in the presence (0 or 5°C or absence of cold acclimation. Furthermore, we examined the metabolic fingerprints of these specimens via gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS. Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA of metabolites revealed that major metabolic variations were related to diapause, indicating in a clear cut-off between diapausing and non-diapausing females, regardless of acclimation state. Signs of metabolic depression were evident in diapausing females, with most amino acids and TCA cycle intermediates being significantly reduced. Out of the 40 accurately quantified metabolites, seven metabolites remained elevated or were accumulated in diapausing mites, i.e. cadaverine, gluconolactone, glucose, inositol, maltose, mannitol and sorbitol. The capacity to accumulate winter polyols during cold-acclimation was restricted to diapausing females. We conclude that the induction of increased cold hardiness in this species is associated with the diapause syndrome, rather than being a direct effect of low temperature. Our results

  20. Hepatoprotective potential of antioxidant potent fraction from Urtica dioica Linn. (whole plant in CCl4 challenged rats

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    Bhuwan Chandra Joshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to isolate hepatoprotective component from Urtica dioica Linn. (whole plant against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in-vitro (HepG2 cells and in-vivo (rats model. Antioxidant activity of hydro alcoholic extract and its fractions petroleum ether fraction (PEF, ethyl acetate fraction (EAF, n-butanol fraction (NBF and aqueous fraction (AF were determined by DPPH and NO radicals scavenging assay. Fractions were subjected to in-vitro HepG2 cell line study. Further, the most potent fraction (EAF was subjected to in-vivo hepatoprotective potential against CCl4 challenged rats. The in-vivo hepatoprotective active fraction was chromatographed on silica column to isolate the bioactive constituent(s. Structure elucidation was done by using various spectrophotometric techniques like UV, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS spectroscopy. Ethyl acetate fraction (EAF of hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica possessed the potent antioxidant activity viz. DPPH (IC50 78.99 ± 0.17 μg/ml and NO (IC50101.39 ± 0.30 μg/ml. The in-vitro HepG2 cell line study showed that the EAF prevented the cell damage. The EAF significantly attenuated the increased liver enzymes activities in serum and oxidative parameters in tissue of CCl4-induced rats, suggesting hepatoprotective and anti-oxidant action respectively. Column chromatography of most potent antioxidant fraction (EAF lead to the isolation of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy cinnamic acid (ferulic acid which is responsible for its hepatoprotective potential. Hence, the present study suggests that EAF of hydro-alcoholic extract has significant antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential on CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in-vitro and in-vivo.

  1. Biochemical and hemato-immunological parameters in juvenile beluga (Huso huso) following the diet supplemented with nettle (Urtica dioica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binaii, Mohammad; Ghiasi, Maryam; Farabi, Seyed Mohammad Vahid; Pourgholam, Reza; Fazli, Hasan; Safari, Reza; Alavi, Seyed Eshagh; Taghavi, Mohammad Javad; Bankehsaz, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of different dietary nettle (Urtica dioica) levels on biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters in beluga (Huso huso). Fish were divided into 4 groups before being fed for 8 weeks with 0%, 3%, 6% and 12% of nettle. The blood samples were collected on week 4 and 8. The use of nettle did not significantly change the mean cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin, lymphocytes, eosinophils, albumin, glucose, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and lysozyme activity on week 4 and 8. After 4 weeks, the total red blood cell (RBC) and hematocrit (Ht) showed a significant increase in 12% nettle group compared to the 3% nettle and control groups but haemoglobin (Hb) had a significant change in 12% nettle compared to the control. At the same time was not found a significant change in the mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), total white blood cell (WBC), neutrophils, respiratory burst activity (RB), total immunoglobulin (Ig) and total protein (TP), triglyceride (Tri) and cholesterol (Chol). After 8 weeks, the fish treated with nettle exhibited significantly increase in neutrophil and Hb levels compared to the control and between treatment groups, 12% nettle group shown the highest Hb while RBC and Hct values significantly rose in fish fed by 12% compared to the control. Supplementing 6% and 12% nettle increased the WBC and MCHC compared to the other groups. The group fed 12% showed a highly significant difference in RB, TP and Ig after 8 weeks. However, Tri and Chol were significantly decreased in the juvenile beluga fed by the 6% and 12% nettle diet compared to the other groups. The results suggest that by using this herb there will be an improvement in hemato-biochemical parameters and immune function of juvenile beluga.

  2. Do males evaluate female age for precopulatory mate guarding in the two-spotted spider mite?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oku, K.; Saito, Y.

    2014-01-01

    In the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), because only the first mating results in fertilisation, adult males guard quiescent deutonymph females, the stage immediately before adult emergence. Previous studies showed that T. urticae males prefer to guard older rather

  3. Resistência de cultivares de videira ao ácaro-rajado Tetranychus urticae na região de Jales, estado de São Paulo

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    Gisele Santos Valadão

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As videiras da região de Jales, Estado de São Paulo, têm sido intensamente atacadas pelo ácaro-rajado, Tetranychus urticae Koch. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo comparar cultivares de uva quanto à adequação como hospedeiras da espécie. Em experimento de campo, naquele local, a ocorrência da praga, ao longo de 12 meses, foi acompanhada nas cultivares de uvas finas, Itália e Benitaka, e na cultivar de uva rústica, Niagara Rosada. No laboratório, a biologia de T. urticae foi estudada nessas três cultivares e na 'Redimeire'. Na cultivar Niagara Rosada, o ácaro-rajado apresentou menor fecundidade e menor sobrevivência, indicando a presença de mecanismos de resistência por antibiose. Além disso, houve maior tentativa de fuga dessa cultivar, sugerindo resistência por não preferência.

  4. Pollen and charcoal analyses from Lake Etu-Mustajärvi, Southern Finland, with special reference to an early Holocene Urtica pollen maximum

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    Sarmaja-Korjonen, K.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Sediments of a small lake, Etu-Mustajärvi, in southern Finland, were studied with respect to their fossil pollen and charcoal content. Pollen analysis showed a typical development of vegetation from the earliest Holocene onwards, since the isolation of the lake from the Baltic Ice Lake. The emerged land was first colonised by herbs and bushes, and for the first time in Finland an Urtica maximum of 4 % is reported for this period. It is considered possible that Urtica may have been a commoner part of the pollen flora of newly emerged land in south Finland than has been previously thought. Charcoal analysis was undertaken to examine the Holocene history of forest fires in the area. At least in the Lammi area, charcoal seems to have been most abundant about 8000-6000 BP, a result which is in apparent disagreement with the general concept that the period was moist and thus forest fire frequency could not have been high.

  5. Beklemishevia hispaniola n. sp., nuevo representante de la Cohorte Palaeosomata (Acari, Oribatei en España

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    Pérez-Iñigo, C.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of oribatid mite (Acari, Oribatei belonging to the family Ctenacaridae (Cohors Palaeosomata is described; this species was recorded several times in Spain as Beklemishevia galeodula Zachvatkin, 1945. The new species is easily distinguishable from the mentioned one because of the presence of three claws in every leg, a noticeable pigidial neotrichy and the absence of short, almost spiniform, setae on the pygidium.Se describe una nueva especie de oribátido (Acari, Oribatei perteneciente a la familia Ctenacaridae (Cohorte Palaeosomata que habia sido citada varias veces en España como Beklemishevia galeodula Zachvatkin, 1945, y de la que se diferencia por presentar tres uñas en todas las patas, una acentuada neotriquia pigidial y carecer de setas cortas espiniformes en el pigidio.

  6. Prolixus (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tenuipalpidae) newly recorded from New Zealand: A new species from Cyperaceae and its ontogenetic patterns in chaetotaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yun; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang

    2014-12-19

    The genus Prolixus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) was represented by two species from Australian sedges prior to this study. A new species, Prolixus meyerae sp. nov., is here described and illustrated from leaves of Gahnia (Cyperaceae) in Auckland, New Zealand. In this paper, we present the ontogenetic additions in idiosomal and leg chaetotaxy from larva to adult. A key to world species of Prolixus is also proposed.

  7. A new genus and species of Schizogyniidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) associated with carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) from Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trach, Viacheslav A; Seeman, Owen D

    2014-04-29

    A new genus and species of Schizogyniidae (Acari: Mesostigmata: Celaenopsoidea), Euroschizogynium calvum gen. nov. and sp. nov., associated with Scarites terricola Bonelli, 1813 (Coleoptera: Carabidae) is described from Ukraine, representing the first record of the family from the Palaearctic. Fusura civica Valle & Fox, 1966 is moved out of the Schizogyniidae and placed into the Megacelaenopsidae. A new diagnosis for the family Schizogyniidae and a key to genera are provided.

  8. Chlorotic spots on Clerodendrum, a disease caused by a nuclear type of Brevipalpus (Acari:Tenuipalpidae) transmitted virus

    OpenAIRE

    Kitajima, Elliot Watanabe; Kubo,Karen Sumire; Ferreira,Paulo de Tarso Oliveira; Alcântara,Berenice Kussumoto; Boari,Alessandra de Jesus; Gomes,Renata Takassugi; Freitas-Astua,Juliana; Rezende,Jorge Alberto Marques; Morais,Gilberto José de; Salaroli,Renato Barbosa

    2008-01-01

    Chlorotic spots have been observed in plants of Clerodendrum x speciosum growing in residential gardens and parks in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Thin sections of diseased tissues revealed characteristic cytopathic effects of the nuclear type of the Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) mite-transmitted viruses (BTrV). Brevipalpus mites, identified as B. phoenicis, infesting symptomatic C. x speciosum plants transmitted the pathogen to healthy C. x speciosum and to C. thomsonae, Gomphrena globosa, Hi...

  9. The role of Na+-K+ - ATPase rate dependent properties of ehanolic extract of urtica dioica root on isolated rabbit

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    V. Khuri, Ph.D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Purpose: Previous studies have demonstrated the cardiovascular effects of Urtica dioica (Nettle such as anti-hypertensive, and negative inotropic effects on heart . The effects of plant on atrioventricular node has not been explored yet.Inhibitory Na+-K+-ATPas pump has been shown ny U. dioica .The aims of the present study were: 1 to determine concentration-dependent effects of ethanolic extract of nettle on the nodal basic and functional properties. 2 to campare mechanism of action nettel with ouabaine and verapamil.Materials and Methods: This was an experimental study. Male New Zealand rabbits (1-1.3 kg were used in all of the experiments; Various experimental stimulating protocols (Wbcl; Recovery, Facilitation, Fatigue were applied to assess electrophysiological properties of Node. We used isolated perfused AV-nodal preparation (n=18. All protocols were repeated in the presence and absence (control of different concentration (0.2-0.4 g/l of Nettle, verapamil (0.1μM and ouabaine (0.25μM. Results were shown as Mean ± SE and a probability of 5% was used to indicate statistical significance.Results: In the presence of Nettel, significant increases in WBCL (150.7± 4.3 to 180 ±15.2msec, AVCT (44±2.5 to 54±1.7msec, ERP (125±13 to 149 ±20.6msec and magnitude of fatigue (ΔAH 6 ± 0.9 msec were observed. The nettel has less inhibitory activity than verapamil, such as ERP of Nettel was 40% of verapamil. Also, Nettel had similar electrophysiological effects in regard to ouabain.Conclusion: In the present study, negative dormotropic effect of extract, Citrus bigaradia of Nettel, was observed on the isolated AV-nodal preparation. The same electrophsiological trend of ouabain and Nettel, may indicate the role of Na+-K+-ATPas pump in the deppresant effect of Nettel.

  10. SELETIVIDADE DE CHLORFENAPYR E FENBUTATIN-OXIDE SOBRE DUAS ESPÉCIES DE ÁCAROS PREDADORES (ACARI: PHYTOSEIIDAE) EM CITROS

    OpenAIRE

    REIS PAULO REBELLES; SOUSA ÉLBER OLIVEIRA

    2001-01-01

    Com o uso de bioensaios, verificaram-se os efeitos residual de contato, ovicida e de persistência dos produtos chlorfenapyr e fenbutatin-oxide sobre duas espécies de ácaros predadores, Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma e Euseius alatus DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae), associados ao ácaro da leprose-dos-citros Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). O efeito total sobre os adultos foi estudado por meio do método residual de contato com pulverização em superfície de vidro, confo...

  11. New records of water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia and Halacaroidea from Bosnia and Herzegovina, with description of a new species, Aturus gordani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Vladimir M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A presented faunistic catalogue of water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia and Halacaroidea from Republic of Srpska (Bosnia and Herzegovina is based on all published data and numerous new records from the investigated area. Twenty two species were identified, 12 of which new to Bosnia and Herzegovina and one species Mideopsis roztoczensis was recorded for the first time in the Balkans. The species Aturus gordani was described as new to science; halacarid mites were recorded (Acari: Halacaroidea for the first time in the fauna of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The ecological significance of the new records was briefly discussed.

  12. Garrapatas (Acari: Ixodidae asociadas a perros en diferentes ambientes de la provincia de Corrientes, Argentina Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae of dogs in different environments of the Corrientes Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Debárbora

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron las garrapatas (Acari: Ixodidae de perros en ambientes urbanos, periurbanos y rurales de la provincia de Corrientes por medio de colecciones mensuales durante un año en siete sitios diferentes. De los 138 perros examinados, en 87 (63,04% se determinaron tres especies de garrapatas: Amblyomma tigrinum (n=35, Amblyomma ovale (n=2 y Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (n=523. Las mayores prevalencias para A. tigrinum y R. sanguineus s.l. fueron halladas en ambientes rurales. Especímenes de R. sanguineus s.l. fueron detectados a lo largo de todo el año, con picos de abundancia en primavera y verano, A. tigrinum fue encontrada en otoño, invierno y primavera con un pico en esta última estación, mientras que A. ovale fue colectada sólo en primavera. Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. y A. tigrinum fueron halladas en todos los ambientes muestreados, pero el primer taxón fue siempre el más abundante. Teniendo en cuenta que las especies del complejo R. sanguineus son potenciales vectores de microorganismos patógenos para los perros y humanos, y debido a la alta prevalencia registrada en este estudio, queda en evidencia la relevancia de aplicar métodos para su control en las áreas incluidas en este estudio.Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae of dogs in urban, peri-urban and rural areas from the Corrientes Province, Argentina, were studied. They were monthly collected during one year at 7 different sites. A total of 138 dogs were examined, and 87 (63.04% of them were infested; and three species were determined: Amblyomma tigrinum (n=35, Amblyomma ovale (n=2 and Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (n=523. Both A. tigrinum and R. sanguineus s.l. had the highest prevalence in rural areas. Specimens of R. sanguineus s.l. were collected in the four seasons, but the peaks of abundance were detected in spring and summer. Amblyomma tigrinum was found in autumn, winter and spring, with the peak of abundance in spring, and the two specimens of A. ovale were

  13. 大荨麻提取物对高胆固醇血症大鼠血脂的影响%Effects of Urtica dioica extract on lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marian NASSIRI-ASL; Farzaneh ZAMANSOLTANI; Esmail ABBASI; Mohammad-Mehdi DANESHI; Amir-Abdollah ZANGIVAND

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of extract of Urtica dioica,a perennial herb in Iran,on Jipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats.Methods:The effects of Urtica dioica extract were tested by using it as a supplement in a high-cholesterol diet.Male rats were fed a high cholesterol diet(10 mL/kg)for 4 weeks with Urtica dioica extract(100 or 300 mg/kg)or 10 mg/kg Iovastatin supplementation to study the hypocholesterolemic effects of Urtica dioica on plasma lipid levels,hepatic enzymes activities,and liver histopathological changes.Results:Urtica dioica extracl at 100 and 300 mg/kg significantly reduced the levels of total cholesterol(TC),and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol(LDL-C)and also markedly decreased liver enzymes and weight in animals with a high cholesterol diet.Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that in the 100 mg/kg extract of Urtica dioica group,the appearance of the liver cells was similar to the control group,and steatosis and inflammation were not found.In the 300 mg/kg extract of Urtica dioica group,mild steatosis was observed but mononuclear inflammatory infiltration was not found.Conclusion:The hepatic histopathological results reflect the correlation of Urtica dioica extract with both liver weight and the levels of plasma TC and LDL-C.These results indicate that Urtica dioica extract has hypocholesterolemic effects in the animaI model.%目的:探讨大荨麻提取物对高胆固醇血症大鼠血脂的影响.方法:雄性大鼠口服高胆固醇饮食(10 mL/kg)4周,制备高胆固醇血症大鼠模型.造模同时灌服100、300 mg/kg大荨麻提取物或10 mg/kg洛伐他汀.观察大荨麻提取物对大鼠血脂、肝功能和肝脏病理的影响.结果:100、300 mg/kg大荨麻提取物可以明显减少高胆固醇血症大鼠血总胆固醇和低密度脂蛋白胆固醇含量,并可以降低丙氨酸氨基转移酶(alanine aminotransferase,ALT)和天冬氨酸氨基转移酶(aspartate aminotransferase,AST)活性.苏

  14. Research progress on medicinal plants of Urtica L.%荨麻属药用植物的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUU THI THANH THUY; 王梦月

    2015-01-01

    Objective Nettle (Urtica)contained many chemical constituents which had wide spread pharmacological activity andapplication.In this study,these researches were reviewed to provide the scientific basis for further development and utilization of medical nettles during the recent twenty years.Method Based on the research results reported in the related literatures,this paper summarized the chemical constituents,pharmacological effects,quality and safety evaluation,development and application of Urtica L. Result A variety of constituents were discovered in Urtica L.,such as flavonoids,lignanoids,coumarins,steroids,organic acids. Medical nettles have the significantly activities of benign prostatic hyperplasia inhibition,anti -rheumatism,hypoglycemic,anti -in-flammation,analgesic,antibacterial and antioxidation,and were mainly used for rheumatism and benign prostatic hyperplasia.The studies on quality control and safety evaluationof medical nettleswere not sufficient and should be further strengthened.Conclusion Nettle has a high research value.%目的:荨麻属植物的化学成分多样,药理活性明显,且应用广泛。本文综述近二十年的研究现状,为其进一步开发利用提供科学依据。方法:结合国内外相关文献,对药用荨麻属植物的化学成分、药理作用、质量控制、安全性评价、开发应用等方面进行综述。结果:从荨麻属药用植物中分离鉴定了黄酮、木脂素、香豆素、甾体、有机酸类成分。药用荨麻属植物具有良好的抑制良性前列腺增生、抗风湿、降血糖、镇痛、抗炎、抗菌、抗氧化等活性。临床主要应用于良性前列腺增生、风湿、类风湿关节炎等,疗效显著。今后应加强药用荨麻的质量评价、安全性控制等方面的研究。结论:荨麻属植物具有较高的研究价值。

  15. Quill mites of the subfamily Picobiinae (Acari: Syringophilidae) associated with woodpeckers (Aves: Piciformes: Picidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoracki, Maciej; Unsoeld, Markus; Kavetska, Katarzyna; Kaszewska, Katarzyna

    2014-03-01

    The paper contains a review of quill mites of the subfamily Picobiinae (Acari: Prostigmata: Syringophilidae) associated with woodpeckers (Aves: Piciformes: Picidae). Three new species are described: Picobia mentalis Skoracki et Unsoeld sp. nov. from Picus mentalis Temminck, Neopicobia ea Skoracki et Unsoeld sp. nov. from Celeus flavus (St. Mueller) (type host), C. elegans (St. Mueller), C. torquatus (Boddaert), and Neopicobia freya Skoracki et Unsoeld sp. nov. from Dryocopus galeatus (Temminck) (type host) and Piculus rubiginosus (Swainson). Additionally, six new host species for Picobia heeri Haller, 1878 and 12 new host species for Picobia dryobatis (Fritsch, 1956) are reported. A complete list of the picobiines parasitising birds of the family Picidae is presented in the tabular form.

  16. First Report of Raoiella indica (Hirst) (Acari: Tenuipalpide) in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, F T; Silva, J E P; Ventura, M U; Pasini, A; Roggia, S

    2017-06-01

    The red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica (Hirst) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), was found for the first time in the Paraná State, in southern Brazil. The first observations occurred in September 2015, on strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch) leaves, which is not considered a typical host plant of RPM. It is probable that its occurrence on this plant was serendipitous. Visual surveys for RPM were carried out on four typical host plants (banana, coconut, foxtail palm, and real palm), in five cities of the Paraná State (Bela Vista do Paraíso, Londrina, Maringá, Marialva, and Sarandi). RPM was found on each of the four typical host plants, in each of the five cities. Our survey extends RPM occurrence to the southern region of Brazil and indicates that the pest could be widespread in the country.

  17. A review of the natural enemies of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Daniel; Frank, J Howard; Rodrigues, Jose Carlos V; Peña, Jorge E

    2012-08-01

    A review of all the available information about the natural enemies reported in association with the red palm mite, Raoiella indica is presented. Twenty-eight species of predatory arthropods, including mites and insects, have been reported in association with R. indica in Asia, Africa and the Neotropics. In addition, pathogenic fungi associated with R. indica in the Caribbean have been reported. The available literature indicates that each site has a different natural enemy complex with only one predator species, Amblyseius largoensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae), present in all the geographical areas. The phytoseiids, Amblyseius caudatus Berlese, Amblyseius channabasavanni Gupta and A. largoensis, were regarded as important natural enemies of R. indica, and their predatory efficiency was studied in some detail. Among the predatory insects the coccinellids Stethorus keralicus Kapur and Telsimia ephippiger Chapin were reported as major predators of R. indica. The known distribution, abundance and relative importance of each species reported in association with R. indica are discussed.

  18. Brazilian distribution of Amblyomma varium Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae, a common parasite of sloths (Mammalia: Xenarthra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques Sandro

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Amblyomma varium, commonly known in Brazil as the "carrapato-gigante-da-preguiça" (sloth's giant tick is found from southern Central America to Argentina. The present study adds information on the geographical distribution of A. varium, as well as on their hosts, based on material deposited in the main Brazilian collections and on the available literature. Eighty-two vials, containing 191 adult specimens, deposited in five Acari collections between 1930 and 2001, were examined. These vials included data on the host and collection localities. The biology of A. varium is unknown. However it is known that, during the adult stage, the tick presents a high host specificity and is found almost exclusively on the sloths Bradypus tridactylus, B. variegatus, B.torquatus (Bradypodidae, Choloepus hoffmanni and C. didactylus (Megalonychidae. Based on the material examined, the states of Rondônia, Amazonas, Bahia and Alagoas are newly assigned to geographic distribution of A. varium in Brazil.

  19. Javanese species of the mite genus Macrocheles (Arachnida: Acari: Gamasina: Macrochelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartini, Sri; Takaku, Gen

    2003-10-01

    Twelve mite species of the genus Macrocheles (Acari: Macrochelidae) were collected from the body surface of dung beetles in Java, Indonesia. Of these, three species, i.e., Macrocheles jabarensis, M. jonggolensis, and M. sukabumiensis, were described as new to science. Female of M. dispar was redescribed. Two species, i.e., M. baliensis and M. sukaramiensis, were recorded from Java for the first time. The occurrence of five species previously recorded from Java, i.e., M. hallidayi, M. kraepelini, M. limue, M. oigru, and M. merdarius, were reconfirmed. Taxonomic status of M. sp. aff. glaber was not settled in the present study, because we could not obtain the male and immatures which are indispensable for exact identification. In total 15 species of the genus Macrocheles, including 3 species already recorded but not collected in this research (M. crispa, M. krantzi, and M. subbadius), are known from Java up to date.

  20. Brazilian distribution of Amblyomma varium Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae), a common parasite of sloths (Mammalia: Xenarthra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Sandro; Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Onofrio, Valeria Castilho

    2002-12-01

    Amblyomma varium, commonly known in Brazil as the "carrapato-gigante-da-pregui a" (sloth's giant tick) is found from southern Central America to Argentina. The present study adds information on the geographical distribution of A. varium, as well as on their hosts, based on material deposited in the main Brazilian collections and on the available literature. Eighty-two vials, containing 191 adult specimens, deposited in five Acari collections between 1930 and 2001, were examined. These vials included data on the host and collection localities. The biology of A. varium is unknown. However it is known that, during the adult stage, the tick presents a high host specificity and is found almost exclusively on the sloths Bradypus tridactylus, B. variegatus, B.torquatus (Bradypodidae), Choloepus hoffmanni and C. didactylus (Megalonychidae). Based on the material examined, the states of Rond nia, Amazonas, Bahia and Alagoas are newly assigned to geographic distribution of A. varium in Brazil.

  1. Benefits and risks of the subcutaneous immunotherapy with acari extracts in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and bronchial asthma

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    Olimpio Rodríguez-Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The records of patients from the Allergology Service in the Previsora Policlinic, Camagüey were revised to evaluate benefits and risks of the subcutaneous immunotherapy (ITSC with extracts of acari. The study was observational, analytic and retrospective of cases and controls in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and bronchial asthma. A total of 160 subjects, older than 18 years old, were chosen. Eighty out of them had already received ITSC with dose increase during 13 weeks and maintenance with monthly injections during 18 months. A total of 80 patients who only received prevention measures and medications during the crises were paired. Questionnaires were applied for quality of rhinoconjunctivitis life and asthma, about the consumption of medications and the frequency of the crises. The adverse events were measured, as they were local and systemic to the cutaneous tests, to the ITSC and the different pharmacological treatments. There was a significant increase of the punctuation of life quality questionnaires, (p=0.011. The consumption of medications decreased in both the cases and the controls, without significant differences (p=0.083. The frequency of the rhinitis and asthma crises decrease in the group of ITSC (p=0.029. Slight local and systemic reactions were reported in both groups with Odds ratio (OR=2.029 in the ITSC group, with a 95% confidence interval of 1.114–3.967 (p=0.019. The results show that the subcutaneous immunotherapy with acari offers benefits and few risks to patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma.

  2. Application of gamma radiation on longevity of some mites species (Acari: Tetranychidade)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machi, Andre R., E-mail: rica_machi@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Valter, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Mites are pests agricultural found in various environments accessible to animal life: soil, aerial parts of the plants, host insects. In this research the effects of gamma irradiation on longevity of mite pests of the tetranychidae family have been studied. The mites were irradiated in a source of Cobalt-60, Gammacell-220 type, at a dose rate of 0.486 kGy located in the CENA/USP, in the doses of 0 (control), 100, 200, 300, and 400 Gy with sixteen replicates per dose. After the irradiation, the mites were placed in petri dishes totalizing 5 treatments in 32 repetitions. The analysis of variance design with completely randomized design using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) and the Tukey test, the verification of means. Were evaluated daily the adult mortality and longevity of irradiated mites. After 25 days was observed a mean longevity of mites, for O.ilicis, 100 Gy was equal the control dose (18.3 days), but to T. desertorum and T. urticae the larger longevity was observed in the dose of 200 Gy (19.0 days) being that this dose, obtained the larger longevity in comparison to control dose (18.5 days), in general the longevity decreased in relation to increased doses. Thus, only the dose of 100 Gy and 200 Gy stimulated an increased the longevity in O. ilicis and T. desertorum and T. urticae respectively. The exact mechanism by which the mites are tolerant to avoid damage caused by radicals when exposed to ionizing radiation is not fully understood. (author)

  3. Potential of astigmatid mites (Acari: Astigmatina) as prey for rearing edaphic predatory mites of the families Laelapidae and Rhodacaridae (Acari: Mesostigmata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Marina F C; de Moraes, Gilberto J

    2016-07-01

    Laelapidae and Rhodacaridae are important families of edaphic predatory mites and species of these families have been considered for use in biological control programs of soil pests. Mites of Cohort Astigmatina (Acari: Sarcoptiformes) have been largely used as factitious prey in the mass rearing of various edaphic or plant-inhabiting predatory mites. Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Womersley) (Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) (widely commercialized for the control of fungus gnats and thrips) and Protogamasellopsis zaheri Abo-Shnaf, Castilho and Moraes (Mesostigmata: Rhodacaridae) (not available commercially but promising for the control of thrips and nematodes) are known to be reared on Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) (Astigmatina: Acaridae), but the possibility to find a perhaps more efficient prey has not been evaluated. The objective of this paper was to evaluate different astigmatid species as prey for these predators. S. scimitus and P. zaheri oviposited on all evaluated astigmatids and the acarid mites T. putrescentiae and Aleuroglyphus ovatus (Tropeau) were the most suitable prey; to confirm the effect of prey on oviposition rates, pregnant females of the predators were kept under starvation conditions and oviposition was negligible or null. Survivorship was always higher than 78 % and was not influenced by prey species or starvation.

  4. Antifungal activity of nettle (Urtica dioica L.), colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad), oleander (Nerium oleander L.) and konar (Ziziphus spina-christi L.) extracts on plants pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadizadeh, I; Peivastegan, B; Kolahi, M

    2009-01-01

    Anti-mycotic activity of the ethanol extracts from Nettle (Urtica dioica L.), Colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad), Konar (Ziziphus spina-christi L.) and Oleander (Nerium oleander L.) floral parts were screened in vitro against four important plant pathogenic fungi viz.; Alternaria alternate, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani and Rizoctonia solani using agar dilution bioassay. Extracts showed antifungal activity against all the tested fungi. Among the plants, Nettle and Colocynth were the most effective against A. alternate and R. solani while Oleander possesses the best inhibition on F. oxysporum and F. solani. Konar was the most effective extract by reducing the growth of Rizoctonia solani than other fungi. These results showed that extracts could be considered suitable alternatives to chemical additives for the control of fungal diseases in plants.

  5. Metabolite Profiling Reveals a Specific Response in Tomato to Predaceous Chrysoperla carnea Larvae and Herbivore(s)-Predator Interactions with the Generalist Pests Tetranychus urticae and Myzus persicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errard, Audrey; Ulrichs, Christian; Kühne, Stefan; Mewis, Inga; Mishig, Narantuya; Maul, Ronald; Drungowski, Mario; Parolin, Pia; Schreiner, Monika; Baldermann, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch and the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) both infest a number of economically significant crops, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Although used for decades to control pests, the impact of green lacewing larvae Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) on plant biochemistry was not investigated. Here, we used profiling methods and targeted analyses to explore the impact of the predator and herbivore(s)-predator interactions on tomato biochemistry. Each pest and pest-predator combination induced a characteristic metabolite signature in the leaf and the fruit thus, the plant exhibited a systemic response. The treatments had a stronger impact on non-volatile metabolites including abscisic acid and amino acids in the leaves in comparison with the fruits. In contrast, the various biotic factors had a greater impact on the carotenoids in the fruits. We identified volatiles such as myrcene and α-terpinene which were induced by pest-predator interactions but not by single species, and we demonstrated the involvement of the phytohormone abscisic acid in tritrophic interactions for the first time. More importantly, C. carnea larvae alone impacted the plant metabolome, but the predator did not appear to elicit particular defense pathways on its own. Since the presence of both C. carnea larvae and pest individuals elicited volatiles which were shown to contribute to plant defense, C. carnea larvae could therefore contribute to the reduction of pest infestation, not only by its preying activity, but also by priming responses to generalist herbivores such as T. urticae and M. persicae. On the other hand, the use of C. carnea larvae alone did not impact carotenoids thus, was not prejudicial to the fruit quality. The present piece of research highlights the specific impact of predator and tritrophic interactions with green lacewing larvae, spider mites, and aphids on different components of the tomato primary and secondary metabolism for the first

  6. Metabolite profiling reveals a specific response in tomato to predaceous Chrysoperla carnea larvae and herbivore(s-predator interactions with the generalist pests Tetranychus urticae and Myzus persicae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Errard

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch and the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer both infest a number of economically significant crops, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. Although used for decades to control pests, the impact of green lacewing larvae Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens on plant biochemistry was not investigated. Here we used profiling methods and targeted analyses to explore the impact of the predator and herbivore(s-predator interactions on tomato biochemistry. Each pest and pest-predator combination induced a characteristic metabolite signature in the leaf and the fruit thus, the plant exhibited a systemic response. The treatments had a stronger impact on non-volatile metabolites including abscisic acid and amino acids in the leaves in comparison with the fruits. In contrast, the various biotic factors had a greater impact on the carotenoids in the fruits. We identified volatiles such as myrcene and α-terpinene which were induced by pest-predator interactions but not by single species, and we demonstrated the involvement of the phytohormone abscisic acid in tritrophic interactions for the first time. More importantly, C. carnea larvae alone impacted the plant metabolome, but the predator did not appear to elicit particular defense pathways on its own. Since the presence of both C. carnea larvae and pest individuals elicited volatiles which were shown to contribute to plant defense, C. carnea larvae could therefore contribute to the reduction of pest infestation, not only by its preying activity, but also by priming responses to generalist herbivores such as T. urticae and M. persicae. On the other hand, the use of C. carnea larvae alone did not impact carotenoids thus, was not prejudicial to the fruit quality. The present piece of research highlights the specific impact of predator and tritrophic interactions with green lacewing larvae, spider mites and aphids on different components of the tomato primary and secondary metabolism

  7. Marine water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia: Pontarachnidae) from Taiwan, Korea and India, with the first description of the male of Pontarachna australis Smit, 2003

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pesic, V.; Chatterjee, T.; Chan, B.K.K.; Ingole, B.S.

    –264. Lohmann, H. (1909) Marine Hydrachnidae und Halacaridae. In: Michaelsen, W. & Hartmeyer, R. (Eds), Die fauna Südwest-Australiens, Gustav Fischer, Jena, 2, 151–154. Smit, H. (2002) Two new species of the water mite family Pontarachnidae (Acari: Hydrachnidia...

  8. Low temperature–scanning electron microscopy to evaluate morphology and predation of Scolothrips sexmaculatus Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) against spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae: Tetranychus species)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper evaluates the potential usefulness of low temperature-scanning electron microscopy (LT-SEM) to evaluate morphology and predation behavior of the six-spotted thrips (Scolothrips sexmaculatus Pergande) against the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae (Koch)). Morphological features...

  9. New species and new records of mites of the genus Stigmaeus(Acari: Prostigmata: Stigmaeidae) from Crimea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaustov, Alexander A

    2014-05-06

    Three new species of the genus Stigmaeus Koch, 1836 (Acari: Stigmaeidae) are described from various habitats in Crimea: Stigmaeus kuznetsovi sp. nov. from nests of Microtus socialis (Rodentia: Cricetidae); S. mitrofanovi sp. nov. from galleries of Pityogenes bistridentatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) under the bark of Pinus pallasiana, and S. silvestris sp. nov. from rotten log of Pinus pallasiana. Stigmaeus corticeus Kuznetsov and Wainstein, 1977 and S. maraghehiensis Bagheri and Ueckermann, 2012 are recorded for the first time in Crimea. A key to species of the genus Stigmaeus of Crimea is provided.

  10. Primeiro registro de Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae em Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden no Brasil First record of Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae on Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Fagundes Pereira

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a infestação de um ácaro-vermelho em mudas clonais de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden, mantidas em casa de vegetação no município de Martinho Campos, Minas Gerais. O ácaro foi observado na parte superior das folhas que exibiam sinais de sucção de seiva e bronzeamento. Essas injúrias causaram desenvolvimento anormal e morte de plantas. O ácaro foi identificado como Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae, e isso representa o primeiro registro dessa espécie em mudas clonais de E. grandis no Brasil.An infestation of the red spider mite was reported in clone seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden under greenhouse conditions, in the municipality of Martinho Campos, Minas Gerais State. The spider mite was found on the leaf upper faces with signs of sap suction and bronzing. Such injuries caused abnormal development and plant death. The spider mite was identified as Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae. This is the first record of O. yothersi on E. grandis seedlings in Brazil.

  11. Preliminary assays for efficiency avaliation of neem oil for control of Oligonychus yothersi (Acari: Tetranychidae / Ensaios preliminares para avaliação da eficiência de óleo de neem no controle de Oligonychus yothersi (Acari: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato C. Oliveira

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a commercial formulation of the neem oil (azadirachtina was evaluated in different stages of the biological cycle of the red mite of the paraguay tea Oligonychus yothersi (Acari: Tetranychidae. The formulation was shown efficient in the adults control, as well as it affected the fecundity of the females of the mite, however it didn’t inhabited oviposition, when the leaves were treated with the product.Avaliou-se o efeito de uma formulação comercial a base de neem (azadirachtina em diferentes etapas do ciclo biológico do ácaro vermelho da erva-mate Oligonychus yothersi (Acari: Tetranychidae. A formulação mostrou-se eficiente no controle de adultos, bem como afetou a fecundidade das fêmeas do ácaro, contudo não ocasionou inibição na oviposição, quando as folhas foram tratadas com o produto.

  12. Atividade acaricida dos óleos essencias de folhas e frutos de Xylopia sericea sobre o ácaro rajado (Tetranychus urticae Koch Acaricidal activity of the essential oils leaves and fruits of Xylopia sericea St. Hill. on the two spotted spide mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch

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    Wendel José Teles Pontes

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of the leaves and fruits obtained by hydrodistillation of Xylopia sericea, collected in the restinga area of Pernambuco, were analyzed by GC (HP 5890 SERIES II and GC/MS (HP 5890B SERIES II/ MSD 5971. A major part of the volatile components identified in the oils of fruits and leaves were monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Cubenol (57.43% and alpha-epi-muurolol (26.09% were the main compounds found in the leaves, whereas beta-pinene (45.59% and alpha-pinene (17.18% were the fruits major components. The acaricidal activity of the essential oils was evaluated for Tetranychus urticae. The oil of the leaves was more active than that of the fruits showing an LC50 value of 4.08 µL/L of air for a 72 h period.

  13. Study of Acari and Collembola Populations in Four Cultivation Systems in Dourados - MS

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    Rosilda Mara Mussury

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact four cultivation systems on the soil fauna was studied, using Oribatida and Gamasida acarids as bioindicators and collembolan. The research was carried out in experimental fields, located in EMBRAPA - CPAO in Dourados, Centerwest of Brazil from July 1997 to December 1999. The constant pasture system presented smaller impact on the soil fauna followed by agricultural cattle rotation and a direct plantation system. In the conventional plantation series, the populational density of the mesofauna organisms was low, especially collembolan families.O impacto de quatro sistemas de cultivo sobre a fauna de solo foram estudados, utilizando-se como bioindicadores os acari Oribatida e Gamasida e os Collembola. A pesquisa foi conduzida em campos experimentais, localizados na EMBRAPA - CPAO no município de Dourados, MS, no período de julho de 1997 à dezembro de 1999. O sistema de pastagem contínua apresentou menor impacto sobre a fauna de solo seguido da rotação agricultura pecuária e do sistema de plantio direto. Nas sucessões do plantio convencional, a densidade populacional dos organismos da mesofauna foi baixa, em especial as famílias de colembolos.

  14. Comparing oxalic acid and sucrocide treatments for Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) control under desert conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammataro, D; Finley, J; Underwood, R

    2008-08-01

    The effectiveness of oxalic acid (OA) and Sucrocide (S) (AVA Chemical Ventures, L.L.C., Portsmouth, NH) in reducing populations of the varroa mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) in honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies was measured under the desert conditions of Arizona, USA. OA and S were applied three times 7 d apart. A 3.2% solution of OA was applied in sugar syrup via a large volume syringe, trickling 5 ml per space between frames in the colony. S was applied at a concentration of 0.625% (mixed with water), according to the label directions, using a compressed air Chapin sprayer at 20 psi to apply 59 ml per frame space. Varroa mites, collected on a sticky board before, during, and after the treatments, were counted to assess the effectiveness of the treatments. This study showed that a desert climate zone did not confer any positive or negative results on the acaricidal properties of OA. Even with brood present in colonies, significant varroa mite mortality occurred in the OA colonies. In contrast, we found that Sucrocide was not effective as a mite control technique. Despite its ability to increase mite mortality in the short-term, varroa mite populations measured posttreatment were not affected any more by Sucrocide than by no treatment at all.

  15. New Records of Ixodes affinis (Acari: Ixodidae) Parasitizing Avian Hosts in Southeastern Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Erin L; Wright, Chelsea L; Nadolny, Robyn M; Hynes, Wayne L; Gaff, Holly D; Walters, Eric L

    2016-03-01

    Ixodes affinis Neumann (Acari: Ixodidae) is a hard-bodied tick species distributed throughout much of the southeastern United States. Although I. affinis does not parasitize humans, it is a competent vector of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the causative-agent of Lyme disease, and thus contributes to the enzootic maintenance of this pathogen. This study presents evidence of I. affinis parasitizing five new host passerine species. During 2012-2014, 1,888 birds were captured and examined for ticks, and 18 immature I. affinis were collected from 12 birds-six Carolina Wrens (Thyrothorus ludovicianus); two Brown Thrashers (Toxostoma rufum); and one American Robin (Turdus migratorius), Eastern Towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus), Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), and White-throated Sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis). Of 15 larvae and 3 nymphs collected, one nymph tested positive for B. burgdorferi DNA. I. affinis was found co-feeding on birds with immature Amblyomma americanum (L.), Ixodes brunneus Koch, Ixodes dentatus Marx, Ixodes scapularis Say, and Haemaphysalis leporispalustris Packard. The results of this research provide a better understanding of I. affinis hosts and identify avian taxa that may play a role in the maintenance and dispersal of this tick species.

  16. Acaricidal and repellent activities of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus against Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Mesostigmata

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    Dehghani-Samani Amir

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: By considering an increase in drug resistance against red mites, finding the nonchemical herbal acaricide against Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer (Acari: Mesostigmata is necessary to kill them and to reduce the chemical resistance against chemical acaricides in this specie. Dermanyssus gallinae is a potential vector of the causal agent of several viral diseases such as Equine encephalitis and St. Louis encephalitis. It can be a vector of bacteria such as Salmonella spp., Mycobacterium spp. and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. It is also known to cause itching dermatosis in humans. In this study acaricidal and repellent activities of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus against Dermanyssus gallinae were studied. Methods: After extracting the essential oil, different concentrations of the plant extract were prepared. Then, acaricidal effect of different concentrations was tested on poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, by dropping 3-4 drops of essential oil on mites. Repellent activity of essential oil was tested by Y-tube olfactometer bioassay. After the test, total number of killed and repellent mites reported. Results: Concentration of 1:2 or 50% had more acaricidal effect on mites. Also essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus had repellent activity against red mites. Conclusion: This study showed that essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus had acaricidal and repellent activities against red mites. Hence it might be used as a herbal acaricide against it to kill and to reduce the chemical resistance in this specie.

  17. Morphometric variations of laelapine mite (Acari: Mesostigmata populations infesting small mammals (Mammalia in Brazil

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    F. Martins-Hatano

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the morphometric variation of laelapine populations (Acari, Mesostigmata associated with neotropical oryzomyine rodents at different geographic localities in Brazil. Three nominal mite species were selected for study, all infesting the pelage of small mammals at different localities in Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo, Bahia, and the Federal District, Brazil. To analyse morphometric characteristics, thirty-seven morphological characters distributed across the whole body of each specimen were measured. We use the Analysis of Principal Components, extracting the three first axes and projecting each mite in these axes. Major species level changes in the taxonomy of the host mammals allows an independent examination of morphometric variation of mites infesting a set of distinctly different host species at different geographic localities. Gigantolaelaps vitzthumi and Laelaps differens are associated with oryzomyine rodents of the genus Cerradomys, and consistently showed a tendency to cluster by host phylogeny. Laelaps manguinhosi associated with Nectomys rattus in central Brazil is morphometrically distinct from mites infesting N. squamipes in the coastal restingas of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo. The results obtained here indicate that laelapine mite populations can vary among geographic areas and among phylogenetically related host species. Clearly, the study of these mites at the population level can be an important tool for clarifying the taxonomy of both mites and hosts.

  18. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae of livestock and their seasonal activities, northwest of Iran

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    Zahra Ramezani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the ticks (Acari: Ixodidae of livestock and their seasonal activities, in northwest of Iran, including the combination of two of the geographical regions of Iran (Caspian and mountain plateau where the majority of the domestic ruminants in Iran exist. Methods: Fifteen villages of Meshkin-Shahr County were selected randomly from different areas of the county. The animal dwellings were visited and the whole body of sheep, cows, goats and dogs were examined for their probable infestation. Samples were identified at the level of species according to the standard morphological key. Results: In this study 1 208 specimen were collected and totally nine species (Dermacentor marginatus, Dermacentor niveus, Haemaphysalis erinacei, Haemaphysalis punctata, Hyalomma anatolicum, Hyalomma asiaticum, Hyalomma marginatum, Rhipicephalus bursa and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were identified in this study. Also 569 host including 40 cows, 450 sheep, 70 goats and 9 dogs were examined for infestation and among them 255 were infested which showed a 44% of infestation among examined livestock. The infestation rate among sheep (46% was higher than other hosts. The infestation rates among the rest of hosts were as: cows (40%, goat (37% and dogs (33%. Conclusions: The results of this study and other studies of the region showed the probability of the establishment and development of the burden of several tick-borne diseases.

  19. Practical sampling plans for Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies and apiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K V; Moon, R D; Burkness, E C; Hutchison, W D; Spivak, M

    2010-08-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) is arguably the most detrimental pest of the European-derived honey bee, Apis mellifera L. Unfortunately, beekeepers lack a standardized sampling plan to make informed treatment decisions. Based on data from 31 commercial apiaries, we developed sampling plans for use by beekeepers and researchers to estimate the density of mites in individual colonies or whole apiaries. Beekeepers can estimate a colony's mite density with chosen level of precision by dislodging mites from approximately to 300 adult bees taken from one brood box frame in the colony, and they can extrapolate to mite density on a colony's adults and pupae combined by doubling the number of mites on adults. For sampling whole apiaries, beekeepers can repeat the process in each of n = 8 colonies, regardless of apiary size. Researchers desiring greater precision can estimate mite density in an individual colony by examining three, 300-bee sample units. Extrapolation to density on adults and pupae may require independent estimates of numbers of adults, of pupae, and of their respective mite densities. Researchers can estimate apiary-level mite density by taking one 300-bee sample unit per colony, but should do so from a variable number of colonies, depending on apiary size. These practical sampling plans will allow beekeepers and researchers to quantify mite infestation levels and enhance understanding and management of V. destructor.

  20. Historical review of the genus Dermanyssus Dugès, 1834 (Acari: Mesostigmata: Dermanyssidae

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    Roy L.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A synthetic review of the historical systematics of Dermanyssus Dugès, 1834 (Acari: Mesostigmata: Dermanyssidae is provided. The classification at the specific level in this early genus has not really been clarified during more than a century despite its economic impact, and the history of the genus is complex and includes various stages. Moreover, Dermanyssus currently includes 23 species, whereas the last review took only 18 species into account. Changes in the species status and position in the genus Dermanyssus from 1834 until today are presented. The evolution of the generic definition is explored and compared with other genera of the group. How the discrimination between the different species evolved in the genus is also examined. Some difficulties in the specific definitions are discussed. A current diagnosis of the genus Dermanyssus is given. A table of the species included in this genus since its first description along with their respective current positions, a list of the currently included species in Dermanyssus with their hosts, and a world map presenting their geographic distribution are provided.

  1. Identification of a dieldrin resistance-associated mutation in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Michelle; Menzies, Moira; Kemp, David

    2010-08-01

    The southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (Acari: Ixodidae), is a major vector of tick fever organisms affecting cattle in many parts of the world, including Australia, Africa, and South America. Control of the southern cattle tick through acaricide use is an important approach in disease management. Resistance has emerged to many of the acaricides currently and previously used, including the cyclodienes. Although cyclodiene resistance mechanisms have been characterized in many insect species, this report is the first to identify mutations associated with dieldrin resistance in the cattle tick. A novel two base pair mutation in the GABA-gated chloride channel gene has been identified at position 868-9 and causes a codon change from threonine to leucine. Analysis of a small number of field-collected samples resistant to dieldrin shows this mutation has been maintained without selection pressure since the withdrawal of dieldrin in Australia > 20 yr ago. The mutation is not found in other laboratory-maintained strains of R. microplus that were subject to selection pressure with various acaricides.

  2. Effect of different temperatures on consumption of two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, eggs by the predatory thrips, Scolothrips longicornis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakyari, Hajar; Enkegaard, Annie

    2012-01-01

    Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) under laboratory conditions. Based on daily and total prey consumption of different life stages of S. longicornis on spider mite eggs at temperatures covering the range suitable for development and survival of the predator (15º C to 37º C, 60 ± 10% RH, 16:8 L......:D), there was a significant effect of temperature on prey consumption. The number of prey consumed daily by first and second instar larvae increased linearly with increasing temperature from 15 ºC to 37 ºC, whereas daily consumption of preovipositing and postovipositing females was uninfluenced by temperature. Lower...... temperature thresholds for consumption by first and second instar larvae of S. longicornis was estimated to be 6.8 ± 0.04º C and 4.6 ± 0.03º C, respectively. The daily consumption of ovipositing females followed a nonlinear pattern, with maximum daily predation estimated at 32.8º C. From the model used...

  3. New developments in insecticide resistance in the glasshouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) and the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Kevin; Hewitt, Fiona; Denholm, Ian; Devine, Gregor J

    2002-02-01

    A recent survey of insecticide resistance in two of the most problematic pests in UK glasshouses revealed some new developments. At least some individuals in all UK samples of Trialeurodes vaporariorum that were tested resisted the insect growth regulator (IGR) buprofezin. The most strongly resistant strains were unaffected by the field application rate of this compound, and even samples from populations that had never been exposed to buprofezin contained individuals that survived the highest concentration applied (10,000 mg litre-1). The field rate of buprofezin was shown to select for resistance through vapour action alone. The benzophenylurea teflubenzuron, an unrelated IGR, was cross-resisted by buprofezin-resistant individuals. There was no evidence of resistance to imidacloprid, but all T vaporariorum strains tested, regardless of origin, exhibited a high innate tolerance to nicotine, when compared with another whitefly species, Bemisia tabaci. Marked resistance to fenbutatin oxide and tebufenpyrad was found in single glasshouse populations of Tetranychus urticae, but these compounds and abamectin appeared to remain highly effective against all other strains collected.

  4. Estimation of the hydrophobicity of 2,4-diphenyl-1,3-oxazoline analogs and QSAR analysis of their ovicidal activity against Tetranychus [corrected] urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakuchi, Chieka; Suzuki, Junji; Toda, Kazuya; Akamatsu, Miki; Nakagawa, Yoshiaki

    2006-08-01

    Partition coefficients of six 2-phenyl-1,3-oxazoline congeners containing 2-I, 2-NO2, 2-CF3, 2,6-(CH3)2, 2,6-F2, and 2-F-6-Cl substitutions on the phenyl moiety were measured in a 1-octanol/water system using the flask-shaking method. The effect on the hydrophobicity (LogP) of substituents on the phenyl moiety of 2-phenyl-1,3-oxazolines linearly correlated with that of benzamide congeners. logP values of other 2-(substituted phenyl)-1,3-oxazoline analogs were empirically estimated from the corresponding substituted benzamides. The ovicidal activity of 2-(substituted phenyl)-4-phenyl-1,3-oxazoline analogs against the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus [corrected] urticae was quantitatively analyzed using the classical QSAR (Hansch-Fujita) method. Results showed that ovicidal activity increases with hydrophobicity. The introduction of inductive electron-withdrawing groups at ortho-positions increased ovicidal activity, but addition of steric bulk was unfavorable. Substitution at either the meta- or para-position was detrimental to the acaricidal activity.

  5. Food-chain transfer of zinc from contaminated Urtica dioica and Acer pseudoplatanus L. to the aphids Microlophium carnosum and Drepanosiphum platanoidis Schrank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinnett, Danielle, E-mail: danielle.sinnett@forestry.gsi.gov.u [Centre for Forestry and Climate Change, Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey GU10 4LH (United Kingdom); Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Hutchings, Tony R., E-mail: tony.hutchings@forestry.gsi.gov.u [Centre for Forestry and Climate Change, Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey GU10 4LH (United Kingdom); Hodson, Mark E., E-mail: m.e.hodson@reading.ac.u [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    This study examines the food-chain transfer of Zn from two plant species, Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) and Acer pseudoplatanus (sycamore maple), into their corresponding aphid species, Microlophium carnosum and Drepanosiphum platanoidis. The plants were grown in a hydroponic system using solutions with increasing concentrations of Zn from 0.02 to 41.9 mg Zn/l. Above-ground tissue concentrations in U. dioica and M. carnosum increased with increasing Zn exposure (p < 0.001). Zn concentrations in A. pseudoplatanus also increased with solution concentration from the control to the 9.8 mg Zn/l solution, above which concentrations remained constant. Zn concentrations in both D. platanoidis and the phloem tissue of A. pseudoplatanus were not affected by the Zn concentration in the watering solution. It appears that A. pseudoplatanus was able to limit Zn transport in the phloem, resulting in constant Zn exposure to the aphids. Zn concentrations in D. platanoidis were around three times those in M. carnosum. - Concentrations of Zn in two aphid species are dependant on species and exposure.

  6. High resolution genetic mapping uncovers chitin synthase-1 as the target-site of the structurally diverse mite growth inhibitors clofentezine, hexythiazox and etoxazole in Tetranychus urticae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaeght, Peter; Osborne, Edward J.; Odman-Naresh, Jothini; Grbić, Miodrag; Nauen, Ralf; Merzendorfer, Hans

    2014-01-01

    The acaricides clofentezine, hexythiazox and etoxazole are commonly referred to as ‘mite growth inhibitors’, and clofentezine and hexythiazox have been used successfully for the integrated control of plant mite pests for decades. Although they are still important today, their mode of action has remained elusive. Recently, a mutation in chitin synthase 1 (CHS1) was linked to etoxazole resistance. In this study, we identified and investigated a T. urticae strain (HexR) harboring recessive, monogenic resistance to each of hexythiazox, clofentezine, and etoxazole. To elucidate if there is a common genetic basis for the observed cross-resistance, we adapted a previously developed bulk segregant analysis method to map with high resolution a single, shared resistance locus for all three compounds. This finding indicates that the underlying molecular basis for resistance to all three compounds is identical. This locus is centered on the CHS1 gene, and as supported by additional genetic and biochemical studies, a non-synonymous variant (I1017F) in CHS1 associates with resistance to each of the tested acaricides in HexR. Our findings thus demonstrate a shared molecular mode of action for the chemically diverse mite growth inhibitors clofentezine, hexythiazox and etoxazole as inhibitors of an essential, non-catalytic activity of CHS1. Given the previously documented cross-resistance between clofentezine, hexythiazox and the benzyolphenylurea compounds flufenoxuron and cycloxuron, CHS1 should be also considered as a potential target-site of insecticidal BPUs. PMID:24859419

  7. An extract of Urtica dioica L. mitigates obesity induced insulin resistance in mice skeletal muscle via protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obanda, Diana N; Ribnicky, David; Yu, Yongmei; Stephens, Jacqueline; Cefalu, William T

    2016-02-26

    The leaf extract of Urtica dioica L. (UT) has been reported to improve glucose homeostasis in vivo, but definitive studies on efficacy and mechanism of action are lacking. We investigated the effects of UT on obesity- induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups: low-fat diet (LFD), high-fat diet (HFD) and HFD supplemented with UT. Body weight, body composition, plasma glucose and plasma insulin were monitored. Skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius) was analyzed for insulin sensitivity, ceramide accumulation and the post translational modification and activity of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). PP2A is activated by ceramides and dephosphorylates Akt. C2C12 myotubes exposed to excess free fatty acids with or without UT were also evaluated for insulin signaling and modulation of PP2A. The HFD induced insulin resistance, increased fasting plasma glucose, enhanced ceramide accumulation and PP2A activity in skeletal muscle. Supplementation with UT improved plasma glucose homeostasis and enhanced skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity without affecting body weight and body composition. In myotubes, UT attenuated the ability of FFAs to induce insulin resistance and PP2A hyperactivity without affecting ceramide accumulation and PP2A expression. UT decreased PP2A activity through posttranslational modification that was accompanied by a reduction in Akt dephosphorylation.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of an effective organic/inorganic hybrid green corrosion inhibitive complex based on zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, E.; Naderi, Reza; Ramezanzadeh, B.

    2017-02-01

    This study aims at synthesis and characterization of an effective corrosion inhibitive complex based on zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica (ZnA-U.D) for corrosion protection of mild steel in chloride solution. The chemical structure and morphology of the complex were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV-vis, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion protection performance of the mild steel samples dipped in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solutions with and without ZnA-U.D extract was investigated by visual observations, open circuit potential (OCP) measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization test. Results revealed that the ZnA successfully chelated with organic inhibitive compounds (i.e Quercetin, Quinic acid, Caffeic acid, Hystamine and Serotonin) present in the U.D extract. The electrochemical measurements revealed the effective inhibition action of ZnA-U.D complex in the sodium chloride solution on the mild steel. The synergistic effect between Zn2+ and organic compounds present in the U.D extract resulted in protective film deposition on the steel surface, which was proved by SEM and XPS analyses.

  9. Effects of Urtica dioica supplementation on blood lipids, hepatic enzymes and nitric oxide levels in type 2 diabetic patients: A double blind, randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri Behzadi, Alidad; Kalalian-Moghaddam, Hamid; Ahmadi, Amir Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of diabetic complications including metabolic abnormality-induced diabetic micro-vascular and macro-vascular complications. Urtica dioica L. (U. dioica) has been traditionally used in Iranian medicine as an herbal remedy for hypoglycemic or due to its anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica on blood lipids, hepatic enzymes and nitric oxide levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: 50 women with type 2 diabetes participated in this study and were randomly divided into two groups namely, control and intervention groups. Control group received placebo and intervention group received hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica. Before and after 8 weeks of continuous treatment, some biochemical serum levels including FPG, TG, SGPT, SGOT, HDL, LDL, SOD and NO were measured. Results: The results indicated that after 8 weeks, in the intervention group, FPG, TG, and SGPT levels significantly decreased and HDL, NO and SOD levels significantly increased as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Our results encourage the use of hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica as an antioxidant agent for additional therapy of diabetes as hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica may decrease risk factors of cardiovascular incidence and other complications in patients with diabetes mellitus. PMID:28078249

  10. A study on possible use of Urtica dioica (common nettle) plant as polonium (210)Po and lead (210)Pb contamination biomonitor in the area of phosphogypsum stockpile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Grzegorz; Boryło, Alicja; Skwarzec, Bogdan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test a possible use of Urtica dioica (common nettle) plant as a biomonitor of polonium (210)Po and lead (210)Pb contamination near phosphogypsum stacks by determining concentrations of these radionuclides in samples collected from the area of phosphogypsum stockpile in Wiślinka (northern Poland). The (210)Po and (210)Pb contents in roots depended on their concentrations in soils. Bioconcentration factor values from soil to root of the plant did not depend on (210)Po and (210)Pb contents in soils that leads to the conclusion that different polonium and lead species have different affinities to U. dioica plants. The main sources of both analyzed radionuclides in green parts of plants are wet and dry air deposition and transportation from soil. The values of (210)Po/(210)Pb activity ratio indicate natural origin of these radioisotopes in analyzed plants. (210)Po and (210)Pb concentration in U. dioica roots is negatively weakly correlated with distance from phosphogypsum stockpile.

  11. Ex-vivo in-vitro inhibition of lipopolysaccharide stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta secretion in human whole blood by extractum urticae dioicae foliorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obertreis, B; Ruttkowski, T; Teucher, T; Behnke, B; Schmitz, H

    1996-04-01

    An extract of Urtica dioica folium (IDS 23, Rheuma-Hek), monographed positively for adjuvant therapy of rheumatic diseases and with known effects in partial inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis in vitro, was investigated with respect to effects of the extract on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in human whole blood of healthy volunteers. In the assay system used, LPS stimulated human whole blood showed a straight increase of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) secretion reaching maximum concentrations within 24 h following a plateau and slight decrease up to 65 h, respectively. The concentrations of these cytokines was strongly positively correlated with the number of monocytes/macrophages of each volunteer. TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta concentration after LPS stimulation was significantly reduced by simultaneously given IDS 23 in a strictly dose dependent manner. At time 24 h these cytokine concentrations were reduced by 50.8% and 99.7%, respectively, using the highest test IDS 23 assay concentration of 5 mg/ml (p < 0.001). After 65 h the corresponding inhibition was 38.9% and 99.9%, respectively (p < 0.001). On the other hand IDS 23 showed no inhibition but stimulated IL-6 secretion in absence of LPS alone. Simultaneously given LPS and IDS 23 resulted in no further increase. In contrast to described effects on arachidonic acid cascade in vitro, tested Urtica dioica phenol carbon acid derivates and flavonoides such as caffeic malic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, quercetin and rutin did not influence LPS stimulated TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-6 secretion in tested concentrations up to 5 x 10(-5) mol/l. These further findings on the pharmacological mechanism of action of Urticae dioica folia may explain the positive effects of this extract in the treatment of rheumatic diseases.

  12. Two new families (Acari: Alicorhagiidae and Platyhelminthes: Prorhynchidae reported for the Hungarian fauna From leaf litter in the Bükk Mountains

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    Pfliegler, W.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Two new members of the Hungarian fauna are reported, both of them were collected in beech forest leaf litter in the Bükk Mountains, North-East Hungary: Alicorhagia fragilis Berlese, 1910 (Arthropoda: Arachnida: Acari: Sarcoptiformes: Endeostigmata: Alicorhagiidae and Geocentrophora baltica (Kennel, 1883 (Platyhelminthes: Rhabditophora: Trepaxonemata: Amplimatricata: 'Lecithoepitheliata': Prorhynchida: Prorhynchidae. The families Alicorhagiidae and Prorhynchidae both represent new taxa in the fauna of the country.

  13. Control in vitro de Botrytis (Botrytis cinerea), Mildiu (Bremia lactucae) Y Esclerotinia (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) en lechuga (Lactuca sativa), usando extractos de Cola de Caballo (Equisetum arvense), Ortiga (Urtica dioica L.), Ruda (Ruta graveolens) y Tomillo (Thymus vulgaris).

    OpenAIRE

    Tayupanta Rodríguez, Verónica Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    Se realizó el control biológico de Botrytis cinerea, Bremia lactucae y Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, con 4 extractos de plantas: Ruta graveolens, Thymus vulgaris, Urtica dioica, Equisetum arvense y Trichoderma harzianum como tratamiento adicional. Se realizaron ensayos en laboratorio dentro de cajas Petri, donde se inoculó el hongo obtenido previamente en cultivo puro, junto con los extractos de cada planta para evaluar el halo de inhibición y se realizó el conteo del número de UFC (Unidades f...

  14. Secondary structure of expansion segment D1 in LSU rDNA from Arachnida and its phylogenetic application in Eriophyoid mites and in Acari.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng-Hang; Zhao, Ya-E; Xu, Yang; Hu, Li; Chen, Yi-Meng

    2015-12-01

    An increasing number of researchers have applied secondary-structure based multiple alignments of rDNA genes in phylogeny. These studies mostly depended on a few valuable divergent domains in LSU and SSU rDNA. Yet other divergent domains, e.g. D1, were poorly investigated and rarely used. However, these domains might contain additional evolutionary data and play a vital role in DNA-based phylogenetic study. Here, we investigated all available D1 sequences of Arachnida taxa and predicted corresponding secondary structures to help identify homologous positions in the D1 region. Long insertions were found exclusive to Eriophyoidea and folded into three newly proposed helices. Non-Acari taxa were all GC rich. In Acari, most Trombidiformes and all Mesostigmata (Parasitiformes) taxa were AT rich and Ixodida (Parasitiformes) GC rich; however there was no consistent base bias in Sarcoptiformes sequences. For Eriophyoid mites, genera Cecidophyopsis and Aceria were both well supported in MP, NJ, ME and ML tress based on D1 sequences, and clusters of Cecidophyopsis species were identical with former study. This demonstrated that the D1 region could act as a valuable molecular marker in phylogenetic reconstruction of Eriophyoidea. Additionally, D1 has been proven suitable in phylogenetic analysis at the family and genus level in Acari, but not in Opiliones.

  15. Bacterial diversity in Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) with a focus on members of the genus Rickettsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, Stephanie R; Elshahed, M S; Little, S E

    2010-03-01

    The lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae), is commonly reported from people and animals throughout the eastern U.S. and is associated with transmission of a number of emerging diseases. To better define the microbial communities within lone star ticks, 16S rRNA gene based analysis using bacteria-wide primers, followed by sequencing of individual clones (n = 449) was used to identify the most common bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) present within colony-reared and wild A. americanum. The colony-reared ticks contained primarily sequence affiliated with members of the genus Coxiella (89%; 81/91), common endosymbionts of ticks, and Brevibacterium (11%; 10/91). Similarly, analysis of clones from unfed wild lone star ticks revealed that 96.7% (89/92) of all the OTUs identified were affiliated with Coxiella-like endosymbionts, as compared with only 5.1-11.7% (5/98-9/77) of those identified from wild lone star ticks after feeding. In contrast, the proportion of OTUs identified as Rickettsia sp. in wild-caught ticks increased from 2.2% (2/92) before feeding to as high as 46.8% (36/77) after feeding, and all Rickettsia spp. sequences recovered were most similar to those described from the spotted fever group Rickettsia, specifically R. amblyommii and R. massiliae. Additional characterization of the Rickettsiales tick community by polymerase chain reaction, cloning, and sequencing of 17 kDa and gltA genes confirmed these initial findings and suggested that novel Rickettsia spp. are likely present in these ticks. These data provide insight into the overall, as well as the rickettsial community of wild lone star ticks and may ultimately aid in identification of novel pathogens transmitted by A. americanum.

  16. Repellent activities of dichloromethane extract of Allium sativum (garlic (Liliaceae against Hyalomma rufipes (Acari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Nchu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dichloromethane (DCM extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn. bulbs was assessed for its repellent effect against the hard tick, Hyalomma rufipes (Acari: Ixodidae using two tick behavioural bioassays; Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, under laboratory conditions. These bioassays exploit the questing behaviour of H. rufipes, a tick that in nature displays ambush strategy, seeking its host by climbing up on vegetation and attaching to a passing host. One hundred microlitres (100 µL of the test solution containing DCM extract of garlic bulbs and DCM at concentrations of 0.35%, 0.7% or 1.4% w/v were evaluated. DCM only was used for control. Tick repellency increased significantly (R2 = 0.98 with increasing concentration (40.03% – 86.96% yielding an EC50 of 0.45% w/v in Type B repellency bioassay. At concentration of 1.4% w/v, the DCM extract of garlic bulbs produced high repellency index of 87% (male ticks and 87.5% (female ticks in the Type A repellency bioassay. Only 4% avoidance of male ticks or female ticks was recorded in the Type B repellency bioassay. In the corresponding controls, the mean numbers of non-repelled male or female ticks were 80% and 41 males or 38 females of 50 ticks in the Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, respectively. The variations in the results could be attributed to the difference in tick repellent behaviours that were assessed by the two repellency bioassays; the Type A repellency bioassay assessed repellent effect of garlic extracts without discriminating between deterrence and avoidance whereas the Type B repellency bioassay only assessed avoidance response. Generally, DCM extract of garlic was repellent against H. rufipes, albeit weak tick repellency was obtained in the Type B repellency bioassay. Furthermore, this study established that the tick repellent activity of garlic extracts is predominantly by deterrence.

  17. Pest management systems affect composition but not abundance of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in apple orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Árpád; Pénzes, Béla; Sipos, Péter; Hegyi, Tamás; Hajdú, Zsuzsanna; Markó, Viktor

    2014-04-01

    We examined the faunal composition and abundance of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in apple orchards under different pest management systems in Hungary. A total of 30 apple orchards were surveyed, including abandoned and organic orchards and orchards where integrated pest management (IPM) or broad spectrum insecticides (conventional pest management) were applied. A total of 18 phytoseiid species were found in the canopy of apple trees. Species richness was greatest in the organic orchards (mean: 3.3 species/400 leaves) and the least in the conventional orchards (1.4), with IPM (2.1) and abandoned (2.7) orchards showing intermediate values. The phytoseiid community's Rényi diversity displayed a similar pattern. However, the total phytoseiid abundance in the orchards with different pest management systems did not differ, with abundance varying between 1.8 and 2.6 phytoseiids/10 leaves. Amblyseius andersoni, Euseius finlandicus, and Typhlodromus pyri were the three most common species. The relative abundance of A. andersoni increased with the pesticide load of the orchards whereas the relative abundance of E. finlandicus decreased. The abundance of T. pyri did not change in the apple orchards under different pest management strategies; regardless of the type of applied treatment, they only displayed greater abundance in five of the orchards. The remaining 15 phytoseiid species only occurred in small numbers, mostly from the abandoned and organic orchards. We identified a negative correlation between the abundance of T. pyri and the other phytoseiids in the abandoned and organic orchards. However, we did not find any similar link between the abundance of A. andersoni and E. finlandicus.

  18. Repellent activities of dichloromethane extract of Allium sativum (garlic) (Liliaceae) against Hyalomma rufipes (Acari).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nchu, Felix; Magano, Solomon R; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2016-12-02

    Dichloromethane (DCM) extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) bulbs was assessed for its repellent effect against the hard tick, Hyalomma rufipes (Acari: Ixodidae) using two tick behavioural bioassays; Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, under laboratory conditions. These bioassays exploit the questing behaviour of H. rufipes, a tick that in nature displays ambush strategy, seeking its host by climbing up on vegetation and attaching to a passing host. One hundred microlitres (100 µL) of the test solution containing DCM extract of garlic bulbs and DCM at concentrations of 0.35%, 0.7% or 1.4% w/v were evaluated. DCM only was used for control. Tick repellency increased significantly (R2 = 0.98) with increasing concentration (40.03% - 86.96%) yielding an EC50 of 0.45% w/v in Type B repellency bioassay. At concentration of 1.4% w/v, the DCM extract of garlic bulbs produced high repellency index of 87% (male ticks) and 87.5% (female ticks) in the Type A repellency bioassay. Only 4% avoidance of male ticks or female ticks was recorded in the Type B repellency bioassay. In the corresponding controls, the mean numbers of non-repelled male or female ticks were 80% and 41 males or 38 females of 50 ticks in the Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, respectively. The variations in the results could be attributed to the difference in tick repellent behaviours that were assessed by the two repellency bioassays; the Type A repellency bioassay assessed repellent effect of garlic extracts without discriminating between deterrence and avoidance whereas the Type B repellency bioassay only assessed avoidance response. Generally, DCM extract of garlic was repellent against H. rufipes, albeit weak tick repellency was obtained in the Type B repellency bioassay. Furthermore, this study established that the tick repellent activity of garlic extracts is predominantly by deterrence.

  19. Effect of Pollen from Different Plant Species on Development of Typhlodromus pyri (Sheuten (Acari: Phytoseiidae Efecto del Polen de Diferentes Especies Vegetales sobre el Desarrollo de Typhlodromus pyri (Sheuten (Acari: Phytoseiidae

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    Paulina Bermúdez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Typhlodromus pyri (Sheuten (Acari: Phytoseiidae is a phytoseiid mite with a high potential in controlling the false Chilean mite (Brevipalpus chilensis Baker; Acari: Tenuipalpidae. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different plant species pollen as a complementary food in the development of T. pyri when its prey is in low levels of availability. Mites were individually placed on black plastic boxes with pollen and maintained at a temperature of 26 ± 2 °C, 70 ± 5% relative humidity (RH, and a photoperiod of 16:8 h (L:D. Postembryonic development of T. pyri was studied in 11 pollen species, as well as in a mixed diet of Hirschfeldia incana (L. and B. chilensis. Results show that H. incana was the only pollen in which there was no mortality (P > 0.05 along with the control (Oxalis pes-caprae L.. Mean duration from egg to adult with H. incana was 8.70 ± 1.66 d, protonymph 3.27 ± 0.21 d, and deutonymph 2.90 ± 1.45 d (P > 0.05. The mix feeding of T. pyri did not show any significant differences neither in the mean time from egg to adult, nor in mortality by feeding only with B. chilensis. Survival curves of T. pyri fed only with H. incana pollen, combined with B. chilensis, and only with B. chilensis are higher in the first 14 d of life. The sex ratio was not significantly affected by being fed only with H. incana pollen, B. chilensis, or by a combination of both.Typhlodromus pyri (Sheuten (Acari: Phytoseiidae es un ácaro que presenta un alto potencial de uso para el control de la falsa arañita roja de la vid (Brevipalpus chilensis Baker; Acari: Tenuipalpidae. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto del polen de diferentes especies vegetales como alimento complementario para T. pyri cuando escasea su presa. Los parámetros post-embrionarios de T. pyri se estudiaron en 11 especies de polen, en una dieta mixta de polen de Hirschfeldia incana (L. y B. chilensis. Los ácaros se colocaron individualmente sobre

  20. SELETIVIDADE DE INSETICIDAS A Neoseiulus californicus MCGREGOR (ACARI: PHYTOSEIIDAE EM MACIEIRA, NO RIO GRANDE DO SUL AGROCHEMICAL SELECTIVITY TO Neoseiulus californicus MCGREGOR (ACARI: PHYTOSEIIDAE ON APPLE IN RIO GRANDE DO SUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LINO BITTENCOURT MONTEIRO

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Testes para determinar os efeitos de agroquímicos homologados para macieira foram realizados em laboratório sobre Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae. Os indivíduos testados foram coletados de um pomar comercial da Agriflor Ltda, em Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul, após várias liberações inoculativas. Os inseticidas utilizados foram os tradicionalmente recomendados para o controle de pragas, principalmente mosca-das-frutas Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae. A oviposição e a mortalidade dos ácaros foram avaliadas 12; 24; 48 e 96 horas após a pulverização, cujos produtos foram classificados em quatro classes de toxicidade (IOBC/WPRS. Azinphos ethyl, deltametrina e fenthion provocaram 100% de mortalidade, sendo que dimethoate, fenitrotion, paration, phosmet e triclorfon foram levemente nocivos (classe 2. Malation foi considerado neutro para esta população.The side-effects of agrochemical to Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae were studied in laboratory. The mites were collected in commercial apple orchard of Agropastoril Rincão das Flores, in Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, after successive inoculative releases. The insecticids used were recommended to control of same pest, as Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae. The reproduction effect and mortality were evalued 12, 24, 48 and 96 hours after pulverization, while the agrochemical were ranked in toxicity classes, according to IOBC/WPRS. Azinphos ethyl, deltametrina e fenthion were harmful with ca. 100% of mortality in 24 hours, dimethoate, fenitrotion, paration, phosmet e triclorfon were slightly harmful (class 2. Malation was harmless.

  1. Hepatoprotective effects of Nigella sativa L and Urtica dioica L on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in carbon tetrachloride-treated rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehmet Kanter; Omer Coskun; Mustafa Budancamanak

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of Nigella sativa L (NS)and Urtica dioica L (UD) on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in CCl4-treated rats.METHODS: Fifty-six healthy male Wistar albino rats were used in this study. The rats were randomly allotted into one of the four experimental groups: A (CCl4-only treated), B (CCl4+UD treated), C (CCl4+NS treated) and D (CCl4+UD+NS treated), each containing 14 animals.All groups received CCl4 (0.8 mL/kg of body weight, sc,twice a week for 60 d). Tn addition, B, C and D groups also received daily J.p. injections of 0.2 mL/kg NS or/and 2 mL/kg UD oils for 60 d. Group A, on the other hand,received only 2 mL/kg normal saline solution for 60 d.Blood samples for the biochemical analysis were taken by cardiac puncture from randomly chosen-seven rats in each treatment group at beginning and on the 60th d of the experiment.RESULTS: The CCl4 treatment for 60 d increased thelipid peroxidation and liver enzymes,and also decreasedthe antioxidant enzyme levels. NS or UD treatment (aloneor combination) for 60 d decreased the elevated lipidperoxidation and liver enzyme levels and also increasedthe reduced antioxidant enzyme levels.The weight ofrats decreased in group A,and increased in groups B, Cand D.CONCLUSION: NS and UD decrease the lipid peroxidation and liver enzymes, and increase the antioxidant defense system activity in the CCl4-treated rats.

  2. TAMBO VIEJO: UN ASENTAMIENTO FORTIFICADO EN EL VALLE DE ACARÍ, PERÚ (Tambo Viejo: A Fortified Settlement in the Acari Valley, Peru

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    Lidio M. Valdez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La aparición de los asentamientos fortificados y el origen del conflicto violento son temas poco discutidos en el contexto de la arqueología peruana. Considero que es oportuno investigar y determinar cuándo y por qué surgieron los primeros asentamientos fortificados. El propósito central de este artículo está precisamente orientado a responder tales interrogantes y discutir el tema del conflicto violento en el valle de Acarí y, por extensión, en la costa sur del Perú. Las evidencias arqueológicas disponibles señalan que, durante el periodo Intermedio Temprano, Tambo Viejo fue un asentamiento defendido por varias estructuras perimétricas. Otros sitios contemporáneos de Tambo Viejo en Acarí también fueron fortificados. Además, existe en el mismo valle evidencia tangible de violencia en la forma de prisioneros que posteriormente fueron decapitados. En contraste a la evidencia proveniente de Acarí, no existen asentamientos del periodo Intermedio Temprano identificables como fortificaciones, lo que hace de los sitios de Acarí los primeros asentamientos fortificados de toda la costa sur. ENGLISH: The emergence of violent conflict and of fortified settlements is a subject little studied within Peruvian archaeology. However, I consider it vital to investigate and determine the time and the reasons under which fortified settlements were first established. The central aim of this paper is to discuss when and why fortified settlements emerged first in the Acari Valley and, by extension, in the south coast of Peru. Available archaeological evidence indicates that during the Early Intermediate Period, Tambo Viejo was a fortified settlement protected by several massive walls. Other neighbouring sites in Acari were also fortified. Furthermore, in Acari there is conclusive evidence for violence in the form of decapitated individuals. In contrast to evidence coming from Acari, not a single Early Intermediate Period settlement from other

  3. Demodex castoris sp. nov. (Acari: Demodecidae) parasitizing Castor fiber (Rodentia), and other parasitic arthropods associated with Castor spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebska, Joanna N; Fryderyk, Sławomira; Rolbiecki, Leszek

    2016-02-11

    A new species of demodecid mite, Demodex castoris sp. nov. (Acari: Prostigmata: Demodecidae), is described based on adult stages from the skin of the nasal region of the Eurasian beaver Castor fiber Linnaeus, 1758, collected in Poland. This is the first detection of a representative demodecid mite in rodents of the suborder Castorimorpha and also represents the first detection of a skin mite in Eurasian beavers. The new species is a small skin mite (average 173 µm in length) characterized by sexual dimorphism related to body proportions. D. castoris sp. nov. was observed in 4 out of 6 beavers examined (66.6%), with a mean intensity of 10.8 and an intensity range of 2-23 ind. host(-1). This paper also contains a checklist of parasitic arthropods known from Castor spp.

  4. A G326E substitution in the glutamate-gated chloride channel 3 (GluCl3) of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae abolishes the agonistic activity of macrocyclic lactones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermans, Catherine; Dermauw, Wannes; Geibel, Sven; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2017-07-24

    The macrocyclic lactones abamectin and milbemectin are frequently used to control phytophagous mites such as Tetranychus urticae. Consequently, resistance has developed and was genetically linked with substitutions in the glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl) subunits TuGluCl1 and TuGluCl3. Here, we functionally validated a G326E substitution in TuGluCl3 by functional expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes followed by two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology. Homomeric wild-type and mutated GluCl3 were successfully expressed. l-glutamic-acid-induced currents exhibited a rapid onset equal in both channels and EC50 for l-glutamic-acid was in the micromolar range (384.2 μm and 292.7 μm, respectively). Abamectin and milbemycin A4 elicited sustained currents in wild-type GluCl3, but the G326E substitution completely abolished the agonistic activity of macrocyclic lactones. A target-site mutation in Tu GluCl3 contributes to avermectin resistance in T. urticae. However, given the multitude of channel genes and the potential additive or synergistic effects of mutations, to what extent mutations determine the often extremely strong resistance phenotype in the field deserves further study. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Chlorotic spots on Clerodendrum, a disease caused by a nuclear type of Brevipalpus (Acari:Tenuipalpidae) transmitted virus Mancha clorótica do Clerodendrum, uma enfermidade causada por um vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari:Tenuipalpidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Elliot Watanabe Kitajima; Karen Sumire Kubo; Paulo de Tarso de Oliveira Ferreira; Berenice Kussumoto de Alcântara; Alessandra de Jesus Boari; Renata Takassugi Gomes; Juliana Freitas-Astua; Jorge Alberto Marques Rezende; Gilberto José de Morais; Renato Barbosa Salaroli

    2008-01-01

    Chlorotic spots have been observed in plants of Clerodendrum x speciosum growing in residential gardens and parks in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Thin sections of diseased tissues revealed characteristic cytopathic effects of the nuclear type of the Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) mite-transmitted viruses (BTrV). Brevipalpus mites, identified as B. phoenicis, infesting symptomatic C. x speciosum plants transmitted the pathogen to healthy C. x speciosum and to C. thomsonae, Gomphrena globosa, Hi...

  6. Comparative residual toxicities of pesticides to the predator Agistemus industani (Acari: Stigmaeidae) on citrus in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, C C; Villanueva, R; Aguilar, H; Chewning, R; Michaud, J P

    2001-01-01

    Residual toxicities of registered and selected experimental pesticides used on citrus against Agistemus industani Gonzalez (Acari: Stigmaeidae) were compared. Pesticides considered highly toxic to A. industani were: abamectin 0.15 EC at 731 ml/ha + FC 435-66 petroleum oil at 46.8 l/ha, pyridaben 75 WP at 469 g/ha, ethion 4 EC at 7.01 l/ha + FC 435-66 petroleum oil at 46.8 l/ha, propargite 6.55 EC at 3.51 l/ha, chlorfenapyr 2 SC at 1.46 l/ha applied alone or in combination with FC 435-66 petroleum oil at 46.8 l/ha, sulphur 80 DF at 16.81 kg/ha. dicofol 4EC at 7.01 l/ha, fenbutatin oxide 50 WP at 2.24 kg/ha, benomyl 50 WP at 2.24 kg/ha, benomyl 50 WP at 1.68 kg/ha + ferbam 76 GF at 5.60 kg/ha, ferbam 76 GF at 11.21 kg/ha, neem oil 90 EC at 46.8 l/ha, and copper hydroxide DF (40% metallic copper) at 4.48 kg metallic copper/ha + FC 435-66 petroleum oil at 46.8 l/ha. Pesticides that were moderately to slightly toxic included: copper sulphate 98% at 4.48 kg metallic copper/ha + FC 435-66 petroleum oil at 46.8 l/ha, fenbuconazole 2 F at 280 ml/ha + FC 435-66 petroleum oil at 46.8 l/ha, FC 435-66 petroleum oil applied alone at 46.8 l/ha or 23.41/ha, and diflubenzuron 25 WP at 1.40 kg/ha. Pesticides that were non-toxic included: fenbuconazole 2 F at 585 ml/ha, malathion 57 EC at 5.85 l/ha, FC 435-66 petroleum oil at 46.8 l/ha, carbaryl 80 S at 3.36 kg/ha. chlorpyrifos 4 EC at 4.68 l/ha, and formetanate 92 SP at 1.12 kg/ha. Understanding the toxic effects of field weathered pesticides against key predacious mite species is important for effective IPM. The results of this study provide a comparison of direct and indirect toxic effects of various pesticides to A. industani under field conditions.

  7. Bazı bitkisel kökenli uçucu yağların Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval, 1867) (Acari: Tetranychidae) üzerine kontakt ve repellent etkileri

    OpenAIRE

    TOPUZ, Emine; MADANLAR, Nilgün

    2010-01-01

    In this study, contact and repellent effects of 5 different plant essential oils against Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval, 1867) (Acari: Tetranychidae) were investigated under laboratory conditions. Essential oils of aerial parts, leaves or seeds of Mentha pulegium Linnaeus (Labiatae), Foeniculum vulgare Miller (Umbellifera), Pistacia terebinthus Linnaeus (Anacardiaceae), Schinus molle Linnaeus (Anacardiaceae) and Vitex agnus-castus Linnaeus (Verbenaceae) plants, grown around Antalya regio...

  8. Inhibition of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus replication in a lethal SARS-CoV BALB/c mouse model by stinging nettle lectin, Urtica dioica agglutinin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaki, Yohichi; Wandersee, Miles K.; Smith, Aaron J.; Zhou, Yanchen; Simmons, Graham; Nelson, Nathan M.; Bailey, Kevin W.; Vest, Zachary G.; Li, Joseph K.-K.; Chan, Paul Kay-Sheung; Smee, Donald F.; Barnard, Dale L.

    2011-01-01

    Urtica dioica agglutinin (UDA) is a small plant monomeric lectin, 8.7 kDa in size, with an N-acetylglucosamine specificity that inhibits viruses from Nidovirales in vitro. In the current study, we first examined the efficacy of UDA on the replication of different SARS-CoV strains in Vero 76 cells. UDA inhibited virus replication in a dose-dependent manner and reduced virus yields of the Urbani strain by 90% at 1.1 ± 0.4 µg/ml in Vero 76 cells. Then, UDA was tested for efficacy in a lethal SARS-CoV-infected BALB/c mouse model. BALB/c mice were infected with two LD50 (575 PFU) of virus for 4 hours before the mice were treated intraperitoneally with UDA at 20, 10, 5 or 0 mg/kg/day for 4 days. Treatment with UDA at 5 mg/kg significantly protected the mice against a lethal infection with mouse-adapted SARS-CoV (pSARS infection in mice leads to a substantial therapeutic effect that protects mice against death and weight loss. Furthermore, the mode of action of UDA in vitro was further investigated using live SARS-CoV Urbani strain virus and retroviral particles pseudotyped with SARS-CoV spike (S). UDA specifically inhibited the replication of live SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV pseudotyped virus when added just before, but not after, adsorption. These data suggested that UDA likely inhibits SARS-CoV infection by targeting early stages of the replication cycle, namely, adsorption or penetration. In addition, we demonstrated that UDA neutralizes the virus infectivity, presumably by binding to the SARS-CoV spike (S) glycoprotein. Finally, the target molecule for inhibition of virus replication was partially characterized. When UDA was exposed to N-acetylglucosamine and then UDA was added to cells just prior to adsorption, UDA did not inhibit the virus infection. These data support the conclusion that UDA might bind to N-acetylglucosamine-like residues present on the glycosylated envelope glycoproteins, thereby preventing virus attachment to cells. PMID:21338626

  9. Toxicities of Seveal Acaricides to Different Development Stages of Tetranychus urticae Koch and Their Safety Evaluations%多种杀螨剂对二斑叶螨不同发育阶段的毒力比较及安全性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金勇; 涂洪涛; 郭小辉; 陈汉杰

    2011-01-01

    [Aims] Toxicities and vertebrate selectivity ratio of 14 acaricides to different development stages of Tetranychus urticae Koch were analyzed. The obtained results have guiding significance for choosing acaricides to control Tetranychus urticae Koch. [Results] Abamectin and emamectin benzoate had relative higher toxicity to different development stages of T. Urticae Koch, pyridaben, amitraz and propargite had the low activity to them. Spirodiclofen and hexythiazox had higher toxicity to eggs and nymphs of T. Urticae Koch, however, they had lower toxicity to adults. The analysis of the vertebrate selectivity ratio(VSR) of different acaricides showed that emamectin benzoate had the highest selectivity against female adults, spirodiclofen, hexythiazox and liuyangmycin had higher selectivity against eggs and nymphs, pyridaben, amitraz and azocyclotin showed lower selectivity to different development stages of T. Urticae Koch. [Conclusions] Emamectin benzoate and liuyangmycin had higher toxicity to different development stages of T. Urticae Koch, safety to natural enemies and that were suggested be used in orchard.%[目的]选取14种杀螨剂对二斑叶螨进行了不同发育阶段的室内毒力测定,并对选择毒性进行评价,对防治二斑叶螨药剂的合理使用具有指导意义.[结果]阿维菌素和甲维盐对3种螨态的活性均较高;螺螨酯、噻螨酮等对二斑叶螨卵、若螨均有较强活性(<2 mg/L),但是对成螨活性明显偏低.甲维盐表现出对二斑叶螨成螨的高度选择性,噻螨酮、螺螨酯和浏阳霉索对二斑叶螨若螨态和卵态表现出显著选择性.[结论]甲维盐和浏阳霉素对二斑叶螨活性较高,对天敌安全,可以作为优先选择药剂.

  10. Resistencia de cuatro poblaciones del acaro (Tetranychus urticae Koch. a propargite en rosa de corte (Rosa x hybrida en el Estado de México, México Resistance of four population mites (Tetranychus urticae Koch. to propargite in cut rose (Rosa x hybrida in the State of Mexico, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Robles-Bermúdez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La araña roja, Tetranychus urticae Koch., es una de las plagas más importantes de la rosa de corte, (Rosa x hybrida, en el Estado de México y su combate se realiza principalmente mediante el uso de acaricidas como el propargite; mismo que los productores usaron inicialmente con resultados satisfactorios y actualmente no controla esta plaga. Con el objetivo de estimar el nivel de resistencia a dicho acaricida, en el año 2007 se evaluó su respuesta a dicho acaricida en poblaciones provenientes de Coatepec Harinas, Tenancingo, Villa Guerrero y Zumpahuacán, Estado de México. De cada localidad se recolectaron al menos 4000 ninfas y 2 000 adultos en el cultivo de rosa de corte bajo invernadero y se reprodujeron hasta F1 para realizar los bioensayos. Se determinó el rango de dosis que eliminaba el 0 al 100% de los individuos tratados (ventana biológica. Posteriormente se incluyeron de cinco a siete concentraciones que cubrieron dicho rango. Se realizaron cinco repeticiones cuatro en días consecutivos diferentes. Las poblaciones de araña roja provenientes de Coatepec Harinas (RR95= 7.9x, Villa Guerrero (RR95=1.3x y Zumpahuacán (RR95= 11 x se consideran susceptibles a propargite; mientras que la población de Tenancingo (RR95 = 90.1 x se considera resistente a dicho acaricida.The spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch., is one of the most important pests of cut rose (Rosa x hybrida in the State of México and, its primary control it's through the use of acaricides, such as propargite; the producers initially used it with satisfactory results and currently it does not control this pest anymore. In order to estimate the level of resistance to that acaricide, in 2007, its response to this acaricide was assessed in populations from Coatepec Harinas, Tenancingo, Villa Guerrero and Zumpahuacán, State of México. In each locality at least 4 000 nymphs and 2 000 adults were collected in the cut rose cultivation in greenhouses and were

  11. Detection of two Bartonella tamiae-like sequences in Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) using 16S-23S intergenic spacer region-specific primers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeter, Sarah A; Miller, Melissa K; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Levy, Michael G

    2008-01-01

    Four hundred and sixty-six questing Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) from Carolina County, VA, and 98 questing A. americanum from Chatham County, NC, were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the Bartonella 16S-23S intergenic spacer region. Two amplicons, approximately 270-280 bp, were detected in two ticks from Virginia. Based upon PCR and sequencing, an adult male and adult female tick harbored DNA sequences closely related to Bartonella tamiae (DQ395180). Bartonella DNA was not detected in A. americanum from North Carolina. Potential transmission of Bartonella spp. by A. americanum should be the focus of future experimental studies.

  12. Avaliação de extratos vegetais no controle de Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor, 1917) (Acari: Tetranychidae) em laboratório

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Thaiana Mansur Botelho de; EPAMIG-CTSM/EcoCentro; Reis, Paulo Rebelles; EPAMIG-CTSM/EcoCentro; Oliveira, Denilson Ferreira de; Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA; Carvalho, Geraldo Andrade; Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA; Carvalho, Douglas Antônio de; Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA

    2008-01-01

    Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor, 1917) (Acari: Tetranychidae) já foi referido como a segunda praga em importância para o cafeeiro Conillon, considerado mais sensível ao ácaro que o Arábica. A aplicação de pesticidas sintéticos no seu controle pode provocar impactos negativos ao ambiente e ao homem. Alternativamente ao uso de tais produtos, surgem outros menos impactantes, como por exemplo, extratos de plantas. Com o presente trabalho, teve-se por objetivo avaliar o efeito de extratos de plantas ...

  13. [The first report of Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, 1907 (Acari Ixodidae) on the lizard Tupinambis teguixin (L.) at the Municipality of Glorinha, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, João R; Monticelli, Elida C; Onofrio, Valéria C; Barros-Battesti, Darcy M; Doyle, Rovaina L

    2007-01-01

    Amblyomma fuscum known only from Brazil has been described as a rare tick species with few reports of its occurrence in South and Southeast region. This is a new records this tick species (9 females) parasitizing lizard (Tupinambis teguixin) at the Municipality of Glorinha, State of Rio Grande do Sul. The females were deposited in the tick collection of Veterinary Research Institute Desiderio Finamor (7 specimens), Eldorado do Sul, RS and in the Acari collection from Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, State of São Paulo (2 specimens). The finding confirms establishment de A. fuscum in the South of Brazil.

  14. Otoacariasis due to Edentalges bradypus Fonseca 1954 (Acari; Psoroptidae) infestation in the brown-throated three-toed sloth Bradypus variegatus from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Clarissa Pimentel; Verocai, Guilherme Gomes; de Arruda, Julio Almeida Alencar Matos; Pires, Jeferson Rocha; Takitani, Andréa Yuri; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the first description of gross pathological aspects of otoacariasis due to Edentalges bradypus Fonseca 1954 (Acari; Psoroptidae) infestation in the brown-throated three-toed sloth Bradypus variegatus Schinz, 1825 (Xenarthra; Bradypodidae) in Brazil. Mites were collected from massive skin crusts seen in both external ear canals and around both eyes of an extremely debilitated advanced-aged female sloth brought to the Wildlife Care Section of Universidade Estácio de Sá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  15. Diseño y formulación de un champú a base de extracto alcohólico de Urtica urens L. para su aplicación contra la caída del cabello

    OpenAIRE

    Samaniego Joaquin, Jhonnel Williams

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: la caída de cabello es un tema que nos tiene muy pendientes de cuántos cabellos se nos caen y cómo evitarlo. Podemos prevenir algún tipo de caída o actuar en estadios iniciales de un proceso de caída para mejorar el estado del cabello, para favorecer el crecimiento del cabello más saludable y fortalecido o contribuir en prolongar los ciclos de vida del cabello. Objetivo: Diseñar y formular el Champú conteniendo el extracto alcohólico de Urtica urens L. Diseño: analítico, experim...

  16. Isırgan otu (Urtica dioica) ekstresinin kolon kanseri hücre serileri üzerindeki apoptotik, antiproliferatif ve antioksidan etkilerinin araştırılması

    OpenAIRE

    KORKMAZ, Fettah

    2010-01-01

    Antioksidan ve flavonoidler bakımından zengin olan Türkiye‘de ve dünyada geleneksel tedavide, kanserden korunmada, kanser tedavisinde tamamlayıcı ve destekleyici olarak sıkça kullanılan bir bitki olan Urtica dioica üzerine literatürde bilimsel olarak in vivo ve in vitro pek çok çalıĢma olmasına karĢın, kolon kanseri üzerine etkilerini araĢtıran in vivo ve in vitro çalıĢmaların olmadığı görülmektedir.Bu tez çalıĢmasında ısırgan otunun, insan kolon kanseri HCT 116 hücre serileri üzerin...

  17. 反相高效液相色谱法同时测定荨麻中绿原酸和咖啡酸%RP-HPLC determination of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in Urtica fissa E.Pritz.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小平; 张菁华

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立荨麻中绿原酸和咖啡酸含量测定的方法.方法 色谱柱:Betasil C18(150 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm),流动相为甲醇(A)-0.5%三氟乙酸(B)梯度洗脱,流速:1.0 mL/min,柱温:30℃,检测波长:323 nm.结果 分别在4.8~96.0 μg/mL和0.23~4.60 μg/mL范围内绿原酸和咖啡酸呈良好的线性关系,方法回收率分别为100.5%、98.1%.结论 该方法简便、快速、准确,可用于荨麻质量的控制.%Objective To develop the HPLC method to determine the proportion of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in Urtica fissa E. Pritz.. Methods Betasil C18 (150 mmx4.6 mm. 5 (μm) was used, the mobile phase was acetonitrile-0.5%THF with gradient elution at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, the column and temperature was 30℃, the absorbance was monitored at 323 nm. Results The linear range was 4.8-96.0 μg/mL for chlorogenic acid and 0.23-4.60 μg/mL for caffeic acid. The average recoveries (n - 6) of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid were 100.5% and 98.1%, respectively. Conclusion The method is found to be simple and accurate for quality control of Urtica fissa E. Pritz.

  18. [Morphological adaptations of acariform mites (Acari: Acariformes) to permanent parasitism on mammals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkov, A V

    2007-01-01

    The external morphological adaptations to parasitism in acariform mites (Acari: Acariformes), permanently parasiting mammals, are briefly summated and analyzed. According to several external morphological criteria (structures of gnathosoma, idiosoma, setation, legs and life cycle), the following six morphoecotypes were established: skin mites (i)-- Cheyletidae, Chirorhynchobiidae, Lobalgidae, Myobiidae, Myocoptidae (the most part), Rhyncoptidae, Psoroptidae; fur mites (ii)--Atopomelidae, Clirodiscidae, Listrophoridae, Myocoptidae (Trichoecius only); skin burrowing mites (iii)--Sarcoptidae; intradermal mites (iv) - sorergatidae and Demodicidae; interstitial mites (v) - pimyodicidae; respiratory mites (vi) - reynetidae, Gastronyssidae, Lemurnyssidae, Pneumocoptidae. In the case of prostigmatic mites, the detailed reconstruction of the origin and evolution of "parasitic" morphoecotypes is possible due to the tentative phylogenetic hypotheses, which were proposed for the infraorder Eleutherengon, a, including the most part of the permanent mammalian parasites among prostigmatic mites (Kethley in Norton, 1993; Bochkov, 2002). The parasitism of Speleognathinae (Ereynetidae) in the mammalian respiratory tract arose independently of the other prostigmats. It is quite possible that these mites switched on mammals from birds, because they are more widely represented on these hosts than on mammals. The prostigmatic parasitism on mammalian skin seems to be originated independently in myobiids, in the five cheyletid tribes, Cheyletiellini, Niheliini, and Teinocheylini, Chelonotini, Cheyletini, and, probably, in a cheyletoid ansector of the sister families Psorergatidae-Demodicidae (Bochkov, Fain, 2001; Bochkov, 2002). Demodicids and psorergatids developed adaptations to parasitism in the skin gland ducts and directly in the epithelial level, respectively in the process of the subsequent specialization. Mites of the family Epimyodicidae belong to the phylogenetic line

  19. Acaricidal and sublethal effects of a Chenopodium-based biopesticide on the two-spotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Asma; Međo, Irena; Marić, Ivana; Marčić, Dejan

    2017-03-01

    Acaricidal and sublethal effects of the biopesticide Requiem(®)EC (containing an essential oil extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides near ambrosioides) on the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, were evaluated in laboratory bioassays. The biopesticide was applied to bean leaves or leaf discs using a Potter spray tower. Acaricidal activity against eggs and immatures was evaluated in successive acute toxicity bioassays. Concentration-mortality data were subjected to probit analysis and the following LC50 values (ml/l) were calculated: 2.47 (eggs), 0.71 (larvae), 1.13 (protonymphs), 2.23 (female deutonymphs), and 6.02 (female teleiochrysalises). In adult bioassay, in which pre-ovipositional females were treated with a series of concentrations (0.31-10 ml/l), a run-off effect ranging 4-80% (after 24 h) and 8-93% (after 72 h) was observed. In two-choice bioassay, T. urticae females preferred the untreated halves of leaves over the halves treated with 1.25-10 ml/l biopesticide and they laid significantly more eggs on the untreated halves in the first 24 h and summed over 72 h. The indices of repellency and oviposition deterence ranged 11.2-77.3 and 14.8-87.9%, respectively. In age-stage two-sex life table bioassay, the females that hatched from eggs treated with 2.5 ml/l biopesticide and reached adulthood on treated leaf surface showed a significantly reduced the intrinsic rate of increase (r = 0.222), compared to the control (r = 0.317). The reduction of population growth was mainly due to a reduced preadult survival rate (0.42 ± 0.04) and extended juvenile developmental time (9.27 ± 0.11 days), compared to the control (0.93 ± 0.03 and 7.70 ± 0.06 days, respectively).

  20. The international trade in reptiles (Reptilia)--the cause of the transfer of exotic ticks (Acari: Ixodida) to Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Magdalena

    2010-05-11

    The problem of the unnatural transfer of exotic ticks (Acari: Ixodida) on reptiles (Reptilia) imported to Poland is presented. In the period from 2003 to 2007, 382 specimens of reptiles belonging to the following genera were investigated: Testudo, Iguana, Varanus, Gongylophis, Python, Spalerosophis, Psammophis. The reptiles most infested with ticks are imported to Poland from Ghana in Africa, and are the commonly bred terrarium reptiles: Varanus exanthematicus and Python regius. As a result of the investigations, the transfer of exotic ticks on reptiles to Poland was confirmed. There were 2104 specimens of the genera Amblyomma and Hyalomma. The following species were found: Amblyomma exornatum Koch, 1844, Amblyomma flavomaculatum (Lucas, 1846), Amblyomma latum Koch, 1844, Amblyomma nuttalli Donitz, 1909, Amblyomma quadricavum (Schulze, 1941), Amblyomma transversale (Lucas, 1844), Amblyomma varanense (Supino, 1897), Amblyomma sp. Koch, 1844, Hyalomma aegyptium (Linnaeus, 1758). All the species of ticks of genus Amblyomma revealed have been discovered in Poland for the first time. During the research, 13 cases of anomalies of morphological structure were confirmed in the ticks A. flavomaculatum, A. latum and H. aegyptium. The expanding phenomenon of the import of exotic reptiles in Poland and Central Europe is important for parasitological and epidemiological considerations, and therefore requires monitoring and wide-ranging prophylactic activities to prevent the inflow of exotic parasites to Poland.

  1. New Miticides for Integrated Pest Management of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in Honey Bee Colonies on the Canadian Prairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandervalk, L P; Nasr, M E; Dosdall, L M

    2014-12-01

    Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman 2000 (Acari: Varroidae) is an ectoparasitic mite of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Honey bee colonies require extensive management to prevent mortality caused by varroa mites and the viruses they vector. New miticides (Thymovar and HopGuard) to manage varroa mites were evaluated during the spring and fall treatment windows of the Canadian prairies to determine their effectiveness as part of an integrated management strategy. Thymovar and HopGuard were evaluated alongside the currently used industry standards: Apivar and formic acid. Results demonstrated that Apivar and formic acid remain effective V. destructor management options under spring and fall conditions. Applications of Thymovar during spring were associated with a reduction in brood area, and therefore should be limited to the fall season. The miticide HopGuard was not effective in managing V. destructor, and alteration of the current delivery system is necessary. This study demonstrates the potential for new effective treatment options to supplement currently used V. destructor integrated pest management systems.

  2. The role of the bacterial community in the nutritional ecology of the bulb mite Rhizoglyphus robini (Acari: Astigmata: Acaridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zindel, Renate; Ofek, Maya; Minz, Dror; Palevsky, Eric; Zchori-Fein, Einat; Aebi, Alexandre

    2013-04-01

    The biology of many arthropods can only be understood when their associated microbiome is considered. The nutritional requirements of the bulb mite Rhizoglyphus robini Claparede (Acari: Astigmata: Acaridae) in the laboratory have been shown to be very easily satisfied, and in the field the mites prefer fungus-infected over uninfected plants. To test whether symbiotic bacteria facilitate the survival of R. robini on a temporarily nutritionally unbalanced diet, we investigated the composition of its microbiome. Using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments, 3 genera were found to dominate the bacterial community: Myroides (41.4%), Serratia (11.4%), and Alcaligenes (4.5%); the latter 2 are known to include chitinase-producing species. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that mite fecundity is significantly higher (2 times) on fungus than on controls (sterilized potato dextrose agar and filter paper). Also, when mite homogenate was applied to a chitin layer, the halo produced through degradation was clearly visible, while the saline control did not produce a halo. We thus concluded that R. robini utilizes fungal chitin, at least to a certain extent, as a food source with the help of its associated bacteria. This information supports the general concept of multigenome organisms and the involvement of bacteria in the mite's nutritional ecology.

  3. Impact of ectohumus application in birch and pine nurseries on the presence of soil mites (Acari, Oribatida in particular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimek Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intensively used forest nurseries are characterised by degradation processes that lead to a drop in the quality of seedlings. The main reason of this problem is a decrease in biological soil diversity. Therefore, an attempt of nursery soil enrichment by introducing ectohumus – as compost and fresh litter – from the pine forest was carried out. The research was carried out in 2009–2011 in the Bielawy forest nursery near the city of Toruń, Poland. The objective of the study was to determine the impact of organic fertilisation (compost made up of forest humus and mulching using fresh ectohumus on the density and community composition of Acari mites and on species composition of oribatid mites (Oribatida in the nurseries of silver birch and Scots pine. Mites, especially oribatid mites, were treated as bioindicators of soil biological activity. Research has shown that mulching using fresh ectohumus caused a multiple increase in the density of mites, especially in saprophagous mites Oribatida. Oribatid mites were clearly more numerous in birch cultivation than in that of pine. Overall, 27 species of oribatid mites were found. Mulching resulted in a significant growth in species diversity in both cultivations. The most numerous oribatid mite in the area under the study was Oribatula tibialis. This species was present in all plots and showed clear preference for birch cultivation. Tectocepheus velatus and Oppiella nova, common and known to be present in a variety of environments, were slightly less numerous.

  4. Development and reproductive potential of Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acari: Acaridae) on plant-parasitic nematodes and artificial diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou El-Atta, Doaa Abd El-Maksoud; Osman, Mohamed Ali

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated development, reproduction and life table parameters of the astigmatid mold mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) (Acari: Acaridae) feeding on egg-masses or adult females of the nematode Meloidogyne incognita, egg-masses of the nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis, ras cheese or yeast at 25 ± 1 °C, 70 ± 10 % RH in the dark. Immature developmental times were shorter when the mite was fed females of M. incognita followed by yeast. Different prey/diet types had no significant effect on longevity and lifespan of both males and females. Daily oviposition rate (eggs/female/day) was highest for mites fed yeast (20.8 ± 1.8 eggs) and lowest for mites fed females of M. incognita (6.6 ± 0.5). Intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m) was highest for mites fed yeast compared to other prey/diet; no significant differences in r m were observed among mites fed on non-yeast diets. This result may suggest a role of T. putrescentiae as biocontrol agent of plant-parasitic nematodes and the yeast may be used for mite mass-production purposes.

  5. Relative contribution of biotic and abiotic factors to the population density of the cassava green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rêgo, Adriano S; Teodoro, Adenir V; Maciel, Anilde G S; Sarmento, Renato A

    2013-08-01

    The cassava green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa, is a key pest of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae), and it may be kept in check by naturally occurring predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae. In addition to predatory mites, abiotic factors may also contribute to regulate pest mite populations in the field. Here, we evaluated the population densities of both M. tanajoa and the generalist predatory mite Euseius ho DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae) over the cultivation cycle (11 months) of cassava in four study sites located around the city of Miranda do Norte, Maranhão, Brazil. The abiotic variables rainfall, temperature and relative humidity were also recorded throughout the cultivation cycle of cassava. We determined the relative importance of biotic (density of E. ho) and abiotic (rainfall, temperature and relative humidity) factors to the density of M. tanajoa. The density of M. tanajoa increased whereas the density of E. ho remained constant throughout time. A hierarchical partitioning analysis revealed that most of the variance for the density of M. tanajoa was explained by rainfall and relative humidity followed by E. ho density and temperature. We conclude that abiotic factors, especially rainfall, were the main mechanisms driving M. tanajoa densities.

  6. THE EFFECT OF CATTLE LIQUID MANURE FERTILIZATION ON THE SOIL MITES (ACARI OF PERMANENT MEADOW IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADOMIR GRACZYK

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different doses of cattle liquid manure, with or without the VIT-TRA agent, on the mites of permanent meadow, with species analysis of oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida was investigated. Samples were taken from 13 plots, fertilized with cattle liquid manure in doses 40, 60 and 80 m3· ha-1 and VIT-TRA agent. The dose 40 m3· ha-1 increased the abundance of mites, comparing to the control plot, while doses 60 and 80 m3· ha-1 decreased it. The fungicidal agent, with medium and high dose of fertilizer, signifi cantly decreased the density of Oribatida, Gamasida and Actinedida in relation to small dose of fertilizer with this agent. The mites reacted in a similar way to the bactericidal agent, but acting of virocidal agent was indistinct. The Oribatida dominated among the mites, while the Actinedida and Gamasida were less abundant. Among the Oribatida the most abundant were: Parachipteria bella, Liebstadia humerata, Achipteria coleoptrata and Scheloribates laevigatus. The Oribatida preferred the lower part of grasses, and their density distinctly decreased with the soil depth.

  7. SELECTION OF MODELS FOR SEQUENTIAL SAMPLING OF THE TAN-MITE Dichopelmus notus KEIFER (ACARI, ERIOPHYIDAE IN MATE-TEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Vieira Neto

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This research established models for the construction of plans of binomial sequential sampling for the tan-miteDichopelmus notus Keifer (Acari, Eriophyidae in mate-tea orchards. The study was carried out in a ten years old orchard, locatedin Chapecó, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. In three areas of approximately 2,500 m2, 30 plants had been selected randomly. Fortnightly,from January to December, 2004, infestation of D. notus in 18 mature leaves of ten plants in each area were evaluated. Theevaluations were executed directly in the orchard, using lenses (10x and 1 cm2 of fixed field. The lines of the sequential plans wereconstructed using the methodology based on the confidence interval of Iwao (1975, considering the models of Normal Approach withCorrection of Continuity, Normal Approach of Blyth (1986, Approach of Hall (1982 modified by Blyth (1986, Normal Approach ofMolenaar (1973, Normal Approach of Pratt (1968 and Leemis & Trivedi (1996 methodology. The models were evaluatedconsidering amplitude analysis of the confidence intervals. The results had evidenced that the Model of Normal Approach withCorrection of Continuity must preferentiably be used in the elaboration of plans of binomial sequential sampling for the tan-mite inmate-tea orchards.

  8. Transcriptome Analysis of the Carmine Spider Mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval, 1867 (Acari: Tetranychidae, and Its Response to β-Sitosterol

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    Chunya Bu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Acari: Tetranychidae is a worldwide polyphagous agricultural pest that has the title of resistance champion among arthropods. We reported previously the identification of the acaricidal compound β-sitosterol from Mentha piperita and Inula japonica. However, the acaricidal mechanism of β-sitosterol is unclear. Due to the limited genetic research carried out, we de novo assembled the transcriptome of T. cinnabarinus using Illumina sequencing and conducted a differential expression analysis of control and β-sitosterol-treated mites. In total, we obtained >5.4 G high-quality bases for each sample with unprecedented sequencing depth and assembled them into 22,941 unigenes. We identified 617 xenobiotic metabolism-related genes involved in detoxification, binding, and transporting of xenobiotics. A highly expanded xenobiotic metabolic system was found in mites. T. cinnabarinus detoxification genes—including carboxyl/cholinesterase and ABC transporter class C—were upregulated after β-sitosterol treatment. Defense-related proteins, such as Toll-like receptor, legumain, and serine proteases, were also activated. Furthermore, other important genes—such as the chloride channel protein, cytochrome b, carboxypeptidase, peritrophic membrane chitin binding protein, and calphostin—may also play important roles in mites’ response to β-sitosterol. Our results demonstrate that high-throughput-omics tool facilitates identification of xenobiotic metabolism-related genes and illustration of the acaricidal mechanisms of β-sitosterol.

  9. Effect of coconut palm proximities and Musa spp. germplasm resistance to colonization by Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jose Carlos Verle; Irish, Brian M

    2012-08-01

    Although coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is the predominant host for Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), false spider mite infestations do occur on bananas and plantains (Musa spp. Colla). Since its introduction, the banana and plantain industries have been negatively impacted to different degrees by R. indica infestation throughout the Caribbean. Genetic resistance in the host and the proximity of natural sources of mite infestation has been suggested as two of the main factors affecting R. indica densities in Musa spp. plantations. Greenhouse experiments were established to try to determine what effect coconut palm proximities and planting densities had on R. indica populations infesting Musa spp. plants. Trials were carried out using potted Musa spp. and coconut palms plants at two different ratios. In addition, fourteen Musa spp. hybrid accessions were evaluated for their susceptibility/resistance to colonization by R. indica populations. Differences were observed for mite population buildup for both the density and germplasm accession evaluations. These results have potential implications on how this important pest can be managed on essential agricultural commodities such as bananas and plantains.

  10. Effect of Hyalomma Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae on Milk Production of Dairy Buffaloes (Bos Bubalus Bubalis of Punjab (Pakistan

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    M.U. Iqbal

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate economic losses in terms of milk production caused by tick infestation in dairy buffaloes (Bos bubalus bubalis of Punjab (Pakistan. To this end, six hundred Nili-Ravi buffaloes infested with Hyalomma ticks (Acari: Ixodidae were selected and divided into two equal groups viz; A & B. The animals of group A were treated with various doses of 5% cypermethrine pour-on (Cipermetriven, Ivan Labs, Spain while those of group B were treated with propylene glycol (Propandiol - (1, 2, Merck as a sham treatment. Average milk production (L and butter fat (% was recorded before and after treatment in order to calculate post-treatment increase in these parameters (if any. An average daily increase of 1.15L in milk yield per animal with 1.31% more fat was observed in acaricide- treated animals. A dose-dependent effect of acaricide was found on the number of ticks as well as milk production and fat. The results provided a baseline data for further research on economic impact of tick nuisance to the smallholder dairy farming systems of Pakistan.

  11. Genetic basis of resistances to chlorfenapyr and etoxazole in the two-spotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesugi, R; Goka, K; Osakabe, Mh

    2002-12-01

    We studied the genetic basis of resistance to two new acaricides, chlorfenapyr and etoxazole, which have different chemical structures and modes of action in the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch. The resistance ratios calculated from the LC50s of resistant and susceptible strains were 483 for chlorfenapyr and >100,000 for etoxazole. Mortality caused by the two acaricides in F1 progeny from reciprocal crosses between the resistant and susceptible strains indicated that the modes of inheritance of resistance to chlorfenapyr and etoxazole were completely dominant and completely recessive, respectively. Mortality in F2 progeny indicated that for both acaricides, the resistance was under monogenic control. Repeated backcross experiments indicated a linkage relationship among the two acaricide resistances and malate dehydrogenase, although phosphoglucoisomerase was not linked with them. The recombination ratio between the resistances was 14.8%. From this result, we suggest that heavy spraying of the two acaricides will lead to apparent cross-resistance as a consequence of crossing over; the two resistance genes are so close to each other that it would be difficult to segregate them once they came together on the same chromosome.

  12. Experimental infestation with the immatures of Amblyomma dissimile Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae on Tropidurus torquatus (Lacertilia: Iguanidae and Oryctolagus cuniculus Infestação experimental com as fases imaturas de Amblyomma dissimile Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae em Tropidurus torquatus (Lacertilia: Iguanidae e Oryctolagus cuniculus

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    L.H.T. Freitas

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Larvas provenientes de duas fêmeas de Amblyomma dissimile Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae, naturalmente ingurgitadas em uma iguana (Iguana iguana e provenientes do Estado do Mato Grosso, foram utilizadas na infestação experimental de lagartos da espécie Tropidurus torquatus e coelhos domésticos. As larvas alimentadas em ambos os hospedeiros realizaram ecdise para ninfas. As ninfas apenas ingurgitaram no lagarto e mudaram para machos e fêmeas. Este é o primeiro registro do parasitismo de larvas e ninfas de A. dissimile em T. torquatus e de larvas em coelhos.

  13. Seletividade de produtos fitossanitários sobre o ácaro predador Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli, Ueckermann & Oliveira (Acari: Stigmaeidae Selectivity ofthe pesticides tothe predaceous mite Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli,, Ueckermann & Oliveira (Acari: Stigmaeidae

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    Marcos Zatti da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Os ácaros predadores das famílias Phytoseiidae e Stigmaeidae constituem-se nos principais inimigos naturais de Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes em citros. Este ácaro-praga causa sérios prejuízos na produção, devido à transmissão do vírus da leprose dos citros (CiLV. Apesar do grande volume de informações sobre a sensibilidade de ácaros Phytoseiidae a agrotóxicos, praticamente não existem informações sobre o efeito desses compostos em ácaros Stigmaeidae no Brasil. Sendo assim, o trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito dos principais agrotóxicos utilizados em citros sobre o ácaro predador Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli, Ueckermann & Oliveira (Acari: Stigmaeidae, em condições de laboratório. Arenas de folhas de citros da variedade Pera, contendo 25 fêmeas adultas de A. brasiliensis, foram pulverizadas em torre de Potter. Avaliaram-se as mortalidades dos ácaros 72 horas após a aplicação. O efeito dos produtos na reprodução do acarino e a viabilidade dos ovos também foram avaliados. Quanto à seletividade, conforme proposta da "Organização Internacional para o Controle Biológico" (IOBC, os produtos foram classificados como: classe 1 - inócuo (E99%, calda sulfocálcica, cyhexatin, flufenoxuron, hexythiazox, óxido de fenbutatin, propargite, pyridaben e spirodiclofen. Estudos conduzidos em condições de campo ainda são necessários para se compreender melhor o efeito desses agrotóxicos sobre o ácaro predador.The predaceous mites of the families Phytoseiidae and Stigmaeidae are the most important natural enemies of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes on citrus. This mite causes serious damages to the yield due to the transmission of Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV. Despite the considerable amount of information on susceptibility of phytoseiids to pesticides, the effect of these compounds is not very known for stigmaeid mites in Brazil. This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of the main pesticides used in

  14. Ocorrência do ácaro fitófago Catarhinus tricholaenae Keifer (Acari: Diptilomiopidae em cultivares de milho Bt Occurrence of the phytophagous mite Catarhinus tricholaenae Keifer (Acari: Diptilomiopidae on Bt corn cultivars

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    Marcos Antônio Matiello Fadini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a ocorrência do microácaro-da-face-inferior-das-folhas-de-milho Catarhinus tricholaenae Keifer (Acari: Diptilomiopidae em cultivares transgênicas de milho, contendo as proteínas Cry1F e Cry 1 A(b e milho não Bt. Durante o período de junho de 2010 a janeiro de 2011, foram coletadas, quinzenalmente, cinco amostras aleatórias de quatro folhas em talhões de milho Bt, contendo a proteína Cry 1F e Cry 1 A(b, e de milho não Bt em áreas experimentais da Embrapa Milho e Sorgo, em Sete Lagoas, MG. As amostras de folhas foram vistoriadas por 15 minutos na região da nervura central, em busca de adultos de C. tricholaenae. Foram registrados 2.930 indivíduos de C. tricholaenae, sendo que 1.114 no milho Bt Cry 1F, 753 em Cry 1 A(b e 1063 indivíduos em folhas das cultivares não Bt. As maiores abundâncias populacionais médias ocorreram nos meses de novembro e dezembro. Os fatores estágio fenológico das plantas e precipitação afetaram positivamente a abundância de C. tricholaenae. A abundância média do período de coleta de C. tricholaenae foi reduzida pela cultivar de milho contendo a proteína Cry 1 A(b. Esse é o primeiro registro de ácaros sobre cultivares de milho transgênico no Brasil.The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of "microácaro-da-face-inferior-das-folhas-de-milho" Catarhinus tricholaenae Keifer (Acari: Diptilomiopidae on transgenic cultivars of corn containing proteins Cry1F and Cry 1 A (b and non-Bt corn. During the period from June 2010 to January 2011 were collected, every two weeks, five random samples of four leaves in plots of Bt corn containing the protein Cry 1F and Cry 1 A (b and non-Bt corn in the experimental area of Embrapa Corn and Sorghum, Sete Lagoas, MG. The leaf samples were examined for 15 minutes in the central region of leaf in search of adult C. tricholaenae. We recorded 2930 individuals of C. tricholaenae, 1114 on Bt Cry 1F, 752 on Cry 1 A

  15. Seletividade de agrotóxicos usados na cultura da macieira a Neoseiulus Californicus (McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae1 Pesticide selectivity used in apple crops Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae

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    Geraldine de Andrade Meyer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos secundários dos principais agrotóxicos utilizados em macieira sobre adultos e imaturos de Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae. Os testes foram conduzidos em laboratório, utilizando as doses dos produtos recomendadas para a cultura e o método de contato e residual com pulverização em superfície de folha. Foram testados tebufenozida, fosmete, metidationa, clorpirifós, abamectina, fenpiroximato, piridabem, captana, mancozebe (duas dosagens e ditianona. Para o cálculo do efeito total (E% sobre os adultos, avaliaram-se a mortalidade, a oviposição e a viabilidade dos ovos, e para os imaturos, somente a mortalidade. Os resultados do E% foram avaliados 96 horas após a pulverização. Os produtos foram classificados quanto ao efeito total (E% de toxicidade proposta pela IOBC/WPRS. Fosmete, tebufenozida e metidationa foram inócuos; abamectina, fenpiroximato, clorpirifós, captana, mancozebe (nas duas dosagens testadas e ditianona foram levemente nocivos, e piridabem foi moderadamente nocivo aos adultos de N. californicus. O fungicida mancozebe, na maior dosagem (320g,i.a./100L, foi o que mais afetou o ácaro predador. Quanto à seletividade dos agrotóxicos aos imaturos, constatouse que abamectina e piridabem foram moderadamente nocivos, e os demais foram inócuos. Nenhum produto foi classificado como nocivo, evidenciando a tolerância de N. californicus a estes agrotóxicos. Estes resultados permitem uma escolha e manejo mais adequado para os agrotóxicos utilizados nos pomares comerciais de macieira, de forma que a presença deste ácaro predador exerça pressão de controle do ácaro-vermelho.The objective of this study was to evaluate the side effects of the main pesticides used in adult and immature Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae. The tests were carried out in the laboratory by using the contact and residual spraying method on the leaf surface. It was tested

  16. New records of water mites of the family Torrenticolidae (Acari, Hydrachnidia with descriptions of two new species from Nanshih River system in Taiwan and redescription of Torrenticola ussuriensis (Sokolow, 1940 from the Russian Far East

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    Vladimir Pesic

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available New records of torrenticolid water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Torrenticolidae from Nanshih River, Taiwan, are presented. Two new species are described: Torrenticola nanshihensis and T. taiwanicus; the latter species is compared with T. ussuriensis (Sokolow, 1940, a poorly known species which is re-described based on a new material from the Russian Far East; Monatractides cf. circuloides (Halík, 1930 is reported for the first time for Taiwan.

  17. Expression and polyclonal antibody preparation of chitinase gene in Tetranychus urticae Koch%二斑叶螨几丁质酶基因的原核表达及多克隆抗体制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张道伟; 陈静; 张正玲; 曾燕玲; 郭玉双

    2015-01-01

    The sequence of part chitinase gene of Tetranychus urticae was amplified by PCR from cDNA. The sequence length of this domain was 786 bp. Then, the gene was cloned into pET-32a (+) prokaryotic expressive vector, and the constructed recombinant plasmids pET-32a-TuChi was transformed into the host bacteria E. coli BL21 (DE3). About 45 ku fusion protein was abundantly expressed at 4 h after the recombinant vector was induced with 0.6 mmol·L-1 IPTG. The fusion protein was purified on a Ni+affinity column. The purified chitinase protein was used to immunize New Zealand rabbits for preparing polyclonal antibody with specificity as defined by Western Blot. ELISA analysis showed that the titer of the polyclonal antibody was 1��80 000, polyclonal antibody that was prepared had a high titer and specificity, and the results laid the foundation to further study the function of the chitinase in Tetranychus urticae.%以制备的二斑叶螨cDNA为模板,克隆二斑叶螨几丁质酶SeChi基因功能结构域催化区片段,大小为786 bp。将该序列片段克隆到表达载体pET-32a (+)中,获得多克隆原核表达载体pET-32a-TuChi。重组质粒经酶切测序鉴定后转化大肠杆菌BL21(DE3),经0.6 mmol·L-1 IPTG诱导4 h后高效表达约45 ku可溶性重组蛋白;经His亲和层析洗脱和浓缩获得高纯度的重组蛋白免疫新西兰大白兔制备TuChi多克隆抗体。制备的多克隆抗体经Western Blot证实能特异性地识别几丁质酶而不与非特异性蛋白结合。ELISA分析表明制备的抗体效价达1��80000,效价较高,为进一步研究二斑叶螨几丁质酶相关功能奠定基础。

  18. Effects of Essential Oil from Asarum heterotropoides on Toxicity and Related Enzymes of Tetranychus urticae%北细辛挥发油对二斑叶螨的毒性及其酶的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩俊艳; 王军; 韩雪; 纪明山

    2012-01-01

    采用气相/质谱分析了北细辛挥发油的化学成分,并研究了北细辛挥发油对二斑叶螨的薰蒸毒性,以及对谷胱甘肽巯基转移酶( GSTs)与Na+,K+-ATP酶活性的影响.结果表明:有9种含量大于1%的化学成分占北细辛挥发油总量的86.1%,其中甲基丁香酚含量最高(22.9%),其次为黄樟醚(19.8%);北细辛挥发油在8μg/mL时对二斑叶螨的熏蒸毒性最强,其24和48h的螨死亡率分别为72.6%和100%;以4μg/mL北细辛挥发油薰蒸,在24h内螨Na+,K+-ATP酶活性下降、GSTs活性升高.本研究结果提示北细辛挥发油有开发为农业用杀螨剂的潜在价值.%To explore new botanical acaricide,the chemical components of Asarum heterotropoides var. mandshuriam essential oils were analysed,and the fumigant toxicity and the effects on related enzymes of the oils to Tetranychus urticae were investigated. In GC-MS analysis,9 major constituents accounting for 86. 1% of the total essential oil, of which methyleugenol (22.9% ) was the most,followed by safrole (19.8% ). Bioassay showed that the essential oils exhibited the most significant toxicity at 8 m/mL air concentration with the mortality was 72.6% ,100% and 100% after 24,48 and 72 h,respectively. In enzyme analysis,4 礸/mL essential oils decreased the activity of Na+ , K+ -ATPase, and increased the activity of glutathione S-transferase during 24 h fumigation. As a conclusion, the essential oils of A heterotro-poides possessed the potential for developing botanical acaricide against T. urticae.

  19. Prevalence and Diversity of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Nymphal Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in Eastern National Parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tammi L; Graham, Christine B; Boegler, Karen A; Cherry, Cara C; Maes, Sarah E; Pilgard, Mark A; Hojgaard, Andrias; Buttke, Danielle E; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2016-12-27

    Tick-borne pathogens transmitted by Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae), also known as the deer tick or blacklegged tick, are increasing in incidence and geographic distribution in the United States. We examined the risk of tick-borne disease exposure in 9 national parks across six Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic States and the District of Columbia in 2014 and 2015. To assess the recreational risk to park visitors, we sampled for ticks along frequently used trails and calculated the density of I. scapularis nymphs (DON) and the density of infected nymphs (DIN). We determined the nymphal infection prevalence of I. scapularis with a suite of tick-borne pathogens including Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia miyamotoi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti Ixodes scapularis nymphs were found in all national park units; DON ranged from 0.40 to 13.73 nymphs per 100 m(2) Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, was found at all sites where I. scapularis was documented; DIN with B. burgdorferi ranged from 0.06 to 5.71 nymphs per 100 m(2) Borrelia miyamotoi and A. phagocytophilum were documented at 60% and 70% of the parks, respectively, while Ba. microti occurred at just 20% of the parks. Ixodes scapularis is well established across much of the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic States, and our results are generally consistent with previous studies conducted near the areas we sampled. Newly established I. scapularis populations were documented in two locations: Washington, D.C. (Rock Creek Park) and Greene County, Virginia (Shenandoah National Park). This research demonstrates the potential risk of tick-borne pathogen exposure in national parks and can be used to educate park visitors about the importance of preventative actions to minimize tick exposure.

  20. Phylogeny and species delineation in European species of the genus Steganacarus (Acari, Oribatida) using mitochondrial and nuclear markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreipe, Victoria; Corral-Hernández, Elena; Scheu, Stefan; Schaefer, Ina; Maraun, Mark

    2015-06-01

    Species of the genus Steganacarus are soil-living oribatid mites (Acari, Phthiracaridae) with a ptychoid body. The phylogeny and species status of the species of Steganacarus are not resolved, some authors group all ten German species of Steganacarus within the genus Steganacarus whereas others split them into three subgenera, Steganacarus, Tropacarus and Atropacarus. Additionally, two species, S. magnus and T. carinatus, comprise morphotypes of questionable species status. We investigated the phylogeny and species status of ten European Steganacarus species, i.e. S. applicatus, S. herculeanus, S. magnus forma magna, S. magnus forma anomala, S. spinosus, Tropacarus brevipilus, T. carinatus forma carinata, T. carinatus forma pulcherrima, Atropacarus striculus and Rhacaplacarus ortizi. We used two molecular markers, a 251 bp fragment of the nuclear gene 28S rDNA (D3) and a 477 bp fragment of the mitochondrial COI region. The phylogeny based on a combined analysis of D3 and COI separated four subgenera (Steganacarus, Tropacarus and Atropacarus, Rhacaplacarus) indicating that they form monophyletic groups. The COI region separated all ten species of the genus Steganacarus and showed variation within some species often correlating with the geographic origin of the species. Resolution of the more conserved D3 region was limited, indicating that radiation events are rather recent. Overall, our results indicate that both genes alone cannot be used for phylogeny and barcoding since variation is too low in D3 and too high in COI. However, when used in combination these genes provide reliable insight into the phylogeny, radiation and species status of taxa of the genus Steganacarus.

  1. Distribution, hosts, 16S rDNA sequences and phylogenetic position of the Neotropical tick Amblyomma parvum (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, S; Szabó, M P J; Mangold, A J; Guglielmone, A A

    2008-07-01

    The hosts, distribution, intraspecific genetic variation and phylogenetic position of Amblyomma parvum (Acari: Ixodidae) have recently been re-assessed. Data on this tick's hosts and distribution were obtained not only from existing literature but also from unpublished records. Sequences of the ticks' mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were used to evaluate genetic variation among specimens of A. parvum from different localities in Argentina and Brazil, and to explore the phylogenetic relationships between this tick and other Amblyomma species. Although several species of domestic and wild mammal act as hosts for adult A. parvum, most collected adults of this species have come from cattle and goats. Caviid rodents of the subfamily Caviinae appear to be the hosts for the immature stages. So far, A. parvum has been detected in 12 Neotropical biogeographical provinces (Chaco, Cerrado, Eastern Central America, Venezuelan Coast, Pantanal, Parana Forest, Caatinga, Chiapas, Venezuelan Llanos, Monte, Western Panamanian Isthmus, and Roraima) but the Chaco province has provided significantly more specimens than any other (P<0.0001). The 16S rDNA sequences showed just 0.0%-1.1% divergence among the Argentinean A. parvum investigated and no more than 0.2% divergence among the Brazilian specimens. The observed divergence between the Argentinean and Brazilian specimens was, however, greater (3.0%-3.7%). Although there is now molecular and morphological evidence to indicate that A. parvum, A. pseudoparvum, A. auricularium and A. pseudoconcolor are members of a natural group, previous subgeneric classifications do not reflect this grouping. The subgeneric status of these tick species therefore needs to be re-evaluated. The 16S-rDNA-based evaluation of divergence indicates that the gene flow between Argentinean and Brazilian 'A. parvum' is very limited and that the Argentinean 'A. parvum' may be a different species to the Brazilian.

  2. A novel spotted fever group Rickettsia infecting Amblyomma parvitarsum (Acari: Ixodidae) in highlands of Argentina and Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrzewalska, Maria; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda A; Marcili, Arlei; Nava, Santiago; González-Acuña, Daniel; Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Ruiz-Arrondo, Ignacio; Venzal, José M; Mangold, Atilio; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-04-01

    The tick Amblyomma parvitarsum (Acari: Ixodidae) has established populations in Andean and Patagonic environments of South America. For the present study, adults of A. parvitarsum were collected in highland areas (elevation >3500 m) of Argentina and Chile during 2009-2013, and tested by PCR for rickettsial infection in the laboratory, and isolation of rickettsiae in Vero cell culture by the shell vial technique. Overall, 51 (62.2%) out of 82 A. parvitarsum adult ticks were infected by spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae, which generated DNA sequences 100% identical to each other, and when submitted to BLAST analysis, they were 99.3% identical to corresponding sequence of the ompA gene of Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest. Rickettsiae were successfully isolated in Vero cell culture from two ticks, one from Argentina and one from Chile. DNA extracted from the third passage of the isolates of Argentina and Chile were processed by PCR, resulting in partial sequences for three rickettsial genes (gltA, ompB, ompA). These sequences were concatenated and aligned with rickettsial corresponding sequences available in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the A. pavitarsum rickettsial agent grouped under high bootstrap support in a clade composed by the SFG pathogens R. sibirica, R. africae, R. parkeri, Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, and two unnamed SFG agents of unknown pathogenicty, Rickettsia sp. strain NOD, and Rickettsia sp. strain ApPR. The pathogenic role of this A. parvitarsum rickettsia cannot be discarded, since several species of tick-borne rickettsiae that were considered nonpathogenic for decades are now associated with human infections.

  3. Removal of drone brood from Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies to control Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) and retain adult drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wantuch, Holly A; Tarpy, David R

    2009-12-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) has plagued European honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), in the Americas since its introduction in the 1980s. For many years, these mites were sufficiently controlled using synthetic acaricides. Recently, however, beekeepers have experienced increased resistance by mites to chemical pesticides, which are also known to leave residues in hive products such as wax and honey. Thus there has been increased emphasis on nonchemical integrated pest management control tactics for Varroa. Because mites preferentially reproduce in drone brood (pupal males), we developed a treatment strategy focusing on salvaging parasitized drones while removing mites from them. We removed drone brood from colonies in which there was no acaricidal application and banked them in separate "drone-brood receiving" colonies treated with pesticides to kill mites emerging with drones. We tested 20 colonies divided into three groups: 1) negative control (no mite treatment), 2) positive control (treatment with acaricides), and 3) drone-brood removal and placement into drone-brood receiving colonies. We found that drone-brood trapping significantly lowered mite numbers during the early months of the season, eliminating the need for additional control measures in the spring. However, mite levels in the drone-brood removal group increased later in the summer, suggesting that this benefit does not persist throughout the entire season. Our results suggest that this method of drone-brood trapping can be used as an element of an integrated control strategy to control varroa mites, eliminating a large portion of the Varroa population with limited chemical treatments while retaining the benefits of maintaining adult drones in the population.

  4. Laboratory evaluation of a native strain of Beauveria bassiana for controlling Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immediato, Davide; Camarda, Antonio; Iatta, Roberta; Puttilli, Maria Rita; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Di Paola, Giancarlo; Giangaspero, Annunziata; Otranto, Domenico; Cafarchia, Claudia

    2015-09-15

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) (Acari: Dermanyssidae) is one of the most economically important ectoparasites of laying hens worldwide. Chemical control of this mite may result in environmental and food contamination, as well as the development of drug resistance. High virulence of Beauveria bassiana sensu lato strains isolated from naturally infected hosts or from their environment has been demonstrated toward many arthropod species, including ticks. However, a limited number of studies have assessed the use of B. bassiana for the control of D. gallinae s.l. and none of them have employed native strains. This study reports the pathogenicity of a native strain of B. bassiana (CD1123) against nymphs and adults of D. gallinae. Batches of nymph and adult mites (i.e., n=720 for each stage) for treated groups (TGs) were placed on paper soaked with a 0.1% tween 80 suspension of B. bassiana (CIS, 10(5), 10(7) and 10(9) conidia/ml), whilst 240 untreated control mites for each stage (CG) were exposed only to 0.1% tween 80. The mites in TG showed a higher mortality at all stages (p<0.01) when compared to CG, depending on the time of exposure and the conidial concentration. A 100% mortality rate was recorded using a CIS of 10(9) conidia/ml 12 days post infection (DPI) in adults and 14 DPI in nymphs. B. bassiana suspension containing 10(9) conidia/ml was highly virulent towards nymph and adult stages of D. gallinae, therefore representing a possible promising natural product to be used in alternative or in combination to other acaricidal compounds currently used for controlling the red mite.

  5. Intraguild predation among Scolothrips longicornis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), Neoseiulus californicus and Typhlodromus bagdasarjani (Acari: Phytoseiidae) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farazmand, Azadeh; Fathipour, Yaghoub; Kamali, Karim

    2015-04-01

    This study was carried out on the ability of predatory thrips Scolothrips longicornis Priesner to feed on 2 phytoseiid species and vice versa. Also the effect of predation of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) on Typhlodromus bagdasarjani Wainstein and Arutunjan and vice versa was evaluated. The larvae, prepupae, and pupae of thrips and the eggs, larvae, and protonymphs of phytoseiids were selected as intraguild prey. The intraguild predation (IGP) among S. longicornis and 2 phytoseiid species was unidirectional and in favor of phytoseiids, i.e., S. longicornis was not able to feed on larval stages of 2 phytoseiids. However, N. californicus and T. bagdasarjani fed on the 1st instar larvae (1.39 and 0.80 per day), 2nd instar larvae (0.87 and 0.55 per day), prepupae (0.51 and 0.48 per day), and pupae of thrips (0.51 and 0.49 per day, respectively). Both phytoseiids fed on eggs, larvae, and protonymphal stages of each other. Females of N. californicus consumed more phytoseiid larvae (2.49 per day) than T. bagdasarjani, which consumed 1.08 N. californicus larvae per day. When Tetranychus urticae was presented as an extraguild prey, intensity of IGP between 2 species of phytoseiids and on larval stages of S. longicornis reduced significantly. Therefore, it is concluded that (i) IGP existed among the 3 examined species and lack of feeding of S. longicornis on 2 phytoseiid species can be justified by its feeding type (monophagy), (ii) N. californicus was much more prone to IGP than was T. bagdasarjani. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  6. Primeiro relato de Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, 1907 (acari: ixodidae parasitando lagarto da espécie Tupinambis teguixin (L., no município de Glorinha, estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil The first report of Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, 1907 (acari ixodidae on the lizard Tupinambis teguixin (L. at the municipality of Glorinha, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João R Martins

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Amblyomma fuscum conhecida somente no Brasil, tem sido descrita como uma espécie rara de carrapato com relatos de sua ocorrência nas regiões sul e sudeste. Este é um novo registro desta espécie (9 fêmeas parasitando lagarto (Tupinambis teguixin, no Município de Glorinha, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. As fêmeas foram depositadas na coleção do Instituto de Pesquisas Veterinárias Desidério Finamor (7 espécimes e na coleção de Acari do Instituto Butantan, Estado de São Paulo (2 espécimes. O achado confirma o estabelecimento de A. fuscum no Sul do Brasil.Amblyomma fuscum known only from Brazil has been described as a rare tick species with few reports of its occurrence in South and Southeast region. This is a new records this tick species (9 females parasitizing lizard (Tupinambis teguixin at the Municipality of Glorinha, State of Rio Grande do Sul. The females were deposited in the tick collection of Veterinary Research Institute Desiderio Finamor (7 specimens, Eldorado do Sul, RS and in the Acari collection from Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, State of São Paulo (2 specimens. The finding confirms establishment de A. fuscum in the South of Brazil.

  7. Overwintering survival and postdiapause fecundity in a population of the Kanzawa spider mite Tetranychus kanzawai (Acari: Tetranychidae) on Orixa japonica (Rutaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Katsura

    2011-01-01

    In several adult-diapausing insects and mites, long duration of diapause decreases egg production after diapause termination. However, such nonlethal effects are much less studied than overwintering survival. In this study, lethal and nonlethal effects of different periods of diapause were investigated in an adult-diapausing spider mite, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae), through field experiments. Diapausing females produced in the laboratory were kept in their natural habitat from October or November to the next April, and survival rate and postdiapause fecundity were compared between the months. The survival rate was lower, but not significantly, in the October treatment. Postdiapause fecundity was also not significantly different between the months. These results suggest that the effects of diapause on survival and reproduction are quite small after October, when diapausing mites are increasing in their natural habitat.

  8. Prevalence, mean intensity of infestation and host specificity of Spinturnicidae mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) on bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Pantanal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Camila de Lima; Graciolli, Gustavo

    2013-06-01

    Acari ectoparasites were collected from bats during 12 months in the Rio Negro farm (19°34'22″S and 56°14'36″W), Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 654 bats belonging to the families Phyllostomidae, Noctilionidae, Molossidae, Vespertilionidae and Emballonuridae were captured. Only 136 bats of nine genera and 11 species were parasitised. Periglischrus iheringi Oudemans was the most abundant mite species, and this prevalence may be related to the low degree of host specificity of this species and due to the broad geographical distribution of its hosts. The greatest mean intensity was found to Periglischrus torrealbai Machado-Allison on Phyllostomus discolor Wagner (Phyllostomidae) and Periglischrus tonatii Herrin and Tipton associated with Lophostoma silviculum d'Orbigny (Phyllostomidae), which also had the highest prevalence of infestation.

  9. Taxonomic value of morphological and morphometrical characters in the immature stages of four species of Kampimodromus Nesbitt (Acari: Phytoseiidae) from Italy and Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargnus, Elena; Zandigiacomo, Pietro

    2014-08-28

    The immature stages of four species of Kampimodromus Nesbitt (Acari: Phytoseiidae) from Italy and Croatia have been studied and identified both at stage and species level. Larval stages of Kampimodromus corylosus Kolodochka and all immature stages of Kampimodromus ericinus Ragusa di Chiara & Tsolakis and Kampimodromus langei Wainstein & Arutunjan are described for the first time. The relative length of the posterior dorsal setae Z4 make the larvae of Kampimodromus aberrans (Oudemans) easy to separate from those of the other three species. Nymphs of each species had similar diagnostics to the adults of the respective species. Ontogeny of the idiosomal and leg setation of the Kampimodromus immatures studied in comparison to the available data from immatures of other phytoseiid species is discussed. The length of seta Z4 in the K. aberrans larva, and the number of setae on leg IV of the deutonymphs of the four Kampimodromus species, are proposed as additional taxonomic traits for Phytoseiidae. 

  10. High resolution genetic mapping uncovers chitin synthase-1 as the target-site of the structurally diverse mite growth inhibitors clofentezine, hexythiazox and etoxazole in Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaeght, Peter; Osborne, Edward J; Odman-Naresh, Jothini; Grbić, Miodrag; Nauen, Ralf; Merzendorfer, Hans; Clark, Richard M; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    The acaricides clofentezine, hexythiazox and etoxazole are commonly referred to as 'mite growth inhibitors', and clofentezine and hexythiazox have been used successfully for the integrated control of plant mite pests for decades. Although they are still important today, their mode of action has remained elusive. Recently, a mutation in chitin synthase 1 (CHS1) was linked to etoxazole resistance. In this study, we identified and investigated a Tetranychus urticae strain (HexR) harboring recessive, monogenic resistance to each of hexythiazox, clofentezine, and etoxazole. To elucidate if there is a common genetic basis for the observed cross-resistance, we adapted a previously developed bulk segregant analysis method to map with high resolution a single, shared resistance locus for all three compounds. This finding indicates that the underlying molecular basis for resistance to all three compounds is identical. This locus is centered on the CHS1 gene, and as supported by additional genetic and biochemical studies, a non-synonymous variant (I1017F) in CHS1 associates with resistance to each of the tested acaricides in HexR. Our findings thus demonstrate a shared molecular mode of action for the chemically diverse mite growth inhibitors clofentezine, hexythiazox and etoxazole as inhibitors of an essential, non-catalytic activity of CHS1. Given the previously documented cross-resistance between clofentezine, hexythiazox and the benzyolphenylurea (BPU) compounds flufenoxuron and cycloxuron, CHS1 should be also considered as a potential target-site of insecticidal BPUs.

  11. Botanical Extracts from Rosehip (Rosa canina, Willow Bark (Salix alba, and Nettle Leaf (Urtica dioica Suppress IL-1β-Induced NF-κB Activation in Canine Articular Chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Shakibaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the anti-inflammatory mode of action of botanical extracts from rosehip (Rosa canina, willow bark (Salix alba, and nettle leaf (Urtica dioica in an in vitro model of primary canine articular chondrocytes. Methods. The biological effects of the botanical extracts were studied in chondrocytes treated with IL-1β for up to 72 h. Expression of collagen type II, cartilage-specific proteoglycan (CSPG, β1-integrin, SOX-9, COX-2, and MMP-9 and MMP-13 was examined by western blotting. Results. The botanical extracts suppressed IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation by inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, p65 phosphorylation, and p65 nuclear translocation. These events correlated with downregulation of NF-κB targets including COX-2 and MMPs. The extracts also reversed the IL-1β-induced downregulation of collagen type II, CSPG, β1-integrin, and cartilage-specific transcription factor SOX-9 protein expression. In high-density cultures botanical extracts stimulated new cartilage formation even in the presence of IL-1β. Conclusions. Botanical extracts exerted anti-inflammatory and anabolic effects on chondrocytes. The observed reduction of IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation suggests that further studies are warranted to demonstrate the effectiveness of plant extracts in the treatment of OA and other conditions in which NF-κB plays pathophysiological roles.

  12. Serenoa repens associated with Urtica dioica (ProstaMEV) and curcumin and quercitin (FlogMEV) extracts are able to improve the efficacy of prulifloxacin in bacterial prostatitis patients: results from a prospective randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tommaso; Mazzoli, Sandra; Bechi, Adriano; Addonisio, Patrizia; Mondaini, Nicola; Pagliai, Roberto Castricchi; Bartoletti, Riccardo

    2009-06-01

    We report the results of a prospective randomised study to evaluate the therapeutic effect of Serenoa repens, Urtica dioica (ProstaMEV), quercitin and curcumin (FlogMEV) extracts associated with prulifloxacin in patients affected by chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP). From a whole population of 284 patients, 143 patients affected by CBP [National Institutes of Health (NIH) class II prostatitis] were enrolled. All patients received prulifloxacin 600 mg daily for 14 days, in accordance with antibiogram results. Patients were split into two groups: Group A received prulifloxacin associated with ProstaMEV and FlogMEV; Group B received only antibiotic therapy. Microbiological and clinical efficacies were tested by two follow-up visits at 1 month and 6 months, respectively. Quality of life (QoL) was measured using the NIH Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (CPSI) and International Prostatic Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaires. Group A comprised 106 patients and Group B comprised 37 patients. One month after treatment, 89.6% of patients who had received prulifloxacin associated with ProstaMEV and FlogMEV did not report any symptoms related to CBP, whilst only 27% of patients who received antibiotic therapy alone were recurrence-free (P patients in Group A had recurrence of disease whilst two patients in Group B did. Questionnaire results demonstrated statistically significant differences between groups (all P patients affected by CBP.

  13. SELETIVIDADE DE CHLORFENAPYR E FENBUTATIN-OXIDE SOBRE DUAS ESPÉCIES DE ÁCAROS PREDADORES (ACARI: PHYTOSEIIDAE EM CITROS

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    REIS PAULO REBELLES

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o uso de bioensaios, verificaram-se os efeitos residual de contato, ovicida e de persistência dos produtos chlorfenapyr e fenbutatin-oxide sobre duas espécies de ácaros predadores, Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma e Euseius alatus DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae, associados ao ácaro da leprose-dos-citros Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Acari: Tenuipalpidae. O efeito total sobre os adultos foi estudado por meio do método residual de contato com pulverização em superfície de vidro, conforme metodologia da IOBC. O efeito ovicida foi avaliado por meio de pulverização direta sobre os ovos dos ácaros predadores, também em superfície de vidro. A persistência dos produtos foi avaliada em laboratório, em arenas confeccionadas com folhas de laranjeira pulverizadas no campo, aos 0; 5; 15 e 30 dias após a aplicação. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que chlorfenapyr foi nocivo ao I. zuluagai e E. alatus e o fenbutatin-oxide foi levemente nocivo a E. alatus e inócuo a I. zuluagai. Nenhum dos produtos apresentou efeito ovicida. Fenbutatin-oxide apresentou baixa persistência para ambas as espécies de ácaros predadores, e chlorfenapyr, na dosagem de 31,3 ml, foi de baixa persistência, enquanto, na dosagem de 62,5 ml, foi moderadamente persistente. O fenbutatin-oxide apresentou-se inócuo e levemente nocivo aos ácaros predadores I. zuluagai e E. alatus, respectivamente, e de baixa persistência para ambas as espécies

  14. Expression analysis of Drosophila doublesex, transformer-2, intersex, fruitless-like, and vitellogenin homologs in the parahaploid predator Metaseiulus occidentalis (Chelicerata: Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Aaron F; Hoy, Marjorie A

    2015-01-01

    Characterization and expression analyses are essential to gain insight into sex-determination pathways in members of the Acari. Little is known about sex determination at the molecular level in the western orchard predatory mite Metaseiulus occidentalis (Arthropoda: Chelicerata: Arachnida: Acari: Phytoseiidae), a parahaploid species. In this study, eight genes previously identified as putative homologs to genes involved in the sex-determination pathway in Drosophila melanogaster were evaluated for sex-specific alternative splicing and sex-biased expression using reverse-transcriptase PCR and quantitative real-time PCR techniques, respectively. The homologs evaluated in M. occidentalis included two doublesex-like genes (Moccdsx1 and Moccdsx2), transformer-2 (Mocctra-2), intersex (Moccix), two fruitless-like genes (MoccBTB1 and MoccBTB2), as well as two vitellogenin-like genes (Moccvg1 and Moccvg2). Single transcripts of equal size were detected in males and females for Moccdsx1, Moccdsx2, Mocctra-2, Moccix, and MoccBTB2, suggesting that their pre-mRNAs do not undergo alternative splicing in a sex-specific manner. Three genes, Moccdsx1, Moccdsx2 and MoccBTB2, displayed male-biased expression relative to females. One gene, Moccix, displayed female-biased expression relative to males. Two genes, Mocctra-2 and MoccBTB1, did not display detectable differences in transcript abundance in males and females. Expression of Moccvg1 and Moccvg2 were detected in females only, and transcript levels were up-regulated in mated females relative to unmated females. To our knowledge, this represents the first attempt to elucidate expression patterns of putative sex-determination genes in an acarine. This study is an initial step towards understanding the sex-determination pathway in the parahaploid M. occidentalis.

  15. Identification and characterization of microRNAs by deep-sequencing in Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jin; Liu, Guang-Yuan; Chen, Ze; Ren, Qiao-Yun; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jian-Xun; Wang, Hui

    2015-06-15

    Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (H.a. anatolicum) (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks are globally distributed ectoparasites with veterinary and medical importance. These ticks not only weaken animals by sucking their blood but also transmit different species of parasitic protozoans. Multiple factors influence these parasitic infections including miRNAs, which are non-coding, small regulatory RNA molecules essential for the complex life cycle of parasites. To identify and characterize miRNAs in H.a. anatolicum, we developed an integrative approach combining deep sequencing, bioinformatics and real-time PCR analysis. Here we report the use of this approach to identify miRNA expression, family distribution, and nucleotide characteristics, and discovered novel miRNAs in H.a. anatolicum. The result showed that miR-1-3p, miR-275-3p, and miR-92a were expressed abundantly. There was a strong bias on miRNA, family members, and nucleotide compositions at certain positions in H.a. anatolicum miRNA. Uracil was the dominant nucleotide, particularly at positions 1, 6, 16, and 18, which were located approximately at the beginning, middle, and end of conserved miRNAs. Analysis of the conserved miRNAs indicated that miRNAs in H.a. anatolicum were concentrated along three diverse phylogenetic branches of bilaterians, insects and coelomates. Two possible roles for the use of miRNA in H.a. anatolicum could be presumed based on its parasitic life cycle: to maintain a large category of miRNA families of different animals, and/or to preserve stringent conserved seed regions with active changes in other places of miRNAs mainly in the middle and the end regions. These might help the parasite to undergo its complex life style in different hosts and adapt more readily to the host changes. The present study represents the first large scale characterization of H.a. anatolicum miRNAs, which could further the understanding of the complex biology of this zoonotic parasite, as well as initiate miRNA studies

  16. Risk assessment of Cry toxins of Bacillus thuringiensis on the predatory mites Euseius concordis and Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Thiago Rodrigues; Ausique, John Jairo Saldarriaga; Nunes, Daiane Heloisa; Ibanhes, Fernando Henrique; Delalibera Júnior, Italo

    2013-04-01

    Genetically modified plants carrying Cry toxins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely used for pest control. Possible adverse effects as a result of the use of this control technique to non-target organisms is still a concern; however, few studies have addressed the effects of Bt crops on phytoseiid predatory mites. Phytoseiids are important for the natural control of phytophagous mites, but they can also feed on pollen, plant exudates, etc. Thus, phytoseiids may ingest Bt toxins through several pathways. In this paper, we evaluate the direct effect of Bt-toxins by feeding the predators on Bt cell suspensions, on solution of a Bt toxin and the tri-trophic effect by Bt expressed in transgenic plants. We present a method of conducting toxicological tests with Phytoseiidae which can be useful in studies of risk analysis of toxins to be expressed by genetically engineered plants. This method was used to evaluate the potential effect of ingestion of suspensions of Bt (1.25 × 10(8) spores/ml) and of purified protein Cry1Ia12 (0.006 mg/ml and 0.018 mg/ml) on Euseius concordis, a predatory mite that develops and reproduces best on pollen. The effects of genetically modified Bollgard(®) cotton, which carries the Cry1Ac protein, on Neoseiulus californicus, a selective predator that feeds more on spider mites than on pollen or insects, was determined by feeding them with Tetranychus urticae reared in Bollgard(®) cotton and on the non-transgenic isoline. When E. concordis was fed with suspension of Bt isolate derived from product Dipel(®) PM, no significant effects were detected. Similarly, Cry1Ia12 Bt toxin, at a concentration of 0.006 mg/ml, did not affect E. concordis. At a concentration of 0.018 mg/ml, however, the intake of this protein reduced the reproduction of E. concordis. There were no effects of Bollgard(®) cotton on the biological traits and on the predatory capacity of N. californicus. Results indicate that the Cry toxins of B. thuringiensis

  17. Toxicidade residual de alguns agrotóxicos recomendado na agricultura sobre Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae Residual toxicity of some pesticides recommended for citrus orchards on the predaceous mite Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor (Acari: phytoseiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Zatti da Silva

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a toxicidade residual de alguns agrotóxicos utilizados em citros sobre Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor em condições de laboratório. O método de bioensaio adotado foi o de contato residual. Folhas de citros da variedade Pêra, acondicionadas em arenas, foram pulverizadas em torre de Potter. A toxicidade residual dos produtos foi avaliada duas horas e 1; 3; 5; 7; 10; 14 e 21 dias após a aplicação. Em cada arena, foram transferidas dez fêmeas adultas de N. californicus, juntamente com uma quantidade suficiente de Tetranychus urticae, como fonte de alimento. As avaliações de mortalidade foram realizadas 72 horas após a transferência dos ácaros para as arenas. Os agrotóxicos acrinathrin, deltamethrin, dinocap, enxofre, fenpropathrin, óxido de fenbutatin e propargite não causaram mortalidades significativas em adultos de N. californicus. Foram registradas mortalidades de 29,8; 24,0 e 34,1% para ácaros N. californicus expostos a resíduos de duas horas de idade de abamectim, azocyclotin e cyhexatin, respectivamente. Dicofol, pyridaben e chlorfenapyr causaram 100% de mortalidade aos ácaros predadores expostos aos resíduos tóxicos dos acaricidas, com duas horas de idade. Abamectin provocou mortalidade significativa por um período inferior a um dia. Resíduos dos acaricidas azocyclotin, cyhexatin, dicofol, pyridaben e chlorfenapyr provocaram mortalidades significativas por períodos de 1; 1; 10; 10 e 21dias, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos no presente experimento servem de subsídio para a escolha adequada dos agrotóxicos a serem utilizados em pomares de citros nos quais N. californicus esteja presente ou naqueles em que o predador venha a ser liberado. Esses resultados também servem para a escolha do momento mais favorável para a liberação dos ácaros predadores dessa espécie no campo, após a aplicação de agrotóxicos nos pomares. Estudos conduzidos em condições de campo ainda s

  18. 添加剂对麻叶荨麻青贮发酵品质的影响%Effect of Additives on Fermentation Quality of Hempleaf Nettle (Urtica cannabina L.) Silage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓庆; 金艳梅; 孙启忠; 王林; 张慧杰

    2010-01-01

    麻叶荨麻(Urtica cannabina L.)资源丰富,具有较高的营养价值.由于水分、灰分、蛋白质含量和缓冲能值较高,可溶性碳水化合物含量低,难以单独成功青贮.为探讨添加剂对其青贮发酵品质的影响,以Micromanager H/M(MH)、Lalsil Fresh (LF)、青宝Ⅱ号(FS)、Lalsil Dry(LD)4种添加剂,每种设3个添加梯度,以不使用添加剂处理作为对照(Control),共13个处理,每个处理3次重复,室温袋贮60 d后取样分析.结果表明:添加MH、LF和FS不能快速降低pH,没有改善发酵品质;添加LD极显著降低了pH,能够明显促进乳酸发酵(P<0.01);所使用的添加剂均不能抑制蛋白质分解;添加不同剂量MH、LF和FS的青贮品质分别为5级、4级和4级,发酵品质较差;添加不同剂量的LD能够改善发酵品质,其中添加0.5 g/kg LD的效果最好.故乳酸菌制剂与纤维素酶或糖联合使用,可改善麻叶荨麻的青贮品质.

  19. Constraints to growth of annual nettle (Urtica urens) in an elevated CO{sub 2} atmosphere: Decreased leaf area ratio and tissue N cannot be explained by ontogenetic drift or mineral N supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, D.J. [Univ. of Wales, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Gwynedd (United Kingdom); Stirling, C.M. [Univ. of Wales, School of Agricultural and Forest Sciences, Gwynedd (United Kingdom); Farrar, J. [Univ. of Wales, School of Biological Science, Gwynedd (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    The current literature indicates that the stimulation of relative growth rate (RGR) by an elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is transient. Urtica urens L. was exposed to an elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration for 26 days to better understand the factors involved in this constraint to growth. Plants were grown hydroponically without nutrient limitation in controlled-environment cabinets. Consistent with studies of other C{sub 3} species, the initial CO{sub 2} stimulation of RGR of U. urens was not sustained and declined in the early stages of exposure. Whilst the decline in RGR was most strongly linked to a reduction in the CO{sub 2} stimulation of net assimilation rate (NAR), its initial increase was constrained by an early and persistent reduction in leaf area ratio (LAR) due to a decreased specific leaf area (SLA). The decline in NAR could not be linked to any down-regulation of photosynthetic capacity of individual leaves, despite an accumulation of soluble sugars in them. The reductions in LAR and SLA reflected an accumulation of structural weight in addition to an accumulation of total non-structural carbohydrate (TNC). To account for the impact of ontogenetic drift on the partitioning of weight and leaf area, this study extends the usual allometric approach to include an analysis of effects on the vertical placement of regression lines (i.e their elevations). Using this approach, we argue that CO{sub 2}-induced reductions in LAR and SLA cannot be explained by ontogenetic drift. By monitoring the tissue N concentration, external N supply was shown unambiguously to be non-limiting for growth at any plant size. Nevertheless, tissue N was consistently lower in elevated CO{sub 2}, independent of both ontogeny and TNC accumulation, raising the possibility that the reductions in NAR, LAR and SLA are related to some internal constraint on N utilization. (au)

  20. Ocorrência de Ornithonyssus bursa (Berlese, 1888 (Acari: Macronyssidae em filhotes de Megascops choliba (corujinha-do-mato e Pitangus sulphuratus (bem-te-vi, no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Ocurrence of Ornithonyssus bursa (Berlese, 1888 (Acari: Macronyssidae on Megascops choliba (tropical screech-owl and Pitangus sulphuratus (great kiskadee nestlings in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

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    Carolina S. Mascarenhas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O Núcleo de Reabilitação da Fauna Silvestre e Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres da Universidade Federal de Pelotas - RS atendeu dois filhotes de Megascops choliba (corujinha-do-mato (Strigiformes - Strigidae e dois de Pitangus sulphuratus (bem-te-vi (Passeriformes - Tyrannidae intensamente parasitados por ácaros, em maio de 2005 e dezembro de 2006, respectivamente. Os filhotes e o ninho de P. sulphuratus foram recolhidos na zona urbana da cidade de Pelotas - RS após forte temporal. Os ácaros foram removidos, colocados em álcool 70% e levados ao laboratório de parasitologia para identificação. Os espécimes foram clarificados em lactofenol, montados em meio de Hoyer e identificados como Ornithonyssus bursa (Acari - Macronyssidae. Registra-se Megascops choliba e Pitangus sulphuratus como hospedeiros de Ornithonyssus bursa, no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.The Center for Rehabilitation of Wildlife and Center for Selection of Wild Animal of the Federal University of Pelotas has attended two nestlings of Megascops choliba (tropical screech-owl (Strigiformes - Strigidae and two of Pitangus sulphuratus (great kiskadee (Passeriformes - Tyrannidae heavily parasitized by mites, in May 2005 and December 2006, respectively. The nestlings and the nest of P. sulphuratus were collected in the Pelotas urban area after severe storms. The mites were removed, clarified in lactofenol, permanently mounted in Hoyer's medium and identified as Ornithonyssus bursa (Acari - Macronyssidae. Megascops choliba and Pitangus sulphuratus are reported as host of Ornithonyssus bursa in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

  1. Biological cycle of Tenuipalpus heveae Baker (Acari, Tenuipalpidae on leaflets of three rubber tree clones Ciclo de vida de Tenuipalpus heveae Baker (Acari, Tenuipalpidae em folíolos de três clones de seringueira

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    Reinaldo José Fazzio Feres

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle of Tenuipalpus heveae Baker (Acari, Tenuipalpidae on leaflets from three rubber tree clones. The biological cycle of Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, 1945 (Tenuipalpidae, a potential rubber tree pest mite, was studied by the observation of individuals reared on leaflets of the clones GT 1, PB 235 and RRIM 600, in controlled environmental conditions. Three daily observations were done of 60 eggs on leaflets from each clone in order to verify the development of immature stages and the female oviposition. The fertility life table was constructed based in the collected data. Mites reared on PB 235 had faster rate of development, requiring less time in days, to double its population in number (TD, and had the highest values for egg production, female longevity, net reproductive rate (Ro, intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m and finite rate of increase (λ. Lower reproductive values and the longest time necessary to reach adult stage were recorded for the mites on GT 1. In all studied clones, the deutonymphal phase had the highest viability, while the larval phase had the lowest, highlighted by the survivorship curve that indicated high mortality during this life stage. The clone PB 235 allowed the most suitable conditions for the development of T. heveae, followed by RRIM 600, while GT 1 was the less suitable substratum to rear this mite species.O ciclo de vida de Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, 1945 (Tenuipalpidae, um potencial ácaro-praga da seringueira, foi estudado a partir de indivíduos criados sobre folíolos destacados dos clones GT 1, PB 235 e RRIM 600, em condições controladas. Três observações diárias foram realizadas, acompanhando-se o desenvolvimento de 60 ovos e de sua prole em folíolos de cada um dos clones, para verificação da oviposição das fêmeas e dos estágios de desenvolvimento. A partir dos dados obtidos, foi elaborada uma tabela de vida de fertilidade. Os ácaros criados sobre folíolos de PB 235 apresentaram r

  2. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the storage mite pest Tyrophagus longior (Gervais) (Acari: Acaridae) and comparative mitogenomic analysis of four acarid mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Banghe; Li, Chaopin

    2016-02-01

    Mites of the genus Tyrophagus are economically important polyphagous pest commonly living on stored products and also responsible for allergic reactions to humans. Complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) and the gene features therein are widely used as molecular markers in the study of population genetics, phylogenetics as well as molecular evolution. However, scarcity on the sequence data has greatly impeded the studies in these areas pertaining to the Acari (mites and ticks). Information on the Tyrophagus mitogenomes is quite critical for phylogenetic evaluation and molecular evolution of the mitogenomes within Acariformes. Herein, we reported the complete mitogenome of the allergenic acarid storage mite Tyrophagus longior (Astigmata: Acaridae), an important member of stored food pests, and compared with those of other three acarid mites. The complete mitogenome of T. longior was a circular molecule of 13,271 bp. Unexpectedly, only 19 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs) were present, lacking trnF, trnS1 and trnQ. Furthermore, it also contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) and 2 genes for rRNA (rrnS and rrnL) commonly detected in metazoans. The four mitogenomes displayed similar characteristics with respect to the gene content, nucleotide comparison, and codon usages. Yet, the gene order of T. longior was different from that in other Acari. The J-strands of the four mitogenomes possessed high A+T content (67.4-70.0%), and exhibited positive GC-skews and negative AT-skews. Most inferred tRNAs of T. longior were extremely truncated, lacking either a D- or T-arm, as found in other acarid mites. In T. longior mitogenome the A+T-rich region was just 50 bp in length and can be folded as a stable stem-loop structure, whereas in the region some structures of microsatellite-like (AT)n and palindromic sequences was not present. Besides, reconstructing of the phylogenetic relationship based on concatenated amino acid sequences of 13 PCGs supported that monophyly of the family

  3. Molecular characterization and evolutionary insights into potential sex-determination genes in the western orchard predatory mite Metaseiulus occidentalis (Chelicerata: Arachnida: Acari: Phytoseiidae).

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    Pomerantz, Aaron F; Hoy, Marjorie A; Kawahara, Akito Y

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the process of sex determination at the molecular level in species belonging to the subclass Acari, a taxon of arachnids that contains mites and ticks. The recent sequencing of the transcriptome and genome of the western orchard predatory mite Metaseiulus occidentalis allows investigation of molecular mechanisms underlying the biological processes of sex determination in this predator of phytophagous pest mites. We identified four doublesex-and-mab-3-related transcription factor (dmrt) genes, one transformer-2 gene, one intersex gene, and two fruitless-like genes in M. occidentalis. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted to infer the molecular relationships to sequences from species of arthropods, including insects, crustaceans, acarines, and a centipede, using available genomic data. Comparative analyses revealed high sequence identity within functional domains and confirmed that the architecture for certain sex-determination genes is conserved in arthropods. This study provides a framework for identifying potential target genes that could be implicated in the process of sex determination in M. occidentalis and provides insight into the conservation and change of the molecular components of sex determination in arthropods.

  4. Acaricidal properties of vetiver essential oil from Chrysopogon zizanioides (Poaceae) against the tick species Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Roseane Nunes de Santana; Nascimento Lima, Cecília Beatriz; Passos Oliveira, Alexandre; Albano Araújo, Ana Paula; Fitzgerald Blank, Arie; Barreto Alves, Péricles; Nascimento Lima, Rafaely; Albano Araújo, Vinícius; Santana, Alisson Silva; Bacci, Leandro

    2015-09-15

    Ticks are arthropods widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, which can transmit infectious agents also responsible for zoonoses. Excessive use of conventional acaricides has resulted in the onset of drug resistance by these parasites, thus the need to use alternative methods for their control. This study evaluated the acaricidal activities of Chrysopogon zizanioides (vetiver) essential oils containing different zizanoic and khuzimol (high and low acidity) acid concentrations on Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). To this aims, toxicity tests of different concentrations of examined essential oils were conducted on adult females and larval stages. Results showed that the essential oils of C. zizanioides with high and low acidity reduced oviposition of females, eggs hatch and larval survival, being more effective than some commercial products widely used to control these ectoparasites. These results indicate that the C. zizanoides essential oils are promising candidates as acaricidal agents and represent also an add value to vetiver oil with high acidity, which is commercially undervalued in the cosmetic industry.

  5. Syringophilid mites (Acari: Syringophilidae) associated with the rails (Aves: Rallidae) and a key to the species of the genus Rafapicobia Skoracki, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoracki, Maciej; Unsoeld, Markus; Skorupski, Maciej; Kavetska, Katarzyna

    2014-07-01

    The fauna of quill mites of the family Syringophilidae Lavoipierre, 1953 (Acari: Prostigmata Cheyletoidea) parasitising birds of the family Rallidae Vigors (Gruiformes) is updated. A new species, Rafapicobia melzeri n. sp. (subfamily Picobiinae), is described from four host species: Rallus aquaticus Linnaeus (type-host) from Germany, Pardirallus sanguinolentus (Swainson) from Chile, Porzana porzana (Linnaeus) from France and P. parva (Scopoli) from Kirghizia. The new species is most similar to R. lepidocolaptesi Skoracki & Solarczyk, 2012 but differs in the absence of agenital plates and the length ratios of setae ag2:g1 and vi:ve:si in females and in the punctate ornament on the hysteronotal and the pygidial shields in males. A key to the species of the genus Rafapicobia is proposed. This is the first record of a representative of the subfamily Picobiinae on gruiform birds. Additionally, new rallid hosts are reported for Charadriphilus ralli Skoracki & Bochkov, 2010 (subfamily Syringophilinae): Gallinula melanops (Vieillot) from Chile, Laterallus melanophaius (Vieillot) from Paraguay, and P. parva (Scopoli) from Kirghizia.

  6. Diversity of Quill Mites of the Family Syringophilidae (Acari: Prostigmata) Parasitizing Owls (Aves: Strigiformes) With Remarks on the Host-Parasite Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoracki, Maciej; Unsoeld, Markus; Marciniak, Natalia; Sikora, Bozena

    2016-07-01

    The quill mite fauna of the family Syringophilidae (Acari: Prostigmata: Cheyletoidea) associated with owls (Aves: Strigiformes) is reviewed. A new genus is proposed, Neobubophilus Skoracki & Unsoeld gen. nov. It differs from closely related Bubophilus (Bubophilus Philips and Norton, 1978) by the absence of leg setae vsII in the both sexes. In addition, four new species are described: (1) Neobubophilus cunicularius Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Athene cunicularia (Molina, 1782) (Strigidae) from Paraguay; (2) Neobubophilus atheneus Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Athene noctua (Scopoli, 1769) and Athene brama (Temminck, 1821) (Strigidae), both from India; (3) Bubophilus tytonus Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Tyto alba affinis (Blyth, 1862) (Tytonidae) from Cameroon, and (4) Megasyringophilus dalmas Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Megascops choliba (Vieillot, 1817) (Strigidae) from Venezuela. The following new host species are given: Bubo bubo (Linnaeus, 1758) (Strigidae) from Nepal for Bubophilus ascalaphus (Philips and Norton 1978) and Strix woodfordii (Smith, 1834) (Strigidae) from Tanzania for Bubophilus aluconis (aluconis Nattress and Skoracki 2009). A key for syringophilid genera and species associated with owls is constructed. The host-parasite relationships of syringophilid mites and owls are discussed. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com Version of Record, first published online May 24, 2016 with fixed content and layout in compliance with Art. 8.1.3.2 ICZN.

  7. Laboratory evaluation of aromatic essential oils from thirteen plant species as candidate repellents against Leptotrombidium chiggers (Acari: Trombiculidae), the vector of scrub typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Yoolek, Adisak; Kongkaew, Wittaya; Lerdthusnee, Kriangkrai; Khlaimanee, Nittaya; Parsartvit, Anchana; Malainual, Nat; Yong, Hoi-Sen

    2009-03-01

    Scrub typhus, a rickettsial disease transmitted by several species of Leptotrombidium chiggers (larvae), is endemic in many areas of Asia. The disease is best prevented by the use of personal protective measures, including repellents. In this study commercially produced aromatic, essential oils of 13 plant species and ethanol (control) were tested in the laboratory for repellency against host-seeking chiggers of Leptotrombidium imphalum Vercammen-Grandjean and Langston (Acari: Trombiculidae). A rapid, simple and economic in vitro test method was used by exposing the chigger for up to 5 min. Repellency was based on relative percentages of chiggers attracted to test and control substances. Four of the 13 essential oils showed promise as effective repellent against L. imphalum chiggers. Syzygium aromaticum (clove) oil exhibited 100% repellency at 5% concentration (dilution with absolute ethanol), whereas Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil exhibited 100% repellency at 40% concentration. Undiluted oils of Zingiber cassamunar (plai) and Eucalyptus globules (blue gum) exhibited 100% repellency. Of the remaining nine essential oils, only 100% Pelargonium graveolens (geranium) exhibited >50% repellency (viz. 57%). Styrax torkinensis (benzoin) oil did not exhibit any repellency. These findings show that several aromatic, essential oils of plants may be useful as chigger repellent for the prevention of scrub typhus. Syzygium aromaticum oil may be safer and more economical to prevent chigger attacks than commercially available synthetic chemicals, such as DEET that may have harmful side effects.

  8. Dinâmica populacional de Calepitrimerus vitis (Nalepa (Acari: eriophyidae em cultivares de videira na região da campanha do Rio Grande do Sul

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    Paulo Ricardo Ebert Siqueira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Na Região da Campanha do Rio Grande do Sul, o ácaro-da-ferrugem-da-videira, Calepitrimerus vitis (Nalepa (Acari: Eriophyidae, é encontrado com frequência em vinhedos de cultivares europeias, desde a safra de 2004/2005, causando bronzeamento nas folhas. A dinâmica populacional de C. vitis nas cultivares Chardonnay e Merlot foi avaliada em vinhedo comercial localizado no município de Dom Pedrito, na região da Campanha, durante os anos agrícolas de 2005/2006 e 2006/2007, por meio de amostragem realizada em folhas das posições basal, intermediária e apical de ramos de produção. O pico populacional de C. vitis ocorre entre o final de fevereiro e o início de março, sendo seguido de forte declínio populacional. A infestação variou de intensidade entre as cultivares de acordo com o ano, sendo a cultivar Chardonnay mais infestada no primeiro ano, e Merlot, no segundo. Folhas na posição basal, mediana e apical apresentam níveis similares de infestação. Uma correlação positiva foi encontrada entre o número de C. vitis na face abaxial das folhas e o percentual de folhas com infestação.

  9. Population structure and dynamics of the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar and the predator Euseius ho (DeLeon (Acari: Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae

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    Evila C. Costa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Population structure and dynamics of the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa and the predator Euseius ho (Acari: Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae. Cassava is attacked by several pests, among which the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa. Predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae are major natural enemies of pestmites and are naturally found inhabiting cassava plants in the field. We evaluated the temporal variation of the developmental stages of M. tanajoa and the most abundant predatory mite in cassava fields in the study region, the phytoseiid Euseius ho. Densities of all developmental stages of M. tanajoa were low during the rainy season, increasing over the cultivation cycle of cassava and peaking in the dry season. Overall, the larval stage of M. tanajoa presented the lowest densities throughout time. Densities of all developmental stages of E. ho were low and remained constant throughout the cultivation cycle of cassava. The number of eggs, nymphs and adults of M. tanajoa was higher in comparison to the larval stage whereas there were no differences in densities of the stages of E. ho. Densities of all developmental stages of M. tanajoa were negatively correlated with precipitation. Densities of the stages of egg, nymph and adult of M. tanajoa were positively related while the stage of larva was negatively related to temperature. We conclude that it is important to consider the population structure in studies of population dynamics of arthropods as each developmental stage experiences and responds uniquely to the local environment over time.

  10. Efficiency of the latex from Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (N.E. Br. Ursch & Leandri, Euphorbiaceae, in the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806 (Acari: Ixodidae

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    Zeneida T. Pinto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the latex from Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (N.E. Br. Ursch & Leandri, Euphorbiaceae, on the eggs and engorged larvae of Rhipicephalus (B. sanguineus (Latreille, 1806 (Acari: Ixodidae. Six aqueous concentrations: 25, 50, 100, 125, 250 and 500 μL/L of the latex of this plant were tested. The control group was tested only with distilled water. The latex of E. splendens var. hislopii presented an LD50 of 18.031 μL/L and LD90 of 84.610 μL/L against the eggs of R. (B. sanguineus. The larvae of all the groups treated with the latex presented a low survival rate of 0% at 25 μL/L, 1% at 50 μL/L, 2% at 100 μL/L, 3% at 125 μL/L, 9% at 250 μL/L, 5% at 500 μL/L when compared with the control group (91%. On day 7 and 14 after the application the latex killed more efficiently the treated groups (25, 50, 100, 125, 250 and 500 μL/L. As from day 21 the latex became less effective for all treatments. Our results clearly show that the aqueous concentration of the latex have a strong effect on tick eggs and larvae suggesting that it could become an important acaricide.

  11. Differences between populations of Spinturnix myoti (Acari: Mesostigmata) in breeding and non-breeding colonies of Myotis myotis (Chiroptera) in central Europe: the effect of roost type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postawa, Tomasz; Szubert-Kruszyńska, Agnieszka; Ferenc, Hanna

    2014-12-01

    We studied variations in the abundance of parasitic spinturnicid mites in relation to the gender, age and body condition of bats living in different habitats. Populations of Spinturnix myoti Kolenati, 1856 (Acari: Spinturnicidae), an ectoparasite of the bat Myotis myotis (Borkhausen) (Mammalia: Chiroptera), were investigated in two types of roosts differing in microclimatic conditions: caves (low temperature and high humidity) and attics (high temperature and low humidity). Our data suggest that bats from cave nursery colonies harbour more parasites than those from attic colonies, irrespective of host sex or age. In underground colonies, adult females and their young differ in the mean abundance of parasites, whereas no such differences were found in attic colonies. Non-lactating females from underground roosts and lactating females from attic colonies had similar parasite loads, were lower than those of adult lactating females from caves. A negative correlation between the host body condition index and parasite load was found only in the most infected sex/age group of bats. In spite of significant differences in parasite load, the mean abundance of particular life stages of mites seems to be independent of the type of roost occupied by the host, its sex or age. However, in attic colonies the number of female deutonymphs was twice that of male deutonymphs, whereas in cave colonies the proportions of the sexes were similar. We suggest that the microclimate of the host's roosts may influence ectoparasite abundance through pressure on the sex ratio in the nymphal stages of mites.

  12. Secondary structure prediction for complete rDNA sequences (18S, 5.8S, and 28S rDNA) of Demodex folliculorum, and comparison of divergent domains structures across Acari.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya-E; Wang, Zheng-Hang; Xu, Yang; Wu, Li-Ping; Hu, Li

    2013-10-01

    According to base pairing, the rRNA folds into corresponding secondary structures, which contain additional phylogenetic information. On the basis of sequencing for complete rDNA sequences (18S, ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2 and 28S rDNA) of Demodex, we predicted the secondary structure of the complete rDNA sequence (18S, 5.8S, and 28S rDNA) of Demodex folliculorum, which was in concordance with that of the main arthropod lineages in past studies. And together with the sequence data from GenBank, we also predicted the secondary structures of divergent domains in SSU rRNA of 51 species and in LSU rRNA of 43 species from four superfamilies in Acari (Cheyletoidea, Tetranychoidea, Analgoidea and Ixodoidea). The multiple alignment among the four superfamilies in Acari showed that, insertions from Tetranychoidea SSU rRNA formed two newly proposed helixes, and helix c3-2b of LSU rRNA was absent in Demodex (Cheyletoidea) taxa. Generally speaking, LSU rRNA presented more remarkable differences than SSU rRNA did, mainly in D2, D3, D5, D7a, D7b, D8 and D10.

  13. Genetic analysis and cross-resistance spectrum of a laboratory-selected chlorfenapyr resistant strain of two-spotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Stillatus, Vincent; Tirry, Luc

    2004-01-01

    A laboratory susceptible strain of Tetranychus urticae was selected with chlorfenapyr resulting in a resistant strain. After 12 cycles of exposure, the resistance ratio (RR) calculated from the LC50s of susceptible and selected strain was 580. The resistant strain was screened with 16 currently used acaricides for cross-resistance. Cross-resistance was detected with amitraz (RR = 19.1), bifenthrin (RR = 1.3), bromopropylate (RR = 7.5), clofentezine (RR = 29.6) and dimethoate (RR = 17.6). No cross-resistance was detected with the new molecules acequinocyl, bifenazate and spirodiclofen. Mortality caused by chlorfenapyr in the F1 progeny from reciprocal crosses between both strains indicated that the mode of inheritance was incomplete recessive. Mortality in F2 progeny indicated that the resistance was under the control of more than one gene. Synergist experiments with S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF), piperonylbutoxide (PBO) and diethylmaleate (DEM), which are inhibitors of esterases, monooxygenases and glutathion-S-transferases respectively, suggested a major role of esterases in the resistance to chlorfenapyr.

  14. Exposure to Diflubenzuron Results in an Up-Regulation of a Chitin Synthase 1 Gene in Citrus Red Mite, Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae

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    Wen-Kai Xia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Chitin synthase synthesizes chitin, which is critical for the arthropod exoskeleton. In this study, we cloned the cDNA sequences of a chitin synthase 1 gene, PcCHS1, in the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor, which is one of the most economically important pests of citrus worldwide. The full-length cDNA of PcCHS1 contains an open reading frame of 4605 bp of nucleotides, which encodes a protein of 1535 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 175.0 kDa. A phylogenetic analysis showed that PcCHS1 was most closely related to CHS1 from Tetranychus urticae. During P. citri development, PcCHS1 was constantly expressed in all stages but highly expressed in the egg stage (114.8-fold higher than in the adult. When larvae were exposed to diflubenzuron (DFB for 6 h, the mite had a significantly high mortality rate, and the mRNA expression levels of PcCHS1 were significantly enhanced. These results indicate a promising use of DFB to control P. citri, by possibly acting as an inhibitor in chitin synthesis as indicated by the up-regulation of PcCHS1 after exposure to DFB.

  15. Toxicidade diferencial de produtos à base de abamectina ao ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae em citros Differential toxicity of abamectin based products over Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae mite in citrus

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    Daniel Júnior de Andrade

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis é uma das principais pragas dos citros por ser vetor do "Citrus Leprosis Virus" (CiLV, agente causal da leprose, uma das mais graves doenças da citricultura. Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito tóxico de produtos à base de abamectina sobre o ácaro B. phoenicis. Foram realizados um experimento de ação direta e três de ação residual no Laboratório de Acarologia do Departamento de Proteção de Plantas (Fitossanidade da FCAV - UNESP, Jaboticabal-SP. O delineamento adotado nos bioensaios foi o inteiramente casualizado, onde 10 tratamentos foram repetidos 7 vezes, sendo cada repetição composta por um fruto de laranja. Os tratamentos estudados (mL p.c./100 L de água foram: Acaramik a 20; 30; 40 e 50 mL; Vertimec a 30 e 40 mL; Abamectin Nortox a 30 e 40 mL; Tricofol a 77 mL e uma testemunha sem aplicação. Utilizaram-se frutos com presença de verrugose, que foram lavados e parcialmente parafinados, deixando-se uma área sem parafina, que foi circundada com cola entomológica para contenção dos ácaros. Transferiram-se 20 ácaros adultos B. phoenicis para cada fruto. No bioensaio de ação direta, a transferência foi realizada antes das aplicações e, nos bioensaios de ação residual, aos 5; 10 e 15 dias após a aplicação dos produtos. A aplicação dos produtos sobre os frutos foi realizada em Torre de Potter. Os resultados obtidos nos bioensaios evidenciaram que os melhores tratamentos foram: Tricofol a 77 mL, Acaramik a 40 e 50 mL e Vertimec a 40 mL. De forma geral, os produtos testados podem ser utilizados no controle do ácaro B. phoenicis.The mite Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae is one of the most important pests in Brazil citrus plantation, because it is the virus "Citrus Leprosis Virus" (CiLV vector, one of the most serious citrus plantation diseases. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the toxical effect of abamectin in the mite B. phoenicis. It was performed

  16. Laboratory Toxicity Test and Field Control Effect of Liuyangmycin to Two Kinds of Acari%浏阳霉素对两种螨的室内毒力测定与田间防效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申圭良

    2011-01-01

    为评估浏阳霉素对柑橘全爪螨和棉二斑叶螨的毒杀活性,测定了该药剂对他们的生物活性.结果表明:浏阳霉素对柑橘全爪螨成螨的LC50值为0.19 mg/L,95%置信区间为0.13~0.45 mg/L,毒力回归方程为:y=0.978 31 x+2.863 7;浏阳霉素对棉二斑叶螨的LC50值为0.36 mg/L,95%置信区间为0.24~0.66 mg/L,毒力回归方程为:y=1.269 3 x+2.948 1;浏阳霉素使用浓度为2.00 mg/L时对柑橘全爪螨和棉二斑叶螨的螨卵有一定的杀伤力;当使用浓度为2.00 mg/L和1.00 mg/L时,处理36 h后对柑橘全爪螨和棉二斑叶螨具有较强的趋避作用.10%浏阳霉素EC使用量为30~40 mL/667m2,对柑橘全爪螨和棉二斑叶螨的防治效果最好,药后1~7 d防效分别达87.1%~95.5%和91.2%~94.4%.其效果与15%哒螨灵15 mL/667m2的效果相近.%In order to evaluate acaricidal activities of Liuyangmycin against Panonychus citri and Tetranychus urticae Koch, the bioactivity of liuyangmycin to them was determined. The results showed that the Liuyangmycin had exhibited acaricidal activity against the adult of Panonychus citri with the LC50 value of 0.19 mg/L, and its 95% confidence interval and the toxicity regressive equation were 0.13-0.45 mg/L and y=0.978 31 x+2.863 7, respectively; the Liuyangmycin also had possessed acaricidal activity against Tetranychus wticae Koch with the LC50 value of 0.36 mg/L, and its 95% confidence interval and the toxicity regressive equation were 0.24-0.66 mg/L and y=1.269 3 x+2.948 1, respectively. At the concentration of 2.00 mg/L, the Liuyangmycin had certain ovicidal activity to the eggs of Panonychus citri and Tetranychus urticae Koch; at the concentration of 2.00 mg/L and 1.00 mg/L, 36 hours after treatment, the Liuyangmycin had good repellent effect to Panonychus citri and Tetranychus urticae Koch; the 10% Liuyangmycin EC at the dosage of 450-600 mL/hm2 had the best control effects against Panonychus citri and Tetranychus

  17. Elenco y biogeografía de los ácaros acuáticos (Acari, Parasitengona, Hydrachnidia de Sudamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosso de Ferradás, B.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Checklist and catalog publications demonstrate a clear connection between basic taxonomy and biodiversity issues. According to some estimates, only 10-30% of all global species have been named. As in other fields, catalogs provide an important source of information concerning species diversity in freshwater ecology.

    South America is a continent dominated by freshwater ecosystems. The tremendous habitat diversity created by this landscape supports a high number of arthropods, including water mites, which belong to the hyperdiverse group Acari. South America has a substantial task ahead in cataloging its biodiversity.

    Much has been published on water mites in South America. In fact, according to Besch, water mites were the most studied with the exception of Europe up until the 1960’s. Most of the collections were conducted by two acarologists (Lundblad and Karl Viets during the 1940’s. Today, the collection, identification and description process of water mites is slower. In the 1980’s, the north-american acarologist D. R. Cook produced two lengthy papers about neotropical water mites in four regions of South America. Recently, several Argentine acarologists have published papers on water mites from diverse habitats and regions in South America.

    The catalog presented here includes information regarding 6 superfamilies, including 23 families in 118 genera of true water mites (Hydrachnidia, Parasitengona, Acari. It also includes the references concerning the species, distribution in various regions of South America and –as far as known– habitat.

    At present, there are 916 species from several authors cataloged in 11 countries in South America. The degree of knowledge varies greatly from country to country, with numerous entries for Brazil and none for French Guiana.

    Las publicaciones de catálogos y listados de especies determinan una clara conexión entre taxonomía básica y temas

  18. Effect of Formic Acid on Silage Quality of Hempleaf Nettle (Urtica cannabina)%添加甲酸对麻叶荨麻青贮品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓庆; 李鹏; 郑琛; 金艳梅

    2013-01-01

    为探讨甲酸对麻叶荨麻(Urtica cannabina)发酵品质和青贮保存效果的影响,设置2,4,6mL.kg-1 FM共3个甲酸添加剂处理(分别为低、中、高水平),以不添加甲酸处理为对照,室温袋贮60 d后开封取样,测定其pH值、化学成分、体外消化率和乳酸含量,分析评价其发酵品质及保存效果.结果表明:无甲酸处理或添加2~4mL·kg-1甲酸青贮麻叶荨麻,其青贮品质和保存效果很差;添加高剂量(6 mL·kg-1)甲酸虽然同样未能生产出品质优良的青贮饲料,但显著降低了pH值、乳酸含量和氨态氮(P<0.05),有降低纤维组分的趋势(P=0.132; P=0.087),显著增加了干物质、可溶性糖含量和中性洗涤纤维体外消化率(P<0.05),有利于改善发酵品质和提高植物细胞壁利用效率.试验结果将为荨麻属植物及与之类似的高水分、高蛋白质牧草青贮技术提供基础数据.%To explore the effect of formic acid (FA) treatments on silage quality of hempleaf nettle,freshly-harvested plants were treated without FA (control),with 2 mL · kg-1 FA (FA-low),4 mL · kg-1 FA (FA-med),and 6 mL · kg-1 FA (FA-high) of fresh weight,respectively.There were 15 silage replicates per treatment.All bags were stored indoors at room temperature for 60 days.Chemical composition,in vitro digestibility and fermentative parameters of the products after 0,3,5,15,20,and 60 days of ensiling were assessed.Results showed that nettle untreated or treated with 2~4 mL · kg 1 FA produced badly preserved silage while those treated with 6 mL · kg-1 FA significantly reduced the pH value,ammoniaN and butyric acid concentrations of silage.Not improved fermentation quality for silage preservation was seen.It also had a significantly higher dry matter,water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) and in vitro digestibility of NDF than the control silage.Medium and high FA treatments tended to have a lower fiber fraction (P=0.132; P=0.087) than the control,indicating that

  19. Sampling method evaluation and empirical model fitting for count data to estimate densities of Oligonychus perseae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on 'Hass' avocado leaves in southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Jesús R; Saremi, Naseem T; Castillo, Martin J; Hoddle, Mark S

    2016-04-01

    Oligonychus perseae (Acari: Tetranychidae) is an important foliar spider mite pest of 'Hass' avocados in several commercial production areas of the world. In California (USA), O. perseae densities in orchards can exceed more than 100 mites per leaf and this makes enumerative counting prohibitive for field sampling. In this study, partial enumerative mite counts along half a vein on an avocado leaf, an industry recommended practice known as the "half-vein method", was evaluated for accuracy using four data sets with a combined total of more than 485,913 motile O. perseae counted on 3849 leaves. Sampling simulations indicated that the half-vein method underestimated mite densities in a range of 15-60 %. This problem may adversely affect management of this pest in orchards and potentially compromise the results of field research requiring accurate mite density estimation. To address this limitation, four negative binomial regression models were fit to count data in an attempt to rescue the half-vein method for estimating mite densities. These models were incorporated into sampling plans and evaluated for their ability to estimate mite densities on whole leaves within 30-tree blocks of avocados. Model 3, a revised version of the original half-vein model, showed improvement in providing reliable estimates of O. perseae densities for making assessments of general leaf infestation densities across orchards in southern California. The implications of these results for customizing the revised half-vein method as a potential field sampling tool and for experimental research in avocado production in California are discussed.

  20. A review of the ticks (Acari, Ixodida of Brazil, their hosts and geographic distribution - 1. The State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans DE

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of the ticks (Acari, Ixodida of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, was completed as a step towards a definitive list (currently indicated as 12 of such species, their hosts and distribution. The ticks: Argas miniatus (poultry, Ixodes loricatus (opossums, Amblyomma aureolatum (dogs, A. calcaratum (anteaters, A. cooperi (capybaras, A. nodosum (anteaters, A. tigrinum (dogs (Neotropical and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (dogs (introduced, cosmopolitan, Afrotropical were confirmed as present, in addition to the predominant, Boophilus microplus (cattle (introduced, pan-tropical, Oriental. Of the further 18 species thus far reported in the literature as present in the state, but unavailable for examination: only Ornithodoros brasiliensis (humans and their habitations (Neotropical, Ixodes affinis (deer (Nearctic/Neotropical and I. auritulus (birds (Nearctic/Neotropical/Afrotropical/ Australasian are considered likely; 13 species would benefit from corroborative local data but the majority appear unlikely; reports of A. maculatum (Nearctic/Neotropical, but circum-Caribbean are considered erroneous; the validity of A. fuscum is in doubt. The very recent, first known report of the tropical Anocentor nitens (horses(Nearctic/Neotropical, but still apparent absence of the tropical A. cajennense (catholic (Nearctic/Neotropical and the sub-tropical/temperate Ixodes pararicinus (cattle (Neotropical in Rio Grande do Sul are important for considerations on their current biogeographical distribution and its dynamics in South America. The state has relatively long established, introduced ("exotic", Old World tick species (B. microplus, R. sanguineus that continue to represent significant pests and disease vectors to their traditional, introduced domestic animal hosts, cattle and urban dogs. There are also indigenous, New World ticks (A. miniatus, O. brasiliensis, A. aureolatum, A. nitens, as both long established and possibly newly locally

  1. Controle de Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 E Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor, 1917 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae, Tetranychidae em cafeeiro e o impacto sobre ácaros benéficos: I - abamectin e emamectin Control of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 and Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor, 1917 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae, Tetranychidae in coffee plants and the impact on beneficial mites: I - Abamectin and emamectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rebelles Reis

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae é importante em cafeeiro (Coffea spp., por ser o vetor do vírus da mancha-anular, responsável por queda de folhas e má qualidade da bebida do café, e o ácaro-vermelho, Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor, 1917 (Acari: Tetranychidae, por reduzir a área foliar de fotossíntese. Alguns ácaros da família Phytoseiidae são eficientes predadores associados aos ácaros-praga. Com este trabalho teve-se como objetivo estudar o controle dos ácaros-praga e o impacto do abamectin e emamectin sobre fitoseídeos. Em laboratório, foram estudados os efeitos ovicida, tópico, residual, tópico mais residual aos ácaros-praga e a seletividade fisiológica aos fitoseídeos. Em semicampo, foi estudada a persistência dos produtos no controle dos ácaros-praga. O efeito ovicida foi avaliado em ovos no início e fim de incubação; os efeitos residual, tópico e tópico mais residual foram avaliados pela mortalidade de larvas, ninfas e adultos após 48 horas da aplicação, enquanto a persistência foi avaliada pela mortalidade até 30 dias após a pulverização. A seletividade aos ácaros fitoseídeos foi avaliada pelo efeito total às fêmeas adultas, em teste residual em superfície de vidro. Pelos resultados, verificou-se que abamectin e emamectin não possuem ação ovicida, para ambas as espécies de ácaros-praga estudadas. Considerando o efeito tópico mais residual, o abamectin e emamectin foram altamente eficientes no controle de larvas, ninfas e adultos de B. phoenicis; apenas abamectin foi eficiente no controle de O. ilicis. Abamectin foi levemente a moderadamente nocivo e emamectin mostrou-se inócuo a levemente nocivo aos fitoseídeos. Devido à eficiência de controle e seletividade a fitoseídeos, conclui-se que abamectin e emamectin podem ser utilizados em programas de manejo integrado do ácaro B. phoenicis, e abamectin para o manejo de B. phoenicis e O. ilicis em cafeeiro

  2. Primeiro relato de Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, 1907 (acari: ixodidae) parasitando lagarto da espécie Tupinambis teguixin (L.), no município de Glorinha, estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    João R Martins; Elida C. Monticelli; Onofrio,Valéria C.; Darcy M. Barros-Battesti; Rovaina L. Doyle

    2007-01-01

    Amblyomma fuscum conhecida somente no Brasil, tem sido descrita como uma espécie rara de carrapato com relatos de sua ocorrência nas regiões sul e sudeste. Este é um novo registro desta espécie (9 fêmeas) parasitando lagarto (Tupinambis teguixin), no Município de Glorinha, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. As fêmeas foram depositadas na coleção do Instituto de Pesquisas Veterinárias Desidério Finamor (7 espécimes) e na coleção de Acari do Instituto Butantan, Estado de São Paulo (2 espécimes). O ac...

  3. Hot-spot application of biocontrol agents to replace pesticides in large scale commercial rose farms in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gacheri, Catherine; Kigen, Thomas; Sigsgaard, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Rose (Rosa hybrida L.) is the most important ornamental crop in Kenya, with huge investments in pest management. We provide the first full-scale, replicated experiment comparing cost and yield of conventional two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) control with hot-spot applications of....... persimilis hot-spot treatments in commercial cut rose production, effectively reducing pest management costs with no loss in crop yield.......Rose (Rosa hybrida L.) is the most important ornamental crop in Kenya, with huge investments in pest management. We provide the first full-scale, replicated experiment comparing cost and yield of conventional two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) control with hot-spot applications...... of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseidae) in large commercial rose greenhouses. Hot-spot treatments replaced acaricides except at high infestations and the two treatments were applied in seven greenhouses each. With the conventional treatment, acaricides were applied when T. urticae...

  4. Eupalopsellidae and Stigmaeidae (Acari: Prostigmata) within citrus orchards in Florida: species distribution, relative and seasonal abundance within trees, associated vines, and ground cover plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Carl C; Ueckermann, Eduard A

    2014-10-01

    Seven citrus orchards on reduced- to no-pesticide spray programs were sampled for predacious mites in the families Eupalopsellidae and Stigmaeidae (Acari: Prostigmata) in central and south central Florida. Inner and outer canopy leaves, fruit, twigs, and trunk scrapings were sampled monthly between August 1994 and January 1996. Open flowers were sampled in March from five of the sites. Two species of eupalopsellid mites (Exothorhis caudata Summers and Saniosulus harteni (van-Dis and Ueckermann)) were identified from 252 specimens collected within citrus tree canopies within the seven citrus orchards of which 249 were E. caudata. Only two E. caudata were collected from ground cover plants within five of the seven orchards. Eight species of Stigmaeidae were identified from 5,637 specimens: Agistemus floridanus Gonzalez, A. terminalis Gonzalez, Eustigmaeus arcuata (Chandhri), E. sp. near arcuata, E. segnis (Koch), Mediostigmaeus citri (Rakha and McCoy), Stigmaeus seminudus Wood, and Zetzellia languida Gonzalez were collected from within citrus tree canopies from seven orchard sites. Agistemus floridanus was the only species in either family that was abundant with 5,483 collected from within citrus tree canopies compared with only 39 from vine or ground cover plants. A total of 431 samples from one or more of 82 vines and ground cover plants were sampled monthly between September 1994 and January 1996 in five of these orchards and one or more eupalopsellids or stigmaeids were collected from 19 of these plants. Richardia brasiliensis (Meg.) Gomez had nine A. floridanus from 5 of 25 samples collected from this plant. Solanum sp. had five A. floridanus from three samples taken. Both eupalopsellid and stigmaeid species numbers represented orchards were on full herbicide programs and ground cover plants were absent. Agistemus floridanus was more abundant in the citrus orchards with on-going or recent herbicide programs compared with orchards having well-developed ground

  5. Phytoseiidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) within citrus orchards in Florida: species distribution, relative and seasonal abundance within trees, associated vines and ground cover plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Carl C; Denmark, Harold A

    2011-08-01

    Seven citrus orchards on reduced- to no-pesticide spray programs were sampled for predacious mites in the family Phytoseiidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) in central and south central Florida. Inner and outer canopy leaves, open flowers, fruit, twigs, and trunk scrapings were sampled monthly between September 1994 and January 1996. Vines and ground cover plants were sampled monthly between September 1994 and January 1996 in five of these orchards. The two remaining orchards were on full herbicide programs and ground cover plants were absent. Thirty-three species of phytoseiid mites were identified from 35,405 specimens collected within citrus tree canopies within the seven citrus orchards, and 8,779 specimens from vines and ground cover plants within five of the seven orchards. The six most abundant phytoseiid species found within citrus tree canopies were: Euseius mesembrinus (Dean) (20,948), Typhlodromalus peregrinus (Muma) (8,628), Iphiseiodes quadripilis (Banks) (2,632), Typhlodromips dentilis (De Leon) (592), Typhlodromina subtropica Muma and Denmark (519), and Galendromus helveolus (Chant) (315). The six most abundant species found on vines or ground cover plants were: T. peregrinus (6,608), E. mesembrinus (788), T. dentilis (451), I. quadripilis (203), T. subtropica (90), and Proprioseiopsis asetus (Chant) (48). The remaining phytoseiids included: Amblyseius aerialis (Muma), A. herbicolus (Chant), A. largoensis (Chant), A. multidentatus (Chant), A. sp. near multidentatus, A. obtusus (Koch), Chelaseius vicinus (Muma), Euseius hibisci Chant, Galendromus gratus (Chant), Metaseiulus mcgregori (Chant), Neoseiulus mumai (Denmark), N. vagus (Denmark), Phytoscutus sexpilis (Muma), Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks), Proprioseiopsis detritus (Muma), P. dorsatus (Muma), P. macrosetae (Banks), P. rotundus (Muma), P. solens (De Leon), Typhlodromips deleoni (Muma), T. dillus (De Leon), T. dimidiatus (De Leon), T. mastus Denmark and Muma, T. simplicissimus (De Leon), and T. sp

  6. Primera aproximacion a la Paleoentomología de los yacimientos de la Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, España: la fauna subfósil de Oribátidos (Acari, Oribatida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arroyo, J.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Atapuerca Quaternarian sites are of worldwide interest due to the presence of human remains belonging to the last million years. The oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida found in several archaeological samples extracted from the Atapuerca Quaternarian deposits, have been analyzed during the 2003 excavation campaign to study the Palaeoentomology of the site. The oribatid mite fauna consists of 7 individuals, 6 of which were obtained from Gran Dolina site (about 300.000 years old and belong to families Cosmochthoniidae, Scheloribatidae, Oribatulidae and Hemileiidae. Most of the taxa were identified to species level. The results obtained were used as a basis to reconstruct the paleo-environments of the site in correspondence with the biological and ecological preferences of the taxa.

    Los yacimientos cuaternarios de la Sierra de Atapuerca ofrecen interés mundial por haber hospedado varias especies de homínidos que vivieron en el último millón de años. En este contexto, durante la campaña de excavaciones de 2003 se realizó un muestreo puntual en algunos de sus yacimientos para obtener los primeros datos de restos de artrópodos que pudieran conservarse en los mismos. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados obtenidos de ácaros subfósiles pertenecientes al suborden de los oribátidos (Acari, Oribatida. Después de procesar los sedimentos, se obtuvieron un total de 7 individuos en el conjunto de los yacimientos muestreados, de los cuales 6 aparecieron en Gran Dolina en un nivel con datación en torno a los 300.000 años. Los ejemplares, identificados en su mayoría a nivel taxonómico de especie, pertenecen a las familias Cosmochthoniidae, Scheloribatidae, Oribatulidae y Hemileiidae. Dado el conocimiento que se dispone de la biología de los taxones encontrados, que pertenecen a géneros y especies presentes en la actualidad, se han realizado inferencias sobre los ambientes pretéritos en que los animales vivieron.

  7. Ticks (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae, Ixodidae infesting humans in Northwestern Córdoba province, Argentina Garrapatas infestando humanos en el noroeste de la provincia de Córdoba, Argentina

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    Nava Santiago

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ticks infesting humans were collected from September 2004 to August 2005 in Northwestern Córdoba in an area with a southern limit in the locality of Dean Funes (30°25´S 64°20´W and San José de las Salinas (30°00´S 64°37´W in the North. The collections consisted in ticks found attached on man obtained from three sources: 1 specimens fixed on two workers during two successive days per month of field work in the northern part of the area which belongs to Western Chaco district of the phytogeographical Chaco domain, 2 ticks attached to a man working in a farm close to Dean Funes in the Chaco Serrano district of the Chaco domain and, 3 ticks collected from a collaborator visiting daily a suburban property with dogsin the vicinities of Dean Funes. Most ticks collected were larvae, nymphs and adults of Amblyomma neumanni from the Chaco Serrano district where a nymph of Otobius megnini was also found on man. Adults of Amblyomma parvum and Amblyomma tigrinum were detected feeding on humans in the Western Chaco district and in the property close to Dean Funes, respectively. Amblyomma neumanni was absent on man from December to April while most specimens of A. parvum and A. tigrinum were collected during summer. Their role as potential vector of ticktransmitted diseases in the area is unknown.Se recolectaron garrapatas (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae, Ixodidae infestando humanos entre septiembre de 2004 y agosto de 2005 en un área del noroeste de Córdoba cuyo límite al sur es la localidad Deán Funes (30º25´S 64°20´W y el límite al norte es la localidad de San José de las Salinas (30°00´S 64°37´W. Las colecciones consistieron en garrapatas fijadas a humanos obtenidas de tres fuentes: 1 garrapatas fijadas sobre dos trabajadores durante dos días sucesivos por mes de trabajo de campo en la parte norte del área, la cual pertenece al distrito chaqueño occidental del dominio fitogeográfico del Chaco, 2 garrapatas fijadas a un trabajador en

  8. Influence de l'âge de la feuille sur les paramètres biologiques et les populations de l'acarien vert du manioc Mononychellus tanajoa Bondar (Acari: tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badegana, AM.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Effect of Leaf Age on the Cassava Green Mite Mononychellus tanajoa Bondar (Acari: Tetranychidae Biological Parameters and Population Growth Rates. The study of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz leaf age effect on Mononychellus tanajoa Bondar biological parameters and population growth rates was studied in laboratory (T= 24-26 °C; RH= 70-90%. The local Dschang cultivar was used and the study concerned the 15, 40, 65, 90 and 115 days old leaves. The results obtained show that the egg incubation duration was the longest (6.4 days and that of the deutonymph stage the shortest one (1.9 days. The hatching rate was very high (98%. There was no significant difference (p= 0.05 between the developmental stages of M. tanajoa reared on the leaves of different ages. On the contrary fecundity whatever it is daily or total was high on young leaves and small on the old ones. The correlation coefficient between the leaf age and the intrinsic rate of increase (rm was -0.896 and that obtained between the net reproduction rate (Ro and the leaf age -0.966. These coefficients are negative and in absolute value near to one; which shows that the more the leaf is old, the more the M. tanajoa population growth is little. The M. tanajoa population growth is therefore fast on young leaves and slow on the old ones.

  9. (4E)-dehydrocitrals [(2E,4E)- and (2Z,4E )-3,7-dimethyl-2,4,6-octatrienals] from acarid mite Histiogaster sp. A096 (Acari: Acaridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, H; Mori, N; Nishida, R; Kuwahara, Y

    2001-12-01

    A mixture of two monoterpenes was obtained as the opisthonotal gland secretion from unidentified Histiogaster sp. A096 (Acari: Acaridae), and their structures were elucidated to be (4E)-dehydrocitrals [(2E,4E)- and (2Z,4E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,4,6-octatrienals] by GC/MS, GC/FT-IR, UV and 1H-NMR spectra. Both isomers of (4E)-dehydrocitral prepared by syntheses in 4 steps from 3-methyl-2-butenal with 34.2% yields (based on the ylide) were separated by column chromatography into the (2E,4E)- and (2Z,4E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,4,6-octatrienal. Mass spectra together with GC retention times of the purified natural (4E)-dehydrocitrals were identical with those of synthetic (2E,4E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,4,6-octatrienal and (2Z,4E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,4,6-octatrienal. The geometry at the 2-C position of both synthetic (4E)-dehydrocitrals was confirmed by NOESY analyses. This is the first identification of (4E)-dehydrocitrals from the animal kingdom.

  10. Sequencing for complete rDNA sequences (18S, ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2, and 28S rDNA) of Demodex and phylogenetic analysis of Acari based on 18S and 28S rDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya-E; Wu, Li-Ping; Hu, Li; Xu, Yang; Wang, Zheng-Hang; Liu, Wen-Yan

    2012-11-01

    Due to the difficulty of DNA extraction for Demodex, few studies dealt with the identification and the phyletic evolution of Demodex at molecular level. In this study, we amplified, sequenced, and analyzed a complete (Demodex folliculorum) and an almost complete (D12 missing) (Demodex brevis) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence and also analyzed the primary sequences of divergent domains in small-subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) of 51 species and in large-subunit rRNA of 43 species from four superfamilies in Acari (Cheyletoidea, Tetranychoidea, Analgoidea, and Ixodoidea). The results revealed that 18S rDNA sequence was relatively conserved in rDNA-coding regions and was not evolving as rapidly as 28S rDNA sequence. The evolutionary rates of transcribed spacer regions were much higher than those of the coding regions. The maximum parsimony trees of 18S and 28S rDNA appeared to be almost identical, consistent with their morphological classification. Based on the fact that the resolution capability of sequence length and the divergence of the 13 segments (D1-D6, D7a, D7b, and D8-D12) of 28S rDNA were stronger than that of the nine variable regions (V1-V9) of 18S rDNA, we were able to identify Demodex (Cheyletoidea) by the indels occurring in D2, D6, and D8.

  11. Chlorotic spots on Clerodendrum, a disease caused by a nuclear type of Brevipalpus (Acari:Tenuipalpidae transmitted virus Mancha clorótica do Clerodendrum, uma enfermidade causada por um vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari:Tenuipalpidae

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    Elliot Watanabe Kitajima

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Chlorotic spots have been observed in plants of Clerodendrum x speciosum growing in residential gardens and parks in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Thin sections of diseased tissues revealed characteristic cytopathic effects of the nuclear type of the Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae mite-transmitted viruses (BTrV. Brevipalpus mites, identified as B. phoenicis, infesting symptomatic C. x speciosum plants transmitted the pathogen to healthy C. x speciosum and to C. thomsonae, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus cannabinus, H. coccineus, H. schizopetalus, Salvia leucantha, Spathiphyllum wallasi and Tetragonia expansa causing chlorotic spots on their leaves. Mechanical inoculation using leaf extracts from infected C. x speciosum resulted in chlorotic spots on inoculated C. x speciosum, Chenopodium quinoa, C. amaranticolor, G. globosa, H. cannabinus, H. coccineus and T. expansa leaves. C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa kept at 28 - 30°C became systemically infected. The same cytopathic effects caused by the nuclear type of BTrV were seen in tissues from all infected test plants by electron microscopy. The virus was purified from systemically infected leaves of C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa. A polyclonal antiserum obtained from an immunized rabbit presented a strong reaction with the homologous antigen in ELISA tests. The results suggest that this chlorotic spot disease of C. x speciosum is caused by a new species of the nuclear type of BTrV, tentatively named Clerodendrum chlorotic spot virus (ClCSV.Manchas cloróticas e necróticas foram observadas em folhas de várias plantas de coração-sangrento (Clerodendrum x speciosum cultivadas em parques e jardins em Piracicaba, SP, associadas à infestação pelo ácaro tenuipalpídeo Brevipalpus phoenicis. Exames preliminares de secções de tecido das manchas cloróticas ao microscópio eletrônico revelaram a ocorrência de efeitos citopáticos característicos dos induzidos pelos vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido

  12. Seletividade de alguns agrotóxicos em uso na citricultura ao ácaro predador Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae Residual toxicity of the main pesticides recommended in citrus orchards on predaceous mite Neoseiulus californicus (Mcgregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Zatti da Silva

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito dos principais agrotóxicos utilizados em citros sobre Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, em condições de laboratório, por tratar-se de um fitoseídeo com grande potencialidade para ser utilizado no controle dos ácaros fitófagos na cultura. O método de bioensaio adotado foi o de contato direto e residual. Folhas de citros da variedade Pêra, contendo 25 fêmeas adultas de N. californicus procedentes de uma criação-estoque, foram pulverizadas em torre de Potter. Avaliaram-se a mortalidade do ácaro 72 horas após a aplicação e o efeito dos produtos na viabilidade dos ovos. Quanto à seletividade, conforme proposta da "Organização Internacional para o Controle Biológico e Integrado de Plantas e Animais Nocivos" (IOBC, os produtos foram classificados como: classe 1 inócuo (E99%, clorfenapyr, dicofol e pyridaben. N. californicus mostrou-se tolerante a diversos agrotóxicos, o que viabiliza sua utilização, juntamente com produtos químicos pertencentes a grupamentos distintos e de diferentes mecanismos de ação, o que atende a um manejo adequado de controle dos principais ácaros fitófagos da cultura dos citros.This work was carried out to determine the residual toxicity of the main pesticides used in citrus, on Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor under laboratory conditions. For this, it was used the residual contact bioassay. Citrus leaves of the variety "Pêra" were sprayed in a Potter tower. The residual action was evaluated at 2 hours and 1; 3; 5; 7; 10; 14 e 21 days after treatment. Ten adult females of N. californicus were transferred to each ring, together with an enough amount of Tetranychus urticae nymphs and adults to feed the predator. Mortality evaluations were performed at 72 hours after treatment. Bioassays indicate that the pesticides: acrinathrin, deltamethrin, dinocap, sulphur, fenpropathrin, fenbutatin oxide and propargite were innocuous to N. californicus. On the other hand, abamectin

  13. Evolution journalière du sex-ratio dans une population de Mononychellus tanajoa Bondar (Acari: Tetranychidae en laboratoire, paramètres de la dynamique des populations

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    Badegana, AM.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Sex-ratio Daily Evolution in a Population of Mononychellus tanajoa Bondar (Acari: Tetranychidae in the Laboratory, Population Dynamics Parameters. The sex-ratio (100.males/females of offsprings laid by fertilized female parents of Mononychellus tanajoa Bondar and its daily evolution was studied in the laboratory. The highest sex-ratio value 900 (90.0% male offsprings was obtained on the first day of the oviposition and the lowest value 7.2 (6.7% male offsprings on the 16th day of the oviposition period which lasted 38.1 ± 4.9 days (mean ± standard deviation. From a total number of 118.0 ± 10.9 offsprings, 94.0 ± 10.5 (on the average 79.7% were ''laid'' during the first half of the oviposition period. The results also show that from a total number of 88.0 ± 8.3 female offsprings, 74.0 ± 8.0 (84.1% were ''laid'' during the first half of the oviposition period whereas from a total number of 30.0 ± 2.7 male offsprings, 20.0 ± 2.5 (66.7% were ''laid'' within the same period. The sex-ratio of each fertilized female parent was 31.9 ± 1.7 (24.2% ± 1.0% male offsprings and the sex-ratio within the population was 34.0 ± 0.0 (25.4% ± 0.1% male offsprings. The intrinsic rate of increase, and the rate of multiplication in one generation were 0.1380 and 79.23 respectively.

  14. Sensibilité à Mononychellus tanajoa Bondar (Acari : Tetranychidae de quelques cultivars de manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz et incidence des attaques sur le rendement, dans la région des hauts plateaux de l'Ouest Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badegana, AM.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensibility to Mononychellus tanajoa Bondar (Acari : Tetranychidae of some Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Cultivars and Effect of Damage on Yield Loss in the Cameroonian Western High-lands. The study of the sensibility towards the green mite Mononychellus tanajoa Bondar of some cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz cultivars and the assessment of the effect of damage on the yield losses was carried out in the Western highlands of Cameroon. Four cassava cultivars were used : two local (Dschang and Njombe and two improved varieties (IITA 8017 and IITA 82516. The results obtained showed that the density (mites number/cm2 of leaf area was low during the rainy season and high during the dry season, which means that rains reduce the mite population by washing or lead the mites to death. The highest mean density (3.40 mites/cm2 of leaf area was obtained on the local Njombe cultivar which is consequently the most sensitive. On the contrary, the local Dschang cultivar, with the lowest mite density (1.40 mites/cm2 of leaf area was the most resistant followed by the IITA 8017 cultivar (1.74 mites/cm2. The IITA82516 cultivar had a mean density of2.65 mites/cm2. Yield losses ranged from 36.90 % for IITA 8017 (1.74 mites/cm2 and damages level of 2.75 to 58.70 % for local Dschang (3.40 mites/cm2 and damages level of 3.84. Local Dschang cultivar (1.40 mites/cm2 and damage level of 2.96 and IITA 82516 (2.65 mites/cm2 and damage level of 2.96 had a yield losse of38.10 % and 41.80 %. The results showed that higher the mite density and damage level are, higher is the yield loss, unless the cultivar is tolerant.

  15. In vitro activity of 3β-O-tigloylmelianol from Guarea kunthiana A. Juss (Meliaceae) on oogenesis and ecdysis of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Carolina da Silva; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira; Louly, Carla Cristina Braz; Rocha, Thiago Lopes; de Sabóia-Morais, Simone Maria Teixeira; Miguita, Carlos Henrique; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Garcez, Fernanda Rodriguez

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated the effects of 3β-O-tigloylmelianol from Guarea kunthiana A. Juss (Meliaceae) on oogenesis, as a larvicide and on ecdysis of the larvae and the nymphs of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (Acari: Ixodidae). On the oogenesis' test, 48 engorged females were divided into three groups, evaluated at 24, 48 and 72 h post-treatment. Half of the females were treated with 0.01% 3β-O-tigloylmelianol diluted in distilled water and 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), while the other half (controls) were exposed to distilled water and 5% DMSO. After treatment, the ovaries were weighed in order to measure the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and were also subjected to standard histological technical tests. On the larvicide and ecdysis' tests, 3β-O-tigloylmelianol was tested at concentrations of 0.01, 0.005, 0.0025 and 0.00125%. Compared with the controls, there was a reduction of GSI of approximately 50% on the treated group, which started at 48 h post treatment. Overall, the protolimonoid 3β-O-tigloylmelianol has caused a significant reduction in the number of oocytes. It has also caused alteration of the cytoplasmic and germinal vesicle diameters. Morphological changes, such as vacuolization, chorion irregularity which has modified the oocytes' morphology as well as alterations on the yolk's granules were also observed. The compound was not larvicide, however, interfered in the ecdysis of the larvae and the nymphs. This study shows that the protolimonoid 3β-O-tigloylmelianol from G. kunthiana acts on oogenesis and ecdysis of R. (B.) microplus, but not as larvicide, indicating that it acts on the endocrine system of the tick.

  16. COMPOSIÇÃO QUÍMICA E ATIVIDADE ACARICIDA DO ÓLEO ESSENCIAL DE ERVA-DE-SANTA-MARIA SOBRE O ÁCARO-RAJADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAUANA PELLANDA DE SOUZA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to extract, identify the chemical composition and evaluate the acaricidal acti-vity of essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (Amaranthaceae on Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae. Adult female spotted spider mite were treated with concentrations 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 μL of essential oil per liter of air. Among the eight chemical substances that make up the essential oil of C. ambrosi-oides, the (Z-ascaridol (81.40% was the major component. The LC50 and CL90 found after 72 h of exposure to the essential oil were, respectively, 5.82 and 10.79 μL L-1 air and fecundity of females of T. urticae was redu-ced inversely proportional to the increased concentrations utilized in this study.

  17. Effects of spider mite and two substitute diets on the development and reproduction of Euseius nicholsi (Ehara et Lee) (Acari: Phytoseiidae)%叶螨及两种替代食物对尼氏真绥螨发育和繁殖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑雪; 金道超

    2009-01-01

    Three kinds of diets, i.e., two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch, Camellia oleifera Abel pollen, and mould mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank), were used to feed Euseius nicholsi (Ehara et Lee) in laboratory at 25 ℃ and 80% RH to study the effects of these diets on the development and reproduction of E. nicholsi. The E. nicholsi could prey on T. putrescentiae egg, but could not complete its natural development due to the deficiency of the egg. Other two diets were the favorable foods for the normal growth and reproduction of E. nicholsi. The life cycle duration, longevity, oviposition duration, and average lifetime fecundity of the adult female E. nicholsi fed with C. oleifera pollen and T. urticae were 6.18 d, 24.79 d, 16.72 d and 23.03, and 5.67 d, 25.72 d 18.17 d and 25.38, respectively. The quantity of the experimental E. nicholsi populations fed with these two diets all showed an increasing trend, with the population tendency index being the highest (I=14.28) for the population fed with C. oleifera pollen and the double population time being the shortest (t=3.5201 days) for the population fed with T. urticae.%在温度25 ℃、相对湿度80%条件下,以油茶花粉、二斑叶螨和腐食酪螨3种食物饲喂尼氏真绥螨,研究不同食物对尼氏真绥螨生长发育和繁殖的影响.结果表明:尼氏真绥螨虽能取食腐食酪螨的卵,但因摄食量不足导致不能完成正常发育;而取食油茶花粉和二斑叶螨能正常完成发育,并进行繁殖.取食油茶花粉的尼氏真绥螨全世代发育历期、雌螨寿命、产卵历期、平均每雌总产卵量分别为6.18 d、24.97 d、16.72 d和23.03粒,取食二斑叶螨的尼氏真绥螨分别为5.67 d、25.72 d、18.17 d和25.38粒;以二斑叶螨为食的尼氏真绥螨发育快,寿命和产卵历期长,平均每雌产卵量高.以油茶花粉和二斑叶螨为食的尼氏真绥螨实验种群数量动态均呈上升趋势,其中以油茶花

  18. 粗根荨麻水提取部分对佐剂性关节炎大鼠腹腔巨噬细胞分泌TNF-α及PGE2的影响%The Effects of Aqueous Fraction of Urtica macrorrhiza Hand-Mazz on Production of TNF-α, PGE2 Release from Peritoneal Macrophages Induced by LPS in Adjuvant Arthritis Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓红; 赵永娜; 邵晓霞; 李顺英; 张荣平

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the effects of aqueous fraction of Urtica macrorrhiza Hand-Mazz(Ur) on modulating tumor nec- rosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production induced by lipopolysaceharide (LPS) in peritoneal macrophages in adjuvant arthritis rats and elucidate the possible mechanisms of anti-inflammatory and antirheumatoid effects of Ur, adjuvant arthritis (AA) rat was used as the model. The PMψ samples were taken at different time after medication. TNF-α, PGE2 levels were :measured by ELISA method. Production of TNF-α, and PGE2 increased in the cul-ture supematant of PMψ in AA model rats. Ur(400 and 200 mg/kg) could inhibit TNF-α and PGE2 release induced by LPS from PMψ in AA rats. The anti-inflaramatory mechanisms of Ur in AA rats might be reIated to its inhibitory effects on the level of TNF-α and PGE2 from PMψ in vivo.%观察滇产粗根荨麻水提取部分对佐剂性关节炎(adjuvant arthritis,AA)大鼠腹腔巨噬细胞(peritoneal macrophages,PMcp)分泌肿瘤坏死因子-α(tumor necrosis factor-alpha,TNF-α)及前列腺素E2(prostaglandin E2,PGE2)的影响.建立大鼠佐剂性关节炎模型,Ur水提取部分连续灌胃给药14或21 d后分次获取大鼠腹腔巨噬细胞,脂多糖(lipopolysacehafide,LPS)诱导大鼠腹腔巨噬细胞,用酶联免疫吸附法检测培养上清液中TNF-α及PGE2水平.从大鼠腹腔巨噬细胞TNF-α及PGE2分泌较正常组升高,Ur水提取部分(400,200 mg/kg)对LPS诱导的AA大鼠腹腔巨噬细胞分泌TNF-α及PGE2水平有明显抑制作用.滇产粗根荨麻水提取部分对佐剂性关节炎的治疗作用可能与其抑制腹腔巨噬细胞分泌TNF-α及PGE2有关.

  19. Wassermilben (Acari: Hydrovolziidae et Hydrachnellae) aus Algerien

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bader, Carl

    1989-01-01

    In the material collected from wells, hyporheic waters, and springs in western Algeria seven species of watermites have been found. Three of these are new to science: Acherontacarus tuberculalus nov. spec., Neumania (s. str.) algeriensis nov. spec., and the representative of a new genus Neoacheronta

  20. Ecology of Amblyomma neumanni (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Santiago; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Mangold, Atilio J; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2009-09-01

    The life cycle of Amblyomma neumanni was described studying the seasonal distribution of free-living stages and parasitic phases during two consecutive years. Development periods of engorged ticks under different photoperiod conditions were recorded. Larvae of A. neumanni have the peak of abundance in autumn. Nymphs reach the peak in winter. Females were collected on cattle from autumn to late spring. The seasonal distribution pattern of females showed a bimodal curve, with a peak in autumn and other during early and middle spring. The engorged females exposed at shortest photoperiod regimen (10 h light-14 h dark) under both laboratory and field conditions undergo morphogenetic diapause, expressed as a delay in the oviposition. It is concluded that females of A. neumanni that feed and copulate in autumn undergo morphogenetic diapause, and they will lay eggs in spring, simultaneously with the females that feed and copulate in this season. Climate niche analysis shows that adequate suitability for A. neumanni depends mainly from temperature (mean, absolute maximum and minimum, and mean temperature in wettest and driest quarters) as well as from rainfall in warmest and coldest quarters. Sequences of 16S rDNA gene belonging to different populations of A. neumanni, showed no intraspecific genetic differentiation.

  1. Astigmatid mites (Acari: Sarcoptiformes) of forensic interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oconnor, Barry M

    2009-10-01

    This paper reviews the occurrence of mites of the infraorder Astigmata in situations involving the legal system, particularly in the area of medicocriminal entomology. Species in the families Acaridae, Lardoglyphidae and Histiostomatidae are encountered in stored food products and in vertebrate carrion, including human remains. Some of these species are incidentals, whereas others are obligate necrophages. Phoretic associations between these mites and insects allows for rapid dispersal and colonization of such patchy resources.

  2. Wassermilben (Acari: Hydrovolziidae et Hydrachnellae) aus Algerien

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bader, Carl

    1989-01-01

    In the material collected from wells, hyporheic waters, and springs in western Algeria seven species of watermites have been found. Three of these are new to science: Acherontacarus tuberculalus nov. spec., Neumania (s. str.) algeriensis nov. spec., and the representative of a new genus

  3. Caracterização de um vírus baciliforme isolado de Solanum violaefolium transmitido pelos ácaros Brevipalpus phoenicis e Brevipalpus obovatus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae Characterization of a bacilliform virus isolated from Solanum violaefolium transmitted by the tenuipalpid mites Brevipalpus phoenicis and Brevipalpus obovatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso Oliveira Ferreira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Solano-violeta (Solanum violaefolium é uma planta ornamental rasteira usada para cobrir solos de áreas sombreadas. Um vírus que induz manchas anelares nas folhas desta planta, tentativamente designado Solanum violaefolium ringspot virus - SvRSV, transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae foi encontrado em Piracicaba, SP. Trata-se de um vírus baciliforme que se assemelha a outros vírus do tipo citoplasmático transmitidos por Brevipalpus sp. Este trabalho teve como objetivo relatar propriedades biológicas e estabelecer uma caracterização molecular parcial do SvRSV. O vírus pode ser transmitido mecanicamente a várias outras espécies botânicas, causando lesões localizadas. Entre as espécies avaliadas, Datura stramonium mostrou-se a melhor hospedeira experimental. Observou-se também a manifestação de sintomas nestas plantas após infestação das mesmas por B. obovatus previamente alimentado em lesões de SvRSV, confirmando esta outra espécie de ácaro como vetor do vírus. Suas propriedades físicas in vitro foram: temperatura de inativação 40-45 ºC; ponto final de diluição 10-3-10-4; longevidade in vitro 12 dias. Em secções ultrafinas, as partículas do SvRSV mostraram-se levemente mais delgadas e mais longas que as de outros vírus do mesmo grupo. A partir do dsRNA do SvRSV foi construída uma biblioteca de cDNA e foram identificadas duas possíveis regiões codificadoras das proteínas de movimento e replicase viral. Baseado nestas regiões foram desenhados "primers" para amplificação do RNA do SvRSV por RT-PCR. Sondas baseadas nas seqüências obtidas hibridizaram com ss- e dsRNA de D. stramonium infectadas pelo vírus. Ensaios preliminares de RT-PCR e hibridização não resultaram em reação com o vírus da leprose dos citros, tipo citoplasmático (CiLV-C.Solanum violaefolium is an ornamental plant, with prostrate, trailing growth habit and is cultivated in shaded areas. A virus that causes

  4. Pode Euseius alatus DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae) predar Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) em coqueiro?

    OpenAIRE

    MELO, José W da S; DOMINGOS, Cleiton A; GONDIM JR, Manoel G C; de Moraes, Gilberto J.

    2009-01-01

    Ácaros do gênero Euseius são geralmente considerados especialistas na alimentação de pólen. Euseius alatus DeLeon é uma das seis espécies de ácaros fitoseídeos mais comumente encontrados em plantas de coqueiro no Nordeste do Brasil, associado com Aceria guerreronis Keifer. Apesar de a morfologia de E. alatus não favorecer a exploração da área meristemática do fruto habitada por A. guerreronis, o predador pode ter algum papel no controle do eriofídeo durante o processo de dispersão. O objetivo...

  5. Predatory behaviors of Neoseiulus californicus and Galendromus helveolus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) attacking Oligonychus perseae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano-Lee, M; Hoddle, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Predatory behaviors of Neosieulus californicus (McGregor) and Galendromus helveolus (Chant) attacking Oligonychus perseae Tuttle, Baker and Abbatiello on avocado leaves were videotaped and analyzed. Behaviors were recorded for "fresh" predators that were used perseae only after invading webbed nests. Conversely. fresh and cold stored N. californicus employed three different modes of predatory attack: (1) intercepting and attacking migrant O. perseae outside of web nests: (2) attacking prey through nest webbing; or (3) invading and attacking O. perseae inside nests. Predatory efficacy of both N. californicus and G. helveolus was reduced following cold storage. as both species engaged in certain predatory behaviors less frequently in comparison to predators that were not stored at low temperatures. Our observed results for N. californicus and G. helveolus attacking O. perseae are interpreted in relation to the chaetotaxy hypothesis, which proposes that phytoseiid invasion efficiency and propensity of webbed nests is facilitated by dorsal setal lengths.

  6. Fitness costs associated with low-level dimethoate resistance in Phytoseiulus macropilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, D D M; Fadini, M A M; Oliveira, H G; Oliveira, C M; Melo, J W S; Guedes, R N C; Pallini, A

    2013-07-01

    Phytoseiulus macropilis Banks (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is an effective predator of tetranychid mites, but there are no data on its response to pesticides. We investigated the resistance of the predatory mite P. macropilis to the acaricides abamectin and dimethoate, and we examined the fitness costs associated with resistance. Two populations were tested: one from conventional cultivation and another from an area not commercially exploited. After the application of acaricides to the predator, we determined the lethal effects of the acaricides, the instantaneous rate of population increase (r(i)), the predation on Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and its ability to locate prey in an olfactometer. P. macropilis exhibited resistance to dimethoate only. The low level of resistance (9.4x) of the predator did not affect their ability to locate prey. However, the dimethoate resistant population was not as effective in contatining prey population when in lower density and exhibited a more pronounced decrease of r(i) in the presence of this acaricide, due to the reduced oviposition of the predator, a likely consequence of the different genetic background of this population.

  7. Cellular automata approach for investigation of low power light effects on the dynamics of plant-inhabiting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandini, S. (Milan Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Scienza dell' Informazione); Casati, R.; Milani, M. (Milan Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Fisica)

    1998-10-01

    The prey-predator competition is a typical problem exhibited by the dynamics of phytophagous and predaceous mite population. Biological parameters of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and Amblyseius californicus McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae) are set up in order to establish the fundamental aspects to be embodied into a simulation model. The paper introduces the Lotka-Volterra differential equations as the classical approach to the problem and present the Cellular-Automata (CA) approach as an alternative one. It reports preliminary results which account for a number of interesting features such as: 1) oscillations in time of the population, 2) a link between the populations' initial conditions and the obtained solution, 3) the appearance of spatial structures, and 4) the effect on the population dynamics of parameters which may be linked to photoperiodic and circadian features. Furthermore, it is shown that several sophisticated features affecting populations evolution, such as the egg opening time, the sexual maturation time, the limited lifetime, the limited survival capability of predators in fasting condition and juvenile mortality can be easily included in a CA-based model.

  8. Effects of Some Plant Essential Oils Against Botrytis cinerea and Tetranychus urticae on Grapevine

    OpenAIRE

    DOĞU, Duygu MERMER; ZOBAR, Damla

    2014-01-01

    The cultivation of grapes in the world in terms of the first-ranked Turkey as well as the appropriate climatic zone, has potential for rich gene and ancient viticulture culture. Grape growers, starting from production until it reaches the consumer is faced with various problems in the process. Plant protection faced in the vineyards of the manufacturers in terms of the most important causes of losses; Downy Mildew (Plasmopara viticola), Powdery Mildew (Uncinula necator), Gray mold (Botrytis c...

  9. Polyphenolic and biological activities of leaves extracts of Argemone subfusiformis (Papaveraceae and Urtica urens (Urticaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Jimoh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there is a resurgence of interest in wild plants for their possible medicinal value in diets, since some epidemiological studies have demonstrated their effectiveness against important diseases. Generally, foods of plant origin contain many bioactive compounds, proteins, energy, vitamins and specific minerals; in addition, the popular wild plant species provide fibre, essential fatty acids and enhance the taste and colour in diets. We studied the nutritional and medicinal potential of leaves of A. subfusiformis and U. urens, collected in Alice, South Africa in November 2006. To asses this we analyzed the phytochemical, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of leaves in acetone, methanol and water extracts, using standard analytical methods. The proximate analysis showed that the leaves of both plant species contained appreciable percentages of moisture; ashes; carbohydrates; crude proteins, lipids and fibres. Elemental analysis of macro and microelements showed higher values for U. urens that contained in decreasing order: iron>manganese>zinc>copper>calcium>potassium>nitrogen>magnesium> phosphorus>sodium, for A. subfusiformis resulted in iron>zinc>manganese>coppe r>calcium>potassium>nitrogen>magnesium>phosphorus>sodium. Besides, the chemical composition showed higher concentration of alkaloids, saponins and phytates in A. subfusiformis. The extracts also caused 1, 1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2, 2-azinobis-3 ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radical scavenging activities which were comparable to those of ascorbic acid. The extracts of both plants contained appreciable levels of polyphenols and also caused varied inhibition of some bacterial strains used in this study. When the nutrient and chemical constituents of these plants were compared with recommended dietary allowance (RDA values, the results revealed that the leaves contain an appreciable amount of nutrients, minerals, and phytochemicals and low levels of toxicants. Since the plants also exhibited some level of antibacterial activities, their use for medicinal purposes is to some extent being justified. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4: 1517-1531. Epub 2010 December 01.

  10. Polyphenolic and biological activities of leaves extracts of Argemone subfusiformis (Papaveraceae) and Urtica urens (Urticaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimoh, Florence; Adedapo, Adeolu; Aliero, Adamu; Afolayan, Anthony

    2010-12-01

    Nowadays there is a resurgence of interest in wild plants for their possible medicinal value in diets, since some epidemiological studies have demonstrated their effectiveness against important diseases. Generally, foods of plant origin contain many bioactive compounds, proteins, energy, vitamins and specific minerals; in addition, the popular wild plant species provide fibre, essential fatty acids and enhance the taste and colour in diets. We studied the nutritional and medicinal potential of leaves of A. subfusiformis and U. urens, collected in Alice, South Africa in November 2006. To asses this we analyzed the phytochemical, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of leaves in acetone, methanol and water extracts, using standard analytical methods. The proximate analysis showed that the leaves of both plant species contained appreciable percentages of moisture; ashes; carbohydrates; crude proteins, lipids and fibres. Elemental analysis of macro and microelements showed higher values for U. urens that contained in decreasing order: iron > manganese > zinc > copper > calcium > potassium > nitrogen > magnesium > phosphorus > sodium, for A. subfusiformis resulted in iron > zinc > manganese > copper > calcium > potassium > nitrogen > magnesium > phosphorus > sodium. Besides, the chemical composition showed higher concentration of alkaloids, saponins and phytates in A. subfusiformis. The extracts also caused 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2, 2-azinobis-3 ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activities which were comparable to those of ascorbic acid. The extracts of both plants contained appreciable levels of polyphenols and also caused varied inhibition of some bacterial strains used in this study. When the nutrient and chemical constituents of these plants were compared with recommended dietary allowance (RDA) values, the results revealed that the leaves contain an appreciable amount of nutrients, minerals, and phytochemicals and low levels of toxicants. Since the plants also exhibited some level of antibacterial activities, their use for medicinal purposes is to some extent being justified.

  11. Optimization of spray deposition and Tetranychus urticae control with air assisted and electrostatic sprayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Tourino Rezende de Cerqueira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Improved spray deposition can be attained by electrostatically charging spray droplets, which increases the attraction of droplets to plants and decreases operator exposure to pesticide and losses to the environment. However, this technique alone is not sufficient to achieve desirable penetration of the spray solution into the crop canopy; thus, air assistance can be added to the electrostatic spraying to further improve spray deposition. This study was conducted to compare different spraying technologies on spray deposition and two-spotted spider mite control in cut chrysanthemum. Treatments included in the study were: conventional TJ 8003 double flat fan nozzles, conventional TXVK-3 hollow cone nozzles, semi-stationary motorized jet launched spray with electrostatic spray system (ESS and air assistance (AA, and semi-stationary motorized jet launched spray with AA only (no ESS. To evaluate the effect of these spraying technologies on the control of two-spotted spider mite, a control treatment was included that did not receive an acaricide application. The AA spraying technology, with or without ESS, optimized spray deposition and provided satisfactory two-spotted spider mite control up to 4 days after application.

  12. Polyphenolic and biological activities of leaves extracts of Argemone subfusiformis (Papaveraceae and Urtica urens (Urticaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Jimoh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there is a resurgence of interest in wild plants for their possible medicinal value in diets, since some epidemiological studies have demonstrated their effectiveness against important diseases. Generally, foods of plant origin contain many bioactive compounds, proteins, energy, vitamins and specific minerals; in addition, the popular wild plant species provide fibre, essential fatty acids and enhance the taste and colour in diets. We studied the nutritional and medicinal potential of leaves of A. subfusiformis and U. urens, collected in Alice, South Africa in November 2006. To asses this we analyzed the phytochemical, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of leaves in acetone, methanol and water extracts, using standard analytical methods. The proximate analysis showed that the leaves of both plant species contained appreciable percentages of moisture; ashes; carbohydrates; crude proteins, lipids and fibres. Elemental analysis of macro and microelements showed higher values for U. urens that contained in decreasing order: iron>manganese>zinc>copper>calcium>potassium>nitrogen>magnesium> phosphorus>sodium, for A. subfusiformis resulted in iron>zinc>manganese>coppe r>calcium>potassium>nitrogen>magnesium>phosphorus>sodium. Besides, the chemical composition showed higher concentration of alkaloids, saponins and phytates in A. subfusiformis. The extracts also caused 1, 1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2, 2-azinobis-3 ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radical scavenging activities which were comparable to those of ascorbic acid. The extracts of both plants contained appreciable levels of polyphenols and also caused varied inhibition of some bacterial strains used in this study. When the nutrient and chemical constituents of these plants were compared with recommended dietary allowance (RDA values, the results revealed that the leaves contain an appreciable amount of nutrients, minerals, and phytochemicals and low levels of toxicants. Since the plants also exhibited some level of antibacterial activities, their use for medicinal purposes is to some extent being justified. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4: 1517-1531. Epub 2010 December 01.En la actualidad se ha dado un resurgimiento del interés en las plantas silvestres por su posible valor en la dieta, como consecuencia de algunos estudios epidemiológicos que han demostrado efectividad contra importantes enfermedades. En general, los alimentos de origen vegetal contienen muchos compuestos bioactivos, proteínas, energía, vitaminas y minerales específicos; además, las especies silvestres populares proporcionan fibras, ácidos grasos esenciales y aditivos para mejorar el sabor y color de los alimentos. Estudiamos el potencial nutricional y medicinal de las hojas de A. subfusiformis y U. urens, recolectados en Alice, Sudáfrica, en noviembre de 2006. Analizamos los compuestos químicos y antioxidantes de estas plantas, la actividad antibacteriana de las hojas en extractos acuosos, con acetona y metanol, utilizando los métodos estándares de análisis. Encontramos que las hojas de ambas especies contienen apreciables porcentajes de humedad, cenizas, carbohidratos, proteínas, lípidos y fibras. El análisis de los macro y microelementos mostró valores altos para U. urens en el siguiente orden decreciente: >hierro>manganeso>zinc>cobre>calcio>potasio>nitrógeno>magnesio>fósforo>sodio y para A. subfusiformis fue: hierro>zinc>manganeso>cobre>calcio> potasio>nitrógeno>magnesio>fósforo>sodio. Además, la composición química mostró una alta concentración de alcaloides, saponinas y fitatos en A. subfusiformis. Estos extractos 1, 1 - difenil-2-picrilhidrazil (DPPH y 2, 2-azinobis-3 ácido etilbenzotiazolina-6-ácido sulfúrico (ABTS también causaron actividad en el barrido de radicales comparables con los del ácido ascórbico. Los extractos de ambas especies contienen niveles apreciables de polifenoles y también causaron una variada inhibición de algunas cepas bacterianas utilizadas en el estudio. Cuando los nutrientes y compuestos químicos de estas plantas se compararon con los valores dietéticos recomendados (RDA, los resultados revelaron que las hojas contenían una apreciable cantidad de nutrientes, minerales, compuestos químicos y bajos niveles de sustancias tóxicas. Dado que las plantas también mostraron un cierto nivel de actividad antibacteriana, su utilización para fines medicinales en cierta medida está justificada.

  13. Effect of different temperatures on reproductive performance of Scolothrips longicornis reared on Tetranychus urticae eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakyari, Hajar; Enkegaard, Annie

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive parameters for Scolothrips longicornis were determined and compared at six temperatures (15, 20, 26, 30, 35 and 37°C), 60 ± 10% relative humidity and a photoperiod of 16:8 h (light:dark). Reproductive parameters were estimated for individual newly emerged thrips, which had spent...... results demonstrated that 30°C was the optimum temperature for reproductive of the studied population of S. longicornis....

  14. on control of the spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch.) in peanut

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samson Edoja

    2016-07-27

    Jul 27, 2016 ... spp. are mites that cause damage to several crops and are primarily controlled by synthetic pesticides. Literature showed that ... increase pesticide resistance of insect-pests (Gill and ... way less aggressive to the environment.

  15. Role of cucurbitacin C in resistance to spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) in cucumber (Cucumber sativus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balkema-Boomstra, A.G.; Zijlstra, S.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Inggamer, H.; Mercke, P.

    2003-01-01

    Cucurbitacins are bitter triterpenoid compounds that are toxic to most organisms and occur widely in wild and cultivated Cucurbitaceae. The only cucurbitacin identified in Cucumis sativus is cucurbitacin C. The bitter taste of cucumber has been correlated with resistance to the spider mite

  16. Evaluation of Animal and Plant Pathogens as Terrorism and Warfare Agents, Vectors and Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    Acari Arachnida Hyalomma Anatolicumn Anatolicumn Dermacentor andersoni Acari Arachnida Dermacentor varabilis Amblyimma Cajennese Rhipicephalus sanguineus...Mansonia spp. Diptera Insecta Culex spp. Culiseta spp. Pediculus humanus Anopluraa Insect Ixodides Dermacentor spp. Acari Arachnida Rhipicephalus spp

  17. Three eriophyoid mite species (Acari: Eriophyoidea: Eriophyidae) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiao-Feng; Sadeghi, Hussein; Honarmand, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Three mite species of the family Eriophyidae from Iran are described and illustrated. They are: Tegolophus marrubiumer sp. nov. on Marrubium vulgare L. (Lamiaceae); Phyllocoptes sp. cf. balasi Farkas, 1962 on Sanguisorba minor Scop. subsp. minor (Rosaceae) and Aceria fasciculifolis sp. nov. on Astragalus fasciculifolius Boiss. (Fabaceae). Both new species described herein are vagrants on their respective host plants.

  18. Nieuwe vondsten van watermijten in Nederland (Acari: Hydrachnidia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.; Hoek, van den T.H.; Wiggers, R.

    2006-01-01

    Sinds de publicatie van de atlas van de Nederlandse watermijten in 2000 is de interesse voor watermijten sterk toegenomen. Er worden regelmatig nieuwe en zeldzame soorten gevonden en de kennis over biotoopvoorkeuren en trends wordt steeds verder uitgebreid. In dit artikel worden enkele bijzondere ni

  19. Checklist of the Oribatid Mites of the Netherlands (Acari: Oribatida)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siepel, H.; Zaitsev, A.; Berg, M.

    2009-01-01

    More than fifty years ago Van der Hammen published the last checklist of oribatid mites (or moss mites) for the Netherlands. Since then the species number has almost doubled to 318 species, of which 100 are presented here for the first time. Brief data on occurence and nomenclature are provided for

  20. Some mossmites new for the Netherlands (Acari: Oribatida)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siepel, H.; Dimmers, W.J.

    2010-01-01

    Bestudering van materiaal uit enkele Alterra projecten leverde negen soorten mosmijten op die nog niet waren opgenomen in de recent gepubliceerde Nederlandse naamlijst. Het totaal aantal soorten voor Nederland komt hiermee op 327.

  1. Listado de oribátidos (Acari, Oribatida de Túnez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subías, L. S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The oribatid mites of several Tunisian soil samples were studied. 113 species were obtained, 95 of which are recorded for the first time from Tunisia. A systematic check-list with the 136 species known up to now is included, and their geographical distribution is given. Most of them, 77 (56%, have a typical Mediterranean distribution and 16 are recorded for the first time from North Africa.Se han estudiado los ácaros oribátidos de una serie de muestras de suelo de Túnez y se han identificado 113 especies, 95 de las cuales se citan por primera vez en Túnez. Se ha elaborado un listado sistemático en el que se incluyen las 136 especies conocidas hasta el momento y su distribución geográfica. La mayoría, 77 (56 %, presentan características típicamente mediterráneas, y 16 se citan por primera vez en el norte de África.

  2. Oribatid mites from the Vohimana Reserve, Madagascar (Acari: Oribatida, II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahunka, S.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Further studies on the oribatid species collected from the Vohimana Reserve (Madagascar are presented. Altogether 13 species are listed, of them two represent new genera (Rugocepheus gen. nov. and Madabelba gen. nov., furthermore seven species are new to science. The other six species were earlier mentioned from different regions of the island, they are however little known.

  3. Hypopi (Acari: Hypoderatidae) of the wood stork (Aves: Ciconiiformes: Ciconiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Danny B.; Thomas, N.J.

    1995-01-01

    A new species is described and additional host records are presented for 2 other species of deutonymphs of the family Hypoderatidae from the subcutaneous adipose tissues of the wood stork, Mycteria americana L. Phalacrodectes (Phalacrodectes) mycteria n. sp. appears to share affinities with species from both pelicaniform and ciconiiform hosts, but it most closely resembles P. (P.) punctatissimus (Černý) Pence & Courtney from pelicans in idiosomal chaetotaxy, cutdcular sclerotization, and posteriorly divergent, widely separated genital openings. The new species differs from this and other species of the genus by its small size, the degree of separation of the genital openings with papillae, no secondary sclerotization in the perigenital area or surrounding the genital openings, and the long filiform setae s and w on genu III. There was a mixed infection of Neottialges kutzeri Fain and N. mycteriae Pence in all of 7 wood storks examined from Florida and Georgia; P. (P) mycteria was found in 4 of these hosts. This is the 7th species described as a deutonymph in the genus Phalacrodectes. The apparent close affinity of P. (P.) mycteria with P. (P.) punctatissimus and allied species from pelicaniform versus ciconiiform birds appears to be inconsistent with the established host-parasite relationships based on classical avian taxonomic relationships. However, this apparent affinity may be more reflective of the close relationships between the families of pelicans, ibises and spoonbills, and storks as recently proposed by DNA-DNA hybridization studies.

  4. Vectorial role of some dermanyssoid mites (Acari, Mesostigmata, Dermanyssoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valiente Moro C.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Among transmissible diseases, vectorial diseases represent a major problem for public health. In the group of acarina, while ticks are the most commonly implicated vectors, other arthropods and notably Dermanyssoidea are also involved in the transmission of pathogenic agents. Since the role of this superfamily is at present largely unknown, we have reviewed the vectorial role of these mites in the appearance, survival and propagation of pathogens. Various authors have shown that Dermanyssoidea are implicated in the transmission of both bacteria (Salmonella, Spirocheta, Rickettsia or Pasteurella and viruses (equine encephalitis viruses, West Nile virus, Fowl pox virus, the virus causing Newcastle disease and tick borne encephalitis viruses or hantaviruses. Finally, some authors have also shown their role in the transmission of some protozoa and filaria. As the vectorial character of such mites has been more clearly demonstrated (Dermanyssus gallinae, Ornithonyssus bacoti and Allodermanyssus sanguineus, it would be interesting to continue studies to better understand the role of this superfamily in the epidemiology of certain zoonoses.

  5. Development of Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae) at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, E C; Prado, A P; Araújo, R P

    2008-08-01

    The development, viability, and life cycle parameters of Dermanyssus gallinae at five different temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 degrees C), and at relative humidity 70-85% were evaluated. Life cycle duration was 690.75 h (28 days) at 15 degrees C, 263.12h (11 days) at 20 degrees C, 164.63 h (7 days) at 25 degrees C, 140.69 h (6 days) at 30 degrees C and 172.04 h (7 days) at 35 degrees C. The optimal development temperature for D. gallinae was 30 degrees C, with the greatest survival in all stages and the shortest development time. High mortality at 35 degrees C indicated that this temperature had adverse effects on development of D. gallinae, and that in field conditions D. gallinae populations may decrease or even disappear due to the negative impact of high temperature on development. There were no significant differences in the pre-oviposition period among the four temperatures 20-35 degrees C, indicating that temperature did not affect this part of the life cycle.

  6. Thermal requirements of Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778 (Acari: Dermanyssidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Clara Tucci

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The thermal requirements for development of Dermanyssus gallinae were studied under laboratory conditions at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35°C, a 12h photoperiod and 60-85% RH. The thermal requirements for D. gallinae were as follows. Preoviposition: base temperature 3.4ºC, thermal constant (k 562.85 degree-hours, determination coefficient (R² 0.59, regression equation: Y= -0.006035 + 0.001777 x. Egg: base temperature 10.60ºC, thermal constant (k 689.65 degree-hours, determination coefficient (R² 0.94, regression equation: Y= -0.015367 + 0.001450 x. Larva: base temperature 9.82ºC, thermal constant (k 464.91 degree-hours, determination coefficient R² 0.87, regression equation: Y= -0.021123+0.002151 x. Protonymph: base temperature 10.17ºC, thermal constant (k 504.49 degree-hours, determination coefficient (R² 0.90, regression equation: Y= -0.020152 + 0.001982 x. Deutonymph: base temperature 11.80ºC, thermal constant (k 501.11 degree-hours, determination coefficient (R² 0.99, regression equation: Y= -0.023555 + 0.001996 x. The results obtained showed that 15 to 42 generations of Dermanyssus gallinae may occur during the year in the State of São Paulo, as estimated based on isotherm charts. Dermanyssus gallinae may develop continually in the State of São Paulo, with a population decrease in the winter. There were differences between the developmental stages of D. gallinae in relation to thermal requirements.Experimentos de laboratório foram realizados visando estimar as exigências térmicas de Dermanyssus gallinae. Para isso, o desenvolvimento do ácaro foi estudado em condições de laboratório usando-se câmaras climatizadas reguladas a 15, 20, 25, 30 e 35°C, fotofase de 12h e UR de 6085%. As exigências térmicas determinadas para D. gallinae foram: Pré-oviposição: temperatura base de 3,4 ºC, constante térmica (k igual a 562,85 graus-hora, coeficiente de determinação (R² igual a 0,59, equação de regressão: Y= -0,006035 + 0,001777 x. Ovo. Temperatura base de 10,60 ºC, constante térmica (k igual a 689,65 graus-hora, coeficiente de determinação (R² igual a 0,94, equação de regressão: Y= -0,015367 + 0,001450 x. Larva. Temperatura base 9,82 ºC, constante térmica (k igual a 464,91 graus-hora, R² igual a 0,87, equação de regressão: Y= -0,021123+0,002151x. Protoninfa. Temperatura de 10,17 ºC, constante térmica (k igual a 504,49 graus-hora, coeficiente de determinação (R² igual a 0,90, equação de regressão: Y= -0,020152 + 0,001982 x. Deutoninfa. Temperatura de 11,80 ºC, constante (k térmica igual a 501,11 graus-hora, coeficiente de determinação (R² igual a 0,99, equação de regressão: Y= -0,023555 + 0,001996 x. Os resultados obtidos permitem concluir que no Estado de São Paulo podem ocorrem de 15 a 42 gerações/ano de D. gallinae, em estimativa baseada em isotermas. Dermanyssus gallinae pode se desenvolver continuamente no Estado de São Paulo, com diminuição da população no inverno. Existem diferenças entre os estágios de desenvolvimento de D. gallinae com relação às exigências térmicas.

  7. Thermal requirements of Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, Edna Clara; do Prado, Angelo P; de Araújo, Raquel Pires

    2008-01-01

    The thermal requirements for development of Dermanyssus gallinae were studied under laboratory conditions at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 degrees C, a 12h photoperiod and 60-85% RH. The thermal requirements for D. gallinae were as follows. Preoviposition: base temperature 3.4 degrees C, thermal constant (k) 562.85 degree-hours, determination coefficient (R(2)) 0.59, regression equation: Y= -0.006035 + 0.001777x. Egg: base temperature 10.60 degrees C, thermal constant (k) 689.65 degree-hours, determination coefficient (R(2)) 0.94, regression equation: Y= -0.015367 + 0.001450x. Larva: base temperature 9.82 degrees C, thermal constant (k) 464.91 degree-hours, determination coefficient (R(2)) 0.87, regression equation: Y= -0.021123 + 0.002151x. Protonymph: base temperature 10.17 degrees C, thermal constant (k) 504.49 degree-hours, determination coefficient (R(2)) 0.90, regression equation: Y= -0.020152 + 0.001982x. Deutonymph: base temperature 11.80 degrees C, thermal constant (k) 501.11 degree-hours, determination coefficient (R(2)) 0.99, regression equation: Y= -0.023555 + 0.001996x. The results obtained showed that 15 to 42 generations of Dermanyssus gallinae may occur during the year in the State of São Paulo, as estimated based on isotherm charts. Dermanyssus gallinae may develop continually in the State of São Paulo, with a population decrease in the winter. There were differences between the developmental stages of D. gallinae in relation to thermal requirements.

  8. The ticks (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae, Ixodidae) of Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, S; Lareschi, M; Rebollo, C; Benítez Usher, C; Beati, L; Robbins, R G; Durden, L A; Mangold, A J; Guglielmone, A A

    2007-04-01

    The ticks reported in Paraguay, which are here reviewed, can be categorized as 'endemic or established' (Argas persicus or a sibling species, Ornithodoros hasei, O. rostratus, O. rudis, O. talaje/O. puertoricensis, Amblyomma aureolatum, Am. auricularium, Am. brasiliense, Am. cajennense, Am. calcaratum, Am. coelebs, Am. dissimile, Am. dubitatum, Am. incisum, Am. longirostre, Am. nodosum, Am. ovale, Am. pacae, Am. parvum, Am. pseudoconcolor, Am. rotundatum, Am. scutatum, Am. tigrinum, Am. triste, Dermacentor nitens, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, H. leporispalustris, Ixodes loricatus, Rhipicephalus microplus, and Rh. sanguineus), 'probably endemic or established' (Ar. miniatus, Ar. monachus, Am. argentinae, Am. humerale, Am. naponense, Am. oblongoguttatum, Am. pseudoparvum, I. aragaoi/I. pararicinus, I. auritulus, I. luciae), or 'erroneously reported from Paraguay' (O. coriaceus, Am. americanum and Am. maculatum). Most Paraguayan tick collections have been made in the Chaco phyto-geographical domain, in the central part of the country. Argas persicus or a related species, Am. cajennense, D. nitens, Rh. microplus and Rh. sanguineus are important parasites of domestic animals. Ornithodoros rudis, Am. aureolatum, Am. brasiliense, Am. cajennense, Am. coelebs, Am. incisum, Am. ovale and Am. tigrinum have all been collected from humans. In terms of public health, the collections of Am. cajennense and Am. triste from humans may be particularly significant, as these species are potential vectors of Rickettsia rickettsii and Ri. parkeri, respectively.

  9. The ticks (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae, Ixodidae) of Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastropaolo, Mariano; Beltrán-Saavedra, L Fabián; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2014-03-01

    The tick species reported in Bolivia are reviewed here as (1) endemic or established: Ornithodoros echimys, O. guaporensis, O. hasei, O. kohlsi, O. mimon, O. peropteryx, O. rostratus, Otobius megnini, Amblyomma auricularium, A. cajennense, A. calcaratum, A. coelebs, A. dubitatum, A. humerale, A. incisum, A. longirostre, A. naponense, A. nodosum, A. oblongoguttatum, A. ovale, A. parvitarsum, A. parvum, A. pecarium, A. pseudoconcolor, A. rotundatum, A. scalpturatum, A. tigrinum, A. triste, Dermacentor nitens, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, H. leporispalustris, I. boliviensis, I. cooleyi, I. luciae, Rhipicephalus microplus, R. sanguineus, and (2) erroneously reported: Ornithodoros puertoricensis, O. talaje, O. turicata, Amblyomma americanum, A. maculatum, A. multipunctum, Ixodes ricinus, I. scapularis, Rhipicephalus annulatus. Many of these records are lacking locality and/or host, and some of them need new findings for confirmation. Some of the species recorded may represent a threat for human and animal health, therefore would be of great value to make a countrywide survey of ticks in order to update the information presented in this work. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. A revision of the Pheroliodidae, fam. n. (Acari: Oribatei

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    Adilson D. Paschoal

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available The new family Pheroliodidae, herei nproposed, includes the following genera and species Pheroliodes Grandjean (in whose synonymy Pedrocortesia Hammer is placed, with the species: casa-branquensis, sp. n. (Brazil, São Paulo, Casa Branca, pellitus, sp. n. (Brazil, São Paulo, Piracicaba, nemoricultricis, sp. n. (Brazil, São Paulo, Piracicaba, wehnekei (Willmann (Guatemala, Venezuela, roblensis Covarrubias (Chile, mirabilis (Hammer, n. comb. (Argentina: Pedrocortesia elegans Hammer, P. intermedia Hammer, both from Peru, P. fissurata Balogh & Mahunka and P. inaequalis Balogh & Mahunka, both from Mongolia, P. franzi Balogh (Chad, P. africana Balogh (Kenya, P. vermicularis Balogh (New Guinea and P. sculptrata Aoki (Corea are considered incertae sedis; Lopholiodes, gen. n., includes the species micropunctinatum, sp. n., the type-species (Brazil, São Paulo, Anhumas and macropunctinatum, sp. n. (Brazil, São Paulo, Piracicaba: Octoliodes, gen n., includes the species leuteomarginatus (Hammer, n. comb., the type-species (New ealand and rotoruensis (Hammer, n. comb. (New Zealand: and Licnoliodes Grandjean, with the species: andrei Grandjean, type-species (Spain and Algeria, adminensis Grandjean, type-species (Spain and Algeria, adminensis Grandjean (Maroc, Algeria, Spain and apunctatus Mahunka (Greece.A nova família aqui descrita, Pheroliodidae, inclui os seguintes gêneros e espécies: Pheroliodes Grandjean (em cuja sinonímia vai incluído Pedrocortesia Hammer, com as seguintes espécies: casa-branquensis, sp. n. (Brasil, São Paulo, Casa Branca, pellitus, sp. n. (Brasil, São Paulo, Piracicaba, nemoricultricis, sp. n. (Brasil, São Paulo, Piracicaba, wehnekei (Willmann (Guatemala, Venezuela, roblensis Covarrubias (Chile, mirabilis (Hammer, n. comb. (Argentina: Pedrocortesia elegans Hammer, P. intermedia Hammer, ambas do Peru, P. fissurata Balogh & Mahunka (Mongólia, inaequalis Balogh & Mahunka (Mongólia, franzi Balogh (Chad, P. africana Balogh (Quênia, P. vermicularis Balogh (Nova Guiné e P. sculptrata Aoki (Coréia são consideradas incertae sedis: Lopholiodes, gen. n., inclui as espécies mícropunctatum, sp. n., espécie-tipo (Brasil, São Paulo, Anhumas e macropunctinatum. sp. n. (Brasil, São Paulo, Piracicaba: Octoliodes, gen. n., inclui as espécies luteomarginatus (Hammer, n. comb., a espécie-tipo (Nova elân da e rotoruensis (Hammer, n. comb. (Nova Zelândia: e Licnoliodes Grandjean, com as espécies: andrei Grandjean, espécie-tipo (Espanha e Argélia, adminensis Grandjean (Marrocos, Argélia, Espanha e apunctatus Mahunka (Grécia.

  11. Widespread Rickettsia spp. Infections in Ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chi-Chien; Shu, Pei-Yun; Mu, Jung-Jung; Lee, Pei-Lung; Wu, Yin-Wen; Chung, Chien-Kung; Wang, Hsi-Chieh

    2015-09-01

    Ticks are second to mosquitoes as the most important disease vectors, and recent decades have witnessed the emergence of many novel tick-borne rickettsial diseases, but systematic surveys of ticks and tick-borne rickettsioses are generally lacking in Asia. We collected and identified ticks from small mammal hosts between 2006 and 2010 in different parts of Taiwan. Rickettsia spp. infections in ticks were identified by targeting ompB and gltA genes with nested polymerase chain reaction. In total, 2,732 ticks were collected from 1,356 small mammals. Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides Supino (51.8% of total ticks), Haemaphysalis bandicota Hoogstraal & Kohls (28.0%), and Ixodes granulatus Supino (20.0%) were the most common tick species, and Rattus losea Swinhoe (44.7% of total ticks) and Bandicota indica Bechstein (39.9%) were the primary hosts. The average Rickettsia infective rate in 329 assayed ticks was 31.9% and eight Rickettsia spp. or closely related species were identified. This study shows that rickettsiae-infected ticks are widespread in Taiwan, with a high diversity of Rickettsia spp. circulating in the ticks. Because notifiable rickettsial diseases in Taiwan only include mite-borne scrub typhus and flea-borne murine typhus, more studies are warranted for a better understanding of the real extent of human risks to rickettsioses in Taiwan.

  12. Die Euphthiracaridae Jacot, 1930, und Ihre Gattungen (Acari, Oribatei)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Märkel, K.

    1964-01-01

    INHALT Einleitung.................... 4 Über den Körperbau der Euphthiracaridae........... 8 Die Gattungen der Euphthiracaridae............ 18 Oribotritia Jacot, 1924b................ 18 O. berlesei (Michael, 1898).............. 19 Indotritia Jacot, 1929................. 24 I. krakatauensis consimil

  13. Transmission of Hepatozoon americanum (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) by ixodids (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, S A; Mathew, J S; Panciera, R J

    2002-07-01

    American canine hepatozoonosis (ACH) caused by Hepatozoon americanum Vincent-Johnson, Macintire, Lindsay, Lenz, Baneth, and Shkap is an emerging, often fatal, tick-borne protozoal disease of dogs in the United States of America. Dogs acquire infection by ingesting ticks that contain oocysts. To understand the invertebrate (definitive) host range of H. americanum, experiments were carried out using four ixodids, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille), Dermacentor variabilis Say, Amblyomma americanum (L.), and Amblyomma maculatum Koch. Laboratory-reared nymphal ticks were fed on dogs that were either naturally or experimentally infected with H. americanum; when these ticks molted to the adult stage they were either fed to susceptible dogs or were dissected and examined for the presence of oocysts. Mature H. americanum oocysts were found in >90% of A. maculatum (both males and females), whereas oocysts were not found in any of the other three species. These results confirm that A. maculatum is an excellent host and vector for H. americanum and also suggest that this apicomplexan may have a narrow invertebrate host range, at least among ixodid ticks that are likely candidate vectors in the United States.

  14. Redefinition of the genus Triophtydeus Thor, 1932 (Acari: Actinedida)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    André, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    The genus Triophtydeus Thor, 1932 is redefined from the study of the type-species, T. triophthalmus (Oudemans, 1929). The genus Metatriophtydeus André, 1980 is a junior synonym of Triophtydeus. Species belonging or likely to belong to the genus Triophtydeus are listed and generic and specific

  15. Zetorchestes-Arten aus Neuguinea und Japan (Acari: Oribatida: Zetorchestidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krisper, G.

    1987-01-01

    A redescription of Zetorchestes saltator Oudemans, 1915 is given. In addition to that, two new Zetorchestes-species from New Guinea (Z. novaguineanus spec. nov., Z. vanderhammeni spec. nov.) and one new species from Japan (Z. aokii spec. nov.) are described in this paper. These four and some other s

  16. New species of water mites from the Comoros (Acari: Hydrachnidia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.; Pesic, V.; Mary-Sasal, N.

    2009-01-01

    Three new species are described from the Comoros, an archipelago in the Indian Ocean: Teratothyasides scutulatus Smit & Pesic n. sp., Platymamersopsis comoros Smit & Pesic n. sp. and Atractides comorosensis Smit & Pesic n. sp. One species is reported new for the fauna of the Comoros, i.e. Monatracti

  17. Origins of asexuality in Bryobia mites (Acari: Tetranychidae

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    Menken Steph BJ

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obligate asexual reproduction is rare in the animal kingdom. Generally, asexuals are considered evolutionary dead ends that are unable to radiate. The phytophagous mite genus Bryobia contains a large number of asexual species. In this study, we investigate the origin and evolution of asexuality using samples from 111 populations in Europe, South Africa and the United States, belonging to eleven Bryobia species. We also examine intraspecific clonal diversity for one species, B. kissophila, by genotyping individuals from 61 different populations. Knowledge on the origin of asexuality and on clonal diversity can contribute to our understanding of the paradox of sex. Results The majority (94% of 111 sampled populations reproduces asexually. Analysis of part of nuclear 28S rDNA shows that these asexuals do not form a monophyletic clade. Analysis of the mitochondrial COI region shows that intraspecific variation is extensive (up to 8.8%. Within B. kissophila, distinct clades are found, which are absent at the nuclear 28S rDNA level. Moreover, paraphyletic patterns are found at the mitochondrial DNA. Conclusion Asexuality is widespread in the genus Bryobia, signifying that some animal taxa do contain a high number of asexuals. We argue that asexuality originated multiple times within Bryobia. Wolbachia bacteria cause asexuality in at least two Bryobia species and may have infected different species independently. The high intraspecific clonal diversity and the patterns of paraphyly at the mitochondrial DNA in B. kissophila might be explained by a high mutation fixation rate and past hybridization events. Reproductive parasites like Wolbachia and Cardinium might influence these processes. We discuss the role these bacteria could play in the evolutionary success of asexual species.

  18. The ticks (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae, Ixodidae) of Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Brazil, French Guiana, Surinam and Uruguay. Amblyomma rotundatum Koch. Although there have been no published reports of this reptile and amphibian ...Nicaragua, Surinam and the islands of the Greater and Lesser Antilles. Both species have been found in Colombia, Panama and Venezuela. IXODIDAE Murray...Guiana, Surinam and Uruguay (Guglielmone et al., 2003c). Amblyomma auricularium (Conil). Massi Pallarés and Benı́tez Usher (1982) reported this tick from

  19. Phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) from Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferragut, Francisco; Navia, Denise

    2015-07-28

    Predatory phytoseiid mites have been intensively studied and surveyed in the last decades because of their economic importance as biocontrol agents of agricultural pests. However, many regions of the world remain unexplored and the diversity of the family worldwide is still fragmentary. Up to date no phytoseiid species have been collected in the southernmost part of the Earth down to latitude 45º S. In this study Phytoseiidae were sampled from native vegetation in southern Argentina and Chile in the regions of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego Island. Thirteen species were collected, five of which were previously described and eight, Chileseius australis n. sp., Neoseiulus mapuche n. sp., Typhlodromips valdivianus n. sp., T. fissuratus n. sp., Amblyseius grandiporus n. sp., A. caliginosus n. sp., Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) anomalos n. sp. and Metaseiulus parabrevicollis n. sp. are proposed as new to science and are described and diagnosed.

  20. Oribátidos (Acari, Oribatei de Fuerteventura (islas Canarias

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    Pérez-Iñigo, C.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The oribatid fauna from Fuerteventura (Canary Islands is studied for the first time; 86 species are recorded, from which 18 are new to the Science and two are new subspecies. Two new genera are erected: Passalobates n. gen. (Family Passalozetidae and Fuerteventuria n. gen. (Family Protoribatidae. Two species belonging to Ethiopic genera are described: Scutoverticosus insperatus n. sp. and Ethiovertex elisae n. sp. These genera contained until now the type species only.

    Se estudian por primera vez los ácaros oribátidos de Fuerteventura, y se citan 86 especies de las que 18 son nuevas para la Ciencia y dos son nuevas subespecies, y se establecen dos géneros nuevos: Passalobates n. gen. (Familia Passalozetidae y Fuerteventuria n. gen. (Familia Protoribatidae. Se describen dos especies de géneros etiópicos: Scutoverticosus insperatus n. sp. y Ethiovertex elisae n. sp., géneros que, hasta ahora, solo contaban con la especie tipo.

  1. Artengliederung und Verbreitung der Gattung Zetorchestes in Europa (Acari, Oribatida)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krisper, G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper gives a description of Zetorchestes grandjeani spec. nov.; it is identical with those animals which are called "l'espèce de Pise" by Grandjean (1951). Ζ. grandjeani differs from Ζ. flabrarius Grandjean, 1951 and from Z. falzonii Coggi, 1898 in showing a reduction of hairs in the posterior

  2. Relative humidity and activity patterns of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, K.A.; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Gonzalez, L.; Mather, T.N.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory studies have shown clear relationships between relative humidity (RH) and the activity and survival of Ixodes scapularis Say (blacklegged tick). However, field studies have produced conflicting results. We examined this relationship using weekly tick count totals and hourly RH observations at three field sites, stratified by latitude, within the state of Rhode Island. Records of nymphal tick abundance were compared with several RH-related variables (e.g., RH at time of sampling and mean weekly daytime RH). In total, 825 nymphs were sampled in 2009, a year of greater precipitation, with a weighted average leaf litter RH recorded at time of sampling of 85.22%. Alternatively, 649 nymphs were collected in 2010, a year of relatively low precipitation, and a weighted average RH recorded at time of sampling was 75.51%. Negative binomial regression analysis of tick count totals identified cumulative hours <82% RH threshold as a significant factor observed in both years (2009: P = 0.0037; 2010: P < 0.0001). Mean weekly daytime RH did not significantly predict tick activity in either year. However, mean weekly daytime RH recorded with 1-wk lag before sample date was a significant variable (P = 0.0016) in 2010. These results suggest a lag effect between moisture availability and patterns of tick activity and abundance. Differences in the relative importance of each RH variable between years may have been due to abnormally wet summer conditions in 2009.

  3. A supplementary description of Brevipalpus californicus (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tenuipalpidae

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    Mohammad Raissi Ardali

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The false spider mite Brevipalpus californicus from the family Tenuipalpidae was collected from Caucasian alnus, White willow, Persian raspberry and a wild Chrysanthemum bush in Mazandaran province. This species is reported as a new record to the false spider mites-fauna of Iran here. Reviewing literatures revealed that it was briefly described in the original paper without any measures. So, a completed description is presented based on the Iranian specimens and different body segments are drawn for B. californicus. In addition, the above plants are new host records for B. californicus.

  4. New records of the tribe Bryobiini berlsese (Acari: Tetranychidae: Bryobiinae) from Serbia, with notes about associated predators (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mladenović K.; Stojnić B.; Vidović B.; Radulović Z.

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the present knowledge and some new faunistic and zoogeographic data of the insufficiently researched tribe Bryobiini in Serbia. In Serbia, this group of mites is represented by eight species, including four species new to Serbian fauna: Bryobia angustisetis Jakobashvili, B. lagodechiana Reck, B. ulmophila Reck and B. vasiljevi Reck. New data on host plant species and families have also been obtained - two new host plant species for B. angustisetis, two ho...

  5. Primer registro de Ixodes cookei (Acari: Ixodidae) para México First record of Ixodes cookei (Acari: Ixodidae) in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    En este estudio se aportan los primeros datos de la garrapata Ixodes cookei Packard, 1869 en México. Un macho, 7 larvas y 15 ninfas se recolectaron en los estados de Nuevo León y Veracruz. Además, se registra al cacomixtle Bassariscus astutus como un nuevo huésped.The presence of Ixodes cookei Packard, 1869 is documented for the first time in Mexico, based on one male, 7 larvae and 15 nymphs collected in Veracruz and Nuevo Leon. Additionally, cacomixtle (Bassariscus astutus) is presented as a...

  6. Primer registro de Ixodes cookei (Acari: Ixodidae para México First record of Ixodes cookei (Acari: Ixodidae in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griselda Montiel-Parra

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se aportan los primeros datos de la garrapata Ixodes cookei Packard, 1869 en México. Un macho, 7 larvas y 15 ninfas se recolectaron en los estados de Nuevo León y Veracruz. Además, se registra al cacomixtle Bassariscus astutus como un nuevo huésped.The presence of Ixodes cookei Packard, 1869 is documented for the first time in Mexico, based on one male, 7 larvae and 15 nymphs collected in Veracruz and Nuevo Leon. Additionally, cacomixtle (Bassariscus astutus is presented as a new host record.

  7. Acaricidal properties of a Chenopodium-based botanical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiasson, H; Bostanian, N J; Vincent, C

    2004-08-01

    The emulsifiable concentrate UDA-245 [25% EC (vol:vol)], based on an essential oil extract from Chenopodium ambrosioides variety ambrosioides, a North American herbaceous plant, was compared with commercially available pesticides for their effectiveness to control the adult stage and egg hatch of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and the European red mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae). After a laboratory bioassay with adult twospotted spider mites, a 0.5% concentration of UDA-245 was more effective than 0.7% (AI) of neem oil (Neem Rose Defense). After a similar bioassay with the European red mite, a 0.5% concentration UDA-245 was as effective as 0.006% (AI) of abamectin (Avid). UDA-245 at 0.5% significantly reduced egg hatch of the twospotted spider mite, 5 and 9 d after treatment and of the European red mite 6 d after treatment. Egg hatch was significantly lower using 0.006% (AI) of abamectin, 0.7% of neem oil, and 1.0% insecticidal soap than UDA-245. Residual tests indicated that UDA-245 may be persistent in the environment only for a few hours. Only 23% mortality was noted when mites were introduced on bean leaves 1 h after treatment with a 2% concentration of UDA-245. At the recommended dose of 0.5%, UDA-245 was not considered phytotoxic for most plants tested, i.e., lettuce, roses, and tomatoes. Results suggest that a greenhouse integrated pest management program using UDA-245 could effectively and selectively control mite infestations by treating "hot spots" with negligible effect on biological control agents when treating before introduction or when natural enemies are absent.

  8. Evaluation of airborne methyl salicylate for improved conservation biological control of two-spotted spider mite and hop aphid in Oregon hop yards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, J L; James, D G; Lee, J C; Gent, D H

    2011-12-01

    The use of synthetic herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV) to attract natural enemies has received interest as a tool to enhance conservation biological control (CBC). Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a HIPV that is attractive to several key predators of two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), and hop aphid, Phorodon humuli (Schrank) (Homoptera: Aphididae). A 2-year study was conducted to evaluate the recommended commercial use of MeSA in hop yards in Oregon. Slow-release MeSA dispensers were stapled to supporting poles in 0.5 ha plots and these plots were compared to a paired non-treated plot on each of three farms in 2008 and 2009. Across both years, there was a trend for reduced (range 40-91%) mean seasonal numbers of T. urticae in five of the six MeSA-baited plots. Stethorus spp., key spider mite predators, tended to be more numerous in MeSA-baited plots compared to control plots on a given farm. Mean seasonal densities of hop aphid and other natural enemies (e.g., Orius spp. and Anystis spp.) were similar between MeSA-treated and control plots. Variability among farms in suppression of two-spotted spider mites and attraction of Stethorus spp. suggests that the use of MeSA to enhance CBC of spider mites in commercial hop yards may be influenced by site-specific factors related to the agroecology of individual farms or seasonal effects that require further investigation. The current study also suggests that CBC of hop aphid with MeSA in this environment may be unsatisfactory.

  9. CARACTERIZAÇÃO QUÍMICA E EFEITO DO ÓLEO ESSENCIAL DE ERVA-DE-SANTA-MARIA SOBRE O ÁCARO-RAJADO DE MORANGUEIRO

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    JOÃO PAULO PEREIRA PAES

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O ácaro-rajado, Tetranychus urticae Koch (1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae, é a principal praga na cultura do morangueiro. O objetivo deste trabalho foi a caracterização química do óleo essencial de Chenopodium ambrosioides L. e a avaliação de seus efeitos sobre o ácaro-rajado. Os compostos do óleo essencial foram identificados pelasanálises de CG-DIC e CG-EM. A mortalidade e a oviposição foram avaliadas após a pulverização do óleo (2,5; 5,0; 7,5 e 10,0% v v-1 sobre fêmeas do ácaro-rajado. O rendimento do óleo essencial foi de 0,3%, e os compostos identificados foram (Z-ascaridol (87%, (E-ascaridol (5,04%, p-cimeno (4,83%, a- terpineno (1,24% e piperitona (0,7%. Os maiores valores para mortalidade e redução de oviposição observados foram 85% e 69%, respectivamente. O óleo essencial de C. ambrosioidesé uma opção promissora para o manejo do ácaro-rajado.

  10. Inhibitory properties of cysteine protease pro-peptides from barley confer resistance to spider mite feeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Estrella Santamaria

    Full Text Available C1A plant cysteine proteases are synthesized as pre-pro-enzymes that need to be processed to become active by the pro-peptide claves off from its cognate enzyme. These pro-sequences play multifunctional roles including the capacity to specifically inhibit their own as well as other C1A protease activities from diverse origin. In this study, it is analysed the potential role of C1A pro-regions from barley as regulators of cysteine proteases in target phytophagous arthropods (coleopteran and acari. The in vitro inhibitory action of these pro-sequences, purified as recombinant proteins, is demonstrated. Moreover, transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing different fragments of HvPap-1 barley gene containing the pro-peptide sequence were generated and the acaricide function was confirmed by bioassays conducted with the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. Feeding trials resulted in a significant reduction of leaf damage in the transgenic lines expressing the pro-peptide in comparison to non-transformed control and strongly correlated with an increase in mite mortality. Additionally, the analysis of the expression levels of a selection of potential mite targets (proteases and protease inhibitors revealed a mite strategy to counteract the inhibitory activity produced by the C1A barley pro-prodomain. These findings demonstrate that pro-peptides can control mite pests and could be applied as defence proteins in biotechnological systems.

  11. Inhibitory properties of cysteine protease pro-peptides from barley confer resistance to spider mite feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, M Estrella; Arnaiz, Ana; Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Martinez, Manuel; Diaz, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    C1A plant cysteine proteases are synthesized as pre-pro-enzymes that need to be processed to become active by the pro-peptide claves off from its cognate enzyme. These pro-sequences play multifunctional roles including the capacity to specifically inhibit their own as well as other C1A protease activities from diverse origin. In this study, it is analysed the potential role of C1A pro-regions from barley as regulators of cysteine proteases in target phytophagous arthropods (coleopteran and acari). The in vitro inhibitory action of these pro-sequences, purified as recombinant proteins, is demonstrated. Moreover, transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing different fragments of HvPap-1 barley gene containing the pro-peptide sequence were generated and the acaricide function was confirmed by bioassays conducted with the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. Feeding trials resulted in a significant reduction of leaf damage in the transgenic lines expressing the pro-peptide in comparison to non-transformed control and strongly correlated with an increase in mite mortality. Additionally, the analysis of the expression levels of a selection of potential mite targets (proteases and protease inhibitors) revealed a mite strategy to counteract the inhibitory activity produced by the C1A barley pro-prodomain. These findings demonstrate that pro-peptides can control mite pests and could be applied as defence proteins in biotechnological systems.

  12. The healing effects of herbal preparations from Sambucus ebulus and Urtica dioica in full-thickness wound models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Babaei

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions: Topical ointments prepared from the extracts of U. dioica and S. ebulus and their combination possess strong wound healing properties. It is postulated that a synergistic effect may exist between the two extracts since the combination 2% showed better results than the sole extracts.

  13. Simulating effects of environmental factors on biological control of Tetranychus urticae by Typhlodromus pyri in apple orchards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardman, J.M.; Werf, van der W.; Blatt, S.E.; Franklin, J.L.; Karsten, R.; Teismann, H.

    2013-01-01

    Successful biological control of mites is possible under various conditions, and identifying what are the requirements for robust control poses a challenge because interacting factors are involved. Process-based modeling can help to explore these interactions and identify under which conditions

  14. Reaching the ball or missing the flight? Collective dispersal in the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendoline Clotuche

    Full Text Available The two-spotted spider mite is a worldwide phytophagous pest displaying a peculiar dispersal. At high density, when plants are exhausted, individuals gather at the plant apex to form a collective silk-ball. This structure can be dispersed by wind or phoresy. Individuals initiating the ball are enclosed in the centre and have a high risk to die. For the first time, the ultimate and proximate mechanisms leading to this group dispersal are examined. To explore if a particular mite genotype was involved in the ball formation, plants were infested with individuals of different genetic background. After the silk-ball formation, the mites in the ball and those remaining on the plant were collected and genotyped. The balls were harvested after 4h and 24h to determine the role of timing between the formation and dispersal on the mortality of mites. Mites do not segregate according to their degree of relatedness, stage, or sex. Mites parallel humans using public transportation: they climb up in the ball whatever their genetic background. Silk-balls composed of unrelated individuals may help avoiding inbreeding when colonizing a new plant. Our results also emphasize the importance of an adequate timing for efficient dispersal between the time spent between ball formation and dispersal.

  15. Volatile compounds from leaves of the African spider plant (Gynandropsis gynandra) with bioactivity against spider mite (Tetranychus urticae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyalala, Samuel Odeyo; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin; Grout, Brian William Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Gynandropsis gynandra emits acetonitrile as a foliar volatile from intact plants and isolated leaves, and that this compound is an effective spider mite repellent. This study has used gas chromatography–mass spectrometry to investigate volatile compounds...... emitted from homogenised G. gynandra leaves to evaluate their tissue acetonitrile content and to look for other compounds that might be exploited for the management of spider mites. Acetonitrile was absent from the homogenised tissues of five lines of G. gynandra, studied over two seasons. Thirteen......, and a high constitutive content of them in roses may be of value in targeted plant breeding for enhanced insect resistance. The range of isothiocyanates found in G. gynandra accounts for the bitter taste of the leaves when used as a traditional vegetable in Eastern Africa and provides a target...

  16. Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) extracts as functional ingredients for production of chocolates with improved bioactive composition and sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Komes, Draženka; Durgo, Ksenija; Vojvodić, Aleksandra; Bušić, Arijana

    2015-12-01

    Pursuant to the tendencies of producing functional foods, attractive to a wide range of consumers, in this study chocolates enriched with freeze dried (FD) and concentrated (CE) nettle extracts were formulated, and their polyphenolic and antioxidant capacity stability evaluated during 12 months of storage. A simple aqueous extraction procedure of nettle was developed, and the defined extract evaluated for its cytotoxic and antioxidant/prooxidant activity on human colon cancer cell line (SW 480). An increase in total polyphenolic content, chlorogenic acid and flavonoid derivatives (originating from nettle extract) contents was achieved in enriched chocolates. Implementation of FD extract enabled higher increase of polyphenolic content in comparison to CE extract. During storage, fluctuations of polyphenolic content were observed, but the final bioactive parameters did not differ (or increased) from the initial ones. Nettle enriched chocolates exhibited more intense bitterness and astringency, while dark chocolates were preferred over milk and semisweet ones.

  17. Study on antinociceptive,antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects of Traditional Medicinal plant:Urtica macrorrhiza Hand-Mazz

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Yongna; Reanmongkol Wantana; Bouking Pisit; Li Zhongkun; Zhang Rongping

    2004-01-01

    @@ The Pharmacological activities of the aqueous extract from the stem of U. macrorrhiza on nociceptive response using writhing, hot plate and formalin test in mice and the antipyretic activity in yeast-induced fever,anti-inflammatory effect in carageenin induced paw edema in rats, were examined. The LD50 value of intraperitoneally injected U.

  18. [Cytokine secretion in whole blood of healthy subjects following oral administration of Urtica dioica L. plant extract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teucher, T; Obertreis, B; Ruttkowski, T; Schmitz, H

    1996-09-01

    Twenty healthy volunteers ingested for 21 days 2 capsules b.i.d. of an IDS 23/1 containing nettle leaf extract (Rheuma-Hek). Before and after 7 and 21 days the basal and the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations were measured ex vivo. In vitro the effects of IDS 23/1 on the release of these cytokines were determined. Additionally basal interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels were recorded. Orally taken the test drug has ex vivo no effect on basal levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-4, IL-6 or IL-10 which were always below detection limits. After 7 and 21 days ingestion ex vivo a decrease of LPS stimulated TNF-alpha release of 14.6 and 24.0%, respectively, was observed. IL-1 beta was reduced for 19.2 and 39.3%. In vitro IDS 23/1 added to whole blood resulted in an exceeded inhibition of LPS stimulated TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta secretion which correlated with the duration of the drug ingestion. Using the highest tested IDS 23/1 concentration the inhibition reached 50.5 (day 0) to 79.5% (day 21) for TNF-alpha and 90.0 (day 0) to 99.2% (day 21) for IL-1 beta, respectively. IDS 23/1 induced a pronounced release of IL-6 in absence of LPS only in vitro. The detected IL-6 concentrations were comparable to those after LPS stimulation, additive effects could not be observed. The absence of detectable IL-6 concentrations in whole blood ex vivo after oral ingestion of the tested drug as well as the differences in the inhibition patterns for TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta ex vivo and ex vivo in vitro suggest that the extract contains different pharmacological effective compounds with varying bioavailabilities.

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0791 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0791 ref|YP_001795375.1| ATP synthase F0 subunit 6 [Tetranychus urtica...e] gb|ABY64894.1| ATPase subunit 6 [Tetranychus urticae] gb|ACA97094.1| ATP synthase F0 subunit 6 [Tetranychus urticae] YP_001795375.1 0.096 27% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0118 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0118 ref|YP_001795375.1| ATP synthase F0 subunit 6 [Tetranychus urtica...e] gb|ABY64894.1| ATPase subunit 6 [Tetranychus urticae] gb|ACA97094.1| ATP synthase F0 subunit 6 [Tetranychus urticae] YP_001795375.1 0.32 28% ...

  1. Nuevos registros de ácaros oribátidos (Acari: Oribatida para la Argentina New records of oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida for Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Accattoli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta publicación constituye un aporte al conocimiento del elenco oribatológico en suelos de Argentina, basado en relevamientos realizados en un parque urbano de la ciudad de La Plata, Buenos Aires. Se informan dos nuevas citas de géneros, una de subgénero y siete de especies para el país. Además, cinco de las especies halladas serían nuevas para la ciencia. Se incorporan ocho géneros y siete especies a las registradas para la Provincia de Buenos Aires.This paper is a contribution to the knowledge of assemblages of oribatid mites in soils of Argentina. The study is based on samples from an urban forest in the city of La Plata, Buenos Aires. New records for the country are provided for two genera, one subgenus and seven species. Furthermore, five of the species found are possibly new to science. Eight genera and seven species are incorporated to the record of the Buenos Aires province.

  2. Selection of Entomopathogenic Fungi to Control Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae Selección de Hongos Entomopatógenos para el Control de Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rodríguez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was select entomopathogenic fungi tolerant to temperatures inside the brood area of honey bees (Apis mellifera for to control Varroa destructor. For this purpose, 50 Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin and 48 Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschn. Sorokin isolates were evaluated at 30 and 35 ºC. For each isolate, colony discs of 5 mm with mycelium were placed in the center of a Petri dish with Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA medium. The dishes were incubated at 30 and 35 °C, without light. Radial growth of each colony was measured daily. All the B. bassiana and M. anisopliae isolates presented a lineal growth rate at a temperature of 30 ºC. However, at 35 ºC, most of the isolates did not grow, except three B. bassiana and 14 M. anisopliae isolates (P El objetivo de este trabajo fue seleccionar hongos entomopatógenos tolerantes a las temperaturas del nido de cría de las abejas (Apis mellifera, para ser utilizados en el control de Varroa destructor. Se evaluaron 50 aislamientos de Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin y 48 de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschn. Sorokin a temperaturas de 30 y 35 ºC. Discos de agar de 5 mm de diámetro con micelio de colonias de cada aislamiento, se depositaron en el centro de placas Petri con medio agar Sabouraud dextrosa (ASD. Las placas fueron incubadas a 30 y 35 °C y oscuridad y diariamente se midió el radio de cada colonia. Todos los aislamientos de B. bassiana y M. anisopliae var. anisopliae presentaron una tendencia lineal a través del tiempo a temperaturas de incubación de 30 °C. A 35 °C la mayoría de los aislamientos no crecieron, excepto tres aislamientos de B. bassiana y 14 de M. anisopliae (p < 0,001. Estos aislamientos fueron seleccionados para realizar pruebas de patogenicidad sobre V. destructor, aplicando una suspensión de 10(7 conidias mL-1. El aislamiento más efectivo fue Qu-M845 de M. anisopliae (p = 0,0033, produjo una mortalidad de 85%. La capacidad patogénica de este aislamiento en V. destructor y su tolerancia a las condiciones ambientales a las que sería expuesto, permite considerar esta cepa como una alternativa de control para esta plaga.

  3. Larvicidal potencial of Sapindus saponaria (Sapindaceae against Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806 (Acari: Ixodidae Potencial larvicida de Sapindus saponaria (Sapindaceae sobre Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806 (Acari: Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.F. Fernandes

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The larvicidal potential of the crude ethanolic extracts (CEE of the stem peel of Sapindus saponaria was evaluated against Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Lethal concentrations (LC, were calculated by preparing CEE solutions at different concentrations in distilled water. Larvae fasted for 14-21 days were utilized in the bioassays, after incubation of engorged females collected from infested environments frequented by dogs in several neighborhoods of Goiânia, GO. Bioassays were performed in a specially constructed biological chamber for testing botanical acaricides, acclimatized to 27±1ºC, RH>80%. The larvae were counted on filter paper envelopes impregnated with the solutions or distilled water and larval mortality observed after 48h. S. saponaria showed good larvicidal activity (LC50 and LC99 of 1994 and 3922ppm, respectively and the results demonstrated its potential as a botanical acaricide and an alternative control measure for R. sanguineus.Avaliou-se a potencialidade larvicida do extrato-bruto etanólico (EBE da casca do caule de Sapindus saponaria sobre Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Para o cálculo das concentrações letais (CL foram preparadas soluções com diferentes concentrações do EBE dissolvido em água destilada. Foram utilizadas larvas em jejum com 14 a 21 dias, obtidas pela incubação de teleóginas, coletadas em ambientes infestados, freqüentados por cães de vários bairros de Goiânia. Os bioensaios foram realizados em uma câmara biológica para testes com acaricidas botânicos, climatizada a 27±1ºC e UR>80%. As larvas foram contidas em envelopes de papel filtro impregnados com as soluções (grupo teste ou com água destilada (grupo-controle e a mortalidade larval foi observada após 48h. S. saponaria demonstrou atividade larvicida satisfatória (CL50 e CL99 respectivamente de 1994 e 3922ppm e os resultados demonstraram seu potencial como acaricida botânico e medida alternativa para o controle de R. sanguineus.

  4. A gallery of the key characters to ease identification of Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Gamasida: Dermanyssidae and allow differentiation from Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Acari: Gamasida: Macronyssidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Palma Antonella

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dermanyssus gallinae (poultry red mite is a major threat for the poultry industry and is of significant interest for public health. Identification of D. gallinae can be difficult for scientists not familiar with mite morphology and terminology especially when trying to use identification keys. Moreover, this species may easily be confused with another dermanyssoid mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (northern fowl mite, which often shares the same hosts and environment. Methods Specimens of D. gallinae were collected at poultry farms in the Puglia and performed for light and scanning electron microscopy observations, identification and micrographs. Moreover specimens of O. sylviarum were collected separately macerated and mounted on slides for light microscopy observations, identification and pictures. Results The micrographs used in this study, based on LM and SEM observations, highlight the following important identifying characters of D. gallinae: the prominent shoulders of the dorsal shield and the jagged edges of the shield reticulations, the position of setae j1, s1 and the epigynal pores, and the presence on tibia IV pl of one seta. Additional micrographs highlighting the shape of the dorsal (abruptly narrowed posteriorly and epigynal (narrowly rounded posteriorly shields and the chelicera (elongate, with distinct digits of O. sylviarum enable its differentiation from D.gallinae. Conclusion The photographic support provided here (both LM and SEM pictures can be considered a practical tool for scientists who are not well acquainted with the morphology of D.gallinae, and who are involved with classical and molecular systematics, veterinary and human health aspects of poultry red mites.

  5. Sobre el género Neocalonyx (Acari: Prostigmata: Hydryphantidae en las Yungas About the genus Neocalonyx (Acari: Prostigmata: Hydryphantidae in the Yungas

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    Beatriz Rosso de Ferradás

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se tratan aquí dos especies conocidas del género Neocalonyx y se describe una nueva especie, N. diaguita sp. nov. de la provincia de Jujuy (Argentina. Se discuten los caracteres considerados en los tres subgéneros y los cuatro grupos de especies, reconocidos en uno de ellos.Two known species of Neocalonyx genus are dealt with in this paper, and one new species, N. diaguita sp. nov. from Jujuy province in Argentina is described.The characters considered in the three subgenera and the four species groups of one of them are discussed.

  6. Hidracáridos (Acari, Hydrachnidia de la cuenca Andina del río Beni, Bolivia Hydracarids (Acari, Hydrachnidia from the Andean basin of Beni river, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Rosso de Ferradás

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Water mites from Andean part of the Bolivian Amazonian rivers were examined. A new species is described, Limnesia aymara. New records and redescription are made for Hygrobatella multiacetabulata Cook,1980, Atractides brasiliensis (Lundblad, 1937 and Krendowskia convexa (Ribaga, 1902. A new subgenus Schwoerbelobatella for hygrobatelids poliacetabulated is proposed and characterized. Ecological characteristics of the river area sampled and ecological preferences of the analyzed species are discussed.

  7. Life table parameters and capture success ratio studies of Typhlodromips swirskii (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to the factitious prey Suidasia medanensis (Acari: Suidasidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midthassel, Audun; Leather, Simon R; Baxter, Ian H

    2013-09-01

    The predatory mite Typhlodromips swirskii (Athias-Henriot) is commonly used to suppress pest populations of thrips and whitefly in commercial greenhouses. Many generalist phytoseiid mites can be reared on astigmatid factitious prey. This study investigated the life table parameters of T. swirskii to the astigmatid mite Suidasia medanensis (Oudemans) and the capture success ratio of T. swirskii to different life stages of the prey. Juvenile development time and survival was 5.01 ± 0.10 days and 93 %, respectively. The intrinsic (r m ) and finite (λ) rates of increase were 0.222 and 1.249, respectively, with average oviposition rate of 1.71 ± 0.07 eggs/female/day. The capture success ratio of T. swirskii to S. medanensis was: eggs > freeze killed adults > nymphs > live adults. Typhlodromips swirskii was concluded to exhibit good population growth rates with S. medanensis as prey and, a prey population with predominance of eggs and nymphs to be advantageous to the predator due to an unidentified defence mechanism of adult prey.

  8. Acaricidal activity of the essential oils from Eucalyptus citriodora and Cymbopogon nardus on larvae of Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae) and Anocentor nitens (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Mateus Aparecido; de Oliveira Monteiro, Caio Márcio; Scoralik, Márcio Goldner; Gomes, Fernando Teixeira; de Azevedo Prata, Márcia Cristina; Daemon, Erik

    2010-09-01

    The present study evaluated the acaricidal activity of essential oils from Eucalyptus citriodora and Cymbopogon nardus on non-engorged larvae of Amblyomma cajennense and Anocentor nitens. In order to carry out the study, six groups were formed, each concentration being a treatment (6.25%, 12.5%, 25%, and 50%, respectively) and also with the creation of a control group (distilled water) and a positive control (Deltametrine). For each treatment, approximately 100 larvae of these ticks were placed onto filter papers (2 x 2 cm) impregnated with the concentrations used to test. Next, the envelopes were closed bearing inside the filter paper with measurements of 6 x 6 cm. For each group, six repetitions were performed, and after 24 h live and dead larvae were counted. This procedure was carried out for two essential oils on the two species of ticks. For A. cajennense, the acaricide efficacy of E. citriodora oil was of 10.8%, 35.3%, 34.5%, and 53.1%, whereas the efficacy of C. nardus was of 0.0%, 0.0%, 0.0%, and 61.1% at concentrations of 6.25%, 12.5%, 25.0%, and 50.0%, respectively. In relation to A. nitens, the acaricide efficacy of E. citriodora oil was of 20.1%, 84.5%, 89.2%, and 100.0%, whereas the efficacy of C. nardus was of 0.0%, 90.8%, 100.0%, and 100.0% at concentrations of 6.25%, 12.5%, 25.0%, and 50.0%, respectively. The results indicate that the essential oils tested showed a promising acaricidal activity mainly on A. nitens larvae.

  9. Suscetibilidade de Oligonychus yothersi (Acari: Tetranychidae ao fungo Beauveria bassiana Susceptibility of Oligonychus yothersi (Acari: Tetranychidae to the fungus Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Cassol de Oliveira

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available A cultura da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis é uma importante atividade econômica no Sul do Brasil. Com o aumento de consumo nos anos oitenta, cresceram também as áreas de monocultura, gerando condições favoráveis para o aumento populacional de insetos e ácaros fitófagos, entre eles o ácaro vermelho Oligonychus yothersi. Este estudo avaliou a suscetibilidade do ácaro vermelho O. yothersi a vários isolados do fungo Beauveria bassiana. O experimento foi conduzido em Cascavel, PR. Discos foliares de erva-mate (2,2 cm² foram previamente infestados com 20 fêmeas adultas. Alíquotas de 1 mL de cada suspensão de conídios dos diferentes isolados de B. bassiana, ajustadas na concentração de 1,0x10(8 conídios mL-1 foram pulverizadas, separadamente, sobre um conjunto de 5 discos. Os discos foliares foram mantidos flutuando em água destilada, em caixas plásticas (3 cm de diâmetro, sob condições controladas. Diariamente, os ácaros mortos foram transferidos para câmara úmida, para confirmação de mortalidade causada pelo fungo. A mortalidade total variou entre 77 e 98% (6 dias após a aplicação, não permitindo diferenciar os isolados quanto à virulência (P>0,05. Já a mortalidade confirmada variou entre 19 e 75%, permitindo diferenciá-los (PThe Paraguay tea (Ilex paraguariensis crop is an important economical activity in Southern Brazil. With the increase of tea consumption in the 80s, the number of monoculture crops also increased, creating favorable conditions for the development of phytophagous insect and mite populations, such as the red mite Oligonychus yothersi. The objective of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of the red mite O. yothersi to the several strains of the Beauveria bassiana fungus. The experiments were carried out in Cascavel, PR, Brazil. Leaf disks of Paraguay tea (2.2 cm² were previously infested with 20 adult females. Five disks were inoculated with 1 mL of each conidial suspension of B. bassiana strains (1x10(8 conidia per mL. Disks were kept afloat on distilled water in plastic boxes (3 cm diameter, under controlled conditions. Dead mites were transferred to a humid chamber on a daily basis to confirm the mortalities rate by the fungus. All the strains were pathogenic, with total mortality varying from 77 to 98%, 6 days after application. It was not possible to differentiate virulence levels between strains (P<0.05 by total mortality. However, confirmed mortality varied from 19 to 75%, 8 days after application, allowing for a differentiation in virulence levels between strains (P<0.05. This study concluded that the O. yothersi red mite is susceptible, at different levels, to B. bassiana tested strains.

  10. Two new oribatid mites from the Republic of Rwanda. Plasmobates zarae sp. n. (Acari, Plasmobatidae) and Basilobelba spasmenosi sp. n. (Acari, Basilobelbidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Nestor; Theron, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of oribatid mites, Plasmobates zarae sp. n. and Basilobelba spasmenosi sp. n. are described from the Republic of Rwanda. They can easily be differentiated from other species by a number of characters. Plasmobates zarae sp. n. is differentiated the following characters. four types of particular cerotegumental layers. Integument slightly foveate to smooth on prodorsum; foveate on notogaster; ventral region rugose to smooth.Large rostral setae inserted on protuberance, whip-shaped, with longitudinal pucker; interlamellar setae rod-shaped with triangular scales; interlamellar setae small. Medial band on prodorsum extending to anterior of central part, but not reaching rostrum. Bothridium horn-shaped; opening basally incised with rectilinear wall, internal bothridial rings dentate. Sensillus whip-like, with minute triangular scales. Variably distributed circumgastric macropores. Opisthosomal gland apophysis flat, triangular in lateral view and cylindrical in posterolateral view. Six pairs of notogastral setae, all situated posterior to opisthosomal gland level. Aggenital setae not detected; three pairs of adanal setae; two pairs of anal setae present. Nymphal scalps simple without anterior tuft or filaments, with dentate peripheral ridge. Larval scalp shaped like Chinese hat. Basilobelba spasmenosi sp. n. is characterized by the combination of the following characters: Cerotegument: thick basal layer with amorphous coat and cavities of different sizes, as well as structures resembling small cauliflowers. Setation: simple: notogastral, epimeral, genital, anal; simple long, basally barbate: le, ro setae; simple, whip-shaped: ex setae; medium length, sharpened tip with thorns on surface: in setae, leg setae; Flabellate: setae situated in ventral neotrichous zone. Thorn-like barbs and more or less parallel longitudinal grooves present on body surface of le, ro, in and leg setae. Prodorsum: rostrum finger-shaped, relative sizes of setae: le > ro > in > ex. Prodorsal cuticular surface smooth with shallow transversal furrow and two oblique furrows determining two triangular structures. Large humpbacked CSO situated anterior to and in medial line with in setal insertion, dorsal bothridial opening. Notogaster swollen, hemispheric; nine pairs of minute setae, only h1, h2, h3 easily identifiable, cuticular wart and dimple clearly visible. Humeral apophysis with longitudinal furrow dorsally. Elongate chelicera with cha, chb setae, behind them a series of scales directed dorsoventrally. Epimeral setation 3-1-3-3, adanal-aggenital neotrichy with between 8-10 setae. Nymphal scalps with very particular bean-shaped structure on either side of the decoupage zone, surrounding horn-like structure. Scalps with cuticular polyhedral reticulate to ovoid structure, often forming a cavity, either completely perforated or with a thin cuticular layer resembling an interior membrane. PMID:27408588

  11. Fitoseídeos (Acari: Phytoseiidae associados a cafezais e fragmentos florestais vizinhos Phytoseiids (Acari: Phytoseiidae associated to coffee plantations and adjacent forest fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Azevedo Silva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Existem poucas informações sobre a fauna de ácaros predadores (Phytoseiidae em ambientes naturais brasileiros adjacentes a agroecossistemas cafeeiros (Coffea spp. ou sobre a influência que essa vegetação exerce como reservatório de ácaros predadores. Neste estudo, objetivou-se avaliar a diversidade destes organismos em cafeeiros e fragmentos florestais adjacentes. Coletaram-se amostras das espécies Calyptranthes clusiifolia (Miq. O. Berg (Myrtaceae, Esenbeckia febrifuga (A. St.-Hil. A. Juss. ex Mart. (Rutaceae, Metrodorea stipularis Mart. (Rutaceae e Allophylus semidentatus (Miq. Radlk. (Sapindaceae, em oito fragmentos florestais, de 5 a 51 ha, e cafezais adjacentes, nos meses de junho (final período chuvoso e outubro (final período seco nos anos 2004 e 2005, na região Sul do Estado de Minas Gerais. Ácaros foram extraídos das folhas, utilizando o método de lavagem e, em seguida, montados em lâminas de microscopia em meio de Hoyer, para identificação específica. No total foram identificados 2.348 fitoseídeos, sendo 2.090 nos fragmentos florestais e 258 espécimes nos cafezais adjacentes, pertencentes a 38 espécies. Servindo-se de análise faunística, a espécie Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma, 1972 apresentou os melhores índices no agroecossistema cafeeiro, sendo muito frequente e constante nas épocas estudadas. Nos fragmentos florestais Amblyseius herbicolus Chant, 1959, Iphiseiodes affs. neonobilis Denmark & Muma, 1978, Leonseius regularis DeLeon, 1965 e Euseius alatus DeLeon, 1966 foram dominantes, muito abundantes, muito frequentes e constantes nas épocas estudadas. Podemos concluir que a vegetação nativa abriga ácaros predadores, inimigos naturais de ácaros-praga, que ocorrem na cultura cafeeira, possibilitando o desenvolvimento de programas de manejo ecológico com áreas de vegetação natural e agroecossistemas cafeeiros adjacentes.There is little information about the fauna of predatory mites (Phytoseiidae in Brazilian natural environments, adjacent to coffee agroecosystems (Coffea spp., or about the influence exerted by neighbor vegetation as a reservoir of predatory mites. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diversity of these organisms in coffee plantations and adjacent forest fragments. Samples of the species Calyptranthes clusiifolia (Miq. O. Berg (Myrtaceae, Esenbeckia febrifuga (A. St.-Hil. A. Juss. ex Mart., Metrodorea stipularis Mart. (Rutaceae and Allophylus semidentatus (Miq. Radlk. (Sapindaceae were collected in eight forest fragments, from 5 to 51ha, adjacent to coffee plantations, in June (end of the rainy season and October (end of the dry season in the years of 2004 and 2005, in the Southern region of State of Minas Gerais. Leaf mites were extracted using the wash method, mounted in microscopy slides with Hoyer's medium for identification. A total of 2.348 phytoseiids was collected, being 2.090 in the forest fragments and 258 in adjacent coffee plantations, belonging to 38 species. According to fauna analysis, Iphiseiodes zuluaguai Denmark & Muma, the year of 1972 presented the best indexes in the coffee agroecosystem, being very frequent and constant in those periods. In the forest fragments, Amblyseius herbicolus Chant, 1959, Iphiseiodes affs. neonobilis Denmark & Muma, 1978, Leonseius regularis DeLeon, 1965 and Euseius alatus DeLeon, 1966 were dominant, very abundant, very frequent and constant in those periods. One may conclude that the native vegetation shelters predator mite, natural enemies of mite-pests that still occur in coffee culture, making possible ecological management program development involving areas of natural vegetation and adjacent coffee agroecosystems.

  12. Garrapatas (Acari: Ixodidae) en perros de la ciudad de Concepción, Chile Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on dogs in Concepción city, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz, L.; M. E. CASANUEVA

    2002-01-01

    Con la finalidad de determinar las especies de garrapatas que parasitan a los perros de la ciudad de Concepción, se extrajeron 137 garrapatas desde perros de ocho clínicas veterinarias de cuatro comunas de la ciudad de Concepción. Los ejemplares encontradas fueron observados mediante lupa estereoscópica y algunos fotografiados a microscopio electrónico. Como resultados se obtuvo que el 38.7% correspondían a Amblyomma tigrinum adultos y el 61.3% a Rhipicephalus sanguineus adultos e inmadurosA ...

  13. Nuevas citas de ácaros oribátidos (Acari: Oribatida para la Argentina New records of oribatids (Acari: Oribatida for Argentina

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    Ana Salazar Martínez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available En la presente nota se citan, por primera vez para la Argentina , cuatro especies de ácaros oribátidos: Epilohmannia pallida americana Balogh & Mahunka, 1981, Protoribates (Triangius praeoccupatus (Pérez-Iñigo & Baggio, 1980, Scheloribates curvialatus Hammer, 1961 y Galumna innexa Pérez-Iñigo & Baggio, 1986. Los ejemplares fueron hallados en muestras de suelo recolectadas en La Plata , Provincia de Buenos Aires (34º 54'S, 57º 55´ W, en ambientes sometidos a intervención antrópica: bosques urbanos, huertas orgánicas y pastizales.Four species of oribatid mites are recorded from Argentina for the first time: Epilohmannia pallida americana Balogh & Mahunka, 1981, Protoribates (Triangius praeoccupatus (Pérez-Iñigo & Baggio, 1980, Scheloribates curvialatus Hammer, 1961 and Galumna innexa Pérez-Iñigo & Baggio, 1986. The specimens were collected in soil samples in La Plata , Buenos Aires Province (34º 54' S, 57º 55´ W in sites exposed to different degrees of human intervention: urban forest, organic orchards and pastures.

  14. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae, the brown dog tick, parasitizing humans in Brazil Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae, o carrapato vermelho do cão, parasitando humanos no Brasil

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    Filipe Dantas-Torres

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to describe four cases of human parasitism by Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latrielle in Brazil. During an investigation regarding the species of ectoparasites of domestic dogs from the metropolitan region of Recife, Pernambuco state, four dog owners were found to be parasitized by ticks. The ticks were collected from these individuals and their dogs. All the ticks were identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus . These are, to our knowledge, the first four cases of human parasitism by this tick species in Brazil. The possible implications of this finding are discussed here.O objetivo deste artigo é descrever quatro casos de parasitismo humano por Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latrielle no Brasil. Durante uma investigação sobre as espécies de ectoparasitas de cães domésticos provenientes da Região Metropolitana de Recife, Pernambuco, quatro proprietários de cães foram encontrados parasitados por carrapatos. Foram coletados carrapatos dos indivíduos e de seus cães. Todos os carrapatos foram identificados como Rhipicephalus sanguineus, sendo, portanto, descritos os primeiros quatro casos de parasitismo humano por esta espécie de carrapato, no Brasil. Neste trabalho, são discutidas as possíveis implicações epidemiológicas deste achado.

  15. Distribuição espacial e plano de amostragem de Calacarus heveae (Acari em seringueira Spatial distribution and sampling plan for Calacarus heveae (Acari on rubber trees

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    Noeli Juarez Ferla

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Calacarus heveae Feres, 1992 é um eriofídeo descrito de espécimes coletados em plantas de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis, Euphorbiaceae na região noroeste do Estado de São Paulo. Esse ácaro prefere a face adaxial dos folíolos e pode causar a perda do brilho, amarelecimento, bronzeamento dessa região e a subseqüente queda prematura das folhas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a distribuição de C. heveae em seringueira, selecionar a unidade de amostragem mais representativa e desenvolver um plano de amostragem para o estudo de sua flutuação populacional. O trabalho foi conduzido com os clones PB 260 e IAN 873, respectivamente nos municípios de Itiquira e de Pontes e Lacerda, ambos no Mato Grosso. Em Itiquira, diferenças significativas foram observadas em quatro ocasiões em relação ao número médio de ácaros por folha nos diferentes estratos das plantas. Nas amostragens realizadas em Pontes e Lacerda, nenhuma diferença significativa foi encontrada entre os estratos em relação àquele parâmetro. Apenas em Itiquira, em uma ocasião de amostragem, foi verificada diferença entre os três estratos, em relação à proporção de folhas infestadas. Nenhuma diferença significativa foi verificada em relação ao número médio de ácaros por folha e proporção de folhas infestadas por C. heveae a diferentes distâncias da periferia da copa. Calacarus heveae exibe distribuição agregada no campo. Para estimar a densidade de C. heveae, um plano numérico e um plano binomial de amostragem foram desenvolvidos.Calacarus heveae Feres, 1992 (Eriophyidae is a mite described from specimens collected on rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis, Euphorbiaceae in the northwest region of the state of São Paulo. This mite prefers the adaxial face of the folioles which it can turn dry, yellowish and brownish; it can also cause leaf fall. The aim of this work was to analyze the distribution of C. heveae on rubber trees, to select the most representative sampling unit and to develop a sampling plan to determine the populational fluctuation. This study was conducted with clones PB 260 and IAN 873, in Itiquira and Pontes e Lacerda, respectively, both in the state of Mato Grosso. In Itiquira, significant differences were observed in four occasions in relation to the average number of mites per leaf in the different plant strata. In the samplings carried out in Pontes e Lacerda, no significant differences were observed between strata in relation to that parameter. Only in Itiquira, in one occasion, a significant difference between strata was verified in relation to the proportion of infested leaves. No significant differences were verified in relation to the average number of mites per leaf and proportion of leaves infested by C. heveae at different depths in the canopy. Calacarus heveae exhibits aggregated distribution in the field. To estimate the density of C. heveae, numeric and sampling plans were developed.

  16. Neonicotinoid Insecticides Alter Induced Defenses and Increase Susceptibility to Spider Mites in Distantly Related Crop Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepaniec, Adrianna; Raupp, Michael J.; Parker, Roy D.; Kerns, David; Eubanks, Micky D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Chemical suppression of arthropod herbivores is the most common approach to plant protection. Insecticides, however, can cause unintended, adverse consequences for non-target organisms. Previous studies focused on the effects of pesticides on target and non-target pests, predatory arthropods, and concomitant ecological disruptions. Little research, however, has focused on the direct effects of insecticides on plants. Here we demonstrate that applications of neonicotinoid insecticides, one of the most important insecticide classes worldwide, suppress expression of important plant defense genes, alter levels of phytohormones involved in plant defense, and decrease plant resistance to unsusceptible herbivores, spider mites Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), in multiple, distantly related crop plants. Methodology/Principal Findings Using cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), corn (Zea mays) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants, we show that transcription of phenylalanine amonia lyase, coenzyme A ligase, trypsin protease inhibitor and chitinase are suppressed and concentrations of the phytohormone OPDA and salicylic acid were altered by neonicotinoid insecticides. Consequently, the population growth of spider mites increased from 30% to over 100% on neonicotinoid-treated plants in the greenhouse and by nearly 200% in the field experiment. Conclusions/Significance Our findings are important because applications of neonicotinoid insecticides have been associated with outbreaks of spider mites in several unrelated plant species. More importantly, this is the first study to document insecticide-mediated disruption of plant defenses and link it to increased population growth of a non-target herbivore. This study adds to growing evidence that bioactive agrochemicals can have unanticipated ecological effects and suggests that the direct effects of insecticides on plant defenses should be considered when the ecological costs of insecticides are evaluated. PMID

  17. Professional and consumer insecticides for management of adult Japanese beetle on hybrid tea rose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Garima; Krischik, Vera A

    2007-06-01

    In many states, Japanese beetle, Popilliajaponica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabeidae), is no longer quarantined, and management is left to professional applicators and consumers. Adult management in hybrid tea rose, Rosa L., was compared among biorational insecticides, novel imidacloprid applications (tablet, gel, and root dip), and conventional insecticides. Efficacy of biorational insecticides used by consumers varied widely and may not offer predictable management: mortality was 3.0% with Garlic Barrier, 5.0% with Monterey Neem Oil, 15.1% with Pygenic (1.4% pyrethrins), and 27.3% with Orange Guard (D-limonene). Only JB Killer (0.02% pyrethrins plus 0.2% piperonyl butoxide) had mortality of 90.9%, probably due to piperonyl butoxide. Professional biorationals did not show significant mortality: 7.7% with Azatin XL (azadirachtin) and 3.7% Conserve (spinosad). In contrast, conventional insecticides demonstrated significant mortality; 88.4% with Decathlon 20 WP (cyfluthrin) and 83.3% with Discus SC (imidacloprid plus cyfluthrin). New imidacloprid applications (tablet, gel, and root dip) worked as well as standard drench and granular methods, but they showed 9.1-42.7% mortality. However, beetles were incapacitated as demonstrated by inability to walk (82-106-s flip time) compared with controls (30-s flip time). No phytotoxicity was observed in any treatments. However, some imidacloprid treatments produced growth enhancement: higher leaf chlorophyll (1X, 3X granular, and one tablet), and larger leaf area and higher nitrogen (3X granular, drench). The highest (active ingredient) imidacloprid was in 3X granular treatment, which in an unplanned infestation, showed highest numbers of twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). Effects of imidacloprid on leaf quality and mite outbreaks deserves research.

  18. Cyclic Ketoenols – Acaricides and Insecticides with a Novel Mode of Action

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    Dejan Marčić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern crop protection industry puts great efforts into the investigation and development of pesticides (insecticides, acaricides with a novel mode of action, primarily because of increasingly important problem of resistance of pest organisms to pesticides.Resistance of many pest arthropod species (insects and mites to insecticides and/or acaricides became a global phenomenon in the last decades. Therefore, pest management heavily relies on constant introduction of novel active ingredients in use, i.e. onthe alternative use of a number of compounds with different modes of action in order to save the longevity of newly developed products. Among pest arthropods, according to the potential for resistance development and a number of documented cases, spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae, especially species Tetranychus urticae and Panonychusulmi, as well as certain species of whiteflies and leaf aphids (Homoptra: Aleyrodidae,Aphididae stand out. In 2002, the company Bayer CropScience introduced spirodiclofen, a tetronic acid derivative and the first cyclic ketoenol, acaricide with a wide spectrum and a novel mode of action – inhibition of acetyl-CoA-carboxylase. Soon after, spiromesifen was introduced, also a derivative of tetronic acid, acaricide and insecticide intended for control of phytophagous mites and whiteflies. Spirotetramat, a tetramic acid derivative, and the third member of the ketoenol group, was recently commercialised as an insecticide efficient against whiteflies,leaf aphids and other harmful Homoptera. In this paper are presented the most significant properties of cyclic ketoenols, aiming at pointing to the possibilities and prospects of their use, but also to potential problems and limitations.

  19. The Genus Ixodes (Acari: Ixodidae) in Mexico: Adult Identification Keys, Diagnoses, Hosts, and Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    1962. Monografía de los Ixodoidea de México. I Parte. Revista de la Sociedad Mexicana de Historia Natural 23:191-307. Hoffmann, A. 1969. Un caso de...geographic reference, 3rd ed., D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder (eds.). The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. p. 894-1531. Nuttall, G. H. F...337. Nuttall, G. H. F. and C. Warburton. 1911. A monograph of the Ixodoidea. Part II. Ixodidae. Cambridge at the University Press, London. p. i-xix

  20. Canis familiaris, UN NUEVO HOSPEDERO DE Ornithodoros (A. puertoricensis FOX, 1947 (ACARI: IXODIDA EN COLOMBIA

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    LUIS E. PATERNINA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Las garrapatas revisten gran importancia en el campo biomédico por sus hábitos hematófagos y asociación con la transmisión de agentes patógenos a humanos y animales. El objetivo de esta investigación fue establecer las especies de garrapatas que parasitan perros en tres poblaciones del área rural del Caribe colombiano. Durante los meses de agosto y diciembre del año 2006 se realizó búsqueda activa de garrapatas sobre caninos domésticos de las localidades de El Campín, Sabanas del Potrero y Escobar Arriba, departamento de Sucre. Las garrapatas recolectadas fueron almacenadas en viales con etanol al 70% e identificadas empleando claves morfoló- gicas de referencia para cada familia. Para la determinación de especie en la familia Argasidae se realizaron estimaciones morfométricas de estructuras externas. Se reco- lectaron 420 garrapatas a partir de 50 caninos infestados, de un total de 134 perros examinados, que corresponde a una tasa de infestación del 37,3%. Las garrapatas fueron identificadas como Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus y Amblyomma ovale pertenecientes a la familia Ixodidae, y Ornithodoros (Alectorobius puertoricensis de la familia Argasidae. La especie predominante fue R. sanguineus (92,1% en los estados de larva, ninfa y adulto, seguida por larvas de O. puertoricensis, que fue- ron halladas en menor número sobre caninos de las tres localidades. Se registra, por primera vez en América, el parasitismo de O. puertoricensis sobre caninos domésticos y se confirma su presencia en Colombia.

  1. Preliminary survey of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) parasitizing wild turkeys (Aves: Phasianidae) in eastern Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, D E; Applegate, R D; Fox, L B

    2001-01-01

    During the spring and fall turkey hunting seasons of 1999, hunters and Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks field personnel examined wild turkeys, Meleagris gallopavo L., for ticks and submitted them to us for identification. From springtime hunting, we received 113 ticks from 12 turkeys killed in nine counties, all in the eastern one-third of Kansas. Collectors reported examining three additional wild turkeys on which no ticks were found. All ticks were nymphal lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (L.). Of 11 wild turkeys examined in seven counties during October, one was parasitized by 30 A. americanum larvae. Data from this study and accounts from the published literature suggest that parasitism of wild turkeys by immature lone star ticks is commonplace wherever this host and ectoparasite are sympatric. Our study suggests that M. gallopavo may be an important host that supports lone star tick populations.

  2. The First Report of Eustigmaeus johnstoni (Acari: Stigmaeidae Parasitic Mite of Phlebotominae Sand Flies from Iran.

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    Mehdi Badakhshan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Stigmaeids mites have been recorded only on Phlebotominae sand flies up to now. Five species of Eustigmaeus, and three of Stigmaeus were reported on infested sandflies in different country up to the present.Sand flies collection was done using CDC light trap and sticky paper. The mites were isolated from infested specimens, mounted in Puri's medium and identified using reliable keys.A mite infested Phlebotomus papatasi was observed during a study on sandflies of one of the southern provinces of Iran, near to the Persian Gulf. Several scars resulting from mite attachment were found on abdominal tergites of this female sand fly. The mites were identified as Eustigmaeus johnstoni.This parasitic mite is one of the eyeless species, which has a great distribution over the world, reported from Tunisia, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Yemen, Cyprus and Palestine. But, this is the first record of this species from Iran.

  3. Deltamethrin resistance in field populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahanger, R R; Godara, R; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Bhutyal, A D S; Katoch, M; Singh, N K; Bader, M A

    2015-11-01

    Detection of resistance levels against deltamethrin in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from six districts of Jammu and Kashmir (India) was carried out using the adult immersion test. The regression graphs of probit mortality of ticks plotted against log values of concentration of drug were utilised for the determination of slope of mortality, lethal concentration for 50% (LC50), 95% (LC95) and resistance factor (RF). On the basis of the data generated on mortality, egg mass weight, reproductive index and percentage inhibition of oviposition, the resistance level was categorised as I, II, III and IV. Out of these six districts, resistance to deltamethrin at level I was detected in one district (RF = 1.9), at level II in two districts (RF = 7.08-10.07) and at level IV in three districts (RF = 96.08-288.72). The data generated on deltamethrin resistance status will help in formulating tick control strategy in the region.

  4. Arrhenotoky and oedipal mating in the northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Acari: Gamasida: Macronyssidae

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    McCulloch John B

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The northern fowl mite (NFM; Ornithonyssus sylviarum is a blood-feeding ectoparasite of birds and a major pest of poultry in the United States. Mite populations spread rapidly in commercial flocks, reach peak burdens of >70,000 mites per bird and have developed resistance to many pesticides. Despite decades as a pest in the United States, the reproductive biology of NFM remains unclear. Based on karyotypes, the NFM has haplodiploid sex determination, which suggests unmated females could produce male offspring (arrhenotoky. Thus, unmated females could disseminate to a new host and initiate an infestation by producing and mating with sons (oedipal mating. Methods We used small capsules to isolate and recover NFM on host chickens. Mites in capsules could blood feed, develop and reproduce, but could not contact other mites. Individual larvae were matured in isolation to produce known, unmated females. We evaluated reproduction of (I previously mated females (i in isolation, or (ii paired with a male, and (II unmated (virgin females in isolation. In each treatment we recorded the number and sexes of offspring produced over time. Results Mated NFM produced female and male offspring in isolation, or when paired with a male. When paired with a male, females produced a female-biased sex ratio of the offspring (F:M ratio ~5:1. Unmated, female NFM produced exclusively male offspring when in isolation. When paired with their sons that had developed to maturity, the "virgin" females were able to mate and subsequently produce female offspring. Conclusions This study found that females with immediate access to sperm produced mostly female offspring. Virgin female NFM initially produced only male offspring and subsequently used oedipal mating to produce female offspring. Using this reproductive system NFM could successfully colonize new hosts as immature, or unmated females. The strong female-biased sex ratio of NFM populations suggests a large proportion of the parasite population is capable of disseminating to new hosts, which is essential for an obligate parasite to persist.

  5. Morphometric analyses reveal synonymy of two monotypic genera, Huangiella and Tumoris (Acari, Eriophyoidea, Eriophyidae

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    Kun-Wei Huang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphological variation of Huangiella lanyuensis (Huang, 2001 and Tumoris sanasaii Huang, 2001 from Taiwan was analyzed using multivariate statistical methods. We show that these species are the same and propose to use the name Tumoris sanasaii. No significant differences between populations from Lanyu and Green Island (type localities for H. lanyuensis and T. sanasaii, respectively were found; however, mites from Yangmingshan (northern Taiwan differed substantially from these two groups. Synonymy resulted from our study is as follows: Huangiella Kammerer, 2006 is a junior synonym of Tumoris Huang, 2001; Absentia lanyuensis Huang, 2001 is a junior synonym of Tumoris sanasaii Huang, 2001. We also study the sexual variation of populations from Green Island. The result showed the females significantly larger than the males at 17 variables.

  6. Sociodemographic characteristics and risk factor analysis of Demodex infestation (Acari: Demodicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-e ZHAO; Na GUO; Meng XUN; Ji-ru XU; Mei WANG; Duo-lao WANG

    2011-01-01

    To identify sociodemographic characteristics and risk factor of Demodex infestation,756 students aged 13-22 years in Xi'an,China were sampled for the school-based cross-sectional study.Demodex was examined using the cellophane tape method (CTP).The results showed that the total detection rate of Demodex was 67.6%.Logistic regression analysis revealed that five variables (gender,residence,sharing sanitary ware,frequency of face-wash per day,and use of facial cleanser) were found to be uncorrelated with Demodex infestation,whereas three variables (age,skin type,and skin disease) were found to be independent correlates.Students aged over 18 years had 22.1 times higher odds of Demodex infestation compared to those under 16 years and students aged 16-18 years also had 2.1 times higher odds compared to those aged 13-15 years.Odds of having a Demodex infestation for oily or mixed skin were 2.1 times those for dry or neutral skin.Students with a facial skin disease had 3.0 times higher odds of being infested with Demodex compared to those without.The inception rate of students with facial dermatoses increased in parallel with increasing mite count.The inception rates were 21.3%,40.7%,59.2%,and 67.7% in the negative,mild,moderate,and severe infestation groups,respectively (X2=60.6,P<0.001).Specifically,the amount of infested mites and inception rate of acne vulgaris were positively correlated (R2=0.57,moderate infestation odds ratio (OR)=7.1,severe infestation OR=10.3).It was concluded that Demodex prevalence increases with age,and Demodex presents in nearly all adult human.Sebaceous hyperplasia with oily or mixed skin seems to favour Demodex proliferation.Demodex infestation could be associated with acne vulgaris.The CTP is a good sampling method for studies of Demodex prevalence.

  7. Polymorphism of Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycota: Hyphomycetes) strains isolated from Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitina, G V; Tokarev, Y S; Movila, A A; Yli-Mattila, T

    2011-03-01

    Polymorphism of 10 Beauveria bassiana strains, isolated from Ixodes ricinus in Moldova, was evaluated using traditional (morphological and cultural properties) and molecular (RAPD patterns and ITS sequences) methods. The isolates differed greatly in morphological and cultural features, such as color, consistence, and growth rate. Four RAPD-PCR markers were used to evaluate genetic diversity of the strains. Phylogenetic neighbor-joining analysis of RAPD patterns divided strains into 3 major clades. The ITS sequences of 8 strains were identical to those of known B. bassiana strains. Two subsets (1 and 2) different by one nucleotide change were found in the ITS1 region. One strain of subset 1 was different from known B. bassiana strains by possessing 2 point mutations in the ITS region. RAPD-based clustering correlated to ITS sequence and colony morphology-based grouping of the strains.

  8. Molecular Diagnosis of Ehrlichia canis in Dogs and Ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pat-Nah, Henry; Rodriguez-Vivas, Roger Ivan; Bolio-Gonzalez, Manuel Emilio; Villegas-Perez, Sandra Luz; Reyes-Novelo, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Ehrlichia canis is the etiological agent behind canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, and the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) is its main vector. Blood smear and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were used to identify E. canis infection in dogs and R. sanguineus, and explore factors possibly associated with infection in dogs in Yucatan, Mexico. Blood samples were taken and ticks R. sanguineus collected from 50 dogs (10 house dogs and 40 in an animal control center). Data were collected on dog age, sex, body condition, and signs associated with platelet deficiencies (epistaxis). Blood smears were analyzed to identify E. canis morulae and generate platelet counts. Nested PCR analysis was done on blood samples and 200 ticks. A χ(2) test was done to identify factors associated with the E. canis infection in the tested dogs. The overall prevalence for infection, as determined by PCR, was 36% (18 out of 50). All positive dogs were from samples collected from the animal shelter, representing prevalence, for this sampling site, of 45% (18 out of 40). Morulae in monocytes were identified in only 4% of samples. Dog origin (i.e. animal control center) was the only variable associated with E. canis infection (P canis infection is present in both dogs and the brown dog ticks R. sanguineus in Yucatan, Mexico.

  9. Does Aponomma varanensis (Acari: Ixodida: Ixodidae) occur on the Taiwanese mainland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, R G

    1996-08-01

    On 15 July 1976, teams from the U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 2, Taipei, Taiwan, made 3 collections of ticks from beneath the dorsal scales of the Taiwan stink snake, Elaphe carinata, at Makung in the Penghu Islands, which lie astride the Tropic of Cancer in the Taiwan Strait between southern mainland China and Taiwan proper. These ticks were later determined to be Aponomma varanensis (Supino, 1897), but this discovery was never published, and no member of the genus Aponomma has heretofore been reported from Taiwan or any of its outlying islets. Because suitable hosts, including E. carinata, are abundant on Taiwan and because A. varanensis is widely distributed in tropical Asia, it is argued that this or a related species of Aponomma will one day be found on the Taiwanese mainland.

  10. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae on wild animals from the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, Brazil

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    Marcelo B Labruna

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available From June 2000 to June 2001, a total of 741 ticks were collected from 51 free-living wild animals captured at the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, located alongside an approximately 180 km course of the Paraná river, between the states of São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, comprising 9 species of 3 genera: Ambly-omma (7 species, Boophilus (1 and Anocentor (1. A total of 421 immature Amblyomma ticks were reared in laboratory until the adult stage, allowing identification of the species. A. cajennense was the most frequent tick species (mostly immature stages collected on 9 host species: Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla,Cerdocyon thous, Puma concolor,Tayassu tajacu, Mazama gouazoubira,Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris,Alouatta caraya, Cebus apella. Other tick species were less common, generally restricted to certain host taxa.

  11. Efficacy of granular deltamethrin against Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidade) nymphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, T L; Jordan, R A; Hung, R W; Taylor, R C; Markowski, D; Chomsky, M S

    2001-03-01

    A single barrier application of granular deltamethrin to the woodland edges of a forested residential community in late spring significantly reduced the abundance of Ixodes scapularis Say nymphs. The application also suppressed the population of Amblyomma americanum (L.) nymphs, which recently became established in the study area. The efficacy of deltamethrin is compared with other commonly used acaricides.

  12. Analyses of hemolymph from Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: ixodidae) using neutron activation analysis (NAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simons, Simone M.; Oliveira, Daniella G.L.; Chudzinski-Tavassi, Ana M., E-mail: daniellaoliveira@butantan.gov.b, E-mail: amchudzinki@butantan.gov.b [Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Zamboni, Cibele B., E-mail: czamboni@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was applied to determine the elemental composition of hemolymph from Amblyomma cajennense tick. This biological material came from Butantan Institute (Sao Paulo city, Brazil) and it was investigated using the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor (4MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP - Brazil. The concentration values for: Br (0.0032 {+-} 0.0005gL{sup -1}), Ca (0.104 {+-} 0.029gL{sup -1}), Cl (4.41 {+-} 0.25gL{sup -1}), I (76 {+-} 27{mu}gL{sup -1}), K (0.38 {+-} 0.09gL{sup -1}), Mg (0.038 {+-} 0.011gL{sup -1}), Na (4.30 {+-} 0.26gL{sup -1}) and S (1.35 {+-} 0.37gL{sup -1}) were determined for the first time. These data were compared with the concentration values established for Americanum and Anatolicum Excavatum tick species to clarify the ion balance in this biological material (hemolymph). This comparison suggests that Na concentration, majority in these species, has a similar behavior. These data also contribute to the understanding of hemolymph composition complementing its characterization as well as for the understanding of several physiological processes, especially those related to salivary secretion. (author)

  13. Mites (Arachnida: Acari) inhabiting coffee domatia: a short review and recent findings from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six previously unreported domatia-inhabiting mites are reported from Coffea arabica accessions planted in Costa Rica. One of these is a new species of Asca found to be carrying fungal spores on its cuticle. A review of the literature on mites in coffee domatia is presented....

  14. A novel fluid-feeding mechanism for microbivory in the Acariformes (Arachnida: Acari).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Samuel J; Bauchan, Gary R; Ochoa, Ronald; Klompen, Hans

    2015-07-01

    Low temperature scanning electron microscopy (LT-SEM) has revealed anatomical details suggesting that Osperalycus and Gordialycus (Acariformes: Nematalycidae) have an unusual feeding apparatus that is hypothesized to be specialized for feeding on the fluid contents of small microorganisms (diameter<5 μm). Both mite genera have a feeding strategy that appears to involve picking up small microorganisms and placing them onto the subcapitulum for puncturing. However, they have slightly different variants of the same basic rupturing mechanism. Whereas Gordialycus has evolved expansive and convergent rutella to hold the microorganisms in place while pushing chelicerae into them, Osperalycus has evolved a pouch into which a microorganism is inserted. The rutella reinforce this pouch while the chelicerae break up the microorganism. Both types of mouthpart apparatus seem to be adapted to minimize waste, an appropriate specialization given the organically impoverished habitats in which these mites live.

  15. Mitotic and meiotic chromosomes of a southern Brazilian population of Boophilus microplus (Acari, Ixodidae

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    Rosane Nunes Garcia

    Full Text Available Using conventional staining with acetic orcein and C-banding techniques it was investigated constitutive heterochromatin chromosomal polymorphisms and the mitotic and the meiotic behavior of male and female chromosomes of Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887. Some differences were detected in the population of southern Brazil as compared to the data of other authors for populations in other latitudes. The differences being mainly concerned with the distribution of constitutive centromeric heterochromatin and variation in the length of heterochromatic blocks in the pericentromeric regions of some chromosome pairs.

  16. [Interrelatio of acari Ixodidae and hosts of Edentata of the Serra da Canastra, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, J R; Linardi, P M; da Encarnação, C D

    1989-01-01

    We received for examination a small colection of ticks captured in the National Park of the Serra da Canastra (MG), between 1979 and 1980. The authors demonstrated the existence of a broad co-accomodation of Amblyomma pseudoconcolor on Edentata of the family Dasypodidae, being Dasypodini the tribe more adjusted to this infestation. In conformity to the Figs 1 and 2, Dasypodini are probably the real hosts of A. pseudoconcolor and also the oldest hosts. For the first time, A. pseudoconcolor is also recorded on Cabassous tatouay, C. unicinctus, Priodontes maximus and Euphractus sexcincuts. Also for the first time A. pseudoconcolor and Amblyomma calcaratum were recorded in the State of Minas Gerais. The ectoparasites are deposited in the "Departamento de Parasitologia da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brasil".

  17. Effects of agroforestry on phytoseiid mite communities (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in vineyards in the South of France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbar, Ziad; Tixier, Marie-Stéphane; Cheval, Brigitte; Kreiter, Serge

    2006-01-01

    The abundance and diversity of phytoseiid mites were surveyed from April to September 2003 to 2005 in vineyards (Grenache and Syrah cultivars) co-planted with rows of Sorbus domestica or Pinus pinea and in monoculture plots of grapes in the South of France. Densities of phytoseiid mites were different on the two tree species, with P. pinea a more suitable host than S. domestica. Typhlodromus (Typhlodromus) exhilaratus was the dominant species occurring on grapes and on co-planted rows of S. domestica and P. pinea, whereas T. (T.) phialatus was the most abundant species in monoculture plots of both S. domestica and P. pinea. Factors determining the dominance of T. (T.) phialatus over T. (T.) exhilaratus in monoculture trees are discussed. In this study, agroforestry management did not affect phytoseiid diversity in vineyards, but did affect phytoseiid density, especially in 2005. The results obtained in 2003 and 2004 are not easy to discuss in this regard because of the low densities of mites observed during these 2 years (very dry climatic conditions and pesticide applications).

  18. Repellent activity of plant-derived compounds against Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Sara Fernandes; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira; de Sousa Braga, Raquel; Ferreira, Lorena Lopes; Louly, Carla Cristina Braz; Tresvenzol, Leonice Manrique Faustino; de Paula, José Realino; Ferri, Pedro Henrique

    2010-01-20

    Repellence responses of Amblyomma cajennense nymphs to callicarpenal, intermedeol, Hyptis suaveolens essential oil, extract of Melia azedarach, Cymbopogon nardus, Spiranthera odoratissima, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Ageratum conyzoides, Mentha pulegium, Ruta graveolens, and Memora nodosa were studied. Among these the extract of C. nardus stood out because of the long-lasting repellence, maintaining, in the highest concentration, 35h of protection against 90% of the nymphs. The essential oil of H. suaveolens and the extracts of C. ambrosioides and A. conyzoides showed good repellence index (66%) when applied in high concentrations. However, greater protection could be obtained at higher concentrations but with a shorter repellence time. Callicarpenal, intermedeol, extract of M. Pulegium, and M. nodosa leaves showed moderate repellence in high concentrations. Extracts from M. azedarach, R. graveolens, S. odoratissima, and M. nodosa roots showed little or no repellent effect. These results show that some plant extracts may represent a promising alternative in the control of infestations by A. cajennense. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. New record, host and localities of bat mite of genusChirnyssoides (Acari, Sarcoptiformes, Sarcoptidae

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    Elizabete Captivo Lourenço

    Full Text Available Chirnyssoides parasitizes the anterior and posterior edges of bat wing membranes. Possibly due to a lack of studies, its distribution is believed to be restricted to a few countries of Central and South America, but its actual range is probably wider. The purpose of this paper is to report the presence of Chirnyssoides amazonae on the bat Carollia perspicillata in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and to present a checklist of hosts and localities for Chirnyssoides. Eleven females and 22 egg clusters of C. amazonae were collected from 11 individuals of C. perspicillata captured in Tinguá Biological Reserve using mist nets. Our search of the literature came up with 69 records of Chirnyssoides. There are reports ofChirnyssoides caparti, Chirnyssoides amazonae, Chirnyssoides brasiliensis andChirnyssoides phyllostomus in Brazil. This paper reports the first record of Chirnyssoides amazonae in the state of Rio de Janeiro and the second in Brazil, indicating that their known distribution extends to the south. There are records of C. amazonae andC. surinamensis parasitizing C. perspicillata, but this is the first record of C. amazonae on C. perspicillata in Brazil.

  20. The First Report of Eustigmaeus Johnstoni (Acari: Stigmaeidae Parasitic Mite of Phlebotominae Sand Flies from Iran

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    Mehdi Badakhshan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stigmaeids mites have been recorded only on Phlebotominae sand flies up to now. Five species of Eustigmaeus, and three of Stigmaeus were reported on infested sandflies in different country up to the present.Methods: Sand flies collection was done using CDC light trap and sticky paper. The mites were isolated from in­fested specimens, mounted in Puri’s medium and identified using reliable keys.Results: A mite infested Phlebotomus papatasi was observed during a study on sandflies of one of the southern provinces of Iran, near to the Persian Gulf. Several scars resulting from mite attachment were found on abdominal tergites of this female sand fly. The mites were identified as Eustigmaeus johnstoni.Conclusion: This parasitic mite is one of the eyeless species, which has a great distribution over the world, reported from Tunisia, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Yemen, Cyprus and Palestine. But, this is the first record of this species from Iran.

  1. Amblyomma auricularium (Acari: Ixodidae: underwater survival of the non-parasitic phase of feeding females

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    Iwine Joyce Barbosa de Sá-Hungaro

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of immersion in water on the biological parameters of engorged females of the tick species Amblyomma auricularium, 60 females were distributed in six groups, each comprising 10 individuals. The control group – G1 (not immersed was fixed dorsally in a Petri dish and incubated at 27 ± 1°C and 80% RH. The other groups were subjected to immersion periods of 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours, and the sixth group to continuous immersion. After the immersion period, the females were placed in Petri dishes to begin laying. Eggs were collected every 72 hours and kept in biological chambers. All the groups showed significant differences (p <0.05 during the pre-oviposition period. The laying period and the average weight of overall posture did not change. The egg incubation period also did not differ significantly, but the hatching rate in the group immersed for 96h showed a significant difference. Thus, immersion for up to 96 hours does not impair the survival of A. auricularium females, although it may delay egg laying and reduce the number of offspring.

  2. Diversity and population dynamics of Ascidae, Blattisociidae and Melicharidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) in tropical flowers in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Erika Pessoa Japhyassu; Finotti, Amanda Silva; de Moraes, Gilberto José

    2015-06-01

    Cultivation of tropical flowers has expanded considerably in Brazil, justifying efforts to determine the arthropods associated with it. Heliconia species are some of the most important tropical flowers in Brazil. Mites of the families Ascidae, Blattisociidae and Melicharidae are commonly found on those plants. They disperse from flower to flower on hummingbirds. The objective of this study was to identify the diversity of mites of this group in tropical flowers, with emphasis on Heliconia species, in Brazil and to determine the fluctuation of the population of these mites in Piracicaba, Sao Paulo state. Specimens from Amazonas, Bahia, Pernambuco, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina and São Paulo States were examined. Mites of the genera Asca and Iphidozercon (Ascidae), Cheiroseius and Lasioseius (Blattisociidae), and Proctolaelaps and Tropicoseius (Melicharidae) were collected in flowers of four plant families, with Lasioseius being the most diverse genus. Overall, most specimens found belonged to Tropicoseius, especially Tropicoseius venezuelensis Baker & Yunker; this was the dominant species on five of 13 Heliconia species/hybrids considered in this study. Samples of panicles of Heliconia rostrata Ruiz & Pavón were collected every 2 weeks, in Piracicaba. Six species of those mite families were found, among which Tropicoseius heliconiae Baker & Yunker and T. venezuelensis were the most numerous. The highest population levels of mites of those three families occurred at the beginning and at the end of the year, coinciding with the highest levels of rainfall, relative humidity and temperature, when plant flowers were most numerous and vigorous. Along each panicle, the highest mite densities were found in inflorescences of the three distal eighths of the panicles, where nectar and pollen were probably most abundant.

  3. Life cycle of Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on ornamental plants, mostly Arecaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, C; Colmenárez, Y; de Moraes, G J

    2015-02-01

    The red palm mite, Raoiella indica Hirst, has been primarily found associated with coconut and musaceous plants in the New World. However, it has also been recorded on several other palms, heliconiaceous and zingiberaceous species. This study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of different botanical families on which R. indica has been collected in the field and of arecaceous plants of the natural vegetation of the neotropics. In total, ten species of Arecaceae as well as Heliconia psittacorum [Heliconiaceae] and Alpinia purpurata [Zingiberacae] were evaluated, using coconut as a control. The study was carried out under controlled conditions (29 ± 0.5 °C, 60 ± 10% RH and photoperiod 12 h of light). Raoiella indica was able to complete immature development only on coconut, Adonidia merrillii, Ptychosperma macarthurii, H. psittacorum and A. purpurata. Duration of the immature phase (egg-adult) ranged between 21.5 days on coconut to 34.1 days on A. purpurata. Longevity was at least 50% greater and oviposition at least 38% higher on coconut than on other plants. Intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was higher on coconut (0.166) and A. merrillii (0.042), but negative on the other two plant species. Raoiella indica could not reach adulthood on any of the other ten arecaceous species considered in the study. The results suggested R. indica to be a threat to A. merrillii in addition to coconut, but not to other evaluated plants. However, complementary studies should be conducted to investigate whether the experimental procedures adopted in this study could not have prevented the mite from a better performance than it could have been under field conditions, especially in relation to Mauritia flexuosa, one of the dominant arecaceous plants in South America.

  4. Acquisition of Borrelia burgdorferi infection by larval Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) associated with engorgement measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couret, Janelle; Dyer, M.C.; Mather, T.N.; Han, S.; Tsao, J.I.; LeBrun, R.A.; Ginsberg, Howard

    2017-01-01

    Measuring rates of acquisition of the Lyme disease pathogen, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt & Brenner, by the larval stage of Ixodes scapularis Say is a useful tool for xenodiagnoses of B. burgdorferi in vertebrate hosts. In the nymphal and adult stages of I. scapularis, the duration of attachment to hosts has been shown to predict both body engorgement during blood feeding and the timing of infection with B. burgdorferi. However, these relationships have not been established for the larval stage of I. scapularis. We sought to establish the relationship between body size during engorgement of larval I. scapularis placed on B. burgdorferi-infected, white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus Rafinesque) and the presence or absence of infection in larvae sampled from hosts over time. Body size, time, and their interaction were the best predictors of larval infection with B. burgdorferi. We found that infected larvae showed significantly greater engorgement than uninfected larvae as early as 24 h after placement on a host. These findings may suggest that infection with B. burgdorferi affects the larval feeding process. Alternatively, larvae that engorge more rapidly on hosts may acquire infections faster. Knowledge of these relationships can be applied to improve effective xenodiagnosis of B. burgdorferi in white-footed mice. Further, these findings shed light on vector–pathogen–host interactions during an understudied part of the Lyme disease transmission cycle.

  5. Two new species of Neoribates (Neoribates Berlese, 1914 from China (Acari, Oribatida, Parakalummidae

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    Liang, W.Q.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Two new oribatid mite species, Neoribates (N. cheni and Neoribates (N. particula spp. nov. are described from soil and litter of bamboo and under moss from China. Neoribates (N. cheni sp. nov. is morphologically most similar to Neoribates (N. spindleformis Ermilov, 2012 but differs from it in the number of leg claws and the position of epimeral setae. Neoribates (N. particula sp. nov. is morphologically most similar to Neoribates (N. gracilis Travé, 1972 but differs from it in the shape and size of rostral and lamellar setae, and the position of adanal setae ad3.

  6. Mite species of Mesostigmata order (Arachnida, Acari in industrial and postindustrial areas of Poland

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    Maciej Skorupski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Industrial and postindustrial sites are effects of human activity that creates new habitats for many species. Among others, these sites are well occupied by mites of the order Mesostigmata. Because these animals have rather low tolerance to changes in soil environment, they are generally highly abundant, taxonomically and trophically diversified, they may potentially be used as powerful bioindicators and their presence or absence in the upper soil horizons may be a good base for describing changes of environmental conditions and ecosystem perturbations. In the paper we listed the most common mites from the order Mesostigmata (80 species found in Poland and we also described the environmental conditions they occupy. In Poland, most of these species were found by scientists from two research centers: University of Technology and Life Sciences with University of Kazimierz Wielki in Bydgoszcz and University of Silesia in Katowice. Most of the species found are very common, however some of them may be used to evaluate the effects of human influence on the environment, not only at the species level but also the zoocenosis level.

  7. Oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida - bioindicators of forest soils pollution with heavy metals and fluorine

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    Otilia Ivan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyzes the effects of pollution with heavy metals and fluorine on the oribatid mite communities populating the forest soils, on the basis of the researches carried on in three oak-type forests, situated at different distances from the Phosphoric Fertilizers Plant of Valea Călugărească (the Prahova county, Romania. In the forest strongly affected by pollution, the heavy metals concentrations were 2-9 times higher than the maximum allowable limits (MAL. In the perimeter with medium level of pollution, the content of Pb, Cr and Ni were over the MAL, while Co and Cd concentrations are closed to these limits. Two years after closing of this industrial unit, a decrease of soil loading with heavy metals was to be found, mostly in the surface sub-horizon. In the control perimeter, the oribatids constitute a complex community with a large specific diversity. The characteristic species for this zone (South-Eastern of Romania are frequent and/or abundant, having a high ecological significance. In the affected forests, the oribatid mites' densities are 6-476 times lower than in the control perimeter. Their communities are constituted of a small number of tolerant species (euryplastic, unspecific fauna, being characterized by a low specific diversity and a marked structural instability. The analysis of the oribatid species distribution in the control and polluted ecosystems has evidenced that certain elements can be considered bioindicators for this type of pollution. Our researches carried out two years after the production stopping, have not evidenced a favourable evolution of the oribatid mites communities. It is probably that the recovery of the decomposers' trophic chains requires a longer time.

  8. Three new species of eriophyoid mites (Acari, Eriophyoidea from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China

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    Ji Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of eriophyoid mites from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, are described and illustrated. They are Paracolomerus gonglius sp. n. and Phyllocoptruta beggerianae sp. n. collected on Rosa beggeriana Schrenk ex Fisch. & C. A. Mey. (Rosaceae, and Rhyncaphytoptus fuyuniensis sp. n. collected on Cotoneaster ignavus E. L. Wolf (Rosaceae. All eriophyoid mites described here are vagrants on the undersurface of leaves and any apparent damage was not observed.

  9. Raillietia caprae (Acari: Raillietidae and Psoroptes ovis (Acari: Psoroptidae in the ears of goats in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Southeast Brazil Raillietia caprae (Acari: Raillietidae e Psoroptes ovis (Acari: Psoroptidae nos condutos auditivos de caprinos no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

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    João Luiz H. Faccini

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Ear cannals of 145 domestic goats including the breeds Saanen, Toggenburg, Anglobian, Alpine, Moxoto (native and crossbred goats from 10 smallholder farms were examined by flushing for the presence of ear mites. Prevalence of Raillietia caprae Quintero, Bassols and Acevedo, 1980 was much more higher than Psoroptes ovis (Hering, 1838 in the studied area, respectively 62% ( 90/145 and 4% ( 6/145. The youngest animal parasitized was eight months old and the oldest was 10 years old. Subclinical otitis is a common feature of infestation by both species but increase of wax and the presence of pus were detected in the flushed material in approximately 10% of the goats examined.Os condutos auditivos de 145 caprinos das raças Saanen, Toggenburg, Anglobian, Alpine, Moxoto (native e mestiços provenientes de 10 pequenos criadores foram examinados pela técnica de lavagem para diagnosticar a infestação por ácaros. A prevalência de Raillietia caprae Quintero, Bassols and Acevedo, 1980 foi muito mais alta do que Psoroptes ovis (Hering, 1838 - 62% (90/145 e 4% (6/145, respectivamente. O animal parasitado mais jovem tinha oito meses de idade e o mais velho 10 anos. Otite subclínica é comum nas infestações por ambas espécies mas aumento de cerume e presença de pus foram diagnosticados no material da lavagem em aproximadamente 10% dos caprinos examinados.

  10. Two neuropeptides from synganglia of the hard tick,Ixodes sinensis (Acari:Ixodidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jianxu; LIU Tongguang; YANG Hailong; XU Xueqing; LIU Zhigang; LAI Ren

    2006-01-01

    Two neuropeptides were isolated from synganglia (central nervous system) of the hard tick,Ixodes sinensis. Their primary sequences were established as Leu-VaI-VaI-Tyr-Pro-Trp-Thr-Lys and TrpGlu-Lys-Leu-Gly-Ser-Met-Glu-Thr-Leu. By hot plate bioassay, neuropeptide a displayed strong antinociceptive effect in mice by a dose-dependent behavior, while neuropeptide b had some relaxant effects on the isolated rat strip. These neuropeptides might be involved in down-regulating the host's defensive reaction.

  11. Metarhizium anisopliae as a biological control agent against Hyalomma anatolicum (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Elham A; Shigidi, M T; Hassan, S M

    2013-12-15

    In the Sudan, ticks and Tick-borne Diseases (TBDs) with subsequent costs of control and treatment are causing substantial economic loss. Control of ticks is mainly by chemical insecticides. The rising environmental hazards and problem of resistance has motivated research on biological agents as alternative methods of control. The present study aims at controlling livestock ticks using fungi for their unique mode of action besides their ability to adhere to the cuticle, to germinate and penetrate enzymatically. The study was conducted to evaluate the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for tick control as an alternative mean to chemical acaricides. Pathogenicity of the fungus was tested on different developmental stages of the tick Hyalomma anatolicum. The fungus induced high mortality to flat immature stages. It, also, affected reproductive potential of the females. Egg laid, hatching percent, fertility and moulting percent of immature stages were significantly (p anisopliae to control ticks is discussed.

  12. Pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycetes) and permethrin to Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbostel, V.L.; Zhioua, Elyes; Benjamin, Michael A.; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Ostfeld, Richard S.

    2005-01-01

    Effectiveness of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, for controlling nymphal Ixodes scapularis, was tested in laboratory and field trials. In the laboratory, M. anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin strain ESC1 was moderately pathogenic, with an LC50 of 107 spores/ml and induced 70% mortality at 109 spores/ml. In a field study, however, 109 spores/ml M. anisopliae did not effectively control questing I. scapularis nymphs, and significant differences were not detected in pre- and post-treatment densities. For nymphs collected and returned to the laboratory for observation, mortality was low in treatment groups, ranging from 20 to 36%. To assess whether a chemical acaricide would synergistically enhance pathogenicity of the fungus, we challenged unfed nymphal I. scapularis with combinations of M. anisopliae and permethrin, a relatively safe pyrethroid acaricide, in two separate bioassays. Significant interactions between M. anisopliae and permethrin were not observed, supporting neither synergism nor antagonism.

  13. Pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycetes) to Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhioua, E.; Browning, M.; Johnson, P.W.; Ginsberg, H.S.; LeBrun, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is highly pathogenic to the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis. Spore concentrations of 108/ml for engorged larvae and 107/ml for engorged females resulted in 100% tick mortality, 2 wk post-infection. The LC50 value for engorged larvae (concentration to kill 50% of ticks) was 107 spores/ml. Metarhizium anisopliae shows considerable potential as a microbial control agent for the management of Ixodes scapularis.

  14. Resource availability as driving factor of the reproductive mode in soil microarthropods (Acari, Oribatida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Wehner

    Full Text Available The availability of high quality resources is an important factor driving community structure and reproductive mode of animals. Parthenogenetic reproduction prevails when resources are available in excess, whereas sexuality correlates with resource shortage. We investigated the effect of resource availability on the community structure of oribatid mites in a laboratory experiment. Availability of food resources was increased by addition of glucose to leaf litter and reduced by leaching of nutrients from leaf litter. Experimental systems were incubated at three different temperatures to establish different regimes of resource exploitation. Community structure of oribatids and numbers of eggs per female were measured over a period of ten months. We expected the density of oribatid mites to decline in the reduced litter quality treatment but to increase in the glucose treatment. Both effects were assumed to be more pronounced at higher temperatures. We hypothesized sexual species to be less affected than parthenogenetic species by reduced resource quality due to higher genetic diversity allowing more efficient exploitation of limited resources, but to be outnumbered by parthenogenetic species in case of resource addition due to faster reproduction. In contrast to our hypotheses, both sexual and parthenogenetic oribatid mite species responded similarly with their densities declining uniformly during incubation. The parthenogenetic Brachychthoniidae and Tectocepheus dominated early in the experiment but were replaced later by parthenogenetic Desmonomata and Rhysotritia. In parthenogenetic species the number of eggs per female increased during the experiment while the number of eggs in sexual females remained constant or decreased slightly; in general, egg numbers were higher in sexual than in parthenogenetic species. The results indicate that for sustaining oribatid mite populations other resources than litter and associated saprotrophic microorganisms are needed. They also indicate that there are two groups of parthenogenetically reproducing species: exploiters of easily available resources and consumers of leaf litter associated resources.

  15. Developmental biology of Argas neghmei Kohls & Hoogstraal (Acari: Argasidae) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Acuña, Daniel; Vargas, Pamela; Ardiles, Karen; Parra, Luis; Guglielmone, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    In order to describe the developmental biology of the tick Argas neghmei Kohls & Hoogstraal under laboratory conditions, 40 females and 40 males were collected from chicken coops located in Calama (II Region, Chile). They were fed on chickens and maintained under two laboratory conditions: one group at 30 +/- 5 degrees C and 35 +/- 5 % RH and another at 27 +/- 5 degrees C and 80 +/- 5 % RH, both at 12: 12 h L:D photoperiod. The ticks were observed daily to determine larval feeding periods, preoviposition, oviposition, egg incubation as well as the frequency of egg laying, number of eggs laid, and percentage of larval hatching. Females did not lay eggs at 80 +/- 5% RH, and data on the biology of this tick was obtained only at 35 +/- 5% RH. The life cycle of A. neghmei lasted an average of 269 days. Feeding period of each nymphal stage as well as of adult females between oviposition events lasted less than a day. Females laid on average 1.8 egg batches and egg-laying period lasted on average 14 days, during which about 96 eggs were laid per female.

  16. An overview of Suctorian ciliates (Ciliophora, Suctorea) as epibionts of halacarid mites (Acari, Halacaridae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dovgal, I.; Chatterjee, T.; Ingole, B.S.

    stream_size 29354 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Zootaxa_1810_60.pdf.txt stream_source_info Zootaxa_1810_60.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Accepted by A. Wright: 16 Apr... coast. Key words: Ciliophora, Suctorea, Halacaridae, epibionts Introduction Representatives of several groups of freshwater and marine aquatic mites have been identified as hosts of suc- torian ciliates (Suctorea) (Precht 1935; Matthes 1956; Matthes...

  17. Dissorhina cretensis n. sp. and some other remarkable oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida from Crete, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahunka, S.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Newly collected and identified oribatids from Crete are studied and a list of the hitherto known species is provided. Altogether 37 species are enumerated from several sites of the island, among them 23 newly identified. One species new to science, Dissorhina cretensis n. sp., is described and three known, but rare species – Chamobates dentotutorii Shaldybina, 1969, Ocesobates boedvarssoni (Sellnick, 1974 and Humerobates rostrolamellatus Grandjean, 1936 – are described and/or commented and illustrated.

  18. The Evolving Medical and Veterinary Importance of the Gulf Coast tick (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Christopher D; Goddard, Jerome

    2015-03-01

    Amblyomma maculatum Koch (the Gulf Coast tick) is a three-host, ixodid tick that is distributed throughout much of the southeastern and south-central United States, as well as several countries throughout Central and South America. A considerable amount of scientific literature followed the original description of A. maculatum in 1844; nonetheless, the Gulf Coast tick was not recognized as a vector of any known pathogen of animals or humans for >150 years. It is now identified as the principal vector of Hepatozoon americanum, the agent responsible for American canine hepatozoonosis, and Rickettsia parkeri, the cause of an emerging, eschar-associated spotted fever group rickettsiosis identified throughout much of the Western Hemisphere. Coincident with these discoveries has been recognition that the geographical distribution of A. maculatum in the United States is far more extensive than described 70 yr ago, supporting the idea that range and abundance of certain tick species, particularly those with diverse host preferences, are not fixed in time or space, and may change over relatively short intervals. Renewed interest in the Gulf Coast tick reinforces the notion that the perceived importance of a particular tick species to human or animal health can be relatively fluid, and may shift dramatically with changes in the distribution and abundance of the arthropod, its vertebrate hosts, or the microbial agents that transit among these organisms. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  19. Wild birds as hosts of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 (Acari: Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Rojas

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the prevalence, mean intensity and relative density of ticks in 467 wild birds of 67 species (12 families from forest and cerrado habitats at two protected areas of Minas Gerais, between March and September 1997. Ticks collected (n=177 were identified as larvae and nymphs of Amblyomma cajennense and four other species of Amblyomma. We report for the first time 28 bird species as hosts of the immature stages of A. cajennense, demonstrating the lack of host specificity of the larvae and nymphs. A. cajennense had 15% prevalence on birds, with a mean infestation intensity of 0.37 ticks per host sampled, and 2.5 ticks per infested bird. Prevalence varied in relation to host species, diet and between birds from forests at two successional stages. There were no differences in relation to host forest dependence, participation in mixed flocks of birds, and nest type constructed. A. cajennense is a species of medical and veterinary importance, occurring on domestic animals but is known little of its occurrence on wildlife.

  20. Survey of birds and lizards for ixodid ticks (Acari) and spirochetal infection in northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manweiler, S A; Lane, R S; Block, W M; Morrison, M L

    1990-11-01

    A total of 138 birds (24 species) was captured in an oak woodland between December 1988 and June 1989 at the University of California, Sierra Foothill Range Field Station, Yuba County, Calif. Ticks were not found on 71 birds captured between December 1988 and March 1989. Five subadult Ixodes pacificus Cooley & Kohls were removed from 3 of 67 birds caught between April and June 1989. These three birds, an orange-crowned warbler (Vermivora celata (Say], a lazuli bunting (Passerina amoena (Say], and a chipping sparrow (Spizella passerina (Bechstein], represent new host records for I. pacificus in California. Tissues from two ticks and thick blood films prepared from 126 birds tested negative for spirochetes by direct immunofluorescence (DI). A total of 172 larval and 197 nymphal I. pacificus was removed from 15 of 16 western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis Baird & Girard) caught between April and June 1989 in the same location as were birds. Thick blood films prepared from all 16 lizards and tissue smears from 334 of the ticks (143 larvae and 191 nymphs) were DI test-negative for spirochetes. One (1.1%) of 93 adult I. pacificus collected at the bird-lizard capture site in February 1989 was infected with spirochetes that resembled B. burgdorferi.

  1. Spring migratory birds (Aves) extend the northern occurrence of blacklegged tick (Acari:Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klich, M; Lankester, M W; Wu, K W

    1996-07-01

    Birds that had migrated northward across Lake Superior were captured upon reaching landfall at Thunder Cape (48 degrees 18' N, 88 degrees 56' W) at the southwestern tip of the Sibley Peninsula, northwestern Ontario, from 9 May to 9 June 1995. Twenty-one of 530 birds examined (6 of 55 species) had a total of 34 ticks; 1 blue jay, Cyanocitta cristata, had a northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini & Fanzago). Four blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, larvae were found on an American robin, Turdus migratorius, and 2 on a chipping sparrow, Spizella passerina. This tick was not found on small mammals at Thunder Cape. Twenty-six larvae and a nymph of the rabbit tick, Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (Packard) were found on 1 American robin, 2 Swainson's thrushes, Catharus ustulatus, 1 white-throated sparrow, Zonotrichia albicollis, 1 common yellowthroat, Geothlypis trichas, 1 blue jay, and 12 chipping sparrows. A nymph of H. chordeilis (Packard) occurred on 1 chipping sparrow. Results demonstrate that northward migrating birds transport larvae of I. scapularis to areas of Ontario where the tick does not appear to have become established in small mammal populations. Spring migrants may be more involved in the dispersal of I. scapularis larvae than previously thought. Cooler temperatures and shorter seasons experienced in the more northerly, continental parts of the established distribution of this tick may extend the life cycle, resulting in a predominance of larvae rather than nymphs being acquired by northward-bound birds in early spring. Consequently, the role of spring migrating birds in the northward spread of I. scapularis and of borreliosis should be reevaluated.

  2. Morphologic features of Sancassania berlesei (Acari: Astigmata: Acaridae), a common mite of stored products in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaopin; Jiang, Yuxin; Guo, Wei; Chen, Qi

    2015-04-01

    Objetivo: sancassania berlesei (S. berlesei) es el lider en la industria de cría amenaza mite eupolyphaga sinensis y la salud pública.Métodos: los especimenes vivos de S. berlesei fueron obtenidos a partir de la superficie de eupolyphaga sinensis y purificado con agua bidestilada.El huevo, larva, ninfa, hypopus, macho adulto y la hembra de S. berlesei fueron evaluados y elegidos bajo microscopio.Resultados: las variaciones morfológicas de S. berlesei, incluidas sus piernas, setas, genitales externos y accesorios, están claramente identificadas en la SEM.La larva tiene tres pares de patas, sin hojas como setas, pero su coxal Rod es desarrollada.Por la etapa de ninfa, cuatro pares de patas y el cuarto dorsal seta surgen, mientras que la zona genital se ve aún en desarrollo.En hypopus, las garras y tarsules aparecen bien construido, y la hoja como setas, setas de tibia y setas de Genu son vistos.La ventosa plato totalmente contiene nueve retoños y cuatro Shell como dimplings en que hay distribuciones simétricas con 1 par de mamones, 2 pares de lado anterior de ventosas y 1 par de tontos, respectivamente.Una pera como posterior ventosa está ubicado en la espalda de Sucker plato.Todos los tontos son suaves excepto anterior Sucker con franja radial.El órgano de sentido genital adultos exhibe con cordiforme aspecto externo y osificación típica textura; mientras que el macho es diferente con la hembra respecto a seta numero en el sentido de órganos genitales.Conclusión: descripción de la estructura morfologica en gran detalle para S. berlesei tiende a suministrar la información importante para la taxonomía y más estudio.

  3. Ecological preferences of exophilic and endophilic ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) parasitizing wild carnivores in the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino, Raquel; Millán, Javier; Oleaga, Alvaro; Gortázar, Christian; de la Fuente, José; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco

    2012-03-23

    Ticks parasitizing wild carnivores and the tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) that they transmit may affect domestic carnivores and humans. Thus, investigating the role of wild carnivores as tick hosts is of relevance for understanding the life cycle of ticks in natural foci and the epidemiology of TBPs shared with domestic animals and humans. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to determine the ixodid tick fauna of wild carnivores in Peninsular Spain and the environmental factors driving the risk of wild carnivores to be parasitized by ixodid ticks. We hypothesized that the adaptation of tick species to differing climatic conditions may be reflected in a similar parasitization risk of wild carnivores by ticks between bioclimatic regions in our study area. To test this, we surveyed ixodid ticks in wild carnivores in oceanic, continental-Mediterranean, and thermo-Mediterranean bioclimatic regions of Peninsular Spain. We analyzed the influence of environmental factors on the risk of wild carnivores to be parasitized by ticks by performing logistic regression models. Models were separately performed for exophilic and endophilic ticks under the expected differing influence of environmental conditions on their life cycle. We found differences in the composition of the tick community parasitizing wild carnivores from different bioclimatic regions. Modelling results partially confirmed our null hypothesis because bioclimatic region was not a relevant factor influencing the risk of wild carnivores to be parasitized by exophilic ticks. Bioclimatic region was however a factor driving the risk of wild carnivores to be parasitized by endophilic ticks. Spanish wild carnivores are hosts to a relevant number of tick species, some of them being potential vectors of pathogens causing serious animal and human diseases. Information provided herein can be of help to understand tick ecology in Spanish wildlife, the epidemiology of tick-borne diseases, and to prevent the risks of TBPs for wildlife, domestic animals, and humans.

  4. A new genus of syringophilid mites (Acari: Cheyletoidea: Syringophilidae) from cuculiform birds (Aves: Cuculiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoracki, Maciej

    2008-06-01

    Cuculisyringophilus crotophaginus gen. n. et sp. n. is described from the guira cuckoo Guira guira (Gmelin) from Paraguay and also was collected from the groove-billed ani Crotophaga sulcirostris Swainson from Colombia and Mexico. This new genus is closely related to Neoaulobia Fain, Bochkov et Mironov, 2000 but is distinguished by the following characters: propodosomal setae sce are situated distinctly anterior to level of setae d1, leg setae vs'II are absent, apodemes I are divergent.

  5. First report of an hypopus (Acari: Hypoderatidae) from a jaeger (Aves: Charadriiformes: Stercorariidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Danny B.; Cole, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    Thalassornectes (Alcidectes) aukletae, originally described from two species of auklets (Charadriiformes: Alcidae) from maritime eastern Russia, is reported from a third species of pelagic charadriiform (Stercorariidae), the pomarine jaeger, Stercorarius poinarinus (Temminck), from Florida. The specimens from the jaeger are slightly smaller, the genital apodeme is more heavily sclerotized, paired setae gm are twice as long and there are other minor variations in the idiosomal and leg chaetotaxy. These differences are not considered sufficient to warrant taxonomic separation at the species or subspecies level from the nominate species T. (A.) aukletae. The same hypopus occurring across different families of birds is unusual in the Hypoderatidae. The diversity in hosts from several orders of birds, low intensities of infection in the two species from Africa, low prevalences in alcids from Russia, and rarity of these hypoderatids in all surveyed hosts leads us to speculate that the true host affinities of species in the genus Thalassornectes are unknown. The alternative consideration is that these are simply uncommon species that are very host specific.

  6. Two new oribatid mite species with auriculate pteromorphs from Southern Vietnam (Acari: Oribatida: Parakalummidae, Galumnidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermilov, S.G.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new oribatid mite species, Neoribates spindleformis sp. nov. and Globogalumna biporosa sp. nov. are described from soil and litter of pine and acacias artificial plantations of Dong Nai Culture and Nature Reserve (Southern Vietnam. First new species is differs from all other species of Neoribates by combination of the following characters; mor¬phology of sensilli, number of leg claws and genital setae. Second new species differs from type-species of Globogalumna by the body surface and number of notogastral porose areas. The genus Globogalumna is recorded for the first time from the Oriental region.

  7. Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata from Azorean passerines (Aves, Passeriformes: lower species richness compared to European mainland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten passerine species were examined on three islands of the Azores (North Atlantic during 2013 and 2014 in order to identify their feather mite assemblages. We recorded 19 feather mite species belonging to four families of the superfamily Analgoidea (Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae and Trouessartiidae. A high prevalence of feather mite species was recorded on the majority of the examined host species. Only three passerine species (Sylvia atricapilla, Regulus regulus and Serinus canaria presented the same full complex of mite species as commonly occurs in the plumage of their closest relatives in continental Europe. Passer domesticus presented the same limited fauna of feather mites living in the plumage as do its co-specifics in continental Europe. Carduelis carduelis bears the same feather mite species as do most of its continental populations in Europe, but it lacks one mite species occurring on this host in Egypt. Turdus merula, Pyrrhula murina and Fringilla coelebs are missing several mite species common to their continental relatives. This diminution could be explained by the founder effect, whereby a limited number of colonizing individuals did not transport the full set of feather mite species, or by the extinction of some mite species after initially having reached the Azores. The only individual of Motacilla cinerea sampled in this study presented a new host record for the mite species Trouessartia jedliczkai.

  8. Human Infestation with Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae in a Family Referred with Pruritus and Skin Lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abdigoudarzi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae is one of the most economically important ectoparasites in hens and some species of mammals worldwide. Cases of human infestation have been reported worldwide. In this study we report infestation in three members of a family referred with pruritus and allergic dermatitis rash. They have collected very small animals and carried them to the laboratory which later was confirmed as D. gallinae. They claimed that they had been bitten with this ectoparasite. This is the first case report of human infestation owing to D. gallinae from Iran.

  9. Human Infestation with Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae) in a Family Referred with Pruritus and Skin Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdigoudarzi, Mohammad; Mirafzali, Mahmoud S; Belgheiszadeh, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae is one of the most economically important ectoparasites in hens and some species of mammals worldwide. Cases of human infestation have been reported worldwide. In this study we report infestation in three members of a family referred with pruritus and allergic dermatitis rash. They have collected very small animals and carried them to the laboratory which later was confirmed as D. gallinae. They claimed that they had been bitten with this ectoparasite. This is the first case report of human infestation owing to D. gallinae from Iran.

  10. [Comparison of different sampling traps for Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae) (de Geer, 1778)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Lucas M; Cunha, Mariana M; Leite, Romário C; Silva, Israel J; Oliveira, Paulo R de

    2009-01-01

    This work aims to compare the performance of corrugated paper and "taquaril" bamboo (Phyllostachys sp.) straw traps for collecting (in sampling) Dermanyssus gallinae in a metal cages battery laying hens. The presence of eggs in the two trap models were compared using a Qui-square test and a proportion confidence interval test. Total daily values of mobile instars gathered in each type of trap were compared using the Wilcoxon's test. The amount of traps containing eggs was not different in neither of the traps (p < 0,05). The number of mobile instars sampled at every two days per trap model was different (p

  11. Contact and fumigant toxicity of oriental medicinal plant extracts against Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soon-Il; Na, Young-Eun; Yi, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Byung-Seok; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2007-04-30

    The acaricidal activity of methanolic extracts from 40 oriental medicinal plant species and a steam distillate of Cinnamomum camphora towards poultry house-collected adult Dermanyssus gallinae De Geer was examined using direct contact and vapour phase toxicity bioassays. Results were compared with those of 15 acaricides currently used. In filter paper contact toxicity bioassays using adult D. gallinae, C. camphora steam distillate (0.0051 mgcm(-2)) was the most toxic material, followed by extracts from Asarum sieboldii var. seoulens whole plant, Eugenia caryophyllata flower bud and Mentha arvensis var. piperascens whole plant (0.0063-0.0072 mgcm(-2)), based upon 24h LD(50) values. The acaricidal activity of these four plant preparations was almost comparable to that of profenofos (LD(50), 0.003 mgcm(-2)) but less effective than dichlorvos (LD(50), 0.0004 mgcm(-2)). The toxicity of Illicium verum fruit and Lysimachia davurica leaf extracts (0.09 mgcm(-2)) was almost comparable to that of benfuracarb, prothiofos, propoxur and fenthion (0.053-0.070mgcm(-2)). In vapour phase toxicity tests, these plant preparations were more effective in closed containers than in open ones, indicating that the mode of delivery of these plant extracts was largely a result of action in the vapour phase. Plants described herein merit further study as potential D. gallinae control agents.

  12. Human Infestation with Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae) in a Family Referred with Pruritus and Skin Lesions.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Abdigoudarzi; Mahmoud S Mirafzali; Hamid Belgheiszadeh

    2014-01-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae is one of the most economically important ectoparasites in hens and some species of mammals worldwide. Cases of human infestation have been reported worldwide. In this study we report infestation in three members of a family referred with pruritus and allergic dermatitis rash. They have collected very small animals and carried them to the laboratory which later was confirmed as D. gallinae. They claimed that they had been bitten with this ectoparasit...

  13. Ecology of the interaction between Ixodes loricatus (Acari: Ixodidae) and Akodon azarae (Rodentia: Criceridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Valeria C; Nava, Santiago; Antoniazzi, Leandro R; Monje, Lucas D; Racca, Andrea L; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Beldomenico, Pablo M

    2015-10-01

    The present study explores associations of different factors (i.e. host parameters, presence of other ectoparasites and [mainly biotic] environmental factors) with burdens of Ixodes loricatus immature stages in one of its main hosts in Argentina, the rodent Akodon azarae. For 2 years, rodents were trapped and sampled monthly at 16 points located in four different sites in the Parana River Delta region. Data were analysed with generalized linear mixed models with a negative binomial response (counts of larvae or nymphs). The independent variables assessed were (a) environmental: trapping year, presence of cattle, type of vegetation, rodent abundance; (b) host parameters: body length, sex, body condition, blood cell counts, natural antibody titers and (c) co-infestation with other ectoparasites. Two-way interaction terms deemed a priori as relevant were also included in the analysis. Most of the associations investigated were found significant, but in general, the direction and magnitude of the associations were context-dependent. An exception was the presence of cattle, which was consistently negatively associated with both larvae and nymphs independently of all other variables considered and had the strongest effect on tick burdens. Mites, fleas and Amblyomma triste were also significantly associated (mostly positively) with larval and nymph burdens, and in many cases, they influenced associations with environmental or host factors. Our findings strongly support that raising cattle may have a substantial impact on the dynamics of I. loricatus and that interactions within the ectoparasite community may be an important-but generally ignored-driver of tick dynamics.

  14. Factors affecting patterns of Amblyomma triste (Acari: Ixodidae) parasitism in a rodent host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Valeria C; Nava, Santiago; Antoniazzi, Leandro R; Monje, Lucas D; Racca, Andrea L; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Beldomenico, Pablo M

    2015-07-30

    Here we offer a multivariable analysis that explores associations of different factors (i.e., environmental, host parameters, presence of other ectoparasites) with the interaction of Amblyomma triste immature stages and one of its main hosts in Argentina, the rodent Akodon azarae. Monthly and for two years, we captured and sampled rodents at 16 points located at 4 different sites in the Parana River Delta region. The analyses were conducted with Generalized Linear Mixed Models with a negative binomial response (counts of larvae or nymphs). The independent variables assessed were: (a) environmental: trapping year, season, presence of cattle; type of vegetation (natural grassland or implanted forest); rodent abundance; (b) host parameters: body length; sex; body condition; blood cell counts; natural antibody titres; and (c) co-infestation with other ectoparasites: other stage of A. triste; Ixodes loricatus; lice; mites; and fleas. Two-way interaction terms deemed a priori as relevant were also included in the analysis. Larvae were affected by all environmental variables assessed and by the presence of other ectoparasites (lice, fleas and other tick species). Host factors significantly associated with larval count were sex and levels of natural antibodies. Nymphs were associated with season, presence of cattle, body condition, body length and with burdens of I. loricatus. In most cases, the direction and magnitude of the associations were context-dependent (many interaction terms were significant). The findings of greater significance and implications of our study are two. Firstly, as burdens of A. triste larvae and nymphs were greater where cattle were present, and larval tick burdens were higher in implanted forests, silvopastoral practices developing in the region may affect the population dynamics of A. triste, and consequently the eco-epidemiology of Rickettsia parkeri. Secondly, strong associations and numerous interactions with other ectoparasites suggest that co-infestations may be more important for tick dynamics than has so far been appreciated.

  15. Site selection and growth of the larvae of Eylais discreta Koenike, 1897 (Acari, Hydrachnellae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davids, C.; Nielsen, G.J.; Gehring, P.

    1977-01-01

    The distribution of the larvae of Eylais discreta on the abdominal tergites of the host species Sigara striata, S. falleni and Cymatia coleoptrata is examined. On S. striata and S. falleni the segments 3 and 4, on C. coleoptrata the segments 2 and 3 are successively preferred. There is but little in

  16. Effects of Ricinus communis oil esters on salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnosti, André; Brienza, Paula Desjardins; Furquim, Karim Christina Scopinho; Chierice, Gilberto Orivaldo; Neto, Salvador Claro; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2011-02-01

    This study showed the interference of esters extracted from Ricinus communis in the secretory cycle of salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, which consequently caused collateral effects on their feeding process. Ticks attached on hosts which were fed with commercial feed containing different concentrations of R. communis oil esters suffered damages such as cytoplasmic changes in their salivary glands, notably in the acinar cells, impairing the functioning of the acini and accelerating the organs degeneration as a whole. It was found that esters interfered with the activity of cellular secretion by changing the glycoprotein of salivary composition especially in acini II cells. It was also shown that the damages caused by esters in the salivary glands cells of these ectoparasites increased in higher concentrations of the product and degenerative glandular changes were more pronounced. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Amblyomma mixtum Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae): First record confirmation in Colombia using morphological and molecular analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Páez, Fredy A; Labruna, Marcelo B; Martins, Thiago F; Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Camargo-Mathias, Maria I

    2016-07-01

    Up to some years ago, the taxon Amblyomma cajennense represented a single tick species in the New World, from southern United States to northern Argentina. Recent studies, based on genetic, reproductive and morphological data reorganized this taxon into a complex of the following 6 valid species: A. cajennense sensu stricto, Amblyomma mixtum, Amblyomma sculptum, Amblyomma interandinum, Amblyomma tonelliae, and Amblyomma patinoi. According to this classification, the A. cajennense complex is currently represented in Colombia by only one species, A. patinoi. Because the Colombian land is surrounded by confirmed records of A. mixtum in Panama and Ecuador, and by A. cajennense s.s. in Venezuela and the Brazilian Amazon, it is possible that these two species could also occur in Colombia. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of ticks of the A. cajennense complex in the Orinoquía region of Colombia. A total of 246 adult ticks of the Amblyomma genus were collected in three sampled regions: 71 females and 110 males in Arauca (Arauca Department), 27 females and 20 males in Nunchía (Casanare Department), and 10 females and 8 males in Yopal (Casanare Department). Based on morphological and molecular analyses, these ticks were identified as A. mixtum. Molecular analyses consisted of DNA sequences of two molecular markers, the nuclear second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI). The presence of A. mixtum in Colombia is of medical relevance, since this species is incriminated as a vector of Rickettsia rickettsii in Central America. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  18. Histopathological study of ovaries of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) exposed to different thymol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Matos, Renata; Daemon, Erik; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel; Furquim, Karim Christina Scopinho; Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Remédio, Rafael Neodini; Araújo, Laryssa Xavier; Novato, Tatiane Pinheiro Lopes

    2014-12-01

    Thymol is a monoterpene with proven acaricide action for several tick species. In addition to killing these ectoparasites, thymol can also reduce oviposition and egg hatch rate. However, the effects of thymol on the morphophysiology of tick ovaries are still unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the morphophysiological changes caused by this active principle in ovaries of Rhipicephalus sanguineus after a 6-day feeding period, through the application of morphohistochemical techniques. After the feeding period, a total of 50 females were divided into five groups and immersed in the following solutions: (I) distilled water (control), (II) 30% ethanol (control), (III) 1.25 mg/mL thymol, (IV) 2.5 mg/mL thymol, and (V) 5.0 mg/mL thymol. The experimental groups were kept in a climatic chamber (27 ± 1 °C; RH 80 ± 10%) for 5 days. After this period, morphological (hematoxylin/eosin) and histochemical (von Kossa) techniques were applied after remotion of the ovaries. The morphological results revealed large vacuoles in germ cells at different developmental stages and invaginations that represent deformations in the chorionic membrane. From the results obtained in this study, it was concluded that thymol interfered with the development of oocytes, which showed degeneration signs. The treatment containing 5.0 mg/mL thymol affected more accentuately the morphological development. Moreover, thymol also altered the calcium content of yolk granules, which generally showed an intense staining for this element.

  19. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) female ticks exposed to castor oil (Ricinus communis): an ultrastructural overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, B R; Furquim, K C S; Nunes, P H; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2013-02-01

    Tick control has been accomplished through the use of synthetic acaricides, which has created resistant individuals, as well as contaminating the environment and nontarget organisms. Substances of plant origin, such as oils and extracts of eucalyptus and neem leaves, have been researched as an alternative to replace the synthetic acaricides. Ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil have recently been shown as a promising alternative in eliminating bacterial contamination during ethanol fermentation, by acting as an effective biocide. The same positive results have been observed when these esters are added to the food given to tick-infested rabbits. This study tested the effect of these substance on the reproductive system of Rhipicephalus sanguineus females, added to rabbit food, more specifically on oogenesis. For this, four groups were established: four control groups (CG1, CG2, CG3, and CG4) and four treatment groups (TG1, TG2, TG3, and TG4) with one rabbit in each (New Zealand White), used as hosts. After full 4 days feeding (semi-engorgement), the females were collected and had their ovaries extracted. In this study, it was observed that R. sanguineus females exposed to esters had their ovaries modified, which was demonstrated through transmission electron microscopy techniques. The addition of ricinoleic esters to the diet of tick-infested rabbits revealed how toxic such substances are for the cytoplasmic organelles of oocytes and pedicel cells. These compounds can change the morphophysiology of germ and somatic cells, consequently influencing their viability and, therefore, confirming that the ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil are a promising substance in the control of R. sanguineus.

  20. The Ixodes (Acari: Ixodidae) of Mexico: Parasite-Host and Host-Parasite Checklists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-20

    en Peligro de Extinción. Comisión Nacional para el Cono- cimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad , Fondo de Cultura Económica, Instituto de Ecología, UNAM... Biodiversidad y Fondo de Cultura Económica, México, D. F. 981 pp. Chavarría, C.M. (1941) Garrapatas determinadas en México. Caracteres genéricos de las más...Campos, G. (2000) Biodiversidad de los ácaros en México. Fideicomiso Fondo para la Biodiver- sidad, México D. F., 230 pp. Hooker, W.A., Bishopp, F.C